Cabin_Safety

Cabin_Safety
Flight Operations Support & Services
getting to grips with cabin safety February 2005
Flight Operations Support & Services
AIRBUS S.A.S.
31707 BLAGNAC CEDEX, FRANCE
CUSTOMER SERVICES COMMUNICATION
REFERENCE GDCOS A340/04
JANUARY 2005
PRINTED IN FRANCE
© AIRBUS S.A.S. 2005
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
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A319, A320, A321, A330, A340, A380,
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cabin safety
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getting to grips with
Flight Operations Support & Services
getting to grips with cabin safety
February 2005
Flight Operations Support & Services
Customer Services
1, rond-point Maurice Bellonte, BP 33
31707 BLAGNAC Cedex FRANCE
Telephone (+33) 5 61 93 33 33
Telefax (+33) 5 61 93 29 68
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getting to grips with
cabin safety
September 2008
Getting to Grips with Cabin Safety
Table of contents
.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................... 1
2.
CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS .................................................................. 2
2.1.
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................... 2
2.2.
IDENTIFYING THE SOURCES OF SMOKE................................................ 3
2.3.
DIFFICULT TO IDENTIFY SOURCES OF SMOKE...................................... 4
2.4.
CIRCUIT BREAKER PHILOSOPHY .......................................................... 6
2.5.
CABIN TO COCKPIT COMMUNICATION.................................................. 8
2.6.
COMPONENTS OF SMOKE AND PHYSIOLOGIAL EFFECTS ....................... 9
2.7.
PROTECTION FROM SMOKE INHALATION ........................................... 10
2.8.
SUMMARY ........................................................................................... 11
2.9.
ANALYSIS OF IN- SERVICE OCCURRENCE REPORTS............................ 12
2.10.
ANALYSIS SUMMARY 2003 ................................................................. 14
2.11.
LIST OF ODORS MOST REPORTED ....................................................... 15
2.12.
DRY ICE .............................................................................................. 16
3.
MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES .............................................................. 17
3.1.
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................. 17
3.2.
EASA/JAA FIRE AND SMOKE TRAINING STANDARDS ......................... 18
3.3.
FIRE DETECTION ................................................................................ 19
3.4.
FIRE CHEMISTRY ................................................................................ 20
3.5.
CLASSES OF FIRE................................................................................ 22
3.6.
HALON EXTINGUISHERS..................................................................... 23
3.7.
HOW TO USE A FIRE EXTINGUISHER .................................................. 25
3.8.
CREW COMMUNICATION AND COORDINATION................................... 27
3.9.
WORKING AS A TEAM ......................................................................... 28
3.10.
PASSENGER MANAGEMENT ................................................................. 30
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3.11.
OVEN FIRES........................................................................................ 31
3.12.
FIRES IN HIDDEN AREAS.................................................................... 33
3.13.
SUPPRESSED FIRE .............................................................................. 34
3.14.
FIRE PREVENTION .............................................................................. 34
3.15.
SUMMARY ........................................................................................... 35
3.16.
CABIN CREW FIRE AND SMOKE PROCEDURES .................................... 36
3.16.1.
BASIC FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURE..................................................... 36
3.16.2.
OVEN SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE......................................................... 38
3.16.3.
LAVATORY SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE................................................. 39
3.16.4.
OVERHEAD BIN SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE ......................................... 41
3.16.5.
PAX SEAT SMOKE PROCEDURE............................................................ 42
3.16.6.
CABIN SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE HIDDEN AREA OR UNKNOWN SOURCE43
3.16.7.
GALLEY SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE...................................................... 44
3.17.
FIRE PROTECTION WIDEBODY AIRCRAFT – A300/A300-600/A310 ... 45
3.17.1.
LAVATORY FIRE EXTINGUISHER......................................................... 45
3.17.2.
DESCRIPTION..................................................................................... 45
3.17.3.
OPERATION ........................................................................................ 45
3.18.
LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEMS AND DESCRIPTIONS ........... 50
3.19.
WIDEBODY FLEET CABIN CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS ......................... 51
3.19.1.
A300/A300-600/A310 ....................................................................... 51
3.19.2.
A300 CABIN CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS............................................. 52
3.19.3.
A300-600 CABIN CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS ..................................... 54
3.19.4.
A310 CABIN CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS............................................. 56
3.20.
SINGLE AISLE AIRCRAFT FIRE PROTECTION ...................................... 58
3.20.1.
LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTION ........................................................... 58
3.21.
SINGLE AISLE WASTE-BIN FIRE EXTINGUISHER ................................ 61
3.21.1.
GENERAL ............................................................................................ 61
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3.21.2.
LOCATION .......................................................................................... 61
3.21.3.
DESCRIPTION..................................................................................... 61
3.21.4.
OPERATION ........................................................................................ 62
3.22.
LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTION-A318/A319/A320 ENHANCED CIDS... 63
3.22.1.
DESCRIPTION..................................................................................... 63
3.23.
A318/A319/A320/A321 CABIN CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS............... 66
3.24.
LONG RANGE AIRCRAFT FIRE PROTECTION........................................ 69
3.24.1.
A330/A340 LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTION ........................................ 69
3.24.2.
VCC SMOKE PROCEDURE FOR A330/A340 AIRCRAFT ......................... 71
3.25.
A330 CABIN CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS............................................. 73
3.26.
A340 CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS........................................................ 76
3.27.
FIRE PROTECTION-A330/A340 ENHANCED CABIN ............................. 79
3.28.
LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTION – ENHANCED CABIN........................... 80
3.29.
VCC SMOKE PROCEDURE – ENHANCED CABIN .................................... 84
3.30.
A330 CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS - ENHANCED CABIN ........................ 85
3.30.1.
CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL LOCATION ................................................. 86
3.31.
A340 CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS - ENHANCED CABIN ........................ 89
3.31.1.
CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL LOCATION ................................................. 90
3.32.
A340-500/600 CABIN CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS.............................. 93
3.32.1.
CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL LOCATION ................................................. 94
3.33.
LONG RANGE AIRCRAFT CREW REST COMPARTMENTS ....................... 97
3.34.
CREW REST COMPARTMENTS - NORMAL OPERATION ......................... 97
3.35.
LOWER DECK CREW REST COMPARTMENTS ........................................ 98
3.36.
CREW REST SMOKE DETECTION –LDMCR ............................................ 99
3.37.
CREW REST FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM (F.E.S)- LDMCR ..............101
3.37.1.
HOW TO OPERATE THE FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM .....................102
3.37.2.
LDMCR SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE......................................................103
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3.37.3.
LDMCR AIR CONDITIONING LOW FLOW ............................................105
3.37.4.
LDMCR HEATING SYSTEM FAULT .......................................................106
3.37.5.
FLIGHT CREW REST COMPARTMENT SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE .........107
3.37.6.
BULK CREW REST COMPARTMENT (BCRC) FIRE PROTECTION ...........109
3.37.7.
BCRC FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM (F.E.S) .....................................111
3.37.8.
BCRC/FBCRC SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE ............................................113
3.37.9.
FBCRC EVACUATION PROCEDURE ......................................................115
3.37.10.
LDMCR/BCRC EVACUATION THROUGH THE EMERGENCY HATCH........117
3.37.11.
FBCRC/LDMCR/BCRC EVACUATION OF AN INCAPACITATED PERSON 118
3.37.12.
BCRC/FBCRC AIR CONDITIONING LOW FLOW PROCEDURE...............122
3.37.13.
FBCRC HEATING SYSTEM FAULT PROCEDURE ....................................123
4.
EMERGENCY EVACUATION .................................................................124
4.1.
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................124
4.2.
USING SILENT REVIEW .....................................................................125
4.3.
FACTORS AFFECTING CABIN EVACUATION ........................................127
4.3.1.
CABIN CONFIRGUATION....................................................................127
4.3.2.
CROWD CONTROL ..............................................................................127
4.3.3.
EVACUATION COMMANDS TO PASSENGERS .......................................128
4.4.
CABIN CREW INITIATED EVACUATION..............................................129
4.5.
UNPLANNED GROUND EVACUATION ..................................................130
4.6.
THE EVACUATION PROCESS...............................................................131
4.7.
THE EFFECT OF SMOKE AND FIRE DURING EVACUATION...................133
4.8.
EXIT MANAGEMENT ...........................................................................135
4.9.
PRE-CABIN CREW EVACUATION ........................................................136
4.10.
POST EVACUATION ............................................................................137
5.
PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION.......................................................138
5.1.
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................138
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5.2.
CABIN CREW ALERT PHASE ...............................................................138
5.3.
EMERGENCY CHECKLISTS ..................................................................139
5.4.
THE FLIGHT CREW TO PURSER BRIEFING..........................................139
5.5.
TIME MANAGEMENT...........................................................................140
5.6.
THE PURSER TO CABIN CREW BRIEFING ...........................................140
5.7.
THE CABIN CREW TO PASSENGER BRIEFING .....................................141
5.8.
GOLDEN RULES OF PASSENGER BRIEFING ........................................141
5.9.
THE CONTENTS OF THE PASSENGER BRIEFING..................................142
5.9.1.
THE BRACE POSITION .......................................................................142
5.9.2.
ILLUSTRATED BRACE POSITIONS ......................................................144
5.9.3.
EMERGENCY EXIT LOCATION .............................................................148
5.9.4.
SECURING LOOSE ITEMS ...................................................................148
5.9.5.
ABLE BODIED PASSENGERS...............................................................149
5.10.
SECURING THE CABIN .......................................................................150
5.11.
SUMMARY ..........................................................................................152
5.11.1.
EMERGENCY PASSENGER DOOR OPERATION .....................................153
5.11.2.
GROUND EVACUATION PROCEDURE ..................................................154
5.11.3.
CABIN PREPARATION - PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION..................156
6.
DITCHING..........................................................................................159
6.1.
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................159
6.2.
UNPLANNED DITCHING .....................................................................160
6.3.
SITUATIONAL AWARENESS ...............................................................161
6.4.
THE IMPACT PHASE ...........................................................................162
6.5.
THE EGRESS PHASE ...........................................................................163
6.6.
PASSENGER REACTION......................................................................163
6.7.
AIRCRAFT SINKING RAPIDLY ............................................................163
6.8.
AIRCRAFT FLOATING .........................................................................164
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6.9.
OVERWING EXITS..............................................................................164
6.10.
LIFEVESTS .........................................................................................165
6.11.
SURVIVAL PHASE ..............................................................................168
6.12.
PLANNED DITCHING..........................................................................169
6.13.
CABIN PREPARATION – DITCHING DIFFERENCES .............................170
6.14.
LIFEVESTS .........................................................................................171
6.15.
EXITS ................................................................................................172
6.16.
ABLE BODIED PASSENGER BRIEFINGS ..............................................172
6.17.
POST DITCHING ................................................................................174
6.18.
SURVIVAL..........................................................................................176
6.18.1.
PROTECTION .....................................................................................176
6.18.2.
LOCATION .........................................................................................177
6.18.3.
WATER...............................................................................................178
6.18.4.
FOOD .................................................................................................178
6.19.
RESCUE..............................................................................................178
6.19.1.
EVACUATION ON WATER PROCEDURE- SLIDERAFT ...........................181
6.19.2.
EVACUATION ON WATER PROCEDURE – ESCAPE SLIDE .....................182
6.19.3.
PLANNED DITCHING CABIN PREPARATION .......................................183
7.
CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION ..............................................................186
7.1.
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................186
7.2.
CABIN PRESSURIZATION ..................................................................186
7.3.
TYPES OF DEPRESSURIZATION .........................................................187
7.3.1.
RAPID/EXPLOSIVE DEPRESSURIZATION...........................................187
7.3.2.
SLOW DEPRESSURIZATION ...............................................................188
7.4.
HYPOXIA ...........................................................................................189
7.5.
THE TIME OF USEFUL CONSIOUSNESS ...............................................190
7.6.
THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF HYPOXIA ..192
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7.7.
CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION PROCEDURE ..........................................193
7.8.
CREW COMMUNICATION AND COORDINATION..................................194
7.9.
COMMUNICATING IN A NOISY ENVIRONMENT ..................................194
7.10.
POST DEPRESSURIZATION ................................................................195
7.11.
OXYGEN SYSTEMS .............................................................................195
7.11.1.
CHEMICAL OXYGEN ...........................................................................197
7.11.2.
GASEOUS OXYGEN .............................................................................197
7.11.3.
COCKPIT OXYGEN ..............................................................................200
7.11.4.
PORTABLE OXYGEN CYLINDERS ........................................................202
7.11.5.
CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION PROCEDURE ..........................................203
7.11.6.
LDMCR/BCRC/FBCRC DEPRESSURIZATION PROCEDURE ...................205
7.12.
SUMMARY ..........................................................................................206
8.
TURBULENCE MANAGEMENT ..............................................................207
8.1.
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................207
8.2.
STATISTICAL DATA............................................................................207
8.3.
TURBULENCE DEFINITIONS...............................................................208
8.4.
TURBULENCE MANAGEMENT ..............................................................209
8.4.1.
CREW COMMUNICATION AND COORDINATION..................................209
8.4.2.
ANTICIPATED TURBULENCE ..............................................................210
8.4.3.
UNANTICIPATED TURBULENCE ..........................................................210
8.4.4.
CABIN CREW PERSONAL SAFETY .......................................................211
8.4.5.
BALANCING SAFETY AND SERVICE ....................................................212
8.4.6.
CABIN MANAGEMENT ........................................................................212
8.4.7.
GALLEY MANAGEMENT.......................................................................213
8.4.8.
PASSENGER MANAGEMENT ................................................................214
8.5.
POST TURBULENCE ............................................................................215
8.6.
SUMMARY ..........................................................................................215
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8.6.1.
TURBULENCE MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES ........................................216
9.
DANGEROUS GOODS AWARENESS .....................................................217
9.1.
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................217
9.2.
DEFINITION OF DANGEROUS GOODS ................................................217
9.3.
REPORTED DANGEROUS GOODS INCIDENTS .....................................218
9.4.
DANGEROUS GOODS CLASSIFICATIONS ............................................219
9.5.
DANGEROUS GOODS ACCEPTED IN THE CABIN..................................222
9.6.
PROHIBITED DANGEROUS GOODS.....................................................222
9.7.
DANGEROUS GOODS HANDLING ........................................................223
9.8.
DISCOVERY OF DANGEROUS GOODS IN THE CABIN ..........................223
9.9.
CREW COMMUNICATION AND COORDINATION..................................224
9.10.
PROTECTION .....................................................................................224
9.11.
DANGEROUS GOODS REMOVAL..........................................................225
9.12.
STOWING DANGEROUS GOODS ITEMS...............................................225
9.13.
REPORTING A DANGEROUS GOODS INCIDENT ..................................226
9.14.
DANGEROUS INCIDENT GOODS CHECKLIST.......................................227
10.
BOMB ON BOARD ...............................................................................229
10.1.
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................229
10.2.
SUSPECT ITEM ...................................................................................230
10.3.
BOMB ON BOARD CABIN CREW PROCEDURE......................................232
11.
CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT........................................................236
11.1.
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................236
11.2.
COMMUNICATION AND COOPERATION ..............................................237
11.3.
BRIEFING AND CABIN CREW COMMUNICATION ................................242
11.4.
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION .......................................................244
11.5.
INFORMATION SHARING ...................................................................246
11.6.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION ..............................................................246
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11.6.1.
PASSENGERS .....................................................................................246
11.6.2.
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES ...............................................247
11.6.3.
CABIN INTERCOMMUNICATION DATA SYSTEM (CIDS) ......................247
11.6.4.
COMMUNICATION WITH MAINTENANCE............................................248
11.6.5.
COMMUNICATION AND COOPERATION WITH CATERING PERSONNEL248
11.6.6.
COMMUNCIATION AND COORDINATION WITH BOARDING STAFF .....249
11.7.
SUMMARY ..........................................................................................249
11.8.
FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE ................................................250
11.8.1.
PASSENGER CONFLICT ......................................................................250
11.8.2.
STRESS ..............................................................................................253
11.8.3.
COPING WITH EVERY DAY STRESS ....................................................256
11.8.4.
STRESS DURING EMERGENCIES.........................................................257
11.8.5.
SLEEP ................................................................................................258
11.8.6.
FATIGUE ............................................................................................259
11.9.
SUMMARY ..........................................................................................261
11.10.
ERROR MANAGEMENT ........................................................................262
11.11.
VIOLATION........................................................................................265
11.12.
TEAM PERFORMANCE.........................................................................268
11.13.
LEADERSHIP......................................................................................270
11.14.
SUMMARY ..........................................................................................272
12.
ABBREVIATIONS ...............................................................................273
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Getting to Grips with Cabin Safety
1. INTRODUCTION
1. INTRODUCTION
Welcome to ‘Getting to Grips with Cabin Safety’!
This brochure is a comprehensive review of Cabin Crew Emergency Procedures.
The aim of “Getting to Grips with Cabin Safety” is to provide Operators with
guidance to develop procedures to implement their own cabin safety program,
which is customized to the Operator’s specific requirements.
The compilation of this "Getting to Grips with Cabin Safety" brochure involved a
global understanding of how safety procedures are used onboard aircraft
worldwide. This was achieved through extensive research of, studies and articles,
accident analysis of aviation authorities worldwide, Airbus in-service experience,
and an overview of existing standards and procedures.
No single aviation authority standard is represented by this brochure, as there are
many different practices exercised by Operators worldwide.
Should any deviation appear between the information provided in this brochure,
and that published in the applicable CCOM, AFM, MMEL, FCOM, AMM, the latter
shall prevail at all time.
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2. CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS
2. CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS
2.1.
INTRODUCTION
It has been said that. “There is no smoke, without fire”. This may not always be
true, however, it would certainly be a good indication of an abnormal situation.
Many smoke occurrences are resolved, and do not affect the operation of a flight.
All reports of smoke in the cabin must be regarded as potentially serious.
It is important that crewmembers respond, report, and be aware of the indications
of smoke immediately. Identifying the source of smoke, and taking immediate
action, will significantly minimize the risk of fire onboard the aircraft.
The existence of smoke may impact flight operations, cause flight diversions, and
may result in delays, cancellations, declared emergencies, evacuations. In
addition, the presence of smoke may physically affect passengers and
crewmembers, if it is not dealt with rapidly and efficiently.
This chapter addresses the various potential sources of smoke onboard an aircraft.
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2.2.
2. CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS
IDENTIFYING THE SOURCES OF SMOKE
In the aircraft cabin, only some areas are equipped with smoke detectors, such as
the lavatories, the crew rest areas and the Video Control Center (A340-500/600)
Smoke detection and fire suppression rely on the intervention of the cabin crew.
It is wise to treat a smoke occurrence as a fire, until it has been proven otherwise.
Keep in mind that the development of an odor, or smoke, takes some time to
reach a level that is easily noticeable.
Smoke occurrences in the cabin usually involve equipment that is easily accessible
to cabin crew. It can be observed directly if it is coming from a coffeemaker, oven,
a seat video screen, or a passenger seat control box. Sometimes the cabin crew
may not see it, but may be alerted by an odor. In this case, the odor should be
traced to its strongest location, in order to pinpoint the source of the smoke.
Another indication may be a surface that is abnormally warm.
If the source can be identified, and is connected to an electrical source (for
example, a coffeemaker), the circuit breaker relating to that coffeemaker should
be pulled. If the source of the smoke cannot be identified, and is coming from the
galley area, isolate the area by using the “galley shutoff”, or by pulling all of the
galley circuit breakers to cut off the power source.
In case of smoke emissions from any electrical source, first of all, remove the
power source.
Keep firefighting equipment readily available, in the event that the situation
deteriorates.
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2.3.
2. CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS
DIFFICULT TO IDENTIFY SOURCES OF SMOKE
In January of 2004, the FAA issued an Advisory Circular entitled ‘In-Flight Fires’.
The Advisory Circular was issued with emphasis on hidden fires, and the
importance for crewmembers to:
•
Recognize the sources of smoke
•
Rapidly assess conditions
•
Take immediate action to gain access to fires that are behind interior
panels.
One of the first indications of a hidden fire may be smoke emitting from areas that
cannot be accessed easily by the cabin crew, such as sidewalls, overhead panels,
air ducts, ceiling panels, or cargo compartments. These “hidden areas” may have
little, or virtually no access, and have very restricted or no visible way of being
monitored.
Smoke emissions from these areas is a definite sign of a problem.
Many of these “hidden areas” involve wiring, air conditioning, and insulation, and
may, in fact, hide a potential fire within the aircraft.
Smoke emitting from the seams of a wall panel may possibly indicate electrical
arcing that has ignited another piece of material.
Smoke and fumes, due to contamination of the cabin air supply, may also infiltrate
the cabin. Items that are in the cargo compartments are another source to
consider.
Immediate investigation of odors, fumes, unusual noises, and passenger
observations that may relate to a smoke occurrence, may save valuable time.
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2. CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS
The diagram below is a typical cross-section of an aircraft. It is important for
cabin crew to be aware of the potential sources of smoke onboard the aircraft,
and to familiarize themselves with these areas. This enables crewmembers to
determine the source of the smoke, and take immediate action.
•
Crown Area. This area is above the ceiling panels. This overhead area
includes wiring bundles, control surface cables, passenger emergency
oxygen system, parts of the air conditioning system, and components of
the aircrafts In-Flight Entertainment System (IFE).
•
Dado Panels. These are the vents that are at the foot of the sidewall
panels, on each side of the passenger cabin. Most aircraft air
conditioning systems supply conditioned air from the cabin ceiling. This
conditioned air then flows from the top of the cabin to the bottom, exits
via the return grills, and finally leaves the aircraft via the outflow valves.
• Triangle Area. This area is below the floor outboard of the cargo area.
This area hosts hydraulic lines, electrical components and wiring
bundles.
Figure 2-1
(Source. Airbus Cabin Crew Operating Manual)
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2.4.
2. CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS
CIRCUIT BREAKER PHILOSOPHY
Circuit breakers perform a dual function in aircraft electrical systems. Their
primary function is to provide protection from overheating, due to an abnormal
electrical load on a piece of equipment, which may result in the total or partial
deactivation of the electrical installation owing to a short circuit.
The secondary function is to facilitate the isolation of specific circuits that do
not have any other switching mechanism.
The likely reason for a circuit breaker to trip is an abnormality in the electrical
load, or in the associated wiring. A circuit breaker will open, when a
predetermined current is detected. A thermal sensing element (e.g. bi-metal),
whose characteristics are dependent on the current, opens the circuit.
“Pulling” a circuit breaker will cut off the power source to an electrical item. A
circuit breaker that has been “pulled” or “tripped” automatically, should never
be re-engaged by cabin crew. However, it must be reported and recorded in
the maintenance log, according to the Operators policy.
Circuit breakers that relate to cabin items, such as lights, and
entertainment systems may be used to isolate equipment in the event
of smoke and fire, in accordance with the operator’s policy.
Cabin crewmembers should report all electrical failures and malfunctions to the
flight crew.
Tripped circuit breaker(s), particularly multiple circuit breakers, in galleys or in
the In-Flight Entertainment System, may indicate a problem in a “hidden area”
of the aircraft, where wiring and other components are located.
Re-engaging a tripped circuit breaker may aggravate any electrical damage,
and risks affecting other equipment. This may result in a temperature
increase, and smoke emissions in the area concerned.
Circuit breaker “re-engagement” has been the causes of some smoke and fire
occurrences.
Do not use circuit breakers as “ON/OFF” switches for equipment.
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Getting to Grips with Cabin Safety
2. CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS
Figure 2-2
Example of Galley Circuit Breaker Panel
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Getting to Grips with Cabin Safety
2.5.
2. CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS
CABIN TO COCKPIT COMMUNICATION
The importance of effective crew communication cannot be stressed enough,
particularly in an abnormal/emergency situation. During the study of many
accident and incident reports, crew communication has played an extremely
important role, and has significantly contributed to the outcome.
In the past, ineffective (or lack of) communication amongst the cabin crew and the
flight crew has contributed to the severity of an accident. Equally, effective
communication between the flight crew and the cabin crew has made the
difference between an accident and an incident.
Effective communication :
•
Reduces confusion
•
Increases confidence in decision making
•
Improves the chances of a successful outcome
The information that the flight crew receives from the cabin crew determines
the course of action that the flight crew will take. Therefore, it is vitally
important that the flight crew receives a realistic account of the events in the
cabin, as they occur.
If smoke or fumes are detected in the cabin, the flight crew should be informed
immediately.
One cabin crewmember should act as a liaison between the cabin and the flight
crew, via the interphone. This is to avoid conflicting information.
