BD Bionutrients Technical Manual Advanced Bioprocessing Third Edition Revised

BD Bionutrients Technical Manual Advanced Bioprocessing Third Edition Revised
BD Bionutrients™ Technical Manual
Advanced Bioprocessing
Third Edition Revised
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Introduction
1
Capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Combined Strengths Build the Largest Breadth of Line . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Product Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
About this Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
BSE/TSE Risk Mitigation
5
History of BSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
BD Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Hydrolysis to Hydrolysate
6
Protein Hydrolysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Products by Category (Table) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Peptone Manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Ultrafiltration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Cell Culture Applications
9
Base Medium Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Analysis of Peptones for Cell Culture (Table) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Peptones for Cell Culture (Table) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Peptone Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Process Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
BD AutoNutrient™ Media Design Service (AMDS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Fermentation Applications
15
Defined vs. Complex Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Media Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Selecting a Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Moving to Animal Free Media Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Animal Free Peptones and Yeast Extracts
17
Soy Peptones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Yeast Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Bacto™ Malt Extract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
BBL™ Phytone™ Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Difco™ Select Phytone™ UF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Difco™ Select Soytone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Bacto™ Soytone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Bacto™ TC Yeastolate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Difco™ TC Yeastolate, UF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Bacto™ Yeast Extract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
BBL™ Yeast Extract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Bacto™ Yeast Extract, Technical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Difco™ Yeast Extract, UF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Animal Free Peptones and Yeast Extracts Typical Analyses (Table) . . . . 28
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
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Table of Contents
Meat Peptones
30
BBL Beef Extract Powder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Bacto™ Beef Extract, Desiccated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
BBL™ Gelysate™ Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Bacto™ Neopeptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Bacto™ Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
BBL™ Polypeptone™ Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
BiTek™ Proteose Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
BiTek™ Proteose Peptone No. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
BBL™ Thiotone™ E Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Bacto™ Tryptose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Meat Peptones Typical Analyses (Table) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
™
Casein and Whey Peptones
44
BBL Acidicase Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Bacto™ Casamino Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Bacto™ Casamino Acids, Technical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
BBL™ Biosate™ Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Difco™ Casein Digest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Bacto™ Casitone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
BBL™ Trypticase™ Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Bacto™ Tryptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
BiTek™ Tryptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Bacto™ TC Lactalbumin Hydrolysate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Casein and Whey Peptones Typical Analyses (Table) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
™
™
BD Bionutrients™ Media
54
BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Animal Component Free . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Quantum Yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Serum Free . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Adaptation of Cells into BD Cell™ MAb Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
BBL™ Select APS™ LB Broth Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Difco™ Select APS™ Super Broth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Chemically Defined Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Difco™ M9 Minimal Salts, 53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids
and Ammonium Sulfate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Formula Per Liter (Table) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Definition of Methods
65
Regulatory Documentation
66
Certificates of Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Drug Master Files (DMF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Change Notification Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Certificates of Suitability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Product Listing
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Introduction
Introduction
The BD Bionutrients™ Technical Manual has been provided to
assist you in your selection of BD products for use in cell culture
and microbial fermentation production, from Research and
Development to the final finished product.
It is our commitment to innovation and product consistency that makes BD (Becton, Dickinson
and Company) such a strong global supplier and partner. In over 142 countries worldwide, BD
offers a full line of bionutrients and media, for the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, animal and
human vaccine, and bioremediation markets. BD offers products for both cell culture and
microbial fermentation production, as well as applications for industrial research, QA/QC and
environmental monitoring.
Capability
Our commitment to the cell culture and fermentation media market is exemplified in our wide
range of capabilities:
• Largest media manufacturing plant in the world—In 1999, as part of the Difco
Laboratories acquisition, BD opened a manufacturing plant in Sparks, Maryland, which is
our Center of Manufacturing Excellence. With over 101,000 sq. ft. of production capacity,
the center is a state-of-the-art modern facility that manufactures dehydrated culture
media, prepared culture media, bionutrient ingredients, stains, and other products for
microbiological and cell culture use worldwide.
Today, BD offers the following
Animal-Free products
• BBL™ Phytone™ Peptone
• Difco™ Select Phytone™ UF
• Difco™ Select Soytone
• Bacto™ Malt Extract
• Bacto™ TC Yeastolate
• Difco™ TC Yeastolate, UF
•
•
•
•
Bacto™ Yeast Extract
BBL™ Yeast Extract
Bacto™ Yeast Extract, Technical
Difco™ Yeast Extract UF
• Full line of meat peptones—Building on the reputation of the Difco meat peptones,
BD continues manufacturing operations in Detroit as a source for the high quality Difco™
and Bacto™ brand products. This commitment to tradition carries on the quality and
performance established under the Difco name, long recognized throughout the industry
for superior quality. BD continues investing in Research and Development for peptone
products, which continually expands our understanding of their application in cell culture
and microbial fermentation.
• Select APS™ LB Broth Base
• Select APS™ Super Broth
• Expanding line of animal-free products—As early as 1998, BD started offering animalfree products to the fermentation industry, introducing its Select APS™ (Alternative Protein
Source) Super Broth, Select APS LB Broth Base, and Select Soytone. BD continues to leverage
its expertise in creating high performing animal-free products to meet evolving customer
needs in the cell culture and fermentation industry.
• Difco™ M9 Minimal Salts, 53
• Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base
• Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o
Amino Acids
• Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o
Amino Acids and Ammonium
Sulfate
• Custom Media Program—BD has available a custom media program to meet individual
customer requirements. The program offers three levels of customization, from special
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
• BD Cell™ MAb Medium
Animal Component Free
• BD Cell™ MAb Medium
Quantum Yield
1
Introduction
packaging and QC testing requirements to full formula optimization services. It is our goal
to service our customers with the highest level of technical support and manufacturing
flexibility.
• Media Optimization Program—At the highest level of technical interaction, the
AutoNutrient™ Media Design Service (AMDS) allows customers to benefit from our high
throughput capabilities. By accessing BD expertise in media development, customers can
take advantage of our experience in yield enhancement and media formulation scale-up.
• Dedicated animal-free equipment and environment—With rising concerns over
bovine spongiform encephalopathies and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
(BSE/TSE), BD has met the challenge by dedicating process equipment to the production
of animal-free products. Specific orders can be produced in this animal-free environment.
History
Beginning in 1895, Difco Laboratories produced high quality enzymes, dehydrated tissues and
glandular products to aid in the digestion process. Meat tissue and other protein digests
were developed to stimulate growth of bacteria and fungi. Extensive research led to the
development of Difco Bacto Peptone, which was introduced in 1914. The Bacto brand
continues to set the standard for premium quality for peptones.
Building on this knowledge base, Difco continued to develop more peptones to add to the
Bacto line of products. Bacto Proteose Peptone, Bacto Proteose Peptone No. 2, and Bacto
Proteose Peptone No. 3 were created from the accumulated information that no single peptone
was the most suitable nitrogen source for growing fastidious bacteria and supplementing cell
culture. Today, many cell culture procedures, in addition to microbial cultures, call for the
addition of a peptone to enhance yield.
In 1935, the Baltimore Biological Laboratory (BBL) was founded by Theodore J. Carski and Dr.
Einar Leifson, employees of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The laboratory undertook a study
of the preparation of peptones. The acronym “BBL” was often used and became the brand
name for products offered by the company. New formulations were added, resulting in the
development of a full line of culture media. Many of these media utilize peptones of known
derivation, such as Trypticase™ Peptone, a pancreatic digest of casein, and Phytone™ Peptone,
a papaic digest of soybean meal.
In 1955, BD acquired BBL and used its expertise to continually advance the clinical
market with prepared media and diagnostic tools.
In 1997, BD acquired Difco Laboratories and merged Difco Laboratories and BBL
Microbiology Systems into one BD division that provides customers with media,
peptones/hydrolysates and extracts.
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TECHNICAL MANUAL
Introduction
Combined Strengths Build the Largest Breadth of Line
Today, BD offers a broad range of products for cell culture, fermentation and microbiology
with a combined total of over 170 years of culture media experience. With products from the
Bacto™, Difco™ and BBL™ lines, BD offers peptones/hydrolysates manufactured from meat,
animal tissue, collagen, gelatin, casein and from animal-free materials. The combined BD
brands provide quality products with lot-to-lot consistency, backed up by BD service, support,
and custom programs to address customer requirements. All this, combined with our proactive
responses to BSE/TSE concerns makes BD stand out as the best choice for fermentation and
cell culture ingredients.
BD brand yeast extracts are produced from primary grown (baker’s) yeast and provide lot-tolot consistency that out-performs brewer’s yeast, as well as competitive products. Due to
increasing concerns over infectious agents that may be present in animal-based peptones, BD
continues to expand its line of non-animal peptones.
Product Quality
Regulatory Compliance—BD plants are ISO 9001 and 13485 Certified, and regularly
inspected by the FDA to conform with our cGMP manufacturing practices. We also offer the
biotherapeutic industry comprehensive programs in documenting raw material origin, manufacturing change control and Drug Master Files (DMF) for key products.
In our effort to reduce BSE/TSE issues, BD sources raw materials from known BSE-free countries.
Raw materials are tested upon receipt to assure that they meet BD incoming specifications.
The final products are tested prior to release to assure quality and consistency. After final
release, the products are packaged and retention samples are held for stability studies and
any additional testing required at a later date.
Certificates of Analysis and Certificates of Origin for each product contain information required
for traceability of raw materials included in each product. These certificates are available from
the BD web site at www.bdregdocs.com.
Service
BD maintains inventory in our BD Distribution Centers in Maryland, USA and Temse, Belgium.
With multiple manufacturing locations, BD is prepared to provide products to support
customers’ needs.
Please contact your local BD representative if you have a need for a product that you do not
find in this BD Bionutrients™ Technical Manual or visit our website at www.bd.com/ds.
About This Manual
This manual provides insight into using BD Bionutrients for both cell culture and fermentation
applications. Every section of the 3rd edition has been updated to provide you with the most
relevant information on BD Bionutrients, including the following new features:
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
3
Introduction
• BSE/TSE Risk Mitigation—A new section highlighting the BD response to your need for
limiting risk of TSEs.
• Cell Culture Applications—A new essay on bionutrients media and process optimization
for cell culture featuring new proliferation and production data.
• Fermentation Applications—A newly-revised section featuring media design and peptone
selection for fermentation.
• Animal-Free Peptones and Yeast Extracts—This expanded section now includes Bacto™
Yeast Extract, Technical.
• Casein and Whey Peptones—This expanded section now features Difco™ Casein Digest
and Bacto™ TC Lactalbumin Hydrolysate.
• BD Bionutrients™ Media—This new section features three BD Cell™ MAb Medium products:
Quantum Yield, Animal Component Free, and Serum Free. Also included are Select APS™
LB Broth Base and Super Broth.
The 3rd edition of the BD Bionutrients™ Technical Manual is organized into the following sections:
• Animal-Free Peptones and Yeast Extracts
• Meat Peptones
• Casein and Whey Peptones
• BD Bionutrients™ Media
Individual product descriptions include applications, physical characteristics, and product
availability, and are supplemented with new molecular weight distribution charts and
performance data. Peptone product sections include chemical analysis and amino acid data.
A complete listing of regulatory services is provided and an alphabetical listing of products
appears in the back of the manual.
Thank you for your past and continued business.
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TECHNICAL MANUAL
BSE/TSE Risk Mitigation
BSE / TSE Risk Mitigation
History of BSE
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE),
was first identified in late 1986, in the United Kingdom. The number of new cases continued
to escalate in the UK until reaching a peak in early 1993. By early 1996, there was scientific
evidence that BSE had crossed the species barrier to humans, as new variant CJD (CreutzfeldtJakob disease) was identified in the UK. However, BSE and vCJD did not stay confined to the
UK. Both have expanded their reach to many countries around the world, even though a
ruminant-to-ruminant feed ban has dramatically reduced the number of new cases of BSE
worldwide. Although there is greater control of the causes of these diseases, neither has been
eliminated, and both are fatal and universally feared.
BD Response
Since 1991, BD has continuously worked to limit the BSE risk of our products. Our primary
approach has been to focus on controlling the sourcing of the materials we use in the
manufacture of our products. Initially, this was done by identifying the countries of animal
origin for the bovine-sourced materials, and requiring these to come from BSE-free countries.
Later, we expanded this initiative to include identifying the origin and related animal safety
and traceability information of all of our animal-sourced materials. Based upon the animal
safety and traceability information we obtain from our suppliers, we have developed stringent
specifications for our animal-sourced and animal-free materials. BD maintains this information
in sophisticated systems and databases, and routinely provides animal origin information for
our finished products by way of our Certificates of Analysis. This approach has been and
continues to be based upon a close working relationship with our suppliers, and is consistent
with what the FDA requires of medical device manufacturers.
Beginning in 1998, BD began focusing on animal-free products in order to meet the growing
needs of the biopharm industry. Although the FDA continued to request that only BSE/TSE
minimal to no risk materials be used in the manufacture of products of animal origin, the
industry was clearly moving away from using BSE/TSE-relevant species wherever possible, and
toward animal-free materials. In mid-2003, BD commissioned an animal-free production
suite, which has recently been expanded to meet demand. As the demand for animal-free
products grows, BD will continue to expand manufacturing capacity to meet the needs of the
biopharmaceutical industry.
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
5
Hydrolysis to Hydrolysate
Hydrolysis to Hydrolysate
Proteins are molecules essential to the structure and function of all living organisms. They are
made up of chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds and folded in a variety of complex
structures. Proteins must be broken down into amino acids and peptides by hydrolysis, using
strong acids, bases or proteolytic enzymes, in order to provide nutrients in forms that cells
may easily utilize. Protein hydrolysates, also called peptones, are the result of the hydrolysis
process on protein material.
For over a century, peptones have been used as the main nutritive components in culture
media. BD Dehydrated Culture Media (DCM) formulations for diagnostic and fermentation
applications are designed around peptones supplying the carbon, nitrogen, minerals and
growth factors needed to support microbial growth. Mammalian cell culture media formulations
also rely on peptones as supplements and serum replacements. Peptones contain peptides
and amino acids, minerals, and other micronutrients that may serve as growth factors and aids
to mammalian cell metabolic processes, thereby promoting cell proliferation and production.
The unique characteristics of each BD peptone product depends on the quality and source of
the protein starting material, the quality and source of the enzyme, and the method of
hydrolysis used to make the peptone. The starting materials for peptones vary from animal to
vegetable. Protein sources include meat, casein and whey (milk proteins), gelatin, soybean,
yeast and grains. Enzyme sources include animal organs (pancreatin and pepsin), papaya
(papain), fig (ficin), pineapple (bromelain) and microbes.1 BD offers many different peptones
representing numerous combinations of protein and enzyme sources in order to satisfy a wide
variety of nutritional and regulatory needs.
Protein Hydrolysis
Acid hydrolysis is a harsh process, usually carried out at high temperature, which attacks all
peptide bonds in the protein substrate, destroying some of the individual amino acids
liberated. Tryptophan is usually totally lost in an acid hydrolysis. Cystine, serine and threonine
Figure 1
Basic Steps of Peptone Manufacture
Hydrolysis
Vessel
Centrifuge
Separator
Filter
Concentrator
Spray
Dryer
Powder
ULTRA-FILTRATION
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BD BIONUTRIENTS
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TECHNICAL MANUAL
Hydrolysis to Hydrolysate
are partially broken down and asparagine and glutamine
are converted to their acidic forms. Vitamins are mostly
destroyed by acid hydrolysis. Salt may be formed during
neutralization of an acid hydrolysis, resulting in a product
with high salt content.
Proteolytic enzymes hydrolyze proteins more gently than
acids, do not require high temperature and usually target
specific peptide bonds. The material that results from a
proteolytic digestion is a mixture of amino acids and polypeptides of varying lengths. The enzyme pepsin will cut an
amino acid chain where there is a phenylalanine or leucine
bond. Papain will cut the chain adjacent to arginine, lysine
and phenylalanine, and pancreatin shows activity at
arginine, lysine, tyrosine, tryptophan, phenylalanine and
leucine bonds.2
Microbial proteases, proteolytic enzymes secreted by microorganisms, are becoming more widely used in peptone
production. Proteases from bacterial, algal, fungal and
yeast sources cover a wide variety of enzyme activities,
can be produced in large scale, and usually require only
simple purification.3
The hydrolysis process used for preparing yeast extract
products is different from the process for protein hydrolysis
described above. Yeast extracts are autolysates; yeast cell
hydrolysis is performed by enzymes from within the yeast
organism itself.
Peptone Manufacture
Most peptones are manufactured similarly, with steps for
hydrolysis and downstream processing. Figure 1 shows the
basic steps of peptone manufacture: hydrolysis/digestion,
centrifugation, filtration, concentration and drying. Protein
and demineralized water are combined to form a thick
suspension of protein material in large-capacity digestion
vessels, which are stirred continuously throughout the
hydrolysis process. The protein suspension is then adjusted
to the optimal pH for the specific enzyme chosen for the
hydrolysis. For example, pepsin is most effective at pH 2.0
and trypsin shows maximum activity at pH 8.5.1 Enzyme
is added when the pH and temperature are optimal. The
amount of enzyme necessary, time for digestion, and control
of pH and temperature are dependent on the desired
degree of hydrolysis.
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
Products by Category
Animal Free Peptones:
• Bacto™ Malt Extract
• Difco™ TC Yeastolate, UF
• BBL™ Phytone™ Peptone
• Bacto™ Yeast Extract
• Difco™ Select Phytone™ UF
(Ultra Filtered)
• BBL™ Yeast Extract
• Bacto™ Yeast Extract, Technical
• Difco™ Select Soytone
• Difco™ Yeast Extract, UF
• Bacto™ TC Yeastolate
Meat Peptones:
• BBL™ Beef Extract, Powder
™
• Bacto Beef Extract, Desiccated
™
™
• BBL Gelysate Peptone
™
• BiTek™ Proteose Peptone
• Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 2
• Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 3
• Bacto Neopeptone
• BiTek™ Proteose Peptone No. 3
• Bacto™ Peptone
• Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 4
™
™
• BBL Polypeptone Peptone
™
• Bacto Proteose Peptone
• BBL™ Thiotone™ E Peptone
• Bacto™ Tryptose
Casein and Whey Peptones:
• BBL™ Acidicase™ Peptone
™
™
• BBL™ Trypticase™ Peptone
• BBL Biosate Peptone
• Bacto™ Tryptone
• Bacto™ Casamino Acids
• BiTek™ Tryptone
• Bacto™ Casamino Acids, Technical
• Bacto™ TC Lactalbumin
Hydrolysate
™
• Difco Casein Digest
• Bacto™ Casitone
BD Bionutrients™ Media Products:
• BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Animal
Component Free
™
• BD Cell MAb Medium,
Quantum Yield
• BD Cell™ MAb Medium,
Serum Free
• BBL™ Select APS™ LB Broth
Base
• Difco™ Select APS™ Super Broth
• Difco™ M9 Minimal Salts, 53
• Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base
• Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o
Amino Acids
• Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o
Amino Acids and Ammonium
Sulfate
Chemically Defined Media Products:
• BD Cell™ MAb Medium,
Quantum Yield
• Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o
Amino Acids
• Difco™ M9 Minimal Salts, 53
• Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o
Amino Acids and Ammonium
Sulfate
• Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base
7
Hydrolysis to Hydrolysate
Figure 2
Ultrafiltration
Retentate
Fats & Proteins
Water
Salts, Sugars & Low
Molecular Weight
Compounds
Permeate
Once the predetermined degree of protein digestion is achieved, the enzymatic activity
must be halted; the suspension is either heated to inactivate enzymes or neutralized to
inactivate acids or bases. The protein slurry is then centrifuged and/or filtered to remove
insoluble materials and to clarify and concentrate the product. Vacuum-evaporation may be
used for rapid concentration. This peptone syrup, which contains approximately 67% solids,
may then undergo further processing for pH adjustment, pasteurization, and/or filtration. The
final drying step of the process further concentrates the peptone by spray-drying or by pandrying in vacuum ovens, which readies the material for packaging.
Yeast extract manufacture is an exception because it is an autolysate. Baker’s yeast,
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is usually grown to a high cell density in a molasses-based medium
optimized for the particular yeast strain. The batch culture is exposed to a controlled temperature
or osmotic shock that causes the yeast to die without inactivating the yeast’s endogenous
enzymes and begins the autolysis, where the yeast’s own digestive enzymes are responsible
for breaking down the yeast protein. Once autolysis is halted, insoluble material is separated
out by centrifugation and several filtration steps.4 The final filtration product may then be
concentrated and drum or spray dried.
