Testing and Evaluation Equipment for the Aerospace Industry C220-E011

Testing and Evaluation Equipment for the Aerospace Industry C220-E011
C220-E011
Contributing to the Development and Reliability of the Aerospace Industry
Testing and Evaluation Equipment
for the Aerospace Industry
Shimadzu's Material Strength Testing and
Evaluation Equipment Contributes to
the Ongoing Development of Aerospace Materials
Diverse metal materials, organic materials, inorganic materials,
and composite materials (FRP, MMC, CMC) are used in aircraft,
satellites, spacecraft, rockets, and space robots. Such materials
have been developed to provide the required properties of
lightness, strength, durability, heat resistance, and machinability.
To ensure the safety of designed and manufactured aircraft,
mechanical properties are measured and evaluated in terms of
their structure, strength, and material performance. Evaluations
are performed according to the various environments to which
aircraft and space transfer vehicles are directly subjected.
Examples of such evaluations include static testing to evaluate the
strength and rigidity of aircraft materials and structures, dynamic
testing to determine the strength with respect to fatigue and
vibrations, and impact testing to evaluate the impact strength
and fracture properties.
Shimadzu is applying it's technical expertise cultivated through
both physical testing in materials development and full-scale
testing in quality control in order to develop materials for
aerospace applications. Utilize Shimadzu's extensive knowledge
of materials testing and evaluation for your application.
Sample temperature 2000°C
Ultra-High-Temperature Testing in an Oxidizing Atmosphere
with a High-Frequency Induction Heating Furnace
When a space transfer vehicle re-enters the atmosphere, the temperature
exceeds one thousand several handred degrees. The development of
materials that can withstand higher temperatures would permit the
design of more efficient space transfer vehicles.
Even L i gh t e r I n n o v a t i v e Ma te ria ls
Materials used in aircraft can be broadly categorized into metal,
non-metal, and composite materials. All of them are light but
strong, and offer excellent machinability and heat resistance, and
have been developed to provide the properties required for
aircraft.
Metals are the major materials used in aircraft structures, of
which the majority are aluminum alloys. Titanium alloys and
stainless steel are also used for parts around the afterburner and
for parts of the aircraft structure subjected to the jet exhaust.
Since plastics are light, easy to color-mold, and transparent to
electromagnetic waves, and also good electrical and thermal
insulators, they are widely used in modern aircraft for the
Stainless steel
window glass, interior material, and radome.
Apart from applications as reinforcement in
glass-fiber-reinforced resins, glass materials are inserted between
the aircraft outer surface and interior lining as sound and
thermal insulators.
As synthetic rubber materials offer better weather resistance,
heat resistance, oil resistance, and chemical resistance than
natural rubber, they are widely used in gaskets, packing, hoses,
duct couplings, and waterproof sheets. Natural rubber is
commonly used in aircraft tires due to superior rubber elasticity,
tear strength, and abrasion resistance mechanical properties.
Ceramics
Natural and
synthetic rubber
Titanium alloy
Glass fiber
Aluminum alloy
Plastics
Carbon fiber
4
Gr ow i ng U s e o f C o m p o s i te Ma te ria ls
Composite materials combine different materials to achieve
greater specific strength than is available from a single material.
Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are typical composite materials.
Among these are glass-fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRP), which are
widely used for aircraft wing fillets, fairings, control surfaces,
radomes, wing tips, and cabin floors. Widely used in important
components such as aircraft wings, center wing boxes, and
horizontal and vertical stabilizers, carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics
(CFRP) combine plastics with carbon fibers having high specific
modulus of elasticity and specific strength.
The evaluation of fundamental mechanical properties is essential
for new materials, such as composites. Ongoing standardization
of sample shapes and test methods is intended to improve the
stability of material quality and enhance reliability.
Wing leading edge
Wing
Pressure bulkhead
Center wing box
Vertical stabilizer
Floor beam
Horizontal stab
sstabilizer
bilizzer
Tail cone
Engine cowl
Flap track panels
Tail fu
selage
fuselage
LLanding gear door
Some
me Parts in Which CFRP Is Used
U
Aircraft are designed to meet the requirements indicated in the design standards. Inspection and
testing of the aircraft structure and strength are performed at the manufacturing stage and flight
testing is conducted to confirm the performance and flying quality of the completed aircraft.