The information should be clear and concise, and reflect the conditions in the
cabin. Remember to “Keep it Simple”!
•
Location
•
Source (if possible)
•
Severity (density, color, odor, how it is affecting people)
•
Action taken.
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2. CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS
Never underestimate the severity of smoke and fire, when reporting to
the flight crew.
Do not mention fire, unless flames are actually visible.
2.6.
COMPONENTS OF SMOKE AND PHYSIOLOGIAL EFFECTS
The nature of smoke, its ability to spread quickly, and its chemical components
and fumes may cause damage rapidly, and lead to death within a relatively short
period of time.
Smoke has the ability to impair judgment and affect performance. The effects of
smoke inhalation depend on the individual level of tolerance. Materials that the
used in the cabin, such as curtains, plastic, paper, or carpets, release toxic fumes
when smoldering.
•
Carbon monoxide (CO): This is produced when carbon-based items burn.
Many items onboard the aircraft are carbon-based.
Effects: Dizziness, headaches, vomiting, impaired alertness, problems of
vision and lack of judgment.
•
Hydrogen cyanide: This is produced when nitrogen based items burn.
These include items such as, wool, silk and nitrogen-based synthetics.
Effects: The effects are the same as the above-listed for carbon monoxide.
However, because hydrogen cyanide interferes with the way oxygen is
carried in the body, and its effects on the respiratory system, death from
cyanide poisoning is relatively quick.
•
Hydrogen chloride & Acrolein : Both of these chemicals are found in
smoke that is produced, when electrical wires burn.
Effects: These act as a severe irritant to the eyes and the respiratory tract,
causing pain, tears and disorientation.
In some cases, when smoke and toxic gases have been present in the cabin, some
crews have had difficulty in verbal communicating, due to the effects of smoke
inhalation on their voices.
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2.7.
2. CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS
PROTECTION FROM SMOKE INHALATION
Smoke fumes, even when inhaled in small quantities, may be fatal depending
on the individual’s level of tolerance. If the concentration of smoke and fumes
becomes excessive, crewmembers must take action in order to protect
passengers, and themselves, from the effects of smoke inhalation.
•
Cabin crew should put on a PBE to protect themselves from the effects of
smoke inhalation
•
Do not open the cockpit door. Every effort should be made to prevent smoke
and fumes from contaminating the cockpit
•
Move passengers away from the area if possible
•
If it is not possible to relocate passengers, encourage them to keep their heads
as low as possible to the floor level. (As smoke rises, there is more breathable
air at floor level)
•
Distribute wet towels, or wet cloths to passengers. Instruct passengers to
breathe, placing the wet towels/cloths over their nose and mouth. This will help
filter out acidic gases such as hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride and
hydrogen cyanide, as well as smoke particles.
In the past, smoke occurrences have resulted in aircraft evacuations.
Incapacitation, due to smoke inhalation, may diminish the ability to evacuate
the aircraft, and may reduce the chances of survival.
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2.8.
2. CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS
SUMMARY
It is important to remember that a smoke occurrence can be a potential fire that,
if left undetected, can deteriorate within a short space of time.
•
Smoke occurrences require cabin crewmembers to respond quickly, to locate
the source and notify the flight crew without delay
•
When the source of the smoke can be identified, immediate intervention by the
cabin crew can minimize the risk to flight safety
•
Cabin crew should be aware of the indications of smoke from “Hidden Areas”.
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2.9.
2. CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS
ANALYSIS OF IN- SERVICE OCCURRENCE REPORTS
In-Service Occurrence reports (ISO’s) relate to incidents that happen during
aircraft operations and are reported back to Airbus by Operators. The following
chart represents the in-flight smoke occurrences reported during 2003.
Easy to locate sources of smoke
12%
42%
29%
17%
Galley Equipment
Cabin equipment
Cockpit equipment
Lavatory smoke
This chart represents the type of smoke occurrences that are easy to identify, that
involve equipment that is easily accessible to crew, as described in the previous
chapter.
•
Galley equipment represents the largest percentage 42%. Coffeemakers
and ovens contributed to the majority of smoke occurrences. It is
interesting to note that in some of the smoke occurrences involving ovens,
an element of human error was involved. One example was paper towels
left in the oven being the cause of smoke. Food and grease deposits in the
ovens were also a contributing factor in some cases.
•
Cockpit equipment included. A closet light unit, CDSS monitor, MCDU, and
map reading light.
•
Cabin equipment included. IFE screens and lights (ballast, reading and
ceiling).
•
It is interesting to note that all lavatory smoke occurrences were the
result of passengers smoking! In one instance the crewmember smelt the
odor, but the lavatory smoke detector was not activated, because the
passenger was holding a cup over it to prevent activation!!
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2. CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS
The following chart represents the type of smoke occurrences that are difficult for
the cabin crew to identify the source of. These types of smoke occurrences
contaminate the cabin through the ventilation system and air ducts, or produce
smoke from panels that would be difficult for crewmembers to access.
Sources of Smoke that are Difficult to Identify
30%
55%
15%
APU
Recirculation fans
Various
•
The largest portion of the chart is “various”, as there were many different
sources of smoke in the cabin that occurred in many different ways. These
include bird ingestion, lightening strike, smoke from an oxygen outlet
panel, external power receptacle, contamination of an oil filter, damaged
wire bundles behind panels, and circuit breakers that did not “trip” for inoperative items.
•
The APU was identified as, not only contributing to smoke occurrences, but
also as the origin of fumes and odors. The ingestion of anti/de-icing fluids
by the APU may cause smoke in the cabin, and can trigger smoke warnings
in the cockpit. This kind of contamination goes through the bleed air
system, and then through the air conditioning, leading to smoke in the
pressurized areas of the aircraft.
•
Cabin recirculation fans have also contributed to smoke occurrences, and
can be the cause of a significant amount of smoke in the cabin.
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2. CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS
2.10. ANALYSIS SUMMARY 2003
From the analysis, we can see that the cabin crew easily identified 60% of the
smoke occurrences reported. However, 40% of smoke occurrences were not easily
identifiable, therefore re-enforcing the need for cabin crew to be aware of other
possible sources of smoke in the cabin, particularly in hidden areas.
•
In the final analysis only one of the smoke occurrences resulted in fire. This
was an oven fire that was caused by saran/plastic wrap, left on during the
cooking cycle.
•
Smoke occurrences have resulted in cabin crewmembers and passengers
being hospitalized, due to smoke inhalation.
•
The effects of fumes reported by crewmembers were eye irritation and sore
throats.
•
The percentage of flights that diverted due to smoke occurrences was
20.60% for the year 2003.
•
Smoke occurrences have resulted in some full emergency evacuations.
SOURCES OF SMOKE
40%
60%
Difficult to identify sources of smoke
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2.11.
2. CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS
LIST OF ODORS MOST REPORTED
The following table lists the types of odors that are the most often reported from
Airbus operators. The words used to describe the odors reflect the language used
in the reports. However, the purpose is to link the odor to its possible source.
DESCRIPTION OF
ODORS
PRIMARY CAUSE
(MOST REPORTED LISTED FIRST)
Electrical Equipment/IFE
Engine Oil Leak
Acrid
Electrical Equipment
Galley Equipment
Bird Ingestion
Burning
Chemical
Contaminated Bleed Cuts
APU Ingestion
Chlorine
Smoke hood
Blocked Door Area Drain
Electrical
Electrical Equipment
Dirty Socks
APU or Engine Oil Leaks
Foul
Toilets
Fuel
APU FCU/Fuel Line
Oil
Engine or APU Oil Leak
Skydrol
Sulphur
Engine Hydraulic
Wiring
Avionics Filter Water Contamination
Light Bulb
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2.12.
2. CABIN SMOKE AWARENESS
DRY ICE
Dry ice is a familiar item in the aircraft galleys; caterers to preserve food items
that need to be kept chilled usually use it.
Dry ice, is, solidified carbon. It is subject to the process of sublimation, i.e. the
conversion of a solid substance directly in to gas (carbon dioxide vapor).
Dry ice gradually releases carbon dioxide, which is not poisonous, but may well
present a problem, in confined or poorly ventilated areas. Crewmembers
should be aware of the physiological symptoms that are associated with a
higher than normal level of carbon dioxide in the air. Symptoms include:
•
Headache
•
Dizziness
•
Shortness of breath
•
Muscular weakness
•
Drowsiness
•
Ringing in the ears
The recovery time is rapid after leaving the affected area. If, crewmembers
experience these symptoms in-flight, they must:
•
Leave the affected area
•
Notify the Purser and the Flight crew
•
Complete a flight report (Air Contamination)
•
−
Give details of the number of crewmembers affected,
−
The type of symptoms experienced by crewmembers
Report to the medical department upon arrival
The hazards associated with dry ice onboard the aircraft are considered
minimal under normal cabin ventilation conditions.
The following precautions should be taken when handling dry ice:
•
Use gloves to handle dry ice – do not let dry ice contact the skin
•
Do not let dry ice contact water– As it produces smoke
The transport of dry is the sole responsibility of the operator.
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
3.1.
INTRODUCTION
Fire is considered to be the most serious in-flight emergency. A recent study of inflight fires carried out by the Transportation Safety Board of Canada, in which 15
in-flight fires between the years 1967 and 1998 were studied, revealed that the
average length of time between the discovery of an in-flight fire and Controlled
Flight into Terrain (CFIT) 17 minutes.
A fire must be brought under control as soon as possible. Considering how time
critical this type of emergency is, it is imperative that not a second is lost in trying
to suppress the fire and minimize the risk to the flight.
Due to the nature of a fire, and its devastating effects on an aircraft, particularly
within a confined space, it is important to know what steps should be taken to
prevent the fire, and to stop it from spreading.
Emphasis has been placed on flight crews taking “Immediate and aggressive
action” to locate the source of the fire and to immediately put it out. Any fire, no
matter how small, may rapidly become out of control, if not dealt with
immediately.
Therefore, at the first sign of any fire, the first priority will always be to put it
out.
In-flight firefighting skills require knowledge, technique and realistic “hands on”
training for crewmembers.
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3.2.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
EASA/JAA FIRE AND SMOKE TRAINING STANDARDS
Every aviation authority has its own cabin crew training standards and
requirements. In Eu-Ops/Jar-Ops 1, subpart O, 1.1005, the fire and smoke
training standards for cabin crew operating within the EASA/JAA region (Europe),
and is as follows:
“Fire and Smoke Training. An operator shall ensure that fire and smoke training
includes.
1. Emphasis on the responsibility of cabin crew to deal promptly with
emergencies involving fire and smoke and, in particular, emphasis on the
importance of identifying the actual source of the fire;
2. The importance of informing the flight crew immediately, as well as the
specific actions necessary for co-ordination and assistance, when fire and
smoke are discovered.
3. The necessity for frequent checking of potential fire-risk areas including
toilets, and the associated smoke detectors;
4. The classification of fires and the appropriate type of extinguishing agents
and procedures for particular fire situations, the techniques of application of
extinguishing agents, the consequences of misapplication, and of use in a
confined space; and
5. The general procedures of ground based emergency services at
aerodromes”.
In any abnormal/emergency situation onboard the aircraft, the training received
by the crewmembers will have a direct impact on crew performance. Training is
the most effective way of improving crew awareness and co-ordination, and
should include flight crew and cabin crew being instructed in each other’s basic
emergency procedures, with particular emphasis on smoke and in-flight fires.
Training should give crewmembers the confidence to feel that they have the
necessary information and techniques to deal successfully with any type of
onboard fire.
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3.3.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
FIRE DETECTION
Fire protection is an integral part of the design of the modern aircraft. In the
passenger cabin all cabin crew and passenger seats are fire blocked, lavatories
are equipped with smoke detectors, and automatic fire extinguishers beneath
each sink. Crew rest areas are equipped with smoke detectors and extinguishers.
Even galley and toilet waste bins are designed to contain fire. Yet, cabin fires may
still occur.
Sometimes a fire may not always be obvious, and smoke and flames may not
always be visible, but there may be other indications that a potential fire is in
progress. Signs to be aware of include.
•
Fumes or unusual odors
•
Electrical malfunctions, for example, circuit breakers “tripping”
•
Noises, such as, popping, snapping or crackling, which may indicate
electrical arcing
•
Hot spots on sidewalls, floors, and panels should be investigated.
If passengers or crewmembers suddenly develop eye irritation, sore throats,
and/or headaches, may indicate that gas fumes are present, but may have not
reached a level where they are visible.
Cabin crewmembers must immediately investigate any reports from passengers
that may indicate a fire.
The aim is to locate and extinguish a fire in the early stages.
Fires can be complex, in order to fight a fire successfully crewmembers need to
know what they may have to deal with, therefore it is important to know a little
about fire chemistry and combustion and the different “classes” of fire.
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3.4.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
FIRE CHEMISTRY
The principle of fire safety is keeping fuel sources and ignition sources separate.
Combustion consists of four elements:
•
Oxygen: Needed to keep the fire going
•
Heat: Needed to ignite material
•
Fuel: In the form of a combustible material
•
A chemical chain reaction, and the result = FIRE.
Figure 3-1
The fire triangle
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
The principle of firefighting is to remove at least one element from the fire, in
order to put it out.
Fire has three recognized stages:
1. The Incipient Stage. The preheating stage, when the fire is in slow
progress.
2. The Smoldering Stage. When the initial combustion begins. This is the
stage were a light haze will appear, or smoke particles may be visible. The
smoke particles can be transported away from the source by convection
and background air movement.
3. The Flame Stage. When the fire has fully developed, and is spreading
rapidly.
A fire will continue until:
•
All the fuel has been consumed
•
One, or more, element has been removed
•
The temperature has been reduced
•
The chain reaction has been broken.
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3.5.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
CLASSES OF FIRE
Fires are classed as A, B, C, and D type fires. Onboard an aircraft, classes A, and
C are the most commonly encountered. It is important for cabin crew to select the
appropriate fire extinguisher, according to the type of fire.
Class A Fires: Wood, paper, cloth and plastic are the fuel source.
This type of fire needs to be cooled and quenched by using water. A water/glycol
extinguisher should be used or a non-alcoholic liquid. For example, juice, tea or
coffee will extinguish this class of fire. Class “A” fires need to be quenched and
cooled by water, or solutions containing a large percentage of water. Halon can be
used if it is the closest extinguisher available, but the area needs to be soaked,
with non-alcoholic liquids afterwards.
Smoke: Usually grayish/brown in color. The smoke can be quite dense ,
depending on the quantity of fuel.
Class B Fires: Contain flammable liquid, hydraulic fluid, oil, tar or aircraft fuel.
Extinguishing agents need to have a blanketing effect. A Halon extinguisher would
be required.
Smoke: Usually black in color, very thick, very distinct oil/petrol-like odor.
Class C Fires: Involve live electrical equipment. The emphasis is placed on
extinguishing the fire with an element that is non-conductive, and avoiding
damage to nearby electrical circuitry. Halon extinguisher should be used.
Smoke: Usually light grey, nearly white with a bluish tinge. Very fine smoke can
disperse rapidly. Has a distinct acrid odor.
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
Class D Fires: Involve combustible metals, for example, sodium, magnesium,
lithium and potassium. Special powder extinguishers are used on these types of
fire, because of the possible chemical reaction between the burning and
extinguishing agent.
3.6.
HALON EXTINGUISHERS
The use of Halon has generated some controversy and misunderstanding during
recent years, however the FAA advisory circular AC120-80 ‘in-flight fires’ issued in
January, 2004, addresses the subject of Halon use, by stressing the effectiveness
of Halon, when fighting in-flight fires.
“NTSB investigations of in-flight fires indicate that crewmembers have been
hesitant to use Halon extinguishers during flight because of mistaken ideas about
the adverse effects of Halon. In one instance, a flight attendant went to the
cockpit to inform the flight crew of a fire and asked the captain whether to spray
Halon in to a vent where she suspected a fire. The captain instructed her not to
use the Halon extinguisher, indicating he was concerned about spraying Halon in
the cabin. In another instance, an off-duty company pilot considered using a
Halon fire extinguisher, but decided against doing so because he was concerned
that the Halon “would take away more oxygen”. In each instance, the
crewmembers lost critical time and delayed the aggressive pursuit of the fire”
(Source FAA Advisory Circular 120-80, January 2004).
Halon or BCF (chemical name bromochlorodiflouromethane, are member of the
chemical family of Halogenated Hydrocarbons) is a liquefied gas that extinguishes
fires by chemically interrupting a fire’s combustion chain, as opposed to physically
smothering the fire. This is one of the main reasons why Halon is effective when
the exact source of the fire cannot be positively determined. A small concentration
of Halon in the air as a vapor will prevent a fire from continuing to burn.
Halon is toxic, and crewmembers should take precautions when using a Halon
extinguisher in a confined/unventilated area. A PBE (Portable breathing
equipment) should be used.
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
“The NTSB has expressed concern that the risks of exceeding the maximum
recommended levels of Halon gas outlined in AC 20-42C have been over
emphasized in crewmember training programs, especially when compared to the
risks of an in-flight fire. The NTSB emphasizes, “that the potential harmful effects
on passengers and crew [of Halon] are negligible compared to the safety benefits
achieved by fighting in-flight fires aggressively”. The toxic effects of a typical
aircraft seat fire, for example, far outweigh the potential toxic effects of
discharging a Halon fire extinguisher” (AC-120-80, January 2004).
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3.7.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
HOW TO USE A FIRE EXTINGUISHER
Pull the pin or turn the handle.
Until the pin is released the extinguisher is locked.
The pin needs to be removed to release the handle
or lever.
Aim at the base of the fire.
The extinguisher must be aimed at the base of the
fire, in order to remove the source of fuel.
Squeeze the top handle or lever.
This will release the extinguishing agent. Releasing
the lever will stop the flow. Hand held extinguishers
should always be held upright.
Sweep from side to side.
Use the extinguisher in a sweeping motion. Initially,
stand 8/10 ft away (2.5m). As the fire reduces,
move closer with the extinguisher. Always direct the
nozzle at the base of the fire.
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
The right technique in fighting a fire is an important part of the process. There are
only a limited amount of fire extinguishers onboard the aircraft, therefore it is
important to maximize their use.
•
For the best results, attack the base of the fire at the near edge,
progressively working to the back of the fire, by moving the fire
extinguisher nozzle in a sweeping motion from side-to-side.
•
The fire extinguisher should not be discharged on a burning surface at close
range. A distance of 5 to 8 feet (1.5m to 2.5m) should be respected,
because the speed of the extinguishing agent being discharged may cause
splashing or may scatter burning material.
•
The duration of use of a fire extinguisher may be between 8 to 25 seconds
depending on the make and model of the extinguisher. The correct
selection and use of the extinguisher must be made without delay.
•
Have backup extinguishers available to use immediately after depletion, in
order to maintain the firefighting effort.
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3.8.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
CREW COMMUNICATION AND COORDINATION
In the event of a fire onboard the aircraft, communication and coordination
between the cabin crew and flight crew are essential. If a fire is discovered in
the cabin, the flight crew should be informed immediately. One person should
maintain contact with the flight crew via the interphone, near to the fire scene.
The method of reporting should be clear and concise, in order that the
message is understood. Keep it simple and keep to the facts. Tell the flight
crew exactly what is happening in the cabin.
• Location of the fire
• Source
• Severity/density of the fire, including odors and the color of smoke
• Firefighting progress
• Number of fire extinguishers used
• Time firefighting action started.
The flight crew relies on the reports provided by the cabin crewmembers, to
determine the course of action to take. The cabin crew must continue to
advise the flight crew about of the conditions existing in the cabin, and kept
up to date on the firefighting progress.
The following is an extract from an NTSB final report after an onboard fire.
“The board determined that the probable cause of the accident was a fire
of undetermined origin, an underestimate of fire severity, and conflicting
fire progress information provided to the captain. Contributing to the
severity of the accident was the flight crew’s delayed decision to institute
an emergency descent” (NTSB/AAR-84/09)
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3.9.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
WORKING AS A TEAM
The firefighting procedures require a team of at least three cabin crewmembers. A
team effort is the most effective way to combat an onboard fire. The roles are
defined as follows:
•
The Firefighter
•
The communicator
•
The Assistant Firefighter
Crew communication and coordination is important, and the roles of these three
cabin crewmembers complement each other, because their tasks are performed
simultaneously, in order to optimize the firefighting effort.
•
The Firefighter: The first crewmember that finds the fire will take the role
of the Firefighter. This cabin crewmember:
−
Alerts other cabin crewmembers
−
Obtains the nearest fire extinguisher
−
Immediately locates the source of the fire
−
Fights the fire.
•
The Communicator: The second cabin crewmember on the scene. The
communicator. Informs the flight crew of the fire/smoke.
−
Location
−
Source
−
Severity/Density (Color of smoke/odor)
−
Firefighting progress
−
Number of extinguishers used
−
Time firefighting action started.
The communicator maintains the communication link between the cabin and the
flight crew, via an interphone that is near the firefighting scene.
The communicator must provide the flight crew with an accurate description of the
firefighting effort, and of the situation in the cabin.
•
The Assistant Firefighter: The third cabin crewmember on the scene. The
Assistant Firefighter:
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
−
Supplies extra firefighting equipment
−
Supports the firefighting effort
−
Removes flammable material from the area
The Assistant Firefighter must be prepared to replace the Firefighter, and
exchange roles with the Firefighter, as required.
•
Support crewmembers: These crewmembers are not directly involved in
the firefighting effort, but will be required provide assistance (e.g. to
relocate passengers, administer first-aid, calm and reassure passengers).
After any fire or smoke occurrence, one crewmember should be responsible for
monitoring the affected area for the remainder of the flight, and should regularly
report to the Purser.
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3.10.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
PASSENGER MANAGEMENT
If there are passengers within close proximity to the fire, move them away from
the immediate area. If the amount of smoke or fumes is affecting the passengers,
encourage them to cover their nose and mouth with a cloth, to protect from
smoke particles. Alternatively, and better still, distribute wet towels to the
passengers, if available. Instruct passengers to protect themselves from smoke
inhalation.
If a passenger needs to be treated for smoke inhalation, and requires oxygen, the
passenger must be moved away from the affected area, before administering the
oxygen.
It is important to take into account the reaction of the passengers during an
onboard fire. Most passengers will express concern, or may even panic. Therefore,
there is definite need for crewmembers to be present in the cabin to calm and
reassure passengers. Crewmembers who are not actively involved in the
firefighting effort should remain in the cabin to give assistance where required.
Keep the passengers informed, in a calm and reassuring manner, by telling them
what is happening. This may help them to prepare psychologically for what may
come, particularly in the event of an emergency descent or an evacuation.
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3.11.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
OVEN FIRES
Oven fires deserve a special mention because of the frequency of their
occurrence. Many oven fires are preventable.
The Civil Aviation Authority, in the United Kingdom, issued a Flight Operation
Department Communication in October 2003, which addresses the increased
amount of reports of oven fires. The CAA made the following recommendations
to operators.
a. “Operators should review their current procedures, amending their
Operations Manuals where necessary, to ensure that the following items are
covered.
b. Cabin crew pre-flight checks should include a requirement for all ovens to
be inspected not only for cleanliness but also to ensure that no foreign objects
are present;
c. Cabin crew procedures should include a requirement to inspect ovens prior
to switching the oven on to ensure that no foreign objects are present;
d. Cabin crew procedures should include guidance as to the steps to be taken
following the spillage of food or grease within the oven during a flight, and the
entry to made in the Cabin Defect Log and/or Technical Log as appropriate.
Operators should remind their catering contractors of the importance of
checking oven racks prior to loading ovens to ensure that no foreign objects
such as labels, cardboard packaging etc, are attached to the racks”
Any in-flight fire including oven fires, the principle of firefighter, communicator
and assistant will always apply. The emphasis is placed on crew co-ordination
and communication to achieve a successful outcome.
When an oven fire occurs, the oven door should be kept closed.
Opening an oven door when fire is present is hazardous. Opening the
oven door will introduce oxygen from outside that may cause a flash
fire.
ALWAYS NOTIFY THE FLIGHT CREW IMMEDIATELY.
The communicator must remain on the interphone and maintain the
communication link between the cabin and the flight crew for the duration of
the event. An accurate report of the situation existing in the cabin must be
relayed without delay.
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
When an oven fire occurs the following actions should be taken by the firefighter:
•
Keep the oven door closed, to deprive the fire of oxygen, in most incidents
the fire will extinguish itself
•
Switch off the oven power using the ON/OFF push button
•
Isolate the electrical power from the oven by pulling the corresponding
circuit breaker
•
Monitor the situation
•
Have a fire extinguisher, protective breathing equipment (PBE), fire gloves
ready to use if the situation deteriorates.
