Enterasys | Vertical Horizon VH-2402S2 | Specifications | Enterasys Vertical Horizon VH-2402S2 Specifications

VERTICAL HORIZON
VH-2402-L3
FAST ETHERNET SWITCH
MANAGEMENT GUIDE
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Notice
Only qualified personnel should perform
installation procedures.
NOTICE
Enterasys Networks reserves the right to make changes in
specifications and other information contained in this document
without prior notice. The reader should in all cases consult Enterasys
Networks to determine whether any such changes have been made.
The hardware, firmware, or software described in this manual is subject to
change without notice.
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Enterasys Networks, Inc.
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 2002 Enterasys Networks, Inc.0
All Rights Reserved
Printed in the United States of America
Order Number: 9033691 March 2002
LANVIEW is a registered trademark of Enterasys Networks. ENTERASYS
NETWORKS, NETSIGHT, MATRIX, WEBVIEW, and any logos associated
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SPECTRUM is a registered trademark of Aprisma Management Technologies, Inc.
All other product names mentioned in this manual may be trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective companies.
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Table of Contents
Before You Start.................................................................... 1
General Deployment Strategy............................................... 1
VLAN Layout ......................................................................... 2
Assigning IP Interface Addresses and Subnet Masks to
VLANs ................................................................................... 3
Defining Static Routes........................................................... 3
Connecting to the Switch ...................................................... 4
Console Usage Conventions................................................. 4
First Time Connecting To The Switch................................... 5
Creating User Accounts ........................................................ 7
User Accounts Management................................................. 8
Root, User+ and Normal User Privileges .............................. 9
Loading Factory Defaults .................................................... 11
Logging Onto The Switch Console ..................................... 12
Updating or Deleting User Accounts................................... 13
Viewing Current User Accounts .......................................... 14
Deleting a User Account ..................................................... 15
Basic Setup ......................................................................... 16
Switch Information............................................................... 16
Configuring the Switch’s IP Address................................... 17
Remote Management Setup ............................................... 20
Setting Up Trap Receivers .................................................. 21
Configure Ports ................................................................... 23
Serial Port Settings ............................................................. 24
Switch Operation Mode....................................................... 26
Changing the Switch Operation Mode ................................ 27
Menu Changes with Switch Operating Mode...................... 28
Screen Hierarchy ................................................................ 30
Layer 2 Switch Settings....................................................... 33
Advanced Setup.................................................................. 34
Configuring VLANs.............................................................. 34
VLANs by Switch Operating Mode...................................... 34
Setting Up IP Interfaces ...................................................... 43
Multicasting ......................................................................... 47
Layer 2 Multicast Setup....................................................... 47
IGMP Snooping Settings..................................................... 48
IEEE 802.1Q Multicast Forwarding..................................... 49
Static Router Port Settings.................................................. 51
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Layer 3 Multicasting.............................................................53
Setup IP Multicast................................................................54
Multicast Interface Configuration .........................................54
IGMP Interface Configuration ..............................................56
DVMRP................................................................................59
PIM-DM................................................................................61
Port Mirroring .......................................................................64
Priority..................................................................................66
Filtering ................................................................................67
Layer 2 Filtering ...................................................................67
Layer 3 (IP Routing) Filtering...............................................69
Forwarding...........................................................................70
Layer 2 Forwarding..............................................................70
IP Forwarding ......................................................................72
Static ARP ...........................................................................73
Spanning Tree .....................................................................74
Switch Spanning Tree Settings ...........................................74
STP Group Confugration .....................................................76
Port Trunking .......................................................................79
Switch Utilities......................................................................82
Layer 2 Switch Utilities ........................................................82
Updating Firmware ..............................................................82
Downloading a Configuration File........................................83
Uploading a Settings File.....................................................84
Uploading a History Log File ...............................................85
Testing Connectivity with Ping.............................................86
Layer 3 Utilities ....................................................................86
BOOTP/DHCP Relay...........................................................86
DNS Relay ...........................................................................89
Network Monitoring..............................................................91
Layer 2 Network Monitoring.................................................91
Port Utilization......................................................................92
Port Error Statistics..............................................................93
Port Packet Analysis Table..................................................96
MAC Address Forwarding Table .........................................98
GVRP Status Table .............................................................99
Browse Router Port ...........................................................100
IGMP Snooping Table .......................................................101
Layer 3 Network Monitoring...............................................103
IP Address Forwarding Table ............................................104
Routing Table ....................................................................104
ARP Table .........................................................................105
IP Multicast Forwarding Table ...........................................106
IGMP Group Table ............................................................107
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DVMRP Routing Table...................................................... 108
Load Factory Defaults ....................................................... 108
Reboot............................................................................... 110
SNMP ................................................................................ 112
Authentication ................................................................... 112
Traps ................................................................................. 113
MIBs .................................................................................. 114
Packet Forwarding ............................................................ 115
MAC Address Aging Time................................................. 115
Filtering.............................................................................. 116
Spanning Tree................................................................... 117
Bridge Protocol Data Units................................................ 119
Creating a Stable STP Topology ...................................... 120
STP Port States ................................................................ 121
User-Changeable STA Parameters .................................. 123
Illustration of STP.............................................................. 124
Port Trunking..................................................................... 126
VLANs ............................................................................... 128
Notes About VLANs on the VH-2402-L3........................... 128
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs ......................................................... 129
802.1Q VLAN Packet Forwarding..................................... 129
802.1Q VLAN Tags ........................................................... 130
Port VLAN ID..................................................................... 132
Tagging and Untagging..................................................... 133
Ingress Filtering................................................................. 134
VLANs in Layer 2 Only Mode............................................ 135
Layer 3-Based VLANs....................................................... 135
IP Addressing and Subnetting .......................................... 136
Definitions.......................................................................... 136
IP Addresses..................................................................... 136
Address Classes ............................................................... 138
Subnet Masking ................................................................ 139
Calculating the Number of Subnets and Nodes................ 140
Classless InterDomain Routing – CIDR............................ 141
Setting up IP Interfaces..................................................... 143
Layer 3-Based VLANs....................................................... 145
Internet Protocols .............................................................. 145
Protocol Layering .............................................................. 145
Layer 1 .............................................................................. 148
Layer 2 .............................................................................. 148
Layer 3 .............................................................................. 148
Layer 4 .............................................................................. 149
Layer 7 .............................................................................. 149
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TCP/IP ...............................................................................150
Packet Headers .................................................................151
TCP....................................................................................151
IP .......................................................................................153
Ethernet .............................................................................154
TCP and UDP Well-Known Ports ......................................155
UDP and ICMP ..................................................................157
The Domain Name System ...............................................158
Mapping .............................................................................159
Domain Names to Addresses............................................159
Domain Name Resolution..................................................159
DHCP Servers ...................................................................160
IP Routing ..........................................................................161
Packet Fragmentation and Reassembly............................162
ARP ...................................................................................163
Multicasting........................................................................163
Multicast Groups................................................................164
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) ..................165
IGMP Versions 1 and 2 .....................................................166
Multicast Routing Algorithms .............................................168
Flooding .............................................................................168
Multicast Spanning Trees ..................................................169
Reverse Path Broadcasting (RPB) ....................................169
Reverse Path Multicasting (RPM) .....................................170
Multicast Routing Protocols ...............................................171
Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)......171
Routing Protocols ..............................................................173
Protocol-Independent Multicast – Dense Mode ................173
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)....................................173
RIP Version 1 Message Format ........................................175
RIP 1 Message ..................................................................176
RIP 1 Route Interpretation.................................................177
RIP Version 2 Extensions..................................................177
RIP2 Message Format.......................................................177
Spanning Tree Protocol Failure.........................................179
Full/Half Duplex Mismatch.................................................180
Unidirectional Link .............................................................181
Packet Corruption ..............................................................182
Resource Errors.................................................................182
Identifying a Data Loop......................................................183
Avoiding Trouble................................................................183
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1. Configuring the Switch Using the Console
Interface
The VH-2402-L3 supports a console management interface
that allows the user to connect to the switch’s management
agent via a serial port and a terminal or a computer running
a terminal emulation program. The console can also be
used over the network using the TCP/IP TELNET protocol.
The console program can be used to configure the switch to
use an SNMP-based network management software over
the network.
This chapter describes how to use the console interface to
access the switch, change its settings, and monitor its
operation.
Switch configuration settings that are saved to
non-volatile RAM using Save Changes from the
Main Menu are retained in the switch’s memory,
and are reloaded when the switch is rebooted.
Before You Start
The VH-2402-L3 supports a wide array of functions and
gives great flexibility and increased network performance by
eliminating the routing bottleneck between the WAN and the
intranet. Its function in a network can be thought of as a new
generation of wire-speed router that performs routing
functions in hardware, rather than in software.
General Deployment Strategy
The VH-2402-L3 has many automatic features to
detect the network topology and adapt to
changes in this topology, but it is recommended
that a network scheme be developed and
entered statically into the VH-2402-L3.
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1. Determine how the network would be best segmented. This
is probably done using VLANs in an existing layer 2 switched
network.
2. Develop an IP addressing scheme. This involves allocating
a block of IP addresses to each network segment. Each
network subnet is then assigned a network address and a
subnet mask.
3. Determine which network resources must be shared by the
subnets. Shared resources may be connected directly to the
Layer 3 switch, if need be. Static routes to each of the
shared resources should be determined.
4. Determine how each subnet will communicate with the WAN
or Internet. Again, static routes should be determined and
default gateways identified.
5. Develop a security scheme. Some subnets on the network
need more security or should be isolated from the other
subnets. IP or MAC filtering can be used. Also, one or more
VLANs on the Layer 3 switch can be configured without an
IP subnet – in which case, these VLANs will function as a
layer 2 VLAN and would require an external router to
connect to the rest of the network.
6. Develop a policy scheme. Some subnets will have a greater
need for multicasting bandwidth, for example. A policy is a
mechanism to alter the normal packet forwarding in a
network device, and can be used to intelligently allocate
bandwidth to time-critical applications such as the integration
of voice, video, and data on the network.
7. Develop a redundancy scheme. Planning redundant links
and routes to critical network resources can save valuable
time in the case of a link or device failure. The VH-2402L3’s Spanning Tree function can be used to block the
redundant link until it is needed.
VLAN Layout
VLANs on the VH-2402-L3 have more functions than on a
traditional layer 2 switch, and must therefore be laid-out and
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configured with a bit more care. Layer 3 VLANs (VLANs that
have an IP interface assigned to them) can be thought of as
network links – not just as a collection of associated end
users. Further, Layer 3 VLANs are assigned an IP interface
address and subnet mask to enable IP routing between
them.
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs must be configured on the switch before they
can be assigned IP interface addresses or subnet masks. Further,
the static VLAN configuration is specified on a per port basis. On the
VH-2402-L3, a VLAN can consist of end-nodes – just like a
traditional layer 2 switch, but a VLAN can also consist of a
subnetwork defined by an IP interface address and a subnet mask.
The IP subnets for the network must be determined first, and
the VLANs configured on the switch to accommodate the IP
subnets. Finally, the IP subnets can be assigned to the
VLANs.
Assigning IP Interface Addresses and Subnet Masks
to VLANs
The VH-2402-L3 allows the assignment of IP subnets to
individual VLANs. Any VLAN configured on the switch that
is not assigned an IP subnet, will behave as a layer 2 VLAN
and will not be capable of IP routing – even if the switch is in
IP Routing mode.
Developing an IP addressing scheme is a complex subject,
but it is sufficient here to mention that the total number of
anticipated end nodes – for each Layer 3 VLAN – must be
accommodated with an unique IP address. It should be
noted that the switch regards a VLAN with an IP interface
address and corresponding subnet mask assigned as an IP
subnet in IP Routing mode.
Defining Static Routes
Routes between the IP interfaces and a default gateway or
other router with a WAN connection should be determined
beforehand and entered into the static/default routing table
on the VH-2402-L3.
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Connecting to the Switch
The console interface is used by connecting the Switch to a
VT100-compatible terminal or a computer running an
ordinary terminal emulator program (e.g., the Hyper
Terminal program included with the Windows operating
system) using an RS-232C serial cable. Your terminal
parameters will need to be set to:
•
VT-100/ANSI compatible
•
9,600 baud
•
8 data bits
•
No parity
•
One stop bit
•
No flow control
You can also access the same functions over a TELNET
interface. Once you have set an IP address for your Switch,
you can use a TELNET program (in VT-100 compatible
terminal mode) to access and control the Switch. All of the
screens are identical, whether accessed from the console
port or from a TELNET interface.
Console Usage Conventions
The console interface makes use of the following
conventions:
1. Items in <angle brackets> can be toggled between several
choices using the space bar.
2. Items in [square brackets]can be changed by typing in a new
value. You can use the backspace and delete keys to erase
characters behind and in front of the cursor.
3. The up and down arrow keys, the left and right arrow keys, the
tab key and the backspace key, can be used to move between
selected items.
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4. Items in UPPERCASE are commands. Moving the selection to
a command and pressing Enter will execute that command,
e.g. APPLY, etc.
The APPLY command makes the configuration
active for the current session only. If the switch is
rebooted, the unsaved changes will be lost and the
last configuration saved to Non-Volatile RAM will be
loaded into the switch. Use Save Changes from the
main menu to enter the current configuration into
the switch’s Non-volatile RAM.
First Time Connecting To The Switch
The Switch supports user-based security that can allow you
to prevent unauthorized users from accessing the Switch or
changing its settings. This section explains how to log onto
the Switch.
The passwords used to access the Switch are casesensitive; therefore, “S” is not the same as “s.”
When you first connect to the Switch, you will be
presented with the first login screen (shown below).
Press Ctrl+R to refresh the screen.
This
command can be used at any time to force the
console program in the switch to refresh the
console screen.
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Figure 1-1. Initial Console Screen
The factory default Username is “admin”, there
is no factory default password. Enter “admin”
for the Username and leave the Password field
blank to access the console initially.
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Enter the factory default username (“admin”) and leave the
Password field blank. Press Enter and Access will be given
to the main menu, as shown below:
Figure 1-2. Main Menu
The first user automatically gets Root privileges (See Table
1-1). It is recommended to create at least one Root-level
user for the Switch.
Creating User Accounts
To create a new user account, highlight Setup User
Accounts from the Main Menu and press Enter:
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Figure 1-3. Main Menu
Figure 1-4. Setup User Accounts Menu
User Accounts Management
From the Main Menu, highlight Setup User Accounts and
press Enter, then the Setup User Accounts menu appears.
1. Toggle the Action:< > field to <Add> using the space
bar. This will allow the addition of a new user. The
other options are <Delete> - this allows the deletion of a
user entry, and <Update> - this allows for changes to
be made to an existing user entry.
2. Enter the new user name, assign an initial password,
and then confirm the new password. Determine whether
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the new user should have <Root>, <User+>, or <User>
privileges. The space bar toggles between the three
options.
3. Highlight APPLY and press enter to make the user
addition effective.
4. Press Esc. to return to the previous screen or Ctrl+T to
go to the root screen.
5. APPLY makes changes to the switch configuration for
the current session only. All permanent changes
must be entered into non-volatile ram using the Save
Changes command on the Main Menu.
Root, User+ and Normal User Privileges
There are three levels of user privileges: Root and User+,
and User.
Switch
Configuration
Management
Privilege
Configuration
Yes
Read Only
Read Only
Network Monitoring
Yes
Read Only
Read Only
Community Strings
and Trap Stations
Yes
Read Only
Read Only
Update Firmware
and Configuration
Files
Yes
No
No
System Utilities
Yes
Ping only
Ping only
Factory Reset
Yes
No
No
Reboot Switch
Yes
Yes
No
Root
User+
User
User Accounts Management
Add/Update/Delete
User Accounts
Yes
No
No
View User Accounts
Yes
No
No
Table 1-1. Root, User+, and User Privileges
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Saving Changes
Selecting APPLY from a console menu makes
the configuration effective for the current
session only. The configuration data will be lost
if the switch is restarted. To make the
configuration effective after a switch restart,
select Save Changes to enter the configuration
into non-volatile (NV-RAM).
The VH-2402-L3 has two levels of memory; normal RAM
and non-volatile or NV-RAM. Configuration changes are
made effective by highlighting Apply and pressing Enter.
When this is done, the settings will be immediately applied to
the switching software in RAM, and will immediately take
effect.
Some settings, though, require you to restart the switch
before they will take effect. Restarting the switch erases all
settings in RAM and reloads the stored settings from the NVRAM. Thus, it is necessary to save all setting changes to
NV-RAM before rebooting the switch.
Figure 1-5. Main Menu
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To retain any configuration changes permanently, highlight
Save Changes from the main menu. The following screen
will appear to verify that your new settings have been saved
to NV-RAM:
Figure 1-6. Save Changes Confirmation Screen
Once the switch configuration settings have been saved to
NV-RAM, they become the default settings for the switch.
These settings will be used every time the switch is
rebooted.
Loading Factory Defaults
Loading the factory defaults returns the switch’s
configuration to the factory default values. This will clear all
settings and restore them to their initial values listed in the
Appendix.
Figure 1-7. Main Menu
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Highlight Reboot from the Main Menu and press Enter.
Figure 1-8. System Reboot Menu
To execute a factory reset, highlight either Reboot & Load
Factory Default Configuration or Reboot & Load Factory
Default Configuration Except IP Address and press enter. A
confirmation screen will appear.
Highlight Yes and press Enter to reset the switch’s NV-RAM to
the factory default settings. This will erase any User Accounts
(and all other configuration settings) you may have entered and
return the switch to the state it was in when it was purchased.
Logging Onto The Switch Console
To log in once you have created a registered user, from
the Login screen:
1. Type in your username and press Enter.
2. Type in your password and press Enter.
3. The main menu screen will be displayed based on your
access level or privilege.
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Updating or Deleting User Accounts
To update or delete a user password:
Choose Setup User Accounts from the Main Menu. The
following Setup User Accounts menu appears:
Figure 1-9. User Accounts Management menu
1. Toggle the Action:<Add> field using the space bar to
choose Add, Update, or Delete.
2. Type in the Username for the user account you wish to
change and enter the Old Password for that user
account.
3. You can now modify the password or the privilege level
for this user account.
4. If the password is to be changed, type in the New
Password you have chosen, and press enter. Type in
the same new password in the following field to verify
that you have not mistyped it.
5. If the privilege level is to be changed, toggle the Access
Level:<Root> field until the appropriate level is
displayed – Root, User+ or User.
6. Highlight APPLY and press enter to make the change
effective.
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7. You must enter the configuration changes into the nonvolatile ram (NV-RAM) using Save Changes from the
Main Menu if you want the configuration to be used
after a switch reboot.
Only a user with Root privileges can make changes to
user accounts.
Viewing Current User Accounts
Access to the console, whether using the console port or via
TELNET, is controlled using a user name and password. Up
to eight user accounts can be created. The console
interface will not let you delete the current logged-in user, to
prevent accidentally deleting all of the users with Root
privilege.
Only users with the Root privilege can delete users.
To view the current user accounts:
Highlight Setup User Accounts from the Main Menu.
The current user accounts can be read from following
screen:
Figure 1-10. Viewing User Accounts
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Deleting a User Account
To delete a user account:
Figure 1-11. Deleting User Accounts
1. Toggle the Action:<Add> field to Delete.
2. Enter the Username and Old Password for the
account you want to delete. You must enter the
password for the account to be able to delete it.
3. Highlight APPLY and press Enter to make the deletion
of the selected user take effect.
4. You must enter the configuration changes into the nonvolatile ram (NV-RAM) using Save Changes from the
Main Menu if you want the configuration to be used
after a switch reboot.
Only users with Root privileges can delete user accounts.
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Setting Up The Switch
Basic Setup
This section will help prepare the Switch user by describing
the Switch Information, IP Setup, Remote Management
Setup, Configure Ports, Serial Port Settings and Switch
Settings menus.
Figure 1-12. Main Menu – Switch Information
Switch Information
Highlight Switch Information from the Main Menu and
press Enter:
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Figure 1-13. Switch Information Menu
The Switch Information shows the operation mode of
switch (Layer 3 or Layer 2), which (if any) external modules
are installed, and the switch’s MAC Address (assigned by
the factory and unchangeable). In addition, the Boot PROM
and Firmware Version numbers are shown. This
information is helpful to keep track of PROM and Firmware
updates and to obtain the switch’s MAC address for entry
into another network device’s address table – if necessary.
You can also enter the name of the System, its location, and
the name and telephone number of the System
Administrator. It is recommended that the person
responsible for the maintenance of the network system that
this Layer 3 switch is installed on be listed here.
Configuring the Switch’s IP Address
The BOOTP and DHCP Server options for
assigning the switch an IP address and subnet
mask are only available when the switch is in
Layer 2 Only mode. The IP Routing mode
requires a manual entry of the IP address and
subnet mask.
The Switch needs to have an IP address assigned to it so
that an In-Band network management system (for example,
the WebView or TELNET) client can find it on the network.
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The IP Setup screen allows you to change the settings for
the Ethernet interface used for in-band communication.
The fields listed under the Current Switch IP Settings
heading are those that are currently being used by the
switch. Those fields listed under the Restart Settings
heading are those which will be used after the APPLY button
is selected.
To set the switch’s IP address:
Highlight IP Setup from the main menu and press Enter.
Figure 1-14. IP Setup Menu
The switch’s factory default IP address is
10.90.90.90 with a subnet mask of 255.0.0.0 and
a default gateway of 0.0.0.0.
To manually assign the switch’s IP address, subnet
mask, and default gateway address:
Highlight the IP Address:[10.90.90.90] field and enter the
appropriate IP address.
Highlight the Subnet Mask:[255.0.0.0] field and enter the
appropriate subnet mask.
If you want to access the switch from a different subnet from
the one it is installed on, highlight the Default
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Gateway:[0.0.0.0] field and enter the IP address of the
gateway. If you will manage the switch from the subnet on
which it is installed, you can leave the default address in this
field.
To use the BOOTP/DHCP protocols to assign the switch
an IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway
address:
Toggle the Get IP From: <Manual> field using the space
bar to choose from Manual, BOOTP, or DHCP. This selects
how the switch will be assigned an IP address on the next
reboot (or startup).
The Get IP From: <Manual> options are:
•
BOOTP - The switch will send out a BOOTP
broadcast request when it is powered up. The
BOOTP protocol allows IP addresses, network
masks, and default gateways to be assigned by a
central BOOTP server. If this option is set, the Switch
will first look for a BOOTP server to provide it with
this information before using the default or previously
entered settings.