Testing includes static and fatigue testing at the materials development stage, endurance testing of all
parts and components, and impact testing to evaluate the fast fracture characteristics of the materials.
In recent years, it has become more important to observe fracture behavior. High-speed video
cameras are now commonly used to perform more sophisticated evaluations through
synchronized observations of the tested material behavior and the S-S curve.
Dynamic testing
Fatigue and
endurance testing
Observations of
fracture behavior
Static testing
Impact testing
For the tensile testing of composite materials such as
CFRP, it is important to firmly grasp the sample,
without twisting it. Hydraulic parallel tightening grips
are ideal for tensile testing, as they firmly grasp the
samples completely straight and without slippage.
Testing and Evaluation Equipment
for the Aerospace Industry
Solutions for Aerospace Testing
5
St r engt h T e s t i n g a n d F r a ctu re Ob se rv a tio n s fo r C FR P
— Imaging at Up to One Million Frames Per Second —
Tensile - Impac t Strength Te sting and Frac ture Obser vations for C F RP
The development of composite materials requires not only static testing to verify
functionality but also testing to determine impact strength and crack
propagation.
As an example, we used a high-speed tensile impact tester together with a
high-speed video camera to observe the tensile impact fracture of CFRP samples.
Images were acquired by using the tester to output an imaging start signal
synchronized with the tensile load to externally trigger the camera. We also used
strobe lighting equipment to synchronize the illumination to the imaging timing.
The combination of an impact tester and high-speed video camera permits the
evaluation of material impact properties and the observation of fracture
properties simultaneously. This supports the development of a wide range of
materials from individual functional resins to composite materials.
Imaging trigger
HYPER
VISION
High-speed video camera
Max. tensile speed
20 m/s
Strobe light source
Test force data
HITS-T10 high-speed tensile tester
Controller
Images
1 million fps max.
PC
System Configuration
0 μs
4 μs
8 μs
16 μs
20 μs
24 μs
CFRP unidirectional (UD) material
High-speed observations of fracture behavior
250,000 fps
6
12 μs
28 μs
Sample: L20 × W6.25 × T0.3 mm
Loading rate: 6 m/s (22 km/h)
JAXA
(Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency)
Products were developed based on joint research with the Advanced
Composites Group, Aerospace Research and Development Directorate
at JAXA, according to Promotion Program for Output Utilization
— 300 kHz Data Acquisition —
Static Tensile Strength Testing and Fracture Behavior Observations for CFRP
Tensile testing and evaluation of CFRP demands not only the
acquisition of conventional S-S curves but also observations of fracture
behavior in order to achieve more detailed analysis of strength
properties.
Shimadzu achieves observations of the CFRP fracture process at high
temporal resolution through 300 kHz test-force data storage, fracture
detection by a load amplifier, and trigger signal output to a
high-speed video camera (100 continuous frames at one million fps).
A rigid and specially-shaped lower grip was developed to accurately
transmit sudden reductions in test force to the load cell, so that
reliable observations of fracture behavior are ensured.
Special Autograph AG-Xplus with the
HyperVision high-speed video camera
latest measurement control functions
with the highest specs in its class
HPV-2A high-speed video camera
Lower grip
AG-X + HyperVision + novel lower grip
Imaging trigger
Tester internal amplifier
300 kHz
Data sampling
VISION
High-speed video camera
Lower grip
Autograph series
ries
Images
HYPER
PC
Test force data acquired at 300 kHz
Video data acquired at up to 1 million fps
System Configuration
Sys
0 μs
4 μs
CFRP 0° unidirectional (UD) material
High-speed observations of fracture behavior
250,000 fps
8 μs
16 μs
20 μs
24 μs
Sample: L160 × W20 × T0.57 mm
Loading rate: 2 mm/min
Testing and Evaluation Equipment
for the Aerospace Industry
Solutions for Aerospace Testing
7
D es i gni ng f o r S a f e t y
An understanding of the material fatigue properties under a variety of
environments and situations provides important indicators at the
design stage. Predicting the fatigue life of materials allows the
establishment of maintenance plans for periodic replacement of parts
subjected to stress and for regular inspections to detect fine cracks in
materials in order to replace them before fracture occurs.
Therefore, understanding the fatigue properties of materials is
important to ensure a long aircraft life, maintain passenger safety, and
guarantee reliable flying.
