Whirlpool | RJE-3100 | Specifications | Whirlpool RJE-3100 Specifications

CONDUCTIVITY
INSTRUMENT
µS
C
YSI Model 3100
Conductivity
Salinity
Temperature
Instrument
Operations
Manual
Table of Contents
1. Introduction..............................................................................................................................................1
1.1 Capabilities ...................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Controls............................................................................................................................................................ 2
Front Panel...................................................................................................................................................... 2
Rear Panel....................................................................................................................................................... 3
2. Getting Started.........................................................................................................................................4
2.1 Unpacking........................................................................................................................................................ 4
2.2 Warranty Card.................................................................................................................................................. 4
2.3 What You Need ............................................................................................................................................... 4
3. System Configuration and Operation....................................................................................................5
3.1 Turning the Instrument On............................................................................................................................... 5
3.2 Connect the Cell............................................................................................................................................... 5
3.3 Configure the 3100 .......................................................................................................................................... 6
Cell Constant .................................................................................................................................................. 6
3.4 Measurement Modes ........................................................................................................................................ 7
3.5 Making Measurements ..................................................................................................................................... 9
3.6 Autoranging & Range Searching ..................................................................................................................... 9
3.7 Platinization ..................................................................................................................................................... 9
4. Advanced Setup.....................................................................................................................................10
4.1 Cell Calibration.............................................................................................................................................. 10
4.2 Temperature Coefficient ................................................................................................................................ 12
4.3 Reference Temperature .................................................................................................................................. 12
4.4 Manual Ranging............................................................................................................................................. 13
5. Maintenance...........................................................................................................................................15
5.1 Cell Cleaning and Storage.............................................................................................................................. 15
5.2 Platinization ................................................................................................................................................... 15
6. Troubleshooting ....................................................................................................................................17
Error Messages ............................................................................................................................................. 17
7. Principles of Operation .........................................................................................................................19
7.1 3100 Principles .............................................................................................................................................. 19
7.2 Conductivity Principles.................................................................................................................................. 19
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 19
Conductivity Fundamentals .......................................................................................................................... 19
Cell Constant ................................................................................................................................................ 20
Choosing a Conductivity Cell ....................................................................................................................... 21
Cell Constant Calculation ............................................................................................................................. 22
Conductivity Cell Calibration - Some Things To Remember ..................................................................... 22
Conductivity Law.......................................................................................................................................... 23
Low Conductivity Measurements ................................................................................................................. 23
General Conductivity Measurement Precautions .......................................................................................... 24
Platinization .................................................................................................................................................. 24
Temperature Correction................................................................................................................................ 24
i
Small Sample Measurements ........................................................................................................................ 25
Conductivity System Accuracy Considerations ............................................................................................ 26
7.3 Salinity ........................................................................................................................................................... 26
7.4 Temperature ................................................................................................................................................... 27
7.5 Sources of Errors ........................................................................................................................................... 27
Cell Contamination ....................................................................................................................................... 27
Cell Platinizing ............................................................................................................................................. 27
Electrical-Noise Errors ................................................................................................................................. 27
Contact Resistance........................................................................................................................................ 27
Cable Series Resistance and Shunt Capacitance ........................................................................................... 28
Galvanic and Miscellaneous Effects ............................................................................................................. 28
8. Warranty & Repair .................................................................................................................................29
8.1 Cleaning Instructions ..................................................................................................................................... 30
8.2 Packing Instructions....................................................................................................................................... 31
8.3 Disassembly/Assembly Procedures................................................................................................................ 32
9. Accessories and Replacement Parts...................................................................................................33
9.1 YSI Conductivity Cells .................................................................................................................................. 34
9.2 Standard Calibrator Solutions ........................................................................................................................ 35
10. Required Notice ...................................................................................................................................36
11. Appendix A - Specifications ...............................................................................................................37
12. Appendix B - Temperature Correction Data For Typical Solutions................................................38
13. Appendix C - Conversion Factors......................................................................................................42
14. Appendix D - Glossary of Terms ........................................................................................................43
ii
1.
Introduction
The YSI Model 3100 is a microprocessor based instrument designed to perform laboratory
measurement of conductivity, salinity and temperature. The instrument’s push button operation
makes it simple to use.
The Model 3100's microprocessor allows the system to be easily calibrated with the press of a
few keys. Additionally, the microprocessor performs a self-diagnostic routine each time the
instrument is turned on. The self-diagnostic routine provides you with useful information about
the cell constant, function of the instrument circuitry, and the quality of the readings you obtain.
The system simultaneously displays temperature (in oC), along with one of the following
parameters: conductivity (in µS/cm or mS/cm), temperature compensated conductivity, (in
µS/cm or mS/cm), and salinity (in parts per thousand [ppt]). You can switch back and forth from
salinity, conductivity, and temperature compensated conductivity with a single push of the
[MODE] key.
The new YSI 3200 series conductivity cells contain internal temperature sensors for temperature
measurement and automatic temperature compensation. The Model 3100 is also compatible with
YSI 3400 series conductivity cells when used with the YSI Model 3232 cell adapter. However
3400 series cells do not contain an internal temperature sensor, therefore, when using a 3400
series cell, temperature measurement, temperature compensation or salinity measurement is not
possible.
1.1
Capabilities
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Adjustable reference temperature 15 to 25 °C
Automatic temperature compensation
Adjustable temperature compensation factor 0 to 4%/°C
Adjustable Cell constant, ranges:
0.01, 0.08-0.12, 0.8-1.2, 8-12
Auto or manual ranging
Conductivity or Salinity readings
7-pin mini DIN connector with thermistor connections
AC line power
1
1.2
Controls
Front Panel
The front panel of the instrument contains the display and keypad as shown below.
3100
CONDUCTIVITY INSTRUMENT
12.85
uS
22.4°C
Display
ENTER Key
UP ARROW
MODE Key
Power
ON/OFF
DOWN ARROW
2
The following diagram shows the typical display.
Conductivity:
mS/cm
uS/cm
Temperature compensated conductivity:
mS/cm
uS/cm
10.00
µS
24.8 °C
Salinity:
ppt
Temperature: °C
NOTE: Flashing °C symbol
indicates temperature
compensation is enabled.
The [Mode] key is used to select the current display mode. Mode choices are conductivity,
temperature compensated conductivity or salinity. Temperature is always displayed at the bottom
of the screen.
Rear Panel
The rear panel contains the connections for the power supply and cell. It also has a mounting post
for the 3232 adapter as shown below.
Adapter mounting post
@ 100ma
Power Supply Connection
The power supply connection requires a 12 VDC power supply (included) with at least 100 ma
current. The polarity is marked on the instrument.
3
Cell Connection
The connector for the cell is a 7-pin mini DIN connector and is marked with an arrow to show
proper alignment. Be sure to align the arrows when plugging in the cell.
YSI 3200 series cells utilize a mini DIN connector that plugs directly into the 3100. If, however,
you have a YSI 3400 series cell, the YSI 3232 cell adapter will be required. The YSI 3232
adapter mounts on the post on the rear of the 3100. It has a 7-pin mini-DIN connector and two
binding posts. The mini-DIN connector plugs into the 3100 cell socket and a YSI 3400 series cell
(or equivalent) connects to the binding posts.
YSI 3200 series cells contain an internal temperature sensor for temperature measurement,
temperature compensation and salinity. YSI 3400 series cells do not contain an internal
temperature sensor, therefore, when using a 3400 series cell, temperature measurement,
temperature compensation or salinity measurement is not possible.
2.
Getting Started
2.1
Unpacking
When you unpack your new YSI Model 3100 for the first time, check the packing list to make
sure you have received everything you should have. If there is anything missing or damaged, call
the dealer from whom you purchased the Model 3100. If you do not know which of our
authorized dealers sold the system to you, call YSI Customer Service at 800-765-4974 or 937767-7241, and we'll be happy to help you.
2.2
Warranty Card
Please complete the Warranty Card and return it to YSI. This will record your purchase of this
instrument in our computer system. Once your purchase is recorded, you will receive prompt,
efficient service in the event any part of your YSI Model 3100 should ever need repair.
2.3
What You Need
Several things are needed in order to make accurate conductivity measurements using the YSI
3100. The following list shows the basic items required.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Instrument
Power Supply
Conductivity Cell
Standard Solution(s)
Beakers
Rinsing Solution
4
3.
