FM 6-02.53
FM 6-02.53
TACTICAL RADIO OPERATIONS
August 2009
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
This publication is available at
Army Knowledge Online (www.us.army.mil) and
General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine
Digital Library at (www.train.army.mil).
FM 6-02.53
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC
5 August 2009
Field Manual
No. 6-02.53
TACTICAL RADIO OPERATIONS
Contents
Page
PREFACE ........................................................................................................... viii
Chapter 1
APPLICATIONS FOR TACTICAL RADIO DEPLOYMENT .............................. 1-1
Modularity ........................................................................................................... 1-1
Tactical Radio Deployment ................................................................................ 1-2
Army Special Operations Forces........................................................................ 1-6
Army Force Generation Process ........................................................................ 1-7
Chapter 2
TACTICAL RADIOS........................................................................................... 2-1
Tactical Radio Networks ..................................................................................... 2-1
Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations .............................................................. 2-2
Chapter 3
HIGH FREQUENCY RADIOS ............................................................................ 3-1
High Frequency Communications Concepts ...................................................... 3-1
AN/PRC-150 I Advanced High Frequency/Very High Frequency Tactical
Radio .................................................................................................................. 3-4
Improving High Frequency Radio Operations .................................................... 3-6
Improved High Frequency Radios ...................................................................... 3-7
Chapter 4
VERY HIGH FREQUENCY RADIO SYSTEMS ................................................. 4-1
Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System Characteristics and
Capabilites .......................................................................................................... 4-1
Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System Radio Sets ...................... 4-2
Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System Ancillary Equipment ....... 4-7
Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System Planning ....................... 4-17
Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System Wireless Network
Extension Station.............................................................................................. 4-18
Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System Jamming and AntiJamming ........................................................................................................... 4-21
AN/PRC-148 Multiband Inter/Intra Team Radio ............................................... 4-22
AN/PRC-152 Multiband Handheld Radio ......................................................... 4-24
Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
i
Contents
Chapter 5
ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY RADIOS ............................................................... 5-1
Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade and Below ................................................ 5-1
Enhanced Position Location Reporting System ................................................. 5-1
Blue Force Tracking ............................................................................................ 5-7
Near Term Digital Radio ..................................................................................... 5-7
Tactical Digital Information Link-Joint Terminals ................................................ 5-8
Multifunctional Information Distribution System ................................................ 5-10
Chapter 6
SINGLE-CHANNEL TACTICAL SATELLITE .................................................... 6-1
Single-Channel Tactical Satellite Introduction .................................................... 6-1
Single-Channel Tactical Satellite Planning Considerations ................................ 6-2
Single-Channel Ultra High Frequency And Extremely High Frequency
Terminals ............................................................................................................ 6-2
AN/PSC-5 Radio Set (Spitfire) ............................................................................ 6-5
AN/PSC-5I UHF Tactical Ground Terminal (Shadowfire) ................................... 6-9
AN/PSC-5D Multiband Multimission Radio ......................................................... 6-9
AN/PRC-117F Manpack Radio ......................................................................... 6-11
Army Conventional Forces................................................................................ 6-14
Operations and Intelligence Networks .............................................................. 6-14
Single-Channel Tactical Satellite Fire Support Networks ................................. 6-15
Single-Channel Tactical Satellite Communications Planning ........................... 6-16
Chapter 7
AIRBORNE RADIOS .......................................................................................... 7-1
Airborne Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio Systems ........................ 7-1
AN/ARC-210 Radio System ................................................................................ 7-3
AN/ARC-220 Radio System ................................................................................ 7-4
AN/VRC-100(V) High Frequency Ground/Vehicular Communications System . 7-5
AN/ARC-231 Radio System ................................................................................ 7-6
AN/ARC-164(V) 12 Ultra High Frequency Radio................................................ 7-7
AN/VRC-83(V) Radio Set.................................................................................... 7-8
AN/ARC-186(V) VHF AM/FM Radio ................................................................... 7-9
Chapter 8
OTHER TACTICAL RADIO SYSTEMS ............................................................. 8-1
AN/PRC-126 Radio Set ...................................................................................... 8-1
ICOM F43G Handheld Radio .............................................................................. 8-2
Land Mobile Radio .............................................................................................. 8-3
Land Warrior ....................................................................................................... 8-4
Combat Survivor Evader Locator ........................................................................ 8-6
AN/PRC-90-2 Transceiver .................................................................................. 8-8
AN/PRC-112 Combat Search and Rescue Transceiver ..................................... 8-9
Joint Tactical Radio System................................................................................ 8-9
Chapter 9
ANTENNAS ........................................................................................................ 9-1
Antenna Fundementals ....................................................................................... 9-1
Antenna Concepts and Terms ............................................................................ 9-2
Ground Effects .................................................................................................. 9-10
Antenna Length ................................................................................................. 9-13
Improvement of Marginal Communications ...................................................... 9-15
Types of Antennas ............................................................................................ 9-16
Field Repair ....................................................................................................... 9-35
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Chapter 10
AUTOMATED COMMUNICATIONS SECURITY MANAGEMENT AND
ENGINEERING SYSTEM................................................................................. 10-1
System Description........................................................................................... 10-1
Hardware .......................................................................................................... 10-2
Software ........................................................................................................... 10-4
Chapter 11 COMMUNICATIONS TECHNIQUES: ELECTRONIC PROTECTION................... 11-1
Electronic Warfare ............................................................................................ 11-1
Commanders Electronic Protection Responsibilities ....................................... 11-2
Staff Electronic Protection Responsibilities ...................................................... 11-3
Planning Process.............................................................................................. 11-3
Signal Security.................................................................................................. 11-6
Emission Control .............................................................................................. 11-6
Preventive Electronic Protection Techniques................................................... 11-6
Electronic Warfare for Single-Channel Tactical Satellite ............................... 11-13
Counter Remote Control Improvised Explosive Device Warfare ................... 11-15
Joint Spectrum Interference Resolution Reporting ........................................ 11-15
Chapter 12
RADIO OPERATING PROCEDURES ............................................................. 12-1
Phonetic Alphabet ............................................................................................ 12-1
Numerical Pronunciation .................................................................................. 12-2
Procedure Words.............................................................................................. 12-2
Radio Call Procedures ..................................................................................... 12-5
Appendix A
FM RADIO NETWORKS .................................................................................... A-1
Appendix B
SINGLE-CHANNEL RADIO COMMUNICATIONS PRINCIPLES ..................... B-1
Appendix C
ANTENNA SELECTION .................................................................................... C-1
Appendix D
COMMUNICATIONS IN UNUSUAL ENVIRONMENTS .................................... D-1
Appendix E
JULIAN DATE, SYNC TIME, AND TIME CONVERSION CHART ................... E-1
Appendix F
RADIO COMPROMISE RECOVERY PROCEDURES ...................................... F-1
Appendix G
DATA COMMUNICATIONS...............................................................................G-1
Appendix H
CO-SITE INTERFERENCE ................................................................................ H-1
GLOSSARY .......................................................................................... Glossary-1
REFERENCES .................................................................................. References-1
INDEX .......................................................................................................... Index-1
Figures
Figure 3-1. AN/PRC-150 I ...................................................................................................... 3-4
Figure 3-2. AN/PRC 104 manpack radio ................................................................................ 3-7
Figure 3-3. AN/GRC-213 low-power manpack/vehicular radio .............................................. 3-8
Figure 3-4. AN/GRC-193 high-power vehicle radio ............................................................... 3-9
Figure 4-1. Front panel ICOM radio RT-1523/A/B/C/D .......................................................... 4-3
Figure 4-2. Front panel ICOM radio RT-1523E ...................................................................... 4-3
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Figure 4-3. SINCGARS ASIP radio........................................................................................ 4-4
Figure 4-4. Vehicular amp adapter and INC .......................................................................... 4-7
Figure 4-5. Intravehicular remote control unit, C-11291 ........................................................ 4-8
Figure 4-6. Securable remote control unit, C-11561 ............................................................. 4-9
Figure 4-7. Automated net control device, AN/CYZ-10 ....................................................... 4-10
Figure 4-8. AN/PYQ-10 simple key loader ........................................................................... 4-11
Figure 4-9. AN/PSN-11 precision lightweight GPS receiver ................................................ 4-12
Figure 4-10. AN/PSN-13 DAGR compared to a PLGR ....................................................... 4-13
Figure 4-11. Vehicular intercommunications system, VIC-3 components ........................... 4-14
Figure 4-12. Vehicular intercommunications system, VIC-3 Headsets ............................... 4-16
Figure 4-13. Handheld remote control radio device ............................................................ 4-17
Figure 4-14. Wireless network extension operations........................................................... 4-20
Figure 4-15. AN/PRC-148 MBITR radio .............................................................................. 4-23
Figure 4-16. AN/PRC-152 multiband handheld radio .......................................................... 4-25
Figure 5-1. Enhanced position location reporting system...................................................... 5-3
Figure 5-2. EPLRS radio set and host computer ................................................................... 5-6
Figure 5-3. Near term digital radio ......................................................................................... 5-8
Figure 5-4. JTIDS class 2M, AN/GSQ-240 I radio set ......................................................... 5-10
Figure 5-5. Army MIDS LVT-2, AN/USQ-140 ...................................................................... 5-11
Figure 6-1. LST-5 ................................................................................................................... 6-3
Figure 6-2. AN/PSN-11 SCAMP ............................................................................................ 6-4
Figure 6-3. SCAMP/CNR configurations ............................................................................... 6-5
Figure 6-4. AN/PSC-5 radio set, Spitfire ................................................................................ 6-6
Figure 6-5. SINCGARS range-extension with Spitfire ........................................................... 6-8
Figure 6-6. AN/PRC-117F.................................................................................................... 6-12
Figure 7-1. Airborne radio RT-1476/ARC-201 ....................................................................... 7-1
Figure 7-2. RT-1478D SINCGARS AIRSIP ........................................................................... 7-3
Figure 7-3. RT-1794 I ............................................................................................................. 7-3
Figure 7-4. AN/ARC-220 radio system .................................................................................. 7-5
Figure 7-5. AN/VRC-100(V) high frequency radio ................................................................. 7-6
Figure 7-6. AN/ARC-231 radio system .................................................................................. 7-6
Figure 7-7. RT-1504 for an AN/ARC-164(V) 12 .................................................................... 7-8
Figure 7-8. AN/VRC-83 radio set ........................................................................................... 7-9
Figure 7-9. AN/ARC-186 (V) ................................................................................................ 7-10
Figure 8-1. AN/PRC-126 radio set ......................................................................................... 8-2
Figure 8-2. ICOM F43G handheld radio ................................................................................ 8-3
Figure 8-3. Land mobile radio ................................................................................................ 8-4
Figure 8-4. Land Warrior ........................................................................................................ 8-5
Figure 8-5. AN/PRQ-7 radio set ............................................................................................. 8-7
Figure 8-6. AN/PRC-90-2 transceiver .................................................................................... 8-8
Figure 8-7. AN/PRC-112 and program loader KY-913 .......................................................... 8-9
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Figure 8-8. Joint tactical radio system ground mobile radio................................................. 8-10
Figure 8-9. Rifleman radio .................................................................................................... 8-12
Figure 9-1. A typical transmitter and receiver connection ...................................................... 9-1
Figure 9-2. Components of electromagnetic waves ............................................................... 9-3
Figure 9-3. Solid radiation patterns ........................................................................................ 9-4
Figure 9-4. Vertically polarized wave ..................................................................................... 9-5
Figure 9-5. Horizontally polarized wave ................................................................................. 9-6
Figure 9-6. Circular polarized wave........................................................................................ 9-7
Figure 9-7. Antenna take-off angle ....................................................................................... 9-10
Figure 9-8. Quarter-wave antenna connected to ground ..................................................... 9-11
Figure 9-9. Wire counterpoise .............................................................................................. 9-12
Figure 9-10. Beam width ...................................................................................................... 9-14
Figure 9-11. Example of a declination diagram .................................................................... 9-15
Figure 9-12. NVIS antenna, AS-2259/GR ............................................................................ 9-17
Figure 9-13. V antenna ......................................................................................................... 9-18
Figure 9-14. Vertical half rhombic antenna .......................................................................... 9-19
Figure 9-15. Long-wire antenna ........................................................................................... 9-20
Figure 9-16. Sloping-V antenna ........................................................................................... 9-21
Figure 9-17. Inverted L antenna ........................................................................................... 9-22
Figure 9-18. NVIS propagation............................................................................................. 9-23
Figure 9-19. Whip antenna ................................................................................................... 9-24
Figure 9-20. Whip antennas mounted on a vehicle.............................................................. 9-25
Figure 9-21. OE-254 broadband omnidirectional antenna system ...................................... 9-26
Figure 9-22. QEAM AB 1386/U ............................................................................................ 9-27
Figure 9-23. COM-201B antenna ......................................................................................... 9-28
Figure 9-24. OE-303 half rhombic VHF antenna.................................................................. 9-29
Figure 9-25. Half-wave dipole (doublet) antenna ................................................................. 9-30
Figure 9-26. Center-fed half-wave antenna ......................................................................... 9-31
Figure 9-27. Improvised vertical half-wave antenna ............................................................ 9-32
Figure 9-28. AS-3567, medium gain antenna ...................................................................... 9-34
Figure 9-29. AS-3568, high-gain antenna ............................................................................ 9-35
Figure 9-30. Field repair of broken whip antennas............................................................... 9-36
Figure 9-31. Examples of field expedient antenna insulators .............................................. 9-37
Figure 9-32. Repaired antenna guy lines and masts ........................................................... 9-38
Figure 10-1. Lightweight computer unit ................................................................................ 10-3
Figure 10-2. Random data generator ................................................................................... 10-4
Figure 10-3. Expanded ACES navigation tree ..................................................................... 10-6
Figure 10-4. Example for planning a CNR net ..................................................................... 10-7
Figure 11-1. Geometry during operations ............................................................................ 11-4
Figure 11-2. Warlock-red .................................................................................................... 11-15
Figure 11-3. Interference resolution (Army victim) ............................................................. 11-17
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Figure 11-4. Interference resolution (Army source) ........................................................... 11-18
Figure A-1. Example of a division C2 FM network................................................................. A-3
Figure A-2. Example of a brigade A&L FM network .............................................................. A-3
Figure A-3. Example of a division intelligence network ......................................................... A-4
Figure A-4. Example of a cavalry unit HF network ................................................................ A-5
Figure A-5. Example of a division corps medical operations network HF-SSB ..................... A-5
Figure A-6. Example of a medical operations network in a division HF-SSB ........................ A-6
Figure A-7. Example of a division sustainment area FM network ......................................... A-7
Figure A-8. Example of a division HF C2 network ................................................................. A-8
Figure B-1. Radiation of radio waves from a vertical antenna ............................................... B-3
Figure B-2. Wavelength of a radio wave ................................................................................ B-3
Figure B-3. Principal paths of radio waves ............................................................................ B-5
Figure B-4. Possible routes for ground waves ....................................................................... B-6
Figure B-5. Average layer distribution of the ionosphere ...................................................... B-8
Figure B-6. Sky wave transmission paths ............................................................................ B-10
Figure B-7. Sky wave transmission hop paths..................................................................... B-10
Figure B-8. Wave shapes .................................................................................................... B-14
Figure B-9. AM system ........................................................................................................ B-16
Figure B-10. SSB system ..................................................................................................... B-16
Figure C-1. 32-foot vertical whip, vertical antenna pattern .................................................... C-3
Figure E-1. World time zone map .......................................................................................... E-4
Figure H-1. Mobile command post antenna configuration ..................................................... H-2
Figure H-2. Example of proper antenna separation for an armored TOC ............................. H-4
Figure H-3. Possible antenna stacks ..................................................................................... H-5
Figure H-4. Frequency hopping multiplexer........................................................................... H-6
Tables
Table 3-1. ALE system handshake ........................................................................................ 3-2
Table 3-2. Notional link quality analysis matrix for a radio (B3B) .......................................... 3-3
Table 4-1. Comparison of SINCGARS versions and components ........................................ 4-2
Table 4-2. SINCGARS enhancements comparison .............................................................. 4-4
Table 4-2. SINCGARS enhancements comparison (continued) ........................................... 4-5
Table 4-3. Minimum antenna separation distance ............................................................... 4-20
Table 6-1. AN/PSC-5/C/D, AN/PRC-117F and AN/ARC-231 LOS interoperability ............. 6-10
Table 6-2. AN/PSC-5/C/D, AN/ARC-231 and AN/PRC-117F 5 kHz and 25 kHz DAMA
interoperability .................................................................................................. 6-11
Table 6-3. AN/PSC-5/C/D AN/ARC-231 and AN/PRC-117F 25 kHz SATCOM
interoperability .................................................................................................. 6-11
Table 7-1. AN/VRC-100 configurations ................................................................................. 7-5
Table 9-1. Antenna length calculations................................................................................ 9-13
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Table 9-2. Leg angle for V antennas .................................................................................... 9-18
Table 9-3. Frequency and inverted L horizontal element length .......................................... 9-21
Table 9-4. OE-254 planning ranges ..................................................................................... 9-26
Table 10-1. ACMES functions at various command levels .................................................. 10-2
Table 10-2. Initializing ACES CEOI/SOI data....................................................................... 10-7
Table 11-1. Electronic warfare elements .............................................................................. 11-1
Table 11-2. Techniques for minimizing transmissions and transmission times ................... 11-7
Table 11-2. Techniques for minimizing transmissions and transmission times
(continued) ........................................................................................................ 11-8
Table 11-3. Common jamming signals ............................................................................... 11-11
Table 11-4. Army interference resolution program functions ............................................. 11-16
Table 11-5. JSIR security classification guide .................................................................... 11-19
Table 11-6. JSIR information requirements ....................................................................... 11-19
Table 11-6. JSIR information requirements (continued) .................................................... 11-20
Table 12-1. Phonetic alphabet ............................................................................................. 12-1
Table 12-2. Numerical pronunciation ................................................................................... 12-2
Table 12-3. Numerals in combinations ................................................................................. 12-2
Table 12-4. Prowords listed alphabetically ........................................................................... 12-3
Table 12-4. Prowords listed alphabetically (continued) ....................................................... 12-4
Table 12-4. Prowords listed alphabetically (continued) ....................................................... 12-5
Table A-1. Example of division C2 FM networks ...................................................................A-1
Table A-1. Example of division C2 FM networks (continued) ................................................A-2
Table B-1. Frequency band chart ...........................................................................................B-4
Table B-2. Frequency band characteristics............................................................................B-4
Table B-3. Surface conductivity ..............................................................................................B-7
Table B-4. Ionosphere layers .................................................................................................B-7
Table B-5. Regular variations of the ionosphere ....................................................................B-8
Table B-6. Irregular variations of the ionosphere ...................................................................B-9
Table C-1. Take-off angle versus distance ........................................................................... C-2
Table C-2. HF antenna selection matrix ................................................................................ C-4
Table E-1. Julian date calendar (regular year) .......................................................................E-1
Table E-1. Julian date calendar (regular year) (continued)....................................................E-2
Table E-2. Julian date calendar (leap year) ...........................................................................E-2
Table E-3. Example of world time zone conversion (standard time)......................................E-3
Table F-1. Compromised net recovery procedures: compromised TEKs and KEKs ............. F-2
Table F-2. Compromised net recovery procedures: compromised TEKs .............................. F-3
Table H-1. Transmitters and transmission ranges with and without the FHMUX ................. H-7
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Preface
This field manual (FM) serves as a reference document for tactical radio systems. (It does not replace FMs
governing combat net radios, unit tactical deployment, or technical manuals [TMs] on equipment use.) It also
provides doctrinal procedures and guidance for using tactical radios on the modern battlefield.
This FM targets operators, supervisors, and planners, providing a common reference for tactical radios. It
provides a basic guidance and gives the system planner the necessary steps for network planning,
interoperability considerations, and equipment capabilities.
This publication applies to Active Army, the Army National Guard (ARNG)/Army National Guard of the
United States (ARNGUS), and the United States Army Reserve (USAR) unless otherwise stated. The
proponent of this publication is the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). The
preparing agency is the United States Army Signal Center, approved by Combined Arms Doctrine Directorate.
Send comments and recommendations on Department of the Army (DA) Form 2028 (Recommended Changes
to Publications and Forms) directly to: Commander, United States Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon,
ATTN: ATZH-IDC-CB (Doctrine Branch), Fort Gordon, Georgia 30905-5075, or via e-mail to
[email protected] or [email protected]
Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.
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Chapter 1
Applications for Tactical Radio Deployment
This chapter addresses the Army’s move to modularity and applications for tactical
radio deployment from conventional corps to joint operations. It also includes a
section on the Army Special Operations Forces (SOF) and the Army force generation
process.
MODULARITY
1-1. The Army’s transformation roadmap describes how the Army will sustain and enhance the
capabilities of current forces while building future force capabilities to meet the requirements of
tomorrow’s joint force. It also describes how the Army will restructure the current force, creating modular
capabilities and flexible formations while obtaining the correct mix between Regular Army and Army
Reserve force structure. This rebalancing effort enhances the Army’s ability to provide the joint team
relevant and ready expeditionary land-power capability.
THE MODULAR ARMY CORPS AND DIVISION
1-2. The most significant advantage of modularization is greater strategic, operational, and tactical
flexibility. The numbered Army Service component commander (ASCC), corps and division, will serve
as—
z
Theater’s operational, strategic, and tactical command and control (C2).
z
A land force and joint support element.
z
C2 for a brigade combat team (BCT) or sustainment brigade, which serves as the primary
tactical and support elements in a theater.
1-3. The modular numbered Army is organized and equipped primarily as an ASCC for a geographic
combatant commander (GCC), or combatant command, and serves as the senior Army headquarters for an
area of responsibility (AOR). It is a regionally focused, but globally networked, headquarters that
consolidated most functions that were performed by the traditional Army and corps levels into a single
operational echelon. The numbered Army is responsible for—
z
Administrative control of all Army serviced personnel and installations in the GCCs AOR.
z
Integrating Army forces into the execution of an AOR security cooperation plans.
z
Providing Army support to joint forces, interagency elements, and multinational forces as
directed by the GCC.
z
Providing support to Army, joint, and multinational forces deployed to diverse joint operations
areas.
1-4. The numbered Army modular design provides enough capability to execute an AOR entry and initial
phases of an operation, while providing a flexible platform for Army and joint augmentation as the AOR
develops. It provides administrative control of all Army personnel, units, and facilities in an AOR. The
numbered Army is also responsible for providing continuous Army support to joint, interagency, and
multinational elements as directed by the GCC, regardless of whether it is also controlling land forces in a
major operation.
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1-1
Chapter 1
TACTICAL RADIO DEPLOYMENT
1-5. Tactical radios are deployed in support of the warfighting functions outlined in FM 3-0;
movement/maneuver, fires, intelligence, sustainment, C2, and protection. The following paragraphs are an
introduction of the tactical radio deployment throughout the Army to include BCTs and joint operations.
THEATER/ARMY
1-6. The theater/Army level is supported by signal companies within BCTs or expeditionary signal
battalions (ESBs) depending on their mission and what type of support is needed. Some examples of
combat net radio (CNR) communications that can be provided are—
z
Single-channel tactical satellite (SC TACSAT).
z
High frequency (HF) radio.
z
Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS) and EPLRS network (net) control
capabilities.
z
Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) nets.
z
Joint Network Node (JNN).
Note. For more information on theater/Army communications refer to Field Manual Interim
(FMI) 6-02.45.
Note. As of June 2007 the Joint Network Node-Network program was incorporated into the
Warfighter Information Network-Tactical (WIN-T) program and designated as WIN-T
Increment 1. When JNN is used in this document it refers to the equipment and not to the
program.
CORPS
1-7. C2 support at corps level is primarily provided by the integrated theater signal battalion (ITSB) or
expeditionary signal battalion (ESB). The ITSB or ESB installs, operates, and maintains voice and data
networks within and between corps C2 facilities. JNNs are the primary means to connect all elements of
the corps and CNR networks perform a secondary role in the corps area of operations (AO). (For more
information on JNN refer to FMI 6-02.60.)
DIVISION
1-8. Communications and information support at division level is provided by the division assistant chief
of staff, command, control, communications, and computer operations (G-6) and the division signal
company. The voice and data systems used by the division’s AO are JNN, mobile regional hub nodes,
tactical hub nodes, regional hub nodes, the tactical Internet, CNR nets, and the Global Broadcast Service.
1-9. The division signal company deploys JNN and tactical Internet networks in support of the division.
The CNR systems deployed by the division are primarily SINCGARS, SC TACSAT, and HF radios. These
systems are mostly user-owned and operated systems with the higher command responsible for net control.
BRIGADE
1-10. Communications and information support at maneuver brigade level is provided by internal brigade
CNR assets. The SINCGARS, SC TACSAT, and HF radio are the primary means of communications
within a maneuver brigade. The internal brigade signal company assets support C2 at brigade tactical
operations centers (TOCs). Sustainment units operating in the division area behind the brigade sustainment
area use CNRs as a secondary means of communications, with JNNthe brigade subscriber node, or mobile
subscriber equipment (MSE) as the primary means of communications (some units that have not been
fielded with JNN still have MSE).
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FM 6-02.53
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Applications for Tactical Radio Deployment
BRIGADE COMBAT TEAMS
1-11. Communications and information support at the BCT level is provided by the brigade signal
company. The brigade signal company is unique in structure and capabilities. It consists of the command
and network operations sections, brigade support battalion, TOC nodal and the signal support platoons.
The platoons support the BCT by providing—
z
JNN.
z
SC TACSAT.
z
Brigade subscriber node that provides secure and non-secure voice, video, and data.
z
EPLRS and EPLRS net control capabilities.
z
Wireless network extension and capabilities.
z
SINCGARS nets.
JOINT AND MULTINATIONAL OPERATIONS
1-12. Early planning and coordination are vital for reliable communications within the joint/multinational
areas. Initial planning must be done at the highest level possible to ensure all contingency missions are
included. Representatives from the host nation, multinational forces, and subordinate units should be
present during coordination meetings; ensuring the individual requirements of multinational and
subordinate commands is considered in the total communications plan. (Refer to Joint Publication [JP] 6-0
for additional information on joint communications planning and FM 6-02.72 for additional information on
joint CNR issues.)
GEOGRAPHIC COMBATANT COMMANDER/ARMY SERVICE COMPONENT COMMANDER
COMMUNICATIONS TEAM
1-13. The GCC/ASCC Communications Team provides communications support in the form of secure
frequency modulation radio, UHF TACSAT, record telecommunications message support, and
communications security (COMSEC) equipment maintenance to GCCs and/or ASCCs.
1-14. The GCC/ASCC Communications Team consists of—
z
Signal Systems Technician. His duties are—
„
Supervises and manages the tactical Internet and administers the local area
network and radio systems in TOC.
„
Plans, administers, manages, maintains, operates, integrates, secures, and
troubleshoots Army Battle Command System (ABCS), Automated Information Systems (AIS),
tactical data distribution, and radio systems.
„
Leads the team and personnel, and manages the training of personnel on the
installation, administration, management, maintenance, operation, integration, securing, and
troubleshooting of tactical ABCS/AIS, intranets, radio systems, and video teleconferencing
systems.
„
Performs system integration and administration, and implements
Information Assurance programs to protect and defend information, computers, and networks
from disruption, denial of service, degradation, or destruction.
„
Develops policy recommendations and advise commanders and staffs on
planning, installing, administering, managing, maintaining, operating, integrating, and securing
ABCS/AIS, intranets, radio systems, and video teleconferencing systems on Army, Joint,
Combined, and Multinational networks.
z
Electronic Systems Maintenance Technician. His duties are—
„
Establishes team safety and crime prevention/security programs that adhere
to the policies, practices, and regulations associated with these programs.
„
Manages personnel, equipment, and facility assets for operation, repair,
maintenance, and modification of radio, radar, computer, electronic data processing, controlled
cryptographic items, television, fiber optic, radiological and related communications equipment
and associated tools, test, and accessory equipment.
„
Establishes team standing operating procedures (SOP) to ensure a proper
work environment is maintained and that personnel adhere to maintenance schedules, the Army
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Chapter 1
z
z
z
1-4
Maintenance Management Systems, Quality Assurance and Quality Control procedures, and
Standard Army Maintenance System-Level 1 (SAMS-1).
„
Ensures personnel are trained to use the tools, test equipment, and
applicable publications for the completion of the mission and are trained in automation skills.
„
Ensures that the team is deployable by supervising the Unit Level Logistic
System. Develops, rehearses, and implements load plans and deployment scenarios; establishes
field SOPs; and ensures standards of the Mission Essential Task List are met.
„
Ensures that Logistics tracking systems such as the Unit Level Logistic
System, SAMS-2, and the Standard Army Retail Supply Systems are used. Interprets technical
data and schematics, researches and interprets supply data, and fabricates repair parts or
procures through outside resources. Coordinates technical, administrative, and logistical
interface between the maintenance activity and supported units.
„
Advises commander and staff on electronic equipment development,
procurement, capabilities, limitations, and employment.
„
Establishes, monitors, and maintains comprehensive environmental
protection program IAW national and local directives.
Information Systems Chief who is the principal information systems noncommissioned officer
(NCO) for the GCC/ASCC Communications Team. His duties are—
„
Supervises, plans, coordinates, and directs the employment, operation,
management and unit level maintenance of multi-functional/multi-user information processing
systems in mobile and fixed facilities.
„
Provides technical and tactical advice to command and staff concerning all
aspects of information processing system operations, maintenance and logistical support.
„
Supervises installation, operation, strapping, restrapping, preventive
maintenance checks and services (PMCS) and unit level maintenance on COMSEC devices.
„
Conducts briefings on the status, relationship and interface of information
processing systems within assigned area of interest.
„
Supervises or prepares technical studies, evaluations, reports,
correspondence and records pertaining to multi-functional/multi-user information processing
systems.
„
Plans, organizes and conducts technical inspections. Supervises
development of the Information Systems Plan (ISP), Information Management Plan (IMP), and
the Information Management Master Plan (IMMP).
„
Reviews, consolidates and forwards final written input for the Continuity of
Operations Plan (COOP). Develops, enforces policy and procedure for facility Operations
Security and physical security in accordance with regulations and policies.
„
Prepares or supervises the preparation of technical studies, evaluations,
reports, correspondence, software programs, program editing, debugging and associated
functions. Maintains records pertaining to information system operations.
COMSEC custodians. They are responsible for—
„
Receipt, custody, security, accountability, safeguarding, inventory, transfer,
and destruction of COMSEC material.
„
Supervision and oversight of hand-receipt holders to ensure compliance
with existing COMSEC material security, accounting, operational policies/procedures, and
acquisition, control, and distribution of all classified COMSEC material and cryptographic key
in support of organizational missions.
Senior Information Technology NCO who plans, supervises, coordinates, and provides
technical assistance for the installation, operation, systems analyst functions, unit level
maintenance, and management of multi-functional/multi-user information processing systems in
mobile and fixed facilities. The Senior Information Technology NCO also—
„
Participates in development of the COOP, ISP, IMP and IMMP. Conducts
quality assurance of information systems operations. Performs duties of COMSEC custodian in
FM 6-02.53
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Applications for Tactical Radio Deployment
z
z
5 August 2009
accordance with appropriate regulations. Supervises the operation of the Information Systems
Security Officer (ISSO). Establishes and operates the printing and duplication program.
„
Supervises and implements classified document control policies,
procedures, standards and inspections. Provides guidance on printing and publication account
procedures, processes and regulatory requirements.
„
Controls production operations in support of command or agency priorities.
Develop and enforce policy and procedures for facility management.
„
Develops, directs, and supervises training programs to ensure Soldier
proficiency and career development. Organizes work schedules and ensure compliance with
directives and policies on operations security, signal security, COMSEC and physical security.
„
Prepares or supervises the preparation of technical studies, evaluations,
reports, correspondence and records pertaining to information system operations. Directs high
level programming projects. Briefs staff and operations personnel on matters pertaining to
information systems.
Information Technology NCO who supervises the deployment, installation, operation, and unit
level maintenance of multi-functional/multi-user information processing systems. His duties
are—
„
Determines requirement, assign duties, coordinates activities of personnel
engaged in information system analysis and maintenance.
„
Develops and administers on-site training programs. Compile output reports
in support of information systems operations. Performs system studies using established
techniques to develop new or revised system applications and programs. Analyzes
telecommunications information management needs, and request logistical support and
coordinate systems integration.
„
Ensures that spare parts, supplies, and operating essentials are requisitioned
and maintained. Performs maintenance management and administrative duties related to facility
operations, maintenance, security and personnel.
„
Performs COMSEC management functions and ISSO/Systems
Administrator duties for the certification authority workstation. Prepares emergency evacuation
and destruction plans for COMSEC facilities. Requisitions, receives, stores, issues, destroys and
accounts for COMSEC equipment and keying material including over the air key.
„
Supervises ISSO functions. Provides verbal and written guidance and
directions for the installation, operation and maintenance of specified battlefield information
services.
„
Provides technical assistance; to resolve problems for information services
in support personnel, functional users and functional staff.
Senior GCC/ASCC Communications NCO who is responsible for supervising
communications Soldiers of a GCC communications team. His duties are—
„
Supervises, plans and executes the installation, operation and maintenance
of signal support systems, to include local area networks, wide-area networks and routers;
satellite radio communications and electronic support systems; and network integration using
radio, wire and battlefield automated systems.
„
Develops and implements unit level signal maintenance programs. Directs
unit signal training and provides technical advice and assistance to commanders.
„
Develops and executes information services policies and procedures for
supported organizations.
„
Coordinates external signal support mission requirements.
„
Prepares and implements Signal operations orders and reports.
„
Plans and requests Signal logistics support for unit level operations and
maintenance.
FM 6-02.53
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z
GCC/ASCC Communications NCO. His duties are—
„
Supervises, installs, maintains and troubleshoots signal support systems and
terminal devices, to include radio, wire and battlefield automated systems.
„
Provides technical assistance and unit level training for automation,
communication and user owned and operated automated telecommunications computer systems,
to include local area networks and routers; signal communications support electronic equipment;
and satellite radio communications equipment.
„
Disseminate information services policy, and prepares maintenance and
supply requests for unit level signal support.
„
Operates and performs PMCS on assigned vehicles and on assigned power
generators.
ARMY SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES
1-15. Army SOF includes the Special Forces, Ranger units, Special Operations Aviation Regiment, Civil
Affairs (CA), and Psychological Operations (PSYOP).
SPECIAL FORCES
1-16. The Army Special Forces is organized into five active and two Army National Guard groups. In a
tactical environment, Special Forces communications are strictly CNR. Special Forces units use the
following CNR communication assets—
z
Ultra high frequency (UHF) dedicated satellite communications (SATCOM) and demand
assigned multiple access (DAMA).
z
HF single side band (SSB), automatic link establishment (ALE), low probability of
interception/detection (LPI/D), amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM)
line of sight (LOS) radios.
1-17. The Special Operations Task Force has the capability to provide—
z
Single-channel (SC) circuits (UHF DAMA and non-DAMA).
z
HF SSB, ALE, and LPI/D.
z
Very high frequency (VHF) and frequency modulation (FM) SINCGARS nets.
z
Electronic mail (e-mail).
z
Interface with the tactical Internet, MSE, and the Tri-Service Tactical Communications Program
(if being utilized).
RANGERS
1-18. Ranger unit communications must be rapidly deployable and able to support airborne, air assault and
infantry-type operations at all levels. Communications requirements are task organized to meet each
mission’s profile.
1-19. SC UHF SATCOM is the backbone of Ranger unit communications for links among headquarters,
battalions, companies, and detachments. Other communications capabilities include:
z
International maritime satellite (INMARSAT).
z
UHF/VHF/FM/AM radios.
z
HF SSB ALE.
z
LPI/D.
z
Multi-channel SATCOM augmentation may also be required.
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Applications for Tactical Radio Deployment
SPECIAL OPERATIONS AVIATION REGIMENT
1-20. Special Operations Aviation Regiment communications provide air-to-air and air-to-ground aircraft
communications for C2 mission deconflictions and mission support to SOF units. Air communications
capabilities include:
z
Multiband SATCOM.
z
SC UHF SATCOM.
z
HF burst and data.
z
AM and FM radios.
1-21. Ground communications capabilities include: UHF SC SATCOM, HF, VHF or FM radio.
CIVIL AFFAIRS
1-22. SC SATCOM is the primary means of communications within CA units. While CA units receive
other communications support from supported units or from commercial systems, they do have organic
UHF/VHF/FM/AM, HF ALE and INMARSAT assets as well.
PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS FORCES
1-23. PSYOP communications support ensures the availability of communications and product distribution
assets to PSYOP forces. Current and emerging technologies (military and commercial, including the
PSYOP product distribution system and the Global Broadcast Service) will support the intelligence reach
concept by providing secure, digital communications paths for transferring PSYOP products between the
continental United States (CONUS) and deployed PSYOP units.
1-24. The PSYOP communications architecture consists of INMARSAT, SC TACSAT, and secure
phones. Organic communications capabilities include SC UHF SATCOM, INMARSAT, HF, and FM
radios.
ARMY FORCE GENERATION PROCESS
1-25. The Army force generation process creates three operational readiness cycles (reset/train pool, ready
pool and available pool) where individual units increase their readiness over time, culminating into full
mission readiness and availability to deploy. In order for signal Soldiers to be fully prepared once the unit
reaches the available cycle they must have prior training on signal equipment. The following paragraphs
address the importance of signal/CNR training during each cycle.
RESET/TRAIN POOL CYCLE
1-26. During the reset/train pool time it is important that leaders at all levels ensure that Soldiers are
trained on current signal/CNR equipment. Some systems are more complex than others and require more
familiarization.
1-27. It is during this cycle that new equipment training is also conducted by equipment fielding teams. It
is important that new equipment is introduced as soon as possible so Soldiers have enough time to train and
become proficient.
1-28. The unit must provide sustainment training to ensure individual skills do not decay and collective
proficiency is attained to support mission accomplishment. New communications equipment, applications,
and software updates are being fielded with greater frequency. Signal military occupational specialties are
becoming more consolidated, and the highly specialized and technical skills required to operate
communications systems are highly perishable.
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Chapter 1
READY POOL CYCLE
1-29. During the ready pool cycle Soldiers will receive critical training on signal equipment during
sustainment training and field exercises (for example, the National Training Center, Maneuver Combat
Training Centers, Joint Readiness Training Center and Combat Training Center.)
AVAILABLE POOL CYCLE
1-30. It is during the available pool cycle that units will be conducting deployments. Signal leaders should
ensure Soldiers continue sustainment training on signal equipment as missions permit.
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FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Chapter 2
Tactical Radios
This chapter provides an introduction to tactical radio operations. It addresses the
tactical radio network, HF radios, VHF radios, UHF radios, SC TACSAT radios,
airborne radios and other tactical radios being used. It also addresses electromagnetic
spectrum operations (EMSO).
TACTICAL RADIO NETWORKS
2-1. The primary role of the network is voice transmission for C2. It assumes a secondary role for data
transmission where other data capabilities do not exist.
2-2. Tactical communications networks change constantly. Unless control of the network is exercised,
communications delay and a poor grade of service will result. The best method of providing this control
without hampering operation is through centralized planning. Execution of these plans should be
decentralized.
2-3. The planning and system control process helps communications systems managers react
appropriately to the mission of the force supported, the needs of the commander, and the current tactical
situation. The type, size, and complexity of the system being operated will establish the method of control.
2-4. Communications control is a process in which the matching of resources with requirements takes
place. This process occurs at all levels of the control and management structure. In each case, the
availability of resources is considered.
2-5. Operating systems control is the detailed hourly management of a portion of a theater Army, corps,
or division communications system. Planning and control is according to the system being used.
2-6. The tactical radio network is designed around VHF radios (SINCGARS), HF radios, SC TACSAT
and more recently, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radios are being used. Each system has unique and
different capabilities and transmission characteristics that commanders consider to determine how to
employ each system depending on the units’ mission and other factors. (Refer to Appendix A for
information on FM radio communication nets.)
HIGH FREQUENCY RADIOS
2-7. HF radios with ALE capability are replacing older HF systems. ALE permits radio stations to make
contact with one another automatically. The success of ALE is dependent on effective frequency
propagation and HF antenna construction and use.
VERY HIGH FREQUENCY RADIOS
2-8. SINCGARS is a family of VHF FM CNRs. They provide interoperable communications between
surface and airborne C2 assets. SINCGARS has the capability to transmit and receive secure voice and data
and is consistent with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) interoperability requirements.
2-9. SINCGARS is secured with electronic attack (EA) security features (such as frequency hopping
[FH]) that enable the United States (US) Army, United States Navy (USN), United States Air Force
(USAF), and United States Marine Corps (USMC) communications interoperability. This interoperability
ensures successful communications for joint and single component combat operations. (Refer to FM 602.72 for additional information regarding multi-service SINCGARS communications procedures.)
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Chapter 2
2-10. SINCGARS provides communications for units throughout the military. Data and facsimile
transmission capabilities are available to tactical commanders through simple connections with various
data terminal equipment (DTE).
2-11. The AN/PRC-148 and the AN/PRC-152 are COTS VHF LOS radios (multiband/multimode) that are
being utilized in greater numbers in the Army today. The AN/PRC-148 was originally designed for the
USMC and the SOF but the rest of the Army started to use the radio once its capabilities for small unit
tactical operations were known. One of the features of multiband/multimode radios that is appealing to
units is they all have SINCGARS and tactical satellite (TACSAT) capabilities.
ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY RADIOS
2-12. UHF radios and systems play an import role in the military today. Radios such as the EPLRS, near
term digital radio (NTDR), Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS) and the Joint Tactical
Information Distribution System (JTIDS) are being used throughout the Army for ground-to-air, ship-toshore and multinational communications. UHF radios have been vital in recent urban combat situations.
SINGLE-CHANNEL TACTICAL SATELLITE
2-13. SC TACSAT systems provide another means for C2 communications in a tactical environment. SC
TACSAT supports wideband and narrowband voice and data communications up to 64 kilobits per second
(kbps) throughout the entire Army and Army SOF.
2-14. As more organizations take advantage of the range extension capabilities of SC TACSAT
communications, there is potential for an overload in SATCOM. In response, the Army developed
advanced SATCOM systems, such as the AN/PSC-5 (Spitfire), AN/PSC-5I (Shadowfire), and the
AN/PSC-5D (multiband/multimode radio); and procured the AN/PRC-117F SC packable radios.
AIRBORNE RADIOS
2-15. Due to the nature of airborne operations, most of the radio systems used have air and ground
capabilities or have ground and air versions to ensure that all elements of the tactical force have voice and
data communications.
OTHER TACTICAL RADIOS
2-16. There are several other tactical radios and systems that are being used by units for different purposes.
Handheld radios, such as the land mobile radio (LMR) and the integrated communications security (ICOM)
F43G, are COTS radios being used by many units as platoon/squad radios for internal communications.
There are also several survivor locator radios that are used by Special Forces, airborne and other units for
search and rescue missions.
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM OPERATIONS
2-17. EMSO is a core competency of the Signal Corps and falls under the purview of the signal staff
officer (S-6)/G-6. In the Army, EMSO is performed by trained spectrum managers located in the S-6/G-6
from brigade to Army level. EMSO consists of planning, operating, and coordinating joint use of the
electromagnetic spectrum through operational, planning, and administrative procedures. The objective of
EMSO is to enable electronic systems to perform their functions in the intended environment without
causing or suffering unacceptable frequency interference.
2-18. EMSO consists of four core functions; spectrum management, frequency assignment, host nation
coordination, and policy. Through these core functions the spectrum manager uses available tools and
processes to provide the Soldier with the spectrum resources necessary to accomplish the mission during
all phases of operations. (For more information on EMSO refer to FMI 6-02.70.)
2-19. For CNR, the spectrum manager produces and distributes the corps units and division command
level signal operating instructions (SOI) information. The corps spectrum manager assigns hopsets to corps
2-2
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Tactical Radios
units, restrictions to frequencies for hopset development, determines corps common hopsets, and allocates
frequencies to the divisions for use in their hopsets and nets.
2-20. The corps SOI information is transferred to the divisions and from the division to the brigades for
inclusion in their SOI data bases. This information is used to build the loadsets for the applicable radios
(loadsets are the frequency data and COMSEC keys necessary for the radio to operate in FH mode).
5 August 2009
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Chapter 3
High Frequency Radios
HF radios use ground and sky wave propagation paths to achieve short, medium, and
long-range communications distances. The HF radio provides the tactical commander
alternate means of passing voice and data communications. This chapter addresses
the HF communications concepts, ALE, HF radios with ALE such as the AN/PRC150 I and the improved high frequency radio (IHFR).
HIGH FREQUENCY COMMUNICATIONS CONCEPTS
3-1. The challenge of making HF radio systems work can be illustrated by contrasting them with the
commonly used LOS radio systems. A well-designed, poorly-maintained LOS system will operate year
after year with insignificant outages. On the other hand, even if the HF system is initially well designed,
the HF radio-telephone operator (RTO) must continually adjust the system to compensate for the
ionosphere, and an ever-changing terrestrial environment (interference from the other stations, atmospheric
interference, and manmade noise).
3-2. Although HF radios are harder to maintain than the commonly used LOS radio, they provide a
combination of simplicity, economy, transportability, and versatility that is impossible to match. For
successful communications, radio frequency (RF) performance depends on—
z
The type of emission.
z
The amount of transmitter power output.
z
The characteristics of the transmitter antenna. (To select the best antenna the planner must
understand wavelength, frequency, resonance, and polarization. Antenna characteristics are
addressed later in detail, in Chapter 9.)
z
The amount of propagation path loss.
z
The characteristics of the receiver antenna.
z
The amount of noise received.
z
The sensitivity and selectivity of the receiver.
z
An approved list of usable frequencies within a selected frequency range.
3-3. The HF radio has the following characteristics that make it ideal for tactical long distance, wide area
communication—
z
HF signals can be reflected off the ionosphere at high angles that will allow beyond line of sight
(BLOS) communications at distances out to 400 miles (643.7 kilometers [km]) without gaps in
communications coverage.
z
HF signals can be reflected off the ionosphere at low angles to communicate over distances of
many thousands of miles.
z
HF signals do not require the use of either SATCOM or wireless network extension assets.
z
HF systems can be engineered to operate independent of intervening terrain or manmade
obstructions.
3-4. Conducting tactical communications under urban combat/complex terrain conditions can be hard
even for an experienced RTO. G-6/S-6 officers and radio planners need to know several factors that will
provide the key to success—
z
How to pick an antenna.
z
Mode of transmission.
5 August 2009
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Chapter 3
z
z
Frequency band.
Antenna masking.
3-5. Training and implementing the units’ HF equipment can help get messages through.
Communications planners at every level need to understand the concepts of propagation, path loss,
antennas, antenna couplers and digital signal processing. (Refer to Chapter 9 and Appendix B for more
information on antennas and radio communications in unusual areas.)
AUTOMATIC LINK ESTABLISHMENT
3-6. ALE is when a specialized radio modem, known as an ALE adaptive controller, is assigned the task
of automatically controlling an HF receiver and transmitter, to establish the highest quality
communications link with one or multiple HF radio stations. ALE controllers can be external devices or an
embedded option in modern HF radio equipment.
3-7. ALE controllers function on the basic principles of link quality analysis (LQA) and sounding
(SOUND). These tasks are accomplished using the following common elements—
z
Each controller has a predetermined set of frequencies (properly propagated for conditions)
programmed into memory channels.
z
Channels are continuously scanned (typically at a rate of two channels per second).
z
Each controller has a predetermined set of net call signs programmed into memory that include
its own station net call sign, net call signs, group call signs, and individual call signs.
z
ALE controllers transmit LQA, which SOUND the programmed frequencies for best link quality
factors on a regular, automated, or operator-initiated basis.
z
When in a listening mode, ALE units (receiver/transmitter [RT]) log station call signs and
associated frequencies, and assign a ranking score relevant to the quality of the link on a per
channel basis.
z
When a station desires to place a call, the ALE controller element attempts to link to the
outstation using the data collected during ALE and SOUND activities. If the sending ALE has
not collected the outstation’s data, the controller will seek the station, and attempt to link a
logical circuit between two users on a net that enables the users to communicate using all
programmed channels.
3-8. When the receiving station hears its address, it stops scanning and stays on that frequency. A
handshake (a sequence of events governed by hardware or software, requiring mutual agreement of the
state of the operational mode prior to information exchange) is required between the two stations. The two
stations automatically conduct a handshake to confirm that a link was established. Upon a successful link,
the ALE controllers will cease the channel scanning process, and alert the RTOs that the system has
established a connection and that stations should now exchange traffic. Table 3-1 outlines communications
between two stations during the handshake and LQA.
Table 3-1. ALE system handshake
Handshake Process
Call Station
Message
Receive Station
B3B
“T6Y this is B3B”
T6Y
Receive Station
Message
Call Station
B3B
“B3B this is T6Y”
T6Y
Call Station
Message
Receive Station
B3B
“T6Y this is B3B”
Systems Linked
T6Y
3-9. Table 3-2 outlines the LQA matrix for B3B. The channel numbers represent programmed
frequencies, and the numbers in the matrix are the most recent channel-quality scores. Thus, if an RTO
wanted to make a call from “B3B” to “T6Y”, the radio would attempt to call on Channel 18, which has the
highest LQA score.
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FM 6-02.53
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High Frequency Radios
3-10. When making multi-station calls, the radio (B3B) selects the channel with the best average score.
Thus, for a multi-station call to all addresses in the matrix, Channel 14 would be selected.
Table 3-2. Notional link quality analysis
matrix for a radio (B3B)
Channels
Address
(call sign)
01
02
04
14
18
R3R
60
33
12
81
23
B6P
10
--
48
86
21
T6Y
--
--
29
52
63
E9T
21
00
00
45
--
3-11. Upon completion of a link session, the ALE controllers will send a link TERMINATION command,
and return to the scanning mode to await further traffic. Built-in safeguards ensure that ALE controllers
will return to the SCAN mode in case of a loss-of-contact condition.
3-12. Modern ALE controllers are capable of sending short orderwire digital messages known as
automatic message displays to members of the net. Messages can be sent to any (ANY) or all (ALL)
members of the NET or GROUP. ALE controllers can contact individual stations by their call sign, ALL
stations or ANY stations on the NET or GROUP. ALL calls and ANY calls make use of wildcard
characters in substitution for individual call signs such as @[email protected] (ALL) and @@? (ANY). NULL address
calls are used for systems maintenance, and are sent as @@@. (For more information on HF ALE refer to
FM 6-02.74.)
FREQUENCY SELECTION
3-13. For ALE to function properly, frequency selection is important. Consult with the frequency manager
early on in the process. When selecting frequencies to use in a net, take into consideration the time of
operation and distance to be communicated, power level and the type of antenna being used.
3-14. HF propagation changes daily. Lower frequencies work better at night and higher frequencies work
better during the day. Frequencies need to be selected based on the type of network and the distance
between radios.
3-15. When using the above parameters, a good propagation program should also be used to determine
which frequencies will propagate. (Appendix C lists some of the propagation software programs available
for use.)
THIRD GENERATION ALE
3-16. The third generation (3G) HF system uses a family of scalable burst waveform signaling formats for
transmission of all control and data traffic signaling. Scalable burst waveforms are defined for the various
kinds of signaling required in the system, to meet their distinctive requirements as to payload, duration,
time synchronization, and acquisition and demodulation performance in the presence of noise, fading, and
multipath. All of the burst waveforms use the basic binary PSK serial tone modulation at 2400 symbols per
second that is also used in the military standard (MIL-STD) 188-110A serial tone modem waveform. The
low-level modulation and demodulation techniques required for the new system are similar to those of the
110A modems.
3-17. In contrast to the MIL-STD-188-110A waveform, the waveforms used in the 3G HF system are
designed to balance the potentially conflicting objectives of maximizing the time diversity achieved
through interleaving, and minimizing on-air time and link turn-around delay. The latter objective plays an
important role in improving the performance of ALE and automatic request for wireless network extension
systems, which by their nature requires a high level of agility.
3-18. 3G ALE is designed to quickly and efficiently establish one-to-one and one-to-many (both broadcast
and multicast) links. It uses a specialized carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) scheme to share calling
5 August 2009
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3-3
Chapter 3
channels, and monitors traffic channels prior to using them to avoid interference and collisions. Calling and
traffic channels may share frequencies, but the system is likely to achieve better performance when they
are separate. Each calling channel is assumed to be associated with one or more traffic channels that are
sufficiently near in frequency to have similar propagation characteristics. The concept of associated control
and traffic frequencies can be reduced to the case in which the control and traffic frequencies are identical.
3-19. 3G HF receivers continuously scan an assigned list of calling channels, listening for second
generation (2G) or 3G calls. However, 2G ALE is an asynchronous system in the sense that a calling
station makes no assumption about when a destination station will be listening to any particular channel.
The 3G HF system includes a similar asynchronous mode; however, synchronous operation is likely to
provide superior performance under conditions of moderate to high network load.
AN/PRC-150 I ADVANCED HIGH FREQUENCY/VERY HIGH
FREQUENCY TACTICAL RADIO
Note. ALE HF radio systems procured by units are becoming more prevalent, as IHFRs such as
AN/PRC-104, AN/GRC-192 and 213 are no longer in production. The ALE HF radio addressed
in this section was recognized at publication time as being used in the field but not necessarily
representative of all the ALE HF systems.
3-20. The AN/PRC-150 I radio, refer to Figure 3-1, provides units with state of the art HF radio
capabilities in support of fast moving, wide area operations. HF signals travel longer distances over the
ground than the VHF (SINCGARS) or UHF (EPLRS) signals do because they are less affected by factors
such as terrain or vegetation. The AN/PRC-150 I and AN/VRC-104(V) 1 and (V) 3 vehicular radio
systems, provide units with BLOS communications without having to rely on satellite availability on a
crowded communications battlefield. The systems’ manpack and vehicular configurations ensure units
have reliable communications while on the move, and allow for rapid transmission of data and imagery.
Figure 3-1. AN/PRC-150 I
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3-21. The AN/PRC-150 I has the following characteristics and capabilities—
z
Frequencies range from 1.6–29.9999 megahertz (MHz) using skywave modulation with
selectable low, medium and high output power. It also operates from 20.0000–59.9999 MHz
FM with a maximum output of 10.0 watts.
z
Can be configured in manpack, mobile and fixed station configurations.
z
Embedded Type I multinational COMSEC allows secure voice and data communications
between ground and aircraft.
z
Able to interface with SINCGARS cryptographic ignition key (CIK) is embedded in the
removable key pad.
z
Advanced electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) serial-tone FH improves
communications reliability in jamming environments.
z
Supports FH in HF narrowband, wideband and list.
z
Programmable system presets for “one-button” operation.
z
Internal tuning unit matches a wide variety of whip, dipole, and long-wire antenna
automatically.
z
Includes an internal, high-speed MIL-STD-188-110B serial-tone modem, which provides data
operation up to 9,600 bits per second (bps).
z
Embedded MIL-STD-188-141A ALE, digital voice 600 that simplifies HF operation by quickly
and automatically selecting an accepted channel.
z
Supports NATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 4538 automatic radio control system
link set-up and data link protocols in 3G ALE radio mode.
z
Supports networking capabilities using point-to-point protocol or Ethernet.
z
Supports wireless Internet Protocol (IP) data transfer when operating in STANAG 4538 (3G).
3-22. The transceiver’s extended frequency range (1.6–60 MHz) in combination with 16 kbps digital voice
and data enables fixed frequency interoperability with other VHF FM CNRs. It provides Type 1 voice and
data encryption compatible with advanced narrowband digital voice terminal (ANDVT)/KY-99,
ANDVT/KY-100, VINSON/KY-57, and KG-84C cryptographic devices.
3-23. The AN/PRC-150 I is also capable of data communications by utilizing the TacChat software that is
provided with the radio. Point-to-point data transmission can be completely secure and, with the use of the
radios, 3G ALE synchronized scanning can be initiated quickly and smoothly.
MIXED EXCITATION LINEAR PREDICTION
3-24. Mixed excitation linear prediction (MELP) implemented in the AN/PRC-150 I can operate at both
600 and 2400 bps data rates. MELP has the ability to provide a significant increase in secure voice
availability over degraded channels particularly at the 600 bps data rate when compared to other digital and
analog forms of voice modulation.
3-25. The MELP speech mode uses an integrated noise pre-processor that reduces the effect of background
noise and compensates for poor response at the lower speech frequencies. By using digital voice techniques
such as band-pass filtering, pulse-dispersion filters, adaptive-spectral enhancement and adaptive noise preprocessing, voice communications performance over channels with low signal to noise (S/N) ratios typical
of the urban combat environment can now be made useable and reliable.
3-26. The MELP capability is comparable to lowering the frequency, using higher power, and improving
antenna efficiency which translates into decibels (dB) of “processing gain” and a better capability to
communicate over urban terrain. In effect MELP is compensating for path loss and antenna inefficiency.
3-27. Last ditch voice (LDV) mode is designed to work when nothing else will. LDV takes advantage of
digital voice processing at a much lower data rate (75 bps) in order to slash digital errors caused by
marginal conditions. LDV is not a “real time” transmission mode but LDV has both a broadcast and an
automatic-request for wireless network extension capability.
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Chapter 3
3-28. Voice data packets are created and sent in the transmitting radio. The radio then sends the packets at
a very slow data rate using sophisticated error detection and correction digital coding techniques. Data
packets are stored in the receiving radio and checked for errors in transmission caused by poor
transmission path characteristics.
3-29. In an automatic request for wireless network extension mode corrupted packets can be returned to
the transmitting radio in the event too many packets have too many errors for decoding into useable voice
communications.
3-30. In broadcast mode all packets are stored upon receipt the first time. Radio software then assembles
the packets and cues the RTO. The Soldier at the receiving radio then plays the message like a voicemail.
The lower data rate and extensive signal processing can produce impressive performance since LDV can
recover signals from below the noise levels. This can be equated to a considerable increase (3 dB or
double) in transmitter power.
IMPROVING HIGH FREQUENCY RADIO OPERATIONS
3-31. According to the article “Planning for the Use of High-Frequency Radios in the Brigade Combat
Teams and Other Transforming Army Organizations” whenever possible, man packed radios should be
removed from the RTO’s back and operated from the ground. This will decrease the capacitive coupling to
ground effects of the RTO’s body that reduce signal strength. The ground stake kit should also be
connected to the radio terminal and driven into the earth when the radio is operated from the ground. The
kit is provided with every radio and is designed to provide a low-resistance return path for ground currents.
Using the kit dramatically improves signal strength and communications efficiency.
3-32. All antennas in the same net should also have the same polarization. Mixing polarization of antennas
in a net as a rule will result in significant loss of signal strength due to cross polarization. The S-6 will
therefore have to ensure that all stations in a net have the same (horizontal or vertical) antenna polarization
when possible.
3-33. Signal strength can be improved by constructing radial wires to the ground. Radials need to be
constructed from insulated wire and connected on one end to the radio ground terminal. The radials should
be one-quarter wavelength long and secured to the earth on their ends by means of nails, stakes, etc.
Distribution of the radials should be symmetrical. In operational terms for a brigade example, four wires
(more if possible) of a practical length should be crossed in the center (X), and the center connected to the
radio ground. The wires should be spread by 90 degrees and secured. (Chapter 9, Antennas, addresses how
to construct a counterpoise which is similar to a radial.)
3-34. Using ground radials improves vertical antenna performance (gain) by allowing more current to flow
in the antenna circuit and by lowering the antenna pattern’s take off angle. This produces an increase in
ground wave signal strength on low angles, where it is most useful for tactical communications. (Appendix
D addresses radio operations in unusual environments.)
HF ANTENNA LOCATION CONSIDERATIONS
3-35. Units in a tactical fighting organization, when engaged in combat operations, will not always be able
to locate their fixed and mobile radio assets at the most technically ideal positions for the best
communications operations. HF communications planners should attempt to comply with as many of the
following criteria as possible to gain the best technical advantages for the tactical situation—
z
Use ground radials and ground stakes under vertical antenna to improve antenna efficiency and
lower take off angles for better ground wave communications.
z
Place vertical antennas on higher spots if possible, to enhance ground wave communications.
z
Avoid placing vertical antennas behind metal fencing that will shield ground wave signals.
z
Avoid placing vertical antenna near vertical conducting structures such as masts, tight poles,
trees or metal buildings. Antennas need to be at distances of one wavelength or more to
eliminate major pattern distortions and antenna impedance changes by induced current and
reflections.
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High Frequency Radios
z
Separate antenna as far as is practical to reduce interference effects between radio and antenna
system. (For more information on HF radio operations in urban operations refer to “AN/PRC150 HF Radio in Urban Combat—a Better Way to Command and Control the Urban Fight.”)
IMPROVED HIGH FREQUENCY RADIOS
3-36. The IHFR is a SC, modular designed radio. It provides a versatile capability for short- and longrange communications. The capabilities of the IHFR make it flexible, securable, mobile, and reliable.
However, the radio is the most detectable means of electronic communications, and is subject to intentional
and unintentional electronic interference.
3-37. When using IHFRs, all transmissions will be secured with an approved cryptographic device
(miniaturized terminal KY-99 or airborne terminal KY-100).
AN/PRC-104A MANPACK RADIO
3-38. The AN/PRC-104A, refer to Figure 3-2, consists of the RT-1209, amplifier/coupler AM-6874,
antennas, and handsets. It is a low power radio which operates in the 2 to 29.999 MHz frequency range and
passes secure C2 information over medium to long distances and varying degrees of terrain features that
would prevent the use of VHF/FM CNR. It provides 280,000 tunable channels in 100 hertz (Hz) steps, and
has automatic antenna tuning. (Refer to TM 11-5820-919-12 for more information on the AN/PRC-104A.)
Figure 3-2. AN/PRC 104 manpack radio
LOW-POWER MANPACK/VEHICULAR RADIO, AN/GRC-213
3-39. The AN/GRC-213, refer to Figure 3-3, is a low power manpack/vehicular radio. It consists of the
AN/PRC-104A radio, vehicle mount, amplifier power supply AM-7152, and three antennas (whip,
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Chapter 3
AN/GRA-50 doublet, and AS-2259 near-vertical incident sky wave [NVIS] antennas). Neither the
AN/GRC-213 nor the AN/PRC-104A should be used for transmissions exceeding one minute within a 10
minute time frame. (Refer to TM 11-5820-923-12 for more information on the AN/GRC-213.)
Figure 3-3. AN/GRC-213 low-power manpack/vehicular radio
HIGH-POWER VEHICLE RADIO, AN/GRC-193
3-40. The AN/GRC-193 (refer to Figure 3-4) is a medium/high power vehicular radio. The high power
vehicular/airborne adaptive configuration consists of a basic RT (RT-1209) with required coupling device,
amplifier, antenna (NVIS and whip antennas); data input/output (I/O) device; and external power sources.
The radio will have the capability of selectable power (100 watts, 400 watts); normal operation will be at
100 watts. The AN/GRC-193 uses the KY-99 for securing voice traffic, and uses the telecommunications
security (TSEC)/KG-84 for securing data traffic. The antenna may be remoted up to 61 meters (200 feet
[ft]) from the radio set, using the antenna siting built-in test (BIT) that is part of the basic configuration.
(Refer to TM 11-5820-924-13 for more information on the AN/GRC-193.)
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High Frequency Radios
Figure 3-4. AN/GRC-193 high-power vehicle radio
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Chapter 4
Very High Frequency Radio Systems
SINCGARS provide interoperable communications between C2 assets and have the
capability to transmit and receive secure voice and data. This chapter describes the
SINCGARS, its components, enhancements, and ancillary equipment. It also
addresses SINCGARS planning, secure devices, VHF FM wireless network
extension stations and SINCGARS jamming and anti-jamming. Due to the high usage
of COTS radios, other VHF radios included are the AN/PRC-148 and AN/PRC-152.
SINGLE-CHANNEL GROUND AND AIRBORNE RADIO SYSTEM
CHARACTERISTICS AND CAPABILITES
4-1. The SINCGARS family is designed on a modular basis to achieve maximum commonality among
various ground and airborne configurations. A common RT is used in the manpack and all vehicle
configurations. These individual components are totally interchangeable from one configuration to the
next. Additionally, the modular design reduces the burden on the logistics system to provide repair parts.
