Clear-Com | PS-10K | AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices

Configuring
FLEX 10K Devices
®
August 1998, ver. 1.01
Introduction
Application Note 59
FLEX® 10K devices can be configured using one of four configuration
schemes, which are ideal for a variety of systems. You can configure
FLEX 10K devices with either an EPC1 Configuration EPROM or a
microprocessor. See Table 1.
Table 1. FLEX 10K Configuration Schemes
Configuration Scheme
Typical Use
Configuration EPROM Configuration with the EPC1 Configuration EPROM
Passive serial
Configuration with a serial synchronous microprocessor
interface, the BitBlaster™, or the FLEX Download Cable.
Passive parallel
synchronous
Configuration with a parallel synchronous microprocessor
interface.
Passive parallel
asynchronous
Configuration with a parallel asynchronous
microprocessor interface. In passive parallel
asynchronous configuration, the microprocessor treats
the FLEX 10K device as memory.
This application note discusses how to configure for one or more
FLEX 10K devices. It should be used together with the FLEX 10K
Embedded Programmable Logic Family Data Sheet and the EPC1 Configuration
EPROM Data Sheet. If appropriate, illustrations in this application note
show devices with generic ”FLEX 10K” labels to indicate they are valid for
all FLEX 10K devices.
The following topics are discussed:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Altera Corporation
A-AN-059-01.01
Device configuration overview
FLEX 10K device configuration schemes
Device options
Device configuration pins
Device configuration files
Device configuration and programming
Configuration reliability
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Device
Configuration
Overview
During device operation, FLEX 10K devices store configuration data in
SRAM cells. Because SRAM memory is volatile, the SRAM cells must be
loaded with configuration data each time the device powers up. After the
FLEX 10K device is configured, its registers and I/O pins must be
initialized. After initialization, the device enters user mode for in-system
operation. Figure 1 shows the state of the device during configuration,
initialization, and user modes.
Figure 1. FLEX 10K Configuration Cycle
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
DCLK
DATA High-Z
MODE
High-Z
Configuration
High-Z
Initialization
User
The configuration data for a FLEX 10K device can be loaded using an
active or passive configuration scheme. When configuring a FLEX 10K
device with an active scheme using an EPC1 Configuration EPROM,
control and synchronization signals are generated by the FLEX 10K
device and the EPC1. The EPC1 provides the configuration data to the
FLEX 10K device. In passive configuration schemes (i.e., configuration
with a microprocessor), the FLEX 10K device is incorporated into a system
with an intelligent host, such as a microprocessor, that controls the
configuration process. The host supplies configuration data from a
storage device, e.g., a hard disk, RAM, or other system memory. With
passive configuration, the functionality of the FLEX 10K device can be
changed while the system is in operation.
The configuration scheme is chosen by driving the FLEX 10K device’s
MSEL0 and MSEL1 pins either high or low, as shown in Table 2. The value
of the MSEL0 and MSEL1 pins can be changed between configurations to
change the configuration mode. However, these pins are most commonly
tied to VCC or GND.
Table 2. Configuration Schemes
2
MSEL1
MSEL0
Configuration Scheme
0
0
Configuration EPROM or passive serial
1
0
Passive parallel synchronous
1
1
Passive parallel asynchronous
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
1
Device option bits and device configuration pins are discussed in
this application note on pages 15 and 17, respectively.
Table 3 summarizes the configuration file size required for each FLEX 10K
device. To calculate the amount of data storage space required for multidevice configurations, simply add the file sizes for each FLEX 10K device
in the design.
Table 3. FLEX 10K Device Configuration File Sizes
Device
Data Size (bits)
Data Size (Kbytes)
EPF10K10
115,000
15
EPF10K20
225,000
28
EPF10K30
368,000
45
EPF10K40
488,000
60
EPF10K50
609,000
75
881,000
108
1,172,000
144
EPF10K70
EPF10K100
The EPC1 Configuration EPROM is a 1-Mbit EPROM; therefore, the
EPF10K100 requires two EPC1 Configuration EPROMs for active
configuration. The EPC1 can configure multiple smaller FLEX 10K
devices, such as eight EPF10K10 devices.
FLEX 10K
Device
Configuration
Schemes
This section describes how to configure FLEX 10K devices with the
following configuration schemes:
■
■
■
■
Configuration EPROM
Passive serial
Passive parallel synchronous
Passive parallel asynchronous
Configuration EPROM Configuration
The Configuration EPROM scheme uses an Altera-supplied serial EPC1
Configuration EPROM to supply data to the FLEX 10K device in a serial
bitstream. See Figure 2.
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Figure 2. Configuration EPROM Scheme Circuit
VCC
VCC
FLEX 10K
nCONFIG
VCC
EPC1
DCLK
DATA
OE
nCS
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCE
MSEL0
MSEL1
GND
GND
In the Configuration EPROM scheme, nCONFIG is usually tied to VCC.