System Configuration and Operation
3.1
Turning the Instrument On
Plug the power supply into its mating connector on the back of the instrument. Depress
the (on/off) key to turn the instrument on. The instrument will activate all segments of the
display for a few seconds, which will be followed by a self test procedure which will last for
several more seconds. During this power on self test sequence, the instrument’s microprocessor
is verifying that the instrument is working properly. The Model 3100 will display the current cell
constant when the self test is complete.
1.00
Cell constant
CEL
If the instrument detected a problem, the display will show a continuous error message. For a list
of these error messages, see chapter 6 Troubleshooting. After the instrument completes this
diagnostic routine, the following screen should be displayed (with no cell connected).
0.00
µS
udr °C
3.2
Connect the Cell
Plug the cell (YSI 3200 series) into the connector on the back of the instrument marked cell. YSI
3200 series cells contain an internal temperature sensor for temperature measurement and
compensation.
If you are using a YSI 3400 series cell, you will need the YSI 3232 cell adapter. YSI 3400 series
cells do not contain an internal temperature sensor, therefore, when using a 3400 series cell,
temperature measurement, temperature compensation or salinity measurement is not
possible.
5
Conductivity
16.34
µS
24.8 °C
3.3
Temperature: °C
Configure the 3100
Before operating the 3100, or whenever you change cells, you must configure the 3100 to match
the cell used. You must enter the manufacturer’s stated (or your manually calculated) cell
constant (K) as shown below (Cell Constant).
The default configuration is as follows:
•
•
Cell constant of K = 1
Temperature compensation corrected to 25°C using a coefficient of 1.91%/°C.
If you are using a cell with a cell constant of K=1 (such as the YSI 3252, 3253, 3254, 3401,
3403, 3417, or 3445), the cell constant is already set correctly. If, however, you are using a cell
with a different cell constant (such as the YSI 3256, 3255, 3402, 3418, 3440, or 3446), you must
enter the manufacturer’s stated cell constant for the cell that you are using (K= 0.1, 10.0 etc.) as
shown below (Cell Constant).
Cell Constant
Follow these steps to change the cell constant.
1. With the instrument on, press and release the [DOWN ARROW] and [MODE] keys at the
same time. The CAL symbol will appear at the bottom left of the display and the large portion
of the display will show 1.91% (or a value set previously using Advanced Setup).
1.91%
22.7 °C
Cal symbol
CAL
2. Press and release the [MODE] key. The large portion of the display will show 25.0C (or a
value set previously using Advanced Setup).
3. Press and release the [MODE] key again. The large portion of the display will show 1.00 (or a
value set previously using Advanced Setup).
6
1.00
Cell constant
CAL
4. Use the [UP ARROW] or [DOWN ARROW] keys to change the value to the desired new cell
constant.
0.10
New cell constant
CAL
5. Press the [ENTER] key. The word “SAVE” will flash across the display for a second to
indicate that your change has been accepted. The 3100 will return to normal operation mode.
SAVE
3.4
Measurement Modes
The Model 3100 is designed to provide four distinct measurements:
! Conductivity -- A measurement of the conductive material in the liquid sample without regard
to temperature
! Temperature Compensated Conductivity -- Automatically adjusts the reading to a calculated
value which would have been read if the sample had been at 25o C (or some
other reference temperature which you choose). See section 4. Advanced
Setup. NOTE: Requires YSI 3200 series cell.
! Salinity -- A calculation done by the instrument electronics, based upon the conductivity and
temperature readings. NOTE: Requires YSI 3200 series cell.
! Temperature -- Always displayed.
NOTE: When you turn the Model 3100 off, it will “remember” which mode you used last and
will return to that mode the next time the instrument is turned on.
7
To choose one of the measurement modes (temperature is always displayed), simply press and
release the [MODE] key. Carefully observe the small legends at the far right side of the LCD.
Temperature
Compensated
Conductivity
with °C
Conductuctivity
with °C
Salinity
with °C
If the instrument is reading Temperature compensated conductivity, the large numbers on the
display will be followed by either a µS or mS and the small portion of the display will show the
o
C flashing on and off.
If the instrument is reading Conductivity, the large numbers on the display will be followed by
either a µS or mS, but the small portion of the display will show the oC NOT flashing.
10.62
mS
24.8 °C
°C Not flashing = Conductivity
°C Flashing = Temperature compensated
conductivity
NOTE: The instrument measures conductivity in uS/cm or mS/cm even though the /cm is
not shown on the display.
If the instrument is reading Salinity, the large numbers on the display will be followed by a ppt.
34.2
Salinity
ppt
24.8 °C
NOTE: Temperature compensated conductivity and salinity modes cannot be used unless a
YSI 3200 series cell is connected. When using a YSI 3400 series cell (or equivalent)
with the 3232 cell adapter, these modes will display an error message (“LErr”) since
3400 series cells do not contain a temperature sensor.
8
3.5
Making Measurements
After setting up the 3100 instrument and cell as described earlier, the following basic steps
should be used to make measurements.
1. Verify that the 3100 is properly set up to use the current cell by measuring, or calibrating
with, a standard conductivity solution. See section 4.1 Cell Calibration.
2. Immerse the cell in the solution to be measured.
3. Gently tap the cell to remove any air bubbles and dip the cell in the solution 2 or 3 times
to ensure proper wetting. The cell electrodes must be submerged and the electrode
chamber must not contain any trapped air. If using a flow through or fill cell, be certain it
is completely full.
4. Allow time for the temperature to stabilize.
5. Press the [MODE] key to select the units required, then read the display.
6. Rinse the cell with distilled or deionized water.
3.6
Autoranging & Range Searching
The YSI Model 3100 is an autoranging instrument. This means that, regardless of the
conductivity or salinity of the solution (within the specifications of the instrument), all you need
to do to get the most accurate reading is to put the cell in the sample. This feature makes the
Model 3100 as simple as possible to operate.
When you first place the cell into a sample or calibration solution, and again when you first
remove the cell, the instrument will go into a range search mode that may take as long as 5
seconds. During some range searches, the instrument display will flash rANG to indicate its
movement from one range to another.
rANG
The length of the range search depends on the number of ranges which must be searched in order
to find the correct range for the sample. During the range search, the instrument will appear to
freeze on a given reading for a few seconds then, once the range is located, will pinpoint the
exact reading on the display. The display may also switch to 00.0 for a second or two during a
range search before it selects the proper range.
During normal operation, the [ENTER] key enables and disables the autoranging feature of the
instrument. See 4.4 Manual Ranging if you need to switch to manual ranging.
3.7
Platinization
The 3100 can be used to replatinize the electrodes of the cell. See section 5.2 Platinization for
details.
9
4.
Advanced Setup
For highest accuracy, the 3100 and cell may be calibrated as a system using standard conductivity
calibration solutions. See the following section, 4.1 Cell Calibration, for details.
The default temperature compensation settings of the YSI Model 3100 are appropriate for the
vast majority of measurement applications. However, some measurement applications require
very specific measurement criteria. For that reason, we have made the YSI Model 3100 flexible
to accommodate these “advanced users.”
If, for example, you are using the YSI Model 3100 for a process control application which
requires that the conductivity readings be compensated to 20°C instead of 25°C -- see section,
4.3 Reference Temperature. Or, if your application involves the measurement of a very specific
saline solution, the default temperature coefficient may need to be changed to get the very best
measurement of that specific salt. See section 4.2 Temperature Coefficient.
4.1
Cell Calibration
Prior to calibration of the YSI Model 3100, it is important to remember the following:
•
The cell constant must be set correctly before calibrating. See section 3.3 Configure the 3100,
Cell Constant.
•
Always use clean, properly stored, NIST traceable calibration solutions (see section 9.2
Standard Calibrator Solutions). When filling a calibration container prior to performing the
calibration procedures, make certain that the level of calibrant buffers is high enough in the
container to cover the electrodes. Gently agitate the cell to remove any bubbles in the
conductivity cell.
•
Rinse the cell with distilled water (and wipe dry) between changes of calibration solutions.
•
During calibration, allow the cell time to stabilize with regard to temperature (approximately
60 seconds) before proceeding with the calibration process. The readings after calibration are
only as good as the calibration itself.
•
Perform calibration at a temperature as close to 25°C as possible. This will minimize any
temperature compensation error.