4-2. SINCGARS operates in either the SC or FH mode. It is compatible with all current US and
multinational VHF radios in the SC non-secure mode. SINCGARS is compatible with other USAF,
USMC, and USN SINCGARS in the FH mode. SINCGARS stores eight SC frequencies, including the cue
and manual frequencies and six separate hopsets.
4-3. SINCGARS operates on any of 2,320 channels between 30–88 MHz, with a channel separation of 25
kilohertz (kHz). It is designed to operate in nuclear or hostile environments.
4-4. SINCGARS accepts either digital or analog input and imposes the signal onto a SC or FH output
signal. In FH, the input changes frequency about 100 times per second over portions of the tactical VHF
range. This hinders threat intercept and jamming units from locating or disrupting friendly
communications.
4-5. SINCGARS provides data rates of 600, 1,200, 2,400, 4,800, and 16,000 bps; enhanced data mode
(EDM) of 1200N, 2400N, 4800N, and 9600N; and packet and recommended standard-232 data. The
system improvement program (SIP) and advanced system improvement program (ASIP) radios provide
EDM, which provide forward error correction (FEC), speed, range, and data transmission accuracy.
4-6. SINCGARS has the ability to control output power. The RT has three power settings that vary
transmission range from 200 meters (656.1 ft) to 10 km (6.2 miles). Adding a power amplifier (PA)
increases the LOS range to 40 km (25 miles). The variable output power level allows users to lessen the
electromagnetic signature given off by the radio set.
4-7. Using lower power is particularly important at major command posts (CPs), which operate in
multiple networks. The ultimate goal is to reduce the electronic signature at the CPs. The net control station
(NCS) should ensure all members of the network operate on the minimum power necessary to maintain
reliable communications.
4-8. SINCGARS also has BIT functions that notify the RTO when the RT is malfunctioning. It also
identifies the faulty circuits for repair or maintenance.
4-9. SINCGARS provides outside network access through a hailing method. The cue frequency provides
the hailing ability to the SINCGARS. When hailing a net, an individual outside the net contacts the
alternate NCS on the cue frequency. The NCS must retain control of the net. Having the alternate NCS go
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Chapter 4
to the cue assists in managing the net without disruption. In the active FH mode, the SINCGARS gives
audible and visual signals to the RTO that an external subscriber wants to communicate with the FH net.
The SINCGARS alternate NCS RTO must change to the cue frequency to communicate with the outside
radio system.
4-10. The net uses the manual channel for initial network activation. The manual channel provides a
common frequency for all members of the net to verify the equipment is operational. During initial net
activation, all RTOs in the net tune to the manual channel using the same frequency. After establishing
communications on the manual channel, the NCS transfers the hopset variables to the out stations and then
switches the net to the FH mode.
4-11. The NCS is responsible for—
z
Opening and closing a net.
z
Maintaining net discipline.
z
Controlling net access.
z
Knowing who is a member of the net.
z
Imposing net controls.
4-12. Refer to Appendix B for more information on SC radio communications principles, Chapter 12 for
proper radio procedures, Appendix E for Julian date, sync time and time conversion and TM 11-5820-89010-5 for more information on SINCGARS NCS.
SINGLE-CHANNEL GROUND AND AIRBORNE RADIO SYSTEM
RADIO SETS
4-13. Using common components in SINCGARS is the key to tailoring radio sets for specific missions
with the RT being the basic building block for all radio configurations. The number of RTs, amplifiers, the
installation kit, and the backpack component determine the model. Table 4-1 compares the components of
several versions of SINCGARS. For more information on SINCGARS refer to TM 11-5820-890-10-5, TM
11-5820-890-10-8 and Technical Bulletin (TB) 11-5821-333-10-2.
Table 4-1. Comparison of SINCGARS versions and components
Short
Range
(consist of
1 radio)
AN/VRC-87
AN/VRC-88
AN/VRC-89
AN/VRC-90
AN/VRC-91
AN/VRC-92
AN/PRC-119
X
X
X
X
Long
Range
(consist of
1 radio)
PA
Dismount
Manpack
X
X
X
X
X (2)
X
X
X
X (2)
X
X
Vehicular
Amplifier Adapter
(VAA)
(AM-7239C/E)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
4-14. There are several ground unit versions of SINCGARS (RT-1523/A/B/C/D/E) and three airborne
versions (RT-1476/1477/1478). Most airborne versions require external COMSEC devices. The RT-1478D
has ICOM and an integrated data rate adapter (DRA). (Airborne SINCGARS versions are addressed in
Chapter 7.)
4-15. Airborne and ground versions are interoperable in FH and SC operations. The airborne versions
differ in installation packages and requirements for data capable terminals.
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Very High Frequency Radio Systems
GROUND VERSION RECEIVER/TRANSMITTER
4-16. Either the RT-1523/A/B/C/D (refer to Figure 4-1) or the RT-1523E (refer to Figure 4-2) comprise
the core component of all ground-based radio sets. The RT-1523 series has internal COMSEC circuits
(source of the ICOM designation). The ground versions are equipped with a whisper mode for noise
restriction during patrolling or while in defensive positions. The RTO whispers into the handset and is
heard at the receiver in a normal voice.
Figure 4-1. Front panel ICOM radio RT-1523/A/B/C/D
Figure 4-2. Front panel ICOM radio RT-1523E
ADVANCED SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
4-17. The SINCGARS ASIP increases the performance of the SINCGARS SIP (RT-1523 C/D models). It
also increases its operational capability in support of the tactical Internet, specifically improved data
capability, manpower and personnel integration requirement compliance, and flexibility in terms of
interfaces with other systems. Figure 4-3 is an example of the SINCGARS ASIP radio.
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4-3
Chapter 4
Figure 4-3. SINCGARS ASIP radio
4-18. Table 4-2 outlines a comparison of the SINCGARS ICOM, SINCGARS SIP, and the SINCGARS
ASIP. All ASIP radios can be physically remoted by another ASIP radio up to 4 km (2.4 miles) away, via a
two-wire twisted pair (typically WD-1 or WF-16). To remote a radio, an external two-wire adapter is used
as the interface between the radio and the wires. This remote control feature can be performed between the
dismounted RT and the VAA, or between two dismounted RTs. Another host controller can control the
ASIP radio via the external control interface when the ASIP radio system is integrated as part of a larger
system.
Table 4-2. SINCGARS enhancements comparison
ICOM capabilities (RT-1523A/B)
SIP capabilities (RT-1523C/D)
ASIP capabilities (RT 1523E/F)
Point-to-point communications
Point-to-point communications
Point-to-point communications
1. FH per MIL-STD-188-241.
2. SC per STANAG 4204.
3. Mode 1, 2, 3 fill.
4. Electronic remote fill (ERF).
1. FH per MIL-STD-188-241.
2. SC per STANAG 4204.
3. Mode 1, 2, 3 fill.
4. ERF.
1. Same as SIP.
Plain text (PT) and cipher text
(CT) mode
Circuit switching and packet
network communications
Circuit switching and packet
network communications
1. Railman COMSEC.
2. Seville advanced remote
keying.
1. CSMA protocol.
2. Railman COMSEC.
3. Seville advanced remote
keying.
1. Same as SIP.
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Very High Frequency Radio Systems
Table 4-2. SINCGARS enhancements comparison (continued)
Point-to-point data
communications
Point-to-point data
communications
Point-to-point data
communications
1. 600 to 4,800 bps standard
data mode.
2. Tactical Fire Direction
System (TACFIRE), analog
data.
3. Transparent 16 kbps data.
1. 600 to 4,800 bps standard
data mode.
2. TACFIRE, analog data.
3. Transparent 16 kbps data.
4. 1,200 to 9,600 bps EDM
data.
5. Recommended standard232 EDM data.
6. Packet data.
7. External control interface.
1. Same as SIP.
Other features
Other features
Other features
1. Noisy channel avoidance.
2. Enhanced message
completion.
1. Noisy channel avoidance.
2. Enhanced message
completion.
3. External global positioning
system (GPS) interface.
4. Embedded GPS hooks.
5. Remote control unit (RCU).
1. Same as SIP plus—
z
Enhanced system
improvement program
(ESIP) waveform.
z
Faster channel access
to reduce net
fragmentation.
z
Enhanced noisy
channel avoidance
algorithm to improve
FH sync probability.
z
Improved time of day
tracking and
adjustments.
z
Extra end of message
hops to improve sync
detection and reduce
fade bridging.
z
Embedded battery.
VAA (AM-7239B):
VAA (AM-7239C):
VAA (AM-7239E):
1. Dual transmit power supply.
1. Dual transmit power supply.
2. Host interface.
3. Backbone interface.
4. MIL-STD-188-220A.
1. Same as SIP plus—
z
More powerful 860
microprocessor.
z
Ethernet interface.
z
Enhanced protocols.
z
Increased memory and
buffer size.
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Chapter 4
Enhanced System Improvement Program Capabilities
4-19. The SINCGARS ASIP radio incorporates an ESIP waveform. The waveform includes optimizations
to the algorithms of the noisy channel avoidance scheme, the time of day tracking scheme, and the end of
message scheme. Enhancements include—
z
ESIP waveform—implements a faster channel access protocol, which reduces net
fragmentation by shortening the collision intervals between voice and data transmissions. The
result is the reduction of voice and data contention problems associated with shared voice and
data networks.
z
Noisy channel avoidance algorithm—always reverts to a known good frequency instead of
constantly searching for clear frequencies, thus increasing the FH synchronization probability in
high noise and jamming conditions.
z
Time of day enhancement—uses a reference BIT that assures time constraints are the same
during each transmission.
z
End of message enhancement—reduces fade bridging, whereby the transmission would linger
even though adding extra end of message hops to increase the detection and probability of
synchronization completes the message.
SINCGARS INTERNET CONTROLLER CARD
4-20. The internet controller card (INC) was introduced as part of the SINCGARS VAA to support the
seamless flow of data across the battlefield, permitting both horizontal and vertical flow of C2 information.
The INC is in the right hand side of the VAA, and is only needed when the SINCGARS system is
operating in the packet mode of operation. Figure 4-4 is an example of a VAA.
4-21. The packet mode allows for the sharing of voice and data over the same operational net. A store and
forward feature in the INC delays data while voice traffic is ongoing, and puts data on the net when the
push-to-talk is released for voice. When the INC is loaded with initialization data, it will contain routing
tables that identify the addresses of all members with which it is affiliated, as well as other radio nets that it
can route to. The host computers generate messages, along with the IP addresses of the individual(s) to
whom it is being sent.
4-22. When a message reaches an INC, the INC looks up its routing table to determine whether that
message is for a member of its net or whether it needs to be sent off to the next adjoining net. The packet
mode will automatically continue this routing process until it reaches its destination. The packet mode
knows if the message is for someone within its net, and if the message stops there it will not get wirelessly
networked extended out. This differs in a wireless network extension site, in that everything received at the
wireless network extension station is relayed.
4-23. The VAA mounted INC is the predominant communications router for the tactical maneuver
platforms participating in a SINCGARS enabled tactical Internet. The INC routes data between
SINCGARS and EPLRS. The INC uses commercial IP services to deliver unicast and multicast data
packets that consist of C2 and situational awareness (SA) messages.
4-24. The INC has an improved microprocessor with increased memory buffer size and an Ethernet
interface is also available. Access to the Ethernet interface is through the same 19 pin connector used for
the EPLRS interface. Two of the nineteen pins are used as twisted pairs to provide for the 10Base-T
Ethernet connection. This feature will allow multiple INCs to be connected for the sharing or dissemination
of information in a local area network configuration (such as in a TOC environment).
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Very High Frequency Radio Systems
Figure 4-4. Vehicular amp adapter and INC
SINGLE-CHANNEL GROUND AND AIRBORNE RADIO SYSTEM
ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT
4-25. Remote control devices, data fill/variable storage transfer devices, and the vehicular
intercommunications system (VIS) are the main categories of ancillary equipment associated with
SINCGARS addressed in the following paragraphs.
4-26. Remote control devices are divided into intra-vehicular and external remotes. The intravehicular
remote control unit (IVRCU), C-11291, is the remote for intra-vehicular radio control. The securable
remote control unit (SRCU), C-11561, is used to remote radios off the main site location. Additionally, the
SIP/ASIP radio can be used as a RCU by merely selecting the RCU option under the RCU key of the
SIP/ASIP RT keypad.
INTRAVEHICULAR REMOTE CONTROL UNIT
4-27. The IVRCU, C-11291 can be used with either an ICOM or non-ICOM radio. It can control up to two
mounting adapters with up to three separate radio sets from a single station. The IVRCU can also be
connected in parallel so that two different RTOs, such as the vehicle commander and the vehicle driver,
can control the radios from their respective positions in the vehicle. The radio function switch must be set
in the remote operating position for the external control monitor to function correctly. Refer to Figure 4-5
for more information on Intravehicular remote control unit, C-11291.
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Chapter 4
Figure 4-5. Intravehicular remote control unit, C-11291
SECURABLE REMOTE CONTROL UNIT
4-28. The SRCU, C-11561 can securely remote a single radio up to 4 km (2.4 miles). The SCRU and the
RT are connected using field wire on the binding posts of the amplifier adapter or battery box. The SRCU
appears and operates almost identically to the RT. The SRCU can secure the wire line between the radio
and the terminal set. The SRCU controls all radio functions including power output, channel selection, and
radio keying (refer to Figure 4-6, Securable remote control unit, C-11561).
4-29. The remote also provides an intercom function from the radio to the terminal unit and vice versa.
The COMSEC and data adapter devices may be attached directly to the SRCU for secure communications
over the transmission line, and optimal interface with digital data terminals. The SCRU replaced the
AN/GRA-39. Four main configurations of the SRCU include—
z
Manpack; radio in vehicular mounting adapter.
z
Vehicular mounting adapter; radio in manpack.
z
Manpack; radio in manpack.
z
Vehicular mounting adapter; radio in vehicular mounting adapter.
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Very High Frequency Radio Systems
Figure 4-6. Securable remote control unit, C-11561
AN/CYZ-10, AUTOMATED NET CONTROL DEVICE
4-30. The AN/CYZ-10, automated net control device (ANCD) is capable of receiving cryptographic net
information from the Army Key Management System (AKMS) workstation. It can obtain keys from the
system key generators or from a hard copy key. Once received, the keys are correctly matched to the
cryptographic net information.
4-31. The ANCD has the capacity to store a large number of keys along with related information that will
assist a cryptographic NCS in accounting for, distributing, updating, and replacing cryptographic keys.
Figure 4-7 is an example of the ANCD, AN/CYZ-10. (Refer to TB 11-5820-890-12 for more information
on the ANCD.)
4-32. The ANCD is primarily used for handling COMSEC keys, FH data, sync times, and SOI
information. A typical ANCD data load at the operator level consists of two loadsets (COMSEC keys and
FH data for all six radio channels), each is good for 30 days of operation, plus 60 days of SOI information,
structured in five ten-day editions, containing two five-day sets each. The ANCD eliminates the need for
most paper SOI products. The ANCD replaces the KYK-13, KYX-15, MX-18290, and the MX-10579 in
support of SINCGARS.
4-33. The ANCD can store up to 20 loadsets (COMSEC and FH data). The number of smaller unit SOI
editions that can be stored in an ANCD depends on the size of the SOI extract. The ANCD can also store
up to 120 COMSEC keys (traffic encryption key [TEK] and key encryption key [KEK]) or 280
transmission security keys (TSKs).
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Chapter 4
Figure 4-7. Automated net control device, AN/CYZ-10
4-34. The ANCD supports—
z
Memos—receives, stores, and transfers up to four short memos, each six lines in length, with 22
characters per line.
z
Over-the-air rekeying (OTAR)—supports both automatic keying and manual keying.
z
Broadcasts—transmits SOI information from one location to another electronically.
z
Secure telephone units (STUs)—allow COMSEC keys, FH data, and SOI information to be
sent from one location to another.
z
Precision lightweight global positioning system receiver (PLGR)—is capable of being
loaded with the required operational key through the use of the ANCD.
COMPUTER SYSTEM, DIGITAL AN/PYQ-10
4-35. The AN/PYQ-10, simple key loader (SKL), was designed as a replacement for the AN/CYZ-10,
ANCD. (Refer to Figure 4-8 for an example of the SKL.) A limited understanding of the Electronic Key
Management System (EKMS) operating environment is helpful in understanding the operation of the SKL.
The components of the EKMS include—
z
EKMS Tier 0. The National Security Agency (NSA) central facility provides for production,
management, and distribution of specialized electronic cryptographic key and associated
materials.
z
EKMS Tier 1. Facilities serve as focal points for the production, management, and distribution
of service unique electronic cryptographic key and materials. Tier 1 facilities also provide an
interface between the central facility and service EKMS Tier 2 elements, and facilitate
interoperability for joint operations at the theater and strategic levels.
z
EKMS Tier 2. Tier 2 or local communications security management software (LCMS)
workstations perform generation, management, and distribution of electronic keying material.
The LCMS workstation works in conjunction with the SKL to distribute electronic keying
material to those networks with electronically keyed COMSEC equipment.
z
Automated communications engineering software (ACES) workstations. The ACES
workstation integrates cryptonet planning, electronic protection (EP) distribution, and SOI
generation, management, and distribution. The ACES workstation works in conjunction with the
SKL to automate cryptonet control operations for networks with electronically keyed COMSEC
equipment.
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Very High Frequency Radio Systems
z
EKMS Tier 3. Tier 3 or the SKL device integrates the functions of COMSEC key management,
control, distribution, EP management, SOI management, benign fill, and other specialized
capabilities into one comprehensive mobile system. The SKL will interface with the ACES and
LCMS workstations to receive its database information and then interface with end
cryptographic units to upload the required keying material and information to those units.
4-36. The hardware platform that hosts the SKL software (including the Secure Library) is a vendor
supplied ruggedized personal digital assistant device equipped with a KOV-21 Personal Computer Memory
Card International Association card. The SKL is not equipped with a hard drive so all programs are stored
in non-volatile flash memory.
4-37. The KOV-21 provides Type I encryption/decryption services and provides the secure interface
between the host computer and interfacing devices. The SKL uses an embedded KOV-21 approach. As
such, the NSA requires that a CIK be used to lock and unlock the KOV-21 information security card.
4-38. The CIK is a separate, removable, non-volatile memory device designed to protect internal SKL keys
and data from physical compromise when the SKL is in an unattended, non-secured environment. When
the CIK is removed from the SKL, the KOV-21 card cannot be unlocked. Therefore, access to the data is
denied. The absence of the CIK prevents the use of SKL operations. (Refer to TM 11-7010-354-12&P for
more information on the SKL.)
Figure 4-8. AN/PYQ-10 simple key loader
NAVIGATION SET, AN/PSN-11 PRECISION LIGHTWEIGHT GPS RECEIVER
4-39. The PLGR is a self-contained, handheld, five channel single frequency GPS receiver that provides
accurate position, velocity, and timing data to individual Soldiers and integrated platform users. (Refer to
Figure 4-9 for an example of the PLGR.) The PLGR computes accurate position coordinates elevation,
speed, and time information from signals transmitted by the GPS satellites.
4-40. The PLGR selects satellites that are 10 degrees or more above the horizon (elevation angle) during
initial acquisition. The PLGR requires a minimum of three satellites for location and four for elevation. It
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Chapter 4
also utilizes precise timing from satellite to receiver to determine location and elevation and LOS to
satellite receiver and COMSEC allow maximum accuracy. It can also be used with an external power
source and an external antenna. Features of the PLGR include—
z
Continuous tracking of up to five satellites.
z
Course/Acquisition, precise, and encrypted P code capability.
z
One handed operation.
z
Backlit display and keyboard for night operation.
z
Operates in all weather, day and night.
z
Produces no signal that can reveal your position.
z
Automatically tests itself during operation.
z
Capability to store up to 999 waypoints.
z
Capability to stores up to 15 routes with up to 25 legs per route.
z
Sealed against dust and water to a depth of 1 meter (3.2 ft).
z
Compatible with night vision goggles.
4-41. FH radios such as the SINCGARS depend on accurate time as part of the FH scheme. The PLGR
supports SINCGARS in terms of precise time synchronization. GPS time is loaded into the SINCGARS
from the PLGR. This data is loaded from connector J1 on the PLGR. The time figure of merit must be
seven or less and have a SINCGARS connected. (For more information on the PLGR refer to TB 11-5825291-10-2 and/or TM 11-5825-291-13.)
Figure 4-9. AN/PSN-11 precision lightweight GPS receiver
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AN/PSN-13 (A) DEFENSE ADVANCE GPS RECEIVER
4-42. The defense advance global positioning system receiver (DAGR) was designed to replace the PLGR.
The DAGR collects and processes the GPS satellite link one (L1) and link two (L2) signals to provide
position, velocity, and timing information, as well as position reporting and navigation capabilities. The
DAGR is primarily a handheld unit with a built-in integral antenna, but can be installed in a host platform
(ground facilities, air, sea, and land vehicles) using an external power source and an external antenna.
When the DAGR is used as a handheld unit it can also operate with an external L1/L2 antenna external
power source. (Refer to Figure 4-10 for an example of the DAGR compared to a PLGR.)
Figure 4-10. AN/PSN-13 DAGR compared to a PLGR
4-43. Equipment capabilities and features of the DAGR include—
z
Signal acquisition using up to 12 channels.
z
Navigation using up to 10 channels.
z
Accepts differential GPS signals.
z
Backlit display and keypad for night operation.
z
Operates in all weather, day or night.
z
Produces no signals that can reveal your position.
z
Automatically tests itself during power up.
z
Operates on +9 to +32 volts direct current (VDC) external power.
z
Performs area navigation functions, storing up to 999 waypoints.
z
Stores up to 15 routes with up to 1000 legs for each route.
z
Resists jamming.
z
Resists spoofing when cryptographic keys are installed.
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z
z
z
z
z
Sealed against dust and water to a depth of 1 meter (3.2 ft) for 20 minutes.
Interconnects with other electronic systems.
Uses quick disconnect connectors and fasteners to allow easy unit replacement.
Compatible with night vision goggles and does not trigger blooming.
Uses internal compass to compute track and ground speed when moving at or below 0.5 meters
(1.6 ft) per second.
DAGR and SINCGARS
4-44. The DAGR has a precise positioning service, HAVEQUICK, and SINCGARS page that is used to
configure a DAGR communication port for a time synchronizing output from the DAGR (using external
connectors J1 or J2) to another piece of equipment, such as a SINCGARS. (For more information on the
DAGR refer to TB 11-5820-1172-10 and TM 11-5820-1172-13.)
VEHICULAR INTERCOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM, AN/VIC-3
4-45. The VIS, AN/VIC-3 provides communications among crewmembers inside combat vehicles and
externally over as many as six CNRs. (Refer to TM 11-5830-263-10 for operators’ level information on the
VIC-3) The VISs active noise reduction (ANR) capability offers significant improvements in speech
intelligibility, aural protection, and vehicle crew performance. Figure 4-11 shows the VIS components.
Figure 4-11. Vehicular intercommunications system, VIC-3 components
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Master Control Station
4-46. The master control station (MCS) is the central node of the VIS. It connects directly to vehicle prime
power, and provides the rest of the system with regulated power. The MCS provides connections for up to
two radio transceivers, vehicle alarms, a loud speaker, and a pair of field wires (used to connect a field
telephone, another MCS, GRA-39, SRCU, or an AN/VIC-1). The MCS performs a BIT routine on powerup, and continuous performance monitoring of the system.
4-47. The MCS contains built-in radio programming, providing control of radio access at all stations. The
MCS allows the vehicle commander to enter five radio access operating modes using the system switch.
Three of the modes are fully programmable, and when programmed, they contain specific rules that govern
the radio transmit and radio receive access for each individual crewmember. Complete program rules are
established on board at any time without external equipment.
Full Function Crew Station
4-48. The full function crew station is the interface between the VIS and the combat crewmember headset.
It controls the headset volume and provides the user access to up to six onboard radios. The radio
selections allow the user to communicate on any one radio while monitoring traffic on an additional radio
or all radios. The full function crew station provides live (hot-mike) or voice operated keying facilities for
hands free operation. An override facility provides an emergency position whereby the operator can force
his intercom signal to all other crewmembers.
Monitor Only Station
4-49. The monitor only station provides a listen-only intercom capability for crewmembers in vehicles. All
monitor only stations can operate through the vehicle slip rings. The monitor only station provides
independent control of the headset volume.
Radio Interface Terminal
4-50. The radio interface terminal, which has no user adjustable controls, provides an interface for two
additional radio transceivers, enabling the basic two radio systems to be expanded to six radios. The radio
interface terminal design (two station ports and two dual radio ports) and the VIS ring architecture will
accommodate radio placement above and below slip rings.
Loudspeaker
4-51. The system loudspeaker is connected to the MCS, broadcasting vehicle intercom or radio messages.
A single switch mounted on the MCS controls loudspeaker power and message traffic.
Headsets
4-52. These headsets employ ANR and/or passive noise reduction to achieve noise reduction and enhance
audibility. ANR is accomplished (when turned on) by electronic generation of noise canceling acoustic
waves within each ear cup. Passive noise reduction is accomplished by soft conformal ear seals that are
snug against the head and alleviate or reduce outside noise. All headsets are connected to the VIS system
via a standard audio connector and quick-disconnect bailout connector to enable rapid disconnection from
the system. There are five different types of headsets. Refer to Figure 4-12 for an illustration of the
headsets.
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Chapter 4
Figure 4-12. Vehicular intercommunications system, VIC-3 Headsets
HANDHELD REMOTE CONTROL RADIO DEVICE
4-53. The handheld remote control radio device (HRCRD), C-12493/U, is used with the manpack radio
AN/PRC-119A/D/F and the dismount kits of vehicular radio configurations (AN/VRC-88A/D/F and
AN/VRC-91A/D/F). (Refer to TM 11-5820-890-10-6 for more information on the operations of the
HRCRD and SINCGARS.)
4-54. Figure 4-13 is an example of a HRCRD. The HRCRD enables the remote operator to control the
following functions of the radio—
z
Channel.
z
RF power.
z
Mode.
z
COMSEC.
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Very High Frequency Radio Systems
z
z
Audio volume level.
Back light.
Figure 4-13. Handheld remote control radio device
SINGLE-CHANNEL GROUND AND AIRBORNE RADIO SYSTEM
PLANNING
4-55. The initial operation plan (OPLAN) and the units SOP determine the type of net(s) needed. The
network planner must answer the following questions—
z
What type of information is passed: data, voice, or both?
z
Does the unit require communications with users normally not in its network?
z
Is the network a common-user or a designated membership network?
z
Is wireless network extension needed to extend the network’s range?
4-56. The unit G-6/S-6, assistant chief of staff, operations (G-3) and operations officer (S-3) work together
to answer all these questions. Once these questions are answered, initial planning and coordination of the
network can begin. Many of the items will become part of the units SOP. (Refer to Appendix A for
information on FM networks.)
DATA NETS
4-57. The SINCGARS interfaces with several types of DTE, such as the secure digital net radio
interference, TSEC/KY-90. SINCGARS also provides automatic control of the radio transmission when a
data device is connected. It disables the voice circuit during data transmissions, preventing voice input
from disrupting the data stream; disconnecting the data device during emergency situations overrides the
disable feature. A single cable from the DTE to the radio or mounting adapter connects most DTEs.
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SECURE DEVICES
4-58. The SINCGARS uses an internal COMSEC module. The encryption format is compatible with
VHF/UHF wideband tactical secure voice system cryptographic equipment devices, provided they are
loaded with the same TEK. SINCGARS uses the KY-57/58 (VINSON) for non-ICOM airborne radio
systems.
4-59. The VINSON secure device has six preset positions: five for the TEK and one for a KEK. The TEK
positions allow operation in five different secure nets. The KEK position allows changing or updating the
TEK through OTAR. The ICOM secure module retains one TEK per preset hopset/net identifier (NET ID),
and one KEK.
4-60. The variables are loaded and updated the same in both devices. The ANCD does the initial loading;
variables can be updated by a second manual fill or by OTAR. In accordance with COMSEC regulations,
only the TEK may be transmitted over the air. The KEK must still be physically loaded into either the
VINSON or ICOM radio. Encryption variables are controlled through COMSEC channels and are
accounted for per Army Regulation (AR) 380-40. (Refer to Appendix F for information on COMSEC
compromise recovery procedures.)
4-61. Data input to the radio is interleaved into the radio’s digital data stream. The VINSON or ICOM
circuits encrypt the data before transmission. However, digital data may be encrypted before inputting the
information into the radio. COMSEC variables must be common for the transmitting and receiving
terminals; this is coordinated between the two units passing information.
SINGLE-CHANNEL GROUND AND AIRBORNE RADIO SYSTEM
WIRELESS NETWORK EXTENSION STATION
4-62. Due to the limited number of SATCOM channels available in an AOR, there is a crucial need for
single channel push to talk capability at the theater, corps, and division. Most of the SATCOM channels
available in an AOR are controlled and assigned at the corps level and higher, and FM communications at
corps, division, and brigade is used to provide SC communications on the move. FM wireless network
extension is the most available means of addressing the crucial need for single channel push to talk
capability at the theater, corps, and division. FM wireless network extension extends SC communications
around obstacles and across increased distances to its subordinate units.
4-63. The commander (with the recommendation of the signal officer) decides the critical nets requiring
wireless network extension support. Wireless network extension assets are primarily used to provide
support for the following nets—
z
C2.
z
Administrative and logistic (A&L).
z
Operations and intelligence (O&I).
z
Fires.
Note. Refer to Appendix A for more information on FM networks.
4-64. The wireless network extension station operates on the command network to which it is subordinate,
unless specifically tasked to operate on another net. The primary radio monitors the C2/O&I net; the
secondary radio provides the wireless network extension link. Prior planning provides the wireless network
extension station with the appropriate variables for the command net and wireless network extension net.
The unit SOP should direct how the wireless network extension variables are assigned in accordance with
possible alternatives.
4-65. SINCGARS can operate as either a secure or non-secure wireless network extension station. These
radios automatically pass secure signals even if the wireless network extension radios are operating nonsecure. However, the wireless network extension RTO cannot monitor the communications unless the
secure devices are filled and in the cipher mode.
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Very High Frequency Radio Systems
WIRELESS NETWORK EXTENSION PLANNING
4-66. Wireless network extension planning must be linked to the military decision making process to
ensure success. During wireless network extension planning the S-6—
z
Ensures the communications operations course of action (COA) is integrated into the maneuver
COA.
z
Plots primary and secondary wireless network extension locations on the COA sketch. Location
selection must consider mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time
available, civil considerations (METT-TC) analysis.
z
Determines whether site collocation with another unit is required. Consideration must be given
to security/sleep plan, logistics, and evacuation.
z
Plans for contingency sites and establishes criteria, known to all concerned, that will initiate
relocation/evacuation procedures.
z
Develops reporting procedures to the establishing headquarters.
z
Builds a wireless network extension team equipment list, and considers including the following
communications equipment—
„
PLGR/DAGR.
„
ANCD/SLK.
„
Two OE-254 antennas with additional cables.
„
Any extra AN/PRC-119 radios (can be used as a backup RT).
„
Additional batteries.
z
Establishes a pre-combat checklist and rehearses prior to deployment.
WIRELESS NETWORK EXTENSION MODES
4-67. The SINCGARS (ground) has built-in wireless network extension capability that requires the
addition of a wireless network extension cable (CX-13298) for operations. SINCGARS can perform the
wireless network extension function three ways. The network can be—
z
Set up for SC to SC.
z
Made of mixed modes (FH to SC or vice versa).
z
Used in its full capability of FH to FH.
4-68. These options make wireless network extension flexible in operation. They also increase the prior
coordination required before deployment. This ensures all users have access to the wireless network
extension function.
Single-Channel to Single-Channel Operations
4-69. SC to SC operations require a 10 MHz separation between the frequencies (as shown in Figure 4-14,
Wireless network extension operations). Physically moving antennas farther apart or lowering power
output lessens the frequency separation. Table 4-3 shows the minimum antenna separation distance. The
network NCS must monitor the wireless network extension station to ensure the command hopset is
maintained. This ensures continuous communications for the unit.
Note. All RFs used should be obtained from unit SOIs which are coordinated with the unit
electromagnetic spectrum manager. Units can not establish their own wireless network extension
frequencies without electromagnetic spectrum manager coordination.
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Chapter 4
Figure 4-14. Wireless network extension operations
Table 4-3. Minimum antenna separation distance
Minimum Frequency
Separation Required
High Power Separation
PA Power Separation
10 MHz
7 MHz
4 MHz
2 MHz
1 MHz
5 ft (1.5 meters)
10 ft (3 meters)
50 ft (15.2 meters)
200 ft (60.9 meters)
350 ft (106.6 meters)
5 ft (1.5 meters)
60 ft (18.2 meters)
150 ft (45.7 meters)
400 ft (121.9 meters)
800 ft (1463 meters)
Frequency Hopping to Single-Channel Operations
4-70. FH to SC operations is a simple mode to set up and operate with no requirement for frequency or
physical separation. The SC frequency should not be part of the hopset resource used on the FH side of the
wireless network extension. This method allows a SC radio user access to the FH net in an emergency
situation. Continual access to the FH net using this method should be avoided to prevent lessening the
ECCM capability of the SINCGARS.
Note. The wireless network extension station typically functions as the NCS during FH wireless
network extension operations.
Frequency Hopping to Frequency Hopping Wireless Network Extension Operations
4-71. FH to FH wireless network extension operations allows for the wireless network extension of FH
nets and is the simplest mode with no requirement for frequency or physical separation. FH wireless
network extension operations will either be the traditional F1:F2 or F1:F1, depending upon the model of
SINCGARS and mission. The SINCGARS ASIP provides the capability for F1:F1 operations.
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Very High Frequency Radio Systems
4-72. F1:F2 operations require at least one of the NET IDs to be different (for example, NET ID F410 to
NET ID F411). Any one, or a combination of NET IDs, may change. The preferred method is for the NET
IDs, for each side of the wireless network extension, to be located within the same hopset. The wireless
network extension station RTO functions like the network NCS for the outstation link. In this function, the
RTO answers all cues, ERF, and authenticates net entry. The wireless network extension RTO must ensure
the outstation RT is placed in the FH master mode; this ensures timing on this link is established and
maintained.
4-73. F1:F1 operations allows for both NET IDs to be the same. This is important when operating in the
tactical Internet. Wireless network extension is not an option in the packet mode for SIP and earlier
SINCGARS, due to the critical timing associated with the packet mode. In a traditional F1:F1 wireless
network extension, a member of the outstation could potentially have captured the net due to the relatively
long delays encountered at the wireless network extension site; rendering the wireless network extension
packet lost.
4-74. The ASIP system overcomes this problem by assigning each radio at the wireless network extension
site as a dedicated receiver or transmitter. The ASIP shifts the incoming transmission by two hops in time
and utilizes the same hopset on each leg of the wireless network extension (commonly called F1:F1).
Therefore, packets are sent out the moment they are received without going through the process of
interleaving (arranging data in a noncontiguous manner to increase performance) and deinterleaving. The
shift in two hops is insignificant enough to affect the performance of the outstation and would make the
wireless network extension site appear to be a part of one big net. (Refer to Appendix D for information on
radio operations in unusual environments.)
SINGLE-CHANNEL GROUND AND AIRBORNE RADIO SYSTEM
JAMMING AND ANTI-JAMMING
4-75. Jamming is the intentional transmission of signals that interrupts your ability to transmit and receive.
If the radio signal is being jammed, the RTO will hear strong static, strange noise, random noise, no noise,
or the net may be quiet with no signals heard. These signals depend upon the type of jamming signals and
whether the radio net is operating in SC or FH mode. (Jamming and anti-jamming is addressed in detail in
Chapter 11, Communications Techniques: EP.)
4-76. The simplest method the enemy can utilize to disrupt your communication is to transmit noise or
audio signals onto a SC operating frequency, or on multiple FH frequencies during FH operation. If the
enemy can generate enough power onto a unit’s hopset, it is possible that communication capability will be
disrupted or even stopped.
4-77. While SINCGARS is thought to be jam resistant due to its FH capability, in the event that
SINCGARS is jammed, it may be necessary for you to take corrective actions. The action taken depends on
the type of jamming or interference that is disrupting net communications as well as the authorized FH
hopset that is available to the net.
4-78. When radio interference occurs, the RTO will determine if the interference is caused by jamming or
equipment failure. To do this, the RTO will—
z
Disconnect antenna; if noise continues, the radio may be faulty.
z
Set the “function” FCTN switch to “squelch off” SQ OFF and listen for modulated noise.
z
Look for a small signal strength indication on the RT front panel.
4-79. The following are corrective actions to take if jamming is indicated—
z
Reposition or reorient antenna to eliminate interference.
z
Notify supervisor of suspected jamming signals.
z
Continue to operate.
z
Work through jamming.
z
Report interference and jamming to the NCS.
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4-80. For those RT-1523F advanced system improvement program-enhanced (ASIP-E) pure nets, the NCS
will make a net call in SC mode and instruct all net members to switch to FH mode 2 and continue to
operate normally.
4-81. For those non-RT-1523F ASIP-E pure nets, the NCS will make a net call in SC mode and instruct all
non-RT-1523F ASIP-E radios to switch to the backup SC secure frequency SC/CT. All RT-1523F ASIP-E
radios will switch to FH mode 2. The NCS will operate the net in a FH mixed net operation utilizing a
SINCGARS mixed-mode wireless network extension site/station to provide communications between the
SC stations and the FH stations. Once the jamming source is neutralized, the NCS will instruct the net to
switch back to FH mode 1.
Note. Operation of SINCGARS in the SC/CT mode should only be done when absolutely
necessary.
AN/PRC-148 MULTIBAND INTER/INTRA TEAM RADIO
4-82. The multiband inter/intra team radio (MBITR) is used for company size nets depending on command
guidance and mission requirements. It also has the capabilities of being used as a handheld radio to support
the communications of a platoon, squad or team tactical environment for secure communications. It enables
small unit leaders to adequately control the activities of subordinate elements. The MBITR can perform
functions such as ground to air, ship to shore, SATCOM, civil military and multinational communications.
The MBITR was first developed for use by SOF but many units throughout the Army (and other
multinational governments) have seen an influx of the radio due to its value.
4-83. The MBITR radio set communicates with similar AM and FM radios to perform two-way
communication. The AN/PRC-148 was built for frequency and waveform interoperability with legacy and
newer systems (Joint Tactical Radio System [JTRS]). The radios concept was to ensure interoperability
with virtually any common US military or commercial waveform operating in the 30–512 MHz frequency
range with either FM or AM radio RF output, and with a user selectable power output from 0.1–5 watts.
The AN/VRC-111 is the vehicular version of the MBITR. (Refer to Figure 4-15 for an example of the
MBITR radio.)
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Very High Frequency Radio Systems
Figure 4-15. AN/PRC-148 MBITR radio
4-84. The MBITR is a portable, battery operated transceiver capable of providing both secure and nonsecure communications. The MBITR operates in clear (analog) and secure (digital) voice and data. The
basic radio is software upgradeable to add the following capabilities: SINCGARS, HAVEQUICK,
ANDVT, and wireless network extension.
4-85. The MBITR has the following operating characteristics—
z
Stores up to 100 preset channels organized in 10 groups with 16 channels each.
z
SINCGARS voice and SIP data interoperable.
z
HAVEQUICK I/II interoperable.
z
ANDVT interoperable.
z
Transmits voice in a whisper mode.
z
Transfers configuration information to other MBITRs by means of a cloning cable.
4-86. The radio is tunable over a frequency range of 30–512 MHz, in either 5 or 6.25 kHz tuning steps,
using 25.0 kHz channel bandwidth, 12.5 kHz when set for narrowband operation, and 5 kHz bandwidth
when set for ANDVT. The radio automatically selects the correct tuning size.
4-87. The RT consists of a SC modulated carrier. The modulating source is analog or digitized voice and
data signals at 12 (Federal Standard-1023) and 16 kbps (VINSON-compatible) in 25 kHz channel spacing.
For emergency situations the radio circuitry is capable of receiving clear messages while set for secure
mode operation.
AN/PRC-148 MBITR COMMUNICATIONS SECURITY
4-88. When operating in the secure mode, the radio disables the transmission of any tone squelch signals.
Encryption key fill is accomplished through the audio/key fill connector. The urban MBITR has a standard
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Chapter 4
U-283/U six-pin connector that is fully compatible with the following key fill devices: KYK-13, KYX-15,
KOI-18, and the AN/CYZ-10 (data transfer device [DTD]).
AN/PRC-148 MBITR and SINCGARS
4-89. SINCGARS operation is only available in those radios with the optional SINCGARS capability
enabled. The following describes the transmission security (TRANSEC) capabilities of the MBITR with
SINCGARS option—
z
When operating in the SINCGARS mode, the available MBITR operating frequency range is
30–87.995 MHz.
z
MBITR with SINCGARS functionality includes the operating modes of the basic MBITR radio
and the following modes of operation—
„
SC clear FM analog voice operation, FM encrypted digital voice, and overthe-air FM transfer of encrypted digital data. The SC data mode implements the SINCGARS
standard data mode and EDM.
„
FH PT digital voice operation, FH FM encrypted digital voice in 16 kbps
continuously variable slope delta mode, and, using the SINCGARS and SINCGARS SIP
waveforms, FH over-the-air FM transfer of encrypted digital data
AN/PRC-148 (MBITR) System Management
4-90. System management of the MBITR is the responsibility of the S-6 or communications section at all
echelons. A Windows based personal computer (PC) radio programmer is provided to manage the quantity
of radios. While all radio functions can be accomplished through the individual radio control panel if
required, it would be very difficult to set up the radios for a battalion or larger force manually using radio
front panel controls.
4-91. The PC programmer has a simple Windows “look and feel” interface that allows uploading and
downloading information such as assigned frequency lists, waveform data, power level etc. to the radio.
Once a radio is loaded with system information, it can be used to distribute this information (clone) to
another MBITR. This cloning feature allows the S-6 system manager to distribute technical information
down the tactical echelons to each individual radio in a command without fear of mistakes being made or
data being corrupted.
AN/PRC-148 MBITR in Urban Operations
4-92. In small tactical units area coverage and distance extension has always been a problem. In urban
operations communications inside buildings or over urban terrain has been a challenge. For these
conditions the MBITR system provides a “back-to-back” (two radios) wireless network extension
capability for both COMSEC and PT modes. Beside two radios, the only hardware required for wireless
network extension is a small cable kit and some electronic filters. When configured for wireless network
extension operations, a true digital repeater (digi-peater) is formed. Since the digits transmitted are merely
being repeated by the radios they do not degrade signal quality and the radios do not have to have any
COMSEC keys loaded in them.
AN/PRC-152 MULTIBAND HANDHELD RADIO
4-93. The AN/PRC-152 is a SC multiband handheld radio that has a JTRS architecture and software
communications architecture. It also provides the optimal transition to JTRS technology. The AN/PRC-152
supports SINCGARS, HAVEQUICK II, VHF/UHF AM and FM. HAVEQUICK II and VHF/UHF AM
and FM waveforms are ported versions of the preliminary JTRS library waveforms; validating the
AN/PRC-152 JTRS architecture. Refer to Figure 4-16 for an example of an AN/PRC-152.
4-24
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5 August 2009
Very High Frequency Radio Systems
Figure 4-16. AN/PRC-152 multiband handheld radio
4-94. The AN/PRC-152 encryption device maximizes battery life in battery powered radios. It also
supports all JTRS COMSEC and TRANSEC requirements as well as the ability to support numerous
device compatibility modes: KY-57/VINSON, ANDVT/KYV-5, KG-84C, DS-101, and DS-102.
4-95. The AN/PRC-152 includes an embedded GPS receiver to display local position and to provide
automatic position reporting for SA on the battlefield. The vehicular version of the AN/PRC-152 is the
AN/VRC-110.
AN/PRC-152 VHF/UHF LINE OF SIGHT FIXED FREQUENCY PT
4-96. The AN/PRC-152 has the following VHF/UHF LOS operation frequency bands—
z
VHF low band of 30.00000–89.99999 MHz.
z
VHF high band of 90.00000–224.99999 MHz.
z
UHF band of 225.00000–511.99999 MHz.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
4-25
Chapter 4
AN/PRC-152 VHF/UHF LINE OF SIGHT FIXED FREQUENCY CT
4-97. The AN/PRC-152 has following fixed frequency CT operation capabilities and limitations—
z
VINSON—16 kbps data rate, 25 kHz wideband COMSEC (KY-57/58) mode for secure voice
and data.
z
VINSON PT override—alerts the RTO that a receiving transmission from an AN/PRC-152 in
PT mode is being received.
z
KG-84C compatible—(data only) supports secure data transmission in FM mode 30.00000–
511.99999 MHz, and AM mode from 90.00000–511.99999 MHz. It is also used for UHF
SATCOM operation.
z
TEK—electronically loaded 128-bit transmission encrypted key used to secure voice and data
communications.
z
COMSEC fill—TEKs, TSKs, and KEKs can be filled from the following devices: ANCD, MX18290, KYK13, and KYX-15.
4-26
FM 6-02.53
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Chapter 5
Ultra High Frequency Radios
This chapter addresses the UHF radios and systems that play a major role in network
centric warfare such as the EPLRS, Blue Force Tracking (BFT), NTDR, JTIDS and
MIDS.
FORCE XXI BATTLE COMMAND, BRIGADE AND BELOW
5-1. The Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade and Below (FBCB2) form the principal digital C2 system
for the Army at brigade levels and below. It provides increased SA on the battlefield by automatically
disseminating throughout the network timely friendly force locations, reported enemy locations, and
graphics to visualize the commander’s intent and scheme of maneuver. FBCB2 is a key component of the
ABCS. Hardware and software are integrated into the various platforms at brigade and below, as well as at
appropriate division and corps elements necessary to support brigade operations.
5-2. FBCB2 is a battle command information system designed for units at the tactical level. It is a system
of computers, global positioning equipment, and communication systems that work together to provide
near real time information to combat leaders. FBCB2 provides increased SA to the commander by
depicting an accurate and automatic view of friendly forces, enemy forces, obstacles, and known battlefield
hazards. FBCB2 provides enhanced SA to the lowest tactical level—the individual Soldier—and a
seamless flow of C2 information across the battlefield.
5-3. FBCB2 supports OPCON through the transmission and receipt of orders, reports, and data. FBCB2
uses two forms of communications means: terrestrial and satellite. FBCB2 (terrestrial) uses EPLRS and
FBCB2 (satellite) uses BFT. FBCB2 features the interconnection of platforms through EPLRS (terrestrial)
and BFT (satellite) allowing the exchange of SA between the two systems. BFT systems share SA with
EPLRS and EPLRS share SA with BFT systems and ABCS that use reachback tunnels found in regional
operation centers.
ENHANCED POSITION LOCATION REPORTING SYSTEM
5-4. EPLRS supports the Army’s transformation brigades, and is interoperable with the USAF, USMC
and the USN. The EPLRS is currently employed in the C2 vehicle, battle command vehicle, Army
Airborne Command and Control System (A2C2S), and TOC/tactical command post (TAC CP) platforms at
the sustainment brigade and battalion level.
5-5. The EPLRS network is also the primary data communications system for the FBCB2, which is the
data traffic backbone of the tactical Internet from brigade to lower echelons. The FBCB2 integrates with
Army tactical C2 systems located within the brigade and battalion, and it provides real-time battlefield
pictures at the strategic level. Using EPLRS communications and position location features, the FBCB2
integrates emerging and existing communications, weapon, and sensor systems to facilitate automated
status, position, situation, and combat awareness reporting.
5-6. The EPLRS network provides the primary data and imagery communications transmission system. It
is employed in the combat platforms of the commander, executive officer, first sergeant, platoon leaders,
and platoon sergeants at the company and platoon level. The EPLRS is used as an alternate data
communications link (host-to-host) between C2 platforms at the brigade and battalion level. It is the
primary data communications link between battalion C2 platforms and company/platoon combat platforms.
The EPLRS can be employed in wireless network extension platforms and configured to provide wireless
network extension capability.
5 August 2009
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Chapter 5
5-7. EPLRS is a wireless tactical communications system that automatically routes and delivers
messages, enabling accurate and timely computer-to-computer communications on the battlefield. Using
time division multiple access (TDMA), FH, and error correction coding technologies, the EPLRS provides
the means for high-speed horizontal and vertical information distribution.
5-8. EPLRS radio sets are primarily used as jam-resistant, secure data radios that transmit and receive
tactical data that typically includes—
z
Operation orders (OPORDs).
z
Fire support plans.
z
Logistics reports.
z
SA data.
z
Cryptographic keys for radio sets.
z
Configuration files for radio sets.
z
E-mail.
5-9. The basis for EPLRS radio connectivity is the EPLRS needline. Each needline defines the
operational relationship between the source and destination EPLRS units, without specifying which
additional EPLRS units are part of the connection. The type of transmitted data, the mode of operation, and
the data rate effects the planning distance between individual EPLRS units and the number of “hops,” or
relays, that can be included in an EPLRS link. Accurate planning and network configuration is critical to
provide proper area coverage within the tactical environment. Refer to TB 11-5825-298-10-1, for more
information on EPLRS and refer to TM 11-5825-298-13&P and FM 6-02.72 for more information on
Enhanced Position Location Reporting System network manager (ENM).
ENHANCED POSITION LOCATION REPORTING SYSTEM
5-10. The EPLRS consists of an RT, an operator interface device (the user readout), an antenna, and a
power source (refer to Figure 5-1). The radio set provides transmission relay functions that are transparent
to the user.
5-11. The EPLRS radio set has the following characteristics and capabilities—
z
Operates in the 420–450 MHz UHF frequency band.
z
Provides secure, jam resistant digital communications and accurate position location
capabilities.
z
Uses TMDA, FH (512 times per second), and spread spectrum technology (eight frequencies
between 420–450 MHz).
z
Embedded COMSEC module, TRANSEC, and an adjustable power output provides secure
communications with a LPI/D.
z
BIT function that is activated at power turn on.
z
Uses an omnidirectional dipole antenna capable of covering the 420–450 MHz frequency
ranges.
z
Provides wireless network extension functions that are transparent to the user. The maximum
distance the EPLRS can cover is based on 3–10 km (1.8–6.2 miles) distance between each radio
and the maximum number of relays in the link.
z
Can handle up to 30 needlines. The maximum number of needlines available is dependent on the
bps required for each needline.
5-12. There are four different configurations of the EPLRS—
z
AN/PSQ-6 manpack radio set.
z
AN/VSQ-2 surface vehicle radio set.
z
ASQ-177C airborne radio set.
z
AN/GRC-229 grid reference radio set.
5-2
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5 August 2009
Ultra High Frequency Radios
Figure 5-1. Enhanced position location reporting system
5-13. The RF network consists of many EPLRS radio sets connected to host computers. This provides
secure host-to-host data communications for the host computers.
5-14. The radio set uses a wide band direct sequence spread spectrum waveform, TDMA, FH, and
embedded error correction encoding. These capabilities provide for secure, high speed data
communications networked between ground units and between ground units and aircraft. Most of the radio
sets attributes are programmable and this programmability lets the planner set up the best possible anti-jam
performance and data rate for the unique operational environment and mission.
5-15. EPLRS has automatic relay capabilities to support BLOS coverage. These capabilities are
automatically and continually adapted to the changing operational environment faced by a mobile
communications system.
5-16. The radio set also supports position location and identification capabilities. Position location allows
users to determine precisely where the user is. It is similar to, but independent of, the GPS. Using position
location data from the radio sets, some hosts may have the capability to determine where other radio sets
are and can perform navigation functions.
Enhanced Position Location Reporting System Needlines Functions
5-17. Needlines are also known as a logical channel number or permanent virtual circuit. There can be
many needlines running on a radio set at one time, supporting the hosts’ data communications needs.
Needlines can be activated manually via the user readout or host, or automatically by the host. The radio
set will automatically activate the needline if any data is received on the corresponding logical channel
number. If the radio set is turned off or power is lost, active needlines will be automatically reactivated
when the radio set is powered back on.
Types of Needlines
5-18. There are seven major types of needlines, each falling into the two major types of host-to-host
services (broadcast and point-to-point)—
z
Point-to-point needlines provide unequal data transfer capability for two endpoints’ hosts.
Either endpoint can have all the data transfer capability, or it can be split between them in
various ratios. Data is transferred at user data rates from 1,200 bps each way, up to 56,000 bps
all one way. An example of how a point-to-point needline works would be the same as one
person talking to another person on a telephone.
z
Simplex (one-way) needlines provide a single host the capability to send data to many hosts.
For simplex needlines, data is transferred at user data rates from 160–3,840 bps. An example of
how a simplex needline works would be the same effect as using a bullhorn to talk to many
people at the same time who cannot talk back.
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Chapter 5
z
z
z
z
z
CSMA needlines provide many hosts the capability to send data to each other. For CSMA
needlines, data is transferred at user data rates from 150–487,760 bps (for the whole needline).
The radio set ensures there are no other radio sets using the CSMA needline and then sends data
from the host. When completed, another radio set will ensure no other radio sets are using the
needline and then transmit, and so on. This protocol allows many endpoints’ hosts (multiple
access) to use the same CSMA needline to send data to one or more endpoints’ hosts. An
example of a CSMA needline would be like a group of people on a contention voice net, each
speaking when they have something to say and no one else is speaking.
Multisource group (MSG) needlines provide up to 16 hosts the capability to send data to many
hosts. MSG needlines provide each source host guaranteed bandwidth without conflict, with
user data rates from 37.5–485,760 bps. Data transferred from one source also goes to the other
sources. If fewer sources are used, the sources can have more than 1/16th of the data transfer
capability. Each 1/16th is called a share. For example, a source endpoint can be assigned to have
4/16ths of the total MSG data transfer capability, with 12 other source endpoints each having
1/16th of the total MSG data transfer capability. If there are unused shares, a radio set whose
host load is larger than its assignment on the MSG needline will use these available shares. The
more shares a radio set has, the more data transfer capability it has. The radio set also supports
eight and four share MSG needlines that provide faster speed of service. An example of how an
MSG needline works would be the same effect as up to 16 people with bullhorns talking, in a
round robin fashion, to many people who cannot talk back. A MSG needline is similar to a
CSMA needline, but each sender has a dedicated, guaranteed amount of time to talk (similar to
many concurrent simplex needlines).
Low data rate duplex (two-way) needlines provide radio-acknowledged, higher reliability,
balanced data transfer between two hosts with data rates from 20–1920 bps each way. They
provide equal data rates in both directions. This data transfer capability may be used by either or
both endpoints. The endpoint radio sets will automatically ensure that the data is all delivered
using radio set to radio set acknowledgement protocols. This needline type requires preplanning
for the radio set to be able to use. An example of how a duplex needline works would be the
same effect as talking to another person on a telephone.
Dynamically allocated permanent virtual circuit (DAP) needlines are a special type of
duplex needline. They have capabilities similar to those of duplex needlines (rates are 60–1920
bps), but DAP needlines are automatically set up and deleted on demand by the host, without
any preplanning or NCS involvement. However, if the network resources are not available to
support the data rate requested by the host, the needline rate is reduced to the highest rate
available that the radio set can support.
High data rate (HDR) duplex needlines have the same features as duplex needlines except that
the data rates are higher, from 600–121,440 bps each way.
Enhanced Position Location Reporting System Communications Needlines Capabilities
5-19. An EPLRS radio set can support needlines as an endpoint, relay, or as both. A radio set can be a
relay on some needlines, an endpoint on other needlines, and both an endpoint and a relay on other
needlines, all at the same time. As an endpoint, a radio set can send and/or receive data to/from its host on
a needline. A radio set that is only a relay (not an endpoint) cannot send or receive data to/from its host,
and might not even have a host. For simplex, duplex, and DAP needlines, radio sets will automatically sign
up as a relay if they have the resources available.
5-20. For point-to-point, CSMA, MSG, and HDR duplex needlines, a relay can only be endpoints on the
needline, or they must be manually set up. When existing radio sets cannot support the EPLRS network
relay needs, then dedicated relays are required.
5-21. There can be many host-to-host communications services running on a radio set at one time. There
can be from one to thirty total needlines activated per radio set, depending upon the size of the needlines. If
the maximum number is stored in the radio set, then another activated needline will cause the deletion of
5-4
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Ultra High Frequency Radios
the oldest stored needline. There can be a maximum of eight activated CSMA, HDR duplex, MSG, and
point-to-point needlines, total, per radio set.
5-22. A needline can use any of four waveform modes, 0–3. The higher the waveform mode number, the
higher data rate capability the needline has, but the lower the needlines anti-jam capabilities. (For more
information on EPLRS and system components refer to TM 11-5825-283-10.)
ENHANCED POSITION LOCATION REPORTING SYSTEM NETWORK MANAGER
5-23. The ENM equipment suite includes the following major components—
z
ENM software package (compact disk)—ENM software program which includes installation
program for loading ENM and EPLRS network planner onto ENM computer hard disk.
z
ENM computer— consisting of a central processing unit and associated cabling; host computer
platform for ENM software.
z
AN/VSQ-2D(V)1 surface vehicle radio set—RT-1720DI/G, RT-1720EI/G, or RT-1720FI/G,
with a user readout—also serves as the ENM radio set by connecting to the ENM computer.
z
Surface vehicle unit installation kit for SV-radio set—includes platform, cables, user readout
mount, and AS-3449/VSQ-1 antenna.
z
KOK-13 key—generator key generation device for generating red and black cryptographic keys
for network radio sets. (Not required for every ENM.)
z
KOI-18 tape reader—device for inputting seed key data into KOK-13.
z
AN/CYZ-10 DTD (ANCD)—key loading device for individually loading red keys into network
radio sets; receives keys from KOK-13; physically connects to each radio set to accomplish
loading.
Enhanced Position Location Reporting System Network Manager Characteristics and
Capabilities
5-24. The ENM is a collection of software applications that run on a rugged host computer. The ENM
software can run on Windows 2000 or Linux platforms and can be co-hosted with other applications as
operational needs require. The ENM performs automated network management and control of the EPLRS
network. The ENM assigns configuration parameters to radio set sets to allow them to perform their
missions. The ENM manages the generation of cryptographic keys from a KOK-13 to load into the radio
set.
5-25. The ENM application is installed on a rugged laptop computer and is used to configure a radio set
and to plan, monitor, manage, and maintain an EPLRS network. Hosting ENM on a laptop computer also
enables the ENM to be carried into the field for direct connection to a radio set for configuration and
troubleshooting. The ENM computer physically connects to an EPLRS radio set called an ENM radio set
directly via either Ethernet 802.3 or recommended standard-232 point-to-point protocol.
5-26. The ENM computer can also connect indirectly via a router using IP-over-Army Data Distribution
System Interface Protocol. Refer to Figure 5-2 for an example of the EPLRS radio set and a host computer.
The ENM vehicle is a high mobility multi-purpose wheeled vehicle that contains the ENM and other
communications equipment.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
5-5
Chapter 5
Figure 5-2. EPLRS radio set and host computer
5-27. The ENM was designed to plan and manage the EPLRS radio set network. The ENM can
accommodate any size EPLRS radio set network. There are no restrictions on the number of radios that can
be stored and managed by a single ENM. However, a maximum of 64 needlines can be assigned to any
single radio set, so there are practical limitations to the size of the network.
5-28. The ENM’s software application manages and controls the EPLRS network based on a deployment
plan. ENM loads the radio sets with the configuration data needed to perform their missions. The ENM
also generates the cryptographic keys for the radio sets. The ENM runs on a rugged laptop computer that
connects to an assigned radio set.
5-29. The ENM operators set up, maintain, and manage the EPLRS network. There are two basic levels of
ENM controlled by software login: network and monitor. Network ENMs monitor the status of network
radio sets, configure radio sets over the air, initiate network timing, and perform other managerial tasks.
Monitor ENMs have a lower level of access and only monitor the status of the network radio sets. They
cannot perform the managerial task such as over-the-air reconfiguration of radio sets. Normally, one
network ENM is made responsible for issuing the time master initiate command and distributing updated
deployment plan files, if required. Other ENMs manage their own groups of assigned radio sets and
coordinate with the time master ENM as required.
5-30. The EPLRS network is designed to maintain continuity of operations. If a specific ENM is disabled,
control of the assets assigned to that ENM is automatically transferred to another ENM. Once an ENM is
used to initiate the network, the existing network will continue to operate even if all ENMs were disabled.
An ENM is not required for the radio sets to maintain the network and provide communications services to
the hosts.
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Ultra High Frequency Radios
BLUE FORCE TRACKING
5-31. The BFT system is an L-band SATCOM tracking and communication system that provides the
commander eyes on the friendly forces and the ability to send and receive text messages. BFT maintains
SA of location and movement of friendly forces, sometimes termed “Blue Force,” assets. BFT provides the
Soldier with a globally responsive and tailorable capability to identify and track friendly forces in assigned
areas of operations (in near real time), thereby augmenting and enhancing C2 at key levels of command.
5-32. The BFT contains computer hardware and software, interconnecting cables, L-band satellite
transceiver, a PLGR, a mission data loader to transfer larger files, and an installation kit appropriate to the
host vehicle type (if applicable).
5-33. The BFT computer console tracks friendly units carrying portable miniature transmitter devices. The
transmitter devices are GPS-enabled, and send a signal via satellite detailing an individual or unit’s
location. Soldiers can program the transmitter devices to send location updates every five seconds. The
transmitter devices are small enough to be carried in a Soldier’s rucksack. Friendly forces appear as blue
squares on the system’s operator computer display. Units also have the capability to input enemy
coordinate positions and obstacles on patrol routes. Enemy units appear as red squares, and obstacles as
green squares. If units on the ground run into an enemy position, they can send that information to the
system, and everyone who is connected on that network will be able to see the new data. The tracking
system gives detailed information on friendly and enemy units up to a range of 5,000 miles. As long as the
systems are connected through the satellite network, commanders can see the activities of their brigade and
below-sized units.
5-34. The BFT supports a wide variety of joint missions and operations. BFT generates and distributes a
common view of the operational environment at the tactical and operational levels, identifying and sharing
that view with ground vehicles, rotary-wing aircraft, CPs, and Army and joint command centers.
NEAR TERM DIGITAL RADIO
5-35. The AN/VRC-108 is a LOS mobile packet radio network consisting of the NTDR and the network
management terminal. (Refer to TM 11-5820-1171-12&P and TB 11-5820-1171-10 for more information
on the NTDR.)
5-36. The NTDR (RT-1812) is a state-of-the-art, technology based digital radio. It is the primary data
communications transmission system, linking the ABCS at the brigade and battalion echelons. The NTDR
net provides a wireless wide-area network for Soldiers using ABCS host terminals located in TOCs. The
NTDR wide-area network allows Soldiers to transmit information at HDR between TOCs, to support C2
data and imagery information flow. The NTDR (refer to Figure 5-3) net transceivers are typically
employed in the following C2 platforms—
z
The battle command vehicle in the First Digitized Division.
z
C2 vehicles.
z
Selected M1068 TOC and tactical platforms.
z
UH-60 helicopters, equipped with the A2C2S.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
5-7
Chapter 5
Figure 5-3. Near term digital radio
5-37. The key features of the NTDR are that it—
z
Operates in the UHF band (225–450 MHz) in discrete tuning steps of 0.625 MHz.
z
Provides direct sequence spreading at a chip rate of 8.0 MHz, which enhances performance with
respect to multiparous paths, jamming, and enemy interception.
z
Provides nominal digital throughput at 288 kbps. Transmitted data is encrypted, protected with
FEC and detection codes, and modulated onto an RF carrier. Received data is recovered
following the same processes, but in reverse.
z
Supports local area network (Ethernet) and serial (recommended standard-423 asynchronous
and recommended standard-422 synchronous and asynchronous) interfaces.
z
Includes a range of 10–20 km (6.2–12.4 miles).
z
Incorporates a GPS receive capability that provides the military grid reference system position
for the radio.