•
DHCP – The switch will send out a DHCP broadcast
request when it is powered up. The DHCP protocol
allows IP addresses, network masks, and default
gateways to be assigned by a DHCP server. If this
option is set, the switch will first look for a DHCP
server to provide it with this information before using
the default or previously entered settings.
•
Manual – Allows the entry of an IP address, Subnet
Mask, and a Default Gateway for the switch. These
fields should be of the form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx, where
each xxx is a number (represented in decimal form)
between 0 and 255. This address should be a unique
address on the network assigned for use by the
Network Administrator. The fields which require
entries under this option are as follows:
ƒ
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Subnet Mask – A Bitmask that determines the
extent of the subnet that the Switch is on. Should
be of the form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx, where each xxx is
VH-2402-L3 Management Guide 19
a number (represented in decimal) between 0
and 255. The value should be 255.0.0.0 for a
Class A network, 255.255.0.0 for a Class B
network, and 255.255.255.0 for a Class C
network, but custom subnet masks are allowed.
ƒ
•
Default Gateway - IP address that determines
where packets with a destination address outside
the current subnet should be sent. This is usually
the address of a router or a host acting as an IP
gateway. If your network is not part of an intranet,
or you do not want the Switch to be accessible
outside your local network, you can leave this
field unchanged.
The Management VID:[ALL] field allows the entry of a
VLAN ID (VID) from which a management station (a
computer) will be allowed to manage the switch using
TCP/IP (in-band, or over the network). Management
stations that are on VLANs other than the one entered in
the Management VID:[ALL] field will not be able to
manage the switch in-band unless their IP addresses are
entered in the Management Station IP Addresses:
field. Any VID that has been configured on the switch
can be entered in this field.
Remote Management Setup
Some settings must be entered to allow the switch to be
managed from an SNMP-based Network Management
System such as SNMP v1 or to be able to access the Switch
using the TELNET protocol or the WEB-based Manager.
Please see the next chapter for Web-based network
management information.
To setup the switch for remote management:
Highlight Remote Management Setup from the main menu.
The following screen appears:
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Figure 1-15. Remote Management Setup Menu
Management stations are computers on the network that will
be used to manage the switch. You can limit the number of
possible management stations by entering up to three IP
addresses in the Management Station IP Settings: field. If
the three IP Address:[0.0.0.0] fields contain all zeros (“0”),
then any station with any IP address can access the switch
to manage and configure it. If there is one or more IP
addresses entered in the IP Address:[0.0.0.0] field, then
only stations with the IP addresses entered will be allowed to
access the switch to manage or configure it.
Setting Up Trap Receivers
This allows the switch to send traps (messages about errors,
etc.) to management stations on the network. Highlight
Setup Trap Receivers and press enter. The trap recipients
can be setup from the following screen:
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Figure 1-16. Setup Trap Recipients Menu
The IP Address field is the IP address of a management
station (a computer) that is configured to receive the SNMP
traps from the switch.
The SNMP Community String is similar to a password in
that stations that do not know the correct string cannot
receive or request SNMP information from the switch.
The Status field can be toggled between Enabled and
Disabled to enable or disable the receipt of SNMP traps by
the listed management stations.
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Configure Ports
Highlight Configure Ports from the main menu and press
enter:
Figure 1-17. Configure Ports Screen
Toggle the View Ports:<1 to 12 > field, using the space
bar, to view the configuration of either ports 1 through 12 or
ports 13 through 24. To configure an specific port, toggle
the Configure Port:[ ] field until the appropriate port
number appears.
Toggle the State:<Enabled> field to either Enable or
Disable a given port.
Toggle the Speed/Duplex:<Auto> field to either select the
speed and duplex/half-duplex state of the port. Auto – autonegotiation between 10 and 100 Mbps devices, full- or halfduplex. The Auto setting allows the port to automatically
determine the fastest settings the device the port is
connected to can handle, and then to use those settings.
The other options are 100M/Full, 100M/Half, 10M/Full,
10M/Half. There is no automatic adjustment of port settings
with any option other than Auto.
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Serial Port Settings
The Serial Port Settings screen allows the configuration of
the switch’s serial port and out-of-band TCP/IP
communications using SLIP.
Highlight Serial Port Settings and press enter.
Figure 1-18. Serial Port Settings Screen
Toggle the Serial port setting:<Console> field to select
either the Console or SLIP protocol.
The following fields can then be set:
Console Settings
Parameter
Description
Baud Rate
Displays the serial bit rate used to
communicate with a management station.
The console baud rate is 9600 bits per
second.
Data bits
Displays the number of bits that make up a
word when communicating with the
management station. The console interface
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uses 8 data bits.
Stop bits
Displays the number of bits used to indicate
that a word has been completely transmitted.
The console interface uses 1 stop bit.
Auto-Logout
This sets the time the interface can be idle
before the switch automatically logs-out the
user. The options are 2 mins, 5 mins, 10
mins, 15 mins, or Never.
SLIP Settings
Parameter
Description
Baud Rate
Sets the serial bit rate that will be used to
communicate the next time the Switch is
restarted. Applies only when the serial port is
being used for out-of-band (SLIP)
management; it does not apply when the
port is used for the console port. Available
speeds are 9600, 19,200 and 38,400 bits per
second. The default setting is 9600.
Interface Name
This allows for the naming of the SLIP
interface for easy reference.
Local IP Address
This is an IP address assigned to the serial
port when it is used for SLIP
communications.
Remote IP Address
This is the IP address of the management
station that will use the SLIP protocol to
communicate with the switch.
MTU
Maximum Transfer Unit – this specifies the
maximum packet size in bytes. Can be
toggled between 1006 and 1500.
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Switch Operation Mode
Putting the switch in IP Routing mode does
not – by itself – enable IP routing. The
switch must be configured to use IP
interfaces before it is capable of IP routing.
The switch can operate in one of two modes:
1. Layer 2 Only, Support IEEE 802.1Q VLANs: the
switching process is based upon the source and
destination MAC addresses only. 802.1Q VLANs are
supported and the switch is considered as a VLANtag aware device.
2. IP Routing, Support IEEE 802.1Q VLANs: the
switching process is based upon the IP source and
destination addresses, if present. If the IP addresses
are not present, the switching process is based upon
the MAC addresses (as in Layer 2 above). 802.1Q
VLANs are supported and the switch is considered as
a VLAN-tag aware device.
The switch must be rebooted when changing the operation
mode before the new operation mode can take effect.
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Changing the Switch Operation Mode
To change the switch’s operating mode:
Highlight Switch Settings on the main menu and press
enter.
Figure 1-19. Switch Settings Screen
Highlight Switch Operation Mode on the Switch Settings
menu and press enter.
Figure 1-20. Switch Operation Mode Screen
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The field Select switch operation mode:< > can be
toggled using the space bar to one of the two switch
operation modes: Layer 2 Only, Support IEEE 802.1Q
VLANs and IP Routing, Support IEEE 802.1Q VLANs.
To make a change in the operation mode of the switch
effective, highlight APPLY and press enter.
Figure 1-21. Change Mode Confirmation Screen
Type y and press Enter. The switch will then save the
changes made during the current session and reboot. The
switch must be rebooted to change the operation mode.
Menu Changes with Switch Operating Mode
Once the switch is configured for IP Routing (Layer 3
Switching), and rebooted, the Main Menu adds some
functions compared to the Layer 2 Only mode. These
functions are reflected in additional configuration menus, and
the addition of the Layer 3 IP Networking entry. All of the
console menus are listed, in order, in the Screen Hierarchy
below.
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Figure 1-22. Main Menu – Layer 2 Switching Mode
Figure 1-23. Main Menu – Layer 3 IP Routing Mode
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Screen Hierarchy
The contents of the Console Interface are arranged following
the structure shown in the table below. The table is
arranged starting with the name of the entry on the Main
Menu. The sub menus start with the name of the first menu,
followed by the name of any sub-menus. The sub-menu
names are indented. Some menus are available only when
the switch is in IP Routing mode. These menus are shown
in bold.
Main Menu Entry
Sub-Menus
Switch Information
Switch Information
IP Setup
IP Setup
Remote Management
Setup
Remote Management Setup
Switch Settings
Switch Settings
Switch Operation Mode
Layer 2 Switch Settings
Configure Ports
Configure Ports
Setup User Accounts
Setup User Accounts
Serial Port Settings
Serial Port Settings
Utilities
Utilities
Upgrade Firmware from TFTP Server
Download Configuration File from TFTP Server
Upload Configuration File to TFTP Server
Save Log to TFTP Server
Ping Test
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Network Monitoring
Network Monitoring Menu
Port Utilization
Port Error Packets
Port Packet Analysis
Browse MAC Address Table
GVRP
Browse Router Port
IGMP Snooping
Switch History
Save Changes
Save Changes Confirmation Screen (no sub-menus)
Reboot
Reboot
Reboot
Save Configuration & Reboot
Reboot & Load Factory Default Configuration
Reboot & Load Factory Default Configuration
Except IP Address
Logout
System Logout (no sub-menus)
Spanning Tree
Configure Spanning Tree
STP Group Configuration
STP Port Settings
Forwarding
Forwarding Menu
Setup Static Unicast MAC Forwarding
Setup Static IP Routes
Setup Static ARP Entries
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Filtering
Filtering Menu
Setup MAC Address Filter
Setup IP Address Filter
Priority
Setup MAC Address Priority
Mirroring
Mirroring Menu
Target Port Selection
Port Mirroring Settings
Multicasting
Multicasting Menu
IGMP Snooping (Layer 2 Only)
Set up IEEE 802.1Q Multicasting Forwarding
IP Multicasting Settings
Multicast Interface Configuration
IGMP Interface Configuration
IGMP Static Member Configuration
DVMRP Interface Configuration
PIM-DM Interface Configuration
Static Router Port Settings
VLANs
VLAN Menu
Edit 802.1Q VLANs
Configure 802.1Q Port Settings
Port Trunking
Port Trunking
Layer 3 IP Networking
Setup Layer 3 – IP Networking
Setup IP Interface
Setup RIP Configuration
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Layer 2 Switch Settings
To access the Layer 2 Switch Settings menu, highlight
Switch Settings from the Main Menu. Then highlight Layer
2 Switch Settings on the Switch Settings menu and press
Enter:
Figure 1-24. Layer 2 Switch Settings Menu
The following fields can then be set:
Parameter
Switch GVRP
:<Disabled>
Description
Allows the Group VLAN Registration
Protocol (GVRP) to be globally Enabled
or Disabled on the switch.
Upper Threshold for
Master Ports:
[128]Kpps
This is the number of thousands
Broadcast/Multicast packets per second
received by the switch – on one of the
Master Ports – that will trigger the switch’s
reaction to a Broadcast/Multicast storm.
Upper Threshold for
Module Ports:
[128]Kpps
This is the number of thousands
Broadcast/Multicast packets per second
received by the switch – on one of the
module ports – that will trigger the
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switch’s reaction to a Broadcast/Multicast
storm.
Broadcast Storm
Mode:<Disabled>
This field can be toggled between
Enabled and Disabled using the space
bar. This enables or disables, globally, the
switch’s reaction to Broadcast storms,
triggered at the threshold set above.
Multicast Storm
Mode:<Disabled>
This field can be toggled between
Enabled and Disabled using the space
bar. This enables or disables, globally, the
switch’s reaction to Multicast storms,
triggered at the threshold set above.
Advanced Setup
Changing switch operation mode setting changes some of
the menus and configuration options for the Advanced Setup
of the switch. The configuration data, however, is saved
when the switch’s operating mode is changed.
Configuring VLANs
The switch allows the assignment of an IP
interface to each VLAN, in IP Routing mode. The
VLANs must be configured prior to setting up
the IP interfaces.
VLANs by Switch Operating Mode
To create a new 802.1Q VLAN:
The VLAN menu adds an entry to edit the VLAN definitions
and to configure the port settings for IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
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support. Highlight VLANs from the Main Menu and press
enter.
Figure 1-25. VLAN Menu
To create an 802.1Q VLAN, highlight Edit 802.1Q VLANs
and press enter:
Figure 1-26. Edit 802.1Q VLANs Menu
Parameter
Action:
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Description
This field can be toggled using the space
VH-2402-L3 Management Guide 35
<Add/Modify>
bar between Add/Modify and Delete.
Add/Modify allows for the creation of a
new VLAN or for changes to an existing
VLAN. Delete allows for the deletion of
an existing VLAN from the switch.
VID#
Allows the entry of the VLAN ID (VID) of
an existing VLAN. VLANs can be
identified by either the VID or the VLAN
name.
VLAN Name:
Allows the entry of the name of an
existing VLAN. VLANs can be identified
by either the VID or the VLAN name.
Membership (E/F/-):
Allows an individual port to be specified
as an Egress, Forbidden, or Non-member
of a VLAN.
E
Egress Member - specifies the port as
being a static member of the VLAN.
Egress Member Ports are ports that will
be transmitting traffic for the VLAN.
These ports can be either tagged or
untagged.
F
Forbidden Non-Member - specifies the
port as not being a member of the VLAN
and that the port is forbidden from
becoming a member of the VLAN
dynamically.
-
Non-Member - specifies the port as not
being a member of the VLAN, but the port
can become a member of the VLAN
dynamically.
Tagging (U/T):
Allows an individual port to be specified
as either Tagging or Untagging.
U
Untagging - specifies the port as an
Untagging member of the VLAN. When
an untagged packet is transmitted by the
port, the packet header remains
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unchanged. When a tagged packet exits
the port, the tag is stripped and the packet
is changed to an untagged packet.
Tagging - specifies the port as a Tagging
member of the VLAN. When an untagged
packet is transmitted by the port, the
packet header is changed to include the
32-bit tag associated with the PVID (Port
VLAN Identifier – see below). When a
tagged packet exits the port, the packet
header is unchanged.
T
To create an 802.1Q VLAN, toggle the Action:
<Add/Modify> field to Add/Modify using the space bar.
Enter a VLAN ID number in the VID#[ ] field and a name for
the new VLAN in the VLAN Name:[ ] field.
Choose which ports will be members of the new VLAN and
enter their membership status in the Membership (E/F/-): [
][ ][ ] field. The status indicators of the individual ports can
be entered directly from the keyboard or toggled using the
space bar. Moving between the status indicators of the
individual ports is accomplished using the arrow keys.
To set the 802.1Q VLAN membership status of a port:
To enter the 802.1Q VLAN status for a port, highlight the first
field of Membership (E/F/-): [ ][ ][ ]. Each port’s 802.1Q
VLAN membership can be set individually by highlighting the
port’s entry using the arrow keys, and then toggling between
E, F, or – using the space bar.
Next, determine which of the ports that are members of the
new VLAN will be Tagged or Untagged ports.
To set a port as either a Tagged or an Untagged port:
Highlight the first field of Tagging (U/T):[ ][ ][ ] field. Each
port’s state can be set by highlighting the port’s entry using
the arrow keys and then toggling between U or T using the
space bar.
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If the port is attached to a device that is not IEEE 802.1Q
VLAN compliant (VLAN-tag unaware), then the port should
be set to U – Untagged.
If the port is attached to a device that is IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
compliant, (VLAN-tag aware), then the port should be set to
T – Tagged.
Press APPLY to make the additions/deletions effective for
the current session. To make enter the IP Interfaces into
Non-volatile RAM, highlight Save Changes from the Main
Menu and press enter.
In the following example screen, the VLAN “evilJulius” - VID#
2 – has been added. Ports 1, 2,12, 14, 17, 25, and 26 are
Egress ports (static members of “evilJulius”. Ports 5,6, and
7 are Forbidden ports (non-members and are not allowed to
join the VLAN “evilJulius” dynamically.Example 802.1Q
VLAN add screen:
Figure 1-27. Edit 802.1Q VLANs Menu
To configure the member ports of an 802.1Q VLAN:
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Highlight VLANs from the Main Menu and press Enter.
Figure 1-28. VLAN Menu
Highlight Configure 802.1Q Port Settings and press enter:
Figure 1-29. Configure 802.1Q Port Settings
Parameter
Description
Configure Port from
[ ] to [ ]
This allows the entry of a contiguous
range of port numbers to be configured.
PVID#[ ]
Port VLAN Identifier – is a classification
mechanism that associates a port with a
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specific VLAN and is used to make
forwarding decisions for untagged
packets received by the port. For
example, if port #2 is assigned a PVID of
3, then all untagged packets received on
port #2 will be assigned to VLAN 3. This
number is generally the same as the VID#
number assigned to the port in the Edit
802.1Q VLANs menu above.
Ingress
Filter:<Disable>
This field can be toggled using the space
bar between Enable and Disable.
Enable enables the port to compare the
VID tag of an incoming packet with the
PVID number assigned to the port. If the
two are different, the port filters (drops)
the packet. Disable disables Ingress
filtering.
GVRP:<Disable>
Group VLAN Registration Protocol
(GVRP) – this enables the port to
dynamically become a member of a
VLAN.
Each port can be configured to use an Ingress Filter, to
enable or disable GVRP. The ports to be configured in a
given session can be identified by either entering a range of
port numbers or by entering the PVID#.
To configure a port’s 802.1Q VLAN settings:
Highlight the Configure Port from [ ] to [ ] field and enter
the range of port numbers you want to configure. As an
alternative you can use the arrow keys to highlight the
PVID#[ ] field and enter the PVID for the VLAN’s member
ports you want to configure.
Use the arrow keys to highlight the remaining fields and the
space bar to toggle between On and Off.
To edit an existing 802.1Q VLAN:
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Highlight VLANs on the main menu and press Enter:
Figure 1-30. VLAN Menu
To edit an existing 802.1Q VLAN, highlight Edit 802.1Q
VLANs and press Enter:
Figure 1-31. Edit 802.1Q VLANs Menu
To edit an existing 802.1Q VLAN, highlight the
Action:<Add/Modify> field and toggle between Add/Modify
and Delete. In the Add/Modify mode, both individual
entrees to a selected VLAN and entire VLANs can be added.
In the Delete mode, entire VLANs can be deleted. VLANs to
be edited can be selected by either the VID#[ ] field or the
VLAN Name:[
] fields. Enter either the VID or the VLAN
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Name for the 802.1Q VLAN you want to edit and press
enter.
To delete an entire VLAN, toggle the
Action:<Add/Modify> field to Delete, enter either the
VID or the VLAN Name in the appropriate field and
press Enter. Highlight Apply and press Enter. The
selected VLAN will be deleted. To enter the change
into Non-volatile RAM, select Save Changes from the
Main Menu.
802.1Q VLANs are edited by specifying which ports will be
Egress Members, Forbidden non-members or non-members.
The ports are further set to be either a Tagged or an
Untagged port.
To edit the 802.1Q VLAN membership of a port:
Highlight the first field of Membership (E/F/-): [ ][ ][ ]. Each
port’s 802.1Q VLAN membership can be set individually by
highlighting the port’s entry using the arrow keys, and then
toggling between E, F, or – using the space bar.
To edit a port’s Tagged or Untagged status:
Highlight the first field of Tagging (U/T):[ ][ ][ ] field. Each
port’s state can be set by highlighting the port’s entry using
the arrow keys and then toggling between U or T using the
space bar.
If the port is attached to a device that is not IEEE 802.1Q
VLAN compliant (VLAN-tag unaware), then the port should
be set to U – Untagged.
If the port is attached to a device that is IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
compliant, (VLAN-tag aware), then the port should be set to
T – Tagged.
To configure a port’s 802.1Q VLAN settings:
Highlight the Configure Port#[ ] field and enter the port
number of the port you want to configure. Use the arrow
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keys to highlight the PVID#[ ] field and enter the PVID for
the port.
Use the arrow keys to highlight the remaining fields and the
space bar to toggle between Enable and Disable.
Setting Up IP Interfaces
A VLAN that does not have a corresponding IP
interface defined for it, will function as a Layer 2
Only VLAN – regardless of the Switch Operation
mode.
Each VLAN must be configured prior to setting up the
corresponding IP interface.
An example is presented below:
VLAN Name
VID
Switch Ports
System (default)
1
5, 6, 7, 8, 21, 22, 23, 24
Engineering
2
9, 10, 11, 12
Marketing
3
13, 14, 15, 16
Finance
4
17, 18, 19, 20
Sales
5
1, 2, 3, 4
Backbone
6
25, 26
Table 1-2. VLAN Example – Assigned Ports
In this case, 6 IP interfaces are required, so a CIDR notation
of 10.32.0.0/11 (or a 11-bit) addressing scheme will work.
This addressing scheme will give a subnet mask of
11111111.11100000.00000000.00000000 (binary) or
255.224.0.0 (decimal).
Using a 10.xxx.xxx.xxx IP address notation, the above
example would give 6 network addresses and 6 subnets.
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Any IP address from the allowed range of IP addresses for
each subnet can be chosen as an IP address for an IP
interface on the switch.
For this example, we have chosen the next IP address
above the network address for the IP interface’s IP address:
VLAN Name
VID
Network Address
IP Address
System (default)
1
10.32.0.0
10.32.0.1
Engineering
2
10.64.0.0
10.64.0.1
Marketing
3
10.96.0.0
10.96.0.1
Finance
4
10.128.0.0
10.128.0.1
Sales
5
10.160.0.0
10.160.0.1
Backbone
6
10.192.0.0
10.192.0.1
Table 1-3. VLAN Example – Assigned IP Interfaces
The 6 IP interfaces, each with an IP address (listed in the
table above), and a subnet mask of 255.224.0.0 can be
entered into the Setup IP Interface menu.
To setup IP Interfaces on the switch:
Highlight Layer 3 IP Networking from the Main Menu and
press Enter.
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Figure 1-32. Layer 3 - Main Menu
Highlight Layer 3 IP Networking from the Main Menu and
press enter.
Figure 1-33. Layer 3 – IP Networking Menu
Highlight Setup IP Interface and press enter.
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Figure 1-34. Layer 3 – IP Networking Menu
Toggle the Action:<Add/Modify> field to Add/Modify.
Choose a name for the interface to be added and enter it in
the Interface Name:[ ] field. The IP interface name must
be the same as its corresponding VLAN’s name. The
corresponding VLAN ID must also be entered in the VID[ ]
field. Enter the interface’s IP address and subnet mask in
the corresponding fields. Toggle the Active:<yes> field to
yes, highlight APPLY and press enter to make the IP
interface effective. Use Save Changes from the Main Menu
to enter the changes into NV-RAM.