Upon device power-up, the FLEX 10K device senses the low-to-high
transition on nCONFIG, which initiates configuration. The FLEX 10K
device drives the open-drain CONF_DONE pin low, which drives the nCS
pin on the EPC1 low. The open-drain nSTATUS pin is released by the
FLEX 10K device and pulled high to enable the EPC1. The EPC1 then uses
its internal oscillator to serially clock data from its EPROM cells to the
FLEX 10K device.
If an error occurs during configuration, the FLEX 10K device drives the
nSTATUS pin low, resetting the EPC1 and internally resetting the
FLEX 10K device. If the Auto-Restart Configuration on Frame Error option—
available from the Global Project Device Options dialog box (Assign
menu)—is turned on in the MAX+PLUS® II software, the FLEX 10K
device automatically reconfigures if an error occurs. If this option is
turned off, the outside system must monitor nSTATUS to detect an error
and then pulse nCONFIG low to restart configuration. The outside system
can pulse nCONFIG if nCONFIG is under system control rather than tied to
VCC. When configuration is complete, the FLEX 10K device releases
CONF_DONE, which removes the EPC1 from the circuit.
Multiple FLEX 10K devices can be configured with the Configuration
EPROM scheme. See Figure 3.
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Figure 3. Configuration EPROM Scheme Multi-Device Configuration Circuit
VCC
VCC
VCC
FLEX 10K
Device 2
nCONFIG
VCC
DCLK
MSEL0
DATA0
MSEL1
CONF_DONE
FLEX 10K
Device 1
DCLK
DCLK
DCLK
MSEL0
DATA
DATA
MSEL1
CONF_DONE
nCS
nSTATUS
GND
nCE
EPC1
Device 2
DATA0
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
GND
EPC1
Device 1
nCEO
nCASC
nCS
OE
OE
nCE
GND
The circuit in Figure 3 is similar to the Configuration EPROM scheme
circuit for a single device, except the FLEX 10K devices are cascaded for
multi-device configuration. After the first FLEX 10K device has been
configured, the nCEO pin on the first device activates the nCE pin on the
second device, prompting the second device to begin configuration. The
CONF_DONE pins on all the FLEX 10K devices are tied together. Therefore,
the FLEX 10K devices initialize and enter user mode at the same time.
Additionally, the nSTATUS lines are tied together; if any device detects an
error, the entire chain is reset for automatic reconfiguration.
EPC1 Configuration EPROMs can also be cascaded for active
configuration of several smaller FLEX 10K devices (e.g., EPF10K10) or one
EPF10K100 device. When all the data from the first EPC1 device has been
sent, the EPC1 drives nCASC low, which drives nCS on the next EPC1.
Less than one clock cycle is required for one EPC1 device to activate the
next EPC1 for configuration. The stream of data is uninterrupted.
The waveform in Figure 4 shows the timing waveform for the
Configuration EPROM scheme.
Figure 4. Configuration EPROM Scheme Timing Waveform
nCONFIG
OE/nSTATUS
tCSH
CONF_DONE
DCLK
tCH tCL
DATA
D0
tOEZX
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D1
tDSU
D2
tCO
D3
D4
D4
Dn-1
Dn
tDH
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Table 4 defines the timing parameters for the Configuration EPROM
scheme.
Table 4. Configuration EPROM Scheme Timing Parameters
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Units
tOEZX
OE high to DATA output enabled
160
ns
tCH
DCLK high time
50
250
ns
tCL
DCLK low time
50
250
ns
tDSU
Data setup time before rising edge on DCLK
30
ns
tDH
Data hold time after rising edge on DCLK
0
ns
tCO
DCLK to DATA out
tOEW
OE low pulse width to guarantee counter reset
tCSH
fMAX
30
ns
100
ns
nCS low hold time after DCLK rising edge
0
ns
DCLK frequency
2
10
MHz
Passive Serial Configuration
In passive serial (PS) configuration, the BitBlaster, FLEX Download Cable,
or microprocessor generates a low-to-high transition on the nCONFIG pin.
The microprocessor or programming hardware then places the
configuration data on the DATA0 pin of the FLEX 10K device one bit at a
time. The data is clocked into the FLEX 10K device until CONF_DONE goes
high. The microprocessor or programming hardware must present the
least significant bit (LSB) of each byte of data to the FLEX 10K device first.
After CONF_DONE goes high, DCLK must be clocked an additional 10 times
to initialize the device. The microprocessor must be configured to supply
the extra clock cycles to the FLEX 10K device. Device initialization is
performed automatically by the BitBlaster serial download cable or the
FLEX Download Cable programming hardware (see Figure 5).
Handshaking signals are not used in PS configuration modes. Therefore,
the configuration clock speed must be below 10 MHz.