5-38. The brigade S-6, supporting the brigade OPLAN or OPORD, establishes NTDR networks to ensure
successful network operation. This requires the establishment of separate cluster nets, and a backbone net
to connect the clusters. A cluster may be formed by linking elements of a maneuver battalion together with
the backbone linking the battalion clusters with the brigade TOC. Cluster heads form within the clusters to
link the backbone, and to maintain connectivity. The NTDR has a self-organizing networking capability
that provides highly mobile operations. End-to-end routing within the NTDR net structure is IP based.
TACTICAL DIGITAL INFORMATION LINK-JOINT TERMINALS
5-39. Tactical digital information link-joint (TADIL-J) is an approved data link used to exchange real-time
information (NATO Link 16 is the near equivalent of TADIL-J). The TADIL-J is the protocol approved
for joint (US only) air and missile defense surveillance and battle management. The TADIL-J is a
communications, navigation, and identification system that supports information exchange between tactical
communications systems. It is a secure, FH, jam-resistant, high capacity link, and uses the JTIDS or MIDS
communications data terminal for both voice and data exchange.
5-40. JTIDS/MIDS operates on the principal of time TDMA, wherein time slots are allocated among
participant JTIDS units for the transmission of data. This eliminates the requirement for an NCS by
providing a nodeless communications architecture.
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Ultra High Frequency Radios
5-41. Army TADIL-J terminals are the JTIDS Class 2M and the MIDS low volume terminal (LVT)-2.
Although other services’ JTIDS and MIDS terminals exchange data and voice, Army JTIDS class 2M and
MIDS LVT-2 terminals have no voice capability.
5-42. TADIL-J networks participants include—
z
Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor System (JLENS).
z
F/A-18.
z
Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS).
z
E-2C Hawkeye aircraft.
z
Tactical Air Operations Module (TAOM).
z
Short-range air defense (SHORAD).
z
Aegis ships.
z
Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS).
z
Patriot.
z
Air Operations Center.
z
Theater High Altitude Air Defense (THAAD).
z
Air and Missile Defense Command.
z
Joint tactical ground station (JTAGS).
TACTICAL DIGITAL INFORMATION LINK-JOINT TERMINALS AND ENHANCED POSITIONING
LOCATION REPORTING SYSTEM NETWORKS
5-43. EPLRS is the primary data distribution system for forward area air defense C2 weapon systems. The
typical SHORAD battalion use EPLRS to establish a data network that interconnects the Airspace
Command and Control, Air Battle Management Operations Center, C2 nodes, platoon and section
headquarters, and individual weapons systems. It passes the air picture and weapons control orders down,
and then sends weapons systems status back up through the system. The extended air picture received from
air and missile defense units, and E-3A Sentry/AWACS systems, are fused with the air picture received
from the AN/MPQ-64, Sentinel, filtered at the forward area air defense C2 node for specific geographical
areas of interest, and broadcast to all subscribers.
JOINT TACTICAL INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
5-44. JTIDS is a UHF terminal that operates in the 960–1215 MHz frequency band. It uses the Department
of Defense’s (DOD’s) primary tactical data link to provide secure, jam-resistant, high-capacity
interoperable voice and data communications for tactical platforms and weapon systems. Using TADIL-J
and the Interim JTIDS message specification, the Army JTIDS allows air defense artillery (ADA) units to
exchange mission essential data in near real-time, with other Army joint communications organizations
performing joint an AOR air and missile defense.
5-45. Army JTIDS supports joint interoperability and attainment of dominant SA, through integration of
high throughput Link 16 messages, standard and waveform. Integrated in Army AOR air and missile
defense weapons systems, Army JTIDS complements land force and joint force objectives for airspace
control, by rapidly and securely supporting the exchange of surveillance, identification, unit status, and
engagement information in both benign and electronic warfare (EW) conditions.
5-46. Host platforms for Army JTIDS/MIDS include—
z
Forward area air defense command, control, and intelligence.
z
Patriot power projection for Army command, control and communications.
z
JLENS.
z
THAAD.
z
MEADS.
z
JTAGS.
z
Air and Missile Defense Planning and Control System at ADA brigades and Army air and
missile defense commands.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
5-9
Chapter 5
5-47. The Army currently uses the JTIDS and/or MIDS at several operational levels as the medium to
defense broadcast, and receive an enhanced joint air picture. An in-theater joint data net will provide
shared joint C2 data and targeting information. Sources of the joint data net include—
z
E-3A Sentry/AWACS.
z
Control and reporting center.
z
Intelligence platforms.
z
E-2C Hawkeye aircraft.
z
Aegis ships.
z
Fighter aircrafts.
z
USMC TAOM.
z
Air defense and airspace management cell.
z
ADA brigades.
z
SHORAD.
z
Patriot.
z
THAAD.
z
JTAGS.
5-48. The Army JTIDS system is comprised of the Class 2M terminal, the JTIDS terminal controller, and
the JTIDS antenna. Figure 5-4 is an example of the JTIDS Class 2M radio, AN/GSQ-240 I.
Figure 5-4. JTIDS class 2M, AN/GSQ-240 I radio set
MULTIFUNCTIONAL INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
5-49. MIDS is a communications, navigation, and identification system intended to exchange C2 data
information among various C2 and weapons platforms, to enhance varied missions of each Service. MIDS
is the follow-on to JTIDS terminals, providing improvements over the Class 2 family of terminals. MIDS is
smaller and lighter than its predecessor and can be installed in platforms that are limited in space and
weight. MIDS-equipped platforms are fully compatible with LINK 16 participants.
5-10
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Ultra High Frequency Radios
5-50. Army MIDS consists of a MIDS LVT-2, a terminal controller, and an antenna. Figure 5-5 shows the
Army MIDS LVT-2, AN/USQ-140. The Army MIDS provides jam-resistant, near real-time, high digital
data throughput communications, position location reporting, navigation, and identification capabilities to
host platforms.
Figure 5-5. Army MIDS LVT-2, AN/USQ-140
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FM 6-02.53
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Chapter 6
Single-Channel Tactical Satellite
This chapter addresses the Army SC TACSAT planning and employment. It also
addresses SC ground terminals, the AN/PSC-5, AN/PRC 117F and Army
conventional forces.
SINGLE-CHANNEL TACTICAL SATELLITE INTRODUCTION
6-1. The Army uses SC TACSAT to provide long-haul, worldwide communications coverage to support
critical C2 communications to ground and mobile operating forces. SC TACSAT provides the ability to
support a small number of burst transmissions per day for SOF, Ranger units, atomic demolition teams, and
long range surveillance units engaged in sensitive missions over extended distances and varied terrain. It
also provides secure voice communications for C2 for the Special Operations Command, airborne, air
assault, light infantry divisions, and light infantry brigades.
6-2. All Army SC TACSAT terminals provide half duplex operations. The radios provide the capability
of transmitting data rates of up to 56 kbps on 25 kHz (wideband) channels and 9.6 kbps on 5 kHz
(narrowband) channels. Due to the limited resources available on the UHF satellites and the increasing
requirements for access by Army and all Service users, the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) mandated the use of
DAMA. This allows more access to the satellites through the automated sharing of the channel but reduces
the data rates provided to the users. Therefore, the normal access is limited to 2400 bps, providing voice
using ANDVT and data. The improvement of the voice encoder (VOCODER) in the radios using MELP
vastly improves the voice quality and clarity at 2400 bps to that found using VINSON encryption at 16
kbps.
6-3. The JCS and SC TACSAT community realized there were problems previously experienced with the
implementation of DAMA. MELP was not originally available and the users of voice found that
narrowband did not provide what they needed to support their missions. In addition, DAMA was hard for
operators to use and access could be preempted, causing the loss of communications during important
missions. Most importantly, the satellites being used are failing due to surpassing their life cycle and the
follow on system (both satellites and terminals), Mobile User Objective System, has been delayed.
6-4. The MIL-STDs governing the use of UHF were improved and implemented a higher data
throughput into the sharing of channels. This is known as the integrated waveform. Implementation of
integrated waveform is projected to take place in 2008. This will provide an improvement of up to four
times the accesses seen in DAMA on a 25 kHz channel. Radios will be required to have the MELP
VOCODER, providing the clear voice necessary for successful operations. Data rates on the channels can
be changed on demand for those that need to send large data files in a short period. Integrated waveform
will be implemented in two phases.
6-5. The first phase will allow for net communications, preplanned to support operations. Phase II will
allow for ad hoc communications, supporting point-to-point calls and nets that were not preplanned as the
mission dictates. The human machine interface will be simplified to allow for ease of operation. The
prevalent manpack systems (AN/PSC-5C, AN/PSC-5D, and AN/PRC-117F along with the airborne system
AN/ARC-231) will be the first to implement the integrated waveform.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
6-1
Chapter 6
SINGLE-CHANNEL TACTICAL SATELLITE PLANNING
CONSIDERATIONS
6-6. The SC TACSAT mission provides worldwide tactical communications such as en route contingency
communications, in-theater communications, intelligence broadcast, and CNR range extension. SC
TACSAT radios link TOCs to all echelons, and include the long range surveillance units and Army SOF
units, which can operate hundreds of miles from main forces.
6-7. Army SC TACSAT operates in the UHF band, and is available in manpack and vehicle versions. The
radios’ lightness, availability, and ease of use make them valuable for mobile and covert operations
spanning full spectrum operations.
6-8. Commanders distribute terminals based on the mission and their preferences for communications.
Commanders can use the terminal based on their vision of the battle scenario; flexibility and mobility are
an inherent part of this architecture. Members of the Warfighter Network can be located anywhere within
an AOR given the extent of the satellite footprint.
6-9. Unlike most communications systems SC TACSAT has no planning range. The capability to
communicate depends on the location of the satellite for LOS. The channelization of each satellite is
standardized providing flexibility and interoperability in normal operations. Given a contingency mission,
the controlling authority can change the geosynchronous position of the satellite and improve the footprint
as required. Additionally, SC TACSAT will not directly interfere with other combat net communications
systems due to the frequency bands in which it operates.
DAMA NETWORKS
6-10. DAMA is a technique which matches user demands to available satellite time. Satellite channels are
grouped together as a bulk asset, and DAMA assigns users variable time slots that match the RTOs
information transmission requirements. The RTO does not notice a difference because the RTO appears to
have exclusive use of the channel. The increase in nets or radio users available by using DAMA depends
on the type of users. DAMA is most effective where there are many users operating at low to moderate
duty cycles. This describes many tactical nets; therefore, DAMA is particularly effective with SC TACSAT
systems.
6-11. DAMA efficiency also depends on how the system is formatted which is how the access is
controlled. The greatest user increase is obtained through unlimited access. This format sets up channel use
on a first-come-first-serve basis. Other types of formats are prioritized cueing access and minimum
percentage access. The prioritization technique is suitable for command type nets, while the minimum
percentage is suitable for support/logistic nets. Regardless of format, DAMA generally increases satellite
capability by 4–20 times over normal dedicated channel operation.
SINGLE-CHANNEL ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY AND EXTREMELY
HIGH FREQUENCY TERMINALS
6-12. The following paragraphs address SC UHF and extremely high frequency (EHF) ground terminal
radios.
LST-5B, 5C AND 5D
6-13. The LST-5B and LST-5C (refer to Figure 6-1) are SC TACSATs that operate in either a manpack,
vehicular, shipboard, or airborne configuration. They are capable of operation by remote control via
dedicated hardware, or PC-based software through an X-mode connector. Both radios modulate in AM and
FM voice, cipher, data, and beacon. They use the frequency range of 225–399.995 MHz with channel
spacing of 5 kHz and 25 kHz.
6-2
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Single Channel Tactical Satellite
Figure 6-1. LST-5
6-14. The LST-5D has the added capability of DAMA, features embedded encryption devices for voice
and data communications, as well as the channel capacity increases made possible through DAMA channel
management. (Refer to FM 6-02.90 for more information on tactics, techniques, and procedures [TTP] for
UHF TACSAT and DAMA operations.)
SINGLE-CHANNEL ANTI-JAM MAN PORTABLE TERMINAL, AN/PSC-11
6-15. The AN/PSC-11 single-channel anti-jam man portable (SCAMP) terminal is a man packable system
that is packaged for storage or transport in two transit cases. The SCAMP consists of a RT, an interface
unit that encrypts and decrypts the voice and data by using COMSEC keys, a handheld control device (30
key keypad), and a handset. (There is additional associated equipment that is not provided with all
terminals.)
6-16. The AN/PSC-11 terminal interfaces with the military strategic and tactical relay system to provide
secure, survivable voice and data communications via a low data rate payload. It can operate over EHF
packages on fleet satellite and UHF follow-on systems. The AN/PSC-11 terminal operates in either pointto-point or broadcast modes, and provides voice and data service at a maximum data rate of 2,400 bps. The
terminal can interface in the data mode with CNRs and PCs to provide range extension for conventional
units and SOF. The AN/PSC-11 terminal has the following characteristics and capabilities—
z
Throughput: 24 kbps (voice or data).
z
Modes of operation: point-to-point or broadcast.
z
Frequency: uplink, 43.5 to 45.5 gigahertz (GHz) Q Band with 2 GHz bandwidth.
z
Security: embedded COMSEC.
6-17. The AN/PSC-11 terminal (refer to Figure 6-2) can interface with a variety of Army user
communications systems via the four baseband data ports. The satellite link is transparent to the user
communications system. The baseband equipment/systems do not control the satellite access of the
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
6-3
Chapter 6
AN/PSC-11 terminal. In all cases, the operator must first establish the satellite path via the AN/PSC-11.
Once the satellite path is operational, the baseband service can then be established. (Refer to TM 11-58201157-10 for more information on the SCAMP.)
Figure 6-2. AN/PSN-11 SCAMP
AN/PSN-11 AND COMBAT NET RADIOS
6-18. The AN/PSC-11 terminal supports the SINCGARS SIP and ASIP radios, providing range extension
to CNR users. The SINCGARS RT operates in the data mode only with the AN/PSC-11. Figure 6-3 shows
the two AN/PSC-11/CNR configurations. With SINCGARS, the AN/PSC-11 operates in a full duplex,
point-to-point configuration that supports user baseband equipment, such as the STU III and all utilized
data systems. Additionally, the AN/PSC-11 provides range extension to the SINCGARS. The AN/PSC-11
can provide range extension to either a network or one SINCGARS. Connectivity via the red port or a
black port (with an external cryptographic device such as the KG-84/KIV-7) provides encryption.
6-4
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Single Channel Tactical Satellite
Figure 6-3. SCAMP/CNR configurations
AN/PSC-5 RADIO SET (SPITFIRE)
6-19. The AN/PSC-5 was built to replace the AN/PSC-3. Refer to Figure 6-4 for an example of an
AN/PSC-5, Spitfire. The Spitfire operates in the following PT LOS modes with the following
characteristics and capabilities—
z
Frequency bands of:
„
30.000–87.995 MHz.
„
108.000–129.995 MHz.
„
130.000–148.995 MHz.
„
156.000–173.995 MHz.
„
225.000–399.995 MHz.
z
Modulation to include:
„
AM—60 to 90 percent at 1 kHz AM for PT and CT LOS voice modulation;
50 percent minimum for beacon mode.
„
FM—±5.6 kHz deviation at 1 kHz FM for PT and CT LOS voice
modulation. The FM beacon modulation has a ±4 kHz nominal frequency deviation.
„
FM—frequency shift key (FSK) modulation rate of 16 kbps PT and CT
voice and data. Used in LOS and SATCOM modes.
z
Channel spacing: 5 kHz.
z
Squelch: Operator adjustable S/N ratio squelch. From 10dB signal, noise and distortion
(SINAD) at minimum squelched condition to at least 16 dB SINAD at maximum.
z
Half duplex operation.
z
PT: transmitted voice or data is not encrypted.
z
CT: When a cipher-text voice message is received or transmitted (mode switch in CT), a single
beep will be heard in the handset at the beginning of the reception or transmission.
z
Noise figure LOS: 10 dB nominal.
z
Six presets.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
6-5
Chapter 6
z
Frequency scanning: capable of scanning five presets in LOS PT voice and CT (VINSON)
voice.
Figure 6-4. AN/PSC-5 radio set, Spitfire
6-20. The Spitfire can scan up to five LOS or dedicated SATCOM radio voice operation nets. Scanning
combinations of CT (VINSON) and PT nets is allowed in voice mode only.
6-21. The Spitfire operates in the following SATCOM modes with these characteristics and capabilities—
z
Frequency band: UHF band 225.000 MHz to 399.995 MHz.
z
Modulation to include:
„
AM—60 to 90 percent at 1 kHz AM for PT and CT LOS voice modulation;
50 percent minimum for beacon mode.
„
FM—±5.6 kHz deviation at 1 kHz FM for PT and CT LOS voice
modulation. The FM beacon modulation has a ±4 kHz nominal frequency deviation.
„
FM—FSK rate of 16 kbps PT and CT voice and data. Used in LOS and
SATCOM modes.
„
SBPSK—modulation rate of 1200, 2400, and 9600 bps. Used in SATCOM
mode.
z
Channel spacing: 5 kHz and 25 kHz.
z
Squelch: Operator adjustable S/N ratio squelch. From 10dB SINAD at minimum squelched
condition to at least 16 dB SINAD at maximum.
z
Half duplex operation.
z
PT: transmitted voice or data is not encrypted.
z
CT: When a cipher-text voice message is received or transmitted (mode switch in CT), a single
beep will be heard in the handset at the beginning of the reception or transmission.
z
Noise figure SATCOM: less than 4 dB (240–270 MHz).
z
Six presets.
6-6
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Single Channel Tactical Satellite
6-22. The Spitfire operates in the following DAMA modes with the following capabilities and
limitations—
z
Frequency band: UHF band 225.000–399.995 MHz.
z
Modulation to include:
„
Shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying (PSK)—modulation rate of
600, 800, 1200, 2400, and 3000 bps used in 5 kHz DAMA mode.
„
Binary PSK—modulation rate of 19.2k and 9600 symbols per second used
in 25 kHz DAMA mode.
„
Differentially encoded quadrature PSK—modulation rate of 32,000
symbols per second used in 25 kHz DAMA mode.
z
Channel spacing: 5 kHz and 25 kHz, IAW MIL-STD 188-181, 188-182A, and 188-183.
z
Half duplex operation.
z
VINSON: 16 kbps data rate, 25 kHz COMSEC (KY-57/58) mode for secure voice and data.
z
KG-84 compatible modes 3 and 4 (data only).
z
ANDVT—2400 bps mode for secure voice and data.
z
Six sets DAMA (including 20 “sub-presets” each for 5 kHz service setup, 5 kHz message setup,
and 25 kHz service setup).
Spitfire Wireless Network Extension Capabilities
6-23. The Spitfire provides range extension for both SINCGARS and Spitfire radios. A Spitfire-to-Spitfire
wireless network extension is used when the network spans two satellite footprints. The actual terminals
used for wireless network extension are set up in the PT mode, a W-5 cable is used between the two radios
with SATCOM antennas connected, and the set up does not allow for an eavesdrop capability at the
wireless network extension site.
Note. Do not attach handsets or speakers to Spitfire terminals in the wireless network extension
configuration. If connected they will produce a non-secure beep broadcast and NSA mandates
secure, encrypted transmissions.
6-24. The Spitfire terminals may be set up in the wireless network extension mode with the LOS antennas
connected, but this is not recommended. A SINCGARS wireless network extension configuration is
recommended for this communications requirement.
6-25. The abbreviated wireless network extension mode for SINCGARS requires one Spitfire to be set up
with a SINCGARS at the wireless network extension site. Again, the Spitfire must be in PT mode to
accomplish the wireless network extension, or eavesdropping may take place at the SINCGARS terminal.
The SINCGARS operates in 25 kHz increments, the same as the LOS mode for the Spitfire. Both
SATCOM and DAMA, 5 kHz channels, must be requested for the Spitfire to accomplish the
communications link. The Spitfire set up at the distant end will be in the CT mode. It will then
encrypt/decrypt transmissions using the COMSEC employed by the SINCGARS.
6-26. Use the AN/PSC-5 for BLOS wireless network extension of SINCGARS nets. Each net requires a
SINCGARS and AN/PSC-5 terminal connected for wireless network extension. Figure 6-5 is an example
of a SINCGARS range extension with AN/PSC-5 (this configuration can also be modified for SINCGARS
to Spitfire communications).
6-27. In the PT mode, the wireless network extension AN/PSC-5 cannot monitor the network or send
messages; only the SINCGARS terminal can do this. Additionally, satellite channels must be in 25 kHz
increments for both SATCOM and DAMA. Once this configuration is complete, wireless network
extension occurs as if it were a SINCGARS-to-SINCGARS wireless network extension site. The major
difference is that the network at each end has BLOS capability.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
6-7
Chapter 6
6-28. Other available wireless network extension capabilities include DAMA-to-DAMA, DAMA-toSATCOM, SATCOM-to-LOS, and DAMA-to-LOS configurations. These are used based on mission
requirements, and are not normal wireless network extension configurations. (For more information on the
AN/PSC-5 refer to TM 11-5820-1130-12&P.)
Figure 6-5. SINCGARS range-extension with Spitfire
COMMUNICATIONS PLANNING
6-29. The Network Management System (NMS) provides the joint staff, GCC planning facilities, and the
subordinate units with a tool that consolidates and provides information to maintain a database. This
database necessary for the controllers to implement the DAMA process and receive allocations of satellite
resources.
6-30. The database will include information about the terminal, the user, and the services requested. This
information will include, but is not be limited to—
z
Type of terminal.
z
COMSEC being employed (not including key type).
z
I/O device attached.
z
Data rates of the I/O device.
z
Terminal address.
z
Network addresses terminal.
z
Guard lists.
Note. A guard frequency is a RF that is normally used for emergency transmissions and is
continuously monitored for example, UHF band 243.0 MHz and VHF band 121.5 MHz.
6-8
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Single Channel Tactical Satellite
6-31. Although the NMS will not replace the need to document requirements in the integrated
communications database, it will eventually replace the need to generate a satellite access request.
Information passes electronically from planners within the unit, to their higher headquarters, via the joint
(UHF) military SATCOM network integrated control system as the mission dictates. When fielded, the
Army’s NMS will be a part of the integrated system control.
KEY DISTRIBUTION
6-32. Key distribution is critical in achieving secure satellite transmissions. The brigade COMSEC office
of record is responsible for the brigade COMSEC account. It also provides logistical support for the control
and distribution of internal brigade and subordinate battalion COMSEC material. Commanders must ensure
these procedures are established in a unit SOP. (TB 380-41 provides information on the procedures for
safeguarding, accounting, and the supply control of COMSEC material such as COMSEC material
distribution.)
Joint Communications Security Key Distribution
6-33. A joint contingency force (JCF), corps, and division key management plan (KMP) provides guidance
on the COMSEC key distribution; however, it does not change current unit procedures. The COMSEC
custodian is responsible for KMP coordination and the frequency manager is responsible for the satellite
access request. The COMSEC custodian and frequency manager need to ensure prior coordination is made
between the two so that all requests for COMSEC have been identified for all units.
Transmission Security (Orderwire) Key Distribution
6-34. The DAMA KMP will provide guidance on obtaining orderwire keys using the EKMS with the
DAMA control system. It will also provide instructions for the receipt of OTAR by the users. The Spitfire
provides an OTAR capability for orderwire keys. Spitfire operators should have the current and next
orderwire keys for each footprint in which they will be operating.
Note. Only the requesting unit’s COMSEC custodian with a valid COMSEC account can order
these keys. (Refer to TB 380-41.)
6-35. The DAMA semi-automatic controller (and possibly the NCS) places the orderwire keys in positions
0–7; the Spitfire uses positions 1–8. Careful coordination must be performed before the execution of any
DAMA operations. Additionally, the location of the key must be coordinated within each footprint to
ensure compatibility with the controller in all AOs.
AN/PSC-5I UHF TACTICAL GROUND TERMINAL (SHADOWFIRE)
6-36. The AN/PSC-5I is a field upgrade of the AN/PSC-5 Spitfire terminal. The upgrade was designed to
provide all the capabilities of the AN/PSC-5I plus additional capabilities for HAVEQUICK I and II and
SINCGARS anti-jam; the ability to receive and transmit OTARs; extended 30–420 MHz frequency range,
MIL-STD-188 to 181B HDR in LOS and SATCOM communications; and MIL-STD 188-184 embedded
advanced data controller.
6-37. Additional features include embedded tactical Internet range extension and MELP voice coding, 142
preset channels, advanced key loading, DS-101 fill capability and embedded tactical IPs and COMSEC.
AN/PSC-5D MULTIBAND MULTIMISSION RADIO
6-38. The AN/PSC-5D offers a higher frequency range than the Spitfire and Shadowfire. A LOS, 5 kHz,
25 kHz DAMA, and 25 kHz SATCOM comparison of the AN/PSC-5 family of radios and the AN/PRC117F is outlined in Table 6-1, 6-2 and 6-3. For more information on UHF SC TACSAT/DAMA refer to
FM 6-02.90.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
6-9
Chapter 6
Table 6-1. AN/PSC-5/C/D, AN/PRC-117F and AN/ARC-231 LOS interoperability
AN/PSC-5
Spitfire
AN/PSC-5I
Shadowfire
AN/PSC-5D and
AN/ARC-231
AN/PRC-117F
Frequency
Range
MHz
30–400 MHz
30–420 MHz
30–512 MHz
30–512 MHz
Voice 12
kbps
FASCINATOR
FASCINATOR
FASCINATOR
FASCINATOR
Voice 16
kbps
VINSON
VINSON
VINSON
VINSON
Data 16
kbps
VINSON, 3 or 4
KG-84
No
CTCSS
No
VINSON, 3 or 4
KG-84
1–4 KG-84 (3 KG84)—up to 48
kbps
Yes
VINSON, 3 or 4 KG84
Data (over
16 kbps)
VINSON, 3 or 4
KG-84
1–4 KG-84 (3 KG84)—up to 48
kbps
Yes
SINCGARS
FH
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Guard
frequency
No
Yes
Yes
No
Channel
Spacing
5 and 25 kHz
5 and 25 kHz
5, 6.25, 8.33, 12.5,
25 kHz
10 Hz, 5, 8.33, 12.5
and 25 kHz
Radio Item
No
No
Note. CTCSS—continuous tone coded squelch system
6-10
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Single Channel Tactical Satellite
Table 6-2. AN/PSC-5/C/D, AN/ARC-231 and AN/PRC-117F
5 kHz and 25 kHz DAMA interoperability
Terminal
AN/PSC-5
AN/PSC-5C
AN/PSC-5D and
AN/ARC-231
AN/PRC-117
5 kHz voice 2400
bps
ANDVT
MELP (AUTO)
MELP (AUTO)
MELP (AUTO)
5 kHz Data 2400
bps
ANDVT, 3 or 4
KG-84
ANDVT, 3 or 4
KG-84
ANDVT, 3 or 4
KG-84
ANDVT, 3 or 4
KG-84
1–4 KG-84 (3
KG-84)—up to
8000 bps
*must use 181B for
Mode
ANDVT, 3 or 4
KG-84 up to 2400
bps
1–4 KG-84 (3 KG84)—up to 9600
bps
1–4 KG-84 (3 KG84)—up to 9600
bps
25 kHz Voice
2400 bps
ANDVT
MELP (AUTO)
MELP (AUTO)
MELP (AUTO)
25 kHz Data 2400
bps
ANDVT, 3 or 4
KG-84
ANDVT, 3 or 4
KG-84
ANDVT, 3 or 4
KG-84
ANDVT, 3 or 4
KG-84
3 or 4 KG-84
3 or 4 KG-84
3 or 4 KG-84
3 or 4 KG-84
Vinson, 3 KG84/4 KG—84 only
up to 16 kbps
1–4 KG-84 (3 KG84)—up to 48
kbps
1–4 KG-84 (3 KG84)—up to 56
kbps
1–4 KG-84 (3
KG-84)—up to
56 kbps
*must use 181B for
5 kHz DASA
(Data)
Data 4800 bps
(limited access)
25 kHz DASA
Data
interoperability (HPW
between 117F only)
interoperability
Data transfer
Yes
Yes
Note. DASA—demand assigned single access
Yes
No
HPW—high performance waveform
Table 6-3. AN/PSC-5/C/D AN/ARC-231 and AN/PRC-117F
25 kHz SATCOM interoperability
Terminal
Mode
Voice 16 kbps
Data 16 kbps
Data (over 16
kbps)
AN/PSC-5
AN/PSC-5C
AN/PSC-5D and
AN/ARC-231
VINSON
VINSON, 3 or 4
KG-84
VINSON
VINSON, 3 or 4
KG-84
VINSON
VINSON, 3 or 4
KG-84
NO
1–4 KG-84 (3 KG84)—up to 48
kbps
1–4 KG-84 (3 KG84)—up to 56
kbps
AN/PRC-117
VINSON
VINSON, 3 or 4
KG-84
1–4 KG-84 (3
KG-84)—up to
56 kbps
*Must use 181B for
interoperability (HPW
between 117F only)
AN/PRC-117F MANPACK RADIO
6-39. The AN/PRC-117F is an advanced multiband/multimission manpack radio that provides reliable
tactical communications performance in a small, lightweight package that can maximize user mobility. The
AN/PRC-117F is a multiprocessor based, fully digital, software controlled, voice and data transceiver. The
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
6-11
Chapter 6
AN/PRC-117F is capable of providing; LOS, SATCOM, ECCM, FH operations (SINCGARS and
HAVEQUICK), and is compatible with all tactical VHF/UHF radios. (The AN/VRC-103 is the vehicular
version of the AN/PRC-117F.) Refer to Figure 6-6 for an example of the AN/PRC-117F.
Figure 6-6. AN/PRC-117F
6-40. The AN/PRC-117F is a COTS radio and is covered under a commercial warranty. The radio requires
regular updates to the firmware. Signal planners should pay special attention to ensuring that radios have
the latest version, which is available from the Harris Premier Web site (https://www.premier.harris.com/),
because having multiple versions of the firmware within a unit can cause problems with interoperability.
AN/PRC-117F CHARACTERISTICS AND CAPABILITIES
6-41. The AN/PRC-117F is designed to act as the transmission means for a range of command, control and
communications input devices (both digital data and analog). These include standard audio (voice)
communications via a handset; line-level audio-data devices such as the handheld data terminals found in
SOF, military intelligence, field artillery and other units; analog teletype modems; C2 digital DTE as found
in the ABCS; PCs; e-mail systems, video systems, fax and more. The AN/PRC-117F can operate across
both the VHF and UHF military tactical frequency bands using either LOS modes or satellite propagation
media for BLOS communications.
6-42. According to the article “AN/PRC-117 Special Operations Forces Radio Has Applications for
Digital Divisions and Beyond”, due to the microprocessor design, digital signal processing and software
control, the AN/PRC-117F is actually the equivalent of many current radios in one manpack or vehicle
mounted box. This greatly reduces the space, weight, power and support requirements for both individual
fighting platforms and tactical-operations centers. This also greatly reduces co-site interference problems
and, if used properly, can reduce the number of tactical radio nets required to support a digitally equipped
fighting force. The AN/PRC-117F has the following characteristics and capabilities—
z
Frequency range of 30–512 MHz. This frequency range covers not only the “standard” Army
tactical (30–88 MHz) band but also covers the frequency bands and modulation modes
commonly used by the USAF, USN and Coast Guard for operations, air traffic control (ATC),
tactical data links and maritime uses. This makes the radio ideal for use as a “liaison radio” or
“gateway” between service components using different waveforms for joint ground sea and air
operations. Also, AN/PRC-117Fs frequency range and waveform modes are compatible with
civil and public service frequency bands commonly used by non-DOD local, state, federal and
foreign agencies.
6-12
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Single Channel Tactical Satellite
z
Modulation. As delivered, the radio is programmed at the factory for compatibility with current
“standard” modulation characteristics segmented in the traditional RF bands—
„
VHF low band. 30.00000–89.99999 MHz, FSK. This makes the radio
interoperable with SINCGARS, AN/PRC-68, AN/PRC-126 and other tactical radios of both
foreign and domestic manufacture.
„
VHF high band. 90.00000–224.99999 MHz FM, AM, FSK, amplitude
shift-keying. In this frequency band, the radio can be used for air-to-air, air-to-ground and
ground-to-ground voice and data communications using waveforms found in this band. The
AN/PRC-117F is compatible with a variety of existing military aircraft and air-traffic-control
radio communications, as well as military air-to-ground data-link communications, the
commercial USMC band, USN/Coast Guard communications and civil police, fire and
emergency-management standard radios. Due to its capability, joint and civil-military liaison for
both voice and data can be accomplished in one radio by units that have AN/PRC-117F. This is
particularly important to the Army National Guard because of their large role in civil support
operations.
„
UHF band. 225.00000–511.99999 MHz. AM, FSK, amplitude shift
keying. In this frequency band, AN/PRC-117F can be used to perform air-to-air, air-to-ground,
ground-to-ground, fixed or mobile radio communications missions for both voice and data
modes. The AN/PRC-117F is also compatible with ECCM-capable equipment such as
AN/ARC-164 and AN/ARC-182 that can be widely found in existing tri-service ground,
airborne and special-mission systems.
„
UHF SATCOM. 243.00000–270.00000 MHz and 292.00000–318.00000
MHz. In this frequency range, AN/PRC-117F is fully compatible with SC and DAMA TACSAT
systems. The AN/PRC-117F also has full orderwire capability and can send and receive data at a
rate of 64 kbps in a 25 kHz channel or 12 kbps in a 5 kHz channel. Also, automatic requests for
wireless network extension of bad data packets and COMSEC are embedded in the radio
hardware and software. This key SATCOM capability gives the radio a feature no other standard
CNR has: the ability to communicate BLOS without wireless network extension stations from
the same radio package that’s used for LOS communications.
6-43. The AN/PRC-117F operates in the following LOS fixed frequency CT operating capabilities and
limitations—
z
VINSON—16 kbps data rate, 25 kHz COMSEC (KY-57/58) mode for secure voice and data.
z
KG-84 compatible—(data only) supports voice only using a 12 kbps data rate in FM and trellis
code modulation from 30.00000–511.99999 MHz and AM mode from 90.00000–511.99999
MHz. Also available in all modes of UHF SATCOM.
z
TEKs—electronically loaded 128 bit transmission encryption keys used to secure voice and data
communications.
z
COMSEC fill—TEKs, TSKs, and KEKs can be filled from the following devices—
„
AN/CYZ-10, DTD (ANCD).
„
AN/PYQ-10, SKL.
„
KYK-13, electronic transfer device.
„
KYX-15, net control device.
„
MX-18290, ECCM fill device.
„
KOI-18, general purpose tape reader.
6-44. The AN/PRC-117F can operate in HAVEQUICK I/II, utilizing FH from 225–400 MHz, providing
compatibility with current airborne FH. It can also operate in SINCGARS FH mode from 30.0000–87.975
MHz. and supports SINCGARS SIP/ESIP features by being placed in either a net master or a net member
mode.
6-45. The AN/PRC-117F can scan up to 10 LOS fixed frequency or dedicated SATCOM radio voice
operation nets. It does not scan HAVEQUICK, SINCGARS, or UHF DAMA nets and digital squelch
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
6-13
Chapter 6
cannot be used. Scanning combinations of CT and PT nets is allowed by the PT override feature of the
VINSON and FASCINATOR CT mode.
AN/PRC-117F DATA CAPABILITIES
6-46. The AN/PRC-117F can be used as a digital data-transmission device. The recommended standard232 and 422, and MIL-188-114 I/O ports are provided integral to the radio, along with synchronous and
asynchronous data interfaces. This makes it very easy to interface DTE, computer workstations and
networking components such as, CP routers, to the radio for data transmission applications. The AN/PRC117F can send data transmission rates of 56 kbps through SATCOM and 64 kbps ground-to-ground (LOS).
6-47. With these data rates, the AN/PRC-117F would make data transmission among brigade and battalion
TOCs and lower echelons fast enough to support lengthy database-to-database transfers. Transmission of
databases, plans, orders and reports that are now difficult and time consuming to do over tactical radios
would be much faster. This would not only improve operations but would also reduce system vulnerability
to enemy intercept and detection. Also, these rates will support user desired C2 tools such as video
teleconferencing, imagery transmission, en route mission planning and collaborative planning that aren’t
practical using current lower-data-rate equipment. (Refer to Appendix G for more information on data
communications.)
ARMY CONVENTIONAL FORCES
6-48. The primary mission of the Warfighter Network is to augment the current and projected C2 system.
This system must always be operational to support requirements during peace, crisis, and war. The addition
of the Warfighter Network ensures a C2 communications system across the operational continuum. CNR
provides the commander the ability to immediately access CPs while operating on the move, eavesdrop on
subordinate units’ communications, and affect operations during critical moments of the fight.
6-49. The significant advantages of SINCGARS and SC TACSAT systems are to make them the
recommended CNR communications means for the Warfighter Network. SINCGARS will continue to be
widely available on the battlefield, easy to use, and interoperable with aircraft radio versions. It provides
improved immunity from the EW threat. SC TACSAT terminals provide users with critical C2 connectivity
over extended ranges. The Warfighter Network requires assured space segment access 365 days a year to
support operational training. It ensures a smooth transition from peacetime operation to war. This assured
access requirement is critical to force deployment operations, and equals USN and USAF requirements.
OPERATIONS AND INTELLIGENCE NETWORKS
6-50. The corps and division system improves intelligence planning, streamlines the handling of
information, and expedites production of intelligence. Its purpose is to speed the flow of information up
and down the chain of command using dedicated and secure communications nets. It also ensures the
integration of information from all sources into a clear, accurate, and complete picture for the commander.
6-51. The corps combines intelligence and combat information from corps subordinate units and
national/strategic, theater, combatant command, and multinational intelligence efforts. Fully integrated, allsource intelligence is produced at corps and is the basis of the commander’s intelligence preparation of the
battlefield.
6-52. SC TACSAT is a valuable communications asset for sustainment units in support of dispersed forces
across full spectrum operations and communications zone. The requirement for SC TACSAT assets exists
for sustainment units, from early entry, through normal daily operations in a mature theater. Units at all
levels rely heavily on a fully planned and reliable communications architecture to provide SA, multimedia
services, imagery, and asset visibility.
6-53. Additionally, the ability to access timely materiel and movement related information allows the
logistician to focus on the discipline of distribution from the strategic, operational, and tactical echelons of
logistical support, to sustain operations. The theater sustainment command, battlefield distribution, and
velocity management concepts support the requirement for SC TACSAT capabilities. The SC TACSAT
6-14
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Single Channel Tactical Satellite
communications assets can provide continuous information feeds to Army and joint total assets visibility,
which will achieve the leap-ahead capability that is necessary to support the Army’s transformation to
modularity.
SINGLE-CHANNEL TACTICAL SATELLITE FIRE SUPPORT
NETWORKS
6-54. Doctrinally, most of the SC TACSAT nets used in the distribution plan for the Spitfire are voice
nets. The need for a digital link between the Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS),
Initial Fire Support Automation System, Forward Observer System, and non-fire support C2 systems may
require these nets to be used for digital traffic. Voice/Data contention does not satisfy the requirements of
fire support. The commander must decide which net will provide voice service, and which will carry data.
These nets can be used for either voice or data, but not both.
CORPS FIRE SUPPORT NET
6-55. The purpose of the corps fire support net is for clearing fires, which refers to the coordination
necessary when firing into an adjacent AO controlled by someone else. The coordination ensures the area
is under enemy control and there are no friendly forces in the area. The primary users of the net include
any of the following—
z
Corps fires cell.
z
Fires brigades.
z
Armored cavalry regiment fires cell.
z
Attack regiment fires cell.
FIRES BRIGADE COMMAND OPERATIONS NET
6-56. The fires brigade command operations net will contain the operations elements from the fires
brigade, field artillery brigade, fires battalion, and Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) battalions. The
primary purpose of this net is to provide a long range C2 link to subordinate field artillery elements. This
net is primarily a voice net, but can transmit digital traffic between AFATDS or other automated devices.
MLRS BATTALION COMMAND OPERATIONS NET
6-57. The MLRS battalion and battery fire direction centers will use the MLRS battalion command
operations net to facilitate BLOS communications between the MLRS battalion and its subordinate
batteries. While primarily a voice net, the MLRS battalion command’s operations net may be designated as
a digital net, used to transmit AFATDS traffic.
DIVISION FIRE SUPPORT NET
6-58. The principle members of the division fire support net include the division fires cell, fires brigade,
the brigade fires cell, fires battalion and the MLRS battalion. This net is used for fire support coordination
and as an alternate for fire direction with elements throughout the division. The division TOC is typically
the NCS. This net will normally operate as a voice net.
6-59. The separate brigade has unique long haul communications requirements, which LOS operations
cannot satisfy when dispersed over extended distances. These units deploy UHF SC TACSAT terminals
with their headquarters to provide C2 connectivity with higher headquarters. The primary communications
mode is secure voice.
AIRBORNE AND AIR ASSAULT UNITS
6-60. The airborne and air assault units have a need for en route communications to maintain a connection
with the sustaining base, other aircraft, and with the units that may already be in place. This is
accomplished by using a secure en route communications package (SECOMP), which uses the Spitfire or a
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
6-15
Chapter 6
VHF/UHF DAMA-capable SC TACSAT. The DAMA-capable SC TACSAT will provide communications
in both the LOS and SATCOM modes. The SECOMP supports the commander and his principal staff
while in route to the AO. It supports ground operations independently of the aircraft at staging areas and
during joint task force (JTF) initial ground operations.
Secure En Route Communications Package
6-61. The SECOMP provides Army JCF with the necessary real-time communications to receive orders
from higher headquarters. It allows the JCF to plan, coordinate, and rehearse mission operations, and to
receive and disseminate near real-time, up-to-date intelligence information. The system provides Soldiers
en route to an AO with the ability to communicate both vertically and horizontally from higher to lower,
inter-aircraft, intra-aircraft, inter-service, and air-to-ground with both multinational and joint forces.
6-62. The SECOMP is connected via the coaxial cable into the aircraft satellite antenna system, or into an
unused aircraft UHF antenna for LOS operations. The RTO, under the aircrew’s supervision,
connects/disconnects the radio from the aircraft antenna cable system. The RTO will remove the radio
when exiting the aircraft. (Refer to Appendix A for more information on FM networks.)
SINGLE-CHANNEL TACTICAL SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS
PLANNING
6-63. Tactical communications networks change constantly. Unless control of the network is exercised, it
will result in communications delay and a poor grade of service. The best method of providing this control
without hampering operation is through centralized planning. Execution of these plans should be
decentralized. This concept is applied to the space systems portion and to the ground stations. The US
military satellite systems consist of terminals (ground segment), satellites (space segment), and tracking,
telemetry, and control terminals (control segment).
6-64. The planning and system control process helps communications systems managers react
appropriately to the mission of the force supported, the needs of the commander, and the current tactical
situation. The type, size, and complexity of the system being operated establish the method of control.
6-65. Communications control is a process in which the matching of resources with requirements takes
place. This process occurs at all levels of the control and management structure. In each case, the
availability of resources is considered.
6-16
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Chapter 7
Airborne Radios
Airborne radios provide communications for ground-to-air operations as well as airto-air and air-to-sea missions. This chapter addresses airborne SINCGARS, the
AN/ARC-210, AN/ARC-220, AN/ARC-231, AN/ARC 164, AN/ARC-184, AN/VRC100, AN/VRC-83, and the AN/ARC-186.
AIRBORNE SINGLE-CHANNEL GROUND AND AIRBORNE RADIO
SYSTEMS
7-1. The following paragraphs address the airborne SINCGARS. (For more information on aviation
brigades and communications refer to FM 3-04.111.)
AN/ARC 201
7-2. Ground and airborne versions are interoperable even though they are physically different from each
other. The major change in the airborne mode is the faceplate that is attached to the different configurations
plus the add-on modules change each version’s capabilities. Airborne versions RT-1476/1477A/B/C
require the TSEC/KY-58 security equipment for CT operation.
7-3. The RT-1476/ARC-201 (refer to Figure 7-1) is the base radio in all three versions and they all
operate in both the SC and FH modes. The RT-1476/ARC-201 is controlled from the front panel. It is
designed to be mounted in the cockpit of an aircraft. (Refer to TM 11-5821-357-12&P for more
information on the AN/ARC-201.)
Figure 7-1. Airborne radio RT-1476/ARC-201
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
7-1
Chapter 7
RT-1477/ARC-201
7-4. The RT-1477/ARC-201 provides a remote capability for installations where the radio must be
located away from the pilot’s cockpit. It has a separate radio and a radio set control (also known as a
RCU), C-11466, so the pilot can remotely control the radio from his position in the aircraft. All controls
are on the RCU, located in the aircraft cockpit. The RT is located in a remote equipment compartment on
the aircraft. Control and status signals are sent back and forth between RT and RCU via dedicated cables.
The RT-1476/1477 has wireless network extension capabilities.
RT-1478/ARC-201
7-5. The RT-1478/ARC-201 is a remote controlled RT. The aircraft system control display unit (CDU)
controls the RT. The RT is located in the remote equipment compartment of the aircraft. The optional
DRA, CV-3885/ARC-201, processes 1,200 and 2,400 Hz FSK data through the radio set for data
transmission and interfaces between the RT and the TSEC/KY-58 COMSEC equipment. Operation of the
DRA is automatic; there is no operator interface.
SINCGARS AIRBORNE SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
7-6. The SINCGARS airborne system improvement program (AIRSIP) contains throughput and robust
enhancements. It includes a wireless network extension capability in the packet mode, improved error
correction, more flexible remote control, and GPS compatibility. Additionally, the AIRSIP combines three
line replaceable units (LRUs) (RT-1478, DRA, and external COMSEC/KY-58) into one unit, and reduces
the overall weight of the radio system.
7-7. The SINCGARS AIRSIP RT-1478D/ARC-201D is a VHF FM radio set that provides users with the
ability to transmit and receive voice and data communications in the 30–88 MHz band. The integration of
COMSEC and the DRA combines three LRUs into one enclosed system. The radio can operate in secure or
PT mode. When operating in the FH mode, the radio provides an EP capability. The RT-1478D/ARC201D provides voice interoperability with legacy radios in the SC mode and is fully interoperable with the
SINCGARS family of ground and airborne radios. Figure 7-2 is an example of the SINCGARS AIRSIP,
RT-1478D.
7-8. The RT-1478D/ARC-201D key features include—
z
Automatic wireless network extension.
z
Built-in amplitude homing.
z
Integrated DRA functions to include:
„
TACFIRE and SINCGARS data modes: 600, 1,200, 2,400, 4,800, and
16,000 bps.
„
Enhanced packet data modes: 1200N, 2400N, 4800N, 9600N;
recommended standard-232 packet; and recommended standard-423 EDM is 16,000 bps only.
„
1553B bus: provides both radio control and data I/O.
z
BIT function.
z
AM-7189/ARC compatible.
z
Six FH presets (including TRANSEC keys).
z
Six SC presets, plus manual and cue channels.
7-2
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Airborne Radios
Figure 7-2. RT-1478D SINCGARS AIRSIP
AN/ARC-210 RADIO SYSTEM
7-9. The AN/ARC-210 is offered in several models, which when coupled with ancillary equipment,
provides the aviation community with exceptional long range capability. The RT-1556B provides LOS
VHF/UHF capability and HAVEQUICK I/II, and SINCGARS ECCM waveforms. The RT-1794I (refer to
Figure 7-3), RT-1824I, RT-1851I, and RT-1851AI are network capable and include embedded COMSEC,
5 kHz and 25 kHz and DAMA SATCOM, and are certified to MIL-STD-188-181B/-182A/-183.
Figure 7-3. RT-1794 I
7-10. The AN/ARC-210 provides air-to-air and air-to-ground, two-way voice communication in both the
UHF ranges and VHF. Data and voice communications are provided via the embedded SATCOM
functions that operate in the UHF radio band.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
7-3
Chapter 7
7-11. The AN/ARC-210 provides the following key features—
z
30–400 MHz frequency range provides VHF and UHF in all radios; 121.5 and 243.0 MHz
guard channels, and 4 channel scan.
z
30–512 MHz frequency range providing VHF and UHF in the RT-1851AI; 121.5 and 243.0
MHz guard channels, 4 channel scan.
z
Synthesizer speed and rapid radio response time handles any developed ECCM algorithm or
LINK requirement.
z
Data rates up to 80,000 bps (SATCOM) and 100,000 bps LOS with bandwidth efficient
advanced modulation technology.
z
Compatible with Link 11, Link 4A and improved data modem.
z
MIL-STD-1553B or remote control and BIT to module level.
z
Channel spacing of—
„
25 kHz (30–512 MHz).
„
8.33 kHz (118–137 MHz).
„
12.5 kHz (400–512 MHz).
z
Tuning capability: 5 kHz with remote control, 2.5 kHz via 1553 bus.
z
Optional PAs, mounts, and low noise amplifier/diplexer.
AN/ARC-220 RADIO SYSTEM
7-12. The AN/ARC-220 radio system is a microprocessor-based communications system intended for
airborne applications and also has a ground version (AN/VRC-100). The AN/ARC-220 radio system uses
advanced digital signal processor technology.
7-13. It consists of three replaceable units; a RT (RT-1749/URC or RT-1749A/URC), PA coupler (AM7531/URC), and CDU (C-12436/URC). The AN/ARC-220 has embedded ALE, serial tone data modem,
and anti-jam (ECCM) functions. The RT provides the electrical interface with other AN/ARC-220 LRUs
and associated aircraft systems such as interphone, GPS, and secure voice systems. It also offers the ability
for up to 25 free text data messages to be pre-programmed via data fill or created/edited in real time and
the ability to receive data messages to be stored for later viewing.
7-14. The AN/ARC-220 radio system is capable of wireless network extension if desired and built-in
integration with external GPS units allow position data reports to be sent with the push of a button. For
more information on the AN/ARC-220 radio system refer to TM 11-5821-357-12&P.
7-15. The AN/ARC-220 radio system (refer to Figure 7-4) provides the following capabilities—
z
Frequency range from 2.000–29.9999 MHz in 100 Hz steps.
z
20 user programmable simplex or half duplex channels.
z
20 programmable simplex or half duplex channels.
z
12 programmable ECCM hop sets.
z
Certified for ALE in accordance with MIL-STD-188-141B and MIL-STD-188-141B.
z
An integrated data modem which enables communication in noisy environments where voice
communications are often not possible.
z
Built-in integration with external GPS units allows position data reports to be sent with the push
of a button.
z
Embedded ALE, ECCM, and data modem (Joint Interoperability Test Command certified).
z
Ability to rapidly and efficiently tune a variety of antennas.
7-4
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Airborne Radios
Figure 7-4. AN/ARC-220 radio system
AN/VRC-100(V) HIGH FREQUENCY GROUND/VEHICULAR
COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM
7-16. The AN/VRC-100(V) ground radio uses the RT, PA/coupler, and CDU LRUs of the AN/ARC-220
system without modification, within an aluminum-structured, bracketed case. It has a portable, metal case,
with a removable top, that provides easy access for removal of LRUs. All controls, and the radio I/O, are
located on the front panel. The AN/VRC-100 is intended for use in TOCs, ATC, and vehicular applications
such as the high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle. Its key features are—
z
Full digital signal processing with embedded ALE, EP, and data modem.
z
Spare card slot in the RT provides for future growth.
z
Operates on 28 VDC (and is compatible with 24 VDC vehicular power) or from 115 or 220
volts alternating current (VAC) 50/60 Hz power source.
z
PC or laptop connectivity.
z
E-mail messaging using local recommended standard-232 interface.
z
Ability to effectively tune a variety of antennas.
7-17. Table 7-1 lists the three basic configurations of the AN/VRC-100 and Figure 7-5 is an example of an
AN/VRC-100(V). Refer to TM 11-5820-1141-12&P for more information on the AN/VRC-100(V) 1/2/3.
Table 7-1. AN/VRC-100 configurations
Configuration
Description
AN/VRC-100(V) 1
Consists of three LRUs housed in a metal casing with a power supply and
speaker.
Consists of the AN/VRC-100(V) 1 mounted in a wheeled vehicle.
Consists of the AN/VRC-100(V) 1 with the AS-3791/G broadband antenna and
is used at theater level.
AN/VRC-100(V) 2
AN/VRC-100(V) 3
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
7-5
Chapter 7
Figure 7-5. AN/VRC-100(V) high frequency radio
AN/ARC-231 RADIO SYSTEM
7-18. The AN/ARC-231 (refer to Figure 7-6) is an airborne VHF/UHF LOS and DAMA SATCOM radio
system that is also a multiband/multimission, secure anti-jam voice, data and imagery radio set. The RT1808 is the primary radio for the AN/ARC-231. One of the key features of the RT 1808 is that it capitalizes
on the AN/PSC-5 Spitfire’s expandable modular architecture and permits users to upgrade as new
requirements drive new capabilities. The AN/ARC-231 is being used in the A2C2S to provide C2 mission
capabilities to corps, division maneuver brigade, or attack helicopter commander’s airborne TAC CP.
Figure 7-6. AN/ARC-231 radio system
7-6
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Airborne Radios
7-19. The AN/ARC-231 has the following characteristics and capabilities—
z
HAVEQUICK I/II and SINCGARS communications modes.
z
DAMA and non-DAMA SATCOM communications modes.
z
Frequency ranges of:
„
30–87.975 MHz VHF FM SINCGARS.
„
108–173.995 MHz VHF AM and VHF FM.
„
225–399.995 MHz UHF AM HAVEQUICK II/ground air band, UHF
SATCOM band.
„
403–511.995 MHz UHF FM public service band.
z
Embedded COMSEC and TRANSEC keys with transmit and receive OTARs.
z
148 preset channels.
z
Independent red and black MIL-STD-1553 bus interfaces.
z
Embedded MIL-STD-188-184 analog to digital converter and tactical IPs.
z
SINCGARS SIP and optional ESIP and end of message.
z
MIL-STD-188-181B high data rate in both LOS and SATCOM.
z
8.33 kHz ATC channelization coverage to 512 Hz.
z
Minimal size and weight suitable for rotary and fixed wing applications.
AN/ARC-164(V) 12 ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY RADIO
7-20. The AN/ARC-164(V) 12 radios are used for air-to-air, air-to-ground and ground-to-air
communications. There are three major aircraft configurations of the AN/ARC-164 radio and one ground
configuration of the AN/VRC-83(V). The AN/ARC-164(V) 12 RT configurations include a panel mount
(RT-1518C), remote control (C-11721), remote mount (RT-1504) (refer to Figure 7-7), and data bus
compatible (RT-1614). These radios provide anti-jam, secure communications links for JTF and Army
aviation missions. The Army operational forces utilizing these radios are aviation units, air traffic services
and Ranger units. It also provides the Army the ability to communicate with USAF, USN and NATO units
in the UHF-AM mode which is the communications band for tactical air operations.
7-21. The AN/ARC-164(V) 12 has the following capabilities and characteristics—
z
Operations in SC or FH mode.
z
Frequency range of 225–399.975 MHz.
z
Capacity of 7,000 channels.
z
Embedded ECCM anti-jamming capabilities.
z
Voice and data modulated signals with VINSON or VANDAL devices.
7-22. Refer to FM 6-02.771 for more information on HAVEQUICK radios and TM 11-5841-286-13 for
information on the AN/ARC-164(V) 12.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
7-7
Chapter 7
Figure 7-7. RT-1504 for an AN/ARC-164(V) 12
AN/VRC-83(V) RADIO SET
7-23. The AN/VRC-83(V) is a two-band VHF AM and UHF AM radio set. The AN/VRC-83(V) is
designed for tactical short range ground-to-ground and ground-to-air communication. The AN/VRC-83(V)
is ground configuration of the AN/ARC-164, which is described in the next section. The AN/VRC-83(V)
can operate in the jam-resistant, ECCM mode or in the NORMAL (non-ECCM) mode and can be used
with COMSEC TSEC/KY-57 speech security equipment for secure voice communication.
7-24. The AN/VRC-83(V) is tunable in 25 kHz steps to either one of two frequency bands, VHF
(116.000–149.975 MHz with 1360 channels) or UHF (225.000–399.875 MHz with 7000 channels). The
AN/VRC-83(V) also has an RF PA to increase the RT transmit power of the set, an audio amplifier, a
power supply to regulate the input voltage, a speaker and a handset. The handset is the audio input-output
device for the radio set.
7-25. Primary components of the AN/VRC-83(V) consist of: one RT-1319B/URC, radio amplifier AM7176, VRC-83 mount, cable assemblies, and a handset. Refer to Figure 7-8 for an example of the
AN/VRC-83(V) and TM 11-5820-1149-14&P for more information on radio maintenance.
7-8
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Airborne Radios
Figure 7-8. AN/VRC-83 radio set
AN/ARC-186(V) VHF AM/FM RADIO
7-26. The AN/ARC-186(V) provides AM, FM, FM homing and wireless network extension. It is primarily
used as an administrative VHF AM/FM radio used to communicate with the ATC. The AN/ARC-186(V) is
a LOS radio system with limited range at terrain-flight altitudes but greater range at administrative altitudes
normally associated with ATC communications. It can back up the SINCGARS in the same 30–89.975
MHz frequency range but a big disadvantage is that it has no FH mode compatible with SINCGARS and it
generally lacks KY-58 interface to provide secure FM communications.
7-27. Battalions typically operate a C2 network, O&I and A&L network all using SINCGARS. Battalions
also operate an internal air operations network using HAVEQUICK II. The AN/ARC-186(V) is a
secondary means of secure tactical communication to overcome SINCGARS and HAVEQUICK II LOS
constraints.
7-28. Even though the AN/ARC-186(V) VHF AM radio is normally used for administrative purposes it
may function as a platoon internal net. The battalion TOC may also have access to MSE and SATCOM for
communicating with higher headquarters. (Refer to TM 11-5821-318-12 for more information on the
AN/ARC-186(V).)
7-29. The AN/ARC-186(V) (refer to Figure 7-9) has the following capabilities—
z
Secure communications when the radio is employed with the KY-58.
z
Frequency ranges of:
„
AM transmit/receive: 116–151.975 MHz.
„
AM receive only: 108.000–115.975 MHz.
„
FM transmit/receive: 30.000–87.975 MHz.
z
Channel spacing: 25 kHz.
z
20 preset channels with electronic memory.
5 August 2009
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7-9
Chapter 7
Figure 7-9. AN/ARC-186 (V)
7-10
FM 6-02.53
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Chapter 8
Other Tactical Radio Systems
To be successful on the modern battlefield, commanders must be able to
communicate in order to control and coordinate movement, send and receive
instructions, request logistical or fire support, and gather and disseminate
information. In addition to CNR systems, many other tactical radio systems are now
available. The means of communications chosen will depend on the situation. This
chapter addresses the AN/PRC-126, ICOM F43G, the LMR, the Land Warrior (LW)
communications networking radio subsystem (CNRS), combat survivor evader
locator radio, and the JTRS.
AN/PRC-126 RADIO SET
8-1. The AN/PRC-126 (refer to Figure 8-1) is susceptible to adversary jamming and friendly co-site
interference. Alternate frequencies must be identified for use in case of jamming, and leaders must ensure
that Soldiers are trained to recognize, overcome, and report jamming activities.
8-2. The AN/PRC-126 enables small unit leaders to adequately control the activities of subordinate
elements in accomplishing the unit’s mission. It is a short-range, handheld, or vehicular mounted tactical
radio, used primarily at the squad/platoon level. Vehicular power requires connection to an OG-174,
amplifier power supply. It’s key features include—
z
Lightweight, militarized transceiver providing two-way voice communications.
z
Frequency range of 30–87.975 MHz.
z
Frequency separation is 25 kHz.
z
Nominal range for reliable communications over rolling, slightly wooded terrain is 500 meters
(1,640.4 ft) with the short antenna, or 3,000 meters (9,842.5 ft) with the long antenna.
z
Standard battery (lithium) operating time is 70 hours.
z
Capable of operating with SINCGARS in the fixed frequency mode.
z
Capable of providing secure voice operation when used with the TSEC/KYV-2A secure voice
module.
z
Digital communications for passing TACFIRE data are possible when connected to the OG-174.
(Refer to TM 11-5820-1025-10 for more information on the AN/PRC-126 and FM 6-50 for
additional information on transmitting TACFIRE data with the AN/PRC-126.)
8-3. In the light infantry platoon, the rifle squad has two AN/PRC-126 radios: one for the squad leader
and the other for the A-team leader. Air assault and airborne infantry squads have only one AN/PRC-126
each. If tasked to conduct a patrol, the dismounted section of a Bradley infantry fighting vehicle
mechanized infantry platoon, should task organize its radio equipment in the preparation phase to ensure
teams will have communications.
5 August 2009
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Chapter 8
Figure 8-1. AN/PRC-126 radio set
ICOM F43G HANDHELD RADIO
8-4. The ICOM F43G handheld radio is a COTS system. It is a short range, handheld radio fielded with
headset and an encryption module. It is employed at the lowest echelon of command, to control squads and
teams. The ICOM F43G is used to provide the Soldier with a small light weight, rugged handheld radio
with capability of secure UHF 2-way communication.
8-5. The ICOM F43G (Figure 8-2 is an example of the ICOM F43G) has the following characteristics
and capabilities—
z
UHF operation in the 380–430 MHz frequency range.
z
4 miles (6.4 km) plus transmission in the unencrypted mode.
z
256 memory channel capacity.
z
16 memory banks that allow for division and storage of a variety of flexible channel groupings.
z
Built-in multi-format tone signaling and built-in voice scrambler.
z
It uses a data encryption standard card which can be upgraded for secure communication.
8-2
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Other Tactical Radio Systems
Figure 8-2. ICOM F43G handheld radio
LAND MOBILE RADIO
8-6. The LMR is typically the primary system used for daily installation communications. It is also
commonly employed and used for administrative installation activities in public safety organizations and is
compliant with the Association of Public Safety Communications Officials (normally referred to as APCO)
Project 25 (P25) standards. P25 standards are based on the public safety communities needs as they define
them. The LMR enhances communications interoperability with state and local agencies in a homeland
defense or disaster situation.
8-7. LMR systems range from SC analog to digital trunked systems. The most basic LMR systems are
SC analog systems. Each radio is set to a particular frequency that must be monitored by everyone utilizing
the same channel. These systems have a dedicated channel for each group or agency using the system. In
smaller agencies, if the system experiences heavy usage, users may not be able to place calls. The majority
of these systems are VHF systems that offer very little flexibility in their operations. These systems fail to
provide a common air interface and cannot accommodate users outside the system. These systems are
inefficient users of spectrum, and many agencies have outgrown them. For United States and Possessions
(US&P) LMR regulations see Chapter 8 of the National Telecommunications and Information
Administration (NTIA) Redbook.
8-8. The majority of public safety organizations are currently using SC analog systems. Many of these
organizations are in the process of switching, or have switched to, digital trunked systems. Trunked
systems utilize a relatively small number of paths, or channels, for a large number of users. This is similar
to commercial telephones. Rather than having a dedicated wire line for every user, the phone company has
a computer (switch) that manages many calls over a relatively small number of telephone lines. This is
based on the assumption that not every user will require a line at the same time.
8-9. Trunked systems are generally made up of a control console, repeaters, and radios. Instead of using
switches and phone lines, these systems use consoles and channels or frequencies to complete calls. The
process is the dynamic allocation of a channel that is totally transparent to the user. When the user of a
trunked system activates the push-to-talk, the system automatically searches for an unused channel on
which to complete the call.
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8-3
Chapter 8
8-10. Digital trunked systems offer better performance and provide a more flexible platform. This system
accommodates a greater number of users and offers an open ended architecture. This allows for various
modes of communications such as data, telephone-interconnect, and security functions. Additionally, there
is faster system access, more user privacy, and the ability to expand by providing a common air interface.
For CONUS LMR regulations refer to the NTIA Redbook, Chapter 10. The user/unit is responsible for
obtaining a frequency assignment IAW NTIA, Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio
Frequency Management; AR 5-12; AR 25-1; and FM 6-02.70. Operation of Radio Frequency System
without spectrum authorization/assignments is prohibited. (Refer to Figure 8-3 for an example of the
LMR.)