Fatigue Strength Testing off Co
Composite Materials
ASTM D 3479/D 3479M-96
Constant-Load Amplitude Tension-Tension Fatigue Testing of CFRP
This jig can be used for the constant-load amplitude tension-tension fatigue testing in the direction of
the fibers in CFRP unidirectional reinforced materials or textile-reinforced materials stacked in layers.
Front-opening hydraulic grips offer superior ease-of-operation and high accuracy for tensile and
compression testing across a wide test-force range.
Front-opening hydraulic grips
Fatigue Strength Evaluation of GFRP
For aircraft materials such as composites that have been in use for many years, great weight is placed
on impact resistance and fatigue strength according to the environment in which they were used.
As an example, we performed fatigue testing on GFRP and then plotted the resulting S-N curve to show
the relationship between the maximum load stress among the six stress standards (one sample per
standard) and the number of cycles to sample fracture. Internal observations reveal that glass fibers
inside the sample that had no particular orientation before fatigue testing began to align somewhat in
the direction of loading after one million load cycles, and were uniformly aligned vertically just before
fracture.
S-N Curve for GFRP
Direction of loading
Repeated maximum stress (MPa)
Sample Held in Manual Grips for Flat Samples
Number of cycles to fracture
Start of fatigue testing
After one million load cycles
Internal X-Ray Images of GFRP
Fatigue Test Results
8
Before fracture
A ia
Ax
a l Fo
F orcc e an
n d To
Tors
r sio
io
o n Te
T st
stin
ing
g an
a d Ev
Eval
alua
uati
tion
on
A multiaxial stress situation is created by applying compound axial forces
(tensile or compression) and torsion to allow fatigue testing of structural
materials under conditions close to actual-use conditions.
Axial-force/torsion compound detector
Axial-force/torsion
Axi
ial-f
l force/torsion
i
compound
d testing
testii ng
Detector for torsional displacement
in resistance heating furnace
angle between gauge marks
Test
Te
stt in
n g an
and
d Ev
Eval
v al
a lua
uati
ua
t on
ti
o n iin
n Co
C o nt
Cont
ntro
rolled-Temperature Environments
ro
The ambient temperature for materials used in aircraft and space transfer
vehicles can extend across an extremely broad range from several tens to
several hundreds of degrees below zero at the low-temperature end to plus
several hundred to a thousand degrees at the high-temperature end.
Strength testing under the same conditions as actual operation is required to
evaluate the appropriate operational temperature range for each material.
Testing
g and evaluation in thermostatic cham
chamber
ber
Ultra-low-temperature tester
Full-S
Fu
S ca
call e Tes
esti
ting ( Mu
M ult
ltii P o in
intt St
Stra
rain Measurements)
The computer can read up to eight channels of strain gauge data synchronized
with data from the tester, such as test force, stroke, and extensometer data.
Multi-channel software permits data sampling synchronized with the load forces
by using multiple strain gauges affixed to the sample.
Dynamic strain amplifier
Strain data (8 channels)
A/D board
Test force and displacement data
Autograph
PC
Multi-Channel Strain Measurement and Evaluation System
Multi-Channel Software
Testing and Evaluation Equipment
for the Aerospace Industry
Solutions for Aerospace Testing
9
C l ar i f yi ng t h e F a t i g u e F r actu re Me ch a n ism
The aging of today's commercial transport aircraft has caused the
relationship between design life and safety to be reviewed, resulting in
the introduction of the concept of damage-tolerant design.
Damage-tolerant design involves the investigation of fatigue crack
propagation speed, initiation sites, and method of inspection. In
practice, it is a method to design adequate residual strength, with
respect to both single load transmission and multiple load
transmission, to stop crack propagation or reduce propagation speed
until the crack is discovered during maintenance.
Fatigue, endurance, and reliability testing must be performed on
materials subjected to pressure fluctuations due to repeated take-offs
and landings and high-altitude flight.
Observations of Fatigue Fracture Behavior Using an SEM Servo
Repeated loads applied during fatigue testing result in deformation of the test sample.
Even small movements that can be ignored on a macro scale appear extremely large
when magnified by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM images synchronized
with the sample deformation can be obtained by electrically moving the SEM
field-of-view in synchronization with these movements. The jigs holding the sample are
compact enough to be installed inside the SEM sample chamber. The compact heating
unit permits programmed heating of samples up to 800ºC to support a variety of tests.