If the situation worsens, or the fire is still present:
•
Don PBE and fire gloves to protect yourself
•
Open the oven door very slightly, just enough to insert the nozzle of the
fire extinguisher
•
Insert the nozzle of the fire extinguisher and discharge a small amount of
the extinguishing agent
•
Close the oven door
•
Repeat the procedure, if necessary.
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3.12.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
FIRES IN HIDDEN AREAS
“Hidden Areas” are defined as “any area inside the pressure shell, which is not
readily accessible to the crew, other than a dedicated cargo area.”
It is important that there is awareness of the possibility of fires in “hidden areas”
that would not be accessible to crew. These are areas where fires may propagate
undetected, such as, sidewall panels, floors, bulkheads, ventilation grills and
ceiling panels. Indications of “hidden fires” may be unusually hot surfaces, or
smoke being emitted from wall or ceiling seams. Fumes and unusual odors may
be another indication. Due to the lack of access to these areas, it is difficult to
locate the source, but the threat to the flight safety remains the same.
If fire is suspected behind a panel, try to locate a “hot spot” an unusually warm
area. This is generally a good indicator as to where the source of the fire is.
Move the back of the hand along the panel to find the hottest area. Using the
back of the hand is more sensitive to temperature changes than the palm.
It may be necessary to remove panels to access the area. A crash axe may be
used as a lever to lift the panel, or an incision may be made in the panel large
enough to place the nozzle of the extinguisher, in order to discharge the agent
into the affected area.
“Should I consider cutting or punching a hole in an aircraft cabin wall,
ceiling, or floor panel in order to gain access to a fire? If this is the only way
to gain access to the fire, yes. In this situation, the risk of damaging equipment
behind the paneling and the possibility of creating a bigger problem must be
weighed against the catastrophic potential of in-flight fires left unattended”.
(FAA Advisory Circular 120-80)
Indiscriminate use of a crash axe or other instruments to access panels
may damage some essential wiring, and damage aircraft systems. It is
necessary that crewmembers are familiar with the different components
located behind panels according to the aircraft type and configuration.
Crewmembers must count on their own determination and use all the resources
available to fight a fire
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3.13.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
SUPPRESSED FIRE
A suppressed fire is a fire that has only been partially extinguished. It may not
have visible flames. A suppressed fire, if not extinguished, may re-ignite and
develop into a larger, uncontrollable fire in a short space of time.
When a fire has been extinguished, crewmembers must prevent any possibility reignition. On all non-electrical fire debris the use of wet pillows, blankets and nonalcoholic beverages should be used to soak the area, and suffocate the potential
of re-ignition.
However, liquids should not be used on electrical items or wiring.
3.14.
FIRE PREVENTION
Although every effort is made by the aviation industry to reduce the risk of
onboard fires, fires can still occur for different reasons. Effective fire prevention
requires that the cabin crew be alert to possible fire hazards and vigilant in the
cabin.
Frequent monitoring of the cabin is important to ensure that no smoke or fire is
present. There are still many reports of passengers smoking in the lavatories.
Frequently monitoring of the lavatories, particularly the waste bins and stowage
areas, will help detect a carelessly discarded cigarette, before it creates a hazard.
Galley areas should be monitored frequently to ensure that paper, plastic and
other combustible items are not left near warming plates, ovens, bun warmers,
and other hot galley surfaces.
Any indication of smoke or fire must be dealt with immediately.
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3.15.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
SUMMARY
In-flight firefighting requires knowledge, skill, resourcefulness and determination
on behalf of the crewmembers, to deal effectively with the challenge of an in-flight
fire.
•
Cabin crew should be aware of the various indications of fire, smoke
alarms, visible smoke, unusual odors, fumes, circuit breaker(s) tripping,
and hot spots.
•
If an in-flight fire is suspected or is known cabin crew should take
immediate action to locate the source of the fire and aggressively fight the
fire.
•
Emphasis must be placed on the importance of notifying the flight crew
immediately, upon discovery of a fire. Maintaining an open line of
communication and giving the flight crew a realistic account of events in
the cabin.
•
Cabin crew should be knowledgeable of the type of fire extinguishers
carried onboard the aircraft and their correct use.
•
Emphasis should be placed on dealing with fires within hidden areas of the
aircraft. Crewmembers should understand the correct methods/techniques
to gain access to these areas.
•
The importance of communication, crew co-ordination and teamwork during
any type of in-flight emergency.
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
3.16. CABIN CREW FIRE AND SMOKE PROCEDURES
These procedures apply to the following aircraft.
A300/A300 -600/A310/A318/A319/A320/A321/A330/A340
3.16.1.
BASIC FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURE
The Firefighter, the Communicator and the Assistant Firefighter perform their
roles and actions SIMULTANEOUSLY.
FIREFIGHTER
-OTHER CREWMEMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALERT
-FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . … EQUIP
Take the nearest appropriate fire extinguisher. Consider the use of a PBE.
-SOURCE OF THE FIRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ……. LOCATE
-FIRE EXTINGUISHER . . . . . . . . . . . .. DISCHARGE AT BASE OF FIRE
-FIREFIGHTING EFFORT . . . . . . .. MAINTAIN UNTIL THE FIRE IS OUT
• When the fire is out:
AFFECTED AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DAMPEN
The affected area should be dampened to prevent the fire from re-ignition
WARNING
Do not dampen electrical equipment.
COMMUNICATOR
FLIGHT CREW . . . . . . . . . . . . NOTIFY IMMEDIATELY VIA INTERPHONE
Use the interphone, to prevent smoke from contaminating the cockpit. Give
the following information:
−
Location
−
Source
−
Severity/Density (color of smoke/odor)
−
Firefighting progress
−
Number of fire extinguishers used
−
Time firefighting action started.
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
BASIC FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURE CONT’D.
-COMMUNICATION WITH FLIGHT CREW . . . . . . . . . . MAINTAIN
-INSTRUCTIONS FROM FLIGHT CREW . . . . . COMMUNICATE TO
CREWMEMBERS
ASSISTANT FIREFIGHTER
FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUPPLY
• If necessary:
-REPLACE FIREFIGHTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PREPARE
-PBE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DON
SUPPORT CREWMEMBERS
-PASSENGERS AND PORTABLE OXYGEN. MOVE FROM IMMEDIATE AREA
-FIREFIGHTING EFFORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ASSIST AND SUPPORT
-PASSENGERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. CALM AND REASSURE
• When the fire is out:
-DEDICATED CREWMEMBER . . . MONITOR FOR THE REMAINDER OF
THE FLIGHT
The affected area must be monitored for the remainder of the flight. Regular reports must
be made to the Purser.
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3.16.2.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
OVEN SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE
These procedures apply to the following aircraft.
A300/A300 -600/A310/A318/A319/A320/A321/A330/A340
Oven smoke/fires may be caused by the oven contents, such as, food or grease deposits.
Electrical malfunctions may also be another source.
-OVEN DOOR…………………………………..CLOSE
-OVEN POWER…………………………………OFF
Note.
By keeping the oven door closed the fire will usually extinguish itself.
-CIRCUIT BREAKER………………………….PULL
The applicable circuit breaker is located on the galley’s centralized electrical panel.
•
IF SMOKE OR FIRE IS STILL PRESENT:
-PBE AND FIRE GLOVES………………………DON
(*)-OVEN DOOR……………………………………….OPEN SLIGHTLY
Note.
Open the oven door slightly, enough to insert the nozzle of the fire extinguisher
into the oven
(*) -FIRE EXTINGUISHER…………………………DISCHARGE
(*) -OVEN DOOR……………………………………..CLOSE
-FIREFIGHTING EFFORT………………………REPEAT AS NECESSARY
(*)Repeat last three steps of the procedure, as necessary.
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3.16.3.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
LAVATORY SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE
These procedures apply to the following aircraft.
A300/A300 -600/A310/A318/A319/A320/A321/A330/A340
Lavatory smoke/fires can be caused by electrical system malfunctions for
example, the water heater, toilet vacuum, or may be caused by burning materials
usually caused by a carelessly discarded cigarette in the lavatory waste bin.
ALERT PHASE
Each type of aircraft has visual and aural warnings that trigger, when smoke is
detected in one of the aircraft lavatories.
The Firefighter, the Communicator, and the Assistant Firefighter perform their roles and
actions Simultaneously.
FLIGHT CREW
- SMOKE LAVATORY SMOKE . . . . . . . . . . . CREW AWARENESS
Maintain contact with the cabin crew to follow up on the status of the fire.
CABIN CREW PROCEDURE
On the FAP, and/or related AAP, the SMOKE warning indication comes on, with
an associated triple chime, repeated every 30 seconds (optionally 10 seconds).
- AFFECTED LAVATORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOCATE
On all AIPs, the affected lavatory is clearly indicated and a red indicator
flashes.The amber light, on the respective ACPs, and the outside Smoke/Pax call
indicator of the affected lavatory flashes.
Affected lavatory is also shown on the FAP.
- SMOKE PUSHBUTTON (ON THE FAP or AAP IN YOUR ZONE) . . RESET
To silence the chime, and reset all visual warnings on the ACPs, the AIPs.
Note.
The amber Smoke indicator of the affected lavatory, the SMOKE RESET
pushbutton on the FAP and respective AAP and the indication on the
FAP Smoke page remain ON until all smoke has dissipate.
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
LAVATORY SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE CONT’D…
WARNING
Do not open the lavatory door. First, check the door for heat. Using the back of
the hand, feel the panel of the lavatory door, to determine temperature and
presence of fire.
- LAVATORY DOOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK FOR HEAT
• If the door lavatory panel is cool.
- LAVATORY DOOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OPEN SLOWLY WITH CAUTION
- SOURCE OF SMOKE/FIRE . . . . . . . . . . . . LOCATE
• If fire is present:
- BASIC FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURE . . .. APPLY
- FIRE EXTINGUISHER . . . . . . . . . .. DISCHARGE AT BASE OF FIRE
• If door panel is hot:
Note.
If the door is hot, the fire is at a critical stage. Have extra fire fighting equipment
available and ready to use.
- PBE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …….DON
- FIREFIGHTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. PROTECT SELF
Stay low and crouch down, using the door panel as protection against
smoke and heat.
- (*) LAVATORY DOOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPEN SLIGHTLY
To pass the nozzle of the extinguisher.
- (*) FIRE EXTINGUISHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISCHARGE
- (*) LAVATORY DOOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE
- FIREFIGHTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. REPEAT AS NECESSARY
(*) Repeat last four steps of the procedure, as necessary.
• If situation is cleared:
- AFFECTED LAVATORY . . MONITOR FOR THE REMAINDER OF THE FLIGHT
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3.16.4.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
OVERHEAD BIN SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE
These procedures apply to the following aircraft.
A300/A300 -600/A310/A318/A319/A320/A321/A330/A340
Smoke/fire in overhead bins may be caused by the contents or a possible
electrical malfunction in the Passenger Service Unit (PSU).
• If smoke is visibly emitting from an overhead bin:
- BASIC FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURE . . . . . . APPLY
- OVERHEAD BIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. CHECK FOR HEAT
Check for heat. Using the back of the hand, feel the overhead bin to
determine the temperature and presence of fire.
- (*) OVERHEAD BIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPEN SLIGHTLY
Enough to pass the nozzle of the fire extinguisher.
CAUTION
Opening the overhead bin more than is necessary risks contaminating the
cabin with smoke, and puts occupants at risk of smoke inhalation.
- (*)FIRE EXTINGUISHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISCHARGE
Note.
The fire extinguisher must be discharged into the overhead bin, away from the
seat, to prevent debris from contaminating the cabin.
- (*) OVERHEAD BIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE AND LATCH
- FIREFIGHTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REPEAT AS NECESSARY
(*) Repeat last 3 steps of the procedure, as necessary.
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3.16.5.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
PAX SEAT SMOKE PROCEDURE
These procedures apply to the following aircraft.
A318/A319/A320/A321/A330/A340
The class of fire will determine how a passenger seat smoke/fire event is dealt
with. The source of smoke/fire may come from the IFE screen, ISPSS outlet, or
from the seat boxes located under the passenger seats.
• If the source of the smoke/fire is from an electrical origin:
- PAX SYS SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . OFF
The PAX SYS switch is located in the cockpit, on the VCC and optionally
on the FAP.
- BASIC FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURE . . . . . . APPLY IF NECESSARY
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3.16.6.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
CABIN SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE HIDDEN AREA OR UNKNOWN SOURCE
These procedures apply to the following aircraft.
A300/A300 -600/A310/A318/A319/A320/A321/A330/A340
Smoke emissions from sidewall panels, ceiling panels and vents may indicate a
hidden fire. In some cases, smoke may appear some distance away from it’s
actual source.
- BASIC FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . APPLY
FIREFIGHTER
- SOURCE OF SMOKE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOCATE
- REASON FOR SMOKE . . . . . . . . . . . INVESTIGATE AND DETERMINE
Note.
To determine the source of a potential fire, crewmembers should check for” hot
spots" on panels. Use the back of the hand along the panels to feel for the
presence of unusually hot areas.
• WHEN "HOT SPOT" IS LOCATED:
- AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACCESS WITH CARE
CAUTION
When gaining access behind panels, be aware of the presence of wiring
bundles. Make a careful incision in the panel to pass extinguisher nozzle,
or lever the panel to gain access.
-FIRE EXTINGUISHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISCHARGE
-DEDICATED CREWMEMBER... ...MONITOR FOR THE REMAINDER OF THE FLIGHT
The affected area must be monitored for the remainder of the flight. Regular reports must
be made to the Chief Purser.
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3.16.7.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
GALLEY SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE
These procedures apply to the following aircraft.
A300/A300 -600/A310/A318/A319/A320/A321/A330/A340
Galley smoke/fire occurrences can be caused by electrical equipment malfunction
for example, coffee makers, ovens, water boilers etc.
• If the source of the smoke/fire is identified from a piece of electrical
equipment:
- ELECTRICAL POWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OFF
- APPLICABLE CIRCUIT BREAKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . PULL
Circuit breakers are located on the galley’s centralized electrical panel.
Pulling the applicable circuit breaker should stop the smoke/fire.
• If the source of the smoke cannot be identified:
GALLEY SHUTOFF
- MAIN GALLEY POWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
- ALL CIRCUIT BREAKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PULL
• If the smoke/fire continues:
- BASIC FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . APPLY
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3.17.
3.17.1.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
FIRE PROTECTION WIDEBODY AIRCRAFT – A300/A300-600/A310
LAVATORY FIRE EXTINGUISHER
Each lavatory has a small extinguisher bottle, installed above each waste
container.
3.17.2.
DESCRIPTION
The extinguisher is composed of a bottle, an extinguisher nozzle and a local
overheat detector.
The bottle contains 120 grams of the chemical products Halon and Freon.
3.17.3.
OPERATION
A thermo sensitive sprinkler head comes on automatically, when the temperature
exceeds 77°C (70°F).
Note.
A temperature plate is located on the internal face of the waste
compartment door, which enables the cabin crew to check if the fire
extinguishers operated after an unusual increase in temperature.
The cabin crew must check the temperature plate as part of the preflight check.
If the temperature plate is WHITE, the extinguisher is ready for use
If the temperature plate is BLACK, call maintenance personnel to check, (The
extinguisher is probably empty).
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A300/A300-600/310 Lavatory Fire Extinguisher
Figure-3-2
TEMPERATURE
PART No
210
76 Degree C
BLACK WHEN EXPOSED
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
Figure 3-3
Lavatory Smoke Detector A300/A310
SMOKE
DETECTOR
OUTSIDE
INDICATOR
AIR EXTRACTION
DUCT
LAVATORY
CEILING
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
Warning light pushbuttons are located at the Purser's and the aft cabin crew
station. When the smoke warning light is on, the cabin attendant priority call
system is activated.
In addition, a test pushbutton is located at the Purser's station.
HAND
WATER
FWD
WATER
AFT
PUSH
FOR
SHUT
SHUT
IND
SMOKE
LAV
TEST
SMOKE
LAV
LAVATORY
FWD
AFT
NORM
FLT
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
Figure 3-4
Smoke Warning Indication Aft Cabin Crew Station
WATER
FWD
WATER
AFT
PUSH
FOR
SHUT
SHUT
IND
SMOKE
LAV
SMOKE
LAV
TEST
LAVATORY
FWD
AFT
NORM
FLT
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3.18.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEMS AND DESCRIPTIONS
No.
Configuration
System reaction
I
Standard
-
II
Standard with an
additional
interface to the
cockpit
-
III
Standard with
direct operation
of the respective
amber area call
light by system
-
IV
Standard with
Pulse Generator
and Signal
Counter,
additional relays
in system LN
and chime
activation
-
Corresponding red warning light on lavatory blinks
SMOKE LAV at FWD Purser and AFT ATT station blinks
(Repetitive) Hi/Lo chime is broadcast
White CAPT CALL lights at ATT stations come on (not
2LH/RH)
Green LED’s of keyboard at ATT stations come on
Red light at all ACPs come on
Corresponding red warning light on lavatory wall blinks
SMOKE LAV light at FWD Purser and AFT ATT station
blinks
(Repetitive) Hi/Lo chime is broadcast
White CAPT CALL lights at ATT stations come on (not
2LH/RH)
Green LED’s of keyboard at ATT stations come on
Red light at all ACP’s come on
Warning light and/or message activated in cockpit
Corresponding red warning light on lavatory wall blinks
SMOKE LAV light at FWD Purser and AFT ATT station
blinks
(Repetitive) Hi/Lo chime is broadcast
White CAPT CALL lights at ATT stations come on (not
2LH/RH)
Green LED’s of keyboard at ATT stations come on
Red light at all ACPs come on
Amber light at respective ACP blinks
A repetitive tone is emitted from the detector (only
Jamco)
The red LED on the smoke detector lights (only Jamco)
Corresponding red warning light on lavatory wall flashes
SMOKE LAV light at FWD Purser and AFT ATT station
flashes
3x Hi chime sounds
Amber light at respective ACP (zone) flashes for 60
seconds
Warning light and ECAM message activated in cockpit.
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3.19.
3.19.1.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
WIDEBODY FLEET CABIN CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS
A300/A300-600/A310
There is one circuit breaker panel in the forward of the cabin, and one circuit
breaker panel in the aft of the cabin. Circuit breakers that relate to cabin items,
such as lights, and entertainment systems are on these panels, and may be used
to isolate equipment in the event of smoke and fire, in accordance with the
operator’s policy.
As Airbus aircraft are customized to our operator’s requirements, the circuit
breaker panels illustrated on the following pages are only to provide an overview
of the panels.
Please contact your engineering department if you wish to have your operators
customized circuit breaker panel configuration
CAUTION
It is not permitted to reset a tripped C/B. If you reset it, you can cause an
overload to another system.
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3.19.2.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
A300 CABIN CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
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3.19.3.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
A300-600 CABIN CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
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3.19.4.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
A310 CABIN CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
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3.20.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
SINGLE AISLE AIRCRAFT FIRE PROTECTION
(A318/A319/A320/A321)
3.20.1.
LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTION
A smoke detector is located in each lavatory. The smoke detectors are connected
to the CIDS (Cabin Intercommunication Data System) by the CIDS-SDF (CIDS
Smoke Detection Function), and the Flight Warning Computer (FWC).
If smoke is detected, the system gives a visual and aural warning to the flight
crew and the cabin crew.
The warnings in the cockpit are:
−
A repetitive chime
−
A red master warning light
−
A smoke warning indication on the ECAM upper display unit.
The cabin warnings are:
−
A repetitive chime from all the cabin loudspeakers, and all attendant
station loud speakers
−
A red flashing indicator light and a steady text (SMOKE LAV X) on all
Attendant Indication Panels (AIP)
−
An amber light flashes on the related Area Call Panel (ACP)
−
An amber light flashes on the related lavatory wall
−
A red indication SMOKE LAV on the Forward Attendant Panel (FAP) or
the related Aft Attendant Panel (AAP).
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Figure 3-5
Smoke Warning Cabin Indications
Area Call Panel (ACP)
Flashes Amber
Additional Attendant Panel (AIP)
Forward Attendant Panel (FAP)
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When smoke enters into the measuring chamber of the detector, a warning signal
is transmitted to the CIDS (Cabin Intercommunication Data System) with the
CIDS-SDF (CIDS Smoke Detection Function) and the FWC (Flight Warning
Computer)
The CIDS activates the related indications on the FAP, AIP and the ACP.
The FWC activates the related indications in the cockpit.
By pressing the LAV SMOKE/RESET push-button on the FAP or on the
related AAP, here the aural and visual warning as well as the warning
indications on the ACP and AIP are turned off. The indication on the FAP
disappears, as soon as the density of smoke drops below the threshold of the
respective smoke detector.
Figure 3-6
Lavatory Smoke Detection System
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3.21.
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SINGLE AISLE WASTE-BIN FIRE EXTINGUISHER
3.21.1.
GENERAL
Each lavatory has a waste bin fire extinguisher.
3.21.2.
LOCATION
There is a fire extinguisher above the waste bin in each lavatory.
Note:
The indicator on the gauge must be in the green area to ensure full
operation, in case of a fire.
3.21.3.
DESCRIPTION
Each fire extinguisher has these main components.
−
A spherical container with a mounting bracket
−
A discharge tube with a fusible plug
−
A pressure gauge that indicates extinguisher status
−
An identification label.
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
OPERATION
If a fire is detected in the waste bin, the fire extinguisher operates automatically.
When the temperature in the waste bin increases to approximately 79 °C
(174.2 °F.), the fusible plug that is in the end of the discharge tube melts, and
lets the agent flow into the waste bin.
Figure - 3-7
Lavatory Fire Extinguisher
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LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTION-A318/A319/A320 ENHANCED CIDS
In case smoke detected in the lavatory, the cabin crew is alerted via aural and
visual warnings.
3.22.1.
DESCRIPTION
The Smoke Detection Function (SDF) is integrated in the CIDS Director.
The lavatory smoke detection alert comprises aural and visual warnings.
The aural warning is a repetitive triple LOW chime at a repetitive time of 30
seconds, broadcast via all passenger and attendant station loudspeakers.
• The visual warning comprises of:
-
The amber lavatory indicator flashes at the affected location;
-
The flashing of the amber segment on the respective ACP;
- The display of the affected lavatory compartment (max. 16 digits) in clear
wording, for instance “SMOKE LAV A”, and AIP red indicator flashing on all
Attendant Indication Panels.
- The steady illumination of a common red lavatory smoke indicator on the
attendant panel in the respective lavatory area (FAP or AAP)
- The affected lavatory is graphically shown on FAP SMOKE DETECTION page.
• The aural warning can by reset manually by pressing the RESET switch on FAP
or AAP.
• The visual warnings on ACP, AIPs and affected lavatory (indicator light) are
reset manually for the respective area by pressing the RESET switch on FAP or
AAP.
• SMOKE RESET button on FAP hard key sub panel and on FAP SMOKE
DETECTION page when smoke is detected
• SMOKE RESET on AAP
• The red lavatory smoke indicator on FAP and on AAP cannot be reset manually.
The indication extinguishes when the smoke alert is reset by the SDF.
• Lavatory smoke detector failures are reported on the FAP SMOKE DETECTION
page with associated CIDS Caution Light on the FAP).
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Figure 3-8
Example FAP (Flight Attendant Panel) Enhanced CIDS Smoke Page
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Figure 3-9
Example of AAP (Aft Attendant Panel)
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3.23. A318/A319/A320/A321 CABIN CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS
Circuit breakers are installed to protect the electrical circuits and their related
components.
There is one circuit breaker panel in the forward of the cabin, and one circuit
breaker panel in the aft of the cabin. Circuit breakers that relate to cabin items,
such as lights, and entertainment systems are on these panels, and may be used
to isolate equipment in the event of smoke and fire, in accordance with the
operator’s policy.
As Airbus aircraft are customized to our operator’s requirements, the circuit
breaker panels illustrated on the following pages are only to provide an overview
of the panels.
Please contact your engineering department if you wish to have your operators
customized circuit breaker panel configuration
CAUTION
It is not permitted to reset a tripped C/B. If you reset it, you can cause an
overload to another system.
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3.24. LONG RANGE AIRCRAFT FIRE PROTECTION
3.24.1.
A330/A340 LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTION
One smoke detector is installed in each lavatory extraction duct. If smoke enters
into the measuring chamber of the detector, a warning signal is transmitted to the
CIDS.
Figure 3-10
Lavatory Smoke Detection System
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On all the AIPs the affected lavatory is shown in clear wording and the red
indicator light flashes. The amber light on the respective ACP, and the outside
smoke indicator of the affected lavatory are flashing. The corresponding LAV
SMOKE button on the FAP or the AAP comes on.