Follow these steps to perform an accurate calibration of the YSI Model 3100:
1. Select a calibration solution which is most similar to the sample you will be measuring.
•
•
•
For sea water choose a 50mS/cm conductivity standard (YSI 3165 or 3169)
For fresh water choose a 1mS/cm conductivity standard (YSI 3161 or 3167)
For brackish water choose a 10mS/cm conductivity standard (YSI 3163 or 3168)
2. Place at least 3 inches of solution in a clean glass beaker.
3. Insert the cell into the beaker deep enough to completely cover the electrodes. Do not rest the
cell on the bottom of the container -- suspend it above the bottom at least 1/4 inch.
10
4. Gently tap the cell to remove any air bubbles and dip the cell in the solution 2 or 3 times to
ensure proper wetting. If using a flow through or fill cell, be certain it is completely full.
5. Allow at least 60 seconds for the temperature reading to become stable.
6. Press the [MODE] key until the instrument is in the conductivity mode that you want to
calibrate in as follows:
Temperature compensated conductivity (°C symbol flashing): This mode will
automatically compensate the calibration value to
25°C using a coefficient of 1.91%/°C.
Conductivity (°C symbol NOT flashing): This mode does NOT use temperature
compensation.
7. Press and release both the [UP ARROW] and [DOWN ARROW] keys at the same time.
10.12
mS
24.3 °C
CAL
CAL symbol
The CAL symbol will appear at the bottom left of the display to indicate that the instrument is now
in Calibration mode.
8. Use the [UP ARROW] or [DOWN ARROW] key to adjust the reading on the display until
it matches the value of the calibration solution you are using. If you are calibrating in
temperature compensated conductivity mode, enter the value at 25°C. If you are calibrating in
conductivity mode (not temperature compensated), enter the value the calibration solution
should read at the current temperature (see Appendix B).
10.00
Calibration solution value
mS
24.3 °C
CAL
9. Once the display reads the exact value of the calibration solution being used, press the
[ENTER] key. The word “SAVE” will flash across the display for a second indicating that
the calibration has been accepted.
The YSI Model 3100 is designed to retain its last calibration permanently. Therefore, there is no
need to calibrate the instrument after power down.
11
4.2
Temperature Coefficient
Follow these steps to modify the temperature coefficient of the Model 3100.
1. Press and release the [DOWN ARROW] and [MODE] keys at the same time. The CAL
symbol will appear at the bottom left of the display and the large portion of the display will
%
show 1.91 (or a value set previously using Advanced Setup).
1.91%
Temperature coefficient
22.7 °C
CAL
CAL symbol
2. Use the [UP ARROW] or [DOWN ARROW] key to change the value to the desired new
temperature coefficient.
1.50%
New temperature coefficient
22.7 °C
CAL
3. Press the [ENTER] key. The word “SAVE” will flash across the display for a second to
indicate that your change has been accepted.
4. Press the [MODE] key two times to return to normal operation; the CAL symbol will
disappear from the display.
See Appendix B for charts of common salt solutions at various temperatures.
4.3
Reference Temperature
Follow these steps to modify the reference temperature of the Model 3100.
1. Press and release the [DOWN ARROW] and [MODE] keys at the same time.
1.91%
22.7 °C
CAL symbol
CAL
12
The CAL symbol will appear at the bottom left of the display and the large portion of the
%
display will show 1.91 (or a value set previously using Advanced Setup).
2. Press and release the [MODE] key. The large portion of the display will show 25.0C (or a
value set previously using Advanced Setup).
25.0C
Reference temperature
22.7
CAL
3. Use the [UP ARROW] or [DOWN ARROW] key to change the value to the desired new
reference temperature (the allowable range is 15°C to 25°C).
15.0C
New reference temperature
22.7
CAL
4. Press the [ENTER] key. The word “SAVE” will flash on the display for a second to indicate
that your change has been accepted.
5. Press the [MODE] key to return to normal operation.
4.4
Manual Ranging
If your application is easier to perform using a manual range that you select, the YSI Model 3100
allows you to turn off the default autoranging feature. While you are making conductivity or
temperature compensated conductivity measurements, simply press and release the [ENTER]
key. The conductivity units will flash indicating that the instrument is now in a manual range.
Each additional press of the [ENTER] key will cycle the Model 3100 to a different manual range
until you return again to autoranging. Six pushes of the [ENTER] key will cycle the Model 3100
through the five available manual ranges and return the instrument to autoranging.
10.62
mS
24.8 °C
13
Flashes to indicate
Manual range
NOTE: You may see an error message in some manual ranges if the range selected is not
adequate for the sample you are measuring.
rErr
mS
Range error message
24.8 °C
If this happens, simply press and release the [ENTER] key again until a range is selected which
is suitable for your sample. If you get lost and don’t know if you’re in a manual range or
autoranging, simply turn the instrument off and back on. The instrument will default to
autoranging when first turned on.
The YSI Model 3100 has five possible ranges. The number of ranges available for use depends
on the current cell constant.
Cell
Constant
Range 1
0 - 49.99 µS/cm
Range 2
0 - 499.9 µS/cm
K=0.01
√
√
K=0.1
√
√
√
K=1
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
K=10
Range 3
0 - 4999 µS/cm
Range 4
0 - 49.99 mS/cm
Range 5
0 - 499.9 mS/cm
√
NOTE: Cells may be used beyond their normal range, but with instability and/or reduced
accuracy.
14
5.
Maintenance
5.1
Cell Cleaning and Storage
The single most important requirement for accurate and reproducible results in conductivity
measurement is a clean cell. A dirty cell will change the conductivity of a solution by
contaminating it.
To clean a conductivity cell:
1. Dip or fill the cell with cleaning solution and agitate for two to three minutes. Any one of
the foaming acid tile cleaners, such as Dow Chemical Bathroom Cleaner, will clean the
cell adequately. When a stronger cleaning preparation is required, use a solution of 1:1
isopropyl alcohol and 10N HCl or Sulfuric Acid or Ethanol or Methanol.
CAUTION: Cells should not be cleaned in aqua regia or in any solution known to etch
platinum or gold.
2. Remove the cell from the solution and rinse in several changes of distilled or deionized
water. Inspect the platinum black to see if replatinizing is required.
Storage
Short term: Store conductivity cells in deionized or distilled water. Change the water frequently
to prevent any growth that may cause electrode fouling.
Long term: Rinse thoroughly with deionized or distilled water and store dry. Any cell that has
been stored dry should be soaked in distilled water until the electrodes appear black
before use.
5.2
Platinization
The electrodes of YSI 3200 and 3400 Series conductivity cells are coated with platinum black
during manufacturing. This coating is extremely important to cell operation, especially in
solutions of high conductivity.
The cell should be inspected periodically. If the coating appears to be thin or if it is flaking off,
the electrodes should be cleaned, as noted above, and replatinized. Properly maintained
conductivity cells will perform for years without replatinizing.
The 3100 can be used to replatinize the electrodes of the cell. In addition, you will need a 2-oz
bottle of platinizing solution (YSI 3140).
WARNING: Before replatinizing the electrodes of a cell, make sure that the cell is
designed to have a platinum coating on the electrodes.
1. Immerse the cell in the platinizing solution (YSI 3140). Make sure that both electrodes are
submerged.
15
2. Press both the [UP ARROW] and [MODE] keys at the same time. The large portion of the
display will show “PLA” flashing, indicating that platinization is in process.
PLA
3. After the platinization process is complete (about 30 minutes), the 3100 will return to normal
mode. Remove the cell from the platinizing solution. If you want to stop the platinization
before 30 minutes have passed, press both the [UP ARROW] and [MODE] keys at the same
time to abort.
4. Thoroughly rinse the cell with distilled or deionized water.
5. Promptly return the platinizing solution to its container.
16
6.
Troubleshooting
Error Messages
The instrument performs a Power On Self Test each time it is turned on. The following error
messages are provided to facilitate troubleshooting. They appear on the LCD when an error is
detected.
SYMPTOM
1.
Instrument will not turn on
2.
Instrument will not calibrate
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Instrument readings are inaccurate
Main Display reads “OVEr”
Main Display reads “Undr”
Main Display reads “rErr”
Main Display reads “PErr”
POSSIBLE CAUSE
ACTION
•
•
Power supply
Instrument requires service
•
•
Check power supply and AC outlet
Return system for service
•
Incorrect calibration procedure
•
See 4.1 Cell Calibration
•
Cell needs cleaning
•
See 5. Maintenance
•
Instrument requires service
•
Return system for service
•
Calibration is required
•
See 4.1 Cell Calibration
•
Cell is contaminated
•
See 5. Maintenance
•
Temperature coefficient has been
set incorrectly
•
See 4.2 Temperature Coefficient
•
Reference temperature incorrect
•
See 4.3 Reference Temperature
•
Readings are or are not temperature
compensated.
