SEISMIC DESIGN OF BUILDINGS UFC 3-310-04 1 JUNE 2013

SEISMIC DESIGN OF BUILDINGS UFC 3-310-04 1 JUNE 2013
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)
SEISMIC DESIGN OF BUILDINGS
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)
SEISMIC DESIGN OF BUILDINGS
Any copyrighted material included in this UFC is identified at its point of use.
Use of the copyrighted material apart from this UFC must have the permission of the copyright holder.
U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS (Preparing Activity)
NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND
AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER SUPPORT CENTER
Record of Changes (changes are indicated by \1\ ... /1/)
Change No.
Date
Location
This UFC supersedes UFC 3-310-04, dated May 1, 2012. The format of this document does
not conform to UFC 1-300-01.
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
FOREWORD
The Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) system is prescribed by MIL-STD 3007 and provides
planning, design, construction, sustainment, restoration, and modernization criteria, and applies
to the Military Departments, the Defense Agencies, and the DoD Field Activities in accordance
with USD (AT&L) Memorandum dated 29 May 2002. UFC will be used for all DoD projects and
work for other customers where appropriate. All construction outside of the United States is
also governed by Status of Forces Agreements (SOFA), Host Nation Funded Construction
Agreements (HNFA), and in some instances, Bilateral Infrastructure Agreements (BIA.)
Therefore, the acquisition team must ensure compliance with the most stringent of the UFC, the
SOFA, the HNFA, and the BIA, as applicable.
UFC are living documents and will be periodically reviewed, updated, and made available to
users as part of the Services’ responsibility for providing technical criteria for military
construction. Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (HQUSACE), Naval Facilities
Engineering Command (NAVFAC), and the Air Force Civil Engineer Center (AFCEC) are
responsible for administration of the UFC system. Defense agencies should contact the
preparing service for document interpretation and improvements. Technical content of UFC is
the responsibility of the cognizant DoD working group. Recommended changes with supporting
rationale should be sent to the respective service proponent office by the following electronic
form: Criteria Change Request. The form is also accessible from the Internet sites listed below.
UFC are effective upon issuance and are distributed only in electronic media from the following
source:
• Whole Building Design Guide web site http://dod.wbdg.org/.
Hard copies of UFC printed from electronic media should be checked against the current
electronic version prior to use to ensure that they are current.
AUTHORIZED BY:
JAMES C. DALTON, P.E.
Chief, Engineering and Construction
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
JOSEPH E. GOTT, P.E.
Chief Engineer
Naval Facilities Engineering Command
SCOTT HARTFORD, Colonel, USAF, P.E.
Director
MICHAEL McANDREW
Director, Facilities Investment and Management
Facilities Engineering Center of Excellence
AF Civil Engineer Center
Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense
(Installations and Environment)
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)
REVISION SUMMARY SHEET
Subject:
Cancels:
UFC 3-310-04, SEISMIC DESIGN OF BUILDINGS
UFC 3-310-04, SEISMIC DESIGN OF BUILDINGS dated 1 May 2012
Description of Changes:
• This UFC adopts the structural design provisions of the 2012 International Building Code
(2012 IBC), ASCE 7-10 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, and
ASCE/SEI 41-13 Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings for use in DoD
building design and renovation.
• Special inspection criteria were moved from this UFC to UFC 3-301-01.
• Site-specific seismic ground motion parameters were removed from this UFC and are now
invoked by reference to UFC 3-301-01.
Reasons for Changes:
• The updated UFC is designed to be consistent with and to supplement the guidance
contained in the 2012 IBC as modified by UFC 1-200-01.
Impact:
There are negligible cost impacts. However, the following benefit should be realized:
• DoD seismic design, criteria are current with industry codes and standards.
Non-Unified Items: This document contains no non-unified items.
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 SEISMIC DESIGN FOR BUILDINGS ................................................................................... 1-1
1-1
PURPOSE AND SCOPE .............................................................................................................. 1-1
1-2
APPLICABILITY ............................................................................................................................ 1-1
1-3
CONFLICTS AND MODIFICATIONS ........................................................................................... 1-1
1-4
IMPLEMENTATION ...................................................................................................................... 1-1
1-5
STRUCTURE OF THE UFC ......................................................................................................... 1-2
1-6
COMMENTARY ............................................................................................................................ 1-3
1-7
PROCEDURES FOR APPLYING UFC 3-310-04 FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN ........................ 1-3
1-7.1
Progressive Collapse Analysis and Design .................................................................................. 1-3
1-8
APPLYING UFC 3-310-04 FOR DESIGN OF NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS ................. 1-3
1-9
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS .............................................................................................. 1-4
CHAPTER 2 2012 IBC MODIFICATIONS FOR SEISMIC DESIGN OF DOD BUILDINGS ...................... 2-1
2-202
DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................................... 2-1
2-16
STRUCTURAL DESIGN ................................................................................................................. 2-2
2-1603
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS............................................................................................... 2-2
2-1603.1.5 [Supplement] Earthquake Design Data .................................................................................. 2-2
2-1603.1.9 [Replacement] Systems/Components Requiring Special Inspection for Seismic Resistance. 2-2
2-1604.5 [Supplement] Risk Category ....................................................................................................... 2-2
2-1612
FLOOD LOADS .......................................................................................................................... 2-2
2-1612.6 [Addition] Tsunami ...................................................................................................................... 2-2
2-1613
Earthquake Loads ....................................................................................................................... 2-2
2-1613.1 [Supplement] Scope ................................................................................................................... 2-2
2-1613.5 [Addition] Existing Buildings ........................................................................................................ 2-2
2-1613.6 [Addition] Special Inspections ..................................................................................................... 2-3
2-1613.7 [Addition] Procedure for Determining MCER and Design Spectral Response Accelerations ..... 2-3
2-11.1.2 [Supplement] Scope .................................................................................................................... 2-4
2-11.2 DEFINITIONS ................................................................................................................................. 2-4
[Replacement] DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEMS ................................................................................. 2-4
2-11.5.1 [Replacement] Importance Factor ............................................................................................... 2-4
2-11.7 [Supplement] Design Requirements for Seismic Design Category A ............................................. 2-4
2-12.6 [Supplement] Analysis Procedure Selection ................................................................................... 2-4
2-12.8 [Supplement] EQUIVALENT LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE .................................................... 2-4
2-12.10.2.1 [Replacement] Collector Elements Requiring Load Combinations with Overstrength Factor for
Seismic Design Categories C through F .................................................................................................... 2-5
2-12.11.2.1 [Supplement] Wall Anchorage Forces .................................................................................... 2-5
Figure 2-1. Anchorage of Walls to Flexible Diaphragm ............................................................................. 2-5
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2-12.12.5 [Replacement] Deformation Compatibility for Seismic Design Categories D Through F .......... 2-6
2-13.1.2 [Supplement] Seismic Design Category ...................................................................................... 2-6
2-13.1.3 [Addition] Component Importance Factor – Item 5 ...................................................................... 2-6
2-13.2.2 [Supplement] Special Certification Requirements for Designated Seismic Systems .................. 2-6
2-13.2.2.1 [Addition] Component Certification and O&M Manual .............................................................. 2-7
2-13.2.2.2 [Addition] Component Identification Nameplate ....................................................................... 2-7
2-13.2.7 [Supplement] Construction Documents ....................................................................................... 2-8
2-13.3.2 [Supplement] Seismic Relative Displacements ........................................................................... 2-8
2-13.5.6 [Supplement] Suspended Ceilings............................................................................................... 2-9
2-13.5.7 [Supplement] Access Floors ........................................................................................................ 2-9
2-13.6.1 [Supplement] General .................................................................................................................. 2-9
2-13.6.3 [Supplement] Mechanical Components ....................................................................................... 2-9
2-13.6.5.5 [Addition] Additional Requirements – Item 8 .......................................................................... 2-10
2-13.6.10.3 [Supplement] Seismic Switches............................................................................................ 2-10
2-13.6.12 [Addition] Lighting Fixtures in RC IV and V Buildings .............................................................. 2-10
2-13.6.13 [Addition] Bridges, Cranes, and Monorails .............................................................................. 2-10
2-13.6.14 [Addition] Bridges, Cranes, and Monorails for RC IV and V Buildings .................................... 2-11
2-15.4.9.2 [Replacement] Anchors in Masonry ....................................................................................... 2-11
2-15.4.9.3 [Replacement] Post-Installed Anchors in Concrete and Masonry ......................................... 2-11
2-15.5.6.1 [Supplement] General ............................................................................................................. 2-12
2-17
STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS............................................................... 2-12
2-21 MASONRY ....................................................................................................................................... 2-12
2-2106 Seismic Design ............................................................................................................................ 2-12
2-2106.2 [Addition] Additional Requirements for Masonry Systems ....................................................... 2-12
2-2106.2.1 [Addition] ................................................................................................................................ 2-12
2-2106.2.2 [Addition] Joints in Structures assigned to SDC B or Higher ................................................. 2-13
2-2106.2.3 [Addition] Minimum Reinforcement for Deep Flexural Members, SDC B-F .......................... 2-13
2-2106.2.4 [Addition] Coupling Beams in Structures Assigned to SDC D or Higher ............................... 2-13
2-22
STEEL ........................................................................................................................................... 2-13
2-2210
Cold-Formed Steel .................................................................................................................... 2-13
2-2210.2 [Supplement] Seismic Requirements for Cold-Formed Steel Structures ................................. 2-13
2-23
Wood ............................................................................................................................................. 2-13
2-2308
Conventional Light-Frame Construction ................................................................................... 2-13
2-2308.2 Limitations [Replacement] ....................................................................................................... 2-13
2-34
Existing Structures ........................................................................................................................ 2-13
2-3401 GENERAL ................................................................................................................................... 2-13
2-3401.6 [Replacement] Alternative Compliance ................................................................................... 2-14
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2-3401.7 [Addition] Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings .............................................. 2-14
2-3401.8.2 [Addition] Buildings Assigned to Risk Category V ................................................................. 2-16
2-3401.9 [Addition] Exemptions and Benchmark Buildings ..................................................................... 2-16
2-3401.9.1 [Addition] Exemptions ............................................................................................................ 2-16
2-3401.9.2 [Addition] Benchmark Buildings ............................................................................................. 2-17
2-3403 ADDITIONS ................................................................................................................................. 2-17
2-3403.1.1 [Addition] Combined Projects ................................................................................................ 2-17
2-3403.4 [Replacement] Existing Structural Elements Carrying Lateral Load ......................................... 2-17
2-3404 [Supplement] ALTERATIONS and 2-3405 [Supplement] REPAIRS .......................................... 2-18
2-3408 CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY ...................................................................................................... 2-18
2-3409
HISTORIC BUILDINGS ............................................................................................................ 2-19
2-3413 [Addition] Acquisition.................................................................................................................... 2-19
CHAPTER 3 ALTERNATE DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR RC iv STRUCTURES ..................................... 3-1
3-1
GENERAL ......................................................................................................................................... 3-1
3-1.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 3-1
3-1.2 Design Review Panel ....................................................................................................................... 3-2
3-2
DEFINITIONS ................................................................................................................................... 3-2
3-2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................ 3-2
3-3
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS ..................................................................................................... 3-2
3-3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................ 3-2
3-4
GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................................ 3-3
3-4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................ 3-3
3-5
LOAD COMBINATIONS ................................................................................................................... 3-3
3-5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................ 3-3
3-5.2 Seismic Load Combinations ............................................................................................................ 3-3
3-6
DEAD LOADS ................................................................................................................................... 3-4
3-6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................ 3-4
3-7
LIVE LOADS ..................................................................................................................................... 3-4
3-7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................ 3-4
3-8
SNOW LOADS .................................................................................................................................. 3-4
3-8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................ 3-4
3-9
WIND LOADS ................................................................................................................................... 3-4
3-9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................ 3-4
3-10
SOIL LATERAL LOADs .................................................................................................................. 3-4
3-10.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 3-4
3-11
RAIN LOADS .................................................................................................................................. 3-4
3-11.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 3-4
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3-12
FLOOD LOADS .............................................................................................................................. 3-4
3-12.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 3-4
3-13
ICE LOADS—ATMOSPHERIC ICING............................................................................................ 3-5
3-13.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 3-5
3-14
EARTHQUAKE LOADS – GENERAL............................................................................................. 3-5
3-14.1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................. 3-5
3-14.1.1 Additions to Existing Buildings .................................................................................................... 3-5
3-14.2 Change of Occupancy ................................................................................................................... 3-5
3-14.3 Alterations ...................................................................................................................................... 3-5
3-14.4 Quality Assurance .......................................................................................................................... 3-5
3-14.5 Seismic and Wind .......................................................................................................................... 3-5
3-15
EARTHQUAKE LOADS – SITE GROUND MOTION ..................................................................... 3-5
3-15.1 General Procedure for Determining Design Spectral Response Accelerations ............................ 3-5
3-15.1.1 Site Class Definition .................................................................................................................... 3-6
3-15.1.2 Site Coefficients and Adjusted Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters ........ 3-6
3-15.2 Site-specific Response Analysis for Determining Ground Motion Accelerations .......................... 3-7
3-15.3 Ground Motion Hazard Analysis .................................................................................................... 3-7
3-16
EARTHQUAKE LOADS – CRITERIA SECTION ............................................................................ 3-7
3-16.1 Structural Design Criteria ............................................................................................................... 3-7
3-16.2 Importance Factors ......................................................................................................................... 3-7
3-16.3 Site Limitations .............................................................................................................................. 3-7
3-16.4 Building Configuration .................................................................................................................... 3-8
3-16.5 Analysis Procedures ...................................................................................................................... 3-8
3-16.5.1 Nonlinear Analysis ...................................................................................................................... 3-8
3-16.5.1.1 Nonlinear Static Procedure ...................................................................................................... 3-8
3-16.5.1.2 Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure ................................................................................................. 3-9
3-16.5.2 Site Ground Motions ................................................................................................................... 3-9
3-17 EARTHQUAKE LOADS – MINIMUM DESIGN LATERAL FORCE AND RELATED EFFECTS ....... 3-9
3-17.1 Seismic Load Effect, E ................................................................................................................... 3-9
3-17.2 Redundancy ................................................................................................................................. 3-10
3-17.3 Deflection and Drift Limits ............................................................................................................ 3-10
3-17.3.1 Allowable Story Drift ................................................................................................................. 3-10
3-17.3.1.1 Life Safety Performance Objective ........................................................................................ 3-10
3-17.3.1.2 Immediate Occupancy Performance Objective ..................................................................... 3-10
3-17.3.2 Drift Determination and P-Delta Effects .................................................................................... 3-11
3-17.3.2.1 Drift and Deflection Determination for Nonlinear Static Procedure ....................................... 3-11
3-17.3.2.2 Drift and Deflection Determination for Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure .................................. 3-11
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3-17.3.2.3 P-Delta Effects for Nonlinear Static Procedure and Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure ............. 3-11
3-17.4 Seismic Force-resisting Systems................................................................................................. 3-11
3-17.4.1 Permitted Seismic Force-resisting Systems ............................................................................. 3-11
3-17.4.2 Structural Design Requirements ............................................................................................... 3-11
3-17.4.2.1 Dual Systems ......................................................................................................................... 3-12
3-17.4.2.2 Combinations of Framing Systems ........................................................................................ 3-12
3-17.4.2.3 Interaction Effects .................................................................................................................. 3-12
3-17.4.2.4 Deformational Compatibility ................................................................................................... 3-12
3-17.4.3 Response Modification (R), System Overstrength (Ω0), Deflection Amplification (Cd) Factors 3-12
3-17.4.4 Member Strength ...................................................................................................................... 3-12
3-18
DYNAMIC ANALYSIS PROCEDURES FOR THE SEISMIC DESIGN OF BUILDINGS .............. 3-12
3-18.1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 3-12
3-19
EARTHQUAKE LOADS, SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION EFFECTS ................................... 3-13
3-19.1 Analysis Procedure ...................................................................................................................... 3-13
3-20
SEISMIC DESIGN, DETAILING, AND STRUCTURAL COMPONENT LOAD EFFECTS ........... 3-13
3-20.1 Structural Component Design and Detailing ............................................................................... 3-13
3-20.2 Structural Integrity ........................................................................................................................ 3-13
3-20.3 Soils and Foundations ................................................................................................................. 3-13
3-21
SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS ..................... 3-13
3-21.1 Component Design ...................................................................................................................... 3-13
3-21.2 Performance Objectives .............................................................................................................. 3-13
3-21.2.1 Life Safety Performance Objective for Nonstructural Components .......................................... 3-13
3-21.2.2 Immediate Occupancy Performance Objective for Nonstructural Components ....................... 3-13
3-21.3 Modification of ASCE 7-10 for Life Safety Design ....................................................................... 3-14
3-21.3.1 Ground Motion Parameters for Determination of Life Safety Seismic Forces ........................... 3-14
3-21.3.2 Nonlinear Static Procedure ....................................................................................................... 3-14
3-21.3.3 Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure .................................................................................................. 3-14
3-21.3.4 Component Importance Factors ............................................................................................... 3-14
3-21.4 Modification of ASCE 7-10 for Immediate Occupancy Design .................................................... 3-14
3-21.4.1 Ground Motion Parameters for Determination of IO Seismic Forces ....................................... 3-14
3-21.4.2 Nonlinear Static Procedure ....................................................................................................... 3-14
3-21.4.3 Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure .................................................................................................. 3-14
3-21.4.4 Component Importance Factors ............................................................................................... 3-15
CHAPTER 4 DESIGN FOR ENHANCED PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES: Rc V.................................. 4-19
4-1601
GENERAL ................................................................................................................................. 4-19
4-1601.1 Overview .................................................................................................................................. 4-19
4-1601.2 Design Review Panels ............................................................................................................. 4-19
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4-1601.2.1 Structural Design Review Panel ........................................................................................... 4-19
4-1601.2.2 Nonstructural Component Design Review Panel ................................................................. 4-20
4-1602
DEFINITIONS AND NOTATIONS ............................................................................................ 4-20
4-1602.1 General .................................................................................................................................... 4-20
4-1603
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS............................................................................................. 4-20
4-1603.1 General .................................................................................................................................... 4-21
4-1604
GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................... 4-21
4-1604.1 General .................................................................................................................................... 4-21
4-1604.10 Wind and Seismic Detailing ................................................................................................... 4-21
4-1605
LOAD COMBINATIONS ........................................................................................................... 4-21
4-1605.1 General .................................................................................................................................... 4-21
4-1606
DEAD LOADS ........................................................................................................................... 4-21
4-1606.1 General .................................................................................................................................... 4-21
4-1607
LIVE LOADS ............................................................................................................................. 4-22
4-1607.1 General .................................................................................................................................... 4-22
4-1608
SNOW AND ICE LOADS .......................................................................................................... 4-22
4-1608.1 General .................................................................................................................................... 4-22
4-1609
WIND LOADS ........................................................................................................................... 4-22
4-1609.1 General .................................................................................................................................... 4-22
4-1610
SOIL LATERAL LOADS ........................................................................................................... 4-22
4-1610.1 General .................................................................................................................................... 4-22
4-1611
RAIN LOADS ............................................................................................................................ 4-23
4-1611.1 General .................................................................................................................................... 4-23
4-1612
FLOOD LOADS ........................................................................................................................ 4-23
4-1612.1 General .................................................................................................................................... 4-23
4-1612.2 Tsunami .................................................................................................................................... 4-23
4-1613
EARTHQUAKE LOADS ............................................................................................................ 4-23
4-1613.1 Existing Buildings ...................................................................................................................... 4-23
4-1613.1.1 Additions to Existing Buildings .............................................................................................. 4-23
4-1613.1.2 Change of Occupancy .......................................................................................................... 4-23
4-1613.1.3 Alterations ............................................................................................................................. 4-23
4-1613.1.4 Repairs .................................................................................................................................. 4-24
4-11
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA ...................................................................................................... 4-24
4-11.1 Structural Design Criteria ............................................................................................................. 4-24
4-11.4 SEISMIC GROUND MOTION VALUES ...................................................................................... 4-26
4-11.4.1 Development of MCE Spectral Response Accelerations and Response History Criteria ........ 4-26
4-11.4.5 Design Response Spectrum ..................................................................................................... 4-26
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4-11.4.5.1 Design Horizontal Response Spectrum ................................................................................. 4-26
4-11.4.5.2 Design Vertical Response Spectrum ..................................................................................... 4-26
4-11.5 IMPORTANCE FACTOR AND RISK CATEGORY...................................................................... 4-26
4-11.5-1 Importance Factor..................................................................................................................... 4-27
4-11.6 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY .................................................................................................. 4-27
4-11.7 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY A ......................................... 4-27
4-11.8 GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS AND GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION ........................................ 4-27
4-11.8.1 Site Limitations for Risk Category V ......................................................................................... 4-27
4-12
SEISIMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDING STRUCTURES ..................................... 4-27
4-12.2 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM SELECTION ....................................................................................... 4-27
4-12.2.1 Selections and Limitations ........................................................................................................ 4-27
4-12.2.2 and 4-12.2.3 Combinations of Framing Systems ...................................................................... 4-27
4-12.2.3.1 and 4-12.2.3.2 R, Cd, and Ω0 Values for Vertical and Horizontal Combinations .................... 4-28
4-12.3 DIAPHRAGM FLEXIBILITY, CONFIGURATION IRREGULARITIES, AND REDUNDANCY ..... 4-28
4-12.3.2 Irregular or Regular Classification and 4-12.3.3 Limitations and Additional Requirements for
Systems with Structural Irregularities ....................................................................................................... 4-28
4-12.3.4 Redundancy .............................................................................................................................. 4-28
4-12.4.4 Minimum Upward force for Horizontal Cantilevers ................................................................... 4-28
4-12.5 DIRECTION OF LOADING .......................................................................................................... 4-28
4-12.5.1 Direction of Loading Criteria ..................................................................................................... 4-28
4-12.6 ANALYSIS PROCEDURE SELECTION ...................................................................................... 4-29
4-12.6.1 General Requirements .............................................................................................................. 4-29
4-12.6.2 Horizontal and Vertical Force Determination ............................................................................ 4-29
4-12.6.3 Member Forces ......................................................................................................................... 4-30
4-12.6.3.1 Low Seismicity Applications ................................................................................................... 4-30
4-12.6.3.2 Moderate Seismicity Applications .......................................................................................... 4-30
4-12.6.3.3 High to Very High Seismicity Applications ............................................................................. 4-30
4-12.8 EQUIVALENT LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE ....................................................................... 4-31
4-12.9 MODAL RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS ........................................................................... 4-31
4-12.9.2 Modal Response Parameters ................................................................................................... 4-31
4-12.10 DIAPHRAGMS, CHORDS, AND COLLECTORS ...................................................................... 4-31
4-12.10.1.1 Diaphragm Design Forces ................................................................................................... 4-31
4-12.11 STRUCTURAL WALLS AND THEIR ANCHORAGE ................................................................. 4-32
4-12.11.1 Design for Out-of-Plane Forces and 4-12.11.2 Anchorage of Structural Walls and Transfer of
Design Forces into Diaphragms ............................................................................................................... 4-32
4-12.12 DRIFT AND DEFORMATION .................................................................................................... 4-32
4-12.12.1 Story Drift Limit ....................................................................................................................... 4-32
4-12.12.5 Deformational Compatibility .................................................................................................... 4-32
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4-13
SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS ..................... 4-32
4-13.1 GENERAL .................................................................................................................................... 4-32
4-13.1.1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................ 4-32
4-13.2 GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................................... 4-32
4-13.2.1.1 General Requirements ........................................................................................................... 4-32
4-13.2.1.2 Mission-Critical Level 1 Components .................................................................................... 4-33
4-13.2.1.3 Mission-Critical Level 2 Components .................................................................................... 4-33
4-13.2.1.4 Non-Mission-Critical Components .......................................................................................... 4-33
4-13.2.2.1 Component Qualification Documentation ............................................................................... 4-33
4-13.3 SEISMIC DEMANDS ON NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS ................................................ 4-34
4-13.3.1 Seismic Design Force ............................................................................................................... 4-34
4-13.7 RESPONSE ANALYSIS PROCEDURES FOR ARCHITECTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS ................................................................................................................ 4-35
4-13.7.1 General ..................................................................................................................................... 4-35
4-13.7.2 Dynamic Coupling Effects ......................................................................................................... 4-35
4-13.7.3 Modeling Flooring Systems ...................................................................................................... 4-36
4-13.7.4 In-structure Response Spectra ................................................................................................. 4-36
4-13.8 COMPONENT QUALIFICATION DOCUMENTATION AND O&M MANUAL .............................. 4-36
4-13.9 COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION NAMEPLATE ......................................................................... 4-36
4-1701
GENERAL ................................................................................................................................. 4-37
4-1701.1 Scope ....................................................................................................................................... 4-37
4-1801
SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS ................................................................................................... 4-37
4-1801.1 Foundation Uplift and Rocking................................................................................................. 4-37
APPENDIX A REFERENCES ................................................................................................................... A-1
APPENDIX B GUIDANCE FOR SEISMIC DESIGN OF NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS ............... B-1
B-1
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. B-1
B-1.1 Design Criteria ................................................................................................................................ B-1
B-1.2 Walk-down Inspections and Seismic Mitigation for Buildings in Risk Categories IV and V ........... B-1
B-1.2.1 General Guidance ....................................................................................................................... B-1
B-1.2.2 Periodic Post-commissioning Walk-down Inspections ................................................................. B-2
B-2
ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS ............................................................................................... B-2
B-2.1 Reference ....................................................................................................................................... B-2
B-2.2 General ........................................................................................................................................... B-2
B-2.3 Typical Architectural Components .................................................................................................. B-2
B-2.3.1 Nonstructural Walls ..................................................................................................................... B-2
B-2.3.2 Curtain Walls and Filler Walls ..................................................................................................... B-3
B-2.3.3 Partial Infill Walls ......................................................................................................................... B-3
B-2.3.4 Precast Panels ............................................................................................................................ B-3
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B-2.3.5 Masonry Veneer .......................................................................................................................... B-4
B-2.3.6 Rigid Partition Walls .................................................................................................................... B-4
B-2.3.7 Nonrigid Partition Walls ............................................................................................................... B-5
B-2.3.8 Suspended Ceilings .................................................................................................................... B-6
B-3
MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS ...................................................................... B-6
B-3.2 Component Support ....................................................................................................................... B-6
B-3.2.1 References .................................................................................................................................. B-6
B-3.2.2 Base-mounted Equipment in RCs IV and V ................................................................................ B-6
B-3.2.3 Suspended Equipment ................................................................................................................ B-7
B-3.2.4 Supports and Attachments for Piping .......................................................................................... B-8
B-3.3 Stacks (Exhaust) Associated with Buildings ................................................................................ B-15
B-3.3.1 References ................................................................................................................................ B-15
B-3.3.2 General ...................................................................................................................................... B-15
B-3.3.3 Cantilever Stacks....................................................................................................................... B-16
B-3.3.4 Guyed Stacks ............................................................................................................................ B-16
B-3.4 Elevators ....................................................................................................................................... B-16
B-3.4.1 References ................................................................................................................................ B-16
B-3.4.2 General ...................................................................................................................................... B-16
B-3.4.3 Retainer Plates .......................................................................................................................... B-19
B-3.4.4 Counterweight Tie Brackets ...................................................................................................... B-19
B-3.4.5 Force Calculation....................................................................................................................... B-19
B-3.5 Lighting Fixtures in Buildings ........................................................................................................ B-21
B-3.5.1 Reference .................................................................................................................................. B-21
B-3.5.2 General ...................................................................................................................................... B-21
B-3.6 Bridges, Cranes, and Monorails ................................................................................................... B-21
B-3.6.1 References ................................................................................................................................ B-21
B-3.6.2 General ...................................................................................................................................... B-21
APPENDIX C MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENT CERTIFICATION .............................. C-1
C-1
COMPONENT CERTIFICATION .................................................................................................... C-1
C-1.1 General ........................................................................................................................................... C-1
C-1.1.1 References .................................................................................................................................. C-1
C-1.1.2 Analytical Certification ................................................................................................................. C-1
C-1.1.3 Certification Based on Testing .................................................................................................... C-1
C-1.1.4 Additional Certification Methods .................................................................................................. C-2
C-1.1.4.1 Earthquake Experience Data ................................................................................................... C-3
C-1.1.4.2 Qualification Testing Database ................................................................................................ C-3
C-1.1.4.3 CERL Equipment Fragility and Protection Procedure .............................................................. C-3
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C-1.1.4.4 Qualification of Power Substation Equipment .......................................................................... C-4
TABLES
Table 2-1 Replacement for ASCE 7-10 Table 12.2-1 Design Coefficients and Factors for Basic Seismic
Force-Resisting Systems ......................................................................................................................... 2-20
Table 2-1 (Continued) Replacement for ASCE 7-10 Table 12.2-1 Design Coefficients and Factors for
Basic Seismic Force-Resisting Systems.................................................................................................. 2-21
Table 2-2 Replacement for ASCE 7-10 Table 12.6-1 Permitted Analytical Procedures ......................... 2-29
Table 2-3 Replacement for ASCE/SEI 41-13 Table 4-6, Benchmark Buildings ...................................... 2-30
Table 2-3 (Continued) Replacement for ASCE/SEI 41-13 Table 4-6, Benchmark Buildings .................. 2-31
Table 3-1 System Limitations for Risk Category IV Buildings Designed Using Alternate Procedure of
Chapter 3.................................................................................................................................................. 3-16
Table 4-1 Systems Permitted for Risk Category V Buildings ................................................................... 4-25
Table B-1 Maximum Span for Rigid Pipe with Pinned-Pinned Conditions, L ......................................... B-12
Table B-2 Maximum Span for Rigid Pipe with Fixed-Pinned Condition, L .............................................. B-13
Table B-3 Maximum Span for Rigid Pipe with Fixed-Fixed Condition, L ................................................ B-14
FIGURES
Figure 2-1. Anchorage of Walls to Flexible Diaphragm ............................................................................. 2-5
Figure B-1. Partial Infill Masonry Wall between Two Concrete Columns, Causing Adverse “Short Column”
Effect ..................................................................................................................................................... B-4
Figure B-2. Typical Details for Isolation of Rigid Partition Walls .............................................................. B-5
Figure B-3. Typical Seismic Restraints for Floor-mounted Equipment .................................................... B-7
Figure B-4. Typical Seismic Restraints for Suspended Equipment ......................................................... B-8
Figure B-5. Acceptable Seismic Details for Pipe Sway Bracing ............................................................ B-11
Figure B-6. Pinned-pinned Support Condition for Table B-1 ................................................................. B-13
Figure B-7. Fixed-pinned Support Condition for Table B-2.................................................................... B-13
Figure B-8. Fixed-fixed Support Condition for Table B-3 ....................................................................... B-14
Figure B-9. Period Coefficients for Uniform Beams ................................................................................ B-18
Figure B-10. Single Guyed Stacks. ........................................................................................................ B-19
Figure B-11. Elevator Details ................................................................................................................. B-20
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CHAPTER 1 SEISMIC DESIGN FOR BUILDINGS
1-1
PURPOSE AND SCOPE
These Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) provide technical guidance for the earthquakeresistant (“seismic”) design of new buildings, and nonstructural systems and
components in those buildings, for the Department of Defense (DoD), based on an
adaptation of the 2012 Edition of the International Building Code (2012 IBC) and the
structural standard referenced by it: ASCE 7-10 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings
and Other Structures. The criteria further provide limited technical guidance for seismic
evaluation and strengthening of existing buildings. This information shall be used by
structural engineers to develop design calculations, specifications, plans, and DesignBuild Requests for Proposals (RFPs), and it shall serve as the minimum seismic design
requirement for DoD buildings.