Ultrafiltration
Ultrafiltration (UF) is a membrane filtration process used to separate or concentrate constituents
of protein solutions based on molecular weight. BD offers several peptone and yeast extract
products that are ultrafiltered using a 10k Dalton Molecular Weight Cut Off (MWCO)
membrane. The result of using the 10k Da MWCO is a retentate containing molecules over 10k
Da MW, which may include fats, larger MW polypeptides and proteins, and a permeate that
contains salts, sugars, peptides, smaller polypeptides and other compounds of less than 10k Da
MW. (see Figure 2)
In peptone manufacture, ultrafiltration is used to create a product that is low in endotoxin, the
toxin-containing lipopolysaccharide part of the cell wall shed from viable gram-negative
bacteria and released when gram-negative bacteria die. Endotoxins will cause illness in
humans, so they are considered contaminants that must be avoided or minimized in the
preparation of pharmaceutical products. The ultrafiltration step takes place before drying in
the peptone manufacturing process.
References
1. Bridson and Brecker. 1970. Design and formulation of microbial culture media. In Norris and Ribbons (ed.), Methods in microbiology,
vol. 3A. Academic Press, New York.
2. Dixon and Webb. 1979. Enzymes, 3rd ed. Longman Group Limited, London.
3. Cowan. 1991. Industrial enzymes. In Moses and Cape (ed.), Biotechnology, the science and the business. Harwood Academic
Publishers GmbH, Chur, Switzerland.
4. Sommer. 1996. Yeast extract: production, properties and components. 9th International Symposium on Yeasts, Sydney, Australia.
8
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Cell Culture Applications
Cell Culture Applications
Introduction
Base medium selection is critical to the optimization process, so it is
necessary to identify a medium prior to initiating any peptone supplementation. In general, complete formulations designed for biopharmaceutical production perform the best with peptone supplementation;
so, deficient traditional media can be excluded from the media screen.
Figure 2 shows the superior performance of a hybridoma cell line cultured
in an optimized formulation compared to the inferior performance of
DMEM. The antibody yields were further increased in both base media
Thymidine (µg/g)*
Base Medium Selection
Hypoxanthine (µg/g)*
process optimization must occur where the base media, peptone
supplementation, and feed strategy are empirically determined through
the use of a methodical optimization strategy.2
Osmolality (µOsm)*
In the biopharmaceutical industry, the requirement for high-performance animal-free processes
has prompted a greater focus on media and process optimization.1 Serum supplementation has
traditionally been used to compensate for base media deficiencies. However, the regulatory
issues and high costs associated with using serum have led to a widespread effort to find animal
free or chemically defined alternatives. While chemically defined media
are ideal, they often do not meet the expected production goals.
Analysis of Peptones for Cell Culture
Through additional work it has been observed that peptone supplementation, when appropriately applied, can exceed the performance of
serum while meeting stringent regulatory requirements. Additionally,
downstream processing requirements are greatly reduced due to the
lack of contaminating serum proteins, thereby reducing processing time
Product Name
and costs (Figure 1). In order to achieve this type of success, a complete
Phytone™ Peptone
51
<2
<10
Select Phytone™ UF
52
<2
<10
Proteose Peptone No. 3, Bacto™
53
233
74
Select Soytone
48
18
<10
TC Lactalbumin Hydrolysate
48
7
9
TC Yeastolate UF
64
32
<10
TC Yeastolate, Bacto™
59
31
<10
Tryptone, Bacto™
51
1412
577
Yeast Extract, Bacto™
60
24
<10
Yeast Extract, UF
61
39
<10
* Values derived from an average of three lots
Peptones for Cell Culture
Product
Substrate
Applications
Phytone Peptone
Soy
Excellent for growth promotion and protein production, as well as a good, animalfree alternative to serum.
Select Phytone™ UF
Soy
An ultrafiltered version of Phytone with an endotoxin high limit of 500EU/g.
Proteose Peptone No. 3
Porcine
Excellent for growth promotion and protein production, as well as a good
alternative to serum.
Select Soytone
Soy
Excellent for growth promotion and protein production.
Bacto™ Tryptose
Meat
Excellent serum-free supplement for human diploid fibroblasts.
TC Lactalbumin
Milk
Excellent for amino acid supplementation.
TC Yeastolate
Yeast
Good for growth promotion, especially with insect cells.
TC Yeastolate UF
Yeast
An ultrafiltered version of TC Yeastolate with an endotoxin high limit of 500EU/g.
Bacto™ Yeast Extract
Yeast
Good for growth promotion, especially with insect cells.
Yeast Extract UF
Yeast
An ultrafiltered Yeast Extract with an endotoxin high limit of 150EU/g.
™
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
9
Cell Culture Applications
Figure 1
when peptones were added, but yields in the optimized medium were greater than 2-fold
higher compared to the DMEM conditions.
Lane 1 Lane 2 Lane 3 Lane 4 Lane 5 Lane 6
The ideal base medium is one that requires minimal to no cellular adaptation. Also, it must
demonstrate the ability to maintain viable cell numbers for an extended period of time while
achieving an acceptable level of production. Although there are many good commercially
available media, none are designed to meet the specific requirements of a particular cell line.
Base medium optimization is an effective method for identifying a cell specific formulation.3
The most effective base media optimizations identify the optimal concentration for each
component in the context of the other components. To ensure a successful optimization, all
supplements required by the cells should be added to all of the media at each optimization step.
Peptone Selection
Lane 1: 2.5– 200 kDA Marker
Lane 2: BSA Supplementation
Lane 3: Peptone Supplementation
Lane 4: 10% FBS Supplementation
Lane 5: Peptone Supplementation
Lane 6: BSA Supplementation
The benefits of peptone supplementation in cell culture applications have been well documented for many years. Due to the complex composition of peptones, they provide a wide
range of benefits to the cells. In some cases, peptides of various lengths have resulted in
increased cell performance.4 Others have benefited from free amino acids and other low
molecular weight nutrients.5 Since the nutritional requirements for each cell line are different,
it is important to identify a peptone that will meet the unique requirements of a particular cell
line. Figure 3 shows the different antibody yields achieved with a CHO line tested with
different peptones supplemented at 5 g/L in the same complete medium. The wide range of
antibody yields demonstrates the diversity of cell requirements and the importance of
selecting the right peptone.
With the number of peptones that are available, it is critical to evaluate a wide variety of
products. Since every peptone is different, multiple peptones produced using the same base
material should be included. In order to run the most effective peptone screen, the list of
potential peptones should be narrowed to include only the best candidates. This can be
accomplished with an understanding of the specific regulatory and process requirements.
Figure 2
Antibody Yields of Various Peptones at 3 g/L
Hybridoma Cell Line in Different Base Media
14000
Select Soytone
TC Yeastolate UF
Phytone UF
Proteose Peptone 3
Developmental Wheat UF
No Peptone
Antibody Yield (ng/mL)
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
Complete Medium
10
DMEM
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Cell Culture Applications
While animal-derived peptones have shown good performance, they should be excluded from
the screen if there is an animal-free requirement. Endotoxin levels are usually a concern, so the
screen should be limited to ultra-filtered (UF) peptones. Also, if the cell line utilizes the
Glutamate Synthetase (GS) expression system, wheat peptones might be excluded from the
screen due to their glutamine rich composition. Regulatory requirements and release criteria
should be considered as these factors vary between manufacturers.
Once the appropriate peptones have been identified, an experimental design should be
created in which each peptone is evaluated in a pre-selected base medium at a wide range of
concentrations. Culture performance will be different for each cell line, peptone, and base
medium combination, making it critical that a number of concentrations are evaluated for
each peptone.6 All of these factors were studied to demonstrate the impact each of these
factors has on the production process. Figures 4 and 5 show the performance difference when
a CHO line is evaluated with two different peptones in the same base medium. A CHO line
and a hybridoma line were tested with the same peptone and base medium combination
(Figures 6 and 7). Finally, a CHO line was evaluated in two different base media with the same
peptone (Figures 8 and 9). In each situation, the production and proliferation profiles were
different when one factor in the study was changed. An effective peptone screen should
consider all of these factors to ensure the appropriate peptone and concentration are identified.
Blends of peptones should also be considered, as synergistic effects have been observed in
some processes when multiple peptones were used.7 In Figure 10, a CHO line was evaluated
with a blend of peptones, an individual peptone, and without any peptone. For this cell line
and base medium combination, the peptone blend resulted in a significantly higher antibody
yield compared to the other two conditions.
Significantly higher antibody yields can be achieved with the identification of a peptone that
meets the specific requirements of the cell line. Selection of the peptone or blend of peptones
should be based upon both the proliferation and production data since these two parameters
do not always correlate in a production process.
Figure 3
Antibody Yields of Various Peptones at 5 g/L
CHO Line A in Complete Medium 2
30000
5 g/L
Antibody Yield (ng/mL)
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
Select Soytone TC Yeastolate UF
Phytone UF
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
Proteose
Peptone 3
Developmental
Wheat UF
11
Cell Culture Applications
Process Optimization
The improved performance obtained through the identification of a new base medium and
peptone supplementation will be further enhanced when coupled with an effective feed
strategy.8 Using spent media analysis to understand the cell’s nutritional requirements makes it
possible to design a peptone feed strategy that greatly enhances the process performance. In
some cases a chemically defined feed may be utilized. However, in many situations a peptone
based feed can result in substantial increases in cell proliferation and production.
Determining how to apply the peptone is essential to achieving the increased performance.
While some processes require that peptone is present from the beginning of the run, others
perform best when the peptone is added as a feed later in the process (Figure 11). In some
cases, optimal performance is achieved when the process begins with one peptone then
another is added as a feed later in the production run (Figure 12).
Having a thorough understanding of the production process is critical for maintaining consistent
results. There are many potential sources of variability and each needs to be identified and
controlled. Sources of variability include base media between manufacturers or lots, key
components added at the beginning or as a feed supplement, and the use of generic manufacturing processes that are suboptimal for a particular cell line. Peptones are also cited as a
Figure 4
Figure 5
TC Yeastolate UF Titration
CHO Line A in Complete Medium 1
Developmental Wheat UF Titration
CHO Line A in Complete Medium 1
RFU
4000
10000
8000
6000
3000
RFU
ng/mL
9000
2000
4000
1000
2000
8000
7000
25000
20000
6000
RFU
5000
30000
10000
15000
5000
4000
10000
3000
2000
5000
Antibody Yield (ng/mL)
12000
RFU
ng/mL
Antibody Yield (ng/mL)
6000
1000
0
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
0
0
0
0
1
3
Peptone Concentration (g/L)
15
9000
8000
3500
7000
3000
6000
2500
5000
2000
4000
1500
3000
1000
2000
5
7
9
11
Peptone Concentration (g/L)
13
15
17
1000
0
14000
RFU
ng/mL
6000
RFU
4000
3
17
7000
10000
Antibody Yield (ng/mL)
RFU
13
Phytone UF Titration
Hybridoma Line in Complete Medium 1
500
12
11
Phytone UF Titration
CHO Line A in Complete Medium 1
RFU
ng/mL
1
9
Figure 7
4500
0
7
Figure 6
5000
0
5
Peptone Concentration (g/L)
12000
5000
10000
4000
8000
3000
6000
2000
4000
1000
2000
Antibody Yield (ng/mL)
0
0
0
0
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
Peptone Concentration (g/L)
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Cell Culture Applications
potential source of variability. Peptones designed for the biopharmaceutical industry are
manufactured and released to strict specifications. In general, the variability that is observed
when these peptones are used is the result of their use in a poorly understood biopharmaceutical production process. Through a comprehensive analysis of the spent media from
multiple production runs using multiple peptone lots, key component concentrations can be
identified and maintained at the appropriate levels. Once the process is properly controlled,
the expected results will be consistently achieved.
BD AutoNutrient™ Media Design Service (AMDS)
Performing thorough optimizations can require significant time and resources, so the decision
is often made to eliminate many potentially critical design points. By truncating the design, the
desired production goal could be missed. To address this need and ensure the identification
of the optimal media formulation that meets production goals, BD offers the AutoNutrient™
Media Design Service (AMDS). The BD team of dedicated, experienced scientists works with
each customer in a highly collaborative process to develop a media formulation that satisfies
the requirements. Through the AMDS program, BD offers a library of 45 diverse, chemically
defined media, as well as a number of peptones designed specifically for the biopharmaceutical
industry. Proprietary DOEs are used to optimize a base medium specifically for the cell line or
Figure 8
Figure 9
Developmental Wheat UF Titration
CHO Line A in Complete Medium 1
Developmental Wheat UF Titration
CHO Line A in Complete Medium 2
30000
RFU
7000
25000
20000
6000
5000
15000
4000
10000
3000
2000
5000
1000
0
0
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
0
RFU
ng/mL
3500
3000
2500
2500
2000
2000
1500
1500
1000
1000
500
500
0
0
Peptone Concentration (g/L)
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
Peptone Concentration (g/L)
15
Figure 10
Figure 11
Peptone Blend Comparison Study
CHO Line A in Complete Medium 1
Peptone Feed Study
CHO Line B in Complete Medium 3
17
0
1400
Day 7
Day 10
70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
Antibody Yield (mg/L)
80000
Antibody Yield (ng/mL)
4000
3500
3000
RFU
8000
4500
4000
Antibody Yield (ng/mL)
RFU
ng/mL
9000
Antibody Yield (ng/mL)
10000
Day 14
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
10000
0
0
Blend 1
1 g/L TC Yeastolate UF
No Peptone
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
D0 and D3 Peptone Feed D0 Peptone Feed
No Feed
13
Cell Culture Applications
Figure 12
Peptone Feed Study
CHO Line C in Complete Medium 4
1400.00
Day 7
Antibody Yield (mg/L)
1200.00
Day 14
Day 21
1000.00
800.00
600.00
400.00
200.00
0.00
No Feed
Day 5 Peptone Feed
rapidly identify the appropriate peptone supplementation. Spent media analysis is quickly
performed using the vast analytical capability of BD. AMDS partners with the customer from
initial screens through final scale up to ensure an optimized process at each step.
References
1. Jerums and Yang. 2005. Optimization of cell culture media. In Scott (ed.) Culture media, a growing concern in biotechnology.
BioProcess International. 3(3):38-44.
2. Burteau, Verhoeye, Mols, Ballez, Agathos and Schneider. 2003. Fortification of a protein-free cell culture medium with plant
peptones improves cultivation and productivity of an interferon-g-producing CHO cell line. In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. Anim. 39(7):
291-296.
3. Hammett, Kuchibhatla, Hunt, Holdread and Brooks. 2005. Developing chemically defined media through DOE: complete
optimization with increased protein production in less than 8 months. Presented at ESACT 2005.
4. Franek, Eckschlager and Katinger. Enhancement of monoclonal antibody production by lysine-containing peptides. Biotechnol.
Prog. 19(1):169-174.
5. Heidemann, Zhang, Qi, Rule, Rozales, Park, Chuppa, Ray, Michaels, Konstantinov and Naveh. 2000. The use of peptones as
medium additives for the production of a recombinant therapeutic protein in high density perfusion cultures of mammalian cells.
Cytotechnology. 32(2):157-167.
6. Holdread, Hunt, Oshunwusi and Brooks. 2004. Advances in media optimization: approaches that increase expression while
reducing development time. Presented at Cell Engineering Meeting, 2004.
7. Kuchibhatla, Hunt; Holdread and Brooks. 2004. A rapid and effective screening process of animal component free hydrolysates
to increase cell performance. Presented at IBC, September 2004.
8. Holdread, Kim, Oshunwusi, Kuchibhatla, Hunt and Brooks. 2005. Rapid media and process optimization using DOE: a case study.
Presented at ESACT 2005.
14
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Fermentation Applications
Fermentation Applications
Defined vs. Complex Media
Average OD at 600 nm
Fermentation media formulations are of two types: defined and complex. Defined media are
made by the addition of chemically-defined ingredients to water for injection (WFI) or distilled
water. Complex media are made with peptone digests or extracts of plant or animal origin
(see “Hydrolysis to Hydrolysate”).1 The advantages of chemically-defined media are greater
reproducibility, cleaner downstream processing steps and simplicity in the analysis
of the end product. The disadvantages are lower yields and greater expense,
especially if the list of media components include growth factors and vitamins.2
The advantages of complex media are that they are relatively inexpensive, they
0.8
support a wide variety of growth from a large group of microorganisms, they promote
0.7
growth of the more fastidious organisms that will not grow on a chemically-defined
0.6
medium, they stimulate toxin production and they routinely produce higher yields
0.5
than many defined media. The disadvantages of complex media are that the
0.4
downstream processing may be more difficult and reproducibility can sometimes
0.3
be compromised.
S. cerevisiae Growth on Peptones
Proteose Peptone No. 3
Select Soytone
TC Yeastolate
Tryptone
0.2
0.1
0
Media Design
0
10
20
30
60
70
80
E. faecalis Growth on Different Peptones
1.4
Proteose Peptone No. 3
Select Soytone
TC Yeastolate
Tryptone
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
5
10
15
Time in Hours
Selecting a Peptone
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
50
Figure 2
0
25
20
Figure 3
Comparison of E. coli Growth on Select APS
LB Broth vs. Classical LB Broth
4
Average OD at 600 nm
Successful media development is a multifaceted process. In order to comprehensively cover all the variables with the least time and effort it is usual to employ
statistical methods.5 When developing a new formulation, care should be taken in
choosing the peptones for the new formulation. Individual experimentation with
a variety of peptones is suggested to select the optimum peptone or combination
of peptones. Figures 1 and 2 demonstrate such a preliminary screen for multiple
peptones and two different organisms. Each peptone was prepared as 1% solution
with 0.4% glucose and buffering salts. Growth testing was performed using the
Labsystems Bioscreen C Kinetic Optical Density Reader. Review of the growth
support curves for Proteose Peptone No. 3 illustrates poor growth support (Figure
1), while Figure 2 shows good growth support. Based on these results, one would
likely create a formulation consisting of TC Yeastolate and Proteose Peptone
No. 3 to support the growth of Enterococcus faecalis. Another important
consideration for media formulation development pertains to recent influx of
40
Time in Hours
Average OD at 600 nm
The role of the medium is to provide essential nutrients that can be utilized and
integrated into the dividing cells of the fermentation. A properly designed medium
should contain carbon, nitrogen and energy sources, as well as, essential growth
factors (vitamins and trace minerals).3 Selection of medium components can have
an impact on growth, function, even the genetic stability of cells in vitro. Some
components may perform multiple roles, e.g. peptones act as both a carbon source
as well as a nitrogen source. Many peptones also provide buffering capacity for
the media. It is simpler to design a medium for rapid initial growth than for
maximum product accumulation especially in the case of secondary metabolites.
It is essential to understand the dynamics of your organism’s product production.
Phosphate levels and the presence/absence of iron are often cited as affecting
secondary metabolite production.4
Figure 1
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
Classical
Plant-based
1
0.5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Time in Hours
7
8
9
E. coli was grown at 35oC and 250 rpms in baffled shake flasks.
15
Fermentation Applications
ultrafiltered peptones in the market. When switching a formulation from
peptones to ultrafiltered peptones, a titration could be necessary to determine
the optimum amount of ultrafiltered peptone necessary in the new formulation.
For example, 5 g/L may have worked in the original formula but 5.5 or 6 g/L may
be needed in the new ultrafiltered formulation.
Figure 4
Comparison of E. faecalis Growth on
Traditional Media vs. Plant-based Media
Average OD at 600 nm
18
Customer Formulation
BD Experimental
Plant-Based
16
14
12
Moving to Animal-Free Media Components
10
8
With the continuing emergence of new confirmed cases of BSE/TSE, a prime
directive for the development of new fermentation products has been to either
source raw materials from a country free from BSEs or reformulate the media
using animal-free components.6
6
4
2
0
0
2
4
6
8
Time in Hours
10
12
14
BD began offering animal free alternatives to classical media formulations in
1997. In 1998, we introduced our line of Select APS™ (alternative protein source)
products. In the case of the LB Broth reformulation, the performance of the test
organism, E. coli DH5a was enhanced (Figure 3). The experiment was conducted
in a shake incubator set at 250 rpm and 35°C.
Figure 5
Average OD at 600 nm
Growth of DH5a E. coli with Plasmid
on Various Peptones
5
4.5
Phytone
4
3.5
SELECT
Soytone
Trypticase
Another example of enhanced performance is demonstrated in Figure 4. E. faecalis
was grown side-by-side in New Brunswick BioFlo 3 fermentors. In this case growth
enhancement, as measured by the mass or OD reading, doubled when the medium
formulation was changed to all animal-free components.