8-11. The LMR has the following characteristics and capabilities—
z
Frequency range of 380–470 MHz.
z
Power of 1–4 Watts.
z
Battery life of 10 hours.
z
Secure (National Institute of Standards and Technology Type III) point-to-point voice
communications.
z
Range of 5 km (3.1 miles) max over smooth terrain.
z
Programming of up to 512 channels.
z
Easy radio reprogramming feature.
z
Immersible to a depth of 1 meter (3.2 ft) for 30 minutes.
z
Supports both narrowband (12.5 kHz) and wideband (25 kHz) channel spacing.
z
Intra-Squad/Team Communications for non-critical C2, admin and logistics functions.
Figure 8-3. Land mobile radio
LAND WARRIOR
8-12. The LW, Figure 8-4, is a ground Soldier system, which integrates everything an infantry Soldier
wears or carries on the battlefield. It is based on advances in communications, sensors, and materials. The
LW integrates commercial technologies into a complete Soldier system. Its components include a: helmet
subsystem, weapons subsystem, Soldier control unit, power subsystem, navigation subsystem, computer
subsystem and CNRS.
Note. Information in this manual was current at time of publication and the LW had only been
fielded to 4/9th Infantry Regiment.
8-4
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Other Tactical Radio Systems
Figure 8-4. Land Warrior
COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKING RADIO SUBSYSTEM
8-13. The CNRS offers the same functionality as the full size EPLRS radio (refer to Chapter 5 for more
information on EPLRS radios), except that it uses a smaller, lighter, and more power efficient EPLRS, the
RT 1922 C/G. It also supports multiple simultaneous channels of contention free voice (Voice over IP) and
data. Power is supplied through the radio’s interface connector pins, using an external (remote) battery
pack or an external power supply.
8-14. The CNRS characteristics and capabilities include—
z
Voice and data communications in a single streamlined unit.
z
Interoperability with EPLRS and JTRS and integrates with the Army’s tactical Internet FBCB2.
z
LOS with automatic hopping within the tactical Internet for range extension.
z
Handling of SECRET and “Secure But Unclassified” material.
z
2.9 megabits per second per network with a maximum of 486 kbps per user.
z
Power out of 50 milliwatts to 5 watt (batter pack).
z
Weight of approximately 12 ounces (without the power supply).
Land Warrior/CNRS Bandwidth Methodolgy
8-15. The EPLRS is an adaptive mobile radio network for users within tactical units. It employs embedded
security features and automatic relaying which is used for range extension and is transparent to the user.
EPLRS uses TDMA to allow a user to participate simultaneously in more than one network. The EPLRS
TDMA architecture is divided into eight logical time slots (LTS). Each separate net (for example: battalion
SA, battalion other data, company voice) is assigned its own LTS, or portion of a LTS, and frequency.
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8-5
Chapter 8
8-16. The EPLRS offers three types of communication services: duplex, CSMA, and MSG. The LW SA
and C2 nets are CSMA allowing everyone on the net the capabilities of transmitting and receiving all
traffic transmitted/received on the net.
8-17. The architecture allocates a one-half LTS CSMA short local needline for the battalion position report
SA net. The short indicates that all messages must fit into one transmission unit (648 bits); local indicates
the messages will be relayed one time; and one-half LTS provides a user data rate of 9.4 kbps.
8-18. The number of participants in the battalion position report SA net that will receive the position report
SA updates from others on that net is dependent on distribution and actual ranges. When the battalion is
distributed over a 30 km (18.6 miles) area, approximately 45 percent of the battalion will be within range
of each other (including radio relay).
8-19. Unlike the FBCB2 architecture, LW does not use SA servers to forward information. The LW
battalion data needlines are two hop nets. Position reports SA from key LW roles is forwarded to the lower
tactical Internet SA net which is then relayed 4 hops and retransmitted down to LWs beyond the two hop
limit of the LW data needlines as part of the lower tactical Internet brigade SA on the other LW needline.
This ensures that most of the LW systems will consistently receive the updated position report SA for key
LW roles. It is considered acceptable if a LW periodically misses an SA update because of the frequency
of updates. A C2 message will be resent up to three times before the LW system stops trying to send the
message.
8-20. For each unit on the SA network, an SA message is sent either at regular time intervals when
position is unchanged (the unit is stationary), or when position changes by a specified distance. This is
known as a time-motion update rate (distance). For example, the time-motion update rate for the company
vehicles is 300 seconds or 100 meters (328 ft). The current LW default settings are two minute updates if
stationary, every 15 meters (49.2 ft) of movement, or every 15 seconds if moving faster than 60 meters
(196.8ft)/minute.
8-21. Knowing the number of EPLRS equipped company vehicles and LW platforms, and using
assumptions about the time-motion update rates and the number of platforms moving, the number of
messages that would be sent in one hour can be calculated. SA messages are 496 bits, which is smaller than
the EPLRS transmission unit of 648 bits. Since a transmission unit represents the smallest amount of
information that can be transmitted, each SA message sent will consume 648 bits.
8-22. From this information, the offered data load for one hour will be summed and the average bps
determined. This average divided by the data rate of the EPLRS radio produced a utilization number for the
network. Previous modeling and testing of the EPLRS network have developed a relationship between
network utilization and message completion rate. This relationship will be used to estimate the message
completion rate for each LW EPLRS net.
COMBAT SURVIVOR EVADER LOCATOR
8-23. The combat survivor evader locator (CSEL) handheld radio is utilized for locating and rescuing
downed aircrew members. It is primarily used by personnel assigned as flight crews, SOF and other
personnel with a high priority of becoming isolated. The CSEL is the primary search and rescue system
used by SOF and aviation units. Its enhanced capabilities are not available by the older transceivers;
AN/PRC-90 and AN/PRC-112.
8-24. The CSEL system is composed of three segments: over-the-horizon segment, ground segment, and
the user segment. The three segments use GPS, national and international satellites and other national
systems to provide geopositioning and radio communications for personnel recovery.
OVER-THE-HORIZON SEGMENT
8-25. The over-the-horizon segment operates over UHF SATCOM systems and Search and Rescue
Satellite Assisted Tracking. The UHF SATCOM mode supports two ways messaging/geoposition between
an AN/GRC-242 radio set base station and the AN/PRQ-7 radio set.
8-6
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Other Tactical Radio Systems
GROUND SEGMENT
8-26. The ground segment is composed of CSEL workstations and the ground distribution network
interconnecting with base stations. The ground segment provides highly reliable and timely global
connection between all CSEL ground elements utilizing the Defense Information System Network.
USER SEGMENT
8-27. The user segment equipment consists of—
z
AN/PRC-7 radio set.
z
J-6431/PRQ-7 radio set adapter (RSA) also referred to as the loader.
z
Combat survivor evader locator planning computer (CPC).
z
CPC program software.
AN/PRQ-7 Radio Set
8-28. The AN/PRQ-7 (refer to Figure 8-5) provides data communications geo-positioning, voice beacons.
The RSA provides the physical interface the CPC and two operational AN/PRQ-7s. One AN/PRQ-7 serves
as the reference in the RSA to acquire and store GPS almanac, ephemeris and time for the transfer to the
other (target) AN/PRQ-7. The CPC host CSEL application software that allows loading of the AN/PRQ-7
through the RSA. A window operating environment is used to load a target AN/PRQ-7 with mission
specific data and transfer GPS key loading. Loading current almanac and ephemeris data speed the satellite
acquisition process in the GPS receiver. Transfer of current GPS data speeds the calculation of user
position and transfer of current time allows faster acquisition of GPS.
Figure 8-5. AN/PRQ-7 radio set
5 August 2009
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8-7
Chapter 8
8-29. The AN/PRQ-7 radio set has the following capabilities and characteristics—
z
Water resistant.
z
GPS receiver.
z
Secure data UHF SATCOM transmit and receive capability.
z
VHF/UHF voice and beacon.
z
Low probability of exploitation of one way transmission.
z
Search and rescue satellite transmission.
AN/PRC-90-2 TRANSCEIVER
8-30. The AN/PRC-90-2 is a LOS dual channel, personal survival transceiver used primarily used for
communications between a downed crewman and a rescue aircraft. It has two preselected frequencies for
voice and beacon transmissions. The signal is not secure and can be easily intercepted leaving isolated
personnel limited to short voice transmissions.
8-31. The AN/PRC-90-2 (refer to Figure 8-6) can transmit a beacon (attention getting warble tone) on
243.0 MHz, voice on 243.0 or 282.2 MHz and Morse Code in modulated continuous wave (CW) mode on
243.0 MHz. It also has the capability of receiving voice communications on 243.0 and 282.2 MHz. The
distance for LOS transmission also depends on conditions such as weather, terrain and battery power.
(Refer to TM 11-5820-1049-12 for more information on the AN/PRC-90-2.)
Figure 8-6. AN/PRC-90-2 transceiver
8-8
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Other Tactical Radio Systems
AN/PRC-112 COMBAT SEARCH AND RESCUE TRANSCEIVER
8-32. The AN/PRC-112 combat search and rescue transceiver is a replacement for the AN/PRC-90-2. The
AN/PRC-112 has frequency ranges of—
z
AM voice on 121.5 MHz, 243 MHz and 282.8 MHz.
z
UHF frequency of 225–320 MHz.
8-33. The AN/PRC-112 (refer to Figure 8-7) operates in the following modes: voice, beacon, transponder
mode, 406 search and rescue satellite, and UHF SATCOM. It is also dependant on the program loader KY913 which has a keypad for data entry and an eight character display used to display the entered data and
messages to the operator. The program loader attaches to the radio during programming and supplies the
required power to the radio when attached. (Refer to TM 11-5820-1037-13&P for more information on the
AN/PRC-112.)
Figure 8-7. AN/PRC-112 and program loader KY-913
JOINT TACTICAL RADIO SYSTEM
8-34. The JTRS is the DOD radio of choice for radio requirements. The components of JTRS include
airborne maritime fixed station, ground mobile radio, and handheld man-pack small form fit. JTRS are
software based networking radios that will deliver networks to the mounted, dismounted, and un-mounted
joint force.
5 August 2009
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8-9
Chapter 8
Note. At the time of publication JTRS had not been fielded to Army units and was in the process
of being developed and tested. Pre-engineering design model ground mobile radios were
available in the Experimental BCT Future Combat System.
8-35. The concept behind the JTRS family of radios (refer to Figure 8-8 for an example of the JTRS) is for
all military services to migrate toward a commonality of media among Soldiers, while concurrently outpacing the growth rate of information exchange requirements and eventually realizing a fully digitized
tactical environment. JTRS lays the foundation for achieving network connectivity across the RF spectrum.
The network will provide the means for low-to-high rate digital information exchange, both vertically and
horizontally, between warfighting elements. It will also enable connectivity to civil and national
authorities.
Figure 8-8. Joint tactical radio system ground mobile radio
8-36. The JTRS was designed to meet the emerging service needs for secure, multiband/multimode, high
capacity digital radios for the future tactical environments. The JTRS provides increased interoperability
among the Services, reduce upgrade costs through software programming (add new capabilities, change
wave forms, and provide waveform enhancements), and support future legacy communications
requirements.
8-37. The JTRS has ease of operation, redundancy, and security. It also has network capable, demand
adaptive (dynamic bandwidth management), reliable, maintainable, deployable, and more survivable than
the current generation of analog radios and stovepipe networks. The key features of the JTRS family of
radios systems include—
z
Simultaneous multichannel operation; has a fixed radio requirement for a minimum of fourchannel operation (threshold) scalable to 10 channels (objective).
z
Narrowband and wideband waveforms currently used in the 2 MHz and 2 GHz frequency range,
to include HF ALE, SINCGARS, VHF AM 8.88 kHz operation for European ATC, ATC data
links, HAVEQUICK I/II, UHF SATCOM DAMA, EPLRS, and Link 16.
z
Increased throughput for data communications capabilities, including commercial waveforms.
z
Multimode support for voice, data, video, and other communications.
z
Integrated GPS, information security, modem, and baseband processing functions.
z
Provide networking such as cross banding, bridging, relay, IP compatibility, and near real-time
task organization.
z
New capabilities, or provides waveform upgrades, as required.
z
Extend with modular hardware and software, and can be reconfigured in the tactical
environment.
z
Interface with inventory PAs, antennas, and ancillary equipment.
z
Operations in various domains—airborne, maritime/fixed, vehicular, dismounted (manpack),
and handheld.
8-10
FM 6-02.53
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Other Tactical Radio Systems
8-38. JTRS radios range from low cost terminals with limited waveform support, to multiband, multimode,
and multichannel radios supporting advanced narrowband and wideband waveform capabilities with
integrated computer networking features. The JTRS family will be open system architecture, interoperable
with current legacy communications systems, capable of future technology insertion, and capable of
providing both LOS, and BLOS, communications capabilities to the Soldier.
8-39. JTRS has several functionalities, it is—
z
To the user—plug and play voice, high data throughput, and video-capable communications in
a transparent network, with the ability to expand and modify the capacity and capability of the
individual radio, links, and networks to accommodate user demands.
z
To the communicator—intensive planning, management, and control:
„
Automated central planning and management; distributed technical control.
„
Information security, spectral efficiency, and electromagnetic interference
(EMI)/electromagnetic compatibility.
„
Gateways to other systems (military, civil, joint, multinational, host, and
nation).
z
The joint tactical radio family of systems, which are scalable hardware configurations and
multiple programmable waveforms and modes, capable of being operated and monitored while
unattended, and remotely controlled and have standard interfaces and legacy radio emulation to
operate in selected legacy radio nets.
z
The joint tactical Internet, to include—
„
All hardware and software to form and manage a seamless mobile tactical
radio Internet.
„
Common operating environment and dynamic power management.
„
Dynamic routing and traffic load management.
„
Embedded position location and automatic SA feed to the network.
JTRS WAVEFORM
8-40. Wireless tactical networking is one of the most critical capabilities a JTRS software defined radio
will provide to the Soldier. The JTRS networking waveforms enable extension of networking to the
battalion, company, and dismounted Soldiers.
8-41. The initial increment of JTRS being developed includes three networking, one BLOS waveform, and
ten new software defined radios. The new networking waveforms are Soldier Radio Waveform, focused on
the disadvantaged user using size, weight, and power constrained radios; Wideband Networking
Waveform, for use on more capable vehicular, rotary-wing and fixed-wing aircraft; and the Joint Aerial
Network-Tactical Edge for the fast moving aerial fleet that requires a very low latency capability. The
BLOS waveform is the Mobile User Objective System, which will provide more capacity and throughput
than the current UHF SATCOM system.
8-42. Each of these waveforms fills a particular operational need in the tactical environment, yet each
provides a common transport function for IP-based traffic. The reprogrammable nature of the radio allows
selection of the software waveform giving it multiple radios and networking capabilities, including legacy
capabilities in one joint tactical radio set.
8-43. The waveform software developed for JTRS includes not only the actual RF signal, but the entire set
of radio functions that occur from the user input to the RF output and vice versa. For example, in the
transmitting JTRS, the waveform software will control the receipt of the data (either analog or digital) from
the input device and manage the encoding. The encoded data is passed to the encryption engine. The
resultant encoded/encrypted data stream is modulated into an intermediate frequency signal. Finally, the
intermediate frequency signal is converted into a RF signal and transmitted to the antenna. These same
functions will be reversed in the receiving JTRS with the ultimate output of the data to the user.
5 August 2009
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8-11
Chapter 8
JTRS RIFLEMAN RADIO
8-44. The Rifleman Radio (refer to Figure 8-9) will provide Soldiers vertical and horizontal intra-squad
network connectivity to achieve the information dominance deemed critical to successfully conduct
dismounted operations independent of any vehicle or other communications infrastructure.
Note. The Rifleman Radio capabilities are currently being tested. The radio is projected to be
fielded in FY10.
8-45. The Rifleman Radio will enable the individual Soldier to operate in a tactical voice network with
other team members, team and squad leaders via a networking waveform (i.e., Soldier Radio Waveform). It
will provide controlled unclassified real-time intra-squad C2 voice communications and transmit position
location information enabling—
z
A squad to employ much bolder and more sophisticated tactics to attack identified threats
decisively.
z
Increased speed of movement when conducting individual movement techniques as part of Fire
Team and Squad.
z
Improved networked communications while dispersed in complex terrain.
z
Increased speed of maneuver, a reduced risk of potential fratricide, increased flexibility to
transition missions on the move, more bold and sophisticated tactics, and the ability to attack
identified threats decisively.
z
A reduced exposure to the enemy, synchronized fire and maneuver in complex terrain, increased
team movement distances, and a reduced limitation on movement locations.
z
Soldiers to communicate with leaders when out of visual contact and shouting distance to
conduct movement techniques as part of a squad.
z
Leaders to display individual position location information of squad members (via an external
display device or as part of a Ground Soldier Ensemble) when out of visual contact to
coordinate fire and maneuver.
z
Improved SA for leaders to make informed and timely decisions.
Figure 8-9. Rifleman radio
8-12
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Chapter 9
Antennas
All radios, whether transmitting or receiving, require an antenna. This chapter
addresses antenna fundamentals, concepts and terms, ground effects, antenna length,
types of antennas, as well as examples of antenna field repairs.
ANTENNA FUNDEMENTALS
9-1. Simplex operation, or one-way-reversible, consists of sending and receiving radio signals on one
antenna. It is normally used by SC radios. Two antennas are used during duplex operation: one for
transmitting and one for receiving. In either case, the transmitter generates a radio signal; a transmission
line delivers the signal from the transmitter to the antenna.
9-2. The transmitting antenna sends the radio signal into space toward the receiving antenna, which
intercepts the signal and sends it through a transmission line to the receiver. The receiver processes the
radio signal so it can either be heard or used to operate a data device, such as an AN/UXC-10 facsimile.
Figure 9-1 is an example of a typical transmitter and receiver connection.
Figure 9-1. A typical transmitter and receiver connection
9-3. The function of an antenna depends on whether it is transmitting or receiving. A transmitting antenna
transforms the output RF signal, in the form of an alternating electrical current produced by a radio
transmitter (RF output power), into an electromagnetic field that is radiated through space; the transmitting
antenna converts energy from one form to another form. The receiving antenna reverses this process; it
transforms the electromagnetic field into electrical energy that is delivered to a radio receiver.
5 August 2009
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Chapter 9
ANTENNA CONCEPTS AND TERMS
9-4. To select the right antenna, certain concepts and terms must be understood. The following
paragraphs address several basic terms and relationships which help the reader understand antenna
fundamentals.
FORMING A RADIO WAVE
9-5. When an alternating electric current flows through a conductor (wire), electric and magnetic fields
are created around the conductor. If the length of the conductor is very short compared to a wavelength, the
electric and magnetic fields will generally die out within a distance of one or two wavelengths. However,
as the conductor is lengthened, the intensity of the field enlarges. Thus, an ever increasing amount of
energy escapes into space.
RADIATION
9-6. Once a wire is connected to a transmitter and properly grounded, it begins to oscillate electrically,
causing the wave to convert nearly all of the transmitter power into an electromagnetic radio wave. The
electromagnetic energy is created by the alternating flow of electrons impressed on the bottom end of the
wire. The electrons travel upward on the wire to the top, where they have no place to go and they are
bounced back toward the lower end. As the electrons reach the lower end in phase (for example, they are in
step with the radio energy then being applied by the transmitter) the energy of their motion is strongly
reinforced as they bounced back upward along the wire. This regenerative process sustains the oscillation.
The wire is resonant at the frequency at which the source of energy is alternating.
9-7. The radio power supplied to a simple wire antenna appears nearly equally distributed throughout its
length. The energy stored at any location along the wire is equal to the product of the voltage and the
current at that point. If the voltage is high at a given point, the current must be low. If the current is high,
the voltage must be low. The electric current reaches its maximum near the bottom end of the wire.
RADIATION FIELDS
9-8. When RF power is delivered to an antenna, two fields are created: an induction field, which is
associated with the stored energy, and a radiation field. At the antenna, the intensities of these fields are
large, and are proportional to the amount of RF power delivered to the antenna. At a short distance from
the transmitting antenna, and traveling toward the receiving antenna, only the radiation field remains; this
radiation field is composed of electric and magnetic components. Figure 9-2 is an example of the
components of electromagnetic waves.
9-9. The electric and magnetic fields (components) radiated from an antenna form the electromagnetic
field. It is responsible for transmitting and receiving electromagnetic energy through free space. A radio
wave is a moving electromagnetic field that has velocity in the direction of travel. Its components are of
electric and magnetic intensity arranged at right angles to each other.
9-2
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Antennas
Figure 9-2. Components of electromagnetic waves
RADIATION PATTERNS
9-10. The radiation pattern is a graphical depiction of the relative field strength transmitted from, or
received by, the antenna.
9-11. The full- or solid-radiation pattern is represented as a three-dimensional figure that looks somewhat
like a doughnut with a transmitting antenna in the center. Figure 9-3 is an example of solid antenna
radiation patterns. The top figure shows a quarter-wave vertical antenna; the middle figure shows a halfwave horizontal antenna, located one-half wavelength above the ground; and the bottom figure shows a
vertical half rhombic antenna. (Omnidirectional and bidirectional antennas are discussed later in this
chapter.)
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9-3
Chapter 9
Figure 9-3. Solid radiation patterns
POLARIZATION
9-12. The polarization of a radiated wave is determined by the direction of the lines of force making up the
electric field; polarization can be vertical, horizontal, or elliptical. When a single-wire antenna is used to
extract (receive) energy from a passing radio wave, maximum pickup results if the antenna is oriented so
that it lies in the same direction as the electric field component.
9-13. Horizontal or vertical polarization is satisfactory for VHF or UHF signals. The original polarization
produced at the transmitting antenna is maintained as the wave travels to the receiving antenna. Therefore,
if a horizontal antenna is used for transmitting, a horizontal antenna must be used for receiving.
Vertical Polarization
9-14. In a vertical polarized wave, the lines of electric force are at right angles to the surface of the earth.
Figure 9-4 illustrates a vertical polarized wave. A vertical antenna is used for efficient reception of
vertically polarized waves.
9-4
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5 August 2009
Antennas
Figure 9-4. Vertically polarized wave
9-15. Vertical polarization is necessary at medium and low frequencies, because ground-wave
transmission is used extensively. Vertical lines of force are perpendicular to the ground, and the radio wave
can travel a considerable distance along the ground surface with a minimum amount of loss.
9-16. Vertical polarization provides a stronger received signal at frequencies up to approximately 50 MHz,
when antenna heights are limited to 3.05 meters (10 ft) or less over land, as in a vehicular installation.
9-17. Vertically polarized radiation is less affected by reflections from aircraft flying over the transmission
path. This factor is important in areas where aircraft traffic is heavy.
9-18. When vertical polarization is used, less interference is produced or picked up from strong VHF and
UHF transmissions (television and FM broadcasts). This factor is important when an antenna must be
located in an urban area that has television or FM broadcast stations.
Horizontal Polarization
9-19. In a horizontal polarized wave, the lines of electric force are parallel to the surface of the earth. A
horizontal antenna is used for the reception of horizontally polarized waves. Figure 9-5 is an example of a
horizontal polarized wave.
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Chapter 9
Figure 9-5. Horizontally polarized wave
9-20. At high frequencies, with sky wave transmission, it makes little difference whether horizontal or
vertical polarization is used. The sky wave, after being reflected by the ionosphere, arrives at the receiving
antenna elliptically polarized. Therefore, the transmitting and receiving antennas can be mounted either
horizontally or vertically. However, horizontal antennas are preferred, since they can be made to radiate
effectively at high angles and have inherent directional properties.
9-21. A simple horizontal, half-wave antenna is bidirectional. This characteristic is useful when
minimizing interference from certain directions and masking signals from the enemy. Horizontal antennas
are less likely to pick up man-made interference. When antennas are located near dense forests,
horizontally polarized waves suffer lower losses, especially at frequencies above 100 MHz.
9-22. Small changes in antenna location do not cause large variations in the field intensity of horizontally
polarized waves, when an antenna is located among trees or buildings.
Elliptical Polarization
9-23. In some cases, the field rotates as the waves travel through space. Under these conditions, both
horizontal and vertical components of the field exist and the wave has elliptical polarization.
9-24. Satellites and satellite terminals use a type of elliptical polarization, called circular polarization.
Circular polarization describes a wave whose plane of polarization rotates through 360 degrees as it
progresses forward; the rotation can be clockwise or counterclockwise. Figure 9-6 is an example of a
circular polarized wave. Circular polarization occurs when equal magnitudes of vertically and horizontally
polarized waves are combined with a phase difference of 90 degrees. Depending on their phase
relationship, this causes rotation either in one direction or the other.
9-6
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Antennas
Figure 9-6. Circular polarized wave
DIRECTIONALITY
9-25. Vertical transmitting antennas radiate equally in horizontal directions; vertical receiving antennas
accept radio signals equally from all horizontal directions. Thus, other stations operating on the same or
nearby frequencies may interfere with the desired signal, making reception difficult or impossible.
However, reception of a desired signal can be improved by using directional antennas.
9-26. Horizontal half-wave antennas accept radio signals from all directions. The strongest reception is
received from a direction perpendicular to the antenna, while the weakest reception is received from the
direction of the ends of the antenna. Interfering signals can be eliminated or reduced by changing the
antenna installation, so that each end of the antenna points directly at the interfering station.
9-27. Communication over a radio circuit is satisfactory when the received signal is strong enough to
override undesired signals and noise. Increasing the transmitting power between two radio stations
increases communications effectiveness, as the receiver must be within range of the transmitter. Also,
changing the types of transmission, changing to a frequency that is not readily absorbed or using a
directional antenna aids in communications effectiveness.
RESONANCE
9-28. Antennas can be classified as either resonant or nonresonant, depending on their design. In a
resonant antenna, almost all of the radio signals fed to the antenna are radiated. If the antenna is fed with a
frequency other than the one for which it is resonant, much of the fed signal will be lost and will not be
radiated. A resonant antenna will effectively radiate a radio signal for frequencies close to its design
frequency. If a resonant antenna is used for a radio circuit, a separate antenna must be built for each
frequency to be used on the radio circuit. A nonresonant antenna, on the other hand, will effectively radiate
a broad range of frequencies with less efficiency. Resonant and nonresonant antennas are commonly used
on tactical circuits. Resonance can be achieved in two ways: physically matching the length of the antenna
to the wavelength and electronically matching the length of the antenna to the wavelength.
RECEPTION
9-29. The radio waves that leave the transmitting antenna will have an influence on and will be influenced
by any electrons in their path. For example, as a HF wave enters the ionosphere, it is reflected or refracted
back to the Earth by the action of free electrons in this region of the atmosphere. When the radio wave
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9-7
Chapter 9
encounters the wire or metallic conductors of the receiving antenna, the radio wave’s electric field will
cause the electrons in the antenna to oscillate back and forth in step with the wave as it passes. The
movement of these electrons within the antenna is the small alternating electrical current which is detected
by the radio receiver.
9-30. When radio waves encounter electrons which are free to move under the influence of the wave’s
electric field, the free electrons oscillate in sympathy with the wave. This generates electric current which
then creates waves of its own. These new waves are reflected or scattered waves. This process is
electromagnetic scattering. All materials that are good electric conductors reflect or scatter RF energy.
Since a receiving antenna is a good conductor, it too acts as a scatter. Only a portion of the energy which
comes in contact with the antenna is converted into a received electrical power: a sizeable portion of the
total power is re-radiated by the wire.
9-31. If an antenna is located within a congested urban environment or within a building, there are many
objects that will scatter or reradiate the energy in a manner that can be detrimental to reception. For
example, the electric wiring inside a building can strongly reradiate RF energy. If a receiving antenna is in
close proximity to wires, it is possible for the reflected energy to cancel the energy received directly from
the desired signal path. When this condition exists, the receiving antenna should be moved to another
location within the room where the reflected and direct signals may reinforce rather than cancel each other.
Note. For more information on wave propagation refer to Training Circular 9-64.
RECIPROCITY
9-32. Reciprocity refers to the various properties of an antenna that apply equally, regardless of whether
the antenna is used for transmitting or receiving. For example, the more efficient a certain antenna is for
transmitting, the more efficient it will be for receiving the same frequency. The directive properties of a
given antenna will be the same whether it is used for transmission or reception.
9-33. There is a minimum amount of radiation along the axis of the antenna. If this same antenna is used as
a receiving antenna, it receives best in the same directions in which it produces maximum radiation (at
right angles to the axis of the antenna). There is a minimum amount of signal received from transmitters
located in the line with the antenna wire.
IMPEDANCE
9-34. Impedance is the relationship between voltage and current at any point in an alternating current
circuit. The impedance of an antenna is equal to the ratio of the voltage to the current at the point on the
antenna where the feed is connected (feed point). If the feed point is located at a point of maximum voltage
point, the impedance is as much as 500 to 10,000 ohms.
9-35. The input impedance of an antenna depends on the conductivity or impedance of the ground. For,
example, if the ground is a simple stake driven about a meter (3.2 ft) into earth of average conductivity, the
impedance of the monopole may be double or even triple the quoted values. Because this additional
resistance occurs at a point on the antenna circuit where the current is high, a large amount of transmitter
power will dissipate as heat into the ground rather than radiated as intended. Therefore, it is essential to
provide as good a ground or artificial ground (counterpoise) connection as possible when using a vertical
whip or monopole.
9-36. The amount of power an antenna radiates depends on the amount of current which flows in it.
Maximum power is radiated when there is maximum current flowing. Maximum current flows when the
impedance is minimized which is when the antenna is resonated so that its impedance is pure resistance.
(When capacitive reactance is made equal to inductive reactance, they cancel each other, and impedance
equals pure resistance.)
9-8
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Antennas
BANDWIDTH
9-37. The bandwidth of an antenna is the frequency range over which it will perform within certain
specified limits. These limits are with respect to impedance match, gain, and/or radiation pattern
characteristics.
9-38. In the radio communication process, intelligence changes from speech or writing to low frequency
signal that is used to modulate, or cause change, in a much higher frequency radio signal. When
transmitted by an antenna, where it is picked up and reconverted into the original speech or writing. There
are natural laws which limit the amount of intelligence or signal that can be transmitted and received at a
given time. The more words per minute, the higher the rate of modulation frequency, so a wider or greater
bandwidth is needed. To transmit and receive all the intelligence necessary, the antenna bandwidth must be
as wide or wider that the signal bandwidth, otherwise it will limit the signal frequencies, causing voices
and writing to be unintelligible. Too wide of a bandwidth is also bad, since it accepts extra voices and will
degrade the S/N ratio.
ANTENNA GAIN
9-39. The antenna gain depends on its design. Transmitting antennas are designed for high efficiency in
radiating energy, and receiving antennas are designed for high efficiency in picking up (gaining) energy.
On many radio circuits, transmission is required between a transmitter and only one receiving station.
Directed energy is radiated in one direction because it is useful only in that direction. Directional receiving
antennas increase the energy gain in the favored direction and reduce the reception of unwanted noise in
signals from other directions. Transmitting and receiving antennas should have small energy losses and
should be efficient as radiators and receptors.
9-40. For example, current omnidirectional antennas, when employed in forward combat areas, transmit
and receive signals equally in all directions, and provide an equally strong signal to both adversary EW
units, and friendly units.
TAKE-OFF ANGLE
9-41. The antenna’s take-off angle is the angle above the horizon that an antenna radiates the largest
amount of energy (refer to Figure 9-7 for an example of an antenna take-off angle). VHF communications
antennas are designed so that the energy is radiated parallel to the Earth (do not confuse take-off angle and
polarization). The take-off angle of an HF communications antenna can determine whether a circuit is
successful or not. HF sky wave antennas are designed for specific take-off angles, depending on the circuit
distance. High take-off angles are used for short-range communications and low take-off angles are used
for long range communications.
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9-9
Chapter 9
Figure 9-7. Antenna take-off angle
GROUND EFFECTS
9-42. Since most tactical antennas are erected over the earth, and not out in free space (except for those on
satellites), the ground alters the free space radiation patterns of antennas. The ground will also have an
effect on some of the electrical characteristics of antennas, specifically those mounted relatively close to
the ground in terms of wavelength. For example, medium and HF antennas, elevated above the ground by
only a fraction of a wavelength, will have radiation patterns that are quite different from the free-space
patterns.
GROUNDED ANTENNA THEORY
9-43. When grounded antennas are used, it is important that the ground has as high conductivity as
possible. This reduces ground loss, and provides the best possible reflecting surface for the down-going
radiated energy from the antenna.
9-44. The ground is a good conductor for medium and low frequencies, and acts as a large mirror for the
radiated energy. This results in the ground reflecting a large amount of energy that is radiated downward
from an antenna mounted over it. Thus, a quarter-wave antenna erected vertically, with its lower end
connected electrically to the ground, behaves like a half-wave antenna. Figure 9-8 is an example of a
quarter-wave connected to the ground. Under these conditions, the vertical antenna (quarter wavelength)
and the ground create the half wavelength. The ground portrays the quarter wavelength of radiated energy
that is reflected to complete the half wavelength. At higher frequencies, artificial grounds constructed of
large metal surfaces are common to provide better wave propagation.
9-10
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Antennas
Figure 9-8. Quarter-wave antenna connected to ground
Types of Grounds
9-45. At low and medium frequencies, the Earth acts as a good conductor. The ground connection must be
made in such a way as to introduce the least possible amount of resistance to ground. At higher
frequencies, artificial grounds constructed of large metal surfaces are common.
9-46. The ground connections take many forms, depending on the type of installation and the loss that can
be tolerated. In many simple field installations, the ground connection is made by one or more metal rods
driven into the soil. Where more satisfactory arrangements cannot be made, ground leads can be connected
to existing devices which are grounded. Metal structures or underground pipes systems are commonly used
as ground connections. In an emergency, a ground connection can be made by forcing one or more
bayonets into the soil.
Soil Conditions
9-47. When an antenna is erected over soil with low conductivity, treat the soil to reduce resistance. Soil
ground conditions are categorized as favorable, less favorable, or unfavorable. The following paragraphs
address a variety of grounding techniques that can be used during these soil conditions.
Favorable Soil Conditions
9-48. Ground connections take many forms, depending on the type of installation and the loss that can be
tolerated. In many simple field installations, one or more metal rods driven into the soil make the ground
connection. When more satisfactory arrangements cannot be made, ground leads can be connected to
existing devices that are grounded. Metal structures or underground pipe systems are commonly used as
ground connections. In an emergency, forcing one or more bayonets into the soil can make a ground
connection.
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9-11
Chapter 9
Less Favorable Soil Conditions
9-49. When an antenna must be erected over soil with low conductivity, treat the soil with substances that
are highly conductive when in solution, to reduce its resistance.
9-50. For simple installations, a single ground rod can be fabricated in the field from the pipe or conduit. It
is important that a low resistance connection be made between the ground wire and the ground rod. The
rod should be cleaned thoroughly by scraping and sand papering at the point where the connection is to be
made, and a clean ground clamp should be installed. A ground wire can then be soldered or joined to the
clamp; this joint should be covered with tape to prevent an increase in resistance because of oxidation.
Unfavorable Soil Conditions
9-51. When an actual ground connection cannot be used because of the high resistance of the soil, or
because a large buried ground system is not practical, either a counterpoise or a ground screen may be used
to replace the usual direct ground connection.
Couterpoise
9-52. When an actual ground connection cannot be used because of the high resistance of the soil or
because a large buried ground system is not practical, a counterpoise may be used to replace the usual
direct ground connection. The counterpoise consists of a device made of wire that is erected a short
distance above the ground, and insulated from it. The size of the counterpoise should be equal to, or larger
than, the size of the antenna. Figure 9-9 is an example of wire counterpoise.
Figure 9-9. Wire counterpoise
9-53. When the antenna is mounted vertically, the counterpoise should be made into a simple geometric
pattern; perfect symmetry is not required. The counterpoise appears to the antenna as an artificial ground
that helps to produce the required radiation pattern.
9-54. In some VHF antenna installations on vehicles, the metal roof of the vehicle (or shelter) is used as a
counterpoise for the antenna. Small counterpoises of metal mesh are sometimes used with special VHF
antennas that must be located a considerable distance above the ground.
9-12
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5 August 2009
Antennas
Ground Screen
9-55. A ground screen consists of a fairly large area of metal mesh or screen that is laid on the surface of
the ground under the antenna. There are two specific advantages in using ground screens. First, the ground
screen reduces ground absorption losses that occur when an antenna is erected over ground with poor
conductivity. Second, the height of the antenna can be set accurately. Thus, the radiation resistance of the
antenna can be determined more accurately.
ANTENNA LENGTH
9-56. The antenna has both a physical and electrical length; the two are never the same. The reduced
velocities of the wave on the antenna, and a capacitive effect (known as end effect), make the antenna seem
longer electrically than it is physically. The contributing factors are the ratio of the diameter of the antenna
to its length, and the capacitive effect of terminal equipment (insulators, clamps) used to support the
antenna.
9-57. To calculate the physical length of an antenna, use a correction of 0.95 for frequencies between 3.0–
50.0 MHz. Table 9-1 provides antenna length calculations for a half-wave antenna.
Table 9-1. Antenna length calculations
The formula below calculates the half-wave length, and uses a correction of 0.95 for frequencies
between 3 and 50 MHz. The same formula calculates the height above ground for HF wire
antennas.
Length (meters)
=150 X 0.95/frequency in MHz
=142.5/frequency in MHz
Length (ft)
=492 X 0.95/frequency in MHz
=468/frequency in MHz
The length of a long wire antenna (one wavelength or longer) for harmonic operation is
calculated by using the following formula:
Length (meters)
=150 X (N-0.05)/frequency in MHz
Length (ft)
=492 X (N-0.05)/frequency in MHz
Where N equals the number of half-wave lengths in the total length of the antenna.
For example, if the number of half-wave lengths is 3 and the frequency in MHz is 7, then:
Length (meters)=150(N-0.05)/frequency in MHz
=150(3-0.05)/7
=150 X 2.95/7
=63.2 meters
Note. For HF antennas: a half wavelength in meters is 143/f where f is the frequency in MHz. If the frequency is 30
MHz, the wavelength is 5 meters. Often a half wavelength dipole is used and is center fed.
ANTENNA ORIENTATION
9-58. The orientation of an antenna is extremely important. Determining the position of an antenna in
relation to the points of the compass can make the difference between a marginal and good radio circuit.
Azimuth
9-59. If the azimuth of the radio path is not provided, the azimuth should be determined by the best
available means. The accuracy required in determining the azimuth of the path depends on the radiation
pattern of the directional antenna.
9-60. If the antenna beam width is very wide (for example, a 90 degree angle between half-power points),
an error of 10 degrees in azimuth is of little consequence. However, in transportable operation, the rhombic
and V antennas may have such a narrow beam as to require great accuracy in azimuth determination. The
antenna should be erected for the correct azimuth; unless a line of known azimuth is available at the site,
the direction of the path is best determined by a magnetic compass. Figure 9-10 is an example of a beam
width measured on relative field strength and relative power patterns.
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Chapter 9
Figure 9-10. Beam width
9-61. Figure 9-11 is an example of a declination diagram. This example shows the relationship between
the three north points (magnetic, grid and true) as represented on topographic maps by a declination
diagram. It is important to understand the difference between the three and how to calculate from one to the
other. Magnetic azimuths are determined by using magnetic instruments such as lensatic or M2 compasses
while a grid azimuth is plotted on a map between two points, the points are joined together by a straight
line and a protractor is used to measure the angle between grid north and drawn line. (Refer to FM 3-25.54
for more information on azimuths and map reading.)
9-14
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5 August 2009
Antennas
Figure 9-11. Example of a declination diagram
IMPROVEMENT OF MARGINAL COMMUNICATIONS
9-62. Under certain situations, it may not be possible to orient directional antennas to the correct azimuth
of the desired radio path. As a result, marginal communications may suffer. To improve marginal
communications—
z
Check, tighten, and tape cable couplings and connections.
z
Check to see that antennas are adjusted for the proper operating frequency (if possible).
z
Change the heights of antennas.
z
Move the antenna a short distance away, and in different locations, from its original location.
z
Separate transmitters from receiving equipment, if possible.
9-63. An improvised antenna may change the performance of a radio set; use a distant station to test if an
antenna is operating correctly. If the signal received from this station is strong, the antenna is operating
satisfactorily. If the signal is weak, adjust the height and length of both the antenna and the transmission
line, to receive the strongest signal at a given setting on the volume control of the receiver. This is the best
method of tuning an antenna when transmission is dangerous or forbidden.
9-64. Impedance matching a load to its source is an important consideration in transmission systems. If the
load and source are mismatched, part of the power is reflected back along the transmission line toward the
source. This prevents maximum power transfer, and can be responsible for erroneous measurements of
other parameters. It may also cause circuit damage in high-power applications.
9-65. The power reflected from the load interferes with the incident (forward) power, causing standing
waves of voltages and current to exist along the line. Standing wave maximum-to-minimum ratio is
directly related to the impedance mismatch of the load. Therefore, the standing wave ratio provides the
means of determining impedance and mismatch.
TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION OF STRONG SIGNALS
9-66. After an adequate site has been selected and the proper antenna orientation obtained, the signal level
at the receiver will be proportional to the strength of the transmitted signal. If a high-gain antenna is used, a
stronger signal can be obtained. Using a high quality transmission line (as short as possible and properly
matched at both ends) can reduce losses between the antenna and the equipment.
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9-15
Chapter 9
WARNING
Excessive signal strength may result in adversary intercept and
interference, or in the operator interfering with adjacent
frequencies.
TYPES OF ANTENNAS
9-67. Tactical antennas are designed to be rugged; they permit mobility with the least possible sacrifice of
efficiency. Some are mounted on the sides of vehicles that have to move over rough terrain; others are
mounted on single masts, or suspended between sets of masts. All tactical antennas must be easy to install.
Small antennas are mounted on the helmets of personnel who use the radio sets; large antennas must be
easy to dismantle, pack, and transport.
9-68. A Hertz antenna (also known as a doublet, dipole, an ungrounded, or a half-wave antenna) can be
mounted in a vertical, horizontal, or slanting position; it is generally used at higher frequencies (above 2
MHz). With Hertz antennas, the wavelength to which any wire electrically tunes depends directly upon its
physical length. The basic Hertz antenna is center fed, and its total wire length is equal to approximately
one half of the wavelength of the signal to be transmitted.
9-69. A Marconi antenna is a quarter-wave antenna with one end grounded (usually through the output of
the transmitter or the coupling coil at the end of the feed line) which is required for the antenna to resonate.
It is positioned perpendicular to the earth and is generally used at the lower frequencies. However, when
used on vehicles or aircraft, Marconi antennas operate at high frequencies. In these cases, the aircraft or
vehicle chassis becomes the effective ground for the antenna.
9-70. The main advantage of the Marconi antenna over the Hertz antenna is that, for any given frequency,
the Marconi antenna is physically much shorter. This is particularly important in all field and vehicular
radio installations. Typical Marconi antennas include the inverted L, and the whip.
9-71. The best kinds of wire for antennas are copper and aluminum. In an emergency, use any type that is
available. The exact length of most antennas is critical. An expedient antenna should be the same length as
the antenna it replaces.
HIGH FREQUENCY ANTENNAS
9-72. The following paragraphs describe HF NVIS communication and HF antennas. Refer to Appendix C
for information on antenna selection.
Near-Vertical Incident Sky Wave Antenna, AS-2259/GR
9-73. The NVIS antenna, AS-2259/GR, is a lightweight sloping dipole omnidirectional antenna. Figure 912 is an example of the NVIS antenna. The NVIS is employed with HF radio communications in a 0–483
km (0 to 300 miles) range. It is capable of operating with older AM/HF radio sets, and was typically issued
with the older IHFR.
9-16
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5 August 2009
Antennas
Figure 9-12. NVIS antenna, AS-2259/GR
Harris RF-1944, Inverted Vee HF Antenna
9-74. The Harris RF-1944 Inverted Vee antenna is a lightweight, broadband dipole COTS antenna that is
primarily being fielded with the AN/PRC 150 (the older AS-2259/GR antenna is rarely used) The RF-1944
is primarily used because it is ideal for radios that have ALE and FH capabilities. The Harris RF-1944
antenna capabilities include—
z
Horizontal polarization.
z
Radiation patterns ideal for HF skywave communications from 0–500 miles (0–804.7 km).
z
Bandwidth over the entire 1.6–30 MHz frequency range.
z
Up to 20 watts power and 50 ohms input impedance.
z
A gain of:
„
-16 dBi (gain in decibels) at 2 MHz.
„
-2 dBi at 30 MHz.
z
Weight of less than four pounds.
9-75. The RF-1944 antenna does not include a mast. The primary components are a balun, two radiation
elements with integral terminating loads, two ground stakes, a coaxial cable, a weighing throwing line, and
a carrying bag. An added bonus for Soldiers is that the small, lightweight antenna can easily be carried in a
rucksack.
Note. A balun is a device used to couple a balanced device or line to an unbalanced device or
line.
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9-17
Chapter 9
V Antenna
9-76. The V antenna is a medium- to long-range, broadband sky wave antenna. It is used for point-to-point
communications to ranges exceeding 4,000 km (2,500 miles). The V antenna consists of two wires
arranged to form a V, with its ends at the apex (where the legs come together) attached to a transmission
line (Figure 9-13). Radiation lobes off each wire combine to increase gain in the direction of an imaginary
line bisecting the apex angle; the pattern is bidirectional. However, adding terminating resistors (300 ohms)
to the far end of each leg will make the pattern unidirectional (in the direction away from the apex angle).
Figure 9-13. V antenna
9-77. The angle between the legs varies with the length of the legs to achieve maximum performance. Use
Table 9-2 to determine the angle and the length of the legs. When the antenna is used with more than one
frequency or wavelength, use an apex angle that is midway between the extreme angles determined by the
chart.
Table 9-2. Leg angle for V antennas
9-18
Antenna Length
(Wavelength)
Optimum Apex Angle
(Degrees)
1
2
3
4
6
8
10
90
70
58
50
40
35
33
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5 August 2009
Antennas
Vertical Half Rhombic Antenna and the Long Wire Antenna
9-78. The vertical half rhombic antenna and the long-wire antenna are two field expedient directional
antennas. The long wire antenna directive pattern will radiate in both the horizontal and vertical planes and
the vertical half rhombic antenna will radiate both to the front and back of the sloping wires if resistors are
not used.
9-79. Figures 9-14 and 9-15 are examples of the vertical half rhombic antenna and the long wire antenna,
respectively. These antennas consist of a single wire, preferably two or more wavelengths long, supported
on poles at a height of 3–7 meters (10–20 ft) above the ground. However, the antennas will operate
satisfactorily as low as 1 meter (approximately 3.2 ft) above the ground.
9-80. The far end of the wire is connected to the ground through a non-inductive resistor of 500–600
ohms. To ensure the resistor is not burned out by the output power of the transmitter, use a resistor rated at
least one-half the wattage output of the transmitter. A reasonably good ground, such as a number of ground
rods or a counterpoise, should be used at both ends of the antenna. The antennas are used primarily for
transmitting or receiving HF signals.
Figure 9-14. Vertical half rhombic antenna
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Chapter 9
Figure 9-15. Long-wire antenna
Sloping V Antenna
9-81. The sloping V antenna is another field expedient directional antenna. To make construction easier,
the legs may slope downward from the apex of the V (this is called a sloping V antenna). Figure 9-16 is an
example of a sloping V antenna.
9-82. To make the antenna radiate in only one direction, add non-inductive terminating resistors from the
end of each leg (not at the apex) to ground. The resistors should be approximately 500 ohms and have a
power rating at least one half that of the output power of the transmitter being used. Without the resistors,
the antenna radiates bi-directionally, both front and back. A balanced transmission line must feed the
antenna.
9-20
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Antennas
Figure 9-16. Sloping-V antenna
Inverted L Antenna
9-83. The inverted L is a combination antenna made up of vertical and horizontal wire sections. It provides
omnidirectional radiation (when no resistors are being used) from the vertical element for ground wave
propagation, and high-angle radiation from the horizontal element for short-range sky wave propagation,
0–400 km (0–250 miles). The classic inverted L has a quarter-wave vertical section and a half-wave
horizontal section.
9-84. Table 9-3 outlines the frequency and the length of the horizontal element. Using a vertical height of
11–12 meters (35–40 ft), this combination will give reasonable performance for short-range sky wave
circuits. Figure 9-17 is an example inverted L antenna.
Table 9-3. Frequency and inverted L
horizontal element length
5 August 2009
Operating Frequency
Length of
Horizontal Element
5.0–7.0 MHz
3.5–6.0 MHz
2.5–4.0 MHz
24.3 meters (80 ft)
30.4 meters (100 ft)
45.7 meters (150 ft)
FM 6-02.53
9-21
Chapter 9
Figure 9-17. Inverted L antenna
Near-Vertical Incident Sky Wave Communications
9-85. The standard communications techniques used in the past will not support the widely deployed and
fast moving formations of today’s Army. Coupling this with the problems that can be expected in
deploying multi-channel LOS systems with relays to keep up with present and future operation, HF radio
and the NVIS mode take on new importance. The HF radio is quickly deployable, securable, and capable
of data transmission. HF (such as the AN/PRC-150 [C]) will be the first, and frequently the only, means of
communicating with fast-moving or widely separated units. With this reliance on HF radio,
communications planners, commanders, and operators must be familiar with NVIS techniques and their
applications and shortcomings in order to provide more reliable communications.
9-86. NVIS propagation is simply sky wave propagation that uses antennas with high angle radiation and
low operation frequencies. Just as the proper selection of antenna can increase the reliability of a long
range circuit, the same holds true for short range communications.
9-87. NVIS propagation uses high take-off angle (60–90 degrees) antennas to radiate the signal almost
straight up. The signal is then reflected back from the ionosphere and returns to Earth in a circular pattern
all around the transmitter. Because of near vertical radiation angle, there is no skip zone (skip zone is the
area between the maximum ground wave distance and the shortest sky wave distances where no
communications are possible). Communications are continuous out to several hundred kilometers from the
transmitter. The nearly vertical angle of radiation also means lower frequencies must be used.
9-88. Generally, NVIS propagation uses frequencies up to 8 MHz. The steep up and down propagation of
the signal gives the RTO the ability to communicate over nearby ridge lines, mountains, and dense
vegetation. A valley location may give the RTO terrain shielding from hostile intercept or protect the
circuit from ground wave and long wave interference. Antennas used for NVIS propagation need high
take-off angle radiation with very little ground wave radiation. Refer to Figure 9-18 for an example of
NVIS propagation.
9-22
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Antennas
Figure 9-18. NVIS propagation
9-89. Using the HF antenna table matrix in Appendix C, the AS-2259/GR and the half wave dipole are the
only antennas listed that meet the requirements of NVIS propagation. While the inverted V and inverted L
have high angle radiation, they can also have strong ground wave radiation that could interfere with the
close-in NVIS communications.
Disadvantages of Using the NVIS Concept
9-90. It is also important to understand that where both NVIS and ground wave signals are present, the
ground wave can cause destructive interference. Proper antenna selection will suppress ground wave
radiation and minimize this effect while maximizing the amount of energy going into the NVIS mode.
Advantages of Using the NVIS Concept
9-91. The following are advantages of using NVIS in a tactical environment—
z
There are skip-zone-free omnidirectional communications.
z
Terrain does not affect loss of signal. This gives a more constant received signal level over the
operational range instead of one which varies widely with distance.
z
Operators are able to operate from protected, dug-in positions. Thus tactical commanders do not
have to control the high ground for HF communications purposes.
z
Orientation, such as, doublets and inverted antennas are not as critical.
9-92. The following are advantages of using NVIS in an EW environment—
z
There is a lower probability of geolocation. NVIS energy is received from above at very steep
angles, which makes direction finding (DF) from nearby (but beyond ground wave range)
locations more difficult.
z
Communications are harder to jam. Ground wave jammers are subject to path loss. Terrain
features can be used to attenuate a ground wave jammer without degrading the desired
communication path. The jamming signal will be attenuated by terrain, while the sky wave
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
9-23
Chapter 9
z
NVIS path loss will be constant. This will force the jammer to move very close to the target or
put out more power. Either tactic makes jamming more difficult.
Operators can use low power successfully. The NVIS mode can be used successfully with
very low power HF sets. This will result in much lower probabilities of LPI/D.
VHF/UHF ANTENNAS
9-93. The following paragraphs address VHF/UHF antennas and their characteristics and capabilities.
Whip Antenna
9-94. Whip antennas for VHF tactical radio sets are usually 4.5 meters (15 ft) long. A vehicular whip
antenna in HF operations has a planning range of 400–4,000 km (250–2,500 miles).
9-95. Two whip antennas are used with lightweight portable FM radios; a 0.9 meter (2.9 ft) long semirigid steel tape antenna, and a 3 meter (9.8 ft) long multi-section whip antenna. These antennas are made
shorter than a quarter wavelength to ensure they are kept at a practical length. (A quarter wavelength
antenna for a 5.0 MHz radio would be over 14 meters/45.9 ft long.) An antenna tuning unit, either built
into the radio set or supplied with it, compensates for the missing length of the antenna. The tuning unit
varies the electrical length of the antenna to accommodate a range of frequencies.
9-96. Whip antennas are used with tactical radio sets because they radiate equally in all directions on the
horizontal plane. Since stations in a radio net lie in random directions and change their positions
frequently, the radiation pattern is ideal for tactical communications.
9-97. When a whip antenna is mounted on a vehicle, the metal of the vehicle affects the operation of the
antenna. Thus, the direction in which the vehicle is facing may also affect transmission and reception,
particularly of distant or weak signals.
9-98. At lower frequencies where wavelengths are longer, it is impractical to use resonant-length tactical
antennas with portable radio equipment, especially with vehicle-mounted radio sets. Tactical whip
antennas are electrically short, vertical, base loaded types, fed with a nonresonant coaxial cable of about 52
ohms impedance. Figure 9-19 is an example of a whip antenna.
Figure 9-19. Whip antenna
9-99. To attain efficiency with a tactical whip, comparable to that of a half-wave antenna, the height of the
vertical radiator should be a quarter wavelength. This is not always possible, so the loaded whip is used
instead. The loading increases the electrical length of the vertical radiator to a quarter wavelength. The
ground, counterpoise, or any conducting surface that is large enough, supplies the missing quarterwavelength of the antenna.
9-24
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Antennas
9-100. A vehicle with a whip antenna mounted on the left rear side of the vehicle transmits its strongest
signal in a line running from the antenna through the right front side of the vehicle. Similarly, an antenna
mounted on the right rear side of the vehicle radiates its strongest signal in a direction toward the left front
side. Figure 9-20 shows the best direction for whip antennas mounted on vehicles. The best reception is
obtained from signals traveling in the direction shown by the dashed arrows on the figure.
9-101. In some cases, the best direction for transmission can be determined by driving the vehicle in a
small circle until the best position is located. Normally, the best direction for receiving from a distant
station is also the best direction for transmitting to that station.
Figure 9-20. Whip antennas mounted on a vehicle
9-102. Sometimes, a whip antenna mounted on a vehicle must be left fully extended so that it can be used
instantly while the vehicle is in motion. The base-mounted insulator of the whip is fitted with a coil spring
attached to a mounting bracket on the vehicle. The spring base allows the vertical whip antenna to be tied
down horizontally when the vehicle is in motion, and when driving under low bridges or obstructions.
Even in the vertical position, if the antenna hits an obstruction, the whip usually will not break because the
spring base absorbs most of the shock.
9-103. Some of the energy leaving a whip antenna travels downward and is reflected by the ground with
practically no loss. To obtain greater distance in transmitting and receiving, it may be necessary to raise the
whip antenna. However, when a whip antenna is raised, its efficiency decreases because it is further from
the ground. Therefore, when using a whip antenna at the top of a mast, supply an elevated substitute for the
ground (ground plane).
DANGER
When an antenna must be left fully extended while in motion,
contact with overhead power lines must be avoided. Death or
serious injury can result if a vehicular antenna strikes a highvoltage transmission line. If the antenna is tied down, be sure the
tip protector is in place.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
9-25
Chapter 9
Broadband Omnidirectional Antenna
9-104. The broadband omnidirectional, vertically polarized, VHF antenna system OE-254 (refer to Figure
9-21) is an improved tactical antenna. Table 9-4 shows planning ranges for the OE-254 antenna. The OE254 antenna—
z
Operates in the 30–88 MHz range without any physical adjustments.
z
Has input impedance of 50 ohms unbalanced with an average voltage standing wave ratio
(VSWR) of 3:1 or less, at RF power levels up to 350 watts.
z
Is capable of being assembled and erected by one individual.
z
Meets the broadband and power handling requirements of the frequency hopping multiplexer
(FHMUX). (For more information on the OE-254 antenna refer to TM 11-5985-357-13.)
Table 9-4. OE-254 planning ranges
Terrain
High Power
Low Power (Nominal Conditions)
57.9 km (36 miles)
48.3 km (30 miles)
19.3 km (12 miles)
48.3 km (30 miles)
40.3 km (25 miles)
12.9 km (8 miles)
OE to OE
Average Terrain
Difficult Terrain
OE to Vehicle Whip
Average Terrain
Difficult Terrain
Figure 9-21. OE-254 broadband omnidirectional antenna system
9-26
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Antennas
Quick Erect Antenna Mast, AB 1386/U
9-105. The quick erect antenna mast (QEAM) is used for elevating tactical communications antennas to a
maximum height of 33 ft (10 meters) which results in more reliable communications over extended ranges.
The QEAM uses the same antenna elements and RF cable as the OE-254 antenna The QEAM will mount
the OE-254, MSE and EPLRS antenna.
9-106. The mast can be deployed and operated in a ground or vehicular (wheeled and tracked) mounted
configuration. It can also be erected in 7 ½ minutes by two Soldiers and only 15 minutes by one. Refer to
Figure 9-22 for an example of the QEAM.
Figure 9-22. QEAM AB 1386/U
COM 201B Antenna
9-107. The COM 201B antenna is a commercial (from Atlantic Microwave Corporation) VHF/UHF
vertically polarized, omnidirectional antenna that has become popular due to its versatility and unique
design. The antenna was originally used by the USMC and is now a standard USMC item. It has a tripod
leg structure that allows the antenna to be mounted directly on the ground or in a standard communications
mast and can be quickly assembled and disassembles for transport and storage which makes it ideal in
situations where there is not enough time to erect the OE-254. Refer to Figure 9-23 for an example of the
COM 201-B.
Note. The COM 201B is not an Army issued replacement for the OE-254 antenna.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
9-27
Chapter 9
Figure 9-23. COM-201B antenna
9-108. The antennas ease of operations makes it ideal for a field expedient antenna or mounting to a
vehicle if more elevation is needed. The eye fitting at the top of the antenna facilitates suspending it from
buildings or trees when a mast isn’t available but more height is desired.
9-109. The COM 201B antenna has the following characteristics and capabilities—
z
Operates in the 30–88 MHz range.
z
Vertically polarized.
z
Input impedance of 50 ohms unbalanced with an average VSWR of 3:1 or less, at RF power
levels up to 200 watts.
z
Maximum power is directed towards the horizon with a typical antenna gain of +2 dB relative to
an isotropic source.
z
One individual can assemble and erect.
z
Assembly can be stored in a space less than 36 inches by 10 inches in diameter.
9-28
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Antennas
OE-303, VHF Half Rhombic Antenna
9-110. The VHF half rhombic antenna is a vertically polarized antenna that, when used with VHF FM
tactical radios, extends the range of transmission considerably and provides some degree of EP. The half
rhombic antenna, when properly employed, decreases VHF FM radio susceptibility to hostile EW
operations, and enhances the communications ranges of the deployed radio sets. This effect is realized by
directing the maximum signal strength in the direction of the desired friendly unit.
9-111. The VHF half rhombic antenna is a high gain, lightweight, directional antenna. It operates over the
frequency range of 30–88 MHz. The antenna and all the ancillary equipment (guys, stakes, tools, and mast
sections) can be packaged in a carrying bag for manpack or vehicular transportation.
9-112. Figure 9-24 is an example of the OE-303 VHF half rhombic antenna. The planning range for the
OE-303 is equivalent to the planning range of the OE-254. The OE-303 half rhombic antenna is used with
the AB-1244 mast assembly, consisting of 12 tubular mast sections (five lower-mast sections, one mast
transition adapter, five upper-mast sections, and antenna adapter), a mast base assembly, and assorted
ancillary equipment. When erected, the mast assembly is stabilized by a two-level, four-way guying
system.
Figure 9-24. OE-303 half rhombic VHF antenna
9-113. The OE-303 antenna handles RF power levels up to 200 watts. It matches a nominal 50 ohm
impedance with a VSWR of no more than 2:1, over the entire frequency range of the antenna. It meets the
operation, storage, and transit requirements as specified in AR 70-38.
9-114. The OE-303 half rhombic antenna has the following characteristics and capabilities—
z
Erected in a geographical area of 53.3 meters (175 ft) in diameter, or less, depending upon the
frequency.
z
Mounted on any structure approximately 15.2 meters (50 ft) in height.
z
Azimuthal directional change within 1 minute.
z
Transported by manpack or tactical vehicle when fitted into a package.
z
Operation with the four-port FHMUX.
9-115. The OE-303 half rhombic antenna is used for special applications; it is task assigned as required.
Its primary use is on C2 and intelligence nets to a higher headquarters. It must be available for use by units
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
9-29
Chapter 9
that habitually operate over extended distances from parent units, and must be available to units for special
tasks. For more information on the half rhombic OE-303 antenna, refer to TM 11-5985-370-12.
High Frequency Antennas Usable at VHF and UHF
9-116. Simple vertical half-wave dipole/doublet and quarter wave monopole antenna are very popular for
omnidirectional transmission and reception over short range distances. For longer distances, rhombic
antennas made of wire and somewhat similar in design to HF versions may be used to good advantage at
frequencies as high as 1 GHz.
Dipole (Doublet) Antenna
9-117. The dipole (doublet) is a half-wave antenna consisting of two quarter wavelength sections on each
side of the center. It is also considered a center fed antenna. Figure 9-25 is an example of an improvised
dipole (doublet) antenna used with FM radios.
Figure 9-25. Half-wave dipole (doublet) antenna
9-118. A transmission line is used for conducting electrical energy from one point to another, and for
transferring the output of a transmitter to an antenna. Although it is possible to connect an antenna directly
to a transmitter, the antenna generally is located some distance away. In a vehicular installation, for
example, the antenna is mounted outside, and the transmitter inside the vehicle.
9-119. Center-fed half-wave FM antennas can be supported entirely by pieces of wood. Figure 9-26 is an
example of a horizontal (A) and vertical (B) center-fed half-wave antenna. These antennas can be rotated
to any position to obtain the best performance. If the antenna is erected vertically, the transmission line
should be brought out horizontally from the antenna, for a distance equal to at least one-half of the
antenna’s length, before it is dropped down to the radio set.
9-30
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Antennas
Figure 9-26. Center-fed half-wave antenna
9-120. Figure 9-27 is an example of an improvised vertical half-wave antenna. This technique is used
primarily with FM radios. It is effective in heavily wooded areas to increase the range of portable radios.
The top guy wire can be connected to a limb, or passed over the limb and connected to the tree trunk or a
stake.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
9-31
Chapter 9
Figure 9-27. Improvised vertical half-wave antenna
SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS ANTENNAS
9-121. The most important consideration in siting LOS equipment is the antenna elevation with respect to
the path terrain. Choose sites that exploit natural elevations.
Antenna Siting Considerations
9-122. The most important consideration in siting over-the-horizon systems is the antenna horizon
(screening angles) at the terminals. As the horizon angle increases, the transmission loss increases,
resulting in a weaker signal.
9-123. The effect of the horizon on transmission loss is very significant. Except where the consideration
of one or more other factors outweighs the effect of horizon angles, the site with the most negative angle
should be fist choice. If no sites with negative angles exist, the site with the smallest positive angle should
be the first choice.
9-124. The horizon angle can be determined by using a transit at each site and sighting along the circuit
path. The on-site survey will determine the visual horizon angle. The radio horizon angle is slightly
different from the visual horizon angle: however, the difference is generally insignificant.