Comply with UFC 1-200-01, General Building Requirements. UFC 1-200-01 provides
applicability of model building codes and government unique criteria for typical design
disciplines and building systems, as well as for accessibility, antiterrorism, security, high
performance and sustainability requirements, and safety. Use this UFC in addition to
UFC 1-200-01 and the UFCs and government criteria referenced therein.
1-2
APPLICABILITY
This UFC applies to all service elements and contractors involved in the planning,
design, and construction of DoD facilities worldwide.
1-3
CONFLICTS AND MODIFICATIONS
The 2012 IBC provisions are directed toward public health, safety, and general
welfare, presenting minimum standards that must be met by the private sector
construction industry. The use of industry standards for DoD projects promotes
communication in the marketplace, improves competition, and results in cost savings.
However, the military sometimes requires higher standards to achieve unique building
performance, or to construct types of facilities that are not used in the private sector. In
addition, the construction of military facilities outside the United States can introduce
requirements that are not addressed in national model building codes. Modifications to
the 2012 IBC and ASCE 7-10 provisions contained herein are intended to fulfill those
unique military requirements. When conflicts between the 2012 IBC or ASCE 7-10 and
this UFC arise, the UFC shall prevail.
In addition, for construction outside the United States, conflicts between host nation
building codes and the UFC may arise. In those instances, the more stringent design
provisions shall prevail. Any apparent conflicts shall be brought to the attention of the
Authority having Jurisdiction.
1-4
IMPLEMENTATION
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This UFC is effective immediately.
Chapter 2 of the UFC lists modifications for specific 2012 IBC and ASCE 7-10 sections
for use in seismic design of DoD buildings.
STRUCTURE OF THE UFC
1-5
This UFC cites the 2012 IBC as the primary basis for seismic design of new DoD
buildings and their integral nonstructural systems and components. The 2012 IBC shall
serve as the basic seismic design document for new DoD buildings. Where needed,
modifications to the 2012 IBC and its referenced structural standard, ASCE 7-10, are
provided in this UFC. Brief descriptions of the various chapters and appendices of this
UFC follow.

Chapter 2 – 2012 IBC MODIFICATIONS FOR SEISMIC DESIGN FOR DOD
BUILDINGS. Chapter 2 provides supplemental requirements for applying the 2012 IBC
and ASCE 7-10 seismic provisions to conventional DoD building design by listing
required modifications for specific 2012 IBC and ASCE 7-10 sections. The 2012 IBC
sections that are not referenced in Chapter 2 or otherwise modified by provisions of
Chapters 3 and 4 shall be applied as they are written in the 2012 IBC.

Chapter 3 – ALTERNATE DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR BUILDINGS AND OTHER
STRUCTURES IN RISK CATEGORY IV. For buildings assigned to Risk Category IV,
those that are “essential” because of their military function or the need for them in postearthquake recovery efforts, the 2012 IBC /ASCE 7-10 requires higher design lateral
loads and more stringent structural detailing procedures than those for buildings
assigned to Risk Category I, II, & III. Applying nonlinear analysis procedures may result
in more economical or better-performing Risk Category IV buildings than linear elastic
procedures can provide. While the 2012 IBC/ASCE 7-10 permits nonlinear analysis
procedures, it provides little guidance on how to perform them. Chapter 3 presents
optional nonlinear analysis procedures that may be used for Risk Category IV buildings.
The optional nonlinear procedures outlined in Chapter 3 shall be applied only with the
approval of the Authority having Jurisdiction.

CHAPTER 4 – DESIGN FOR ENHANCED PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES: Risk
Category V. The 2012 IBC addresses Risk Category I, II, III, & IV for seismic design of
buildings. Risk Category IV is the “highest” risk category listed in the 2012 IBC, and
includes such facilities as hospitals and fire stations. In DoD, Risk Category IV buildings
also include installation command posts and other functions that are critical to
installation function. UFC 3-301-01, Structural Engineering, creates a Risk Category V
for nationally strategic assets, those that are singular and irreplaceable and must
function to support strategic defense of the United States. Facilities associated with the
National Missile Defense System exemplify Risk Category V. The criticality of these
facilities extends beyond the normal “life-safety” and “operational” scope of national
model building codes, creating the need for military-unique design requirements. Table
2-2 of UFC 3-301-01 lists building occupancies that are included in Risk Category V. Any
classification of a building as Risk Category V shall require the approval of the Authority
having Jurisdiction. Chapter 4 provides Risk Category V seismic design requirements
and requires that a building’s structural system remain linearly elastic when exposed to
specified earthquake ground motions. It also requires that all critical installed equipment
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remain fully functional during and after those motions. It is anticipated that the number of
buildings that will be designated Risk Category V will be small.
1-6

Appendix A – REFERENCES. The UFC has an extensive list of referenced public
documents. The primary references for this UFC are the 2012 IBC and ASCE 7-10.

Appendix B – GUIDANCE FOR SEISMIC DESIGN OF NONSTRUCTURAL
COMPONENTS. Appendix B provides guidance for seismic design of nonstructural
components. Requirements for design of nonstructural components in Chapters 2, 3,
and 4 are supplemented by guidance provided in Appendix B.

Appendix C – MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENT CERTIFICATION.
Appendix C provides guidance in addition to what is available in ASCE 7-10 Section
13.2.2 on certification of mechanical and electrical components.
COMMENTARY
Limited commentary has been added in the chapters. Section designations for such
commentary are preceded by a “[C]”, and the commentary narrative is shaded.
1-7
PROCEDURES FOR APPLYING UFC 3-310-04 FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Most DoD seismic design requirements are based on the 2012 IBC. The 2012 IBC is in
turn based on ASCE 7-10. The first step in seismic design is to determine the Risk
Category for the building that is under consideration, based on its function. The
appropriate Risk Category is determined from Table 2-2 of UFC 3-301-01. Earthquake
loading (spectral acceleration) data for sites within the United States, its territories, and
its possessions, are found in Table E-2 of UFC 3-301-01. Earthquake loading data for
sites outside the United States, its territories, and its possessions, are found in Tables
F-2 and G-1 of UFC 3-301-01. For buildings assigned to Risk Category I, II, III, & IV,
structural design shall be accomplished in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 2,
which modifies the 2012 IBC and ASCE 7-10 for application to DoD buildings. For
buildings assigned to Risk Category IV, Chapter 2 permits optional use of the nonlinear
procedure outlined in Chapter 3. For buildings assigned to Risk Category V, designers
shall apply the provisions of Chapter 4. The structural provisions of Chapters 2 and 3
shall not be used for buildings assigned to Risk Category V, except when specifically
stipulated in Chapter 4. It is expected that designers might highlight or otherwise mark
those paragraphs of the 2012 IBC and ASCE 7-10 that are modified by this UFC.
1-7.1 Progressive Collapse Analysis and Design
UFC 4-023-03, Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse, shall apply in the
design of DoD buildings that are three stories or more in height, if required by UFC 4010-01, DoD Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings. UFC 3-310-04 and UFC 4023-03 shall both apply in that case. Design in accordance with one does not
guarantee compliance with the other.
1-8
APPLYING UFC 3-310-04 FOR DESIGN OF NONSTRUCTURAL
COMPONENTS
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For Buildings assigned to Risk Category I, II, III (see Section 1-7), design of
architectural, mechanical, and electrical (“nonstructural”) components shall be
accomplished in accordance with the provisions of Chapters 2, 3, 4, which modify the
provisions of the 2012 IBC and ASCE 7-10 for application to DoD buildings. Chapter 3
lists modifications of Chapter 2 for use in the alternative design procedure for Risk
Category IV buildings. Chapter 4 lists modifications of Chapter 2 for use in the design
of Risk Category V buildings. Appendix B provides guidance for nonstructural
component design. Appendix C provides guidance on the certification of electrical and
mechanical equipment requiring certification. It is expected that designers might
highlight or otherwise mark those paragraphs of the 2012 IBC and ASCE 7-10 that are
modified by this UFC.
1-9
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
3-D
Three dimensional
ACI
American Concrete Institute
AFCEC
Air Force Civil Engineer Center
AISC
American Institute of Steel Construction
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
ASCE
American Society of Civil Engineers
BSO
Basic Safety Objective
BSE
Basic Safety Earthquake
BSSC
Building Seismic Safety Council
CBC
California Building Code
CCB
Construction Criteria Base
CEFAPP
CERL Equipment Fragility and Protection Procedure
CERL
Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (formerly USACERL)
CISCA
Ceilings & Interior Systems Construction Association
DoD
Department of Defense
DoE
Department of Energy
EB
Existing Building
EIA
Electronic Industries Alliance
ELF
Equivalent Lateral Force
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EPRI
Electric Power Research Institute
ERDC
U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center
ERO
Enhanced Rehabilitation Objective
FEMA
Federal Emergency Management Agency
GERS
Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectra
GIP
Generic Implementation Procedure
GSREB
Guidelines for Seismic Retrofit of Existing Buildings
HQUSACE
Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
HVAC
Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning
IBC
International Building Code
ICC-ES
International Code Council – Evaluation Service
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IMF
Intermediate Moment Frame
IO
Immediate Occupancy (performance objective/level)
ISAT
International Seismic Application Technology
LS
Life Safety (performance objective/level)
MC-1
Mission-Critical Level 1
MC-2
Mission-Critical Level 2
MCER
Risk-Targeted Maximum Considered Earthquake (ground motions)
MDD
Maximum In-Plane Diaphragm Deflection
MRSA
Modal Response Spectrum Analysis
MSJC
Masonry Standards Joint Committee
NAVFAC
Naval Facilities Engineering Command
NDP
Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure
NMC
Non-Mission-Critical
NEHRP
National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program
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NFPA
National Fire Protection Association
NRC
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NSP
Nonlinear Static Procedure
OMF
Ordinary Moment Frame
PUC
Provisions Update Committee
RC
Risk Category
RFP
Request for Proposal
RRS
Required Response Spectrum
SDC
Seismic Design Category
SDWG
Structural Discipline Working Group
SEI
Structural Engineering Institute
SQUG
Seismic Qualification Utility Group
SSRAP
Senior Seismic Review and Advisory Panel
TDLF
Total Design Lateral Force
TI
Technical Instruction
TIA
Tentative Interim Agreement; Telecommunications Industry Association
TMS
The Masonry Society
UFC
Unified Facilities Criteria
UFGS
Unified Facilities Guide Specifications
USACERL
former acronym for ERDC-CERL
USGS
U.S. Geological Survey
USACE
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
UUT
Unit Under Test
ZIP
Zoning Improvement Plan
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CHAPTER 2 2012 IBC MODIFICATIONS FOR SEISMIC DESIGN OF DOD BUILDINGS
The 2012 International Building Code (2012 IBC) is adopted as the building code for
DOD projects. UFC 3-310-04 supplements the requirements of UFC 1-200-01, General
Building Requirements, by defining modifications to the 2012 IBC related specifically to
seismic design of buildings. In the following narrative, required modifications to the
provisions of the 2012 IBC are listed. The modifications are referenced to specific
sections in the 2012 IBC that must be modified. Any section in the 2012 IBC that is not
specifically referenced shall be applied as it is written in the 2012 IBC. The 2012 IBC
adopts by reference extensive portions of ASCE/SEI 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10). This UFC modifies some sections in
ASCE 7-10 in the same manner as is described for the 2012 IBC. An example section
number in this chapter is 2-1603.1.5 or 2-13.1.2. The first number, 2, refers to Chapter 2
of this UFC. 1603.1.5 refers to 2012 IBC Section 1603.1.5, and 13.1.2 refers to ASCE
7-10 Section 13.1.2. It is expected that designers may highlight or otherwise mark
those paragraphs of the 2012 IBC, RP 8, and ASCE 7-10 that are modified by this UFC.
The required 2012 IBC, RP 8, and ASCE 7-10 section modifications are one of four
actions, according to the following legend:
[Addition] – New section added, includes new section number not shown in the
2012 IBC, RP 8, or ASCE 7-10.
[Deletion] –
Delete referenced 2012 IBC, RP 8, or ASCE 7-10 section.
[Replacement] – Delete referenced 2012 IBC, RP 8, or ASCE 7-10 section and
replace it with the narrative shown.
[Supplement] – Add narrative shown as a supplement to the narrative shown in
the referenced section of the 2012 IBC, RP 8, or ASCE 7-10.
2-2
DEFINITIONS
2-202
DEFINITIONS
[Replacement] RISK CATEGORY
A categorization of buildings and other structures for determination of flood, wind, snow, ice,
and earthquake loads based on the risk associated with unacceptable performance as
prescribed in UFC 3-301-01 Table 2-2.
[C] 2-202 DEFINITION [Replacement] RISK CATEGORY
For many years, ASCE 7 and the building codes used the term Occupancy Category.
However, “occupancy” relates primarily to issues associated with fire and life safety
protection, as opposed to risks associated with structural failure. As a result, the term
“Occupancy Category” has been replaced by “Risk category.” Risk category numbering
is unchanged from previous editions of ASCE 7.
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2-16
2-1603
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS
2-1603.1.5 [Supplement] Earthquake Design Data
Item 3 covering mapped spectral response accelerations shall be modified to indicate
the source of the acceleration data, including source date and author. If the data are
based on site-specific response analysis, that shall be noted. Site-specific source data
shall also note whether response spectrum or time-history analyses were performed.
2-1603.1.9 [Replacement] Systems/Components Requiring Special Inspection for
Seismic Resistance
Construction documents and specifications shall be prepared for those systems and
components requiring special inspection for seismic resistance, as specified in 2012
IBC Section 1705.11 and modified by appropriate sections in UFC 1-200-01 and UFC 3301-01, by the Registered Design Professional responsible for their design. Reference
to seismic standards in lieu of detailed drawings is acceptable.
2-1604.5 [Supplement] Risk Category
2012 IBC Table 1604.5 shall be replaced by UFC 3-301-01 Table 2-2.
2-1612
FLOOD LOADS
2-1612.6 [Addition] Tsunami
Risk Category (RC) I, II, III, and IV facilities are recommended to be designed to
mitigate the effects of Tsunami in conformance with Appendix M to the 2012 IBC. All
mitigation methods will require approval by the AHJ. Approval by the AHJ will be
required for a Risk Category III or IV facility to be located within Tsunami inundation
zones.
2-1613
EARTHQUAKE LOADS
2-1613.1 [Supplement] Scope
For structures in Risk Categories (RCs) I through IV, wherever ASCE 7-10 Table 12.2-1
is referenced, it shall be replaced by Table 2-1 of this Chapter.
[C] 2-1613.1 [Supplement] Scope
Although Chapter 14 of ASCE 7-10 is not adopted by the 2012 IBC, occasional
references to ASCE 7-10 Chapter 14 sections are made in this UFC.
2-1613.5 [Addition] Existing Buildings
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Additions, alterations, repairs, changes of occupancy, relocations, or acquisitions of
existing buildings or portions of existing buildings shall be in accordance with 2012 IBC
Chapter 34 as modified by this Chapter.
[C] 2-1613.5 [Supplement] Existing Buildings
The purpose of this section is to direct users to Chapter 34. Alternative provisions for
existing buildings are given with the modifications to Chapter 34. The various project
types, some of which are addressed by Chapter 34 and some by alternative criteria, are
listed here for clarity and completeness.
2-1613.6 [Addition] Special Inspections
2012 IBC Chapter 17 shall be applied as modified by appropriate sections in UFC 1200-01 and UFC 3-301-01.
2-1613.7 [Addition] Procedure for Determining MCER and Design Spectral
Response Accelerations
Ground motion accelerations, represented by response spectra and coefficients derived
from these spectra, shall be determined in accordance with the procedure of ASCE 7-10
Sections 11.4.1-11.4.5, or the site-specific procedure of ASCE 7-10 Section 11.4.7.
Subject to approval by the Authority having Jurisdiction, a site-specific response
analysis using the procedure of ASCE 7-10 Section 11.4.7 may be used in determining
ground motions for any structure. Such analysis shall include justification for its use in
lieu of the mapped ground motion data that are described below.
A site-specific response analysis using the procedures of ASCE 7-10 Section 11.4.7
shall be used for structures on sites classified as Site Class F (see ASCE 7-10 Section
20.3.1), unless the following condition is applicable:
The mapped Risk-Targeted Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER) spectral
response acceleration at short periods, Ss, and the mapped MCER spectral response
acceleration at 1-second period, S1, as determined in accordance with UFC 3-301-01,
are less than or equal to 0.25 and 0.10, respectively.
Ss and S1 shall be determined for installations within the United States from Section 21.6.1 of UFC 3-301-01.For installations located outside the United States, Ss and S1
shall be determined from Section 2-1.6.2 of UFC 3-301-01.
Note that this section is superseded by Section 4-11.1 of this UFC for RC V structures.
NOTE: Numbering system changes to reflect ASCE 7-10
organization. For example, Section 2-11 will cover topics
from Chapter 11 of ASCE 7-10.
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2-11.1.2 [Supplement] Scope
The design and detailing of the components of the seismic force-resisting system shall
comply with the applicable provisions of ASCE 7-10 Section 11.7 and ASCE 7-10
Chapter 12, as modified by this UFC, in addition to the nonseismic requirements of the
2012 IBC.
Note that this section is superseded by Section 4-11.1 of this UFC for RC V structures.
2-11.2 DEFINITIONS
[Replacement] DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEMS
The seismic force-resisting system in all structures and those architectural, electrical,
and mechanical systems or their components in RC III and IV structures that require
design in accordance with Chapter 13 and for which the component importance factor,
Ip, is greater than 1.0. This designation applies to systems that are required to be
operational following the Design Earthquake for RC III and IV structures and following
the MCER for RC V structures. All systems in RC V facilities designated as MC-1 (see
Chapter 4) shall be considered part of the Designated Seismic Systems. Designated
Seismic Systems will be identified by Owner and will have an Importance Factor Ip = 1.5.
2-11.5.1 [Replacement] Importance Factor
A seismic importance factor, Ie, shall be assigned to each structure in accordance with
UFC 3-301-01 Table 2-2.
Note that this section is modified by Section 4-11.5.1 of this UFC for RC V structures.
2-11.7 [Supplement] Design Requirements for Seismic Design Category A
ASCE 7-10 Section 11.7 shall not apply to buildings assigned to RC V.
2-12.6 [Supplement] Analysis Procedure Selection
Table 2-2, Replacement for ASCE 7-10 Table 12.6-1, shall be used in lieu of ASCE 710 Table 12.6-1.
Note that this section is superseded by Section 4-12.6 of this UFC for RC V structures.
2-12.8 [Supplement] EQUIVALENT LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE
When the ELF procedure is used, provisions of ASCE 7-10 Section 12.8 shall be used.
This procedure may be applied to the design of buildings assigned to RCs I through IV
as permitted by Table 2-2.
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[C] 2-12.8 [Supplement] EQUIVALENT LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE
The ELF procedure is the primary design method for seismic design of military buildings.
Several restrictions on using the ELF procedure for buildings in SDCs D - F are imposed by
Table 2-2. These restrictions are predicated on the presence of horizontal and vertical
irregularities. The Simplified Design Procedure (SDP) of ASCE 7-10 Section 12.14 is a
simplification of the ELF procedure that may be applied to low-rise buildings that meet a set of
pre-conditions given in ASCE 7-10, Section 12.14. The SDP adopts a more conservative
design approach than the ELF procedure.
2-12.10.2.1 [Replacement] Collector Elements Requiring Load Combinations with
Overstrength Factor for Seismic Design Categories C through F
EXCEPTIONS:
1 - In structures or portions thereof braced entirely by light-frame shear
walls, collector elements and their connections including connections to
vertical elements need only be designed to resist forces using the load
combinations of Section 12.4.2.3 with seismic forces determined in
accordance with Section 12.10.1.1.
2-12.11.2.1 [Supplement] Wall Anchorage Forces
Refer to Figure 2-1 for determination of the span of flexible diaphragm, Lf.
Figure 2-1. Anchorage of Walls to Flexible Diaphragm
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2-12.12.5 [Replacement] Deformation Compatibility for Seismic Design Categories
D Through F
For components that are not included in the seismic force-resisting system, ensure that
ductile detailing requirements are provided such that the vertical load-carrying capacity
of these components is not compromised by induced moments and shears resulting
from the design story drift (see Part 2 Commentary - FEMA P-750 Section C12.12.4).
Note that this requirement is superseded by Section 4-12.12.5 of this UFC for RC V
structures.
2-13.1.2 [Supplement] Seismic Design Category
Unless specifically noted otherwise in this UFC, for all subsections of ASCE 7-10
Chapter 13, when SDCs are referenced, any provision that directs RC IV design
measures shall also be applied to RC V. Appendix B of this UFC provides
supplementary guidance on architectural, mechanical, and electrical component design
requirements. Section B-2 provides guidance on architectural component design,
including interior and exterior wall elements. Section B-3 provides guidance on electrical
and mechanical systems design. To the extent that is practicable, subsections of
Appendix B reference relevant sections of ASCE 7-10.
2-13.1.3 [Addition] Component Importance Factor – Item 5
The component is in or attached to an RC V structure designated as MC-1 or MC-2.
2-13.2.2 [Supplement] Special Certification Requirements for Designated Seismic
Systems
Appendix C of this UFC provides verification and certification guidance.
When shake table testing is performed, the demand RRS shall be developed from a
site-specific in-structure response time history based study. The capacity RRS for each
axis shall be generated from the time histories defined in Section 4-11.4 of this UFC,
and shall be peak broadened by 15%. The in-structure demand response spectra per
Section 4-13.7.4 of this UFC shall be used to determine demand if the Nonstructural
Component is not supported at grade.
Exception – For RC II, III, and IV structures, the demand RRS may be derived using
ICC-ES AC156.
Testing shall be performed in accordance with nationally recognized testing procedures
such as:
1. The requirements of the International Code Council Evaluations Service (ICC-ES),
Acceptance Criteria for Seismic Qualification by Shake-Table Testing of Nonstructural
Components, ICC-ES AC156, November 2010.
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2. The CERL Equipment Fragility and Protection Procedure (CEFAPP), USACERL
Technical Report 97/58, Wilcoski, J., Gambill, J.B., and Smith, S.J., March 1997. The
test motions, test plan, and results of this method require peer review.
3. For power substation equipment only, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
(IEEE), Recommended Practices for Seismic Design of Substations, IEEE 693-2005.
Shake table tests shall include triaxial motion components that result in the largest
response spectral amplitudes at the natural frequencies of the equipment for each of the
three axes of motion. The Test Response Spectrum (TRS) test motions, demand RRS,
test plan, and test results shall be reviewed independently by a team of Registered
Design Professionals. The design professionals shall have documented experience in
the appropriate disciplines, seismic analysis, and seismic testing. The independent
review shall include, but need not be limited to, the following:
1. Review of site-specific seismic criteria, including the development of the sitespecific spectra and ground motion histories, and all other project-specific
criteria;
2. Review of seismic designs and analyses for both the equipment and all
supporting systems, including the generation of in-structure motions;
3. Review of all testing requirements and results; and,
4. Review of all equipment quality control, quality assurance, maintenance, and
inspection requirements.
2-13.2.2.1 [Addition] Component Certification and O&M Manual
For any electrical or mechanical component required by ASCE 7-10 Section 13.2.2 to
be certified, evidence demonstrating compliance with the requirement shall be
maintained in a file identified as “Equipment Certification Documentation.” This file shall
be a part of the Operations & Maintenance Manual that is turned over to the Authority
having Jurisdiction. The project specifications shall require the Operations &
Maintenance Manual state that replaced or modified components need to be certified
per the original certification criteria. RC V NMC components are exempt from this
requirement – see Section 4-13.8 of this UFC.
2-13.2.2.2 [Addition] Component Identification Nameplate
Any electrical or mechanical component required by ASCE 7-10 Section 13.2.2 to be
certified shall bear permanent marking or nameplates constructed of a durable heat and
water resistant material. Nameplates shall be mechanically attached to such
nonstructural components and placed on each component for clear identification. The
nameplate shall not be less than 5" x 7" with red letters 1" in height on a white
background stating “Certified Equipment.” The following statement shall be on the
nameplate: “This equipment/component is certified. No modifications are allowed
unless authorized in advance and documented in the Equipment Certification
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Documentation file.” The nameplate shall also contain the component identification
number in accordance with the drawings/specifications and the O&M manuals.
Continuous piping and conduits in structures assigned to RC V shall be similarly marked
as specified in the contract documents. RC V NMC components are exempt from this
requirement – see Section 4-13.9 of this UFC.
2-13.2.7 [Supplement] Construction Documents
Construction documents for architectural, mechanical, and electrical components shall
be prepared by a Registered Design Professional for all buildings assigned to RCs IV
and V.
2-13.3.2 [Supplement] Seismic Relative Displacements
The rigidity of stairways relative to their supporting structures shall be evaluated to
determine loads and deformations imposed on the stairs, and unintended loads or
constraints imposed on the structures. Alternatively, stairways may be isolated from
building motions in accordance with the relative displacements defined in ASCE 7-10
Section 13.3.2.2.
2-13.4.2.2 [Replacement] Anchors in Masonry
Anchors in masonry shall be designed in accordance with TMS 402-11/ACI 530-11/ASCE
5-11. Additionally, at least one of the following must be satisfied.
a. Anchors shall be designed to be governed by the tensile or shear strength of a
ductile steel element.
b. Anchors shall be designed for the maximum load that can be transmitted to the
anchors from a ductile attachment, considering both material overstrength and
strain hardening of the attachment.
c. Anchors shall be designed for the maximum load that can be transmitted to the
anchors by a non-yielding attachment.
d. Anchors shall be designed for the maximum load obtained from design load
combinations that include E, with E multiplied by Ω0.
