Master | GREEN 200 | SYBR® Green PCR Master Mix and RT-PCR

SYBR® Green PCR Master Mix
and RT-PCR
Protocol
© Copyright 2002, Applied Biosystems All rights reserved.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.
NOTICE TO PURCHASER: LIMITED LICENSE
A license under U.S. Patents 4,683,202, 4,683,195, and 4,965,188 or their foreign counterparts, owned by Roche Molecular Systems,
Inc. and F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd (“Roche”), for use in research and development, has an up-front fee component and a runningroyalty component. The purchase price of the SYBR® Green PCR Master Mix (P/N 4309155) includes limited, non-transferable rights
under the running-royalty component to use only this amount of the product to practice the Polymerase Chain Reaction (“PCR”) and
related processes described in said patents solely for the research and development activities of the purchaser when this product is
used in conjunction with a thermal cycler whose use is covered by the up-front fee component. Rights to the up-front fee component
must be obtained by the end user in order to have a complete license. These rights under the up-front fee component may be purchased
from Applied Biosystems or obtained by purchasing an authorized thermal cycler. No right to perform or offer commercial services
of any kind using PCR, including without limitation reporting the results of purchasers activities for a fee or other commercial
consideration, is hereby granted by implication or estoppel. Further information on purchasing licenses to practice the PCR process
may be obtained by contacting the Director of Licensing at Applied Biosystems, 850 Lincoln Centre Drive, Foster City, California
94404, or at Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., 1145 Atlantic Avenue, Alameda, California 94501.
The SYBR® Green dye is sold pursuant to a limited license from Molecular Probes, Inc. under U.S. Patent Nos. 5,436,134 and
5,658,751 and corresponding foreign patents and patent applications.
ABI PRISM and its design, Applied Biosystems, and MicroAmp are registered trademarks of Applera Corporation or its subsidiaries
in the U.S. and certain other countries.
MultiScribe and Primer Express are trademarks of Applera Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and certain other countries.
AmpErase, AmpliTaq Gold, and TaqMan are registered trademarks of Roche Molecular Systems, Inc.
SYBR Green is a registered trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.
All other trademarks are the sole property of their respective owners.
Applera Corporation is committed to providing the world’s leading technology and information for life scientists. Applera
Corporation consists of the Applied Biosystems and Celera Genomics businesses.
Printed in the USA. 04/2002
Part Number 4310251 Rev. C
Contents
1 Introduction
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
About This Chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Purpose of the Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
About the Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
About This Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Materials and Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Description of Master Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Materials Required but Not Supplied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Storage and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Documentation User Attention Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Chemical Hazard Warning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Chemical Waste Hazard Warning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Site Preparation and Safety Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
About MSDSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Ordering MSDSs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Preventing Contamination and Nonspecific Amplification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Hot Start PCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
AmpliTaq Gold DNA Polymerase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
False Positives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Optional Use of AmpErase UNG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Fluorescent Contaminants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
Prevention of PCR Product Carryover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
General PCR Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
iii
Amplicon Independent Amplification (Including Primer-Dimer) . . . . . . . 1-13
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Dissociation Curve Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Using Dissociation Curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Using Agarose Gels to Check PCR Product Purity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
2 PCR
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
About This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
In This Chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Designing Custom Target Sequences for Quantitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Identifying Target Sequence and Amplicon Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Designing Primers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Selecting an Amplicon Site for Genomic DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Amplifying Custom Target Sequences for Quantitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Ordering Reagents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Quantitating Primers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
3 Reverse Transcription
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
About This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
In This Chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Reverse Transcription for All Amplicons Except 18S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Two-Step RT-PCR RT Reaction Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Performing RT Reactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Reverse Transcription for the 18S Amplicon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Recommended Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Template Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
iv
Template Quantity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Preparing the Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Thermal Cycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
4 Optimizing Primer Concentrations
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
About This Chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Optimizing Primer Concentrations for PCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Optimizing Primer Concentrations for PCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
PCR Master Mix for Primer Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Thermal Cycling Parameters for Primer Optimization. . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Confirm the Absence of Nonspecific Amplification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Optimizing Primer Concentrations for One-Step RT-PCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Reducing Nonspecific Amplification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Optimizing Primer Concentrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
One-Step RT-PCR Master Mix for Primer Optimization . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Confirm the Absence of Nonspecific Amplification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Optimizing Primer Concentrations for Two-Step RT-PCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Optimizing Primer Concentrations for Two-Step RT-PCR. . . . . . . . . 4-9
Two-Step RT-PCR Master Mix for Primer Optimization . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Confirm the Absence of Nonspecific Amplification . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
5 Data Analysis
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
About This Chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Absolute and Relative Quantitation of Target DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
v
Absolute Quantitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Quantitation of cDNA Relative to a Calibrator Sample. . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Interpreting the Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
The Passive Reference ROX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
A References
B Technical Support
Services & Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Applied Biosystems Web Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
vi
Introduction
1
Overview
1
About This This chapter describes the SYBR® Green PCR Master Mix and
Chapter provides important safety information.
In This Chapter The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
Topic
See Page
Purpose of the Kit
1-2
Materials and Equipment
1-3
Safety
1-6
Preventing Contamination and Nonspecific Amplification
1-9
Amplicon Independent Amplification (Including Primer-Dimer)
1-13
Introduction 1-1
Purpose of the Kit
About the Kit The SYBR Green PCR Master Mix is a convenient premix of all the
components, except primers, template and water necessary to perform
real-time PCR using SYBR® Green I Dye. Direct detection of
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product is monitored by measuring
the increase in fluorescence caused by the binding of SYBR Green dye
to double-stranded (ds) DNA.
One-Step or Two-Step RT-PCR can be performed using the SYBR®
Green RT-PCR Reagents Kit (refer to “Materials and Equipment” on
page 1-3).
In RNA quantitation assays, the SYBR Green PCR Master Mix is used
in the second step of a two-step reverse-transcription polymerase chain
reaction (RT-PCR) protocol. In a One-Step RT-PCR protocol,
MultiScribe™ Reverse Transcriptase and RNase Inhibitor are added to
the SYBR Green PCR Master Mix.
The SYBR Green PCR Master Mix is designed for use with the
ABI PRISM® 7700 Sequence Detection System (SDS), the ABI PRISM®
7900HT SDS, the ABI PRISM® 7000 SDS, or the GeneAmp® 5700 SDS.
For the best quantitation results, use the following:
Primer Express™ software for primer design
Applied Biosystems reagents
Applied Biosystems universal thermal cycling conditions
About This This protocol describes how to perform PCR and One-Step or Two-Step
Protocol RT-PCR using SYBR Green PCR Master Mix.
1-2 Introduction
Materials and Equipment
Description of The SYBR Green PCR Master Mix is supplied in a 2X concentration
Master Mix and contains sufficient reagents to perform 200 50-µL reactions. The
mix is optimized for SYBR Green reactions and contains SYBR Green I
Dye, AmpliTaq Gold® DNA Polymerase, dNTPs with dUTP, Passive
Reference, and optimized buffer components.
! WARNING CHEMICAL HAZARD. SYBR Green may cause eye, skin, and
respiratory tract irritation. It is readily absorbed through the skin and is a
combustable liquid and vapor (keep away from heat and flame). This product
contains material which may cause liver and blood damage. Please read the
MSDS, and follow the handling instructions. Wear appropriate protective
eyewear, clothing, and gloves.