3
2.5
2
Figure 5 shows growth curves for two of the five different soy peptones available
from BD. It also demonstrates the differing responses an organism may have to
different peptones made with the same starting materials. For an E. coli with a
plasmid, the Select Soytone provides better growth support than Trypticase™
Peptone. In this experiment the peptones were in 2% solutions with some
buffering salts. The purpose of the experiment was to observe what type of growth
support the individual peptones contributed to a multi-component medium.
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Time in Hours
8
9
10
Figure 6
Three Lot Comparison of Select APS Super Broth
Average OD at 600 nm
9
8
7
6
References
5
1. Demain and Solomon. 1986. Manual of industrial microbiology and biotechnology. American Society for
Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
4
Lot 1
Lot 2
Lot 3
2
1
16
2. Cote. 1999. Media composition, microbial, laboratory scale. In Flicker and Drew (ed.), Encyclopedia of bio
process technology: fermentation, biocatalysis, and bioseparation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
3
0
Figure 6 demonstrates the rigorous quality control testing these media undergo.
Three lots of Select APS™ Super Broth were growth tested using an E. coli strain
containing a plasmid. The three growth curves are nearly identical in their growth
support. Product consistency is demonstrated through the quality control testing
of the final product.
0
2
4
6
8
Time in Hours
10
12
3. Moat and Foster. 1995. Microbial physiology, 3rd ed. Wiley-Liss, New York.
4. Corbett. 1985. Design, preparation and sterilization of fermentation media. In Moo-Young (ed.),
Comprehensive biotechnology, vol. 1. Pergamon, Oxford.
14
5. Haaland. 1989. Experimental design in biotechnology. Marcel Dekker, New York.
6. Baron, Safar, Groth, DeArmond and Prusiner. 2001. Prions. In Block (ed.), Disinfection, sterilization, and
preservation, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Animal Free Peptones
and Yeast Extracts
Animal-Free Peptones and Yeast Extracts
Traditionally, microbial and mammalian cell lines have been propagated in complex media
containing animal components. Prion disease (BSE and CJD) outbreaks have caused media
formulators to eliminate animal-sourced components in their new media formulations.1 In
response to this trend, BD has developed a broad offering of soy peptones, yeast extracts and
animal-free media.
In addition to the more common animal-free components such as soy and yeast, many new
plant-based products are being tested in the market. Wheat, pea and potato have become
candidates of experimental interest. These plant-based materials offer a new supplementation
source with potentially strong performance characteristics.
Soy peptone, one of the first successful plant-based peptones to be optimized into cell culture,
is processed in several different ways to provide various nutrient mixes. Yeast Extracts and
Tissue Culture (TC) Yeastolates offer a different range of nutritional choices to enhance
production in both bacterial fermentation and (as a supplement) in cell culture.
Soy Peptones
The BD Difco™ Soy Peptones are all enzymatic digests of soy flour. Soy contains several heat
labile protease inhibitors.2 The most common way of eliminating these factors is to heat or
toast the defatted soy beans in a processing plant under controlled conditions. Soy flour, the
principle substrate in a soy peptone, is rich in high-quality protein, carbohydrates, calcium and
B vitamins.3 The enzymes used in the digestion of soy flour are typically from animal-free
sources or from microorganisms that have been grown in animal-free media.
Yeast Products
Yeast extract is defined in the USP as “a water-soluble, peptone-like derivative of yeast cells
(Saccharomyces).”4 Yeast extract is readily available in the U.S. as a spray-dried powder. In
Europe, pharmaceutical companies use it as a liquid or paste, as well as in the powdered form.
Yeast extract is used by the health food industry as an inexpensive source of vitamins, and has
long been recognized as a major source of B-complex vitamins. Yeast extract, as a substrate
in a media formulation, supplies not only vitamins, but also proteins, carbohydrates and
some micronutrients.
There are many kinds of yeast extract. The two principle sources of yeast extract are “brewer’s”
yeast and “baker’s” yeast. Brewer’s yeast is a by-product from the brewing industry. It requires
de-bittering (removal of hop resins) before it is suitable for fermentation use.5 A wide variety
of strains and growth processes have been used in the manufacture of brewer’s yeast, thus
precluding any consistency of the final product.
Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is defined as a primary yeast because the yeast is
grown for the specific purpose of being used as a substrate in a bioprocess or as a food
product/flavoring. Manufacture of baker’s yeast is a reproducible and controlled process. The
yeast organism is grown on a molasses-based medium optimized for the specific yeast.6
Commercial yeast fermentations are always fed-batch type fermentations lasting from
12-20 hours.7 Commercial baker’s yeast manufacturers have found that the more highly
aerated a culture, the higher the final product yield.7
The process of manufacturing baker’s yeast extract is unique compared to the manufacture
of peptones. Yeast extract is an autolysate; i.e. cell hydrolysis is performed by the endogenous
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
17
Animal Free Peptones
and Yeast Extracts
enzymes of the Saccharomyces organism. Autolysis is usually begun by either a controlled
temperature shock or, for the food industry, an osmotic shock, which causes the yeast cells to
expire. The temperature shock is not high enough to inactivate the proteases of the yeast cell,
which proceed to degrade the cell. Autolysis can proceed from 10 to 60 hours. After autolysis,
soluble material is separated from the insoluble material by means of centrifugation and
several filtration steps.7 The final filtration product is concentrated and then spray dried, or can
be left in the concentrated paste form, which contains approximately 60-80% solids.
Temperature, pH, addition of other enzymes, type of medium substrate for the growth of the
Saccharomyces and duration of autolysis are all variables that create the large variety of yeast
extracts available.
References
1. Collinge. 2001. Prion diseases of humans and animals: their causes and molecular basis. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 24:519-50.
2. Kunitz. 1945. Crystallization of a trypsin inhibitor from soybeans. Science. 101:668-9.
3. Human Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1986. Composition of foods: legume and legume products. Agriculture
handbook, No. 8-16, revised. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
4. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. 2004. The United States pharmacopeia 27/The national formulary 22–2004. United
States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., Rockville, Md.
5. Bridson and Brecker. 1970. Design and formulation of microbial culture media. In Norris and Ribbons (ed.), Methods in
microbiology, vol. 3A. Academic Press, New York.
6. Sommer. 1996. Yeast extract: production, properties and components. 9th International Symposium on Yeasts, Sydney, Australia.
http://www.ohly.de/sommer.htm.
7. Reed and Nagodawithana. 1991. Yeast technology, 2nd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Bacto™ Malt Extract
Availability
Product Description
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
Bacto™ Malt Extract. . . . 218630 . . 500 g
Bacto™ Malt Extract. . . . 218610 . . 10 kg
Bacto™ Malt Extract is the water-soluble portion of malted barley. The extraction process
breaks down the polysaccharides into simple sugars. After the malting process is complete,
the extract is prepared from the malted barley by cracking the grain in a mill and then
extracting the grain with a warm liquor. The resulting “wort” is filtered and evaporated or
dried under vacuum.1,2
Potential Applications
Bacto Malt Extract is used in the culture of yeasts and molds. Bacto Malt Extract is very high
in carbohydrate content.3 This product is suitable for the culture of yeasts and molds because
of the high concentration of reduced sugars, especially the maltoses. Malt extract in the agar
form is recommended for the detection and isolation of yeasts and molds from dairy products
and foods and as a medium for stock culture maintenance.
Physical Characteristics
Bacto Malt Extract is a medium tan, free-flowing, homogeneous powder.
References
1. Bridson and Brecker. 1970. Design and formulation of microbial culture media. In Norris and Ribbons (ed.), Methods in microbiology,
vol. 3A. Academic Press, New York.
2. How malt is made, Briess Malting Company. 2 Dec. 2002. http://www.briess.com/HomebrewNew/hbhow.htm
3. Cote. 1999. In Flickinger and Drew (ed.), Encyclopedia of bioprocess technology: fermentation, biocatalysis, and bioseparation.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
18
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Animal Free Peptones
and Yeast Extracts
BBL™ Phytone™ Peptone
Difco™ Select Phytone™ UF
Difco™ Select Soytone
Bacto™ Soytone
Product Description
All the Difco™ and BBL™ brand soy peptones are enzymatic digests of soybean meal/flour. They
are recommended for use in media for the cultivation of a wide variety of organisms, including
fungi. The soybean protein in these peptones contains naturally occurring high concentrations
of vitamins and carbohydrates.
Potential Applications
BD offers a diverse choice of soy peptones. The individual characteristics of each peptone are
the result of processing methods engineered to consistently deliver these characteristics from
batch to batch. The nutritional requirements of microorganisms and cell lines vary according
to each individual strain. While some organisms or cell lines may prefer short chain or free
amino acids, others benefit from longer chain amino acids. While the typical analysis profiles
for each peptone in this manual can help direct the end-user to the correct peptone match,
it is recommended that end-users supplement the typical analytical information with
evaluations in their own individual growth models.
Select Phytone™ UF is an ultrafiltered peptone that was developed specifically for the tissue
culture market. Its nitrogen content combined with the naturally occurring vitamins has
demonstrated remarkable growth support with monoclonal antibodies and protein expression.
It has an endotoxin level of less than or equal to 500 EU/g.
BD offers three other soy peptone products suitable for a variety of bacterial cultures.
Growth Curve
Molecular Weight
BBL™ Phytone™ Peptone
1% BBL™ Phytone™ Peptone in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
1.4
Average OD at 600nm
1.2
1
0.8
60
Area Percentage
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
50
40
30
20
10
0.6
0
<250
0.4
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
0.2
0
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
19
Animal Free Peptones
and Yeast Extracts
Phytone Peptone is an animal-free soy peptone. Phytone Peptone retains the high vitamin
and high carbohydrate content of the soy plant tissue. It is an excellent plant peptone for the
cultivation of fungi and fastidious types of bacteria, such as members of the Clostridium and
Neisseria genera.1 It has been used in cell culture applications due to its high carbohydrate content.
Select Soytone demonstrates excellent growth support for Escherichia coli. Select Soytone is
also used in Select APS™ Super Broth. Subtle differences in the digestion process give Select
Soytone improved performance in cell culture.
Bacto™ Soytone was found to be effective in the recovery of stressed E. coli.2 It was found
that Bacto Soytone with the addition of 7 vitamins replaced yeast extract as an economical
Molecular Weight
Growth Curve
Difco™ Select Phytone™ UF
1% Difco™ Select Phytone UF in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
1.6
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
1.4
50
40
Average OD at 600nm
Area Percentage
60
30
20
10
0
<250
2k-5k
250-500 500-2k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1
3
5
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
Titration
Phytone™ UF Titration
Hybridoma Proliferation and Production Data
10000
12000
Day 0 RFU
Antibody Yield (ng/mL)
10000
8000
8000
RFU
6000
6000
4000
4000
2000
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
Day 5 RFU
Day 6 RFU
Day 7 ng/mL
0
0
Day 4 RFU
Day 7 RFU
2000
0
Day 3 RFU
17
Peptone Concentration (g/L)
20
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Animal Free Peptones
and Yeast Extracts
alternative for the production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus.3 It should be noted
that Bacto Soytone utilizes an animal based enzyme in the digestion of the soy flour.
Physical Characteristics
BBL™ Phytone™ Peptone is a light tan, free-flowing, homogeneous powder.
Difco™ Select Phytone™ UF is a light tan, free-flowing, homogeneous powder.
Difco™ Select Soytone is a tan, free-flowing, homogeneous powder.
Bacto™ Soytone is a light to medium tan, free-flowing, homogeneous powder.
Molecular Weight
Growth Curve
Difco™ Select Soytone
1% Difco™ Select Soytone in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
1.8
Area Percentage
1.4
Average OD at 600nm
60
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
1.6
1.2
50
40
30
20
1
10
0.8
0
<250
0.6
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
0.4
0.2
0
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
Titration
12000
12000
10000
10000
8000
8000
6000
6000
4000
4000
2000
2000
0
0
0
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
Day 0 RFU
Antibody Yield (ng/mL)
RFU
Select Soytone Titration
CHO Proliferation and Production Data
Day 3 RFU
Day 4 RFU
Day 5 RFU
Day 6 RFU
Day 7 RFU
Day 7 ng/mL
17
Peptone Concentration (g/L)
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
21
Animal Free Peptones
and Yeast Extracts
Molecular Weight
Growth Curve
Bacto Soytone
™
1% Bacto Soytone in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
1.6
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
1.4
50
40
30
20
10
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
>10k
Average OD at 600nm
Area Percentage
60
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1
3
5
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
Availability
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
BBL™ Phytone™ Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211906 . . . . . . 454 g
BBL™ Phytone™ Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298147 . . . . . . 5 lb (2.3 kg)
BBL™ Phytone™ Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292450 . . . . . . 10 kg
Difco™ Select Phytone™ UF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210931 . . . . . . 500 g
Difco™ Select Phytone™ UF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210936 . . . . . . 10 kg
Difco™ Select Soytone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212488 . . . . . . 500 g
Difco™ Select Soytone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212489 . . . . . . 10 kg
Bacto™ Soytone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243620 . . . . . . 500 g
Bacto™ Soytone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243610 . . . . . . 10 kg
References
1. Power (ed.). 1988. Manual of BBL™ products and laboratory procedures, 6th ed. Becton Dickinson Microbiology Systems,
Cockeysville, Md.
2. Chou and Cheng. 2000. Recovery of low-temperature stressed E. coli O157:H7 and its susceptibility to crystal violet, bile salt,
sodium chloride and ethanol. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 61:127-136.
3. Kwon, Lee, Lee, Chang, Keun and Chang. 2000. Production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus with vitamin-supplemented
soybean hydrolysate. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 26:209-215.
22
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Animal Free Peptones
and Yeast Extracts
Bacto™ TC Yeastolate
Difco™ TC Yeastolate, UF
Product Description
TC Yeastolate products are animal-free and water-soluble portions of autolyzed yeast or
Saccharomyces cerevisiae. TC Yeastolate is a mixture of peptides, amino acids, carbohydrates,
simple and complex as well as vitamins. TC Yeastolate, UF has been ultrafiltered at a
10,000 MWCO (Molecular Weight Cut-Off). It has an endotoxin value of less than 500 EU/g.
Potential Applications
TC Yeastolate products are intended as nutritional supplements for bacterial, insect and
mammalian cell culture. TC Yeastolate has been used in insect cell nutrition. TC Yeastolate
was found to be a very versatile supplement to enhance growth and production characteristics
of Sf9 and High Five™ cells.1-5
Physical Characteristics
Bacto™ TC Yeastolate is a beige free-flowing, homogeneous, spray-dried powder.
Difco™ TC Yeastolate, UF is a free-flowing, homogeneous, spray-dried powder.
Availability
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
Bacto™ TC Yeastolate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255772 . . . . . . 100 g
Bacto™ TC Yeastolate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255771 . . . . . . 10 kg
Bacto™ TC Yeastolate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292731 . . . . . . 25 kg
Difco™ TC Yeastolate, UF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292804 . . . . . . 500 g
Difco™ TC Yeastolate, UF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292805 . . . . . . 10 kg
Titration
12000
30000
Day 0 RFU
10000
25000
Day 3 RFU
8000
20000
6000
15000
4000
10000
2000
5000
0
0
0
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
Antibody Yield (ng/mL)
RFU
TC Yeastolate UF Titration
CHO Proliferation and Production
Day 4 RFU
Day 5 RFU
Day 6 RFU
Day 7 RFU
Day 7 ng/mL
17
Peptone Concentration (g/L)
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
23
Animal Free Peptones
and Yeast Extracts
Molecular Weight
Growth Curve
Bacto™ TC Yeastolate
1% Bacto TC Yeastolate in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
1.4
1.2
50
40
30
20
10
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
Average OD at 600nm
Area Percentage
60
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
0.2
Molecular Weight
0
Difco™ TC Yeastolate, UF
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
70
Time in Hours
Area Percentage
60
50
40
References
30
1. Chan, Greenfield and Reid. 1998. Optimising fed-batch production of recombinant proteins using the baculovirus expression
vector system. Biotechnol. Bioeng 59:178-188.
20
2. Nguyen, Jarnagin, Williams, Chan and Barnett. 1993. Fed-batch culture of insect cells: a method to increase the yield of
recombinant human nerve growth factor (rhNGF) in the baculovirus expression system. J Biotechnol. 31:205-217.
10
3. Ikonomou, Bastin, Schneider, Agathos. 2001. Design of efficient medium for insect cell growth and recombinant protein
production. In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. Anim. 37:549-559.
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
>10k
4. Bedard, Kamen, Tom and Maassie. 1994. Maximization of recombinant protein yield in the insect cell/baculovirus system by
one-time addition of nutrients to high-density batch cultures. Cytotechnology 15:129-138.
5. Donaldson and Shuler. 1998. Low-cost serum-free medium for the BTI-TN5B1-4 insect cell line. Biotechnology Prog. 14:573-579.
24
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Animal Free Peptones
and Yeast Extracts
Bacto™ Yeast Extract
BBL™ Yeast Extract
Bacto™ Yeast Extract, Technical
Difco™ Yeast Extract, UF
Product Description
BD Yeast Extracts are concentrates of the water soluble portion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells
that have been autolyzed. BD Yeast Extracts are derived from primary grown baker’s yeast. Yeast
extract is an animal-free product and is used extensively for many animal-free formulations for
bacterial, fungal, mammalian and insect cell culture. Yeast Extract will provide essential water
soluble vitamins, amino acids, peptides and carbohydrates to any medium formulation.
Potential Applications
BD Yeast Extracts are animal-free products suitable for use as multi-functional nutritional
supplements in cell culture, microbial fermentation and insect cell culture applications.
Bacto™ Yeast Extract is one of the most complete and versatile fermentation bionutrients
available. It is an important ingredient for the microbiological assay of vitamins. Yeast extract
is also of value in the assay of antibiotics. B factor, a growth substance necessary for the
production of rifampin in a Nocardia sp., can be isolated from yeast extract.1
Difco™ Yeast Extract, UF is ultrafiltered and specifically designed for tissue culture applications.
With its low endotoxin level and high content of naturally occurring B vitamins, it is an ideal
substitute for fetal bovine serum. It has an endotoxin level of less than or equal to 150 EU/g.
Yeast Extract was developed to provide a product for the biotechnology/pharmaceutical
market with acceptable clarity and growth promoting characteristics. Media formulations
containing yeast extract are specified in standard methods for various applications.2-8
Bacto™ Yeast Extract, Technical, was developed to provide products priced for the biotechnology market with acceptable clarity and growth promoting characteristics.
Titration
Yeast Extract UF Titration
CHO Proliferation and Production
100
20000
80
15000
RFU
60
10000
40
5000
20
0
0
0
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
Antibody Yield (ng/mL)
Day 0 RFU
Day 3 RFU
Day 4 RFU
Day 5 RFU
Day 6 RFU
Day 7 RFU
Day 7 ng/mL
17
Peptone Concentration (g/L)
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
25
Animal Free Peptones
and Yeast Extracts
Molecular Weight
Growth Curve
Bacto™ Yeast Extract
1% Bacto™ Yeast Extract in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
1.4
50
1.2
40
30
20
10
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
Average OD at 600nm
Area Percentage
60
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
0.2
0
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
Molecular Weight
Growth Curve
BBL Yeast Extract
™
1% BBL™ Yeast Extract 211929 in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
1.6
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
1.4
50
40
30
20
10
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Average OD at 600nm
Area Percentage
60
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
0.4
0.2
0
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
Physical Characteristics
BD Yeast Extracts are light to medium beige, free-flowing, homogeneous, spray-dried powders.
26
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Animal Free Peptones
and Yeast Extracts
Molecular Weight
Growth Curve
Difco™ Yeast Extract, UF
1% Difco™ Yeast Extract UF in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
1.6
Area Percentage
1.4
Average OD at 600nm
60
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
1.2
50
40
30
1
20
0.8
10
0
0.6
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
0.4
0.2
0
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
Availability
Product Description
Molecular Weight
Cat. No.
Qty.
Bacto Yeast Extract, Technical
™
Bacto Yeast Extract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212750 . . . . . 500 g
70
Bacto™ Yeast Extract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212720 . . . . . 2 kg
60
Bacto™ Yeast Extract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212730 . . . . . 10 kg
50
Bacto Yeast Extract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212710 . . . . . 50 kg
™
BBL™ Yeast Extract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211929 . . . . . 454 g
Area Percentage
™
40
30
BBL Yeast Extract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211930 . . . . . 5 lb (2.3 kg)
20
BBL™ Yeast Extract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211931 . . . . . 25 lb (11.3 kg)
10
™
Bacto™ Yeast Extract, Technical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288620 . . . . . 500 g
0
<250
Bacto™ Yeast Extract, Technical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288610 . . . . . 10 kg
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
Difco™ Yeast Extract, UF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210929 . . . . . 500 g
Difco™ Yeast Extract, UF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210934 . . . . . 10 kg
References
1. Kawauchi, Asahi, Satoh, Uozumi and Beppu. 1984. J. Antibiot. 37:1587.
2. Horowitz (ed.) 2005. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, 18th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Md.
3. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 1998. Bacteriological analytical manual, 8th ed., rev A. AOAC International. Gaithersburg, Md.
4. Downes and Ito (ed.) 2001. Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods, 4th ed. American Public Health
Association, Washington, D.C.
5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2000. Improved enumeration methods for the recreational water quality indicators:
Enterococci and Escherichia coli. EPA-821/R-97/004. Office of Water, Washington D.C.
6. Wehr (ed.). 2004. Standard methods for the examination of dairy products, 17th ed. American Public Health Association,
Washington, D.C.
7. Clesceri, Greenberg and Eaton (ed.). 1998. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th ed. American
Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.
8. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1998. Microbiology laboratory guidebook, 3rd ed. Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA,
Washington, D.C.
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
27
Animal Free Peptones
and Yeast Extracts
Alanine (% Total)
Arginine (% Total)
Asparagine (% Free)
Aspartic Acid (% Free)
89.8 2435
31547 34037
0.76
0.67 0.64
0.3
2.6
0.6
2.1
0.1
0.3
900
59.5 1700
21200 36100
0.76
0.58 0.71
0.3
3.1
0.8
2.4
0.2
0.2
7.0
250
61.0 1749
29787 31087
0.07
2.65 1.03
0.5
3.6
0.4
2.1
0.4
0.2
0.2
7.2
550
68.2 1610
22200 34040
0.17
2.33 0.82
0.4
2.5
2.1
2.8
0.3
0.2
2.2
0.6
7.0
228
73.7
250
50850
8190
0.30
0.49 2.63
4.6
4.6
1.7
2.4
1.2
1.8
13.3
2.1
1.0
7.0
247
52.5
267
60940
3716
0.52
0.89 2.46
5.5
5.7
1.9
3.2
1.3
2.1
163.3
11.2
3.1
0.1
6.7
130
55.3
750
31950
4900
0.38
0.09 3.27
4.4
5.6
1.4
2.6
1.0
1.6
0.60
67.6
13.1
1.0
0.2
7.0
230
62.1
799
58013
1003
0.07
0.65 3.73
5.7
6.2
2.0
3.0
1.0
2.2
6.0
0.54
132.1
10.0
5.0
0.0
6.9
320
32.3
400
51030
760
0.12
0.55 1.10
3.3
3.6
2.5
3.4
1.4
1.5
6.0
0.56
108.2
18.2
0.7
0.0
7.0
191
57.9
558
59240
1244
0.13
1.02 2.70
4.8
5.4
1.5
2.6
1.2
1.7
9.4
2.6
Select Soytone, Difco™
9.2
Soytone, Bacto
Calcium (µg/g)
Select Phytone UF, Difco™
pH (1% Solution)
0.27
NaCl (%)
2.4
Loss on Drying (%)
9.0
Ash (%)
Phytone™ Peptone, BBL™
0.2
5.2
111
392.9
12.4
1.5
4.0
7.1 1001
0.28
394.2
12.5
4.9
4.0
7.0
3.7
0.40
336.2
10.7
3.5
0.0
9.4
3.1
0.33
292.5
12.0
4.6
TC Yeastolate, Bacto
10.7
6.0
0.56
143.0
11.7
TC Yeastolate UF, Difco
10.6
6.5
0.61
124.2
Yeast Extract, Bacto
10.9
6.0
0.55
Yeast Extract, BBL
11.4
6.9
Yeast Extract, Technical, Bacto
11.1
Yeast Extract, UF, Difco
10.7
5.8
130
603
Arginine (% Free)
Alanine (% Free)
0.0
3.1
Sulfate (%)
0.0
0.3
Chloride (%)
0.1
0.97 1037.4
Sodium (µg/g)
0.0
0.3
Potassium (µg/g)
0.1
0.3
Magnesium (µg/g)
0.1
Malt Extract, Bacto™
Iron (µg/g)
0.07 0.08
AN/TN
0.07
Amino Nitrogen (%)
713
Product Name
Total Nitrogen (%)
Phosphate (%)
Total Carbohydrate (mg/g)
Animal-Free Peptones and Yeast Extracts
LEGEND
* = Partially destroyed during hydrolysis
0.0 = Below limit of detection
= Free Amino Acids
= Total Amino Acids
For analytical methods, see Methods of Detection
28
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Animal Free Peptones
and Yeast Extracts
Aspartic Acid (% Total)
Cystine (% Free)
Glutamic Acid (% Free)
Glutamic Acid (% Total)
Glutamine (% Free)
Glycine (% Free)
Glycine (% Total)
Histidine (% Free)
Histidine (% Total)
Isoleucine (% Free)
Isoleucine (% Total)
Leucine (% Free)
Leucine (% Total)
Lysine (% Free)
Lysine (% Total)
Methionine (% Free)
Methionine (% Total) *
Phenylalanine (% Free)
Phenylalanine (% Total)
Proline (% Free)
Proline (% Total)
Serine (% Free)
Serine (% Total)*
Threonine (% Free)
Threonine (% Total)
Tryptophan (% Free)
Tyrosine (% Free)
Tyrosine (% Total)
Valine (% Free)
Valine (% Total)
Typical Analyses Table
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
3.9
0.4
0.3
5.9
0.0
0.2
1.5
0.3
0.8
0.2
1.3
0.8
2.3
1.2
2.4
0.2
0.2
0.2
1.4
0.1
1.8
0.2
0.5
0.1
0.5
0.0
0.2
0.8
0.1
1.5
4.7
0.5
0.4
6.5
0.0
0.2
1.8
0.1
0.9
0.2
1.6
0.9
2.7
1.5
2.8
0.2
0.3
0.3
1.6
0.1
1.9
0.3
0.6
0.1
0.6
0.1
0.3
1.0
0.1
1.7
6.2
0.5
0.7
6.9
0.2
0.1
2.2
0.5
1.3
0.9
2.6
2.2
3.9
2.6
3.4
0.4
1.0
1.3
2.4
0.2
2.6
0.3
1.2
0.5
1.0
0.1
0.9
2.0
1.0
2.8
5.5
0.4
0.4
8.9
0.1
0.2
2.1
0.2
1.1
0.6
2.8
1.7
4.3
1.9
2.9
0.3
0.5
1.2
3.1
0.2
2.0
0.3
1.4
0.2
1.1
0.2
1.3
1.3
0.4
2.7
4.8
0.2
6.6
8.7
0.3
1.3
2.7
0.5
1.1
2.1
3.6
3.5
4.9
2.3
4.2
0.8
0.8
2.3
3.3
0.9
1.8
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.4
0.6
0.8
0.9
2.4
3.7
6.4
0.2
7.3 11.0
0.2
1.5
3.0
0.6
1.5
2.1
3.2
3.0
4.0
2.5
5.1
0.8
0.9
2.2
2.9
1.1
2.0
1.9
2.1
1.5
1.7
0.9
0.1
0.9
2.7
4.0
5.3
0.2
6.6
9.4
0.2
1.0
3.0
0.4
1.3
1.8
3.0
3.0
4.1
1.9
4.6
0.6
0.8
2.0
2.6
0.8
2.0
1.3
1.6
1.1
1.6
0.5
0.8
1.2
2.2
3.5
5.9
0.2
7.3 11.0
0.1
1.6
3.3
0.3
1.4
2.5
4.7
4.0
6.2
2.7
4.9
0.9
1.1
2.7
4.4
1.3
2.3
1.3
1.9
1.7
1.8
0.7
0.9
1.2
3.0
4.8
4.8
0.9
5.7
8.5
0.6
1.1
2.2
0.6
1.0
1.9
2.3
3.5
3.7
2.0
3.8
1.1
1.0
2.1
2.2
0.8
1.7
1.9
2.3
1.0
1.8
2.2
0.8
1.0
2.5
3.0
5.4
0.2
6.8 10.0
0.3
1.3
2.9
0.6
1.2
1.8
3.8
2.8
4.7
2.2
4.6
0.7
0.8
2.1
3.6
0.9
1.9
1.6
1.7
1.3
1.6
0.5
0.5
0.8
2.4
4.1
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
29
Meat Peptones
Meat Peptones
Meat peptones are proteins from animal sources that have been hydrolyzed, or broken down
into amino acids and peptides, to provide nitrogen for microorganisms. Meat peptones can
be tailored to specific nutritive needs of microorganisms by controlling the quality and origin
of the protein, the quality and source of the enzyme used to digest the protein, and the methods
used for hydrolysis, concentration and drying the peptone. Peptone manufacture methods
are discussed in the section titled Hydrolysis to Hydrolysate.
Sources of animal protein include meat from muscle tissue or offal (waste parts, entrails) and
gelatin. Muscular tissue and offal are utilized fresh, frozen or dried. Gelatin is extracted by boiling
collagen, the fibrous protein found in connective tissue, bone and cartilage.
A variety of proteolytic enzymes, or proteases, may be used to accomplish enzymatic hydrolysis
of animal protein. Pepsin and trypsin are widely used for animal peptone manufacture. Pepsin
is isolated from porcine or other animal stomach. Trypsin, along with chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, carboxypeptidase B, and elastase, are enzymes isolated from animal pancreas.
BBL™ Beef Extract Powder
Bacto™ Beef Extract, Desiccated
Product Description
Beef Extract is derived from infusion of beef and provides an undefined source of nutrients.
Beef Extract is not exposed to the harsh treatment used for protein hydrolysis, so it can provide
some of the nutrients lost during peptone manufacture.1 Beef Extract is a mixture of peptides
and amino acids, nucleotide fractions, organic acids, minerals and some vitamins. “Its function
can therefore be described as complementing the nutritive properties of peptone by contributing minerals, phosphates, energy sources and those essential factors missing from
peptone.”2 Beef Extract Powder is a meat extract dried to powder form. Bacto™ Beef Extract,
Desiccated, is the dried form of Beef Extract paste.
Potential Applications
Beef Extract is intended to replace aqueous infusion of meat in microbiological culture media.
Beef Extract is frequently used at a concentration of 0.3 to 1.0% in culture media, although
concentrations may vary depending on the nutritional requirements for the medium formulation.
Beef Extract was used in media for early studies of non-sporulating anaerobes of the intestinal
tract and as a stock broth in the study of nutritional needs of streptococci. Prokofeva et al.3
used Beef Extract for growing thermoacidophilic organisms newly isolated from hot springs
in Kamchatka, Russia. Kataoka and Tokiwa4 used Beef Extract as a nitrogen source in studies
of mannose production by Clostridium tertium strains isolated from soil and methanogenic
sludge. In addition, Beef Extract is a nutritive ingredient in many classical culture media,
including Antibiotic Assay media described in The United States Pharmacopeia,5 and several
media recommended for standard methods applications.6-8
30
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Meat Peptones
Growth Curve
Molecular Weight
BBL™ Beef Extract Powder
1% BBL™ Beef Extract Powder 212303 in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
1.4
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
Area Percentage
Average OD at 600nm
1.2
60
1
50
40
30
20
0.8
10
0.6
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
0.4
0.2
0
Molecular Weight
1
3
5
7
9
11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
Bacto Beef Extract, Desiccated
™
70
Area Percentage
60
Physical Characteristics
BBL™ Beef Extract Powder is a light to medium, cream to tan, free-flowing,
homogeneous powder.
50
40
30
20
Bacto™ Beef Extract, Desiccated is a medium to dark brown, crystalline powder.
10
0
<250
Availability
Product Description
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
Cat. No.
Qty.
BBL™ Beef Extract Powder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212303 . . . . . . 500 g
Bacto™ Beef Extract, Desiccated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211520 . . . . . . 500 g
References
1. Cote. 1999. Media composition, microbial, laboratory scale. In Flickinger and Drew (ed.), Encyclopedia of bioprocess technology:
fermentation, biocatalysis, and bioseparation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
2. Bridson and Brecker. 1970. Design and formulation of microbial culture media. In Norris and Ribbons (ed.), Methods in microbiology,
vol. 3A. Academic Press, New York.
3. Prokofeva, Miroshnichenko, Kostrikina, Chernyh, Kuznetsov, Tourova and Bonch-Osmolovskaya. 2000. Acidilobus aceticus gen.
nov., sp. nov., a novel anaerobic thermoacidophilic archaeon from continental hot vents in Kamchatka. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
50: Pt 6:2001-2008.
4. Kataoka and Tokiwa. 1998. Isolation and characterization of an active mannanase-producing anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium
tertium KT-5A, from lotus soil. J. Appl. Microbiol. 84:357-367.
5. United States Pharmacopeial Convention. 2006. The United States pharmacopeia 29/The national formulary 24—2006. United
States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., Rockville, Md.
6. Clesceri, Greenberg and Eaton (ed.). 1998. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th ed. American
Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.
7. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 1998. Bacteriological analytical manual, 8th ed., rev. A. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Md.
8. Downes and Ito (ed.). 2001. Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods, 4th ed. American Public
Health Association, Washington, D.C.
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
31
Meat Peptones
BBL™ Gelysate™ Peptone
Product Description
BBL™ Gelysate™ Peptone is a pancreatic digest of gelatin. Gelatin is extracted from collagen,
which is the fibrous protein in bone, cartilage and connective tissue. Gelatin hydrolysate is
high in proline residues.1 Gelysate Peptone is deficient in carbohydrates and is characterized
by low cystine, methionine and tryptophan content.
Potential Applications
Gelysate Peptone may be used for cultures requiring low carbohydrates, cystine, and
tryptophan levels in cell culture and bacterial fermentation.
Physical Characteristics
BBL™ Gelysate™ Peptone is a tan, fine, free-flowing, homogeneous powder.
Availability
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
BBL™ Gelysate™ Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211870 . . . . . . 454 g
Reference
1. Bridson and Brecker. 1970. Design and formulation of microbial culture media. In Norris and Ribbons (ed.), Methods in microbiology,
vol. 3A. Academic Press, New York.
Growth Curve
Molecular Weight
BBL™ Gelysate™ Peptone
1% BBL™ Gelysate™ Peptone in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
0.45
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
0.4
50
0.35
40
30
20
10
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Average OD at 600nm
Area Percentage
60
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
0.1
0.05
0
1
32
3
5
7
9
11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Meat Peptones
Bacto™ Neopeptone
Product Description
Availability
Bacto™ Neopeptone is an enzymatic digest of protein. Neopeptone contains a wide variety of
peptide sizes in combination with vitamins, nucleotides and minerals.
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
Bacto™ Neopeptone . . . 211681 . . 500 g
Bacto™ Neopeptone . . . 211680 . . 10 kg
Potential Applications
Neopeptone is recommended for use in media for detection of fungi.1 Apodaca and McKerrow2
used Neopeptone for the cultivation of Trichophyton rubrum for study of its proteolytic
activity. Neopeptone has been cited as a component of culture media used for cultivation of
human pathogens, notably, Bordetella pertussis and group A streptococci.
Neopeptone has also been reported to provide nutrients for support of spirochetes and
protozoa. Wyss et al.3 used Neopeptone as a component of a medium for cultivation of
Treponema maltophilum sp. nov., a fastidious oral anaerobe. Ifediba and Vanderberg4 reported
that Neopeptone, in addition to calf serum, was used as an inexpensive replacement for human
serum in cultivation of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of human malaria. Cushion
and Ebbets5 utilized Neopeptone in their investigations of various media for cultivating
Pneumocystis carinii without feeder cells; optimal replication of P. carinii separated from host
fungi cells was observed in media with Neopeptone and N-acetylglucosamine at low pH.
Physical Characteristics
Bacto™ Neopeptone appears as tan, free-flowing, granules.
References
1. Clesceri, Greenberg and Eaton (ed.). 1998. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th ed., 9-131-137.
American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.
2. Apodaca and McKerrow. 1990. Expression of proteolytic activity by cultures of Trichophyton rubrum. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 28:159-171.
3. Wyss, Choi, Schupbach, Guggenheim and Gobel. 1996. Treponema maltophilum sp. nov., a small oral spirochete isolated from
human periodontal lesions. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46:745-752.
4. Ifediba and Vanderberg. 1980. Peptones and calf serum as a replacement for human serum in the cultivation of Plasmodium
falciparum. J. Parasitol. 66:236-239.
5. Cushion and Ebbets. 1990. Growth and metabolism of Pneumocystis carinii in axenic culture. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:1385-1394
Growth Curve
Molecular Weight
Bacto™ Neopeptone
1% Bacto™ Neopeptone in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
0.4
60
Area Percentage
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
0.35
Average OD at 600nm
70
0.3
0.25
50
40
30
20
10
0.2
0
<250
0.15
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
0.1
0.05
0
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
Time in Hours
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
33
Meat Peptones
Bacto™ Peptone
Product Description
Molecular Weight
Bacto™ Peptone is an enzymatic digest of animal protein. Bacto Peptone was first introduced
in 1914 and became the standard Peptone for the preparation of bacteriological culture
media. The nutritive value of Bacto Peptone is largely dependent on the amino acid content
that supplies essential nitrogen. Bacto Peptone contains only a negligible quantity of proteoses
and more complex constituents.
Bacto Peptone
™
70
Area Percentage
60
50
40
30
Potential Applications
20
10
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
>10k
Bacto Peptone is used as an organic nitrogen source in microbiological culture media for
cultivation of a variety of bacteria and fungi. For example, Iwanaga et al.1 utilized Bacto
Peptone for production of cholera toxin by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor. Benkerroum et al.2
reported using Bacto Peptone in a selective medium developed for isolating Leuconostoc spp.
from food samples. Bacto Peptone was used in a culture medium for two anaerobic, extremely
thermophilic Archaea, Thermococcus celer and Pyrococcus woesei, by Blamey et al.3
Bacto Peptone has also been utilized as a nitrogen source in cell culture media formulations.
Taylor et al.4 used Bacto Peptone to supplement serum-free medium for several mammalian
cell lines and reported the solubility of Bacto Peptone as very good at 10 g/100 mL water.
Sakoda and Fukusho5 also utilized Bacto Peptone in serum-free culture for maintaining porcine
kidney epithelial cells. Bacto Peptone is also useful as a supplement in cell culture with serum.
Researchers uncovered estrogenic activity associated with Bacto Peptone when including the
peptone in medium for culture of yeast; the estrone contained in Bacto Peptone was
converted to estrodiol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These findings suggest that adding
estrogens to a medium containing Bacto Peptone for studies of estrodiol production by yeast
may confound results.6,7
Physical Characteristics
Bacto™ Peptone is a tan, free-flowing, homogeneous powder.
Availability
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
Bacto™ Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211677 . . . . . . 500 g
Bacto™ Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211820 . . . . . . 2 kg
Bacto™ Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211830 . . . . . . 10 kg
References
1. Iwanaga, Yamamoto, Higa, Ichinose, Nakasone and Tanabe. 1986. Culture conditions for stimulating cholera toxin production by
Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor. Microbiol. Immunol. 30:1075-1083.
2. Benkerroum, Misbah, Sandine and Elaraki. 1993. Development and use of a selective medium for isolation of Leuconostoc spp.
from vegetables and dairy products. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:607-609.
3. Blamey, Chiong, Lopez and Smith. 1999. Optimization of the growth conditions of the extremely thermophilic microorganisms
Thermococcus celer and Pyrococcus woesei. J. Microbiol. Methods 38:169-175.
4. Taylor, Dworkin, Pumper and Evans. 1972. Biological efficacy of several commercially available peptones for mammalian cells in
culture. Exp. Cell Res. 74:275-279.
5. Sakoda and Fukusho. 1998. Establishment and characterization of a porcine kidney cell line, FS-L3, which forms unique multicellular domes in serum-free culture. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. 34:53-57.
6. Feldman and Krishnan. 1995. Estrogens in unexpected places: possible implications for researchers and consumers. Environ. Health
Perspect. 103 Suppl 7:129-133.
7. Miller, Bottema, Stathis, Tokes and Feldman. 1986. Unexpected presence of estrogens in culture medium supplements: subsequent
metabolism by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Endocrinology 119:1362-1369.
34
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Meat Peptones
BBL™ Polypeptone™ Peptone
Product Description
Availability
BBL™ Polypeptone™ Peptone is a mixture of peptones made up of equal parts of pancreatic
digest of casein and peptic digest of animal tissue. Polypeptone Peptone includes the high
content of amino acids and small polypeptides characteristic of pancreatic digest of casein
and the larger polypeptides characteristic of peptic digest of animal tissue.