[C] 2-13.4.2.2 [Replacement] Anchors in Masonry
This [Replacement] harmonizes design of anchors embedded in concrete and masonry.
ASCE 7-10 Section 13.4.2.2 includes provisions to prevent brittle failure in anchors in
masonry attaching nonstructural components. The provisions are consistent with those
in ACI 318-08 Appendix D for anchors in concrete. This [Replacement] simply makes
them consistent with ACI 318-11.
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2-13.4.2.3 [Replacement] Post-Installed Anchors in Concrete and Masonry
Post-installed mechanical anchors in concrete shall be prequalified for seismic
applications in accordance with ACI 355.2 or other approved qualification procedures;
post-installed adhesive anchors in concrete shall be prequalified for seismic applications
in accordance with ACI 355.4 or other approved qualification procedures. Post-installed
anchors in masonry shall be prequalified for seismic applications in accordance with
approved qualification procedures.
2-13.5.6 [Supplement] Suspended Ceilings
For buildings assigned to RCs IV and V, suspended ceilings shall be designed to resist
seismic effects using a rigid bracing system, where the braces are capable of resisting
tension and compression forces, or diagonal splay wires, where the wires are installed
taut. Particular attention should be given in walk-down inspections (see appropriate
section in UFC 3-301-01) to ensure splay wires are taut. Positive attachment shall be
provided to prevent vertical movement of ceiling elements. Vertical support elements
shall be capable of resisting both compression and tensile forces. Vertical supports and
braces designed for compression shall have a slenderness ratio, Kl/r, of less than 200.
Additional guidance on suspended ceiling design is provided in Section B-2.3.8 of this
UFC.
2-13.5.7 [Supplement] Access Floors
Access floor components installed on access floors that have importance factors, Ip,
greater than 1.0 shall meet the requirements of Special Access Floors (ASCE 7-10
Section 13.5.7.2). Note: Equipment that requires certification (see Section 2-13.2.2 in
this UFC) shall account for the motion amplification that occurs because of any
supporting access flooring.
2-13.6.1 [Supplement] General
Stacks attached to or supported by buildings shall be designed to meet the force and
displacement provisions of ASCE 7-10 Sections 13.3.1 and 13.3.2. They shall further
be designed in accordance with the requirements of ASCE 7-10 Chapter 15 and the
special requirements of ASCE 7-10 Section 15.6.2. Guidance on stack design may be
found in Section B-3.3.
2-13.6.3 [Supplement] Mechanical Components
Guidance on the design of piping supports and attachments is found in Section B-3.2.4
of this UFC.
Guidance on the design of electrical equipment supports, attachments, certification is
found in Appendices B and C of this UFC.
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2-13.6.5.5 [Addition] Additional Requirements – Item 8
The local regions of support attachment for all mechanical and electrical equipment shall be
evaluated for the effects of load transfer on component walls and other structural elements.
2-13.6.10.3 [Supplement] Seismic Switches
For buildings that are assigned to RC IV, or in SDCs E or F, the trigger level for seismic
switches shall be set to 50% of the acceleration of gravity along both orthogonal horizontal
axes. Elevator systems (equipment, systems, supports, etc) in RC IV, or in SDCs E or F, shall
have an Ip = 1.5 and shall be designed to ensure elevator operability at accelerations below 50%
of the acceleration of gravity along both orthogonal horizontal axes. For buildings that are
assigned to RC V, seismic switches shall not be used. Elevator system design for RC V
buildings shall ensure elevator operability at accelerations computed in building response
modeling. Additional guidance on the design of elevator systems is found in Section B-3.4 of
this UFC.
[C] 2-13.6.10.3 [Supplement] Seismic Switches
Note that the 0.50g is consistent with Article 3137, Seismic Requirements for Elevators,
Escalators and Moving Walks, Subchapter 6, Elevator Safety Orders, California Code of
Regulations, Title 8 (http://www.dir.ca.gov/title8/3137.html).
2-13.6.12 [Addition] Lighting Fixtures in RC IV and V Buildings
For buildings that are assigned to RC IV and V, guidance on the design of lighting
fixtures is found in Section B-3.5 of this UFC.
2-13.6.13 [Addition] Bridges, Cranes, and Monorails
Structural supports for those crane systems that are located in buildings and other
structures assigned to SDC C with Ip greater than 1.0, or assigned to SDC D, E, or F,
shall be designed to meet the force and displacement provisions of ASCE 7-10 Section
13.3. Seismic forces, Fp, shall be calculated using a component amplification factor, ap,
of 2.5 and a component response modification factor, Rp, of 2.5, except that crane rail
connections shall be designed for the forces resulting from an Rp of 1.5 in all directions.
When designing for forces in either horizontal direction, the weight of crane
components, Wp, need not include any live loads, lifted loads, or loads from crane
components below the bottom of the crane cable. If the crane is not in a locked
position, the lateral force parallel to the crane rails can be limited by the friction forces
that can be applied through the brake wheels to the rails. In this case, the full rated live
load of the crane plus the weight of the crane shall be used to determine the gravity
load that is carried by each wheel. Guidance on the design of these systems is found in
Section B-3.6 of this UFC.
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2-13.6.14 [Addition] Bridges, Cranes, and Monorails for RC IV and V Buildings
In addition to the requirements of Section 2-13.6.13 of this UFC, for bridges, cranes,
and monorails for all RC IV and V buildings, vertical earthquake-induced motions shall
be considered. For RC V structures, a site-specific vertical spectrum shall be used (see
Section 4-11.4.5.2 of this UFC). For RC IV structures, when a site-specific vertical
spectrum is not used, the vertical response spectrum may be developed following the
rules specified in FEMA P-750, NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for Buildings
and Other Structures, Chapter 23, Vertical Ground Motions for Seismic Design, except
that SMS and SM1 shall be used respectively in lieu of SDS and SD1.
2-15.4.9.2 [Replacement] Anchors in Masonry
Anchors in masonry shall be designed in accordance with TMS 402-11/ACI 530-11/ASCE
5-11. Additionally, for nonbuilding structures assigned to SDC C, D, E, or F, at least one
of the following must be satisfied.
a. Anchors shall be designed to be governed by the tensile or shear strength of a
ductile steel element.
b. Anchors shall be designed for the maximum load that can be transmitted to the
anchors from a ductile attachment, considering both material overstrength and
strain hardening of the attachment.
c. Anchors shall be designed for the maximum load that can be transmitted to the
anchors by a non-yielding attachment.
d. Anchors shall be designed for the maximum load obtained from design load
combinations that include E, with E multiplied by Ω0.
[C] 2-15.4.9.2 [Replacement] Anchors in Masonry
This [Replacement] harmonizes design of anchors embedded in concrete and masonry.
ASCE 7-10 Section 15.4.9.2 includes provisions to prevent brittle failure in anchors in
masonry in nonbuilding structures. The provisions are consistent with those in ACI 31808 Appendix D for anchors in concrete. This [Replacement] simply makes them
consistent with ACI 318-11.
2-15.4.9.3 [Replacement] Post-Installed Anchors in Concrete and Masonry
Post-installed mechanical anchors in concrete in nonbuilding structures assigned to
SDC C, D, E, or F shall be prequalified for seismic applications in accordance with ACI
355.2 or other approved qualification procedures; post-installed adhesive anchors in
concrete in nonbuilding structures assigned to SDC C, D, E, or F shall be prequalified
for seismic applications in accordance with ACI 355.4 or other approved qualification
procedures. Post-installed anchors in masonry in nonbuilding structures assigned to
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SDC C, D, E, or F shall be prequalified for seismic applications in accordance with
approved qualification procedures.
2-15.5.6.1 [Supplement] General
UFC 4-152-01, Design: Piers and Wharves, governs the seismic design of piers and
wharves for the DoD.
2-15.7.5 [Replacement] Anchorage
Tanks and vessels at grade are permitted to be designed without anchorage where they
meet the requirements for unanchored tanks in reference documents. Tanks and
vessels supported above grade on structural towers or building structures shall be
anchored to the supporting structure.
Anchorage shall be in accordance with Appendix D of ACI 318. Post-installed anchors
are permitted to be used in accordance with Section 15.4.9.3. For anchors in tension,
where the special seismic provisions of ACI 318 Section D.3.3.4.2 apply, the
requirements of ACI 318 Section D.3.3.4.3(a) shall be satisfied.
2-15.7.11.7(b) [Replacement]
Anchorage shall be in accordance with Appendix D of ACI 318. For anchors in tension,
where the special seismic provisions of ACI 318 Section D.3.3.4.2 apply, the
requirements of ACI 318 Section D.3.3.4.3(a) shall be satisfied.
NOTE: Numbering system changes to reflect 2012 IBC
organization.
2-17
STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS
Refer to UFC 1-200-01 and UFC 3-301-01 for provisions related to structural tests and special
inspections.
2-21 MASONRY
2-2106 SEISMIC DESIGN
2-2106.2 [Addition] Additional Requirements for Masonry Systems
2-2106.2.1 [Addition] Minimum Reinforcement for Special or Intermediate Masonry
Walls, SDC B-F
In addition to the minimum reinforcement requirements of Sections 1.18.3.2.5 and
1.18.3.2.6 of TMS 402-11/ACI 530-11/ASCE 5-11, the following shall apply:
1. Reinforcement shall be continuous around wall corners and through wall intersections,
unless the intersecting walls are separated. Reinforcement that is spliced in accordance
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with applicable provisions of TMS 402-11/ACI 530-11/ASCE 5-11 shall be considered
continuous.
2. Only horizontal reinforcement that is continuous in the wall or element shall be included
in computing the area of horizontal reinforcement. Intermediate bond beam steel
properly designed at control joints shall be considered continuous.
2-2106.2.2 [Addition] Joints in Structures assigned to SDC B or Higher
Where concrete abuts structural masonry, and the joint between the materials is not
designed as a separation joint, the joint shall conform to the requirements of ASCE 7-10
Section 14.4.3.1.
2-2106.2.3 [Addition] Minimum Reinforcement for Deep Flexural Members, SDC BF
Flexural members with overall depth-to-clear span ratios greater than 2/5 for continuous
spans or 4/5 for simple spans shall conform to the requirements of ASCE 7-10 Section
14.4.5.4.
2-2106.2.4 [Addition] Coupling Beams in Structures Assigned to SDC D or Higher
Structural members that provide coupling between shear walls shall conform to the
requirements of ASCE 7-10 Section 14.4.5.3.
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2-2210
STEEL
COLD-FORMED STEEL
2-2210.2 [Supplement] Seismic Requirements for Cold-Formed Steel Structures
Modifications to the provisions of AISI S110 in ASCE 7-10 Section 14.1.3.3 shall apply.
2-23
2-2308
WOOD
CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION
2-2308.2 Limitations [Replacement]
Limitation 6 shall be rewritten as follows:
6. The use of the provisions for conventional light-frame construction in this
section shall not be permitted for RC IV buildings assigned to Seismic Design
Category C, D, E, or F, as determined in 2012 IBC Section 1613.
2-34
EXISTING STRUCTURES
2-3401 GENERAL
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2-3401.6 [Replacement] Alternative Compliance
Work performed in accordance with the International Existing Building Code (IEBC) shall
not necessarily be deemed to comply with the provisions of this chapter.
[C] 2-3401.6 [Replacement] Alternative Compliance
IBC Chapter 34 allows the use of IEBC as a deemed-to-comply alternative. For
purposes of seismic evaluation and rehabilitation, the IEBC has slightly different
triggers, scope exemptions, and criteria. The main advantage of the IEBC is that it
explicitly allows the use of the ASCE/SEI 31-03, Seismic Evaluation of Existing Buildings
and ASCE/SEI 41-06, Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings. Since ASCE/SEI 4113, Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings, is required by added Section
3401.7, and to avoid confusion and inconsistency, the IBC’s blanket allowance of the
IEBC is not needed here.
2-3401.7 [Addition] Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings
ICSSC RP 8 / NIST GCR 11-917-12, Standards of Seismic Safety for Existing Federally
Owned and Leased Buildings, cited herein as RP 8, as modified by this chapter and
applicable service regulations, is hereby adopted and made part of this chapter. Where
the provisions of RP 8 and IBC Chapter 34 are in conflict, those of RP 8 shall govern.
Where RP 8 makes no specific provision, the provisions of IBC Chapter 34, as modified
by this Chapter, shall govern.
RP 8 is applicable to all existing DoD owned and leased buildings at all locations
worldwide.
RP 8 Section 1.0 [Supplement]. Wherever RP 8 cites ASCE/SEI 31-03 or ASCE/SEI
41-06, the corresponding section or provision of ASCE/SEI 41-13 shall be used instead.
RP 8 Section 2.1 (b) [Replacement]. For buildings assigned to Seismic Design
Category C, a project is planned, which totals more than 50% of the replacement value
of the building.
RP 8 Section 2.1 (c) [Replacement]. For buildings assigned to Seismic Design
Category D, E, or F, a project is planned, which totals more than 30% of the
replacement value of the building.
Where seismic evaluation or retrofit is required, ASCE/SEI 41-13 shall be used.
Performance objectives for evaluation or retrofit shall be as specified in the following
subsections.
[C] 2-3401.7 [Addition] Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings
The first paragraph of this added section clarifies the intended relationship between IBC
Chapter 34 and RP 8. RP 8 gives exemptions, triggers, scope, and criteria applicable to
alterations, repairs, changes of occupancy, acquisitions, and (in general terms) historic
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buildings; in these cases, where the IBC has different provisions or no provisions at all,
the RP 8 provisions (as modified by this Chapter) shall be used, whether they are more
restrictive or less restrictive than the IBC. Key differences between RP 8 and IBC
Chapter 34 are noted in commentary to Sections 2-3404, 2-3405, 2-3408, and 2-3413.
RP 8 uses the national standards ASCE/SEI 31-03 and ASCE/SEI 41-06 as criteria for
seismic evaluation and retrofit, respectively. This Chapter uses the combined update to
those standards, known as ASCE/SEI 41-13.
RP 8 does not contain provisions for additions or relocated buildings; in these cases,
IBC provisions apply, as modified by this Chapter.
This Chapter clarifies certain terms used in RP 8 and the application of RP 8 to various
Risk Categories. Modifications to RP 8’s exemptions and benchmarking provisions are
given in added Section 2-3401.9.
2-3401.8 [Addition] Performance Objectives for Evaluation and Retrofit using ASCE/SEI
41-13
2-3401.8.1 [Addition] Buildings Assigned to Risk Category I, II, III, or IV
Performance objectives for seismic evaluation or retrofit of buildings assigned to risk category I,
II, III, or IV using ASCE/SEI 41-13 shall be as follows:
Risk
Category
Scope item
Evaluation
Performance Objective2,4
Retrofit
Performance Objective4
Structural
Life Safety in BSE-1E
Life Safety in BSE-1N and
Collapse Prevention in BSE-2N
Nonstructural1
Life Safety in BSE-1E
Life Safety in BSE-1N
Structural
Damage Control in BSE1E3
Damage Control in BSE-1N and
Limited Safety in BSE-2N
Nonstructural1
Life Safety in BSE-1N
Life Safety in BSE-1N
Structural
Immediate Occupancy in
BSE-1E
Immediate Occupancy in BSE-1N
and
Life Safety in BSE-2N
Nonstructural1
Position Retention in BSE1E
Operational in BSE-1N
I or II
III
IV
1
At the AHJ’s discretion, the Nonstructural scope may be waived in areas of the building not
affected by the project and not affecting DoD operations, safety, or post-earthquake occupancy.
2
At the AHJ’s discretion, Tier 3 evaluation at the BSE-2E hazard level may also be required,
consistent with ASCE/SEI 41-13 Table 2-1.
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3
Tier 1 or Tier 2 evaluation at the Damage Control level shall use the Tier 1 checklists and Tier
2 procedures for Life Safety performance, but Ms-factors and other quantitative limits shall be
taken as the average of Life Safety and Immediate Occupancy values.
4
See ASCE41-13 for definitions of BSE-1E, BSE-1N, and BSE-2N.
[C] 2-3401.8.1 [Addition] Buildings Assigned to Risk Category I, II, III, or IV. In
general, the ASCE/SEI 41-13 performance objectives were selected to maintain the
same expected performance and scope of work as those in the previous edition of UFC
3-310-04. There is one significant exception: For buildings assigned to risk category IV,
the nonstructural retrofit objective in the previous edition would have translated to
“Position Retention in BSE-1N.” Instead, “Operational in BSE-1N” is specified to ensure
that critical equipment will receive the ruggedness certification required for Operational
performance. Also, note that for risk category III buildings, the nonstructural evaluation
objective uses the hazard level BSE-1N, not BSE-1E. This is intended to capture the
effect of the 25 percent force increase required in the previous edition of UFC 3-310-04.
Note that enhanced performance, such as operation of designated essential equipment
following the BSE-2N, may be desirable and would be based on the discretion of the
AHJ.
2-3401.8.2 [Addition] Buildings Assigned to Risk Category V
RC V structures shall be designed to ensure that during the MCER their superstructures
and installed mission-essential non-structural elements remain elastic, and following the
MCER their installed equipment remains operational. See Chapter 4 of this UFC for
MCER ground motions. ASCE/SEI 41-13 shall not be used for evaluating existing
buildings that are classified as RC V facilities. For any evaluations of existing RC V
buildings, the analysis procedures of Chapter 4 of this UFC shall apply. All
strengthening of existing buildings and additions to existing buildings that must satisfy
RC V performance requirements shall satisfy the requirements of Chapter 4 of this UFC.
2-3401.9 [Addition] Exemptions and Benchmark Buildings
2-3401.9.1 [Addition] Exemptions
The exemptions in RP 8 Section 1.3 do not apply to RC V facilities.
Where applied to projects involving change of occupancy, exemptions in RP8 Section
1.3 based on occupancy or use apply to the new or intended occupancy.
RP 8 Section 1.3 item a [Replacement]. a. All buildings assigned to SDC A.
RP 8 Section 1.3 item b [Replacement]. b. All buildings assigned to SDC B.
RP 8 Section 1.3 item c [Replacement]. c. Detached one- and two-family dwellings
located where SDS<0.4 g.
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RP 8 Section 1.3, item d [Replacement]. d. Risk Category I or II building structures
intended for incidental human occupancy or that are occupied by persons for a total of
less than 2 hours a day.
RP 8 Section 1.3 item e [Replacement]. e. Risk Category I or II one-story buildings of
steel light frame or wood construction with areas less than 280 m2 (3000 ft2).
[C] 2-3401.9.1 [Addition] Exemptions
The revisions to RP 8 Section 1.3 provide the enforcing agency guidance referenced in
RP 8 Section C1.3 regarding relative risk. RP 8 Section 1.3 refers to safety-based
performance objectives and occupancy-based performance objectives. Per UFC 3-31004 Section 2-3401.8, those correspond directly to a building’s risk category. Therefore,
Section 2-3401.9 recasts certain RP 8 exemptions in terms of risk category. RC V
structures are required to be designed to ensure that during the MCER their
superstructures and installed mission-essential non-structural elements remain elastic,
and following the MCER their designated equipment remains operational.
2-3401.9.2 [Addition] Benchmark Buildings
Where the Benchmark Building provisions of ASCE/SEI 41-13 apply, Table 2-3 of this
Chapter shall replace ASCE/SEI 41-13 Table 4-6, Benchmark Buildings, and RP 8
Table 1-1, Benchmark Buildings.
2-3403
ADDITIONS
2-3403.1.1 [Addition] Combined Projects
Alteration work performed in conjunction with an addition project shall comply with the
provisions for alteration projects. Repair work performed in conjunction with an addition
project shall comply with the provisions for repair projects.
[C] 2-3403.1.1 [Addition] Combined Projects
In general, IBC Chapter 34 and RP 8 make provisions based on the intended project
type. Added Section 2-3403.1.1 addresses cases where multiple project types, one of
which is an addition, are intended. The provision is primarily a pointer to the
supplemental requirements in Sections 3404 and 3405.
2-3403.4 [Replacement] Existing Structural Elements Carrying Lateral Load
Where the addition is structurally independent of the existing structure, existing seismic
force-resisting structural elements shall be permitted to remain unaltered. Where the
addition is not structurally independent of the existing structure, the existing structure
and its addition acting together as a single structure shall be shown to meet the
requirements of 2012 IBC Sections 1609 and 1613.
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Exception: Any existing seismic force-resisting structural element whose demandcapacity ratio with the addition considered is no more than 10 percent greater than its
demand-capacity ratio with the addition ignored shall be permitted to remain unaltered
provided the addition neither creates new structural irregularities, as defined in ASCE 7-10
Section 12.3.2, nor makes existing structural irregularities more severe. For purposes of
calculating demand-capacity ratios, the demand shall consider applicable load
combinations with design lateral loads or forces in accordance with 2012 IBC Sections
1609 and 1613. For purposes of this exception, comparisons of demand-capacity ratios
and calculation of design lateral loads, forces and capacities shall account for the
cumulative effects of additions and alterations since original construction.
2-3404 [Supplement] ALTERATIONS and 2-3405 [Supplement] REPAIRS
The following requirements shall apply to projects involving additions to existing
buildings.
If no repairs or alterations are made to an existing structure that receives a new
structurally independent addition, then seismic evaluation of the existing structure is not
required. If repairs or alterations are made to an existing structure that receives a new
structurally independent addition, the requirements of RP 8 shall be met for the existing
structure.
[C] 2-3404 [Supplement] ALTERATIONS and 2-3405 [Supplement] REPAIRS
RP 8 addresses the triggers, exemptions, scope, and criteria for seismic evaluation and
rehabilitation associated with alteration and repair projects. Therefore, per Section 23401.7, the RP 8 provisions generally replace those of IBC Sections 3404 and 3405.
Note that the RP 8 trigger for alteration projects (RP 8 Section 2.1.b) is based on the
cost of the alteration relative to the facility’s replacement value, whereas the IBC trigger
is based on changes to demand-capacity ratios resulting from the intended work. The
RP 8 triggers for repair projects (RP 8 Sections 2.1.b and 2.1.c) are based on extended
useful life and on the degree of structural damage, whereas the IBC trigger is based
only on the degree of structural damage.
2-3408 CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY
[C] 2-3408 CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY
RP 8 addresses the triggers, exemptions, scope, and criteria for seismic evaluation and
rehabilitation associated with change of occupancy projects. Therefore, per Section 23401.7, the RP 8 provisions generally replace those of IBC Section 3408.
Note that the RP 8 trigger for change of occupancy projects (RP 8 Section 2.1.a) is
based on a case-by-case understanding of the proposed change, “as determined by the
agency,” whereas the IBC trigger is based only on a change of Risk Category. The
2-18
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
exceptions of IBC Section 3408 may be used as guidance in applying RP 8.
2-3409
HISTORIC BUILDINGS
[C] 2-3409 HISTORIC BUILDINGS
RP 8 addresses historic buildings in Section 4.7. Therefore, per Section 2-3401.7, the
RP 8 provisions generally replace those of IBC Section 3409.
Note that the RP 8 provisions for historic buildings generally require compliance,
whereas the IBC provisions do not.
2-3413 [Addition] ACQUISITION
Leased, purchased, donated buildings, or portions of buildings, shall comply with
applicable provisions of RP 8.
[C] 2-3413 [Addition] ACQUISITION
RP 8 addresses leased, purchased, and donated buildings and portions of buildings in
Sections 1.3.2, 1.3.3, and 2.1.e. Since the IBC does not address acquisitions, this
section is added for clarity and completeness.