Figure 3-11
Lavatory Smoke Indications
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•
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
VCC SMOKE PROCEDURE FOR A330/A340 AIRCRAFT
If the VCC is not equipped with smoke detection.
- CABIN CREW…INFORM AND COORDINATE WITH THE FLIGHT CREW
*-IFE Switch………………………………………………OFF
The IFE switch is located on the VCC switch panel. This enables the isolation of the
IFE/VCC electrical supply.
- BASIC FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURE………………………APPLY
-CABIN CREW…….MAINTAIN CONTACT WITH FLIGHT CREW
The cabin crew should maintain contact with the FLIGHT CREW to monitor the status of
the smoke.
•
If situation is cleared:
-(AFFECTED) VCC…………………………..CHECK PERIODICALLY
To ensure that the VCC remains clear of smoke.
•
If the VCC is equipped with smoke detection.
On the VCC smoke control panel, the smoke warning indication comes on, with a
red indicator warning and an alarm horn.
-CABIN CREW……INFORM AND COORDINATE WITH FLIGHT CREW
-*IFE SWITCH…………………………………..OFF
The IFE switch is located on the VCC switch panel. This enables the isolation of the IFE/
VCC electrical supply.
FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURE…………APPLY
“HORN INTERRUPT” PUSHBUTTON………………PUSH
To silence the horn in the cabin.
-CABIN CREW…MAINTAIN CONTACT WITH FLIGHT CREW
The cabin crew should maintain contact with the FLIGHT CREW to monitor the status of
the smoke.
•
If situation is cleared:
- (AFFECTED) VCC…………………………..CHECK PERIODICALLY
To ensure that the VCC remains clear of smoke.
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NOTE *. The denomination of the IFE switch(es) depends on the cabin
configuration.
The IFE switch(es) are the following:
-
PES/COM Main switch
-
VCC Main Power switch
-
PES Main switch
-
PAX/SYS switch (only for SWR A330/A340 aircraft).
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A330 CABIN CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS
Circuit breakers are installed to protect the electrical circuits of their related
components.
There is one circuit breaker panel in the forward of the cabin, and one circuit
breaker panel in the aft of the cabin. Circuit breakers that relate to cabin items,
such as lights, and entertainment systems are on these panels, and may be used
to isolate equipment in the event of smoke and fire, in accordance with the
operator’s policy.
A cover protects each circuit breaker panel to prevent unauthorized access.
The VE panels have rows of circuit breakers. The function of each circuit breaker
is shown below the related circuit breaker. The location of the circuit breaker is
defined through a matrix (Letter x Number).
-A letter (A, B, C…) for the circuit breaker row,
-A number (1,2,3…) for the circuit breaker column.
Example:
If a circuit breaker is installed in row C on position 8 (column 8) the related
location is called C8.
In this case the circuit breaker C8 protects the electrical circuit, which is
responsible for the cabin lighting on the right hand window side in the middle of
the cabin area.
CAUTION
It is not permitted to reset a tripped C/B. If you reset it, you can cause an
overload to another system.
As Airbus aircraft are customized to our operator’s requirements, the circuit
breaker panels illustrated on the following pages are only to provide an overview
of the panels.
Please contact your engineering department if you wish to have your operators
customized circuit breaker panel configuration.
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3.26. A340 CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS
Circuit breakers are installed to protect the electrical circuits of their related
components.
There is one circuit breaker panel in the forward of the cabin, and one circuit
breaker panel in the aft of the cabin. Circuit breakers that relate to cabin items,
such as lights, and entertainment systems are on these panels, and may be used
to isolate equipment in the event of smoke and fire, in accordance with the
operator’s policy.
A cover protects each circuit breaker panel to prevent unauthorized access.
The VE panels have rows of circuit breakers. The function of each circuit
breaker is shown below the related circuit breaker. The location of the circuit
breaker is defined through a matrix (Letter x Number).
-A letter (A, B, C…) for the circuit breaker row,
-A number (1,2,3…) for the circuit breaker column.
Example:
If a circuit breaker is installed in row C on position 8 (column 8) the related
location is called C8.
In this case the circuit breaker C8 protects the electrical circuit, which is
responsible for the cabin lighting on the right hand window side in the middle of
the cabin area.
CAUTION
It is not permitted to reset a tripped C/B. If you reset it, you can cause an
overload to another system.
As Airbus aircraft are customized to our operator’s requirements, the circuit
breaker panels illustrated on the following pages are only to provide an overview
of the panels.
Please contact your engineering department if you wish to have your operators
customized circuit breaker panel configuration.
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
FIRE PROTECTION-A330/A340 ENHANCED CABIN
The cabin crew is alerted via aural and visual warnings, if smoke is detected in the
cabin.
The lavatory smoke detection alert is transmitted via the CIDS, when the CIDS
DIRECTOR receives the necessary information from the Smoke Detection Control
Unit (SDCU), via one of two ARINC 429 data buses.
The CIDS indicates smoke alerts that are detected in the lavatories, the VCC and
the crew rest compartments (if installed).
The smoke detection alert comprises of aural and visual warnings.
The aural warning is a repetitive triple chime at a repetitive time of 30 seconds,
broadcast via all passenger and cabin crew station loudspeakers.
The aural warning can be reset manually, by pressing the RESET pushbutton on
FAP or any AAP (if there is a LAV SMOKE pushbutton)
The visual warnings in the cabin are:
−
The amber lavatory indicator flashing at affected location
−
The flashing of the amber segment on the respective ACP (and possibly the
ACP’s on the respective side of the aircraft, according to the Cabin
Assignment Module CAM definition)
−
The display of the affected lavatory compartment (max. 16 digits) in clear
wording, for instance “SMOKE LAV 11”, and red indicator flashing on all
AIPs
−
The steady illumination of a common red lavatory smoke indicator on the
attendant panel in the respective lavatory area (FAP or AAP)
−
The affected location (LAV, VCC, FCRC…) is graphically shown on the
SMOKE DETECTION page on the FAP.
The visual warnings on ACPs and AIPs can be reset manually for the respective
area, by pressing the RESET switch on the FAP or the respective AAP (if there is a
LAV SMOKE pushbutton).
The red lavatory smoke indicators on the FAP, and on the respective AAP and the
indicator light of the affected lavatory cannot be reset manually. The indication
extinguishes when the smoke alert is reset by the SDCU.
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3.28. LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTION – ENHANCED CABIN
A330/A340 (ENHANCED CABIN) A340-500/A340-600
In case of fire, each lavatory has a smoke detector, and a waste bin fire
extinguisher.
If smoke enters in the measuring chamber of the detector, the Smoke Detection
Control Unit (SDCU) transmits a smoke warning signal to the Cabin
Intercommunication Data System (CIDS).
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• The visual warnings include:
-
The amber lavatory indicator that flashes at the affected location
-
The amber segment flashes on the respective ACP
- The display of the affected lavatory compartment, in clear wording, and the red
indicator on all AIPs flashes
- The steady red lavatory smoke indicator light on the attendant panel, in the
respective lavatory area (FAP or AAP)
- The affected location lavatory appears on the SMOKE DETECTION page on the
FAP
• The aural warning can be reset manually, by pressing the RESET pushbutton on
the FAP or any AAP (if there is a LAV SMOKE pushbutton).
• The visual warnings on ACP and AIPs can be reset manually for the respective
area, by pressing the RESET switch on the FAP or the respective AAP (if there is a
LAV SMOKE pushbutton).
• The red lavatory smoke indicators on the FAP and on the respective AAP, and
the indicator light of the affected lavatory cannot be reset manually. The
indication goes out when the smoke alert is reset by the SDCU.
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Figure 3-12
Smoke Indications on the Flight Attendant Panel (FAP)
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Figure 3-13
Smoke Warning Indications
Attendant
Indication Panel
(AIP)
Note:
XX displays the location of the related lavatory
smoke detector in the Attendant Indication Panel
(AIP)
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3.29. VCC SMOKE PROCEDURE – ENHANCED CABIN
A330/A340 (ENCHANCED CABIN)/ A340-500/A340-600
FLIGHT CREW
-SMOKE CAB VIDEO 1(2)(3)(4) SMOKE………… CREW AWARENESS
Maintain contact with the cabin crew.
CABIN CREW PROCEDURE
On the FAP, or related AAP, the SMOKE warning indication comes on, with an associated
triple chime, repeated every 30 seconds (optionally 10 seconds)
-CABIN CREW… INFORM AND COORDINATE WITH FLIGHT CREW
-PAX SYS SWITCH…………………………………………………………OFF
The PAX SYS switch is located in the cockpit, on the VCC and optionally on the FAP.
-BASIC FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURE………………………………………… APPLY
-SMOKE PUSHBUTTON (ON THE FAP or AAP IN YOUR ZONE)… RESET
To silence the chime in all cabin, and reset all visual warnings on the ACPs, the AIPs of the
respective zones.
Note.
Only the FAP Smoke page, and the Smoke light on the respective FAP/AAP panel
remain on until all smoke has dissipated.
-CABIN CREW……………….MAINTAIN CONTACT WITH FLIGHT CREW
The cabin crew should maintain contact with the flight crew to monitor the status of the
smoke.
• If confirmed that the smoke comes from the VCC:
-C/Bs VIDEO CONTROL CENTER. AC1, AC2, AC3, DC…………..PULL
This enables the isolation of the VCC electrical supply. These circuit breakers are on the
5001VE circuit breaker panel, located in the overhead panel, near the cockpit door.
• When all the C/Bs for the video control center have been confirmed as pulled:
-PAX SYS…………………………………………………………NORM
This enables the restoration of the IPSS power supply for the remainder of the flight
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3.30. A330 CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS - ENHANCED CABIN
Circuit breakers are installed to protect the electrical circuits of their related
components.
There is one circuit breaker panel in the forward of the cabin, and one circuit
breaker panel in the aft of the cabin. Circuit breakers that relate to cabin items,
such as lights, and entertainment systems are on these panels, and may be used
to isolate equipment in the event of smoke and fire, in accordance with the
operator’s policy.
A cover protects each circuit breaker panel to prevent unauthorized access.
The VE panels have rows of circuit breakers. The function of each circuit breaker
is shown below the related circuit breaker. The location of the circuit breaker is
defined through a matrix (Letter x Number).
-A letter (A, B, C…) for the circuit breaker row
-A number (1,2,3…) for the circuit breaker column.
Example.
If a circuit breaker is installed in row C on position 8 (column 8) the related
location is called C8.
In this case the circuit breaker C8 protects the electrical circuit, which is
responsible for the cabin lighting on the right hand window side in the middle of
the cabin area.
CAUTION
It is not permitted to reset a tripped C/B. If you reset it, you can cause an
overload to another system.
As Airbus aircraft are customized to our operator’s requirements, the circuit
breaker panels illustrated on the following pages are only to provide an overview
of the panels.
Please contact your engineering department if you wish to have your operators
customized circuit breaker panel configuration.
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3.30.1.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL LOCATION
On the circuit breaker (C/B) panel’s 5001VE and 5005VE the circuit breakers for
the different electrical systems are located. These VE panels have different
locations, 5001VE in the FWD and 5005VE in the AFT cabin area.
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Figure 3-14
5001VE Circuit Breaker Panel
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Figure 3-15
5005VE Circuit Breaker Panel
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3.31. A340 CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS - ENHANCED CABIN
Circuit breakers are installed to protect the electrical circuits of their related
components.
There is one circuit breaker panel in the forward of the cabin, and one circuit
breaker panel in the aft of the cabin. Circuit breakers that relate to cabin items,
such as lights, and entertainment systems are on these panels, and may be used
to isolate equipment in the event of smoke and fire, in accordance with the
operator’s policy.
A cover protects each circuit breaker panel to prevent unauthorized access.
The VE panels have rows of circuit breakers. The function of each circuit breaker
is shown below the related circuit breaker. The location of the circuit breaker is
defined through a matrix (Letter x Number).
-A letter (A, B, C…) for the circuit breaker row,
-A number (1,2,3…) for the circuit breaker column.
Example.
If a circuit breaker is installed in row C on position 8 (column 8) the related
location is called C8.
In this case the circuit breaker C8 protects the electrical circuit, which is
responsible for the cabin lighting on the right hand window side in the middle of
the cabin area.
CAUTION
It is not permitted to reset a tripped C/B. If you reset it, you can cause an
overload to another system.
As Airbus aircraft are customized to our operator’s requirements, the circuit
breaker panels illustrated on the following pages are only to provide an overview
of the panels.
Please contact your engineering department if you wish to have your operators
customized circuit breaker panel configuration.
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3.31.1.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL LOCATION
On the circuit breaker (C/B) panel’s 5001VE and 5005VE the circuit breakers for
the different electrical systems are located. These VE panels have different
locations, 5001VE in the FWD and 5005VE in the AFT cabin area.
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Figure 3-15
5001VE Circuit Breaker Panel
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Figure 3-16
5005VE Circuit Breaker Panel
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3.32.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
A340-500/600 CABIN CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS
Circuit breakers are installed to protect the electrical circuits of their related
components.
A cover protects each circuit breaker panel to prevent unauthorized access.
The VE panels have rows of circuit breakers. The function of each circuit breaker
is shown below the related circuit breaker. The location of the circuit breaker is
defined through a matrix (Letter x Number).
-A letter (A, B, C…) for the circuit breaker row,
-A number (1,2,3…) for the circuit breaker column.
Example.
If a circuit breaker is installed in row C on position 8 (column 8) the related
location is called C8.
In this case the circuit breaker C8 protects the electrical circuit, which is
responsible for the cabin lighting on the right hand window side in the middle of
the cabin area.
CAUTION
It is not permitted to reset a tripped C/B. If you reset it, you can cause an
overload to another system.
As Airbus aircraft are customized to our operator’s requirements, the circuit
breaker panels illustrated on the following pages are only to provide an overview
of the panels.
Please contact your engineering department if you wish to have your operators
customized circuit breaker panel configuration.
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL LOCATION
On the circuit breaker (C/B) panel’s 5001VE and 5005VE the circuit breakers for
the different electrical systems are located. These VE panels have different
locations, 5001VE in the FWD and 5005VE in the AFT cabin area.
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Figure 3-17
5001VE Circuit Breaker Panel
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Figure 3-18
5005VE Circuit Breaker Panel
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3.33. LONG RANGE AIRCRAFT CREW REST COMPARTMENTS
A330/A340 (Enhanced Cabin)/A340-500/A340-600
On long-distance or overnight flights, the cabin crew must have the possibility to
relax or to sleep. Thus, the aircraft has special crew rest rooms. Depending on
their location there are different types of crew rest rooms.
Flight Crew Rest Compartment (FCRC) Because of its location, which is always
nearby the cockpit, it is intended to be used from the flight crew (the pilots).
Lower Deck - Mobile Crew Rest (LDMCR)
- An under floor crew rest room intended for cabin crew use. Integrated
in a container similar to the freight containers. Allows flexible use and
quick.
- Installation or removal. Alternatively installed to a bulk crew rest
compartment. Accessible via an own staircase.
Bulk Crew Rest Compartment (BCRC)
A stationary under floor crew rest room installed in the bulk cargo compartment.
Installed alternatively to a LDMCR. Intended for cabin crew use only. Additional
zone(s) is possible. This type of crew rest room is called Full Bulk Crew Rest
Compartment (FBCRC).
Dock-on Crew Rest (DCR)
An under floor crew rest room integrated in a container similar to the freight
containers. Accessible via other lower deck facilities only, means that there is no
own staircase.
3.34. CREW REST COMPARTMENTS - NORMAL OPERATION
A preflight inspection of the crew rest compartment emergency equipment must
be completed.
A security check of the of the crew rest compartments should be completed before
each flight departure.
WARNING
1. During the flight, the occupancy of the crew rest compartments is
limited to the total number of bunks and/or seats that are installed in the
compartment
2. The crew rest compartments may only be used by operating
crewmembers that are trained in the use of emergency equipment,
emergency procedures and the systems of the crew rest compartments
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3. Smoking is prohibited in the crew rest compartments
4. The crew rest compartment is limited to the stowage of the
crewmembers personal baggage only. The stowage of cargo or passenger
baggage is prohibited.
During taxi, takeoff, final approach landing, the crew rest compartments must be.
−
Unoccupied
−
Doors closed and locked.
During the flight, when the crew rest compartments are occupied, the occupants
must ensure that their seat belts are fastened while seated or lying down.
3.35. LOWER DECK CREW REST COMPARTMENTS
The stairwell hatch must remain open, and secured with the hatch retainers, at all
times when the lower deck crew rest compartment is occupied.
To isolate the lower deck crew rest compartment from cabin noise, the stairwell
door should be closed, but the stairwell hatch must remain open and secured.
In case of smoke or fire in the lower deck crew rest compartment or in the cargo
compartments, the stairwell hatch must be closed, in order to isolate these
compartments.
CAUTION
The LDCRC stairwell hatch may only be closed when the LDCRC is
unoccupied/evacuated.
A post-flight security inspection of the crew rest compartments must be
performed before the cabin crew disembarks from the aircraft.
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3.36. CREW REST SMOKE DETECTION –LDMCR
The connected smoke detectors permanently analyze the ambient air in the crew
rest compartment. The Smoke Detection Control Unit (SDCU) triggers and stores
the following alarm signals:
-
The optical alarm indicator corresponding to the smoke detector
flashes, when smoke is detected
-
The warning horn triggers intermittently
-
The lighted signs RETURN TO CABIN and DO NOT OPEN HATCH and the
smoke indicator in the cockpit are activated.
Figure 3-16
Crew Rest Smoke Detection (CRSD) Control Unit
1. Warning horn
2. HORN OFF pushbutton
3. RESET pushbutton
4. TEST pushbutton
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5. Smoke detector channels with optical alarm indicators (LEDs).
Pushbutton Operation
-HORN OFF pushbutton
Pressing this pushbutton stops the warning horn chime
Note:
The HORN OFF pushbutton is not activated until the first triple chime is
completed. Wait until the first triple chime is over, before pressing the
pushbutton.
-RESET pushbutton
Pressing this pushbutton deactivates:
−
The optical alarm indicator
−
The lighted LEAVE LDMCR and DO NOT OPEN HATCH and the smoke
indicator in the cockpit
-TEST Pushbutton
Pressing this pushbutton results in testing the smoke detection control unit and all
the connected smoke detectors.
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3.37. CREW REST FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM (F.E.S)- LDMCR
Figure 3-17
F.E.S Discharge Panel
1. F.E.S discharge switch
2. F.E.S control indicator (red LED)
3. Lighted sign DO NOT OPEN HATCH
The F.E.S discharge panel is in the staircase housing.
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3.37.1.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
HOW TO OPERATE THE FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM
WARNING
Before starting the F.E.S discharge ensure that:
-All crewmembers have evacuated the LDMCR
-The exit hatch and the emergency exit hatch must be closed and locked
To start the F.E.S discharge:
1. Remove the lead seal
2. Turn the cover flap to the open position
3. Press the F.E.S discharge switch to the DISCHARGE position.
The DO NOT OPEN HATCH sign comes on.
The F.E.S control indicator lights up to indicate the extinguisher discharge.
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3.37.2.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
LDMCR SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE
A330/A340/340-500/A340-600
SMOKE WARNING PRINCIPAL
• When smoke is detected in the LDMCR.
• In the LDMCR:
- Loudspeaker. A single low chime will sound repeatedly for 30 s. Following the single low
chime, a repetitive triple chime (smoke alarm) will sound every 30 s
- Low Flow Buzzer / when the air conditioning isolation valve closes, the low airflow buzzer
will sound for 30 s.
- Attendant Indication Panel (AIP). The smoke location message comes on and the red
indicator light flashes.
- LEAVE LDMCR. Signs will come on
- LDMCR lighting. Will come on to 100 %intensity
On the CRSD control unit, the red indicator of the applicable smoke detector flashes.
• In the staircase housing:
The visual "DO NOT OPEN HATCH" warning appears in the staircase housing (when both
the emergency exit and exit hatches are closed).
• In the cabin:
- Flight Attendant Panel (FAP) and Mini-FAP (MFAP) the SMOKE RESET button comes on.
The FAP smoke page will show the affected area.
- A triple chime will be repeated every 30 s.
- On the respective Area Call Panel (ACP) the amber lights will flash.
- On the AIPS the smoke location message comes on, and red indicator light flashes.
FLIGHT CREW
-SMOKE CAB REST SMOKE………………………….CREW AWARENESS
Maintain contact with the cabin crew to follow up on the status of the fire.
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LDMCR SMOKE CONT’D..
CABIN CREW PROCEDURE
-STAIRCASE HOUSING DOOR…FEEL FOR HEAT AND OPEN THE DOOR VERY
SLOWLY
-LDMCR. ………………CHECK FOR THE PRESENCE OF SMOKE AND FIRE
Search all the bunks, closets and stowage compartments.
• If smoke/fire is not visible in LDMCR, the smoke warning is unjustified.
-CRSD control unit HORN OFF pushbutton……………………………… PRESS
To silence the CRSD horn.
-SMOKE DETECTOR RED INDICATOR…NOTE, WHICH ONE IS
FLASHING
To inform the ground maintenance personnel which smoke detector triggered the spurious
smoke warning.
-CRSD CONTROL UNIT………….. PRESS the RESET pushbutton
To reset the concerned red indicator and the lighted signs. "LEAVE
LDMCR/BCRC" and "DO NOT OPEN HATCH".
• If smoke/fire is visible.
-LDMCR EMPTY………………………………….. CHECK
-BASIC FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURE………………. APPLY
With portable fire extinguisher.
• If unable to extinguish the fire using the portable fire extinguisher.
-CABIN CREW ............................ ................. EVACUATE THE LDMCR
-EXIT HATCH AND EMERGENCY EXIT HATCH............. CLOSE AND LOCK
-FES SWITCH ........................ ................. SET TO DISCHARGE POSITION
WARNING
The main exit hatch and the emergency exit hatch must remain closed until
arrival.
-LCMCR………………..MONITOR FOR THE REMAINDER OF THE FLIGHT
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3.37.3.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
LDMCR AIR CONDITIONING LOW FLOW
• If the air flow into LDMCR is incorrect, a buzzer sounds through the
LDMCR loudspeakers for approximately 30 seconds and the "LOW AIR
FLOW" sign comes on heating control panel.
The "LEAVE LDMCR" signs come on at each bunk. The crew rest compartment occupants
must proceed as follows.
-OCCUPANTS. ………………………LEAVE THE CREW REST COMPARTMENT
-CREW REST COMPARTMENT EMPTY…………………………………… CHECK
-EXIT AND EMERGENCY EXIT HATCHES…………………………….. CLOSED
-CABIN CREW………………………………………... INFORM THE FLIGHT CREW
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3.37.4.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
LDMCR HEATING SYSTEM FAULT
• If the heating system fails, the LDMCR heating control panel’s fault light comes
on.
Crew rest occupants should proceed as follows.
-HEATING CONTROL PANEL………………………………………RESET
The reset button is located on the heating control panel.
• If the fault light remains on, the heating system is faulty
-CABIN CREW………………………………..INFORM THE FLIGHT CREW
The cabin crew should report the heating system failure to the flight crew, and apply
airline procedure.
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3.37.5.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
FLIGHT CREW REST COMPARTMENT SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE
A330/A340/A340-500/600
SMOKE WARNING PRINCIPLE
• When smoke is detected in the FCRC.
In the FCRC:
−
Loudspeaker. A single low chime will sound repeatedly for 30 s. Following the
single low chime, a repetitive triple chime will sound every 30 s.
−
Attendant Indication Panel (AIP). The smoke location message comes on and the
red indicator light flashes.
−
FCRC lighting. Will come on to 100 % intensity
In the cabin:
−
On the Flight Attendant Panel (FAP) and Additional Attendant Panel (AAP).
The SMOKE RESET button comes on.
The FAP smoke page will show the affected area.
−
A triple chime will be repeated every 30 s (optionally every 10 s).
−
On the respective Area Call Panel (ACP) the amber lights will flash.
−
On the AIPS the smoke location message comes on, and red indicator light flashes.
-
FLIGHT CREW
ECAM ALERT SMOKE FLT REST SMOKE ..................... CREW AWARENESS
Maintain contact with the cabin crew and follow up on the status in the FCRC
CABIN CREW
SMOKE RESET PUSH BUTTON ON THE FAP OR THE RESPECTIVE AAP........ PRESS
TO RESET
This will:
- Silence the chimes in the cabin
- Reset the visual warnings on the respective ACPS and AIPS
Note:
The amber smoke indicator, the smoke reset pushbutton the FAP smoke page
remain ON until the smoke has dissipated.