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
Polypeptone™ Peptone. . 211910 . . 454 g
Polypeptone™ Peptone. . 297108 . . 10 kg
Potential Applications
Researchers have found Polypeptone Peptone to meet nutritional requirements of various
bacteria, fungi and mammalian cells, where a single source of casein or meat peptones has
been unsatisfactory. Polypeptone Peptone has been utilized in culture media for the production
of trypsin inhibitor by Cephalosporium sp.;1 the production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter
sp. A9;2 production of succinic acid from whey by Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens;3
mass production of luciferase-bacterial magnetic particles by recombinant Magnetospirillum
magneticum AMB-1;4 and the production of a novel tumor-killing factor by human
macrophage-monocyte hybridomas.5
Physical Characteristics
BBL™ Polypeptone™ Peptone is a yellow to tan, fine, free-flowing, homogeneous powder.
References
1. Tsuchiya and Kimura. 1978. Production of trypsin inhibitor by a Cephalosporium sp. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35:631-635.
2. Son, Heo, Kim and Lee. 2001. Optimization of fermentation conditions for the production of bacterial cellulose by a newly isolated
Acetobacter sp. A9 in shaking cultures. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 33(Pt 1):1-5.
3. Lee, Lee, Kwon, Lee and Chang. 2000. Batch and continuous cultivation of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens for the
production of succinic acid from whey. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 54:23-27.
4. Yang, Takeyama, Tanaka and Matsunaga. 2001. Effects of growth medium composition, iron sources and atmospheric oxygen
concentrations on production of luciferase-bacterial magnetic particle complex by a recombinant Magnetospirillum magneticum
AMB-1. Enzyme Microbiol. Technol. 29:13-19.
5. Taniyama, Yoshida and Furuta. 1988. Demonstration of a novel tumor-killing factor secreted from human macrophage-monocyt
hybridomas. J. Immunol. 141:4061-4066.
Growth Curve
Molecular Weight
BBL™ Polypeptone™ Peptone
1% BBL™ Polypeptone™ Peptone in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
1.4
Area Percentage
60
Average OD at 600nm
1.2
1
50
40
30
20
0.8
10
0.6
0
<250
0.4
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
0.2
0
250-500 500-2k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
1
3
5
7
9
11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
35
Meat Peptones
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone
BiTek™ Proteose Peptone
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No.
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No.
BiTek™ Proteose Peptone No.
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No.
2
3
3
4
Product Description
The Bacto™ Proteose Peptones are enzymatic digests of protein. Studies of peptic digests of
animal tissue prepared under varying digestion parameters led to the development of
Proteose Peptone, Proteose Peptone No. 2 and Proteose Peptone No. 3. Data accumulated
during these studies demonstrated that no one peptone is the most suitable nitrogen source
for every microbiological application. Bacto Proteose Peptone No. 4 is a spray-dried version of
Bacto Proteose Peptone.
BiTek™ Proteose Peptone and BiTek Proteose Peptone No. 3 are enzymatic digests of protein,
developed to offer alternatives to the Bacto Proteose Peptones for scale-up to production
applications.
Potential Applications
Bacto Proteose Peptone is used in preparing microbiological culture media and in producing
bacterial toxins. Bacto Proteose Peptone was originally developed to produce a diphtheria
toxin of high and uniform potency from cultures of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Studies
support the use of Proteose Peptone for production of diphtheria toxin, toxin-antitoxin
mixtures and toxoid.1,2 Proteose Peptone is also valuable in the production of other bacterial
toxins: Clostridium botulinum toxin;3 toxin from Clostridium perfringens;4 toxin of hemolytic
streptococci;5 pneumococcus toxin;6 and toxin from Salmonella pullorum (Salmonella
cholerasuis subsp. cholerasuis).7
Titration
Proteose Peptone 3 Titration
CHO Proliferation and Production
20000
RFU
8000
Day 0 RFU
Antibody Yield (ng/mL)
10000
15000
6000
10000
4000
5000
2000
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
Day 4 RFU
Day 5 RFU
Day 6 RFU
Day 7 RFU
Day 7 ng/mL
0
0
Day 3 RFU
17
Peptone Concentration (g/L)
36
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Meat Peptones
Many factors account for the suitability of Proteose Peptone for the culture of fastidious
pathogens, including the nitrogen components, buffering range and the high content of
proteoses. These elements create an environment beneficial to the maintenance of virulence
and the elaboration of bacterial by-products, thus stock cultures are well preserved on media
containing Bacto Proteose Peptone.
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone may be used in culture medium for a variety of applications,
including production of substances from the culture of bacteria, fungi and mammalian cells.
Proteose Peptone has been utilized in a medium for producing glycosidases from Bacteroides
fragilis,8 and to stimulate amyloglucosidase production by Aspergillus sp.9 It has been used to
cultivate halophilic bacteria isolated from soil in Egypt for production of polymers.10 Jan et al.11
reported that Proteose Peptone as supplementation to defined medium resulted in significant
increases in cell number and specific monoclonal antibody production in batch culture system.
Proteose Peptone has also been used to provide nutrients for axenic culture of amoeba.12
BiTek™ Proteose Peptone was developed to provide an alternative product to Bacto Peptone
with growth characteristics similar to Bacto Proteose Peptone.
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 3 is used in preparing microbiological culture media. It is a
modification of Proteose Peptone adapted for use in the preparation of chocolate agar for
propagation of Neisseria species and chocolate tellurite agar for Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
While investigating the nutritional values of the Proteose Peptones, Difco Laboratories found
that Proteose Peptone No. 3 provides superior nutrition for fastidious microorganisms. It
supports growth of streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, gonococci and other
organisms that require a highly nutritious substrate. For example, Ifediba and Vanderberg14
BiTek™ Proteose Peptone
70
60
Area Percentage
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 2 is used in preparing microbiological culture media. It was
originally developed for use in media for the production of diphtheria toxin. Bunney and
Thomas13 reported good yield of diphtheria toxin with Proteose Peptone No. 2 in a simple
peptone-sugar-sodium acetate medium.
Molecular Weight
50
40
30
20
10
0
<250
Growth Curve
>10k
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone
60
Area Percentage
Average OD at 600nm
1
5k-10k
70
1.4
1.2
2k-5k
Molecular Weight
1% Bacto™ Proteose Peptone in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
250-500 500-2k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
50
40
30
20
0.8
10
0.6
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
0.4
0.2
0
1
3
5
7
9
11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
37
Meat Peptones
Growth Curve
Molecular Weight
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 2
70
1% Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 2 in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
1
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
0.9
50
0.8
40
30
20
10
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
Average OD at 600nm
Area Percentage
60
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
Molecular Weight
BiTek™ Proteose Peptone No. 3
0
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
70
Area Percentage
60
50
report that Proteose Peptone No. 3 in addition to calf serum was used as an inexpensive
replacement for human serum in cultivation of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent
of human malaria. Cell culture manufacturers have found significant yield improvements in
using Proteose Peptone No. 3.
40
30
20
BiTek™ Proteose Peptone No. 3 was developed to provide an alternative product to Bacto
Proteose Peptone No. 3 with growth characteristics similar to Bacto Proteose Peptone No. 3.
10
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
>10k
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 4 is a spray-dried version of Bacto Proteose Peptone. It offers
the same beneficial nutrients as Proteose Peptone for growth promotion and toxin production
with a wide range of fastidious microorganisms.
Availability
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211684 . . . . . . 500 g
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212010 . . . . . . 10 kg
BiTek™ Proteose Peptone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253310 . . . . . . 10 kg
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212120 . . . . . . 500 g
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212110 . . . . . . 10 kg
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211693 . . . . . . 500 g
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212220 . . . . . . 2 kg
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212230 . . . . . . 10 kg
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211692 . . . . . . 50 kg
BiTek™ Proteose Peptone No. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253720 . . . . . . 25 kg
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211715 . . . . . . 10 kg
38
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Meat Peptones
Growth Curve
Molecular Weight
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 3
1% Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 3 in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
1.4
Area Percentage
1.2
Average OD at 600nm
60
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
1
50
40
30
20
0.8
10
0.6
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
0.4
0.2
Molecular Weight
0
1
3
5
7
9
11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 4
Time in Hours
70
Physical Characteristics
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone appears as tan, free-flowing granules.
BiTek™ Proteose Peptone is a tan, free-flowing, homogeneous powder.
Area Percentage
60
50
40
30
20
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 2 appears as tan, free-flowing granules.
10
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 3 appears as golden tan, free-flowing granules.
0
<250
BiTek Proteose Peptone No. 3 is a light beige, free-flowing, homogeneous powder.
™
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
Bacto™ Proteose Peptone No. 4 is a light beige, free-flowing, homogeneous powder.
References
1. Kirkbride, Berthelsen and Clark. 1931. Comparative studies of infusion and infusion-free diphtheria toxin in antitoxin production
and in standardization by the flocculation, subcutaneous, and intracutaneous tests. J. Immunol. 21:1-20.
2. Hazen and Heller. 1931. Further studies upon the effect of various carbohydrates on production of diphtheria toxin with special
reference to its flocculating titer and final pH. J. Bacteriol. 23:195-209.
3. Nelson. 1927. The relationship between the intracellular globulin and the toxin of C. botulinum. J. Infect. Dis. 41:9-12.
4. Mollby and Holme. 1976. Production of phospholipase C (alpha-toxin), haemolysins and lethal toxins by Clostridium perfringens
types A to D. J. Gen. Microbiol. 96:137-144.
5. Kirkbride and Wheeler. 1926. Studies of the toxins of the hemolytic streptococci associated with scarlet fever. J. Immunol.
11:477-497.
6. Kneeland and Dawes. 1932. Studies on the common cold: V. The relationship of pathogenic bacteria to upper respiratory diseases in
infants. J. Exp. Med. 55:735-744.
7. Hanks and Rettger. 1931. Bacterial endotoxin; search for a specific intracellular toxin in S. pullorum. J. Immunol. 22:283-314.
8. Berg, Nord and Wadstrom. 1978. Formation of glycosidases in batch and continuous culture of Bacteroides fragilis. Appl. Environ.
Microbiol. 35:269-273.
9. Mamo and Gessesse. 1999. Production of raw-starch digesting amyloglucosidase by Aspergillus sp. GP-21 in solid state fermentation.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 22:622-626.
10. Hezayen, Rehm, Eberhardt and Steinbuchel. 2000. Polymer production by two newly isolated extremely halophilic archaea:
application of a novel corrosion-resistant bioreactor. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 54:319-325.
11. Jan, Jones, Emery and Al-Rubeai. 1994. Peptone, a low-cost growth-promoting nutrient for intensive animal cell culture.
Cytotechnol. 16:17-26.
12. Shukla, Kaul and Mehlotra. 1989. Development of improved media for axenic cultivation of Acanthamoeba culbertsoni, Singh and
Das 1970. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 27:785-791.
13. Bunney and Thomas. 1936. Diphtheria toxin-production on broths made from dried complete media. J. Immunol. 31:95-102.
14. Ifediba and Vanderberg. 1980. Peptones and calf serum as a replacement for human serum in the cultivation of Plasmodium
falciparum. J. Parasitol. 66:236-239.
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
39
Meat Peptones
BBL™ Thiotone™ E Peptone
Product Description
BBL™ Thiotone™ E Peptone is an enzymatic digest of animal tissue. Thiotone E Peptone contains
a wide range of peptide sizes, including the large molecular weight peptides which support
fastidious organisms.
Potential Applications
Thiotone E Peptone is a source of nitrogen, amino acids and vitamins in microbiological culture
media. It has been recommended for use in blood agar formulae for hemolysis studies with
pneumococci and streptococci. Thiotone E Peptone is high in sulfur amino acids and can be used
in media to detect hydrogen sulfide production. Tortora1 utilized Thiotone E Peptone as the nitrogen source in a medium promoting sporulation of Clostridium perfringens strains. Thiotone E Peptone is recommended for use in media for testing water samples for coliforms.2 Kwinn3 utilized
Thiotone E Peptone as a supplement to her medium for Corynebacterium glutamicum to make
the cells electrocompetent for transformations. Thiotone E Peptone has also been cited as an ingredient in media for non-bacterial organisms; Thiotone E Peptone is used in Modified HL5 Medium,
one of the main media used for culturing the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.
Physical Characteristics
BBL™ Thiotone™ E Peptone is a tan, fine, free-flowing, homogeneous powder.
Availability
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
BBL™ Thiotone™ E Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212302 . . . . . . 500 g
References
1. Tortora. 1984. Alternative medium for Clostridium perfringens sporulation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47:1172-1174.
2. Clesceri, Greenberg and Eaton (ed.). 1998. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th ed. American
Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.
3. Kwinn. 2001. Regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in Corynebacterium glutamicum: isolation and cloning of the upstream region
of the accBC gene. Bug Journal, Biology Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 4:193-200.
Growth Curve
Molecular Weight
BBL™ Thiotone™ E Peptone
1% BBL™ Thiotone™ E Peptone in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
1.4
50
1.2
40
30
20
10
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
>10k
Average OD at 600nm
Area Percentage
60
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
0.2
0
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
40
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Meat Peptones
Bacto™ Tryptose
Product Description
Availability
Bacto™ Tryptose is a mixed enzymatic hydrolysate with distinctive nutritional properties. The
digestive process of Tryptose results in assorted peptides of higher molecular weight suitable
for long-chain amino acid requirements.
Product Description
Potential Applications
Tryptose has been reported as beneficial for cell culture applications. Litwin4 found Tryptose
suited to supplementing a serum-free medium for growing human diploid fibroblasts. Vaughn
and Fan5 established that Tryptose provided free amino acids necessary for growth of
Spodoptera frugiperda and Lymantria dispar insect cell lines. Tryptose Peptone is often used
as a biomass enhancer for recombinent Escherichia coli production.
Tryptose is the major ingredient and only peptone in the formulation, Tryptose Phosphate Broth,
an often-used medium for various culture applications. Hata and Kojima6 have shown Tryptose
Phosphate Broth (TPB) to be a useful supplement in culturing the nematode, Angiostrongylus
cantonensis, in vitro. TPB was also reported as a supplement to a medium for cultivating
a protozoan parasite, which parasitizes vectors of Chagas’ disease, on its insect cell host.7
Spodoptera frugiperda, a cotton pest in Argentina8 and several tick cell lines have also been
grown using a TPB supplemented medium.9 Tryptose Phosphate Broth has been reported as a
suitable supplement for growth of baby hamster kidney cells10 and porcine kidney cells.11
Physical Characteristics
Bacto™ Tryptose appears as tan, free-flowing granules.
Bacto™ Tryptose. . . . . . . 211713. . . 500 g
Bacto™ Tryptose. . . . . . . 211709. . . 10 kg
1. Casman. 1942. A dehydrated medium to supplement
meat infusion as a base for blood agar. J. Bacteriol. 43:33.
2. Casman. 1947. A noninfusion blood agar base for
neisseriae, pneumococci and streptococci. Am. J. Clin.
Pathol. 17:281-289.
3. Mobley, Chengappa, Kadel and Stuart. 1984. Effect
of pH, temperature and media on acid and alkaline
phosphatase activity in “clinical” and “nonclinical”
isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Can. J. Comp.
Med. 48:175-178.
4. Litwin. 1985. Further studies on a tryptose based
serum-free medium for human diploid fibroblasts.
Dev. Biol. Stand. 60:25-33.
5. Vaughn and Fan. 1997. Differential requirements of
two insect cell lines for growth in serum-free medium.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. 33:479-482.
6. Hata and Kojima. 1990. Angiostrongylus cantonensis:
in vitro cultivation from the first-stage to infective
third-stage larvae. Exp. Parasitol. 70:467-482.
7. Reduth, Schaub and Pudney. 1989. Cultivation of
Blastocrithidia triatomae (Trypanosomatidae) on a cell
line of its host Triatoma infestans (Reduviidae).
Parasitology 98:387-393.
8. Deutschmann and Jager. 1994. Optimization of the
growth conditions of Sf21 insect cells for high-density
perfusion culture in stirred-tank bioreactors. Enzyme
Microb. Technol. 16:506-512.
9. Munderloh and Kurtti. 1989. Formulation of medium
for tick cell culture. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 7:219-229.
10. Prodafikas and Plavsic. 2000. Effects of medium
supplements on BHK-21 cell growth and bluetongue
virus production. Focus 22:35.
11. Sakoda and Fukusho. 1998. Establishment and
characterization of a porcine kidney cell line, FS-L3,
which forms unique multicellular domes in serum-free
culture. In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. Anim. 34:53-57.
Growth Curve
Molecular Weight
Bacto™ Tryptose
1% Bacto™ Tryptose Peptone in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
Average OD at 600nm
0.8
70
60
Area Percentage
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
1
Qty.
References
Bacto Tryptose was originally developed as a peptone particularly adapted to the growth requirements of Brucella. Tryptose is very useful for cultivation of streptococci, pneumococci, meningococci and other fastidious organisms, and was found to be superior to meat infusion peptone
media previously used for these organisms.1,2 Mobley et al.3 reported that Tryptose Broth was the
preferred medium for strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica in studies of phosphatase activity.
1.2
Cat. No.