2-19
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
Table 2-1 Replacement for ASCE 7-10 Table 12.2-1
Design Coefficients and Factors for Basic Seismic Force-Resisting Systems
DEFLECTION
RESPONSE
AMPLIFICATION
SYSTEM
MODIFICATION
FACTOR, Cdb
COEFFICIENT OVERSTRENGTH
g
FACTOR,
Ω
0
Ra
DETAILING
REFERENCE
SECTION
BASIC SEISMIC FORCE-RESISTING
SYSTEM
STRUCTURAL SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
INCLUDING STRUCTURAL HEIGHT, hn, (FEET)
LIMITS BY SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORYc
B
C
Dd
Ed
Fe
160
160
100
A. Bearing Wall Systems
1. Special reinforced concrete shear
l,m
walls
(21.1.1.7)
2. Ordinary reinforced concrete shear
l
walls
(21.1.1.7)
3. Detailed plain concrete shear walls
l
4. Ordinary plain concrete shear walls
5
2-1/2
5
NL
s
4
2-1/2
4
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
u
2
2-1/2
2
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
1-1/2
2-1/2
1-1/2
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
4
2-1/2
4
NL
NL
40
3
2-1/2
3
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
t
5
2-1/2
3-1/2
NL
NL
160
160
100
t
3-1/2
2-1/2
2-1/4
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
t
2
2-1/2
1-3/4
NL
160
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
(1905.1.7)
l
l
5. Intermediate precast shear walls
6. Ordinary precast shear walls
s
l
u
(Chapter 22)
NL
s
(21.1.1.7) ,
u
(1905.1.3)
s
(Chapters 1 - 18)
7. Special reinforced masonry shear
walls
(1.18.3.2.6)
8. Intermediate reinforced masonry
shear walls
(1.18.3.2.5)
9. Ordinary reinforced masonry shear
walls
(1.18.3.2.4)
k
10. Detailed plain masonry shear walls
This system is not permitted by UFC, but is permitted by ASCE 7-10 for SDC B
11. Ordinary plain masonry shear walls
This system is not permitted by UFC, but is permitted by ASCE 7-10 for SDC B
12. Prestressed masonry shear walls
(1.18.3.2.10,
1.18.3.2.11,
t
1.18.3.2.12)
1-1/2
2-1/2
2-20
1-3/4
NL
NP
NP
40
k
40
k
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
Table 2-1 (Continued) Replacement for ASCE 7-10 Table 12.2-1
Design Coefficients and Factors for Basic Seismic Force-Resisting Systems
BASIC SEISMIC FORCE-RESISTING
SYSTEM
DEFLECTION
RESPONSE
AMPLIFICATION
SYSTEM
MODIFICATION
FACTOR, Cdb
COEFFICIENT OVERSTRENGTH
g
FACTOR, Ω0
Ra
DETAILING
REFERENCE
SECTION
13. Ordinary reinforced AAC masonry
shear walls
(1.18.3.2.9)
14. Ordinary plain AAC masonry
shear walls
(1.18.3.2.7)
15. Light-frame (wood) walls
sheathed with wood structural
panels rated for shear resistance
(2301-2307)
16. Light-frame (cold-formed steel)
walls sheathed with wood
structural panels rated for shear
resistance or with steel sheets
(2211, 2301-2307)
17. Light-frame walls with shear
panels of all other materials
(2211, 2301-2307)
18. Light-frame (cold-form steel) wall
systems using flat strap bracing
(2211, 2301-2307)
STRUCTURAL SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
INCLUDING STRUCTURAL HEIGHT, hn, (FEET)
LIMITS BY SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORYc
B
C
Dd
Ed
Fe
t
2
2-1/2
2
NL
35
NP
NP
NP
t
1-1/2
2-1/2
1-1/2
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
u
6-1/2
3
4
NL
NL
65
65
65
u
6-1/2
3
4
NL
NL
65
65
65
u
2
2-1/2
2
NL
NL
35
NP
NP
u
4
2
3-1/2
NL
NL
65
65
65
r
8
2
4
NL
NL
160
160
100
r
6
2
5
NL
NL
160
160
100
r
3-1/4
2
3-1/4
NL
NL
35
6
2-1/2
5
NL
NL
160
B. Building Frame Systems
1. Steel eccentrically braced frames
(F3)
2. Steel special concentrically braced
frames
(F2)
3. Steel ordinary concentrically braced
frames
(F1)
4. Special reinforced concrete shear
l,m
walls
s
(21.1.1.7)
2-21
j
35
j
160
j
NP
100
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
Table 2-1 (Continued) Replacement for ASCE 7-10 Table 12.2-1
Design Coefficients and Factors for Basic Seismic Force-Resisting Systems
BASIC SEISMIC FORCE-RESISTING
SYSTEM
5. Ordinary reinforced concrete shear
l
walls
6. Detailed plain concrete shear walls
s
(21.1.1.7)
l
8. Intermediate precast shear walls
l
B
C
Dd
Ed
Fe
2-1/2
4-1/2
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
2
2-1/2
2
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
1-1/2
2-1/2
1-1/2
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
5
2-1/2
4-1/2
NL
NL
40
4
2-1/2
4
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
r
8
2
4
NL
NL
160
160
100
r
5
2
4-1/2
NL
NL
160
160
100
r
3
2
3
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
r
6-1/2
2-1/2
5-1/2
NL
NL
160
160
100
r
6
2-1/2
5
NL
NL
160
160
100
r
5
2-1/2
4-1/2
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
t
5-1/2
2-1/2
4
NL
NL
160
160
100
t
4
2-1/2
4
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
(1905.1.7)
l
STRUCTURAL SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
INCLUDING STRUCTURAL HEIGHT, hn, (FEET)
LIMITS BY SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORYc
5
u
l
7. Ordinary plain concrete shear walls
9. Ordinary precast shear walls
DEFLECTION
RESPONSE
AMPLIFICATION
SYSTEM
MODIFICATION
FACTOR, Cdb
COEFFICIENT OVERSTRENGTH
g
FACTOR,
Ω
0
Ra
DETAILING
REFERENCE
SECTION
s
(Chapter 22)
s
(21.1.1.7) ,
u
(1905.1.3)
s
(Chapters 1 - 18)
10. Steel and concrete composite
eccentrically braced frames
(H3)
11. Steel and concrete composite
special concentrically braced
frames
(H2)
12. Steel and concrete composite
ordinary braced frames
(H1)
13. Steel and concrete composite plate
shear walls
(H6)
14. Steel and concrete composite
special shear walls
(H5)
15. Steel and concrete composite
ordinary shear walls
(H4)
16. Special reinforced masonry shear
walls
(1.18.3.2.6)
17. Intermediate reinforced masonry
shear walls
(1.18.3.2.5)
2-22
k
40
k
40
k
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
Table 2-1 (Continued) Replacement for ASCE 7-10 Table 12.2-1
Design Coefficients and Factors for Basic Seismic Force-Resisting Systems
BASIC SEISMIC FORCE-RESISTING
SYSTEM
18. Ordinary reinforced masonry shear
walls
DEFLECTION
RESPONSE
AMPLIFICATION
SYSTEM
MODIFICATION
FACTOR, Cdb
COEFFICIENT OVERSTRENGTH
g
FACTOR,
Ω
0
Ra
DETAILING
REFERENCE
SECTION
t
(1.18.3.2.4)
2
2-1/2
2
STRUCTURAL SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
INCLUDING STRUCTURAL HEIGHT, hn, (FEET)
LIMITS BY SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORYc
B
C
Dd
Ed
Fe
NL
160
NP
NP
NP
19. Detailed plain masonry shear walls
This system is not permitted by UFC, but is permitted by ASCE 7-10 for SDC B
20. Ordinary plain masonry shear walls
This system is not permitted by UFC, but is permitted by ASCE 7-10 for SDC B
21. Prestressed masonry shear walls
22. Light-frame (wood) walls sheathed
with wood structural panels rated
for shear resistance
(1.18.3.2.10,
1.18.3.2.11,
t
1.18.3.2.12)
1-1/2
2-1/2
1-3/4
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
7
2-1/2
4-1/2
NL
NL
65
65
65
u
7
2-1/2
4-1/2
NL
NL
65
65
65
u
2-1/2
2-1/2
2-1/2
NL
NL
35
NP
NP
r
8
2-1/2
5
NL
NL
160
160
100
r
7
2
6
NL
NL
160
160
100
r
8
3
5-1/2
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
r
7
3
5-1/2
NL
NL
160
100
NP
r
4-1/2
3
4
NL
NL
35
h
NP
u
(2301-2307)
23. Light-frame (cold-formed steel)
walls sheathed with wood
structural panels rated for shear
resistance or with steel sheets
(2211, 2301-2307)
24. Light-framed walls with shear
panels of all other materials
(2211, 2301-2307)
25. Steel buckling-restrained braced
frames
(F4)
26. Steel special plate shear walls
(F5)
C. Moment-Resisting Frame Systems
1. Steel special moment frames
(E3)
2. Steel special truss moment frames
(E4)
3. Steel intermediate moment frames
(E2)
2-23
h
NP
h
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
Table 2-1 (Continued) Replacement for ASCE 7-10 Table 12.2-1
Design Coefficients and Factors for Basic Seismic Force-Resisting Systems
BASIC SEISMIC FORCE-RESISTING
SYSTEM
4. Steel ordinary moment frames
DETAILING
REFERENCE
SECTION
r
(E1)
STRUCTURAL SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
INCLUDING STRUCTURAL HEIGHT, hn, (FEET)
LIMITS BY SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORYc
B
C
Dd
i,q
i,q
Fe
i,q
3
3
NL
NL
s
8
3
5-1/2
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
s
5
3
4-1/2
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
s
3
3
2-1/2
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
r
8
3
5-1/2
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
r
5
3
4-1/2
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
r
6
3
5-1/2
160
160
100
NP
NP
r
3
3
2-1/2
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
3-1/2
3
o
3-1/2
35
35
35
35
35
(21.1.1.7)
6. Intermediate reinforced concrete
moment frames
(21.1.1.7)
7. Ordinary reinforced concrete
moment frames
(21.1.1.7)
8. Steel and concrete composite
special moment frames
(G3)
9. Steel and concrete composite
intermediate moment frames
(G2)
10. Steel and concrete composite
partially restrained moment frames
(G4)
11. Steel and concrete composite
ordinary moment frames
(G1)
u,v
(2210)
NP
Ed
3-1/2
5. Special reinforced concrete moment
frames
12. Cold-formed steel—special bolted
p
moment frame
DEFLECTION
RESPONSE
AMPLIFICATION
SYSTEM
MODIFICATION
FACTOR, Cdb
COEFFICIENT OVERSTRENGTH
g
FACTOR,
Ω
0
Ra
NP
NP
D. Dual Systems with Special Moment Frames Capable of Resisting at Least 25% of Prescribed Seismic Forces [ASCE 7-10 12.2.5.1]
r
8
2-1/2
4
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
r
7
2-1/2
5-1/2
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
7
2-1/2
5-1/2
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
1. Steel eccentrically braced frames
(F3)
2. Steel special concentrically braced
frames
(F2)
3. Special reinforced concrete shear
l,m
walls
(21.1.1.7)
s
2-24
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
Table 2-1 (Continued) Replacement for ASCE 7-10 Table 12.2-1
Design Coefficients and Factors for Basic Seismic Force-Resisting Systems
BASIC SEISMIC FORCE-RESISTING
SYSTEM
4. Ordinary reinforced concrete shear
l
walls
DETAILING
REFERENCE
SECTION
s
(21.1.1.7)
DEFLECTION
RESPONSE
AMPLIFICATION
SYSTEM
MODIFICATION
FACTOR, Cdb
COEFFICIENT OVERSTRENGTH
g
FACTOR,
Ω
0
Ra
STRUCTURAL SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
INCLUDING STRUCTURAL HEIGHT, hn, (FEET)
LIMITS BY SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORYc
B
C
Dd
Ed
Fe
6
2-1/2
5
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
r
8
2-1/2
4
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
r
6
2-1/2
5
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
r
7-1/2
2-1/2
6
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
r
7
2-1/2
6
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
r
6
2-1/2
5
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
t
5-1/2
3
5
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
t
4
3
3-1/2
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
r
8
2-1/2
5
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
r
8
2-1/2
6-1/2
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
5. Steel and concrete composite
eccentrically braced frames
(H3)
6. Steel and concrete composite
special concentrically braced frames
(H2)
7. Steel and concrete composite plate
shear walls
(H6)
8. Steel and concrete composite
special shear walls
(H5)
9. Steel and concrete composite
ordinary shear walls
(H4)
10. Special reinforced masonry shear
walls
(1.18.3.2.6)
11. Intermediate reinforced masonry
shear walls
(1.18.3.2.5)
12. Steel buckling-restrained braced
frames
(F4)
13. Steel special plate shear walls
(F5)
E. Dual Systems with Intermediate Moment Frames Capable of Resisting at Least 25% of Prescribed Seismic Forces [ASCE 7-10 12.2.5.1]
1. Steel special concentrically braced
f
frames
2. Special reinforced concrete shear
l,m
walls
r
(F2)
s
(21.1.1.7)
6
2-1/2
5
NL
NL
35
NP
NP
6-1/2
2-1/2
5
NL
NL
160
100
100
2-25
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
Table 2-1 (Continued) Replacement for ASCE 7-10 Table 12.2-1
Design Coefficients and Factors for Basic Seismic Force-Resisting Systems
BASIC SEISMIC FORCE-RESISTING
SYSTEM
DETAILING
REFERENCE
SECTION
3. Ordinary reinforced masonry shear
walls
(1.18.3.2.4)
4. Intermediate reinforced masonry
shear walls
(1.18.3.2.5)
DEFLECTION
RESPONSE
AMPLIFICATION
SYSTEM
MODIFICATION
FACTOR, Cdb
COEFFICIENT OVERSTRENGTH
g
FACTOR,
Ω
0
Ra
STRUCTURAL SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
INCLUDING STRUCTURAL HEIGHT, hn, (FEET)
LIMITS BY SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORYc
B
C
Dd
Ed
Fe
t
3
3
2-1/2
NL
160
NP
NP
NP
t
3-1/2
3
3
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
r
5-1/2
2-1/2
4-1/2
NL
NL
160
100
NP
r
3-1/2
2-1/2
3
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
r
5
3
4-1/2
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
s
5-1/2
2-1/2
4-1/2
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
s
4-1/2
2-1/2
4
NL
NP
NP
NP
NP
35
35
5. Steel and concrete composite
special concentrically braced frames
(H2)
6. Steel and concrete composite
ordinary braced frames
(H1)
7. Steel and concrete composite
ordinary shear walls
(H4)
8. Ordinary reinforced concrete shear
l
walls
(21.1.1.7)
F. Shear Wall-Frame Interactive
System with Ordinary Reinforced
Concrete Moment Frames and
Ordinary Reinforced Concrete
l
Shear Walls
(21.1.1.7)
G. Cantilevered column systems detailed to conform to the requirements for [ASCE 7-10 12.2.5.2]:
1. Steel special cantilever column
systems
(E6)
2. Steel ordinary cantilever column
systems
(E5)
3. Special reinforced concrete moment
n
frames
r
2-1/2
1-1/4
2-1/2
35
35
35
r
1-1/4
1-1/4
1-1/4
35
35
NP
NP
NP
2-1/2
1-1/4
2-1/2
35
35
35
35
35
s
(21.1.1.7)
2-26
i
i
i
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
Table 2-1 (Continued) Replacement for ASCE 7-10 Table 12.2-1
Design Coefficients and Factors for Basic Seismic Force-Resisting Systems
BASIC SEISMIC FORCE-RESISTING
SYSTEM
DEFLECTION
RESPONSE
AMPLIFICATION
SYSTEM
MODIFICATION
FACTOR, Cdb
COEFFICIENT OVERSTRENGTH
g
FACTOR,
Ω
0
Ra
DETAILING
REFERENCE
SECTION
4. Intermediate reinforced concrete
moment frames
(21.1.1.7)
5. Ordinary reinforced concrete
moment frames
(21.1.1.7)
STRUCTURAL SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
INCLUDING STRUCTURAL HEIGHT, hn, (FEET)
LIMITS BY SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORYc
B
C
Dd
Ed
Fe
s
1-1/2
1-1/4
1-1/2
35
35
NP
NP
NP
s
1
1-1/4
1
35
NP
NP
NP
NP
u
6. Timber frames
(2301 – 2307)
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2
35
35
35
NP
NP
H. Steel Systems Not Specifically
Detailed for Seismic Resistance,
Excluding Cantilevered Column
Systems
AISC 360-10,
AISI S100,
ASCE 8
3
3
3
NL
NL
NP
NP
NP
2-27
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
Table 2-1 (Continued) Replacement For ASCE 7-10 Table 12.2-1
Design Coefficients And Factors For Basic Seismic Force-Resisting Systems
FOR SI: 1 foot (ft) = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot (psf) = 0.0479 kN/m2
a. Response modification coefficient, R, for use throughout. Note R reduces forces to a strength level, not an allowable stress level.
b. Deflection amplification factor, Cd, for use in ASCE 7-10 Sections 12.8.6, 12.8.7, 12.9.2, 12.12.3, and 12.12.4.
c. NL= Not limited and NP = Not permitted. For metric units, use 30 m for 100 ft and 50 m for 160 ft.
d. See ASCE 7-10 Section 12.2.5.4 for a description of seismic force-resisting systems limited to buildings with a structural height, hn, of 240 feet (75 m) or less.
e. See ASCE 7-10 Section 12.2.5.4 for seismic force-resisting systems limited to buildings with a structural height, hn, of 160 feet (50 m) or less.
f. Ordinary moment frame is permitted to be used in lieu of intermediate moment frame for Seismic Design Category B or C.
g. Where the tabulated value of the overstrength factor, Ω0, is greater than or equal to 2½, Ω0 is permitted to be reduced by subtracting the value of ½ for structures
with flexible diaphragms.
h. See Section 12.2.5.7 for limitations in structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories D, E, or F.
i. See Section 12.2.5.6 for limitations in structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories D, E, or F.
j. Steel ordinary concentrically braced frames (OCBFs) are permitted in single-story buildings up to a structural height, hn, of 60 ft (18 m) where the dead load of
2
the roof does not exceed 20 psf (1.0 kN/m ) and in penthouse structures.
k. An increase in structural height, hn, to 45 ft (14 m) is permitted for single story storage warehouse facilities.
l. In Section 2.2 of ACI 318, a shear wall is defined as a structural wall.
m. In Section 2.2 of ACI 318, the definition of “special structural wall” includes precast and cast-in-place construction.
n. In Section 2.2 of ACI 318, the definition of “special moment frame” includes precast and cast-in-place construction.
o. Alternately, the seismic load effect with overstrength, Emh, is permitted to be based on the expected strength determined in accordance with AISI S110.
p. Cold-formed steel – special bolted moment frames shall be limited to one-story in height in accordance with AISI S110.
q. OMFs are permitted to be used as part of the structural system that transfers forces between isolator units.
r. ANSI/AISC 341-10 section number.
s. ACI 318-11, Section 21.1.1.7 cites appropriate sections in ACI 318-11.
t. TMS 402-11/ACI 530-11/ASCE 5-11 section number.
u. 2012 IBC section numbers.
v. Chapter 2 of this UFC.
2-28
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
Table 2-2 Replacement for ASCE 7-10 Table 12.6-1
Permitted Analytical Procedures
Seismic
Design
Category
a
a
B ,C
a
a
D ,E ,F
Equivalent
Lateral Force
Analysis,
Modal Response
Spectrum
Analysis,
Section 12.8
Section 12.9
All structures
P
RC I or II buildings not exceeding
2 stories above the base
Linear Response
History Procedure,
Nonlinear Response
History Procedure,
Section 16.1
Section 16.2
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
Structures of light frame
construction
P
P
P
P
Structures with no structural
irregularities and not exceeding
160 ft in structural height
P
P
P
P
Structures exceeding 160 ft in
structural height with no
structural irregularities and with T
< 3.5Ts
P
P
P
P
Structures not exceeding 160 ft
in structural height and having
only horizontal irregularities of
Type 2, 3, 4, or 5 in Table 12.3-1
or vertical irregularities of Type
4, 5a, or 5b in Table 12.3-2
P
P
P
P
All other structures
NP
P
P
P
All structures
NP
P
P
NP
Structural characteristics
a
Risk
Category
b
V
P: Permitted; NP: Not Permitted. Ts = SD1/SDS.
a
For RC IV structures designed using the alternate procedure of Chapter 3, only the Nonlinear Response History Procedure is permitted
b
For structures using seismic isolation and/or supplemental damping, nonlinear dynamic analysis is required (see Section 4-12.6.2).
2-29
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Table 2-3 Replacement for ASCE/SEI 41-13 Table 4-6, Benchmark Buildings
Building Type
1,2
NBC
Wood Frame,
Wood Shear
Panels (Types W1
& W2)
Seismic Evaluation or Retrofit
Provisions
Building Seismic Design Provisions
LS
SBC
LS
UBC
LS
IBC
LS
LS
NEHRP
Tri-Services Criteria
9
FEMA
LS
178
FEMA
310/
ASCE
LS, IO
31
FEMA 356/
ASCE/SEI
LS7, IO8
41
LS
IO
LS, IO
Design
Evaluation
1993
1994
1976
2000
1985
*
1998
2000
1982
1986
1999
Wood Frame,
Wood Shear
Panels (Type
W1A)
*
*
1997
2000
1997
*
1998
2000
1998
1998
1999
Steel MomentResisting Frame
(Types S1 & S1A)
*
*
1994
4
2000
1997
*
1998
2000
1998
1998
1999
Steel
Concentrically
Braced Frame
(Types S2 & S2A)
*
*
1997
2000
*
*
1998
2000
1992
1992
1999
Steel Eccentrically
Braced Frame
(Types S2 & S2A)
*
*
1988
4
2000
1997
*
*
2000
1992
1992
1999
BucklingRestrained Braced
Frame (Types S2
& S2A)
*
*
*
2006
*
*
*
2000
1992
1992
1999
Light Metal Frame
(Type S3)
*
*
*
2000
*
1992
1998
2000
2-30
1992
10
1998
10
1999
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
Table 2-3 (Continued) Replacement for ASCE/SEI 41-13 Table 4-6, Benchmark Buildings
Building Type
1,2
Seismic Evaluation or Retrofit
Provisions
Building Seismic Design Provisions
NBC
LS
SBC
LS
UBC
LS
Steel Frame
w/Concrete Shear
Walls (Type S4)
1993
1994
1994
Steel Frame with
URM Infill (Types
S5 & S5A)
*
*
Steel Plate Shear
Wall (Type S6)
*
Reinforced
Concrete MomentResisting Frame
3
(Type C1)
9
IBC
LS
LS
NEHRP
Tri-Services Criteria
9
FEMA
LS
178
FEMA
310/
ASCE
LS, IO
31
FEMA 356/
ASCE/SEI
LS7, IO8
41
LS
IO
LS, IO
Design
Evaluation
2000
1985
*
1998
2000
1982
1986
1999
*
2000
*
*
1998
2000
*
NP
1999
*
*
2006
*
*
*
2000
*
*
*
1993
1994
1994
2000
1997
*
1998
2000
1982
1986
1999
Reinforced
Concrete Shear
Walls (Types C2 &
C2A)
1993
1994
1994
2000
1985
*
1998
2000
1982
1986
1999
Concrete Frame
with URM Infill
(Types C3 & C3A)
*
*
*
2000
*
*
1998
2000
*
NP
1999
Tilt-up Concrete
(Types PC1 &
PC1A)
*
*
1997
2000
*
*
1998
2000
1998
1998
1999
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Table 2-3 Replacement for ASCE/SEI 41-13 Table 4-6, Benchmark Buildings
Building Type
1,2
Seismic Evaluation or Retrofit
Provisions
Building Seismic Design Provisions
NBC
LS
SBC
LS
UBC
LS
IBC
LS
LS
NEHRP
Tri-Services Criteria
9
FEMA
LS
178
FEMA
310/
ASCE
LS, IO
31
FEMA 356/
ASCE/SEI
LS7, IO8
41
LS
IO
LS, IO
Design
Evaluation
Precast Concrete
Frame (Types
PC2 & PC2A)
*
*
*
2000
*
1992
1998
2000
1998
1998
1999
Reinforced
Masonry Bearing
Walls w/Flexible
Diaphragms
(Type RM1)
*
*
1997
2000
*
*
1998
2000
1998
1998
1999
Reinforced
Masonry Bearing
Walls w/Stiff
Diaphragms
(Type RM2)
1993
1994
1994
9
2000
1985
*
1998
2000
1982
1986
1999
Unreinforced
Masonry Bearing
Walls w/Flexible
Diaphragms
(Type URM)5
*
*
1991
6
2000
*
1992
1998
2000
*
NP
Unreinforced
Masonry Bearing
Walls w/Stiff
Diaphragms
(Type URMA)
*
*
*
2000
*
*
1998
2000
*
NP
2-32
1999
(LS only)
1999
UFC 3-310-04
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Table 2-3 Replacement for ASCE/SEI 41-13 Table 4-6, Benchmark Buildings
Building Type
1,2
Seismic Evaluation or Retrofit
Provisions
Building Seismic Design Provisions
NBC
LS
SBC
LS
UBC
LS
IBC
LS
LS
NEHRP
Tri-Services Criteria
FEMA
LS
178
FEMA
310/
ASCE
LS, IO
31
FEMA 356/
ASCE/SEI
LS7, IO8
41
LS
IO
LS, IO
*
*
*
Seismic Isolation
or Passive
Dissipation
*
*
1991
2000
*
*
*
2000
Load-Bearing
Cold-Formed
Steel Framing
(Not listed in
ASCE/SEI 41-13)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
2000
Design
1998
11
Evaluation
1998
11
Table 2-3 (Continued) Replacement for ASCE/SEI 41-13 Table 4-6, Benchmark Buildings
Notes:
1
Building Type refers to one of the Common Building Types defined in ASCE 41-13 Table 2-2.
2
Buildings on hillside sites shall not be considered Benchmark Buildings.
3
Flat slab concrete moment frames shall not be considered Benchmark Buildings.
4
Steel moment-resisting frames and eccentrically braced frames with links adjacent to columns shall comply with the 1994 UBC Emergency
Provisions, published September/October 1994, or subsequent requirements.
5
URM buildings evaluated or retrofitted and shown to be acceptable using Special Procedure (the ABK Methodology, 1984) may be considered
benchmark buildings subject to the limitation of Section 15.2.
6
Refers to the GSREB or its predecessor, the Uniform Code of Building Conservation (UCBC), or its successor, IEBC Appendix Chapter A1.
7
S-3 Structural Performance Level for the BSE-1.
8
S-1 Structural Performance Level for the BSE-1.
2-33
9
1999
UFC 3-310-04
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Table 2-3 (Continued) Replacement for ASCE/SEI 41-13 Table 4-6, Benchmark Buildings
Provisions, published September/October 1994, or subsequent requirements.
5
URM buildings evaluated or retrofitted and shown to be acceptable using Special Procedure (the ABK Methodology, 1984) may be considered
benchmark buildings subject to the limitation of Section 15.2.
6
Refers to the GSREB or its predecessor, the Uniform Code of Building Conservation (UCBC), or its successor, IEBC Appendix Chapter A1.
7
S-3 Structural Performance Level for the BSE-1.
8
S-1 Structural Performance Level for the BSE-1.
9
The Tri-Services Criteria Benchmark Year provisions apply only to the structural aspects of the evaluation. Nonstructural and
foundation elements shall require a minimum Tier 1 evaluation, in accordance with ASCE 31-03, except under the following
circumstances:
a. The building was designed and constructed in accordance with TI 809-04 or later Tri-Services criteria; or,
b. The building was evaluated in accordance with TI 809-05 or later Tri-Services criteria, and the building evaluation and rehabilitation
included structural, nonstructural, geotechnical, and foundation measures.
10
Pre-engineered metal buildings designed in accordance with 1992 criteria using ASCE 7 loading may be considered as Benchmark
Buildings for Life Safety Performance Objective, only if all other applicable restrictions are met. Pre-engineered metal buildings
designed in accordance with 1998 criteria, including TI 809-30, Metal Building Systems, may be considered as Benchmark Buildings for
both the Life Safety and Immediate Occupancy Performance Objectives, only if all other applicable restrictions are met.
11
This benchmark year is based in the initial publication of TI 809-07, Design of Cold-Formed Load-Bearing Steel System and Masonry
Veneer Steel Stud Walls, 1998.
LS
Only buildings designed and constructed or evaluated in accordance with these documents and being evaluated to the Life-Safety Performance
Level may be considered Benchmark Buildings.
IO
Buildings designed and constructed or evaluated in accordance with these documents and being evaluated to either the Immediate Occupancy
Performance Level may be considered Benchmark Buildings.
*
No benchmark year;. buildings shall be evaluated using ASCE 41-13.
NP – Not Permitted. Tri-Services guidance does not permit the use of URM.
NBC – Building Code Officials and Code Administrators (BOCA), National Building Code, 1993.
SBC – Southern Building Code Congress (SBCC), Standard Building Code, 1994.
UBC – International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO), Uniform Building Code, year as shown in table.
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Table 2-3 (Continued) Replacement for ASCE/SEI 41-13 Table 4-6, Benchmark Buildings
GSREB – ICBO, Guidelines for Seismic Retrofit of Existing Buildings, 2001.
IBC – International Code Council, International Building Code, 2000.
NEHRP – Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), NEHRP Recommended Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for
New Buildings. Years shown in table refer to editions of document.
FEMA 178 – FEMA, NEHRP Handbook for the Seismic Evaluation of Existing Buildings, 1992.
FEMA 310 – FEMA, Handbook for the Seismic Evaluation of Buildings – A Prestandard, 1998. FEMA 310 was superseded by ASCE 31-03,
which in turn has been superseded by ASCE 41-13.
FEMA 356 - FEMA, Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings - FEMA 356 was superseded by ASCE 4106, which in turn has been superseded by ASCE 41-13..
ASCE 31 – ASCE, Seismic Evaluation of Existing Buildings, 2003
ASCE/SEI 41 – ASCE, Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings, 2006
Tri-Services Criteria:
1982 – TM 5-809-10; NAVFAC P-355; AFM 88-3, Ch 13, Seismic Design for Buildings, 1982.
1986 – TM 5-809-10-1; NAVFAC P-355.1; AFM 88-3, Ch 13, Sec A, Seismic Design Guidelines for Essential Buildings, 1986.
1988 – TM 5-809-10-2; NAVFAC P-355.2; AFM 88-3, Ch 13, Sec B, Seismic Design Guidelines for Upgrading Existing Buildings, 1988.
1992 – TM 5-809-10; NAVFAC P-355; AFM 88-3, Ch 13, Seismic Design for Buildings, 1992.
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CHAPTER 3 ALTERNATE DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR RC IV STRUCTURES
3-1
GENERAL
3-1.1 Overview
This Chapter shall be used for the alternate design of buildings and other structures
assigned to RC IV.
Buildings assigned to RC IV are either unit/installation-essential or post-disaster
essential (UFC 3-301-01 Table 2-2). This Chapter provides optional nonlinear analysis
procedures for RC IV buildings and other structures that may be used as an alternative
to the procedures found in the 2012 International Building Code (2012 IBC). Nonlinear
analysis procedures may provide more economical or better-performing structural
designs than the 2012 IBC procedures. The analysis procedures outlined in this
Chapter shall be used only with the approval of the Authority having Jurisdiction.
The nonlinear procedures outlined in this Chapter require that an RC IV building meet
two general performance objectives:
1. A Life Safety (LS) performance objective for the Risk-Targeted Maximum Considered
Earthquake (MCER) ground motions, nominally an earthquake associated with a 1%
probability of structural collapse in 50 years; and,
2. An Immediate Occupancy (IO) performance objective for earthquake ground motions with
a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years (10%/50-yr). The 10%/50-yr earthquake is
termed herein as the BSE-1 earthquake, adopting the terminology used in ASCE/SEI 4113, Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings.
[C] 3-1.1 Overview
In ASCE 7-10, MCER is used in conjunction with a “Collapse Prevention” performance objective.
The alternate design in this chapter is required to meet a “Life Safety” performance objective.
So, from a puristic point of view, the MCE ground motion of ASCE 7-10 should have continued
in use in this chapter. In practical terms, this would have meant using the MCER SS- and S1values of ASCE 7-10, with risk coefficients CRS (ASCE 7-10 Figure 22-17) and CR1 (ASCE 7-10
Figure 22-18), respectively, applied to them. This, in turn, would have meant addition of
columns giving CRS- and CR1- values in UFC 3-301-01 Tables E-2 and F-2. In view of the fact
that CRS- and CR1-values are typically within a narrow range around 1.0, a decision was made to
avoid unjustifiable complications and use MCER ground in place of MCE ground motion for the
alternate designs of this chapter.
Performance criteria based on tolerable levels of damage are defined to ensure that
these performance objectives are met. Nonlinear strength and deformation demands
are determined by performing nonlinear static or nonlinear dynamic analyses and the
results compared with acceptance criteria contained in authoritative documents, such as
3-1
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
ASCE/SEI 41-13 or FEMA P-750, or developed based on laboratory data or rational
analysis.