•
See 3.4 Measurement Modes
•
Conductivity Reading is over
range:
>112 uS with K=0.01 cell
>11.2 mS with K=0.1 cell
>112 mS with K=1 cell
>499.9 mS with K=10 cell
•
In all cases, check calibration
values and procedure; check
Advanced Setup settings.
•
Set cell constant to correct range.
See 3.3 Configure the 3200, Cell
Constant.
•
If each of these is set correctly,
return system for service.
•
Set cell constant to correct range.
See 3.3 Configure the 3200, Cell
Constant.
•
Recalibrate using known good
conductivity standard. See 4.1 Cell
Calibration.
•
Follow cell cleaning procedure. See
5. Maintenance.
•
Use the ENTER key to select a
higher or lower manual range, or to
set system to Autoranging.
•
Refer to manual section which
provides step by step procedures
for the function you are attempting.
•
Salinity reading is > 80ppt
•
User cell constant cal is over the
limit of the current range
•
User cell constant cal is under the
limit of the current range
•
User has selected manual ranging &
sample exceeds selected range
•
Conductivity reading is over the
range of the instrument: >499.9 mS
•
Incorrect sequence of key strokes
17
SYMPTOM
8.
9.
Main Display reads “LErr”
Secondary Display reads “Err ra”
10. Secondary Display reads “Err ro”
11. Secondary Display reads “udr”
12. Secondary Display reads “ovr”
13. Secondary Display reads “rEr”
POSSIBLE CAUSE
ACTION
•
Adjust user defined temperature
coefficient (see 4.2 Temperature
Coefficient) or reference
temperature (see 4.3 Reference
Temperature)
•
Use a YSI 3200 series cell or turn
off temperature compensation.
System has failed its RAM test
check procedure
•
Turn instrument OFF and back ON.
•
Return the system for service.
System has failed its ROM test
check procedure
•
Turn instrument OFF and back ON.
•
Return the system for service.
•
Current cell does not contain a
temperature sensor (such as YSI
3400 series).
•
Use a YSI 3200 series cell if
temperature readings or
compensation are required
•
Temperature is < -5o C
•
Read solution of higher temperature
•
Replace Cell/Cable assy
•
In temperature compensated
conductivity mode, temperature
exceeds the values computed using
user defined temperature coefficient
and/or reference temperature.
•
In cell constant cal mode,
temperature exceeds the values
computed using user defined
temperature coefficient and/or
reference temperature.
•
The user has selected Temperature
Compensated Conductivity or
Salinity and the current cell does
not contain a temperature sensor.
•
•
•
•
Temperature is > 95o C
o
Temperature jumper is set to F
and reading is >199.9 o F but < 203
o
F
18
•
Return system for service
•
Read solution of lower temperature
•
Replace Cell/Cable assy.
•
Return system for service
•
Set jumper to read o C.
•
Return system for service
7.
Principles of Operation
7.1
3100 Principles
The YSI 3100 obtains a conductance value by varying the amplitude of a square-wave current
forced through the cell so that the center-sampled magnitude of the cell voltage for each halfcycle is constant and is equal to a reference voltage. In this condition, the current and
conductance are directly proportional. To convert this conductance value to conductivity, it is
multiplied by the cell constant which has units of reciprocal cm (cm-1). For most applications, the
cell constant is automatically determined (or confirmed) with each deployment of the system
when the calibration procedure is followed. Solutions with conductivities of 1.00, 10.0, 50.0, and
100.0 mS/cm, which have been prepared in accordance with recommendation 56-1981 of the
Organization International De Metrologie Legale (OIML) are available from YSI. The instrument
output is in µS/cm or mS/cm for both conductivity and temperature compensated conductivity.
The multiplication of cell constant times conductance is carried out automatically by the
software.
7.2
Conductivity Principles
Introduction
Conductivity measurements are used in waste water treatment, industry, pharmaceutical, and
military etc. as a measurement of the purity or the condition of a process. Conductivity is used as
a measurement of a solution’s ability to conduct electric current. The ability of a solution to
conduct electric current depends upon ions: their concentration, size, mobility, viscosity, valence
and the temperature of the solution. Inorganic solutions are relatively good conductors. Organic
solutions are poor conductors.
Conductivity Fundamentals
Electrical conductance (k) is defined as the ratio of the current (I) in a conductor to the
difference in the electrical potential (V) between its ends (k=I/V), measured in mhos or siemens
(S). Conductance, therefore, is not a specific measurement. Its value is dependent upon the length
of the conductor. Conductivity (ℵ
ℵ), or specific conductance, is the conductance per unit of
conductor length. For our purposes, conductivity is defined as the conductance in mhos or
siemens measured across the sides of a one centimeter cube of liquid at a specified temperature.
Looking at our electrodes as sides of a cube, it becomes apparent that
the conductance changes as the geometry of the cube changes. If the
cube lengthens with respect to the area of the sides, then the
conductance will decrease. If the area of the sides increases with
respect to the distance between them, then the conductance will
increase. The conductivity, however, will remain the same, regardless
of the geometry, provided that the temperature and composition of the
measured solution remain constant. A factor called the cell constant
(K) relates conductivity to conductance. The cell constant is defined
as the ratio of the distance between the electrodes (d) to the area
19
normal to the current flow (A):
d
Cell Constant = K = A
Therefore, conductivity equals conductance multiplied by the cell constant.
ℵ
= k ×K
Example: For an observed conductance of 100 micro mhos (100 microsiemens) and a cell
constant of 0.1/cm
ℵ = k × K
= 100 µ mho × 0.1 / cm
= 10 µ mho / cm
In SI units, the cell constant K=0.1/cm would become K=10/m, and the same conductivity would
be expressed:
ℵ = k × K
= 100 µ S × 10 / m
= 1 mS / m
Cell Constant
The cell constant (K) is used to determine the resistivity or conductivity of a solution. It is
defined as the ratio of the distance between
electrodes (d) to the area normal to the
current flow (A). Cells with constants of
1.0/cm or greater normally have small, widelyspaced electrodes, while cells with constants or
0.1/cm or less have larger electrodes that are
closely-spaced.
20
Choosing a Conductivity Cell
Decide which cell will be the most useful for your conditions by considering the conductivity of
the solution you want to measure, the size of the sample and if temperature measurement or
compensation is required.
3252, 3417
3418
3256, 3402
3255, 3446
3401
3440
3253, 3403
3254, 3445
0
0.1
1.0
10
1000 µS/cm
1
100
10
100
1000 mS/cm
Conductivity
The chart above reflects general guidelines. Refer to cell specifications for details.
3200 SERIES CONDUCTIVITY CELLS
Dip cells are generally used for routine conductivity
measurements. The 3254 Fill Cell is designed for small
sample or high throughput work. It requires only 5 ml of
sample and can make measurements quickly from one
sample to the next.
The 3255 Flow Cell is designed for in-line conductivity
measurements, such as for ultrapure water systems.
For temperature measurement, temperature
compensation or salinity, use YSI 3200 series cells.
3252
3253
3254
3255
3256
21
Cell Constant Calculation
YSI 3200 and 3400 Series conductivity cells are calibrated to ± 1% of nominal by
means of a YSI transfer standard traceable to OIML Recommendation 56 and NIST.
Anytime the condition of the conductivity cell changes, it is possible that the cell constant has
also changed. Therefore, you should calibrate your system regularly. If you want to manually
calculate your cell constant, measure the conductance of a standard solution and compare with
the theoretical conductivity of the solution. The formula for determining the cell constant is:
K =
where K
k
ℵ
ℵ
k
= cell constant in cgs metric units (cm-1)
= measured conductance in µ mho
= theoretical conductivity in µ mho/cm
The measured conductance (k) and conductivity (ℵ) must either be determined at the same
temperature or corrected to the same temperature for the equation to be valid. One main reason
for cell constant calibration is to increase overall system accuracy.
Conductivity Cell Calibration - Some Things To Remember
1. Rinse the cell and solution container with some calibrator solution before calibration.
2. Prevent contamination of the solution.
3. Minimize evaporation of the solution.
4. Use adequate sample volume.
5. Purge all air from the cell.
6. Allow adequate time for temperature equilibration.
7. Stir the solution slowly.
8. Know the solution temperature accurately; a 1º C temperature error is approximately a
2% error in conductivity.