For SYBR Green PCR and One-Step or Two-Step RT-PCR, the
following components are available:
Kit
P/N
Contents
SYBR
Green PCR
Master Mix
4309155
SYBR Green PCR Master Mix (200-50 µL
SYBR
Green
RT-PCR
Reagents
Kit
4310179
Protocol
4310251
reactions)
SYBR Green PCR Master Mix (200-50 µL
reactions)
TaqMan Reverse Transcription Reagents
(200-10 µL reactions)
—
Materials The items listed in the following tables are required in addition to the
Required but Not reagents supplied in the SYBR Green PCR Master Mix.
Supplied User-Supplied Materials
Item
Source
7900HT Sequence Detection
System
See your local Applied Biosystems
representative for the instrument
best suited to meet your needs.
7000 Sequence Detection System
ABI PRISM® 7900 Sequence
Detection Systems 96-well Spectral
Calibration Kit
Applied Biosystems
(P/N 4328639)
Introduction 1-3
User-Supplied Materials
(continued)
Item
Source
ABI PRISM® 7000 Sequence
Detection Systems Spectral
Calibration Kit
Applied Biosystems
(P/N 4328895)
ABI PRISM™ Cap Installing Tool
Applied Biosystems
(P/N 4330015)
ABI PRISM™ 384-Well Clear Optical
Reaction Plate with Barcode
Applied Biosystems
(P/N 4309849)
ABI PRISM™ Optical Adhesive
Cover Starter Pack containing 20
optical adhesive covers, one
applicator, and one compression
pad.
Applied Biosystems
(P/N 4313663)
MicroAmp® Optical Caps
Applied Biosystems
(P/N 4323032)
MicroAmp® Optical Tubes
Applied Biosystems
(P/N N801-0933)
MicroAmp® Optical 96-well Reaction
Plate
Applied Biosystems
(P/N N801-0560)
Note
The MicroAmp Optical 96-well Reaction Plate may be sealed with:
MicroAmp Optical Caps
or
ABI PRISM™ Optical Adhesive Cover
1-4 Introduction
MicroAmp® Optical 96-well Reaction
Plate and Optical Caps
Applied Biosystems
(P/N 403012)
MicroAmp® 96-well Tray/Retainer
Set (10 sets)
Applied Biosystems
(P/N 403081)
Primer Express™ software
(single-use license)
Applied Biosystems
Sequence Detection Systems
Spectral Calibration Kit (for 7700
instrument only)
Applied Biosystems
(P/N 4305822)
Sequence Detection Systems
384-Well Spectral Calibration Kit
Applied Biosystems
(P/N 4323977)
Centrifuge with adapter for 96-well
plate
Major laboratory supplier (MLS)
Disposable gloves
MLS
Microcentrifuge
MLS
User-Supplied Materials
(continued)
Item
Source
NuSieve 4% (3:1) agarose gels,
for DNA <1 kb
FMC BioProducts
(P/N 54928)
Pipette tips, with filter plugs
MLS
Pipettors, positive-displacement or
air-displacement
MLS
Polypropylene tubes
MLS
Tris-EDTA (TE) Buffer, pH 8.0
MLS
Vortexer
MLS
Storage and Upon receipt, store the SYBR Green PCR Master Mix at 2 to 8 °C and
Stability TaqMan Reverse Transcription Reagents at –20 °C. If stored under the
recommended conditions, the product will maintain performance
through the control date printed on the label.
Introduction 1-5
Safety
Documentation Five user attention words appear in the text of all Applied Biosystems
User Attention user documentation. Each word implies a particular level of observation
Words or action as described below.
Note
Calls attention to useful information.
IMPORTANT Indicates information that is necessary for proper instrument
operation.
! CAUTION Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided,
may result in minor or moderate injury. It may also be used to alert against
unsafe practices.
! WARNING Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not
avoided, could result in death or serious injury.
! DANGER Indicates an imminently hazardous situation which, if not
avoided, will result in death or serious injury. This signal word is to be limited to
the most extreme situations.
Chemical Hazard ! WARNING CHEMICAL HAZARD. Some of the chemicals used with
Warning Applied Biosystems instruments and protocols are potentially hazardous and
can cause injury, illness, or death.
1-6 Introduction
Read and understand the material safety data sheets (MSDSs)
provided by the chemical manufacturer before you store, handle, or
work with any chemicals or hazardous materials.
Minimize contact with chemicals. Wear appropriate personal
protective equipment when handling chemicals (e.g., safety
glasses, gloves, or protective clothing). For additional safety
guidelines, consult the MSDS.
Minimize the inhalation of chemicals. Do not leave chemical
containers open. Use only with adequate ventilation (e.g., fume
hood). For additional safety guidelines, consult the MSDS.
Check regularly for chemical leaks or spills. If a leak or spill occurs,
follow the manufacturer’s cleanup procedures as recommended on
the MSDS.
Comply with all local, state/provincial, or national laws and
regulations related to chemical storage, handling, and disposal.
Chemical Waste ! WARNING CHEMICAL WASTE HAZARD. Wastes produced by
Hazard Warning Applied Biosystems instruments are potentially hazardous and can cause
injury, illness, or death.
Read and understand the material safety data sheets (MSDSs)
provided by the manufacturers of the chemicals in the waste
container before you store, handle, or dispose of chemical waste.
Handle chemical wastes in a fume hood.
Minimize the inhalation of chemicals. Do not leave chemical
containers open. Use only with adequate ventilation (e.g., fume
hood). For additional safety guidelines, consult the MSDS.
After emptying the waste container, seal it with the cap provided.
Minimize contact with chemicals. Wear appropriate personal
protective equipment when handling chemicals (e.g., safety
glasses, gloves, or protective clothing). For additional safety
guidelines, consult the MSDS.
Dispose of the contents of the waste tray and waste bottle in
accordance with good laboratory practices and local,
state/provincial, or national environmental and health regulations.
Site Preparation A site preparation and safety guide is a separate document sent to all
and Safety Guide customers who have purchased an Applied Biosystems instrument.
Refer to the guide written for your instrument for information on site
preparation, instrument safety, chemical safety, and waste profiles.
About MSDSs Some of the chemicals used with this instrument may be listed as
hazardous by their manufacturer. When hazards exist, warnings are
prominently displayed on the labels of all chemicals.
Chemical manufacturers supply a current material safety data sheet
(MSDS) before or with shipments of hazardous chemicals to new
customers and with the first shipment of a hazardous chemical after an
MSDS update. MSDSs provide you with the safety information you
need to store, handle, transport and dispose of the chemicals safely.
We strongly recommend that you replace the appropriate MSDS in your
files each time you receive a new MSDS packaged with a hazardous
chemical.
! WARNING CHEMICAL HAZARD. Be sure to familiarize yourself with the
MSDSs before using reagents or solvents.
Introduction 1-7
Ordering MSDSs You can order free additional copies of MSDSs for chemicals
manufactured or distributed by Applied Biosystems using the contact
information below
To order documents by automated telephone service:
Step
Action
1
From the U.S. or Canada, dial 1.800.487.6809.
2
Follow the voice instructions to order documents (for delivery by
fax).
Note
There is a limit of five documents per fax request.
To order documents by telephone:
In the U.S.
Dial 1.800.345.5224, and press 1.
In Canada
Dial 1.800.668.6913, and press 1 for English or 2 for
French.