FCRC .................... SEARCH FOR PRESENCE OF SMOKE AND OF FIRE
Search all bunks, closets, and stowage compartments.
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FLIGHT CREW REST COMPARTMENT SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE CONT’D..
• If smoke or fire is visible:
BASIC FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURE.............................................APPLY
Use a portable fire extinguisher. Consider the use of a PBE.
FCRC ................... ......... MONITOR FOR THE REMAINDER OF THE FLIGHT
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3.37.6.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
BULK CREW REST COMPARTMENT (BCRC) FIRE PROTECTION
A330/A340/A340-500/A340-600
A stationary under floor crew rest room installed in the bulk cargo compartment.
Installed alternatively to a LDMCR intended for cabin crew use only. Additional
zone(s) is possible. This type of crew rest room is called Full Bulk Crew Rest
Compartment (FBCRC).
SMOKE DETECTOR
The smoke detector is installed on the ceiling. It detects smoke in the zone, where
it is installed and indicates this to the flight and cabin crew
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
Figure 3-18
Full Bulk Crew Rest Compartment (FBCRC)
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3.37.7.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
BCRC FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM (F.E.S)
1. Indicator light SMOKE BCRC
This comes on if any smoke detector detects smoke in BCRC
2. Translucent flap
Cover the toggle switch FES DISCHARGE to avoid inadvertent activation
3. Lead seal
4. Toggle switch FES DISCHARGE
Starts the discharge of the fire extinguishing bottle 1. When bottle 1 is empty, the
FES automatically switches over and discharges bottle 2.
5. Indicator light BTL 1 DISCHARGED
6. Indicator light BTL 2 DISCHARGED
7. Pushbutton LAMP TEST
Starts a functional test of the indicator lights SMOKE BCRC, BTL 1
DISCHARGED and BTL 2 DISCHARGED.
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
STARTING THE FES DISCHARGE
WARNING
Before starting the FES discharge ensure that:
-All crewmembers have left the BCRC
-The emergency exit hatch and the entrance hatch are closed and locked
1. Remove the lead seal on the cover flap of the toggle switch FES DISCHARGE.
2. Open the cover flap.
3. Move the toggle switch FES DISCHARGE to the DISCHARGE position.
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3.37.8.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
BCRC/FBCRC SMOKE/FIRE PROCEDURE
A330/A340/A340-500/A340-600
SMOKE WARNING PRINCIPAL
• When smoke is detected in the BCRC/FBCRC.
• In the BCRC/FBCRC:
−
Loudspeaker. A single low chime will sound repeatedly for 30s. Following the single
low chime, a repetitive triple chime will sound every 30s.
−
Attendant Indication Panel (AIP). The smoke location message comes on and the
red indicator light flashes.
−
BCRC/FBCRC lighting. Will come on to 100 % intensity
In the cabin:
−
On the Flight Attendant Panel (FAP) and Additional Attendant Panel (AAP).
The SMOKE RESET button comes on.
The FAP smoke page will show the affected area.
−
A triple chime will be repeated every 30 s (optionally every 10 s).
−
On the respective Area Call Panel (ACP) the amber lights will flash.
−
On the AIPS the smoke location message comes on, and red indicator light flashes.
• In the staircase housing:
The visual "DO NOT OPEN HATCH" warning appears in the staircase
housing (when both the emergency exit and exit hatches are closed).
FLIGHT CREW
- SMOKE BULK REST SMOKE . . . . . . . . . . . CREW AWARENESS
Maintain contact with the cabin crew to follow up on the status of the fire.
CABIN CREW PROCEDURE
- SMOKE RESET PUSHBUTTON (on FAP, or respective AAP) . . RESET
This will.
- Silence the chimes in the cabin
- Reset the visual warnings on the respective ACPS and AIPS
Note.
The amber Smoke indicator, the Smoke reset pushbutton on the FAP and
respective AAP and the indication on the FAP Smoke page remain ON until all
smoke has dissipated.
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BCRC/FBCRC SMOKE CONT’D..
- STAIRCASE HOUSING DOOR. .... FEEL FOR HEAT AND OPEN THE DOOR VERY
SLOWLY
-BCRC/FBCRC . . . . . SEARCH FOR PRESENCE OF SMOKE AND OF FIRE
Search all bunks, closets, and stowage compartments
• If smoke or fire is not visible in BCRC/FBCRC, the smoke warning is
unjustified.
• If smoke or fire is visible:
-BCRC/FBCRC EMPTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . CHECK
-BASIC FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . APPLY
Use a portable fire extinguisher. Consider the use of a PBE.
• If unable to extinguish the fire using the portable fire extinguisher.
-CABIN CREW ............................ ................. EVACUATE THE LDMCR
-EXIT HATCH AND EMERGENCY EXIT HATCH............. CLOSE AND LOCK
-FES SWITCH ........................ ................. SET TO DISCHARGE POSITION
WARNING
The main exit hatch and the emergency exit hatch must remain closed until
arrival.
- BCRC/FBCRC . . . MONITOR FOR THE REMAINDER OF THE FLIGHT
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
FBCRC EVACUATION PROCEDURE
A330/A340/A340-500/A340-600
• If the main exit hatch, or the staircase door is blocked, the cabin crew
must evacuate through the emergency exit hatch.
• Opening the emergency exit hatch from inside the FBCRC.
-DECORATIVE HATCH COVERING…………………………….REMOVE
Place a finger in the hole of the hatch cover, and firmly pull down on
the hatch cover to remove it.
-EMERGENCY EXIT HATCH HANDLE………. PULL DOWN VERTICALLY
This releases the hatch handle.
-EMERGENCY EXIT HATCH……………….. PUSH UPWARD AND OUTWARD
To exit the FBCRC, step up onto the support, and pull yourself up into
the cabin.
• Opening the emergency exit hatch from inside the cabin.
-CARPET COVERING……………………………………………REMOVE
-EMERGENCY EXIT HATCH HANDLE……………. LIFT AND TURN COUNTERCLOCKWISE
This unlocks the hatch handle.
-EMERGENCY EXIT HATCH. ………………LIFT AND PULL TOWARDS CABIN
-CABIN CREW IN CABIN……………………. INFORM FBCRC OCCUPANTS
FBCRC occupants should be informed to move away from the hatch
opening, because the hatch will drop down when it is opened.
-DECORATIVE HATCH COVER . . . PUSH DOWN FIRMLY TO REMOVE
• If the main exit hatch, or the staircase door, AND the separation door are
blocked, the cabin crew must evacuate through the Kick-Out-Panel. This panel is
on the wall of the lower bed of Bed Unit 3 and permits evacuation into the flight
crew portion of the FBCRC. Then the cabin/flight crew evacuate via the
emergency exit hatch
• Opening the Kick-Out-Panel from inside the flight crew portion of the
FBCRC cabin crew side.
-EMERGENCY HATCH PANEL……………………………………… PUSH TO OPEN
Opens the Kick-Out-Panel.
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FBCRC EVACUATION PROCEDURE CONT’D..
• If the emergency exit hatch, and the separation door are blocked, the
flight crew must evacuate through the Kick-Out-Panel. This panel is on
the wall and permits evacuation into the cabin crew portion of the FBCRC.
Then the cabin/flight crew evacuate via the main exit hatch
• Opening the Kick-Out-Panel from inside the flight crew portion of the
FBCRC.
-EMERGENCY HATCH PANEL………………………………………. PULL TO OPEN
Opens the Kick-Out-Panel.
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3.37.10.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
LDMCR/BCRC EVACUATION THROUGH THE EMERGENCY HATCH
A330/A340/A340-500/A340-600
• If the main exit hatch or the staircase door is blocked, the cabin crew must
evacuate through the emergency exit hatch.
Emergency exit hatch opening from inside.
- EMERGENCY EXIT HATCH HANDLE… PULL DOWN TO VERTICAL
POSITION
To unlock the hatch.
- EMERGENCY EXIT HATCH. ……………PUSH UPWARD AND OUTWARDS
To exit, step up on the support and pull yourself up into the cabin.
Emergency exit hatch opening from the cabin.
Remove the piece of carpet
-EMERGENCY EXIT HATCH HANDLE……………………LIFT AND TURN
COUNTERCLOCKWISE
To unlock the hatch.
-EMERGENCY EXIT HATCH ……………LIFT AND PULL TOWARDS CABIN
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3.37.11.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
FBCRC/LDMCR/BCRC EVACUATION OF AN INCAPACITATED PERSON
A330/A340/A340-500/A340-600
If a person becomes incapacitated in the FBCRC/LDMCR/BCRC, and if their condition
permits, they should be taken to the main deck before landing. This is due to the fact that
the FBCRC/LDMCR/BCRC should not be occupied during takeoff and landing. However, the
Captain may adopt a different procedure, if such a non-critical landing situation is
encountered.
An incapacitated person can be evacuated to the main deck area via the ladder.
In such cases, crewmembers should be requested to help clear access to the main deck
(i.e. by opening doors, removing obstacles from the evacuation path, etc.), or to provide
general support (i.e. by ensuring adequate lighting conditions, etc.).
The number of people required to safely transport an incapacitated person depends on a
number of variables (e.g. the occupant’s size, weight, general medical condition, physical
strength of the assistants, etc.) However, two to three persons within the
FBCRC/LDMCR/BCRC should be enough to safely lift an incapacitated person. Two other
persons should be at the upper end of the ladder to take over.
EVACUATION THROUGH THE MAIN EXIT HATCH
EVACUATION THROUGH THE MAIN EXIT HATCH - INITIAL PHASE
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EVACUATION OF AN INCAPACITATED PERSONOUT OF THE
FBCRC/LDMCR/BCRC CONT’D..
-CREWMEMBER………………….. CARRY INCAPACITATED PERSON
One crewmember should place his/her back to the ladder, and then use his/her left hand
to hold up the incapacitated person under their arms. The crewmember should then use
his/her right hand to slide up the ladder, while holding on to the incapacitated person and
pulling them up the ladder.
-OTHER CREWMEMBER(S)………………………………………. ASSIST
The other crewmember helps by holding up the incapacitated person’s legs and feet.
-TWO CREWMEMBERS AT THE TOP OF THE LADDER . . . . . . . . . .. GUIDE
Two crewmembers wait at the top of the ladder, grab hold of the incapacitated person,
and help guide the evacuation by supporting the incapacitated person’s head and neck
through the hatch.
EVACUATION THROUGH THE MAIN EXIT HATCH - FINAL PHASE
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3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
EVACUATION OF AN INCAPACITATED PERSONOUT OF THE
FBCRC/LDMCR/BCRC CONT’D..
EVACUATION THROUGH THE EMERGENCY EXIT HATCH
EVACUATION THROUGH THE EMERGENCY EXIT HATCH - INITIAL PHASE
-CREWMEMBER.CARRY INCAPACITATED PERSON
One crewmember should grasp the incapacitated person by holding them up
under their arms, and keep them upright.
-OTHER CREWMEMBER(S)……………….ASSIST
The other crewmember holds the incapacitated person by the waist, guides the
incapacitated person through the hatch.
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EVACUATION OF AN INCAPACITATED PERSON
OUT OF THE FBCRC/LDMCR/BCRC CONT’D..
EVACUATION THROUGH THE EMERGENCY EXIT HATCH - FINAL PHASE
-ONE CREWMEMBER OUTSIDE THE HATCH. …………………………GUIDE
One crewmember waits outside the hatch to help support the incapacitated person’s head
through the hatch. When the incapacitated person’s shoulders reach the opening, the
crewmember should then pull the person up through the hatch by holding them up under
their arms.
-OTHER CREWMEMBER OUTSIDE THE HATCH ……………………..ASSIST
The other crewmember helps by holding up the incapacitated person’s legs.
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3.37.12.
3. MANAGING ONBOARD FIRES
BCRC/FBCRC AIR CONDITIONING LOW FLOW PROCEDURE
A330/A340/A340-500/A340-600
• If the airflow into BCRC/FBCRC is incorrect, a buzzer sounds through the
BCRC/FBCRC loudspeakers for approximately 30 seconds and the RTC
(Return To Cabin) sign comes on at each bun.
Crew rest compartment occupants must proceed as follows:
-OCCUPANTS………………………………….. EXIT CREW REST COMPARTMENT
-CREW REST COMPARTMENT EMPTY………………………………CHECK
-EXIT AND EMERGENCY EXIT HATCHES …………………………CLOSED
-CABIN CREW. ……………………………………INFORM FLIGHT CREW
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3.37.13.
4. EMERGENCY EVACUATION
FBCRC HEATING SYSTEM FAULT PROCEDURE
A330/A340/A340-500/A340-600
• If the heating system fails, the FBCRC heating control panel’s fault light comes
on the crew rest compartment occupants should proceed as follows:
-HEATING CONTROL PANEL……………………………………………. RESET
The ON/OFF button (located on the heating control panel) should be cycled
OFF then back to ON.
• If the fault light remains on, the heating system is faulty
-CABIN CREW……………………………...REPORT TO FLIGHT CREW
The cabin crew should report the heating system failure to the flight crew
, and apply airline procedure.
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4. EMERGENCY EVACUATION
4.
4.1.
EMERGENCY EVACUATION
INTRODUCTION
There are many factors that contribute to the successful evacuation of an aircraft.
−
The procedural knowledge of the cabin crew. This includes training,
experience and behavior
−
The aircraft configuration, the layout of the cabin
−
The environment inside and outside the aircraft (e.g., the presence of
smoke, fire, the cabin lighting, and outside conditions)
−
The behavior of the passengers, their age, level of fitness and motivation
During an emergency evacuation, it is essential for the cabin crew to be able to
apply their knowledge of procedures, and rapidly adapt to the situation.
In the case of a life threatening situation onboard the aircraft, it is essential that
the aircraft is evacuated quickly and efficiently to increase the occupants chances
of survival.
The role of the cabin crewmember will change from being customer serviceoriented, to being.
•
A cabin safety specialist
•
An assertive leader
•
Ready to act
•
In control of any given emergency situation.
“Cabin crew must switch from the commercial role to the safety role. he/she must
become assertive and firm. The attributes of this role are. training, airline culture,
experience, uniform. The level of valorization of the safety role by the airline is an
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4. EMERGENCY EVACUATION
important factor because it is directly related to the amount and quality of the
cabin crew training regarding safety features and, on the image passengers and
flight crew have about the role of cabin crew. Cabin crew safety training and
recognition of their safety role by the aircraft occupants, will directly impact the
decision making process, the cabin preparation and the guidance of passengers”
(VERRES Consortium, July 2002).
Passengers very rarely see this aspect of the cabin crew’s role. During an
emergency situation the passengers will look to the cabin crew for guidance and
assistance.
The majority of emergencies that result in evacuation occur during the takeoff,
and landing phases of flight. They are frequently sudden and unexpected, or occur
with very little warning.
These types of emergencies leave crewmembers with little time to react.
4.2.
USING SILENT REVIEW
The use of the Silent Review, or the 30 second review”, is an excellent tool to
prepare for the unexpected. The “Silent Review” helps the cabin crew to focus
their attention on safety. Crewmembers will also be ready to act, in the event of
an unexpected emergency.
The constant use of the “Silent Review” is a key element in identifying emergency
duties and responsibilities, and increases environmental awareness during the
takeoff and landing phases of flight. It enables cabin crew to respond, adapt and
react quickly in the event of an emergency.
“Silent Review” can take any form, and there are no hard and fast rules. It should
contain all the elements needed to “Review” evacuation duties and
responsibilities. It may include, but is not limited to, the following subjects:
•
How to brace for impact
•
Commands
•
Cabin environment (identify under what circumstances cabin crew would
initiate evacuation, fire, smoke, life-threatening situation, ditching, no
response from flight crew)
•
How to initiate evacuation, if necessary
•
Operation of exits
•
Alternate exits
•
How to assess outside conditions
•
Self-protection
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4. EMERGENCY EVACUATION
•
Location of manual inflation handle
•
Evacuation commands
•
Location of able bodied passengers
•
Location of passengers that require
passengers, or unaccompanied minors.
assistance,
for
example,
disabled
Below, is an example of a silent review used by some operators, it is easy to
memorize. At the same time, this puts the order of the evacuation duties and
responsibilities into prospective. This example is known as “OLDABC”.
•
OPERATION OF EXITS
•
LOCATION OF EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT
•
DRILLS (Brace for impact)
•
ABLE-BODIED PASSANGERS AND DISABLED PASSENGERS
•
BRACE POSITION
•
COMMANDS
Something that can easily be committed to memory can easily be recalled during
a stressful situation.
It is easy to get caught up in the everyday onboard tasks, and all the different
duties required of cabin crew, such as boarding, catering issues, passengers
queries, delays, and it is easy to get distracted. When crewmembers take their
positions for takeoff or landing, the use of the “Silent Review” will help to focus on
the emergency responsibilities, in the event of an unplanned emergency. The
ability to anticipate a situation before it happens will enable crewmembers to
respond rapidly.
The cabin crew should be alert to any indication that a possible emergency
situation exists, when preparing for takeoff and landing. Such indications may be
fire, smoke, scraping metal, unusual noises, the force of impact, or an unusual
aircraft attitude.
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4.3.
4.3.1.
4. EMERGENCY EVACUATION
FACTORS AFFECTING CABIN EVACUATION
CABIN CONFIRGUATION
The cabin configuration can have an impact on the efficiency of the evacuation.
To enhance the situational awareness skills of the cabin crew, they should be
familiar with the cabin layout, and the areas where congestion may occur due to:
•
The passenger seating density
•
The location of galleys, lavatories, bars etc.
•
Restricted visibility
•
Passengers arriving from different directions to the exits.
Some exits, for example the forward and aft exits, may be under utilized because
the majority of passengers are seated in the mid section of the aircraft and will be
drawn towards their nearest exits.
It may be necessary for the cabin crew to redirect passengers to other usable
exits to avoid congestion, and to maximize the use of all the usable exits, in order
to evacuate the aircraft as rapidly as possible.
To achieve this the cabin crew must be aware of what is happening in the cabin.
4.3.2.
CROWD CONTROL
One of the key elements to an efficient evacuation is effective crowd control and
cabin management by the cabin crew. The actions and commands of the cabin
crew will influence the performance of the passengers during the evacuation.
The objectives for the cabin crewmembers are:
−
To quickly establish the passenger flow at each usable exit
−
To evacuate the aircraft as quickly as possible.
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Crewmembers must have control of the situation, and be assertive in the way
commands and instructions are given to passengers. Not all passengers react in
the same manner. Some evacuations have been quite efficient because
passengers have co-operated with the crewmember instructions. Other
evacuations, especially where a life-threatening situation has been perceived,
have created a varying range of reactions.
•
Panic (screaming, crying, hysteria)
•
Negative panic (does not react, frozen)
•
No perception that danger exists
•
Will insist on leaving by the door they entered
•
Exiting with carry-on baggage
•
Returning to seat to re-stow baggage
•
Want to take control of evacuation
•
Pushing
•
Jumping over seatbacks to get ahead, disregarding others.
People who have been involved in evacuations documented the above types of
behavior. There is an absolute need for crewmembers to assert their authority, in
order to avoid delays in getting passengers down the slide and away from
danger. Be prepared to use a certain amount of physical force, in order to get
some passengers to leave the aircraft.
4.3.3.
EVACUATION COMMANDS TO PASSENGERS
The cabin crew must use positive verbal commands and physical gestures, in
order to efficiently direct passengers towards the exits and assist them down the
slides.
Note:
Cabin crew must also be prepared to use some physical force, if
necessary, to evacuate some passengers from the aircraft.
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The commands used by the cabin crew should be.
−
Assertive
−
Positive
−
Short
−
Loud
−
Clear
−
Well paced
4.4.
CABIN CREW INITIATED EVACUATION
Many evacuations are not planned, and occur with no warning. In most cases the
decision to evacuate is made by the flight crew. In a study conducted by the
VERRES (VLTA Emergency Requirements Research Evacuation Study, Task 1.2),
77 accidents were analyzed. The results of the analysis show that in 11 of the 77
cases (14%) “cabin crew had a significant role in the evacuation decision since
they often ask the pilot to decide an evacuation”.
There may be occasions when the cabin crew has to initiate the evacuation, if a
there is a life-threatening situation in the cabin, such as.
•
Uncontrollable fire
•
Dense smoke
•
Severe structural damage
•
Ditching
•
No communication from the flight crew.
When making the decision to initiate an evacuation, the cabin crew must evaluate
the level of danger, and the consequences that a delay in decision-making may
have. Smoke or fire, that is out of control would definitely require a rapid decision
because of the danger it presents to the occupants of the aircraft, its ability to
incapacitate rapidly, impair judgment and restrict vision, therefore rendering the
evacuation process difficult.
If the cabin crew considers that an evacuation may be required, they
must attempt to contact the flight crew in order to inform them of the
situation, and then await instructions. If contact with the flight crew is
not possible, cabin crew should initiate the evacuation.
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4. EMERGENCY EVACUATION
However, any evacuation requires crew co-ordination, because not all
crewmembers may be aware that a life-threatening situation exists. Therefore, all
crewmembers need to be informed. There are many possible methods, depending
on their availability.
•
Public Address
•
Interphone
•
Megaphone
•
Evacuation alarm.
4.5.
UNPLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
In the event of an “Unprepared Emergency”, cabin crewmembers may only have
enough time to give very short commands to prepare passengers for an imminent
crash. In an unprepared emergency, the “Brace” command may come from the
flight crew, or be initiated by the cabin crew.
The command to instruct passengers to assume the brace position, in any
unplanned emergency will be. ”Heads down”, “Hold your ankles”, and “Stay
down”. The commands should be given until the aircraft has come to a complete
stop.
The instructions to take the brace position will be the most important
piece of information that crew will give to passengers in an unplanned
emergency.
These commands must be repeated continuously, until the aircraft has come to a
complete stop. This is to ensure that the passengers remain in the “Brace”
position, to maximize protection from injury.
Shout as loud as possible to be heard in the cabin. If possible try to synchronize
calling commands, so that they come across loud and clear. Repeating the
commands, even over a short period of time, is tiring for the voice. For this
reason, it is important to try to alternate with another crewmember seated in the
same area.
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4.6.
4. EMERGENCY EVACUATION
THE EVACUATION PROCESS
When the aircraft has come to a complete stop.
“Release seatbelts”, “Come this way” to bring the passenger to the exits.
Using strong voice commands will act as a beacon for passengers, especially if
visibility is limited, due to smoke being present in the cabin.
“Leave belongings” is important, as baggage carried to the door of the aircraft
has delayed evacuations, and has caused pile-ups at the bottom of the slide in
previous evacuations!
Cabin crew assesses outside conditions. Is it safe to open the door, is the
area below free of smoke, fire, obstacles and debris?
Cabin crewmembers should protect themselves by holding on to the “frame assist
handle”, staying in the assist space located on either side of the door. This
prevents them from being pushed overboard in the event of a rush of passengers,
and will not interfere with passengers exiting from the aircraft.
If it is safe to do so, open the aircraft door in the “Armed” mode.
Ask 1 or 2 passengers to hold other passengers back until the slide is fully
inflated. Alternatively use the command “ Stand back”.
If the slide does not inflate, and the crewmember needs to pull the “Manual
Inflation Handle”, extra time may be required. Time in an emergency may seem
like an eternity, even though it might only be a few extra seconds. The
passengers’ urgency to get out will increase with every passing second. The
passengers must be held back until, the slide is fully inflated and ready for use.
Check that the slide is correctly inflated, before sending passengers down
the slide.
•
If two cabin crewmembers are assigned to one exit, one should manage the
passengers while the other checks the conditions (i.e. correct slide inflation,
and the outside conditions).
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4. EMERGENCY EVACUATION
Figure 4-1
Evacuation Exercise of A330 using Overwing Canted Slide
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4.7.
4. EMERGENCY EVACUATION
THE EFFECT OF SMOKE AND FIRE DURING EVACUATION
It has been well documented in accident reports, that smoke and fire in the cabin
has presented frequent obstacles during evacuation. Smoke or fire in the cabin
can also cause a tremendous amount of anxiety and panic amongst the
passengers.
Inhalation of smoke and toxic fumes has incapacitated people, and limited their
physical and mental ability to the extent that they have not been able to reach, or
operate the exits.
Smoke has the ability to obscure light, and make visibility difficult. A study by
CAMI (Civil Aero Medical Institute) found that smoke inhalation and burns were
the primary cause of death in 95% of fatalities during evacuation.
In the presence of smoke and/or fire, an evacuation must be done as quickly as
possible to increase the chances of survival.