9. Insure sound electrical connection between the cell and the instrument.
22
Conductivity Law
Solution
Conductivity
S/cm or mho/cm
mS/cm or mmho/cm
µS/cm or µmho/cm
Instrument
Conductance
S or mho
mS or mmho
µS or µmho
=
=
=
CELL CONSTANT =
×
×
×
Cell
Constant
1/cm
1/cm
1/cm
SOLUTION CONDUCTIVITY
METER CONDUCTANCE
METER CONDUCTANCE =
SOLUTION CONDUCTIVITY
CELL CONSTANT
Low Conductivity Measurements
When measuring reagent grade water (deionized) or other substances having extremely low
conductivity, it is recommend that a flow-through cell having a constant of 0.1/cm be used for
the best accuracy. If a flow-through cell is not practical, then extraordinary precautions must be
taken in regard to equipment setup, cell cleanliness, electrical interferences, etc. Therefore, when
operating on this range, some instability in the least significant digit is normal and should be
averaged or ignored.
Error Sources
•
•
Solution temperature coefficient may be upwards of 7% per °C
Absorption of atmospheric CO2 may account for 1.3µS/cm at 25°C
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Platinization ions may leach into the solution from the electrodes
Glass ions may leach into the solution from the cell or container
Organic substances may leach into the solution if plastic is used
Electrical noise
Contact resistance
Cable series resistance and shunt capacitance
Cell series and shunt capacitance
Galvanic effects
Only the first four are of major concern for typical measurements, although the user should also
be careful to see that cells are clean and maintained in good condition at all times.
23
General Conductivity Measurement Precautions
After selecting the proper cell, observe the following precautions to ensure accurate, repeatable
results:
1. The cell must be clean before making any measurements. When working with substances
having low conductivity, extraordinary cleanliness may be required.
2. Soak cells that have been stored dry in deionized water before use.
3. Immerse the cell in the solution deep enough to submerge the vent hole.
4. The electrode chamber should be free of trapped air.
5. The cell should be at least ¼ inch away from any other object, including the walls or
bottom of the solution container.
6. Stirring may be necessary for highest accuracy measurements, especially in lowconductivity solutions and to achieve good thermal equilibration.
7. If possible, isolate from ground potential the measurement container.
8. Electrical fields and stray currents caused by stirrer motors, heaters, etc., can interfere
with measurements. The user should determine the effects of these and make the
necessary corrections, either by shielding or by disconnecting those units that cause
trouble.
9. Always handle the cell carefully.
10. Always rinse the cell carefully before transferring it from one solution to another.
11. Never store a dirty or contaminated cell.
12. The cells should not be submerged in aqua regia or any solution which might etch or
dissolve gold.
Platinization
Platinum Black Inspection
The electrodes of YSI 3200 and 3400 Series conductivity cells are coated with platinum black
during manufacturing. This coating is extremely important to cell operation, especially in
solutions of high conductivity.
The cell should be inspected periodically. If the coating appears to be thin or if it is flaking off,
the electrodes should be cleaned and replatinized. Properly maintained conductivity cells will
perform for years without replatinizing.
Replatinizing
The 3100 can be used to replatinize a cell that utilizes electrodes coated with platinum. See
section 5.2 Platinization. You will need a 2-oz bottle of platinizing solution (YSI 3140).
Temperature Correction
By convention, the conductivity of a solution is the conductivity it exhibits at 25°C. The
conductivity of electrolytic solutions varies with temperature, concentration, and composition.
The amount that the conductivity changes with temperature is expressed as a percent
24
change in conductivity for each degree change in temperature (%/°°C), which is called the
temperature coefficient. In extreme cases, the temperature coefficient may have a value as high
as 7%/°C. Each conductive ion has a different temperature coefficient.
When practical, control the temperature of the solution to be analyzed. For high precision work
(±1%), maintain the temperature at 25°C ± 0.1°C. For routine lab work, 25°C ± 0.5°C may be
acceptable. (Ref: ASTM D1125-82 Standard Methods of Test for Electrical Conductivity of
Water)
When sample temperature control is not practical, use temperature correction to determine the
conductivity at 25°C. The temperature coefficient of your sample can be determined either from
published data or from measurements of representative samples. This coefficient may then be
applied to correct future measurements on samples of similar composition. If sample
composition changes appreciably, the coefficient should be redetermined.
Once the temperature coefficient is known, the conductivity at 25°C can be manually determined
from the following equation:
ℵ25 =
where T
ℵ25
ℵT
α
ℵT
1 + α (T - 25)
= temperature of sample
= conductivity at 25°°C
= conductivity at measurement temperature T
= temperature coefficient of the conductivity solution
Determining The Temperature Coefficient
You can determine the linear temperature correction coefficient of a solution by measuring its
conductivity at different temperatures using the following equation:
α=
where T
ℵ25
ℵT
α
ℵT - ℵ25
ℵ25 (T - 25)
= temperature of sample
= conductivity at 25°°C
= conductivity at measurement temperature T
= temperature coefficient of the conductivity solution
Small Sample Measurements
It is not always possible to immerse the conductivity cell in a solution for measurements. If the
quantity of solution is not sufficient for a proper measurement with a dip cell, a sample must be
removed for assay. For this application, use the 3254 fill cell. This cell requires 5 mL of sample.
Alternatively, any 3200 or 3400 Series cell, except the 3418 or 3440, may be inverted and used
as a fill cell.
25
The cell you use for small sample applications depends upon the
quantity of solution available and the conductivity of the
solution. The 3401 cell (K=1.0/cm) requires 15 mL, the 3256
and 3402 cells (K=0.1/cm) require 12 mL, the 3253 and 3403
cells (K=1.0/cm) require 3 mL, and the 3252 and 3417 cells
(K=1.0/cm) require 1 mL of sample.
When a dip cell is used as a fill cell, the cell's vent hole is sealed
and the electrode chamber is inverted and filled with solution,
changing the cell constant (K). The cell will require calibration
after being configured as a fill cell.
Conductivity System Accuracy Considerations
System accuracy for conductivity measurements is equal to the sum of the errors contributed by
the environment and the various components of the measurement setup. These include:
•
•
•
Instrument accuracy
Cell-constant accuracy
Temperature measurement accuracy
Instrument Accuracy
YSI meters are very accurate; however, each instrument and range has its own accuracy
statement and therefore, must be accounted for in the overall accuracy determination.
Cell-Constant Accuracy
YSI cells are warranted to be accurate to within one percent, for more accurate work you should
calibrate the cell to determine the exact cell constant.
Temperature Accuracy
The solution temperature accuracy is the sum of the instrument accuracy plus the temperature
sensor accuracy.
If the conductivity is to be expressed at 25°C, some additional errors will be introduced either by
the instrument's temperature correction electronics or by the mathematics used for the conversion
to 25°C.
7.3
Salinity
Salinity is determined automatically from the Model 3100 conductivity and temperature readings
according to algorithms found in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and
Wastewater (ed. 1995). The use of the Practical Salinity Scale 1978 results in values which are
unitless, since the measurements are carried out in reference to the conductivity of standard
seawater at 15°C. However, the unitless salinity values are very close to those determined by the
previously-used method where the mass of dissolved salts in a given mass of water (parts per
thousand) was reported. Hence, the designation "ppt" is reported by the instrument to provide a
more conventional output.
26
7.4
Temperature
The Model 3100 system utilizes a thermistor of sintered metallic oxide which changes
predictably in resistance with temperature variation. The algorithm for conversion of resistance
to temperature is built-in to the Model 3100 software, and accurate temperature readings in
degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit are provided automatically. No calibration or maintenance of the
temperature sensor is required.
7.5
Sources of Errors
Cell Contamination
This error is usually due to contamination of the cell by some previous solution. Normally this is
in the form of an organic film which reduces the solution-electrode interface conductance.
Follow the cleaning instructions carefully.
An entirely different form of contamination sometimes occurs when cells are stored for long
periods of time wet; alga and other life forms grow on the electrodes. While rare, such deposits
have, on occasion, markedly reduced the effectiveness of the cell by reducing the solutionelectrode interface conductance.
Cell Platinizing
Errors can be introduced by cells that have begun to lose their electrode coating of platinum
black when measuring solutions having high conductivity values. The effect of poor platinization
is a loss of linearity and a noticeably large change in conductance from range to range on the
instrument.