To view, download, or order documents through the Applied Biosystems
Web site:
Step
Action
1
Go to http://www.appliedbiosystems.com
2
Click SERVICES & SUPPORT at the top of the page, click
Documents on Demand, then click MSDS.
3
Click MSDS Index, search through the list for the chemical of
interest to you, then click on the MSDS document number for that
chemical to open a PDF version of the MSDS.
For chemicals not manufactured or distributed by Applied Biosystems,
call the chemical manufacturer.
1-8 Introduction
Preventing Contamination and Nonspecific Amplification
Overview The DNA amplification capability of the PCR process makes special
laboratory practices necessary. Potential contamination can be
introduced by samples with high DNA concentrations, from the DNA
Template Controls, or from PCR carryover contamination. In addition,
due to the nonspecific nature of SYBR Green I Detection, any double
stranded DNA will be detected. Therefore, it is recommended to check
for nonspecific product formation by dissociation curve or gel analysis.
For more information on the polymerase chain reaction, refer to Kwok
and Higuchi, 1989. For more information on the prevention of
unintended products, refer to Mullis and Faloona, 1987.
Hot Start PCR To improve PCR specificity and sensitivity by controlling mispriming
events, the Hot Start technique was introduced (Faloona et al., 1990).
Hot Start PCR is a simple modification of the original PCR process in
which the amplification reaction is started at an elevated temperature.
This was initially performed manually, by adding an essential
component of the reaction to the reaction mixture only after that mixture
had been heated to an elevated temperature. However, this approach
was often cumbersome and time consuming, especially when using
large numbers of samples.
AmpliTaq Gold Applied Biosystems introduced AmpliTaq Gold® DNA Polymerase to
DNA Polymerase perform an automated, convenient, and efficient Hot Start. AmpliTaq
Gold DNA Polymerase is a chemically modified form of AmpliTaq® DNA
Polymerase. The modification renders the enzyme inactive.
Upon thermal activation, the modifier is released, resulting in active
enzyme. The high-temperature incubation step required for activation
ensures that active enzyme is generated only at temperatures where
the DNA is fully denatured.
When AmpliTaq Gold DNA Polymerase is added to the reaction mixture
at room temperature, the inactive enzyme is not capable of primer
extension. Any low-stringency mispriming events that may have
occurred will not be enzymatically extended and subsequently
amplified.
Introduction 1-9
False Positives Special laboratory practices are necessary in order to avoid false
positive amplifications (Higuchi, et al., 1989). This is because of the
capability for single DNA molecule amplification provided by the PCR
process (Saiki et al., 1985; Mullis et al., 1987; Saiki et al., 1988).
Because of the enormous amplification possible with PCR, amplicon
carryover can result in sample contamination. Other sources of
contamination could be from samples with high DNA levels or from
positive control templates.
When dUTP replaces dTTP as a dNTP substrate in PCR and the
method described below is used, AmpErase UNG treatment can
prevent the reamplification of carryover PCR products in subsequent
experiments Sninsky and Gelfand, pers. comm.) This method uses
enzymatic and chemical reactions analogous to the
restriction-modification and excision-repair systems of cells to degrade
specifically PCR products from previous PCR amplifications or to
degrade mis-primed, non-specific products produced prior to specific
amplifications, but not degrade native nucleic acid templates.
The method used to make PCR products susceptible to degradation
involves substituting dUTP for dTTP in the PCR mix and treating
subsequent PCR mixes with the enzyme uracil N-glycosylase (UNG,
EC 3.2.2-) prior to amplification (Longo et al., 1990).
The AmpErase UNG provided in this product is a pure, nuclease-free,
26-kDa enzyme encoded by the Escherichia coli uracil N-glycosylase
gene which has been inserted into an E. coli host to direct the
expression of the native form of the enzyme (Higuchi et al., 1989).
Although the protocol and reagents described here are capable of
degrading or eliminating large numbers of carried over PCR products,
we encourage users to continue using the specific devices and
suggestions described in this protocol booklet and in Kwok (1990) and
Higuchi(1989) to minimize cross-contamination from non-dU-containing
PCR products or other samples.
Optional Use of AmpErase® uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG) treatment can be useful in
AmpErase UNG preventing the reamplification of carryover PCR products. Although the
SYBR Green PCR Master Mix does not contain UNG, dTTP has been
replaced with dUTP, thus making the SYBR Green Master Mix
compatible with the use of UNG. If PCR carryover contamination is
suspected, UNG should be used to troubleshoot the problem. UNG can
1-10 Introduction
be purchased individually (P/N N808-0096) or as part of the SYBR®
Green Core Reagents Kit (P/N 4304886).
Fluorescent Since fluorescent contaminants can interfere with SYBR Green I
Contaminants assays and give false-positive results, it may be necessary to include a
No Amplification Control tube that contains sample, but no enzyme. If
the absolute fluorescence of the No Amplification Control is greater
than that of the No Template Control after PCR, fluorescent
contaminants may be present in the sample or in the heat block of the
thermal cycler.
Prevention of PCR Use primers that contain dA nucleotides near the 3´ ends so that any
Product Carryover primer-dimer generated is efficiently degraded by AmpErase UNG at
least as well as any dU-containing PCR products. The further a dA
nucleotide is from the 3´ end, the more likely that partially degraded
primer-dimer molecules may serve as templates for a subsequent PCR
amplification.
Production of primer dimer could lower the amplification yield of the
desired target region. If primers cannot be selected with dA nucleotides
near the ends, the use of primers with 3´ terminal dU-nucleotides
should be considered. Single-stranded DNA with terminal dU
nucleotides are not substrates for AmpErase UNG (Delort et al., 1985)
and thus the primers will not be degraded. Biotin-dUMP derivatives are
not substrates for AmpErase UNG.
The concentration of AmpErase UNG and the time of the incubation
step necessary to prevent amplification of contaminating dU-containing
PCR product depends on the PCR conditions necessary to amplify your
particular DNA sequence and the level of contamination expected. In
most cases, using AmpErase UNG at 1 U/l00 µL reaction and
incubation at 50 °C for two minutes is sufficient.
Do not attempt to use AmpErase UNG in subsequent amplification of
dU-containing PCR template, such as in nested-PCR protocols. The
UNG will degrade the dU-containing PCR product, preventing further
amplification.
General PCR When preparing samples for PCR amplification:
Practices Wear a clean lab coat (not previously worn while handling amplified
PCR products or used during sample preparation) and clean
gloves.
Introduction 1-11
1-12 Introduction
Change gloves whenever you suspect that they are contaminated.
Maintain separate areas and dedicated equipment and supplies for:
–
Sample preparation
–
PCR setup
–
PCR amplification
–
Analysis of PCR products
Never bring amplified PCR products into the PCR setup area.
Keep reactions and components capped as much as possible.
Open and close all sample tubes carefully. Try not to splash or
spray PCR samples.
Use a positive-displacement pipette or aerosol-resistant pipette tips
Clean lab benches and equipment periodically with 10% bleach
solution.
Amplicon Independent Amplification (Including Primer-Dimer)
Introduction This section discusses the use of dissociation curves to detect
nonspecific amplification.
Dissociation Curve A dissociation curve is a graph that displays dissociation data from the
Defined amplicons of quantitative PCR runs. Change in fluorescence is plotted
against temperature. The change in fluorescence is due to a dye or
probe interacting with double-stranded DNA.