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Figure 5. FLEX Download Cable Signals & Positions
Receptacle
for Pin 1
to Programming
Adapter
to 10-pin Male
Header on
Circuit Board
Receptacle
for Pin 1
f
Header Pin Connections:
DCLK
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
DATA0
GND
VCC
N.C.
N.C.
GND
For more information on how to use the BitBlaster, go to the BitBlaster
Serial Download Cable Data Sheet in the 1995 Data Book.
Figure 6 shows the configuration circuit for PS configuration with a
microprocessor.
Figure 6. PS Configuration Circuit with Microprocessor
Memory
ADDR
DATA0
VCC
1 kΩ
VCC
1 kΩ
FLEX 10K
MSEL 1
CONF_DONE
MSEL 0
nSTATUS
GND
nCE
Microprocessor
GND
DATA0
nCONFIG
DCLK
Figure 7 shows the configuration circuit for PS configuration with
programming hardware.
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Figure 7. PS Configuration Circuit with Programming Hardware
VCC
VCC
1 kΩ
VCC
1 kΩ
1 kΩ
VCC
1 kΩ
FLEX 10K
MSEL1
MSEL0
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
GND
10-Pin Male
Header
DCLK
DATA0
nCONFIG
Pin 1
VCC
GND
Shield
GND
For multi-device PS configuration, the nCEO pin on the first FLEX 10K
device is cascaded to the nCE pin of the next device. The second FLEX 10K
device begins configuration within one clock cycle; therefore, the transfer
of data destinations is transparent to the microprocessor. See Figure 8.
Figure 8. PS Multi-Device Configuration Circuit
VCC
1 kΩ
VCC
1 kΩ
Memory
ADDR
DATA0
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
Microprocessor
FLEX 10K
Device 2
FLEX 10K
Device 1
MSEL1
MSEL0
MSEL1
MSEL0
nCEO
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
GND
GND
nCE
DATA0
GND
DATA0
8
nCONFIG
nCONFIG
DCLK
DCLK
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Figure 9 shows the timing waveform for PS configuration.
Figure 9. PS Timing Waveform
tCF2CK
nCONFIG
tCFG
nSTATUS
tCF2ST
tSTATUS
tCLK
CONF_DONE
tCH tCL
tCF2CD
DCLK
tDH
D0
DATA
D1
D2
D3
D4
Dn
tDSU
Table 5 defines the timing parameters for PS configuration. .
Table 5. PS Timing Parameters
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Units
1
µs
1
µs
tCF2CD
nCONFIG low to CONF_DONE low
tCF2ST
nCONFIG low to nSTATUS low
tCFG
nCONFIG low pulse width
2
tSTATUS
nSTATUS low pulse width
2.5
µs
tCF2CK
nCONFIG high to first rising edge on DCLK (1)
5
µs
tDSU
Data setup time before rising edge on DCLK
30
ns
tDH
Data hold time after rising edge on DCLK
0
ns
tCH
DCLK high time
50
ns
tCL
DCLK low time
50
ns
tCLK
DCLK period
100
ns
fMAX
DCLK maximum frequency
µs
10
MHz
Note:
(1)
DCLK can be applied before nCONFIG goes high. However, it will be ignored until
5 µs after nCONFIG goes high.
Passive Parallel Synchronous Configuration
In passive parallel synchronous (PPS) configuration, nCONFIG is
controlled by an intelligent host, such as a microprocessor. To begin
configuration, nCONFIG is given a low-to-high transition and the
microprocessor places an 8-bit configuration word on the data inputs of
the FLEX 10K device. The microprocessor clocks the FLEX 10K device. On
the first rising clock edge, a byte of configuration data is latched into the
FLEX 10K device; the subsequent 8 falling clock edges serialize the data in
the device.
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
On the ninth rising clock edge, the next byte of configuration data is
latched and serialized into the FLEX 10K device. If an error occurs during
configuration, the FLEX 10K nSTATUS pin drives low. The microprocessor
senses this low signal and begins reconfiguration or issues an error. Once
the FLEX 10K device has been successfully configured, the CONF_DONE pin
is released by the FLEX 10K device, indicating that configuration is
complete. The DCLK pin must be clocked 10 times after CONF_DONE is
released to initialize the device. See Figure 10.
Figure 10. PPS Configuration Circuit
VCC
Memory
1 kΩ
VCC
1 kΩ
FLEX 10K
MSEL 0
ADDR DATA[7..0]
GND
VCC
MSEL 1
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
Microprocessor
GND
DATA [7..0]
DCLK
nCONFIG
PPS configuration can also be used to configure multiple FLEX 10K
devices. In multi-device PPS configuration, the FLEX 10K devices are
cascaded. Once the first FLEX 10K device is configured, it drives nCEO
low, which drives nCE on the second device low. The second FLEX 10K
device begins configuration within one clock cycle. The FLEX 10K
CONF_DONE pins are tied together so the devices initialize and enter user
mode at the same time. In addition, the nSTATUS signals are tied together;
if any device detects an error, the entire chain is reset for automatic
reconfiguration. See Figure 11.