Advise passengers to cover their nose and mouth, stay close to the floor (there is
more breathable air at floor level, as smoke rises), and crawl on hands and knees
if necessary, in order to exit the aircraft before being hindered by the effects of
smoke inhalation.
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Figure 4-2
Location of the Manual Inflation Handle
Red Manual Inflation Handle
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4.8.
4. EMERGENCY EVACUATION
EXIT MANAGEMENT
Monitor the progress of the evacuation, and ensure that the slide is clear at the
bottom, and that there are no pile-ups.
It is useful to ask two or three passengers to assist at the bottom of the slide. The
crewmembers should use commands such as:
•
“Stay at the bottom”
•
“Help people off”
•
“Send them away”.
Passenger help at the bottom of the slide significantly reduces the risk of
congestion and injury.
Maintain the flow of the evacuation using commands, such as:
•
“Jump and slide”
•
“Form double lines (Dual lane slide)
•
“Form one line (Single lane slide)
•
“Keep moving”
•
“Hurry”.
Crewmembers also need to be aware of any developments during the evacuation.
For example, if the slide becomes damaged, or there is fire in the area, or
anything that renders the exit unusable. The crewmember must “Stop” the
evacuation at that door, “Block” the exit, and “Re-direct” passengers to the
“Nearest usable exit”.
When redirecting passengers, crewmembers need to be aware of which exit to
direct passengers to. Listen for another crewmember giving the command
to “come this way” or “Jump”, indicating that the exit is usable.
Redirect passengers to the usable exit. Use positive commands:
•
“Blocked exit”
•
“Go across”
•
“Go forward”
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•
4.9.
4. EMERGENCY EVACUATION
“Go to the back”.
PRE-CABIN CREW EVACUATION
When the flow of passengers to the exit begins to slow down, the cabin crew
should check the cabin and call remaining all remaining passengers to the exits.
When the flow of passengers has stopped, the cabin crew should check their
assigned area for any remaining passengers.
If the cabin is in darkness, use a flashlight to check the cabin. Check the following
areas:
•
Aisles
•
Seats (including the floors area between the seats)
•
Galleys
•
Lavatories
•
Crew rest areas
•
Cockpit.
When the cabin crewmember’s assigned area is empty, or it is no longer safe to
remain onboard the aircraft, the cabin crewmember should evacuate through the
first usable exit.
If an evacuation occurs away from an airfield, the cabin crew should take their
assigned emergency equipment from the aircraft, if the situation permits.
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4.10.
4. EMERGENCY EVACUATION
POST EVACUATION
The cabin crew will be responsible for a large number of passengers until the
rescue and emergency services personnel assist them.
When the cabin crew has evacuated the aircraft they must manage the
passengers on the ground, by:
−
Assisting passengers away from the slides
−
Directing passengers upwind and away from the aircraft
−
Keeping passengers away from, fuel, fire and vehicles
−
Assembling the passengers and keeping them together
−
Enforcing no smoking and prohibiting the use of mobile phones
−
Assisting passengers and giving first aid, when necessary
−
Making a passenger headcount, if possible.
Note.
-
Cabin crewmembers seated near a megaphone should consider taking it
from the aircraft to assist with crowd management post evacuation
Figure 4-3
A340 Escape Slide
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5. PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
5. PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
5.1.
INTRODUCTION
A planned ground evacuation can be defined as an evacuation that enables the
cabin crew to review procedures, and to inform and prepare passengers for an
emergency landing. Crewmembers provide passengers with brace instructions,
guidance on exit usage, and information on how and when exits should be
operated. Effective communication between the crewmembers and the passengers
is necessary for a timely, effective, and orderly response.
A safety study by the NTSB (National Transportation Safety Board) in 2000,
entitled “Emergency Evacuation of Commercial Airplanes”, cites examples of
planned evacuations where the crewmembers were able to provide passengers
with a detailed briefing. The cabin preparation and briefing resulted in an orderly,
timely evacuation with few to no injuries.
5.2.
CABIN CREW ALERT PHASE
It is important for Operators to establish procedures in order to ensure that
adequate guidance is provided to both flight crews and cabin crews on how to
conduct abnormal and emergency briefings.
For example, if the flight crew needs to inform the cabin crew of an emergency,
there may be a specific signal to alert the cabin, such as:
•
A series of chimes
•
A specific phrase, i.e. “Purser to cockpit”.
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These specific actions alert the other crewmembers that there is an emergency
situation. When crewmembers hear the signal, this indicates that an emergency
situation exists, and that they must secure all equipment. Crewmembers should
be ready, at their stations, to be briefed by the Purser via the interphone.
5.3.
EMERGENCY CHECKLISTS
Emergency checklists are useful tools that enable crewmembers to prepare the
cabin for a planned emergency. It contains all the steps required to prepare the
cabin for an emergency, and lists the steps to be completed in order of priority.
Many Operators have developed checklists in the form of laminated cards that are
distributed to each crewmember, or are stowed near the crewmembers’ seats in
the cabin. These types of checklists should be readily accessible to crewmembers.
Emergency checklists are designed to provide support to crewmembers in a
planned emergency, and to help them complete all the necessary steps without
forgetting any of the steps. Emergency checklists should be short and consistent.
5.4.
THE FLIGHT CREW TO PURSER BRIEFING
The flight crew should brief the Purser in a clear, and concise manner. The
briefing should provide the Purser with the following information:
•
Nature of emergency, and intentions of the flight crew, for example landing
away from an airfield or at an airfield
•
Time available to prepare the cabin (the cabin and flight crew should
synchronize watches to assist with time management)
•
What the brace signal will be
•
Signal to remain seated (if no evacuation is required)
•
Special instructions/other information
Who will inform the passengers and when (flight crew or Purser).
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5.5.
5. PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
TIME MANAGEMENT
Time permitting, a full passenger briefing may be possible, however, a certain
amount of time should be allocated to each task on the checklist. The Purser will
need to closely monitor the time in order to accomplish as many tasks on the
checklists, as time permits.
The extent of the cabin preparation will depend on the time available. The steps of
the cabin preparation should be completed in the order of their importance.
Time management is an essential element of a good cabin preparation!
5.6.
THE PURSER TO CABIN CREW BRIEFING
The Purser will relay the information provided by the flight crew to all of the
crewmembers. The Purser will then will instruct the crewmembers to:
•
Take their emergency checklists
•
Take their emergency briefing position
•
Be prepared for the emergency announcement and demonstration.
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5.7.
5. PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
THE CABIN CREW TO PASSENGER BRIEFING
For psychological reasons, it is better for the flight crew to inform the passengers
of an emergency. However, this may not always be possible, due to the workload
of the flight crew during an emergency. Therefore, the Purser may be required to
make the initial announcement. The Purser must explain:
•
The nature of the emergency
•
Necessity to prepare the cabin
•
Passengers must follow the instructions of the cabin crew.
Before the emergency demonstration begins ensure that:
•
The cabin dividers are open
•
The cabin lighting is turned up to 100% bright lighting
•
The entertainment system is switched off.
•
The cabin crew should are ready to demonstrate the emergency briefing in
their assigned areas
5.8.
GOLDEN RULES OF PASSENGER BRIEFING
The aim of the briefing is to give passengers as much information as possible.
The amount of time available will determine the extent of the briefing. Both
passengers and crewmembers will need to give their undivided attention to the
announcements. Therefore, there should be no elements of unnecessary
distraction. This is the only opportunity that crewmembers will get to relate this
information. To avoid distraction crewmembers should:
•
Stay in the assigned brief/secure position
•
Do not walk up and down the aisle during the announcement
•
Do not talk during the announcements
•
Coordinate the demonstration with the announcement.
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5. PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
When reading the safety briefing announcement, it is important to pause
at key points, in order to give the cabin crewmembers time to
demonstrate, and, check passenger compliance.
5.9.
THE CONTENTS OF THE PASSENGER BRIEFING
5.9.1.
THE BRACE POSITION
The brace position is essential when preparing passengers in an emergency
landing. Reviewing the brace position during a passenger briefing will help to
ensure that passengers are in the correct brace position for landing.
The brace position has a dual function. First of all, it reduces body flailing, as
passengers must lean or bend over their legs. Secondly, it protects passengers
from hitting their head on a hard surface.
This position must be adapted if the seat is:
•
Facing a seat back or a bulkhead
•
Forward facing or aft-facing with a safety belt and a shoulder harness
(crewmember seats only).
It must also be adapted if passengers are:
•
Expectant mothers
•
Traveling with infants
•
Obese
It must be emphasized to passengers that they should expect more than
one impact, and they must remain in the brace position until the aircraft
comes until a complete stop.
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•
Point out the “Brace” position on the safety information card
•
Demonstrate holding/grabbing ankles/crossing arms
•
Check “Brace” position and alternative “Brace” positions.
It is important to ensure that the passengers understand how to “brace” for
impact correctly, to reduce injury.
•
Passengers should press their backs into the seat
•
Seat belts should be worn as low and as tight on the torso as possible. The
tighter the safety belt, the better the restraint
•
Upper body should be bent forward as far as possible, with the chest close
to the thighs and knees
•
Head should be down a low as possible. The head should be face down in
the lap. The head should not be turned to the side.
•
Arms should be around or behind legs, tucked in against the body
•
Lower legs should be angled slightly behind the knee joints
•
Feet should be placed flat on the floor.
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5.9.2.
5. PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
ILLUSTRATED BRACE POSITIONS
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5. PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
(Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada, Commercial and
Business Aviation Advisory Circular, AC0155)
Once the brace position has been explained, the next step is to inform the
passengers when to assume the brace position, for example:
“When you hear the crew shouting “Brace, Brace, Brace”, this will be your signal to
take the “brace position”, you must remain in this position until the aircraft has
come to complete stop”.
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5.9.3.
5. PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
EMERGENCY EXIT LOCATION
The cabin crew must indicate the location of the nearest emergency exits and the
floor proximity exit path lighting to the passengers.
5.9.4.
SECURING LOOSE ITEMS
Passengers should remove and stow all loose sharp items from their person, and
secure them in an overhead bin, closet or under a seat. These objects include.
•
Carry on baggage
•
High heeled shoes
•
Handbags
•
Laptops
•
Briefcases
All of these items must be placed in an overhead bin, closet or under a seat.
High-heeled shoes and sharp objects must also be removed, because these
objects can cause damage to the slide during an evacuation. In addition, these
objects must not be stowed in seat pockets, since they may injure passengers
when they take the brace position.
Seat pockets should only be used to stow small objects, such as pens and
eyeglasses. Cabin crews should also remove items such as pens, badges and wing
pins from their uniforms.
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5.9.5.
5. PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
ABLE BODIED PASSENGERS
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) defines able-bodied
passengers (ABPs) as “passengers selected by crewmembers to assist in
managing emergency situations if and as required”.
The selection of ABPs is based on their ability to understand instructions, their
physical ability, and their ability to stay calm. The ideal candidates are people
such as:
•
Deadheading crewmembers
•
Military personnel
•
Police
•
Fire personnel
•
People who respond to instruction.
Crewmembers should avoid selecting family members traveling together
to be ABPs, because they will naturally prefer to assist their family
members before the other passengers. Instead, crewmembers should
select passengers who are traveling alone to be ABPs.
Deadheading crew, military, police, and/or fire service are good choices, because
they are used to following instructions, and have the required manual dexterity.
Ideally, crewmembers should select 3 ABPs at each exit. One of the ABPs should
be briefed on the following.
•
How to replace crewmembers in case they become incapacitated. However,
crewmembers must emphasize that ABPs will replace crewmembers only if
they are not able perform their function due to incapacitation
•
How to assess conditions outside the aircraft, for example, how to identify that
an exit is usable/no longer usable
•
How to open the exit
•
How to protect oneself from going overboard, to remain in the assist space and
to hold on to the frame assist handle
•
Commands to be used during evacuation. i.e. “Jump and slide”
•
How to open the crewmembers’ seatbelt. The crew harness buckle is different
from passengers’ seat buckles, and a crewmember that is incapacitated in a
crew seat may block a usable exit.
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The two other ABPs should be briefed on how to assist the cabin crew during the
evacuation, for example:
•
Holding passengers back during door opening and slide inflation
•
Remaining at the bottom of the slide during the evacuation to assist other
passengers.
The cabin crew should brief the ABPs seated at overwing exits on the following:
•
How to assess the outside conditions
•
When to open the exit
•
How to open the exit
•
Commands to be used. i.e. “Come this way”, “Step out”, “Follow the arrows”,
“Run and slide”
•
How to redirect passengers if an exit is no longer usable or blocked.
ABPs should is also be assigned to assist special needs passengers, such as:
•
Passengers with reduced mobility
•
The elderly
•
Unaccompanied minors
•
People traveling alone with more than one child
5.10. SECURING THE CABIN
When the passenger briefing has been completed, the final cabin secure is
required, as follows:
•
Seat belts fastened
•
Seat backs in the up-right position
•
Tray tables closed and latched
•
Armrests down
•
Carry on baggage stowed and secure
•
Overhead bins closed and latched
•
Aisles clear of all obstructions
•
Service items cleared
•
Cabin dividers open.
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When the passengers and the cabin have been secured, areas such as lavatories
and galleys need to be correctly secured.
All lavatories should be vacated and locked.
All galley equipment should be stowed and secured.
•
Close and lock all containers
•
Ensure that carts are correctly stowed and secured
•
Switch off all galley power and pull all galley circuit breakers.
When the cabin has been secured, and the cabin preparation is complete, the
Purser will notify the flight crew.
The Purser should also ask the flight crew for an update of the situation, and the
amount of time remaining.
The cabin lighting should be adjusted according to the expected outside
conditions.
Cabin crewmembers should take their seats, adjust the harness, begin a “silent
review”, and be prepared to “brace”, when the command comes from the flight
crew.
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5.11. SUMMARY
•
There may be more than one impact. Therefore, remain in the “Brace” position
until the aircraft stops.
•
The aircraft must be at a complete stop before initiating an evacuation.
•
Before opening a door forward, or aft of an engine, ensure the engines are not
running.
•
Evacuation should begin immediately upon receiving the “Evacuation Signal”.
•
“Positive Assertive” action from the cabin crewmembers will directly impact the
rate of flow, and accelerate passenger movement to the exits and down the
slides.
•
Monitor the flow of the evacuation, and be aware of congestion in the aisles,
and at the bottom of the escape slide.
•
Be alert to evolving situations, for example, fire, or slide damage.
•
Be ready to redirect passengers to another exit.
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5.11.1.
5. PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
EMERGENCY PASSENGER DOOR OPERATION
This procedure applies to the following aircraft:
A318/A319/A320/A321/A330/A340
-FRAME ASSIST HANDLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . GRASP
-SLIDE ARMED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . CHECK
-OUTSIDE CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . CHECK SAFE
Use the door window to ensure that slide deployment area is clear of.
−
Fire
−
Smoke
−
Obstacles
• If outside conditions are safe:
-DOOR CONTROL HANDLE . . RAPIDLY LIFT FULLY UP AND RELEASE
WARNING
When the door is in the "ARMED" mode, the "Cabin Pressure Warning Light" does
not illuminate to indicate cabin differential pressure.
Indications of cabin differential pressure may be.
−
Resistance in the Door Control Handle when it is being lifted to the open
position, using normal force, and/or
−
A Hissing noise around the immediate door area,
If circumstances permit, fully lower the door control handle to the closed
position. Notify the flight crew immediately.
• If the door power assist fails the door will not open automatically:
DOOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUSH TO OPEN
GUST LOCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . CHECK ENGAGED
SLIDE DEPLOYED AND INFLATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VISUAL CHECK
• If the slide does not inflate;
RED, MANUAL INFLATION HANDLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PULL
This red, manual inflation handle is located on the right-hand side of the
slide’s girt extension.
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5.11.2.
5. PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
GROUND EVACUATION PROCEDURE
The order to evacuate is usually given by the flight crew, however, in
clearly catastrophic circumstances any cabin crewmember may initiate an
evacuation.
−
EVACUATION ORDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .RECEIVED
−
"EVACUATE, EVACUATE, SEAT BELTS OFF" . . . . . SHOUT
−
"LEAVE EVERYTHING, HIGH HEELS OFF" . . . . . . . SHOUT
−
FRAME ASSIST HANDLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GRASP
−
SLIDE ARMED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
−
OUTSIDE CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK SAFE
Check through the observation window to ensure that the slide deployment
area is clear of.
− Fire
−
Smoke
−
Obstacles
• If outside conditions are unsafe:
−
PASSENGERS TO NEAREST USABLE EXIT . . . . . . . . . . . .. REDIRECT
−
EXIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. GUARD
• If outside conditions are safe:
−
FRAME ASSIST HANDLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. GRASP
−
DOOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OPEN
• If the door power assist fails the door will not open automatically:
−
DOOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. PUSH TO OPEN MANUALLY
−
GUST LOCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK ENGAGED
−
SLIDE DEPLOYED AND INFLATED . . . . . . . . . .. VISUAL CHECK
Ensure that the slide deployment area is clear of all obstructions.
• If the slide does not inflate automatically:
−
RED, MANUAL INFLATION HANDLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PULL
The red, manual inflation handle is located on the right-hand side of the
slide girt extension.
- ASSIST SPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OCCUPY
- PASSENGER EVACUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. EXPEDITE
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5. PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
ON GROUND EVACUATION CONT’D..
• If the slide becomes unserviceable:
−
PASSENGER EVACUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .STOP
−
PASSENGERS TO ANOTHER USABLE EXIT . . . . . . . REDIRECT
- ASSIGNED AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. CHECK FULLY EVACUATED
- EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . TAKE
Time permitting, each cabin crewmember takes their designated safety and
survival equipment before leaving the aircraft.
-CABIN CREW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. EVACUATE
-PASSENGERS AWAY FROM THE AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . .DIRECT
-ON GROUND . . . . . . . . . . . .. CONDUCT POST EVACUATION DUTIES
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5.11.3.
5. PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
CABIN PREPARATION - PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
1.
Alert Phase
“Purser to Cockpit”
2.
Captain to Purser Briefing
•
•
•
•
•
Nature of the emergency (Ground)
Time available to prepare the cabin
Signal to “Brace”
Signal to remain seated
Special instructions/other information
Who will inform the passengers and when
•
Take demonstration positions
Await announcement.
•
•
3.
Purser to cabin crew briefing
4.
Captain’s announcement
(duties permitting)
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5.
5. PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
Purser’s Announcement
If an announcement from the Captain is not
possible.
•
•
•
The Nature of the Emergency
Necessity to prepare the cabin
Follow the instructions of the crew
The emergency demonstration announcement
should include.
•
•
•
•
•
Brace positions
Location of exits
Loose items
Passenger assistance (ABP’s)
Safety Card Review (Including Seat belts,
tray tables, seat backs, armrests)
6.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Final cabin secure check
Seat belts fastened
Seatbacks upright
Tray tables stowed and latched
Carry on baggage stowed and secure
Overhead bins closed and latched
Aisles clear of all obstructions
Service items cleared
Cabin dividers open
7.
•
•
•
•
Secure Galleys
Close and secure all containers
Carts stowed and secured
Switch off all galley power
Pull all circuit breakers
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8.
5. PLANNED GROUND EVACUATION
Check all doors
“ARMED”
9. Cabin crew to Purser
•
Cabin preparation complete
10.
•
•
Purser to Captain
“Cabin Ready” cabin preparation complete
Obtain updated information
11.
Commands from Captain to Cabin
Crew via PA
“Attention Crew! At Stations!”
12.
•
•
All Cabin crew at stations
Secure seat harness
Silent Review
13.
Command from captain to cabin
crew via PA (Approximately 1 minute
before landing)
“Brace for impact”
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6. DITCHING
6.1.
INTRODUCTION
The definition of ditching is “A deliberate emergency landing on water, were the
aircraft touches down under control”. However, in commercial aviation this is a
rare occurrence.
A ditching, when executed correctly, is survivable. During a planned ditching the
cabin crew have notice, and therefore, sufficient time to prepare the cabin, or to
advise passengers to put on their life vests.
During cabin crew training, the emphasis is placed mainly on “ditching” in a large
body of water as many skills are required, particularly the principles of survival,
until rescue arrives.
However, an NTSB study of Air Carrier water contact accidents indicates that these
accidents are usually inadvertent, with no time to prepare. Most accidents occur
during the takeoff and landing phases of flight, and usually within proximity of the
airport. Many water contact accidents occur during the hours of darkness.
There is usually a lot of damage to the aircraft. In some cases, the cabin has
flooded quickly, and the aircraft has sunk within minutes.
The actions and response of the cabin crew, during a “ditching” or inadvertent
water landing, will have a direct effect on the chances of survival. Wet drills and
ditching exercises, that form part of the cabin crew's initial training and further
emergency training, provide the cabin crew with invaluable information, that helps
them to react effectively, and improves their situational awareness skills in
emergencies.
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6.2.
6. DITCHING
UNPLANNED DITCHING
Many “inadvertent water landings” (referred to as “Unplanned Ditching”) have
been documented. Unlike a planned emergency, during unplanned ditching there
has been no time for the cabin crew to prepare the passengers, for example
advising “Brace” positions, or donning life vests.
An unplanned ditching occurred in 1989, on a night flight during the take-off roll.
The aircraft drifted to the left, the take-off was aborted, and the aircraft overran
the runway, and then dropped onto the wooden approach light pier. The aircraft
broke into three pieces and came to rest in the water.
During take-off, the cabin crew knew that something was abnormal, and that the
take-off was deteriorating. They immediately reacted by shouting the “Brace”
commands to the passengers.
When the aircraft came to a complete stop, the crew assessed the outside
conditions. They opened the exits, according to the outside conditions, and
immediately gave the commands for the passengers to evacuate.
The flotation devices onboard this aircraft were seat cushions. The water depth
was between 7-12 meters deep with a 1-knot current.
Due to the strong current it was difficult for some people to stay afloat. The
crewmembers threw seat cushions to passengers who were in the water. Two of
the passengers could not swim, two of the crewmembers linked their arms
together to support these passengers, and prevent them from going under the
water.
The crewmembers remained in control of the situation, and they instructed the
passengers in the water to stay in groups and to help each other.
Approximately 20 passengers exited by the left wing, which was not in the water,
and the ditching line was attached. These passengers held on to the ditching line,
until they were rescued. Amongst the passengers on the wing was a woman with
an 8-month old infant, and a 5-year-old child.
The NTSB commended the actions of the four cabin crewmembers, as they
performed “in an outstanding manner”.
Amongst the total of 63 people onboard, there were two fatalities.
This just a brief synopsis of the accident, however, the actions of the cabin
crewmembers resulted in making the accident survivable (NTSB/AAR-90/03).
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6. DITCHING
SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
In any unprepared emergency the reaction of the cabin crewmembers will depend
largely on their situational awareness skills.
When preparing for take-off and landing, the use of the “Silent Review” will
heighten crewmembers’ situational awareness skills, and prepare them for the
unexpected. When departing or arriving to a destination that involves flying over
water, some ditching information in to the “Silent Review” should be included.
Think about the extra information that will need to be given to passengers, for
example, the use of equipment:
•
What commands should be used?
•
What should be looked for, when assessing conditions?
•
What would determine the exits, usable/unusable?
•
What equipment should be used?
•
How to use the slide raft?
•
What equipment to take?
•
How to manage passengers in the water?
•
How to manage passengers in the raft?
During “Unplanned” ditching, like any unplanned emergency, anything can happen
and anything is possible. Crewmembers may also have to contend with rising
water, damaged equipment, communication problems, as well as evacuating
children, elderly and handicapped.
No two incidents/accidents are the same. ”Unplanned” ditching poses a formidable
challenge to crewmembers.
The outcome will depend on many factors:
•
Immediate actions of the cabin crewmembers
•
The condition of the aircraft
•
Ability to evacuate into slide/sliderafts.
The leadership of the cabin crew plays a very important role in any emergency,
even more so, in the event of a ditching. Crewmembers will have to use their
knowledge of equipment, survival procedures, and rescue techniques.
Crewmembers need to be efficient and maintain control of the situation.
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Time is of the essence in an emergency, in order to evacuate the aircraft and get
people to safety as quickly as possible, without endangering lives. The level of
danger to both passengers and cabin crew increases as time passes, and
therefore stresses the urgency to evacuate the aircraft rapidly.
Landing on water can be divided into in three phases:
•
The impact phase
•
The egress phase
•
The survival phase.
6.4.
THE IMPACT PHASE
As stated in the accident synopsis, the crewmembers realized that the takeoff was
deteriorating. They were aware that there was a problem, and commanded their
passengers to “Brace”.