9-32
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Antennas
9-125. The horizon angle is measured between the tangent at the exact location of the antenna and a
direct LOS to the horizon. The tangent line is a right angle (90 degrees) to a plumb line at the antenna site.
If the LOS to the horizon is below the tangent line, the horizon angel is negative.
9-126. Trees, building, hills or the Earth can block a portion of the UHF signals, causing an obstruction
loss. To avoid signal loss due to obstruction and shielding, clearance is required between the direct LOS
and the terrain. Path profile plots are used to determine if there is adequate clearance in LOS systems.
9-127. Weak or distorted signals may result if the SATCOM set is operated near steel bridges, water
towers, power lines, or power units. The presence of congested air-traffic conditions on the proximity of
microwave equipment can result in significant signal fading, particularly when a non-diversity mode is
employed.
9-128. For LOS and TACSAT communications the AN/PSC-5 family of radios are the most widely used
radios. The AN/PSC-5 provides LOS communications with the AS-3566 antenna and long range
SATCOM with the AS-3567 and AS-3568 antennas. The following paragraphs describe several antennas
and their characteristics.
AS-3566, Low Gain Antenna
9-129. The AS-3566 has the following characteristics—
z
Frequency range (LOS): 30–400 MHz.
z
DAMA: 225–400 MHz.
z
Non DAMA: 225–400 MHz.
z
Polarization: directional.
z
Power capability: determined by terminating resistor.
z
Azimuthal (bearing): directional.
AS-3567, Medium Gain Antenna
9-130. The AS-3567 (refer to Figure 9-28) has the following characteristics—
z
Frequency range: 225–399.995 MHz.
z
Beam width: 85 degrees.
z
Orientation:
„
Directional.
„
Elevation (0–90 degrees).
z
Input impedance: 50 ohms.
z
VSWR: 1.5:1
z
Gain:
„
6 dB (225–318 MHz).
„
5 dB (318–399.995 MHz).
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
9-33
Chapter 9
Figure 9-28. AS-3567, medium gain antenna
AS-3568, High Gain Antenna
9-131. The AS-3566 (refer to Figure 9-29) has the following characteristics—
z
Frequency range: 240–400 MHz.
z
Beam width: 77 degrees.
z
Orientation:
„
Directional.
„
Elevation (0 to 90 degrees).
„
Azimuth+180 degrees.
z
Input impedance: 50 ohms.
z
VSWR: 1.5:1
z
Gain:
„
8 dB (240–318 MHz).
„
6 dB (318–400 MHz).
z
Power: up to 140 watts.
9-34
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Antennas
Figure 9-29. AS-3568, high-gain antenna
FIELD REPAIR
9-132. Antennas that are broken or damaged cause poor communications or even communications failure.
If a spare antenna is available, replace the damaged antenna. When a spare is not available, the user may
have to construct an emergency antenna. The following paragraphs provide suggestions on repairing
antennas and antenna supports.
REPAIR OF A WHIP ANTENNA
9-133. A broken whip antenna can be temporarily repaired. If the whip is broken in two sections, rejoin
the sections. Remove the paint and clean the sections this will help to ensure a good electrical connection.
Place the sections together, secure them with a pole or branch, and lash them with bare wire or tape above
and below the break (refer to Figure 9-30, antenna A).
9-134. If the whip is badly damaged, use a length of field wire (WD-1/TT) the same length as the original
antenna. Remove the insulation from the lower end of the field wire antenna, twist the conductors together,
insert them in the antenna base connector, and secure with a wooden block. Use either a pole or a tree to
support the antenna wire (refer to Figure 9-30, antenna B).
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
9-35
Chapter 9
Figure 9-30. Field repair of broken whip antennas
WIRE ANTENNAS
9-135. Emergency repair of a wire antenna may involve the repair or replacement of the wire used as the
antenna or transmission line. It may also involve the repair or replacement of the assembly used to support
the antenna. When one or more antenna wires are broken, reconnecting the broken wires can repair the
antenna. To do this, lower the antenna to the ground, clean the ends of the wires, and twist the wires
together. When possible, solder the connection and reassemble.
9-136. Antenna supports may also require repair or replacement. A substitute item may be used in place
of a damaged support and, if properly insulated, may consist of any material of adequate strength. If the
radiating element is not properly insulated, field antennas may be shorted to ground, and be ineffective.
9-137. Many common items can be used as field expedient insulators. Plastic or glass (to include plastic
spoons, buttons, bottlenecks, and plastic bags) is the best insulator. Wood and rope also act as insulators
although they are less effective than plastic and glass (refer to Figure 9-31 for examples of field expedient
antenna insulators). The radiating element, the actual antenna wire, should touch only the antenna terminal,
and should be physically separated from all other objects other than the supporting insulator.
9-36
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Antennas
Figure 9-31. Examples of field expedient antenna insulators
ANTENNA GUYS
9-138. Guys stabilize the supports for an antenna. They are usually made of wire, manila rope, or nylon
rope. Broken rope can be repaired by tying the two broken ends together. If the rope is too short after the
tie is made, add another piece of rope or a piece of dry wood or cloth to lengthen it. Broken guy wire can
be replaced with another piece of wire. To ensure that the guys made of wire do not affect the operation of
the antenna, cut the wire into several short lengths and connect the pieces with insulators. Figure 9-32
shows an example of repaired guy lines with wood.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
9-37
Chapter 9
Figure 9-32. Repaired antenna guy lines and masts
Antenna Masts
9-139. Masts support some antennas and if broken, one can be replaced with another of the same length.
When long poles are not available as replacements, short poles may be overlapped and lashed together with
rope or wire to provide a pole of the required length.
9-38
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Chapter 10
Automated Communications Security Management and
Engineering System
This chapter addresses the Automated Communications Security Management and
Engineering System (ACMES) and its hardware and software components, designed
to meet critical requirements to both decentralize and automate the process of
generating and distributing data vital to communications systems. The ACMES
supports the current version of the AKMS.
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
10-1. The AKMS integrates all functions of cryptographic management and engineering, SOI, EP, and
cryptographic key generation, distribution, accounting, and audit trail recordkeeping into a total system
designated as the ACMES.
10-2. The ACMES provides commanders the necessary tools to work with the widely proliferating
COMSEC systems associated with the MSE, JTIDS, EPLRS, SINCGARS, and other keying methods
(electronic key generation, OTAR transfer, and electronic bulk encryption and transfer) being fielded by
the Army.
10-3. The ACMES is a hardware and software system that provides the communications planner with the
capability to design, develop, generate, distribute, and manage both decentralized and automated
communications-electronics operating instructions (CEOI)/SOIs. ACMES can produce the EP fill variables
to support SINCGARS in data file and electronic formats; it also produces SOI outputs in either electronic
or hard copy (paper) formats. The objective is to fully utilize the electronic data storage devices (ANCD
and SKL) to eliminate the need for exclusive use of a hard copy paper SOI.
10-4. The planning and distribution of ACMES products are essential to the success of military operations,
and are a command responsibility. The controlling authority is the commander, who establishes a
cryptographic net. Within divisions, brigades, and battalions, commanders may be assigned responsibilities
depending upon command policy and operational situations. Table 10-1 outlines the ACMES functions and
products at various command levels, theater to battalion.
10-5. Signal officers at corps and division (G-6s) levels (and separate brigades) use their ACMES
components to design, develop, generate, and distribute CEOI and SINCGARS FH data, along with HF,
UHF, and VHF frequency assignments at their respective levels and subordinate levels, as appropriate.
10-6. Brigades and separate battalion units use their ACMES components to selectively distribute
generated CEOI and SINCGARS FH data for use at their respective and subordinate levels.
Note. Refer to AR 380-40, AR 380-5, AR 25-2, AR 380-53, and FM 6-02.72 for additional
information on controlling authority and commanders’ responsibilities regarding cryptographic
networks.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
10-1
Chapter 10
Table 10-1. ACMES functions at various command levels
Command
Levels
Media
Function
Theater
Disk
Corps
Disk
Division
Disk/ANCD/SKL
Brigade
Disk/ANCD/SKL
Battalion
Disk/ANCD/SKL/
Paper and ECCM
Fill Device
Generates pairs of operational TRANSEC keys every
30 days, for ICOM and non-ICOM SINCGARS. The
communications systems directorate of a joint staff (J6) generates the TRANSEC keys every 90 days.
Generates the sign/countersign, smoke/pyrotechnic
signals, suffix/expander, hopsets, and CEOI/SOI at
corps level; receives TRANSEC keys from theater.
Uses corps data, or if authorized, generates and
merges SOI data, generates COMSEC data (division
TEK), and generates FH data (NET IDs and division
TSKs).
Receives the generated CEOI/SOI and other data,
such as hopsets and TRANSEC keys from division.
Receives the CEOI/SOI information and other data
such as hopsets and TRANSEC keys from the
brigade.
Note. In some situations, theater may not be the highest level of command to generate TRANSEC keys. It depends
on the mission, situation and if the unit is a supporting command.
HARDWARE
10-7. The following paragraphs address ACMES hardware components (AN/GYK-33A, lightweight
computer unit [LCU], LCU printer, random data generator [RDG], and ANCD). These hardware
components, along with the software, make up the ACMES workstation. Workstations with the RDG are
organic to corps, divisions, and separate brigades. (Refer to FM 6.02-72 for more information on the
ACMES workstation.)
AN/GYK-33A, LIGHTWEIGHT COMPUTER UNIT
10-8. The LCU is a computer system that may serve as a host for many application software packages
(programs) designed to provide the user with the means to accomplish assigned missions. Figure 10-1 is an
example of a LCU.
10-9. When operating the ACES and ACES DTD application software, the LCU provides the user with the
capability to generate, store, print, and/or electronically transfer both SC and FH information. It also
provides the TSK for EP. These capabilities are designed to be more responsive to rapidly changing and
highly mobile conditions on the battlefield.
10-10. The LCU consists of a computer with a keyboard and a crystal display. The 10-inch display
normally shows 25 80 character lines of alphanumeric information. The video graphics array display
contains 640 x 480 pixels, and supports 16 levels of shading. The LCU may be used at a fixed workstation
or may be carried to most locations when using battery power. The LCU holds 20 rechargeable nickel
cadmium or alkaline batteries (size C). Mission duration under battery power is less than two hours, at 70
degrees ambient temperature, unless batteries are recharged or replaced. A typical workstation setup might
require space for peripheral devices such as a printer, printer paper, interface transfer cables, and/or
interfaced devices (for example, SINCGARS and ANCDs).
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Figure 10-1. Lightweight computer unit
LIGHTWEIGHT COMPUTER UNIT PRINTER
10-11. The LCU printer is a small, lightweight dot-matrix printer that is easily transportable. The LCU
printer has a print rate of 160 characters per second in the draft printing mode, and 80 characters per
second in the near-letter-quality printing mode. It is powered by either battery, or the LCU power supply.
The printer ribbon is capable of printing several hundred pages; it is disposable, and easily replaced. The
normal line width is 80 characters. The printer will accept paper widths from three to 8.5 inches, and has a
tractor feed attachment that accepts 8.5 x 11 inch continuous form, fan-fold paper. The printer operates on
9–36 VDC (battery and vehicular), or 110 VAC.
RANDOM DATA GENERATOR, AN/CSZ-9
10-12. The RDG provides the LCU with the necessary random data to allow the ACES software to
generate SOI and/or TSK fill data. Figure 10-2 shows the RDG. It is a controlled cryptographic item, and
must be transported as authorized by AR 380-5.
Note. RDGs are only authorized and issued for use at selected echelons.
10-13. The RDG is a self-contained unit, powered by five D-size 1.5 volt batteries, located beneath the
bottom shelf/foot plate of the unit. Serviceable batteries should be installed prior to using the unit.
10-14. The on/off switch on the front panel activates the RDG; however, the unit does have a sleep mode
that inactivates the unit when not in use for an extended period, to conserve energy drain from the unit’s
battery power supply. The unit is provided with a cable that connects the unit (from its rear panel) to a
serial port on the computer.
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Chapter 10
Figure 10-2. Random data generator
SOFTWARE
10-15. Revised DTD software (RDS) and the ACES application software make up the applications
software for ACMES.
10-16. The RDS software is unclassified, pre-installed on the ANCD, and designated to provide support
of user’s needs with regard to SOIs and FH data for the FH SINCGARS. RDS is divided into a CEOI/SOI
portion and a SINCGARS portion.
10-17. The CEOI/SOI portion provides the capability to receive, store, display, and transfer CEOI/SOI
data.
10-18. The SINCGARS portion of RDS provides the capability to fill SINCGARS, and receive, store,
display, and transfer the data that is required to fill these radios.
AUTOMATED COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING SOFTWARE
10-19. ACES is a net planning software program that replaced the Revised Battlefield Electronic
Communications-Electronics Operational Instruction/Signal Operating Instructions System (RBECS), for
the US Army. ACES works in a ruggedized Windows NT COTS platform for tactical operations as well as
in desktop Windows NT workstations in strategic locations. ACES allows military users to perform fully
automated cryptographic net, SOI, CEOI, joint CEOI and EP planning, management, validation and
generation distribution at the time and location needed.
10-20. The network planning functionality of ACES incorporates cryptonet planning, key management,
and key tag generation. The planning concept relates to the development of network structures supporting
missions and plans. The data for a given plan includes individual nets, which are assigned individual net
members. Net members are associated with a specific platform and equipment. Once net members,
platforms, and equipment are designated, specific equipment fill locations are defined and key tags/keys
are associated with the equipment locations.
10-21. The equipment records, which include platform data, net data, and key tags, are then downloaded
to the DTD, and subsequently associated with the required key. Similarly, the EP data and SOI are
generated by the ACES workstation operator and can be downloaded to the DTD.
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MASTER NET LIST
10-22. Master net list (MNL) maintains all nets requiring SOI assignments. Maintaining the MNL is
essential to creating deconflicted SOI assignments. Additionally, nets that have been created or imported
may be edited from the MNL allowing individual frequency assignments to be tracked with assigned
equipment. The ACES version of the MNL has direct correlation to standard frequency action format
(SFAF) line item numbers, so as you create the MNL the base for the SFAF and the SOI is being compiled
at the same time.
10-23. The MNL is the database link for all information listed under a plan, such as nets, frequencies and
equipment. The MNL provides the capability to create, edit, organize, and delete nets. Before creating the
MNL, the ACES workstation operator must know how many nets are required, what types of equipment
will be used, and specific information about the equipment, such as maximum transmit power, frequency
bands, and emission designators. This information is available from the spectrum or area frequency
manager. This section provides the information in creating the MNL folder and entering and managing the
information within the folder. (Refer to TB 11-7010-293-10-2 for more detailed information on ACES and
how to build a MNL.)
10-24. The MNL module of the ACES software may also be displayed in service specific views (US
Army, USN, USAF, and USMC) or joint combined. The MNL also incorporates a number of SFAF
compatible fields to facilitate the transfer of data to and from other frequency management systems such as
Spectrum XXI, as well as service unique systems. The database capabilities of the ACES workstation allow
the data in the MNL to be used to create the initial SFAF frequency proposal and the SOI.
10-25. The ACES software components on the ACES workstation include the ACES core module,
general purpose module, resource manager module, MNL module, SOI module, and CNR module.
COMBAT NET RADIO MODULE
10-26. The CNR module provides the necessary functions and procedures to create and modify hopsets,
loadsets, and to generate SINCGARS TSKs. It also provides the capability to plan CNR nets in all bands.
CNR net planning is integrated with the MNL module.
RESOURCE MANAGER MODULE
10-27. The resource manager module contains frequency resources and allows these resources to be
created, edited, merged, deleted, and printed. The resource manager also provides the planner the capability
to import and export resources in RBECS, ACES, integrated system control, and SFAF formats.
SIGNAL OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS MODULE
10-28. The SOI module allows editions to be created and updated. Each SOI is identified by a short title
and edition and may contain up to ten time periods. SOI is a series of orders issued to control and
coordination of the signal operations of a command or activity. It provides guidance needed to ensure the
speed, simplicity, and security of communications. Nets are selected from the MNL to be included in a
generated SOI edition. Before the SOI can be generated the MNL must be saved and validated. Figure10-3
is an example of an expanded ACES navigation tree and Figure 10-4 is an example of the general sequence
for planning a CNR net.
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Chapter 10
Figure 10-3. Expanded ACES navigation tree
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Figure 10-4. Example for planning a CNR net
COMMUNICATIONS-ELECTRONICS OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS/SIGNAL OPERATING
INSTRUCTIONS DEVELOPMENT
10-29. ACES is designed to decentralize and automate CEOI/SOI generation. Generating and distributing
ACES CEOI/SOI can be done with virtually no dependence on the NSA. ACES is also capable of building
a division size CEOI/SOI in two to five hours. The NSA normally requires 60–90 days lead time; a manual
build normally requires three to five days to produce the same CEOI/SOI. ACES can respond quickly to a
compromise of CEOI/SOI in the field, or to rapidly changing force structures and can regenerate
frequencies and net call signs in three to five hours (depending on database size).
10-30. Although ACES automates the generation process, the signal officer must first design the
CEOI/SOI on paper. Table 10-2 lists the initial steps for designing and developing CEOI/SOI data. The
following paragraphs provide more detail on CEOI/SOI development.
Table 10-2. Initializing ACES CEOI/SOI data
Step
1
2
3
4
5
Description
Research and extract data from the modified table of organization and equipment, which
authorizes the use of personnel and equipment.
Determine the doctrine to be followed.
OPORD/OPLAN/unit SOP.
Frequency list from the spectrum manager.
Determine how many nets and frequencies are required. Use the current CEOI/SOI as a
starting point.
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FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENT
10-31. ACES can be used for frequency and net call sign generation in all frequency bands currently used
by the military. All frequency assignments are based on the authorized frequencies of the using
organization. The available frequencies are listed in the current resource frequency allocation. The initial
step in preparing the net/frequency assignment plan is to identify the unit nets required for C2 of tactical
operations.
10-32. After all nets are identified, compare the resulting frequency requirements with the number of
frequencies available. Spare frequencies are available for assignment in most CEOI/SOI, with their use
being controlled by the major organization’s (controlling authority) signal officer. If the frequency
allocations and assignments are inadequate, additional frequencies must be requested through a higher
command or area frequency coordinator, or some nets will be required to share frequencies with other nets.
10-33. Various types of frequency assignments should be considered when developing the database to
generate a CEOI/SOI. Ideally, frequencies are randomly assigned to nets, designed to receive a changing
frequency with each change in time period. A net may be sufficiently important to warrant a dedicated
(sole user) frequency for its use. The frequency is unique to the organization, and is only used by one net
during any time period. This assignment is reserved for C2 nets. (Refer to Table B-1 for an outline of the
frequency bands.)
Fixed Frequencies
10-34. Fixed frequencies are usually assigned to nontactical units. The frequency value is manually
assigned, and is unique to the specific net. The frequency value is non-changing for all time periods of the
generation. For example, the medical evacuation net may be assigned 34.000 MHz, and this frequency will
never change; also, 34.000 MHz will not be assigned to another net. Fixed frequencies do not have any
restrictions assigned, and are used on SC nets only.
Reusing and Sharing Frequencies and Frequency Separation
10-35. The lack of available frequencies, or abundance of needed nets, may require nets to reuse or share
frequencies. Also, some nets require frequency separation from other nets, to prevent interference.
10-36. When the number of nets requiring frequencies is greater than the number of available
frequencies, frequency reuse (common user) may be necessary. Nets are selected for inclusion in a reuse
plan on the basis of low operating power, geographic separation, terrain masking, and other factors
permitting the use of the same frequencies on a noninterference basis.
10-37. The following list of nets should be excluded from a reuse plan—
z
Command and wireless network extension (and corresponding) nets.
z
Command and fire control nets (maneuver units).
z
Fire direction nets (division artillery).
z
Any FM aviation net (cavalry/attack).
z
Any emergency net.
z
Any spare net.
z
Any anti-jam or alternate net.
10-38. Sharing frequencies is another method of reducing the number of frequencies required; two or
more nets use a shared frequency. The sharing nets will receive the same frequency for a given time period,
either fixed or discrete. Typical nets that use shared frequencies are survey and weather nets.
10-39. A separation plan provides a frequency separation between nets. This plan is used when operating
more than one net within a communications van, in close proximity to other nets, or when mutual
frequency interference may result between radios. A separation plan is designed to allow these nets to
communicate simultaneously without mutual interference. Frequency assignment separation requirements
include co-site, wireless network extension, and other alternate nets.
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10-40. Mutual interference problems may result if FM transmitters operating on different frequencies are
situated in the same locale. To effectively reduce these interference problems, ACES adheres to the
following basic standards—
z
Frequencies with an exact separation factor of 5.750 or 23.000 MHz to collocated nets are not
assigned.
z
Frequencies that are on the order of the second harmonic. (For example, the frequency setting of
30.000, 32.650, and 35.000 MHz will possibly interfere with radios using 60.000, 65.300, and
70.000 MHz, respectively, are not assigned.)
SINCGARS SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT VARIABLES
10-41. The G-6/S-6 section identifies requirements for the construction of loadsets to support the radios
that are employed by their organization. These loadsets, once defined, are then constructed using ACES,
saved to file, and distributed to subordinate organizational units or elements for follow-on distribution to
respective users. The construction of loadsets is defined by the user, and is primarily based upon the
identification of the nets that the radio user is required to enter/monitor.
10-42. For example, the commander of an infantry battalion would normally be a member of several FH
SINCGARS nets. One of the commander’s SINCGARS could require the following to be loaded—
z
Brigade command net.
z
Brigade operations net.
z
Battalion command net.
z
Battalion operations net.
z
Brigade wireless network extension net.
10-43. RTOs will normally load all six preset channels on the SINCGARS, with operational NET IDs and
TEKS. If a requirement to perform an OTAR arises, all stations involved with OTAR must load a KEK
(stored in the ANCD) into preset Channel 6 on the SINCGARS, with an appropriate NET ID.
Loadset Updates
10-44. The responsible signal section personnel using ACES and RDS, as appropriate, maintain loadset
data. Loadset data is updated with new replacement key data, when appropriate, before the current key
expires. The loadset data is then saved to file, and distributed to users via ANCD/SKL, so they are in place
and available for loading into the SINCGARS at the appropriate key changeover time. Additionally, the
signal sections should have several sets of loadsets with associated keys, already constructed and
distributed (or available for expeditious distribution) for immediate use.
Loadset Revisions/Creations
10-45. Existing loadsets may require revision when the required net content changes (unit reassignment
or attachment). New loadsets may have to be constructed to meet new requirements (for example, a new
task force organization is created).
JOINT AUTOMATED CEOI SYSTEM
10-46. The Military Communications Electronics Board has designated ACES as the Joint Spectrum
Management Planning software. For multi-service operations it is called Joint Automated
Communications-Electronics Operating Instructions System (JACS). JACS has the same basic function as
ACES. JACS core purpose is to allow an interface between the joint CEOI generation tool with service
unique communications planning software and spectrum management automated tools.
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Chapter 11
Communications Techniques: Electronic Protection
This chapter addresses EW and the EP techniques used to prevent enemy jamming
and intrusion into friendly communications systems. It also addresses EP
responsibilities, the planning process, signal security, emission control, preventive
and remedial EP techniques and the Joint Spectrum Interference Resolution (JSIR)
reporting procedures and requirements.
ELECTRONIC WARFARE
11-1. EW uses electromagnetic energy to determine, exploit, reduce, or prevent hostile use of the
electromagnetic spectrum; it also involves actions taken to retain friendly use of the electromagnetic
spectrum. Table 11-1 lists the three elements of EW.
Table 11-1. Electronic warfare elements
Element
Electronic
warfare
support
(ES)
EA
EP
Responsibilities
Involves actions taken to search for, interrupt, locate, record, and analyze
radio signals for using such signals in support of military operations.
Provides EW information required to combat electronic countermeasures,
to include threat detection, warning, avoidance, target location, and
homing.
Produces signals intelligence (SIGINT), communications intelligence, and
electronic intelligence.
Involves using electromagnetic or directed energy to attack personnel,
facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading.
Includes actions taken to prevent or reduce the enemy’s effective use of his
frequencies; includes jamming and deception.
Employs weapons that use either electromagnetic or directed energy as
their primary destructive mechanism (lasers, RF weapons, and particle
beams).
Ensures friendly effective use of frequencies, despite the enemy’s use of
EW.
Provides defensive measures used to protect friendly systems from enemy
EW activities, such as—
z
Careful siting of radio equipment.
z
Employment of directional antennas.
z
Operations using lowest power required.
z
Staying off the air unless absolutely necessary.
z
Using a random schedule, if one is used.
z
Using good radio techniques and continued operation.
Note. Refer to Appendix H for more information on antenna placement and co-site
interference.
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Chapter 11
ELECTRONIC WARFARE IN COMMAND AND CONTROL ATTACK
11-2. EW support, EA, and EP contribute to C2-attack operations. ES, in the form of combat information,
can provide real-time information required to locate and identify adversary C2 nodes, and
supporting/supported early warning and offensive systems during C2 attack missions. It produces SIGINT,
and can provide timely intelligence about an adversary’s C2 capabilities and limitations that can be used to
update previously known information about the adversary’s C2 systems. This updated information can be
used to plan C2 attack operations, and provide damage assessment feedback on the effectiveness of the
overall C2 warfare plan.
11-3. EA is present in most C2 attack operations in a combat environment. It includes jamming and
electromagnetic deception or destruction of C2 nodes, with directed-energy weapons or anti-radiation
missiles.
11-4. EP protects the electromagnetic spectrum for friendly forces. Coordinating the use of the
electromagnetic spectrum through the joint restricted frequency list (JRFL) is a means of preventing
fratricide among friendly electronic emissions. Equipment and procedures designed to prevent adversary
disruption or exploitation of the electromagnetic spectrum are the best means friendly forces have to ensure
their own uninterrupted use of the electromagnetic spectrum during C2 attack operations. (For more
information on joint EW refer to JP 3-13.1.)
ELECTRONIC WARFARE IN COMMAND AND CONTROL PROTECT
11-5. The three elements of EW can also contribute to friendly C2 protect efforts. ES, supported by
SIGINT data, can be used to monitor an impending adversary attack on friendly C2 nodes. In the form of
signal security monitoring, ES can be used to identify potential sources of information for an adversary to
obtain knowledge about friendly C2 systems.
11-6. EP can be used to defend a friendly force from adversary C2-attack. EP should be used in C2 protect
to safeguard friendly forces from exploitation by adversary ES/SIGINT operations. Frequency
management using the JRFL is essential to a successful coordinated defense against adversary C2-attack
operations.
ADVERSARY COMMAND AND CONTROL ATTACK
11-7. Understanding the threat to the electromagnetic spectrum is the key to practicing sound EP
techniques. Adversary C2 attack is the total integration of EW and physical destruction of resources, to
deny friendly forces the use of electronic control systems. Potential adversaries consider C2 attack integral
to all combat operations. They have invested in developing techniques and equipment to deny their
enemies the effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum for communications.
11-8. Adversary C2 attack disrupts or destroys at least 60 percent of the command, control, intelligence,
and weapons systems communications (30 percent by jamming and 30 percent by destructive fires). To
accomplish this goal, enemy forces expend considerable resources gathering combat information about
their enemies. As locations are determined, and units are identified, enemy forces establish priorities to—
z
Jam communications assets.
z
Deceptively enter radio nets.
z
Interfere with the normal flow of their enemy’s communications.
COMMANDERS ELECTRONIC PROTECTION RESPONSIBILITIES
11-9. EP is a command responsibility. The more emphasis the commander places on EP, the greater the
benefits, in terms of casualty reduction and combat survivability, in a hostile environment. Because
adversary C2 attack is a real threat on the modern battlefield, commanders at all levels must ensure their
units are trained to practice sound EP techniques.
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11-10. Commanders must constantly measure the effectiveness of the EP techniques; they must also
consider EP while planning tactical operations. Commanders’ EP responsibilities are—
z
Review all after action reports where jamming or deception was encountered, and assess the
effectiveness of defensive EP.
z
Ensure all encounters of interference, deception, or jamming are reported and properly analyzed
by the G-6/S-6 and the assistant chief of staff, intelligence (G-2) or intelligence staff officer (S2).
z
Analyze the impact of enemy efforts to disrupt or destroy friendly C2 communications systems
on friendly OPLANs.
z
Ensure the unit practices COMSEC techniques daily. Units should—
„
Change net call signs and frequencies often (in accordance with the SOI).
„
Use approved encryption systems, codes, and authentication systems.
„
Control emissions.
„
Make EP equipment requirements known through quick reaction
capabilities that are designed to expedite procedure for solving, research,
development, procurement, testing, evaluation, installations modification,
and logistics problems as they pertain to EW.
„
Ensure radios with mechanical or electrical faults are repaired quickly; this
is one way to reduce radio distinguishing characteristics.
„
Practice net discipline.
STAFF ELECTRONIC PROTECTION RESPONSIBILITIES
11-11. The staff is organized to assist the commander in accomplishing the mission. Specifically, the staff
responds immediately to the commander and subordinate units. The staff should—
z
Keep the commander informed.
z
Reduce the time to control, integrate, and coordinate operations.
z
Reduce the chance for error.
11-12. All staff officers provide information, furnish estimates, and provide recommendations to the
commander; prepare plans and orders for military operations; and supervise subordinates to achieve
mission accomplishment. Staff members should assist the commander in carrying out communications EP
responsibilities. Specific responsibilities of the staff officers are—
z
G-2/S-2—advises the commander of enemy capabilities that could be used to deny the unit
effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum. They also keep the commander informed of the
unit’s signal security posture.
z
G-3/S-3—exercises staff responsibility for EP and includes ES and EA scenarios in all CP and
field training exercises, and evaluates EP techniques employed. They also include EP training in
the unit training program.
z
G-6/S-6—prepares and conducts the unit EP training program; ensures there are alternate means
of communications for those systems most vulnerable to enemy jamming; ensures available
COMSEC equipment is distributed to those systems most vulnerable to enemy information
gathering activities and ensures measures are taken to protect critical friendly frequencies from
intentional and unintentional interference. The G-6/S-6 also enforces proper use of radio, EP,
and TRANSEC procedures on communications channels; performs frequency management
duties, and issues SOIs on a timely basis; prepares and maintains a restricted frequency list of
taboo, protected, and guarded frequencies and prepares the EP and restricted frequency list
appendices to the signal annex with appropriate cross-references to the other annexes (EW,
operations security, and deception) and to the SOI for related information.
PLANNING PROCESS
11-13. Threats to friendly communications must be assessed during the planning process. Planning
counters the enemy’s attempts to take advantage of the vulnerabilities of friendly communications systems.
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Chapter 11
As a minimum, four categories of EP planning must be considered: deployment, employment, replacement,
and concealment. The following paragraphs address the deployment phase of the EP planning process.
GEOMETRY
11-14. Analyze the terrain, and determine methods to make the geometry of the operations work in the
favor of friendly forces. Adhering rigidly to standard CP deployment makes it easier for the adversary to
use the direction finder and aim his jamming equipment at his enemies.
11-15. Deploying units and communications systems perpendicular to the forward line of own troops
(FLOT) enhance the enemy’s ability to intercept communications because US forces aim transmissions in
the enemy’s direction. When possible, friendly forces must install terrestrial LOS communications parallel
to the FLOT. This supports keeping the primary strength of US transmissions in friendly terrain. Refer to
Figure 11-1 for an example of geometry during operations.
11-16. SC TACSAT systems reduce friendly CP vulnerability to enemy direction efforts. Tactical
SATCOM systems are relieved of this constraint because of their inherent resistance to enemy direction
finder efforts. Terrain features should be used when possible to mask friendly communications from enemy
positions. This may mean moving senior headquarters farther forward and using more jump or TAC CPs so
that commanders can continue to direct their units effectively.
11-17. Locations of CPs must be carefully planned, as CP locations generally determine antenna
locations. The proper installation and positioning of antennas around CPs is critical. Antennas and emitters
should be dispersed and positioned at the maximum remote distance, terrain dependent, from the CP, so
that all of a unit’s transmissions are not coming from one central location.
Figure 11-1. Geometry during operations
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SYSTEM DESIGN
11-18. Alternate routes of communications must be established when designing communications systems.
This involves establishing sufficient communications paths to ensure that the loss of one or more routes
will not seriously degrade the overall system. The commander establishes the priorities of critical
communications links; the higher priority links should be afforded the greatest number of alternate routes.
11-19. Alternate routes enable friendly units to continue to communicate despite the enemy’s efforts to
deny them the use of their communications systems. They can also be used to transmit false messages and
orders on the route that is experiencing interference, while they transmit actual messages and orders
through another route or means. A positive benefit of continuing to operate in a degraded system is the
problematic degraded system will cause the enemy to waste assets that might otherwise be used to impair
friendly communications elsewhere.
11-20. Three routing concepts, or some permutation of them, can be used in communications—
z
Straight-line system—provides no alternate routes of communications.
z
Circular system—provides one alternate route of communications.
z
Grid system—provides as many alternate routes of communications as can be practically
planned.
11-21. Avoid establishing a pattern of communications. Adversary intelligence analysts are highly trained
to extract information from the pattern, and the text, of friendly transmissions. If easily identifiable patterns
of friendly communications are established, the enemy can gain valuable information.
11-22. The number of friendly transmissions tends to increase or decrease according to the type of tactical
operation being executed. This deceptive communications traffic can be executed by using either false
peaks, or traffic leveling. False peaks are used to prevent the enemy from connecting an increase of
communications with a tactical operation. Transmission increases, on a random schedule, create false
peaks.
11-23. Tactically, traffic leveling is accomplished by designing messages to be sent when there is a
decrease in transmission traffic. Thus, traffic leveling is used to keep the transmission traffic fairly
constant. Messages transmitted for traffic leveling or false peaks must be coordinated to avoid operational
security violations, mutual interference, and confusion among friendly equipment operators.
11-24. ACES equipment, software, and subsequent SOI development resolves many problems concerning
communications patterns; they allow users to change frequencies often, and at random. This has long been
recognized as a key in confusing enemy traffic analysts. Adversary traffic analysts are confused when
frequencies, net call signs, locations, and operators are often changed. The adversary uses US TTP to help
perform their mission. Therefore, these procedures must be flexible enough to avoid establishing
communications patterns.
REPLACEMENT
11-25. Replacement involves establishing alternate routes and means of doing what the commander
requires. FM voice communications are the most critical communications used by the commander during
adversary engagements. As much as possible, critical systems should be reserved for critical operations.
The adversary should not have access to information about friendly critical systems until the information is
useless.
11-26. Alternate means of communications should be used before enemy engagements. This ensures the
adversary cannot establish a database to destroy primary means of communications. Primary systems must
always be replaced with alternate means of communications, if the primary means become significantly
degraded. These replacements must be preplanned and carefully coordinated; if not, the alternate means of
communications could be compromised, and become as worthless as the primary means. Users of
communications equipment must know how and when to use the primary and alternate means of
communications. This planning and knowledge ensures the most efficient use of communications systems.
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CONCEALMENT
11-27. OPLANs should include provisions to conceal communications personnel, equipment, and
transmissions. It is difficult to effectively conceal most communications systems; however, installing
antennas as low as possible on the backside of terrain features, and behind man-made obstacles, helps
conceal communications equipment while still permitting communications.
SIGNAL SECURITY
11-28. EP and signal security are closely related; they are defensive arts based on the same principle. If
adversaries do not have access to the essential elements of friendly information (EEFI) of US forces, they
are much less effective. The goal of practicing sound EP techniques is to ensure the continued effective use
of the electromagnetic spectrum. The goal of signal security is to ensure the enemy cannot exploit the
friendly use of the electromagnetic spectrum for communications. Signal security techniques are designed
to give commanders confidence in the security of their transmissions. Signal security and EP should be
planned based on the enemy’s ability to gather intelligence and degrade friendly communications systems.
11-29. Tactical commanders must ensure effective employment of all communications equipment, despite
the adversary’s concerted efforts to degrade friendly communications to his tactical advantage. Modifying
and developing equipment, to make friendly communications less susceptible to adversary exploitation, is
an expensive process. Equipment that will solve some EP problems is being developed and fielded.
Ultimately, the commander, staff planners, and RTOs are responsible for both security and continued
operation of all communications equipment.
EMISSION CONTROL
11-30. The control of friendly electromagnetic emissions is essential to successful defense against the
enemy’s attempts to destroy or disrupt US communications. Transmitters should be turned on only when
needed to accomplish the mission. The enemy intelligence analyst will look for patterns he can turn into
usable information. If friendly transmitters are inactive, the enemy has nothing to work with as
intelligence. Emission control can be total; for example, the commander may direct radio silence or radio
listening silence whenever desired.
11-31. Emission control should be a habitual exercise. Transmissions should be kept to a minimum (20
seconds absolute maximum, 15 seconds maximum preferred) and should contain only mission-critical
information. Good emission control makes the use of communications equipment appear random, and is
therefore consistent with good EP practices. This technique alone will not eliminate the enemy’s ability to
find a friendly transmitter; but when combined with other EP techniques, it will make locating a transmitter
more difficult.
PREVENTIVE ELECTRONIC PROTECTION TECHNIQUES
11-32. In planning communications, consider the enemy’s capabilities to deny the effective use of
communications equipment. EP should be planned and applied to force the adversary to commit more
jamming, information gathering, and deception resources to a target than it is worth or than he has readily
available. EP techniques must also force the enemy to doubt the effectiveness of his jamming and
deception efforts.
11-33. RTOs must use preventive EP techniques to safeguard friendly communications from enemy
disruption and destruction. Preventive EP techniques include all measures taken to avoid enemy detection,
and to deny enemy intelligence analysts useful information. These techniques include EP designed circuits
(equipment features) and radio systems installation and operating procedures. Refer to AR 380-5 for the
Department of the Army Information Security Program.
11-34. EP designed circuits are in compliance with the MIL-STD for EP. They are built with a focus on
technology enhancements, to mitigate the effects of adversary radio electronic combat threats and reduce
vulnerabilities to electronic countermeasures.
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Communications Techniques: Electronic Protection
11-35. RTOs have little control over the effectiveness of EP designed circuits; therefore, their primary
focus is radio systems installation and operating procedures. (Appendix C addresses operations in cold
weather, jungle, urban, desert, and nuclear environments.)
11-36. Incorrect operating procedures can jeopardize the unit’s mission, and ultimately increase unit
casualties. Communications equipment operators must instinctively use preventive and remedial EP
techniques. Maintenance personnel must know that improper modifications to equipment may cause the
equipment to develop peculiar characteristics that can be readily identified by the adversary. Commanders
and staff must develop plans to ensure the continued use of friendly communications equipment and
systems, while also evaluating JSIR reports and after action reports so that appropriate remedial actions can
be initiated. FM 7-0 addresses proper training development techniques and is the foundation for developing
preventative and EP remedial training.
11-37. Effective jamming depends on knowing the frequencies and approximate locations of units to be
jammed. Using the techniques addressed in the following paragraphs reduces the vulnerability of
communications from enemy disruption or destruction; this information must not be disclosed.
MINIMIZING TRANSMISSIONS
11-38. The most effective preventive EP technique is to minimize both radio transmissions, and
transmission times. Although normal day-to-day operations require radio communications, these
communications should be kept to the minimum needed to accomplish the mission. Table 11-2 lists the
techniques for minimizing transmissions and transmission times.
11-39. Minimizing transmissions will safeguard radios for critical transmissions. This does not advocate
total, continuing radio silence; it advocates minimum transmissions and transmission times.
Table 11-2. Techniques for minimizing transmissions and transmission times
Technique
Ensure all
transmissions
are necessary.
Description
Analysis of US tactical communications indicates that most communications
used in training exercises are explanatory and not directive. Radio
communications must never be used as a substitute for complete planning.
Tactical radio communications should be used to convey orders and critical
information rapidly. Execution of the operation must be inherent in training,
planning, ingenuity, teamwork, and established and practiced SOPs. The high
volume of radio communications that usually precedes a tactical operation
makes the friendly force vulnerable to enemy interception, DF, jamming, and
deception.
Note. Even when communications are secure, the volume of radio transmissions can betray an operation, and the enemy can
still disrupt or destroy the ability of US forces to communicate.
Preplan
messages before
transmitting
them.
5 August 2009
The RTO should know what he is going to say before beginning a transmission.
When the situation and time permit, the message should be written out before
beginning the transmission. This minimizes the number of pauses in the
transmission and decreases transmission time. It will also help ensure the
conciseness of the message. The Joint Interoperability of Tactical Command
and Control System (JINTACCS) provides a standard vocabulary that can be
used for message planning. JINTACCS voice templates are some of the best
tools a RTO can use to minimize transmission time.
FM 6-02.53
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Chapter 11
Table 11-2. Techniques for minimizing transmissions and transmission times (continued)
Technique
Description
Transmit quickly
and precisely.
This is critical when the quality of communications is poor. This minimizes the
chances that a radio transmission will have to be repeated. Unnecessary
repetition increases transmission time and the enemy’s opportunity to intercept
US transmissions and thus gain valuable information. When a transmission is
necessary, the radio operator should speak in a clear, well-modulated voice,
and use proper radiotelephone procedures.
Use equipment
capable of data
burst
transmission.
This is one of the most significant advantages of tactical SATCOM systems.
When messages are encoded on a digital entry device for transmission over
satellite systems, the transmission time is greatly reduced.
Use an alternate
means of
communications.
Alternate means of communications, such as cable, wire, or organic Soldiers
performing as messengers, can be used to convey necessary directives and
information. Other means of communications must be used, when practical.
Use of brevity
codes
A brevity code is a code which provides no security but which has as its sole
purpose the shortening of messages rather than the concealment of their
content. (Refer to FM 1-02.1 for more information.)
Low Power
11-40. Power controls and antennas are closely related. The strength of the signal transmitted by an
antenna depends on the strength of the signal delivered to it by the transmitter; the stronger the signal, the
farther it travels. A radio communications system must be planned and installed, allowing all stations to
communicate with each. In carefully planned and installed communications systems, users can normally
operate on low power, thereby decreasing the range, and making it more difficult for the adversary to
detect and intercept transmissions. It also reserves high power for penetrating enemy jamming.
RADIO-TELEPHONE OPERATOR PROCEDURES
11-41. The RTO, or Soldier, is essential to the success of preventive EP techniques. The RTO ensures
that radio transmissions are minimized and protected; thereby preventing the adversary from intercepting
and disrupting or destroying communications based on information detected in the pattern or content of
transmissions.
11-42. Many RTOs can be readily identified by certain voice characteristics or overused phrases. The
adversary can use these distinguishing characteristics to identify a unit, even though frequencies and net
call signs are changed periodically. Strictly adhering to the proper use of procedure words, as outlined in
Chapter Twelve or unit SOP, helps keep operator distinguishing characteristics to a minimum. However,
this is not enough, as accents and overused phrases must also be kept to a minimum. The adversary must
not be able to associate a particular RTO with a particular unit.
11-43. The adversary can gather information based on the pattern, and the content, of radio
communications. Therefore, do not develop patterns through hourly radio checks, daily reports at specific
times, or any other periodic transmission. Periodic reports should be made by alternate means of
communications. Take all reasonable measures to deny information to adversary intelligence analysts.
Authentication
11-44. Authentication must be used in radio systems that do not use secure devices. The adversary has
skilled experts, whose sole mission is to enter nets by imitating friendly radio stations. This threat to radio
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Communications Techniques: Electronic Protection
communications can be minimized by the proper use of authentication. Procedures for authentication are
found in the supplemental instructions to the SOI. Authentication is required if the user—
z
Suspects the adversary is on his net.
z
Is challenged by someone to authenticate. (Do not break radio listening silence to do this.)
z
Transmits directions or orders that affect the tactical situation, such as change locations, shift
fire, or change frequencies.
z
Talks about adversary contact, gives an early warning report, or issues a follow-up report. (This
rule applies even if he used a brevity list or operations code.)
z
Tells a station to go to radio or listening silence, or asks it to break that silence. (Use
transmission authentication for this.)
z
Transmits to a station that is under radio listening silence. (Use transmission authentication for
this.)
z
Cancels a message by radio or visual means, and the other station cannot recognize him.
z
Resumes transmitting after a long period, or if this is the first transmission.
z
Is authorized to transmit a CLASSIFIED message in the clear. (Use transmission authentication
for this.)
z
Is forced, because of no response by a called station, to send a message in the blind. (Use
transmission authentication for this.)
11-45. All instances in which the adversary attempts to deceptively enter nets to insert false information
must be reported. The procedures for reporting these incidents are addressed later in this chapter. These
procedures are also in the supplemental instructions to the SOI.
Encryption
11-46. Encrypt all EEFI (those items of information the adversary must not be allowed to obtain). A
broad, general list of these items of information is contained in the supplemental instructions to the SOI.
These items are applicable to most Army units engaged in training exercises or tactical operations. The list
supports the Army self-monitoring program, and is not totally encompassing. Individual units should
develop a more specific EEFI list to be included in unit OPORDS, OPLANS, and field SOPs. These items
of information must be encrypted manually or electronically before transmission. Manual encryption is
accomplished by using approved operations codes. Electronic encryption is accomplished using COMSEC
devices such as the KG-84, KG-95, KY-57/58, KY-90, KY-99, and KY-100 or ANCD/SKL. Manual and
electronic encryption does not need to be used together, as either method will protect EEFI from enemy
exploitation.
Key Distribution
11-47. Key distribution is critical in achieving secure transmissions. Commanders must ensure these
procedures are established in the units SOP. Only the requesting unit’s COMSEC custodian, with valid
COMSEC account (and requirement), is authorized to order these keys.
11-48. TB 11-5820-890-12 and TM 11-5820-1130-12&P expound upon the receipt of OTAR material
and TB 380-41 provides more information on the procedures for safeguarding, accounting, and the supply
control of COMSEC material such as COMSEC material distribution.
EQUIPMENT AND COMMUNICATIONS ENHANCEMENTS
11-49. Equipment enhancements can be used to reduce the vulnerability of friendly communications to
hostile exploitations. FH is particularly useful in lessening the effects of adversary communications
jamming, and in denying friendly position location data to the enemy.
11-50. Adaptive antenna techniques are designed to achieve more survivable communications systems.
These techniques are typically coupled with spread spectrum waveforms, combining FH with pseudo-noise
coding.
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Chapter 11
11-51. Spread spectrum techniques suppress interference by other users (hostile or friendly), to provide
multiple access (user sharing), and to eliminate multi-path interference (self-jamming caused by a delayed
signal). The transmitted intelligence is deliberately spread across a very wide frequency band in the
operating spectrum, so it becomes hard to detect from normal noise levels. EPLRS and JTIDS use spread
spectrum techniques.
11-52. Adjustable power automatically limits the radiated power to a level sufficient for effective
communications, thereby reducing the electronic signature of the subscriber.
11-53. The FHMUX and high power broadband vehicular whip antennas are available for use to enhance
communications. The FHMUX is an antenna multiplexer used with SINCGARS in both stationary and
mobile operations. This multiplexer will allow up to four SINCGARS to transmit and receive through one
VHF-FM broadband antenna (OE-254 or high-power broadband vehicular whip antenna) while operating
in the FH mode, non-hopping mode, or a combination of both. Using one antenna (instead of up to four)
will reduce visual and electronic profiles of CPs. Also, emplacement and displacement times will be greatly
reduced.
REMEDIAL EP TECHNIQUES
11-54. Remedial EP techniques that help reduce the effectiveness of enemy efforts to jam US radio nets
are—
z
Identify jamming signals.
z
Determine if the interference is obvious or subtle jamming.
z
Recognize jamming and interference by:
„
Determining whether the interference is internal or external to the radio.
„
Determining whether the interference is jamming or unintentional.
„
Reporting jamming and interference incidents.
z
Overcome jamming and interference by adhering to the following techniques:
„
Continue to operate.
„
Improve the signal-to-jamming ratio.
„
Adjust the receiver.
„
Increase the transmitter power output.
„
Adjust or change the antenna.
„
Establish a wireless network extension station.
„
Relocate the antenna.
„
Use an alternate route for communications.
„
Change the frequencies.
„
Acquire another satellite.
JAMMING SIGNALS
11-55. Jamming is an effective way for the enemy to disrupt friendly communications. An adversary only
needs a transmitter tuned to a US frequency, with enough power to override friendly signals, to jam US
systems. Jammers operate against receivers, not transmitters. The two modes of jamming are spot and
barrage jamming. Spot jamming is concentrated power directed toward one channel or frequency. Barrage
jamming is power spread over several frequencies or channels at the same time. It is important to recognize
jamming, but it can be difficult to detect.
Obvious Jamming
11-56. Obvious jamming is normally simple to detect. When experiencing jamming, it is more important
to recognize and overcome the incident than to identify it formally. Table 11-3 lists some common
jamming signals.
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Communications Techniques: Electronic Protection
Table 11-3. Common jamming signals
Signal
Description
Random
Noise
Synthetic radio noise. It is indiscriminate in amplitude and frequency. It is similar to
normal background noise, and can be used to degrade all types of signals. Operators
often mistake it for receiver or atmospheric noise, and fail to take appropriate EP
actions.
Stepped
Tones
Tones transmitted in increasing and decreasing pitch. They resemble the sound of
bagpipes. Stepped tones are normally used against SC AM or FM voice circuits.
Spark
Easily produced and is one of the most effective jamming signals. Bursts are of short
duration and high intensity; they are repeated at a rapid rate. This signal is effective in
disrupting all types of radio communications.
Gulls
Generated by a quick rise and slow fall of a variable RF, and are similar to the cry of a
sea gull. It produces a nuisance effect and is very effective against voice radio
communications.
Random
Pulse
Pulses of varying amplitude, duration, and rate are generated and transmitted. They
are used to disrupt teletypewriter, radar, and all types of data transmission systems.
Wobbler
A single frequency, modulated by a low and slowly varying tone. The result is a
howling sound that causes a nuisance effect on voice radio communications.
Recorded
Sounds
Any audible sound, especially of a variable nature, can be used to distract radio
operators and disrupt communications. Music, screams, applause, whistles, machinery
noise, and laughter are examples.
Preamble
Jamming
A tone resembling the synchronization preamble of the speech security equipment is
broadcast over the operating frequency of secure radio sets. Results in all radios being
locked in the receive mode. It is especially effective when employed against radio nets
using speech security devices.
Subtle Jamming
11-57. Subtle jamming is not obvious, as no sound is heard from the receivers. Although everything
appears normal to the RTO, the receiver cannot receive an incoming friendly signal. Often, users assume
their radios are malfunctioning, instead of recognizing subtle jamming for what it is.
RECOGNIZING JAMMING
11-58. RTOs must be able to recognize jamming. This is not always an easy task, as interference can be
internal and external. If the interference or suspected jamming remains, after grounding or disconnecting
the antenna, the disturbance is most likely internal and caused by a malfunction of the radio. Maintenance
personnel should be contacted to repair it. If the interference or suspected jamming can be eliminated or
substantially reduced by grounding the radio equipment or disconnecting the receiver antenna, the source
of the disturbance is most likely external to the radio. External interference must be checked further for
enemy jamming or unintentional interference.
11-59. Interference may be caused by sources having nothing to do with enemy jamming. Unintentional
interference may be caused by—
z
Other radios (friendly and enemy).
z
Other electronic or electric/electromechanical equipment.
z
Atmospheric conditions.
z
Malfunction of the radio.
z
A combination of any of the above.
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11-11
Chapter 11
11-60. Unintentional interference normally travels only a short distance; a search of the immediate area
may reveal its source. Moving the receiving antenna short distances may cause noticeable variations in the
strength of the interfering signal. Conversely, little or no variation normally indicates enemy jamming.
Regardless of the source, actions must be taken to reduce the effect of interference on friendly
communications.
11-61. The enemy can use powerful unmodulated or noise modulated jamming signals. Unmodulated
jamming signals are characterized by a lack of noise. Noise modulated jamming signals are characterized
by obvious interference noise.
11-62. In all cases, suspected enemy jamming and any unidentified or unintentional interference that
disrupts the ability of US forces to communicate must be reported. This applies even if the radio operator is
able to overcome the effects of the jamming or interference. The JSIR report is the format used when
reporting this information. Instructions for submitting a JSIR report are addressed later in this chapter. As it
applies to remedial EP techniques, the information in the JSIR report provided to higher headquarters can
be used to destroy the enemy jamming efforts or take other action to the benefit of US forces.
OVERCOMING JAMMING
11-63. The enemy constantly strives to perfect and use new and more confusing forms of jamming. RTOs
must be increasingly alert to the possibility of jamming. Training and experience are the most important
tools operators have to determine when a particular signal is a jamming signal. Exposure to the effects of
jamming in training, or actual situations, is invaluable. The ability to recognize jamming is important, as
jamming is a problem that requires action. The following paragraphs address the actions to take if
adversary jamming is detected. If any of the actions taken alleviate the jamming problem, simply continue
normal operations and submit a JSIR report to higher headquarters.
Continue to Operate
11-64. Adversary jamming usually involves a period of jamming followed by a brief listening period.
Operator activity during this short period of time will tell the adversary how effective his jamming has
been. If the operation is continuing in a normal manner, as it was before the jamming began, the adversary
will assume that his jamming has not been particularly effective. On the other hand, if he hears a discussion
of the problem on the air or if the operation has been shut down entirely, the enemy may assume that his
jamming has been effective. Because the adversary jammer is monitoring operation this way, unless
otherwise ordered, never terminate operations or in any way disclose to the enemy that the radio is being
adversely affected. This means normal operations should continue even when degraded by jamming.
Improve the Signal-to-Jamming Ratio
11-65. The signal-to-jamming ratio is the relative strength of the desired signal to the jamming signal at
the receiver. Signal refers to the signal being received. Jamming refers to the hostile or unidentified
interference being received. It is always best to have a signal-to-jamming ratio in which the desired signal
is stronger than the jamming signal. In this situation, the desired signal cannot be significantly degraded by
the jamming signal. To improve the signal-to-jamming ratio operators and signal leaders can consider the
following—
z
Increase the transmitter power output. To increase the power output at the time of jamming,
the transmitter must be set on something less than full power when jamming begins. Using low
power as a preventive EP technique depends on the enemy not being able to detect radio
transmissions. Once the enemy begins jamming the radios, the threat of being detected becomes
obvious. Use the reserve power on the terrestrial LOS radios to override the enemy’s jamming
signal.
z
Adjust or change the antenna. When jamming is experienced, the radio operator should ensure
the antenna is optimally adjusted to receive the desired incoming signal. Specific methods that
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FM 6-02.53
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Communications Techniques: Electronic Protection
z
z
z
z
apply to a particular radio set are in the appropriate operator’s manual. Depending on the
antenna, some methods include—
„
Reorienting the antenna.
„
Changing the antenna polarization. (Must be done by all stations.)
„
Installing an antenna with a longer range.
Establish a wireless network extension station. This can increase the range and power of a
signal between two or more radio stations. Depending on the situation and available resources,
this may be a viable method to improve the signal-to-jamming ratio.
Relocate the antenna. Frequently, the signal-to-jamming ratio may be improved by relocating
the antenna and associated radio set affected by the jamming or unidentified interference. This
may mean moving it a few meters or several hundred meters. It is best to relocate the antenna
and associated radio set, so there is a terrain feature between them and any suspected enemy
jamming location.
Use an alternate route for communications. In some instances, enemy jamming will prevent
friendly forces from communicating with another radio station. If radio communications have
been degraded between two radio stations that must communicate, another radio station or route
of communications may be used as a relay between the two radio stations.
Change frequencies. If a communications net cannot overcome enemy jamming using the
above measures, the commander (or designated representative) may direct the net to be switched
to an alternate or spare frequency. If practical, dummy stations can continue to operate on the
frequency being jammed, to mask the change to an alternate frequency; this action must be
preplanned and well coordinated. During enemy jamming, it may be difficult to coordinate a
change of frequency. All RTOs must know when, and under what circumstances, they are to
switch to an alternate or spare frequency. If this is not done smoothly, the enemy may discover
what is happening, and try to degrade communications on the new frequency.
ELECTRONIC WARFARE FOR SINGLE-CHANNEL TACTICAL
SATELLITE
11-66. SC TACSAT communications is an important element of the C2 system. Parts of the enemy’s
resources are directed against the satellite system through EW. How vulnerable we are to enemy EW and
the success of our actions to deny the enemy success in EW efforts depends on our equipment and our
signal personnel.
11-67. SC TACSAT communications will be high on the enemy’s target list. Shortly after tactical
communications is placed in operation, the enemy will compile data on the satellite. This data will most
likely include—
z
Data indicating the satellite’s orbit and location.
z
Information on frequency, bandwidth, and modulation used in the satellite.
z
The amount, type, and frequency of traffic relayed by the satellite.
11-68. With the satellite relay located, the primary enemy threat then is directed toward locating ground
stations through radio DF. Due to the highly directional antennas used with super high frequency/EHF SC
TACSAT communications radios, there is a low probability of intercept and DF. However, a satellite based
intercept station orbiting near our satellites can be successful. In this case, the analysis effort can be done
by the enemy on his home ground, far from the AO.
11-69. Because of the enemy’s massive computer support SC TACSAT communications stations will
hide very little from the enemy. Even without ground station locations, jamming can be directed towards
the satellites. When this is occurs, SC TACSAT communications nets working through the satellite are
operating in a “stressed” mode. Jamming signals directed toward the satellite can originate far from the
battlefield. Due to the directional antennas and frequencies used, jamming directed toward ground stations
must come from nearby. Besides jamming, the enemy may attempt deception from either the ground or his
own satellites. The enemy may attempt to insert false or misleading information and may also establish
5 August 2009
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11-13
Chapter 11
dummy nets operating through our satellites to cause confusion. In stability operations however, there is a
reduced electronic threat.
DEFENSIVE ELECTRONIC WARFARE
11-70. TACSAT communications must operate within the environment just described. To do this, it is
necessary to use available anti-jamming equipment and sound countermeasures. Communications
discipline, security, and training underlie ECCM. COMSEC techniques give the commander confidence in
the security of his communications. ECCM equipment and techniques provide confidence in the continued
operation of TACSAT communications in a hostile EW or stressed environment. Particularly in SC
TACSAT communications, the two are closely related techniques serving an ECCM role.
11-71. COMSEC techniques protect the transmitted information. Physical security safeguards COMSEC
materiel and information from access or observation by unauthorized personnel using physical means.
TRANSEC protects transmissions from hostile interception and exploitation. COMSEC and TRANSEC
equipment protects most circuits. However, some SC TACSAT orderwires may not be secure. Technical
discussions between operators can contain information important to the enemy. The nature of any mission
gives the enemy access to critical information about commanders, organizations, and locations of
headquarters. Although revealed casually on the job, this information is sensitive and must be protected.
11-72. ECCM techniques protect against enemy attempts to detect, deceive, or destroy friendly
communications. Changing frequency can defeat jamming. This requires the jammer to determine the new
frequency and move to it. Meanwhile, the frequency can again be changed. This is the principle behind FH.
11-73. Since it takes about 0.25 seconds for the earth station satellite-earth station trip, FH four times per
second denies the jammer access to the satellite to earth link. FH at this rate must rely on automated
equipment. FH at rates between 4 per second and 75 per second effectively avoids intercept and jamming
when the enemy can receive only the downlink. With these low rates, bandwidth is still minimal while
providing secure communications. FH forces the jammer to spread his energy (broadband jamming). This
reduces the jammer noise density on any one channel.
11-74. Wideband spread spectrum modulation is another effective anti-jamming technique. With this
technique, the information transmitted is added to a pseudorandom noise code and is used to modulate the
SC TACSAT terminal transmitter. At the receiving end, an identical noise generator synchronized to the
transmitter is used. It generates the same noise code as the one at the transmitter to cancel the noise signal
from the incoming signal. Thus, only the transmitted information remains.
11-75. The spread spectrum signal can occupy the entire bandwidth of the satellite at the same time with
several other spread spectrum signals. Each signal must have a different pseudorandom noise code. The
noise code looks the same to the jammer whether or not it is carrying intelligence. This forces the jammer
to spread his energy throughout the entire bandwidth of the random noise. This results in a reduced
jamming noise density. The jammer has no knowledge of whether the jamming is effective.
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY
11-76. An electromagnetic compatibility occurs when all equipment (radios, radars, generators) and
vehicles (ignition systems) operate without interference from each other. With SC TACSAT
communications terminals, a source of interference is solar weather (to include solar flares, solar winds,
geomagnetic storms, and solar radiation storms). However, factors such as location and antenna orientation
can be controlled to eliminate this source of noise. For each piece of equipment, use proper grounding
techniques and follow safety considerations. When SC TACSAT communications terminals and other sets
must be collocated, use a plan that prevents antennas from shooting directly into one another. Maintaining
an adequate distance between antennas reduces mutual interference.
11-77. Desensitization is the most common interference problem. This reduces receiver sensitivity caused
by signals from nearby transmitters. The Electromagnetic compatibility must be included in the plans for
siting a SC TACSAT communications station. An electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is a threat to all
sophisticated electronic systems.
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Communications Techniques: Electronic Protection
COUNTER REMOTE CONTROL IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICE
WARFARE
11-78. Counter Remote Control Improvised Explosive Device Warfare (CREW) provides the operational
capability to prevent and/or defeat improvised explosive device (IED) detonation ambushes that are
pervasive threats throughout an AOR. CREW employs a spiral development approach to allow for rapid
fielding of incremental CREW capabilities. CREW acts a radio-frequency jammer to preempt the
detonation of remote control IEDs by disrupting the radio signal.
11-79. CREW-1 produced and fielded the Warlock Family of Systems. Crew-1 systems are in various
configurations and varied levels of performance. CREW-1 systems target specific RF dependent
technologies. CREW-1 Warlock Systems are—
z
Warlock-Red (Figure 11-2).
z
Warlock-Green.
z
Warlock-IED Counter-Measure Equipment.
z
Warlock-Self Screening Vehicle Jammer.
z
Warlock-Blue Wearable & Vehicle Mounted.
Figure 11-2. Warlock-red
JOINT SPECTRUM INTERFERENCE RESOLUTION REPORTING
11-80. JSIR addresses EMI incidents and EA affecting the DOD. The JSIR objective is to report and
assist in resolving EA and persistent, recurring interference. Resolution is at the lowest possible level,
using organic assets. Incidents that cannot be resolved locally are referred up the chain of command with
resolution attempted at each level.
11-81. Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction (CJCSI) 3320.02A directs DOD components to resolve
RF interference at the lowest possible level within the chain of command. To accomplish this, the Army
established the Army interference resolution program (AIRP).
ARMY INTERFERENCE RESOLUTION PROGRAM
11-82. The AIRP revolves around four functions: DF, signal monitoring, signal analysis, and
transportability/mobility. These functions are described in Table 11-4. Refer to AR 5-12 for additional
information on the AIRP.
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Chapter 11
Table 11-4. Army interference resolution program functions
Function
Description
DF
Is often the key to locating the source of interference, and is an integral part of
resolving and analyzing incidents and problems. The degree of accuracy depends
upon the environment and frequency band.
Signal
Monitoring
Or spectrum surveillance incorporates a frequency spectrum analyzer or
surveillance receiver, covering all spectrum bands of use. These systems perform
real-time evaluation of spectrum usage and interference in a specific area.
Signal
Analysis
Analysis of DF and monitoring data is required to determine the source of
interference and misuse of the spectrum.
Transportabi
lity/Mobility
Degree, circumstances, and geographic location of the types of interference
incidents and problems will determine transportability and mobility requirements.
Mobile/Transportable DF and monitoring equipment is a requirement for tactical
units and for incidents not necessarily confined to a specific geographical area.
Man portable equipment should be considered for certain instances and
conditions, as defined in unit SOPs. Fixed equipment would be required for those
areas that require real-time solutions in a defined geographical area.
INTERFERENCE RESOLUTION
11-83. Corps and division frequency managers are the coordinating authorities for regional and local
interference resolution. The impact of each interference incident is unique, and no standard procedure can
be established that will guarantee resolution in every case. However, a logical step-by-step approach will
reduce time and cost in resolving interference situations. Figure 11-3 is a logical flow diagram for
instances when an Army unit is the victim of interference in a tactical operation. Figure 11-4 shows a flow
diagram for interference, when the Army unit is the source of the interference.