Using Dissociation General Information
Curves The GeneAmp® 5700 Sequence Detection System (SDS), the
ABI PRISM® 7900HT SDS, ABI PRISM® 7700 SDS, and the ABI PRISM®
7000 SDS enable dissociation curves to be run to detect nonspecific
amplification through computer software. Nonspecific amplification,
including primer-dimers, may affect the quality of amplification data.
Dissociation
curve of
specific primer
Dissociation
curve of a
primer dimer
Temperature (°C)
The dissociation curves above show typical primer-dimer formation.
The specific product is shown with a melting temperature (Tm ) of
80.5 °C, while the primer-dimer has a characteristically lower Tm of
75 °C.
Primer-dimer will be most prevalent in No Template Control (NTC) wells
and sample wells containing low concentrations of template.
Introduction 1-13
When to Generate Dissociation Curves
The GeneAmp® 5700 SDS, ABI PRISM ® 7900HT SDS, ABI PRISM ®
7700 SDS, and ABI PRISM ® 7000 SDS can be set up to generate a
dissociation curve in either of these instances:
Immediately after the real-time PCR run
Independently of the real-time PCR run
Note In the presence of AmpErase UNG and dUTP, product degradation may
occur from a previously run PCR plate due to residual AmpErase UNG activity.
Note Refer to the appropriate SDS User’s Manual for further information on
generating a dissociation curve.
Note The 7700 instrument uses a separate Dissociation Curve Analysis
software that employs the multicomponent data exported from the SDS
software v 1.7a or later to display the dissociation curves for each sample.
Using Agarose The absence of nonspecific amplification can be confirmed by
Gels to Check PCR analyzing the PCR amplification products by agarose gel
Product Purity electrophoresis.
To check PCR product purity with agarose gels:
Step
1
Action
Load 12 to 15 µL of sample per well on an ethidium
bromide-stained 4% NuSieve 3:1 agarose gel.
! WARNING CHEMICAL HAZARD. Ethidium bromide causes
eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritation and is a known mutagen
(i.e., it can change genetic material in a living cell and has the
potential to cause cancer). Always use adequate ventilation such
as that provided by a fume hood. Please read the MSDS, and
follow the handling instructions. Wear appropriate protective
eyewear, clothing, and gloves.
2
Run the gel:
For PCR fragments <100 bp, run the gel at 80 to 100 V for 45 to
60 min.
For PCR fragments 100 to 250 bp, run the gel at 100 to 115 V for
1 to 1.5 h.
3
Run samples 1/3 to 1/2 the length of the gel, without letting the dye
run off the bottom of the gel.
Use a UV lamp to check the migration of the samples.
1-14 Introduction
PCR
2
Overview
2
About This This chapter describes how to design and amplify custom target
Chapter sequences for quantitation.
In This Chapter The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
Topic
See Page
Designing Custom Target Sequences for Quantitation
2-2
Amplifying Custom Target Sequences for Quantitation
2-4
PCR 2-1
Designing Custom Target Sequences for Quantitation
Overview We recommend the following steps to design custom primers and
identify target sequences for amplification and quantitation:
Step
Action
1
Install Primer Express Software
2
Identify Target Sequence and Amplicon Size
3
Design Primers
Identifying Target A target template is DNA, cDNA, total RNA, or a plasmid containing the
Sequence and nucleotide sequence of interest.
Amplicon Size Design primers to amplify short segments of a target (RNA, DNA, or
cDNA) within the target sequence. These short segments of DNA and
cDNA are called amplicons. Shorter amplicons work most efficiently:
the most consistent results are obtained for amplicon sizes in the 50 to
150 bp range.
Designing Primers Design primers using Primer Express software as described in the
Primer Express User Bulletin ( P/N 4317594).
General Guidelines
Follow these general guidelines:
2-2 PCR
Primers can be designed as close as possible to each other
provided that they do not overlap.
Keep the GC content in the 20 to 80% range.
When using Primer Express software, the Tm should be 58 to
60 °C.
The five nucleotides at the 3´ end should have no more than two G
and/or C bases.
Avoid runs of an identical nucleotide. This is especially true for
guanine, where runs of four or more Gs should be avoided.
.
If the template is...
Then...
DNA
Design the primers as described above.
cDNA
RNA
plasmid DNA
Genomic DNA
Design the primers as described above. Also see
“Selecting an Amplicon Site for Genomic DNA” below.
Selecting an Overview
Amplicon Site for Selecting a good amplicon site ensures amplification of the target
Genomic DNA mRNA without co-amplifying the genomic sequence, pseudogenes, and
related genes. SYBR Green chemistry can be useful for screening
amplicon sites when using TaqMan chemistry for gene expression.
Guidelines
The amplicon should span one or more introns to avoid
amplification of the target gene in genomic DNA.
The primer pair has to be specific to the target gene and does not
amplify pseudogenes or other related genes.
Primers must be designed following Primer Express guidelines.
If no good sequence is found, it may be necessary to examine the
sequence and redesign the amplicon or simply screen for more
sites.
Test the amplicons and select ones that have the highest
signal-to-noise ratio (i.e., low CT with cDNA and no amplification
with no template control or genomic DNA).
If the gene you are studying does not have introns, then you cannot
design an amplicon that will amplify the mRNA sequence without
amplifying the genomic sequence. In this case, it may be necessary to
run RT minus controls.
PCR 2-3
Amplifying Custom Target Sequences for Quantitation
Overview We recommend the following steps for the development of real-time
quantitative PCR assays:
Step
Action
See Page
1
Order Reagents
2-4
2
Quantitate Primers
2-4
3
Optimize Primer Concentrations for:
PCR
One-Step RT-PCR
Two-Step RT-PCR
4-2
4-5
4-9
Ordering Reagents See “Materials Required but Not Supplied” on page 1-3 for a list of
required reagents and equipment.
Quantitating Use a spectrophotometric method to determine the concentrations of
Primers the primers received:
Measure the absorbance at 260 nm of a 1:100 dilution of each
oligonucleotide in TE buffer.
Calculate the oligonucleotide concentration (C) in µM using the
method shown in the table on the next page.
Chromophore
A
Number
Extinction
Coefficient
Contribution
15,200
1
15,200
Extinction
Coefficient
C
7050
6
42,300
G
12,010
5
60,050
T
8400
6
50,400
—
—
167,950
Total
Absorbance (260 nm)
0.13
C
2-4 PCR
= sum of extinction coefficient contributions × cuvette
pathlength × oligonucleotide concentration/100
= 167,950 M-1cm-1 × 0.3 cm × C/100
= 258 µM
Reverse
Transcription
3
Overview
3
About This This chapter provides procedures for performing reverse transcription
Chapter (RT).
In This Chapter The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
Topic
See Page
Reverse Transcription for All Amplicons Except 18S
3-2
Reverse Transcription for the 18S Amplicon
3-5
Reverse Transcription 3-1
Reverse Transcription for All Amplicons Except 18S
Overview Synthesis of cDNA from total RNA samples is the first step in the
two-step RT-PCR gene expression quantification experiment. In this
step, random hexamers, oligo d(T)16, or sequence specific reverse
primers from the TaqMan Reverse Transcription Reagents
(P/N N808-0234) prime total RNA samples for RT using Multiscribe
Reverse Transcriptase.