Parameter
Description
Action:<Add/Modify>
This field can be toggled using the space
bar between Add/Modify and Delete.
Add/Modify allows for the creation of a
new IP interface or changes to an
existing IP interface. Delete allows for
the deletion of an existing VLAN from the
switch.
Interface Name:[
This field allows the entry of a name for
the IP interface. The default IP interface
is named “System”.
IP Address:[
]
]
This field allows the entry of an IP
address to be assigned to this IP
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interface.
Subnet Mask:[
]
This field allows the entry of a subnet
mask to be applied to this IP interface.
Active:<Yes>
This field is toggled between Yes and No
using the space bar. This entry
determines whether the subnet will be
active or not.
VID:[ ]
This field allows the entry of the VLAN ID
number for the VLAN the IP interface
belongs to.
Multicasting
Layer 2 Multicast Setup
To setup Multicasting on the switch, when the switch is in
Layer 2 operating mode, highlight Multicasting from the
Main Menu and press Enter.
Figure 1-35. Multicasting Menu
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IGMP Snooping Settings
To configure IGMP Snooping, highlight IGMP Snooping
Settings from the Multicasting Menu and press Enter.
Figure 1-36. IGMP Snooping
IGMP Snooping can be globally enabled or disabled from the
IGMP Snooping Settings menu.
To configure IGMP Snooping:
Toggle the Switch IGMP Snooping:<Disabled> field to
Enabled. Toggle the Querier State:<Non-Querier> field to
the appropriate choice between Non-Querier, V1-Querier,
and V2-Querier to determine the version of IGMP that is
used in your network. A value between 2 and 255 can be
entered for the Robustness Variable (default is 2). The
Query Interval:[125 ] can be set between 1 and 65500
seconds (default is 125 seconds). This sets the time
between IGMP queries. The Max Response:[10] allows a
setting between 1 and 25 seconds (default is 10) and
specifies the maximum amount of time allowed before
sending a response report.
Highlight APPLY and press Enter to make the settings
effective.
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Parameter
Description
Switch IGMP
Snooping:<Disabled>
This field can be toggled using the space
bar between Disabled and Enabled.
This is used to Enable or Disable IGMP
Snooping, globally, on the switch.
Querier State:<NonQuerier>
This field can be toggled between NonQuerier, V1-Querier, and V2-Querier.
This is used to specify the IGMP version
(1 or 2) that will be used by the IGMP
interface when making queries.
Robustness
Variable:[ 2]
A tuning variable to allow for subnetworks that are expected to lose a
large number of packets. A value
between 2 and 255 can be entered, with
larger values being specified for subnetworks that are expected to lose larger
numbers of packets.
Query Interval:[125 ]
Allows the entry of a value between 1
and 65500 seconds, with a default of 125
seconds. This specifies the length of
time between sending IGMP queries.
Max. Response:[10]
Sets the maximum amount of time
allowed before sending an IGMP
response report. A value between 1 and
25 seconds can be entered, with a
default of 10 seconds.
IEEE 802.1Q Multicast Forwarding
To edit the IEEE802.1 Multicast Forwarding settings,
highlight IEEE802.1Q Multicast Forwarding Settings from
the Multicasting Menu and press enter.
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Figure 1-37. Setup IEEE 802.1Q Multicast Forwarding
When the switch is in Layer 2 operating mode, IEEE 802.1Q
multicast forwarding allows the static entry of multicast MAC
addresses, which will be sources of multicast packets, and
switch port numbers, to which these multicast packets will be
forwarded. The ports that can be chosen as the destination
for multicast packets from the above MAC multicast address,
are limited to the ports belonging to the VLAN that
corresponds to the VID entered in the VID:[2 ] field.
Each port of a given VLAN can be configured as an egress
member, a forbidden non-member, or as a non-member of
the multicast group that will receive multicast packets from
the multicast MAC address, by toggling the entry below each
port of the VLAN to the appropriate code.
Parameter
Action:<Add/Modify>
Description
The field can be toggled between
Add/Modify and Delete using the space
bar. To add a new entry to the multicast
forwarding table, select Add/Modify and
enter the VID of the VLAN that will be
receiving the multicast packets. Enter
the MAC address of the multicast source,
and then enter the member ports.
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Delete allows for the deletion of a
previously made entry.
Allows the specification of the VLAN ID
(VID) of the VLAN the static multicast
group member belongs to.
VID:[ ]
Multicast MAC
Address:[
]
Allows the entry of the MAC address of a
static multicast group member.
(E/F/-): [ ][ ][ ]
To set a port’s multicast group
membership status, highlight the first
field of. Each port’s multicast group
membership can be set individually by
highlighting the port’s entry using the
arrow keys, and then toggling between E,
F, or – using the space bar.
E
Egress Member - specifies the port as
being a static member of the multicast
group. Egress Member Ports are ports
that will be transmitting traffic for the
multicast group.
F
Forbidden Non-Member - specifies the
port as not being a member of the
multicast group and that the port is
forbidden from becoming a member of
the multicast group dynamically.
-
Non-Member - specifies the port as not
being a member of the multicast group,
but the port can become a member of the
multicast group dynamically.
Static Router Port Settings
A static router port is a port that has a multicast router
attached to it. Generally, this router would have a
connection to a WAN or to the Internet. Establishing a router
port will allow multicast packets coming from the router to be
propagated through the network, as well as allowing
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multicast messages (IGMP) coming from the network to be
propagated to the router.
A router port has the following behavior:
•
All IGMP Report packets will be forwarded to the
router port.
•
IGMP queries (from the router port) will be flooded to
all ports.
•
All UDP multicast packets will be forwarded to the
router port. Because routers do not send IGMP
reports or implement IGMP snooping, a multicast
router connected to the router port of the Layer 3
switch would not be able to receive UDP data
streams unless the UDP multicast packets were all
forwarded to the router port.
•
A router port will be dynamically configured when
IGMP query packets, RIPv2 multicast, DVMRP
multicast, PIM-DM multicast packets are detected
flowing into a port.
To setup a static router port, highlight Static Router Port
Settings from the Multicasting Menu and press enter.
Figure 1-38. Static Router Port Settings
Parameter
Description
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Action:<Add/Modify>
This field can be toggled between
Add/Modify and Delete using the space
bar. To add a port to the static router
port table, select Add/Modify and enter
the VID of the VLAN the router port will
belong to. Delete allows for the deletion
of a previously made entry.
Router Port (M/-):[
][
][ ]
Each port can be set individually as a
router port by highlighting the port’s entry
using the arrow keys, and then toggling
between M and – using the space bar. M
indicates a port is a member of the static
group of router ports. – indicates a port
is not a static member.
Layer 3 Multicasting
When the switch is in IP Routing mode, several functions
supporting IP multicasting are added to the Multicasting
menu. These additional functions can be configured under
the IP Multicasting Settings menu.
With the switch in IP Routing mode, highlight Multicasting
from the Main Menu and press enter.
Figure 1-39. Multicasting Menu
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Setup IP Multicast
To setup IP multicasting on the switch:
Highlight IP Multicasting Settings from the Multicast Menu
and press Enter.
Highlight Multicast Interface Configuration from the Setup
Multicast Menu and press Enter.
Figure 1-40. Setup IP Multicast Menu
Multicast Interface Configuration
To configure the multicast interface, highlight Multicast
Interface Configuration and press Enter.
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.
Figure 1-41. Multicast Interface Configuration
This menu allows the assignment of a multicast routing
protocol to an IP interface. The IP interface must have been
previously configured on the switch.
In addition, IGMP may be enabled or disabled for the
selected IP interface.
The available multicast protocols are the Protocol
Independent Multicast – Dense Mode (PIM-DM), and the
Distance-Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP).
INACT is not a multicast routing protocol. It is used to make
a given interface inactive for IP Multicast routing and can still
route IP traffic.
Parameter
Interface Name:[
Status: <Enabled>
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Description
]
Allows the entry of the name of the IP
interface that is to be configured for
multicasting. This must be a previously
configured IP interface.
This field can be toggled between
Enabled and Disabled using the space
VH-2402-L3 Management Guide 55
bar. This will enable or disable IGMP for
the IP interface entered above.
Protocol: <INACT>
This field can be toggled between
Protocol Independent Multicasting –
Dense Mode (PIMDM), Distance Vector
Multicasting Routing Protocol
(DVMRP), and INACT (inactive). INACT
is not a multicast routing protocol. It is
used to make a given interface inactive
for IP Multicast routing yet can still route
IP traffic.
IGMP Interface Configuration
Figure 1-42. IGMP Interface Configuration
This menu allows the configuration of IGMP for each IP
interface configured on the switch. IGMP can be configured
as Version 1 or 2 by toggling the Ver:<2> field. The length
of time between queries can be varied by entering a value
between 1 and 65,500 seconds in the Query:[125 ] field.
The maximum length of time between the receipt of a query
and the sending of an IGMP response report can be varied
by entering a value in the Max. Response:[10] field.
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The Robustness Var:[2 ] field allows IGMP to be ‘tuned’ for
sub-networks that are expected to lose a lot of packets. A
high value (max. 255) for the robustness variable will help
compensate for ‘lossy’ sub-networks. A low value (min. 2)
should be used for less ‘lossy’ sub-networks.
Parameter
Description
Interface Name:[ ]
Allows the entry of the name of the IP
interface that is to be configured for
IGMP. This must be a previously
configured IP interface.
Querier State:<V2Querier>
Can be toggled between V1-Querier and
V2-Querier. This determines the IGMP
version (1 or 2) that will be used to
interpret IGMP queries on the interface.
Robustness
Variable:[ 2]
A tuning variable to allow for
subnetworks that are expected to lose a
large number of packets. A value
between 2 and 255 can be entered, with
larger values being specified for
subnetworks that are expected to lose
larger numbers of packets.
Query Interval:[125 ]
Allows the entry of a value between 1
and 65500 seconds, with a default of 125
seconds. This specifies the length of
time between sending IGMP queries.
Max. Response:[10]
Sets the maximum amount of time
allowed before sending an IGMP
response report. A value between 1 and
25 seconds can be entered, with a
default of 10 seconds.
IP Address:
Displays the IP address corresponding to
the IP interface name entered above.
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Figure 1-43. IGMP Static Member Configuration
Parameter
Description
Action:<Add/Modify>
This field can be toggled between
Add/Modify and Delete. Add/Modify
allows you to enter a new IGMP Static
Member into the table, or to modify an
existing entry. Delete allows you to
delete an existing entry.
Interface Name:[ ]
Enter the IP Interface name the IGMP
Static Member belongs to in this field.
IGMP Static Group
IP:[ ]
Enter the IP address of the IGMP Static
Group in this field.
Group MAC
Address:
Displays the MAC address
corresponding to the IGMP Static Group
IP address entered above.
IP Address:
Displays the IP address corresponding to
the IP interface entered above.
State:<Enabled>
Can be toggled between Enabled and
Disabled.
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Total Entries:
Displays the total number of entries into
the switch’s IGMP Static Member table.
DVMRP
<<Please refer to the product Release Notes before enabling
this feature>>
To configure DVMRP for an IP interface, highlight DVMRP
Interface Configuration from the Setup IP Multicast menu
and press Enter.
Figure 1-44. DVMRP Interface Configuration
This menu allows the Distance-Vector Multicast Routing
Protocol to be configured for each IP interface defined on the
switch.
The Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP) is
a hop-based method of building multicast delivery trees from
multicast sources to all nodes of a network. Because the
delivery trees are ‘pruned’ and ‘shortest path’, DVMRP is
relatively efficient. Because multicast group membership
information is forwarded by a distance-vector algorithm,
propagation is slow. DVMRP is optimized for high delay
(high latency) relatively low bandwidth networks, and can be
considered as a ‘best-effort’ multicasting protocol.
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DVMRP resembles the Routing Information Protocol (RIP),
but is extended for multicast delivery. It relies upon RIP hop
counts to calculate ‘shortest paths’ back to the source of a
multicast message, but defines a ‘route cost’ to calculate
which branches of a multicast delivery tree should be
‘pruned’ – once the delivery tree is established.
When a sender initiates a multicast, DVMRP initially
assumes that all users on the network will want to receive
the multicast message. When an adjacent router receives
the message, it checks its unicast routing table to determine
the interface that gives the shortest path (lowest cost) back
to the source. If the multicast was received over the shortest
path, then the adjacent router enters the information into its
tables and forwards the message. If the message is not
received on the shortest path back to the source, the
message is dropped.
Route cost is a relative number that is used by DVMRP to
calculate which branches of a multicast delivery tree should
be ‘pruned’. The ‘cost’ is relative to other costs assigned to
other DVMRP routes throughout the network.
The higher the route cost, the lower the probability that the
current route will be chosen to be an active branch of the
multicast delivery tree (not ‘pruned’) – if there is an
alternative route.
Parameter
Interface Name:[
Description
]
Allows the entry of the name of the IP
interface for which DVMRP is to be
configured. This must be a previously
defined IP interface.
Neighbor Time Out
Interval:[35 ]
This field allows an entry between 1 and
65,535 seconds and defines the time
period for DVMRP will hold Neighbor
Router reports before issuing poison
route messages. The default is 35
seconds.
Route Metric:[1 ]
This field allows an entry between 0 and
254 and defines the route cost for the IP
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interface. The DVMRP route cost is a
relative number that represents the real
cost of using this route in the
construction of a multicast delivery tree.
It is similar to, but not defined as, the hop
count in RIP. The default cost is 1.
State:<Disabled>
This field can be toggled between
Enabled and Disabled and enables or
disables DVMRP for the IP interface.
The default is Disabled.
IP Address:
Displays the IP address corresponding to
the IP Interface name entered above.
Probe Interval:[10 ]
The Probe Interval:[10 ] field allows an
entry between 0 and 65,535 seconds and
defines the interval between ‘probes’.
DVMRP defines an extension to IGMP
that allows routers to query other routers
to determine if a multicast group is
present on an given IP interface or not.
The default is 10.
Include Unknown
Neighbor
Report:<Disabled>
Allows the L3 switch to accept a DVMRP
route report from a non-adjacent
neighbor.
PIM-DM
<<Please refer to the product Release Notes before enabling
this feature>>
To configure PIMDM for an IP interface:
Highlight PIMDM Interface Configuration from the Setup
IP Multicast menu and press enter.
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Figure 1-45. PIM-DM Interface Configuration
The Protocol Independent Multicast – Dense Mode (PIMDM) protocol should be used in networks with a low delay
(low latency) and high bandwidth as PIM-DM is optimized to
guarantee delivery of multicast packets, not to reduce
overhead.
The PIM-DM multicast routing protocol is assumes that all
downstream routers want to receive multicast messages and
relies upon explicit prune messages from downstream
routers to remove branches from the multicast delivery tree
that do not contain multicast group members.
PIM-DM has no explicit ‘join’ messages. It relies upon
periodic flooding of multicast messages to all interfaces and
then either waiting for a timer to expire (the Join/Prune
Interval) or for the downstream routers to transmit explicit
‘prune’ messages indicating that there are no multicast
members on their respective branches. PIM-DM then
removes these branches (‘prunes’ them) from the multicast
delivery tree.
Because a member of a pruned branch of a multicast
delivery tree may want to join a multicast delivery group (at
some point in the future), the protocol periodically removes
the ‘prune’ information from its database and floods multicast
messages to all interfaces on that branch. The interval for
removing ‘prune’ information is the Join/Prune Interval.
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Parameter
Interface Name:[
Description
]
Allows the entry of the name of the IP
interface for which PIM-DM is to be
configured. This must be a previously
defined IP interface.
IP Address
Displays the IP address for the IP
interface named above.
Hello Interval:[30 ]
This field allows an entry of between 0
and 9,999 seconds and determines the
interval between sending Hello packets
to other routers on the network. The
Hello messages are used by the router to
determine if it is the root router on the
delivery tree or not. If the router does not
receive a Hello message within the Hello
Interval, it will begin transmitting Hello
messages to advertise its availability to
become the root router. The default is 30
seconds.
Join/Prune
Interval:[60 ]
This field allows an entry of between 0
and 9,999 seconds and determines the
interval between transmitting (flooding to
all interfaces) multicast messages to
downstream routers, and automatically
‘pruning’ a branch from the multicast
delivery tree. This interval also
determines the time interval the router
uses to automatically remove prune
information from a branch of a multicast
delivery tree and begin to flood multicast
messages to all branches of that delivery
tree. These two actions are equivalent.
The default is 60 seconds.
State:<Disabled>
This field can be toggled between
Enabled and Disabled using the space
bar, and is used to enable or disable
PIM-DM for the IP interface. The default
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is Disabled.
Port Mirroring
To configure a port for port mirroring:
Highlight Mirroring from the Main Menu and press enter.
Figure 1-46. Mirroring Menu
To select the target port, highlight Target Port Selection and
press enter.
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Figure 1-47. Target Port Selection
The target port is the port where information will be
duplicated and sent for capture and network analysis. This
is the port where a network analyzer would be attached to
capture packets duplicated from the source port.
To select the source port(s) for mirroring, highlight Port
Mirroring Settings and press enter.
Figure 1-48. Port Mirroring Settings
Up to 25 entries can be made to the port mirroring table, but
it should be noted that a faster port (a 1000 Mbps Gigabit
Ethernet port, for example) should not be mirrored to a
slower port (one of the 24 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet port),
because many packets will be dropped.
Parameter
Action:<Add/Modify>
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Description
This field can be toggled between
Add/Modify and Delete using the space
bar. Entries can be added, modified or
deleted based upon the port number
entered in the Source Port [ ] field.
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Source Port [24]
Allows the entry of the port number of the
port to be mirrored. This port is the
source of the packets to be duplicated
and forwarded to the Target port.
Direction:<Either>
This field can be toggled between Either,
Ingress and Egress. Ingress mirrors
only received packets, while Egress
mirrors only transmitted packets.
Priority
To configure a forwarding priority for a given MAC address,
highlight Priority from the main menu and press Enter.
Figure 1-49. Setup MAC Address Priority
Parameter
Description
Action:<Add/Modify>
This field can be toggled between
Add/Modify and Delete using the space
bar.
VID:[1 ]
Allows the entry of the VLAN ID (VID) of
the VLAN to which the MAC address
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below is a member of.
]
Allows the entry of the MAC address of
the station for which priority queuing is to
be specified.
Priority Level:<Low>
This field can be toggled using the space
bar between Low, Med-L (Medium Low),
Med-H (Medium High), and High,
corresponding to the priority of packets
sent to or transmitted from the MAC
address entered above.
Source/Destination:
This field can be toggled using the space
bar between Src. (Source), Dst.
(Destination), and Either, corresponding
to whether the MAC address entered
above will be transmitting packets (a
source), receiving packets (a destination)
or both (either).
MAC Address:[
<Src.>
Filtering
Layer 2 Filtering
To enter a MAC address into the filtering table, highlight
Filtering from the Main Menu and press enter.
Figure 1-50. MAC Address Filter
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Highlight MAC Address Filter and press enter.
Figure 1-51. Setup MAC Address Filter
When the switch is in Layer 2 Only operating mode, MAC
addresses can be entered into the static filtering table. The
switch can be configured to filter packets from this MAC
address (a source), or to it (a destination). The switch can
also be configured to filter all packets to or from this MAC
address (either a source or a destination).
Parameter
Description
Action:<Add/Modify>
This field can be toggled between
Add/Modify and Delete using the space
bar.
VID: [ ]
Allows the entry of the VLAN ID (VID) of
the VLAN to which the MAC address
below is a member of.
MAC Address:[
]
Source/Destination:
<Scr.>
Allows the entry of a MAC address to be
filtered from the switch. This address
must be a unicast MAC address.
This field can be toggled using the space
bar between Src. (Source), Dst.
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(Destination), and Either, corresponding
to whether the MAC address entered
above will be transmitting packets (a
source), receiving packets (a destination)
or both (either).
Layer 3 (IP Routing) Filtering
With the switch configured to Layer 3 Operation mode, both
MAC and IP addresses can be entered into the filtering
table, using there respective entry menus. To enter an
address, highlight Filtering from the Main Menu and press
enter.
Figure 1-52. Filtering Menu – Layer 3
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Figure 1-53. IP Address Filtering Setup
Parameter
Description
Action:<Add/Modify>
This field can be toggled between
Add/Modify and Delete using the space
bar.
IP Address:[
Allows the entry of an IP address to be
filtered from the switch.
]
Source/Destination:
<Scr.>
This field can be toggled between Src.
(source), Dst. (destination), and Either.
The IP address entered into the filtering
table can be filtered as a source (packets
will not be received from the IP address),
as a destination (packets will not be
transmitted to the IP address), or as
either a source or destination (packets
will not be received from or transmitted to
the IP address.
Forwarding
Layer 2 Forwarding
To enter a MAC address into the switch’s forwarding table highlight
Forwarding from the Main Menu and press enter.
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Figure 1-54. Forwarding Menu – Layer 2
Highlight MAC Address Forwarding from the Forwarding
Menu and press enter.
Figure 1-55. Static Unicast MAC Forwarding Setup
Parameter
Description
Action:<Add/Modify>
The field can be toggled between
Add/Modify and Delete using the space
bar.
VID:[ ]
Allows the entry of the VLAN ID (VID) of
the VLAN the MAC address below is a
member of.
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MAC Address:[
Port: [
]
]
Allows the entry of the MAC address of
an end station that will be entered into
the switch’s static forwarding table.
Allows the entry of the port number on
which the MAC address entered above
resides.
IP Forwarding
Static/Default Routes
With the switch in Layer 3 Operation mode, entries into the
switch’s forwarding table can be made using both MAC
addresses and IP addresses. Static IP forwarding is
accomplished by the entry of an IP address into the Static IP
Routing table.
Static Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) entrees can also
be made from the Forwarding Menu.
Highlight Static/Default Routes from the Forwarding menu
and press enter.
Figure 1-56. Setup Static IP Routes
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Parameter
Description
The field can be toggled between Add
and Delete using the space bar.
Action:<Add >
IP Address:[
Subnet Mask:[
Gateway IP:[
Metric:[1 ]
Allows the entry of an IP address that will
be a static entry into the switch’s IP
forwarding table.
]
]
]
Allows the entry of a subnet mask
corresponding to the IP address above.
Allows the entry of an IP address of a
default gateway for the IP address
above.
Allows the entry of a routing protocol
metric representing the number of
routers between the switch and the IP
address above.
Static ARP
To make a static ARP entry highlight Static ARP from the
Forwarding menu and press enter.