As with any unplanned impact, one of the first actions crewmembers will need to
take, is to shout the commands for the “Brace” position. This will reduce the
amount of injury to the passengers, and give them a better chance of being able
to evacuate the aircraft and survive. Remember, there maybe be more than one
impact, everyone will need to remain in the “Brace” position until the aircraft
finally comes to a complete stop.
If the cabin is flooding, or water is visible, start evacuating the aircraft
immediately. Crewmembers should immediately don their life vests, and
simultaneously shout commands to passengers to ”Release seatbelts”, “ Get
Life vests”, or “Seat cushions”, “Come this way”.
The flight crew may give the command to evacuate with instructions of which
exits may be usable or unusable. Listen for specific instructions from the
flight crew.
Not all crewmembers, in inadvertent water landings, were aware that they were in
water until they assessed the outside conditions. It may be possible that only one
part of the aircraft is in the water.
The cabin crew must communicate to establish the status of all the exits.
Crewmembers must use whatever means available to communicate.
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6.5.
6. DITCHING
THE EGRESS PHASE
When assessing the conditions before exiting the aircraft, it will be necessary to
determine if the aircraft is floating, sinking, or if the water level is present at
exits. This information will determine the actions that the cabin crew will take.
6.6.
PASSENGER REACTION
As with any type of unplanned emergency, particularly when there is a need to
evacuate the aircraft rapidly, the expertise, instructions and the assertiveness of
the crewmembers will have a direct impact on the outcome.
Passenger reaction may be somewhat different than in a ground evacuation,
because other elements, such as water are involved, and the use of equipment,
such as lifejackets, will be unfamiliar.
•
It is possible that passengers may be injured, particularly if the aircraft has
been subjected to severe structural damage
•
The level of panic may be higher, particularly if water is present, or rising in
the cabin
•
Passengers may find it difficult to find life vests
•
Passengers may have difficulty donning life vests.
6.7.
AIRCRAFT SINKING RAPIDLY
•
Direct passengers out the nearest opening
•
Instruct passengers to support themselves, by holding anything that will keep
them afloat
•
Find as much flotation equipment as time permits, distribute to passengers
•
Leave the aircraft.
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6.8.
6. DITCHING
AIRCRAFT FLOATING
The level of the water will determine whether the exit is usable or not. Exits that
are below water, or seeping water at the sides, are not considered usable.
Use all exits above the water line. If the level of water is at the doorsill, evacuate
passengers directly on the slide/sliderafts, and leave the slide/slideraft attached to
the floor of the aircraft.
If possible, avoid evacuating passengers directly into the water, although
sometimes there may be no other option.
It is possible that aircraft fuel, hydraulic fluid and oil have contaminated the
water, swallowing or being in contact with these fluids can cause temporary loss
of hearing, vision and produce nausea. Boarding a raft from the water can be a
difficult task, someone who is covered in fuel and oil will be slippery and difficult
to grasp from the water.
Low water temperatures may also pose a threat of hypothermia. The symptoms of
hypothermia may start within 10 minutes.
If the water is cold it may cause panic and shock. Shock can place severe strain
on the body and lead to cardiac arrest.
Those who are non-swimmers are very susceptible to incapacitation and
drowning.
Be prepared to shout instructions regarding how to board the slideraft. “Shoes
off”, “Board on hands and knees,” “Go to the end”, and “Sit down”.
6.9.
OVERWING EXITS
Overwing exits are secondary exits during a ditching, because they are not
equipped with slide/sliderafts.
If the overwing exits are usable, attach the lifeline, when installed, to the hook on
the wing.
Instruct passengers to step on to the wing, inflate their lifejackets, and hold on to
the lifeline. If circumstances permit, keep the passengers together on the wing
until rescue arrives.
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6.10. LIFEVESTS
Donning a life vest takes time, thought, and dexterity. Imagine what it would be
like to have to use a life vest for the first time under these circumstances. The
passenger must use the life vest, as follows:
•
Locate it
•
Retrieve it from storage
•
Unpack it from the plastic pouch
•
Don it
•
Fasten or tie it
•
Inflate it.
Several accident reports have reflected the difficulties that passengers have
experienced in locating, and retrieving their life vests. One report states that
“passengers had been told 5 to 7 minutes before impact of a possible ditching,
some passengers had to get on their hands and knees to retrieve the life vests
from the stowage and put them on.”
Another report states “rising water in the cabin compounded the problems of
locating and removing the vests from the under seat compartments”.
Crewmembers and able-bodied passengers had to swim under water to retrieve as
many life vests as possible and distribute them to passengers that are already
outside the aircraft. Life vests may also be dislodged from stowage during impact.
Crewmembers may find themselves having to the shout instructions to
passengers regarding the use of the flotation devices.
Research carried out by Civil Aero Medical Institute (CAMI) in the United States
has confirmed that people have difficulty in donning life vests. Adjustable waist
straps appear to pose the biggest problems. Either they are not tightened, or the
passengers cannot fasten them correctly, or do not fasten them at all, or the
straps become twisted and caught in the strap length adjuster. The numerous
straps, and the various attachment mechanisms confused many of the research
participants. The research was conducted in a test environment. It is important to
remember that the level of stress will be greater in reality, and is an important
element.
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The cabin crew should know how to give instructions for the use of equipment
carried onboard the aircraft. Expect to shout instructions in order to help
passengers don their life vests correctly.
•
“Life vests under your seats”
•
“Tear open the pouch”
•
“Place over your heads”
•
“Fasten straps tight around waist”
•
“Inflate when leaving the aircraft”.
The cabin crew should think about the commands that may be used in order to
assist passengers in donning their life vests correctly. The voice of the
crewmember giving instructions is a very effective tool, and can make a
difference.
Life vests should be inflated as the passengers are exiting the aircraft. Life vests
should not be inflated in the cabin to avoid damage.
When all passengers have boarded the slide/slideraft, the crewmember will be the
last person to board. If the slide/slideraft is still attached to the floor;
ƒ
Lift the Flap
ƒ
Pull “Disconnect Handle”.
The slide/slideraft will still be attached to the aircraft by the mooring line. To
separate the slide/slideraft from the aircraft:
ƒ
Cut the mooring line.
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6. DITCHING
Figure 6-1
Slide Raft Disconnection
Step 1. Lift Flap
Step 2. Pull the Disconnect Handle
Disconnect Handle
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6. DITCHING
6.11. SURVIVAL PHASE
If the aircraft is near an airport, assistance and rescue will not be far away.
However, crewmembers must remain in control of the situation, and keep
passengers together.
If passengers are in the water waiting for rescue, the cabin crew should instruct
them to stay “huddled” in groups, by forming a circle and facing towards the
center. The crew should encourage passengers to help each other, until assistance
arrives. For example, an injured person may be placed in the center of the circle,
this will help them to stay afloat and maintain body heat.
Staying together in groups has a dual purpose. Firstly, it is easier to locate
survivors if they are all together or in groups. Secondly, staying ”Huddled”
together in a circle provides body heat, and slows down the effects of
hypothermia.
If slide/sliderafts have been used, get as many people as possible out of the
water.
The most important factor in surviving an “unplanned ditching” is the quick
response from the crew to take immediate action, knowledge of ditching
procedures, and above all, the ability to remain in control of the situation.
The most appropriate way to prepare cabin crew for the unexpected is to provide
training, that encourages cabin crew to “think on their feet”, and to use and adapt
their skills to the situation.
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6.12. PLANNED DITCHING
Planned ditching in commercial aviation is a rare occurrence, however, in other
sectors of aviation ditching does occur and is survivable.
In commercial aviation, probably the most successful ditching of a commercial
transport aircraft was in Sitka Sound, near Biorka Island, Alaska, in October 1962.
Due to an engine failure, during cruise at 20 000 feet, the engine seized and
began to lose parts. The Captain decided to ditch the aircraft.
There are many factors that contributed to the successful outcome of the Sitka
Sound ditching.
The communication between the flight crew, and the cabin crewmembers, was an
open two-way communication. This enabled the cabin crewmembers to carry out
detailed cabin preparations. The cabin crewmembers had approximately 45
minutes to prepare the cabin.
The crewmembers rehearsed the “Brace” position with the passengers, gave
instructions for donning life vests, and distributed life vests for children.
The cabin crew explained to the passengers seated at exits, how to open the
exits, and launch the life rafts. The rafts were moved to the corresponding exits,
and the static lines secured. These passengers were advised by the crewmembers
not to take any action, until advised.
When the cabin was prepared, the cabin crew informed the flight crew that the
cabin was ready.
The cabin crewmember used the public address system to tell passengers to take
the “Brace” position, and remain in that position until the aircraft came to a
complete stop.
When the aircraft stopped, the cabin crew immediately began to deploy the life
rafts, and assist the passengers to board. The water level in the cabin rose to
approximately 2 feet (75cm), however the aircraft took 24 minutes to sink.
Within 5 minutes of ditching, all the passengers and crew were in the rafts. Only
one raft did not have a crewmember onboard. Within 20 minutes all passengers
and crew had been transferred to a launch, and boarded the coast guard vessel.
This was a civilian aircraft operating as a military passenger charter.
All the occupants survived, and none of the passengers or crew was seriously
injured.
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The report of the “Civil Aeronautics Board” (now called the NTSB) described this
ditching as “an outstanding feat”. The successful outcome was attributed to the
following factors:
•
Ideal conditions of wind and sea
•
Crew familiarity with ditching procedures
•
Sufficient time to prepare the cabin
•
The military passengers’ receptiveness and responsiveness to orders.
This example highlights the fact that ditching can happen, but it can also be
survived.
6.13. CABIN PREPARATION – DITCHING DIFFERENCES
Preparing the cabin for a ditching is similar to preparing the cabin for a land
evacuation, however, there are a few differences.
1. Alert Phase
Unlike a planned ground evacuation, there will be no instruction to “remain
seated” in the flight crew to purser briefing. In this case it will be necessary for
everyone to evacuate the aircraft.
•
Nature of the emergency
•
Time available (check watch)
•
Special Instructions
•
Brace signal.
2. Passenger Briefing
The passenger briefing will take the same form as the “planned ground
evacuation” briefing, however, the passengers will need more information due to
the nature of the emergency, and the equipment required to survive.
•
Donning and the use of the life vest
•
ABP Assistance briefing will be more detailed
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The amount of time available will determine the level of preparation. The most
important survival information should take priority, and other tasks should be
accomplished as time permits:
•
Life vests
•
Brace position
•
Exits
•
ABP Briefings
•
Safety Checks
•
Final Cabin preparation.
Cabin crewmembers must have their own life vest before commencing the
briefing.
The cabin crewmembers should be in their designated brief and secure area,
equipped and ready to commence the passenger briefing.
Cabin crewmembers should listen carefully to the announcement, and coordinate
the demonstration with the instructions.
When reading the safety briefing announcement, it will be important to
pause at key points, in order to give the cabin crewmembers time to don
their lifevests, demonstrate, and, check passenger compliance.
6.14. LIFEVESTS
Crewmembers should simultaneously don their life vest and demonstrate to the
passengers, as follows:
•
Remove the crew life vest from the pouch
•
Unfold the life vest and hold it up in front [crewmember]
•
Don the life vest
•
Secure straps
•
Identify light (if applicable)
•
Identify Whistle (if applicable).
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6. DITCHING
Crewmembers should then check the passenger life vests in his/her assigned
area.
Assist passengers in putting on, and securing their children’s life vests. Assist
other passengers that may need help. If an adult life vest is to be used for a child,
adapt it accordingly. If available, distribute and explain to passengers how to use
other flotation equipment, such as baby survival rafts.
6.15. EXITS
Indicate the exits that have slide rafts to passengers. The location of slide/slide
rafts may vary according to the aircraft type.
Overwing exits do not have slide rafts. The cabin crew should indicate the nearest
slide/life rafts to passengers that are seated at overwing exits.
6.16. ABLE BODIED PASSENGER BRIEFINGS
The criteria used for selecting Able Bodies Passengers (ABPs) for a ground
evacuation applies to ditching. Ideally, select three APBs per exit, and seat them
at the exit.
One ABP should be briefed to replace the cabin crewmember in case the
crewmember becomes incapacitated. The crewmember should brief the
passengers on.
•
How to assess conditions outside the aircraft, and identify if the exit is
usable/unusable (determined by water level)
•
How to open the exit
•
How to locate the manual inflation handle
•
How to protect him/herself from going overboard, and remain in the assist
space.
•
The commands to be used during evacuation
•
How to board the slide/raft
•
How to disconnect the slide/raft
•
How to cut the mooring line to release the raft from the aircraft.
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ABPs Two and Three. Slide raft assistance.
ABPs two and three should be instructed to board the raft to assist passengers.
One ABP should be instructed to go to the end of the raft. The other ABP should
be instructed to stay in the middle of the raft to assist passengers to the far end.
On some aircraft types, were the rated capacity of the slide/ rafts is lower than
the number of people onboard (such as the A320/A321), a round raft is located in
the cabin. ABPs two and three are responsible for the round raft. These ABPs will
be briefed how to:
−
Take the raft to the exit
−
Use the mooring line to attach the raft to a fixed part of the aircraft, for
example, a passenger seat
−
Launch the raft (the raft must be thrown outside the aircraft)
−
Manually-inflate the raft, in case it does not inflate. “Pull the mooring line”
−
Board the raft and distribute passengers evenly.
When the ABP briefing has been completed, the cabin crew should perform final
safety check to ensure that all loose or sharp objects have been removed, and
that the cabin is secure.
For the A320, during the final cabin preparation, the survival kit should be
attached to the slide raft by attaching the lanyard, that is located forward of the
door, to the hook on the survival kit.
When the cabin is secure, the Purser should inform the flight crew that the cabin
is ready. The Purser should ask the flight crew for updated information, and
communicate any new information with the rest of the cabin crew. The flight crew
may be able to inform the Purser about:
•
The nearest landfall
•
Shipping in the area.
When the cabin preparation is complete, the cabin crewmembers should then
prepare themselves. Ensure that the doors are in the armed position, and
concentrate on the “Silent Review”, including the removal of emergency
equipment or the three “W’s”.
•
Who collects
•
What to collect
•
Where to collect.
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The flight crew will give the “Brace” command at the appropriate time.
Cabin crewmembers should repeat the brace command until the aircraft has come
to a complete stop.
6.17. POST DITCHING
When the aircraft has come to a complete stop, cabin crewmembers will release
their seat belts, and begin to shout their commands. If the noise level is high, use
a megaphone, or the PA, if operative.
The ability to evacuate passengers from the aircraft to the rafts will depend on the
state of the sea, and the condition of the aircraft. When an aircraft is intact it
should be able to float on calm seas for several minutes.
Being aware of the situation in the cabin, and the condition of the aircraft, will
determine how passengers will leave the aircraft and where.
In the worst possible case, if the aircraft is sinking, passengers and crew should
leave the aircraft through any possible opening. Instruct passengers to inflate
their life vests, and hold on to anything that is floating.
Structures, such as engine pylons, flaps may detach from the aircraft and possibly
damage the rafts, as the aircraft starts to sink. Therefore, stressing the urgency
to evacuate the aircraft, and get away from immediate danger.
Assess outside conditions.
The level of water at the exit will determine if the exit is usable, or not. Exits that
are below water, partially submerged, or seeping water around the edges, must
be considered unusable. Priority should be given to exits that are above the water
level.
When the exits have been opened, crewmembers will be able to determine how to
evacuate passengers to the rafts. If the water is at doorsill level, the
passengers may board the slide/slideraft directly from the aircraft. The
slide/slideraft should be left attached to the floor of the aircraft.
Passengers must inflate their life vests, when exiting the aircraft.
Distribute passengers evenly on slide /sliderafts, to prevent capsizing.
If the water level is too far away from the doorsill, detach the raft from the
doorsill using the “disconnect handle”. The raft will still be attached to the aircraft
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by the mooring line. Crewmembers should pull the mooring line in, to keep the
slide/slideraft close to the door to evacuate passengers.
Cabin crewmembers will need to continue shouting commands, to speed up the
evacuation.
When boarding passengers into the rafts, ensure that the passenger count does
not exceed the raft capacity.
Monitor the flow at each exit, and be prepared to re-direct passengers to other
rafts, in case there is congestion, or if the cabin conditions change (For example,
unusable exits, rising water, aircraft sinking).
Before the cabin crewmembers leave the aircraft, check the cabin to ensure that
all passengers and crew have evacuated. Remove assigned emergency equipment
from the aircraft.
•
Inflate life vest and evacuate the aircraft into the assigned slide/slideraft
•
If, the slide/slideraft is still connected to the aircraft pull the “disconnect
handle. The slide/slideraft is still connected to the aircraft by the mooring line.
•
Using the knife, cut the mooring line to separate the slide/slideraft from the
aircraft
•
Retrieve the survival kit attached to the lanyard.
Once separated from the aircraft:
•
Get clear and upwind of the aircraft, but stay in the vicinity of the aircraft
•
Stay clear of fuel contaminated water, in case the fuel ignites
•
Stay clear of any debris, which may damage the rafts
•
Locate other survivors.
If possible, there should be at least one crewmember per slide/slideraft. The
crewmember should take the leadership role. The survival of the passengers
depends on the crewmembers knowledge, and ability to use the available survival
equipment, and the ability to cope with the hazards and hardship.
As soon as the raft is clear of the wreckage, the cabin crew should deploy the sea
anchor. The sea anchor must be deployed in order to prevent the raft from
drifting with the current. It is possible to drift over 160 Kilometers in one day,
therefore making it difficult to locate survivors.
When survivors have been found in the water, immediate action should be taken
to get them onboard the slideraft. Throw the heaving ring located on the raft, to
the survivor and pull them towards the raft.
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When bringing survivors into the raft, it is important to ensure that the weight is
evenly distributed to avoid the raft from capsizing. Boarding handles, or boarding
steps, are usually located on the slideraft to assist survivors. Passengers should
be boarded from the toe end of the slide/raft.
Some survivors may be injured, or too weak to board the raft, and may require
assistance. This can be quite difficult, however, there are techniques that may
make it easier. Below is an example of one such technique.
•
Two people should hold the person under the armpits (not the arms)
•
Push the person down into the water, and then pull as the buoyancy from
the life vest pushes the person up again.
However, keep the person informed every step of the rescue, so that he/she can
cooperate!
Once onboard the raft, all persons should keep their life vests until rescued.
Remember that keeping the raft close to the ditching site will make location
easier.
6.18. SURVIVAL
The four basic principles to survival are:
•
Protection
•
Location
•
Water
•
Food.
6.18.1.
PROTECTION
Erect the canopy to prevent wind-chill hypothermia from affecting wet bodies.
When the canopy is erected, all occupants will be protected from the elements.
Check the physical condition of all passengers and other crewmembers onboard,
and administer first aid as necessary.
Seasickness can be expected. The smell inside the life raft, and loss of visual
reference increases the risk of seasickness. Vomiting causes a serious loss of fluid.
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6. DITCHING
If available, seasickness pills should be distributed. However, if they are not
available, occupants should be instructed to look at the horizon to have a visual
reference.
Using the bailing bucket and the sponges from the survival kit, remove water from
the raft. The floor of the raft should be kept as dry as possible.
Try to keep the raft clean and dry to prevent illness and infection.
The condition of the raft should be frequently monitored. If necessary, inflate the
buoyancy chambers using the hand pump that is in the survival kit. The buoyancy
chambers should be firm, but not too hard. Inflation should be checked regularly.
6.18.2.
LOCATION
The second element of survival is “Location”. Any radio beacons should be
activated, to send out a signal to identify your location.
Other signaling equipment in the survival kit includes:
•
Signaling mirror
•
Day/night flares
•
Dye marker.
If there is more than one slideraft, they should be tied together. A distance of
approximately 8 meters (25 feet) should be respected, to allow for wave action.
Keeping the rafts together makes location and rescue easier.
If transceivers are available, they should be used to check the beacon signal, on
121.5 MHZ. The “beeping” noise will confirm that the beacon is correctly
deployed.
Transceivers may also be used to communicate with other rafts.
Rescue at sea requires a cooperative effort. Therefore, raft occupants should
actively participate in the rescue effort, and assist with raft maintenance. Not only
will this help to use time constructively, but also to mentally occupy passengers
and crewmembers, and to keep the morale up, during a very difficult situation.
The crewmembers should assign tasks to occupants, for example:
•
Looking out, to spot passing aircraft or ships
•
Using signaling mirror, as mirror flashes can be seen for many kilometers,
even in hazy weather
•
Keeping the floor of the raft dry
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•
6. DITCHING
Recovering moisture, or rainwater to drink.
These duties should be rotated every few hours. It will give people a sense of
responsibility. Passengers should be reminded that cooperation is necessary to
survive.
Conditions in the raft will be far from ideal. Even during a short space of time,
occupants may feel cramped, tired and anxious.
Mental attitude is a very important aspect of survival. In emergency situation, try
to keep the morale up to prevent people from falling in to hopelessness and
despair. Do not give up hope, because the will to live is a key element of survival.
6.18.3.
WATER
Crewmembers will need to assess how much food and water is available, and
ration them accordingly.
Water is the most important element. It is possible to live on just water for 10
days, or more. When the water supply is limited and cannot be replaced, it should
be used efficiently.
Freshwater supplies should be protected from being contaminated from seawater.
At night, if water is in short supply, the canopy can be rolled up at the side to
collect dew, by using a sponge or cloth.
The amount of water available, and the amount of people and their physical
condition, should be considered when rationing water.
6.18.4.
FOOD
The general rule is, “if you don’t have water, don’t eat”. Only eat if water is
available, as it is necessary to aid digestion.
6.19. RESCUE
When an aircraft or a ship has been sighted, all the signaling equipment available
should be used to attract attention. Occupants must stop signaling as the craft
approaches.
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6. DITCHING
The raft will need to be prepared. Take the canopy down; secure all loose items in
the raft. The crewmember should instruct the passengers to ensure their life vests
are fully inflated, by blowing into the tubes, to restore the buoyancy chambers.
Never take a life vest off during rescue.
Passengers and crewmembers will have to be patient during the rescue operation,
and understand that the procedure takes time, depending on the type of rescue
craft. It may not be possible to rescue all raft occupants at once.
The crewmember may have to decide who should be rescued first, such as injured
passengers and crewmembers, or women with children. The crewmember will
need to manage the passengers calmly, and maintain order until the last person
has been rescued.
The crewmembers and passengers must follow the instructions of the rescue
personnel, and remain in the raft until instructed.
Helicopter rescue requires particular attention, and it is imperative that the
instructions given by the rescue crew are obeyed.
•
Do not attempt to stand up - all raft occupants should remain seated with
arms and legs inside the raft
•
Rotor wash from the helicopter may be quite severe. Keep people low in the
raft, and ensure that the weight is evenly distributed.
•
Do not do anything using your own initiative
•
Do not reach out to grab the cable (to avoid the possibility of an electric
shock), wait until it reaches the raft or makes contact with the water
•
Wait for instruction from the winch man
•
On reaching the door sill of the helicopter, don’t try to help yourself in, let
the helicopter crew bring you onboard
•
A rescue swimmer may not always drop from the helicopter to aid with
rescue. The cabin crewmember may have to help with instruction
•
The crewmember must stay in the raft until all passengers have been
rescued.
With modern satellite technology, location and rescue may not be far away.
However, it is always best to prepare for the most extreme circumstances.
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6. DITCHING
Crewmembers should feel confident that their knowledge of ditching procedures,
and survival techniques would get them through the worst possible circumstances.
During this chapter, examples of “unplanned” and “planned” ditching were used to
highlight the positive effects that crewmembers can have during emergencies.
Crewmembers are always the leaders in any emergency situation. An effective
leader has knowledge and skills, plus the ability to apply those skills as necessary.
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6.19.1.
6. DITCHING
EVACUATION ON WATER PROCEDURE- SLIDERAFT
- STAND UP AND SHOUT . . . . . "UNFASTEN SEATBELTS, LIFEVESTS ON"
Inflate the lifevest, only once outside the aircraft.
- ORDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "REMOVE SHOES"
−
• If the is usable.
−
DOOR IN ARMED POSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPEN
−
RED, MANUAL INFLATION HANDLE . . . . . . . . . PULL
Do not wait for automatic inflation of the slideraft.
• If the water level is close to the door sill:
The slideraft inflates on the water.
−
SLIDERAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. LEAVE ATTACHED TO CABIN FLOOR
−
ASSIST SPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OCCUPY
• If the water level is too far away from the door sill:
- SLIDERAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISCONNECT FROM DOOR SILL
The slideraft remains tied to the aircraft by a 6-meters (20 feet) mooring line.
-MOORING LINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . HOLD
To keep the slideraft close to the exit, hold the mooring line.