When you suspect a problem with the cell platinization, follow the instructions for electrode
inspection and replatinization carefully before attempting any critical measurements.
Electrical-Noise Errors
Electrical noise can be a problem in any measurement range, but will contribute the most error
and be the most difficult to eliminate when using the lowest conductance settings. The noise may
be either line-conducted or radiated or both, and may require revised lead dress, grounding,
shielding, or all three. Often, all that is necessary is to make sure that parallel leads are of equal
length and twisted together.
Contact Resistance
YSI 3200 series cells utilize a 4-wire connection virtually eliminating errors due to contact
resistance.
When using the YSI 3232 cell adapter to connect a 2-wire cell (such as the YSI 3400 series
cells), contact resistance can be a source of error when measuring high conductivity. Lugs should
be clean and free of mechanical distortion. They should fit squarely on terminal posts that are
properly tightened. Leads should also be inspected to verify that no physical damage has occurred
that might degrade electrical contact.
27
Cable Series Resistance and Shunt Capacitance
YSI 3200 series cells utilize a 4-wire connection virtually eliminating errors due to cable
resistance.
The short cables provided as a part of regular cell assemblies will introduce negligible error in
most measurements. However, if longer cables are required or if extraordinary accuracy is
necessary, special precautions may be prudent.
When using the YSI 3232 cell adapter and a 2-wire cell (such as the YSI 3400 series cells) with
solutions having very high conductivity values, a high cable resistance will become a major
source of error unless accounted for. When working with solutions having very low conductivity
values and long cables with large capacitance, such as might be used with a flow-through cells at
remote locations, the large cable capacitance will become a major source of error.
Galvanic and Miscellaneous Effects
In addition to the error sources described above, there is another class of contributors that can be
ignored for all but the most meticulous of laboratory measurements. These errors are always
small and are generally completely masked by the error budget for cell-constant calibration,
instrument accuracy, etc. Examples range from parasitic reactances associated with the solution
container and its proximity to external objects to the minor galvanic effects resulting from oxide
formation or deposition on electrodes. Only trial and error in the actual measurement
environment can be suggested as an approach to reduce such errors. If the reading does not
change as the setup is adjusted, errors due to such factors can be considered too small to see.
28
8.
Warranty & Repair
YSI Model 3100 Instruments are warranted for two years from date of purchase by the end user against defects in
materials and workmanship. YSI cells and cables are warranted for one year from date of purchase by the end user
against defects in material and workmanship. Within the warranty period, YSI will repair or replace, at its sole
discretion, free of charge, any product that YSI determines to be covered by this warranty.
To exercise this warranty, write or call your local YSI representative, or contact YSI Customer Service in Yellow
Springs, Ohio. Send the product and proof of purchase, transportation prepaid, to the Authorized Service Center selected
by YSI. Repair or replacement will be made and the product returned, transportation prepaid. Repaired or replaced
products are warranted for the balance of the original warranty period, or at least 90 days from date of repair or
replacement.
Limitation of Warranty
This Warranty does not apply to any YSI product damage or failure caused by (i) failure to install, operate or use the
product in accordance with YSI’s written instructions, (ii) abuse or misuse of the product, (iii) failure to maintain the
product in accordance with YSI’s written instructions or standard industry procedure, (iv) any improper repairs to the
product, (v) use by you of defective or improper components or parts in servicing or repairing the product, or (vi)
modification of the product in any way not expressly authorized by YSI.
THIS WARRANTY IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. YSI’s
LIABILITY UNDER THIS WARRANTY IS LIMITED TO REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT OF THE PRODUCT,
AND THIS SHALL BE YOUR SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY FOR ANY DEFECTIVE PRODUCT
COVERED BY THIS WARRANTY. IN NO EVENT SHALL YSI BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT,
INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ANY DEFECTIVE PRODUCT
COVERED BY THIS WARRANTY.
YSI Authorized Service Centers
Please contact YSI for the nearest authorized service center.
YSI Technical Support • 1725 Brannum Lane • Yellow Springs, OH • 45387 • Phone: +1 937 767-7241 • 800 897-4151 (US)
environmental@ysi.com • www.ysi.com
29
8.1
Cleaning Instructions
NOTE: Before they can be serviced, equipment exposed to biological, radioactive, or toxic
materials must be cleaned and disinfected. Biological contamination is presumed for any
instrument, probe, or other device that has been used with body fluids or tissues, or with waste
water. Radioactive contamination is presumed for any instrument, probe or other device that has
been used near any radioactive source.
If an instrument, probe, or other part is returned or presented for service without a Cleaning
Certificate, and if in our opinion it represents a potential biological or radioactive hazard, our
service personnel reserve the right to withhold service until appropriate cleaning,
decontamination, and certification has been completed. We will contact the sender for
instructions as to the disposition of the equipment. Disposition costs will be the responsibility of
the sender.
When service is required, either at the user's facility or at YSI, the following steps must be taken
to insure the safety of our service personnel.
1. In a manner appropriate to each device, decontaminate all exposed surfaces, including any
containers. 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of 1/4 cup bleach to 1 gallon tap water are
suitable for most disinfecting. Instruments used with waste water may be disinfected with
.5% Lysol if this is more convenient to the user.
2. The user shall take normal precautions to prevent radioactive contamination and must use
appropriate decontamination procedures should exposure occur.
3. If exposure has occurred, the customer must certify that decontamination has been
accomplished and that no radioactivity is detectable by survey equipment.
4. Any product being returned to the YSI Repair Center, should be packed securely to prevent
damage.
5. Cleaning must be completed and certified on any product before returning it to YSI.
30
8.2
Packing Instructions
1. Clean and decontaminate items to insure the safety of the handler.
2. Complete and include the Cleaning Certificate.
3. Place the product in a plastic bag to keep out dirt and packing material.
4. Use a large carton, preferably the original, and surround the product completely with packing
material.
5. Insure for the replacement value of the product.
Cleaning Certificate
Organization
Department
Address
City _______________ State ______ Zip
Country __________________ Phone
Model No. of Device ______ Lot Number
Contaminant (if known)
Cleaning Agent(s) used
Radioactive Decontamination Certified?
(Answer only if there has been radioactive exposure)
___ Yes ___ No
Cleaning Certified By
Name
Date
31
8.3
Disassembly/Assembly Procedures
NOTE: The following procedure should
only be performed by a qualified service
technician.
C
Case Disassembly
•
•
•
•
•
While applying slight separation force
to the front, curved edge of the case near
one corner, use a small straight-blade
screwdriver to release the snap (A) on
the same side.
When that snap releases, keep applying
the separation force, and use the
screwdriver to release the front snap (B)
nearest the same corner.
Repeat the procedure on the other
corner to release both front and both
side snaps.
Swing the case open slowly, pivoting on
the three rear snaps (C) until they
release.
Lay the lower case assembly to the side.
A
B
PC Board Removal
•
•
Gently release the two snaps nearest the front, curved edge of the unit.
With the snaps released, lift the front of the board slightly and slide the board out of the rear
connector openings.
PC Board Re-installation
•
•
•
Remove the protective covering from the display. DO NOT TOUCH THE FACE OF THE
DISPLAY, FINGERPRINTS CANNOT BE EASILY REMOVED.
Slip the connector end of the board into place against the gaskets at the rear of the case, then
rotate the board down into position, engaging each snap as you go. Be sure that the switch
extenders line up with the switches.
Inspect the assembly to insure that all board snaps are fully engaged and the board is in the
proper position in the case. Turn the assembly over and activate each switch. Be sure you can
hear and feel each switch click as it is pressed.
Case Re-assembly
•
Hook the three snaps at the rear of the case into place and rotate the lower case into place on
the upper case. Make sure all four snaps are fully engaged. Press firmly down on the three
rear snaps to make sure they are completely engaged.
32
9.