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Figure 11. PPS Multi-Device Configuration Circuit
VCC
VCC
1 kΩ
1 kΩ
FLEX 10K
Device 1
FLEX 10K
Device 2
MSEL0
MSEL0
Memory
GND
GND
ADDR DATA[7..0]
VCC
VCC
MSEL1
MSEL1
CONF_DONE
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nSTATUS
nCE
GND
Microprocessor
nCE
nCEO
DATA[7..0]
DATA[7..0]
DCLK
DCLK
nCONFIG
nCONFIG
Figure 12 shows the timing waveform for PPS configuration.
Figure 12. PPS Timing Waveform
tCF2CK
nCONFIG
tCLK
nSTATUS
tCH
DCLK
tDH
DATA[7..0]
Byte 0
tDSU
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tCL
Byte 1
Ninth DCLK edge latches
next byte of data.
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Table 6 defines the timing parameters for PPS configuration.
Table 6. PPS Timing Parameters
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Units
µs
tCF2CK
nCONFIG high to first rising edge on DCLK
5
tDSU
Data setup time before rising edge on DCLK
30
ns
tDH
Data hold time after rising edge on DCLK
0
ns
tCH
DCLK high time
50
ns
tCL
DCLK low time
50
ns
tCLK
DCLK period
100
ns
fMAX
DCLK frequency
6
MHz
Passive Parallel Asynchronous Configuration
In passive parallel asynchronous (PPA) configuration, nCONFIG is
controlled by a microprocessor. To begin configuration, the
microprocessor drives nCONFIG high. The microprocessor then asserts
the nCS and CS inputs to the FLEX 10K device. The microprocessor places
an 8-bit configuration word on the data inputs of the FLEX 10K device and
pulses nWS low on the FLEX 10K device. On the rising edge of the low
pulse on nWS, the FLEX 10K device latches the byte of configuration data.
The FLEX 10K device then drives the RDYnBSY signal low, indicating that
it is processing the byte of configuration data. The microprocessor can
then perform other system functions while the FLEX 10K devices is
processing the byte of data. Configuration can be paused by de-asserting
the nCS or CS pins on the FLEX 10K device. Figure 13 shows the PPA
configuration circuit. An address decoder controls nCS and CS on the
FLEX 10K device. This decoder allows the microprocessor to select the
FLEX 10K device by accessing a particular address, simplifying the
configuration process.
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Altera Corporation
AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Figure 13. PPA Configuration Circuit
VCC VCC
Address Decoder
ADDR
1 kΩ
FLEX 10K
1 kΩ
Memory
VCC
MSEL1
nCS
ADDR DATA[7..0]
MSEL0
CS
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
Microprocessor
GND
DATA[7..0]
nWS
nRS
nCONFIG
RDYnBSY
The FLEX 10K device can internally serialize data without the
microprocessor. When the FLEX 10K device is ready for the next byte of
configuration data, it drives RDYnBSY high. The microprocessor polls the
RDYnBSY signal and when it senses a high signal it strobes the next byte
of configuration data into the FLEX 10K device. Alternatively, the nRS
signal can be strobed, causing the RDYnBSY signal to appear on DATA7.
Reading the state of the configuration data by strobing nRS permits the
system to save an I/O port if necessary. Data should not be driven onto
the data bus while nRS is low because this will cause contention on
DATA7. If the nRS pin is not used to monitor configuration, it should be
tied high.
PPA mode can also be used to configure multiple FLEX 10K devices.
Multi-device PPA configuration is similar to single-device PPA
configuration, except the FLEX 10K devices are cascaded. After the first
FLEX 10K device is configured, it drives nCEO low, which drives the nCE
pin on the second FLEX 10K device low, causing it to begin configuration.
The second FLEX 10K device begins configuration within one clock cycle;
therefore, the transfer of data destinations is transparent to the
microprocessor. All FLEX 10K device CONF_DONE pins are tied together,
so all FLEX 10K devices initialize and enter user mode at the same time.
See Figure 14.
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Figure 14. PPA Multi-Device Configuration Circuit
VCC VCC
1 kΩ
1 kΩ
Address Decoder
ADDR
Memory
ADDR DATA[7..0]
FLEX 10K
Device 1
FLEX 10K
Device 2
VCC
MSEL1
nCS
MSEL0
nCS
CS
CS
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
VCC
MSEL1
MSEL0
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
GND
Microprocessor
DATA[7..0]
nWS
DATA[7..0]
nRS
nCONFIG
RDYnBSY
nRS
nCONFIG
RDYnBSY
nWS
Figure 15 shows the timing waveform for PPA configuration.