Figure 1-57. Setup Static ARP Entries
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Parameter
Description
Action:<Add/Modify>
The field can be toggled between Add
and Delete using the space bar.
Interface Name:[
The name of the IP interface the ARP
entry resides on.
IP Address:[
]
The IP address of the ARP entry.
]
MAC Address:[
]
The MAC address of the ARP entry.
Spanning Tree
Switch Spanning Tree Settings
To globally configure STP on the switch highlight Spanning
Tree on the main menu and press Enter.
Figure 1-58. Configure Spanning Tree - Global
The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) operates on two levels:
on the switch level, the settings are globally implemented.
On the port level, the settings are implemented on a per
user-defined Group basis.
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The factory default setting should cover the
majority of installations. It is advisable to keep
the default settings as set at the factory; unless,
it is absolutely necessary to change them.
Parameter
Description
Status:<Enabled>
This field can be toggled between
Enabled and Disabled using the space
bar. This will enable or disable the
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), globally,
for the switch.
STP
Group:<Default>
This field can be toggled using the space
bar to select any of the STP groups that
have been configured on the switch.
Max. Age: [ ]
The Max. Age can be set from 6 to 40
seconds. At the end of the Max. Age, if a
BPDU has still not been received from
the Root Bridge, your Switch will start
sending its own BPDU to all other
Switches for permission to become the
Root Bridge. If it turns out that your
Switch has the lowest Bridge Identifier, it
will become the Root Bridge.
Hello Time:[
]
The Hello Time can be set from 1 to 10
seconds. This is the interval between
two transmissions of BPDU packets sent
by the Root Bridge to tell all other
Switches that it is indeed the Root
Bridge.
Forward Delay:[ ]
The Forward Delay can be from 4 to 30
seconds. This is the time any port on the
Switch spends in the listening state while
moving from the blocking state to the
forwarding state.
Priority:[
A Priority for the switch can be set from 0
to 65535. This number is used in the
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voting process between switches on the
network to determine which switch will be
the root switch. A low number indicates
a high priority, and a high probability that
this switch will be elected as the root
switch.
The Hello Time cannot be longer than the Max.
Age. Otherwise, a configuration error will occur.
Observe the following formulas when setting the
above parameters:
Max. Age ≤ 2 x (Forward Delay - 1 second)
Max. Age ≥ 2 x (Hello Time + 1 second)
STP Group Confugration
To define which ports will be members of an STP Group, highlight
Group Create/Delete and press enter.
Figure 1-59. STP Group Configuration
Toggle the Action:<Add/Modify> field to Add/Modify.
Choose a name for the group and enter it in the Group
Name:[
] field. The group name does not necessarily
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have to correspond to any name that has been previously
entered in the switch’s configuration.
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Figure 1-60. STP Port Settings
Toggle the View Ports:<
> field to the range of ports to
be configured. The Fast Ethernet ports displayed for
configuration in groups of 12 and the two (optional) Gigabit
Ethernet ports are displayed together.
In addition to setting Spanning Tree parameters for use on
the switch level, the VH-2402-L3 allows for the configuration
of groups of ports, each port-group of which will have its own
spanning tree, and will require some of its own configuration
settings. An STP Group will use the switch-level parameters
entered above, with the addition of Port Priority and Port
Cost.
An STP Group spanning tree works in the same way as the
switch-level spanning tree, but the root bridge concept is
replaced with a root port concept. A root port is a port of the
group that is elected on the basis of port priority and port
cost, to be the connection to the network for the group.
Redundant links will be blocked, just as redundant links are
blocked on the switch level.
The STP on the switch level blocks redundant links between
switches (and similar network devices). The port level STP
will block redundant links within an STP Group.
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It is advisable to define an STP Group to correspond to a
VLAN group of ports.
Parameter
Description
View Ports:<
Configure Ports:[
to [ ]
Port Cost:[
Priority:[
This field can be toggled using the space
bar between 1 to 12, 13 to 24, and 2526. This is used to select the range of
ports displayed in the console.
>
]
]
]
Allows the entry of a range of port
numbers to be configured.
A Port Cost can be set from 1 to 65535.
The lower the number, the greater the
probability the port will be chosen to
forward packets.
A Port Priority can be from 0 to 255. The
lower the number, the greater the
probability the port will be chosen as the
Root Port.
Port Trunking
To configure a port trunking group, highlight Port Trunking
on the Main Menu and press Enter.
Figure 1-61. Port Trunking Setup
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Port trunking allows several ports to be grouped together
and to act as a single link. This gives a bandwidth that is a
multiple of a single link’s bandwidth.
Port trunking is most commonly used to link a bandwidth
intensive network device or devices – such as a server – to
the backbone of a network.
The VH-2402-L3 allows the creation of up to 6 port trunking
groups, each group consisting of up of up to 8 links (ports).
The trunked ports must be contiguous (they must have
sequential port numbers) except the two (optional) Gigabit
ports – which can only belong to a single port trunking group.
A port trunking group may not cross an 8 port boundary,
starting with port 1 (a group may not contain ports 8 and 9,
for example) and all of the ports in the group must be
members of the same VLAN. Further, the trunked ports
must all be of the same speed and should be configured as
full-duplex.
The configuration of the lowest numbered port in the group
becomes the configuration for all of the ports in the
aggregation group. This port is called the Master Port of the
group, and all configuration options – including the VLAN
configuration – that can be applied to the Master Port are
applied to the entire port trunking group.
Load balancing is automatically applied to the ports in the
trunked group, and a link failure within the group causes the
network traffic to be directed to the remaining links in the
group.
The Spanning Tree Protocol will treat a port trunking group
as a single link, on the switch level. On the port level, the
STP will use the port parameters of the Master Port in the
calculation of port cost and in determining the state of the
port trunking group. If two redundant port trunking groups
are configured on the switch, STP will block one entire group
– in the same way STP will block a single port that has a
redundant link.
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Parameter
Description
Group ID:[1]
This field can be toggled between any
one of the six possible port trunking
groups configurable on the switch.
Port:[1]
The Master port of trunk group.
Group Width:[
]
Method:<Disabled>
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Allows the entry of the number of
contiguous ports that will make up the
port trunking group. These ports will be
in sequential order from the Master Port.
This field can be toggled between
Enabled and Disabled. This is used to
turn a port trunking group on or off. This
is useful for diagnostics, to quickly isolate
a bandwidth intensive network device or
to have an absolute backup aggregation
group that is not under automatic control.
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Switch Utilities
Layer 2 Switch Utilities
To access the Switch Utilities menu, highlight Utilities from
the Main Menu and press enter.
Figure 1-62. Switch Utilities Menu
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) services allow the
switch firmware to be upgraded by transferring a new
firmware file from a TFTP server to the switch. A
configuration file can also be loaded into the switch from a
TFTP server, switch settings can be saved to the TFTP
server, and a history log can be uploaded from the switch to
the TFTP server.
Updating Firmware
To update the switch’s firmware, highlight Upgrade
Firmware from TFTP Server and press enter.
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Figure 1-63. Upgrade Firmware
Enter the IP address of the TFTP server in the Server IP
Address:[
] field.
The TFTP server must be on the same IP subnet as the
switch.
Enter the path and the filename to the firmware file on the
TFTP server. Note that in the above example, the firmware
file is in the root directory of the C drive of the TFTP server.
The TFTP server must be running TFTP server software to
perform the file transfer. TFTP server software is a part of
many network management software packages – such as
NetSight, or can be obtained as a separate program.
Highlight APPLY and press enter to record the IP address
of the TFTP server. Use Save Changes from the Main
Menu to enter the address into NV-RAM
Highlight START and press enter to initiate the file transfer.
Downloading a Configuration File
To download a switch configuration file from a TFTP server,
highlight Download Configuration File from TFTP Server
and press enter.
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Figure 1-64. Download Configuration File
Enter the IP address of the TFTP server and specify the
location of the switch configuration file on the TFTP server.
Highlight APPLY and press enter record the IP address of
the TFTP server. Use Save Changes from the Main Menu
to enter the address into NV-RAM
Highlight START and press enter to initiate the file transfer.
Uploading a Settings File
To upload a settings file to the TFTP server, highlight
Upload configuration file to TFTP Server and press enter.
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Figure 1-65. Upload Setting File
Enter the IP address of the TFTP server and the path and
filename of the settings file on the TFTP server and press
APPLY. Highlight START and press enter to initiate the file
transfer.
Uploading a History Log File
To save a History Log on a TFTP server, highlight Save
Log to TFTP Server and press enter.
Figure 1-66. Upload Log File
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Enter the IP address of the TFTP server and the path and
filename for the history log on the TFTP server. Highlight
APPLY and press enter to make the changes current.
Highlight START and press enter to initiate the file transfer.
Testing Connectivity with Ping
To test the connection with another network device using Ping,
highlight Ping Test and press enter.
Figure 1-67. Ping Connectivity Test
Enter the IP address of the network device to be pinged and
the number of test packets to be sent (3 is usually enough).
Highlight START and press enter to initiate the ping
program.
Layer 3 Utilities
Layer 3 (IP Routing) switch operation mode adds BOOTP
Relay and DNS Relay to the utilities available on the switch.
BOOTP/DHCP Relay
To enter the IP addresses of BOOTP or DHCP servers
(for the BOOTP/DHCP Relay service):
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Highlight Utilities on the Main Menu and press Enter.
Highlight BOOTP/DHCP Relay on the Switch Utilities
menu and press Enter.
Figure 1-68. BOOTP/DHCP Relay Menu
Parameter
Description
BOOTP/DHCP Relay
Status <Disabled>
This field can be toggled between
Enabled and Disabled using the space
bar. It is used to enable or disable the
BOOTP/DHCP Relay service on the
switch. The default is Disabled.
BOOTP HOPS Count
Limit [4 ]
This field allows an entry between 1 and
16 to define the maximum number of
router hops BOOTP messages can be
forwarded across. The default hop count
is 4.
BOOTP/DHCP Relay
Time Threshold:[4 ]
Allows an entry between 0 and 65535
seconds, and defines the maximum time
limit for routing a BOOTP/DHCP packet.
If a value of 0 is entered, the switch will
not process the value in the seconds field
of the BOOTP or DHCP packet. If a nonzero value is entered, the switch will use
that value, along with the hop count to
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determine whether to forward a given
BOOTP or DHCP packet.
Figure 1-69. BOOTP/DHCP Relay Interface Configuration
Parameter
Description
This field can be toggled between Add
and Delete using the space bar. Toggle
to Add and enter the subnet name for
which BOOTP Relay will be active.
Action:<Add>
Interface Name:[
]
The interface name of the IP interface on
which the BOOTP or DHCP servers
reside on.
IP Address:
Displays the IP address corresponding to
the subnet name entered above.
BOOTP/DHCP
Server:[
]
Allows the entry of IP addresses for up to
four BOOTP or DHCP servers.
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DNS Relay
To enter the IP addresses of DNS servers (for the DNS
Relay service):
Highlight DNS Relay on the Switch Utilities menu and
press enter.
Figure 1-70. DNS Relay Setup
Parameter
Description
DNSR Status
<Disabled>
This field can be toggled between
Disabled and Enabled using the space
bar, and is used to enable or disable the
DNS Relay service on the switch.
Name Server: [1] [ ]
Allows the entry of the IP address of a
primary (number 1) and a secondary
(number 2) domain name server (DNS).
DNSR Cache
Status:<Disabled>
This can be toggled between Disabled
and Enabled. This determines if a DNS
cache will be enabled on the switch.
DNSR Static Table
Lookup
This field can be toggled using the space
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Status:<Disabled>
bar between Disabled and Enabled.
This determines if the static DNS table
will be used or not.
To make a static DNS table entry:
Highlight Static Table Setting on the DNS Relay menu and
press Enter.
Figure 1-71. DNS Relay Setup
Parameter
Description
Action:<Add/Edit>
The Action:<Add/Edit> field can be
toggled between Add/Edit and Delete.
Enter the Domain name and its
corresponding IP address.
Domain Name
The domain name of the static DNS table
entry.
IP Address
The IP address of the domain name
above.
Status:<Enabled>
This field can be toggled using the space
bar between Enabled and Disabled.
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Network Monitoring
The VH-2402-L3 provides extensive network monitoring
capabilities that can be viewed under Network Monitoring
from the Main Menu.
Network monitoring on the switch is divided into Layer 2 and
Layer 3 functions, depending upon which operating mode
the switch is in. Layer 2 network monitoring functions are
visible on the console when the switch is in Layer 2 Only
operating mode. Layer 3 network monitoring functions are
added to the console when the switch is in IP Routing
operating mode.
Layer 2 Network Monitoring
Layer 2 network monitoring consists of the following screens
or menus:
•
Port Utilization
•
Port Error Packets
•
Port Packet Analysis
•
Browse MAC Address Table(view the MAC
address forwarding table)
•
GVRP (view the GVRP status table)
•
Browse Router Port (view the router port status
table)
•
IGMP Snooping
•
Switch History
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To display the network data compiled by the switch:
Highlight Network Monitoring on the Main Menu and press
enter.
Figure 1-72. Network Monitoring Menu
Port Utilization
The Port Utilization screen shows the number of packets
transmitted and received per second and calculates the
percentage of the total available bandwidth being used on
the port (displayed under %Util.).
To view the port utilization:
Highlight Port Utilization on the Network Monitoring menu
and press enter.
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Figure 1-73. Port Utilization able
Parameter
Description
Port
The switch’s port number.
Interval:<2 sec>
The time between updates received from
the switch. Suspend stops the updates.
The default is 2 seconds.
TX/sec
The rate at which the given port is
transmitting packets, in packets per
second.
RX/sec
The rate at which the given port is
receiving packets, in packets per second.
%Util
The percentage utilization of the given
port’s available bandwidth.
Port Error Statistics
The Port Error Statistics screen displays the packet errors
that the switch can detect and displays the results on a per
port basis.
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To view the error statistics for a port:
Highlight Port Error Packets on the Network Monitoring
menu and press enter.
Figure 1-74. Port Error Packets
The Port field can be toggled between Port 1~26 to select
which group of ports will be displayed.
Enter the port number of the port to be viewed. The
Interval:<2 sec> field can be toggled from 2 seconds to 1
minute, or suspend. This sets the interval at which the error
statistics are updated.
Parameter
Description
Interval:<2 sec>
The interval (in seconds) that the table is
updated. The default is 2 seconds.
RX Frames
Received packets.
CRC Error
For 10 Mbps ports, the counter records
CRC errors (FCS or alignment errors).
For 100 Mbps ports, the counter records
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the sum of CRC errors and code errors
(frames received with rxerror signal).
Undersize
The total number of frames received that
were less than 64 octets long (excluding
framing bits, but including FCS octets)
and were otherwise well formed.
Oversize
The total number of frames received that
were longer than 1518 octets (excluding
framing bits, but including FCS octets)
and were otherwise well formed.
Fragments
The total number of frames received that
were less that 64 octets in length
(excluding framing bits, but including
FCS octets) and had either an FCS or an
alignment error.
Jabber
The total number of frames received that
were longer than 1518 octets (excluding
framing bits, but including FCS octets),
and had either an FCS or an alignment
error.
Drop Pkts
The total number of events in which
packets were dropped due to a lack of
resources.
TX Frames
Transmitted packets.
ExDefer
The number of frames for which the first
transmission attempt on a particular
interface was delayed because the
medium was busy
CRC Error
For 10 Mbps ports, the counter records
CRC errors (FCS or alignment errors).
For 100 Mbps ports, the counter records
the sum of CRC errors and code errors
(frames received with rxerror signal).
Late Coll.
Late Collisions. The number of times
that a collision is detected later than 512
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bit-times into the transmission of a
packet.
Ex. Coll.
Excessive Collisions. The number of
frames for which transmission failed due
to excessive collisions.
Single Coll.*
Single Collision Frames. The number of
successfully transmitted frames for which
transmission is inhibited by more than
one collision.
Coll.
An estimate of the total number of
collisions on this network segment.
Port Packet Analysis Table
The Port Packet Analysis Table displays the size of
packets received or transmitted by a given switch port. In
addition, statistics on the number and rate of unicast,
multicast, and broadcast packets received by the switch are
displayed.
To view an analysis of packets received or transmitted
by a port:
Highlight Port Packet Analysis on the Network Monitoring
menu and press enter.
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Figure 1-75. Port Packet Analysis Table
Parameter
Description
Interval:<2 sec>
The interval (in seconds) that the table is
updated. The default is 2 seconds.
Frames
The number of packets (or frames)
received or transmitted by the switch with
the size, in octets, given by the column
on the right.
Frames/sec
The number of packets (or frames)
transmitted or received, per second, by
the switch.
Unicast RX
Displays the number of unicast packets
received by the switch in total number
(Frames) and the rate (Frames/sec).
Multicast RX
Displays the number of multicast packets
received by the switch in total number
(Frames) and the rate (Frames/sec).
Broadcast RX
Displays the number of broadcast
packets received by the switch in total
number (Frames) and the rate
(Frames/sec).
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RX Bytes
Displays the number of bytes (octets)
received by the switch in total number
(Total), and rate (Total/sec).
RX Frames
Displays the number of packets (frames)
received by the switch in total number
(Total), and rate (Total/sec).
TX Bytes
Displays the number of bytes (octets)
transmitted by the switch in total number
(Total), and rate (Total/sec).
TX Frames
Displays the number of packets (frames)
transmitted by the switch in total number
(Total), and rate (Total/sec).
MAC Address Forwarding Table
This allows the switch’s dynamic MAC address forwarding
table to be viewed. When the switch learns an association
between a MAC address and a port number, it makes an
entry into its forwarding table. These entries are then used
to forward packets through the switch.
To view the MAC address forwarding table:
Highlight Browse MAC Address Table on the Network
Monitoring menu and press enter.
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Figure 1-76. Browse MAC Address Table
The Browse By:<ALL > field can be toggled between ALL,
MAC Address, Port, and VLAN. This sets a filter to
determine which MAC addresses from the forwarding table
are displayed. ALL specifies no filter.
To search for a particular MAC address:
Toggle the Browse By:<ALL > field to MAC Address. A
MAC Address:[000000000000] field will appear. Enter the
MAC address in the field and press enter.
GVRP Status Table
This allows the GVRP status for each of the switch’s ports to
be viewed by VLAN. The GVRP status screen displays the
ports on the switch that are currently Egress or Untagged
ports.
To view the GVRP status table:
Highlight GVRP Status from the Network Monitoring menu
and press enter.
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Figure 1-77. GVRP Status Table
Browse Router Port
This displays which of the switch’s ports are currently
configured as router ports. A router port configured by a
user (using the console or web-based management
interfaces) is displayed as a static router port, designated by
S. A router port that is dynamically configured by the switch
is designated by D.
To view the Router Port table:
Highlight Browse Router Port from the Network
Monitoring menu and press Enter.
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Figure 1-78 . Browse Router Port
The Jump to VID:[1 ] field allows the entry of any VLAN ID
(VID) of any VLAN defined on the switch. Enter the VID,
highlight GO and press enter. The table will then jump to
the VID entered.
S signifies a static router port, configured by the user.
D signifies a dynamically assigned router port, configured by
the switch.
IGMP Snooping Table
This allows the switch’s IGMP Snooping table to be viewed.
IGMP Snooping allows the switch to read the Multicast
Group IP address and the corresponding MAC address from
IGMP packets that pass through the switch. The ports
where the IGMP packets were snooped are displayed,
signified with an M. The number of IGMP reports that were
snooped are also displayed in the Reports: field.
To view the IGMP Snooping table:
Highlight IGMP Snooping Status from the Network
Monitoring menu and press Enter.
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Figure 1-79. IGMP Snooping Status Table
Switch History Log − This allows the Switch History Log to
be viewed. The switch records all traps, in sequence, that
identify events on the switch. The time since the last cold
start of the switch is also recorded.
To view the switch history log:
Highlight Switch History from the Network Monitoring
menu and press enter.
Figure 1-80. Switch History Table
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Layer 3 Network Monitoring
When the switch is in Layer 3 (IP Routing) mode, several
items are added to the Network Monitoring menu.
The following items are added to the Network
Monitoring menu when the switch is in Layer 3 (IP
Routing) mode:
•
Browse IP Address
•
Routing Table
•
ARP Table
•
IP Multicast Forwarding Table
•
IGMP Group Table
•
DVMRP Routing Table
To view the Network Monitoring menu:
Highlight Network Monitoring from the Main Menu and
press Enter.
Figure 1-81. Network Monitoring Menu – Layer 3
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IP Address Forwarding Table
To view the IP address forwarding table:
Highlight Browse IP Address from the Network Monitoring
menu and press enter.
Figure 1-82. IP Forwarding Table – Layer 3
To display a particular IP address, enter the IP address in
the Jump to IP Address:[0.0.0.0] field, highlight GO, and
press enter.
Routing Table
To view the contents of the IP Routing table:
Highlight Routing Table on the Network Monitoring menu
and press Enter.
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Figure 1-83. View the IP Routing Table
To display a particular Destination IP address, enter either
the IP address in the Jump to Destination
Address:[0.0.0.0] field, the gateway address in the
Gateway:[0.0.0.0] field, or the subnet mask in the
Mask:[0.0.0.0] field, highlight GO, and press enter.
ARP Table
To view the ARP table:
Highlight ARP Table on the Network Monitoring menu and
press enter.
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Figure 1-84. View the ARP Table
To display a particular IP interface or an IP address, enter
either the IP interface name in the Jump to Interface
Name:[
] field or enter the IP address in the IP
Address:[0.0.0.0] field, highlight GO, and press enter.
IP Multicast Forwarding Table
To view the IP multicast forwarding table:
Highlight IP Multicast Forwarding Table from the Network
Monitoring menu and press enter.
Figure 1-85. View the IP Multicast Forwarding Table
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To display a particular multicast group, enter either the IP
address in the Jump to Multicast Group:[0.0.0.0] field,
enter the source IP address in the Source IP:[0.0.0.0] field,
or the source subnet mask in the Source Mask:[0.0.0.0]
field, highlight GO, and press enter.
This sets a filter to determine which IP addresses and
multicast groups from the table are displayed.
To display a particular source IP address, enter either the IP
address in the Jump to IP Address:[0.0.0.0] field, or the
source subnet mask in the Source Mask:[0.0.0.0] field,
highlight GO, and press enter.
IGMP Group Table
To view the IGMP Group table:
Highlight IGMP Group Table from the Network Monitoring
menu and press Enter.