To ensure that satisfactory nonlinear behavior is achieved, restrictions on the types of
seismic force-resisting systems that can be used in conjunction with this Chapter are
imposed.
This Chapter replaces the provisions of Chapter 16 of the 2012 IBC, as modified by
Chapter 2, for use in performing the alternative analysis of RC IV buildings and other
structures. All other chapters of the 2012 IBC shall apply as modified by Chapter 2.
3-1.2 Design Review Panel
A design review of the seismic force-resisting system design and structural analysis
shall be performed by an independent team of Registered Design Professionals in the
appropriate disciplines and others experienced in seismic analysis methods and the
theory and application of nonlinear seismic analysis and structural behavior under
extreme cyclic loads. Membership on the Design Review Panel shall be subject to the
approval of the Authority having Jurisdiction. The design review shall include, but not
necessarily be limited to, the following:
1. Any site-specific seismic criteria used in the analysis, including the development of sitespecific spectra and ground motion time-histories;
2. Any acceptance criteria used to demonstrate the adequacy of structural elements and
systems to withstand the calculated force and deformation demands, together with any
laboratory or other data used to substantiate the criteria;
3. The preliminary design, including the selection of the structural system and the
configuration of structural elements; and,
4. The final design of the entire structural system and all supporting analyses.
3-2
DEFINITIONS
3-2.1 General
2012 IBC Sections 1602 and 1613.2 and ASCE 7-10 Section 11.2 shall apply. In
addition, the definitions listed in Section X.1 of Resource Paper 2 of FEMA P-750,
NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other
Structures, 2009 Edition, shall apply.
3-3
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS
3-3.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1603, as modified by Section 2-1603 of this UFC, shall apply.
Exception:
3-2
UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
For buildings designed using this Chapter, the Seismic Importance Factor, Ie, the design
base shear, seismic response coefficient, Cs, and the Response Modification Factor, R,
do not apply and shall not be listed in construction documents.
3-4
GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
3-4.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1604 shall apply, except as modified herein. UFC 3-301-01 Table 2-2
shall replace 2012 IBC Table 1604.5. The Importance Factor for seismic loading
defined in UFC 3-301-01 Table 2-2 shall not apply. Importance Factors for seismic
design of nonstructural components shall be determined in accordance with the criteria
of ASCE7-10 Chapter 13. Importance Factors for snow and ice loads shall apply as
listed in UFC 3-301-01 Table 2-2.
3-5
LOAD COMBINATIONS
3-5.1 General
RC IV buildings and other structures, and portions thereof, shall be designed to resist
the load combinations specified in this section. For all load combinations where
earthquake-generated forces are not considered, 2012 IBC Section 1605.2 shall apply.
In addition, where atmospheric ice and wind-on-ice loads are considered, ASCE 7-10
Section 2.3.4 shall apply. Where earthquake-generated forces are considered, 2012
IBC Equations 16-5 and 16-7 shall be replaced by Equations 3-1 and 3-2. 2012 IBC
Section 1605.3 shall not apply; allowable stress design shall not be permitted for use in
this Chapter. ASCE 7-10 Section 12.4.3.2 shall not apply; for any design situation
requiring the use of load combinations with over strength factor, Equations 3-1 and 3-2
shall apply, subject to the exceptions noted in Section 3-17.1.
3-5.2 Seismic Load Combinations
When the effects of earthquake-generated forces are considered, structures shall resist
the most critical effects from the following combinations of factored loads:
When the effects of gravity and seismic loads are additive:
1.1(D + 0.25 L +0.2 S) + E
(Equation 3-1)
When the effects of gravity and seismic loads are counteractive:
0.9 D + E
(Equation 3-2)
where
D = Effect of dead load
L = Effect of unreduced design live load
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UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
S = Effect of design flat roof snow load calculated in accordance with ASCE 7-10
E = The maximum effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake forces at the BSE-1
displacement (ΔS) or MCER displacement (ΔM), determined in the nonlinear analysis, as set
forth in Section 3-17.1
Exception: Where the design flat-roof snow load calculated in accordance with ASCE
7-10 is less than 30 psf, the effective snow load shall be permitted to be taken as zero.
3-6
DEAD LOADS
3-6.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1606 shall apply.
3-7
LIVE LOADS
3-7.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1607 shall apply.
3-8
SNOW LOADS
3-8.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1608 shall apply.
3-9
WIND LOADS
3-9.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1609 shall apply.
3-10
SOIL LATERAL LOADS
3-10.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1610 shall apply, without the exception that is noted there.
3-11
RAIN LOADS
3-11.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1611 shall apply.
3-12
FLOOD LOADS
3-12.1 General
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UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
2012 IBC Section 1612, as modified by Section 2-1612.6 of this UFC, shall apply.
3-13
ICE LOADS—ATMOSPHERIC ICING
3-13.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1614 shall apply.
3-14
EARTHQUAKE LOADS – GENERAL
3-14.1 Scope
Every structure, and portion thereof, shall as a minimum be designed and constructed
to resist the effects of earthquake motions and assigned an SDC as set forth in 2012
IBC Section 1613.3.5/ASCE 7-10 Section 11.6. The use of nonlinear analysis
procedures in this Chapter minimizes the need for SDC use, but the SDC is required for
establishing detailing requirements.
3-14.1.1 Additions to Existing Buildings
2012 IBC section 3403, as modified by Chapter 2 Section 3403 shall apply.
3-14.2 Change of Occupancy
2012 IBC Section 3408 shall apply (see comment in Chapter 2 Section 3408).
3-14.3 Alterations
2012 IBC Section 3404, as modified by Chapter 2 Section 3404, shall apply.
3-14.4 Quality Assurance
2012 IBC Chapter 17, as modified by UFC 1-200-01 and UFC 3-301-01, shall apply.
3-14.5 Seismic and Wind
2012 IBC Section 1604.10 shall apply.
3-15
EARTHQUAKE LOADS – SITE GROUND MOTION
3-15.1 General Procedure for Determining Design Spectral Response
Accelerations
Ground motion accelerations, represented by response spectra and coefficients derived
from these spectra, shall be determined in accordance with the general procedure of
this Section, or the site-specific response analysis procedure of Section 3-15.2.
Mapped spectral response accelerations shall be determined as prescribed in Sections
2-1.6.1 and 2-1.6.2 of UFC 3-301-01.
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UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
MCER spectral accelerations at short periods and a 1-second period, adjusted for site
class effects, shall be determined in accordance with Section 3-15.1.2. The general
response spectrum for MCER ground shaking shall be determined in accordance with
ASCE 7-10 Section 11.4.5, except that SMS and SM1 shall be used respectively in lieu of
SDS and SD1 (see Section 3-15.1.2).
The BSE-1 spectral accelerations at short periods and at a 1-second period, adjusted
for site class effects, shall be determined in accordance with Section 3-15.1.2. The
design response spectrum for BSE-1 ground shaking shall be constructed in
accordance with ASCE 7-10 Section 11.4.5, except that the quantities SSS and SS1 shall
be used respectively in place of SDS and SD1.
3-15.1.1 Site Class Definition
ASCE 7-10 Section 20.3 shall apply as written.
3-15.1.2 Site Coefficients and Adjusted Earthquake Spectral Response
Acceleration Parameters
The spectral response accelerations for short periods and at a 1-second period,
adjusted for site class effects, shall be determined by Equations 3-3 through 3-6:
SMS = FaSS-MCE-R
(Equation 3-3)
SSS = FaSS-BSE-1
(Equation 3-4)
SM1 = FvS1-MCER
(Equation 3-5)
SS1 = FvS1-BSE-1
(Equation 3-6)
where
Fa = Site coefficient defined in 2012 IBC Table 1613.3.3(1)
Fv = Site coefficient defined in 2012 IBC Table 1613.3.3(2)
SS-MCE-R = Mapped 5% damped spectral acceleration for short periods as
determined in Section 3-15.1, for the MCER; this value is the same as SS in the 2012 IBC
SS-BSE-1 = Mapped 5% damped spectral acceleration for short periods as determined
in Section 3-15.1, for the 10%/50-yr earthquake
S1-MCE-R = Mapped 5% damped spectral acceleration for a 1-second period as
determined in Section 3-15.1, for the MCER; this value is the same as S1 in the 2012 IBC
S1-BSE-1 = Mapped 5% damped spectral acceleration for a 1-second period as
determined in Section 3-15.1, for the 10%/50-yr earthquake
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UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
SMS = MCER spectral response accelerations for short periods; this value is the same
as SMS in the 2012 IBC
SM1 = MCER spectral response accelerations for a 1-second period; this value is the
same as SM1 in the 2012 IBC
SSS = The BSE-1 spectral response accelerations for short periods
SS1 = The BSE-1 spectral response accelerations for a 1-second period
3-15.2 Site-specific Response Analysis for Determining Ground Motion
Accelerations
ASCE 7-10 Section 21.1 shall apply, except that the procedures outlined for determining
MCER parameters shall also be applied to determining BSE-1 parameters.
3-15.3 Ground Motion Hazard Analysis
ASCE 7-10 Section 21.2 shall apply.
3-16
EARTHQUAKE LOADS – CRITERIA SECTION
3-16.1 Structural Design Criteria
Each structure shall be assigned a Seismic Design Category in accordance with 2012
IBC Section 1613.3.5/ASCE 7-10 Section 11.6, for use with required structural design
and construction provisions. Each structure shall be provided with complete lateral and
vertical force-resisting systems capable of providing adequate strength, stiffness, and
energy dissipation capacity to withstand the design earthquake ground motions
determined in accordance with Section 3-15 within the prescribed performance
objectives of Section 3-17. In addition, each structure shall be designed to
accommodate the architectural, mechanical, and electrical component requirements of
Section 3-21. Design ground motions shall be assumed to occur along any horizontal
direction of a structure. A continuous load path, or paths, with adequate strength and
stiffness to transfer forces induced by the design earthquake ground motions from the
points of application to the final point of resistance shall be provided.
3-16.2 Importance Factors
The structural seismic importance factor, Ie, is not used. The component seismic
importance factor, Ip, used in Section 3-21, shall be the value specified in Sections 321.4.4
3-16.3 Site Limitations
A structure assigned to RC IV shall not be sited where there is a known potential for an
active fault to cause rupture of the ground surface at the structure. An active fault is
defined as a fault for which there is an average historic slip rate of 1 mm or more per
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UFC 3-310-04
1 JUNE 2013
year and for which there is geographic evidence of seismic activity in Holocene times
(the most recent 11,000 years).
3-16.4 Building Configuration
The requirements of ASCE 7-10 Sections 12.3.1, 12.3.2, and 12.3.3 shall not apply to
facilities designed using the provisions of this Chapter.
3-16.5 Analysis Procedures
3-16.5.1 Nonlinear Analysis
The Alternate RC IV analysis procedure of this Chapter may be used in lieu of the
Equivalent Lateral Force or Modal Response Spectrum Analysis procedures that would
generally be used to comply with the 2012 IBC and Chapter 2. For this alternate
procedure, a nonlinear structural analysis shall be performed. The analysis may use
either the Nonlinear Static Procedure (NSP) or the Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure
(NDP).
3-16.5.1.1 Nonlinear Static Procedure
The NSP shall be permitted for structures not exceeding 6 stories in height and having a
fundamental period, T, not greater than 3.5TS, where TS is determined in accordance
with ASCE 7-10 Section 11.4.5. Application of the NSP shall comply with the
requirements of Resource Paper 2 of FEMA P-750, subject to the modifications below,
NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other
Structures, 2009 Edition, Part 3, Resource Papers (RP) on Special Topics in Seismic
Design. In applying the NSP, the user may employ the references cited in Resource
Paper 2 of FEMA P-750. Further information on NSP may be found in FEMA P-750,
NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other
Structures, 2009 Edition, Part 2, Commentary and in NEHRP Seismic Design Technical
Brief No. 4, Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design, NIST GCR 10-917-5. The
following should be noted:
1. To apply the FEMA P-750 NSP, the design earthquake ground motions and associated
spectral accelerations shall be as specified herein, and not the design ground motions
defined in FEMA P-750.
2. A target displacement shall be separately determined for each of the MCER and BSE-1
spectra.
3. The structure as a whole and each of the elements of the lateral force- resisting system
and its connections shall be evaluated for their adequacy to provide Immediate
Occupancy Performance at the BSE-1 target displacement and to provide Life Safety
Performance at the MCER target displacement.
4. P-Delta effects are to be included in the development of the backbone curves (see
Section 2.4 of NIST GCR 10-917-5 NEHRP Seismic Design Technical Brief No 4).
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5. Multidirectional and concurrent seismic effects shall be included as defined in Section
7.2.5 of ASCE/SEI 41-13.
6. The following modifications shall be made to Resource Paper 2 of FEMA P-750
a. Replace references to ASCE/SEI 41 Supplement 1 with ASCE/SEI 41-13.
b. Replace references to Section 3.3.3 of ASCE/SEI 41 Supplement 1 with Section
7.4.3 of ASCE/SEI 41-13.
c. Replace references to Section 3.3.3.3.2 of ASCE/SEI 41 Supplement 1 with Section
7.4.3.3.2 of ASCE/SEI 41-13.
d. Replace reference to Equation 3-16 of ASCE/SEI 41 Supplement 1 with Equation 732 of ASCE/SEI 41-13 and replace μmax in Equation 7-32 of ASCE/SEI 41-13 with
Rmax.
3-16.5.1.2 Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure
Application of the NDP shall comply with the requirements of ASCE 7-10, Section 16.2.
3-16.5.2 Site Ground Motions
Two characteristic ground motions shall be required for the design of facilities using this
procedure:
1. For the LS performance objective, the MCER ground motion shall be used. For the NSP,
spectral response accelerations shall be determined using the procedures of Section 315.1 or Section 3-15.2. For the NDP, MCER ground motions shall be determined using
procedures prescribed in ASCE 7-10 Section 16.2.3.
2. For the IO performance objective, the BSE-1 ground motion shall be used. For the NSP,
spectral response accelerations shall be determined using the procedures of Section 315.1 or Section 3-15.2. For the NDP, BSE-1 ground motions shall be determined using
procedures prescribed in ASCE 7-10 Section 16.2.3.
3-17 EARTHQUAKE LOADS – MINIMUM DESIGN LATERAL FORCE AND
RELATED EFFECTS
3-17.1 Seismic Load Effect, E
When the NSP is used, the seismic load effect, E, for use in the load combinations of
Section 3-5.2 shall be determined from ASCE 7-10, Section 12.4. In the application of
ASCE 7-10 Section 12.4, the term SDS shall be interpreted as SMS for the LS
performance objective and as SSS for the Immediate Occupancy performance objective.
See Section 3-15.1.2. When the NDP is used, the seismic load effect, E, shall simply be
the response determined from the dynamic analysis. The redundancy coefficient, ρ,
shall be taken as 1.0.
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Exceptions:
1. Where these provisions require consideration of structural overstrength (see ASCE 7-10
Section 12.4.3), the values of member forces, QE, obtained from NSP analysis at the
peak (maximum base shear) of the NSP pushover curve shall be used in place of the
quantity Ω0QE.
2. Where these provisions require consideration of structural overstrength (see ASCE 7-10
Section 12.4.3), the values of member forces, QE, obtained from NDP analysis at the
maximum base shear found in the analysis using any of the ground motion records shall
be used in place of the quantity Ω0QE.
3-17.2 Redundancy
ASCE 7-10 Section 12.3.4 shall not apply to facilities designed using the provisions of
this Chapter.
3-17.3 Deflection and Drift Limits
3-17.3.1 Allowable Story Drift
Because the Alternate Design Procedure is a nonlinear performance-based design
approach, specific target drift limits are not set for designs.
3-17.3.1.1 Life Safety Performance Objective
The LS performance objective shall be achieved for MCER ground shaking. At the LS
performance level, structural components may be damaged, but they retain a margin of
safety of at least 1.5 against the onset of loss of gravity load carrying capacity. Some
residual global structural strength and stiffness remain at the maximum lateral
displacement in all stories. No out-of-plane wall failures occur. Partitions may be
damaged, and the building may be beyond economical repair. Some permanent
(inelastic) drift may occur. While inelastic behavior is permitted, member strength
degradation shall be limited in primary structural members (residual strength shall not
be less than 80% of nominal yield strength). Primary structural elements are those that
are required to provide the building with an ability to resist collapse when ground
motion-induced seismic forces are generated. For secondary structural elements (those
that are not primary elements), strength degradation to levels below the nominal yield
strength shall be permitted. Not more than 20% of the total strength or initial stiffness of
a structure shall be assumed to be provided by secondary elements. The LS
performance objective shall be verified by analysis - either the NSP or the NDP. LS
acceptance criteria contained in ASCE/SEI 41-13 shall be used to demonstrate
acceptable performance (see ASCE/SEI 41-13 Table 2-2 BPON Performance 3-D) .
Alternatively, acceptance criteria can be developed by the designer and approved by
the design review panel (see Section 3-1.2)
3-17.3.1.2 Immediate Occupancy Performance Objective
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The IO performance objective shall be achieved for BSE-1 ground shaking. At the IO
performance level, a building remains safe to occupy, essentially retaining preearthquake design strength and stiffness and nonstructural elements retain position and
are operational. Minor cracking of facades, ceilings, and structural elements may occur.
Significant permanent (inelastic) drift does not occur. The structural system for the
building remains “essentially” elastic. Any inelastic behavior does not change the basic
structural response and does not present any risk of local failures. Member
deformations shall not exceed 125% of deformations at nominal member yield
strengths. No member strength degradation shall be permitted, regardless of
deformation. The IO performance objective shall be verified by analysis, either the NSP
or the NDP. The IO acceptance criteria contained in ASCE/SEI 41-13 shall be used to
demonstrate acceptable performance (see ASCE/SEI 41-13 Table 2-2 BPON
Performance 1-A). Alternatively, appropriate acceptance criteria can be developed by
the designer and approved by the design review panel (see Section 3-1.2)
3-17.3.2 Drift Determination and P-Delta Effects
3-17.3.2.1 Drift and Deflection Determination for Nonlinear Static Procedure
The design story drifts, ΔS and ΔM shall be taken as the values obtained for each story
at the target displacements for the BSE-1 and MCER, respectively.
3-17.3.2.2 Drift and Deflection Determination for Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure
Story drifts shall be determined directly from the nonlinear analysis performed in
accordance with the provisions of ASCE 7-10 Section 16.2.
3-17.3.2.3 P-Delta Effects for Nonlinear Static Procedure and Nonlinear Dynamic
Procedure
Static P-Delta (P-Δ) effects shall be incorporated in all lateral load analyses.
3-17.4 Seismic Force-resisting Systems
3-17.4.1 Permitted Seismic Force-resisting Systems
Table 3-1, System Limitations for RC IV Buildings Designed Using Alternate Analysis
Procedure, shall replace ASCE 7-10 Table 12.2-1 and Table 2-1 of this UFC. Table 3-1
shall be used to determine whether a seismic force-resisting system is permitted. Table
3-1 also lists building height limitations for the permitted systems. Seismic forceresisting systems that are not listed in Table 3-1 may be permitted if analytical and test
data are submitted that establish the dynamic characteristics and demonstrate the
lateral force resistance and energy dissipation capacity to be equivalent to the structural
systems listed in the table. Such exceptions may be authorized when permission is
granted by the design review panel (see Section 3-1.2).
3-17.4.2 Structural Design Requirements
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3-17.4.2.1 Dual Systems
ASCE 7-10 Section 12.2.5.1 shall apply.
3-17.4.2.2 Combinations of Framing Systems
Different seismic force-resisting systems are permitted along the two orthogonal axes of
a building structure, so long as both systems comply with the provisions of this Chapter.
3-17.4.2.3 Interaction Effects
Moment-resisting frames that are enclosed or adjoined by more rigid elements that are
not considered to be part of the seismic force-resisting system shall be designed so that
the action or failure of those elements will not impair the vertical load-carrying and
seismic force-resisting capability of the frame. The design shall provide for the effect of
these rigid elements on the structural system at structural deformations corresponding
to the design story drift at the target displacement, as determined by analysis.
3-17.4.2.4 Deformational Compatibility
For components that are not included in seismic force resisting system ensure that
ductile detailing requirements are provided such that the vertical load-carrying capacity
of these components is not compromised by induced moments and shears resulting
from the design story drift.
Reinforced concrete frame members not designed as part of the seismic force-resisting
system shall comply with ACI 318 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete,
Section 21.13.
3-17.4.3 Response Modification (R), System Overstrength (Ω0), Deflection
Amplification (Cd) Factors
Because only the NDP or the NSP are permitted for the alternate design of RC IV
structures the factors R, Cd, and Ω0 are not required.
3-17.4.4 Member Strength
The load combination requirements of Sections 3-5.1 and 3-5.2 shall be satisfied.
Seismic load effects shall be determined in accordance with Section 3-17.1.
3-18 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS PROCEDURES FOR THE SEISMIC DESIGN OF
BUILDINGS
3-18.1 General
The procedures outlined in Section 3-16.6 shall be followed for dynamic analysis of
buildings and other structures that are designed in accordance with the provisions of
this Chapter.
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3-19
EARTHQUAKE LOADS, SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION EFFECTS
3-19.1 Analysis Procedure
When these effects are considered, the provisions of ASCE 7-10 Chapter 19 shall
apply.
3-20 SEISMIC DESIGN, DETAILING, AND STRUCTURAL COMPONENT LOAD
EFFECTS
3-20.1 Structural Component Design and Detailing
The provisions of ASCE 7-10 Chapter 12, as modified by Chapter 2 of this UFC, shall
apply.
3-20.2 Structural Integrity
The provisions of 2012 IBC Section 1615 shall apply.
3-20.3 Soils and Foundations
The provisions of 2012 IBC Chapter 18 shall apply.
3-21
SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
3-21.1 Component Design
The provisions of ASCE 7-10 Chapter 13, as modified by Chapter 2, shall apply, except
as noted in the following paragraphs. Appendix B provides supplementary guidance on
design and analysis of some architectural, mechanical, and electrical components.
3-21.2 Performance Objectives
The design procedure presented in this Chapter includes two overall performance
objectives that influence the requirements for architectural, mechanical, and electrical
components. First, the design must provide LS performance for the MCER. Second,
the design must provide IO performance for BSE-1 ground motions.
3-21.2.1 Life Safety Performance Objective for Nonstructural Components
This performance level seeks to mitigate falling hazards, but many architectural,
mechanical, and electrical systems may be damaged and become non-functional.
3-21.2.2 Immediate Occupancy Performance Objective for Nonstructural
Components
This performance level ensures that installed equipment and contents remain mounted
to their supporting system and remain functional, but the equipment may not be
operational due to loss of utilities.
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3-21.3 Modification of ASCE 7-10 for Life Safety Design
3-21.3.1 Ground Motion Parameters for Determination of Life Safety Seismic
Forces
In the application of ASCE 7-10 Section 13.3.1, seismic forces shall be determined for
the MCER ground motion parameters.
3-21.3.2 Nonlinear Static Procedure
In the application of ASCE 7-10 Section 13.3.1, seismic forces on components based
on the NSP shall be based on ASCE 7-10 Equations 13.3-1 through 13.3-3. The
quantity SMS shall be substituted for the term SDS found in the equations. In the
application of ASCE 7-10 Section 13.3.2, the response of the building to the MCER
ground motion shall be used.
3-21.3.3 Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure
In the application of ASCE 7-10 Section 13.3.1, seismic forces on components based
on the NDP shall be based on ASCE 7-10 Equation 13.3-4. The term ai shall be the
maximum acceleration at the level of the component under consideration, as
determined from the dynamic analysis. In the application of ASCE 7-10 Section 13.3.2,
the response of the building to the MCER ground motion shall be used.
3-21.3.4 Component Importance Factors
The component importance factor, Ip, is required for force calculations in ASCE 7-10
Section 13.3.1. Ip shall be 1.0, in lieu of the importance factors listed in ASCE 7-10
Section 13.1.3.
3-21.4 Modification of ASCE 7-10 for Immediate Occupancy Design
3-21.4.1 Ground Motion Parameters for Determination of IO Seismic Forces
In the application of ASCE 7-10 Section 13.3.1, seismic forces shall be determined for
the BSE-1 ground motion parameters.
3-21.4.2 Nonlinear Static Procedure
In the application of ASCE 7-10 Section 13.3.1, seismic forces on components based
on the NSP shall be based on ASCE 7-10 Equations 13.3-1 through 13.3-3. The
quantity SSS shall be substituted for the term SDS found in the equations. In the
application of ASCE 7-10 Section 13.3.2, the response of the building to the BSE-1
ground motion shall be used.
3-21.4.3 Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure
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In the application of ASCE 7-10 Section 13.3.1, seismic forces on components based
on the NDP shall be based on ASCE 7-10 Equation 13.3-4. The term ai shall be the
maximum acceleration at the level of the component under consideration, as
determined from the dynamic analysis. In the application of ASCE 7-10 Section 13.3.2,
the response of the building to the BSE-1 ground motion shall be used.
3-21.4.4 Component Importance Factors
The component importance factor, Ip, is required for force calculations in ASCE 7-10
Section 13.3.1. Ip shall be as given in ASCE 7-10 Section 13.1.3.
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Table 3-1
System Limitations for Risk Category IV Buildings Designed Using Alternate Procedure of
Chapter 3
System and
Building
Basic Seismic Force-Resisting System2
Seismic Design
Category
B C D
E
F
Bearing Wall Systems
Ordinary steel braced frames in light-frame construction
Special reinforced concrete shear walls
Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls
Special reinforced masonry shear walls
Light-framed walls with shear panels - wood structural panels/sheet steel panels
Light-framed walls with shear panels - all other materials
Light-framed walls with shear panels - using flat strap bracing
NL NL 65 65 65
NL NL 160 160 100
NL NL NP NP NP
NL NL 160 160 100
NL NL 65 65 65
NL NL 35 NP NP
NL NL 65 65 65
Building Frame Systems
Steel eccentrically braced frames
NL NL 160 160 100
NL NL 160 160 100
NL NL 353 353 NP3
NL NL 160 160 160
NL NL NP NP NP
NL NL 160 160 100
NL NL 160 160 100
NL NL NP NP NP
NL NL 160 160 100
Special steel concentrically braced frames
Ordinary steel concentrically braced frames
Special reinforced concrete shear walls
Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls
Composite eccentrically braced frames
Composite special concentrically braced frames
Ordinary composite braced frames
Composite steel plate shear walls
Special composite reinforced concrete shear walls with steel elements
NL NL 160 160 100
NL NL 160 160 100
Special reinforced masonry shear walls
Light-framed walls with shear panels - wood structural panels/sheet steel panels
Light-framed walls with shear panels - all other materials
NL NL 65 65 65
NL NL 35 NP NP
Moment-Resisting Frame Systems
NL NL NL NL NL
NL NL 160 100 NP
NL NL 355 NP5 NP5
NL NL NP6 NP6 NP6
NL NL NL NL NL
Special steel moment frames
Special steel truss moment frames
Intermediate steel moment frames
Ordinary steel moment frames
Special reinforced concrete moment frames
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TABLE 3-1 (Continued)
System Limitations For Risk Category Iv Buildings Designed Using Alternate Procedure Of
Chapter 3
Basic Seismic Force-Resisting System2
Intermediate reinforced concrete moment frames
Special composite moment frames
Intermediate composite moment frames
Composite partially restrained moment frames
System and Building
1
Height (ft) Limitations
Seismic Design Category
B
C
D
E
F
NL
NL
NL
160
NL
NL
NL
160
NP
NL
NP
100
NP
NL
NP
NP
NP
NL
NP
NP
Dual Systems with Special Moment Frames capable of resisting at least 25% of prescribed
seismic forces
Composite steel plate shear walls
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NP
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NP
NL
NL
NL
Special composite reinforced concrete shear walls with steel elements
NL NL NL NL
NL
Ordinary composite reinforced concrete shear walls with steel elements
NL NL NP NP NP
NL NL NL NL NL
Steel eccentrically braced frames
Special steel concentrically braced frames
Special reinforced concrete shear walls
Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls
Composite eccentrically braced frames
Composite special concentrically braced frames
Special reinforced masonry shear walls
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NP
NL
NL
NL
Dual Systems with Intermediate Moment Frames capable of resisting at least 25% of prescribed
seismic forces
Special steel concentrically braced frames
4
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Special reinforced concrete shear walls
Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls
Composite special concentrically braced frames
Ordinary composite braced frames
Ordinary composite reinforced concrete shear walls with steel elements
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
35
160
NP
160
NP
NP
100
NP
100
NP
NP
100
NP
NP
NP
NL NL NP NP NP
Cantilevered Column Systems detailed to conform to the requirements for:
35
35
Special steel cantilever column systems
Special reinforced concrete moment frames
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
NP - indicates not permitted, NL – indicates not limited.