Accessories and Replacement Parts
YSI Item #
Description
Comments
003208
3208 Power Supply, 115 VAC
003209
3209 Power Supply, 240 VAC
031008
Overlay, Window
031009
Overlay, Keypad
051009
Window
113117
Board Assy, PC, Main
055214
LCD
113138
Case Assy, Upper
111027
Case Assy, Lower
003226
Weight, SS
051043
Foot, Rubber, Self-Stick
032061
Gasket, Connector, Cell
032063
Gasket, Connector, Power
051025
Standoff, .25, Snap-In
003228
Extension, Switch
031041
Operations Manual
031043
Service Manual
003229
Cable Assy, Cell
7-pin mini DIN to pigtail
3232
Cell adapter
For YSI 3400 Series cells
3166
Calibrator resistor set
Requires 3232 cell adapter
Includes zebra strips
Includes 003226 weight
Retain display
33
9.1
YSI Conductivity Cells
YSI 3200 series conductivity cells have a built in temperature sensor for temperature
measurement and automatic temperature compensation. Dip, fill and flow-through conductivity
cells are available, each utilizing platinized platinum iridium electrodes. These cells have the
following specifications:
Part
cgs Cell
Number
Constant
3200 Series Dip Cells
3252
1.0/cm
SI
Cell
Constant
Material
Overall
Length
O.D.
100/m
ABS
plastic
glass
glass
146 mm
3253
1.0/cm
100/m
3256
0.1/cm
10/m
3200 Series Fill Cell
3254
1.0/cm
100/m
3200 Series Flow-Through Cell
3255
0.1/cm
10/m
Chamber
I.D.
Chamber
Depth
13 mm
10 mm
20 mm
178 mm
159 mm
13 mm
25 mm
10 mm
21 mm
51 mm
52 mm
glass
135 mm
19 mm
11 mm
83 mm
glass
146 mm
25 mm
21 mm
76 mm
YSI also offers 3400 series cells which do not contain temperature sensors. Several dip and flowthrough conductivity cells are available, each utilizing platinized platinum iridium electrodes,
except the YSI 3418, which has platinized nickel electrodes. These cells require the 3232 cell
adapter for use with the YSI 3100 and will not provide temperature measurement,
temperature compensation or salinity. These cells have the following specifications:
Part
cgs Cell
Number
Constant
3400 Series Dip Cells
3401
1.0/cm
SI
Cell
Constant
Material
Overall
Length
O.D.
100/m
191 mm
3402
0.1/cm
10/m
3403
1.0/cm
100/m
3417
1.0/cm
100/m
3418
0.1/cm
10/m
3440
10.0/cm
1000/m
Pyrex
7740
Pyrex
7740
Pyrex
7740
ABS
Plastic
ABS
Plastic
Pyrex
7740
Pyrex
7740
Pyrex
7740
3400 Series Flow-Through Cells
3445
1.0/cm
100/m
3446
0.1/cm
10/m
Chamber
I.D.
Chamber
Depth
25 mm
21 mm
76 mm
159 mm
25 mm
21 mm
52 mm
178 mm
13 mm
10 mm
51 mm
146 mm
13 mm
10 mm
20 mm
159 mm
13 mm
10 mm
30 mm
203 mm
13 mm
2 mm
86 mm
146 mm
19 mm
10 mm
76 mm
146 mm
25 mm
21 mm
76 mm
The nominal volumes of the cells are 15 mL for the YSI 3445 and 30 mL for the YSI 3255 and 3446 and
5 mL for the YSI 3254.
34
9.2
Standard Calibrator Solutions
YSI manufactures NIST-traceable conductivity calibrator solutions for calibration purposes. The
following conductivity calibrator solutions are available from YSI.
Part Number
3161
3163
3165
3167
3168
3169
Size
1 quart
1 quart
1 quart
8 pints
8 pints
8 pints
Conductivity at 25.00°°C
1,000
µ mho/cm ± 0.50%
10,000
µ mho/cm ± 0.25%
100,000 µ mho/cm ± 0.25%
1,000
µ mho/cm ± 1.0%
10,000
µ mho/cm ± 1.0%
50,000
µ mho/cm ± 1.0%
35
Resistivity at 25.00°°C
1,000 Ω cm ± 0.50%
100
Ω cm ± 0.25%
10
Ω cm ± 0.25%
1,000 Ω cm ± 1.0%
100
Ω cm ± 1.0%
20
Ω cm ± 1.0%
10. Required Notice
This equipment generates and uses radio frequency energy and if not installed and used properly,
may cause interference to radio and television reception. There is no guarantee that interference
will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause interference to radio or
television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is
encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
•
•
•
•
Reorient the receiving antenna
Relocate the computer with respect to the receiver
Move the computer away from the receiver
Plug the computer into a different outlet so that the computer and receiver are on
different branch circuits.
If necessary, the user should consult the dealer or an experienced radio/television technician for
additional suggestions. The user may find the following booklet, prepared by the Federal
Communications Commission, helpful: "How to Identify and Resolve Radio-TV Interference
Problems." This booklet is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC
20402, Stock No. 0004-000-00345-4.
36
11. Appendix A - Specifications
Modes
Conductivity
Temperature compensated conductivity
Salinity
Temperature
Conductivity
Range
0 - 49.99 µS*
0 - 499.9 µS
0 - 4999 µS**
0 - 49.99 mS***
0 - 499.9 mS****
Accuracy
± 0.5% full scale
± 0.5% full scale
± 0.5% full scale
± 0.5% full scale
± 0.5% full scale
Resolution
0.01 µS
0.1 µS
1 µS
0.01 mS
0.1 mS
Salinity
Range
0-80 ppt (NaCl)
Accuracy
±2% or ±0.1 ppt
Resolution
0.1 ppt
Temperature
Range
-5 - 95°C
Accuracy
±0.1°C +1LSD
Resolution
0.1°C
Temperature Compensation
Method
Ref. temp., °C
Temp. Coefficient
Frequency
70 Hz
70 Hz
240 Hz
1562 Hz
1562 Hz
Linear
15 - 25
0 - 4%/°C
Cell constant, cm-1
0.01
0.08 - 0.12
0.8 - 1.2
8 - 12
Display
LCD
Cell connector
7-pin Mini Din
Power
AC, 115V, 220V
Approvals
UL, CSA, CE
Environmental requirements
95% RH non-cond
Size
9 x 9.5 x 4.4 inches
22.9 x 24.1 x 11.2 cm
Weight
2.6 pounds
1.1 kg
* Requires a cell constant of K=0.01, K=0.1 or K=1.
** Requires a cell constant of K=0.1, K=1 or K=10.
*** Requires a cell constant of K=1 or K=10.
**** Requires a cell constant of K=10.
37
12. Appendix B - Temperature Correction Data For
Typical Solutions
**
A. Potassium Chloride
(KCl)
Concentration: 1 x 10-1 mole/liter
Concentration: 1 mole/liter
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
0
5
10
15
20
25
65.10
73.89
82.97
92.33
101.97
111.90
1.67
1.70
1.72
1.75
1.77
1.80
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37.5
40
45
50
7.13
8.22
9.34
10.48
11.65
12.86
14.10
15.38
16.04
16.70
18.05
19.43
1.78
1.80
1.83
1.85
1.88
1.90
1.93
1.96
1.98
1.99
2.02
2.04
Concentration: 1 x 10-2 mole/liter
Concentration: 1 x 10-3 mole/liter
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37.5
40
45
50
0.773
0.892
1.015
1.143
1.275
1.412
1.553
1.697
1.771
1.845
1.997
2.151
1.81
1.84
1.87
1.90
1.93
1.96
1.99
2.02
2.03
2.05
2.07
2.09
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37.5
40
45
50
0.080
0.092
0.105
0.119
0.133
0.147
0.162
0.178
0.186
0.194
0.210
0.226
1.84
1.88
1.92
1.96
1.99
2.02
2.05
2.07
2.08
2.09
2.11
2.13
** Charts developed by interpolating data from International Critical Tables, Vol. 6, pp. 229-253, McGraw-Hill Book Co., NY.
38
*
B. Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
Saturated solutions at all temperatures
Concentration: 0.5 mole/liter
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
134.50
155.55
177.90
201.40
225.92
251.30
277.40
1.86
1.91
1.95
1.99
2.02
2.05
2.08
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37.5
40
45
50
25.90
29.64
33.61
37.79
42.14
46.65
51.28
56.01
58.40
60.81
65.65
70.50
1.78
1.82
1.86
1.90
1.93
1.96
1.99
2.01
2.02
2.02
2.04
2.05
Concentration: 1 x 10-1 mole/liter
Concentration: 1 x 10-2 mole/liter
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37.5
40
45
50
5.77
6.65
7.58
8.57
9.60
10.66
11.75
12.86
13.42
13.99
15.14
16.30
1.83
1.88
1.92
1.96
1.99
2.02
2.04
2.06
2.07
2.08
2.10
2.12
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37.5
40
45
50
0.632
0.731
0.836
0.948
1.064
1.186
1.312
1.442
1.508
1.575
1.711
1.850
1.87
1.92
1.97
2.01
2.05
2.09
2.12
2.16
2.17
2.19
2.21
2.24
Concentration: 1 x 10-3 mole/liter
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37.5
40
45
50
0.066
0.076
0.087
0.099
0.111
0.124
0.137
0.151
0.158
0.165
0.180
0.195
1.88
1.93
1.98
2.02
2.07
2.11
2.15
2.19
2.20
2.22
2.25
2.29
* Charts developed by interpolating data from the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 42nd ed., p. 2606, The Chemical Rubber Company,
Cleveland.