Figure 1-86. Browse IGMP Group Table
To display a particular multicast group, enter either the IP
address in the Jump to Interface Name:[
] field, enter
the multicast group IP address in the Multicast
Group:[0.0.0.0] field, highlight GO, and press Enter.
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DVMRP Routing Table
To view the DVMRP Routing table:
Highlight DVMRP Routing Table from the Network
Monitoring menu and press enter.
Figure 1-87. Browse DVMRP Routing Table
The Jump to Source IP Address:[ ] and Source Mask:[ ]
fields allow the entry of an IP address and corresponding
subnet mask to search the table for. Highlight GO and press
enter and the DVMRP Routing table will be searched for the
IP address and subnet mask above.
Load Factory Defaults
To reset the switch to all factory defaults:
Highlight Reboot on the main menu and press enter.
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Figure 1-88. Reboot
Highlight one of the two Load Factory Default
Configuration entries and press enter. A confirmation
screen will appear. Press Y for Yes and press enter.
The factory defaults for the VH-2402-L3 are
listed in Appendix D of this manual.
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Reboot
The VH-2402-L3 has several reboot options.
To reboot the switch from the console:
Highlight Reboot from the Main Menu and press enter.
Figure 1-89. Reboot Menu
The reboot options are as follows:
Reboot simply restarts the switch. Any configuration
settings not saved using Save Changes from the Main
Menu will be lost. The switch’s configuration will be restored
to the last configuration saved in NV-RAM.
Save Configuration & Reboot saves the configuration to
NV-RAM (identical to using Save Changes) and then
restarts the switch.
Reboot & Load Factory Default Configuration restarts the
switch using the default factory configuration. All
configuration data will be lost. This is identical to using
Factory Reset and then Reboot.
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Reboot & Load Factory Default Configuration Except IP
Address restarts the switch using the default factory
configuration, except the user configured IP address will be
retained. All other configuration data will be lost.
A confirmation screen will appear:
Figure 1-90. System Reboot Confirmation
To reboot the switch, in the mode entered above, highlight
Yes and press enter.
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2. Switch Management Concepts
SNMP
The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an
OSI layer 7 (the application layer) protocol for remotely
monitoring and configuring network devices. SNMP enables
network management stations to read and modify the
settings of gateways, routers, switches, and other network
devices. SNMP can be used to perform many of the same
functions as a directly connected console, or can be used
within an integrated network management software package
such as NetSight.
SNMP performs the following functions:
•
•
•
Sending and receiving SNMP packets through the IP
protocol.
Collecting information about the status and current
configuration of network devices.
Modifying the configuration of network devices.
The VH-2402-L3 has a software program called an ‘agent’
that processes SNMP requests, but the user program that
makes the requests and collects the responses runs on a
management station (a designated computer on the
network). The SNMP agent and the user program both use
the UDP/IP protocol to exchange packets.
Authentication
The authentication protocol ensures that both the router
SNMP agent and the remote user SNMP application
program discard packets from unauthorized users.
Authentication is accomplished using ‘community strings’,
which function like passwords. The remote user SNMP
application and the router SNMP must use the same
community string. SNMP community strings of up to 20
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characters may be entered under the Remote Management
Setup menu of the console program.
Traps
Traps are messages that alert network personnel of events
that occur on the Switch. The events can be as serious as a
reboot (someone accidentally turned OFF the Switch), or
less serious like a port status change. The Switch generates
traps and sends them to the trap recipient (or network
manager).
Trap recipients are special users of the network who are
given certain rights and access in overseeing the
maintenance of the network. Trap recipients will receive
traps sent from the Switch; they must immediately take
certain actions to avoid future failure or breakdown of the
network.
You can also specify which network managers may receive
traps from the Switch by entering a list of the IP addresses of
authorized network managers. Up to four trap recipient IP
addresses, and four corresponding SNMP community strings
can be entered.
SNMP community strings function like passwords in that the
community string entered for a given IP address must be
used in the management station software, or a trap will be
sent.
The following are trap types the switch can send to a trap
recipient:
•
Cold Start This trap signifies that the Switch has
been powered up and initialized such that software
settings are reconfigured and hardware systems are
rebooted. A cold start is different from a factory reset
in that configuration settings saved to non-volatile
RAM used to reconfigure the switch.
•
Warm Start This trap signifies that the Switch has
been rebooted, however the POST (Power On SelfTest) is skipped.
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•
Authentication Failure
This trap signifies that
someone has tried to logon to the switch using an
invalid SNMP community string. The switch
automatically stores the source IP address of the
unauthorized user.
•
Topology Change A Topology Change trap is sent
by the Switch when any of its configured ports
transitions from the Learning state to the Forwarding
state, or from the Forwarding state to the Blocking
state. The trap is not sent if a new root trap is sent for
the same transition.
•
Link Change Event This trap is sent whenever the
link of a port changes from link up to link down or
from link down to link up.
•
Port Partition This trap is sent whenever the port
state enters the partition mode (or automatic
partitioning, port disable) when more than thirty-two
collisions occur while transmitting at 10Mbps or more
than sixty-four collisions occur while transmitting at
100Mbps.
•
Broadcast\Multicast Storm
This trap is sent
whenever the port reaches the threshold (in packets
per second) set globally for the switch. Counters are
maintained for each port, and separate counters are
maintained for broadcast and multicast packets. The
switch’s default setting is 128 kpps for both broadcast
and multicast packets.
MIBs
Management and counter information are stored in the
Switch in the Management Information Base (MIB). The
Switch uses the standard MIB-II Management Information
Base module. Consequently, values for MIB objects can be
retrieved from any SNMP-based network management
software. In addition to the standard MIB-II, the Switch also
supports its own proprietary enterprise MIB as an extended
Management Information Base. These MIBs may also be
retrieved by specifying the MIB’s Object-Identity (OID) at the
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network manager. MIB values can be either read-only or
read-write.
Read-only MIBs variables can be either constants that are
programmed into the Switch, or variables that change while
the Switch is in operation. Examples of read-only constants
are the number of port and type of ports. Examples of readonly variables are the statistics counters such as the number
of errors that have occurred, or how many kilobytes of data
have been received and forwarded through a port.
Read-write MIBs are variables usually related to usercustomized configurations. Examples of these are the
Switch’s IP Address, Spanning Tree Algorithm parameters,
and port status.
If you use a third-party vendors’ SNMP software to manage
the Switch, a diskette listing the Switch’s propriety enterprise
MIBs can be obtained by request. If your software provides
functions to browse or modify MIBs, you can also get the
MIB values and change them (if the MIBs’ attributes permit
the write operation). This process however can be quite
involved, since you must know the MIB OIDs and retrieve
them one by one.
Packet Forwarding
The Switch enters the relationship between destination MAC
or IP addresses and the Ethernet port or gateway router the
destination resides on into its forwarding table. This
information is then used to forward packets. This reduces
the traffic congestion on the network, because packets,
instead of being transmitted to all ports, are transmitted to
the destination port only. Example: if Port 1 receives a
packet destined for a station on Port 2, the Switch transmits
that packet through Port 2 only, and transmits nothing
through the other ports. This process is referred to as
‘learning’ the network topology.
MAC Address Aging Time
The Aging Time affects the learning process of the Switch.
Dynamic forwarding table entries, which are made up of the
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source MAC addresses and their associated port numbers,
are deleted from the table if they are not accessed within the
aging time.
The aging time can be from 10 to 1,000,000 seconds with a
default value of 300 seconds. A very long aging time can
result in dynamic forwarding table entries that are out-of-date
or no longer exist. This may cause incorrect packet
forwarding decisions by the switch.
If the Aging Time is too short however, many entries may be
aged out too soon. This will result in a high percentage of
received packets whose source addresses cannot be found
in the forwarding table, in which case the switch will
broadcast the packet to all ports, negating many of the
benefits of having a switch.
Static forwarding entries are not affected by the aging time.
Filtering
The switch uses a filtering database to segment the network
and control communication between segments. It can also
filter packets off the network for intrusion control. Static
filtering entries can be made by MAC Address or IP Address
filtering.
Each port on the switch is a unique collision domain and the
switch filters (discards) packets whose destination lies on the
same port as where it originated. This keeps local packets
from disrupting communications on other parts of the
network.
For intrusion control, whenever a switch encounters a packet
originating from or destined to a MAC address or an IP
Address entered into the filter table, the switch will discard
the packet.
Some filtering is done automatically by the switch:
•
Dynamic filtering – automatic learning and aging of
MAC addresses and their location on the network.
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Filtering occurs to keep local traffic confined to its
segment.
•
Filtering done by the Spanning Tree Protocol, which
can filter packets based on topology, making sure
that signal loops don’t occur.
•
Filtering done for VLAN integrity. Packets from a
member of a VLAN (VLAN 2, for example) destined
for a device on another VLAN (VLAN 3) will be
filtered.
Some filtering requires the
information into a filtering table:
manual
entry
of
•
MAC address filtering – the manual entry of specific
MAC addresses to be filtered from the network.
Packets sent from one manually entered MAC
address can be filtered from the network. The entry
may be specified as either a source, a destination, or
both.
•
IP address filtering – the manual entry of specific IP
addresses to be filtered from the network (switch
must be in IP Routing mode). Packets sent from one
manually entered IP address to another can be
filtered from the network. The entry may specified as
either a source, a destination, or both (switch must be
in IP Routing mode).
Spanning Tree
The IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol allows for the
blocking of links between switches that form loops within the
network. When multiple links between switches are
detected, a primary link is established. Duplicated links are
blocked from use and become standby links. The protocol
allows for the duplicate links to be used in the event of a
failure of the primary link. Once the Spanning Tree Protocol
is configured and enabled, primary links are established and
duplicated links are blocked automatically. The reactivation
of the blocked links (at the time of a primary link failure) is
also accomplished automatically – without operator
intervention.
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The VH-2402-L3 STP allows two levels of spanning trees to
be configured. The first level constructs a spanning tree on
the links between switches. This is referred to as the Switch
or Global level. The second level is on a port group basis.
Groups of ports are configured as being members of a
spanning tree and the algorithm and protocol are applied to
the group of ports. This is referred to as the Port or VLAN
level.
On the switch level, STP calculates the Bridge Identifier for
each switch and then sets the Root Bridge and the
Designated Bridges.
On the port level, STP sets the Root Port and the
Designated Ports.
The following are the user-configurable STP parameters for
the switch level:
Parameter
Description
Default
Value
Bridge Identifier
A combination of the User-set
priority and the switch’s MAC
address. The Bridge Identifier
consists of two parts: a 16-bit
priority and a 48-bit Ethernet
MAC address
32768 + MAC
Priority
A relative priority for each
switch – lower numbers give a
higher priority and a greater
chance of a given switch being
elected as the root bridge
32768
Hello Time
The length of time between
broadcasts of the hello
message by the switch
2 seconds
Maximum Age
Timer
Measures the age of a
received BPDU for a port and
ensures that the BPDU is
discarded when its age
exceeds the value of the
maximum age timer.
20 seconds
(Not userconfigurable
except by setting
priority below)
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Forward Delay
Timer
The amount time spent by a
port in the learning and
listening states waiting for a
BPDU that may return the port
to the blocking state.
15 seconds
Table 2-1. STP Parameters – Switch Level
The following are the user-configurable STP parameters for
the port or port group level:
Variable
Description
Default
Value
Port Priority
A relative priority for each port –
lower numbers give a higher
priority and a greater chance of a
given port being elected as the
root port
128
Port Cost
A value used by STP to evaluate
paths – STP calculates path
costs and selects the path with
the minimum cost as the active
path.
19 – 100Mbps
Fast Ethernet
ports
10 – 1000Mbps
Gigabit
Ethernet ports
Table 2-2. STP Parameters – Port Group Level
Bridge Protocol Data Units
For STP to arrive at a stable network topology, the following
information is used:
•
The unique switch identifier
•
The path cost to the root associated with each switch port
•
The port identifier
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STP communicates between switches on the network using
Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs). Each BPDU contains
the following information:
•
The unique identifier of the switch that the transmitting
switch currently believes is the root switch
•
The path cost to the root from the transmitting port
•
The port identifier of the transmitting port
The switch sends BPDUs to communicate and construct the
spanning-tree topology. All switches connected to the LAN
on which the packet is transmitted will receive the BPDU.
BPDUs are not directly forwarded by the switch, but the
receiving switch uses the information in the frame to
calculate a BPDU, and, if the topology changes, initiates a
BPDU transmission.
The communication between switches via BPDUs results in
the following:
•
One switch is elected as the root switch
•
The shortest distance to the root switch is calculated for
each switch
•
A designated switch is selected. This is the switch closest to
the root switch through which packets will be forwarded to
the root.
•
A port for each switch is selected. This is the port providing
the best path from the switch to the root switch.
•
Ports included in the STP are selected.
Creating a Stable STP Topology
If all switches have STP enabled with default settings, the
switch with the lowest MAC address in the network will
become the root switch. By increasing the priority (lowering
the priority number) of the best switch, STP can be forced to
select the best switch as the root switch.
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When STP is enabled using the default parameters, the path
between source and destination stations in a switched
network might not be ideal. For instance, connecting higherspeed links to a port that has a higher number than the
current root port can cause a root-port change. The goal is
to make the fastest link the root port.
STP Port States
The BPDUs take some time to pass through a network. This
propagation delay can result in topology changes where a
port that transitioned directly from a Blocking state to a
Forwarding state could create temporary data loops. Ports
must wait for new network topology information to propagate
throughout the network before starting to forward packets.
They must also wait for the packet lifetime to expire for
BPDU packets that were forwarded based on the old
topology. The forward delay timer is used to allow the
network topology to stabilize after a topology change.
In addition, STP specifies a series of states a port must
transition through to further ensure that a stable network
topology is created after a topology change.
Each port on a switch using STP exists is in one of the
following five states:
•
Blocking – the port is blocked from forwarding or receiving
packets
•
Listening – the port is waiting to receive BPDU packets that
may tell the port to go back to the blocking state
•
Learning – the port is adding addresses to its forwarding
database, but not yet forwarding packets
•
Forwarding – the port is forwarding packets
•
Disabled – the port only responds to network management
messages and must return to the blocking state first
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A port transitions from one state to another as follows:
•
From initialization (switch boot) to blocking
•
From blocking to listening or to disabled
•
From listening to learning or to disabled
•
From learning to forwarding or to disabled
•
From forwarding to disabled
•
From disabled to blocking
Figure 2-1. STP Port State Transitions
When STP is enabled, every port on every switch in the
network goes through the blocking state and then transitions
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through the states of listening and learning at power up. If
properly configured, each port stabilizes to the forwarding or
blocking state.
No packets (except BPDUs) are forwarded from, or received
by, STP enabled ports until the forwarding state is enabled
for that port.
Default Spanning-Tree Configuration
Feature
Default Value
Enable state
STP enabled for all ports
Port priority
128
Port cost
19
Bridge Priority
32,768
Table 2-3. Default STP Parameters
User-Changeable STA Parameters
The factory default setting should cover the majority of
installations. However, it is advisable to keep the default
settings as set at the factory; unless, it is absolutely
necessary. The user changeable parameters in the Switch
are as follows:
•
Priority A Priority for the switch can be set from 0 to
65535. 0 is equal to the highest Priority.
•
Hello Time The Hello Time can be from 1 to 10 seconds.
This is the interval between two transmissions of BPDU
packets sent by the Root Bridge to tell all other Switches
that it is indeed the Root Bridge. If you set a Hello Time
for your Switch, and it is not the Root Bridge, the set
Hello Time will be used if and when your Switch becomes
the Root Bridge.
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Note: The Hello Time cannot be longer than the Max. Age.
Otherwise, a configuration error will occur.
•
Max. Age The Max. Age can be from 6 to 40 seconds. At
the end of the Max. Age, if a BPDU has still not been
received from the Root Bridge, your Switch will start
sending its own BPDU to all other Switches for
permission to become the Root Bridge. If it turns out that
your Switch has the lowest Bridge Identifier, it will
become the Root Bridge.
•
Forward Delay Timer The Forward Delay can be from 4
to 30 seconds. This is the time any port on the Switch
spends in the listening state while moving from the
blocking state to the forwarding state.
Note: Observe the following formulas when setting the
above parameters:
Max. Age ≤ 2 x (Forward Delay - 1 second)
Max. Age ≥ 2 x (Hello Time + 1 second)
•
Port Priority A Port Priority can be from 0 to 255. The
lower the number, the greater the probability the port will
be chosen as the Root Port.
•
Port Cost A Port Cost can be set from 1 to 65535. The
lower the number, the greater the probability the port will
be chosen to forward packets.
Illustration of STP
A simple illustration of three Bridges (or three switches)
connected in a loop is depicted below. In this example, you
can anticipate some major network problems if the STP
assistance is not applied. If Bridge A broadcasts a packet to
Bridge B, Bridge B will broadcast it to Bridge C, and Bridge
C will broadcast it to back to Bridge A ... and so on. The
broadcast packet will be passed indefinitely in a loop,
potentially causing a network failure.
STP can be applied as shown in Figure 2-4. In this example,
STP breaks the loop by blocking the connection between
Bridge B and C. The decision to block a particular
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connection is based on the STP calculation of the most
current Bridge and Port settings. Now, if Bridge A
broadcasts a packet to Bridge C, then Bridge C will drop the
packet at port 2 and the broadcast will end there.
Setting-up STP using values other than the defaults, can be
complex. Therefore, you are advised to keep the default
factory settings and STP will automatically assign root
bridges/ports and block loop connections. Influencing STP
to choose a particular switch as the root bridge using the
Priority setting, or influencing STP to choose a particular
port to block using the Port Priority and Port Cost settings
is, however, relatively straight forward.
Figure 2-2. Before Applying the STA Rules
In this example, only the default STP values are used.
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Figure 2-3. After Applying the STA Rules
The switch with the lowest Bridge ID (switch C) was elected
the root bridge, and the ports were selected to give a high
port cost between switches B and C. The two (optional)
Gigabit ports (default port cost = 10) on switch A are
connected to one (optional) Gigabit port on both switch B
and C. The redundant link between switch B and C is
deliberately chosen as a 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet link
(default port cost = 19). Gigabit ports could be used, but the
port cost should be increased from the default to ensure that
the link between switch B and switch C is the blocked link.
Port Trunking
Port trunking is used to combine a number of ports together
to make a single high-bandwidth data pipeline. The
participating parts are called members of a port trunking
group, with one port designated as the master port of the
group. Since all members of the port trunking group must be
configured to operate in the same manner, the configuration
of the master port is applied to all members of the port
trunking group. Thus, when configuring the ports in a port
trunking group, you only need to configure the master port.
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The VH-2402-L3 supports 6 port trunking groups, which may
include from 2 to 8 switch ports each, except for a Gigabit
port trunking group which consists of the 2 (optional) Gigabit
Ethernet ports of the front panel. These ports are the two
1000BASE-SX, -LX –TX or GBIC ports contained in a frontpanel mounted module.
Port Trunking Group
Figure 2-4. Port trunking Group
Data transmitted to a specific host (destination address) will
always be transmitted over the same port in a trunk group.
This allows packets in a data stream to arrive in the same
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order they were sent. A trunk connection can be made with
any other switch that maintains host-to-host data streams
over a single trunk port. Switches that use a load-balancing
scheme that sends the packets of a host-to-host data stream
over multiple trunk ports cannot have a trunk connection with
the VH-2402-L3 switch.
VLANs
A VLAN is a collection of end nodes grouped by logic rather
than physical location. End nodes that frequently
communicate with each other are assigned to the same
VLAN, regardless of where they are located physically on
the network. Logically, a VLAN can be equated to a
broadcast domain, because broadcast packets are
forwarded only to members of the VLAN on which the
broadcast was initiated.
Notes About VLANs on the VH-2402-L3
1. The VH-2402-L3 supports IEEE 802.1Q VLANs.
The port untagging function can be used to remove
the 802.1Q tag from packet headers to maintain
compatibility with devices that are tag-unaware (that
is, network devices that do not support IEEE 802.1Q
VLANs or tagging).
2. The switch’s default - in both Layer 2 Only mode
and IP Routing mode - is to assign all ports to a
single 802.1Q VLAN named DEFAULT_VLAN.
3. The switch allows the assignment of an IP interface
to each VLAN, in IP Routing mode. The VLANs
must be configured before setting up the IP
interfaces
4. A VLAN that is not assigned an IP interface will
behave as a layer 2 VLAN – and IP routing, by the
switch, will not be possible to this VLAN regardless
of the switch’s operating mode.
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IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
Some relevant terms:
Tagging - The act of putting 802.1Q VLAN information into
the header of a packet.
Untagging - The act of stripping 802.1Q VLAN information
out of the packet header.
Ingress port - A port on a switch where packets are flowing
into the switch and VLAN decisions must be made.
Egress port - A port on a switch where packets are flowing
out of the switch, either to another switch or to an end
station, and tagging decisions must be made.
IEEE 802.1Q (tagged) VLANs are implemented on the VH2402-L3 Layer 3 switch. 802.1Q VLANs require tagging,
which enables the VLANs to span an entire network
(assuming all switches on the network are IEEE 802.1Qcompliant).
Any port can be configured as either tagging or untagging.
The untagging feature of IEEE 802.1Q VLANs allow VLANs
to work with legacy switches that don’t recognize VLAN tags
in packet headers. The tagging feature allows VLANs to
span multiple 802.1Q-compliant switches through a single
physical connection and allows Spanning Tree to be enabled
on all ports and work normally.
802.1Q VLAN Packet Forwarding
Packet forwarding decisions are made based upon the
following three types of rules:
•
Ingress rules – rules relevant to the classification of received
frames belonging to a VLAN.
•
Forwarding rules between ports – decides filter or forward
the packet
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•
Egress rules – determines if the packet must be sent tagged
or untagged.
Figure 2-5. IEEE 802.1Q Packet Forwarding
802.1Q VLAN Tags
The figure below shows the 802.1Q VLAN tag. There are
four additional octets inserted after the source MAC address.
Their presence is indicated by a value of 0x8100 in the
EtherType field. When a packet’s EtherType field is equal to
0x8100, the packet carries the IEEE 802.1Q/802.1p tag.
The tag is contained in the following two octets and consists
of 3 bits or user priority, 1 bit of Canonical Format Identifier
(CFI – used for encapsulating Token Ring packets so they
can be carried across Ethernet backbones) and 12 bits of
VLAN ID (VID). The 3 bits of user priority are used by
802.1p. The VID is the VLAN identifier and is used by the
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802.1Q standard. Because the VID is 12 bits long, 4094
unique VLANs can be identified.