N=4.5 × 105 Cycles
20 µm
FFatigue
i
Testing
T i off SiC-Fiber-Ti-15-3
SiC Fib Ti 15 3
Compact Tes
Test Jigs are Easily Installed in the SEM Sample Chamber
Composite Material at 823 K (550ºC)
ASTM E339 / E1820
Fracture Toughness Testing
It is extremely important to design aircraft against fatigue. The pressure in the passenger
status.
cabin applies loads to the airframe during high-altitude flight. These become fatigue loads
Special grips for compact test samples complying with ASTM standards, a COD bending
that are applied cyclically during each take-off and landing cycle.
test jig, and a crack opening displacement gauge support the evaluation of a material's
Fracture toughness testing involves applying static or dynamic loads to a notched sample
fracture toughness and crack propagation.
to investigate the brittle crack initiation and propagation and the fracture conditions and
CT Sample Grips and Clip Gauge
10
Fatigue Toughne
Toughness
ess Testing with a Resistancee Heating Tester
COD Test Jig
Gig
Gi
g acy
a cy
y ccll e Fa
a ti
tig
gu
u e Te
Te st
s in
ng
1000
products and equipment, including aircraft, automobiles, railways, marine
fatigue in the ultra-long-life range from 10 8 to 10 10 cycles is now needed
for all materials.
The piezo-electric element in the ultrasonic fatigue tester generates a
10
30
0
conventional 10 7 cycle fatigue limit is no longer adequate; clarification of
20
To ensure the safety of engine turbine blades and wheel axles, the
Test time (days)
100
structures, and electrical plants.
-2
00
0
Hz
Ge
ne
ra
1
Hz
lf
kH
at
Hi
zN
ig
g
ue
hon
cy
-re
te
cle
ste
so
na
r
fa
tig
20
nt
u
f
e
at
kH
te
ig
ste
ue
z
r
t
es
US
te
r F
It is necessary to guarantee the long-term effective, reliable use of many
1
vibration of 20 kHZ, which is amplified by the horn and transmitted to the
sample, to achieve oscillation rates of 20 kHz. This permits significantly
shorter test cycle times.
0.1
106
107
108
109
1010
1011
Test Cycle
Cycle
C
l Ti
Time Comparison
C
i
Between
B t
Ult
Ultrasonic
i and
dC
Conventional
ti
l FFatigue
ti
TTesters
t
Piezoelectric actuator
Horn
Sample
Displacement Stress
USF Series Ultrasonic Fatigue Tester
Stress Displacement
Schematic Representation of Test Force Loads on a Sample
More Efficient Discovery of Inclusions
Confirming whether samples contain inclusions and the subsequent
Fatigue fracture from inclusion initiation point
analysis of any inclusion found is an effective way to ensure the supply of
materials with high fatigue strength. When an ultrasonic fatigue tester is
used to cause an internal fracture in the sample, the largest inclusion in
the volume of the portion that has a potential risk to fracture becomes the
initiation point of the fracture. Inclusions can be easily detected by
observing the fracture surfaces. This is a much more efficient method of
inclusion detection than conventional methods.
Permits discovery and analysis
of inclusion in sample
Images of Inclusion
lusion
Testing and Evaluation Equipment
for the Aerospace Industry
Solutions for Aerospace Testing
11
B ot h Saf e t y a n d C o m f o r t
Some flights last many hours. Good aircraft design is essential to
provide a safe environment for both passengers and crew.
Thermal insulation material such as glass wool is used in the so-called
insulation blanket between the outer surface and interior lining of the
aircraft fuselage. It insulates the interior against the outer temperature
and absorbs noise. It can protect the occupants from temperatures of
several tens of degrees below zero at an altitude of 10,000 meters.
Since openings such as doors and windows in the outer cladding
reduce the structural strength of the aircraft, they should be kept to a
minimum and made as small as possible. However, they are
indispensable to prevent passengers from feeling claustrophobic or
oppressed. Thorough strength testing and fatigue and endurance
testing of materials are performed to maintain passenger comfort in
the aircraft and ensure safety.
Compression Testing of Foam Plastics
Due to their lightness, foam plastics are used in a variety of applications,
High-ratio foam
Low-ratio foam
Medium-ratio foam
including as thermal insulation, sound insulation, and cushioning material.