1
Any system that is restricted by this table may be permitted if it is approved by the design review panel
(see Section 3-1.2).
2
See Table 2-1 for detailing references for seismic force-resisting systems.
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TABLE 3-1 (CONTINUED)
System Limitations For Risk Category Iv Buildings Designed Using Alternate Procedure
Of Chapter 3
3
Steel ordinary concentrically braced frames are permitted in single-story buildings, up to a structural
height, hn, of 60 ft, where the dead load of the roof does not exceed 20 psf, and in penthouse structures.
4
Ordinary moment frames may be used in lieu of intermediate moment frames for Seismic Design
Category B or C.
5
See ASCE 7-10 Section 12.2.5.7 for limitations in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D,
E, or F.
6
See ASCE 7-10 Section 12.2.5.6 for limitations in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D,
E, or F.
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CHAPTER 4 DESIGN FOR ENHANCED PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
RC V
4-1601
GENERAL
4-1601.1 Overview
This Chapter shall be used for the design and analysis of buildings and other structures
assigned to RC V.
RC V encompasses facilities that are considered to be national strategic military assets
(UFC 3-301-01 Table 2-2). Special design and analysis procedures apply to RC V
buildings and other structures. RC V structures shall be designed to ensure that their
foundations, superstructures and installed mission-essential nonstructural elements
remain elastic, and their installed equipment remains operational, for the MCER ground
motions.
This Chapter modifies provisions of 2012 IBC and ASCE 7-10 for use in analyzing RC V
buildings and other structures. In case a provision in 2012 IBC Chapter 16, 17, or 18 or
ASCE 7-10 Chapter 11, 12, or 13 is modified by Chapter 4 and also by Chapter 2 of this
UFC or by UFC 1-200-01 and UFC 3-301-01, the Chapter 4 modification controls. Any
provision in those chapters not modified by Chapter 4 of this UFC shall apply to RC V
facilities, as modified by Chapter 2 of this UFC or by UFC 1-200-01 and UFC 3-301-01.
All 2012 IBC structural chapters other than 16, 17, and 18 and all ASCE 7-10 chapters
other than 11, 12, and 13 (such as Chapter 15) shall apply to RC V facilities as modified
by Chapter 2 of this UFC or by UFC 1-200-01 and UFC 3-301-01. There are some
redundancies, such as Sections 4-1602.1, 4-1606.1, 4-1607.1, and 4-1611.1.
4-1601.2 Design Review Panels
4-1601.2.1 Structural Design Review Panel
A design review of the seismic force-resisting system design and structural analysis
shall be performed by an independent team of Registered Design Professionals in the
appropriate disciplines and others experienced in seismic analysis methods and the
theory and application of nonlinear seismic analysis and structural behavior under
extreme cyclic loads. Membership on the Structural Design Review Panel shall be
subject to the approval of the Authority having Jurisdiction. The design review shall
include, but not necessarily be limited to, the following:
1. Any site-specific seismic criteria used in the analysis, including the development
of site-specific spectra and ground motion time-histories.
2. Any acceptance criteria used to demonstrate the adequacy of structural elements
and systems to withstand the calculated force and deformation demands,
together with any laboratory or other data used to substantiate the criteria.
3. The preliminary design, including the selection of the structural system; the
configuration of structural elements; and supports for all architectural,
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mechanical, and electrical components.
4. The final design of the entire structural system and supports for all architectural,
mechanical, and electrical components, and all supporting analyses.
5. All procurement documents (statements of work, specifications, etc.) that are
developed for seismic qualification of equipment that must remain operable
following the design earthquake. Post-earthquake operability shall be verified by
shake table testing, experience data, or analysis.
6. All documentation that is developed for seismic qualification of equipment that
must remain operable following the design earthquake.
4-1601.2.2 Nonstructural Component Design Review Panel
A design review of the nonstructural component design (including anchorage) shall be
performed by an independent team of Registered Design Professionals in the
appropriate disciplines and others experienced in the qualification of nonstructural
components using time histories and in-structure response. Membership on the
Nonstructural Component Design Review Panel shall be subject to the approval of the
Authority having Jurisdiction. The design review shall occur prior to commissioning and
shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, the following:
1. Review in-structure response data and confirm that any recommendations made
by the Structural Design Review Panel have been incorporated into the instructure response.
2. Review component qualifications to confirm proper in-structure response was
utilized.
3. Upon completion of design review of all documentation, the review panel shall
perform a walk-down of the project and confirm the following:
a. Component installations are in their submitted and approved location.
b. Identification nameplates are installed as specified in Section 4-13.9
c. Component qualification documentation has been incorporated into the
Operations & Maintenance Manual as specified in Section 4-13.8.
4-1602
DEFINITIONS AND NOTATIONS
4-1602.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1602 shall apply.
4-1603
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS
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4-1603.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1603, as modified by Section 2-1603 of this UFC, shall apply.
Exceptions:
1. The Seismic Importance Factor, Ie, the seismic response coefficient, CS, the
Response Modification Factor, R, and the Seismic Design Category do not apply
and shall not be listed in construction documents.
2. The classification of the building in RC V, that it is designed in accordance with
the provisions of this UFC, and the date of this UFC, shall be listed in
construction documents.
4-1604
GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
4-1604.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1604 shall apply.
Exception: UFC 3-301-01 Table 2-2, shall replace 2012 IBC Table 1604.5.
4-1604.10 Wind and Seismic Detailing
2012 IBC Section 1604.10 shall not apply to RC V facilities.
4-1605
LOAD COMBINATIONS
4-1605.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1605 shall apply.
Exceptions:
1. For all load combinations, structural elements shall be designed to remain linear
(elastic).
2. In applying 2012 IBC Equations 16-5 and 16-7, the combined effect of
earthquake forces, E, shall be computed using the procedures outlined in this
Chapter.
3. 2012 IBC Section 1605.3 shall not apply.
4-1606
DEAD LOADS
4-1606.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1606 shall apply.
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4-1607
LIVE LOADS
4-1607.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1607 shall apply.
4-1608
SNOW AND ICE LOADS
4-1608.1 General
Design snow loads shall be determined in accordance with 2012 IBC Section 1608.
Design atmospheric ice loads on ice-sensitive structures shall be determined in
accordance with ASCE 7-10 Chapter 10.
Exceptions:
1. In the determination of design snow loads for RC V structures using 2012 IBC
Section 1608, the importance factor, Is, shall be the value listed in UFC 3-301-01
Table 2-2. This importance factor shall be used unless a site-specific study for
snow loads is conducted and subjected to review by the Structural Design
Review Panel (see Section 4-1601.2.1). For a site-specific study, the sitespecific probability shall be consistent with Performance Category 3 of DoE STD
1020-2002.
2. In the determination of design atmospheric ice loads for RC V structures using
ASCE 7-10, the importance factor on ice thickness, Ii, shall be the value listed in
UFC 3-301-01 Table 2-2. This importance factor shall be used unless a sitespecific study for ice loads is conducted and subjected to review by the Structural
Design Review Panel (see Section 4-1601.2.1). For a site-specific study, the
site-specific probability shall be consistent with Performance Category 3 of DoE
STD 1020-2002. The importance factor for wind on ice, Iw, and the concurrent
wind speed for RC V structures subject to wind on ice loads shall be the same as
for RC IV structures as outlined in ASCE 7-10 Chapter 10.
4-1609
WIND LOADS
4-1609.1 General
Design wind loads shall be determined in accordance with 2012 IBC Section 1609.
Exception: In the determination of design wind loads for RC V structures using
2012 IBC Section 1609, if a site-specific study is conducted and subjected to review
by the Structural Design Review Panel (see Section 4-1601.2.1), the site-specific
probability shall be consistent with Performance Category 3 of DoE STD 1020-2002.
4-1610
SOIL LATERAL LOADS
4-1610.1 General
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2012 IBC Section 1610 shall apply, without the exception that is noted there.
4-1611
RAIN LOADS
4-1611.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1611 shall apply.
4-1612
FLOOD LOADS
4-1612.1 General
2012 IBC Section 1612 shall apply.
Exceptions:
1. The DESIGN FLOOD shall be defined as the flood associated with the area
within a flood plain subject to a 0.2 percent or greater chance of flooding in any
given year.
2. The FLOOD HAZARD AREA shall be defined as the area within a flood plain
subject to a 0.2 percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year.
4-1612.2 Tsunami
The effects of tsunami shall be considered for facilities located in known tsunami hazard
areas or within 300 feet of mean sea level elevation within 10 miles of the sea
coast. Inundation elevations at the site shall be determined for an event with a
2% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Potential tsunami sources shall include
distant earthquakes, local earthquakes, landslides, and storms and tides. Risk
Category V facilities shall be designed to mitigate the effects of an event with a
2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, including debris impact effects.
4-1613
EARTHQUAKE LOADS
4-1613.1 EXISTING BUILDINGS
4-1613.1.1 Additions to Existing Buildings
2012 IBC Section 3403 Additions, as modified by Sections 2-3403.1.1 and 2-3403.4 of
this UFC, shall apply to RC V facilities.
4-1613.1.2 Change of Occupancy
2012 IBC Section 3408 Change of Occupancy shall apply to RC V facilities.
4-1613.1.3 Alterations
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2012 IBC Section 3404 Alterations, as modified by Section 2-3404 of this UFC, shall
apply to RC V facilities.
4-1613.1.4 Repairs
2012 IBC Section 3405 Repairs, as modified by Section 2-3405 of this UFC, shall apply
to RC V facilities.
NOTE: Numbering system changes to reflect ASCE 7-10
organization. For example, Section 4-11 will cover topics
from Chapter 11 of ASCE 7-10.
4-11
SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA
4-11.1 Structural Design Criteria
Each RC V structure shall be designed in accordance with the provisions of this
Chapter. Permissible structural systems are listed in Table 4-1. The components of a
structure that must be designed for seismic resistance and the types of lateral force
analysis that must be performed are prescribed in this Chapter. Each structure shall be
provided with complete lateral and vertical force-resisting systems capable of providing
adequate strength and stiffness to withstand the design earthquake ground motions
determined in accordance with Section 4-11.4, within the prescribed deformation limits
of Section 4-12.12. The design ground motions shall be assumed to occur along any
horizontal direction of a structure, as well as in the vertical direction. A continuous load
path, or paths, with adequate strength and stiffness to transfer forces induced by the
design earthquake ground motions from the points of application to the final point of
resistance shall be provided.
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Table 4-1
Systems Permitted for Risk Category V Buildings
Basic Seismic Force-Resisting System
Detailing Requirements
Bearing Wall Systems
Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls
ACI 318, excluding Ch. 21
Ordinary reinforced masonry shear walls
TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5
Building Frame Systems
Steel eccentrically braced frames, moment-resisting
connections at columns away from links
Steel eccentrically braced frames, non-moment-resisting
connections at columns away from links
AISC 360
Ordinary steel concentrically braced frames
Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls
ACI 318, excluding Ch. 21
Composite steel and concrete eccentrically braced frames
Composite steel and concrete concentrically braced frames
Ordinary composite steel and concrete braced frames
Composite steel plate shear walls
AISC 360 (LRFD) and
ACI 318, excluding Ch. 21
Ordinary composite reinforced concrete shear walls with steel
elements
Ordinary reinforced masonry shear walls
TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5
Moment-Resisting Frame Systems
Ordinary steel moment frames
AISC 360
Ordinary reinforced concrete moment frames
ACI 318, excluding Ch. 21
Ordinary composite moment frames
AISC 360 (LRFD) and
ACI 318, excluding Ch. 21
Composite partially restrained moment frames
Cantilevered Column Systems Detailed to Conform to the
Requirements for:
Ordinary steel moment frames
AISC 360
Ordinary reinforced concrete moment frames
ACI 318, excluding Ch. 21
Note: Any system prohibited here may be permitted if approved by the Structural Design Review Panel
(Section 4-1601.2.1).
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4-11.4 SEISMIC GROUND MOTION VALUES
4-11.4.1 Development of MCE Spectral Response Accelerations and Response
History Criteria
The Site Specific Ground Motion Procedures outlined in ASCE 7-10 Section 11.4.7 shall
be used to develop MCER ground motion acceleration time histories for RC V structures.
The MCER shall generally be characterized by a 5-percent-damped acceleration
response spectrum. A lower value of damping may be more appropriate and the value
should be as approved by the Structural Design Review Panel (see Section 4-1601.2.1).
In the application of seismic provisions of the 2012 IBC and ASCE 7-10, the terms SDS
and SD1 shall be replaced by SMS and SM1, respectively, obtained from this response
spectrum.
A response history analysis is also to be conducted to determine the in-structure
demand for the design and/or qualification of nonstructural equipment and distributed
systems. The ASCE/SEI 43-05, Section 2.4 Criteria for Developing Synthetic or
Modified Recorded Time Histories shall be used to develop the seismic response
histories for RC V facilities.
At least seven 3-component ground motions shall be selected and scaled from
individual recorded events for in-structure response analysis. The histories shall be
selected from events having magnitudes, fault distances, and source mechanisms that
are consistent with those that control the MCER for the RC V structure. Ground motion
records shall be sourced from stations with similar soil profiles, defined in terms of Site
Class, to that at the site of the RC V structure. The shape of the spectra of the recorded
motions shall be similar to that of the target spectra.
4-11.4.5 Design Response Spectrum
4-11.4.5.1 Design Horizontal Response Spectrum
The unreduced MCER ground motions determined from the Site Specific Ground Motion
Procedure shall be used.
4-11.4.5.2 Design Vertical Response Spectrum
The unreduced MCER ground motions determined from the Site Specific Ground Motion
Procedure shall be used. The vertical spectrum values, Sav, shall not be lower than the
minimum ordinates determined in FEMA P-750 NEHRP Recommended Seismic
Provisions, Chapter 23, Vertical Ground Motions for Seismic Design (Section 23.1)
adjusted to produce MCER values (Section 23.2). Ground motions for calculating the
minimum ordinates shall be the site specific MCER ground motions determined in 411.4.5.1.
4-11.5 IMPORTANCE FACTOR AND RISK CATEGORY
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4-11.5-1 Importance Factor
A seismic importance factor is not required for RC V buildings and other structures (see
UFC 3-301-01 Table 2-2). However, some referenced sections of ASCE 7-10 require
the use of Ie. In these cases, Ie shall be taken as 1.0.
4-11.6 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY
The requirements of ASCE 7-10 Section 11.6 shall not apply to RC V structures.
4-11.7 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY A
The requirements of ASCE 7-10 Section 11.7 shall not apply to RC V structures.
4-11.8 GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS AND GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
4-11.8.1 Site Limitations for Risk Category V
A structure assigned to RC V shall not be sited where there is a known potential for an
active fault to cause rupture of the ground surface at the structure. The term active fault
is defined in Section 11.2 of ASCE 7-10.
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SEISIMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDING STRUCTURES
4-12.2 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM SELECTION
4-12.2.1 Selections and Limitations
Table 4-1, Systems Permitted for Risk Category V Buildings, shall be used to determine
whether a seismic force-resisting system is permitted for use in RC V. Exceptions may
be authorized when permission is granted by the Structural Design Review Panel (see
Section 4-1601.2.1).
Once a permitted structural system has been selected, no specific building height
limitations shall apply. The requirement to ensure elastic behavior at the design level
earthquake mitigates the need for height limitations.
4-12.2.2 and 4-12.2.3 Combinations of Framing Systems
Combinations of permitted structural systems (see Table 4-1) may be used to resist
seismic forces, both along the same axis of a building and along the orthogonal axes of
the building. For systems combined along the same axis of a building, total seismic
force resistance shall be provided by the combination of the different systems in
proportion to their stiffnesses. Displacements of parallel framing systems shall be
shown by analysis to be compatible.
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4-12.2.3.1 and 4-12.2.3.2 R, Cd, and Ω0 Values for Vertical and Horizontal
Combinations
The design of RC V structures shall use a linear elastic Modal Response Spectrum
Analysis (MRSA) procedure. Structural response shall be restricted to elastic behavior.
No yielding shall be permitted for the MCER ground motions. The factors R, Cd, and Ω0
shall be set to 1.0.
4-12.3 DIAPHRAGM FLEXIBILITY, CONFIGURATION IRREGULARITIES, AND
REDUNDANCY
4-12.3.2 Irregular or Regular Classification and 4-12.3.3 Limitations and
Additional Requirements for Systems with Structural Irregularities
Because buildings assigned to RC V are designed to respond to MCER ground shaking
in an elastic manner, and they are required to be analyzed by procedures that
adequately account for any structural irregularity, it shall not be necessary to classify
RC V buildings as regular or irregular. Therefore, 2012 IBC design procedures that are
intended to account for irregularities do not need to be applied to RC V buildings.
4-12.3.4 Redundancy
ASCE 7-10 Section 12.3.4 shall apply. Structural systems with a redundancy factor, ρ,
equal to 1.3 shall not be permitted for buildings assigned to RC V.
4-12.4.4 Minimum Upward force for Horizontal Cantilevers
Vertical seismic forces shall be computed from the vertical spectral accelerations
specified in this Chapter.
4-12.5 DIRECTION OF LOADING
4-12.5.1 Direction of Loading Criteria
When effects from the three earthquake ground motion components with respect to the
principal axes of the building are calculated separately, the combined earthquakeinduced response for each principal axis of the building shall consist of the sum of 100%
of the maximum value resulting from loading applied parallel to that axis and 40% of
both maximum values that result from loading components orthogonal to that axis.
Absolute values of all loading components shall be used, so that all values are additive.
If the three quantities are designated Ex, Ey, and Ez, they shall be combined in
accordance with Equations 4-1, 4-2, and 4-3, and the maximum response, ET-max, shall
be the most severe effects of Equations 4-1, 4-2, or 4-3, for each individual structural
element:
E = ± [1.0 E + 0.4 E + 0.4 E ]
T
x
y
(Equation 4-1)
z
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E = ± [0.4 E + 1.0 E + 0.4 E ]
(Equation 4-2)
E = ± [0.4 E + 0.4 E + 1.0 E ]
(Equation 4-3)
T
x
T
x
y
y
z
z
where
E , E = Maximum horizontal components of response
x
y
E = Maximum vertical component of response
z
E = Maximum combined response from three orthogonal components
T
4-12.6 ANALYSIS PROCEDURE SELECTION
4-12.6.1 General Requirements
Structures assigned to RC V shall be designed to ensure that their superstructures and
installed mission-critical nonstructural elements remain elastic, when subjected to MCER
ground motions, and that mission-essential equipment remains operable immediately
following the MCER ground motions. MCER spectral acceleration parameters shall be
based on the procedures outlined in Section 4-11.4. In all analyses performed using the
provisions of this Chapter, the variables R, Cd, ρ and Ω0 shall all be set to 1.0, as
indicated in Section 4-12.3.3 of this UFC.
4-12.6.2 Horizontal and Vertical Force Determination
Except for seismically isolated structures and structures using supplemental damping,
structural analysis for horizontal and vertical force determination shall be accomplished
using a combined three-dimensional linear elastic Modal Response Spectrum Analysis
(MRSA) in accordance with the provisions of ASCE 7-10 Sections 12.7.3 and 12.9.
Refer to Section 4-11.5-1 for application of the Importance Factor, Ie, in ASCE 7-10
Section 12.9. Modal values shall be combined in accordance with the provisions of
ASCE 7-10 Section 12.9.3. Further information on the use of the MRSA can be found in
ASCE 4-98, Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures and Commentary.
For the ground motion component associated with each horizontal plan dimension of
the structure, applied forces shall be determined using linear horizontal response
spectra that are developed in accordance with the provisions of Sections 4-11.4.1 and
4-11.4.5.1.
For the ground motion component associated with the vertical axis of the structure,
applied forces shall be determined using linear vertical response spectra that are
developed in accordance with the provisions of Sections 4-11.4.1 and 4-11.4.5.2.
Provisions of ASCE 7-10 Section 16.2 shall not be applied.
Exception: For structures using seismic isolation and/or supplemental damping,
horizontal and vertical seismic forces shall be determined using nonlinear dynamic
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analysis, in which the seismic isolators and/or dampers are modeled with nonlinear
properties consistent with test results, and the remaining structural system is
modeled as linearly elastic. The nonlinear response history analysis procedures of
ASCE 7-10 Section 17.6 shall be used for the nonlinear analyses, except that
vertical ground motions shall be included in the analyses.
4-12.6.3 Member Forces
Response in structural elements and nonstructural elements that directly support critical
functions shall remain linear for the MCER ground motions, at anticipated drift demands.
The requirement for linear response may be met through any combination of elastic
member design, added damping or energy dissipation, or base isolation. The designer
should consider the economics of these options, as well as the performance of critical
installed equipment, in the structural design process.
4-12.6.3.1 Low Seismicity Applications
In areas of low seismic activity (SMS < 0.25 and SM1 < 0.10), it is anticipated that linear
response may be achieved through proper design of all structural elements in both the
lateral load and gravity load systems, using one or more of the seismic force-resisting
systems listed in Table 4-1. Alternatives may be used, if they are verified adequately
through analysis and are approved by the Structural Design Review Panel (see Section
4-1601.2.1).
4-12.6.3.2 Moderate Seismicity Applications
In areas of moderate seismic activity (0.25 ≤ SMS ≤ 0.75, 0.10 ≤ SM1 ≤ 0.30), it is
anticipated that linear response in the gravity load system and critical nonstructural
elements may be achieved using supplemental energy dissipation (added damping)
systems, in conjunction with one or more of the seismic force-resisting systems listed in
Table 4-1. Where damping systems are used, they shall be designed, tested, and
constructed in accordance with the requirements of ASCE 7-10 Chapter 18. Analysis
shall conform to the requirements of ASCE 7-10 Section 18.4, Response-Spectrum
Procedure. It is recognized that damping systems generally have inherent nonlinear
behavior. It is not the intent of these provisions to require linear behavior in damping or
isolation systems. Alternatives may be used, if they are verified adequately through
analysis and are approved by the Structural Design Review Panel (see Section 41601.2.1).
4-12.6.3.3 High to Very High Seismicity Applications
In areas of high to very high seismic activity (SMS > 0.75 or SM1 > 0.30), it is anticipated
that linear response in the gravity load system and critical nonstructural elements may
be achieved using seismic isolation systems, in conjunction with one or more of the
seismic force-resisting systems listed in Table 4-1. In such situations, ASCE 7-10
Chapter 17 shall be applied. It is recognized that isolation systems generally have
inherent nonlinear behavior. It is not the intent of these provisions to require linear
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behavior in damping or isolation systems. Alternatives may be used, if they are verified
adequately through analysis and are approved by the Structural Design Review Panel
(see Section 4-1601.2.1).
Exception: ASCE 7-10 Chapter 17 requires the use of the factor Ri for scaling the
forces for structural elements above the isolation system. For RC V structures, the
Ri factor shall be taken as 1.0. Table 4-1 shall be used for selecting the structural
system.
4-12.8 EQUIVALENT LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE
The provisions of ASCE 7-10 Section 12.8 shall not be permitted for RC V structures.
4-12.9 MODAL RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
4-12.9.2 Modal Response Parameters
Story drifts shall be computed using a linear elastic MRSA procedure (see Section 412.6.2). Story drifts and P-Delta effects shall be determined using the procedures
outlined in ASCE 7-10 Section 12.9.2. Refer to Section 4-11.5-1 for application of
Importance Factor, Ie, in this section.
4-12.10 DIAPHRAGMS, CHORDS, AND COLLECTORS
Apply a multiplier of 3 to the force at the uppermost level derived from ASCE 7-10
Section 12.10.1 and design the diaphragm at each floor level for that force.
The above adjustments shall apply to the design of collector elements by ASCE 7-10
Section 12.10.2.
[C] 4-12.10 Diaphragms, Chords, and Collectors
The above adjustments are intended to ensure that diaphragm behavior will remain
elastic all the way up to the MCER. There are ample indications that the diaphragm
design force levels of ASCE 7-10 do not result in elastic diaphragm behavior even in the
Design Basis Earthquake (DBE). The suggested modifications are adapted from the
manual: Seismic Design of Precast/Prestressed Concrete Structures (PCI MNL-140,
2nd Edition) and the PCI Design Handbook (7th Edition) published by the
Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI). The multiplier assumes that shear walls or
braced frames form part of the seismic force-resisting system, which is typical of RC V
structures.
4-12.10.1.1 Diaphragm Design Forces
ASCE 7-10 Section 12.10.1.1, shall be modified to delete the maximum force limit
(0.4SDSIewpx) that is placed on Equation 12.10-1.
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4-12.11 STRUCTURAL WALLS AND THEIR ANCHORAGE
4-12.11.1 Design for Out-of-Plane Forces and 4-12.11.2 Anchorage of Structural
Walls and Transfer of Design Forces into Diaphragms
Unless otherwise specified in this Chapter, transmitted seismic force, Fp, shall be the
maximum of Fp calculated in accordance with the provisions of ASCE 7-10 Section
12.11.2 and the actual forces computed using the procedures of this Chapter. The
value of SMS shall be used in lieu of SDS in the equation for Fp in ASCE 7-10 Section
12.11.2. Refer to Section 4-11.5-1 for application of Importance Factor, Ie, in this
section.
4-12.12 DRIFT AND DEFORMATION
4-12.12.1 Story Drift Limit
The design story drift (Δ) shall not exceed the allowable story drift (Δa) for RC IV
structures in ASCE 7-10 Table 12.12-1.
Exception: Where performance requirements for installed equipment or other
nonstructural features require smaller allowable drifts than those permitted by this
Section, the smaller drifts shall govern.
4-12.12.5 Deformational Compatibility
ASCE 7-10 Section 12.12.5 does not apply to the design of RC V structures by this
chapter.
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SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
4-13.1 GENERAL
4-13.1.1 Scope
The provisions of ASCE 7-10 Chapter 13, as modified by Chapter 2 of this UFC, shall
apply, except as noted in the following paragraphs. Appendices B and C provide
supplementary guidance on design and analysis of architectural, mechanical, and
electrical components.
4-13.2 GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
4-13.2.1.1 General Requirements
All architectural, mechanical, and electrical components shall be designed for the instructure horizontal and vertical response spectra developed in Section 4-13.7.4.
Designs shall include bracing, anchorage, isolation, and energy dissipation, as
appropriate, for all components, in addition to the components themselves. Motion
amplifications through component supports shall be determined and accommodated
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through design. Installed architectural, mechanical, and electrical components shall be
classified as Mission-Critical Level 1 (MC-1), Mission-Critical Level 2 (MC-2), or Nonmission-critical (NMC). The structural engineer shall classify all architectural,
mechanical, and electrical components, in consultation with functional risk
representatives designated by the Authority having Jurisdiction.
4-13.2.1.2 Mission-Critical Level 1 Components
MC-1 components are those architectural, mechanical, and electrical components that
are critical to the mission of the facility and must be operational immediately following
the MCER ground shaking. MC-1 components shall be certified as operable
immediately following the MCER ground shaking in accordance with the provisions of
ASCE 7-10 Section 13.2.2 as modified by Chapter 2 of this UFC.
4-13.2.1.3 Mission-Critical Level 2 Components
MC-2 components are those architectural, mechanical, and electrical components that
may incur minor damage that would be reparable with parts stocked at or near the
facility within a 3-day period, by on-site personnel, following the MCER ground shaking.
If the failure of an MC-2 component can cause the failure of an MC-1 component, then
the MC-2 component shall be considered as an MC-1 component. Typical MC-2
components may be suspended ceiling system components, lights, overhead cranes,
etc. MC-2 components shall be attached, anchored, and supported to resist the MCERinduced building motions. All supporting structures for MC-2 components shall remain
elastic during the MCER-induced building motions. MC-2 component performance shall
be shown through analysis.
4-13.2.1.4 Non-Mission-Critical Components
NMC components are those architectural, mechanical, and electrical components that
may incur damage in the MCER ground shaking. If the failure of an NMC component
can cause the failure of an MC-1 or MC-2 component, then the NMC component shall
be classified the same as the corresponding MC-1 or MC-2 component. NMC
components shall be designed so they will not cause falling hazards or impede facility
egress. Typical NMC components may include bathroom vent fans, space heaters, etc.
NMC component performance shall be shown through analysis.
4-13.2.2.1 Component Qualification Documentation
The seismic qualification documentation for each piece of equipment shall contain the
following as a minimum:
1. The engineering submittal, which shall contain the following:
a. Design calculations and/or complete description of the equipment/ component with
cut sheets and/or photographs containing all germane data including fastening
requirements, welds, post-installed anchors, etc.