The tag is inserted into the packet header making the entire
packet longer by 4 octets. All of the information contained in
the packet originally is retained.
Figure 2-6. IEEE 802.1Q Tag
The EtherType and VLAN ID are inserted after the MAC
source address, but before the originial EtherType/Length or
Logical Link Control. Because the packet is now a bit longer
than it was originally, the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
must be recalculated.
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Figure 2-7. Adding an IEEE 802.1Q Tag
Port VLAN ID
Packets that are tagged (are carrying the 802.1Q VID
information) can be transmitted from one 802.1Q compliant
network device to another with the VLAN information intact.
This allows 802.1Q VLANs to span network devices (and
indeed, the entire network – if all network devices are
802.1Q compliant).
Unfortunately, not all network devices are 802.1Q compliant.
These devices are referred to as tag-unaware. 802.1Q
devices are referred to as tag-aware.
Prior to the adoption 802.1Q VLANs, port-based and MACbased VLANs were in common use. These VLANs relied
upon a Port VLAN ID (PVID) to forward packets. A packet
received on a given port would be assigned that port’s PVID
and then be forwarded to the port that corresponded to the
packet’s destination address (found in the switch’s
forwarding table). If the PVID of the port that received the
packet is different from the PVID of the port that is to
transmit the packet, the switch will drop the packet.
Within the switch, different PVIDs mean different VLANs.
(remember that two VLANs cannot communicate without an
external router). So, VLAN identification based upon the
PVIDs cannot create VLANs that extend outside a given
switch (or switch stack).
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Every physical port on a switch has a PVID. 802.1Q ports
are also assigned a PVID, for use within the switch. If no
VLANs are defined on the switch, all ports are then assigned
to a default VLAN with a PVID equal to 1. Untagged
packets are assigned the PVID of the port on which they
were received. Forwarding decisions are based upon this
PVID, in so far as VLANs are concerned. Tagged packets
are forwarded according to the VID contained within the tag.
Tagged packets are also assigned a PVID, but the PVID is
not used to make packet forwarding decisions, the VID is.
Tag-aware switches must keep a table to relate PVIDs within
the switch to VIDs on the network. The switch will compare
the VID of a packet to be transmitted to the VID of the port
that is to transmit the packet. If the two VIDs are different,
the switch will drop the packet. Because of the existence of
the PVID for untagged packets and the VID for tagged
packets, tag-aware and tag-unaware network devices can
coexist on the same network.
A switch port can have only one PVID, but can have as
many VIDs as the switch has memory in its VLAN table to
store them.
Because some devices on a network may be tag-unaware, a
decision must be made at each port on a tag-aware device
before packets are transmitted – should the packet to be
transmitted have a tag or not? If the transmitting port is
connected to a tag-unaware device, the packet should be
untagged. If the transmitting port is connected to a tagaware device, the packet should be tagged.
Tagging and Untagging
Every port on an 802.1Q compliant switch can be configured
as tagging or untagging.
Ports with tagging enabled will put the VID number, priority
and other VLAN information into the header of all packets
that flow into and out of it. If a packet has previously been
tagged, the port will not alter the packet, thus keeping the
VLAN information intact. The VLAN information in the tag
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can then be used by other 802.1Q compliant devices on the
network to make packet forwarding decisions.
Ports with untagging enabled will strip the 802.1Q tag from
all packets that flow into and out of those ports. If the packet
doesn’t have an 802.1Q VLAN tag, the port will not alter the
packet. Thus, all packets received by and forwarded by an
untagging port will have no 802.1Q VLAN information.
(Remember that the PVID is only used internally within the
switch). Untagging is used to send packets from an 802.1Qcompliant network device to a non-compliant network device.
Ingress Filtering
A port on a switch where packets are flowing into the switch
and VLAN decisions must be made is referred to as an
ingress port. If ingress filtering is enabled for a port, the
switch will examine the VLAN information in the packet
header (if present) and decide whether or not to forward the
packet.
If the packet is tagged with VLAN information, the ingress
port will first determine if the ingress port itself is a member
of the tagged VLAN. If it is not, the packet will be dropped.
If the ingress port is a member of the 802.1Q VLAN, the
switch then determines if the destination port is a member of
the 802.1Q VLAN. If it is not, the packet is dropped. If the
destination port is a member of the 802.1Q VLAN, the
packet is forwarded and the destination port transmits it to its
attached network segment.
If the packet is not tagged with VLAN information, the
ingress port will tag the packet with its own PVID as a VID (if
the port is a tagging port). The switch then determines if the
destination port is a member of the same VLAN (has the
same VID) as the ingress port. If it does not, the packet is
dropped. If it has the same VID, the packet is forwarded and
the destination port transmits it on its attached network
segment.
This process is referred to as ingress filtering and is used to
conserve bandwidth within the switch by dropping packets
that are not on the same VLAN as the ingress port at the
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point of reception. This eliminates the subsequent
processing of packets that will just be dropped by the
destination port.
VLANs in Layer 2 Only Mode
The switch initially configures one VLAN, VID = 1, called the
DEFAULT_VLAN. The factory default setting assigns all
ports on the switch to the DEFAULT_VLAN.
Packets cannot cross VLANs if the switch is in Layer 2 Only
mode. If a member of one VLAN wants to connect to
another VLAN, the link must be through an external router.
When the switch is in Layer 2 Only mode, 802.1Q VLANs
are supported.
If no VLANs are configured on the switch and the switch is in
Layer 2 Only mode, then all packets will be forwarded to
any destination port. Packets with unknown source
addresses will be flooded to all ports. Broadcast and
multicast packets will also be flooded to all ports.
A VLAN that does not have a corresponding IP interface
defined for it, will function as a Layer 2 Only VLAN –
regardless of the Switch Operation mode.
Layer 3-Based VLANs
Layer 3-based VLANs use network-layer addresses (subnet
address for TCP/IP) to determine VLAN membership. These
VLANs are based on layer 3 information, but this does not
constitute a ‘routing’ function.
The VH-2402-L3 allows an IP subnet to be configured for
each 802.1Q VLAN that exists on the switch.
Even though a switch inspects a packet’s IP address to
determine VLAN membership, no route calculation is
performed, the RIP protocol is not employed, and packets
traversing the switch are bridged using the Spanning Tree
algorithm.
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A switch that implements layer 3 (or ‘subnet’) VLANs without
performing any routing function between these VLANs is
referred to as performing ‘IP Switching’.
IP Addressing and Subnetting
This section gives basic information needed to configure
your Layer 3 switch for IP routing. The information includes
how IP addresses are broken down and how subnetting
works. You will learn how to assign each interface on the
router an IP address with a unique subnet.
Definitions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
IP Address – the unique number ID assigned to each host
or interface on a network. IP addresses have the form
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx.
Subnet – a portion of a network sharing a particular network
address.
Subnet mask – a 32-bit number used to describe which
portion of a Network Address refers to the subnet and which
portion refers to the host. Subnet masks have the form
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx.
Interface – a network connection
IP Interface – another name for subnet.
Network Address – the resulting 32-bit number from a
bitwise logical AND operation performed between an IP
address and a subnet mask.
Subnet Address – another name for network address.
IP Addresses
The Internet Protocol (IP) was designed for routing data
between network sites. Later, it was adapted for routing
between networks (referred to as “subnets”) within a site.
The IP defines a way of generating a unique number that
can be assigned each network in the internet and each of
the computers on each of those networks. This number is
called the IP address.
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IP addresses use a “dotted decimal” notation. Here are
some examples of IP addresses written in this format:
1.
2.
3.
210.202.204.205
189.21.241.56
125.87.0.1
This allows IP address to be written in a string of 4 decimal
(base 10) numbers. Computers can only understand binary
(base 2) numbers, and these binary numbers are usually
grouped together in bytes, or eight bits. (A bit is a binary
digit – either a “1” or a “0”). The dots (periods) simply make
the IP address easier to read. A computer sees an IP
address not as four decimal numbers, but as a long string of
binary digits (32 binary digits or 32 bits, IP addresses are 32bit addresses).
The three IP addresses in the example above, written in
binary form are:
1.
2.
3.
11010010.11001010.11001100.11001101
10111101.00010101.11110001.00111000
01111101.01010111.00000000.00000001
The dots are included to make the numbers easier to read.
Eight binary bits are called a ‘byte’ or an ‘octet’. An octet
can represent any decimal value between ‘0’ (00000000)
and ‘255’ (11111111). IP addresses, represented in decimal
form, are four numbers whose value is between ‘0’ to ‘255’.
The total range of IP addresses are then:
Lowest possible IP address Highest possible IP address -
0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255
To convert decimal numbers to 8-bit binary numbers (and
vice-versa), you can use the following chart:
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Binary Octet Digit
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
2
Decimal Equivalent
Binary Number
128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1=
255
128
1
64
1
32
1
16
1
8
1
4
1
2
1
1
1
0
Table 2-4. Binary to Decimal Conversion
Each digit in an 8-bit binary number (an octet) represents a
power of two. The left-most digit represents 2 raised to the
7th power (2x2x2x2x2x2x2=128) while the right-most digit
represents 2 raised to the 0th power (any number raised to
the 0th power is equal to one, by definition).
IP addresses actually consist of two parts, one identifying
the network and one identifying the destination (node) within
the network.
The IP address discussed above is one part and a second
number called the Subnet mask is the other part. To make
this a bit more confusing, the subnet mask has the same
numerical form as an IP address.
Address Classes
Address classes refer to the range of numbers in the subnet
mask. Grouping the subnet masks into classes makes the
task of dividing a network into subnets a bit easier.
There are 5 address classes. The first 4 bits in the IP
address determine which class the IP address falls in.
•
•
•
•
•
Class A addresses begin with 0xxx, or 1 to 126 decimal.
Class B addresses begin with 10xx, or 128 to 191 decimal.
Class C addresses begin with 110x, or 192 to 223 decimal.
Class D addresses begin with 1110, or 224 to 239 decimal.
Class E addresses begin with 1111, or 240 to 254 decimal.
Addresses beginning with 01111111, or 127 decimal, are
reserved. They are used for internal testing on a local
machine (called loopback). The address 127.0.0.1 can
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always be pinged from a local node because it forms a
loopback and points back to the same node.
Class D addresses are reserved for multicasting.
Class E Addresses are reserved for future use. They are not
used for node addresses.
The part of the IP address that belongs to the network is the
part that is ‘hidden’ by the ‘1’s in the subnet mask. This can
be seen below:
•
•
•
Class A
Class B
Class C
NETWORK.node.node.node
NETWORK.NETWORK.node.node
NETWORK.NETWORK.NETWORK.node
For example, the IP address 10.42.73.210 is a Class A
address, so the Network part of the address (called the
Network Address) is the first octet (10.x.x.x). The node part
of the address is the last three octets (x.42.73.210).
To specify the network address for a given IP address, the
node part is set to all “0”s. In our example, 10.0.0.0
specifies the network address for 10.42.73.210. When the
node part is set to all “1”s, the address specifies a broadcast
address. So, 10.255.255.255 is the broadcast address for
the network 10.0.0.0.
Subnet Masking
A subnet mask can be applied to an IP address to identify
the network and the node parts of the address. A bitwise
logical AND operation between the IP address and the
subnet mask results in the Network Address.
For example:
00001010.00101010.01001001.11010010
Class A IP address
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10.42.73.210
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11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000
Class A Subnet Mask
255.0.0.0
00001010.00000000.00000000.00000000
Network Address
10.0.0.0
The Default subnet masks are:
•
•
•
Class A – 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000
255.0.0.0
Class B – 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
255.255.0.0
Class C – 1111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
255.255.255.0
Additional bits can be added to the default subnet mask for a
given Class to further subnet a network. When a bitwise
logical AND operation is performed between the subnet
mask and the IP address, the result defines the Subnet
Address.
Some restrictions apply to subnet addresses. Addresses of
all “0”s and all “1”s are reserved for the local network (when
a host does not know it’s network address) and for all hosts
on the network (the broadcast address). This also applies to
subnets. A subnet address cannot be all “0”s or all “1”s. A
1-bit subnet mask is also not allowed.
Calculating the Number of Subnets and Nodes
To calculate the number of subnets and nodes, use the
formula (2n – 2) where n = the number of bits in either the
subnet mask or the node portion of the IP address.
Multiplying the number of subnets by the number of nodes
available per subnet gives the total number of nodes for the
entire network.
Example
00001010.00101010.01001001.11010010
Class A IP address
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10.42.73.210
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11111111.11100000.00000000.00000000
Subnet Mask
255.224.0.0
00001010.00100000.00000000.00000000
Network Address
10.32.0.0
00001010.00101010.11111111.11111111
Broadcast Address
10.32.255.255
This example uses an 11-bit subnet mask. (There are 3
additional bits added to the default Class A subnet mask).
So the number of subnets is:
23 – 2 = 8 – 2 = 6
Subnets of all “0”s and all “1”s are not allowed, so 2 subnets
are subtracted from the total.
The number of bits used in the node part of the address is
24 – 3 = 21 bits, so the total number of nodes is:
221 – 2 = 2,097,152 – 2 = 2,097,150
Multiplying the number of subnets times the number of
nodes gives 12,582,900 possible nodes.
Note that this is less than the 16,777,214 possible nodes
that an unsubnetted class A network would have.
Subnetting reduces the number of possible nodes for a given
network, but increases the segmentation of the network.
Classless InterDomain Routing – CIDR
Under CIDR, the subnet mask notation is reduced to a
simplified shorthand. Instead of specifying all of the bits of
the subnet mask, it is simply listed as the number of
contiguous “1”s (bits) in the network portion of the address.
Look at the subnet mask of the above example in binary 9033691-01
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11111111.11100000.00000000.00000000 – and you can
see that there are 11 “1”s or 11 bits used to mask the
network address from the node address. Written in CIDR
notation this becomes:
10.32.0.0/11
# of
Bits
Subnet Mask
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
255.192.0.0
255.224.0.0
255.240.0.0
255.248.0.0
255.252.0.0
255.254.0.0
255.255.0.0
255.255.128.0
255.255.192.0
255.255.224.0
255.255.240.0
255.255.248.0
255.255.252.0
255.255.254.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.128
255.255.255.192
255.255.255.224
255.255.255.240
255.255.255.248
255.255.255.252
CID
R
Not
atio
n
/10
/11
/12
/13
/14
/15
/16
/17
/18
/19
/20
/21
/22
/23
/24
/25
/26
/27
/28
/29
/30
# of
Subnets
# of Hosts
Total Hosts
2
6
14
30
62
126
254
510
1022
2046
4094
8190
16382
32766
65534
131070
262142
525286
1048574
2097150
4194302
4194302
2097150
1048574
524286
262142
131070
65534
32766
16382
8190
4094
2046
1022
510
254
126
62
30
14
6
2
8388604
12582900
14680036
15728580
16252804
16514820
16645636
16710660
16742404
16756740
16760836
16756740
16742404
16710660
16645636
16514820
16252804
15728580
14680036
12582900
8388604
Table 2-5. Class A Subnet Masks
# of
Subnet Mask
CIDR
Bits
Notation
2
255.255.192
/18
3
255.255.224.0
/19
4
255.255.240.0
/20
5
255.255.248.0
/21
6
255.255.252.0
/22
7
255.255.254.0
/23
8
255.255.255.0
/24
9
255.255.255.128 /25
10
255.255.255.192 /26
11
255.255.255.224 /27
12
255.255.255.240 /28
13
255.255.255.248 /29
14
255.255.255.252 /30
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# of
Subnets
2
6
14
30
62
126
254
510
1022
2046
4094
8190
16382
# of
Hosts
16382
8190
4094
2046
1022
510
254
126
62
30
14
6
2
Total
Hosts
32764
49140
57316
61380
63364
64260
64516
64260
63364
61380
57316
49140
32764
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Table 2-6. Class B Subnet Masks
# of
Bits
2
3
4
5
6
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.192
255.255.255.224
255.255.255.240
255.255.255.248
255.255.255.252
CIDR
Notation
/26
/27
/28
/29
/30
# of
Subnets
2
6
14
30
62
# of
Hosts
62
30
14
6
2
Total
Hosts
124
180
196
180
124
Table 2-7. Class C Subnet Masks
Setting up IP Interfaces
The Layer 3 switch allows ranges of IP addresses (OSI layer
3) to be assigned to VLANs (OSI layer 2). Each VLAN must
be configured prior to setting up the corresponding IP
interface. An IP addressing scheme must then be
established, and implemented when the IP interfaces are set
up on the switch.
An example is presented below:
VLAN Name
VID
Switch Ports
System (default)
1
5, 6, 7, 8, 21, 22, 23, 24
Engineering
2
9, 10, 11, 12
Marketing
3
13, 14, 15, 16
Finance
4
17, 18, 19, 20
Sales
5
1, 2, 3, 4
Backbone
6
25, 26
Table 2-8. VLAN Example – Assigned Ports
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In this case, 6 IP interfaces are required, so a CIDR notation
of 10.32.0.0/11 (or a 11-bit) addressing scheme will work.
This addressing scheme will give a subnet mask of
11111111.11100000.00000000.00000000 (binary) or
255.224.0.0 (decimal).
Using a 10.xxx.xxx.xxx IP address notation, the above
example would give 6 network addresses and 6 subnets.
Any IP address from the allowed range of IP addresses for
each subnet can be chosen as an IP address for an IP
interface on the switch.
For this example, we have chosen the next IP address
above the network address:
VLAN Name
VID
Network Address
IP Address
System (default)
1
10.32.0.0
10.32.0.1
Engineering
2
10.64.0.0
10.64.0.1
Marketing
3
10.96.0.0
10.96.0.1
Finance
4
10.128.0.0
10.128.0.1
Sales
5
10.160.0.0
10.160.0.1
Backbone
6
10.192.0.0
10.192.0.1
Table 2-9. VLAN Example – Assigned IP Addresses
The 6 IP interfaces, each with an IP address (listed in the
table above), and a subnet mask of 255.224.0.0 can be
entered into the Setup IP Interface menu.
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Layer 3-Based VLANs
Layer 3-based VLANs use network-layer addresses (subnet
address for TCP/IP) to determine VLAN membership. These
VLANs are based on layer 3 information, but this does not
constitute a ‘routing’ function.
The VH-2402-L3 allows an IP subnet to be configured for
each 802.1Q VLAN that exists on the switch.
Even though a switch inspects a packet’s IP address to
determine VLAN membership, no route calculation is
performed, the RIP protocol is not employed, and packets
traversing the switch are bridged using the Spanning Tree
algorithm.
A switch that implements layer 3 (or ‘subnet’) VLANs without
performing any routing function between these VLANs is
referred to as performing ‘IP Switching’.
Internet Protocols
This is a brief introduction to the suite of Internet Protocols
frequently referred to as TCP/IP. It is intended to give the
reader a reasonable understanding of the available facilities
and some familiarity with terminology. It is not intended to
be a complete description.
Protocol Layering
The Internet Protocol (IP) divides the tasks necessary to
route and forward packets across networks by using a
layered approach. Each layer has clearly defined tasks,
protocol, and interfaces for communicating with adjacent
layers, but the exact way these tasks are accomplished is
left to individual software designers. The Open Systems
Interconnect (OSI) seven-layer model has been adopted as
the reference for the description of modern networking,
including the Internet.
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A diagram of the OSI model is shown below (note that this is
not a complete listing of the protocols contained within each
layer of the model):
Figure 2-8. OSI Seven Layer Network Model
Each layer is a distinct set of programs executing a distinct
set of protocols designed to accomplish some necessary
tasks. They are separated from the other layers within the
same system or network, but must communicate and
interoperate. This requires very well-defined and well-known
methods for transferring messages and data. This is
accomplished through the protocol stack.
Protocol layering as simply a tool for visualizing the
organization of the necessary software and hardware in a
network. In this view, Layer 2 represents switching and
Layer 3 represents routing. Protocol layering is actually a
set of guidelines used in writing programs and designing
hardware that delegate network functions and allow the
layers to communicate. How these layers communicate
within a stack (for example, within a given computer) is left to
the operating system programmers.
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Figure 2-9. The Protocol Stack
Between two protocol stacks, members of the same layer
are known as peers and communicate by well-known (open
and published) protocols. Within a protocol stack, adjacent
layers communicate by an internal interface. This interface
is usually not publicly documented and is frequently
proprietary. It has some of the same characteristics of a
protocol and two stacks from the same software vendor may
communicate in the same way. Two stacks from different
software vendors (or different products from the same
vendor) may communicate in completely different ways. As
long as peers can communicate and interoperate, this has
no impact on the functioning of the network.
The communication between layers within a given protocol
stack can be both different from a second stack and
proprietary, but communication between peers on the same
OSI layer is open and consistent.
A brief description of the most commonly used functional
layers is helpful to understand the scope of how protocol
layering works.
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Layer 1
This is referred to as the physical layer. It handles the
electrical connections and signaling required to make a
physical link from one point in the network to another. It is
on this layer that the unique Media Access Control (MAC)
address is defined.
Layer 2
This layer, commonly called the switching layer, allows end
station addressing and the establishment of connections
between them.
Layer 2 switching forwards packets based on the unique
MAC address of each end station and offers highperformance, dedicated-bandwidth of Fast or Gigibit
Ethernet within the network.
Layer 2 does not ordinarily extend beyond the intranet. To
connect to the Internet usually requires a router and a
modem or other device to connect to an Internet Service
Provider’s WAN. These are Layer 3 functions.
Layer 3
Commonly referred to as the routing layer, this layer
provides logical partitioning of networks (subnetting),
scalability, security, and Quality of Service (QoS).
The backbone of the Internet is built using Layer 3 functions.
IP is the premier Layer 3 protocol.
IP is itself, only one protocol in the IP protocol suite. More
extensive capabilities are found in the other protocols of the
IP suite. For example; the Domain Name System (DNS)
associates IP addresses with text names, the Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DCHP) eases the administration of
IP addresses, and routing protocols such as the Routing
Information Protocol (RIP), the Open Shortest Path First
(OSPF), and the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) enable
Layer 3 devices to direct data traffic to the intended
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destination. IP security allows for authentication and
encryption. IP not only allows for user-to-user
communication, but also for transmission from point-tomultipoint (known as IP multicasting).