Figure 15. PPA Timing Waveform
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
Byte 0
DATA[7..0]
Byte n-1
Byte 1
Byte n
tDSU
CS
tCSSU
tCF2WS
nCS
tDH
tWSP
nWS
tRDY2WS
RDYnBSY
tWS2B
tBUSY
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Figure 16 shows the timing waveform for a strobed nRS signal.
Figure 16. PPA Timing Waveform Using nRS and nWS
tCF2WS
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
tDSU
DATA [6..0]
tCSSU
CS
tRDY2WS
tDH
nCS
tWSP
nWS
tRSD7
tRS2WS
nRS
tWS2RS
DATA7
Table 7 summarizes the timing parameters for PPA configuration.
Table 7. PPA Timing Parameters
Symbol
Device Options
Altera Corporation
Parameter
Min
Max
Units
µs
tCF2WS
nCONFIG high to first rising edge on nWS
5
tDSU
Data setup time before rising edge on nWS
50
ns
tDH
Data hold time after rising edge on nWS
0
ns
tCSSU
Chip Select setup time before rising edge on nWS
50
ns
tWSP
nWS low pulse width
200
ns
tWS2B
nWS rising edge to RDYnBSY low
50
ns
tBUSY
RDYnBSY low pulse width
2
µs
tRDY2WS
RDYnBSY rising edge to nWS falling edge
50
ns
tWS2RS
nWS rising edge to nRS falling edge
200
ns
tRS2WS
nRS rising edge to nWS falling edge
200
tRSD7
nRS falling edge to DATA7 valid with RDYnBSY signal
ns
50
ns
You can set FLEX 10K device operation options in the Altera®
MAX+PLUS II development software by choosing Global Project Device
Options (Assign menu). Table 8 summarizes each of these options.
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Table 8. FLEX 10K Configuration Option Bits (Part 1 of 2)
Device Option
User-Supplied
Start-Up Clock
Auto-Restart
Configuration on
Frame Error
Option Usage
Default Configuration
(Option Off)
Modified Configuration
(Option On)
The FLEX 10K devices
must be clocked 10
times after it is
configured to initialize
the device. The user can
choose the clock
source.
In the PPA configuration
scheme, the internal FLEX 10K
oscillator supplies the
initialization clock.
The user provides the clock on
the CLKUSR pin. This clock can
be used to synchronize the
initialization of multiple
FLEX 10K devices.
If a data error occurs
during FLEX 10K device
configuration, the user
can choose how to
restart the configuration.
In Configuration EPROM, PS,
and PPS configuration, the
internal oscillator is disabled.
Therefore, external circuitry
must provide the initialization
clock on the DCLK pin. In the
Configuration EPROM scheme,
the EPC1 supplies the clock; in
PS and PPS configuration, the
microprocessor supplies the
clock.
The configuration process
stops until the user directs the
device to restart configuration.
nSTATUS is driven low when
there is an error. When
nCONFIG is pulled low and then
high, the device begins to
reconfigure.
The configuration process will
automatically restart. The
nSTATUS pin drives low for 10
clock cycles and then releases.
The nSTATUS pin is then pulled
to VCC, indicating that the
configuration process has
started.
In the Configuration EPROM
scheme, the nSTATUS reset
pulse automatically resets the
EPC1 Configuration EPROM if
the nSTATUS pin on the FLEX
10K device is tied to OE on the
Configuration EPROM.
If an error occurs during passive
configuration, the device can be
reconfigured without the system
having to pulse nCONFIG.
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Table 8. FLEX 10K Configuration Option Bits (Part 2 of 2)
Device Option
Option Usage
Default Configuration
(Option Off)
Modified Configuration
(Option On)
Release Clears
before Tri-States
During configuration,
the I/O pins on the
device are tri-stated.
The user can choose the
order in which to release
the tri-states and clear
the registers during
initialization.
Directs the device to release
Directs the device to release the
the tri-states on the I/O pins of Clear signals on its registers
the device before releasing the before releasing the tri-states.
Clear signal on the device’s
registers.
Enable Chip-Wide
Reset
Enables a single pin to
reset every register on
the FLEX 10K device.
Chip-Wide Reset is not
Chip-Wide Reset is enabled for
enabled. The DEV_CLRn pin is all registers within the device.
available as a user I/O pin.
All registers are cleared when
the DEV_CLRn pin is driven low.
Enable Chip-Wide
Output Enable
Enables a single pin to Chip-Wide Output Enable is not
control all of the
enabled. The DEV_OE pin is
tri-states on a FLEX 10K available as a user I/O pin.
device.
Chip-Wide Output Enable is
enabled for all tri-states on the
FLEX 10K device. After
configuration, all user I/O pins
are tri-stated when DEV_OE is
low.