50
40
30
20
0.6
10
0
<250
0.4
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
0.2
0
1
3
5
7
9
11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
41
Meat Peptones
Loss on Drying (%)
NaCl (%)
pH (1% Solution)
Calcium (µg/g)
Iron (µg/g)
Magnesium (µg/g)
Phosphate (%)
Alanine (% Free)
Alanine (% Total)
Arginine (% Total)
Asparagine (% Free)
Aspartic Acid (% Free)
56.10
9.3
3.5
0.3
6.9
264
27.4
285
28793 18510
0.00
0.53 3.22
1.8
4.0
2.8
2.8
0.6
0.6
Beef Extract, Desiccated, Bacto™
13.9
2.0
0.14
9.80
7.7
1.8
1.7
6.9
53
19.2
92
31423 21645
1.62
0.70 0.43
1.1
7.1
1.3
4.2
0.1
0.3
Gelysate™ Peptone, BBL
17.0
2.9
0.17
11.58
3.8
4.9
0.2
6.9
381
11.8
150
656
11090
0.00
1.66 0.18
0.8
8.8
3.1
6.3
0.1
0.1
Neopeptone, Bacto
13.6
3.2
0.20
13.13
6.9
4.0
1.4
7.4
77
5.3
28
8945
36313
0.48
0.45 2.59
0.5
4.3
0.5
2.6
0.2
0.3
Peptone, Bacto
15.4
3.5
0.20
6.29
3.8
2.7
1.7
7.1
30
7.8
17
2487
18127
0.90
0.32 0.40
1.2
9.2
2.8
5.8
0.3
0.3
Polypeptone™ Peptone, BBL
13.1
5.2
0.40
8.06
9.7
4.9
2.7
7.3
271
16.7
342
7340
44257
1.00
0.40 3.40
1.2
4.1
2.4
3.3
0.4
0.4
Proteose Peptone, Bacto
14.3
2.8
0.20
12.02
7.8
3.0
4.9
6.7
120
13.5
261
9123
29730
2.65
0.19 0.64
0.5
6.0
0.4
4.7
0.1
0.4
Proteose Peptone, BiTek™
13.1
3.1
0.24
10.30
13.1
4.8 10.3
6.8
219
12.0
680
7390
44750
4.93
1.01 0.94
0.8
7.0
0.4
4.4
0.1
0.6
Proteose Peptone No. 2, Bacto
12.9
5.0
0.39
18.07
12.1
3.5
7.1
7.3
151
10.2
212
13313 47610
3.86
0.38 1.88
1.6
5.2
1.4
4.1
0.5
1.1
Proteose Peptone No. 3, Bacto
13.4
3.7
0.28
17.94
10.5
2.3
6.6
7.4
132
23.7
103
13160 38113
2.54
0.37 1.51
0.9
5.2
0.8
4.3
0.3
0.6
Proteose Peptone No. 3, BiTek
12.8
3.1
0.24
12.35
13.1
1.3 12.5
6.7
129
10.6
214
8682
50153
9.40
0.17 1.22
0.8
6.4
0.8
5.1
0.1
0.7
Proteose Peptone No. 4, Bacto
14.3
2.7
0.19
12.17
7.8
3.3
3.9
7.0
169
12.5
280
9109
35280
2.63
0.34 0.72
0.5
6.5
0.4
4.6
0.1
0.3
Thiotone™ E Peptone, BBL
13.4
3.4
0.25
30.71
11.4
4.8
8.2
6.7
196
20.2
270
9629
46683
4.17
0.81 0.65
1.0
6.7
0.9
4.3
0.1
0.9
Tryptose, Bacto
13.3
4.5
0.34
10.56
8.8
3.2
3.2
7.3
191
34.2
110
9292
37740
1.61
0.23 2.05
1.2
4.3
1.9
3.5
0.4
0.5
Arginine (% Free)
Ash (%)
0.19
Sulfate (%)
Total Carbohydrate (mg/g)
2.3
Chloride (%)
AN/TN
12.4
Sodium (µg/g)
Amino Nitrogen (%)
Beef Extract Powder, BBL™
Product Name
Potassium (µg/g)
Total Nitrogen (%)
Meat Peptones Typical Analyses Table
LEGEND
* = Partially destroyed during hydrolysis
0.0 = Below limit of detection
= Free Amino Acids
= Total Amino Acids
For analytical methods, see Methods of Detection
42
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Aspartic Acid (% Total)
Cystine (% Free)
Glutamic Acid (% Free)
Glutamic Acid (% Total)
Glutamine (% Free)
Glycine (% Free)
Glycine (% Total)
Histidine (% Free)
Histidine (% Total)
Isoleucine (% Free)
Isoleucine (% Total)
Leucine (% Free)
Leucine (% Total)
Lysine (% Free)
Lysine (% Total)
Methionine (% Free)
Methionine (% Total) *
Phenylalanine (% Free)
Phenylalanine (% Total)
Proline (% Free)
Proline (% Total)
Serine (% Free)
Serine (% Total)*
Threonine (% Free)
Threonine (% Total)
Tryptophan (% Free)
Tyrosine (% Free)
Tyrosine (% Total)
Valine (% Free)
Valine (% Total)
Meat Peptones
5.5
0.2
2.5 14.6
0.1
0.5
2.3
0.4
2.1
1.3
5.1
3.8
7.2
4.0
5.7
0.8
1.6
2.5
5.0
0.3
5.7
0.8
2.1
0.6
1.8
0.7
0.6
1.5
1.4
5.4
2.4
0.0
0.6
6.4
0.0
1.0
8.2
0.1
1.4
0.2
1.3
0.4
2.8
0.6
2.5
0.3
0.7
0.2
1.5
0.4
7.2
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.8
0.2
2.0
4.7
0.3
0.2
7.9
0.1
0.5 16.8
0.3
1.0
0.5
1.6
0.9
3.2
2.0
3.3
0.3
0.8
1.1
2.4
0.1
9.7
0.2
1.8
0.1
0.9
0.0
0.5
0.6
0.3
2.3
4.2
0.4
0.6
7.4
0.0
0.2
3.4
0.1
1.2
0.3
2.3
1.6
4.6
0.8
4.0
0.5
1.0
1.3
2.7
0.1
4.7
0.3
0.8
0.2
0.9
0.3
0.8
2.2
0.3
2.9
5.0
0.0
0.7
8.1
0.0
0.7 15.9
0.2
0.8
0.6
2.1
1.6
3.8
2.2
3.4
0.3
0.7
1.4
2.8
0.3
8.8
0.4
1.5
0.3
1.1
0.3
0.5
0.6
0.7
2.8
6.1
0.3
0.9 12.6
0.1
0.5
3.0
0.4
2.1
1.1
3.8
3.9
6.2
3.6
6.2
1.0
1.9
2.4
3.6
0.3
5.4
0.7
2.1
0.7
1.9
0.6
0.7
1.6
1.3
4.7
5.3
0.4
0.7
8.4
0.0
0.2
8.2
0.1
1.3
0.3
3.3
1.4
5.7
0.8
4.2
0.3
1.4
1.0
3.6
0.1
4.6
0.2
1.7
0.2
1.5
0.1
0.6
1.8
0.2
3.7
3.9
0.4
0.4
6.3
0.1
0.4
7.3
0.1
0.8
0.4
2.0
1.4
4.2
0.9
3.4
0.6
1.0
1.1
2.3
0.1
6.3
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.7
0.1
0.5
1.2
0.4
2.8
5.5
1.0
1.8
7.5
0.1
0.9
6.2
0.3
1.3
1.1
3.7
3.3
6.2
2.5
4.2
0.8
1.2
2.2
3.9
0.5
3.8
0.8
1.9
0.6
1.7
0.5
0.7
1.3
1.0
4.0
5.1
0.6
1.2
8.0
0.0
0.4
6.5
0.1
1.3
0.6
3.2
2.3
5.6
1.5
4.2
0.6
1.3
1.5
3.5
0.3
3.8
0.5
1.6
0.4
1.5
0.3
0.8
1.6
0.5
3.5
5.7
1.2
0.4 11.3
0.1
0.3
1.1
0.1
1.1
0.3
2.5
1.5
4.7
0.3
4.2
0.7
1.2
0.9
2.6
0.7
6.5
0.3
1.6
0.4
0.5
0.0
1.0
1.9
0.7
3.6
4.4
0.3
0.6
6.5
0.0
0.2
5.9
0.1
1.1
0.3
2.2
1.2
4.3
0.7
4.0
0.5
1.1
0.9
2.3
0.1
5.0
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.8
0.2
0.5
1.6
0.2
2.9
4.4
0.6
0.6
7.4
0.0
0.4 10.7
0.1
0.8
0.5
2.8
1.8
5.5
1.4
2.8
0.5
1.1
1.4
3.6
0.1
6.2
0.3
1.6
0.2
1.2
0.1
0.6
1.2
0.6
3.5
5.1
0.4
1.3 10.6
0.0
0.4
0.3
1.5
1.0
4.0
3.5
6.4
3.5
4.9
0.9
1.6
2.2
4.0
0.4
4.8
0.7
1.8
0.6
1.6
0.5
0.6
1.4
1.3
4.4
4.4
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
43
Casein and Whey Peptones
Casein and Whey Peptones
Casein and whey peptones are hydrolysates of bovine milk proteins. Milk is a complex
material, consisting of water, lactose, lipids, salts and proteins. Casein (80%) and whey (20%)
are the fundamental protein components in milk. After the cream, or fat, has been removed
from bovine milk, hydrochloric or sulfuric acid is added in order to precipitate out casein, the
insoluble portion.1,2 The casein recovered is known as acid casein and is insoluble in water.
Generally, the acid casein is dissolved in a suitable hydroxide such as NaOH, to make it soluble
in water. The resulting sodium caseinate is then used as the basis for hydrolyzed caseins.
Sodium caseinate typically consists of 87% to 90% protein.3 Casein, which can make up
about 3% of the total components in bovine milk, is one of the most nutritive of the milk
proteins, as it contains all of the common amino acids and is rich in the essential ones. Casein
peptones are manufactured by either acid or enzymatic hydrolysis (described in the Hydrolysis
to Hydrolysate section).
The soluble supernatant material separated from milk after casein precipitates is whey, also
called milk plasma. Whey contains the lactalbumin and lactoglobulin proteins and is a byproduct of casein (and cheese) production. Whey protein concentrates and isolates are
recovered using various separation technologies such as ion exchange and filtration; lactalbumin
is recovered by heat denaturing and then separation.1 Whey peptones are manufactured using
the process of enzymatic hdrolysis on the proteins isolated from whey. The whey peptones
contain free amino acids and peptides, as well as carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals.
References
1. Huffman and Harper, W.J. 1999. Maximizing the value of milk through separation technologies. J. Dairy Sci. 82:2238-2244.
2. Haurowitz, F. 1963, The chemistry and function of proteins, 2nd edition. Academic Press, New York.
3. Dziuba, Babuchowski, Smoczynski and Smietana. 1999. Fractal analysis of caseinate structure. Int. Dairy J. 9:287-292.
44
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Casein and Whey Peptones
BBL™ Acidicase™ Peptone
Bacto™ Casamino Acids
Bacto™ Casamino Acids, Technical
Acid Hydrolysates of Casein Product Description
Molecular Weight
BBL Acidicase™ Peptone
™
70
60
Area Percentage
BBL™ Acidicase™ Peptone is a hydrochloric acid hydrolysate of casein. The manufacturing
process produces a casein hydrolysate that has a high salt content of approximately 37% and
nitrogen content of approximately 8%. The hydrolysis of the casein, a milk protein rich in
amino acid nitrogen, is carried out until all the nitrogen is converted to amino acids or other
compounds of relative simplicity. It is deficient in cystine, because casein contains little cystine,
and in tryptophan, which is destroyed by the acid treatment.
Bacto™ Casamino Acids is an acid hydrolysate of casein, prepared according to the method
described by Mueller and Miller.1 The method described, reduces the sodium chloride and iron
content of the hydrolyzed casein. This hydrolyzed casein, supplemented with inorganic salts,
growth factors, cystine, maltose and an optimum amount of iron was used by Mueller and
Miller to prepare diptheria toxin. Bacto Casamino Acids duplicate this specially treated
hydrolyzed casein.
50
40
30
20
10
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
Bacto Casamino Acids, Technical is prepared similarly to Bacto Casamino Acids but is a
less refined product, leaving a higher sodium chloride and iron content than in Bacto
Casamino Acids.
Molecular Weight
Bacto™ Casamino Acids
100
90
Potential Applications
Bacto Casamino Acids, due to the nearly complete hydrolysis of casein and the low sodium
chloride and iron content, make an excellent supplement for many media formulations where
nitrogen requirements are minimal. It has been recommended as a compromise for the
replacement of pure amino acids in a defined medium for the growth of Lactobacillus, thus
eliminating the complexity of preparation.2 Additionally, it has been successfully used, along
with Tryptone Peptone in nutritional studies to determine a bacterium’s growth requirement
for peptides or amino acids.3,4 It also works well as a component in laboratory media. It has
been utilized in such diverse applications as TYI-S-33 media for the parasite Entamoeba
histolytica and LCM medium for the growth of a nematode-bacterium complex.5
80
Area Percentage
BBL Acidicase Peptone is intended for use as a nutritional supplement in vitamin assay,
susceptibility testing and other laboratory media and microbial fermentation where the high
salt content will not interfere.
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
Bacto Casamino Acids, Technical provides similar benefits to Bacto Casamino Acids, for
applications requiring a less refined hydrolysate.
Physical Characteristics
BBL™ Acidicase™ Peptone is a light beige, fine, homogeneous, free-flowing powder.
Bacto™ Casamino Acids is a very light beige, fine, homogeneous, free-flowing powder.
Bacto™ Casamino Acids, Technical, is a very light beige, fine, homogeneous, free-flowing
powder.
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
45
Casein and Whey Peptones
Availability
Molecular Weight
Bacto™ Casamino Acids, Technical
70
Cat. No.
Qty.
BBL™ Acidicase™ Peptone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211843 . . . . . . 500 g
60
Area Percentage
Product Description
Bacto™ Casamino Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223050 . . . . . . 500 g
50
Bacto™ Casamino Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223020 . . . . . . 2 kg
40
Bacto™ Casamino Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223030 . . . . . . 10 kg
30
Bacto™ Casamino Acids, Technical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223120 . . . . . . 500 g
20
Bacto™ Casamino Acids, Technical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223110 . . . . . . 10 kg
10
References
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
1. Mueller and Miller. 1941. Production of diphtheria toxin of high potency (100 lf) on a reproducible medium. J. Immunol. 40:21-32.
2. Van Niel and Hahn-Hägerdal. 1999. Nutrient requirements of lactococci in defined growth media. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
52:617-627.
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
3. Takahashi, Sato and Yamada. 2000. Metabolic pathways for cytotoxic end product formation from glutamate- and aspartatecontaining peptides by Porphyromonas gingivalis. J. Bacteriol. 182:4704-4710.
4. Attwood, Klieve, Ouwerkerk and Patel. 1998. Ammonia-hyperproducing bacteria from New Zealand ruminants. Appl. Environ.
Microbiol. 64:1796-1804.
5. Strauch and Ehlers. 2000. Influence of the aeration rate on the yields of the biocontrol nematode Heterorhabditis megidis in
monoxenic liquid cultures. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 54:9-13.
BBL™ Biosate™ Peptone
Product Description
BBL™ Biosate™ Peptone is a mixed hydrolysate comprised of 65% pancreatic digest of casein
and 35% yeast extract.
Growth Curve
Molecular Weight
BBL™ Biosate™ Peptone
1% BBL™ Biosate™ Peptone in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
1.6
1.4
50
40
30
20
10
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
>10k
Average OD at 600nm
Area Percentage
60
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
0.2
0
1
3
5
7
9
11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
46
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Casein and Whey Peptones
Potential Applications
References
Biosate™ Peptone can be used as a component in microbiological media or in fermentation
applications. The synergistic effect of two or more types of hydrolysates is well documented
and has been utilized for decades in culture media formulation. The combination of pancreatic
digest of casein and yeast extract provides nutritional benefits that are not provided by the
components alone. It has been reported that the combined use of these two peptones has
shown improved toxin production in clostridia.1,2 Additionally, the combination of pancreatic
digest of casein and yeast extract has been used successfully as components in media which
supported the first-time culturing of a nematode without the need of its symbiotic bacteria.3
1. Artemenko, Ivanova, Nenashev, Kuznetsova and Ochkina.
1985. Use of experimental analytical method for equilibrating nutrient broths for Clostridium perfringens type A
growth and toxin production. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii,
Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii. 11:37-41.
2. Siegel and Metzger. 1980 Effect of fermentation conditions on toxin production by Clostridium botulinum
type B. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40:1023-1026.
3. Dorsman and Bijl. 1985. Cultivation of free-living stages
of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in media without
bacteria, animal tissue extract, or serum. J. Parasitol.
71:200-203.
Physical Characteristics
BBL™ Biosate™ Peptone is a yellow-tan, fine, homogeneous, free-flowing powder.
Availability
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
BBL™ Biosate™ Peptone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211862 . . . . 454 g
BBL™ Biosate™ Peptone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294312 . . . . 25 lb (11.3 kg)
Difco™ Casein Digest
Product Description
Difco™ Casein Digest is an enzymatic digest of casein similar to NZ Amine A. Casein Digest is
hydrolyzed under conditions different from other enzymatic digests of casein such as Tryptone
and Casitone.
Molecular Weight
Difco™ Casein Digest
70
Difco™ Casein Digest is applicable as a component in microbiological culture media. It was
developed for use in molecular genetics media and is a component in NZCYM Broth, NZYM
Broth and NZM Broth, which are used for cultivating recombinant strains of Escherichia coli.
E. coli grows rapidly in these rich media because they provide amino acids, nucleotide
precursors, vitamins and other metabolites that the cells would otherwise have to synthesize.1
Area Percentage
60
Potential Applications
50
40
30
20
10
0
<250
Physical Characteristics
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
Difco™ Casein Digest is a light beige homogeneous, free-flowing powder.
Availability
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
Difco™ Casein Digest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211610 . . . . . . 500 g
Reference
1. Ausubel, Brent, Kingston, Moore, Seidman, Smith and Struhl (ed.). 1994. Current protocols in molecular biology, vol.1. Current
Protocols, New York, N.Y.
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
47
Casein and Whey Peptones
Bacto™ Casitone
BBL™ Trypticase™ Peptone
Bacto™ Tryptone
BiTek™ Tryptone
Enzymatic Digests of Casein Product Description
Bacto™ Casitone is a pancreatic digest of casein. The manufacturing process for an enzymatic
digest of casein is not as destructive as an acid hydrolysis. Thus, the casein is not broken down
as completely into its constituent components. In many cases this makes for a more nutritious
hydrolysate, especially for those organisms that prefer peptides to amino acids.
BBL™ Trypticase™ Peptone is a pancreatic digest of casein and is the primary nitrogen source
in Trypticase Soy Broth and Agar.
Bacto™ Tryptone is a pancreatic digest of casein. It was developed by Difco Laboratories
while investigating a peptone particularly suitable for the elaboration of indole by bacteria. It
is also notable for the absence of detectable levels of carbohydrates.
BiTek™ Tryptone is prepared similarly to Bacto Tryptone but the final product goes through
fewer refinement steps during processing.
Potential Applications
Bacto™ Casitone can be used as a component in microbiological media or in fermentation
applications. A recent publication has also reported that the stability of lyophilized influenza
virus vaccine was augmented by the addition of 2% Casitone.1
BBL™ Trypticase™ Peptone is recommended for use in media formulations, where good
growth of fungi and bacteria is required. It is referenced in Official Methods of Analysis of
AOAC International and meets the USP specifications for pancreatic digest of casein.2,3
Bacto™ Tryptone has been used in conjunction with Casamino Acids in nutritional studies to
determine amino acids vs. peptide utilization.4,5 It is included in standard methods manuals
Growth Curve
Molecular Weight
Bacto Casitone Peptone
™
1% Bacto™ Casitone Peptone in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
1.2
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
50
1
40
30
20
10
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
>10k
Average OD at 600nm
Area Percentage
60
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1
3
5
7
9
11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
48
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Casein and Whey Peptones
applications and is listed in the “Reagent” section of The United States Pharmacopeia, as
meeting the specifications for pancreatic digest of casein, a component in many of the media
listed.2,3,6-9 The European Pharmacopoeia also lists pancreatic digest of casein as a component
in many of the recommended media.10 Bacto™ Tryptone also works well in fermentation
applications. It has been used successfully with commonly used organisms such as Escherichia
coli,11 as well as uncommon organisms such as the diatom Nitzschia laevis.12
BiTek™ Tryptone provides some of the same benefits as Bacto Tryptone in instances where a
less refined hydrolysate can be utilized.
Physical Characteristics
Bacto™ Casitone appears as tan, free-flowing granules.
BBL™ Trypticase™ Peptone is a very light beige, fine, homogeneous, free-flowing powder.
Bacto™ Tryptone is a light beige, homogeneous, free-flowing powder.
BiTek™ Tryptone is a light beige, homogeneous, free-flowing powder.
Availability
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
Bacto™ Casitone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225930. . . . 500 g
Bacto™ Casitone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225910. . . . 10 kg
BBL™ Trypticase™ Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211921. . . . 454 g
BBL™ Trypticase™ Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211922. . . . 5 lb (2.3 kg)
BBL™ Trypticase™ Peptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211923. . . . 25 lb (11.3 kg)
Bacto™ Tryptone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211705. . . . 500 g
Bacto™ Tryptone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211699. . . . 2 kg
Bacto™ Tryptone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211701. . . . 10 kg
BiTek™ Tryptone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251420. . . . 10 kg
Growth Curve
Molecular Weight
BBL Trypticase™ Peptone
™
1% BBL™ Trypticase™ Peptone in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
1
Area Percentage
0.8
Average OD at 600nm
60
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
0.9
0.7
0.6
50
40
30
20
0.5
10
0.4
0
<250
0.3
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
0.2
0.1
0
1
3
5
7
9
11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
49
Casein and Whey Peptones
Growth Curve
Molecular Weight
Bacto Tryptone Peptone
™
1% Bacto™ Tryptone Peptone in 1.13% M9 Minimal Salts + 0.4% Glucose, BioScreen C
70
1.2
Bacillus subtilis ATCC™ 6633
Escherichia coli ATCC 47014
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 287
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
50
1
40
30
20
10
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
Average OD at 600nm
Area Percentage
60
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
Molecular Weight
BiTek™ Tryptone Peptone
0
1
3
5
7
9
11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
Time in Hours
70
Area Percentage
60
50
References
40
1. Yannarell, Goldberg and Hjorth. 2002 Stabilizing cold-adapted influenza virus vaccine under various storage conditions. J. Virol.
Methods. Apr;102(1-2):15-25.
30
2. Horowitz. (ed.). 2005. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. 18th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Md.
20
3. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. 2006. The United States Pharmacopeia 29/The national formulary 24—2006.
United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., Rockville, Md.
10
4. Takahashi and Yamada. 2000. Metabolic pathways for cytotoxic end product formation from glutamate- and aspartate-containing
peptides by Porphyromonas gingivalis J. Bacteriol. 182:4704-4710.
0
<250
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
>10k
5. Nagel, Oostra, Tramper and Rinzema. 1999. Improved model system for solid-substrate fermentation: effects of pH, nutrients and
buffer on fungal growth rate. Process Biochem. 35:69-75.
6. Downes and Ito. (ed.).2001. Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. 4th ed. American Public
Health Association. Washington D.C.
7. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 1998. Bacteriological analytical manual, 8th ed., rev. A. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Md.
8. Clesceri, Greenberg and Eaton. (ed.). 1998. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 20th ed. American
Public Health Association, Washington D.C.
9. Wehr (ed.). 2004. Standard methods for the examination of dairy products. 17th ed. American Public Health Association.
Washington D.C.
10. European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines. 2006. Supplement 5.5, European Pharmacopoeia 5th ed. Council Of Europe,
Strasbourg.
11. Sivakesavs, Chen, Hackett, Huang, Lam, Lam, Siu, Wong and Wong. 1999. Production of excreted human epidermal growth
factor (hEGF) by an efficient recombinant Escherichia coli system. Process Biochem. 34:893-900.