11-16
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Communications Techniques: Electronic Protection
Figure 11-3. Interference resolution (Army victim)
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
11-17
Chapter 11
Figure 11-4. Interference resolution (Army source)
Reporting Procedure
11-84. All EMI incidents must be reported through the proper channels. All reports of suspected hostile
interference are submitted via secure means. The report should not be held up due to information not being
readily available; use follow-up reports to provide additional information, as it becomes available.
11-85. The equipment operator experiencing the interference incident forwards the initial JSIR report
through the chain of command to the unit operations center. An attempt to resolve the EMI problem at the
lowest possible level will be conducted before submitting JSIR reports to higher headquarters.
11-86. The Joint Spectrum Management System/Spectrum XXI programs should be used to submit the
report electronically. The sender will classify the report by evaluating the security sensitivity of the
interference on the affected system, and by considering the classification of the text comments. Table 11-5
is a guide for JSIR security classification.
11-87. The JSIR report will be assigned precedence consistent with the urgency of the reported situation.
Use ROUTINE or PRIORITY precedence, unless the organization originating the report believes the
incident is hazardous to military operations. For this incident, use IMMEDIATE precedence.
11-18
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5 August 2009
Communications Techniques: Electronic Protection
11-88. Each Army unit must submit reports through its chain of command, up to the major, or combatant
command, or GCC level, and to the US Army Communications-Electronic Services Office. Information
copies of all incident reports should be sent to Joint Spectrum Center for inclusion in the JSIR database.
Table 11-5. JSIR security classification guide
Information Revealing
Security Classification
The specific identification of an unfriendly platform or location,
by country or coordinates, as the source of interference or EA.
Specific susceptibility or vulnerability of US electronic
equipment/systems.
Parametric data of classified US electronic equipment.
Suspected interference from unidentified sources while
operating in or near hostile countries.
Interference to US electromagnetic equipment/systems caused
by EA exercises in foreign nations.
Suspected interference from friendly sources.
Information referring to JSIR; stating that JSIR analyses are a
function of the Joint Spectrum Center.
SECRET (S)
SECRET (S)
In accordance with the
classification guide of the
affected equipment.
SECRET (S)
CONFIDENTIAL
UNCLASSIFIED (U) or
SECRET (S), if specific
equipment vulnerability is
revealed.
UNCLASSIFIED (U)
Joint Spectrum Interference Resolution Report Content
11-89. Table 11-6 shows the minimum information requirements for the JSIR. The message subject line
should indicate whether the report is initial, follow-up, or final.
Table 11-6. JSIR information requirements
Item
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
5 August 2009
Data Input
Frequencies affected by the interference.
Locations of systems experiencing the interference.
The affected system name, nomenclature, manufacturer (with model number), or
other system description. If available, include the equipment characteristics of the
victim receiver, such as bandwidth, antenna type, and antenna size.
The operating mode of the affected system. If applicable, include the following:
frequency agile, pulse Doppler, search, and upper and lower sidebands.
The characteristics of the interference (noise, pulsed, continuous, intermittent,
frequency, or bandwidth).
The description of the interference effects on victim performance (reduced range,
false targets, reduced intelligibility, or data errors).
Enter the dates and times the interference occurred. Indicate whether the duration of
the interference is continuous or intermittent, the approximate repetition rate of the
interference, and whether the amplitude of the interference is varying or constant.
Indicate if the interference is occurring at a regular or irregular time of day, and if the
occurrence of the interference coincides with any ongoing local activity.
The location of possible interference sources (coordinates or line of bearing, if
known; otherwise, state as unknown).
FM 6-02.53
11-19
Chapter 11
Table 11-6. JSIR information requirements (continued)
Item
Number
9
10
11
12
13
14
11-20
Data Input
A listing of other units affected by the interference (if known) and their location or
distance, and bearing from the reporting site.
A clear and concise narrative summary of what is known about the interference, and
any local actions that have been taken to resolve the problem. The operator is
encouraged to provide any other information, based on observation or estimation that
is pertinent in the technical or operational analysis of the incident. Identify whether the
information being furnished is based on actual observation/measurement or is being
estimated. Avoid the use of Army or program jargon and acronyms.
Reference message traffic that is related to the interference problem being reported.
Include the message date-time group, originator, action addressees, and subject line.
Indicate whether the problem has been identified or resolved.
Indicate if JSIR technical assistance is desired or anticipated.
Point of contact information, including name, unit, and contact phone numbers.
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Chapter 12
Radio Operating Procedures
Using proper radio procedures can make the difference in time and security when
operating on C2 nets. This chapter addresses the proper way to pronounce letters and
numbers when sending messages over a radio as well as the proper procedures for
opening and closing a radio net.
PHONETIC ALPHABET
12-1. When radio operators are communicating over the radio they will use the phonetic alphabet outlined
in Table 12-1 to pronounce individual letters of the alphabet.
Table 12-1. Phonetic alphabet
LETTER
WORD
PRONUNCIATION
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
ALPHA
BRAVO
CHARLIE
DELTA
ECHO
FOXTROT
GOLF
HOTEL
INDIA
JULIETT
KILO
LIMA
MIKE
NOVEMBER
OSCAR
PAPA
QUEBEC
ROMEO
SIERRA
TANGO
UNIFORM
VICTOR
WISKEY
XRAY
YANKEE
ZULU
AL FAH
BRAH VOH
CHAR LEE OR SHAR LEE
DELL TAH
ECH OH
FOKS TROT
GOLF
HOH TELL
IN DEE AH
JEW LEE ETT
KEY LOH
LEE MAH
MIKE
NO VEM BER
OSS CAH
PAH PAH
KEH BECK
ROW ME OH
SEE AIR RAH
TANG GO
YOU NEE FORM OR OO NEE FORM
VIC TAH
WISS KEY
ECKS RAY
YANG KEY
ZOO LOO
5 August 2009
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12-1
Chapter 12
NUMERICAL PRONUNCIATION
12-2. To distinguish numerals from words similarly pronounced, the proword “FIGURES” may be used
preceding such numbers.
12-3. Table 12-2 outlines the pronunciation of how numerals will be transmitted by radio.
Table 12-2. Numerical
pronunciation
NUMERAL
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
SPOKEN AS
ZE-RO
WUN
TOO
TREE
FOW-ER
FIFE
SIX
SEV-EN
AIT
NIN-ER
12-4. Numbers will be transmitted digit by digit except that exact multiples of thousands may be spoken as
such (refer to Table 12-3). However, there are special cases, such as anti-air warfare reporting procedures,
when the normal pronunciation of numerals is prescribed for example, 17 would then be “seventeen.”
Table 12-3. Numerals in combinations
NUMBERAL
SPOKEN AS
44
90
136
TIME 1200
1748
7000
16000
812681
FOW-ER, FOW-ER
NIN-ER, ZE-RO
WUN, TREE, SIX
WUN, TOO, ZE-RO, ZE-RO
WUN, FOW-ER, SEV-EN, AIT
SEV-EN, TOU-SAND
WUN, SIX, TOU-SAND
AIT, WUN, TOO, SIX, AIT, WUN
12-5. The figure “ZERO” will be written as “0,” the figure “ONE” will be written as “1” and the letter
“ZULU” will be written as “Z”. Difficult words may be spelled out phonetically but abbreviations and
isolated letters should be phoneticized without the proword “I SPELL”.
Note. Any abbreviated words used in the message must be transmitted phonetically, for
example, 1st is sent as ONE SIERRA TANGO, or headquarters (HQ) as HOTEL QUEBEC.
PROCEDURE WORDS
12-6. Table 12-4 outlines proper procedure words (often called prowords) that should be used during radio
transmissions and their meanings. Prowords are words or phrases limited to radio telephone procedures
used to facilitate communication by conveying information in a condensed form.
12-2
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Radio Operating Procedures
Table 12-4. Prowords listed alphabetically
PROWORD
MEANING
ACKNOWLEDGE
A directive from the originator requiring the addressee (s) to advise the
originator that his communication has been received and understood.
This term is normally included in the electronic transmission of orders to
ensure the receiving station or person confirms the receipt of the orders.
The portion of the message to which I have referenced is all that which
follows.
The portion of the message to which I have reference is all that
proceeds.
The station called is to reply to the challenge which follows.
The transmission authentication of this message is.
I hereby indicated the separation of the text from other portions of the
message.
To eliminate transmission on a net in order to allow a higher-precedence
transmission to occur.
You are correct, or what you have transmitted is correct.
An error has been made in this transmission. Transmission will continue
with the last word correctly transmitted.
This transmission is in error. Disregard it. (The proword shall not be
used to cancel any message that has been completely transmitted and
for which receipt or acknowledgement has been received.)
Stations called are not to answer this call, receipt for this message, or
otherwise to transmit in connection with this transmission. When this
proword is employed, the transmission shall be ended with the proword
“OUT”.
The addressees immediately following are exempted from the collective
call.
Numerals or numbers follow. (Optional)
Precedence FLASH. Reserved for initial enemy contact reports on
special operational combat traffic originated by specifically designated
high commanders of units directly affected. This traffic is SHORT reports
of emergency situations of vital proportion. Handling is as fast as
possible with an objective time of 10 minutes or less.
The originator of this message is indicated by the address designator
immediately following.
This message contains numbers of groups indicated.
The group that follows it is the reply to your challenge to authenticate.
Precedence IMMEDIATE. Reserved for messages relating to situations
which gravely affect the security of national/multinational forces of
populace, and which require immediate delivery.
The addressees immediately following are addressed for information.
The following is my response to your instructions to read back.
I am repeating transmission or portion indicated.
I shall spell the next word phonetically.
ALL AFTER
ALL BEFORE
AUTHENTICATE
AUTHENTICATION IS
BREAK
CLEAR
CORRECT
CORRECTION
DISREGARD THIS
TRANSMISSION-OUT
DO NOT ANSWER
EXEMPT
FIGURES
FLASH
FROM
GROUPS
I AUTHENTICATE
IMMEDIATE
INFO
I READ BACK
I SAY AGAIN
I SPELL
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12-3
Chapter 12
Table 12-4. Prowords listed alphabetically (continued)
PROWORD
MEANING
I VERIFY
That which follows has been verified at your request and is
repeated. (To be used as a reply to verify information.)
A message which requires recording is about to follow. (Transmitted
immediately after the call.)
Transmitting station has additional traffic for the receiving station.
This is the end of my transmission to you and no answer is required
or expected. (Since OVER and OUT have opposite meanings, they
are never used together.)
This is the end of my transmission to you and a response is
necessary. Go ahead; transmit.
Precedence PRIORITY. Reserved for important messages which
must have precedence over routine traffic. This is the highest
precedence which normally may be assigned to a message of
administrative nature.
Repeat this entire transmission back to me exactly as received.
Transmit this message to all addressee (or addresses immediately
following this proword). The address component is mandatory when
this proword is used.
I have received your last transmission satisfactorily.
Precedence ROUTINE. Reserved for all types of messages which
are not of sufficient urgency to justify a higher precedence, but must
be delivered to the addressee without delay.
Repeat all of your last transmission. (Followed by identification data
means to repeat after the portion indicated.
“Cease Transmission Immediately.” Silence will be maintained until
lifted. (Transmission imposing silence must be authenticated.)
Silence is lifted. (When authentication system is in force the
transmission silence is to be authenticated.)
Your transmission is at too fast of a speed. Reduce speed of
transmission.
This transmission is from the station whose designator immediately
follows.
That which immediately follows is the time or date/time group of the
message.
“Cease Transmission Immediately.” Silence will be maintained until
lifted. (Transmission imposing silence must be authenticated.)
The addressee(s) immediately following is (are) addressed for
action.
The identity of the station with whom I am attempting to establish
communications is unknown.
Verify the entire message (or portion indicated) with the originator
and send correct version. (To be issued only at the discretion of the
addressee to which the questioned message was directed.)
I must pause for a few seconds.
MESSAGE
MORE TO FOLLOW
OUT
OVER
PRIORITY
READ BACK
RELAY (TO)
ROGER
ROUTINE
SAY AGAIN
SILENCE
SILENCE LIFTED
SPEAK SLOWER
THIS IS
TIME
SILENCE
TO
UNKNOWN STATION
VERIFY
WAIT
12-4
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Radio Operating Procedures
Table 12-4. Prowords listed alphabetically (continued)
PROWORD
MEANING
WAIT OUT
WILCO
I must pause for longer than a few seconds.
I have received your signal, understand it and will comply. (To be used
only by the addressee. Since the meaning of ROGER is included in that of
WILCO, the two prowords are never used together)
The word of the message to which I have reference is that which follows…
The word of the message to which I have reference is that which
proceeds…
Communication is difficult. Transmit (ring) each phrase (or each code
group) twice. This procedure word may be used as an order, request, or
as information.
Your last transmission was incorrect. The correct version is…
WORD AFTER
WORD BEFORE
WORD TWICE
WRONG
RADIO CALL PROCEDURES
12-7. A preliminary call will be transmitted when the sending station wishes to know if the receiving
station is ready to receive a message. When communications reception is good and contact has been
continuous, a preliminary call is optional. The following is an example of a preliminary call—
z
A1D THIS IS B6T, OVER.
z
B6T THIS IS A1D, OVER.
z
A1D THIS IS B6T (sends message), OVER.
z
B6T THIS IS A1D, ROGER OUT.
Note. For more information on radio call signs and procedures refer to Allied Communications
Publication 121 and 125.
OPENING A RADIO NET
12-8. During radio net calls, the last letter of the call sign determines the answering order. The stations in a
net respond alphabetically, for example, A3D will answer before A2W and A2E will answer before BIF. If
two stations in a net have the same last letter, for instance, A1D and A2D, then the answering order will be
determined by numerical sequence, with the lower number A1D answering first.
12-9. The following is an example of a secure voice net opening by the NCS and several distant stations—
z
NET THIS NCS, OVER.
z
NCS THIS IS A1D, OVER.
z
NCS THIS IS A2D, OVER.
z
NCS THIS A2E, OVER.
z
NET THIS IS NCS, OUT (IF THE NCS HAS NO TRAFFIC).
RADIO CHECKS
12-10. To minimize transmission time, use radio checks sparingly or by unit SOP. The following is an
example of a radio check with the NCS—
z
NET THIS IS NCS, RADIO CHECK OVER.
z
NCS THIS IS A1D, ROGER OUT.
z
NCS THIS IS A2D, WEAK READABLE OVER (A2D is receiving the NCS’s signal weak).
z
NCS THIS IS A2E, ROGER OUT.
z
NET THIS IS NCS, ROGER OUT.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
12-5
Chapter 12
STATION ENTERING A NET ALREADY ESTABLISHED
12-11. The following is an example of how a radio station would enter a net after the net was opened and
the station was unable to answer and now wants to report into the net (NCS)—
z
NCS THIS B4G, REPORTING INTO THE NET OVER.
z
B4G THIS NCS, AUTHENTICATE OVER.
z
NCS THIS B4G, I AUTHENTICATE (B4G authenticates) OVER.
z
B4G THIS IS NCS, I AUTHENTICATE (NCS authenticates) OVER.
z
NCS THIS IS B4G, ROGER OUT.
Note. Authentication is a security measure designed to protect a communications system against
acceptance of a fraudulent transmission or simulation by establishing the validity of a
transmission, message, or originator.
STATION REQUESTING TO LEAVE A NET
12-12. The following is an example of a radio station requesting permission to leave a net from the NCS
of the net—
z
NCS THIS A24, REQUEST PERMISSION TO CLOSE DOWN (OR LEAVE NET), OVER.
z
A24 THIS IS NCS, ROGER OUT.
CLOSING A SECURE VOICE NET
12-13. The following is an example of a NCS closing a secure voice radio net. Authentication can be used
for a non secure net.
z
NET THIS IS NCS, CLOSE DOWN, OVER.
z
NCS THIS A1D, ROGER OUT.
z
NCS THIS A2D, ROGER OUT.
z
NCS THIS B2D, ROGER OUT.
Note. For more information on NCS radio procedures refer to TM 11-5820-890-10-5 and TM
11-5820-890-10-8.
12-6
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Appendix A
FM Radio Networks
Units from battalion to theater establish FM radio nets, for example C2, fires net,
A&L, and O&I nets to execute on the move combat operations. Commanders may
establish other networks in addition to these to enhance mission accomplishment. The
lack of sufficient SC TACSAT frequency resources, SC radio systems density and the
need for radio wireless network extension capability all validate the need for FM
networks. This appendix addresses FM networks.
COMMAND AND CONTROL NETWORKS
A-1. C2 networks are found in all Army units. The units establish internal C2 networks, and are
subscribers in at least one other network. SINCGARS is the primary means of short range communications
in secure C2 voice networks. The C2 net is given the highest installation priority.
A-2. Table A-1 is an example of division networks. The C2 networks shown merely serve as a guide for
establishing radio networks. The actual networks established depend on the existing situation, command
guidance, and equipment available. Figure A-1 is an example of typical subscribers for a division C2 FM
network.
Note. Subscribers in a C2 network are members of that echelon and the next senior echelon C2
network. When necessary, wireless network extension teams are used to overcome
communications obstacles between higher and lower units.
Table A-1. Example of division C2 FM networks
Net Stations
Command (CMD)
Operations Net
O&I Net
Sustainment
Operations Net
A&L Net
Commander (CDR)
X
X
X
X
Assistant CDR
X
OP G-3
X
X
X
X
G-2
TAC CP G-3
X
X
TAC CP G-2
X
X
X
X
TAC CP G-6
X
X
X
X
Subordinate brigade CP
X
X
X
X
Brigade support battalion
X
Reconnaissance battalion
X
X
X
X
Aviation units
X
X
X
X
Engineer unit
X
X
X
X
5 August 2009
X
FM 6-02.53
A-1
Appendix A
Table A-1. Example of division C2 FM networks (continued)
Net Stations
Command
Operations Net
O&I Net
Sustainment
Operations Net
Military intelligence unit
X
X
ADA unit
X
X
Artillery units
X
X
Military police
X
X
Sustainment operations
center
X
X
Division Signal company
X
Liaison officer
X
X
Long range reconnaissance
detachment
A&L Net
X
X
X
X
X
X
TACTICAL THEATER SIGNAL BRIGADES
A-3. A tactical theater signal brigade (TTSB) provides the Army and joint forces with an agile,
expeditionary-capable signal formation that supports the Soldier across full spectrum operations through a
unified network architecture that is common across all Army echelons.
A-4. A TTSB also provides C2 to assigned and attached units while supervising the installation, operation
and maintenance of communications nodes in the theater communications system excluding the division
and corps systems.
A-5. It further provides real- and near real-time in-theater source information to combatant commanders
and JTF commanders for the control, management, and dissemination of high volumes of data, to include
air tasking orders, logistical, movement timetables, imagery, weather, etc. to deployed and dispersed forces
in the theater.
A-6. Signal leaders (G-6/S-6) coordinate with supporting units (TTSBs) for inclusions in their network.
EXPEDITIONARY SIGNAL BATTALIONS
A-7. An ESB provides the Army and joint forces with an agile, expeditionary-capable signal formation
that supports the Soldier across full spectrum operations through a unified network architecture that is
common across all Army echelons.
A-8. An ESB operates 24 hours a day in austere environment to provide voice, data, and other network
services to commanders previously conducted by theater, corps and division signal organizations. ESBs
provide pooled signal assets to augment organic division/corps network support capabilities and/or replace
network support battle losses at all echelons.
A-9. Signal leaders (G-6/S-6) coordinate with supporting units (ESBs) for inclusions in their network.
ADMINISTRATIVE AND LOGISTICS NETWORKS
A-10. Units establish A&L nets as required. Figure A-1 is an example of a typical division C2 network and
Figure A-2 is an example of a brigade A&L FM network. All echelons, from battalion through division,
have a support network to separate A&L from operational information. This prevents support information
from overwhelming the C2 and O&I networks during operations.
A-2
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
FM Radio Networks
Figure A-1. Example of a division C2 FM network
Figure A-2. Example of a brigade A&L FM network
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
A-3
Appendix A
OPERATIONS AND INTELLIGENCE NETWORKS
A-11. O&I nets are usually combined and established at brigade and battalion levels. Figure A-3 is an
example of a division intelligence network. The information passed over these nets is continuous, and
requires a separate net to prevent overloading the C2 net. The local situation determines whether other
subscribers are added or deleted.
Figure A-3. Example of a division intelligence network
OTHER RELATED NETWORKS
A-12. Commanders may direct the G-6/S-6 to establish a variety of unit-specific networks dependent upon
the commander’s intent and METT-TC.
A-13. Wireless network extension operations extend the C2 network to ensure the availability of C2 at the
critical moment during operations. In most cases, this network is established with the next higher
headquarters.
HIGH FREQUENCY AND DATA NETWORKS
A-14. Data networks extend the tactical Internet to platforms that are not EPLRS equipped. Combat
aviation brigades and air cavalry units use HF nets to provide long-range, non-LOS communications.
Figure A-4 shows a typical cavalry unit HF net. Cavalry squadrons and troops use the low power HF for
their C2 networks when distance is not an issue; the same is true of both divisional and regimental cavalry.
A-4
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
FM Radio Networks
Figure A-4. Example of a cavalry unit HF network
Brigade Combat Team
A-15. The traditional HF nets are C2, A&L, O&I, fires, and other specialty uses such as reconnaissance.
These nets were once limited due to the small number of HF radios available. Now, a brigade typically has
between 70–80 HF radios and can establish nets down to the company and lower levels when the situation
warrants it.
Medical Network
A-16. Medical units need dedicated, long-range, reliable communications systems that can be useroperated. Communications distances will be substantial between major medical support bases and forward
aid stations. ALE tuning (Harris 5000 series radios) and other simplified operating features make HF ideal
for units with a limited number of signal personnel. Figures A-5 and A-6 are examples of a medical unit
HF networks for corps and division.
Figure A-5. Example of a division corps medical operations network HF-SSB
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
A-5
Appendix A
Figure A-6. Example of a medical operations network in a division HF-SSB
FIRE DIRECTION NETWORK
A-17. The fire direction network is the highest priority net in field artillery firing units. This network is
used for exchange of technical and/or firing data. (Wireless network extension teams are also used to
support these nets when needed.) Refer to TC 2-33.4 or FM 3-09.21 for more information on fire direction
networks.
SURVEILLANCE NETWORK
A-18. The surveillance network passes along reports dealing with adversary movement and massing. The
battalion battlefield information control center sets up this net to coordinate and control the ground
surveillance radar and unattended ground sensor teams. The information from this net is vital to
commanders and is given high priority for activation. Refer to FM 2-0 or FM 2-33.4 for more information
on surveillance nets.
SUSTAINMENT AREA BATTLE COMMAND NETWORK
A-19. Sustainment area operations ensure freedom of maneuver. They consist of actions taken by Army
units and host nation units (singularly or in a combined effort) to secure the force, or to neutralize or defeat
adversary operations in the sustainment area. The sustainment area battle command FM net is a form of the
C2 network. This network consists of many units that are collocated in the division sustainment area.
Figure A-7 is an example of a division sustainment area FM network. Members of the sustainment area
battle command network also depend on themselves to form the base cluster defense.
A-6
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
FM Radio Networks
Figure A-7. Example of a division sustainment area FM network
HIGH FREQUENCY NETWORKS
A-20. The IHFRs (AN/PRC-104, AN/GRC-213, and AN/GRC-193) are being replaced by HF radios with
ALE such as the AN/PRC-150 I. The HF nets shown are generic networks. Specific networks established,
and subscribers to those networks, depend on command guidance and mission requirements.
A-21. HF networks are similar to the VHF FM networks in function and establishment. Many HF networks
are a backup or supplement to their VHF FM counterparts. HF networks are established when unit
dispersal exceeds the planning range for VHF FM systems. Figure A-8 is an example of a HF C2 network
at division level. Note the similarity with the VHF FM C2 network. Commanders routinely establish a HF
C2 network as a secondary means of controlling operations.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
A-7
Appendix A
Figure A-8. Example of a division HF C2 network
A-22. Logistics units may use HF radios for C2 and internal coordination due to the communications
distances from the division support area to the brigade support area. HF nets are a backup to FM networks,
when the tactical spread of the division extends the lines of communications. The support units within the
corps establish similar networks, or monitor the division networks to ensure push forward support.
A-8
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Appendix B
Single-Channel Radio Communications Principles
SC radio communications equipment is used to transmit and receive voice, data, or
telegraphic/voice code. This appendix addresses a radio sets basic components,
characteristics and properties of radio waves, wave modulation, and site
considerations for SC radios.
RADIO SET BASIC COMPONENTS
B-1. A radio set consists of a transmitter and receiver. Other items necessary for operation include a
source of electrical power and an antenna for both radiation and reception of radio waves.
B-2. The transmitter contains an oscillator that generates RF energy in the form of alternating current. A
transmission line, or cable, feeds the RF to the antenna. The antenna converts the alternating current into
electromagnetic energy that is radiated into space; a keying device is used to control the transmission.
B-3. Normally, in SC radio operations, the receiver uses the same antenna as the transmitter to receive
electromagnetic energy. The antenna converts the received electromagnetic energy into RF alternating
current. The RF is fed to the receiver by a transmission line or cable. In the receiver, the RF is converted to
audio frequencies. The audio frequencies are then changed into sound waves by a headset or loudspeaker.
B-4. Communications are possible when two radio sets operate on the same frequency, with the same type
of modulation, and are within operating range.
RADIO TRANSMITTER
B-5. The simplest radio transmitter consists of a power supply and an oscillator. The power supply can be
batteries, a generator, an alternating current power source with a rectifier and a filter, or a direct current
rotating power source. The oscillator, which generates RF energy, must contain a circuit to tune the
transmitter to the desired operating frequency. The transmitter must also have a device for controlling the
emission of the RF signal. The simplest device is a telegraph key, a type of switch for controlling the flow
of electric current. As the key is operated, the oscillator is turned on and off for varying lengths of time.
The varying pulses of RF energy produced correspond to dots and dashes. This is a CW operation, and is
used when transmitting international Morse code.
B-6. A CW radio transmitter is used to generate RF energy, which is radiated into space. The transmitter
may contain only a simple oscillator stage. Usually, the output of the oscillator is applied to a buffer stage
to increase oscillator stability, and to a PA that produces greater output. A telegraph key may be used to
control the energy waves produced by the transmitter. When the key is closed, the transmitter produces its
maximum output; when the key is opened, no output is produced.
B-7. By adding a modulator and a microphone, a radiotelephone transmitter can transmit messages by
voice. When the modulating signal causes the amplitude of the radio wave to change, the radio is an AM
set. When the modulating signal varies the frequency of the radio wave, the radio is an FM set.
Transmitter Characteristics
B-8. The reliability of radio communications depends on the characteristics of the transmitted signal. The
transmitter, and its associated antenna, forms the initial step in the transfer of energy to a distant receiver.
B-9. Ground-wave transmission is used for most field radio communications. The range of the ground
wave becomes correspondingly shorter as the operating frequency of the transmitter is increased through
5 August 2009
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B-1
Appendix B
the applicable portions of the medium frequency (MF) band (300–3000 kHz) to the HF band (3.0–30
MHz). When the transmitter is operating at frequencies above 30 MHz, its range is generally limited to
slightly more than LOS. For circuits using sky wave propagation, the frequency selected depends on the
geographic area, season, and time of day.
Note. Frequency selection is the responsibility of the frequency manager not the RTO.
B-10. For maximum transfer of energy, the radiating antenna must be the proper length for the operating
frequency. The local terrain determines, in part, the radiation pattern, and therefore affects the directivity of
the antenna and the possible range of the set in the desired direction. When possible, several variations in
the physical position of the antenna should be tried to determine the best operating position for radiating
the greatest amount of energy in the desired direction.
B-11. The range of a transmitter is proportional to the power radiated by its antenna. An increase in the
power output of the transmitter results in some increase in range. Under normal operating conditions, the
transmitter should feed only enough power into the radiating antenna to establish reliable communications
with the receiving station. Transmission of a signal more powerful than required is a breach of signal
security, because adversary DF stations may instantly and more easily fix the location of the transmitter.
Also, the signal can interfere with friendly stations operating on the same frequency.
RADIO RECEIVER
B-12. A radio receiver can receive modulated RF signals that carry speech, music, or other audio energy. It
can also receive CW signals that are bursts of RF energy conveying messages by means of coded
(dot/dash) signals.
B-13. The process of recovering intelligence from an RF signal is called detection; the circuit in which it
occurs is called a detector. The detector recovers the intelligence from the carrier and makes it available for
direct use, or for further amplification. In an FM receiver, the detector is usually called a discriminator.
B-14. An RF signal rapidly diminishes in strength after it leaves the transmitting antenna. Many RF signals
of various frequencies are crowded into the RF spectrum. An RF amplifier selects and amplifies the desired
signal; it contains integrated circuits or microprocessors to amplify the signal to a usable level. The RF
amplifier is included in the receiver to sharpen the selectivity, and to increase the sensitivity. The RF
amplifier normally uses tunable circuits to select the desired signal.
B-15. The signal level of the output of a detector, with or without an RF amplifier, is generally very low.
One or more audio frequency amplifiers are used in the receiver, to build up the signal output to a useful
level to operate headphones, a loudspeaker, or data devices.
Receiver Characteristics
B-16. When the transmitted signal reaches the receiver location, it arrives at a much lower power level than
when it left the transmitter. The receiver must efficiently process this relatively weak signal to provide
maximum reliability of communications.
B-17. Sensitivity describes how well a receiver responds to a weak signal at a given frequency. A receiver
with high sensitivity is able to accept a very weak signal, and amplify and process it to provide a usable
output. The principal factor that limits or lowers the sensitivity of a receiver is the noise generated by its
own internal circuits.
B-18. Selectivity describes how well a receiver is able to differentiate between a desired frequency and
undesired frequencies.
B-19. In field radio communications, the type, location, and electrical characteristics of the receiving
antenna are not as important as they are for the transmitting antenna. The receiving antenna must be of
sufficient length, be properly coupled to the input of the receiver circuit, and (except in some cases for HF
sky wave propagation) must have the same polarization as the transmitting antenna.
B-2
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Single-Channel Radio Communications Principles
RADIO WAVES
B-20. Radio waves travel near the surface of the earth, and radiate skyward at various angles to the earth’s
surface. These electromagnetic waves travel through space at the speed of light, approximately 300,000 km
(186,000 miles) per second. Figure B-1 shows the wave radiation from a vertical antenna.
Figure B-1. Radiation of radio waves from a vertical antenna
WAVELENGTH
B-21. The wavelength is defined as the distance between the crest of one wave to the crest of the next
wave; it is the length (always measured in meters) of one complete cycle of the waveform. Figure B-2
shows the wavelength of a radio wave.
Figure B-2. Wavelength of a radio wave
FREQUENCY
B-22. The frequency of a radio wave is the same as the number of complete cycles that occur in one
second. The longer the time of one cycle, the longer the wavelength and the lower the frequency;
frequency is measured and stated in Hz. One cycle per second is stated as 1 Hz. Because the frequency of a
radio wave is very high, it is generally measured and stated in kHz (one thousand hertz) or MHz (one
million hertz) per second. Sometimes frequencies are expressed in GHz (one billion hertz) per second.
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B-3
Appendix B
Frequency Calculation
B-23. For practical purposes, the velocity of a radio wave is considered constant, regardless of the
frequency or the amplitude of the transmitted wave. Therefore, to find the frequency when the free-space
wavelength is known, divide the velocity by the wavelength, for example—
z
Frequency (Hz) = 300,000,000 (meters per second) wavelength in meters.
z
Wavelength (meters) = 300,000,000 (meters per second) frequency in Hz.
Frequency Bands
B-24. Within the RF spectrum, radio frequencies are divided into groups, or bands, of frequencies. Table
B-1 lists the frequency band coverage. Most tactical radio sets operate within a 2–400 MHz range within
the frequency spectrum.
Table B-1. Frequency band chart
Band
Frequency
Very low frequency
3–30 kHz
Low frequency
30–300 kHz
MF
.3–3.0 MHz
HF
3.0–30 MHz
VHF
30–300 MHz
UHF
300–3,000 GHz
Super high frequency
3,000–30,000 GHz
EHF
30,000–300,000 GHz
B-25. Table B-2 lists certain characteristics of each frequency band. The ranges and power requirements
shown are for normal operating conditions (proper site selection and antenna orientation, and correct
operating procedures). The ranges will change according to the condition of the propagation medium and
the transmitter output power.
Table B-2. Frequency band characteristics
Range
Power Required
(Kilowatt [kW])
Band
Ground Wave
Low frequency
MF
HF
VHF
UHF
Sky Wave
Miles
Kilometers
Miles
Kilometers
0–1,000
0–100
0–50
0–30
0–50
0–1,609
0–161
0–83
0–48
0–83
500–8,000
100–1,500
100–8,000
50–150
805–12,872
161–2,415
161–12,872
80.5–241
unlimited (refer to paragraph B-30)
Above 50
.5–50
.5–5
.5 or Less
.5 or Less
B-26. The frequency of the radio wave affects its propagation characteristics. At low frequencies (.03–.3
MHz), the ground wave is very useful for communications over great distances. The ground wave signals
are quite stable and show little seasonal variation.
B-27. In the MF band (.3–3.0 MHz) the range of the ground wave varies from about 24 km (15 miles) at 3
MHz to about 640 km (400 miles) at the lowest frequencies of this band. Sky wave reception is possible
during the day or night at any of the lower frequencies in this band. At night, the sky wave is receivable at
distances up to 12,870 km (8,000 miles). Major uses of the MF band include medium distance
communications, radio navigation, and AM broadcasting.
B-4
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5 August 2009
Single-Channel Radio Communications Principles
B-28. In the HF band (3.0–30 MHz), the range of the ground wave decreases as frequency increases, and
the sky waves are greatly influenced by ionospheric considerations. HF is widely used for long distance
communications, short-wave broadcasting, and over-the-horizon radar; HF is also used to supplement
tactical communications when LOS communication is not possible or feasible.
B-29. In the VHF band (30–300 MHz), there is no usable ground wave and only slight refraction of sky
waves by the ionosphere at the lower frequencies. The direct wave (LOS) provides communications if the
transmitting and receiving antennas are elevated high enough above the surface of the Earth.
B-30. In the UHF band (300–3,000 GHz), the direct wave must be used for all transmissions (15–100
miles). Communications are limited to a short distance beyond the horizon. Lack of static and fading in
these bands makes LOS reception satisfactory. Antennas that are highly directional can be used to
concentrate the beam of RF energy, thus increasing the signal intensity. UHF satellite transmissions can
cover thousands of miles, depending on altitude, power, and antenna configuration.
PROPAGATION
B-31. Ground waves and sky waves are the two principal paths by which radio waves travel from a
transmitter to a receiver. Figure B-3 is an example of the principal paths of radio waves. Ground waves
travel directly from the transmitter to the receiver; sky waves travel up to the ionosphere and are refracted
(bent downward) back to the earth. Short distance, UHF, and upper VHF transmissions are made by
ground waves; long distance transmission is principally by sky waves. SC radio sets can use either ground
wave or sky wave propagation for communications.
Figure B-3. Principal paths of radio waves
GROUND WAVE PROPAGATION
B-32. Radio communications that use ground wave propagation do not use or depend on waves that are
refracted from the ionosphere (sky waves). Ground wave propagation is affected by the electrical
characteristics of the earth and the amount of diffraction (bending) of the waves along the curvature of the
earth. The strength of the ground wave at the receiver depends on the power output and frequency of the
transmitter, the shape and conductivity of the earth along the transmission path, and the local weather
conditions. Figure B-4 shows possible routes for ground waves.
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B-5
Appendix B
Figure B-4. Possible routes for ground waves
Direct Wave
B-33. The direct wave travels directly from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. The direct
part of the wave is limited to the LOS distance between the transmitting and receiving antennas, and the
small distance added by atmospheric refraction and diffraction of the wave around the curvature of the
Earth. Increasing the height of the transmitting or receiving antenna, or both, can extend this distance.
Ground-Reflected Wave
B-34. The ground wave reaches the receiving antenna after being reflected from the surface of the earth.
Cancellation of the radio signal can occur when the ground reflected component and the direct wave
component arrive at the receiving antenna at the same time, and are 180 degrees out of phase with each
other.
Surface Wave
B-35. The surface wave follows the Earth’s curvature and is affected by the Earth’s conductivity and
dielectric constant.
FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND WAVES
B-36. Various frequencies determine which wave component will prevail along any given signal path. For
example, when the Earth’s conductivity is high and the frequency of a radiated signal is low, the surface
wave is the predominant component. For frequencies below 10 MHz, the surface wave is sometimes the
predominant component. However, above 10 MHz, the losses that are sustained by the surface wave
component are so great that the other components (direct and sky wave) become predominant.
B-37. At frequencies of 30–300 kHz, ground losses are very small, so the surface wave component follows
the Earth’s curvature. It can be used for long-distance communications provided the RTO has enough
power from the transmitter. The frequencies 300 kHz–3 MHz are used for long distance communications
over sea water and for medium-distance communications over land.
B-38. At HF, 3–30 MHz, the ground’s conductivity is extremely important, especially above 10 MHz
where the dielectric constant or conductivity of the Earth’s surface determines how much signal absorption
occurs. In general, the signal is strongest at the lower frequencies when the surface over which it travels
has a high dielectric constant and conductivity.
B-6
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5 August 2009
Single-Channel Radio Communications Principles
Earth’s Surface Conductivity
B-39. The dielectric constant or Earth’s surface conductivity determines how much of the surface wave
signal energy will be absorbed or lost. Although the Earth’s surface conductivity as a whole is generally
poor, Table B-3 shows a comparison of the conductivity of varying surface conditions.
Table B-3. Surface conductivity
Surface Type
Relative Conductivity
Large body of fresh water
Ocean or sea water
Flat or hilly loamy soil
Rocky terrain
Desert
Jungle
Very good
Good
Fair
Poor
Poor
Very poor
SKY WAVE PROPAGATION
B-40. Radio communications that use sky wave propagation depend on the ionosphere to provide the
signal path between the transmitting and receiving antennas. The ionosphere has four distinct layers. These
layers are labeled D, E, F1, and F2, in the order of increasing heights and decreasing molecular densities.
During the day, when the rays of the sun are directed toward that portion of the atmosphere, all four layers
may be present. During the night, the F1 and F2 layers seem to merge into a single F layer, while the D and
E layers fade out. The actual number of layers, their height above the earth, and their relative intensity of
ionization, varies constantly. Table B-4 provides a description of the ionosphere layers and Figure B-5
shows the average layer distribution of the ionosphere.
Table B-4. Ionosphere layers
Region
D Region
E Region
F Region
5 August 2009
Description
Exists only during daylight hours and has little effect in bending the paths of
HF radio waves. The main effect of the D region is to attenuate HF waves
when the transmission path is in sunlit regions.
Is used during the day for HF radio transmission over intermediate distances
(less than 2,400 km [1,500 miles]). At night, the intensity of the E region
decreases and it becomes useless for radio transmission.
Exists at heights up to 380 km (240 miles) above the earth and is ionized all
the time. It has two well-defined layers (F1 and F2) during the day and one
layer (F) during the night. At night, the F region remains at a height of about
260 km (170 miles) and is useful for long-range radio communications (over
2,400 km [1,500 miles]). The F2 layer is the most useful of all layers for longrange radio communications, although its degree of ionization varies
appreciably from day to day.
FM 6-02.53
B-7
Appendix B
Figure B-5. Average layer distribution of the ionosphere
B-41. The movement of the earth around the sun, and changes in the sun’s activity, contribute to
ionospheric variations. These variations are regular, and therefore predictable; and irregular, which occur
from abnormal behavior of the sun. Table B-5 lists the regular variations of the ionosphere.
Table B-5. Regular variations of the ionosphere
Variation
Description
Daily
Seasonal
27-day
11-year
Caused by the rotation of the earth.
Caused by the north and south progression of the sun.
Caused by the rotation of the sun on its axis.
Caused by the sunspot activity cycle going from maximum through
minimum back to maximum levels of intensity.
B-42. In planning a communications system, the status of the four regular variations must be anticipated.
Irregular variations must also be considered since they have a degrading effect (at times blanking out
communications), which currently cannot be controlled or compensated for. Table B-6 lists some irregular
variations of the ionosphere.
B-8
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Single-Channel Radio Communications Principles
Table B-6. Irregular variations of the ionosphere
Variation
Sporadic E
Sudden Ionospheric
Disturbance
Ionospheric Storms
Description
When excessively ionized, the E layer often blanks out the
reflections back from the higher layers. It can also cause
unexpected propagation of signals hundreds of miles beyond
the normal range. This effect can occur at any time.
Coincides with a bright solar eruption, and causes abnormal
ionization of the D layer. This effect causes total absorption of
all frequencies above approximately 1 MHz. It can occur
without warning during daylight hours, and can last from a few
minutes to several hours. When it occurs, receivers seem to
go dead.
During these storms, sky wave reception above approximately
1.5 MHz shows low intensity, and is subject to a type of rapid
blasting and fading called flutter fading. May last from several
hours to several days, and usually extend over the entire
earth.
B-43. Sunspots generate bursts of radiation that cause high levels of ionization. The more sunspots, the
greater the ionization. During periods of low sunspot activity, frequencies above 20 MHz tend to be
unusable because the E and F layers are too weakly ionized to reflect signal back to Earth. At the peak of
the sunspot cycle, however, it is unusual to have worldwide propagation on frequencies above 30 MHz.
B-44. Primarily, the ionization density of each layer determines the range of long distance radio
transmissions; the higher the frequency, the greater the ionization density required to reflect radio waves
back to earth. The upper (E and F) regions reflect the higher frequencies, because they are the most highly
ionized. The D region, which is the least ionized, does not reflect frequencies above approximately 500
kHz. Thus, at any given time and for each ionized region, there is an upper frequency limit at which radio
waves sent vertically upward are reflected back to earth. This limit is called the critical frequency.
B-45. Radio waves directed vertically at frequencies higher than the critical frequency pass through the
ionized layer out into space. All radio waves that are directed vertically into the ionosphere at frequencies
lower than the critical frequency are reflected back to earth.
B-46. Generally, radio waves used in communications are directed toward the ionosphere at some oblique
angle, called the angle of incidence. Radio waves at frequencies above the critical frequency will be
reflected back to earth if transmitted at angles of incidence smaller than a certain angle, called the critical
angle. At the critical angle, and at all angles larger than the critical angle, the radio waves will pass through
the ionosphere if the frequency is higher than the critical frequency.
TRANSMISSION PATHS
B-47. Sky wave propagation refers to those types of radio transmissions that depend on the ionosphere to
provide signal paths between transmitters and receivers. Figure B-6 shows the sky wave transmission
paths. The distance from the transmitting antenna to the place where the sky waves first return to earth is
called the skip distance. The skip distance depends upon the angle of incidence, the operating frequency,
and the height and density of the ionosphere.
B-48. The antenna height, in relation to the operating frequency, affects the angles at which transmitted
radio waves strike and penetrate the ionosphere and then return to Earth. This angle of incidence can be
controlled to obtain the desired area of coverage; lowering the antenna height will increase the angle of
transmission. This provides broad and even signal patterns in an area the size of a typical corps. The use of
near-vertical transmission paths is known as NVIS. Raising the antenna height will lower the angle of
incidence.
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B-9
Appendix B
Figure B-6. Sky wave transmission paths
B-49. Lowering the angle of incidence can produce a skip zone in which no usable signal can be received.
This area is bounded by the outer edge of usable ground wave propagation and the point nearest the
antenna at which the sky wave returns to earth. In corps area communications situations, the skip zone is
not a desirable condition. However, low angles of incidence make long distance communications possible.
B-50. When a transmitted wave is reflected back to the surface of the earth, the earth absorbs part of its
energy. The remainder of its energy is reflected back into the ionosphere and reflected back to earth again.
This means of transmission (by alternately reflecting the radio wave between the ionosphere and the earth)
is called hops. Hops enable radio waves to be received at great distances from the point of origin. Figure B7 is an example of sky wave transmission hop paths.
Figure B-7. Sky wave transmission hop paths
Fading
B-51. Fading is the periodic increase and decrease of received signal strength. Fading occurs when a radio
signal is received over a long distance path in the HF range. The precise origin of this fading is seldom
B-10
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5 August 2009
Single-Channel Radio Communications Principles
understood. There is little common knowledge of what precautions to take to reduce or eliminate fading’s
troublesome effects. Fading associated with sky wave paths is the greatest detriment to reliable
communications. Too often, those responsible for communications circuits rely on raising the transmitter
power or increasing antenna gain to overcome fading. Unfortunately, such actions often do not work and
seldom improve reliability. Only when the signal level fades down below the back ground noise level for
an appreciable fraction of time will increased transmitter power or antenna gain yield an overall circuit
improvement. Choosing the correct frequency and using transmitting and receiving equipment intelligently
ensure a strong and reliable receiving signal, even when low power is used.
Maximum Usable Frequency and Lowest Usable Frequency
B-52. The maximum usable frequency (MUF) is the maximum frequency at which a radio wave will return
to earth at a given distance, when using a given ionized layer and a transmitting antenna with a fixed angle
of radiation. It is the monthly median of the daily highest frequency that is predicted for sky wave
transmission over a particular path at a particular hour of the day. The MUF is always higher than the
critical frequency because the angle of incidence is less than 90 degrees.
B-53. If the distance between the transmitter and the receiver is increased, the MUF will also increase.
Radio waves lose some of their energy through absorption by both the D region, and a portion of the E
region of the ionosphere, on certain transmission frequencies. The total absorption is less, and
communications more satisfactory, as higher frequencies are used up to the level of the MUF.
B-54. The absorption rate is greatest for frequencies ranging from approximately 500 kHz–2 MHz during
the day. During the night, the absorption rate decreases for all frequencies. As the frequency of
transmission over any skywave path is increased from low to high, a frequency will be reached at which
the received signal overrides the level of atmospheric and other radio noise interference. This is called the
lowest usable frequency, because frequencies lower than these are too weak for useful communications. It
should be noted that the lowest usable frequency also depends on the power output of the transmitter, and
the transmission distance. When the lowest usable frequency is greater than the MUF, no sky wave
transmission is possible. The frequency manager uses SPECTRUM XXI to identify optimum frequency
groupings.
Other Factors Affecting Propagation
B-55. In VHF and UHF ranges, extending from 30–300 MHz and beyond, the presence of object
(buildings or towers for example) may produce strong reflections that arrive at the receiving antenna in
such a way that they cancel the signal from the desired propagation path and render communications
impossible.
B-56. Receiver locations that avoid the proximity of an airfield should be chosen due to possible adverse
interference from signals bouncing off of the aircrafts. Avoid locating transmitters and receivers where an
airfield is at or near midpoint of the propagation path of frequencies above 20 MHz.
B-57. Many other factors may affect the propagation of a radio wave. Hills, mountains, buildings, water
towers, tall fences, and even other antenna can have a marked affect on the condition and reliability of a
given propagation path. Conductivity of the local ground or body of water can greatly alter the strength of
the transmitted or received signal. Energy radiation from the Sun’s surface also greatly affects conditions
within the ionosphere and alters the characteristics of long-distance propagation at 2–30 MHz.
Path Loss
B-58. Radio waves become weaker as they spread outwards from the transmitter. The ratio of the received
power is called path loss. LOS paths at VHF and UHF require relatively little power since the total path
loss at the radio horizon is only about 25 dB greater than the path loss over the same distance in free space
(absence of ground). This additional loss results from some energy being reflected from the ground,
canceling part of the direct wave energy. This is unavoidable in almost every practical case. The total path
loss for an LOS path above average terrain varies with the following factors: total path loss between
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
B-11
Appendix B
transmitting and receiving antenna terminals, frequency, distance, transmitting antenna gain, and receiving
antenna gain.
Reflected Waves
B-59. Often, it is possible to communicate beyond the normal LOS distance by exploiting the reflection
from a tall building, nearby mountain, or water tower. If the top portion of a structure or hill can be seen
readily by both transmitting and receiving antennas, it may be possible to achieve practical
communications by directing both antennas toward the point of maximum reflection. If the reflecting
object is very large in terms of a wavelength, the path loss, including the reflection, can be very low.
B-60. If a structure or hill exists adjacent to an LOS path, reflected energy may either add to or subtract
from the energy arriving from the direct path. If the reflected energy arrives at the receiving antenna with
the same amplitude (strength) as the direct signal but has the opposite phase, both signals will cancel and
communication will be impossible. However, if the same condition exists but both signals arrive in phase,
they will add and double the signal strength. These two conditions represent destructive and constructive
combinations of the reflected and direct waves.
B-61. Reflection from the ground at the common midpoint between the receiving and transmitting antennas
may also arrive in a constructive or destructive manner. Generally, in the VHF and UHF range, the
reflected wave is out of phase (destructive) with respect to the direct wave at vertical angles less than a few
degrees above the horizon. However, since the ground is not a perfect conductor, the amplitude of the
reflected wave seldom approaches that of the direct wave. Thus, even though the two arrive out of phase,
complete cancellation does not occur. Some improvement may result from using vertical polarization rather
than horizontal polarization over LOS paths because there tends to be less phase difference between direct
and reflected waves. The difference is usually less than 10 dB, however, in favor of vertical polarization.
Diffraction
B-62. Unlike the ship passing beyond the visual horizon, a radio wave does not fade out completely when
it reaches the radio horizon. A small amount of radio energy travels beyond the radio horizon by a process
called diffraction. Diffraction also occurs when a light source is held near an opaque object, casting a
shadow on a surface behind it. Near the edge of the shadow a narrow band can be seen which is neither
completely light nor dark. The transition from total light to total darkness does not occur abruptly, but
changes smoothly as the light is diffracted.
B-63. A radio wave passing over either the curved surface of the Earth or a mountain ridge behaves in
much the same fashion as a light wave. For example, people living in a valley below a high, sharp,
mountain ridge can often receive a TV station located many miles below on the other side. TV station are
diffracted by the mountain ridge and bent downward in the direction of the town. It is emphasized,
however, that the energy decays very rapidly as the angle of propagation departs from the straight LOS
path. Typically, a diffracted signal may undergo a reduction of 30 to 40 dB by being bent only 5 ft (1.5
meters) by a mountain ridge. The actual amount of diffracted signal depends on the shape of the surface,
the frequency, the diffraction angle, and many other factors. It is sufficient to say that there are times when
the use of diffraction becomes practical as a means for communicating in the VHF and UHF over long
distances.
Refraction
B-64. Refraction is the bending of a wave as it passes through air layers of different density (refractive
index). In semitropical regions, a layer of air 5–100 meters (16.4–328 ft) (thick with distinctive
characteristics may form close to the ground, usually the result of a temperature inversion. For example, on
an unusually warm day after a rainy spell, the Sun may heat up the ground and create a layer of warm,
moist air. After sunset, the air a few meters above the ground will cool very rapidly while the moisture in
the air close to the ground serves as a blanket for the remaining heat. After a few hours, a sizable difference
in temperature may exist between the air near the ground and the air at a height of 10–20 meters (32.8–65.6
ft) resulting in a marked difference in air pressure. Thus, the air near the ground is considerably denser
than the air higher up. This condition may exist over an area of several hundred square kilometers or over a
B-12
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Single-Channel Radio Communications Principles
long area of land near a seacoast. When such an air mass forms, it usually remains stable until dawn, when
the ground begins to cool and the temperature inversion ends.
B-65. When a VHF or UHF radio wave is launched within such air mass, it may bend or become trapped
(forced to follow the inversion layer). This layer then acts as a duct between the transmitting antenna and a
distant receiving site. The effects of such ducting can be seen frequently during the year in certain locations
where TV or VHF FM stations are received over paths of several hundred kilometers. The total path loss
within such a duct is usually very low and may exceed the free space loss by only a few dBs.
B-66. It is also possible to communicate over long distances by means of tropospheric scatter. At altitudes
of a few kilometers, the air mass has varying temperature, pressure, and moisture content. Small
fluctuations in tropospheric characteristics at high altitude create blobs. Within a blob, the temperature,
pressure, and humidity are different from the surrounding air. If the difference is large enough, it may
modify the refractive index at VHF and UHF. A random distribution of these blobs exists at various
altitudes at all times. If a high-power transmitter (greater than 1 kW) and high gain antenna (10 dB or
more) are used, sufficient energy may be scattered from these blobs down to the receiver to make reliable
communication possible over several hundred kilometers. Communication circuits employing this mode of
propagation must use very sensitive receivers and some form of diversity to reduce the effects of the rapid
and deep fading. Scatter propagation is usually limited to path distances of less than about 500 km (310.6
miles).
Noise
B-67. Noise consists of all undesired radio signals, manmade or natural. Noise masks and degrades useful
information reception. The radio signal’s strength is of little importance if the signal power is greater than
the received noise power. This is why S/N ratio is the most important quantity in a receiving system.
Increasing receiver amplification cannot improve the S/N ratio since both signal and noise will be
amplified equal and S/N ratio will remain unchanged. Normally, receivers have more than enough
amplification.
B-68. Natural noise has two principle sources: thunderstorms (atmospheric noise) and stars (galactic
noise). Both sources generate sharp pulses of electromagnetic energy over all frequencies. The pulses
propagate according to the same laws as manmade signals, and receiving systems must accept them along
with the desired signal. Atmospheric noise is dominant from 0–5 MHz, and galactic noise is most
important at higher frequencies. Low frequency transmitters must generate very strong signals to overcome
noise. Strong signals and strong noise mean that the receiving antenna does not have to be large to collect a
usable signal. A 1.5 meter (4.9 ft) tuned whip antenna will adequately deliver all of the signals that can be
received at frequencies below 1 MHz.
B-69. Manmade noise is a product of urban civilization that appears wherever electric power is used. It is
generated anywhere that there is an electric arc (automobile, power lines, motors or fluorescent lights).
Each source is small, but there are so many that together they can completely hide a weak signal that would
be above the natural noise in rural areas. Manmade noise is troublesome when the receiving antenna is near
the source, but being near the source gives the noise waves characteristics that can be exploited. Waves
near a source tend to be vertically polarized. A horizontally polarized receiving antenna will generally
receive less noise than a vertically polarized antenna.
B-70. Manmade noise currents are induced by any conductors near the source, including the antenna,
transmission line, and equipment cases. If the antenna and transmission line are balanced with respect to
the ground, then the noise voltages will be balanced and cancel with respect to the receiver input terminals
(zero voltage across terminals), and this noise will not be received. Near perfect balance is difficult to
achieve, but any balance may help.
B-71. Other ways to avoid manmade noise are to locate the most troublesome sources and turn them off, or
move the receiving system away from them. Moving at least one km (.6 miles) away from a busy street or
highway will significantly reduce noise. Although broadband receiving antennas are convenient because
they do not have to be tuned to each working frequency, sometimes a narrowband antenna can make the
difference between communicating and not communicating. The HF band is now so crowded with users
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
B-13
Appendix B
that interference and noise, not signal strength, are the main reasons for poor communications. A
narrowband antenna will reject strong interfering signals near the desired frequency and help maintain
good communications.
WAVE MODULATION
B-72. Both FM and AM transmitters produce RF carriers. The carrier is a wave of constant amplitude,
frequency, and phase which can be modulated by changing its amplitude, frequency, or phase. Thus, the
RF carrier carries intelligence by being modulated. Modulation is the process of superimposing intelligence
(voice or coded signals) on the carrier. Figure B-8 shows different wave shapes.
Figure B-8. Wave shapes
FREQUENCY MODULATION
B-73. FM is the process of varying the frequency (rather than the amplitude) of the carrier signal in
accordance with the variations of the modulating signals. The amplitude or power of the FM carrier does
not vary during modulation. The frequency of the carrier signal, when it is not modulated, is called the
center, or rest, frequency. When a modulating signal is applied to the carrier, the carrier signal will move
up and down in frequency away from the center, or rest, frequency.
B-14
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Single-Channel Radio Communications Principles
B-74. The amplitude of the modulating signal determines how far away from the center frequency the
carrier will move. This movement of the carrier is called deviation; how far the carrier moves is called the
amount of deviation. During reception of the FM signal, the amount of deviation determines the loudness
or volume of the signal.
B-75. The FM signal leaving the transmitting antenna is constant in amplitude, but varies in frequency
according to the audio signal. As the signal travels to the receiving antenna, it picks up natural and
manmade electrical noises that cause amplitude variations in the signal. All of these undesirable amplitude
variations are amplified as the signal passes through successive stages of the receiver, until the signal
reaches a part of the receiver called the limiter. The limiter is unique to FM receivers, as is the
discriminator.
B-76. The limiter eliminates the amplitude variations in the signal, and then passes it on to the
discriminator, which is sensitive to variations in the frequency of the RF wave. The resultant constant
amplitude FM signal is then processed by the discriminator circuit, which changes the frequency variations
into corresponding voltage amplitude variations. These voltage variations reproduce the original
modulating signal in a headset, loudspeaker, or teletypewriter. Radiotelephone transmitters operating in the
VHF and higher frequency bands generally use FM.
AMPLITUDE MODULATION
B-77. AM is the variation of the RF power output of a transmitter at an audio rate. Stated differently, the
RF energy increases and decreases in power, according to the audio frequencies superimposed on the
carrier signal.
B-78. When audio frequency signals are superimposed on the RF carrier signal, additional RF signals are
generated. These additional frequencies are equal to the sum and the difference of the audio frequency and
RF used. For example, assume a 500 kHz carrier is modulated by a one kHz audio tone. Two new
frequencies are developed, one at 501 kHz (the sum of 500 kHz and one kHz) and the other at 499 kHz
(the difference between 500 kHz and 1 kHz). If a complex audio signal is used instead of a single tone, two
new frequencies will be created for each of the audio frequencies involved. New frequencies resulting from
superimposing an audio frequency signal on a RF signal are called sidebands.
B-79. When the RF carrier is modulated by complex tones, such as speech, each separate frequency
component of the modulating signal produces its own upper and lower sideband frequencies. The upper
sideband contains the sum of the RF and audio frequency signals, and the lower sideband contains the
difference between the RF and audio frequency signals. Figure B-9 shows an AM system.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
B-15
Appendix B
Figure B-9. AM system
B-80. The space occupied by a carrier and its associated sidebands in the RF spectrum is called a channel.
In AM, the width of the channel (bandwidth) is equal to twice the highest modulating frequency. For
example, if a 5,000 kHz (5 MHz) carrier is modulated by a band of frequencies ranging from 200–5,000
cycles (.2–5 kHz); the upper sideband extends from 5000.2–5005 kHz. The lower sideband extends from
4,999.8–4,995 kHz. Thus, the bandwidth is the difference between 5,005 Hz–4,995 kHz, a total of 10 kHz.
B-81. Radiotelephone transmitters operating in the medium and HF bands generally use AM; the
intelligence of an AM signal exists solely in the sidebands.
SINGLE SIDE BAND
B-82. Each sideband contains all the intelligence needed for communications. Although both sidebands are
generated within the modulation circuitry of the SSB radio set, the carrier and one sideband are removed
before any signal is transmitted. Figure B-10 shows an SSB system.
Figure B-10. SSB system
B-16
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Single-Channel Radio Communications Principles
B-83. The upper side band is higher in frequency than the carrier and the lower side band is lower in
frequency. Either sideband can be used for communications, provided both the transmitter and the receiver
are adjusted to the same sideband. Most Army SSB equipment operates in the upper side band mode.
B-84. The transmission of only one sideband leaves open that portion of the RF spectrum normally
occupied by the other sideband of an AM signal. This allows more emitters to be used within a given
frequency range.
B-85. SSB transmission is used in applications where it is desired to—
z
Obtain greater reliability.
z
Limit size and weight of equipment.
z
Increase effective output without increasing antenna voltage.
z
Operate a large number of radio sets without heterodyne interference (whistles and squeals)
from RF carriers.
z
Operate over long ranges without loss of intelligibility due to selective fading.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
B-17
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Appendix C
Antenna Selection
Merely selecting an antenna that radiates at a high elevation angle is not enough to
ensure optimum communications. This appendix addresses the importance of HF,
VHF and UHF antenna selection.
HIGH FREQUENCY ANTENNA SELECTION
C-1. The HF portion of the radio spectrum is very important to communications. Radio waves in the 3–30
MHz frequency range are the only ones that are capable of being reflected or returned to Earth by the
ionosphere with predictable regularity. To optimize the probability of a successful sky wave
communications link, select the frequency and take-off angle that is most appropriate for the time of day
transmission is to take place.
C-2. Various large conducting objects, in particular the Earth’s surface, will modify an antenna’s
radiation pattern. Sometimes nearby scattering objects may modify the antenna’s pattern favorable by
concentrating more power toward the receiving antenna. Often, the pattern alteration results in less signals
being transmitted toward the receiver.
C-3. When selecting an antenna site, the operator should avoid as many scattering objects as possible.
Although NVIS is the chief mode of short-haul HF propagation, the ground wave and direction (LOS)
modes are also useful over short paths. How far a ground wave is useful depends on the electrical
conductivity of the terrain or body of water over which it travels. The direct wave is useful only to the
radio horizon, which extends slightly beyond the visual horizon.
ANTENNA SELECTION PROCEDURES
C-4. Selecting the right antenna for an HF radio circuit is very important. When selecting an HF antenna,
first consider the type of propagation. Ground wave propagation requires low take-off angle and vertically
polarized antennas. The whip antenna included with most radio sets provides good omnidirectional ground
wave radiation.
C-5. Selecting an antenna for sky wave propagation is very complex. First, find the circuit (range)
distance so that the required take-off angle can be determined. A circuit distance of 966 km (600 miles)
requires a take-off angle of approximately 25 degrees during the day and 40 degrees at night. Select a high
gain antenna (25–40 degrees). If propagation predictions are available, skip this step, since the predictions
will probably give the take-off angles required.
C-6. Next, determine the required coverage. A radio circuit with mobile (vehicle) stations or several
stations at different directions from the transmitter requires an omnidirectional antenna. A point-to-point
circuit uses either a bidirectional or directional antenna. Normally, the receiving station location dictates
this choice. Refer to Table C-1 for take-off angles versus distance.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
C-1
Appendix C
Table C-1. Take-off angle versus distance
Take off
Angle
(Degrees)
0
Distance
F2 Region Daytime
F2 Region Nighttime
km
miles
km
miles
3220
2000
4508
2800
5
2415
1500
3703
2300
10
1932
1200
2898
1800
15
1450
900
2254
1400
20
1127
700
1771
1100
25
966
600
1610
1000
30
725
450
1328
825
35
644
400
1127
700
40
564
350
966
600
45
443
275
805
500
50
403
250
685
425
60
258
160
443
275
70
153
95
290
180
80
80
50
145
90
90
0
0
0
0
C-7. Before selecting a specific antenna, examine the available construction materials. At least two
supports are needed to erect a horizontal dipole, with a third support in the middle for frequencies of 5
MHz or less. When support items are unavailable, the dipole cannot be constructed, and another antenna
should be selected. Examine the proposed antenna site to determine if the antenna will fit the mission
requirements. If not, select a different antenna.
C-8. The site is another important consideration. Usually, the tactical situation determines the position of
the communications antenna. The ideal setting would be a clear, flat area (no trees, fences, power lines, or
mountains). Unfortunately, an ideal location is seldom available. Choose the clearest, flattest area possible.
Often, an antenna must be constructed on irregular sites. This does not mean that the antenna will not
work. It means that the site will affect the antenna’s pattern and function.
C-9. After selecting the antenna, determine how to feed the power from the radio to the antenna. Most
tactical antennas are fed with coaxial cable (RG-213). Coaxial cable is a reasonable compromise of
efficiency, convenience, and durability. Issued antennas include the necessary connectors for coaxial cable
or for direct connection to the radio.
C-10. Problems may arise in connecting field expedient antenna. The horizontal half-wave dipole uses a
balanced transmission line (open-wire). Coaxial cable can be used, but it may cause unwanted RF current.
C-11. A balun prevents unwanted RF current flow, which causes a radio to be hot or shock the RTO.
Install the balun at the dipole feed point (center) to prevent unwanted RF current flow on the coaxial cable.