Enable
INIT_DONE
Output
Enables a pin to drive
The INIT_DONE signal is not
out a signal when the
available. The INIT_DONE pin
initialization process is is available as a user I/O pin.
complete and the device
has entered user mode.
The INIT_DONE signal is
available on the open-drain
INIT_DONE pin. This pin drives
low during configuration. After
initialization, it is released and
pulled high externally.
Device
Configuration
Pins
Altera Corporation
Each FLEX 10K device has 9 dedicated configuration pins and 14 dualpurpose configuration pins, some or all of which are used in the
configuration schemes discussed in this application note. Table 9
summarizes the FLEX 10K configuration pins.
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Table 9. Pin Functions (Part 1 of 2)
Pin Name
User Configuration
Mode
Scheme
Pin Type
Description
MSEL0
MSEL1
–
All
Input
2-bit configuration input. Informs FLEX 10K device of the
configuration scheme. These bits are set as shown in
Table 3 earlier in this application note.
nSTATUS
–
All
Bidirectional The FLEX 10K device drives nSTATUS low immediately
open-drain after power-up and releases it within 100 ms. The nSTATUS
pin must be pulled up to VCC with a 1-kΩ resistor. If an error
occurs during configuration, nSTATUS is pulled low by the
FLEX 10K device. If an external source drives the nSTATUS
pin low (as in multi-device configuration), the FLEX 10K
device enters an error state.
nCONFIG
–
All
Input
CONF_DONE
–
All
Bidirectional Status output. The CONF_DONE pin is driven low by the
open drain FLEX 10K device during configuration. After all
configuration data has been received without errors, the
FLEX 10K device tri-states CONF_DONE.
Configuration control input. A low resets the FLEX 10K
device. A low-to-high transition begins configuration.
Status input. A high on this input directs the FLEX 10K
device to initialize and enter user mode.
The CONF_DONE net must be pulled to VCC with a 1.0-kΩ
resistor and may be driven low by an external source to
delay the initialization process.
DCLK
–
Configuration Input
EPROM,
PPS, PS
Clock input used to clock data from an external source into
the FLEX 10K device.
nCE
–
All
Input
Active-low Chip Enable. The nCE pin activates the device
with a low signal to allow configuration and should be tied
low for single device configuration.
nCEO
–
Multi-device
Output
Output that drives low when FLEX 10K configuration is
complete. This pin feeds the nCE of another FLEX 10K
device in a multi-device, cascaded configuration scheme.
nWS
I/O
PPA
Input
Write strobe input. A low-to-high transition causes the
FLEX 10K device to latch a byte of data on the
DATA[7..0] pins.
nRS
I/O
PPA
Input
Read strobe input. A low input directs the FLEX 10K device
to drive the RDYnBSY signal on the DATA7 pin. If the nRS pin
is not used, it should be tied high.
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Table 9. Pin Functions (Part 2 of 2)
Pin Name
User Configuration
Mode
Scheme
Pin Type
Description
RDYnBSY
I/O
PPA
Output
Ready output. A high output indicates that the FLEX 10K
device is ready to accept another byte of data. A low output
indicates that the FLEX 10K device is not ready to receive
another byte of data.
nCS
CS
I/O
PPA
Inputs
Chip-Select inputs. A low on nCS and a high on CS selects
the FLEX 10K device for configuration. If only one ChipSelect input is used, the other must be tied to the active
value (e.g., nCS can be tied to ground if CS is used).
CLKUSR
I/O
All
Input
Optional user-supplied clock input. Synchronizes
initialization of one or more FLEX 10K devices.
DATA[7..0]
I/O
PPS, PPA
Inputs
Data inputs. Byte-wide configuration data is presented to
the FLEX 10K device on all eight data pins.
DATA0
–
Configuration Input
EPROM, PS
Data input. Bit-wide configuration data is presented to the
FLEX 10K device on the DATA0 pin.
DATA7
I/O
PPA
Output
In the PPA configuration scheme, the DATA7 pin presents
the RDYnBSY signal after the nRS signal has been strobed,
which may be more convenient for microprocessors than
using the RDYnBSY pin.
INIT_DONE
I/O
All
Output
open-drain
Status pin. Can be used to indicate when the device has
initialized and is in user mode. The INIT_DONE pin will
drive low during configuration. Before and after
configuration the INIT_DONE pin is released and is pulled
to VCC by an external pull-up resistor. Because INIT_DONE
is tri-stated before configuration, it will be pulled high by the
external pull-up resistor. Therefore, it is important that the
monitoring circuitry be able to detect a low-to-high
transition. This option is set in MAX+PLUS II.
DEV_OE
I/O
All
Input
Optional pin that allows the user to override all tri-states on
the device. When this pin is driven low all I/Os are tri-stated;
when this pin is driven high, all I/Os behave as in the user
design. This option is set in MAX+PLUS II.