12. Wen and Chen. 2001. Optimization of nitrogen sources for heterotrophi production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the diatom
Nitzschia laevis. Enzyme Microbia Technol. 29:341-347.
50
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Casein and Whey Peptones
Bacto™ TC Lactalbumin Hydrolysate
Product Description
Molecular Weight
Potential Applications
Bacto TC Lactalbumin Hydrolysate is intended as a nutritional supplement for bacterial, insect and
mammalian cell culture. For years, TC Lactalbumin Hydrolysate has been used as a nutritional
source for lactobacilli. It is also useful for indole testing because of its high tryptophan content.
TC Lactalbumin is frequently used in mammalian cell culture media as an amino acid supplement.1
Bacto TC Lactalbumin Hydrolysate
™
70
60
Area Percentage
Bacto™ TC Lactalbumin Hydrolysate is the enzymatically hydrolyzed protein portion of milk
whey, which is recognized as a complete protein source. This product is a mixture of peptides,
amino acids and carbohydrates, both simple and complex.
50
40
30
20
10
0
<250
Physical Characteristics
250-500 500-2k
2k-5k
5k-10k
>10k
Molecular Weight Range (Daltons)
Bacto™ TC Lactalbumin Hydrolysate is a buff to tan homogeneous, free-flowing powder.
Availability
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
Bacto™ TC Lactalbumin Hydrolysate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259962 . . . . . . 500 g
Bacto™ TC Lactalbumin Hydrolysate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259961 . . . . . . 10 kg
Reference
1. Bridson and Brecker. 1970. Design and formulation of microbial culture media. In Norris and Ribbons (ed.), Methods in microbiology,
vol. 3A. Academic Press, New York.
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
51
Casein and Whey Peptones
36.8
Biosate™ Peptone, BBL
13.4
6.0
0.45
32.98
7.7
Casamino Acids, Bacto™
10.8
9.4
0.87
0.00
8.3
5.9
0.71
Casein Digest, Difco
13.2
7.0
Casitone, Bacto
13.5
TC Lactalbumin Hydrolysate, Bacto
1.3
1.9
0.0
3.4
0.07
0.43 3.19
2.4
4.2
2.1
2.9
0.9
0.9
6.74
0.55 2.56
3.0
3.0
2.4
2.5
0.0
0.7
48
1361 145667 18.25
0.26 1.53
2.1
4.4
1.1
1.7
0.0
3.1
2.8
49
1091
23923
0.26
0.10 0.57
1.6
2.7
2.9
5.1
1.6
1.1
111 23.5
213
3480
34090
0.10
0.40 2.48
0.9
3.4
2.6
2.8
0.5
0.2
0.3
7.0 1620 50.3
340
17200
14800
0.80
1.20 4.10
2.3
4.7
2.2
2.5
0.9
0.9
4.0
0.1
7.2
295 33.5
110
588
26600
0.09
0.18 2.54
0.9
5.7
2.3
4.8
0.5
0.2
6.6
2.3
0.0
7.3
256 23.0
195
3257
33910
0.06
0.33 2.58
1.0
3.2
2.2
5.0
0.6
0.4
5.8
5.0
0.0
7.1
387
100
620
26970
0.35
0.22 2.25
0.6
5.0
3.8
2.6
0.5
0.1
pH (1% Solution)
Calcium (µg/g)
Iron (µg/g)
Magnesium (µg/g)
Potassium (µg/g)
4.9
36
383
6.6
0.3
7.1
258 56.2
398
21320
17100
18.3
4.8 12.1
6.4
59
1.3
143
4098
88090
0.15
36.0
1.2 30.1
6.9
110
6.2
0.53
1.44
10.0
5.0
0.0
3.7
163
5.0
0.37
3.54
6.4
2.0
0.0
7.0
13.0
6.3
0.48
21.01
7.2
4.6
Trypticase™ Peptone, BBL
14.2
5.2
0.37
3.99
5.7
Tryptone, Bacto
13.3
5.3
0.40
4.30
Tryptone, BiTek™
13.1
5.6
0.43
8.42
Casamino Acids, Technical, Bacto
7.3
Sodium (µg/g)
NaCl (%)
229
140900 16.99
Arginine (% Free)
2.1
6.8
Sulfate (%)
1.6
5.3 32.3
Chloride (%)
0.25 1.42
Loss on Drying (%)
Aspartic Acid (% Free)
0.29
Asparagine (% Free)
Ash (%)
0.73
Arginine (% Total)
Total Carbohydrate (mg/g)
6.2
Alanine (% Total)
AN/TN
8.5
Alanine (% Free)
Amino Nitrogen (%)
Acidicase™ Peptone, BBL™
Phosphate (%)
Product Name
Total Nitrogen (%)
Casein and Whey Peptones
LEGEND
* = Partially destroyed during hydrolysis
0.0 = Below limit of detection
= Free Amino Acids
= Total Amino Acids
For analytical methods, see Methods of Detection
52
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Casein and Whey Peptones
Aspartic Acid (% Total)
Cystine (% Free)
Glutamic Acid (% Free)
Glutamic Acid (% Total)
Glutamine (% Free)
Glycine (% Free)
Glycine (% Total)
Histidine (% Free)
Histidine (% Total)
Isoleucine (% Free)
Isoleucine (% Total)
Leucine (% Free)
Leucine (% Total)
Lysine (% Free)
Lysine (% Total)
Methionine (% Free)
Methionine (% Total) *
Phenylalanine (% Free)
Phenylalanine (% Total)
Proline (% Free)
Proline (% Total)
Serine (% Free)
Serine (% Total)*
Threonine (% Free)
Threonine (% Total)
Tryptophan (% Free)
Tyrosine (% Free)
Tyrosine (% Total)
Valine (% Free)
Valine (% Total)
Typical Analyses Table
3.9
0.8
8.3 11.6
0.0
0.8
1.0
0.8
1.6
1.6
4.0
3.9
6.3
4.4
4.6
0.9
1.4
2.5
3.5
3.3
5.3
2.1
2.5
0.9
1.4
0.0
1.0
1.4
1.8
4.4
5.9
0.3
3.5 16.1
0.3
0.6
2.2
0.6
2.0
1.6
5.8
4.7
7.7
3.5
5.9
1.0
1.9
2.9
5.5
0.5
6.2
1.0
2.2
0.8
1.9
0.7
0.5
1.4
1.9
6.1
2.4
0.1 15.1 15.9
0.0
1.4
1.4
0.2
0.8
3.1
4.0
4.6
5.0
2.1
5.2
1.4
1.4
3.4
3.6
7.5
8.0
0.4
2.1
0.5
1.5
0.0
0.4
0.4
4.7
5.6
3.4
0.4
5.1
8.4
0.0
0.8
1.1
0.5
1.1
1.2
2.7
2.7
4.6
4.0
4.6
0.9
1.2
1.4
1.9
2.9
5.7
2.1
1.6
0.9
0.5
0.0
1.5
1.6
1.6
3.4
6.0
2.4
3.6 16.8
0.1
0.5
1.7
1.3
2.2
2.5
3.9
6.8
7.8
5.4
6.7
2.3
2.7
3.5
4.0
1.1
7.4
1.7
4.2
2.0
2.2
7.2
3.4
3.6
3.1
5.5
5.5
0.0
0.9 16.0
0.0
0.2
1.7
0.4
1.9
1.1
5.9
4.7
7.9
4.5
5.9
1.1
2.2
2.7
5.5
0.3
7.1
0.8
2.1
0.5
1.9
0.8
0.5
1.6
1.3
6.3
6.5
0.2
6.6
8.7
0.3
1.3
2.7
0.5
1.1
2.1
3.6
3.5
4.9
2.5
8.4
1.6
2.5
0.8
2.3
0.5
1.1
1.5
4.2
1.3
1.4
0.6
0.8
0.9
2.4
3.7
7.7
0.3
1.1 13.2
0.1
0.1
6.3
0.5
4.8
1.1
8.3
5.3 10.4
3.3 10.6
1.1
2.5
2.7
7.1
0.2 10.9
0.4
2.5
0.6
2.4
0.8
0.4
1.6
1.5
9.1
5.2
0.3
1.4 15.1
0.1
0.2
1.7
0.5
1.9
1.3
5.5
4.8
7.5
5.5
6.2
1.0
2.1
3.0
5.2
0.2
6.6
0.7
2.2
0.7
1.8
0.8
0.5
1.3
1.7
5.9
3.9
0.4
0.7
0.1
0.1
1.4
0.6
1.6
1.1
3.8
4.2
6.0
5.4
5.9
0.7
1.4
2.8
3.4
0.1
7.3
0.7
0.3
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.4
1.2
1.5
4.6
9.8
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
53
BD Bionutrients™ Media
BD Bionutrients™ Media
BD offers a wide variety of media products for cell culture and microbial fermentation
applications supplying the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, animal and human vaccine, and
bioremediation markets worldwide. This section of the BD Bionutrients™ Technical Manual
highlights BD Cell™ MAb liquid media, Select APS™ powdered media, and chemically defined
powdered media.
BD Bionutrients™ Media Products:
• BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Animal Component Free
• BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Quantum Yield
• BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Serum Free
• BBL™ Select APS™ LB Broth Base
• Difco™ Select APS™ Super Broth
• Difco™ M9 Minimal Salts, 5⫻
• Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base
• Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids
• Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids and Ammonium Sulfate
Chemically Defined Media Products:
• BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Quantum Yield
• Difco™ M9 Minimal Salts, 5⫻
• Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base
• Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids
• Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids and Ammonium Sulfate
54
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
BD Bionutrients™ Media
BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Animal Component Free
BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Quantum Yield
BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Serum Free
Product Description
BD Cell MAb media are formulated to produce high-yield monoclonal antibody secretion. BD
Cell media show an increase in yield of 5-25 times more antibody than with conventional
media. The amount of increased expression will be cell line dependent. BD Cell media not only
increase yield, but also dramatically reduce media consumption and labor cost. Cells will retain
viability for longer periods of time and require much less handling than is needed with
traditional media.
If you supplement your current medium with special growth factors, cholesterol, or lipids, etc.,
your cells may still need these supplements. A trial period with and without the supplements
is recommended.
Compared to Commercially
Available Media
1000
Competitor A
Competitor B
Competitor C
Antibody Yield (µg/mL)
BD Cell MAb media will support the growth of a wide variety of myeloma fusion partners and
hybridomas including: Sp2/0, NS-1, P3X63Ag9, and FOX-NY as well as other secreting cell
lines such as CHO. BD Cell media are HEPES based and can be used in either CO2 incubators
or non-CO2 incubators in a closed system. Always pre-warm medium to 37°C before use.
BD Cell™ Animal Component Free
800
IMDM + 10% FBS
600
400
200
BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Animal Component Free, is a complete medium designed to
enhance monoclonal antibody production in vitro. BD Cell™ Animal Component Free contains
L-glutamine and is supplemented with 0.3% Select Soytone, an enzymatic digest of soybean.
It does not contain phenol red or pluronic acid or other surfactants. It does not contain
attachment factors, which will need to be added if this medium is used with attached
dependent cell lines.
0
MAR 18.5
MPC-11
By Protein G Purification
• pH at 25°C: 7.0 to 7.4
500
• Osmolality: 315 to 365 mOsm
450
IMDM Fed Batch
BD Cell w/Serum
400
Yield (µg/mL)
• Endotoxin High limit: 10.0 EU/mL
• BD Cell™ Quantum Yield is a 1⫻ sterile medium with a shelf life of one year if stored at 4°C
in the dark.
46/4
BD Cell™ Quantum Yield
• BD Cell™ Animal Component Free is a 1⫻ sterile medium with a shelf life of six months if
stored at 4°C in the dark.
BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Quantum Yield, is a chemically defined basal cell culture medium
designed to enhance monoclonal antibody production in vitro. BD Cell™ Quantum Yield
contains L-glutamine and phenol red. It does not contain pluronic acid or other surfactants.
BD Cell™ Quantum Yield is a basal medium and must be supplemented in the same way that
you supplement your traditional basal medium (i.e., serum or serum-free supplements,
antibiotics, etc.).
BD Cell Animal
Component Free
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
XMG1
UCHT1
RA36B2
KAY-10
• pH at 25°C: 7.0 to 7.4
• Osmolality: 315 to 365 mOsm
• Endotoxin High limit: 1.0 EU/mL
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
55
BD Bionutrients™ Media
BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Serum Free, is a complete medium designed to enhance monoclonal
antibody production in vitro. BD Cell™ Serum Free contains L-glutamine and phenol red and
has a total protein content of 1.1 mg/mL. The majority of the protein is comprised of bovineserum albumin. It does not contain pluronic acid or other surfactants.
BD Cell™ Serum Free
IgG (µg/mL)
BDCSFM 1 compared to IMDM
300
IMDM
250
BDCSFM 1
200
150
• BD Cell™ Serum Free is a 1⫻ sterile medium with a shelf life of six months if stored at 4°C
in the dark.
• pH at 25°C: 7.0 to 7.4
100
• Osmolality: 315 to 365 mOsm
50
• Endotoxin High limit: 1.0 EU/mL
XMG1
MPC-11
MEL-14
MAR18.5
KAY-10
ALMA16.1
0
NOTE: Do not freeze BD Cell media. Please note that BD Cell Quantum Yield and Serum Free media should be more orange-yellow in
color than other basal and serum free media such as DMEM, IMDM or RPMI 1640.
Application
Production
Some cell lines may adapt readily to BD Cell™ Animal Component Free medium or Serum Free
medium while other cell lines may require adaptation first to BD Cell Quantum Yield medium
followed by adaptation to the animal free or serum free medium (see Adaptation of Cells into
BD Cell MAb Medium). Protocols for various culture systems such as roller bottle, hollow fiber
and stirred tank are available upon request or can be accessed at www.bd.com/industrial.
NOTE: Adaptation cultures will not be a true indicator of antibody production potential.
Fusions
BD Cell media have been found to work well in cell fusions thus eliminating the adaptation
process for new clones. Normal fusion procedures can be followed with the substitution of BD
Cell media for the traditional media.
Downstream Processing
High speed centrifugation or filtration procedures such as tangential flow filtration can be
used for cellular material removal prior to purification.
Purification of products produced using BD Cell™ Animal Component Free medium may be
greatly simplified due to the low molecular weight of the Select Soytone supplementation.
Ammonium sulfate precipitation or diafiltration can be utilized to extract the protein of
interest rather than usage of Protein A or Protein G affinity purification.
Normal purification procedures such as Protein A or Protein G work well for processing
supernatants produced using BD Cell™ Quantum Yield.
Normal purification procedures such as Protein A or Protein G also work well for processing
supernatants produced using BD Cell™ Serum Free medium. The purity of the product should
be higher with BD Cell™ Serum Free medium as compared to product produced with serum
supplemented media. The use of bovine serum albumin in BD Cell™ Serum Free medium
eliminates the co-purification of bovine IgGs that occurs with serum supplemented media.
56
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
BD Bionutrients™ Media
Availability
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Animal Component Free . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220513 . . . . . . 1000 mL
BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Quantum Yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220511 . . . . . . 1000 mL
BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Serum Free . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220509 . . . . . . 1000 mL
Custom packaging is available upon request.
Adaptation of Cells into BD Cell™ MAb Medium
Some cell lines may adapt readily to BD Cell™ MAb media, but most will require a brief period
of adaptation. Cell lines may necessitate adaptation first to BD Cell™ Quantum Yield basal
medium followed by adaptation to BD Cell™ Animal Component Free medium or Serum Free
medium. It is recommended that adaptation to BD Cell™ media be performed before
changing to a new growth system.
Cells perform best in BD Cell™ medium when grown in an aerated system such as a roller bottle,
spinner, CELLine™ flask, etc., but adaptation can be done in a stationary system if desired. A
T-flask or small roller bottle is easy to handle and uses minimal medium. Use of CO2 is optional
if using a closed (non-vented) system. When seeding the cells, it is best to take an aliquot from
an existing culture and seed into the new media combination. This enables cell-produced
growth factors to assist the cells in adaptation to the new medium. Likewise, small splits at 1:2
or 1:3 are better than 1:5 or 1:10 as this will also retain the cell-generated growth factors and
help keep cells in log phase growth. Centrifuging off the current medium is not recommended.
Procedure
From cells that are in growth phase with at least 80% viability, seed the adaptation culture
vessel at 2⫻105/mL in 50% BD Cell™ medium and 50% current culture medium. Pass the cells
for at least two days in this media combination. If cells retain normal doubling time and good
viability they are ready for the next medium combination. It is best to split the cells down no
lower that 2-3 ⫻105/mL and work with cells daily. For weekend splits, the cells may be reduced
to 1⫻ 105/mL.
Next, seed cells at 2 ⫻ 105/mL in 75% BD Cell™ medium and 25% current culture medium.
Pass the cells again for at least two days keeping the densities as suggested above. The cells
may begin to slow down in their doubling time. If this happens, give the cells more time to
adapt at this medium combination.
When cells are growing well in the 75/25% combination, they are ready to be seeded into
100% BD Cell™ medium. Again, keep the cell density high to help with the adaptation. Allow
at least 2 to 3 cell passages at 100% BD Cell™ medium before moving cells to the production
system. It is best not to change to 100% BD Cell™ medium over a weekend but early in the
week so cells can be passed every day at higher cell densities.
While the cells are being adapted, production can be monitored but until the cells are placed
in an aerated production system, the results will not be indicative of the true production
performance of BD Cell™ medium.
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
57
BD Bionutrients™ Media
BBL™ Select APS™ LB Broth Base
Difco™ Select APS™ Super Broth
Product Description
The Select Alternative Protein Source (APS) media were designed as alternatives to classical
animal-based media for the maintenance and propagation of Escherichia coli strains in
molecular genetics procedures. Select APS™ media are manufactured from animal-free
ingredients in order to minimize the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in culture
media containing animal, and especially bovine, materials.
Select APS LB Broth Base is based on the LB Broth Lennox formulation (1% tryptone, 0.5%
yeast extract and 0.5% sodium chloride) with 5.0 g/L sodium chloride, which was developed
by Lennox for the growth and maintenance of recombinant strains of E. coli.1 The tryptone in
the classical LB Lennox formulation is replaced by a combination of soy hydrolysate and yeast
extract in the Select APS LB Broth Base. Soy peptone provides nitrogen and carbon essential
for bacterial metabolism. Yeast extract supplies vitamins, amino acids and trace elements
which enhance bacterial growth and plasmid yield. Sodium chloride provides sodium ions for
transport and osmotic balance.
Select APS Super Broth, like BBL Super Broth II, is based on the Terrific Broth formulation
designed by Tartof and Hobbs2 to improve yield of plasmid-bearing E. coli strains over that of
LB Broth. The 1.2% tryptone in Terrific Broth was replaced with soy hydrolysate in the same
concentration in Select APS Super Broth. The 2.4% yeast extract and recommended addition
of 5 mL/L glycerol is the same for Select APS Super Broth as is used in classical Terrific Broth.
The buffering system, 1.14% dipotassium phosphate and 0.17% monopotassium phosphate,
is altered from that of classical Terrific Broth. As with Select APS LB Broth, soy hydrolysate
provides nitrogen and carbon compounds for bacterial metabolism. Yeast extract supplies
vitamins, amino acids and trace elements which enhance bacterial growth and plasmid yield.
The phosphate buffering system prevents cell death caused by pH drop. Glycerol is added as
a carbon and energy source which, unlike glucose, is not fermented to acetic acid.
Growth Curve
Growth Performance of Classical LB Broth Base vs. Select APS™ LB Broth E. coli DH5␣
4
Average OD at 600nm
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
Classical LB Broth
Select APS LB Broth
0
Time in Hours
58
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
BD Bionutrients™ Media
Applications
Select APS™ media are nutrient-rich formulations designed to out-perform classical animalbased molecular genetics media formulations.
Select APS™ LB Broth Base is an excellent all-purpose growth medium for the propagation
and maintenance of E. coli in molecular biology procedures. Figure 1 shows E. coli DH5␣
growth curves comparing the classical LB Broth Base formulation to Select APS LB Broth Base
in shaker flask culture. The Select APS LB Broth allowed for faster growth of the plasmid
carrying E. coli strain and showed twice the optical density (OD) after nine hours as did the
classical LB Broth formulation containing tryptone.
Select APS™ Super Broth is a molecular genetics medium designed to grow Escherichia coli
to a high cell density. There is no glucose in the formulation thus preventing acetate build-up
in the fermentation of the organism.3 Figure 2 shows E. coli DH5␣ growth curves comparing
the classical Super Broth formulation to Select APS Super Broth in shaker flask culture. The
Select APS formulation allowed comparable log growth to the BBL Super Broth II and held lag
OD through at least 15 hours while the Super Broth II culture OD declined.