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b. Development of the in-structure demand response for vertical and horizontal
shaking.
c. Development of the capacity response (fragility curve) for vertical and horizontal
shaking.
d. Design of the anchorage including anchor qualifications, calculations indicating
forces predicated on the seismic loads, and capacity of the anchors.
e. A drawing indicating the equipment/component and location in the facility sufficient
to be used for the installation.
All of the above elements shall be checked and signed by the designer and checker.
The designer shall affix his Professional Engineer seal on the cover page.
The cover page shall identify the equipment/component and the performance category
(MC-1 or MC-2).
2. Documentation of an independent design review of Item 1.
3. The Department of Energy (DOE) Screening Evaluation Worksheet (SEWS) of the
installed equipment/component and accompanying Special Inspection of any postinstalled anchorages or Special Inspection of components identifying the Special
Inspector. Consideration shall be given to the installed condition and proximity to
adjacent structures and components to avoid pounding effect.
The appropriate DOE SEWS can be obtained from the DOE web site at:
http://www.hss.energy.gov/seismic/. Other evaluation worksheets can be used upon
approval by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
4. Documentation of the independent “walk-down” inspection of the equipment in the final
installed condition.
4-13.3 SEISMIC DEMANDS ON NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
4-13.3.1 Seismic Design Force
In the application of ASCE 7-10 Section 13.3.1, seismic forces shall be analyzed for the
MCER ground motion parameters. The force calculations found in ASCE 7-10 Equations
13.3-1 through 13.3-3 shall not apply. The following procedures shall be used.
4-13.3.1.1 MC-1 Components
Forces for MC-1 components shall be determined by response spectrum analysis or
equivalent static analysis, using as input the in-structure response spectra determined
in accordance with Section 4-13.7.4. MC-1 components and their supports shall remain
elastic. MC-1 component forces shall be determined using Equation 4-4, with Rp for
both components and supports set to 1.0.
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Fp =
aipW p
(Equation 4-4)
Rp
where
Fp = seismic design force centered at the component’s center of gravity and
distributed relative to the component’s mass distribution
aip = component spectral acceleration in a given direction, at the fundamental
period of the component
Wp = component operating weight
Rp = component response modification factor
4-13.3.1.2 MC-2 Components
Forces for MC-2 components shall be determined by response spectra analysis or
equivalent static analysis, using as input the in-structure response spectra developed in
accordance with Section 4-13.7.4. MC-2 component supports shall remain elastic,
while limited inelastic component response is permitted. MC-2 component forces shall
be determined using Equation 4-4, with Rp for supports set to 1.0, and Rp for
components as specified in ASCE 7-10 Table 13.5-1.
4-13.3.1.3 NMC Components
ASCE 7-10 Equation 13.3-4 shall be used for NMC component force calculations. The
peak in-structure floor acceleration determined in accordance with Section 4-13.7.4
shall be substituted for the term ai, the acceleration at level i. Inelastic deformations are
permitted in both component and support response. In applying ASCE 7-10 Equation
13.3-4, the values of ap and Rp specified in ASCE 7-10 Table 13.5-1 shall be used. The
component importance factor, Ip, is required for force calculations in ASCE 7-10
Equation 13.3-4. Ip shall be 1.0, in lieu of the importance factors listed in ASCE 7-10
Sections 13.1.3.
4-13.7 RESPONSE ANALYSIS PROCEDURES FOR ARCHITECTURAL,
MECHANICAL, AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
4-13.7.1 General
ASCE 4-98, Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures and Commentary,
shall serve as a reference in response analysis.
4-13.7.2 Dynamic Coupling Effects
It is anticipated that installed mechanical and electrical systems may require significant
secondary structural systems in RC V buildings. The provisions of ASCE 4-98 Section
3.1.7, Dynamic coupling criteria, shall apply.
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4-13.7.3 Modeling Flooring Systems
Structures with rigid flooring systems shall be modeled in accordance with the
provisions of ASCE 4-98 Section 3.1.8.1.1, Structures with rigid floors. Structures with
flexible flooring systems shall be modeled in accordance with the provisions of ASCE 498 Section 3.1.8.1.2, Structures with flexible floors.
4-13.7.4 In-structure Response Spectra
Provisions of ASCE 4-98 Section 3.4, Input for subsystem seismic analysis, shall apply
for the construction of in-structure response spectra needed for the analysis of
acceleration and displacement environments for installed architectural, mechanical, and
electrical components. In-structure response spectra shall be developed from models
of primary structures subjected to MCER ground motions. The suggested frequencies in
Table 2.3-2 in ASCE 4-98 shall be utilized in developing the spectra. However, the
frequency range in the table shall be expanded to range from 0.1 Hz to 50 Hz.
Increments above 34 Hz shall be at 3 Hz and increments below 0.5 Hz shall be at 0.10
Hz.
Exception: In the application of ASCE 4-98 Section 3.4, those provisions that relate
to spectra-to-spectra analysis in Section 3.4.2.1.2 shall not apply.
4-13.8 COMPONENT QUALIFICATION DOCUMENTATION AND O&M MANUAL
All MC-1 and MC-2 equipment qualification documentation as outlined in Section 413.2.2.1 shall be maintained in a file identified as “Mission Critical Components and
Equipment Qualifications Manual” that shall be a part of the Operations & Maintenance
Manual that is turned over to the Authority having Jurisdiction. The project
specifications should require the Operations & Maintenance Manual state that replaced
or modified components need to be qualified per the original qualification criteria.
4-13.9 COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION NAMEPLATE
All MC-1 and MC-2 equipment shall bear permanent marking or nameplates
constructed of a durable heat and water resistant material. Nameplates shall be
mechanically attached to all nonstructural components and placed on the component for
clear identification. The nameplate shall not be less than 5" x 7" with red letters 1" in
height on a white background stating MC-1 or MC-2 as appropriate. The following
statement shall be on nameplate: “This equipment/component is Mission Critical. No
modifications are allowed unless authorized in advance and documented in the Mission
Critical Equipment Qualifications Manual.” The nameplate shall also contain the
component identification number in accordance with the drawings/specifications and the
O&M manuals. Continuous piping, and conduits shall be similarly marked as specified
in the contract documents.
NOTE: Numbering system changes to reflect 2012 IBC
organization.
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4-1701
GENERAL
4-1701.1 Scope
2012 IBC Chapter 17, as modified by UFC 1-200-01 and UFC 3-301-1, shall apply to
RC V buildings.
4-1801
SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
The provisions of 2012 IBC Chapter 18 shall apply to RC V buildings, except the
minimum Chapter 18 provisions applied shall be those required for SDC D structures.
In addition, the requirement in the following paragraph shall apply.
4-1801.1 Foundation Uplift and Rocking
The requirement for linear response of these structures may lead to the existence of
significant overturning forces in the structural system, and accompanying foundation
element uplift forces or rocking. The Registered Design Professional shall be
responsible for evaluating foundation overturning and rocking in the design analysis,
and this evaluation shall be reviewed by the Structural Design Review Panel (see
Section 4-1601.2.1).
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APPENDIX A REFERENCES
GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS:
Department of Defense
Washington, DC
http://dod.wbdg.org/
UFC 1-200-01, General Building
Requirements, 16 August 2010 with
Change 2, 28 November 2011
UFC 3-301-01, Structural Engineering, 27
January 2010 with Change 3, 31 January
2012
UFC 4-010-01, DoD Minimum Antiterrorism
Standards for Buildings, 9 February 2012
UFC 4-023-03, Design of Buildings to
Resist Progressive Collapse, 14 July 2009
Including Change 1, 27 January 2010
U.S. Army Construction Engineering
Research Laboratory
P.O. Box 9005
Champaign, IL 61826-9005
http://www.arl.army.mil
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
441 G Street NW
Washington, DC 20314-1000
UFC 4-152-01, Design: Piers and Wharves,
28 July 2005 Including Change 1, 1
September 2012
USACERL Technical Report 97/58, CERL
Equipment Fragility and Protection
Procedure (CEFAPP), Wilcoski, J.,
Gambill, J.B., and Smith, S.J., March 1997
USACERL Technical Report 98/34,
Seismic Mitigation for Equipment at Army
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1998
TM 5-809-10 / NAVFAC P-355 / AFM 88-3,
Chap. 13 Seismic Design for Buildings,
1982 and 1992 Editions
TM 5-809-10-1 / NAVFAC P-355.1 / AFM
88-3, CHAP. 13, SEC A Seismic Design
Guidelines for Essential Buildings, 27
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88-3, Chapter 13, Sec B, 1 September
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TI 809-04 Seismic Design for Buildings,31
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Rehabilitation for Buildings, November
1999
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TI 809-07 Design of Cold-Formed LoadBearing Steel Systems and Masonry
Veneer / Steel Stud Walls, 30 November
1998
TI 809-30 Metal Building Systems, 1
August 1998
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Agency
500 C Street, SW
Washington, DC 20472
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FEMA 178 Seismic Evaluation of Existing
Buildings, 1994.
FEMA P-646, Guidelines for Design of
Structures for Vertical Evacuation from
Tsunamis, 2008 Edition
FEMA P-750, NEHRP Recommended
Provisions for Seismic Regulations for
New Buildings and Other Structures,
2009 Edition, Part 1: Provisions
FEMA P-750, NEHRP Recommended
Provisions for Seismic Regulations for
New Buildings and Other Structures,
2009 Edition, Part 2: Commentary
National Institute of Standards and
Technology
Building and Fire Research Laboratory
100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8600
Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8600
http://www.nist.gov/index.html
ICSSC RP 8 / NIST GCR 11-917-12,
Standards of Seismic Safety for Existing
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December 2011
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1000 Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC 20585
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DOE/EH-0545, Seismic Evaluation
Procedure for Equipment in U.S.
Department of Energy Facilities, March
1997
NIST GCR 10-917-5, NEHRP Seismic
Design Technical Brief No. 4, Nonlinear
Structural Analysis for Seismic Design,
October 2010
DOE STD 1020, Natural Phenomena
Hazards Design and Evaluation Criteria
for Department of Energy Facilities,
January 2002
Volume 4 of DOE Binders: SAND92-0140
Part I, UC-523, Use of Seismic
Experience Data to Show Ruggedness of
Equipment in Nuclear Power Plants,
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Revision 4, Senior Seismic Review and
Advisory Panel, Sandia National
Laboratories, June 1992
California Office of Statewide Health
Planning and Development
400 R Street
Sacramento, CA 95811-6213
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Certification of Equipment and Nonstructural
Components, Code Application Notice
(CAN) No. 2-1708A.5, Effective October 31,
2008, Revised June 26, 2009
NON-GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS:
American Concrete Institute
P.O. Box 9094
Farmington Hills, MI 48333
http://www.concrete.org/
ACI 318, Building Code Requirements for
Structural Concrete, 2011 Edition
ACI 355.2, Qualification of Post-Installed
Mechanical Anchors in Concrete, 2007 Edition
ACI 355.4, Acceptance Criteria for
Qualification of Post-Installed Adhesive
Anchors in Concrete, 2011 Edition
American Institute of Steel Construction
One East Wacker Drive, Suite 3100
Chicago, IL 60601-2001
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ANSI/AISC 341, Seismic Provisions for
Structural Steel Buildings, 2010
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1140 Connecticut Ave., NW
Suite 705
Washington, D.C. 20036
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AISI S100, North American Specification for
the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural
Members, 2007 Edition
AISC 360, Specification for Structural Steel
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Cold-Formed Steel Structural Systems –
Special Bolted Moment Frames, 2007 Edition
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American Society of Civil Engineers
1801 Alexander Bell Drive
Reston, VA 20191-4400
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Nuclear Structures and Commentary, 1998
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of Existing Buildings, 2013 Edition
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Structures, Systems, and Components in
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NEHRP Seismic Provisions for Non-Structural
Components and their Application to
Performance Based Seismic Engineering,
Gillengerten, J.D., and Bachman, R.E., 2003
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Engineers
Three Park Avenue
New York, NY 10016-5990
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ASME B31.3, Process Piping, 2002 Edition
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for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas,
Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols, 2002
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Distribution Piping Systems, 1999 Edition
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ASTM International
100 Barr Harbor Drive
PO Box C700
West Conshohocken
PA 19428-2959
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ASTM A653/A653M, Standard Specification
for Steel Sheet, Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) or
Zinc-Iron Alloy-Coated (Galvannealed) by the
Hot-Dip Process, 2008 Edition
ASTM A500/A500M, Standard Specification
for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless
Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds and
Shapes, 2010a Edition
ASTM C635, Standard Practice for the
Manufacture, Performance, and Testing of
Metal Suspension Systems for Acoutical Tile
and Lay-in Panel Ceilings, 2004 Edition
ASTM C636, Standard Practice for Installation
of Metal Ceiling Suspension Systems for
Acoustical Tile and Lay-in Panels, 2004
Edition
ASTM E580/E580M Standard Practice for
Installation of Ceiling Suspension Systems for
Acoustical Tile and Lay-in Panels in Areas
Subject to Earthquake Ground Motions, 2001b
Edition
ASTM F1554, Standard Specification for
Anchor Bolts, Steel, 36, 55, and 105-ksi Yield
Strength, 2007ae1 Edition
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3412 Hillview Avenue
Palo Alto, California 94304 USA
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Ruggedness of Power Plant Equipment in
Nuclear Power Plants, Revision 1, February
1991
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Engineers (IEEE)
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Los Alamitos, CA 90720-1264
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5203 Leesburg Pike, Suite 600
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14848 Northam Street
La Mirada, CA 90638
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Utilities, Third Edition, November 2002
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1 Batterymarch Park
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200 West Adams Street, #2100
Precast/Prestressed Concrete Structures, 2nd
Chicago, IL 60606-6938
Edition, 2012
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Incorporated, MPR Associates
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and URS Corporation / John A. Blume
& Associates, Inc.
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Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning
Contractors' National Association
(SMACNA)
4201 Lafayette Center Drive Chantilly,
Virginia 20151-1219
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3rd Edition, 2008 Edition
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Telecommunications Industry
Association (TIA)
2500 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 300
Arlington, VA 22201
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Supporting Structures and Antennas, including
Addendum 2, 2009
The Masonry Society
3970 Broadway, Suite 201-D
Boulder, CO USA 80304-1135
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Code Requirements for Masonry Structures,
2011 Edition
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38 West Trenton Boulevard,
Suite 101
Fayetteville, AR 72701
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APPENDIX B GUIDANCE FOR SEISMIC DESIGN OF NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
B-1
INTRODUCTION
This Appendix defines architectural, mechanical, and electrical components, discusses
their participation and importance in relation to the seismic design of the structural
system, and provides guidance for their design to resist damage from earthquakeinduced forces and displacements. The fundamental principles and underlying
requirements of this Appendix are that the design of these components for buildings in
Risk Categories (RCs) I, II, and III should be such that they will not collapse and cause
personal injury due to the accelerations and displacements caused by severe
earthquakes, and that they should withstand more frequent but less severe earthquakes
without excessive damage and economic loss. In contrast, components in RC V
buildings, and designated components in RC IV, are required to remain operational
following a design earthquake.
B-1.1 Design Criteria
2012 IBC Section 1613, as modified by Chapter 2 Section 1613 of this UFC, governs
the seismic design of architectural, mechanical, and electrical components. 2012 IBC
Section 1613 references Chapter 13 of ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10). Because ASCE 7-10 is the primary source
of design requirements for these components, this Appendix cites ASCE 7-10
provisions and amplifies them as appropriate.
B-1.2 Walk-down Inspections and Seismic Mitigation for Buildings in Risk
Categories IV and V
B-1.2.1 General Guidance
Section 2-2.4.3 of UFC 3-301-01 requires that an initial walk-down inspection of new RC
IV and V buildings be performed. A walk-down inspection is a visual inspection of a
building to identify possible seismic vulnerabilities of its architectural, mechanical, and
electrical components. Inspections should include investigating adequacy of
component load paths, anchorage and bracing, and components’ abilities to
accommodate differential motions with respect to supporting building structure. The
walk-down inspector should become familiar with the design earthquake motions for the
site, structural configuration of the building, building drawings, and documentation of all
previous walk-down inspections. Inspectors should document all observations with
photographs, schematic drawings, and narrative discussions of apparent vulnerabilities.
Inspection reports normally do not include detailed assessments of component
vulnerabilities, but they may recommend further detailed assessments. Inspectors
should also define mitigation recommendations in inspection reports. Prior to building
commissioning, the Authority having Jurisdiction should ensure seismic mitigation
recommendations are fully implemented. An example of a walk-down inspection of
Madigan Army Medical Center at Fort Lewis, WA, may be found in USACERL Technical
Report 98/34, Seismic Mitigation for Equipment at Army Medical Centers.
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B-1.2.2
Periodic Post-commissioning Walk-down Inspections
In addition to initial walk-down inspections performed at building commissioning,
periodic post- construction walk-down inspections should be conducted in RC IV and V
buildings by installation personnel, as part of routine operations and maintenance. For
RC IV buildings, such inspections should be conducted at least every second year
following building commissioning, or, for affected systems, when any change to
architectural, mechanical, or electrical systems occurs. For RC V buildings, such
inspections should be conducted every year following building commissioning, or, for
affected systems, when any change to architectural, mechanical, or electrical systems
occurs. System changes also include those associated with any equipment placed in
the facility that is considered to be mission-critical. For example, the addition of a new
portable piece of critical communications equipment, computer equipment, or medical
diagnostics equipment should be included.
B-2
ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS
B-2.1 Reference
ASCE 7-10 Section 13.5, Architectural Components.
B-2.2 General
Architectural components addressed in ASCE 7-10 Chapter 13 are listed in ASCE 7-10
Table 13.5-1. These components are called “architectural” because they are not part of
the vertical or lateral load-carrying systems of a building, or part of the mechanical or
electrical systems. Although they are usually shown on architectural drawings, they
often have a structural aspect and can affect the response of a building to earthquake
ground motions. Architects should consult with structural, mechanical, and electrical
engineers, as appropriate, when dealing with these elements. The structural engineer
must review architectural (as well as mechanical and electrical) component anchorage
details, to ensure compliance with anchorage requirements. During this review, the
structural engineer must also identify installed architectural (as well as mechanical and
electrical) components that may adversely affect the performance of the structural
system.
B-2.3 Typical Architectural Components
Examples of architectural components that have a structural aspect requiring special
attention follow.
B-2.3.1 Nonstructural Walls
A wall is considered architectural or nonstructural when it is not designed to participate
in resisting lateral forces. To ensure that nonstructural walls do not resist lateral forces,
they should either be disconnected from the building structure (i.e., isolated) at the top
and the ends of the wall or be very flexible (in-plane) relative to the structural walls and
frames resisting lateral forces. An isolated wall must be capable of acting as a
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cantilever from the floor, or be braced to resist its own out-of-plane motions and loads,
without interacting with the lateral force-resisting system. Such interaction may be
detrimental to the wall or the lateral force-resisting system or both.
B-2.3.2 Curtain Walls and Filler Walls
A curtain wall is an exterior wall, often constructed of masonry that lies outside of and
usually conceals the structural frame of a building. A filler wall is an infill, usually
constructed of masonry, within the structural members of a frame. These walls are often
considered architectural in nature if they are designed and detailed by the architect.
However, they can act as structural shear walls. If they are connected to the frame, they
will be subjected to the deflections of the frame and will participate with the frame in
resisting lateral forces. Curtain walls and infill walls in buildings governed by this
document should be designed so they do not restrict the deformations of the structural
framing under lateral loads (i.e., so they are isolated from building lateral deformations).
Lateral supports and bracing for these walls should be provided as prescribed in this
Appendix.
B-2.3.3 Partial Infill Walls
A partial infill wall is one that has a strip of windows between the top of the solid infill
and the bottom of the floor above, or has a vertical strip of window between one or both
ends of the infill and a column. Such walls require special treatment. If they are not
properly isolated from the structural system, they will act as shear walls. The wall with
windows along the top is of particular concern because of its potential effect on the
adjacent columns. The columns are fully braced where there is an adjacent infill, but
are unbraced in the zone between the windows. The upper, unbraced part of the
column is a “short column,” and its greater rigidity (compared with the other, longer
unbraced columns in the system) must be considered in structural design. Short
columns are very susceptible to shear failure in earthquakes. Figure B-1 shows a partial
infill wall, with short columns on either side of the infill, which should be avoided. All
infills in buildings governed by this document should be considered to be nonstructural
components, and should be designed so they do not restrict the deformation of the
structural framing under lateral loads. In this instance, the partial infill should be
sufficiently isolated from the adjacent frame elements to permit those elements to
deform in flexure as designed.
B-2.3.4 Precast Panels
Exterior walls that consist of precast panels attached to the building frame are
addressed uniquely. The general design of wall panels is usually shown on
architectural drawings, while structural details of the panels are usually shown on
structural drawings. Often, structural design is assigned to the General Contractor, to
allow maximum use of the special expertise of the selected panel subcontractor. In
such cases, structural drawings should include design criteria and representative details
in order to show what is expected. The design criteria should include the required
design forces and frame deflections that must be accommodated by the panels and
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their connections. Particular attention should be given to the effects of deflections of the
frame members supporting precast panels, to assure that appropriate reaction forces
and deflections are considered. Panels with more than two attachment points between
their bottom edge and the supporting frame should be avoided. Further guidance can be
found in Architectural Precast Concrete, 3rd Edition (PCI MNL-122-07), published by the
Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI).
Figure B-1. Partial Infill Masonry Wall between Two Concrete Columns,
Causing Adverse “Short Column” Effect
Short column
Long column
B-2.3.5 Masonry Veneer
Reference should be made to Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures
(TMS 402-11/ACI 530-11/ASCE 5-11), commonly referred to as the MSJC (Masonry
Standards Joint Committee) Code. A masonry veneer is defined as a masonry wythe
that provides the exterior finish of a wall system and transfers out-of-plane load directly
to a backing, but is not considered to add load-resisting capacity to the wall system. A
masonry veneer may be anchored or adhered. An anchored veneer is defined as a
masonry veneer secured to and supported laterally by the backing through anchors and
supported vertically by the foundation or other structural elements. An adhered veneer
is defined as a masonry veneer secured to and supported by the backing through
adhesion. Chapter 6 of the MSJC Code provides requirements for design and detailing
of anchored masonry veneer and adhered masonry veneer. The design of anchored
veneer is addressed in Section 6.1.2 of the MSJC Code, while the design of adhered
veneer is addressed in Section 6.1.3 of the same document.
B-2.3.6 Rigid Partition Walls
Rigid partition walls are generally nonstructural masonry walls. Such walls should be
isolated, so they are unable to resist in-plane lateral forces to which they are subjected,
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based on relative rigidities. Typical details for isolating these walls are shown in Figure
B-2. These walls should be designed for the prescribed forces normal to their plane.
Figure B-2. Typical Details for Isolation of Rigid Partition Walls
Slab
Bottom of truss
or slab
1" Minimum
A
L-Brace
Continuous
angles
1/4" gap
_ 1/8"
+
Loose
bolt w/
double
nut
T - with
vertical slot
Anchor
bolts
Ceiling
A
SECTION A-A
CONTINUOUS ANGLES
OVERHEAD BRACING
Hanger wires
1 1/2"
Rigid ceilings,
both sides
Note: Limit use to seismic design
categories A, B, and C only.
RIGID CEILING
LATERAL SUPPORTS - NONSTRUCTURAL PARTITION
B-2.3.7 Nonrigid Partition Walls
Nonrigid partition walls are generally nonstructural partitions, such as stud and drywall,
stud and plaster, and movable partitions. When these partitions are constructed
according to standard recommended practice, they are assumed to be able to withstand
design in-plane drift of only 0.005 times the story height (1/16 in./ft [5 mm/m] of story
height) without damage. This is much less than the most restrictive allowable story drift
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in ASCE 7-10 Table 12.12-1. Therefore, damage to these partitions should be expected
in the design earthquake if they are anchored to the structure in the in-plane direction.
For RC IV and V buildings, these partition walls should be isolated from in-plane
building motions at the tops and sides of partitions if drifts exceeding 0.005 times the
story height are anticipated in the design earthquake. Partition walls should be
designed for the prescribed seismic force acting normal to flat surfaces. However, the
wind or the usual 5 pounds per square foot partition load (2012 IBC Section 1607.13)
will usually govern. Bracing the tops of the walls to the structure will normally resist
these out-of-plane forces applied to the partition walls.
Economic comparison between potential damage and costs of isolation should be
considered. For partitions that are not isolated, a decision has to be made for each
project as to the contribution, if any, such partitions will make to damping and response
of the structure, and the effect of seismic forces parallel to (in-plane with) the partition
resulting from the structural system as a whole. Usually, it may be assumed that this
type of a partition is subject to future changes in floor layout location. The structural role
of partitions may be controlled by limiting the height of partitions and by varying the
method of support.
B-2.3.8 Suspended Ceilings
Requirements for suspended ceilings are provided in ASCE 7-10 Section 13.5.6, as
modified by Chapter 2. Useful guidance is available in ICC-ES AC 368 Acceptance
Criteria for Suspended Ceiling Framing Systems, issued by the International Code
Council Evaluation Service (ICC-ES) in February 2007.
B-3
MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
B-3.2 Component Support.
B-3.2.1 References
ASCE 7-10 Section 13.6.5 Component Supports, as modified by Chapter 2 Section
13.6.5.5.
B-3.2.2 Base-mounted Equipment in RCs IV and V
Floor or pad-mounted mission-critical equipment installed in RC V buildings and RC IV
buildings assigned to SDC D, E, or F should use cast-in-place anchor bolts to anchor
them. Alternatively, post-installed anchors shall be permitted to be used provided they
are qualified for earthquake loading in accordance with ACI 355.2, Qualification of PostInstalled Mechanical Anchors in Concrete, and ACI 355.4, Acceptance Criteria for
Qualification of Post-Installed Adhesive Anchors in Concrete, as applicable. For this
equipment, two nuts should be provided on each bolt, and anchor bolts should conform
to ASTM F1554-07ae1, Standard Specification for Anchor Bolts, Steel, 36, 55, and 105ksi Yield Strength. Cast-in-place anchor bolts should have an embedded straight length
equal to at least 12 times the nominal bolt diameter. Anchor bolts that exceed the
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normal depth of equipment foundation piers or pads should either extend into the
concrete floor, or the foundation should be increased in depth to accommodate the bolt
lengths. Figure B-3 illustrates typical base anchorage and restraint for equipment.
Figure B-3. Typical Seismic Restraints for Floor-mounted Equipment
Note: For flexibly mounted equipment requiring special
certification per ASCE 7-10 Section13.2.2, where shake
table testing provides the basis for certification, testing must
be done on equipment including the flexible mount as
specified for a project.
Fillet weld
Field welding
B-3.2.3 Suspended Equipment
Seismic bracing for suspended equipment may use the bracing recommendations and
details in ANSI/SMACNA 001-2008, Seismic Restraint Manual: Guidelines for
Mechanical Systems, 3rd Edition, or the International Seismic Application Technology
(ISAT), Engineered Seismic Bracing of Suspended Utilities, 3rd Edition, November 2002.
The ISAT recommendations may be used for suspended plumbing and process piping,
mechanical piping and equipment, HVAC ducts, cable trays and bus ducts, electrical
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conduits, conduit racks, and vibration isolation. The ISAT guidelines require the
calculation of a Total Design Lateral Force (TDLF). This force should be calculated in
accordance with seismic force calculations for Fp in ASCE 7-10 Section 13.3.1.
Trapeze-type hangers should be secured with not less than two bolts. Figure B-4 shows
typical seismic restraints for suspended equipment.
Figure B-4. Typical Seismic Restraints for Suspended Equipment
Anchor bolt
Diagonal bracing
typ. 4 sides
Rod bracing
typ. 4 sides
Equipment
Equipment
Alternate location
of brace,
typ. 4 corners
Resilient pads
Vibration mount
where applicable
Support framing
SUSPENDED EQUIPMENT
Vibration
isolation
Hanger rod
Diagonal bracing
typ. 4 sides
Lock nut
Brace framing
Equipment
Resilient pads
Gap
SUSPENDED EQUIPMENT WITH VIBRATION MOUNT
B-3.2.4 Supports and Attachments for Piping
Seismic supports required in accordance with ASCE 7-10 Section 13.6.8, Piping
Systems, should be designed in accordance with the following guidance. This piping is
not constructed in accordance with ASME B31 or NFPA 13.