Stress (MPa)
The graph on the right shows the results of compression testing on three
types of foam plastic, each with a different foaming agent content. The
low-foam plastic exhibits significantly higher compressive stress than the
other two types. It is apparent that the stress did not increase significantly
above about 3 % strain for any of the samples.
Strain (%)
ress – Strain Graph from Compression Testing
Testin
Stress
— TRViewX Video Type Non-Contact Extensometer —
Applications of Measur ed Valu es for Ac tual Samples to C A E Analysis
The Shimadzu TRViewX Video Type Non-Contact Extensometer offers
world-leading performance. It offers ASTM E83 Class B2 (Class C in
thermostatic bath) elongation measurement accuracy and ASTM E83 Class
C amplitude measurement accuracy performance. It supports measurement
of composite materials, resin films, metal foils, and other materials which
are difficult to measure with a conventional contact displacement gauge.
In addition, it can record the sample status during testing or play back the
video in synchronization with the S-S curve.
TRViewX Video Typ
pe No
Non-Contact Extensometer
Type
Endurance Testing of Synthetic Yarn
Maximum/minimum elongation (mm)
The performance of synthetic fibers has improved dramatically. Lighter, tougher, and stronger, they have a
significant effect on the development of new materials in the aerospace field. The tensile testing and
repeated load testing of synthetic yarns are indispensable for the development of synthetic fibers.
Polyester yarn was subjected to one million load cycles of a 2.14 N ±0.54 N, 10 Hz sinusoidal load. The results
indicate a progressive degradation with a gradual increase in maximum/minimum elongation from 5.34/4.86
mm at the start to 7.58/7.26 mm at the end.
Repeated cycles
Repeated Cycles – Elongation Curve
12
Polyethylene Yarn Held in Grips for Yarn
Dy
y na
a mi
m i c ((II m
mp
pa
pa
acc tt)) C leav
lea
le
av
v ag
age R
Re
e si
s i st
s t an
a n ce
e Tes
e s t of
o f H ig
gh
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St rre
St
e ng
g tth
h A dh
dhes
he
ess iv
i ve B
Bo
o nds
nd
ds
Joining parts together with adhesives offers advantages, including
improved fatigue resistance and stress distribution in the joint due to the
Upper grip
surface contact, over conventional bolted or welded joints. Research is still
being conducted into adhesives and adhesion methods.
Symmetric wedge sample
Two materials with different surface-treatment conditions (SS400 stainless
steel, with and without surface treatment) were stuck together with a
thermosetting-resin adhesive to form a symmetric wedge sample. Loads
Wedge
were applied to cleave the adhesive joint with a hardened steel wedge.
The maximum test force and deformation up to fracture differed according
Spacer
to whether or not surface treatment had been performed. The adhesion
surfaces also appeared different after debonding.
Lower grip
Sample Mounted in Tester
With surface treatment
Test force (KN)
Without surface treatment
解像度不足
Cohesive fracture
Interfacial debonding
With surface
treatment
Without surface
treatment
Displacement (mm)
Test Force – Displacement Curve from Impact Cleavage Testing
Observations of Sample Surfaces after Debonding
Testing of Aircraft Window Materials
Windows in the aircraft passenger cabin comprise a total of three layers of stretched or
non-stretched acrylic sheet and polycarbonate sheet. These are fastened with a sealant into the
window openings in the external skin. Even if one of the two outer sheets is lost, the remaining
sheet must be able to withstand the maximum pressure loads from the passenger cabin, air
forces, and external temperature.
Three- and four-point bending testing, ring bending testing, and compression testing are
generally used to evaluate the strength of window materials. Surface coatings are evaluated
using hardness testing and friction and wear testing.
Strength and Endurance Testing of Electronic Components
An aircraft is packed with various kinds of sensors and electronic equipment, including weather radar and
wireless communication devices. As such important equipment is directly related to the flight of the aircraft, it
must be durable enough to prevent defects over a long period of use. Surface-mounted electronic
components on circuit boards must be subjected to stringent testing under many hypothetical situations of
bonding forces, shear peeling forces, and stresses due to repeated thermal expansion and contraction cycles.