DEV_CLRn
I/O
All
Input
Optional pin that allows the user to override all clears on all
registers on the device. When this pin is driven low all
registers are cleared; when this pin is driven high, all
registers behave as in the user design. This option is set in
MAX+PLUS II.
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Device
Configuration
Files
Altera’s MAX+PLUS II development tools can create one or more
configuration and programming files to support all configuration
schemes discussed in this application note. This section describes these
files.
SRAM Object File (.sof)
An SOF is used in PS configuration when the data is downloaded directly
from the Altera programming hardware with the FLEX Download Cable.
The MAX+PLUS II Compiler’s Assembler module automatically creates
the SOF for each FLEX 10K device in your design. MAX+PLUS II controls
the configuration sequence and automatically inserts the appropriate
headers into the configuration data stream. All other configuration files
are created from the SOF.
Programming Object File (.pof)
A POF is used by the Altera programming hardware to program an EPC1
Configuration EPROM, which is used to configure FLEX 10K devices in
Configuration EPROM mode. A POF is automatically generated when
each FLEX 10K project is compiled. Each EPC1 requires a POF for
programming. For smaller FLEX 10K devices (e.g., EPF10K20) multiple
POFs can fit into one EPC1; for the EPF10K100 or several large FLEX 10K
devices (e.g., two EPF10K70 devices), two or more EPC1 devices are
required to hold the configuration data.
Serial Bitstream File (.sbf)
An SBF is used to configure FLEX 10K devices in-system in PS mode with
the BitBlaster serial download cable. For information on how to use the
BitBlaster, refer to the BitBlaster Serial Download Cable Data Sheet.
To create an SBF, choose the Combine Programming Files command (File
menu) in the MAX+PLUS II Compiler or Programmer. Add the SOF files
you wish to combine to the Selected Files box by selecting each file in the
Directories box and choosing Add. Then, choose .sbf (Sequential) in the File
Format box and choose OK. For more information on creating SBFs, search
for “SBF” in MAX+PLUS II Help.
Hexadecimal (Intel-Format) File (.hex)
A Hex File is an ASCII file in the Intel Hex format. This file is used by
third-party programmers, such as Data I/O programmers, to program
Altera’s serial EPC1 Configuration EPROM. Hex Files are also used to
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AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
program parallel EPROMs with third-party programming hardware. You
can use parallel EPROMs in the PPS and PPA configuration schemes, in
which a microprocessor uses the parallel EPROM as the data source.
To create a Hex File, choose the Combine Programming Files command
(File menu) in the MAX+PLUS II Compiler or Programmer. Add one or
more SOF files to the Selected Files box by selecting the files in the
Directories box and choosing Add. Then, in the File Format box, choose .hex
(single-device). Choose OK. For more information on creating Hex Files,
search for “Hex File” in MAX+PLUS II Help.
Tabular Text File (.ttf)
The TTF is a tabular ASCII file that provides a comma-separated version
of the configuration data for the PPA, PPS, and bit-wide PS configuration
schemes. In some applications, the storage device that contains the
FLEX 10K configuration data is neither dedicated to nor connected
directly to the FLEX 10K device. For example, an EPROM can also contain
executable code for a system (e.g., BIOS routines) and other data. The TTF
allows you to include the FLEX 10K configuration data as part of the
source code for the microprocessor using “include” or “source”
commands. The microprocessor can access this data from an EPROM or a
mass-storage device and load it into the FLEX 10K device.
A TTF can be imported into nearly any assembly language or high-level
language compiler. Consult the documentation for your compiler or
assembler for information on including other source files.
To create a TTF, choose the Combine Programming Files command (File
menu) in the MAX+PLUS II Compiler or Programmer. Add one or more
SOF files to the Selected Files box by selecting the files in the Directories box
and choosing Add. Then, in the File Format box, choose .ttf (Sequential).
Choose OK. For more information on creating TTFs, search for “TTF” in
MAX+PLUS II Help.
Raw Binary File (.rbf)
The RBF is a binary file containing the FLEX 10K configuration data (e.g.,
85 becomes 10000101). Data must be stored so that the least significant bit
(LSB) of each byte of data is loaded first. The converted image can be
stored on a mass storage device. The microprocessor can then read data
from the binary file and load it into the FLEX 10K device. You can also use
the microprocessor to perform real-time conversion during configuration.
In the PPA and PPS configuration schemes, the FLEX 10K device receives
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21
AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
its information in parallel from the data bus, a data port on the
microprocessor, or some other byte-wide channel. In the bit-wide PS
configuration scheme, the data is shifted in serially.
To create an RBF, choose the Combine Programming Files command
(File menu) in the MAX+PLUS II Compiler or Programmer. Add one or
more SOF files to the Selected Files box by selecting the files in the
Directories box and choosing Add. Then, in the File Format box, choose .rbf
(Sequential). Choose OK. For more information on creating RBFs, search
for “RBF” in MAX+PLUS II Help.