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B-3.2.4.1 General
The provisions of this section apply to all risers and riser connections; all horizontal
pipes and attached valves; all connections and brackets for pipes; flexible couplings and
expansion joints; and spreaders. The following general guidance applies to these
elements:
1. For seismic analysis of horizontal pipes, the equivalent static force should be considered
to act concurrently with the full dead load of the pipe, including contents.
2. All connections and brackets for pipe should be designed to resist concurrent dead and
equivalent static forces. Seismic forces should be determined from ASCE 7-10 Section
13.3.1. Supports should be provided at all pipe joints unless continuity is maintained.
Figure B-5 provides acceptable sway bracing details.
3. Flexible couplings should be provided at the bottoms of risers for pipes larger than 3.5 in.
(89 mm) in diameter. Flexible couplings and expansion joints should be braced laterally
and longitudinally unless such bracing would interfere with the action of the couplings or
joints. When pipes enter buildings, flexible couplings should be provided to allow for
relative movement between the soil and building.
4. Spreaders should be provided at appropriate intervals to separate adjacent pipelines
unless pipe spans and clear distances between pipes are sufficient to prevent contact
between the pipes during an earthquake.
B-3.2.4.2 Rigid versus Flexible Piping Systems
Piping systems should be considered either rigid or flexible. Rigid pipes are stiffer than
flexible pipes. Their dynamic response is assumed to be decoupled from the building
amplified response, so that the component amplification factor, ap, is set to 1.0 (see
ASCE 7-10 Table 13.6-1, note a). Flexible pipes are more flexible, and it is assumed
that they may couple with and further amplify building motion, so ap is set to 2.5. This
suggests that pipe system forces, Fp, would be less for rigid pipes, however, that is not
necessarily the case because Rp values are larger for flexible pipes than rigid
pipes. Therefore, designers are encouraged to use high- deformability pipe systems
that may permit longer pipe support spacing in accordance with this guidance. It should
be noted that when high deformability pipe systems, which have the larger Rp values,
are used (e.g., welded steel pipe systems), Fp, may be limited by the minimum value set
forth by ASCE 7-10 Equation 13.3-3. Forces based on ASCE 7-10 Equation 13.3-3 may
also govern for pipes installed in lower levels of a building.
B-3.2.4.2.1 Rigid Piping System
A piping system is assumed rigid if its maximum period of vibration is no more than 0.06
second (ASCE 7-10 Section 11.2 definition for Component, rigid). ASCE 7-10 Table
13.6-1 shows that ap equals 1.0 for rigid pipes, where the support motions are not
amplified. Rigid and rigidly attached pipes should be designed in accordance with
ASCE 7-10 Equation 13.3-1, where Wp is the weight of the pipes, their contents, and
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attachments. Forces should be distributed in proportion to the total weight of pipes,
contents, and attachments.
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Figure B-5. Acceptable Seismic Details for Pipe Sway Bracing
45° .
Typ
Rod over pipe
for stiffening
45° .
Typ
Pipe or L
Pi
pe
or
L
45°
45°
45° .
Typ
Pipe or L
Use hanger if
not over 24"
Cast insert
45°
Typ
.
Use hanger if
not over 24"
Cast inserts
45° .
Typ
Angle or equal
Clip L
45°
2-bolts
in each
connection
B-11
Vertical
member
truss
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Tables B-1, B-2, and B-3 may be used to determine allowable span-diameter
relationships for rigid pipes; standard (40S) pipe; extra strong (80S) pipe; types K, L,
and M copper tubing; and 85 red brass or SPS copper pipe in RC IV and V buildings.
These tables are based on water-filled pipes with periods equal to 0.06 seconds.
Figures B-6, B-7, and B-8 display support conditions for Tables B-1, B-2, and B-3,
respectively. The relationship used to determine maximum pipe lengths, L, shown in
the tables, that will result in rigid pipes having a maximum period of vibration of 0.06
seconds, is given in Equation B-1 (which is excerpted from the Shock and Vibration
Handbook):
L = C π Ta
EI g
w
, in. or mm
(Equation B-1)
where
C = period constant, equal to 0.50 for pinned-pinned pipes; 0.78 for fixed- pinned pipes; and
1.125 for fixed-fixed pipes
Ta = natural period of pipe in its fundamental mode, set equal to 0.06 second
E = modulus of elasticity of pipe, psi or MPa
4
4
I = moment of inertia of pipe, in or mm
w = weight of pipe and contents per unit length, lb/in. or N/mm
Table B-1
Maximum Span for Rigid Pipe with Pinned-Pinned Conditions, L
Std. Wt. Ex. Strong
Diameter
Steel Pipe Steel Pipe
Inches
40S
80S
1
7'- 0''
7'- 0''
1 1/2
8'- 5''
8'- 6''
2
9'- 4''
9'- 5''
2 1/2
10'- 3''
10'- 5''
3
11'- 3''
11'- 5''
3 1/2
11'- 12''
12'- 2''
4
12'- 8''
12'- 11''
5
13'- 11''
14'- 3''
6
15'- 1''
15'- 7''
8
16'- 12''
17'- 8''
10
18'- 9''
19'- 4''
12
20'- 1''
20'- 9''
Copper
Tube
Type K
5'- 5''
6'- 5''
7'- 3''
7'- 11''
8'- 8''
9'- 3''
9'- 10''
10'- 11''
11'- 12''
B-12
Copper
Tube
Type L
5'- 4''
6'- 3''
7'- 1''
7'- 10''
8'- 6''
9'- 1''
9'- 9''
10'- 8''
11'- 6''
Copper
Tube
Type M
4'- 11''
5'- 12''
6'- 10''
7'- 5''
8'- 1''
8'- 8''
9'- 5''
10'- 4''
11'- 2''
85 Red Brass
& SPS Copper
Pipe
5'- 11''
7'- 1''
7'- 10''
8'- 8''
9'- 6''
10'- 2''
10'- 9''
11'- 8''
12'- 7''
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Figure B-6. Pinned-pinned Support Condition for Table B-1
L
Table B-2
Maximum Span for Rigid Pipe with Fixed-Pinned Condition, L
Std. W t. Ex. Strong
Diameter
Steel Pipe Steel Pipe
Inches
40S
80S
1
8'- 9''
8'- 10''
1 1/2
10'- 6''
10'- 7''
2
11'- 7''
11'- 9''
2 1/2
12'- 10''
12'- 12''
3
14'- 1''
14'- 3''
3 1/2
14'- 11''
15'- 3''
4
15'- 9''
16'- 1''
5
17'- 5''
17'- 10''
6
18'- 10''
19'- 5''
8
21'- 2''
22'- 0''
10
23'- 5''
24'- 2''
12
25'- 1''
25'- 11''
Copper
Tube
Type K
6'- 9''
7'- 12''
9'- ''
9'- 11''
10'- 10''
11'- 7''
12'- 4''
13'- 8''
14'- 11''
Copper
Tube
Type L
6'- 8''
7'- 10''
8'- 10''
9'- 9''
10'- 7''
11'- 4''
12'- 2''
13'- 3''
14'- 5''
Copper
Tube
Type M
6'- 1''
7'- 6''
8'- 6''
9'- 4''
10'- 1''
10'- 10''
11'- 9''
12'- 10''
13'- 11''
85 Red Brass
& SPS Copper
Pipe
7'- 5''
8'- 10''
9'- 9''
10'- 9''
11'- 10''
12'- 8''
13'- 5''
14'- 7''
15'- 8''
Figure B-7. Fixed-pinned Support Condition for Table B-2
L
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Table B-3
Maximum Span for Rigid Pipe with Fixed-Fixed Condition, L
Std. W t. Ex. Strong
Diameter
Steel Pipe Steel Pipe
Inches
40S
80S
1
10'- 7''
10'- 7''
1 1/2
12'- 7''
12'- 8''
2
13'- 11''
14'- 2''
2 1/2
15'- 5''
15'- 7''
3
16'- 11''
17'- 2''
3 1/2
17'- 12''
18'- 4''
4
18'- 11''
19'- 4''
5
20'- 11''
21'- 5''
6
22'- 7''
23'- 4''
8
25'- 6''
26'- 5''
10
28'- 2''
29'- 0''
12
30'- 2''
31'- 1''
Copper
Tube
Type K
8'- 1''
9'- 7''
10'- 10''
11'- 11''
12'- 12''
13'- 11''
14'- 9''
16'- 5''
17'- 12''
Copper
Tube
Type L
7'- 12''
9'- 5''
10'- 8''
11'- 9''
12'- 9''
13'- 8''
14'- 8''
15'- 11''
17'- 4''
Copper
Tube
Type M
7'- 4''
8'- 12''
10'- 2''
11'- 2''
12'- 1''
13'- 1''
14'- 2''
15'- 5''
16'- 9''
85 Red Brass
& SPS Copper
Pipe
8'- 11''
10'- 8''
11'- 9''
12'- 11''
14'- 3''
15'- 3''
16'- 1''
17'- 7''
18'- 10''
Figure B-8. Fixed-fixed Support Condition for Table B-3
L
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B-3.2.4.2.2 Flexible Piping Systems
Piping systems that do not comply with the rigidity requirements of Section B-3.2.4.1.1
(i.e., period less than or equal to 0.06 seconds) should be considered flexible (i.e.,
period greater than 0.06 second). Flexible piping systems should be designed for
seismic forces with consideration given to both the dynamic properties of the piping
system and the building or structure in which it is placed. In lieu of a more detailed
analysis, equivalent static lateral force may be computed using ASCE 7-10 Equation
13.3-1, with ap = 2.5. The forces should be distributed in proportion to the total weight of
pipes, contents, and attachments. If the weight of attachments is greater than 10% of
pipe weight, attachments should be separately braced, or substantiating calculations
should be required. If temperature stresses are appreciable, substantiating calculations
should be required. The following guidance should also be followed for flexible pipe
systems:
1. Separation between pipes should be a minimum of four times the calculated maximum
displacement due to Fp, but not less than 4 in. (102 mm) clearance between parallel
pipes, unless spreaders are provided.
2. Clearance from walls or rigid elements should be a minimum of three times the
calculated displacement due to Fp, but not less than 3 in. (76 mm) clearance from rigid
elements.
3. If the provisions of the above paragraphs appear to be too severe for an economical
design, alternative methods based on rational and substantial analysis may be applied to
flexible piping systems.
4. Acceptable seismic details for sway bracing are shown in Figure B-5.
B-3.3 Stacks (Exhaust) Associated with Buildings
B-3.3.1 References
ASCE 7-10 Section 13.6 and Chapter 15, and Chapter 2 Section 13.6.1.
B-3.3.2 General
Stacks are actually vertical beams with distributed mass and, as such, cannot be
modeled accurately by single-mass systems. This design guidance applies to either
cantilever or singly-guyed stacks attached to buildings. When a stack foundation is in
contact with the ground and the adjacent building does not support the stack, it should
be considered to be a nonbuilding structure (see ASCE 7-10 Chapter 15). This
guidance is intended for stacks with a constant moment of inertia. Stacks having a
slightly varying moment of inertia should be treated as having a uniform moment of
inertia with a value equal to the average moment of inertia.
Stacks that extend more than 15 ft (4.6 m) above a rigid attachment to adjacent
buildings should be designed according to the guidance for cantilever stacks presented
in Section B-3.3.3. Stacks that extend less than 15 ft (4.6 m) should be designed for the
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equivalent static lateral force defined in ASCE 7-10 Section 13.3.1 using the ap and Rp
values in ASCE 7-10 Table 13.6-1.
Stacks should be anchored to adjacent buildings using long anchor bolts (where bolt
length is at least 12 bolt diameters). Much more strain energy can be absorbed with
long anchor bolts than with short ones. The use of long anchor bolts has been
demonstrated to give stacks better seismic performance. A bond-breaker material
should be used on the upper portion of the anchor bolt to ensure a length of unbonded
bolt for strain energy absorption. Two nuts should be used on anchor bolts to provide
an additional factor of safety.
B-3.3.3 Cantilever Stacks
The fundamental period of a cantilever stack should be determined from the period
coefficient (e.g., C = 0.0909) provided in Figure B-9, unless actually computed. The
equation and the period coefficients, C, shown in Figure B-9 were derived from the
Shock and Vibration Handbook (6th Edition, 2009). Dynamic response of groundsupported stacks may be calculated from the appropriate base shear equations for the
Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure defined in ASCE 7-10 Section 12.8.
B-3.3.4 Guyed Stacks
Analysis of guyed stacks depends on the relative rigidities of cantilever resistance and
guy cable support systems. If a cable is relatively flexible compared to the cantilevered
stack stiffness, the stack should respond in a manner similar to the higher modes of
vibration of a cantilever, with periods and mode shapes similar to those shown in Figure
B-9. The fundamental period of vibration of the guyed system should be somewhere
between the values for the fundamental and the appropriate higher mode of a similar
cantilever stack. An illustration for a single guyed stack is shown in Figure B-10.
Guyed stacks should be designed with rigid cables so that the true deflected shape is
closer to that shown on the right side of Figure B-10. This requires pretensioning of guy
cables to a minimum of 10 percent of stack seismic forces, Fp. Design for guyed stacks
is beyond the scope of this document. However, some guidance may be found in TIA222-G, Structural Standards for Antenna Supporting Structures and Antennas, 2005,
including Addendum 2, 2009.
B-3.4 Elevators
B-3.4.1 References
ASCE 7-10 Section 13.6.10, “Elevator and Escalator Design Requirements,” as
modified by Chapter 2 Section 13.6.10.3.
B-3.4.2 General
Elevator car and counterweight frames, roller guide assemblies, retainer plates, guide
rails, and supporting brackets and framing (Figure B-11) should be designed in
accordance with ASCE 7-10 Section 13.6.10. Lateral forces acting on guide rails
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should be assumed to be distributed one-third to top guide rollers and two- thirds to
bottom guide rollers of elevator cars and counterweights. An elevator car and/or
counterweight should be assumed to be located at its most adverse position in relation
to its guide rails and support brackets. Horizontal deflections of guide rails should not
exceed 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) between supports, and horizontal deflections of the brackets
should not exceed 1/4 in. (6.4 mm).
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Figure B-9. Period Coefficients for Uniform Beams
FIXED BASE
PINNED BASE
L
L
.736 L
C=.0909
C=.0208
C=.0324
L
.774 L
L
.853 L
.56 L
C=.0145
.868 L
.500 L
C=.0064
C=.0081
.692 L
.667 L
.616 L
.384 L
.333 L
.308 L
C=.00307
.898 L
C=.00361
L
.644 L
.356 L
C=.00265
wL4
EI
C=.0064
L
C=.0052
.906 L
.446 L
L
.500 L
Ta = C
C=.0208
L
C=.00307
.922 L
.765 L
.75 L
.707 L
.592 L
.50 L
.471 L
.294 L
.25 L
.235 L
C=.00179
C=.00202
C=.00179
Ta = Fundamental period (sec)
w = Weight per unit length of beam (lb/in) (N/mm)
L= Total beam length (in) (mm)
I = Moment of inertia (in 4) (mm 4)
E = Modulus of elasticity (psi) (MPa)
C = Period constant
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Figure B-10. Single Guyed Stacks.
DEFLECTED SHAPE
DESCRIPTION
FLEXIBLE WIRE
RIGID WIRE
L
∼
∼ 3/4 L
Guy
wire
B-3.4.3 Retainer Plates
In structures assigned to SDC D, E, and F, clearances between the machined faces of
rail and retainer plates should not be more than 3/16 in. (4.8 mm), and the engagement
of a rail should not be less than the dimension of its machined side face. When a car
safety device attached to lower members of a car frame complies with lateral restraint
requirements, a retainer plate is not required for the bottom of the car.
B-3.4.4 Counterweight Tie Brackets
In structures assigned to SDC D, E, and F, the maximum spacing of counterweight rail
tie brackets tied to a building structure should not exceed 16 ft (4.9 m). An intermediate
spreader bracket, which is not required to be tied to a building structure, should be
provided for tie brackets spaced greater than 10 ft (3.0 m), and two intermediate
spreader brackets are required for tie brackets spaced greater than 14 ft (4.3 m).
B-3.4.5 Force Calculation
Elevator machinery and equipment should be designed for ap = 1.0 in ASCE 7-10
Equation 13.3-1, when rigid and rigidly attached. Non-rigid or flexibly mounted
equipment (i.e., which has a period greater than 0.06 second) should be designed with
ap = 2.5.
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Figure B-11. Elevator Details
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B-3.5 Lighting Fixtures in Buildings
B-3.5.1 Reference
ASCE 7-10 Sections 13.2.5 Testing Alternative for Seismic Capacity Determination,
13.5.6 Suspended Ceilings, 13.6.1 General, 13.6.2 Component Period, 13.6.4 Electrical
Components, and 13.6.5 Component Supports as modified by this UFC’s Chapter 2 in
the Sections 13.5.6 Suspended Ceilings, 13.6.6.3 Mechanical Components, and
13.6.12 Lighting Fixtures in RC IV and V Buildings
B-3.5.2 General
Lighting fixtures, including their attachments and supports, in SDC C, D, E, and F
should conform to the following materials and construction requirements:
1. Fixture supports should use materials that are suitable for this purpose. Cast metal parts,
other than those of malleable iron, and cast or rolled threads, should be subject to
special investigation to ensure structural adequacy.
2. Loop and hook or swivel hanger assemblies for pendant fixtures should be fitted with
restraining devices to hold their stems in the support position during earthquake motions.
Pendant-supported fluorescent fixtures should also be provided with flexible hanger
devices at their attachments to the fixture channel to preclude breaking of the support.
Motions of swivels or hinged joints should not cause sharp bends in conductors or
damage to insulation.
3. A supporting assembly that is intended to be mounted on an outlet box should be
designed to accommodate mounting features on 4 in. (102 mm) boxes, 3 in. (76 mm)
plaster rings, and fixture studs.
4. Each surface-mounted individual or continuous row of fluorescent fixtures should be
attached to a seismic-resisting ceiling support system. Support devices for attaching
fixtures to suspended ceilings should be locking-type scissor clamps or full loop bands
that will securely attach to the ceiling support. Fixtures attached to the underside of a
structural slab should be properly anchored to the slab at each of their corners.
5. Each wall-mounted emergency light unit should be secured in a manner that will hold the
unit in place during a seismic disturbance.
B-3.6 Bridges, Cranes, and Monorails
B-3.6.1 References
ASCE 7-10 Section 13.6 Mechanical and Electrical Component, as modified by Chapter
2, in the Sections 13.6.13 Bridges, Cranes, and Monorails and 13.6.14 Bridges, Cranes,
and Monorails for RC IV & V Buildings and 2012 IBC Section 1607.12.
B-3.6.2 General
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2012 IBC Section 1607.12 provides live load design guidance for cranes. Vertical
restraints should be provided to resist crane uplift. Experience has shown that vertical
ground motions can be amplified significantly in either crane bridges or crane rail
support brackets that are cantilevered from columns. Analysis of cranes should
consider their amplified response in the vertical direction, in addition to horizontal
response. The criteria for this section specify a component amplification factor, ap, of
2.5 in the direction parallel to crane rails, because a crane bridge would almost certainly
be flexible enough in its weak axis to have a natural period greater than 0.06 seconds.
This factor is greater than 1.0 because, at large natural periods, a crane bridge can be
expected to amplify ground and building motions. This factor has a value of 1.0
perpendicular to crane rails because the bridge would be loaded axially in this direction,
resulting in a natural period that is less than 0.06 second. The crane bridge is
considered to be rigid when loaded axially, so that it will not amplify ground or building
motions. When a crane is not in the locked position, it is reasonable to assume that
upper bound forces in the direction parallel to crane rails, between the wheels and rails,
cannot exceed a conservative estimate of the force that could be transmitted by friction
between the brake wheels and rails.
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APPENDIX C MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENT CERTIFICATION
C-1
COMPONENT CERTIFICATION
C-1.1 General
The background to mechanical and electrical component certification is explained in
Special Seismic Certification of Nonstructural Components (Tobloski, M. Structural
Engineering and Design, 2011).
ASCE 7-10 Section 13.2 states that certification shall be by analysis, testing or
experience data. Mechanical and electrical equipment that must remain operable
following the design earthquake must be certified based on shake table testing or
experience data unless it can be shown that the component is inherently rugged by
comparison with similar seismically qualified components (Section 13.2.2). ASCE 7-10
Section 13.2.2- Item 2 states that “Components with hazardous contents shall be
certified by the manufacturer as maintaining containment following the design
earthquake by (1) analysis, (2) approved shake table testing in accordance with Section
13.2.5, or (3) experience data in accordance with Section 13.2.6.”
The California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) has
published Code Application Notice (CAN) 2-1708A.5, which explicitly explains OSHPD’s
expectations as they relate to special seismic certification. The main focus of the CAN is
to emphasize items requiring physical shake table testing. OSHPD has also created a
Special Seismic Certification Preapproval (OSP) program. This program offers a means
to obtain prequalification of product lines for special seismic certification. From
http://www.oshpd.ca.gov/FDD/Pre-Approval/index.html one can scroll down to the list of
equipment that is pre-approved by OSHPD.
C-1.1.1 References
ASCE 7-10 Section 13.2, General Design Requirements, and Chapter 2 Section 13.2.2.
C-1.1.2 Analytical Certification
Certification based on analysis, as noted in ASCE 7-10 Section 13.2.2 Item 2, requires
a reliable and conservative understanding of the equipment configuration, including the
mass distribution, strength, and stiffness of the various subcomponents. From this
information, an analytical model may be developed that reliably and conservatively
predicts the equipment dynamic response and potential controlling modes of failure. If
such detailed information on the equipment or a basis for conservative estimates of
these properties is not available, then methods other than analysis must be used. The
use of analysis for active or energized components is not permitted (see ASCE 7-10
Section 13.2.2). Any analytical qualification of equipment should be peer-reviewed
independently by qualified, Registered Design Professionals.
C-1.1.3 Certification Based on Testing
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Shake table tests conducted in accordance with either ICC-ES AC156, Acceptance
Criteria for Seismic Qualification by Shake-Table Testing of Nonstructural Components,
or a site-specific study, should first use uniaxial motions in each of the three principal
axes of the equipment that is being tested. The measured response recorded with
vibration response monitoring instrumentation should be reviewed to determine if out-ofplane response (in terms of peak amplitude) at a given location of instrumentation
exceeds 20% of the in-plane response. The in-plane direction is the direction of
horizontal test motions, while the out-of-plane direction is at a horizontal angle of 90
degrees with respect to the in-plane axis. An out-of-plane response (equipment relative
acceleration or equipment deformation) that exceeds 20% of the in-plane response, for
either horizontal test, indicates that significant cross-coupling is occurring. In that case,
the final qualification test should be triaxial, with simultaneous phase-incoherent
motions in all three principal axes. If out-of-plane response is less than 20% of the inplane response for both horizontal tests, at each critical location instrumented, then the
final qualification tests can be biaxial with motions in one horizontal and the vertical
directions. After post-test inspection and functional compliance verification, the Unit
Under Test (UUT) may be rotated 90 degrees about the vertical axis and biaxial testing
for the other horizontal direction and vertical direction can be conducted. Normally, two
biaxial tests, rather than a single triaxial test, would be conducted when a triaxial shake
table is not available or the displacement capacity of a triaxial shake table in one
direction is too small.
The development of ICC-ES AC156 is documented in ASCE Structures Congress
Proceedings: Background on the Development of the NEHRP Seismic Provisions for
Non-Structural Components and their Application to Performance Based Seismic
Engineering (Gillengerten, J.D., and Bachman, R.E., ASCE Structures Congress, 2003).
For RC V facilities the site-specific seismic site response analysis will result in a set of
site-specific ground motions that define the seismic hazard. The building model could
be analyzed with these motions to define predicted time-history motions at each location
where critical equipment is to be installed. From these building response motions,
response spectra could be developed, using 5% of critical damping. If the equipment
will be placed at several locations in the same building or in multiple buildings, a
required response spectrum (RRS) could be developed that envelopes all the spectra
generated from each building response record. As an alternative to the ICC-ES AC156
procedure, the equipment could be qualified with triaxial motions fit to the RRS, but
generated according to ICC-ES AC156. A second alternative approach would be to test
with the predicted time history motions that have the greatest response spectra
amplitude at the measured natural frequency of the equipment in each of the principal
directions. Using worst-case records would require that resonance search shake table
tests be conducted in each of the three principal directions as defined in ICC-ES
AC156. All alternatives to ICC-ES AC156 equipment qualification testing require peer
review of the development of test records and test plans by qualified, Registered Design
Professionals. Post-test inspection and functional compliance verification would still be
required in accordance with ICC-ES AC156.
C-1.1.4 Additional Certification Methods
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Three additional methods are permitted for defining equipment capacity: earthquake
experience data, seismic qualification testing data, and the CERL Equipment Fragility
and Protection Procedure. The use of these methods requires a peer review by a
qualified, Registered Design Professional.
C-1.1.4.1 Earthquake Experience Data
Earthquake experience data that were obtained by surveying and cataloging the effects
of strong ground motion earthquakes on various classes of equipment mounted in
conventional power plants and other industrial facilities may be used. Section 4.2.1 of
the publication Generic Implementation Procedure (GIP) for Seismic Verification of
Nuclear Plant Equipment (DOE 1992) provides these data. Based on this work, a
Reference Spectrum would be developed to represent the seismic capacity of
equipment in the earthquake experience equipment class. DOE/EH-0545, Seismic
Evaluation Procedure for Equipment in U.S. Department of Energy Facilities, provides
guidance on this procedure. A detailed description of the derivation and use of this
Reference Spectrum is contained in DoE publication SAND92-0140, Use of Seismic
Experience Data to Show Ruggedness of Equipment in Nuclear Power Plants. This
document should be reviewed before using the Reference Spectrum. The Reference
Spectrum and four spectra from which it is derived are shown in Figure 5.3-1 of
DOE/EH-0545. The Reference Spectrum and its defining response levels and
frequencies are shown in Figure 5.3-2 of the same document. When this approach is
used, the Reference Spectrum is used to represent the seismic capacity of equipment,
when the equipment is determined to have characteristics similar to the earthquake
experience equipment class and meets the intent of the caveats for that class of
equipment as defined in Chapter 8 of DOE/EH-0545.
C-1.1.4.2 Qualification Testing Database
Data collected from seismic qualification testing of nuclear power plant equipment may
be used in the certification of equipment. These data were used to develop generic
ruggedness levels for various equipment classes in the form of Generic Equipment
Ruggedness Spectra (GERS). The development of the GERS and the limitations on
their use are documented in Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) report NP-5223,
Generic Seismic Ruggedness of Power Plant Equipment in Nuclear Power Plants. The
nonrelay GERS and limitations for their use are discussed in Chapter 8 of DOE/EH0545, while the relay GERS are in Chapter 11 of the same document. The EPRI report
should be reviewed by users of the GERS to understand the basis for them. The use of
either the Reference Spectrum or the GERS for defining equipment capacity requires
careful review of the basis for them to ensure applicability to the equipment being
evaluated.
C-1.1.4.3 CERL Equipment Fragility and Protection Procedure
The CERL Equipment Fragility and Protection Procedure (CEFAPP), defined in
USACERL Technical Report 97/58, may be used for defining equipment capacity.
Similar to the other methods, CEFAPP defines a response spectrum envelope of the
equipment capacity. This method requires a series of shake table tests to develop an
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actual failure envelope across a frequency range. This experimental approach requires
greater effort than the ICC-ES AC156 qualification testing. However, the resulting failure
envelope provides a more accurate and complete definition of capacity, rather than
simply determining that the equipment survived a defined demand environment. Unlike
the AC156 procedure, site-specific testing, or the other two additional methods,
CEFAPP defines actual equipment capacity and provides information on modes of
failure with respect to response spectra amplitudes and frequency of motion.
Definitions of equipment capacity are more accurate with respect to frequency and
mode of failure than can be established using the alternative methods. When equipment
capacity is compared with the seismic demands at the various locations in which the
equipment is to be installed, the equipment vulnerability, if any, can be clearly defined in
terms of predicted mode of failure and frequency. The procedure provides information
on how to protect the equipment, using isolation, strengthening, or stiffening. The use of
CEFAPP requires peer review of proposed test motions, the test plan, and use of the
data, by qualified Registered Design Professionals.
C-1.1.4.4 Qualification of Power Substation Equipment
IEEE Recommended Practices for Seismic Design of Substations (IEEE 693-2005)
provides detailed guidance for the qualification of equipment used in power substations.
This guidance should be used for the qualification of this equipment even if installed at
facilities other than substations (e.g., power plants).
C-4
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