Endurance Testing of a Printed Circuit Board
Testing and Evaluation Equipment
for the Aerospace Industry
Solutions for Aerospace Testing
13
Fas t er , F u r t h e r , a n d M o r e E fficie n t
The combustion chambers and the turbine rotor blades and
stator vanes in the aircraft turbofan and other jet engines
operate in the severest of environments. Maximum temperatures
significantly exceed 1000ºC. The turbine inlet temperature may
be higher than 1500ºC in modern, large, high-performance jet
engines.
Therefore, super-heat-resisting alloys are the major materials
used for such core components of jet engines. It is no
exaggeration to say that dramatic advances in these super alloys
and in the manufacturing processes for high-temperature parts
have directly led to larger and faster aircraft with higher output
and better fuel efficiency.
The development of such materials demands the evaluation of
their mechanical properties in the actual operating environment.
Shimadzu supports such testing by combining a materials tester
with environment control equipment.
H i gh
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Tes
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ng Sys
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Usin
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n g Hi
H g h-Frequ
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The high-temperature testing system exploits the characteristics of
high-frequency induction heating for a range of high-temperature tests.
The types of testing performed include general high-temperature/low-cycle
fatigue testing; thermal fatigue testing with a chiller;
high-temperature/low-cycle testing, thermal fatigue testing, or simulated
thermal cycle testing in a vacuum or inert-gas atmosphere within an
atmosphere conditioning chamber; crack propagation testing or fracture
toughness testing on CT or CCT samples; superplastic deformation testing;
and creep testing.
High-Temperature Testing System Using High-Frequency Induction Heating
Evaluati
t ng Creep
ep Properties at 16
60
0 0º
0ºC
C
Creep testing and stress rupture testing of materials at high temperatures
are extremely important methods for acquiring detailed data for
component design in the aerospace industry. Creep testing involves
applying a constant load to a material maintained at constant temperature
to deform the sample. The relationship between the deformation and time
is measured. Stress rupture testing measures the time to fracture of a
sample under constant load and temperature.
Data for measurement of the turbine blade service life can be acquired
from the creep and stress rupture data for the high-performance materials.
As a result, the turbine blade deformation rate can be predicted, allowing
the blades to be replaced before they contact the engine casing. This data
can be used to create a maintenance plan that requires turbine blade
replacement after a certain period of operation.
Creep Characteristics Evaluation Tester
14
Exam pl es o f A p p l i c a b l e S ta n d a rd s
ASTM D 3039 /D 3039M-07
ASTM D 3518 /D 3518M-94
ASTM D 5766 /D 5766M-11
Static Tensile Testing of CFRP
Tensile testing was performed on JIS K7073-1988 Type IV samples (strip sample
with no tabs, fiber direction perpendicular to direction of tensile load), with an
Width sensor
perpendicular
to tensile direction
extensometer attached for strain measurement in tensile direction and a width
Extensometer in
tensile direction
sensor to measure strain perpendicular to the tensile direction.
Poisson's ratio is approximately 0.3 for mild steel and 0.46 to 0.49 for elastic
Sample
rubber. However, the value of 0.06 is an order of magnitude smaller for CFRP,
Before
test
Tensile modulus calculated as 5.76 × 105 MP
After
fracture
Stress (MPa)
Stress (MPa)
showing that its deformations are extremely low.
across 100 to 300 MPa stress range
Poisson's ratio calculated as 6.0 × 10-2
across 100 to 300 MPa stress range
Displacement gauge 1 (strain) (%)
Stress – Strain Diagram
Width sensor (mm)
Stress – Width-Direction Displacement Diagram
ASTM E1012
Axial Adjustment for Testing
Axial adjustment of the tester is extremely important to reduce the risk of breaking samples at the chuck
during tensile testing of CFRP or GFRP. Axial adjustment is often a prerequisite for the stable acquisition of
data for aircraft-grade CFRP.
This axial adjustment system provides a test environment conforming to ASTM E1012, enhancing the
reliability of the data.
Axial Adjustment System
The axial adjustment system uses an axial-center sensor, strain amplifier unit, and special axial adjustment
software to adjust the inclination between grip centers and to adjust the axis in the horizontal direction.
Eliminating bending stresses and lateral shear stresses on the sample ensures highly reliable data.
Axial Adjustment Software
When loads are applied to the special sample, this dedicated software reads the signals from the strain
gauge attached to the sample. The axis can be adjusted by manual movements of the adjustment jig based
on this information.