Layer 4
This layer, known as the transport layer, establishes the
communication path between user applications and the
network infrastructure and defines the method of
communicating. TCP and UDP are well-known protocols in
the transport layer. TCP is a “connection-oriented” protocol,
and requires the establishment of parameters for
transmission prior to the exchange of data. Web technology
is based on TCP. UDP is “connectionless” and requires no
connection setup. This is important for multicast traffic,
which cannot tolerate the overhead and latency of TCP.
TCP and UDP also differ in the amount of error recovery
provided and whether or not it is visible to the user
application. Both TCP and UDP are layered on IP, which
has minimal error recovery and detection. TCP forces
retransmission of data that was lost by the lower layers, UDP
does not.
Layer 7
This layer, known as the application layer, provides access
to either the end user application software such as a
database. Users communicate with the application, which in
turn delivers data to the transport layer. Applications do not
usually communicate directly with lower layers They are
written to use a specific communication library, like the
popular WinSock library.
Software developers must decide what type of transport
mechanism is necessary. For example, Web access
requires reliable, error-free access and would demand TCP,
Multimedia, on the other hand, requires low overhead and
latency and commonly uses UDP.
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TCP/IP
The TCP/IP protocol suite is a set of protocols that allow
computers to share resources across a network. TCP and
IP are only two of the Internet suite of protocols, but they are
the best known and it has become common to refer the
entire family of Internet protocols as TCP/IP.
TCP/IP is a layered set of protocols. An example, such as
sending e-mail, can illustrate this. There is first a protocol for
sending and receiving e-mail. This protocol defines a set of
commands to identify the sender, the recipient, and the
content of the e-mail. The e-mail protocol will not handle the
actual communication between the two computers, this is
done by TCP/IP. TCP/IP handles the actual sending and
receiving of the packets that make up the e-mail exchange.
TCP makes sure the e-mail commands and messages are
received by the appropriate computers. It keeps track of
what is sent and what is received, and retransmits any
packets that are lost or dropped. TCP also handles the
division of large messages into several Ethernet packets,
and makes sure these packets are received and
reassembled in the correct order.
Because these functions are required by a large number of
applications, they are grouped into a single protocol, rather
than being the part of the specifications for just sending email. TCP is then a library of routines that application
software can use when reliable network communications are
required.
IP is also a library of routines, but with a more general set of
functions. IP handles the routing of packets from the source
to the destination. This may require the packets to traverse
many different networks. IP can route packets through the
necessary gateways and provides the functions required for
any user on one network to communicate with any user on
another connected network.
The communication interface between TCP and IP is
relatively simple. When IP received a packet, it does not
know how this packet is related to others it has sent (or
received) or even which connection the packet is part of. IP
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only knows the address of the source and the destination of
the packet, and it makes its best effort to deliver the packet
to its destination.
The information required for IP to do its job is contained in a
series of octets added to the beginning of the packet called
headers. A header contains a few octets of data added to
the packet by the protocol in order to keep track of it.
Other protocols on other network devices can add and
extract their own headers to and from packets as they cross
networks. This is analogous to putting data into an envelope
and sending the envelope to a higher-level protocol, and
having the higher-level protocol put the entire envelope into
it’s own, larger envelope. This process is referred to as
encapsulation.
Many levels of encapsulation are required for a packet to
cross the Internet.
Packet Headers
TCP
Most data transmissions are much longer that a single
packet. The data must then be divided up among a series of
packets. These packets must be transmitted, received and
then reassembled into the original data. TCP handles these
functions.
TCP must know how large a packet the network can
process. To do this, the TCP protocols at each end of a
connection state how large a packet they can handle and the
smaller of the two is selected.
The TCP header contains at least 20 octets. The source
and destination TCP port numbers are the most important
fields. These specify the connection between two TCP
protocols on two network devices.
The header also contains a sequence number that is used to
ensure the packets are received in the correct order. The
packets are not numbered, but rather the octets the packets
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contain are. If there are 100 octets of data in each packet,
the first packet is numbered 0, the second 100, the third 200,
etc.
To insure that the data in a packet is received uncorrupted,
TCP adds the binary value of all the octets in the packet and
writes the sum in the checksum field. The receiving TCP
recalculates the checksum and if the numbers are different,
the packet is dropped.
Figure 2-10. TCP Packet Header
When packets have been successfully received, TCP sends
an acknowledgement. This is simply a packet that has the
acknowledgement number field filled in.
An acknowledgement number of 1000 indicates that all of
the data up to octet 1000 has been received. If the
transmitting TCP does not receive an acknowledgement in a
reasonable amount of time, the data is resent.
The window field controls the amount of data being sent at
any one time. It would require too much time and overhead
to acknowledge each packet received. Each end of the TCP
connection declares how much data it is able to receive at
any one time by writing this number of octets in the window
field.
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The transmitting TCP decrements the number in the window
field and when it reaches zero, the transmitting TCP stops
sending data. When the receiving TCP can accept more
data, it increases the number in the window field. In
practice, a single packet can acknowledge the receipt of
data and give permission for more data to be sent.
IP
TCP sends its packets to IP with the source and destination
IP addresses. IP is only concerned with these IP addresses.
It is not concerned with the contents of the packet or the
TCP header.
IP finds a route for the packet to get to the other end of the
TCP connection. IP adds its own header to the packet to
accomplish this.
The IP header contains the source and destination
addresses, the protocol number, and another checksum.
The protocol number tells the receiving IP which protocol to
give the packet to. Although most IP traffic uses TCP, other
protocols can be used (such as UDP).
The checksum is used by the receiving IP in the same way
as the TCP checksum.
Figure 2-11. IP Packet Header
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The flags and fragment offset are used to keep track of
packets that must be divided among several smaller packets
to cross networks for which they are too large.
The Time-to-Live (TTL) is the number of gateways the packet is
allowed to cross between the source and destination. This number
is decremented by one when the packet crosses a gateway and
when the TTL reaches zero, the packet is dropped. This helps
reduce network traffic if a loop develops.
Ethernet
Every active Ethernet device has its own Ethernet address
(commonly called the MAC address) assigned to it by the
manufacturer. Ethernet uses 48 bit addresses.
The Ethernet header is 14 octets that include the source and
destination MAC address and a type code.
There is no relationship between the MAC address of a
network node and its IP address. There must be a database
of Ethernet addresses and their corresponding IP addresses.
Different protocol families can be in use on the same
network. The type code field allows each protocol family to
have its own entry.
A checksum is calculated and when the packet is received,
the checksum is recalculated. If the two checksums are
different, the packet is dropped.
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Figure 2-12. Ethernet Packet Header
When a packet is received, the headers are removed. The
Ethernet Network Interface Card (NIC) removes the Ethernet
header and checks the checksum. It then looks at the type
code. If the type code is for IP, the packet is given to IP. IP
then removes the IP header and looks at its protocol field. If
the protocol field is TCP, the packet is sent to TCP. TCP
then looks at the sequence number and uses this number
and other data from the headers to reassemble the data into
the original file.
TCP and UDP Well-Known Ports
Application protocols run ‘on top of’ TCP/IP. When an
application wants to send data or a message, it gives the
data to TCP. Because TCP and IP take care of the
networking details, the application can look at the network
connection as a simple data stream.
To transfer a file across a network using the File Transfer
Protocol (FTP), a connection must first be established. The
computer requesting the file transfer must connect
specifically to the FTP server on the computer that has the
file.
This is accomplished using sockets. A socket is a pair of
TCP port numbers used to establish a connection from one
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computer to another. TCP uses these port numbers to keep
track of connections. Specific port numbers are assigned to
applications that wait for requests. These port numbers are
referred to as ‘well-known’ ports.
TCP will open a connection to the FTP server using some
random port number, 1234 for example, on the local
computer. TCP will specify port 21 for the FTP server. Port
21 is the well-known port number for FTP servers. Note that
there are two different FTP programs running in this example
– an FTP client that requests the file to be transferred, and
an FTP server that sends the file to the FTP client. The FTP
server accepts commands from the client, so the FTP client
must know how to connect to the server (must know the TCP
port number) in order to send commands. The FTP Server
can use any TCP port number to send the file, so long as it
is sent as part of the connection setup.
A TCP connection is then described by a set of four numbers
– the IP address and TCP port number for the local
computer, and the IP address and TCP port number for the
remote computer. The IP address is in the IP header and
the TCP port number is in the TCP header.
No two TCP connection can have the same set of numbers,
but only one number needs to be different. It is possible, for
example, for two users to send files to the same destination
at the same time. This could give the following connection
numbers:
Internet addresses
TCP ports
Connection 1
1234, 21
10.42.73.23, 10.128.12.1
Connection 2
1235, 21
10.42.73.23, 10.128.12.1
The same computers are making the connections, so the IP
addresses are the same. Both computers are using the
same well-known TCP port for the FTP server. The local
FTP clients are using different TCP port numbers.
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FTP transfers actually involve two different connections.
The connection begins by the FTP sending commands to
send a particular file. Once the commands are sent, a
second connection is opened for the actual data transfer.
Although it is possible to send data on the same connection,
it is very convenient for the FTP client to be able to continue
to send commands (such as ‘stop sending this file’).
UDP and ICMP
There are many applications that do not require long
messages that cannot fit into a single packet. Looking up
computer names is an example. Users wanting to make
connections to other computers will usually use a name
rather than the computer’s IP or MAC address. The user’s
computer must be able to determine the remote computer’s
address before a connection can be made. A designated
computer on the network will contain a database of computer
names and their corresponding IP and MAC addresses. The
user’s computer will send a query to the name database
computer, and the database computer will send a response.
Both the query and the response are very short. There is no
need to divide the query or response between multiple
packets, so the complexity of TCP is not required. If there is
no response to the query after a period of time, the query
can simply be resent.
The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is designed for
communications that do not require division among multiple
packets and subsequent reassembly. UDP does not keep
track of what is sent.
UDP uses port numbers in a way that is directly analogous
to TCP. There are well-known UDP port numbers for
servers that use UDP.
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Figure 2-13. Ethernet Packet Header
The UDP header is shorter than a TCP header. UDP also
uses a checksum to verify that data is received uncorrupted.
The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is also a
simplified protocol used for error messages and messages
used by TCP/IP. ICMP, like UDP, processes messages that
will fit into a single packet. ICMP does not, however use
ports because its messages are processed by the network
software.
The Domain Name System
Computer users usually prefer to use text names for
computers they may want to open a connection with.
Computers themselves, require 32 bit IP addresses.
Somewhere, a database of network devices’ text names and
their corresponding IP addresses must be maintained.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is used to map names to
IP addresses throughout the Internet and has been adapted
for use within intranets.
For two DNS servers to communicate across different
subnets, the DNS Relay of the VH-2402-L3 must be used.
The DNS servers are identified by IP addresses.
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Mapping Domain Names to Addresses
Name-to-address translation is performed by a program
called a Name server. The client program is called a Name
resolver. A Name resolver may need to contact several
Name servers to translate a name to an address.
The Domain Name System (DNS) servers are organized in a
somewhat hierarchical fashion. A single server often holds
names for a single network, which is connected to a root
DNS server – usually maintained by an ISP.
Domain Name Resolution
The domain name system can be used by contacting the
name servers one at a time, or by asking the domain name
system to do the complete name translation. The client
makes a query containing the name, the type of answer
required, and a code specifying whether the domain name
system should do the entire name translation, or simply
return the address of the next DNS server if the server
receiving the query cannot resolve the name.
When a DNS server receives a query, it checks to see if the
name is in its subdomain. If it is, the server translates the
name and appends the answer to the query, and sends it
back to the client. If the DNS server cannot translate the
name, it determines what type of name resolution the client
requested. A complete translation is called recursive
resolution and requires the server to contact other DNS
servers until the name is resolved. Iterative resolution
specifies that if the DNS server cannot supply an answer, it
returns the address of the next DNS server the client should
contact.
Each client must be able to contact at least one DNS server,
and each DNS server must be able to contact at least one
root server.
The address of the machine that supplies domain name
service is often supplied by a DCHP or BOOTP server, or
can be entered manually and configured into the operating
system at startup.
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DHCP Servers
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used to
dynamically assign a TCP/IP network configuration to
network devices and computers on the network. It also
ensures that IP address conflicts do not occur.
IP addresses are assigned from a pool of free addresses.
Each IP address assigned has a ‘lease’ and a ‘lease
expiration period’. The lease must be periodically renewed.
If the lease is expires, the IP address is returned to the pool
of available IP addresses.
Usually, it is a network policy to assign the same IP address
to a given network device or computer each time.
If the IP address lease expires, the network device sends a
message to the DHCP server requesting a lease renewal.
The DHCP server can send an acknowledgement containing
a new lease and updated configuration information.
If an IP address lease cannot be renewed, the network
device or computer sends a request to all local DHCP
servers attempting to renew the lease. If the DHCP returns
a negative acknowledgement, the network device must
release its TCP/IP configuration and reinitialize.
When a new TCP/IP configuration is received from a DHCP
server, the network device checks for a possible IP address
conflict by sending an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
request that contains its new IP address.
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For two DHCP servers to communicate across
different subnets, the BOOTP/DHCP Relay of the VH2402-L3 must be used. The DHCP servers are
identified by IP addresses.
IP Routing
IP handles the task of determining how packets will get from
their source to their destination. This process is referred to
as routing.
For IP to work, the local system must be attached to a
network. It is safe to assume that any system on this
network can send packets to any other system, but when
packets must cross other networks to reach a destination on
a remote network, these packets must be handled by
gateways (also called routers).
Gateways connect a network with one or more other
networks. Gateways can be a computer with two network
interfaces or a specialized device with multiple network
interfaces. The device is designed to forward packets from
one network to another.
IP routing is based on the network address of the destination
IP address. Each computer has a table of network
addresses. For each network address, a corresponding
gateway is listed. This is the gateway to use to
communicate with that network. The gateway does not have
to be directly connected to the remote network, it simply
needs to be the first place to go on the way to the remote
network.
Before a local computer sends a packet, it first determines
whether the destination address is on the local network. If it
is, the packet can be sent directly to the remote device. If it
is not, the local computer looks for the network address of
the destination and the corresponding gateway address.
The packet is then sent to the gateway leading to the remote
network. There is often only one gateway on a network.
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A single gateway is usually defined as a default gateway, if
that gateway connects the local network to a backbone
network or to the Internet. This default gateway is also used
whenever no specific route is found for a packet, or when
there are several gateways on a network.
Local computers can use default gateways, but the
gateways themselves need a more complete routing table to
be able to forward packets correctly. A protocol is required
for the gateways to be able to communicate between
themselves and to keep their routing tables updated.
Packet Fragmentation and Reassembly
TCP/IP can be used with many different types of networks,
but not all network types can handle the same length
packets.
When IP is transmitting large files, large packets are much
more efficient than small ones. It is preferable to use the
largest possible packet size, but still be able to cross
networks that require smaller packets.
To do this, IP can ‘negotiate’ packet size between the local
and remote ends of a connection. When an IP connection is
first made, the IPs at both ends of the connection state the
largest packet they can handle. The smaller of the two is
selected.
When a IP connection crosses multiple networks, it is
possible that one of the intermediate networks has a smaller
packet size limit than the local or remote network. IP is not
able to determine the maximum packet size across all of the
networks that may make up the route for a connection. IP
has, therefore, a method to divide packets into multiple,
smaller packets to cross such networks. This division of
large packets into smaller packets is referred to as
fragmentation.
A field in the TCP header indicates that a packet has been
fragmented, and other information aids in the reassembly of
the packets into the original data.
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Gateways that connect networks of different packet size
limits split the large packets into smaller ones and forward
the smaller packets on their attached networks.
ARP
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) determines the
MAC address and IP address correspondence for a network
device.
A local computer will maintain an ARP cache which is a table
of MAC addresses and the corresponding IP addresses.
Before a connection with another computer is made, the
local computer first checks its ARP cache to determine
whether the remote computer has an entry. If it does, the
local computer reads the remote computer’s MAC address
and writes it into the destination field of the packets to be
sent.
If the remote computer does not have an ARP cache entry,
the local computer must send an ARP request and wait for a
reply.
When the local computer receives the ARP reply packet, the
local ARP reads the IP MAC address pair, and then checks
the ARP cache for this entry. If there is an entry, it is
updated with the new information. If there is no entry, a new
entry is made.
There are two possible cases when an ARP packet is
received by a local computer. First, the local computer is the
target of the request. If it is, the local ARP replies by
sending its MAC IP address pair back to the requesting
system. Second, if the local computer is not the target of the
request, the packet is dropped.
Multicasting
Multicasting is a group of protocols and tools that enable a
single source point to send packets to groups of multiple
destination points with persistent connections that last for
some amount of time. The main advantage to multicasting is
a decrease in the network load compared to broadcasting.
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Multicast Groups
Class D IP addresses are assigned to a group of network
devices that comprise a multicast group. The four most
significant four bits of a Class D address are set to “1110”.
The following 28 bits is referred to as the ‘multicast group
ID’. Some of the range of Class D addresses are registered
with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) for
special purposes. For example, the block of multicast
addresses ranging from 224.0.0.1 to 224.0.0.225 is reserved
for use by routing protocols and some other low-level
topology discovery and maintenance protocols.
Figure 2-14. Class D Multicast Address
Some of the reserved IP multicast addresses are as follows:
Address
Assignment
224.0.0.0
Base Address (reserved)
224.0.0.1
All Systems on this subnet
224.0.0.2
All Routers on this subnet
224.0.0.3
Unassigned
224.0.0.4
DVMRP Routers
224.0.0.5
OSPF IGP Routers
224.0.0.6
OSPF IGP Designated Routers
224.0.0.7
ST Routers
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224.0.0.8
ST Hosts
224.0.0.9
All RIP2 Routers
224.0.0.10
All IGRP Routers
224.0.0.11
Mobile Agents
224.0.0.12
DHCP Servers and Relay Agents
224.0.0.13
All PIM Routers
224.0.0.14
RSVP Encapsulation
224.0.0.15
All CBT Routers
224.0.0.16
Designated Sbm
224.0.0.17
All Sbms
224.0.0.18
VRRP
224.0.0.19
Unassigned
through
224.0.0.225
224.0.0.21
DVMRP on MOSPF
Table 2-10. Reserved Multicast Address Assignment
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
End users that want to receive multicast packets must be
able to inform nearby routers that they want to become a
multicast group member of the group these packets are
being sent to. The Internet Group Management Protocol
(IGMP) is used by multicast routers to maintain multicast
group membership. IGMP is also used to coordinate
between multiple multicast routers that may be present on a
network by electing one of the multicast routers as the
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‘querier’. This router then keep track of the membership of
multicast groups that have active members on the network.
IGMP is used to determine whether the router should
forward multicast packets it receives to the subnetworks it is
attached to or not. A multicast router that has received a
multicast packet will check to determine if there is at least
one member of a multicast group that has requested to
receive multicast packets from this source. If there is one
member, the packet is forwarded. If there are no members,
the packet is dropped.
IGMP Versions 1 and 2
Users that want to receive multicast packets need to be able
to join and leave multicast groups. This is accomplished
using IGMP.
Figure 2-15. IGMP Message Format
The IGMP Type codes are shown below:
Type
Meaning
0x11 Membership Query (if Group Address is 0.0.0.0)
0x11
0x16
0x17
0x12
Specific Group Membership Query (if Group Address is
Present)
Membership Report (version 2)
Leave a Group (version 2)
Membership Report (version 1)
Table 2-11. IGMP Type Codes
Multicast routers use IGMP to manage multicast group
memberships:
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•
•
•
•
An IGMP “report” is sent by a user’s computer to join a
group
IGMP version 1 does not have an explicit ‘leave’
message. Group members have an expiration timer,
and if this timer expires before a query response is
returned, the member is dropped from the group.
IGMP version 2 introduces an explicit “leave” report.
When a user wants to leave a group, this report is sent
to the multicast router (for IGMP version 2).
Multicast routers send IGMP queries (to the all-hosts
group address: 224.0.0.1) periodically to see whether
any group members exist on their subnetworks. If there
is no response from a particular group, the router
assumes that there are no group members on the
network, and multicast packets are not forwarded.
The TTL field of query messages is set to 1 so that the
queries do not get forwarded to other subnetworks.
IGMP version 2 introduces a few extensions to IGMP version
1 such as, the election of a single multicast querier for each
network, explicit ‘leave’ reports, and queries that are specific
to a particular multicast group.
The router with the lowest IP address is elected as the
querier. The explicit group leave message is added to
decrease latency, and routers can ask for membership
reports from a particular multicast group ID.
The transition states a host will go through to join or leave a
multicast group are shown in the diagram below.
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Figure 2-16. IGMP State Transitions
Multicast Routing Algorithms
An algorithm is not a program. An algorithm is a statement
of how a problem can be solved. A program is written to
implement an algorithm.
Multicast packets are delivered by constructing multicast
trees where the multicast router is the trunk, the branches
are the various subnetworks that may be present, and the
leaves are end recipients of the multicast packets. Several
algorithms have been developed to construct these trees
and to prune branches that have no active mulitcast group
members
Flooding
The simplest algorithm for the delivery of multicast packets is
for the multicast router to forward a multicast packet to all
interfaces. This is referred to as flooding. An equally simple
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refinement of flooding is to have the router check to
determine if a given multicast packet has been received
before (in a certain amount of time). If it has, then the
packet does not need to be forwarded at all and can be
dropped. If the packet is being received for the first time, it
should be flooded to all interface, except the interface on
which it was received. This will ensure that all routers on the
network will receive at least one copy of the multicast
packet.
There are some obvious disadvantages to this simple
algorithm. Flooding duplicates a lot of packets and uses a
lot of network bandwidth. A multicast router must also keep
a record of the multicast packets it has received (for a period
of time) to determine if a given packet has been previously
received. So flooding uses a lot of router memory.
Multicast Spanning Trees
A multicast delivery tree that spans the entire network with a
single active link between routers (or subnetwork) is called a
multicast spanning tree. Links (or branches) are chosen
such that there is only one active path between any two
routers. When a router receives a multicast packet, it
forwards the packet on all links except the one on which it
was received. This guarantees that all routers in the network
will receive a copy of the packet. The only information the
router needs to store is whether a link is a part of the
spanning tree (leads to a router) or not.
Multicast spanning trees do not use group membership
information when deciding to forward or drop a given
multicast packet.