Guidelines Follow the guidelines below to ensure optimal RT performance.
A 100-µL RT reaction efficiently converts a maximum of 2 µg total
RNA to cDNA. Perform multiple RT reactions in multiple wells if you
are using more than 2 µg of total RNA.
Use random hexamers, oligo d(T)16, or sequence specific reverse
primers to reverse transcribe the total RNA samples for gene
expression assays.
The choice of primers for RT is best made after experimentally
evaluating all three priming systems. For short RNA sequences
containing no hairpin loops, any of the three priming systems work
equally well. For longer RNA transcripts or sequences containing
hairpin loops, consider the following guidelines:
Primers
Random hexamers
Selection Guidelines
Try first for use with long reverse transcripts or
reverse transcripts containing hairpin loops
Use to transcribe all RNA (rRNA, mRNA, and
tRNA)
Sequence-specific
reverse primer
Use to reverse transcribe RNA-containing comple-
Oligo d(T)16
Use to reverse transcribe only eukaryotic mRNAs
mentary sequences only
and retroviruses with poly-A tails
Avoid long mRNA transcripts or amplicons greater
than two kilobases upstream
3-2 Reverse Transcription
Two-Step RT-PCR RT Reaction Mix
RT Reaction Mix
Volume/Tube
(µL)
Component
Final Concentration
belowa
—
10X TaqMan RT Buffer
1.0
1X
25 mM MgCl2
2.2
5.5 mM
deoxyNTPs Mixture (2.5 mM)
2.0
500 µM
per dNTP
Random Hexamersb (50 µM)
0.5
2.5 µM
RNase Inhibitor (20 U/L)
0.2
0.4 U/µL
MultiScribe™ Reverse
0.25
1.25 U/µL
6.15c
—
RNase-free water
See
Transcriptase (50 U/µL)
Total
a. The volume of RNase-free water (µL) will be 3.85–RNA sample volume in a 10-µL
reaction.
b. Random hexamers, oligo d(T)16, or sequence-specific reverse primers can be used for
primers of cDNA synthesis.
c. If changing the reaction volume, make sure the final proportions are consistent with the
recommended values above.
Note RT volume can vary from 10 µL to 100 µL. Increasing the RT volume
will reduce the total number of reactions.
Thermal Cycling Parameters for RT Reactions
Incubationa
RT
Reverse
Transcriptase
Inactivation
HOLD
HOLD
HOLD
Time
10 min
30 min
5 min
Temperature
25 °C
48 °C
95 °C
Step
a. If using random hexamers or oligo d(T)16 primers for first-strand cDNA synthesis, a
primer incubation step (25 °C for 10 min) is necessary to maximize primer–RNA
template binding.
Reverse Transcription 3-3
Performing RT The procedure for generating cDNA using the TaqMan Reverse
Reactions Transcription Reagents is described below.
! CAUTION CHEMICAL HAZARD. TaqMan Reverse Transcription
Reagents may cause eye and skin irritation. They may cause discomfort if
swallowed or inhaled. Always use adequate ventilation such as that provided by
a fume hood. Please read the MSDS, and follow the handling instructions. Wear
appropriate protective eyewear, clothing, and gloves.
To perform RT reactions:
Step
Action
1
Prepare the RT Reaction Mix by combining all the nonenzymatic
components.
2
Vortex briefly.
3
Add the enzymatic components (e.g., MultiScribe Reverse
Transcriptase, RNase Inhibitor) and the RNA.
4
Mix the components by inverting the microcentrifuge tube.
5
Transfer the contents to a MicroAmp® Optical Tube or multiple
wells of a MicroAmp® Optical 96-Well Reaction Plate.
6
Cap the plate/tubes with MicroAmp® Optical Caps.
Note Alternatively, you may seal the plate with a MicroAmp
Optical Adhesive Cover. However, do not use the cover with
MicroAmp Optical Tubes.
3-4 Reverse Transcription
7
Centrifuge the plate/tubes briefly to remove air bubbles and collect
the liquid at the bottom of the tube.
8
Transfer the plates to the thermal cycler block.
9
Perform RT.
10
Remove the 96-well reaction plate after thermal cycling is complete.
Reverse Transcription for the 18S Amplicon
Overview Synthesis of cDNA from total RNA samples is the first step in the
two-step RT-PCR gene expression quantification experiment. In this
step, random hexamers from the TaqMan Reverse Transcription
Reagents prime total RNA samples for reverse transcription using
MultiScribe Reverse Transcriptase.
Recommended Use total RNA samples to generate cDNA for the 18S amplicon.
Template
The following table lists the known template incompatibilities:
Template
Explanation
Poly A+
The 18S rRNA endogenous control assay cannot accurately
evaluate cDNA generated from poly A+ RNA samples
because most of the rRNA has been removed from them.
Non-human
Except for 18S rRNA, all assays are human-specific.
Template Quality The quality of your results is directly related to the purity of your RNA
template. Therefore, use only well-purified samples for 18S. Because
ribonuclease and genomic DNA contamination are common problems
in gene expression studies, purify your samples accordingly to ensure
the best results.
Template Quantity If possible, use spectrophotometric analysis to determine the
concentrations of purified total RNA samples before reverse
transcription. The table below lists the recommended range of initial
template quantities for the RT step.
Initial Template
Human Total RNA
Quantity of Total RNA
(per 100-µL RT reaction)
60 ng to 2 µg
Reverse Transcription 3-5
Guidelines Follow the guidelines below to ensure optimal RT performance.
Poly A+ RNA samples are not recommended for 18S experiments
because most rRNA has been removed from them.
A 100-µL RT reaction will efficiently convert a maximum of 2 µg
total RNA to cDNA. Perform multiple RT reactions in multiple wells
if using more than 2 µg total RNA.
Use only random hexamers to reverse transcribe the total RNA
samples for gene expression assays.
Preparing the The following procedure describes the preparation of four different test
Reactions samples for RT. Scale the recommended volumes accordingly for the
number of samples needed using the TaqMan Reverse Transcription
Reagents (N808-0234).
Note The kit contains sufficient quantities to perform 200 RT reactions with a
reaction size of 10 µL.
3-6 Reverse Transcription
! CAUTION CHEMICAL HAZARD. TaqMan Reverse Transcription
Reagents may cause eye and skin irritation. They may cause discomfort if
swallowed or inhaled. Always use adequate ventilation such as that provided by
a fume hood. Please read the MSDS, and follow the handling instructions. Wear
appropriate protective eyewear, clothing, and gloves.
To prepare the RT reactions for 18S amplicon:
Step
1
Action
In a 0.2-mL microcentrifuge tube, prepare a reaction mix for all total
RNA samples to be reverse transcribed. If preparing four samples,
follow the recommended volumes shown below.
Volume (µL)
Component
RNase-free water
Per
Sample
Reaction
Mix (x4)
Final
Conc.
See
belowa
See
belowa
—
10X RT Buffer
1.0
4.0
1X
25 mM MgCl2
2.2
8.8
5.5 mM
deoxyNTPs Mixture
(2.5 mM)
2.0
8.0
500 µM
per dNTP
Random Hexamers
(50 µM)
0.5
2.0
2.5 µM
RNase Inhibitor
(20 U/µL)
0.2
0.8
0.4 U/µL
MultiScribe Reverse
Transcriptase
(50 U/µL)
0.625
2.5
3.125 U/µL
Totalb
6.525
26.1
—
a. The volume of RNase-free water (µL) will be 3.475–RNA sample volume
in a 10-µL reaction.
b. If changing the reaction volume, make sure the final proportions are
consistent with the recommended values above.