39
*
C. Lithium Chloride (LiCl)
Concentration: 1 x 10-1 mole/liter
Concentration: 1 mole/liter
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37.5
40
45
50
39.85
46.01
52.42
59.07
65.97
73.10
80.47
88.08
91.97
95.92
103.99
112.30
1.82
1.85
1.89
1.92
1.95
1.98
2.02
2.05
2.07
2.08
2.11
2.15
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37.5
40
45
50
5.07
5.98
6.87
7.75
8.62
9.50
10.40
11.31
11.78
12.26
13.26
14.30
1.87
1.85
1.85
1.85
1.85
1.86
1.88
1.91
1.92
1.94
1.98
2.02
Concentration: 1 x 10-2 mole/liter
Concentration: 1 x 10-3 mole/liter
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37.5
40
45
50
0.567
0.659
0.755
0.856
0.961
1.070
1.183
1.301
1.362
1.423
1.549
1.680
1.88
1.92
1.96
2.00
2.04
2.08
2.12
2.16
2.18
2.20
2.24
2.28
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37.5
40
45
50
0.059
0.068
0.078
0.089
0.101
0.114
0.127
0.140
0.147
0.154
0.166
0.178
1.93
2.03
2.12
2.19
2.25
2.28
2.31
2.32
2.32
2.31
2.29
2.25
D. Potassium Nitrate
**
(KNO3)
Concentration: 1 x 10-1 mole/liter
Concentration: 1 x 10-2 mole/liter
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37.5
40
45
50
6.68
7.71
8.75
9.81
10.90
12.01
13.15
14.32
14.92
15.52
16.75
18.00
1.78
1.79
1.81
1.83
1.85
1.87
1.90
1.92
1.94
1.95
1.97
2.00
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37.5
40
45
50
0.756
0.868
0.984
1.105
1.229
1.357
1.488
1.622
1.690
1.759
1.898
2.040
1.77
1.80
1.83
1.86
1.88
1.90
1.93
1.95
1.96
1.97
1.99
2.01
* Charts developed by interpolating data from the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 42nd ed., p. 2606, The Chemical Rubber Company,
Cleveland.
** Charts developed by interpolating data from International Critical Tables, Vol. 6, pp. 229-253, McGraw-Hill Book Co., NY.
40
*
E. Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl)
Concentration: 1 x 10-1 mole/liter
Concentration: 1 mole/liter
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
0
5
10
15
20
25
64.10
74.36
83.77
92.35
100.10
107.00
1.60
1.53
1.45
1.37
1.29
1.21
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37.5
40
45
50
6.96
7.98
9.09
10.27
11.50
12.78
14.09
15.43
16.10
16.78
18.12
19.45
1.82
1.88
1.93
1.97
2.00
2.03
2.06
2.07
2.08
2.08
2.09
2.09
Concentration: 1 x 10-2 mole/liter
Concentration: 1 x 10-3 mole/liter
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
°C
mS/cm
%/°C (to 25°C)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37.5
40
45
50
0.764
0.889
1.015
1.144
1.277
1.414
1.557
1.706
1.782
1.860
2.020
2.186
1.84
1.86
1.88
1.91
1.94
1.97
2.02
2.06
2.08
2.10
2.14
2.18
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
37.5
40
45
50
0.078
0.092
0.105
0.119
0.133
0.148
0.162
0.178
0.186
0.194
0.210
0.227
1.88
1.90
1.91
1.93
1.95
1.98
2.01
2.04
2.06
2.07
2.11
2.15
* Charts developed by interpolating data from the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 42nd ed., p. 2606, The Chemical Rubber Company,
Cleveland.
41
13. Appendix C - Conversion Factors
TO CONVERT FROM
TO
EQUATION
mhos
Siemens
Multiply by 1
mhos
ohms
1/mho
ohms
mhos
1/ohm
Feet
Meters
Multiply by 0.3048
Meters
Feet
Multiply by 3.2808399
Degrees Celsius
Degrees Fahrenheit
9/5×(oC)+32
Degrees Fahrenheit
Degrees Celsius
5/9×(oF-32)
Units of Measure
Measurement
Units
Resistance
Conductance
Conductance
Conductivity
Cell Constant
Ohm
Siemens
1 / Resistance
Siemens / Meter
1 / cm
or 1 / m
Symbols
Ω
S
1/Ω
S/m
Mho
or
Mho / Centimeter
Calculate conductivity by multiplying the measured conductance in mhos or siemens by the
appropriate cell constant (K), observing the dimensions of the constant.
42
14. Appendix D - Glossary of Terms
ampere (A) - SI unit of electric current; one coulomb per second.
amplitude - The maximum deviation of an alternating current from its average value during its
cycle.
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials
calibrate - To determine, check, or rectify the graduation of any instrument giving quantitative
measurements.
calibrator solution - A solution of known value used to calibrate.
capacitance (C) - The ratio of the total charge on an isolated conductor to its potential; the
property of being able to collect a charge of electricity. C = Q/V.
capacitor - An electrical component able to accumulate and hold an electric charge.
cell constant (K) - The ratio of the distance between two electrodes to the area normal to the
current flow. K=d/A.
cgs - Abbreviation for the centimeter-gram-second system of metric units. Mostly superseded by
SI units.
conductance (k) - The ratio of the current in a conductor to the potential difference between its
ends; the ability of a conductor to transmit current; the reciprocal of resistance. The SI unit is
siemens (S), also measured in mhos.
conductivity (ℵ) - The ratio of the current density in a conductor to the electric field causing the
current to flow; the inverse of resistivity; the conductance between opposite faces of a cube of the
measured material of 1 cm (cgs units) or 1 m (SI units) edge. Measured in mho/cm (cgs units) or
S/m (SI units)
conductivity cell - Any cell with electrodes used to measure the conductivity of liquid.
coulomb - The quantity of electric charge which flowing by any point in one second produces a
current of one ampere.
current (I) - The rate of flow of an electric charge, usually expressed in amperes.
electrode - A conductor whereby an electric current enters or leaves a liquid, gas, or vacuum.
ion - Any atom or molecule that has an electric charge due to the loss or gain of valence
electrons.
mks - Abbreviation for the meter-kilogram-second system of metric units.
mho - A unit of conductance; the reciprocal of an ohm.
micro (µ) - The metric prefix indicating 10-6.
milli (m) - The metric prefix indicating 10-3.
43
NIST - National Institute of Standards and Technology. The US government agency that defines
measurement standards in the United States.
ohm (Ω) - SI unit of resistance
OIML - Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale is a treaty organization for the
harmonization of practical applications of measurement standards.
platinum black - Platinum precipitated from a solution of the (IV) chloride by reducing agents.
A velvety-black powder.
polarization - The separation of the positive and negative charges of a molecule by an external
agent.
Pyrex - A trademark name for heat-resistant and chemical-resistant glass.
reference voltage - A closely controlled d.c. or a.c. voltage used as a reference.
replatinize - To deposit a new layer of platinum black on an electrode.
resistance (R) - Opposition to the passage of current that causes electrical energy to be
transformed into heat.
resistivity - An intrinsic property of a conductor, which gives the resistance in terms of its
dimensions; the resistance between opposite faces of a one-centimeter cube of a given material;
the inverse of conductivity.
SI - Système International is the international system of units.
siemens (S) - SI unit of electrical conductance; the reciprocal of an ohm; equivalent to a mho.
temperature correction - An adjustment made to a measurement to compensate for the
difference between the measured and nominal temperatures.
temperature coefficient - The change in any particular physical quantity per degree change in
temperature.
voltage - Electromotive force or potential expressed in volts.
44
45
1725 Brannum Lane
Yellow Springs, Ohio 45387 USA
937 767-7241 • 800 765-4974 • Fax 937 767-9353
Info@YSI.com • www.YSI.com
 1997 YSI Incorporated
031041
A31041B
September 99
Download PDF