Reverse Path Broadcasting (RPB)
The Reverse Path Broadcasting (RPB) algorithm is an
enhancement of the multicast spanning tree algorithm. RPB
constructs a spanning tree for each multicast source. When
the router receives a multicast packet, it then checks to
determine if the packet was received on the shortest path
back from the router to the source. If the packet was
received on the shortest path back to the source, the packet
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is forwarded on all links except the link on which the packet
was received. If the packet was not received on the shortest
link back to the source, the packet is dropped.
If a link-state routing protocol is in use, RPB on a local router
can determine if the path from the source through the local
router to an immediately neighboring router. If it is not, the
packet will be dropped at the next router and the packet
should not be forwarded.
If a distance-vector routing protocol is in use, a neighboring
router can either advertise its previous hop for the source as
part of its routing update messages. This will ‘poisonreverse’ the route (or have the local router prune the branch
from the multicast source to the neighboring router because
the neighboring router has a better route from the source to
the next router or subnetwork).
Since multicast packets are forwarded through the shortest
route between source and destination, RPB is fast. A given
router also does not need information about the entire
spanning tree, nor does it need a mechanism to stop the
forwarding of packets.
RPB does not use multicast group membership information
in its forwarding decisions.
Reverse Path Multicasting (RPM)
Reverse Path Multicasting (RPM) introduces an
enhancement to RPB – an explicit method to prune
branches of the spanning tree that have on active multicast
group members for the source. RPM constructs a tree that
spans only subnetworks with multicast group member and
routers along the shortest path between the source and the
destinations.
When a multicast router receives a multicast packet, it is
forwarded using the RPB constructed spanning tree.
Subsequent routers in the tree that have no active path to
another router are referred to as leaf routers. If the multicast
packet if forwarded to a leaf router that has no active
multicast group members for the source, the leaf router will
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send a prune message to the previous router. This will
remove the leaf router’s branch from the spanning tree, and
no more multicast packets (from that source) will be
forwarded to it. Prune messages have a TTL equal to one,
so they can be sent only one hop (one router) back toward
the source. If the previous router receives prune messages
from all of its branch and leaf routers, the previous router will
then send it’s own prune message back one router toward
the multicast source, and the process will repeat. In this
way, multicast group membership information can be used to
prune the spanning tree between a given multicast source
and the corresponding multicast group.
Since the membership of any given multicast group can
change and the network topology can also change, RPM
periodically removes all of the prune information it has
gathered from it’s memory, and the entire process repeats.
This gives all subsequent routers on the network a chance to
receive multicast packets from all multicast sources on the
network. It also gives all user’s a chance to join a given
multicast group.
Multicast Routing Protocols
This section contains an overview of two multicast routing
protocols – Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol
(DVMRP), and Protocol Independent Multicast-Dense Mode
(PIM-DM). The most commonly used routing protocol (not a
multicast routing protocol), the Routing Information Protocol,
is discussed in a later section.
Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)
The Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)
was derived from the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) with
the introduction of multicast delivery trees constructed from
information about the ‘distance’ from the local router back
toward the multicast source. DVMRP uses an RPM
algorithm to construct its multicast delivery trees.
The first multicast packet received by a multicast router
using DVMRP is flooded to all interfaces except the one on
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which the packet was received. Subsequent prune
messages are used to prune branches of the delivery tree
that are either not on the shortest path back to the multicast
source, or that have no active multicast group members. A
‘graft’ message is added that allows a previously pruned
branch of the multicast delivery tree to be reactivated. This
allows for lower latency when a leaf router adds a new
member to a multicast membership group. Graft messages
are forwarded one hop (one router) back at a time toward a
multicast source until they reach a router that is on an active
branch of the multicast delivery tree.
If there is more than one multicast router on a network, the
one that has the shortest path back to the multicast source is
elected to forward multicast packets from that source. All
other routers will discard multicast packets from that source.
If two multicast routers on a network have the same distance
back to a multicast source, the router with the lowest IP
address is elected.
DVMRP also supports tunnel interfaces, where two multicast
routers are connected through a router that cannot process
multicast packets. This allows multicast packets to cross
networks with routers that are not multicast-aware.
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Routing Protocols
Protocol-Independent Multicast – Dense Mode
There are two protocols in Protocol Independent
Multicast (PIM), Protocol Independent MulticastDense Mode (PIM-DM) which is used when the
multicast destinations are closely spaced, and
Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIMSM) which is used when the multicast destinations
are spaced further apart. PIM-DM is most commonly
implemented in an intranetwork (LAN) where the
distance between users is minimal.
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
The Routing Information Protocol is a distance-vector routing
protocol. There are two types of network devices running
RIP – active and passive. Active devices advertise their
routes to others through RIP messages, while passive
devices listen to these messages. Both active and passive
routers update their routing tables based upon RIP
messages that active routers exchange. Only routers can
run RIP in the active mode.
Every 30 seconds, a router running RIP broadcasts a routing
update containing a set of pairs of network addresses and a
distance (represented by the number of hops or routers
between the advertising router and the remote network). So,
the vector is the network address and the distance is
measured by the number of routers between the local router
and the remote network.
RIP measures distance by an integer count of the number of
hops from one network to another. A router is one hop from
a directly connected network, two hops from a network that
can be reached through a router, etc. The more routers
between a source and a destination, the greater the RIP
distance (or hop count).
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There are a few rules to the routing table update process
that help to improve performance and stability. A router will
not replace a route with a newly learned one if the new route
has the same hop count (sometimes referred to as ‘cost’).
So learned routes are retained until a new route with a lower
hop count is learned.
When learned routes are entered into the routing table, a
timer is started. This timer is restarted every time this route
is advertised. If the route is not advertised for a period of
time (usually 180 seconds), the route is removed from the
routing table.
RIP does not have an explicit method to detect routing loops.
Many RIP implementations include an authorization
mechanism (a password) to prevent a router from learning
erroneous routes from unauthorized routers.
To maximize stability, the hop count RIP uses to measure
distance must have a low maximum value. Infinity (that is,
the network is unreachable) is defined as 16 hops. In other
words, if a network is more than 16 routers from the source,
the local router will consider the network unreachable.
RIP can also be slow to converge (to remove inconsistent,
unreachable or looped routes from the routing table)
because RIP messages propagate relatively slowly through
a network.
Slow convergence can be solved by using split horizon
update, where a router does not propagate information about
a route back to the interface on which it was received. This
reduces the probability of forming transient routing loops.
Hold down can be used to force a router to ignore new route
updates for a period of time (usually 60 seconds) after a new
route update has been received. This allows all routers on
the network to receive the message.
A router can ‘poison reverse’ a route by adding an infinite
(16) hop count to a route’s advertisement. This is usually
used in conjunction with triggered updates, which force a
router to send an immediate broadcast when an update of
an unreachable network is received.
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RIP Version 1 Message Format
There are two types of RIP messages: routing information
messages and information requests. The same format is
used by both types.
Figure 2-17. RIP v.1 Message Format
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The COMMAND field specifies an operation according the
following table:
Command
Meaning
1
Request for partial or full routing information
2
Response containing network-distance pairs
from sender’s routing table
3
Turn on trace mode (obsolete)
4
Turn off trace mode (obsolete)
5
Reserved for Sun Microsystem’s internal use
9
Update Request
10
Update Response
11
Update Acknowledgement
Table 2-12. RIP Command Codes
The field VERSION contains the protocol version number (1
in this case), and is used by the receiver to verify which
version of RIP the packet was sent from.
RIP 1 Message
RIP is not limited to TCP/IP. Its address format can support
up to 14 octets (when using IP, the remaining 10 octets must
be zeros). Other network protocol suites can be specified in
the Family of Source Network field (IP has a value of 2).
This will determine how the address field is interpreted.
RIP specifies that the IP address 0.0.0.0 denotes a default
route.
The distances, measured in router hops are entered in the
Distance to Source Network, and Distance to Destination
Network fields.
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RIP 1 Route Interpretation
RIP was designed to be used with classed address
schemes, and does not include an explicit subnet mask. An
extension to version 1 does allow routers to exchange
subnetted addresses, but only if the subnet mask used by
the network is the same as the subnet mask used by the
address. This means the RIP version 1 cannot be used to
propagate classless addresses.
Routers running RIP version 1 must send different update
messages for each IP interface to which it is connected.
Interfaces that use the same subnet mask as the router’s
network can contain subnetted routes, other interfaces
cannot. The router will then advertise only a single route to
the network.
RIP Version 2 Extensions
RIP version 2 includes an explicit subnet mask entry, so RIP
version 2 can be used to propagate variable length subnet
addresses or CIDR classless addresses. RIP version 2 also
adds an explicit next hop entry, which speeds convergence
and helps prevent the formation of routing loops.
RIP2 Message Format
The message format used with RIP2 is an extension of the
RIP1 format:
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Figure 2-18. RIP Message Format
RIP version 2 also adds a 16-bit route tag that is retained
and sent with router updates. It can be used to identify the
origin of the route.
Because the version number in RIP2 occupies the same
octet as in RIP1, both versions of the protocols can be used
on a given router simultaneously without interference.
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Appendix A. Troubleshooting STP
Spanning Tree Protocol Failure
A failure in the STA generally leads to a bridging loop. A
bridging loop in an STP environment comes from a port that
should be in the blocking state, but is forwarding packets.
Figure A-1. STP Loop
In this example, B has been elected as the designated
bridge and port 2 on C is in the blocking state. The election
of B as the designated bridge is determined by the exchange
of BPDUs between B and C. B had a better BPDU than C.
B continues sending BPDUs advertising its superiority over
the other bridges on this LAN. Should C fail to receive these
BPDUs for longer than the MAX AGE (default of 20
seconds), it could start to transition its port 2 from the
blocking state to the forwarding state.
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It should be noted: A port must continue to receive BPDUs
advertising superior paths to remain in the blocking state.
There are a number of circumstances in which the STA can
fail – mostly related to the loss of a large number of BPDUs.
These situations will cause a port in the blocking state to
transition to the forwarding state.
Full/Half Duplex Mismatch
A mismatch in the duplex state of two ports is a very
common configuration error for a point-to-point link. If one
port is configured as a full duplex, and the other port is left in
auto-negotiation mode, the second port will end up in halfduplex because ports configured as half- or full-duplex do
not negotiate.
Figure A-2. Full- Half-Duplex Mismatch
In the above example, port 1 on B is configured as a fullduplex port and port 1 on A is either configured as a halfduplex port, or left in auto-negotiation mode. Because port 1
on B is configured as a full-duplex port, it does not do the
carrier sense when accessing the link. B will then start
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sending packets even if A is using the link. A will then detect
collisions and begin to run the flow control algorithm. If there
is enough traffic between B and A, all packets (including
BPDUs) will be dropped. If the BPDUs sent from A to B are
dropped for longer than the MAX AGE, B will lose its
connection to the root (A) and will unblock its connection to
C. This will lead to a data loop.
Unidirectional Link
Unidirectional links can be caused by an undetected failure
in one side of a fiber cable, or a problem with a ports
transceiver. Any failure that allows a link to remain up while
providing one-way communication is very dangerous for
STP.
Figure A-3. After Applying STP
In this example, port 2 on B can receive but not transmit
packets. Port 2 on C should be in the blocking state, but
since it can no longer receive BPDUs from port 2 on B, it will
transition to the forwarding state. If the failure exists at boot,
STP will not converge and rebooting the bridges will have no
effect. (Note: Rebooting would help temporarily in the
previous example).
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This type of failure is difficult to detect because the Linkstate LEDs for Ethernet links rely on the transmit side of the
cable to detect a link. If a unidirectional failure on a link is
suspected, it is usually required to go to the console or other
management software and look at the packets received and
transmitted for the port. A unidirectional port will have many
packets transmitted but none received, or vice versa, for
example.
Packet Corruption
Packet corruption can lead to the same type of failure. If a
link is experiencing a high rate of physical errors, a large
number of consecutive BPDUs can be dropped and a port in
the blocking state would transition to the forwarding state.
The blocking port would have to have the BPDUs dropped
for 50 seconds (at the default settings) and a single BPDU
would reset the timer. If the MAX AGE is set too low, this
time is reduced.
Resource Errors
The VH-2402-L3 Layer 3 switch performs its switching and
routing functions primarily in hardware, using specialized
ASICs. STP is implemented in software and is thus reliant
upon the speed of the CPU and other factors to converge. If
the CPU is over-utilized, it is possible that BPDUs may not
be sent in a timely fashion. STP is generally not very CPU
intensive and is given priority over other processes, so this
type of error is rare.
It can be seen that very low values for the MAX AGE and the
FORWARD DELAY can result in an unstable spanning tree.
The loss of BPDUs can lead to data loops. The diameter of
the network can also cause problems. The default values for
STP give a maximum network diameter of about seven.
This means that two switches in the network cannot be more
than seven hops apart. Part of this diameter restriction is the
BPDU age field. As BPDUs are propagated from the root
bridge to the leaves of the spanning tree, each bridge
increments the age field. When this field is beyond the
maximum age, the packet is discarded. For large diameter
networks, STP convergence can be very slow.
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Identifying a Data Loop
Broadcast storms have a very similar effect on the network
to data loops, but broadcast storm controls in modern
switches have (along with subnetting and other network
practices) have been very effective in controlling broadcast
storms. The best way to determine if a data loop exists is to
capture traffic on a saturated link and check if similar
packets are seen multiple times.
Generally, if all the users of a given domain are having
trouble connecting to the network at the same time, a data
loop can be suspected. The port utilization data in the
switch’s console will give unusually high values in this case.
The priority for most cases is to restore connectivity as soon
as possible. The simplest remedy is to manually disable all
of the ports that provide redundant links. Disabling ports one
at a time, and then checking for a restoration of the user’s
connectivity will identify the link that is causing the problem,
if time allows. Connectivity will be restored immediately after
disabling a data loop.
Avoiding Trouble
Know where the root is located.
Although the STP can elect a root bridge, a well-designed
network will have an identifiable root for each VLAN. Careful
setup of the STP parameters will lead to the selection of this
best switch as the root for each VLAN. Redundant links can
then be built into the network. STP is well suited to
maintaining connectivity in the event of a device failure or
removal, but is poorly suited to designing networks.
Know which links are redundant.
Organize the redundant links and tune the port cost
parameter of STP to force those ports to be in the blocking
state.
For each VLAN, know which ports should be blocking in a
stable network. A network diagram that shows each
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physical loop in the network and which ports break which
loops is extremely helpful.
Minimize the number of ports in the blocking state.
A single blocking port transitioning to the forwarding state at
an inappropriate time can cause a large part of a network to
fail. Limiting the number of blocked ports help to limit the
risk of an inappropriate transition.
Figure A-4. STP Network Layout
This is a common network design. The switches C and D
have redundant links to the backbone switches A and B
using trunks. Trunks, by default, carry all the VLAN traffic
from VLAN 1 and VLAN 2. So switch C is not only receiving
traffic for VLAN 1, but it is also receiving unnecessary
broadcast and multicast traffic for VLAN 2. It is also blocking
one port for VLAN 2. Thus, there are three redundant paths
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between switches A and B and two blocked ports per VLAN.
This increases the chance of a data loop.
Figure A-5. After Applying STP
In this example, the VLAN definitions are extended to
switches A and B. This gives only a single blocked port per
VLAN and allows the removal of all redundant links by
removing switch A or B from the network.
Impact of Layer 3 Switching.
The IP routing operational mode of the VH-2402-L3 Layer 3
switch can accomplish the following:
•
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Building a forwarding table, and exchanging information
with its peers using routing protocols.
VH-2402-L3 Management Guide 185
•
Receiving packets and forwarding them to the correct
interface based upon their destination address
With layer 3 switching, there is no performance penalty to
introducing a routing hop and creating an additional segment
of the network.
Figure A-6. Using Layer 3 VLANs
Using layer 3 switches and IP routing eliminates the need for
STP port blocking because the packets are routed by
destination addresses. The link redundancy remains, and
relying on the routing protocols gives a faster convergence
than with STP.
The drawback is that the introduction of layer 3 switching
usually requires a new addressing scheme.
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Appendix B. Brief Review of Bitwise Logical
Operations
AND
The logical AND operation compares 2 bits and if they are both “1”,
then the result is “1”, otherwise, the result is “0”.
0 1
0 0 0
1 0 1
OR
The logical OR operation compares 2 bits and if either or both bits
are “1”, then the result is “1”, otherwise, the result is “0”.
0 1
0 0 0
1 0 1
XOR
The logical XOR (exclusive OR) operation compares 2 bits and if
exactly one of them is a “1”, then the result is “1”, otherwise the
result is “0”.
0 1
0 0 1
1 1 0
NOT
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The logical NOT operation simply changes the value of a single bit.
If it is a “1”, the result is “0”, if it is a “0”, the result is “1”. This
operation is carried out on a single bit.
0 1
1 0
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Appendix C. Technical Specifications
General
Standards:
IEEE 802.3 10BASE-T Ethernet
IEEE 802.3u 100BASE-TX Fast Ethernet
IEEE 802.3z 1000BASE-SX Gigabit
Ethernet
IEEE 802.1 P/Q VLAN
IEEE 802.3x Full-duplex Flow Control
ANSI/IEEE 802.3 Auto-negotiation
Protocols:
Data Transfer
Rates:
Ethernet
Fast Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet
Topology:
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CSMA/CD
Half-duplex
Full-duplex
10 Mbps
20Mbps
100Mbps
200Mbps
n/a
2000Mbps
Star
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General (Cont’d)
Network Cables:
10BASE-T:
100BASE-TX:
Fiber Optic:
Number of Ports:
2-pair UTP Cat. 3,4,5 (100 m)
EIA/TIA- 568 100-ohm STP (100 m)
2-pair UTP Cat. 5 (100 m)
EIA/TIA-568 100-ohm STP (100 m)
IEC 793-2:1992
Type A1a - 50/125um multimode
Type A1b - 62.5/125um multimode
Both types use MT-RJ or SC optical connector
24 x 10/100 Mbps Auto-negotiation ports
2 Gigabit Ethernet (optional)
Physical and Environmental
AC inputs:
Power Consumption:
DC fans:
Operating Temperature:
Storage Temperature:
Humidity:
Dimensions:
Weight:
EMI:
100 - 240 VAC, 50/60 Hz (internal
universal power supply)
40 watts maximum
3 built-in 40 x 40 x10 mm fan
0 to 50 degrees Celsius
-25 to 55 degrees Celsius
Operating: 5% to 95% RH non-condensing
Storage: 0% to 95% RH non-condensing
441 mm x 207 mm x 44 mm (1U), 19 inch
rack-mount width
3 kg
FCC Class A, CE Class A, VCCI Class A,
BSMI Class A, C-Tick Class A
FCC Part 15/IECES-003 (Canada), VCCI
Class A ITE, EN55022/EN50082-1 or
EN%%o24, C-Tick (AS/NZS3548, BSMI
(CNS 13438)
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Physical and Environmental
Safety:
UL, CSA, CE Mark, TUV/GS
UL 1950 & CSA22.2 No 950, IEC 950
(CB), TUV (EN60950)
Performance
Transmission
Method:
Store-and-forward
RAM Buffer:
16 MB per device
Filtering Address
Table:
8K MAC address per device
Packet Filtering/
Forwarding Rate:
Full-wire speed for all
connections. 148,800 pps per
port (for 100Mbps)1,488,000
pps per port (for 1000Mbps)
MAC Address
Learning:
Forwarding Table
Age Time:
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Automatic update.
Max age:10–9999 seconds.
Default = 300.
VH-2402-L3 Management Guide 191
Index
A
AC inputs.............................................190
Administrator...........................................7
Aging Time, definition of....................116
Aging Time, range of ..........................117
APPLY....................................................5
Automatic learning............................117
B
Baud Rate ..............................................24
BOOTP protocol....................................19
BOOTP server .......................................19
Bridge Forward Delay.......................125
Bridge Hello Time ................ 77, 78, 124
Bridge Max. Age ......................... 77, 125
Bridge Priority ...................... 77, 78, 124
C
Changing your Password .....................13
Configuration.......................................16
Connecting to the Switch
VT100-compatible terminal ..............4
1, 4
Console Timeout ...................................25
Create/Modify User Accounts...............13
D
Default Gateway....................................20
Dimensions ..........................................190
Dynamic filtering ...............................117
Ingress port ................................130, 135
IP Configuration ................................. 18
L
load-balancing .....................................129
log in ..................................................... 12
Logging on .............................................. 5
M
MAC address filtering ......................118
MAC Address Learning ......................191
MAC-based VLANs ...........................130
Main Menu ..............................7, 8, 11, 12
Management Information Base (MIB)115
master port...........................................127
Max. Age ................................77, 78, 125
MIB .....................................................115
MIB objects.........................................115
MIB-II .................................................115
MIBs....................................................115
N
Network Classes
Class A, B, C for Subnet Mask....... 20
NV-RAM............................................... 10
O
Operating Temperature .......................190
Out-of-Band/Console Setting menu...... 24
P
Egress port .........................................130
Port Priority.................................80, 125
port-based VLANs ..............................130
Power Consumption............................190
F
R
factory reset ...........................................11
Filtering ...............................................117
Forwarding ..........................................116
RAM...................................................... 10
RAM Buffer ........................................191
refresh..................................................... 5
G
S
General User ............................................9
Save Changes ..................................... 5
Saving Changes..................................... 10
Screen Hierarchy................................... 30
Setting Up The Switch .......................... 16
Single Coll ............................................ 97
SLIP management ................................. 25
Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) ........119
Spanning Tree Protocol...................118
Storage Temperature ...........................190
Subnet Mask..........................................19
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E
H
Humidity..............................................190
I
IEEE 802.1Q tagging ..........................130
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs..........................130
Illustration of STA...............................125
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Super User ...............................................9
T
tagging.................................................130
Tagging ...............................................130
TCP/IP Settings .....................................17
1
terminal emulator ....................................4
terminal parameters .................................4
Third-party vendors’ SNMP software.116
Transmission Methods ........................191
Trap managers .....................................114
Trap Type
Authentication Failure...................115
Broadcast Storm ............................115
Cold Start.......................................114
Link Change Event........................115
115
Port Partition..................................115
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Topology Change.......................... 115
Warm Start .................................... 114
Traps.................................................... 114
trunk group.......................................... 127
U
unauthorized users .................................. 5
untagging ............................................ 130
Untagging ........................................... 130
User Accounts Management................. 13
V
View/Delete User Accounts.................. 14
VLAN .................................................. 118
VT100-compatible terminal.................... 4
W
Weight ................................................. 190
VH-2402-L3 Management Guide 193
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