If a balun is unavailable, use the coaxial cable that feeds the antenna as a choke. Connect the cable’s center
wire to one leg of the dipole and the cable braid to the other leg. Form the coaxial cable into a 6-inch coil
(consisting of ten turns), and tape it to the antenna under the insulator for support.
DETERMINING ANTENNA GAIN
C-12. Figure C-1 shows the vertical antenna pattern for the 32 foot vertical whip antenna. The numbers
along the outer ring (90, 80 and 70 degrees) represent the angle above the Earth; 90 degrees would be
C-2
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Antenna Selection
straight up, and 0 degrees would be along the ground. Along the bottom of the pattern are numbers from 10 (at the center) to = 15 (at the edges). These numbers represent the dBi over an isotropic radiator.
Figure C-1. 32-foot vertical whip, vertical antenna pattern
C-13. To find the antenna gain at a particular frequency and take-off angle, locate the desired take-off
angle on the plot. Follow that line toward the center of the plot to the pattern of the desired frequency.
Drop down and read the gain from the bottom scale. If the gain of 32 foot vertical whip at 9 MHz and 20
degree take-off angle is desired, locate 20 degrees along the outer scale. Follow this line to the 9 MHz
pattern line. Move down to the bottom scale. The gain is a little less than 2.5 dBi. The gain of the 32 foot
vertical whip at 9 MHz and 20 degrees is 2 dBi.
C-14. Once the antenna’s overall characteristics are determined, use the HF antenna selection matrix
(Table C-2) to find the specific antenna for a circuit. If the proposed circuit requires a short-range,
omnidirectional, wideband antenna, the selection matrix shows that the only antenna that meets all the
criteria is the AS-2259/GR.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
C-3
Appendix C
Table C-2. HF antenna selection matrix
Use
Directivity
Polariz
ation
Band
width
Skywave
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Narrow
X
X
X
X
Wide
X
X
X
X
X
Vertical
X
Horizontal
X
X
X
X
Directional
X
X
X
X
Bidirectional
X
Omnidirectional
Long 1200 Miles
Medium 500 to 1200 Miles
Short 500 Miles
Ground Wave
AS-2259/GR
Vertical Whip
Half-Wave Dipole
Long Wire
Inverted L
Sloping V
Vertical Half Rhombic
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
UHF AND VHF ANTENNA SELECTION
C-15. The VHF portion of the radio spectrum extends from 30–300 MHz and the UHF range reaches from
300–3,000 MHz (3 GHz). Both frequency ranges are extremely useful for short-range (less than 50 km or
31 miles) communications. This includes point-to-point, mobile, air-to-ground, and general purpose
communications. Wavelengths at these frequencies ranges are considerably shorter than those in the HF
range and simple antennas are much smaller.
C-16. Because VHF and UHF antennas are small, it is possible to use multiple radiating elements to form
arrays, which provide a considerable gain in a given direction or directions. An array in an arrangement of
antenna elements, usually dipoles, used to control the direction in which most of the antenna’s power is
radiated.
C-17. Within the VHF and UHF portion of the spectrum, there are sub-frequencies bands for specific uses
such VHF aircraft band, UHF aircraft band and public communications. (Refer to FMI 6-02.70 for more
information on spectrum management.)
POLARIZATION
C-18. In many countries, FM and television broadcasting in the VHF range use horizontal polarization.
One reason is because it reduces ignition interference, which is mainly vertically polarized. Mobile
communications often is vertical polarization or two reasons. First, the vehicle antenna installation has
physical limitations, and second, so that reception or transmission will not be interrupted as the vehicle
changes it’s heading to achieve omnidirectionality.
C-19. Using directional antennas and horizontal polarization (when possible) will reduce manmade noise
interference in urban locations. Horizontal polarization, however, should be chosen only where an antenna
height of many wavelengths is possible. Ground reflections tend to cancel horizontally polarized waves at
low angles. Use only vertically polarized antennas when the antenna must be located at a height of less
than 10 meters (32.8 ft) above the ground, or where omnidirectional radiation or reception is desired.
C-4
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Antenna Selection
GAIN AND DIRECTIVITY
C-20. VHF and UHF (above 30 MHz) antenna gain are extremely important for several reasons. Assuming
the same antenna gain and propagation path, the received signal strength drops as frequency is increased.
At VHF and UHF, more of the received signal is lost in the transmission line than is lost at HF. A 10–20
dB loss it not uncommon in a 30 meter (98.4 ft) length of coaxial line at 450 MHz.
C-21. At frequencies below 30 MHz, system sensitivity is almost always limited by receive noise rather
than by noise external to the antenna. Generally, wider modulation or signal bandwidths are employed in
VHF and UHF transmissions than at HF. Since system noise power is directly proportional to bandwidth,
additional antenna gain is necessary to preserve a usable S/N ratio.
C-22. VHF and UHF antenna directivity (gain) aids security by restricting the amount of power radiated in
unwanted directions. Receiver sensitivity is generally poorer at VHF and UHF (with the exception of high
quality state-of-the-art receivers). Obstructions (buildings, trees, hills) may seriously decrease the signal
strength available to the receiving antenna because VHF and UHF signals travel a straight LOS path.
C-23. Obtaining communications reliability over difficult VHF and UHF propagation paths requires
considerable attention to the design of high-gain directive antenna arrays. Unlike HF communications, the
shorter VHF and UHF wavelengths support walkie-talkie transceivers and simple mobile transmissions
units. Communicating or receiving with such devices over distance beyond 1 or 2 km (.6 or 1.2 miles)
requires maximum antenna gain at the base station or fixed end of the link.
C-24. Because VHF and UHF wavelengths are so short, reliability prediction of diffraction, refraction, and
reflection effects are not practical. LOS paths must be entirely depended on. The best VHF and UHF
communications are established with LOS paths that are free from obstacles. The VHF and UHF
wavelengths are short enough that it is possible to construct resonant antenna arrays.
C-25. An array provides directivity (the ability to concentrate radiated energy into a beam that can be
aimed at the intended receiver). Arrays of resonant elements, (half-wave dipoles, can be constructed of
rigid metal rods or tubing or copper foil laid out or pasted on a flat non-conducting surface. Directing
power helps to increase the range of the communications path and tends to decrease the likelihood of the
interception of jamming from hostile radio stations. However, such highly directive antennas place an
added burden on the RTO to ensure that the antenna is pointed properly.
ANTENNA PLANNING PROGRAMS
C-26. Several LOS radios require the planner/operator to do an analysis and prediction of the antennas
LOS paths to ensure communications will be available from different planned locations. There are several
programs designed to generate, store and disseminate communications information for antenna analysis
and prediction. Several other programs can used to generate information even though it is not their primary
purpose (such as ISYSCON [V]4/Tactical Internet Management System and Terrabase) The following
paragraphs address several, but not all, programs that are available for use.
SYSTEM PLANNING, ENGINEERING AND EVALUATION DEVICE
C-27. The system planning, engineering, and evaluation device (SPEED) program is hosted by the Marine
Corps Tactical Systems Support Activity. SPEED is a software package that provides communications
planners with the tools necessary to engineer and plan radio communications analysis.
C-28. SPEED is a complete stand alone, self installing software package that provides the tools necessary
to plan and analyze communications equipment. SPEED software contains HF analysis, radio coverage
analysis, point-to-point, and satellite planning tools, which allows planning in response to rapidly changing
communications architectures.
C-29. Communications planners will have to load topographical information before each operation to
generate report, maps and matrices.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
C-5
Appendix C
VOICE OF AMERICA COVERAGE ANALYSIS PROGRAM
C-30. Voice of America Coverage Analysis Program (VOACAP) software was released to the public and
can be downloaded from the US Department of Commerce (National Telecommunications Information
Administration/Institute for Telecommunications Sciences; Boulder, Colorado) to use as a HF prediction
and analysis tool. VOACAP started as the Ionospheric Communications Analysis and Prediction
(IONCAP) Program. (Voice of America is now organized as a component of the International Bureau of
Broadcasting)
C-31. VOACAP offers the following capabilities—
z
Easy to use graphical user interface.
z
Detailed point-to-point graphs and area coverage maps for parameters such as:
„
S/N radio.
„
Required power gain.
„
Signal power.
„
MUF.
„
Take-off/arrival angle.
z
Point-to-point performance versus distance for any given parameters at one or all user assigned
frequencies.
z
Calculates methods for antenna patterns.
C-32. Planners must input several parameters before VOACAP is capable of providing propagation
prediction such as the method and the antennas used. Refer to http://www.its.bldrdoc.gov/elbert/hf.html for
more information on VOACAP and Ionospheric Communications Enhanced Profile Analysis and Circuit
(ICEPAC).
IONOSPHERIC COMMUNICATIONS ENHANCED PROFILE ANALYSIS AND CIRCUIT
C-33. ICEPAC is a full system performance model for HF radio communications in the frequency range of
2–30 MHz. capable of daily prediction methods with improved high latitude propagation models. ICEPAC
is IONCAP with an ionospheric conductivity and electron density profile model added which is a statistical
model of the large scale features of the northern hemisphere ionosphere. (For more information on
ICEPAC refer to the article, “Long–range Communications at High Frequencies.”)
Note. HFWIN 32 for Windows PC, ICEPAC and VOACAP
http://elbert.its.bldrdoc.gov/hf.html by the Department of Commerce.
C-6
FM 6-02.53
are
available
at
5 August 2009
Appendix D
Communications in Unusual Environments
Special consideration must be given to communications in unusual environments.
This appendix addresses radio operations in cold weather, jungle, urban, desert,
mountain areas, and nuclear areas.
COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS
D-1. SC radio equipment has certain capabilities and limitations that must be carefully considered when
operating in extremely cold areas. However, in spite of significant limitations, the radio is still the normal
means of communication in such areas.
D-2. One of the most important capabilities of radio in cold weather operations is its versatility. Vehicular
mounted radios can easily be moved to almost any point where it is possible to install a command
headquarters. Smaller, man packed radios can be carried to any point accessible by aircraft or on foot.
D-3. Interference by ionospheric disturbances limits radio communications in extremely cold areas. These
disturbances, known as ionospheric storms, have a definite degrading effect on sky wave propagation.
Moreover, both ionospheric storms and the Northern Lights (aurora borealis) activity can cause complete
failure of radio communications; some frequencies may be blocked out completely by static for extended
periods during storm activity. Fading, caused by changes in the density and height of the ionosphere, can
also occur, and may last from several minutes to several weeks. These occurrences are difficult to predict,
but when they do occur, the use of alternate frequencies, and a greater reliance on FM or other means of
communications, is required.
TECHNIQUES FOR BETTER COMMUNICATIONS
D-4. Whenever possible, radio sets for tactical operations should be installed in vehicles, to reduce the
problem of transportation and shelter for RTOs. This will help solve some of the grounding and antenna
installation problems due to the climate.
D-5. It is difficult to establish good electrical grounds in extremely cold areas because of permafrost and
deep snow. The conductivity of frozen ground is often too low to provide good ground wave propagation.
To improve ground wave operation, use a counterpoise to offset the degrading effects of poor electrical
ground conductivity. When installing a counterpoise, remember to install it high enough above the ground
so it will not be covered by snow.
D-6. In general, antenna installation in arctic-like areas presents no serious difficulties. However,
installing some antennas may take longer because of adverse working conditions. Tips for installing
antennas in extremely cold areas include—
z
The mast sections and antenna cables must be handled carefully since they become brittle in
very low temperatures.
z
Whenever possible, antenna cables should be constructed overhead to prevent damage from
heavy snow and frost.
z
Nylon rope guys, if available, should be used in preference to cotton or hemp, because nylon
ropes do not readily absorb moisture, and are less likely to freeze and break.
z
An antenna should have extra guy wires, supports, and anchor stakes to strengthen it, and to
withstand heavy ice and wind loading.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
D-1
Appendix D
D-7. Some radios (generally older generation radios) adjusted to a particular frequency in a relatively
warm place, may drift off frequency when exposed to extreme cold; low battery voltage can also cause
frequency drift. When possible, allow a radio to warm up several minutes before placing it into operation.
Since extreme cold tends to lower output voltage of a dry battery, try warming the battery with body heat
before operating the radio set; this minimizes frequency drift.
D-8. Flakes or pellets of highly electrically charged snow are sometimes experienced in northern regions.
When these particles strike the antenna, the resulting electrical discharge causes a high-pitched static roar
that can blanket all frequencies. To overcome this static, antenna elements can be covered with polystyrene
tape and shellac.
MAINTENANCE IMPROVEMENT
D-9. The maintenance of radio equipment in extreme cold presents many difficulties. Radio sets must be
protected from blowing snow because snow will freeze to dials and knobs, and will blow into the wiring to
cause shorts and grounds. Cords and cables must be handled carefully since they may lose their flexibility
in extreme cold. All radio equipment and power units must be properly winterized. Check the appropriate
TM for winterization procedures. The following paragraphs provide suggestions for radio maintenance in
arctic areas.
Power Units
D-10. As the temperature goes down, it becomes increasingly difficult to operate and maintain generators.
Generators should be protected as much as possible from the weather.
Batteries
D-11. The effect of cold weather conditions on wet or dry cell batteries depends on the type of battery, the
load on the battery, and the degree of exposure to cold temperatures. Batteries perform best at moderate
temperatures and generally have a shorter life at very cold temperatures.
Shock Damage
D-12. Damage may occur to vehicular radio sets by the jolting of the vehicle. Most synthetic rubber shock
mounts become stiff and brittle in extreme cold, and fail to cushion equipment. Check the shock mounts
frequently, and change them as required.
Winterization
D-13. Check the TMs for the radio set and power source to see if there are special precautions for operation
in extremely cold climates. For example, normal lubricants may solidify and permit damage or
malfunctions to the radio equipment. They must be replaced with the recommended arctic lubricants. A
light coat of silicon compound on antenna mast connections helps to keep them from freezing together and
becoming hard to dismantle.
Microphones
D-14. Use standard microphone covers to prevent moisture from breath freezing on the perforated cover
plate of the microphone. If standard covers are not available, improvise a suitable cover from rubber or
cellophane membranes, or from rayon or nylon cloths.
Breathing and Sweating
D-15. A radio set generates heat when it is operated. When turned off, the air inside cools and contracts,
drawing cold air into the set from the outside. This is called breathing. When a radio breathes and the stillhot parts come in contact with subzero air, the glass, plastic, and ceramic parts of the set may cool too
rapidly and break.
D-2
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Communications in Unusual Environments
D-16. Sweating occurs when cold equipment is brought suddenly into contact with warm air, moisture will
condense on the equipment parts. Before cold equipment is brought into a heated area, it should be
wrapped in a blanket or parka to ensure it will warm gradually to reduce sweating. Equipment must be
thoroughly dry before it is taken back out into the cold air, or the moisture will freeze.
Vehicular Mounted Radios
D-17. These radios present special problems during winter operations because of their continuous exposure
to the elements. Proper starting procedures must be observed. The radio’s power switch must be off prior
to starting the vehicle, especially when vehicles are slave-started. If the radio is cold soaked from
prolonged shutdown, frost may have collected inside the radio and could cause circuit arcing. Hence, time
should be allowed for the vehicle’s heater to warm the radio sufficiently so that any frost collected within
the radio has a chance to thaw.
D-18. The defrosting process may take up to an hour. Once the radio has been turned on, it should warm up
for approximately 15 minutes before transmitting or changing frequencies; this allows components to
stabilize.
D-19. If a vehicle is operated at a low idle with radios, heater, and lights on, the batteries may run down.
Before increasing engine revolutions per minute to charge the batteries, radios should be turned off to
avoid an excessive power surge.
OPERATIONS IN JUNGLE AREAS
D-20. Limitations on radio communications in jungle areas stem from the climate and the density of jungle
growth. The hot and humid climate increases the maintenance problems of keeping equipment operable.
Thick jungle growth acts as a vertically polarized absorbing screen for RF energy that, in effect, reduces
transmission range. Therefore, increased emphasis on maintenance and antenna site selection is inherently
important when operating in jungle areas.
D-21. Radio communications in jungle areas must be carefully planned, because dense jungle growth,
heavy rains, and hilly terrain all significantly reduces the range of radio transmission. Trees and
underbrush absorb VHF and UHF radio energy. In addition to the ordinary free space loss between
transmitting and receiving antennas, a radio wave passing through a forest undergoes an additional loss.
This extra loss increases rapidly as the transmission frequency increase. Near the ground (antenna heights
of less than 3 meters [9.8 ft]) vertical polarization is preferred. However, if it is possible to elevate the
receiving and transmitting antenna as much as 10–20 meters (32.8–65.6 ft), horizontal polarization is
preferable to vertical polarization. Considerable reduction in total path loss results if either or both the
transmitting and receiving antenna can be placed above the tree level through which communications must
be made.
D-22. SC radios can be deployed in many configurations, especially man packed, which make it a valuable
communications asset. The capabilities and limitations of tactical radios must be carefully considered when
used by friendly forces in a jungle environment. The mobility and various configurations in which the
tactical radio can be deployed are its primary advantages in jungle areas.
TECHNIQUES FOR BETTER COMMUNICATIONS
D-23. The site selection of the antenna is the main problem in establishing radio communications in jungle
areas. Techniques to improve communications in the jungle include—
z
Placing antennas in clearings on the edge farthest from the distant station, and as high as
possible.
z
Keeping antenna cables and connectors off the ground to lessen the effects of moisture, fungus,
and insects. This also applies to all power and telephone cables.
z
Using complete antenna systems, such as broadband and dipoles. They are more effective than
fractional wavelength whip antennas.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
D-3
Appendix D
z
z
Clearing vegetation from antenna sites. If an antenna touches any foliage, especially wet foliage,
the signal will be grounded.
Using horizontally polarized antennas in preference to vertically polarized antennas because
vegetation, particularly when wet, will act like a vertically polarized screen and absorb much of
any vertically polarized signal.
MAINTENANCE IMPROVEMENT
D-24. Because of moisture and fungus, the maintenance of radio sets in tropical climates is more difficult
than in temperate climates. The high relative humidity causes condensation to form on the equipment, and
encourages the growth of fungus. RTOs and maintenance personnel should check the appropriate TMs for
any special maintenance requirements. Techniques for improving maintenance in jungle areas include—
z
Keeping the equipment as dry as possible and in lighted areas to retard fungal growth.
z
Keeping all air vents clear of obstructions so air can properly circulate for cooling and drying of
the equipment.
z
Using moisture and fungus proofing paint, tape, or silicone grease to protect equipment after
repairs, or when painted surfaces have been damaged or scratched.
EXPEDIENT ANTENNAS
D-25. Dismounted patrols, and units of company size and below, can greatly improve their ability to
communicate in the jungle by using expedient antennas. While moving, users are generally restricted to
using the short or long whip antennas that come with their manpack radios. However, when not moving,
constructing and using an expedient antenna will allow users to broadcast farther, and to receive more
clearly. An antenna that is not tuned or cut to the operating frequency is not as effective as the whips that
are supplied with the radio. Circuits inside the radio load the whips properly so they are tuned to give
maximum output. Whips are not as effective as a tuned doublet or a broadband (such as the OE-254), when
the doublet or broadband is tuned to the operating frequency.
OE-254 Expedient Type Antenna
D-26. When used properly, the expedient OE-254 type antenna will increase the ability to communicate. In
its entirety, the OE-254 type antenna is bulky and heavy, and is not generally acceptable for dismounted
patrols or small unit operations. A Soldier can manage by, carrying only the masthead and antenna
sections, mounting these on wooden poles, or hanging them up when not on the move.
OPERATIONS IN URBAN AREAS
D-27. Radio communications in urbanized terrain pose special problems. When the Army is engaged in
urban combat operations the communications situation is considerably different from the situation faced by
civil government or cell phone users. Military factors include—
z
Restriction of operation to the frequency range of common military radios (2–512 MHz).
z
Limits on the output power of military radio equipment.
z
Limited number of available repeater assets if any.
z
Limited access to good repeater locations due to enemy action.
z
Need to communicate to both outside street locations and inside structures.
z
Lack of standard compact antenna systems useful for urban combat.
z
Severe restrictions on the movements of system users.
z
Lack of manpower required to cover multiple signal sites can easily exceed available resources.
z
Problems with obstacles blocking transmission paths.
z
Problems with poor electrical conductivity due to pavement surfaces.
z
Problem with commercial power lines interference.
z
Distorted radio wave propagation in built-up areas and the limited availability of open lines of
communication makes it difficult to move and install fixed station and multichannel systems.
D-4
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Communications in Unusual Environments
D-28. FM and VHF radios that serve as the principle medium for C2 will have their effectiveness reduced
in built-up areas. The operating frequencies and power output of these sets demand LOS between antennas.
LOS at street level is not always possible in built-up areas. AM HF sets are less affected by the LOS
problem because operating frequencies are lower, yet power output is greater. In past experiences, HF
radios were not organic to the small units that conducted clearing operations; retransmitting VHF signals
overcomes this limitation if available to utilize.
TECHNIQUES FOR BETTER COMMUNICATIONS
D-29. When available, wireless network extension stations in aerial platforms could provide the most
effective means; depending on the requirement, organic wireless network extension sets will have to be
used. Radio antennas should be hidden or blended in with the surroundings, so they will not be landmarks
for the adversary to hone in on; water towers, commercial antennas, and steeples can conceal military
antennas.
D-30. Wire can be laid while friendly forces are in static positions, but careful planning is necessary.
Existing telephone poles can be used to raise wire lines above the streets. Ditches, culverts, and tunnels can
be used to keep the wire below the streets. If these precautions are not taken, tracked and wheeled vehicles
will constantly tear lines apart, and disrupt communications.
D-31. Messengers provide security and flexibility; however, once operations begin, messenger routes must
be carefully selected to avoid any pockets of adversary resistance. Routes and time schedules should be
varied to avoid establishing a pattern.
D-32. Pyrotechnics, smoke, and marker panels are also excellent means for communicating, but they must
be well coordinated and fully understood by air and ground forces. The noise of combat in built-up areas
makes it difficult to use sound signals effectively.
D-33. The possible seizure or retention of established communications facilities must be included in
planning. Every effort should be made to prevent damage or destruction of these facilities. The local
telephone system is already in place and tailored to the city or town. Army forces use local telephone
systems to provide immediate access to wire communications with overhead and buried cable. This
procedure helps overcome the problems encountered with radios, and provides a cable system less
susceptible to combat damage.
D-34. Local media, such as newspapers, radio stations, and television stations, provide communications
with the local populace after the level of combat declines. Additionally, intact police or taxi
communications facilities are also possible radio systems, tailored to the city, with wireless network
extension facilities already in place.
D-35. Radio equipped vehicles should be parked inside of buildings for cover and concealment when
possible; dismount radio equipment, and install it inside buildings (in basements, if available). Place
generators against buildings or under sheds to increase noise absorption and provide concealment and
always remember to ensure adequate ventilation is available.
D-36. Another important consideration for urban combat is raw power. Obviously, the more power being
used than the more path loss can be overcome and the deeper the signals will penetrate into structures.
Common tactical VHF man-pack radios like SINCGARS have a maximum output power of four watts. The
AN/PRC-150 I HF radio has a maximum output power of 20 watts. That is 7 dB more signal power to
overcome losses caused by the path, path obstructions, inefficient antennas and other signal consuming
factors. The extra power will help the radio but power relationships can be tricky, for example—
z
4 watts = 36 decibels above a miliwatt (dbm).
z
20 watts = 43 dbm.
z
50 watts = 47 dbm.
z
150 watts = 52 dbm.
z
400 watts = 56 dbm.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
D-5
Appendix D
D-37. The dB is a logarithmic unit used to describe a ratio. The ratio may be power, voltage or intensity or
several other factors but in this case it is power (watts). If the RTO looks at the math, he will see that he
can measure the difference of two power levels by taking a logarithm of log 10 of their power ratio. If the
ratio of power is, for example, two, meaning one radio transmitter is double the power of the other then the
difference is 3dB. Put another way, for every 3dB gained by making a more efficient antenna system or
cutting transmission line loss, is the equivalent to doubling the transmitter power.
D-38. The important point is that often, adjustments to antenna systems or operational frequencies to make
an antenna more efficient can produce far more dBs of signal power than simply increasing the raw
transmitter power. More power will always help overcome path loss for both NVIS and ground wave
systems but many times it is not the best or only answer to the solution. If the radio is already operating at
the maximum power that the transmitter can produce then these adjustments (to the antenna systems or
frequencies) do become the only way to compensate for path loss and improve signal penetration in the
urban combat environment.
Note. It is important to remember that in some situations the power required to operate a radio
may not need to be at the maximum power, use only the power necessary to operate.
D-39. Communications between two radio stations requires that the transmitter power-transmitter antenna
gain-receiver antenna gain-receiver performance overcome the path loss between stations. A low power
outstation radio such as a man-pack radio with an inefficient antenna used by forward troops can be
“compensated for” to a degree when communicating with a base station that is typically using a higher
performance receiver and a more efficient antenna. When the path is reversed, typically higher-power basestation transmitter and the more efficient antenna again compensates for lower performing combat unit
radios in the net. Communications between low-power outstations is much more difficult and may even
require wireless network extension through a more efficient base station.
D-40. In urban operations, small HF radios, such as the AN/PRC-150 I are extremely portable, but are
antenna and power challenged based on location. A high degree of portable NVIS (sky wave) effect can be
obtained when needed by simply physically reorienting standard vertical man-pack or vehicle (whip)
antennas to the horizontal plane. Direct (surface wave) signals are simpler to generate and use inside
structures are also produced from the same antenna by just leaving the antenna vertical.
High Frequency and Structures
D-41. Because of their longer wavelengths (lower frequency) HF (2–30 MHz) signals will naturally
penetrate urban structures deeper than signals on higher, shorter wavelength frequencies. How deep the
penetration depends on exact frequency, signal power level, antenna efficiency and the makeup of the
urban structures in the path.
D-42. In all radio communications and particularly urban combat radio communications it is important to
overcome path loss. The greater the radiated signal and the lower the frequency the more path loss can be
overcome. This raises the probability of successful communications in urban areas and inside buildings.
D-43. As an example of HF signal penetration, it is not uncommon for a small ground penetrating radar
transmitter operating in the HF frequency range to penetrate over 100 ft (30.4 meters) into common kinds
of earth while the same power radar on a higher frequency will penetrate much less. So, if the RTO is using
a common VHF military radio operating at 30 MHz (lowest frequency for SC ground-to-air radio systems)
and replaces it with an HF radio AN/PRC-150 I operating at 5 MHz the path loss drops by 20 dB because
of the way that longer wavelength (lower frequency) signals propagate. In this case lowering the frequency
is the equivalent to increasing the power of the transmitter by a factor of almost seven.
OPERATIONS IN DESERT AREAS
D-44. Radios are usually the primary means of communications in the desert. They can be employed
effectively in desert climate and terrain to provide the highly mobile means of communications demanded
D-6
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Communications in Unusual Environments
by widely dispersed forces. However, desert terrain provides poor electrical ground and counterpoises are
needed to improve operation. The following paragraphs address operations in desert or arid areas.
D-45. Dust and extreme heat are two of the biggest problems involved in desert operations. Temperatures
may vary from 58º Celsius (136º Fahrenheit), in summer, to -46º Celsius (-50º Fahrenheit), in winter. The
heat can take a toll on generators, wire, communications equipment, and personnel.
D-46. Dust and sand particles damage equipment. Some CNRs have ventilating ports and channels that
may clog with dust. These must be checked regularly, and kept clean to prevent overheating.
D-47. Grounding equipment in a desert environment is difficult, and can be accomplished by burying
ground plates in the sand and frequently pouring salt solutions on them. Ensure equipment (for example,
generators and air filters) is cleaned daily to prevent equipment damage.
TECHNIQUES FOR BETTER COMMUNICATIONS
D-48. It is essential that antennas be cut or adjusted to the length of the operating frequency. Directional
antennas must be positioned exactly in the required direction; approximate azimuth produced by guesswork
is not sufficient. A basic whip antenna relies on the capacitor effect, between itself and the ground, for
efficient propagation. The electrical ground may be very poor, and the antenna performance alone may be
degraded by as much as one-third if the surface soil lacks moisture (which is normally the case in the
desert).
D-49. If a ground-mounted antenna is not fitted with a counterpoise (refer to Chapter 9 for more
information on a counterpoise), the ground around it should be dampened using any fluid available.
Vehicle mounted antennas are more efficient if the mass (main structure) of the vehicle is forward of the
antennas, and is oriented toward the distant station.
D-50. Keep all radios cool and clean in accordance with preventive maintenance. Operate them in a shaded
or ventilated area, and at low power whenever possible. Place a flat sheet of wood, cardboard or a vehicle’s
canvas top over the top of the radio to create manmade shade. Leaving a space between the
wood/cardboard and the radio will help to further cool the radio by causing air to circulate in the shaded
area between the radio and the wood. Using caution, cover hot radios with a damp cloth (ensure it is not
soaking wet) without blocking air ventilation outlets; moisture evaporation from the cloth will also cool the
radio.
D-51. Desert terrain can cause excessive signal attenuation, making planning ranges shorter. Desert
operations require dispersion, yet the environment is likely to degrade the transmission range of radios,
particularly VHFs (FM) fitted with secure equipment. This degradation is most likely to occur during the
hottest part of the day, from approximately 1200–1700 hours.
D-52. If, during the hottest time of day, CNR stations begin to lose contact, alternative communications
plans must be ready, and may include—
z
Using relay stations, including an airborne relay station (the aircraft must remain at least 4,000
meters behind the line of contact). Ground relay stations or wireless network extension are also
useful, and should be planned in conjunction with the scheme of maneuver.
z
Deploying any unemployed vehicle with a radio as a relay between stations.
z
Using alternative radio links, such as VHF multichannel telephones at higher level or HF-SSB
voice.
D-53. After dark, rapid temperature drops will cause a heat inversion that can disrupt radio
communications until the atmosphere stabilizes.
D-54. Generally, wire will not be used because military operations will be fluid; however, wire may be of
some value in some static defensive situations. When possible, bury wire and cables deep in the soft sand
to prevent heat damage to cable insulation, as well as vehicle, or foot traffic damage.
D-55. Prevent the exposure of floppy disks and computers to dust and sand. Covering computers and disks
with plastic bags will reduce damage. However, extended periods of covering computers and/or radios may
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
D-7
Appendix D
cause condensation inside these components and subsequent equipment damage or data loss. Compressed
air cans will facilitate the cleaning of keyboards and other components of computer systems.
D-56. Wind-blown sand and grit will damage electrical wire insulation over a period of time. All cables
that are likely to be damaged should be protected with tape before insulation becomes worn. Sand will also
find its way into parts of items such as “spaghetti cord” plugs, either preventing electrical contact or
making it impossible to join the plugs together. A brush, such as an old toothbrush, should be carried and
used to clean such items before they are joined.
D-57. Static electricity is prevalent in the desert. It is caused by many factors, one of which is wind-blown
dust particles. Extremely low humidity contributes highly to static discharges between charged particles.
Poor grounding conditions aggravate the problem. Be sure to tape all sharp edges (tips) of antennas to cut
down on wind-caused static discharges and the accompanying noise. If you are operating from a fixed
position, ensure that equipment is properly grounded at all times. Since static-caused noise diminishes with
an increase in frequency, use the highest frequencies that are available and authorized.
OPERATIONS IN MOUNTAIN AREAS
D-58. Radio operations in mountainous areas have some of the same problems as in cold weather areas.
Mobility is difficult in mountainous terrain, and it can be difficult to find a level area for a communications
site.
D-59. Generators and communications equipment need level ground to operate properly. It may difficult to
drive ground rods and guy wire stakes into rocky, mountainous terrain and an alternate grounding method
may be necessary. This rocky soil provides poor grounds; however, adding salt solutions will improve
electrical flow.
TECHNIQUES FOR BETTER COMMUNICATIONS
D-60. When operating in mountainous terrain, additional wireless network extension assets will be needed.
LOS paths are more difficult to plan, but use of relays improves communications. Positioning antennas is
crucial in mountainous terrain, as moving an antenna, even a small distance, can drastically affect
reception.
OPERATIONS IN A NUCLEAR AREA
D-61. A nuclear area will adversely affect sensitive radio equipment and components. Take measures to
protect signal equipment, and ensure equipment survivability and availability for future use. Nearly
everyone is aware of the effects of nuclear blast, heat, and radiation. The ionization of the atmosphere by a
nuclear explosion will have degrading effects on communications because of static and the disruption of
the ionosphere.
D-62. EMP is the radiation generated as a result of a nuclear detonation. Gamma rays, high energy
photons, radiate outward from the point of the nuclear detonation, and strip electrons from the atoms in the
air. This creates a wall of fast moving, negatively charged electrons which undergo rapid deceleration,
radiating an intense electromagnetic field. This electromagnetic energy will affect unprotected
communications equipment, causing disruption and/or destruction of delicate circuitry and components.
The residual ionized cloud will also cause disruption of transmissions.
D-63. EMP has a great “killing range.” EMP can disable electronic systems as far as 6,000 km (3,720
miles) (for an above the atmosphere [exoatmospheric] or high altitude EMP) from the site of the
detonation. EMP can also cause severe disruption and sometimes damage when other weapon effects are
absent. A high yield nuclear weapon, burst above the atmosphere, could be used to knock out a SC
TACSAT communications system’s operational status without doing any other significant damage. The
range of EMP is diminished if the weapon is detonated at a lower altitude within the atmosphere.
D-64. An idea of the strength of EMP can be gained when we compare it with fields from man-made
sources. A typical high level EMP could have an intensity (when taking into account the rise time, duration
and amplitude of the pulse) which is one thousand times more intense than a radar beam. A radar beam has
D-8
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Communications in Unusual Environments
sufficient power to cause biological damage such as blindness or sterilization. The EMP spectrum is broad
and extends from low frequencies into the UHF band. The most likely EMP effect would be stopping
communications service temporarily. This can occur even without permanent damage. This delay could
give an enemy enough of an advantage to change the outcome of the battle.
D-65. All TACSAT communications systems incorporate built-in features and techniques to counter the
EMP effects. Shielding can further reduce the level of the EMP. Shielding is using equipment location and
possible known directions of nuclear blasts to reduce EMP exposure. Shielding also depends on good
grounding. Electronic systems depend on protection against EMP and signal equipment is very susceptible
to EMP.
TECHNIQUES FOR BETTER COMMUNICATIONS
D-66. All equipment not required in primary systems should remain disconnected and stored within a
sealed shelter, or other shielded enclosure, for protection from EMP. This reduces the likelihood of all
equipment being simultaneously damaged by EMP, and provides a source of backup components to
reinstall affected systems.
D-67. Wire and cable must be shielded and properly grounded. Keep the cable length as short as possible.
Connect shields on all cables to the grounding systems, where provided. Effective grounding is a must to
reduce the effects of EMP.
D-68. Antennas should be disconnected from radio sets when not in use, and operational nets should be
reduced to a minimum. Most tactical radios with fully closed metal cases will provide adequate EMP
protection if all external connectors have been removed. Placing radios in vehicles, vans, and underground
shelters provides effective protection.
GENERAL RADIO SITE CONSIDERATIONS
D-69. The reliability of radio communications depends largely on the selection of a good radio site. Since it
is difficult to select a radio site that satisfies all the technical, tactical, and security requirements, select the
best site of all those available. In all cases, sites should be selected with the principals of site defense in
mind—observation, avenues of approach, cover, obstacles, and key terrain.
D-70. Site selection is a leader and operator responsibility. It is also good planning to select both a primary
site and an alternate site. If, for some reason, radio communications cannot be established and maintained
at the primary location, the radio equipment can be moved a short distance to the alternate site.
D-71. A radio station must be located in a position that will assure communications with all other stations
with which it is to operate, while maintaining a degree of physical and communication securities. To obtain
efficiency of transmission and reception, the following factors should be considered—
z
For operation at frequencies above 30 MHz, and whenever possible, select a location that will
allow LOS communications. Try to avoid locations that provide the adversary with a jamming
capability, visual sighting, or easy interception.
z
Dry ground has high resistance, and limits the range of the radio set. If possible, locate the
station near moist ground, which has much less resistance. Water, especially fresh water, greatly
increases the distances that can be covered.
z
Trees with heavy foliage absorb radio waves, and leafy trees have more of an adverse effect than
evergreens. Keep the antenna clear of all foliage and dense brush. However, try to use available
trees and shrubs for cover and concealment, and for screening from adversary jamming.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
D-9
Appendix D
D-72. When located near man-made obstructions—
z
Do not select an antenna position in a tunnel, or beneath an underpass or steel bridge.
Transmission and reception under these conditions are almost impossible because of high
absorption of RF energy.
z
Avoid buildings located between radio stations, particularly steel and reinforced concrete
structures; as they hinder transmission and reception. However, try to use buildings to
camouflage antennas from the adversary.
z
Avoid all types of suspended wire lines, such as telephone, telegraph, and high-tension power
lines, when selecting a site for a radio station. Wire lines absorb power from radiating antennas
located in their vicinity. They also introduce humming and noise interference in receiving
antennas.
z
Avoid positions adjacent to heavily traveled roads and highways. In addition to the noise and
confusion caused by tanks and trucks, ignition systems in these vehicles may cause electrical
interference.
z
Do not locate battery charging units and generators close to the radio station.
z
Do not locate radio stations close to each other.
z
Locate radio stations in relatively quiet areas. The copying of weak signals requires great
concentration by the RTO, and his attention should not be diverted by outside noises.
LOCAL COMMAND REQUIREMENTS
D-73. Radio stations should be located some distance from the unit headquarters or CP they serve. This
distance separation will ensure that adversary DF capability will not target the CP with long range artillery
fire, missiles, or aerial bombardment.
D-74. The locations selected should provide the best cover and concealment possible, consistent with good
transmission and reception. Perfect cover and concealment may impair communications. The permissible
amount of impairment depends upon the range required, the power of the transmitter, the sensitivity of the
receiver, the efficiency of the antenna system, and the nature of the terrain. When a radio is being used to
communicate over a distance that is well under the maximum range, some sacrifice of communications
efficiency can be made to permit better concealment of the radio from adversary observation.
PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
D-75. Manpack radio sets have sufficiently long cordage to permit operation from a concealed position (set
and operator), while the antenna is mounted in the best position for communications. Some sets can be
controlled remotely from distances of 30.4 meters (100 ft) or more. The remotely controlled set can be set
up in a relatively exposed position, if necessary, while the RTO remains concealed.
D-76. All radio set antennas must be mounted higher than ground level to permit normal communications.
Small tactical sets usually have whip antennas. These antennas are difficult to see from a distance,
especially if they are not silhouetted against the sky. However, they have a 360 degree radiation pattern
and are extremely vulnerable to adversary listening.
D-77. Avoid open crests of hills and mountains. A position protected from adversary fire just behind the
crest gives better concealment and sometimes provides better communications. All permanent and semipermanent positions should be properly camouflaged for protection from both aerial and ground
observation. However, the antenna should not touch trees, brush, or the camouflage material.
D-78. Use one well-sited, broadband antenna and a FHMUX to serve several radios. This allows quicker
set-up and disassemble times, and reduces camouflaging time and materials.
RADIO-TELEPHONE OPERATORS’ SKILLS
D-79. The skills and technical abilities of the RTOs at the transmitter and receiver play important roles in
obtaining the maximum range possible. The transmitter, output coupling, and antenna feeder circuits must
D-10
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Communications in Unusual Environments
be tuned correctly to obtain maximum power output. Additionally, both the radiating antenna and the
receiving antenna have to be constructed properly with regard to both electrical characteristics and
conditions of the local terrain. The RTO is the main defense against adversary interference. The skills of
the RTO can be the final determining factor in maintaining C2 communications in the face of an
adversary’s efforts to disrupt it.
5 August 2009
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Appendix E
Julian Date, Sync Time, and Time Conversion Chart
Accurate time is essential for SINCGARS to operate in the FH mode; a time variance
greater than plus or minus four seconds will disrupt SINCGARS FH
communications. This appendix addresses the Julian date, sync time, and Zulu time.
It also provides a time zone conversion chart.
JULIAN DATE
E-1. The SINCGARS uses a special two-digit form of the Julian date as part of the sync time. The twodigit Julian date begins with 01 on 1 January and continues through 00, repeating as necessary to cover the
entire year.
E-2. Since the two-digit Julian year terminates on 65 (or 66 for the leap year), every 1 January the Julian
date must change to 01. This can be accomplished by—
z
The NCS sending an ERF.
z
Operators reloading time directly from an ANCD or PLGR.
z
Operators manually changing the date in the radio by using the RT keypad.
E-3. Tables E-1 and E-2 show the two-digit Julian date calendars for regular and leap years, respectively.
Table E-1. Julian date calendar (regular year)
Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
35
36
36
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
E-1
Appendix E
Table E-1. Julian date calendar (regular year) (continued)
Day
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
56
57
58
59
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
15
16
17
18
19
20
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
76
77
78
79
80
81
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
68
69
70
71
72
73
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
29
30
31
32
33
34
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
Table E-2. Julian date calendar (leap year)
Julian Date Calendar (Leap Year)
Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
SYNC TIME
E-4. To maintain proper sync time, the SINCGARS uses seven internal clocks: a base clock, plus one for
each of the six FH channels. Manual and cue settings will display the base clock time.
E-5. With the fielding of the PLGR (and more recently the DAGR), all units were provided a ready
source of highly accurate GPS time. By opening all nets on GPS time, and updating NCS RT sync time to
GPS time daily, all nets of a division, corps, or larger force are continuously kept within the +/- four
E-2
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Julian Date, Sync Time, and Time Conversion Chart
second window required for FH communications. Refer to TM 11-5820-890-7 for information on how to
load the PLGR date and time into a SINCGARS.
ZULU TIME
E-6. Zulu time remains in sync with the Naval Observatory Atomic Clock. Zulu time can be confirmed
from the US Naval Observatory master clock telephone voice announcer Defense Switched Network
(DSN) 762-1401, 762-1069 (Washington, DC) or DSN 560-6742 (Colorado Springs, Colorado). You can
only connect to these numbers for a brief time before the call is terminated. If DSN is not available call
(202) 762-1069 or (202) 762-1401. These are not toll-free numbers and callers outside the local calling
area are charged at regular long-distance rates. Another alternative is to go to http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/,
or use the time from a PLGR that is tracking at least one satellite. The NCS should update and verify net
time daily or according to unit SOP.
TIME ZONE CONVERSIONS
E-7. There are 25 integer World Time Zones from 12 through 0 Coordinated Universal Time (formerly
Greenwich Mean Time) to +12. Each is 15 degrees longitude, as measured East and West, from the Prime
Meridian of the earth at Greenwich, England.
E-8. Table E-3 outlines each time zone around the world, and its relationship to Zulu time and Figure E-1
shows a world time zone map.
E-9. When Coordinated Universal Time is 12:00, the diametrically opposed time zone is 00:00. This is
indicated by the dashed line, and also indicates a date change. By convention, the area to the left of the
dashed line is the following day, while the area to the right is the preceding day.
Table E-3. Example of world time zone conversion (standard time)
Y
X
W
V
U
T
S
R
Q
P
O
N
Z
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
K
L
M
Civilian Time Zones
I N
D T
L
W
H
S
T
A
S
D
T
P
S
T
M
S
T
C
S
T
E
S
T
A
S
T
N
S
T
A
T
W
A
T
U
T
C
C
E
T
E
E
T
B
T
Z
P
4
Z
P
5
Z
P
6
W
A
S
T
C
C
T
J
S
T
G
S
T
S
B
T
I
D
L
E
1
3
0
0
1
4
0
0
1
5
0
0
1
6
0
0
1
7
0
0
1
8
0
0
1
9
0
0
**
2
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
2
2
0
0
2
3
0
0
2
4
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
8
0
0
0
9
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
2
0
0
*
1
2
0
0
Standard Time=Universal Time + Value from Table
Z
A
B
C
D
* =Today
0
+1
+2
+3
+4
E
F
G
H
I
** =Yesterday
AT-Azores Time
IDLW-International Date Line West
NST-Newfoundland Standard Time
HST-Hawaii Standard Time
EET-Eastern European Time
PST-Pacific Standard Time
MST-Mountain Standard Time
CST-Central Standard Time
EST-Eastern Standard time
5 August 2009
+5
+6
+7
+8
+9
K
L
M
N
O
+10
+11
+12
-1
-2
P
Q
R
S
T
AWST-Australian Western Standard Time
WAT-West Africa Time
UTC-Coordinated Universal Time
CET-Central European Time
IDLE-International Date Line East
BT-Baghdad
ZP-4
ZP-5
ZP-6
FM 6-02.53
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
U
V
W
X
Y
-8
-9
-10
-11
-12
CCT-China Coast Time
GST-Guam Standard Time
JST-Japan Standard Time
ASDT-Alaska Standard Time
NT-Nome Time
WAST-West Africa Time Zone
AST-Atlantic Standard Time
SBT-Solomon Island Time
E-3
Appendix E
Figure E-1. World time zone map
E-4
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Appendix F
Radio Compromise Recovery Procedures
Net compromise recovery procedures are essential to maintaining secure
communications, and preventing an adversary from disrupting C2 communications
due to loss or capture of COMSEC equipment. This appendix provides procedures
for preventing and recovering a net after a compromise, and addresses recovery
options available to the commander and his staff. This appendix is compliant with AR
380-40, and can be used as the core basis for a unit or taskforce SOP.
SECURE COMMUNICATIONS IMPERATIVES
F-1. The following imperatives will increase the unit’s ability to operate without adversary intervention
on its nets—
z
ANCDs/SKLs below the battalion level (S-6) will only have the current TEK and KEK of the
unit, and the minimum SOI data to perform the mission.
z
ANCD loadsets will be loaded with NET ID 999 in each fill position, so not to compromise unit
nets if captured. NET ID 999 will not be assigned as an operational net. (SINCGARS has the
capability to manipulate all three digits of the NET ID.)
z
ANCDs/SKLs and CIKs are always stored or transported separately to decrease ease of captured
equipment operation by the adversary.
z
Unique KEKs will be assigned down to the company level. (However, situations may arise that
require unique KEKs at lower levels.)
z
Units assign specific NET IDs as COMSEC recovery nets. (Predetermined NET IDs should be
addressed in each unit’s tactical SOP and/or OPORD.)
COMPROMISE DETERMINATION
F-2. The S-6, S-3, and S-2 will work together in determining the possibility of a compromise and the
potential damage the compromise may cause. This damage is determined by evaluating what equipment
was possibly captured or lost, and what COMSEC was loaded into the equipment. Upon determining there
has been a compromise, COMSEC key replacement is required to secure the net.
F-3. Upon notification by the staff, the commander has three options. He can—
z
Immediately implement the unit’s compromise recovery procedures to secure the net.
z
Extend the use of validated, intact COMSEC keys up to 24-hours. (Only if the commander is the
controlling authority.) Commands must request permission to change COMSEC keys through
the correct command channels.
z
As a last resort, continue to use the compromised COMSEC keys.
COMPROMISE RECOVERY
F-4. If the controlling authority decides to continue using the compromised key, the commander, under
advisement from the S-6/G-6 and staff, may initiate actions to protect net security.
F-5. If an operational radio and/or a filled ANCD/SKL falls into an adversary’s hands, the unit SOP
should assume the adversary has English-speaking Soldiers who can operate the radio and ANCD/SKL.
The SOP should also assume the adversary is able to listen to US secure FH net communications and can
transmit on that same US net, if desired.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
F-1
Appendix F
F-6. Other assumptions and factors to consider if faced with a compromise recovery requirement
include—
z
Can the adversary move the captured radio and continue to operate that radio?
z
What is the range of the captured radio?
z
What is the expected duration of the battery or other power source?
z
How long until the next periodic COMSEC update?
z
How serious is the adversary’s access to your net?
z
What is the potential impact of the captured loadset on other nets?
z
What was the nature of, and how critical is, the unit operation at the time that the compromise
recovery was considered?
F-7. Two sets of net compromise recovery procedures exist to provide units guidance on recovering from
a net compromise. Table F-1 provides procedures for those units that have compromised TEKs and KEKs,
and Table F-2 provides procedures for those units that have compromised TEKs only. These procedures
offer ways to help protect net security; however, this is not a substitute for distributing new COMSEC keys
as soon as operationally possible.
Table F-1. Compromised net recovery procedures: compromised TEKs and KEKs
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
F-2
Procedure
The NCS is advised of loss of radio and/or ANCD/SKL.
The S-6 notifies next higher command and/or controlling authority, and requests permission
to change to reserve TEK.
The G-6/S-6 and the commander determine if compromise recovery action is warranted.
Depending on the operational situation, the G-6/S-6 and the commander may elect to
temporarily continue to use the presumably compromised net until it is determined that the
compromise and compromise procedures will not interfere with current operations.
If compromise recovery action is required, the NCS broadcasts unit code word, meaning
“Standby for activation of compromise procedures.” (Adversary does not know the meaning
of this code-word.)
In accordance with compromise procedures, each operator in the net will answer back with
“WILCO, out,” verifying they understand and will comply. The operator will then switch to the
unit’s predetermined alternate NET ID, and wait for the NCS to perform a net call.
The NCS maintains a tracking chart to log all subscribers confirming the code word. If
possible, the NCS should maintain additional SINCGARS on the old NET ID to ensure that
all users are moved to the alternate NET ID. (This is commonly called straggler control.)
The NCS then changes to the predetermined alternate NET ID and performs a net call. NCS
operator logs in the users as they answer on the alternate NET ID.
Upon gaining controlling authority approval to change to the new TEK, the NCS will initiate a
net call and inform all users of the manual COMSEC distribution plan. Each radio and
ANCD/SKL will have to be manually filled from another device with the new COMSEC. (This
is a mandatory physical distribution due to the KEK compromise.)
Upon complete distribution of the new COMSEC, the NCS will initiate a net call, informing
the unit of the time to change to the new COMSEC, and return to the original NET ID.
At the designated time, the NCS will return to the original NET ID and log all subscribers on
a tracking chart as they return to the original NET ID on the new COMSEC. If possible, the
NCS should maintain an additional radio on the alternate NET ID to ensure that all users are
moved over to the original NET ID.
The losing unit/net has now effectively recovered from the actual or potential compromise
situation.
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Radio Compromise Recovery Procedures
Table F-2. Compromised net recovery procedures: compromised TEKs
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Procedures
The NCS of the net is advised of loss of radio and/or ANCD/SKL.
The S-6 notifies next higher command and/or controlling authority, and requests
permission to change to the reserve TEK.
The G-6/S-6 and the commander determine if compromise recovery action is warranted.
Depending on the operational situation, the G-6/S-6 and the commander may elect to
temporarily continue to use the presumably compromised net until they determine the
compromise and compromise procedures will not interfere with current operations.
If compromise recovery action is required, the NCS broadcasts unit code-word, meaning
“Standby for activation of compromise procedures.” (Adversary does not know the
meaning of this code-word, and does not know the alternate NET ID.)
In accordance with compromise procedures, each operator in the net will answer back
with “WILCO, out,” verifying that he understands and will comply. The operator will then
switch to the alternate NET ID, and wait for the NCS to perform a net call.
The NCS maintains a tracking chart to log all subscribers confirming the code-word. If
possible, the NCS should maintain an additional radio on the old NET ID to ensure that
all users are moved over to the alternate NET ID. (This is commonly called straggler
control.)
The NCS then changes to the predetermined alternate NET ID and performs a net call.
NCS logs in users as they answer on the alternate NET ID.
Upon gaining approval from the controlling authority to change to the new TEK, the NCS
will initiate a net call and OTAR procedures, or initiate a manual rekeying of the unit’s
SINCGARS and fill devices. (OTAR—automatic key procedures should only be used at
the effective time of the COMSEC key.)
Upon complete distribution of the new COMSEC, the NCS will initiate a net call
informing the unit of the time to change to the new COMSEC and return to the original
NET ID.
At the designated time, the NCS will return to the original NET ID and log all subscribers
on a tracking chart as they return to the original NET ID on the new COMSEC. If
possible, the NCS should maintain an additional radio on the alternate NET ID to ensure
that all users are moved to original NET ID.
The losing unit/net has now effectively recovered from the actual or potential
compromise situation.
F-8. Since the entire division/brigade is operating on the same TEK, the divisions/brigade G-6 may elect
to have all nets change to a new TEK. If so, this change may be accomplished by the physical transfer from
ANCD/SKL to ANCD/SKL, or by OTAR, as most appropriate for the operational situation.
5 August 2009
FMI 6-02.53
F-3
This page intentionally left blank.
Appendix G
Data Communications
This appendix addresses data communications elements such as binary data, baud
rate, modems and FEC.
BINARY DATA
G-1. Bits are part of a numbering system (binary digits) having a base of two that uses only the symbols 0
and 1. Thus, a bit is any variable that assumes two distinct states. For example, a switch is open or closed; a
voltage is positive or negative. In terms of communications, words become binary digits for transformation
over a channel (specific frequency range), via a HF radio transmitter, to a HF receiver.
G-2. A simple way to communicate binary data is to switch a circuit on and off in patterns that are
interpreted at the other end; the same as the telegraph. Later schemes used a bit to select one of two
possible states of the properties that characterize a carrier, FM or AM. Currently, the carrier assumes more
than two states, and is able to represent multiple bits.
BAUD RATE
G-3. Data transmission speed is commonly measured in bps. Sometimes the word baud is used to
represent bps, although the terms are different. Baud measures the signaling speed and is a measurement of
symbols per second that are being sent. Symbols may represent a bit or more.
G-4. The bandwidth determines the maximum baud rate on a radio channel; the larger the bandwidth, the
greater the baud rate. The rate at which information is transmitted (the bit rate) depends on how many bits
are used per symbol.
ASYNCHRONOUS AND SYNCHRONOUS DATA
G-5. The transmission of data occurs in either the asynchronous or synchronous mode. In asynchronous
data transmission, each character has a start and stop bit. The start bit prepares the data receiver to accept
the character. The stop bit brings the data receiver back to the wait state. Synchronous data transmission
eliminates the start and stop bits. This type of system typically uses a preamble (a known sequence of bits
at the start of the message) to synchronize the receiver’s internal clock and to alert the data receiver that a
message is coming.
G-6. Asynchronous systems eliminate the need for complex synchronization circuits, but at the cost of
higher overhead than synchronous systems. With asynchronous systems the start and stop bits increase the
length of the character from 8 bits (one byte) to 10 bits, a 25 percent increase.
HIGH FREQUENCY MODEMS
G-7. The average voice radio cannot transmit data directly. Data digital voltage levels must be converted
to audio using a modulator device that applies the audio to the transmitter. At the receiver, a demodulator
converts the audio back to digital voltage levels. HF modems fall into three basic categories—
z
Modems with slow-speed audio FSK capable of operating at data rates of 75, 150, 300 and 600
bps.
z
High-speed parallel tone.
z
High-speed serial tone capable of operating at data rates between 75 and 2, 400 bps.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
G-1
Appendix G
G-8. The simplest modems use FSK to encode binary data. The input to the modulator is a digital signal
that takes one of two possible voltage levels. The output of the modulator is an audio signal that is one of
two possible tones. HF FSK systems are limited to data rates less than 75 bps, due to the effects of
multipath propagation. Higher rates are possible with multitone FSK, which uses a greater number of
frequencies.
G-9. High-speed HF modem technology, using both parallel and serial tone waveforms, allows data
transmissions at up to 4,800 bps. The serial tone modem carries information on a single audio tone. This
vastly improves data communications on HF channels, including greater toughness, less sensitivity to
interference, and a higher data rate with more powerful FEC.
IMPROVED DATA MODEM
G-10. The improved data modem will allow both air and ground forces to exchange complex information
in short bursts. It will permit simultaneous transmit/receive information from four different radios,
interface with MIL-STD 1553 data bus, transmit data at 16,000 bps, and process messages up to 3,500
characters in length.
FORWARD ERROR CODING
G-11. FEC adds redundant data to the data stream to allow the data receiver to detect and correct errors. It
does not require a return channel for the acknowledgment. If a data receiver detects an error, it simply
corrects it and accurately reproduces the original data without notifying the data sender that there was an
error.
G-12. FEC coding is most effective if errors occur randomly in a data stream. However, the HF medium
typically introduces errors that occur in bursts. To take advantage of the FEC coding technique,
interleaving randomizes the errors that occur in the channel. At the demodulator, de-interleaving reverses
the process.
G-13. Soft-decision decoding further enhances the power of the error correction coding. In this process, a
group of detected symbols that retains its analog character is compared against a set of possible transmitted
code words. The system remembers the voltage from the detector, and applies a weighing factor to each
symbol in the code word before making a decision about which code word was transmitted.
G-14. Data communications techniques are also used for encrypting voice calls by a VOCODER, a
derivative of voice coder-decoder. The VOCODER converts sound into a data stream for transmission over
a HF channel. The VOCODER at the receiving end reconstructs the data into telephone quality sound.
G-15. In addition to error correction techniques, high-speed serial modems may include two signalprocessing schemes that improve data transmission. An automatic-channel equalizer compensates for
variations in the channel characteristics as data is being received. An adaptive excision filter seeks output,
and suppresses narrowband interference in the demodulator input, thereby reducing the effects of cochannel interference; interference on the same channel being used.
G-2
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Appendix H
Co-Site Interference
Co-site interference is the effect of unwanted energy, due to emissions, radiation, or
induction, on reception in a radio communications system. This could cause system
performance degradation, misinterpretation, or loss of information. As
telecommunication systems become more complex and several antennas are placed
on the same platform, or when multiple radios in the same or dissimilar frequency
bands are integrated within mobile communications CP platforms, interference
becomes significant in system performance. This appendix addresses SINCGARS
implications and co-site interference mitigation.
SINCGARS IMPLICATIONS
H-1. Due to SINCGARS FH capabilities, frequency management alone does not reduce co-site
interference. The addition of computer central processing units, displays, switches, routers, hubs, and
cables in the confined CP amplifies the potential for co-site interference.
H-2. Within a CP or a mobile platform (vehicle or aircraft), co-site interference depends on several
factors, including—
z
The number of transmitters within the restricted area.
z
The duty cycle of each transmitter—the transmitting time of the radio, divided by the
transmitting time plus the time before the next transmission. (Example: if a radio transmits for
four seconds and waits six seconds before the next transmission, the duty cycle is 40 percent.)
z
The hopset bandwidth (if hopping).
z
An increase in the system data rate increases the electromagnetic flux of the system, thus
increasing interference potential.
z
Antenna placement.
z
Equipment shielding.
z
Bonding.
z
Grounding.
H-3. SINCGARS that habitually transmit to distances of 35–40 km (21.7–24.8 miles), by themselves, can
transmit at distances reduced to less than 5 km (3.1 miles) when influenced by co-site interference. This
degradation, if not properly addressed, will adversely distress the flow of C2 communications. This distress
may lead to the physical shutdown of non-critical systems that pass information onto critical systems.
H-4. Figure H-1 shows the mobile CP antenna configuration. (The antennas have been removed to avoid
clutter). This mobile CP contains multiple radio systems, including FH SINCGARS, multiplexed on a
single antenna within the CP. The close proximity and number of simultaneous transmitters produce
unwanted emissions and degrade or block outstation receiver communications.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
H-1
Appendix H
Figure H-1. Mobile command post antenna configuration
H-5. When a SINCGARS transmits at maximum power, a collocated mobile subscriber radiotelephone
terminal (MSRT) radio cannot establish a link into the MSE area communications system. Antennas
require 20+ ft of separation to overcome the SINCGARS-generated increase in background noise. This
separation allows an acceptable S/N ratio for MSRT to establish a successful link.
H-6. If SINCGARS transmits at a power of four watts or less, the MSRT can effectively establish a voice
link with some reduction in data quality. SINCGARS low power (4 watts) output reduces the SINCGARS
planning range by 90 percent, and subjects the SINCGARS to increased noise generated by the collocated,
transmitting MSRT system.
H-7. If SINCGARS is configured to hop outside the MSRT frequency range (59–88 MHz outside the
Continental United States [OCONUS] or 40–50 MHz CONUS), plus an additional 5 MHz cushion in both
areas of operation, the MSRT is relatively resistant to SINCGARS co-site interference. However, this
causes a significant reduction of the available frequency spectrum, and a constraint on the capabilities of
the SINCGARS. Full frequency range and full power hopping transmissions from SINCGARS will reduce
MSRT operational distances by 94 percent. MSRT transmissions (16 watts) will degrade a co-sited
SINCGARS operational planning distance by 74 percent. For all intents and purposes, full power
operations of both systems can render them inoperable in many tactical situations.
CO-SITE INTERFERENCE MITIGATION
H-8. A number of options are available to mitigate co-site interference, but there are no comprehensive
solutions. The user must decide if an option is applicable to his tactical situation, and take the appropriate
action to resolve co-site interference.
H-9. Some equipment systems are not as critical as others. The S-6/G-6 must recommend to the
commander a system priority list that ensures the transmission of critical mission information. During
H-2
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Co-Site Interference
interference, the S-6/G-6 must be prepared to shut down less critical systems. The following paragraphs
address ways to reduce co-site interference.
TRANSMISSION
H-10. When possible and operationally acceptable, transmit at the lowest power level. This allows
collocated SINCGARS and MSRT antenna systems to operate with minimal interference in both data and
voice communications at the receivers. This option may be unacceptable due to the significant transmission
range reduction of the SINCGARS.
H-11. Remoting antennas and transmitting from the CP at low power to a full power wireless network
extension system mitigates co-site interference. Certain critical TOC nets would then be able to maintain
their high power advantage.
ANTENNA PLACEMENT
H-12. Antenna placement is critical when the antennas operate in the same or nearby frequency range(s);
separate antennas as much as possible. The greater the separation between the transmitting and receiving
antennas, the less interference encountered. TOCs could be issued a significant quantity of mast-mounted
antennas (OE-254 or equivalent) to match the number of installed SINCGARS. Extra length low-loss
coaxial transmission lines should be included with each requirement. However, this may cause an increase
in the physical size of the CP location, and an increase in CP setup and disassembly times. Figure H-2
shows an example of proper antenna separation for an armored TOC.
H-13. Tilting the tops of the transmitting and receiving antennas away from each other can enhance
vertically polarized ground wave communications. Tilt angles between 15 and 30 degrees will provide the
best results; the best angle is achieved by trial and error.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
H-3
Appendix H
Figure H-2. Example of proper antenna separation for an armored TOC
DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS
H-14. Use directional antennas whenever possible. This may require the prefabrication of VHF directional
antennas, since these are not available in the current Army inventory. Change antenna polarization on
systems where distance is not an issue. A horizontally polarized ground wave will have less signal loss
than a vertically polarized ground wave if antenna heights exceed treetop levels or other horizontal energy
absorbers.
MAST ASSEMBLIES
H-15. If possible, stack antennas in the null space of another vertical antenna. The radiation pattern of a
vertical antenna has a deep energy void directly overhead (90 degrees). Figure H-3 shows possible antenna
stacks. These mast assemblies would be configured to mount two OE-254 broadband antennas using
vertical separation, as shown in configuration A of Figure H-3. Mast assemblies could also use a new
design that incorporates the omnidirectional antennas into mast sections, as shown in configuration B of
Figure H-3.
H-16. Both dual-antenna mast assemblies must provide at least 12 dB or greater antenna isolation (at 30
MHz) over that obtained using the same distance horizontal separation. Taking advantage of the lateral
wave propagation of vertical antennas. Energy transference is negligible on a receiving antenna in this null
space. Early fabrication of mounting devices may be required to achieve antenna stacking.
H-4
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Co-Site Interference
Figure H-3. Possible antenna stacks
GROUNDING
H-17. Ensure electronic equipment within the CP is properly grounded. Proper grounding ensures that each
item does not develop interference-producing electromagnetic fields, or simulate the properties of an
unwanted, energy-radiating transmitting antenna within the CP.
H-18. Another option is to counterpoise the antenna. The wires used in the counterpoise should be either a
half wavelength, or a full wavelength long for best results. A greater direction gain can be achieved by
placing the counterpoise wires in the direction of the receiving antenna. (Refer to Chapter 9 for more
information on how to construct a counterpoise.)