Device
Programming
& Configuration
You can configure a FLEX 10K device with data from an EPC1
Configuration EPROM, or you can download data into the FLEX 10K
device with the MAX+PLUS II software.
Programming a Configuration EPROM
You can program the EPC1 Configuration EPROM with MAX+PLUS II,
the PL-MPU Master Programming Unit, and the appropriate
Configuration EPROM programming adapter. The PLMJ1213 adapter
programs EPC1 Configuration EPROMs in 8-pin plastic dual in-line
packages (PDIP) and 20-pin plastic J-lead chip carrier (PLCC) packages.
To program an Altera EPC1 Configuration EPROM:
1.
Choose the Programmer command (MAX+PLUS II menu) to open
the Programmer window.
2.
By default, the Programmer loads the POF for the current project. If
necessary, load a different POF with the Select Programming File
command (File menu). The appropriate device for the current
programming file is displayed in the Device field.
3.
Insert a blank Configuration EPROM into the 8-pin DIP or 20-pin
J-lead socket on the programming adapter.
4.
Choose the Program button.
After successful programming, you can place the EPC1 Configuration
EPROM on the target board to configure a FLEX 10K device in the
Configuration EPROM scheme.
f
22
For more information on the EPC1, refer to the EPC1 Configuration
EPROM for FLEX Devices Data Sheet.
Altera Corporation
AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Configuration with MAX+PLUS II & the FLEX Download Cable
You can configure a FLEX 10K device in-circuit with MAX+PLUS II and
the FLEX Download Cable:
1.
Connect the FLEX Download Cable to the 9-pin D-type connector on
a Configuration EPROM programming adapter.
2.
Connect the other end of the FLEX Download Cable to the 10-pin
male header on the target board.
3.
Start MAX+PLUS II and choose the Programmer command
(MAX+PLUS II menu) to open the Programmer window.
4.
Choose the Select Programming File command (File menu).
5.
Select the desired SOF name in the Files box or type a name in the
File Name box. If you choose a programming file from another
project, you are asked if you wish to change the current project
name.
6.
Choose OK.
7.
Choose the Program button to configure the device.
After the device is configured and initialized, it enters user mode and
operates as a logic device. The FLEX Download Cable is electrically
removed from the circuit and does not influence circuit operation. You
can also physically disconnect the FLEX Download Cable without
disturbing the FLEX 10K configuration data or device operation.
Configuration with MAX+PLUS II & the BitBlaster
f
Configuration
Reliability
Altera Corporation
For instructions on how to configure FLEX devices with the BitBlaster
serial download cable, refer to the BitBlaster Serial Download Cable Data
Sheet in the 1995 Data Book.
The FLEX 10K architecture has been designed to minimize the effects of
power supply and data noise in a system, and to ensure that the
configuration data is not corrupted during configuration or normal usermode operation. A number of circuit design features are provided to
ensure the highest possible level of reliability from this SRAM technology.
23
AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
Cyclic redundancy code (CRC) circuitry is used to validate every data
frame (i.e., sequence of data bits) as it is loaded into the FLEX 10K device.
If the CRC generated by the FLEX 10K device does not match the data
stored in the data stream, the configuration process is halted, and the
nSTATUS pin is pulled and held low to indicate an error condition. CRC
circuitry ensures that noisy systems will not cause errors that yield an
incorrect or incomplete configuration.
The FLEX 10K architecture also provides a very high level of reliability in
low-voltage brown-out conditions. The FLEX 10K devices SRAM cells
require a certain VCC level to maintain accurate data. This voltage
threshold is significantly lower than the voltage required to activate the
power-on reset (POR) circuitry in the FLEX 10K device. Therefore, the
FLEX 10K device stops operating if the VCC starts to fail, and indicates an
operation error by pulling and holding the nSTATUS pin low. The device
must then be reconfigured before it can resume operation as a logic
device. In active configuration schemes, reconfiguration begins as soon as
VCC returns to an acceptable level provided the nCONFIG pin is tied to
VCC. The low pulse on nSTATUS resets the EPROM by driving OE low. In
passive configuration schemes, the host system starts the reconfiguration
process.
These device features ensure that FLEX 10K devices have the highest
possible reliability in a wide variety of environments, and provide the
same high level of system reliability that exists in other Altera
programmable logic devices.
Revision
History
The information contained in Application Note 59 (Configuring FLEX 10K
Devices) version 1.01 supersedes information published in previous
versions. Application Note 59 (Configuring FLEX 10K Devices) version 1.01
contains the following changes:
■
■
■
24
Added the DCLK signal to Figure 6 on page 7 and Figure 8 on page 8.
Added note to Table 5 on page 9.
Updated Figure 15 on page 14.
Altera Corporation
AN 59: Configuring FLEX 10K Devices
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