Testing and Evaluation Equipment
for the Aerospace Industry
Solutions for Aerospace Testing
15
T es t i ng C o m p l i a n t w i t h Va rio u s C FR P T e stin g S ta n d a rd s
ASTM D6484 / D6484M
Open-Hole Compression Strength Testing on Polymer Matrix Composite Laminate
ASTM D6484 is a typical method used to determine the compressive strength of
CFRP open-hole samples. This is a shear-force method that applies a force in the
longitudinal direction to both sides of the sample to determine the compressive
strength of the holes.
On the other hand, the method prescribed in JIS K7093 is an end-load method
that directly applies compression forces to the ends of the sample to determine
its compressive strength. It is known to provide results equivalent to those
obtained by the ASTM D6484 method, while using smaller samples and jigs.
ASTM D7137 / D7137M
Testing the Compressive Residual Strength Characteristics of
a Damaged Polymer Matrix Composite Plate
Compression testing according to ASTM D7137 / D7137M is intended for samples damaged
by impact testing. The impact testing is prescribed in ASTM D7136. This jig was developed by
the Boeing Company. The testing is performed on rectangular samples made of composite
material that have already been subjected to impact testing. The sample is mounted on the
jig and subjected to compression loads. The load at fracture is then compared to the
compression strength it exhibits when no impact force has been applied, so that the residual
strength of the sample can be determined. Determining the damage resistance of layered
composite plates is useful for product development and material selection.
ASTM D5379 / D5379M
JIS K7079-2
In-Plane Shear Testing—Double-V-Notched Sample Shearing
The in-plane shear strength, in-plane shear fracture strain, and in-plane shear
elastic modulus of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics can be determined by the
Iosipescu test, which is an in-plane shear test on double-V-notched samples. This
testing method is applicable to unidirectional (UD) materials and laminates
comprising unidirectional reinforcing layers or textile reinforcing layers (cross
laminates, quasi-isotropic laminates, etc.).
ASTM D7078 / D7078M
V-Notched Rail Shear Testing and Evaluation of Composites
This testing applies shear forces to mounted samples with 90-degree V-notches
at the top and bottom. In ASTM D5379, loads are applied to the top and
bottom ends of the sample, while in ASTM D7078, the surfaces are grasped to
apply higher shear loads. It permits testing of larger samples than those
specified by ASTM D5379.
16
ASTM D4255 / D4255
JIS K7079
In-Plane Shear Testing
The in-plane shear test jig is designed to test fiber-reinforced plastics. This test
method is generally called the two-rail method. The jig mechanism easily
generates in-plane shear on the sample to achieve stable test results.
ASTM D6641 / D6641M
Compression Testing and Evaluation of Polymer Matrix Composite
Laminate Using a Combined Loading Compression (CLC) Test Jig
Combined loading compression (CLC) testing uses a combination of shear loads
and end face loads. This method uses strip test samples with no tabs. It offers
the advantage of simultaneous strength and elastic-modulus measurements.
In this method, a strip sample is held vertically by pairs of upper and lower
blocks with their top and bottom faces aligned with the top and bottom ends of
the sample in order to directly compress the sample from its top end.
ASTM D6671/ D6671M
Evaluation of Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of CFRP Cross Laminate by MMB Testing
As CFRP composites are laminated for practical use, they have low interlaminar fracture
strength and interlaminar fracture toughness. Therefore, when the materials are subjected to
shock loads, delamination cracks readily form between the layers, which can become initiation
points for fracture. Generally, the crack-tip deformation modes are Mode I (open type), Mode
II (in-plane shear type), Mode III (out-of-plane shear type), or a combination of the three. As
delamination occurs due to a mixed deformation mode where Mode I and Mode II occur
simultaneously, it is important to evaluate the mixed-mode fracture toughness.
This jig is used for mixed-mode bending (MMB) testing by applying a combination of Mode I and Mode
II deformations to flat fiber-reinforced plastic materials to measure the fracture toughness values.
ASTM D2344 / D2344M
ASTM D790
ASTM D6272
ASTM D7264 / D7264M
ISO178 JIS K7171
Three- and Four-Point Bending Testing
The bending properties of plastics are important for numerous applications. Various
standards describe appropriate testing procedures. Three- or four-point bending testing is
used to measure the strength properties of comparatively rigid materials. For this type of
testing, it is recommended to directly measure the sample strain using deflection gauges
or other strain gauges. As the fulcrum span is determined according to the sample
thickness, it is important to know the range of sample dimensions before selecting the jig.