2
Label four 0.2-mL microcentrifuge tubes for the four test samples.
3
Transfer 60 ng to 2 µg (up to 3.475 µL) of each total RNA sample to
the corresponding microcentrifuge tube.
4
If necessary, dilute each total RNA sample to a volume of 3.475 µL
with RNase-free, deionized water.
5
Cap the tubes and gently tap each to mix the diluted samples.
Reverse Transcription 3-7
To prepare the RT reactions for 18S amplicon:
Step
(continued)
Action
6
Centrifuge the tubes briefly to eliminate air bubbles in the mixture.
7
Label four 0.2-mL MicroAmp Reaction Tubes for the four total RNA
test samples.
8
Pipet 6.525 µL of the reaction mix (from step 1) to each MicroAmp
Reaction Tube (from step 7).
• 10X RT buffer
• MgCl2
• dNTPs mixture
• Random hexamers
• MultiScribe reverse
transcriptase
• RNase inhibitor
6.525 µL
6.525 µL
6.525 µL
6.525 µL
Sample 1
Sample 2
Sample 3
Sample 4
9
Transfer 3.475 µL of each dilute total RNA sample to the
corresponding MicroAmp Optical Reaction Tube (see step 4).
10
Cap the reaction tubes and tap each gently to mix the reactions.
11
Centrifuge the tubes briefly to force the solution to the bottom and
to eliminate air bubbles from the mixture.
12
Transfer each reaction to either
MicroAmp Optical tubes, or,
Wells of a MicroAmp Optical 96-well reaction plate.
3-8 Reverse Transcription
13
Cap the MicroAmp Optical tubes or plate with MicroAmp Optical
caps.
14
Centrifuge the plate or tubes to spin down the contents and
eliminate air bubbles from the solutions.
Thermal Cycling To conduct RT thermal cycling:
Step
Action
1
Load the reactions into a thermal cycler.
2
Program your thermal cycler with the following conditions:
Hexamer
Incubationa
RT
Reverse
Transcriptase
Inactivation
HOLD
HOLD
HOLD
Temp
25 °C
37 °C
95 °C
Time
10 min
60 min
5 min
Step
Volume
10 µL
a. When using random hexamers for first-strand cDNA synthesis, a primer
incubation step (25 °C for 10 min) is necessary to maximize primer-RNA
template binding.
3
Begin RT.
IMPORTANT After thermal cycling, store all cDNA samples at
–15 to –25 °C.
Reverse Transcription 3-9
Optimizing Primer
Concentrations
4
Overview
4
About This This chapter describes how to optimize primer concentrations for PCR,
Chapter one-step RT-PCR, and two-step RT-PCR.
In This Chapter The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
Topic
See Page
Optimizing Primer Concentrations for PCR
4-2
Optimizing Primer Concentrations for One-Step RT-PCR
4-5
Optimizing Primer Concentrations for Two-Step RT-PCR
4-9
Optimizing Primer Concentrations 4-1
Optimizing Primer Concentrations for PCR
Overview The purpose of the procedure below is to determine the minimum
primer concentrations giving the lowest threshold cycle (CT) and
maximum ∆Rn while minimizing nonspecific amplification. The reaction
volumes are 50 µL. Use 10 to 100 ng of genomic DNA or 1 to 10 ng of
cDNA template.
PCR Master Mix is used in the procedure on page 4-2 to run four
replicates of each of the nine conditions shown in the table below. The
master mix is described in “PCR Master Mix for Primer Optimization” on
page 4-3.
Forward Primer (nM)
Reverse
Primer (nM)
50
300
900
50
50/50
300/50
900/50
300
50/300
300/300
900/300
900
50/900
300/900
900/900
Optimizing Primer To optimize primer concentrations for PCR:
Concentrations for
Step
Action
PCR
1
Load the plate for both a template and a No Template Control
(NTC) matrix, as shown in “Plate Configuration for Primer
Optimization for PCR” on page 4-3.
2
Place the plate in the appropriate ABI PRISM® Sequence Detection
System.
Use the thermal cycling conditions in “Thermal Cycling Parameters
for Primer Optimization” on page 4-4.
Note SYBR Green must be calibrated on the instrument. Please
refer to the appropriate instrument User’s Manual to calibrate the
instrument with SYBR Green.
3
At the end of the run:
Tabulate the results for the yield. This analysis will identify the
optimum concentrations of primers for PCR yield.
Tabulate the results for the CT value. This analysis will identify
the optimum primer concentrations for CT and for the absence of
nonspecific amplification.
4-2 Optimizing Primer Concentrations
PCR Master Mix ! WARNING CHEMICAL HAZARD. SYBR Green may cause eye, skin, and
for Primer respiratory tract irritation. It is readily absorbed through the skin and is a
Optimization combustable liquid and vapor (keep away from heat and flame). This product
contains material which may cause liver and blood damage. Please read the
MSDS, and follow the handling instructions. Wear appropriate protective
eyewear, clothing, and gloves.
PCR Master Mix for Primer Optimization
Component
Volume (µL)
for One
50-µL
Reaction
Volume (µL)
for 100
50-µL
Reactions
Final
Concentration
25
2500
1X
2X SYBR Green PCR
Master Mix
Forward Primer
Variable
Variable
50 to 900 nM
Reverse Primer
Variable
Variable
50 to 900 nM
Template
Variable
Variable
1 to 100 ng
Water
Variable
Variable
—
Total
50
5000
—
Plate Configuration for Primer Optimization for PCR
Wells
PCR
Master
Mix (µL)
5 µM
Forward
Primer (µL)
5 µM
Reverse
Primer (µL)
Template
(µL)
Deionized
Water (µL)
Total
Volume
(µL)
A1–A4
25
0.5
0.5
5.0
19.0
50
A5–A8
25
0.5
3.0
5.0
16.5
50
A9–A12
25
0.5
9.0
5.0
10.5
50
B1–B4
25
3.0
0.5
5.0
16.5
50
B5–B8
25
3.0
3.0
5.0
14.0
50
B9–B12
25
3.0
9.0
5.0
8.0
50
C1–C4
25
9.0
0.5
5.0
10.5
50
C5–C8
25
9.0
3.0
5.0
8.0
50
C9–C12
25
9.0
9.0
5.0
2.0
50
D1–D4
25
0.5
0.5
0
24.0
50
D5–D8
25
0.5
3.0
0
21.5
50
D9–D12
25
0.5
9.0
0
15.5
50
Optimizing Primer Concentrations 4-3
Plate Configuration for Primer Optimization for PCR
(continued)
Wells
PCR
Master
Mix (µL)
5 µM
Forward
Primer (µL)
5 µM
Reverse
Primer (µL)
Template
(µL)
Deionized
Water (µL)
Total
Volume
(µL)
E1–E4
25
3.0
0.5
0
21.5
50
E5–E8
25
3.0
3.0
0
19.0
50
E9–E12
25
3.0
9.0
0
13.0
50
F1–F4
25
9.0
0.5
0
15.5
50
F5–F8
25
9.0
3.0
0
13.0
50
F9–F12
25
9.0
9.0
0
7.0
50
Thermal Cycling
Parameters for
Primer
Optimization
PCR
Step
AmpliTaq Gold
Activation
Cycle (40 cycles)
Denature
HOLD
Temperature/
Time
Volume
95 °C
10 min
Anneal/Extend
CYCLE
95 °C
15 sec
60 °C
1 min
50 µL
IMPORTANT The 10 min, 95 °C step is required to activate the AmpliTaq Gold
DNA Polymerase.