Formulae
BBL™ Select APS™ LB Broth Base
Approximate Formula* Per Liter
Soy Hydrolysate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 g
Yeast Extract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.5 g
Sodium Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.0 g
Dissolve 20.0 g of the Select APS LB Broth Base powder in 1 L of purified water. Autoclave at
121°C for 15 minutes. Test samples of the finished product for performance using stable,
typical control cultures. Final pH 6.6 – 7.1
*Adjusted and/or supplemented as required to meet performance criteria.
Difco™ Select APS™ Super Broth
Approximate Formula* Per Liter
Soy Hydrolysate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.0 g
Yeast Extract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.0 g
Dipotassium Phosphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 g
Monopotassium Phosphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7 g
Suspend 49.1 g of the Select APS Super Broth powder and 5 mL of glycerol in 1 L of purified
water. Mix thoroughly. Autoclave at 121°C for 15 minutes. Test samples of the finished
product for performance using stable, typical control cultures. Final pH 6.8 – 7.5
*Adjusted and/or supplemented as required to meet performance criteria.
Physical Characteristics
Select APS Super Broth is a tan, free-flowing powder.
Select APS LB Broth is a tan, free-flowing powder.
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
59
BD Bionutrients™ Media
Growth Curve
Growth Performance of BBL™ Super Broth II vs. Select APS™ Super Broth E. coli DH5␣
18
Average OD at 600nm
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
BBL Super Broth II
Select APS Super Broth
2
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Time in Hours
Availability
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
BBL™ Select APS™ Super Broth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212485 . . . . . . 500 g
BBL™ Select APS™ Super Broth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212486 . . . . . . 10 kg
Difco™ Select APS™ LB Broth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292438 . . . . . . 500 g
Difco™ Select APS™ LB Broth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212484 . . . . . . 10 kg
Reference
1. Lennox, E. S. 1955. Transduction of linked genetic characters of the host by bacteriophage P1. Virology 1:190-206.
2. Tartof and Hobbs. 1987. Improved media for growing plasmid and cosmid clones. Bethesda Research Laboratories Focus 9:12.
3. Swartz. 2001. Advances in Escherichia coli production of therapeutic proteins. Curr. Opinion Biotechnology 12:195-201.
60
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
BD Bionutrients™ Media
Chemically Defined Media
Chemically defined media contain known quantities of only chemically defined ingredients
added to purified water for the cultivation of microorganisms, mammalian or insect cells.
Defined media include no complex ingredients such as proteins, hydrolysates, animal-derived
ingredients, or constituents of unknown composition. There are benefits to using chemically
defined media that vary depending on the type of cells cultured and the purpose and scope
of application, which range from laboratory scale metabolic studies to production scale
fermentation or cell culture.
The absence of animal-derived components, desirable from a regulatory standpoint due to
concerns over BSE/TSE, is a major advantage to chemically defined media. Reproducibility is
another advantage to using chemically defined media; all the components of a defined
medium have known chemical structures, which allows for consistent performance of cells in
the medium. Use of a chemically defined media formulation also offers greater simplicity of
both downstream processing and the analysis of products.
Despite the advantages, chemically defined media are rarely used in industrial fermentations
because complex media usually allow higher yields at lower cost.1 Complex ingredients that
are inexpensive by-products of food and agriculture industries will provide a majority of
nutrients needed for bacterial and yeast fermentation. Each microorganism has a specific set
of nutritional requirements that may add a long list of expensive growth factors such as Lamino acids and vitamins to a defined formulation.2 Chemically defined media must be
optimized specifically for each individual organism, and the design time may be quite lengthy
and expensive. Even then, after an extended media development period, the optimized
defined media may produce lower yields than will a complex medium.
Semi-defined media can provide a balance between maximum performance and minimum
downstream processing issues. Semi-defined media are prepared by adding a small amount
(from 0.05 to 0.5%) of a complex ingredient, such as a protein hydrolysate or yeast extract,
to a chemically defined medium. The small amount of complex material in a semi-defined
medium may provide enough nutrients to enhance growth of microorganisms without
interfering with recovery or analysis of products.1,3 Utilizing ultrafiltered peptones or extracts
may reduce difficulties with downstream processing while providing cells with necessary
nutrients. Besides reducing endotoxin levels, ultrafiltration contributes to solubility and ease
of filtration of a protein product.
Chemically defined media are very well suited to research purposes at laboratory scale.
Reproducibility from working with known constituents makes chemically defined media useful
for studying cells’ metabolic pathways and nutritional requirements for growth and product
formation. Chemically defined media can be optimized for yield or performance by individually
controlling the ingredients, especially any possible limiting nutrients, in the formulation.
Chemically defined media are also valuable as basal media for screening various complex
ingredients such as hydrolysates and extracts. Knowledge gained from biochemical studies
and peptone analyses can drive further media improvement and scale-up to production.
BD offers several chemically defined media formulated from components chosen based on
purity and quality standards. M9 Minimal Salts, 5⫻, is a minimal chemically defined dehydrated
culture medium that—with the addition of dextrose—is optimized for Escherichia coli. The
Yeast Nitrogen Base products are minimal chemically defined dehydrated culture media used
for yeast molecular genetics studies. M9 Minimal Salts and the Yeast Nitrogen Base products
are tested to ensure product quality and lot-to-lot consistency using various physical, chemical
and growth support tests.
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
References
1. Dahod. 1999. Raw materials selection and medium
development for industrial fermentation processes. In
Demain, Davies (ed.), Manual of industrial microbiology
and biotechnology, 2nd ed. American Society for
Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
2. Cote. 1999. Media composition, microbial laboratory
scale. In Flickinger and Drew (ed.), Encyclopedia of
bioprocess technology: fermentation, biocatalysis, and
bioseparation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
3. Michels and Rosazza. 1999. Methods for biocatalysis
and biotransformations. In Demain, Davies (ed.),
Manual of industrial microbiology and biotechnology,
2nd ed. American Society for Microbiology,
Washington, D.C.
61
BD Bionutrients™ Media
⫻
Difco™ M9 Minimal Salts, 5⫻
Product Description
Difco™ M9 Minimal Salts, 5⫻ is used in preparing M9 Minimal Medium which is used for
cultivating recombinant strains of Escherichia coli. M9 Minimal Salts, 5⫻ is a minimal chemically
defined dehydrated culture media comprised only of ingredients with known chemical structures.
Sodium phosphate and potassium phosphate are present as buffering agents. Ammonium
chloride is a source of nitrogen for cellular systems. Sodium chloride provides essential ions.
Glucose may be added as a source of carbohydrate. Supplementing the medium with magnesium
and calcium increases the growth of recombinants.
Applications
M9 Minimal Salts, 5⫻ is a 5⫻ concentrate that is diluted to a 1⫻ concentration and supplemented
with an appropriate carbon and energy source, such as dextrose, to provide a minimal,
chemically defined medium that contains only those ingredients essential for the growth of
E. coli. The medium will support the growth of “wild-type” strains of E. coli and various other
bacteria. M9 Minimal Medium may be supplemented with magnesium sulfate, calcium
chloride, and other nutrients for increased growth of microorganisms.
M9 Minimal Medium is useful for maintaining positive selection pressure on plasmids coding for
the ability to produce essential substances such as amino acids or vitamins. M9 Minimal Medium
is also used to maintain stocks of F’-containing bacteria for use with M13. The medium can be
supplemented with specific amino acids or other metabolites, allowing for selection of specific
auxotrophs. Consult appropriate references for recommended test procedures.1-3
M9 Minimal Medium may be used as a chemically defined basal medium for screening
peptones as nitrogen sources for the cultivation of various microorganisms.
Formulae
M9 Minimal Salts, 5⫻
⫻
Approximate Formula* Per Liter
Disodium Phosphate (anhydrous) . . . . . . . . . 33.9 g
Monopotassium Phosphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.0 g
Sodium Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 g
Ammonium Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.0 g
Final pH 6.6 to 7.0 at 25°C
*Adjusted and/or supplemented as required to meet performance criteria.
Physical Characteristics
Difco™ M9 Minimal Salts, 5⫻
⫻ is a white, free-flowing, homogeneous powder.
Availability
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
Difco™ M9 Minimal Salts, 5⫻
⫻ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248510 . . . . . . 500 g
References
1. Davis, Dibner and Battey. 1986. Basic methods in molecular biology. Elsevier, New York, NY.
2. Sambrook, Fritsch and Maniatis. 1989. Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold
Spring Harbor, NY.
3. Treco and Lundblad. 1997. Preparation of yeast media. In Ausubel (ed.), Short protocols in molecular biology, Wiley, New York, NY.
62
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
BD Bionutrients™ Media
Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base
Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids
Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids and
Ammonium Sulfate
Product Description
The yeast nitrogen bases are minimal chemically defined dehydrated culture media.
Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB) contains all essential nutrients and vitamins necessary for the
cultivation of yeasts except a source of carbon. YNB is a defined base composed of salts,
vitamins, amino acids and trace elements with ammonium sulfate as the sole nitrogen source
in this basal medium. Addition of a carbon source is required.
Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids contains all essential vitamins and inorganic salts
necessary for the cultivation of yeasts except the amino acids histidine, methionine, tryptophan
and a source of carbon. As in YNB, ammonium sulfate is the sole source of nitrogen in this basal
medium. Addition of a carbon source is required.
Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids and Ammonium Sulfate has the same formulation
as the YNB w/o Amino Acids except that ammonium sulfate as a source of nitrogen has been
omitted. Addition of a carbon source is required.
Applications
Chemically defined growth media are useful tools for screening yeast strains and selecting for
growth requirements.
Yeast Nitrogen Base is used for classifying yeasts based on carbon assimilation.
Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids, which lacks the amino acids histidine, methionine
and tryptophan, is used for classifying yeasts based on amino acid and carbohydrate
requirements.
Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids and Ammonium Sulfate, which lacks amino acids
and ammonium sulfate, is used for classifying yeasts based on carbon and nitrogen
requirements.
Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids and Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids and
Ammonium Sulfate are prepared according to modifications of Wickerham’s Yeast Nitrogen
Base formulation.1-3 These media are utilized in many applications for the study of yeasts in
molecular genetics. Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids and Ammonium Sulfate is recommended as a base in preparing several synthetic minimal media and synthetic complete and
dropout media for yeast studies.4-6
Physical Characteristics
Yeast Nitrogen Base is off-white, free-flowing, homogeneous.
Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids is off-white, free-flowing, homogeneous.
Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids and Ammonium Sulfate is light yellowish beige,
free-flowing, homogeneous.
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
References
1. Wickerham. 1951. Taxonomy of yeasts. Technical bulletin
No. 1029, U.S. Dept Agriculture, Washingon, D.C.
2. Wickerham. 1946. A critical evaluation of the nitrogen
assimilation tests commonly used in the classification
of yeasts. J. Bacteriol. 52:293.
3. Wickerham and Burton. 1948. Carbon assimilation
tests for the classification of yeasts. J. Bacteriol. 56:363.
4. Treco and Lundblad. 1997. Preparation of yeast media.
In Ausubel (ed.), Short protocols in molecular biology,
Wiley, New York, NY.
5. Sherman. 1991. Getting started with yeast. In Guthrie
and Fink (ed.), Methods in enzymology, vol. 194, guide
to yeast genetics and molecular biology, Academic
Press, Inc., New York, NY.
6. Warren. 2003. Candida, Cryptococcus and other yeasts
of medical importance. In Murray (ed.), Manual of clinical
microbiology, 8th ed., American Society for Microbiology,
Washington, D.C.
63
BD Bionutrients™ Media
Approximate Formula* Per Liter
Nitrogen
Base
Nitrogen Sources
Ammonium Sulfate
5.0 g
Yeast Nitrogen
Base w/o
Amino Acids and
Ammonium Sulfate
Yeast Nitrogen
Base w/o
Amino Acids
5.0 g
--
----
----
Amino Acids
L-Histidine Monohydrochloride
LD-Methionine
LD-Tryptophan
10 mg
20 mg
20 mg
Vitamins
Biotin
Calcium Pantothenate
Folic Acid
Inositol
Niacin
p-Aminobenzoic Acid
Pyridoxine Hydrochloride
Riboflavin
Thiamin Hydrochloride
2
400
2
2000
400
200
400
200
400
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
2
400
2
2000
400
200
400
200
400
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
2
400
2
2000
400
200
400
200
400
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
500
40
100
200
400
200
400
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
500
40
100
200
400
200
400
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
500
40
100
200
400
200
400
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
µg
Compounds Supplying Trace Elements
Boric Acid
Copper Sulfate
Potassium Iodide
Ferric Chloride
Manganese Sulfate
Sodium Molybdate
Zinc Sulfate
Salts
Monopotassium Phosphate
Magnesium Sulfate
Sodium Chloride
Calcium Chloride
Final pH
1.0
0.5
0.1
0.1
g
g
g
g
5.2 to 5.6 at 25°C
1.0
0.5
0.1
0.1
g
g
g
g
5.2 to 5.6 at 25°C
1.0
0.5
0.1
0.1
g
g
g
g
4.3 to 4.7 at 25°C
*Adjusted and/or supplemented as required to meet performance criteria.
Availability
Product Description
Cat. No.
Qty.
Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239210 . . . . 100 g
Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291940 . . . . 100 g
Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291920 . . . . 2 kg
Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291930 . . . . 10 kg
Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids and Ammonium Sulfate. . . . . 233520 . . . . 100 g
Difco™ Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids and Ammonium Sulfate. . . . . 233510 . . . . 10k g
64
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Definition of Methods
Definition of Methods
Analytical tests used in data gathering for this manual are described below.
The Amino Nitrogen (AN) test procedure is based on the AOAC Sorensen method.
The AN/TN ratio gives an estimate of the degree of protein hydrolysis.
Ash values were measured after heating at 650°C overnight. Ash values refer to the noncombustible portion of the sample and roughly correspond to the mineral content of the
sample.
Total Carbohydrate percentage was calculated by colorimetric assay.
Chloride, Sulfate and Phosphate percentages were determined by ion chromatography.
Elemental analysis was determined by ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) using a Thermo
Jarrell Ash instrument or equivalent.
Endotoxin values were determined by a quantitative kinetic chromogenic method.
Free Amino Acids are defined as amino acids that are not part of a protein or peptide chain.
The amino acids were measured using the Waters AccQ • Tag™ Method. The AccQ • Tag
Method is based on the derivatizing reagent 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated
heterocyclic carbamate.
Labsystems BioScreen C is a 200-well incubating kinetic optical density reader. Media were
inoculated with approximately 100 CFU per 200 µL fill in each well. OD readings were averaged
from 4 duplicate wells.
Loss on Drying is a measurement of moisture in the dehydrated sample. The test procedure is
based on the method described in The United States Pharmacopeia with modifications.1
Molecular weight distribution, which is an indication of degree of protein digestion, was
determined by size-exclusion chromatography using an agarose/dextran matrix based column
and a TFA/acetonitrile based mobile phase.
Nucleoside quantitation (hypoxanthine & thymidine) was determined by reverse-phase
HPLC using a silica-based column and a phosphate/methanol gradient.
pH was measured potentiometrically at room temperature in a 1% solution after autoclaving.
Sodium Chloride was determined by silver nitrate/potassium thiocyanate titration method.
Total Amino Acids were measured by the same method as the Free Amino Acids after an
acid hydrolysis at 110°C for 20 hours 45 minutes using a CEM microwave. Asparagine, cystine,
glutamine and tryptophan are destroyed during the hydrolysis. The asparagine, cystine, glutamine
and tryptophan values are not reported for Total Amino Acids. Methionine and serine are
partially destroyed during the hydrolysis.
Total Nitrogen (TN) content is determined by the Kjeldahl Method.
References:
1. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. 2006. The United States pharmacopeia 29/The national formulary 24—2006. United
States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., Rockville, Md.
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
65
Regulatory Documentation
Regulatory Documentation
BD prides itself on the investment it has made in regulatory compliance, based on government
agency guidance and customer feedback. Our strong commitment to quality products,
reliably delivered with the appropriate documentation, has resulted in the provision of the
following services.
Certificates of Analysis
Certificates of Analysis (COA) are available on all production products and include animal
source information when applicable (see Exhibit 1). As a leader in manufacturing and sourcing
meat-based products, BD has invested in a very intensive documentation program.
In order to streamline the communication and transmission of COAs and the
animal origin information they contain, BD provides COAs and other regulatory
documentation on the Internet, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. With specific
catalog number and lot number information, you can access certificates on the
BD web site at www.bdregdocs.com.
Drug Master Files (DMF)
BD maintains Drug Master Files (DMF) on certain key proprietary products used
in the manufacture of bio-therapeutics.
A DMF is a submission to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that contains
confidential information on the manufacturing, process and packaging of a
raw material used in the production of a drug. The information contained in the
DMF may be used to support an Investigational New Drug Application (IND).
The FDA reviews DMF information upon written request by the DMF holder in
support of another regulatory application.
Exhibit 1
For more information on DMF availability and permission to reference, please
contact your local BD representative.
Change Notification Program
BD offers an Automated Change Notification Program to customers who require notification
of agreed-upon manufacturing and process changes. The program provides greater assurances
that these changes are occurring under our ISO-certified Quality Systems.
To request a Change Notification Program packet, please e-mail [email protected]
Certificates of Suitability
BD participates in the European Pharmacopeia program for Certificates of Suitability (COS),
for animal derived products. Under the procedure, based on Resolution of the Public Health
Committee (Partial Agreement, Resolution AP-CSP (99) 4), BD has applied for certificates
concerning: evaluation of the suitability of the control of the chemical purity and microbiological quality of the substance according to the corresponding specific monograph; or the
evaluation of reduction of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) risk.
Although each of our products with a COS contain this cross reference in the body of the
respective COA, if you would like a complete list of products certified or under application,
please contact your local BD representative.
66
BD BIONUTRIENTS
™
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Product Listing
Product Listing
100 g
454 g
500 g
2 kg
Product Name
Acidicase™ Peptone, BBL™
Beef Extract Powder, BBL™
Beef Extract, Desiccated, Bacto™
Biosate™ Peptone, BBL™
Casamino Acids, Bacto™
Casamino Acids, Technical, Bacto™
Casein Digest, Difco™
Casitone, Bacto™
Gelysate™ Peptone, BBL™
Malt Extract, Bacto™
Neopeptone, Bacto™
Peptone, Bacto™
Phytone™ Peptone, BBL™
Polypeptone™ Peptone, BBL™
Proteose Peptone No. 2, Bacto™
Proteose Peptone No. 3, Bacto™
Proteose Peptone No. 3, BiTek™
Proteose Peptone No. 4, Bacto™
Proteose Peptone, Bacto™
Proteose Peptone, BiTek™
Select Phytone™ UF, Difco™
Select Soytone, Difco™
Soytone, Bacto™
TC Lactalbumin Hydrolysate, Bacto™
TC Yeastolate, Bacto™
TC Yeastolate, UF, Difco™
Thiotone™ E Peptone, BBL™
Trypticase™ Peptone, BBL™
Tryptone, Bacto™
Tryptone, BiTek™
Tryptose, Bacto™
Yeast Extract, Bacto™
Yeast Extract, BBL™
Yeast Extract, Technical, Bacto™
Yeast Extract, UF, Difco™
5 lb
(2.3 kg)
10 kg
25 lb
(11.3 kg)
25 kg
50 kg
211843
212303
211520
211862
294312
223050
223120
211610
225930
223020
223030
223110
225910
211870
218630
211681
211677
218610
211680
211830
211820
211906
211910
298147
212120
211693
212220
292450
297108
212110
212230
211692
253720
211715
212010
253310
210936
212489
243610
259961
255771
292805
211684
210931
212488
243620
259962
255772
292804
212302
211921
211922
211705
211699
211713
212750
212720
211929
292731
211923
211701
251420
211709
212730
211930
288620
210929
212710
211931
288610
210934
Powdered Media
Bionutrients Media Product
BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Animal Component Free
BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Quantum Yield
BD Cell™ MAb Medium, Serum Free
M9 Minimal Salts 5⫻, Difco™
Select APS™ LB Broth Base, BBL™
Select APS™ Super Broth, Difco™
Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids and Ammonium Sulfate, Difco™
Yeast Nitrogen Base w/o Amino Acids, Difco™
Yeast Nitrogen Base, Difco™
ADVANCED BIOPROCESSING • THIRD EDITION
100 g
500 g
2 kg
Liquid
10 kg
1000 mL
220513
220511
220509
248510
292438
212485
233520
291940
239210
291920
212484
212486
233510
291930
67
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3-2547 October 2006 Printed in the USA
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