Testing and Evaluation Equipment
for the Aerospace Industry
Solutions for Aerospace Testing
17
S hi m adz u Ma t e r i a l s T e s t e rs
Precision Universal Testers
Autograph AG-Xplus Series
To alleviate the burden on the environment, this series features a power-saving
function as standard to reduce the power consumption in a standby state by
10% to 25% in comparison to previous models. The short-column model (SC
model) and high-speed model (HS model) have been newly added to the
product range. The control resolution has been increased by a factor of eight to
improve the reliability of testing, and auto-tuning makes stress control and
strain control simple.
High-speed sampling in just 0.2 milliseconds (5 kHz) captures even sharp
fluctuations in test force when a brittle material fails.
Video Type Non-Contact Extensometer
TRViewX
The TRViewX permits accurate measurements across a wide range of
elongations, without affecting the sample. It even permits measurement of films
that are difficult to measure with a conventional contact extensometer. It offers
extension measurements with accuracy equivalent to JIS B7741 Class 0.5.
Material Testing Operation Software
TRAPEZIUM X
Now compatible with Windows 7, TRAPEZIUM X offers data search and preview
functions and allows the user to create reports with a flexible layout. In addition,
its visual wizard settings, Quick Panel, and Quick Parameter List make it possible
to perform a wide range of operations, from simple test control to testing based
on complex user-defined test patterns.
High-Speed Video Camera
HyperVision HPV-2A
This high-speed video camera offers a high 312 × 260 pixel (approx. 81 kpixel)
resolution at all imaging speeds up to ultra-fast imaging at one million frames
per second. Four cameras can be operated from a single computer to achieve
fully synchronized imaging.
18
Electromagnetic Force Fatigue/Endurance Testing Systems
Servopulser EMT Series
This series of fatigue and endurance testing systems uses a quiet, clean, and
oil-free electromagnetic actuator. It permits rapid cycle testing with a maximum
test stroke of ±50 mm at speeds up to 2 m/s. The test space is large enough to
mount an optional thermostatic chamber for testing in controlled environments.
Electromagnetic Force Micro Material Testers
Micro-Servo MMT Series
This series of fatigue testers uses a quiet, clean, and oil-free electromagnetic
actuator. The four models in the product range offer maximum test forces from
10 N to 500 N. They offer rapid cycle testing with gram-order test forces and
micron-level accuracy. These testers are ideal for dynamic strength evaluations
of minute materials and parts.
Ultrasonic Fatigue Tester
USF-2000
This fatigue tester uses ultrasonic vibrations to perform rapid, gigacycle-order
fatigue testing of materials.
It offers an ultra-fast 20 kHz test frequency. The test stress range is from 180 to
900 MPa. Use the computer supplied for monitoring and test condition setup.
High-Speed Impact Testers
Hydroshot HITS Series
Demands for increased safety and reliability make the evaluation of the dynamic
strength (impact characteristics) of materials and parts even more important.
These instruments can capture maximum test force, energy, and displacement
data at test rates up to 72 km/hour (20 m/s).
The available models are the HITS-T10 tensile load type and HITS-P10 punch
type. They support testing in temperature-controlled environments.
Testing and Evaluation Equipment
for the Aerospace Industry
Solutions for Aerospace Testing
19
Testing and Evaluation Equipment for the Aerospace Industry
This brochure may contain references to products that are not available in your country.
Please contact us to check the availability of these products in your country.
Company names, product/service names and logos used in this publication are trademarks and trade names of Shimadzu Corporation or its
affiliates, whether or not they are used with trademark symbol “TM” or “®”.
Third-party trademarks and trade names may be used in this publication to refer to either the entities or their products/services. Shimadzu
disclaims any proprietary interest in trademarks and trade names other than its own.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.
The contents of this publication are provided to you “as is” without warranty of any kind, and are subject to change without notice. Shimadzu
does not assume any responsibility or liability for any damage, whether direct or indirect, relating to the use of this publication.
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© Shimadzu Corporation, 2013
Printed in Japan 3655-11205-30AIT
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