Confirm the To confirm the absence of nonspecific amplification:
Absence of
Step
Action
Nonspecific
1
Analyze
the PCR products by agarose gel electrophoresis.
Amplification
2
Generate a dissociation curve on the GeneAmp 5700 SDS and the
ABI PRISM 7900 SDS, ABI PRISM 7700 SDS, and the ABI PRISM
7000 SDS.
4-4 Optimizing Primer Concentrations
Optimizing Primer Concentrations for One-Step RT-PCR
Overview The procedure below is used to optimize one-step RT-PCR reactions.
One-Step RT-PCR Master Mix is used in the procedure on page 4-5 to
run four replicates of each of the nine conditions shown in the table
below. The master mix is described in “One-Step RT-PCR Master Mix
for Primer Optimization” on page 4-6.
Reverse
Primer (nM)
Forward Primer (nM)
50
300
900
50
50/50
300/50
900/50
300
50/300
300/300
900/300
900
50/900
300/900
900/900
Reducing For one-step RT-PCR, this protocol requires an initial incubation of the
Nonspecific reaction mixture for 30 minutes at 48 °C (see “Thermal Cycling
Amplification Parameters for Primer Optimization” on page 4-11). This RT step
coincubates the PCR primers at a temperature below their annealing
temperatures. AmpliTaq Gold enzyme will slowly activate at 48 °C and
may lead to nonspecific amplification. To minimize the level of
nonspecific amplification in one-step RT-PCR using SYBR Green PCR
Master Mix, lower primer concentrations are recommended. If
nonspecific amplification is still problematic, reverting to two-step
RT-PCR is recommended.
Optimizing Primer To optimize primer concentrations for One-Step RT-PCR:
Concentrations
Step
Action
1
Load the plate for both a template and a No Template Control
(NTC) matrix. Refer to “Plate Configuration for Primer Optimization
for One-Step RT-PCR” on page 4-7.
2
Place the plate in the instrument.
Use the thermal cycling conditions in “Thermal Cycling Parameters
for Primer Optimization” on page 4-11.
Note SYBR Green must be calibrated on the instrument. Please
refer to the appropriate instrument User’s Manual on how to
calibrate the instrument for SYBR Green.
Optimizing Primer Concentrations 4-5
To optimize primer concentrations for One-Step RT-PCR:
Step
3
(continued)
Action
At the end of the run:
Tabulate the results for the yield. This analysis will identify the
optimum concentrations of primers for PCR yield.
Tabulate the results for the CT value. This analysis will identify
the optimum primer concentrations for CT and for the absence of
nonspecific amplification.
One-Step RT-PCR
Master Mix for
Primer
Optimization
! WARNING CHEMICAL HAZARD. SYBR Green may cause eye, skin, and
respiratory tract irritation. It is readily absorbed through the skin and is a
combustable liquid and vapor (keep away from heat and flame). This product
contains material which may cause liver and blood damage. Please read the
MSDS, and follow the handling instructions. Wear appropriate protective
eyewear, clothing, and gloves.
One-Step RT-PCR Master Mix for Primer Optimization
Volume (µL)
for One
50-µL
Reaction
Volume (µL)
for 100
50-µL
Reactions
Final
Conc.
25
2500
1X
0.25
25
0.25 U/mL
1.0
100
0.4 U/mL
Forward Primer
Variable
Variable
50 to 900
nM
Reverse Primer
Variable
Variable
50 to 900
nM
Template
Variable
Variable
1 to 100 ng
Water
Variable
Variable
—
Total
50
5000
—
Component
2X SYBR Green PCR
Master Mix
Reverse Transcription
Reagents:
MultiScribe Reverse
Transcriptase (50 U/µL)
RNase Inhibitor
(20 U/µL)
4-6 Optimizing Primer Concentrations
Plate Configuration for Primer Optimization for One-Step RT-PCR
Wells
PCR Master
Mix + RT
Reagents (µL)a
5 µM
Forward
Primer (µL)
5 µM
Reverse
Primer (µL)
Template
(µL)
Deionized
Water (µL)
Total
Volume
(µL)
A1–A4
26.25
0.5
0.5
5.0
17.75
50
A5–A8
26.25
0.5
3.0
5.0
15.25
50
A9–A12
26.25
0.5
9.0
5.0
9.25
50
B1–B4
26.25
3.0
0.5
5.0
15.25
50
B5–B8
26.25
3.0
3.0
5.0
12.75
50
B9–B12
26.25
3.0
9.0
5.0
6.75
50
C1–C4
26.25
9.0
0.5
5.0
9.25
50
C5–C8
26.25
9.0
3.0
5.0
6.75
50
C9–C12
26.25
9.0
9.0
5.0
0.75
50
D1–D4
26.25
0.5
0.5
0
22.75
50
D5–D8
26.25
0.5
3.0
0
20.25
50
D9–D12
26.25
0.5
9.0
0
14.25
50
E1–E4
26.25
3.0
0.5
0
20.25
50
E5–E8
26.25
3.0
3.0
0
17.75
50
E9–E12
26.25
3.0
9.0
0
11.75
50
F1–F4
26.25
9.0
0.5
0
14.25
50
F5–F8
26.25
9.0
3.0
0
11.75
50
F9–F12
26.25
9.0
9.0
0
5.75
50
a. Volume of 26.25 µL includes 25 µL of PCR Master Mix plus 1.25 µL of RT Reagents.
Optimizing Primer Concentrations 4-7
Thermal Cycling Parameters for Primer Optimization
PCR
Step
Temperature/
TIme
AmpliTaq Gold
Activationa
RT
Cycle (40 cycles)
Denature
HOLD
HOLD
48 °C
30 min
95 °C
10 min
Volume
Anneal/Extend
CYCLE
95 °C
15 sec
60 °C
1 min
50 (µL)
a. The 10 min, 95 °C step is required to activate AmpliTaq Gold DNA Polymerase.
Confirm the To confirm the absence of nonspecific amplification:
Absence of
Step
Action
Nonspecific
1
Analyze the PCR products by agarose gel electrophoresis.
Amplification
2
Generate a dissociation curve on the GeneAmp 5700 SDS,
ABI PRISM 7700 SDS, ABI PRISM 7900HT SDS or ABI PRISM 7000
SDS.
4-8 Optimizing Primer Concentrations
Optimizing Primer Concentrations for Two-Step RT-PCR
Overview The purpose of the procedure below is to determine the minimum
primer concentrations giving the lowest threshold cycle (CT) and
maximum ∆Rn while minimizing nonspecific amplification. The reaction
volumes are 50 µL. Use 10 to 100 ng of genomic DNA or 1 to 10 ng of
cDNA template.
Two-Step RT-PCR Master Mix is used in the procedure on page 4-9 to
run four replicates of each of the nine conditions shown in the table
below. The master mix is described in “One-Step RT-PCR Master Mix
for Primer Optimization” on page 4-6.