SINGLE-CHANNEL OPERATIONS
H-19. When operating against less sophisticated adversaries, using SINCGARS SC mode of operation also
mitigates co-site interference. Even when operating at full power, properly chosen frequencies can reduce
co-site interference, and provide increased range capability due to better bit error rate, inherent with SC
operation.
INITIATIVES
H-20. Two co-site mitigation initiatives are the TD-1456/VRC, FHMUX, and the JTRS family of radios.
Communications integration and co-site mitigation science and technology objectives products enhance
both initiatives.
TD-1456/VRC, FHMUX
H-21. The FHMUX is a hardware solution to co-site interference. It is compatible with the SINCGARS in
EP (FH) and SC (non-FH) modes of operation. Figure H-4 shows the FHMUX. The FHMUX is an antenna
multicoupler that—
z
Reduces visual signature of the command vehicle, by reducing the antenna count, thus
increasing the survivability of the vehicle on the battlefield.
z
Reduces collocated net-to-net interference (co-site).
z
Reduces setup time for C2. The user erects one OE-254 antenna, and four nets are operational
via the FHMUX. FHMUX is compatible with high power whip antennas, such as the AS3900A/VRC or AS-3916/VRC.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
H-5
Appendix H
z
z
z
Reduces the parasitic effect of the antennas. The transmit radiation of one antenna in close
proximity (10 ft/3 meters) will interact with another antenna producing undesirable distortions
within the pattern of each antenna.
Provides up to 300 meters (.3 km) multicoupler to antenna separation, to reduce exposure of the
CP to hostile fire.
Provides frequency conflict arbitration software that optimizes the transmission range. Table H1 shows the effects of multiple transmitters (within a C2 vehicle) on transmission ranges with
and without the FHMUX.
Figure H-4. Frequency hopping multiplexer
H-6
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Co-Site Interference
Table H-1. Transmitters and transmission ranges with and without the FHMUX
Transmitters On
Range to target receiver without FHMUX
Range to target receiver with FHMUX
zero
one
two
three
35 km/21.7 miles
14 km/8.6 miles
9 km/5.5 miles
3 km/1.8 miles
35 km/21.7 miles
32 km/19.8 miles
27 km/16.7 miles
19 km/11.8 miles
Note. Range to target receiver from a C2 vehicle, compared to the number of transmitters operating on the C2 vehicle.
H-22. The FHMUX contains bandpass filters that tune synchronously with the radios. These filters remove
most of the broadband transmit interference. Signals coming from the antenna also pass through these
bandpass filters, and strong, non-bandpass signals are removed. This greatly improves the performance of
the radio system when in a co-site environment.
H-23. In the EP mode, the FHMUX is most effective when the hopset contains at least 800 channels and it
is spread over at least 20 MHz of the VHF band. When enemy intrusion is not an issue, and the SC mode is
used, the FHMUX is most effective when frequencies are separated by a five percent delta for each radio.
(Refer to TM 11-5820-890-10-8 and TM 11-5820-890-23&P for more information on the FHMUX.)
Joint Tactical Radio System
H-24. The JTRS may eliminate most, if not all, co-site interference problems that occur when multiple
radios in the same or dissimilar frequency bands are integrated within the same mobile communications CP
platform. The JTRS operates at full performance levels, and does not degrade mission effectiveness of host
systems/platforms engaged in their tactical environments, including weapons firing and movements.
H-25. New efforts, in conjunction with the JTRS, include the development of a VHF/UHF multiplexer,
utilizing RF signal combining, and co-site mitigation technology to reduce the platform’s antenna visual
signature and JTRS self-jamming interference. The initial and objective multiplexer development efforts
will exploit emerging technology applications in the areas of wideband interference mitigation and
compact delay lines.
H-26. A new communications integration and co-site mitigation science and technology objective initiative
includes a multiband VHF/UHF PA that will eliminate dissimilar legacy radio amplifiers and their
logistics, training, and maintenance infrastructures, and will provide a modular, programmable JTRS
waveform capability. The initial and objective PA development efforts will use laterally diffused metal
oxide semiconductor and silicone carbide device technology to meet higher power and frequency
requirements.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
H-7
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Glossary
The glossary lists acronyms and terms with Army, multi-service, or joint definitions,
and other selected terms. Where Army and joint definitions are different, (Army) follows
the term. Terms for which FM 6-02.53 is the proponent manual (the authority) are
marked with an asterisk (*). The proponent manual for other terms is listed in parentheses
after the definition.
SECTION I – ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
2G
second generation
3G
third generation
A&L
A2C2S
Army Airborne Command and Control System
ABCS
Army Battle Command System
ACES
automated communications engineering software
ACMES
ADA
AFATDS
AIRP
AIRSIP
Automated Communications Security Management and Engineering
System
air defense artillery
Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System
Army interference resolution program
airborne system improvement program
AIS
Automated Information Systems
AKMS
Army Key Management System
ALE
AM
ANCD
ANDVT
ANR
AO
AOR
APCO
AR
ARNG
ARNGUS
ASIP
ASIP-E
ASCC
ATC
AWACS
BCT
5 August 2009
administrative and logistics
automatic link establishment
amplitude modulation
automated net control device
advanced narrowband digital voice terminal
active noise reduction
area of operations
area of responsibility
Association of Public Safety Communications Officials
Army regulation
Army National Guard
Army National Guard of the United States
advanced system improvement program
advanced system improvement program-enhanced
Army Service component commander
air traffic control
Airborne Warning and Control System
brigade combat team
FM 6-02.53
Glossary-1
Glossary
BFT
Blue Force Tracking
BIT
built-in test
BLOS
bps
bits per second
C2
command and control
CA
Civil Affairs
CDR
commander
CDU
control display unit
CEOI
CIK
CJCSI
CNR
CNRS
CO
COA
communications-electronics operating instructions
cryptographic ignition key
Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff instruction
combat net radio
communications networking radio subsystem
company
course of action
COMSEC
communications security
CONUS
continental United States
COOP
Continuity of Operations Plan
COTS
commercial off-the-shelf
CP
CPC
CREW
CSEL
CSMA
CT
command post
combat survivor evader locator planning computer
Counter Remote Control Improvised Explosive Device Warfare
combat survivor evader locator
carrier sense multiple access
cipher text
CW
continuous wave
DA
Department of the Army
DAGR
defense advanced global positioning system receiver
DAMA
demand assigned multiple access
DAP
dynamically allocated permanent (virtual circuit)
dB
decibel
dBi
gain in decibels
dbm
DF
decibels above a milliwatt
direction finding
DOD
Department of Defense
DRA
data rate adapter
DTD
data transfer device
DSN
Defense Switched Network
DTE
data terminal equipment
EA
ECCM
Glossary-2
beyond line of sight
electronic attack
electronic counter-countermeasures
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Glossary
EDM
enhanced data mode
EEFI
essential elements of friendly information
EHF
extremely high frequency
EKMS
Electronic Key Management System
e-mail
electronic mail
EMI
electromagnetic interference
EMP
electromagnetic pulse
EMSO
ENM
EP
EPLRS
ERF
ES
ESB
ESIP
EW
FBCB2
FCTN
FEC
FH
FHMUX
FLOT
FM
Enhanced Position Location Reporting System network manager
electronic protection
Enhanced Position Location Reporting System
electronic remote fill
electronic warfare support
expeditionary signal battalion
enhanced system improvement program
electronic warfare
Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below
function
forward error correction
frequency hopping
frequency hopping multiplexer
forward line of own troops
field manual; frequency modulation
FMI
field manual interim
FSK
frequency shift key
ft
feet
G-2
assistant chief of staff, intelligence
G-3
assistant chief of staff, operations
G-6
assistant chief of staff, command, control, communications, and
computer operations
GCC
geographic combatant commander
GHz
gigahertz
GPS
global positioning system
HDR
high data rate
HF
HRCRD
HQ
high frequency
handheld remote control radio device
headquarters
Hz
hertz
I/O
input/output
ICEPAC
ICOM
5 August 2009
electromagnetic spectrum operations
Ionospheric Communications Enhanced Profile and Circuit
integrated communications security
FM 6-02.53
Glossary-3
Glossary
IED
IHFR
IMMP
improved high frequency radio
Information Management Master Plan
IMP
Information Management Plan
INC
internet controller card
INMARSAT
IONCAP
IP
ISP
international maritime satellite
Ionospheric Communications Analysis and Prediction
Internet Protocol
Information Systems Plan
ISSO
Information Systems Security Officer
ITSB
integrated theater signal battalion
IVRCU
intravehicular remote control unit
J-6
JACS
communications system directorate of a joint staff
joint automated communications-electronics operating instructions
system
JCF
joint contingency force
JCS
Joint Chiefs of Staff
JINTACCS
JLENS
JNN
JP
JRFL
JSIR
JTAGS
JTF
JTIDS
JTRS
Joint Interoperability of Tactical Command and Control System
Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor
System
Joint Network Node
joint publication
joint restricted frequency list
Joint Spectrum Interference Resolution
joint tactical ground station
joint task force
Joint Tactical Information Distribution System
Joint Tactical Radio System
kbps
kilobits per second
KEK
key encryption key
kHz
kilohertz
km
kilometer
KMP
kW
LCMS
key management plan
kilowatt
local communications security management software
LCU
lightweight computer unit
LDV
last ditch voice
LMR
land mobile radio
LOS
LPI/D
LQA
Glossary-4
improvised explosive device
line of sight
low probability of interception/detection
link quality analysis
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Glossary
LRU
line replaceable unit
LTS
logical time slot
LVT
low volume terminal
LW
MBITR
MCS
MEADS
MELP
METT-TC
MF
MHz
MIDS
MIL-STD
MLRS
Land Warrior
multiband inter/intra team radio
master control station
medium extended air defense system
mixed excitation linear prediction
mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time
available, civil considerations
medium frequency
megahertz
Multifunctional Information Distribution System
military standard
Multiple Launch Rocket System
MNL
master net list
MSE
mobile subscriber equipment
MSG
multisource group
MSRT
MUF
NATO
mobile subscriber radiotelephone terminal
maximum usable frequency
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NCO
noncommisioned officer
NCS
net control station
net
NET ID
network
network identifier
NMS
Network Management System
NSA
National Security Agency
NTDR
near term digital radio
NTIA
National Telecommunications and Information Administration
NVIS
near-vertical incident sky wave
O&I
OCONUS
operations and intelligence
outside the continental United States
OPLAN
operation plan
OPORD
operation order
OTAR
P25
Project 25 standards (APCO)
PA
power amplifier
PC
personal computer
PLGR
precision lightweight global positioning system receiver
PMCS
preventive maintenance checks and services
PSK
5 August 2009
over-the-air rekeying
phase shift keying
FM 6-02.53
Glossary-5
Glossary
PSYOP
PT
plain text
QEAM
quick erect antenna mast
RBECS
Revised Battlefield Electronic Communications-Electronics Operational
Instruction/Signal Operating Instructions System
RCU
remote control unit
RDG
random data generator
RDS
revised data transfer device software
RF
radio frequency
RSA
radio set adapter
RT
receiver/transmitter
RTO
radio-telephone operator
S-2
intelligence staff officer
S-3
operations staff officer
S-6
signal staff officer
SA
situational awareness
SAMS-1
SATCOM
SC
SCAMP
SC TACSAT
SECOMP
SFAF
SHORAD
SIGINT
SINAD
SINCGARS
SIP
SKL
S/N
Standard Army Maintenance System-Level 1
satellite communications
single-channel
single-channel anti-jam man portable
single-channel tactical satellite
secure en route communications package
standard frequency action format
short-range air defense
signals intelligence
signal, noise and distortion
Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System
system improvement program
simple key loader
signal to noise
SOF
Special Operations Forces
SOI
signal operating instructions
SOP
standing operating procedure
SPEED
SQ
SRCU
SSB
STANAG
STU
TAC CP
TACFIRE
Glossary-6
Psychological Operations
system planning, engineering, and evaluation device
squelch
securable remote control unit
single side band
standardization agreement (NATO)
secure telephone unit
tactical command post
Tactical Fire Direction System
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Glossary
TACSAT
tactical satellite
TADIL-J
tactical digital information link-joint
TAOM
TB
TDMA
TEK
THAAD
TM
TOC
TRADOC
TRANSEC
TSEC
Tactical Air Operations Module
technical bulletin
time division multiple access
traffic encryption key
Theater High Altitude Air Defense
technical manual
tactical operations center
United States Army Training and Doctrine Command
transmission security
telecommunications security
TSK
transmission security key
TTP
tactics, techniques, and procedures
TTSB
UHF
US
tactical theater signal brigade
ultra high frequency
United States
US&P
United States and Possessions
USAF
United States Air Force
USAR
United States Army Reserve
USMC
United States Marine Corps
USN
United States Navy
VAA
vehicular amplifier adapter
VAC
volts alternating current
VDC
volts direct current
VHF
very high frequency
VIS
VOACAP
VOCODER
vehicular intercommunications system
Voice of America Coverage Analysis Program
voice encoder
VSWR
voltage standing wave radio
WIN-T
Warfighter Information Network-Tactical
SECTION II – TERMS
*acknowledge
A directive from the originator of a communication requiring the address(s) to advise the originator that his
communication has been received and understood. This term is normally included in the electronic
transmission of orders to ensure the receiving station or person confirms the receipt of the order.
*all after
A procedure word meaning, “The portion of the message to which I have referenced is all that follows
(insert text).” See also procedure word.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
Glossary-7
Glossary
*all before
A procedure word meaning, “The portion of the message to which I have reference is all that precedes
(insert text).” See also procedure word.
area of operations
(joint) An operational area defined by the joint force commander for land and maritime forces. Areas of
operations do not typically encompass the entire operational area of the joint force commander, but should
be large enough for component commanders to accomplish their missions and protect their forces. (JP 3-0)
*authenticate
A procedure word meaning, “The station called is to reply to the challenge which follows (insert text)”.
*authentication
A security measure designed to protect a communications system against acceptance of a fraudulent
transmission or simulation by establishing the validity of a transmission, message, or originator.
*authentication is
A procedure word meaning, “ The transmission authentication of this message is “ (insert text).” See also
procedure word.
azimuth
(joint) Quantities may be expressed in positive quantities increasing in a clockwise direction, or in X, Y
coordinates where south and west are negative. They may be referenced to true north or magnetic north
depending on the particular weapon system used.
bandwidth
(joint) The difference between the limiting frequencies of a continuous frequency expressed in hertz
(cycles per second). The term bandwidth is also loosely used to refer to the rate at which data can be
transmitted over a given communications circuit. In the latter usage, bandwidth is usually expressed in
either kilobits per second or megabits per second. (JP 1-02)
beam width
(joint) The angle between the directions on either side of the axis, at which the intensity of the radio
frequency field drops to one-half the value it has on the axis. (JP 1-02)
*break
A procedure word meaning, “I here by indicate the separation of the text from another portion of the
message.” See also procedure word.
call sign
(joint) Any combination of characters or pronounceable words, which identifies a communication facility,
a command, an authority, an activity, or a unit; used primarily for establishing and maintaining
communications. (JP 1-02)
*clear
To eliminate transmissions on a tactical radio net in order to allow a higher-precedence transmission to
occur.
command and control
(Army) The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and
attached forces in the accomplishment of a mission. Commanders perform command and control functions
through a command and control system. (FM 6-0)
command post
(Army) A unit’s or subunit’s headquarters where the commander and the staff perform their activities. (FM
6-0)
common operating environment
(joint) Automation services that support the development of the common reusable software modules that
enable interoperability across multiple combat support applications. This includes segmentation of
Glossary-8
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Glossary
common software modules from existing applications, integration of commercial products, development of
a common architecture, and development of common tools for application developers. (JP 4-01)
communications net
(joint) An organization of stations capable of direct communications on a common channel or frequency.
(JP-1.02)
communications intelligence
(joint) Technical information and intelligence derived from foreign communications by other than the
intended recipients. (JP 2-0)
communications security
(joint) The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of
value that might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications, or to mislead
unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results of such possession and study. (JP 6-0)
*correct
A procedure word meaning, “You are correct, or what you have transmitted is correct”. See also
procedure word.
*correction
A procedure word meaning, 1. “An error has been made in this transmission. Transmission will continue
with the last word correctly transmitted.” 2. “An error has been made in thes transmission (or message
indicated). The correct version is (insert text).” 3. “That which follows is a corrected version in answer to
your request for verification.” See also procedure word.
*disregard this transmission-out
A procedure word meaning, “This transmission is in error. Disregard it.” (This procedure word shall not be
used to cancel any message that has been completely transmitted and for which a receipt or
acknowledgement has been received.) See also procedure word.
*do not answer
A procedure word meaning, “Stations called are not to answer this call, receipt for this message, or
otherwise transmit in connection with this transmission.” When this procedure word is employed, the
transmission shall be ended with the procedure word “Out.” See also procedure word.
electromagnetic interference
(joint) Any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits the
effective performance of electronics and electrical equipment. It can be induced intentionally, as in some
forms of electronic warfare, or unintentionally, as a result of spurious emissions and responses,
intermodulation products, and the like. (JP 1-02)
electromagnetic pulse
(joint) The electromagnetic radiation from a strong electronic pulse, most commonly caused by a nuclear
explosion, that may couple with electrical or electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage
surges. (JP 3-13.1)
electromagnetic spectrum
(joint) The range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from zero to infinity. It is divided into 26
alphabetically designated bands. (JP 1-02)
electronic protection
(joint) Division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment
from any effects of friendly or enemy use of the electromagnetic spectrum that degrade, neutralize or
destroy friendly combat capability. (JP 3-13.1)
electronic warfare
(joint) Military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the
electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy. Electronic warfare consists of three divisions: electronic
attack, electronic protection, and electronic warfare support. (JP 3-13.1)
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
Glossary-9
Glossary
electronic warfare support
(joint) Division of electronic warfare involving actions tasked by, or under direct control of, an operational
commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional
radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition, targeting, planning, and
conduct of future operations. (JP 3-13.1)
emission control
(joint) The selective and controlled use of electromagnetic, acoustic, or other emitters to optimize
command and control capabilities while minimizing, for operations security: a. detection by enemy sensors;
b. mutual interference among friendly systems; and/or c. enemy interference with the ability to execute a
military deception plan. (JP 1-02)
*exempt
A procedure word meaning, “The addresses immediately following are exempt from the collective call.”
See also procedure word.
*figures
A procedure word meaning, “Numerals or numbers follow.” See also procedure word.
*flash
A procedure word meaning, “Precedence, FLASH.” Reserved for initial enemy contact reports on special
emergency operational combat traffic originated by specifically designated high commanders or units
directly affected. This traffic is to be SHORT reports of emergency situations of vital proportions.
Handling is as fast as humanely possible with an objective time of 10 minute or less. See also procedure
word.
forward line of own troops
(joint) A line that indicates the most forward positions of friendly forces in any kind of military operation
at a specific time. The forward line of own troops normally identifies the forward location of covering and
screening forces. The FLOT may be at, beyond, or short of the forward edge of the battle area. An enemy
FLOT indicates the forward-most position of hostile forces. (JP 1-02)
*from
A procedure word meaning, “The originator of this message is indicated by the address designator
immediately following.” See also procedure word.
*groups
A procedure word meaning, “This message contains the number of groups indicated.” See also procedure
word.
*guard
A procedure word meaning, “A…MHz” radio frequency that is normally used for emergency
transmissions and is continuously monitored. UHF band: 243. MHz; VHF band: 121.5 MHz. See also
procedure word.
*I authenticate
A procedure word meaning, “The group that follows is the reply to your challenge to authenticate.” See
also procedure word.
*immediate
A procedure word meaning, “Precedence immediate.” The precedence reserved for messages relating to
situations which gravely affect the security of national/multinational forces or populace, and which require
immediate delivery. See also procedure word.
*info
A procedure word meaning, “The addressees immediately following are addressed for information.” See
also procedure word.
information superiority
(joint) The operational advantage derived from the ability to collect, process, and disseminate an
uninterrupted flow of information while exploiting or denying an adversary’s ability to do the same. (JP 313)
Glossary-10
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Glossary
*I read back
A procedure word meaning, “The following is my response to your instructions to read back.” See also
procedure word.
*I say again
A procedure word meaning, “I am repeating transmission or portion indicated.” See also procedure word.
*I spell
A procedure word meaning, “I shall spell the next word phonetically.” See also procedure word.
*I verify
A procedure word meaning, “That which follows has been verified at your request and is repeated.” (to be
used as a reply to “verify”). See also procedure word.
jamming
(Army) The deliberate radiation or reflection of electromagnetic energy to prevent or degrade the receipt of
information by a receiver. It includes communications and noncommunications jamming. (FM 2-0)
line of sight
(Army) The unobstructed path from a Soldier/Marine, weapon, weapon sight, electronic-sending and receiving antennas, or piece of reconnaissance equipment to another point. (FM 34-130)
man portable
(joint) Capable of being carried by one man. Specifically, the term may be used to qualify 1. Items
designed to be carried as an integral part of individual, crew-served, or team equipment of the dismounted
Soldier in conjunction with assigned duties. Upper weight limit: approximately 14 kilograms (31 pounds).
2. In land warfare, equipment which can be carried by one man over long distance without serious
degradation of the performance of normal duties. (JP 1-02)
*message
A procedure word meaning, “A message which requires recording is about to follow.” See also procedure
word.
*more to follow
A procedure word meaning “Transmitting station has additional traffic for the receiving station.” See also
procedure word.
multichannel
(joint) Pertaining to communications, usually full duplex, on more than one channel simultaneously.
Multichannel transmission may be accomplished by either time-, frequency-, code-, and phase-division
multiplexing or space diversity. (JP 1-02)
near real time
(joint) Pertaining to the timeliness of data or information which has been delayed by the time required for
electronic communication and automatic data processing. This implies that there are no significant delays.
(JP 1-02)
net (communications)
(joint) An organization of stations capable of direct communications on a common channel or frequency.
(JP 1-02)
net call sign
(joint) A call sign which represents all stations within a net. (JP 1-02)
*net control station
A communications station designated to control traffic and enforce circuit discipline within a given net.
operational environment
(joint) A composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences which affect the employment of
military forces and bear on the decisions of the unit commander. (JP 3-0)
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
Glossary-11
Glossary
*out
A procedure word meaning, “This is the end of my transmission to you and no answer is required or
expected.” (Since “over” and “out” have opposite meanings, they are never used together.) See also
procedure word.
*over
A procedure word meaning, “This is the end of my transmission to you and a response is necessary. Go
ahead; transmit.” See also procedure word.
phonetic alphabet
(joint) A list of standard words used to identify letters in a message transmitted by radio or telephone. (JP
1-02)
*priority
A procedure word meaning, “Precedence priority.” Reserved for important messages that must have
precedence over routine traffic. This is the highest precedence that normally may be assigned to a message
of administrative nature. See also procedure word.
*procedure word
A word or phrase limited to radio telephone procedure used to facilitate communication by conveying
information in a condensed standard form. Also called proword.
*radio listening silence
The situation where radios are on and continuously monitored with strict criteria when a station on the
radio network is allowed to break silence. For example, “maintain radio listening silence until physical
contact with the enemy is made.”
*read back
A procedure word meaning, “Repeat this entire transmission back to me exactly as received.” See also
procedure word.
*relay to
A procedure word meaning, “Transmit this message to all addressees (or addressees immediately following
this proword).” The address component is mandatory when this proword is used. See also procedure
word.
*roger
A procedure word meaning “I have received your last transmission satisfactorily.” See also procedure
word.
*routine
A procedure word meaning, “Precedence routine.” Reserved for all types of messages that are not of
sufficient urgency to justify a higher precedence, but must be delivered to the addressee without delay. See
also procedure word.
*say again
A procedure word meaning, “Repeat all of your last transmission.” (Followed by identification data, means
“Repeat ________ (portion indicated).”) See also procedure word.
SECRET Internet Protocol Router Network
(joint) The worldwide SECRET-level packet switch network that uses high-speed Internet protocol routers
and high-capacity Defense Information Systems Network circuitry. (JP 6-0)
signal
(joint) 1. As applied to electronics, any transmitted electrical impulse. 2. Operationally, a type of message,
the text of which consists of one or more letters, words, characters, signal flags, visual displays, or special
sounds with prearranged meaning, and which is conveyed or transmitted by visual, acoustic, or electrical
means. (JP 1-02)
*signal operating instructions
A series of orders issued for technical control and coordination of the signal communication activities of a
command.
Glossary-12
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Glossary
*signal security
A generic term that includes both communications security and electronics security. Measures intended to
deny or counter hostile exploitation of electronic emissions. Signal security includes communications
security and electronic security.
signal to noise ratio
(joint) The ratio of the amplitude of the desired signal to the amplitude of noise signals at a given point in
time. (JP 1-02)
*silence
A procedure word meaning, “Cease transmission immediately.” Silence will be maintained until lifted.
(Transmissions imposing silence must be authenticated.) See also procedure word.
*silence lifted
A procedure word meaning, “Silence is lifted.” (When an authentication system is in force, the
transmission lifting silence is to be authenticated.) See also procedure word.
SIPRNET
See SECRET Internet Protocol Router Network.
*speak slower
A procedure word meaning, “Your transmission is at too fast a speed. Reduce speed of transmission.” See
also procedure word.
TABOO frequencies
(joint) Any friendly frequency of such importance that it must never be deliberately jammed or interfered
with by friendly forces. Normally, these frequencies include international distress, CEASE BUZZER,
safety, and controller frequencies. These frequencies are generally long standing. However, they may be
time-oriented in that, as the conduct or exercise situation changes, the restrictions may be removed. (JP 102)
tactical call sign
(joint) A call sign which identifies a tactical command or tactical communication facility. (JP 1-02)
*this is
A procedure word meaning, “This transmission is from the station whose designator immediately follows.”
See also procedure word.
*time
A procedure word meaning, “That which immediately follows is the time or date/time group of the
message.” See also procedure word.
*to
A procedure word meaning, “The addressee(s) immediately following is (are) addressed for action.” See
also procedure word.
transponder
(joint) A receiver-transmitter which will generate a reply signal upon proper interrogation. (JP 1-02)
Universal Time
(joint) A measure of time that conforms, within a close approximation, to the mean diurnal rotation of the
Earth and serves as the basis of civil timekeeping. Universal Time (UT1) is determined from observations
of the stars, radio sources, and also from ranging observations of the moon and artificial Earth satellites.
The scale determined directly from such observations is designated Universal Time Observed (UTO); it is
slightly dependent on the place of observation. When UTO is corrected for the shift in longitude of the
observing station caused by polar motion, the time scale UT1 is obtained. When an accuracy better than
one second is not required, Universal Time can be used to mean Coordinated Universal Time. (JP 1-02)
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
Glossary-13
Glossary
*unknown station
A procedure word meaning, “The identity of the station with whom I am attempting to establish
communications is unknown.” See also procedure word.
urban operations
(Army) Offense, defense, stability, and support operations conducted in a topographical complex and
adjacent natural terrain where manmade construction and high population density are the dominant
features. (FM 3-0)
*verify
A procedure word meaning, “Verify entire message (or portion indicated) with the originator and send
correct version.” (To be used only at the discretion of the addressee to which question message was
directed.) See also procedure word.
*wait
A procedure word meaning, “I must pause for a few seconds.” See also procedure word.
*wait out
A procedure word meaning, “I must wait for longer than a few seconds.” See also procedure word.
way point
(joint) A designated point or series of points loaded and stored in a global positioning system or other
electronic navigational aid system to facilitate movement. (JP 1-02)
*wilco
A procedure word meaning, “I have received your signal, understand it, and will comply.” (To be used
only by addressee. Since the meaning of ROGER is included in that of WILCO, the two procedure words
are never used together.) See also procedure word.
*word after
A procedure word meaning, ”The word of the message to which I have reference is that which follows
(insert text).” See also procedure word.
*word before
A procedure word meaning, “The word of the message to which I have reference is that which precedes
(insert text).” See also procedure word.
*words twice
A procedure word meaning, “Communication is difficult. Transmit (ring) each phrase (or each code group)
twice.” This procedure word may be used as an order, request, or as information. See also procedure
word.
*wrong
A procedure word meaning, “Your last transmission was incorrect, the correct version is (insert text).” See
also procedure word.
Zulu Time
See Universal Time.
Glossary-14
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
References
SOURCES USED
These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication. Allied publications can be found online at
http://www.jcs.dtic.mil/j6/cceb/acps/. Most Army doctrinal publications are available online at
https://akocomm.us.army.mil/usapa/. (Access requires an Army Knowledge Online account.) Most joint
publications can be found online at http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jpcsystemsseriespubs.htm. Publications from
the Army Communicator can be found online at http://www.gordon.army.mil/ac/default.asp. Other useful Web
sites are http://www.gordon.army.mil/sigbde15/25U/FAQ.htm and https://lwneusignal.army.mil/login.html.
ALLIED COMMUNICATIONS PUBLICATIONS
ACP 121 (H). Communications Instructions General. April 2007.
ACP 125 US SUPP-l. Communications Instructions Radiotelephone Procedures for Use by United
States Ground Forces. October 1985.
JOINT PUBLICATIONS
CJCSM 3320.02B. Joint Spectrum Interference Resolution (JSIR) Procedures. 31 December 2008.
CJCSI 6251.01B. Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) Satellite Communications Demand Assigned Multiple
Access Requirements. 20 November 2007.
JP 1-02. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military Terms and Associated Terms. 12 April 2001.
JP 3-13.1 Electronic Warfare. 25 January 2007.
JP 6-0. Joint Communications Systems. 20 March 2006.
MIL-STD-196E. Joint Electronics Type Designator System. 17 February 1998.
Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management (NTIA Manual).
US Department of Commerce, NTIA. January 2009.
http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/redbook/redbook.html.
ARMY PUBLICATIONS
AR 5-12. Army Management of the Electromagnetic Spectrum. 01 October 1997.
AR 25-2. Information Assurance. 24 October 2007.
AR 70-38. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation of Material for Extreme Climate Conditions.
15 September 1979.
AR 380-5. Department of the Army Information Security Program. 29 September 2000.
AR 380-40. Policy for Safeguarding and Controlling Communications Security (COMSEC) Material.
30 June 2000.
AR 380-53. Information System Security Monitoring. 29 April 1998.
FM 1-02. Operational Terms and Graphics. 21 September 2004.
FM 1-02.1 (FM 3-54.10). Multi-Service Brevity Codes. 30 October 2007.
FM 2-0 (FM 34-1). Intelligence. 17 May 2004.
FM 3-0. Operations. 27 February 2008.
FM 3-04.111. Aviation Brigades. 07 December 2007.
FM 3-09.21 (FM 6-20-1). Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for the Field Artillery Battalion.
22 March 2001.
FM 3-25.26. Map Reading and Land Navigation. 18 January 2005.
FM 6-02.72. Multiservice Communications Procedures for Tactical Radios in a Joint
Environment. 14 June 2002.
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
References-1
References
FM 6-02.74. Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for High Frequency-Automatic
Link Establishment (HF ALE) Radios. 20 November 2007.
FM 6-02.771. Multiservice Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Have Quick Radios. 07 May
2004.
FM 6-02.90. Multi-service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Ultra High Frequency
Tactical Demand Assigned Multiple Access Operations. 31 August 2004.
FM 6-50. Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for the Field Artillery Cannon Battery.
23 December 1996.
FM 7-0. Training for Full Spectrum Operations. 12 December 2007.
TB 11-5820-890-12. Operator and Unit Maintenance for AN/CYZ-10 Automated Net Control Device
(ANCD) (NSN 5810-01-343-1194) (EIC: QSU) with the Single Channel Ground and Airborne
Radio Systems (SINCGARS)(AR). 01 April 1993.
TB 11-5820-1171-10. Software User’s Guide for Near Term Digital Radio (NTDR) Network
Management Terminal (NMT) (NSN: N/A) (EIC: N/A). 01 May 2005.
TB 11-5820-1172-10. Operator and Maintenance Manual for Defense Advanced GPS Receiver
(DAGR) Satellite Signals Navigation Set AN/PSN-13 AN/PSN-13 (NSN 5825-01-516-8038)
AN/PSN-13A (NSN 5825-01-526-4783). 01 March 2005.
TB 11-5821-333-10-2. SINCGARS Airborne ICOM Radio Operator’s Pocket Guide, SINCGARS
Airborne ICOM Radios used with Automated Net Control Device, AN/CYZ-10. 01 July 1995.
TB 11-5825-291-10-2. Soldiers Guide for Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) AN/PSN-11
(NSN 5825-01-374-6643) (EIC: N/A) and AN/PSN-11(v) (5825-01-395-3513) (EIC: N/A).
01 December 1996.
TB 11-5825-298-10-1. Operator’s Manual for Net Control Station AN/TSQ-158A (NSN 5895-01-4955977) (EIC: N/A) Part of Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS). 01 May 2005.
TB 11-7010-293-10-2. Operator’s Manual Automated Communications Engineering Software (ACES)
Version 1.9 for AN/GYK-33D (NSN: 7010-01-541-5396) (EIC; N/A). 01 June 2009.
TB 380-41. Security: Procedures for Safeguarding, Accounting, and Supply control of COMSEC
Material. 15 March 2006.
TC 2-33.4 (FM 34-3). Intelligence Analysis. 01 July 2999.
TC 9-64. Communications-Electronics Fundamentals: Wave Propagation, Transmission Lines, and
Antennas.15 July 2004.
TM 11-5820-890-10-5. SINCGARS Icom and Non-Icom Ground Radio Net Control Station (NCS)
Pocket Guide Radio Set Manpack Radio (AN/PRC-119/119A) Vehicular Radios (AN/VRC87/87A-C Thru AN/VRC-92/92A). 01 April 1993.
TM 11-5820-890-10-6. SINCGARS Icom Ground Radios Used With Automated Net Control Device
(ANCD) AN/CYZ-10; Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) AN/PSN-11; Handheld
Remote Control Radio Device (HRCRD)C-12493/U; Simple Key Loader (SKL) AN/PYQ-10;
Operator's Pocket Guide Radio Manpack Radios (AN/PRC-119A/D/F) (NSN: N/A) (EIC: N/A)
Vehicular Radios (AN/VRC-87A/D/F THRU AN/VRC-92A/D/F) (NSN: N/A) (EIC: N/A). 01 July
2007.
TM 11-5820-890-10-7. SINCGARS Icom Ground Radios Used With Automated Net Control Device
(ANCD) AN/CYZ-10, Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) AN/PSN-11 Handheld Remote
Control Radio Device (HRCRD) C-12493/U; Simple Key Loader (SKL) AN/PYQ-10 Net Control
Station (NCS) Pocket Guide Manpack Radios AN/PRC-119A/D/F (NSN: N/A) (EIC: N/A)
Vehicular Radios AN/VRC-87A/D/F Thru AN/VRC-92A/D/F (NSN: N/A)(EIC: N/A).
01 August 2007.
TM 11-5820-890-10-8. Operator’s Manual for SINCGARS Ground Combat Net Radio, ICOM
Manpack Radio AN/PRC-119A (NSN 5820-01-267-9482) (EIC: L2Q), Short Range Vehicular
Radio AN/VRC-87A (5820-01-267-9480) (EIC: L22), Short Range Vehicular Radio with Single
Radio Mount AN/VRC-87C (5820-01-304-2045) (EIC: GDC), Short Range Vehicular Radio with
References-2
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
References
Dismount AN/VRC-88A (5820-01-267-9481) (EIC: L23), Short Range/Long Range Vehicular
Radio AN/VRC-89A (5820-01-267-9479) (EIC: L24), Long Range Vehicular Radio AN/VRC-90A
(5820-01-268-5105) (EIC: L25), Short Range/Long Range Vehicular Radio with Dismount
AN/VRC-91A (5820-01-267-9478) (EIC: L26), Short Range/Long Range Vehicular Radio
AN/VRC-92A (5820-01-267-9477) (EIC: L27) Used With Automated Net Control Device (ANCD)
(AN/CYZ-10) Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) (AN/PSN-11) Secure Telephone Unit
(STU) Frequency Hopping Mutiplexer (FHMUX). 01 December 1998.
TM 11-5820-890-23P. Unit and Direct Support Maintenance Repair Parts and Special Tools List for
FHMUX TD-1456/VRC (NSN 5820-01-365-2721) (EIC: N/A) Mount MT-6845/VRC (5975-01430-3109) (EIC: N/A). 01 October 1998.
TM 11-5820-919-12. Operator’s and Organizational Maintenance Manual for Radio Set, AN/PRC104A (NSN 5820-01-141-7953). 15 January 1986.
TM 11-5820-923-12. Operator’s and Organizational Maintenance Manual for Radio Set, AN/GRC213 (NSN 5820-01-128-3935). 14 February 1986.
TM 11-5820-924-13. Operator’s, Organizational and Direct Support Maintenance Manual for Radio
Set, AN/GRC-193A (NSN 5820-01-133-4195). 14 February 1986.
TM 11-5820-1025-10. Operator’s Manual for Radio Set, AN/PRC-126 (NSN 5820-01-215-6181).
01 February 1988.
TM 11-5820-1037-13&P. Operator's, Unit, and Intermediate Maintenance Manual (Repair Parts and
Special Tools List) for Radio Set AN/PRC-112 (NSN 5820-01-279-5450) (EIC: JBG) Program
Loader KY-913/PRC-112 (NSN 7025-01-279-5308) (EIC: N/A). 15 July 2005.
TM 11-5820-1049-12. Operator's and Aviation Unit Maintenance Manual for Radio Set AN/PRC-902 (NSN 5820-01-238-6603). 15 August 1990.
TM 11-5820-1130-12&P. Operator’s and Unit Maintenance Manual (Including Repair Parts and
Special Tools List) for Radio Set AN/PSC-5 (NSN 5820-01-366-4120) (EIC: N/A). 01 June 2000.
TM 11-5820-1141-12&P. Operator and Unit Maintenance Manual (Including Repair Parts and
Special Tools List) for Radio Set AN/VRC-100(V)1 (NSN: 5820-01-413-4235) (EIC: N/A).
01 December 2004.
TM 11-5820-1149-14&P. Operator’s Unit, Direct and General Support Maintenance Manual
(Including Repair Parts and Special Tools List) for Radio Set AN/VRC-83(V)3 (NSN 5820-01291-5415) (EIC: N/A). 01 April 1996.
TM 11-5820-1157-10. Operator's Manual for AN/PSC-11 Single Channel Anti-Jam Manportable
(SCAMP) Terminal (NSN 5820-01-431-2060) (EIC: N/A). 01 May 2003.
TM 11-5820-1171-12&P. Operator's and Unit Maintenance Including Repair Parts and Special Tools
List for Radio Set AN/VRC-108 (Near Term Digital Radio (NTDR)) (NSN 5820-01-519-2729)
(EIC:N/A). 01 May 2005.
TM 11-5820-1172-13. Operator and Maintenance Manual Defense Advanced GPS Receiver (DAGR)
Satellite Signals Navigation Set AN/PSN-13 (NSN 5825-01-516-8038) AN/PSN-13A (NSN 582501-526-4783). 01 March 2005.
TM 11-5821-318-12. Operator’s and Aviation Unit Maintenance Manual for VHF AM/FM Radio Set
AN/ARC-186(V) (NSN 5821-01-086-6243) (EIC: N/A). 01 September 2005.
TM 11-5821-333-12. Operator's and Aviation Unit Maintenance Manual for SINCGARS Airborne
Combat Net Radio, Icom and Non-Icom; Non-Icom Airborne Radio AN/ARC-201(V) (NSN: N/A)
(EIC:N/A) Icom Airborne Radio AN/ARC-201A(V) (NSN: N/A) (EIC: N/A). 01 September 1992.
TM 11-5821-357-12&P. Operator's and Aviation Unit Maintenance Manual (Including Repair Parts
and Sepcial Tools List) for Radio Set AN/ARC-220(V)1 (NSN 5821-01-413-4233) (EIC: GC6) and
AN/ARC-220(V)2 (5821-01-413-4232) (EIC: GC7). 01 June 2001.
TM 11-5825-283-10. Operator's Manual for Manpack Radio Set (MP-RS) Radio Sets AN/ASQ177C(V)4 (NSN 5820-01-462-8407) (EIC: N/A); AN/PSQ-6C (5820-01-462- 8410) (EC: N/A);
AN/VSQ-2C(V)1 (5820-01-462-8411) (EIC: N/A): AN/VSQ-2C(V)2 (5820-01-462-8404) (EIC:
N/A); AN/VSQ-2C(V)4 (5820-01-462-8408) (EIC: N/A); Grid Reference Radio Set AN/GRC-229C
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
References-3
References
(5895-01-462-8405) (EIC: N/A); Downsized Enhanced Command Response Unit RT-1718/TSQ158A (5820-01-381-6339) (EIC: N/A). 15 August 2000.
TM 11-5825-291-13. Operations and Maintenance Manual for Satellite Signals Navigation Sets
AN/PSN-11 (NSN 5825-01-374-6643) and AN/PSN-11(V)1 (5825-01-395-3513). 01 April 2001.
TM 11-5825-298-13&P. Operator and Field Maintenance Manual (Including Repair Parts and
Special Tools List) for Net Control Station (NCS) AN/TSQ-158A (NSN 5895-01-495-5977) (EIC:
N/A) Part of Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS). 01 October 2006.
TM 11-5830-263-10. Operator's Manual for Vehicular Intercommunication Set AN/VIC-3(V),
Including: Control Indicator CD-82/VRC (NSN 5895-01-382-3221) (EIC: N/A) Control
Intercommunication Set C-12357/VRC (5830-01-382-3218) (EIC: N/A) Control
Intercommunication SET C-12358/VRC (5830-01-382-3209) (EIC: N/A) Interface Unit,
Communication Equipment C-12359/VRC (5895-01-382-3220) (EIC: N/A) Loudspeaker LS688/VRC (5965-01-382-3222) (EIC: N/A). 01 May 1997.
TM 11-5841-286-13. Operator's, Organizational, and Direct Support Maintenance Manual: Radio
Sets, AN/ARC-164(V)12 (NSN 5821-01-071-5624) AND AN/ARC-164(V)16 (5841-01-122-7094).
30 July 1980.
TM 11-5985-357-13. Operator's, Organizational, and Direct Support Maintenance Manual for
Antenna Group, OE-254/GRC (NSN 5985-01-063-1574). 01 February 1991.
MARINE CORP PUBLICATIONS
Marine Corps Reference Publication 622D. Field Antenna Handbook. 01 June 1999.
NONMILITARY PUBLICATIONS
Farmer, Edward. Long-range Communications at High Frequencies. Army Communicator. Winter,
2002.
Fiedler, David, M. AN/PRC-117F Special Operations Forces Radio has Applications For Digital
Divisions and Beyond. Army Communicator. Summer, 2000.
Fiedler, David, M. MBITR Communications = Power in Your Pocket. Army Communicator. Summer,
2005.
Fiedler, David, M. Planning for the use of high-frequency radios in the brigade combat teams and
other transformation Army organizations. Army Communicator. Fall, 2002.
Fiedler, David, M. Tactical Ground-Wave Communications for Force XXI Tactical Internet and
Beyond. Army Communicator. Summer, 1996.
Fiedler, David, M. & Farmer, Edward. AN/PRC-150 HF Radio in Urban Combat: A Better Way To
Command and Control the Urban Fight. Army Communicator. Spring, 2004.
Flynn, Mike. Fulfilling the Promise of HF. Army Communicator. Winter, 2007.
DOCUMENTS NEEDED
These documents must be available to the intended user of this publication.
DA Form 2028. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms.
References-4
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
Index
A
active noise reduction, 4-14, 415
administrative and logistics, 418, 7-10, A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4,
A-6
Advanced Field Artillery
Tactical Data System, 6-15
advanced narrowband digital
voice terminal, 3-5, 4-23, 425, 6-1, 6-7, 6-11
advanced system improvement
program, 4-1, 4-3, 4-4, 4-6,
4-7, 4-20, 4-21, 4-22, 6-4
air defense artillery, 5-9, 5-10,
A-2
air traffic control, 6-12, 7-5, 7-8,
7-10, 8-11
airborne radio, 2-1, 4-18, 5-3,
7-2
airborne system improvement
program, 7-2, 7-3
Airborne Warning and Control
System, 5-9, 5-10
antenna gain, 9-9, 9-30, B-11,
B-12, C-3, C-5, D-6
area of operations, 1-2, 6-15,
6-16, 11-17
Army, 5-1
Army Airborne Command and
Control System, 5-1, 5-7, 7-6
Army Battle Command System,
5-7, 6-12
Army force generation process,
1-1, 1-8
Army interference resolution
program, 11-20
Army Key Management
System, 4-9, 10-1
assistant chief of staff,
command, control,
communications, and
computer operations, 1-2, 23, 3-1, 4-17, 6-8, 10-1, 1011, 11-4, A-2, A-3, A-5, F-2,
F-3, F-4, H-3
assistant chief of staff,
intelligence, 11-4, A-1, A-2
assistant chief of staff,
operations, 4-17, 11-4, A-1
5 August 2009
authentication, 11-4, 11-11, 123, 12-4
automated communications
engineering software, 4-10,
4-11, 10-4, 10-5, 10-6, 10-7,
10-8, 10-9, 10-10, 10-11, 1012, 11-7
Automated Communications
Security Management and
Engineering System, 10-1,
10-2, 10-3, 10-5
automated net control device,
4-9, 4-10, 4-18, 4-19, 4-26,
5-5, 6-13, 10-1, 10-3, 10-5,
10-11, 10-12, 11-11, E-1, F1, F-2, F-3, F-4
automatic link establishment, 16, 1-7, 2-1, 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 3-4,
3-5, 7-4, 7-5, 8-11, 9-17, A6, A-8
azimuth, 9-13, 9-14, 9-15, D-7
B
bandwidth, 4-23, 5-4, 6-4, 7-4,
8-11, 9-9, 11-17, 11-18, 1123, B-16, C-5, G-1, H-1
beam width, 9-13
beyond line of sight, 3-4, 5-3,
6-7, 6-12, 6-13, 6-15, 8-12
brigade combat team, 1-2, 1-3
built-in test, 3-8, 4-1, 4-6, 4-15,
5-2, 7-2, 7-4
C
call sign, 3-2, 3-3, 10-9, 10-10,
11-4, 11-7, 11-10, 12-5
carrier sense multiple access,
3-3, 4-4, 5-4, 5-5, 8-6
circular polarization, 9-7
Civil Affairs, 1-6, 1-7
combat net radio, 1-2, 1-3, 1-6,
2-3, 3-7, 6-2, 6-4, 6-5, 6-13,
6-14, 8-1, 10-7, 10-9, D-7
combat survivor evader locator,
8-7
combat survivor evader locator
planning computer, 8-7
command and control, 1-1, 1-2,
1-3, 1-7, 2-1, 2-2, 3-7, 4-1,
4-6, 4-18, 5-1, 5-2, 5-7, 5-9,
5-10, 5-11, 6-1, 6-12, 6-14,
6-15, 7-6, 7-10, 8-6, 9-32,
FM 6-02.53
10-10, 11-2, 11-3, 11-4, 1117, A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4, A-5,
A-6, A-8, A-9, D-5, D-11, F1, H-1, H-5, H-6, H-7
command, control,
communications, and
computer operations staff
officer, 2-3, 3-1, 3-6, 4-17, 419, 4-24, 5-8, 10-11, 11-4, A3, A-5, F-1, F-2, F-3, H-3
commercial off-the-shelf, 2-1,
2-2, 2-3, 6-12, 8-2, 9-17, 106
communications net, 2-1, 5-3,
6-14, 6-16, 11-17, 11-18
communications networking
radio subsystem, 8-1, 8-4, 85, 8-6
communications security, 1-5,
2-3, 3-5, 4-2, 4-4, 4-8, 4-9,
4-10, 4-11, 4-12, 4-16, 4-18,
4-24, 4-25, 4-26, 5-2, 6-3, 64, 6-7, 6-8, 6-9, 6-13, 7-2, 73, 7-8, 7-9, 10-1, 10-3, 11-4,
11-11, 11-18, F-1, F-2, F-3,
F-4
communications system
directorate of a joint staff, 87, 10-3
communications-electronics
operating instructions, 10-1,
10-2, 10-3, 10-5, 10-6, 10-9,
10-10, 10-12
continental United States, 1-7,
H-2
control display unit, 7-2, 7-4, 75
counterpoise, 3-6, 9-8, 9-12, 919, 9-26, D-1, D-7, H-5
course of action, 4-19
cryptographic ignition key, 4-11
D
data rate adapter, 4-2, 7-2
data terminal equipment, 2-2,
4-17, 6-14
data transfer device, 4-24, 5-5,
6-13, 10-4, 10-6
defense advanced global
positioning system receiver,
4-13, 4-14, 4-19, E-3
demand assigned multiple
access, 1-6, 6-1, 6-2, 6-3, 6-
Index-1
Index
6, 6-7, 6-8, 6-9, 6-11, 6-13,
6-16, 7-3, 7-6, 7-8, 8-11, 935
diffraction, B-12
dynamically allocated
permanent (virtual circuit), 54, 5-5
E
electromagnetic interference,
8-12, 11-19, 11-22
electromagnetic pulse, 11-19,
D-8, D-9
electromagnetic spectrum
operations, 2-1, 2-3
electronic attack, 2-2, 11-1, 112, 11-4, 11-19, 11-23
electronic countercountermeasures, 3-5, 4-20,
6-12, 6-13, 7-3, 7-4, 7-8, 7-9,
10-3, 11-18
Electronic Key Management
System, 4-10, 4-11, 6-9
electronic protection, 4-10, 411, 7-2, 7-5, 9-31, 10-1, 104, 10-6, 11-1, 11-2, 11-3, 114, 11-5, 11-7, 11-8, 11-10,
11-12, 11-14, 11-15, H-5, H7
electronic remote fill, 4-4, 4-21,
E-1
electronic warfare, 5-10, 6-14,
9-9, 9-23, 9-31, 11-1, 11-2,
11-3, 11-4, 11-5, 11-17, 1118
electronic warfare support, 111, 11-2, 11-4
elliptical polarization, 9-6
emission control, 11-1, 11-8
enhanced data mode, 4-1, 4-5,
4-24, 7-2
enhanced position location
reporting system, 1-3, 3-4, 46, 5-1, 5-2, 5-3, 5-6, 5-9, 8-5,
8-6, 9-28, 11-12, A-5
Enhanced Position Location
Reporting System, 1-2, 2-2,
5-1, 5-2, 5-5, 10-1
Enhanced Position Location
Reporting System network
manager, 5-2, 5-5, 5-6, 8-5,
8-11
enhanced system improvement
program, 4-5, 4-6, 6-13, 7-8
essential elements of friendly
information, 11-7, 11-11
Index-2
expeditionary signal battalion,
1-2, A-3
extremely high frequency, 6-2,
6-3, 11-17, B-4
F
fading, B-10
Force XXI Battle Command
Brigade and Below, 5-1, 8-5,
8-6
forward error correction, 4-1, 58, G-1, G-2
forward line of own troops, 11-5
frequency assignment, 2-3, 102, 10-6, 10-10
frequency hopping, 2-3, 3-5, 41, 4-2, 4-4, 4-5, 4-6, 4-9, 410, 4-12, 4-19, 4-20, 4-21, 422, 4-24, 5-2, 5-3, 5-8, 6-10,
6-12, 6-13, 7-1, 7-2, 7-8, 710, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4, 10-5,
10-11, 11-12, 11-18, E-1, E3, F-2, H-5
frequency hopping multiplexer,
9-27, 9-31, 11-12, D-10, H-5,
H-6, H-7
frequency shift key, 6-5, 6-6, 613, 7-2, G-1, G-2
G
geographic combatant
commander, 1-1, 6-8, 11-22
global positioning system, 4-5,
4-11, 4-12, 4-13, 4-25, 5-3,
5-8, 7-2, 7-4, 8-7, 8-8, 8-11,
E-3
H
handheld remote control radio
device, 4-16
HAVEQUICK, 4-14, 4-23, 4-24,
6-9, 6-12, 6-13, 7-3, 7-8, 710, 8-11
hertz antenna, 9-16
HF propagation, 3-3
high data rate, 5-4, 5-5, 5-7, 69
high frequency, 1-2, 1-3, 1-6, 17, 1-8, 2-1, 3-2
high frequency radio, 2-1, 3-1,
3-2, 3-4, 3-7, 7-6, 9-16, 9-22,
A-6, A-8, A-9, B-7, C-1, C-6,
D-5, D-6, G-1, 4
horizontal antenna, 9-5
horizontal polarization, 9-17, C4
FM 6-02.53
I
impedance, 9-8
improved high frequency radio,
3-1, 3-7, 9-16
input/output, 3-8, 6-8, 6-14, 72, 7-5
integrated communications
security, 2-3, 4-2, 4-4, 4-7, 418, 8-1, 8-2, 8-3, 10-3
intelligence staff officer, 11-4,
F-1
international maritime satellite,
1-7, 1-8
internet controller card, 4-6, 4-7
Internet Protocol, 3-5, 4-6, 5-6,
5-8, 8-11, 8-12
intravehicular remote control
unit, 4-7
Ionospheric Communications
Analysis and Prediction, C-6
Ionospheric Communications
Enhanced Profile and
Circuit, C-6
J
jamming, 3-5, 4-1, 4-6, 4-13, 421, 4-22, 5-8, 7-8, 8-1, 9-24,
11-1, 11-2, 11-3, 11-4, 11-5,
11-8, 11-9, 11-10, 11-12, 1113, 11-14, 11-15, 11-16, 1117, 11-18, C-5, D-9, H-7
joint automated
communications-electronics
operating instructions
system, 10-12
Joint Chiefs of Staff, 6-1
joint contingency force, 6-9, 616
Joint Interoperability of Tactical
Command and Control
System, 11-9
Joint Land Attack Cruise
Missile Defense Elevated
Netted Sensor System, 5-9,
5-10
Joint Network Node, 1-2, 1-3
joint restricted frequency list,
11-2
Joint Spectrum Interference
Resolution, 11-1, 11-8, 1115, 11-19, 11-22, 11-23, 1125
joint tactical ground station, 59, 5-10
5 August 2009
References
Joint Tactical Information
Distribution System, 2-2, 5-1,
5-9, 5-10, 5-11, 10-1, 11-12
Joint Tactical Radio System, 422, 4-24, 4-25, 8-1, 8-5, 810, 8-11, 8-12, H-5, H-7
joint task force, 6-16, 7-8, A-2
Julian Date, E-1, E-2
K
key encryption key, 4-9, 4-18,
10-11, F-1, F-3
key management plan, 6-9
L
land mobile radio, 2-2, 8-4
Land Warrior, 8-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6
last ditch voice, 3-5, 3-6
lightweight computer unit, 10-3,
10-4, 10-5
line of sight, 1-6, 2-2, 3-1, 4-1,
4-12, 4-25, 5-7, 6-2, 6-5, 6-7,
6-9, 6-12, 6-13, 6-14, 6-15,
6-16, 7-3, 7-4, 7-6, 7-8, 7-10,
8-5, 8-8, 8-12, 9-22, 9-34, 935, 11-5, 11-15, A-5, B-2, B5, B-6, B-11, B-12, C-1, C-5,
D-5, D-8, D-9
link quality analysis, 3-2
local communications security
management software, 4-10,
4-11
logical time slot, 8-6
low probability of
interception/detection, 1-6,
1-7, 9-25
low volume terminal, 5-9, 5-11,
5-12
M
Marconi antenna, 9-16
marginal communications, 9-15
master control station, 4-15
master net list, 10-6, 10-7
maximum usable frequency, B11, C-6
medium extended air defense
system, 5-9, 5-10
military standard, 3-3, 3-5, 4-4,
4-5, 6-1, 6-7, 6-9, 7-3, 7-4,
7-8, G-2
mission, enemy, terrain and
weather, troops and support
available, time available, civil
considerations, 4-19, A-5
5 August 2009
mixed excitation linear
prediction, 3-5, 6-1, 6-9, 6-11
mobile subscriber equipment,
1-3, 1-7, 7-10, 9-28, 10-1, H2
mobile subscriber
radiotelephone terminal, H-2,
H-3
modularity, 1-1, 6-15
multiband inter/intra team
radio, 4-22, 4-23, 4-24
Multifunctional Information
Distribution System, 2-2, 5-1,
5-9, 5-10, 5-11, 5-12
Multiple Launch Rocket
System, 6-15
multisource group, 5-4, 5-5, 8-6
N
National Security Agency, 4-10,
4-11, 6-7, 10-9
National Telecommunications
and Information
Administration, (NTIA), 8-4
near term digital radio, 2-2, 5-1,
5-7, 5-8
near-vertical incident sky wave,
3-8, 9-16, 9-22, 9-23, 9-25,
B-9, C-1, D-6
needlines, 5-3, 5-4, 5-5
net control station, 4-1, 4-2, 49, 4-19, 4-20, 4-21, 4-22, 54, 5-9, 6-9, 6-15, 12-5, 12-6,
E-1, E-3, F-2, F-3, F-4
network identifier, 4-18, 4-21,
10-3, 10-11, F-1, F-2, F-3, F4
network management system,
6-8
North Atlantic Treaty
Organization, 2-2, 3-5, 5-8,
7-8
O
operation order, 5-2, 5-8, 10-10
operation plan, 4-17, 5-8, 10-10
operations and intelligence, 418, 7-10, A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4,
A-6
operations staff officer, 4-17,
11-4, F-1
outside the continental United
States, H-2
over-the-air rekeying, 4-10, 418, 6-9, 10-1, 10-11, 11-11,
F-4
FM 6-02.53
P
polarization, 3-1, 3-6, 9-4, 9-9,
11-17, H-4
precision lightweight global
positioning system receiver,
4-10, 4-11, 4-12, 4-13, 4-19,
E-1, E-3
procedure word, 11-10, 12-2,
12-5
proword, 12-2, 12-3, 12-4
Psychological Operations, 1-6,
1-7, 1-8
Q
quick erect antenna mast, 9-28,
9-29
R
radio checks, 11-10, 12-5
radio-telephone operator, 3-1,
3-6, 4-1, 4-3, 4-18, 4-21, 6-2,
6-16, 9-22, 10-11, 11-7, 119, 11-10, 11-14, B-2, B-6, D4, D-10, D-11
random data generator, 10-3,
10-5
reciprocity, 9-8
refraction, B-12
remote control unit, 4-7, 7-2
Revised Battlefield Electronic
Communications-Electronics
Operational
Instruction/Signal Operating
Instructions System, 10-6,
10-7
revised data transfer device
software, 10-5, 10-6, 10-11
S
satellite communications, 1-6,
1-7, 1-8, 2-2, 3-1, 4-18, 4-22,
4-26, 6-5, 6-6, 6-7, 6-9, 6-11,
6-12, 6-13, 6-14, 6-16, 7-3,
7-4, 7-6, 7-8, 7-10, 8-7, 8-8,
8-9, 8-11, 9-35, 11-5, 11-10
securable remote control unit,
4-7, 4-8, 4-15
secure en route
communications package, 615, 6-16
secure telephone unit, 4-10, 64
short-range air defense, 5-9, 510
signal operating instructions, 23, 4-9, 4-10, 4-11, 10-1, 103, 10-5, 10-6, 10-7, 10-9, 10-
Index-3
Index
10, 11-4, 11-5, 11-7, 11-11,
F-1
signal security, 11-1, 11-2, 114, 11-7, B-2
signal to noise, 3-5, 6-5, 6-6, 99, B-13, C-5, C-6, H-2
signal, noise and distortion, 65, 6-6
signals intelligence, 11-1, 11-2
simple key loader, 4-10, 4-11,
6-13, 10-1, 10-12, F-2, F-3,
F-4
Single Channel Ground and
Airborne Radio System, 1-2,
1-3, 1-7, 2-1, 2-2, 3-4, 3-5,
4-1, 4-2, 4-4, 4-5, 4-6, 4-7,
4-9, 4-12, 4-14, 4-16, 4-17,
4-18, 4-19, 4-20, 4-21, 4-22,
4-23, 4-24, 6-4, 6-7, 6-8, 6-9,
6-10, 6-12, 6-13, 6-14, 7-1,
7-2, 7-3, 7-8, 7-10, 8-1, 8-11,
10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4, 10-5,
10-6, 10-7, 10-11, 10-12, 1112, A-1, D-5, E-1, E-3, F-1,
F-2, F-4, H-1, H-2, H-3, H-5
single side band, 1-6, 1-7, A-7,
B-16, B-17, D-7
single-channel anti-jam man
portable, 6-3, 6-4, 6-5
single-channel tactical satellite,
1-2, 1-3, 1-8, 2-1, 2-2, 6-1,
6-2, 6-3, 6-9, 6-14, 6-15, 616, 11-5, 11-17, 11-18, 1119, A-1, D-8
situational awareness, 4-6, 425, 5-9, 6-14, 8-6, 8-12
Special Operations Forces, 11, 1-6, 1-7, 2-2, 4-22, 6-1, 62, 6-3, 6-12, 8-7
standard frequency action
format, 10-6, 10-7
Index-4
standard frequent action
format, 10-6
standardization agreement
(NATO), 3-5, 4-4
standing operating procedure,
4-17, 4-18, 6-9, 10-10, 1110, 11-11, 12-5, E-3, F-1, F2
system improvement program,
4-1, 4-3, 4-4, 4-5, 4-7, 4-21,
4-23, 4-24, 6-4, 6-13, 7-8
system planning, engineering,
and evaluation device, C-5,
C-6
T
tactical air operations module,
5-9, 5-10
tactical command post, 5-1, A1, A-2
tactical digital information linkjoint, 5-8, 5-9
Tactical Fire Direction System,
4-5, 7-2, 8-1
tactical operations center, 1-3,
4-6, 5-1, 5-7, 5-8, 6-15, 7-10,
H-3, H-4
tactical satellite, 2-2, 6-1, 6-2,
6-14, 6-16, 9-35, 11-18, 1119, D-9
tactical theater signal brigade,
A-2
take-off-angle, 9-9, 9-10, C-1,
C-2
telecommunications security, 38, 4-17, 7-1, 7-2, 7-9, 8-1
theater high altitude air
defense, 5-9, 5-10
time division multiple access,
5-2, 5-3, 5-9, 8-6
traffic encryption key, 4-9, 4-18,
4-26, 10-3, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-4
FM 6-02.53
transmission security, 4-24, 425, 5-2, 7-2, 7-8, 10-3, 11-5,
11-18
transmission security key, 10-4,
10-5
trunked systems, 8-3
U
ultra high frequency, 1-6, 1-7,
1-8, 2-1, 2-2, 3-4, 4-18, 4-24,
4-25, 4-26, 5-1, 5-2, 5-8, 5-9,
6-1, 6-2, 6-3, 6-6, 6-8, 6-9,
6-12, 6-13, 6-15, 6-16, 7-3,
7-4, 7-6, 7-8, 7-9, 8-2, 8-7,
8-8, 8-9, 8-11, 9-4, 9-5, 9-25,
9-29, 9-32, 9-35, 10-2, B-4,
B-5, B-11, B-12, B-13, C-1,
C-4, C-5, D-3, D-9, H-7
United States Air Force, 2-2, 41, 5-1, 6-12, 6-14, 7-8, 10-6
United States Marine Corps, 22, 4-1, 5-1, 5-10, 6-13, 9-29,
10-6
United States Navy, 2-2, 4-1, 51, 6-12, 6-13, 6-14, 7-8, 10-6
urban operations, 3-7, 4-24, D6
V
vehicular amplifier adapter, 4-2,
4-4, 4-5, 4-6
vehicular intercommunications
system, 4-7, 4-14, 4-15
vertical polarization, 9-5, 9-6,
B-12, D-3
voice encoder, 6-1, G-2
Voice of America Coverage
Analysis Program, C-6
Voice over Internet Protocol, 85
voltage standing wave radio, 927, 9-30, 9-31, 9-35, 9-36
5 August 2009
FM 6-02.53
5 August 2009
By order of the Secretary of the Army:
GEORGE W. CASEY, JR.
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
JOYCE E. MORROW
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
0919603
DISTRIBUTION:
Active Army, Army National Guard, and U.S. Army Reserve: Not to be distributed; electronic media
only.
PIN: 085735-000
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