Forward Primer (nM)
Reverse
Primer (nM)
50
300
900
50
50/50
300/50
900/50
300
50/300
300/300
900/300
900
50/900
300/900
900/900
Optimizing Primer To optimize primer concentrations for two-step RT-PCR:
Concentrations for
Step
Action
Two-Step RT-PCR
1
Load the plate for both a template and a No Template Control
(NTC) matrix.
Refer to “Plate Configuration for Primer Optimization for Two-Step
RT-PCR on page 4-10.
2
Place the plate in the Sequence Detection System.
Use the thermal cycling conditions in “Thermal Cycling Parameters
for Primer Optimization” on page 4-11.
Note SYBR Green must be calibrated on the instrument. Please
refer to the appropriate instrument User’s Manual for instructions
on how to calibrate the instrument for SYBR Green.
3
At the end of the run:
Tabulate the results for the yield. This analysis will identify the
optimum concentrations of primers for PCR yield.
Tabulate the results for the CT value. This analysis will identify
the optimum primer concentrations for CT and for the absence of
nonspecific amplification.
Optimizing Primer Concentrations 4-9
Two-Step RT-PCR
Master Mix for
Primer
Optimization
! WARNING CHEMICAL HAZARD. SYBR Green may cause eye, skin, and
respiratory tract irritation. It is readily absorbed through the skin and is a
combustable liquid and vapor (keep away from heat and flame). This product
contains material which may cause liver and blood damage. Please read the
MSDS, and follow the handling instructions. Wear appropriate protective
eyewear, clothing, and gloves..
Two-Step RT-PCR Master Mix for Primer Optimization
Component
Volume (µL)
for One
50-µL
Reaction
Volume (µL)
for 100
50-µL
Reactions
Final
Concentration
25
2500
1X
2X SYBR Green PCR
Master Mix
Forward Primer
Variable
Variable
50 to 900 nM
Reverse Primer
Variable
Variable
50 to 900 nM
Template
Variable
Variable
1ng to 100 ng
Water
Variable
Variable
—
Total
50
5000
—
Plate Configuration for Primer Optimization for Two-Step RT-PCR
Wells
PCR
Master
Mix (µL)
5 µM
Forward
Primer (µL)
5 µM
Reverse
Primer (µL)
Template
(µL)
Deionized
Water (µL)
Total
Volume
(µL)
A1–A4
25
0.5
0.5
5.0
19.0
50
A5–A8
25
0.5
3.0
5.0
16.5
50
A9–A12
25
0.5
9.0
5.0
10.5
50
B1–B4
25
3.0
0.5
5.0
16.5
50
B5–B8
25
3.0
3.0
5.0
14.0
50
B9–B12
25
3.0
9.0
5.0
8.0
50
C1–C4
25
9.0
0.5
5.0
10.5
50
C5–C8
25
9.0
3.0
5.0
8.0
50
C9–C12
25
9.0
9.0
5.0
2.0
50
D1–D4
25
0.5
0.5
0
24.0
50
D5–D8
25
0.5
3.0
0
21.5
50
D9–D12
25
0.5
9.0
0
15.5
50
E1–E4
25
3.0
0.5
0
21.5
50
4-10 Optimizing Primer Concentrations
Plate Configuration for Primer Optimization for Two-Step RT-PCR
(continued)
Wells
PCR
Master
Mix (µL)
5 µM
Forward
Primer (µL)
5 µM
Reverse
Primer (µL)
Template
(µL)
Deionized
Water (µL)
Total
Volume
(µL)
E5–E8
25
3.0
3.0
0
19.0
50
E9–E12
25
3.0
9.0
0
13.0
50
F1–F4
25
9.0
0.5
0
15.5
50
F5–F8
25
9.0
3.0
0
13.0
50
F9–F12
25
9.0
9.0
0
7.0
50
Thermal Cycling Parameters for Primer Optimization
PCR
Step
AmpliTaq Gold
Activationa
Cycle (40 cycles)
Denature
HOLD
Temperature/
Time
Volume
95 °C
10 min
Anneal/Extend
CYCLE
95 °C
15 sec
60 °C
1 min
50 µL
a. The 10 min, 95 °C step is required to activate AmpliTaq Gold DNA Polymerase.
Confirm the To confirm the absence of nonspecific amplification:
Absence of
Step
Action
Nonspecific
1
Analyze the PCR products by agarose gel electrophoresis.
Amplification
2
Generate a dissociation curve on the GeneAmp 5700 SDS,
ABI PRISM 7700 SDS, ABI PRISM 7900HT SDS, or ABI PRISM 7000
SDS.
Optimizing Primer Concentrations 4-11
Data Analysis
Overview
5
5
About This The chapter describes how to analyze the data generated in your
Chapter experiment.
In This Chapter The following topic is discussed in this chapter:
Topic
See Page
Absolute and Relative Quantitation of Target DNA
5-2
Interpreting the Results
5-3
Data Analysis 5-1
Absolute and Relative Quantitation of Target DNA
Overview Two types of quantitation are possible when using the SYBR Green®
PCR Master Mix:
Relative quantitation of a target against an internal standard is
particularly useful for gene expression measurements.
Absolute quantitation is possible if the isolation procedure and
sample contents do not impact the PCR results. The quantitation of
genomic DNA may lend itself for absolute quantitation against a
standard curve.
Absolute Absolute quantitation compares the CT of an unknown sample against a
Quantitation standard curve with known copy numbers.
Quantitation of Gene expression can be measured by the quantitation of cDNA
cDNA Relative to a converted from a messenger RNA corresponding to this gene relative to
Calibrator Sample a calibrator sample serving as a physiological reference. In a typical
experiment, gene expression levels are studied as a function of either a
treatment of cells in culture, of patients, or of tissue type. The calibrator
sample in each case is the cDNA from either the untreated cells or
patients, or a specific tissue type.
All quantitations are also normalized to an endogenous control such as
18S rRNA to account for variability in the initial concentration and
quality of the total RNA and in the conversion efficiency of the reverse
transcription reaction. All amplicons in these determinations should
follow the amplicon design criteria defined previously around the Primer
Express software. Refer to ABI PRISM 7700 Sequence Detection
System User Bulletin #2: Relative Quantitation of Gene Expression
(P/N 4303859) for additional information about relative quantitation.
5-2 Data Analysis
Interpreting the Results
Passive Reference The Passive Reference (ROX) is a dye molecule included in the SYBR
ROX Green PCR Master Mix that does not participate in the PCR
amplification. On the ABI PRISM® 7700 SDS, the ABI PRISM® 7900HT
SDS, the ABI PRISM® 7000 SDS, and the GeneAmp® SDS, the Passive
Reference provides an internal reference to which the SYBR
Green/dsDNA complex signal can be normalized during data analysis.
Normalization is necessary to correct for well-to-well fluorescent
fluctuations.
Data Analysis 5-3
References
A
A
Faloona, F., Weiss, S., Ferre, F., and Mullis, K. 1990. Direct detection
of HIV sequences in blood high-gain polymerase chain reaction
[abstract]. In: 6th International Conference on AIDS, University of
California, San Francisco: San Francisco (CA). Abstract 1019.
Kwok, S. and Higuchi, R. 1989. Avoiding false positives with PCR.
Nature 339:237–238.
Mullis, K.B. and Faloona, F.A. 1987. Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro
via a polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction. Methods Enzymol.
155:335–350.
References A-1
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Part Number 4310251 Rev. C
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