-PASSENGERS EVACUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPEDITE
-“COME THIS WAY”, “HURRY” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHOUT
-PASSENGER LIFEVESTS… INSTRUCT PASSENGERS TO INFLATE LIFE VESTS
WHEN EVACUATING THE AIRCRAFT
-NUMBER OF PASSENGERS BOARDING THE SLIDERAFT . . . MONITOR
-ASSIGNED AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . CHECK FULLY EVACUATED
-LAST CREWMEMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. BOARD SLIDERAFT
-MOORING LINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CUT
-SURVIVAL KIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……. RETRIEVE
The survival kit is attached to the slideraft via a lanyard.
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6.19.2.
6. DITCHING
EVACUATION ON WATER PROCEDURE – ESCAPE SLIDE
The escape slide is used as a passenger flotation device only. It is not equipped
with a canopy or a survival kit.
-STAND UP AND SHOUT . . . . . "UNFASTEN SEATBELTS, LIFEVESTS ON"
Inflate the lifevest, only once outside the aircraft.
-ORDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "REMOVE SHOES"
• If the exit is exit usable:
−
DOOR IN ARMED POSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPEN
−
RED, MANUAL INFLATION HANDLE . . . . . . . . . PULL
Do not wait for automatic inflation of the slide.
• If the water level is close to the doorsill:
The slide inflates on the water.
−
SLIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. LEAVE ATTACHED TO CABIN FLOOR
−
ASSIST SPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OCCUPY
• If the water level is too far away from the doorsill.
- SLIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISCONNECT FROM DOOR SILL
The slide remains tied to the aircraft by a 6-meters (20 feet) mooring line.
-MOORING LINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . HOLD
To keep the slide close to the exit, hold the mooring line.
-PASSENGERS EVACUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPEDITE
-“COME THIS WAY”, “HURRY” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHOUT
-PASSENGER LIFEVESTS… INSTRUCT PASSENGERS TO INFLATE LIFE VESTS
WHEN EVACUATING THE AIRCRAFT
-NUMBER OF PASSENGERS BOARDING THE SLIDE . . ... MONITOR
-ASSIGNED AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . CHECK FULLY EVACUATED
-LAST CREWMEMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. BOARD SLIDERAFT
-MOORING LINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CUT
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6.19.3.
6. DITCHING
PLANNED DITCHING CABIN PREPARATION
1.
Alert Phase
“Purser to Cockpit”
2. Captain to Purser Briefing
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Nature of the emergency (Ditching)
Time available to prepare the cabin
Signal to “Brace”
Special instructions/other information
Who will inform the passengers and when
3. Purser to cabin crew briefing
Ditching preparation/Lifejackets for
briefing
Take demonstration positions
Await announcement
4.
Captain’s announcement
(Duties permitting)
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5.
6. DITCHING
Purser’s Announcement
•
If the captain’s announcement is not
possible
• The Nature of the emergency
• Necessity to prepare the cabin
• Follow the instructions of the crew
The emergency demonstration announcement
should include.
• Lifejackets (Stress only to be inflated
when exiting the aircraft)
• Brace positions
• Location of exits. Slide/life rafts
• Loose items
• Passenger assistance (ABP’s)
• Assistance with lifejackets, children and
infants
• Safety Card Review (Including Seat belts,
tray tables, seat backs, armrests)
6.
Final cabin secure check
• Seat belts fastened
• Seatbacks upright
• Tray tables stowed and latched
• Carry on baggage stowed and
secure
• Overhead bins closed and latched
• Aisles clear of all obstructions
• Service items cleared
• Cabin dividers open
7.
•
•
•
•
Secure Galleys
Close and secure all containers
Carts stowed and secured
Switch off all galley power
Pull all circuit breakers
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6. DITCHING
8. Check all doors
“ARMED”
9.
•
Cabin crew to Purser
cabin preparation complete
10.
Purser to Captain
“ Cabin Ready “ cabin preparation
•
complete
Obtain updated information
•
11.
Command from Captain to Cabin Crew
via PA
“Attention Crew! At Stations!”
12.
All Cabin crew at stations
•
•
13.
Secure seat harness
Silent Review ( Including the three W’s)
Command from captain to cabin crew
via PA
(Approximately 1 minute before
Landing)
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7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
7.1.
INTRODUCTION
Aircraft have cabin air systems that control pressurization, airflow, air filtration,
and temperature. The purpose of these systems is to provide a safe and
comfortable cabin environment, and to protect all cabin occupants from the
physiological risks of high altitudes. Modern aircraft are now operating at
increasingly high altitudes. This increases the physiological risks that are
associated with depressurization.
In the case of depressurization, there is a risk that not enough oxygen will be
supplied to the body. This condition, hypoxia, is the greatest threat to both
crewmembers and passengers.
7.2.
CABIN PRESSURIZATION
Pressurization of the aircraft cabin begins before, or shortly after, takeoff. The air
from outside the aircraft is compressed through the engines, cooled and
humidified by the air conditioning unit, and then distributed into the cabin. The
pressurization system is maintained by a series of valves that control the flow of
the air into, and out of the cabin. The aim is to pump more air into the cabin than
is allowed to escape. As the aircraft climbs, the “outflow” valves close and the
pressure builds up inside the cabin to an altitude of between 6 000ft and 8 000ft.
The pressurized cabin protects the occupants from the physiological risks of high
altitude.
The external altitude may be 41 000 feet, therefore the difference between the
cabin altitude and the external altitude, creates a “pressure differential”.
During depressurization, the cabin pressure decreases, and the cabin altitude
increases to equalize with the flight altitude.
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7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
The risk of a pressurized cabin is the potential for cabin depressurization. This can
occur due to a pressurization system malfunction, or damage to the aircraft that
causes a breach in the aircraft structure, enabling cabin air to escape outside the
aircraft, for example loss of a window, or a breach in the aircraft fuselage due to
an explosion.
The loss of pressurization can be slow - in case of a small air leak - while a rapid
or explosive depressurization occurs suddenly, usually within a few seconds.
Other factors influence the rate and duration of depressurization:
•
The larger the cabin, the longer the depressurization time
•
The larger the opening, the faster the depressurization
•
The greater the “pressure differential” between the cabin pressure and the
external environmental pressure, the more forceful the depressurization.
When cabin pressure decreases, the occupants are no longer protected from the
dangers of high altitude, therefore increasing the risk of hypoxia, depressurization
illness and hypothermia. It is, therefore, important that crewmembers recognize
the different types of depressurization, react effectively to overcome the
difficulties associated with a loss in cabin pressure.
7.3.
TYPES OF DEPRESSURIZATION
Depressurization can be separated into two categories:
•
Rapid/Explosive
•
Slow/insidious.
7.3.1.
RAPID/EXPLOSIVE DEPRESSURIZATION
Structural damage or malfunction in the pressurization system may cause rapid
depressurization. Rapid depressurization may be explosive, especially where there
is be a breach in the fuselage. Listed below are some of the signs of a rapid
depressurization:
•
Loud bang, thump or clap. When the two masses of air make contact
•
Cloud of fog or misting in the cabin. Due to the drop in temperature, and the
change of humidity
•
Rush of air, as the air exits the cabin
•
Drop in temperature as the cabin temperature equalizes with the outside
temperature
•
Release of cabin oxygen masks, when the cabin altitude reaches 14,000ft.
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7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
If a breach in the structure is the cause of the depressurization, the rush of air
that leaves the aircraft through the breach. Anything that is in the immediate area
that is not secured will be ejected from the aircraft.
Debris may fly around the cabin, and loose items may become projectiles. Dust
particles may also restrict vision.
Occupants will also feel some of the physiological effects such as:
•
Hypoxia
•
Hypothermia
•
Gas expansion
•
Exposure to windblast.
7.3.2.
SLOW DEPRESSURIZATION
Slow depressurization is a very gradual decrease in cabin pressure. Slow
depressurization may be the result of a faulty door seal, a malfunction in the
pressurization system, or a cracked window.
Slow depressurization may occur, however, it may not be obvious. There will be
no fog or sound of air rushing through the cabin, or any visible indication of
depressurization. Therefore, cabin crewmembers must be alert to any clues that
may indicate slow depressurization.
One of the first physiological indications may be ear discomfort, or ‘popping’, joint
pain, or stomach pain as the gas expands.
Cabin crewmembers should be aware of the signs and symptoms of hypoxia, not
only for passengers, but also for other crewmembers. Due to the insidious nature
of hypoxia, the symptoms may not be identified until it is too late.
Anyone that has symptoms of hypoxia should be given oxygen, and the flight
crew should be immediately notified.
If the origin of the slow depressurization is a faulty door or window seal, there
may be a slight “hissing” sound in the immediate area. In this case, notify the
flight crew. Any passengers that are seated in the area should be moved, and
reseated if possible. All other cabin crewmembers should be informed. As a
precautionary measure all seatbelts should be fastened, and equipment stowed
and secured, in the event of a rapid depressurization.
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7.4.
7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
HYPOXIA
The greatest danger during depressurization is hypoxia. The most common type of
hypoxia in aviation is "hypoxic hypoxia", which occurs due to low partial pressure
of oxygen in the arterial blood. If oxygen is not used immediately in hypoxia
cases, it is possible that occupants become incapacitated and lose consciousness
in a very short time.
The effects of hypoxia (lack of oxygen) cannot be over emphasized. It is
important for cabin crew to realize that even mild hypoxia, though not fatal, can
have fatal results. This is because hypoxia can significantly reduce the
crewmembers ability to perform, and consequently lead to errors that may be
fatal.
The insidious nature of hypoxia causes a subtle decrease in individual
performance, followed by incapacitation, the symptoms may not be identified until
it is too late.
It is necessary to remember that each person may not react in the same way, and
that the symptoms of hypoxia may manifest themselves differently in each
individual.
Hypoxia can cause a false sense of well being. It is possible for a person to be
hypoxic and not be aware of their condition. Therefore, it is important that the
cabin crew recognizes the signs of hypoxia, and provides oxygen as soon as
possible, in order to prevent a loss of consciousness. The affected passenger or
crewmember usually recovers a few minutes after receiving oxygen. However,
they may not be aware of having lost consciousness.
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7.5.
7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
THE TIME OF USEFUL CONSIOUSNESS
The time of useful consciousness refers to the time available to individuals to
perform their tasks, after they have been deprived of oxygen, but are still aware
of their environment and capable of controlling their actions.
It is important for the cabin crew to realize that the time of useful consciousness
is different for each individual, and depends on the:
•
Altitude
•
Individual’s state of health
•
Amount of activity.
The ‘Time of Useful Consciousness’ table is used as a guideline for the expected
performance time at different altitudes. The ‘Time of Useful Consciousness’ is a
relative term, and will vary according to each individual’s state of health and level
of activity.
The primary factor that will effect cabin crewmembers, and reduce their ‘time of
useful consciousness’ is the level of activity. Activity increases the need for
oxygen. The more cabin crewmembers move around the cabin the higher their
oxygen requirement. During depressurization, and particularly post
depressurization, cabin crewmembers should consider their own oxygen
requirements. The ‘Time of Useful Consciousness’ does not imply that a person
will be able to perform their duties to their full capacity. As the time increases the
ability to perform duties will diminish, and even the simplest of tasks may become
difficult, as hypoxia sets in.
The cabin crew must remember that, in cases of continued physical
activity, the time of useful consciousness is significantly reduced.
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7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
Table 1
Carlyle, 1963
Time of Useful Consciousness Table at Various Altitudes
TIME OF USEFUL CONSCIOUSNESS
Altitude
Moderate Activity Sitting Quietly
22 000 feet 5 minutes
10 minutes
25 000 feet 2 minutes
3 minutes
28 000 feet 1 minute
1.5 minutes
30 000 feet 45 seconds
1.25 minutes
35 000 feet 30 seconds
45 seconds
40 000 feet 18 seconds
30 seconds
Note:
It is important to emphasize that this table is only a guideline, and
provides average values that can increase or decrease, depending on the
skills needed to accomplish a task, on the individual’s health, and on the
amount of activity. For example, the time of useful consciousness for a
cabin crewmember involved in moderate activity is significantly less,
compared to a passenger that is sitting quietly
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7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
The following are some other factors that can contribute to reducing the time of
useful consciousness.
•
Fatigue: A person who is physically or mentally fatigued will have an increased risk of
hypoxia
•
Physical effort: During physical activity, there is an increased need for oxygen, an
increased risk of hypoxia and, as a result, a decrease in the amount of useful
consciousness time
•
Alcohol: Alcohol can significantly affect behavior, and can increase the risk of hypoxia,
in addition to aggravating some of the behavioral changes resulting from hypoxia.
7.6.
THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF HYPOXIA
Physical activity, during the initial descent and post depressurization, when the
aircraft has leveled out, will increase the need for oxygen. If supplemental oxygen
is not used, cabin crewmembers may become hypoxic and incapacitated. Cabin
crewmembers performance is vital during in-flight emergencies. The symptoms of
hypoxia are various, and may manifest themselves differently in each individual.
Initial signs of hypoxia include:
•
Increased rate of breathing
•
Headache
•
Nausea
•
Light-headedness
•
Dizziness
•
Tingling sensation in hands and feet
•
Sweating
•
Irritability
•
Euphoria
•
Cyanosis (bluing of the lips and the fingernails)
•
Ear discomfort
•
Stomach pain due to gas expansion.
As the lack of oxygen increases, the symptoms become more pronounced with the
lack of oxygen, and include:
•
Impaired vision
•
Impaired judgment
•
Motor control (unable to coordinate)
•
Drowsiness
•
Slurred Speech
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•
Memory loss
•
Difficulty to concentrate.
7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
Hypoxia can cause a false sense of well-being. It is possible for a person to be
hypoxic and not be aware of their condition. It is important that cabin
crewmembers recognize the signs of hypoxia, and administer supplemental
oxygen as soon as possible in order to prevent unconsciousness.
When oxygen has been administered recovery will usually be within minutes.
However, the person may not be aware of having a period of reduced
consciousness.
7.7.
CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION PROCEDURE
In 1995, a study conducted by the Civil Aero Medical Institute (CAMI) in the
United States, entitled “Flight Attendant Procedures in a Depressurization”,
revealed that accident investigators, and safety inspectors reported that cabin
crew did not follow the recommended procedures during depressurization. This
study resulted in a Flight Standards Information Bulletin (FSIB released by the
FAA) that provides the recommended procedures in a cabin depressurization
event.
In the case of depressurization the immediate use of oxygen is critical. Therefore,
the first actions to be performed by the cabin crew are.
• Immediately don the nearest oxygen mask
• Sit down fasten your seat belt, or grasp a fixed object
• Hold on.
If the cabin crew is not able to sit down or grasp a fixed object, they should
wedge themselves between passengers and ask passengers for assistance. For
example, in one cabin depressurization event, a cabin crewmember was saved
from ejection out of the aircraft, because a passenger was holding on to the cabin
crewmember's ankle.
The priority of the cabin crew is to consider their personal safety.
Incapacitated or injured cabin crewmembers will not be able to assist other cabin
crewmembers and passenger during the post-depressurization phase.
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7.8.
7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
CREW COMMUNICATION AND COORDINATION
During any emergency, effective crew communication is critical to a successful
outcome. Effective Crew Resource Management (CRM) involves cooperation and
communication between the flight and cabin crew. In many abnormal and
emergency situations, the cabin crew plays an important role in helping the flight
crew to identify and resolve developing problems.
Many incident and accident reports have revealed that effective crew
communication, between flight and cabin crew, can make the difference between
an accident and an incident. It has also been revealed that ineffective
communication between the flight and cabin crew has contributed to the severity
of an accident.
7.9.
COMMUNICATING IN A NOISY ENVIRONMENT
Communication between the flight crew and the cabin crew may be difficult.
Equally communication between the cabin crewmembers and the passengers may
cause problems, depending on the type of depressurization, particularly if it is
rapid/explosive and the noise level may be quite high.
Some rapid/explosive depressurizations have been severe, and presented the
crewmembers with diverse challenges to overcome. One such depressurization
happened over the pacific, not only were the cabin crewmembers faced with an
explosive depressurization, but they also had to try and prepare the cabin for a
ditching, and then a land evacuation with 337 passengers onboard.
“Communication between the flight attendants and passengers was very difficult
because of the high ambient noise level in the cabin after the depressurization,
even though the public address (PA) system was operational. Flight attendants
were located at each of the 10 doors, yet there were only two megaphones
required to be on the airplane; one located at door 1- left and the other at 4-left.
The flight attendants, who were responsible for each of these two doors, used the
megaphones to broadcast commands to passengers in their immediate areas and
to other flight attendants in preparation for the landing and subsequent
evacuation. The other 13 flight attendants (including one deadheading flight
attendant) had to shout, use hand signals, and show passengers how to prepare
for the evacuation by holding up passenger safety cards.”
“Because of the intense cabin noise she [the flight attendant] had to communicate
with passengers by holding up a safety card and a life preserver. Passengers
sitting in the front rows, in turn, showed safety cards and life preservers to other
passengers seated behind”. (Source Accident Report NTSB/AAR-90/01)
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7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
During any emergency, effective communication is critical to the outcome. Cabin
crewmembers should use any possible means to communicate with other
crewmembers and passengers.
7.10. POST DEPRESSURIZATION
After a depressurization, when the aircraft reaches a safe altitude, the cabin crew
can move around the cabin, and should use the portable oxygen cylinders until
they are confident that they can breathe without support.
When the emergency descent is completed, and a safe altitude is reached, the
cabin crew should consider their oxygen requirements. Due to the physical activity
at an increased altitude, the cabin crew may still be exposed to hypoxia. Oxygen
deprivation can be insidious and the cabin crew may not be the best judges of
their own oxygen intake after depressurization.
After cabin depressurization, the cabin crew should.
•
Check on the flight crew, and be prepared to assist in the case of pilot
incapacitation.
•
Check passengers for any injuries
•
Check the cabin for any damage
•
Provide first-aid and oxygen, as necessary
•
Report the cabin status to the flight crew.
7.11. OXYGEN SYSTEMS
When the cabin altitude increases above 14 000 feet, the oxygen masks that are
housed above the passenger seats, in the lavatories, galleys, and crew stations
will deploy automatically. The flight crew may also manually deploy the oxygen
mask system.
When the compartments are open, the masks drop down, and are suspended by a
lanyard. The oxygen masks are normally in groups, depending on the seat row
configuration of the aircraft. Each group of masks has a release pin that is
connected to a lanyard. It is sufficient to pull one mask, to activate the oxygen for
that entire row of seats.
There are two different passenger oxygen systems that are currently used on
aircraft, chemical and gaseous. However, there are some differences between the
two systems.
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Figure 7-1
Cabin Fixed Oxygen System
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7.11.1.
7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
CHEMICAL OXYGEN
The chemical system generates a chemical reaction, when the mask has been
pulled down and the release pin has been removed. When the oxygen begins to
flow to the mask, it will continue for either 15 or 22 minutes.
It is not possible to stop the flow of oxygen when it has started. The chemical
generator creates heat and becomes hot, therefore a smell of burning, where dust
has gathered, is not unusual. Passengers may become concerned with the smell
of burning associated with the oxygen generators.
In a Notice to AOC holders (NTAOCH) No. 5/96, the CAA recommended that.
“As soon as practicable after emergency oxygen masks have been deployed,
passengers should be advised that there is a possibility of a smell of burning
associated with the normal operation of chemical oxygen generator systems”
A passenger announcement should be made, when it is considered safe to do so.
7.11.2.
GASEOUS OXYGEN
A number of high-pressure oxygen bottles, contained within the aircraft, supply
gaseous oxygen to the cabin. Unlike the chemically generated oxygen that works
independently from the aircraft altitude, the gaseous system is activated
depending on the cabin altitude.
The mask receives pure oxygen under positive pressure, at a rate governed by
the cabin altitude pressure.
The lower the altitude, the less oxygen will flow to the masks. When the cabin
altitude reaches 10 000 feet, the oxygen supply will stop.
Unlike the chemically generated oxygen, there is no burning odor, because there
no heat is generated.
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7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
Figure 7-2
Oxygen Mask 1
The flow indicator is visible through the transparent tubing.
The flow indicator, a green bead, is visible through the transparent
tubing, when oxygen is flowing to the mask.
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7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
Figure 7-3
Oxygen Mask 2
DILUTER
DILUTER
VALVE
VALVE
INHALE
INHALE
VALVE
VALVE
FLOW
FLOW
INDICATION
INDICATION
EXHALE
EXHALE
VALVE
VALVE
O2
O2
The oxygen flow indication on this oxygen mask is the green strip on the
reservoir bag.
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7.11.3.
7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
COCKPIT OXYGEN
In the event of depressurization, or emissions of smoke or noxious gases, a fixed
oxygen system in the cockpit supplies adequate oxygen to the flight crew.
Four full-face quick donning facemasks are stowed in boxes that are easy to
access, adjacent to the crewmembers’ seats (one per seat).
A mask-mounted regulator supplies a mixture of air and oxygen, or pure oxygen,
and performs emergency pressure control. With the regulator set to “NORMAL”,
the user breathes a mixture of cabin air and oxygen up to the cabin altitude at
which point the regulator supplies 100% oxygen. The user can select the
regulator to 100%, in this case the regulator supplies pure oxygen at all cabin
altitudes.
How to use the cockpit oxygen:
1. Remove the mask from the storage box, and then squeeze and pull the two
red grips upwards. Continue to squeeze the red grips, as this causes the
oxygen flow to inflate the head harness.
2. When the mask is in place, release the grips (so that the oxygen flows out
of the harness), and then tie the mask to the face.
3. The mask can be donned with one hand. The microphone is automatically
transferred to the mask.
Figure 7-4
Donning the cockpit oxygen mask
1.
2.
3.
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7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
Cockpit Oxygen System
Figure 7-5
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7.11.4.
7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
PORTABLE OXYGEN CYLINDERS
Oxygen cylinders are located throughout the cabin. The number and location of
the oxygen cylinders varies, depending on the aircraft cabin configuration.
Zodiac AVOX Systems
Portable Oxygen Cylinder Assembly
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7.11.5.
7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION PROCEDURE
NEAREST OXYGEN MASK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. DON
WARNING
Do not remove your oxygen mask until it is safe to do so. Removing your
oxygen during a depressurization may lead to total incapacitation caused by
hypoxia.
NEAREST SEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SIT DOWN
SEATBELT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FASTEN
In case of cabin depressurization, the lavatory return to seat" signs do not
come on. For passengers located in the lavatories, 2 masks will immediately
drop down from the lavatory ceiling. Passengers should apply the mask over
their nose and mouth.
• If no seat is available:
FIXED OBJECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GRASP AND HOLD ON
When no seat is available, the cabin crew should wedge themselves
between passengers and hold on.
DON OXYGEN MASKS - FASTEN SEATBELTS . . . . . . . . . . . .. INSTRUCT
PASSENGERS
From your location, speak through your mask, or use gestures to demonstrate the
donning of masks.
ANNOUNCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. MAKE, IF POSSIBLE
Although the bag does not inflate, oxygen is flowing to the mask.
• When notified by the flight crew (PA) that a safe flight level has been
reached.
CABIN CREW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. TRANSFER TO PORTABLE OXYGEN
Note.
To prevent crew incapacitation due to hypoxia, the cabin crew must transfer to
portable oxygen, and consider their post decompression oxygen needs. When
deciding to remove oxygen masks, the cabin crew must use good judgment, and
must be alert to any signs of hypoxia.
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7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION CONT’D..
FLIGHT CREW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
The cabin crewmember nearest to the cockpit should check on the flight
crew in case assistance is needed.
PASSENGERS AND CABIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
The cabin crew should check for passenger injuries and, damage to the
cabin.
FIRST AID AND OXYGEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GIVE AS REQUIRED
CABIN STATUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REPORT TO FLIGHT CREW
Report the nature of injuries, and the cabin damage to the flight crew.
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7.11.6.
7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
LDMCR/BCRC/FBCRC DEPRESSURIZATION PROCEDURE
A330/A340/A340-500/A340-600
When a rapid depressurization occurs, a low chime sounds in the crew rest compartment
for approximately 30 seconds and, at 14000 feet, the oxygen masks automatically drop
from the oxygen container.
The crew rest occupants must proceed as follows:
-OXYGEN MASKS……………………………………………….. DON IMMEDIATELY
-SEATBELT………………………………………………………… FASTEN
-CREW REST OCCUPANTS…………………………………….. STAY INSIDE
• When the flight crew notifies (via PA) that a safe flight level has been reached.
-CABIN CREW ……………………………………………RETURN TO MAIN DECK
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7. CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION
7.12. SUMMARY
During any in-flight emergency, including depressurization, the first action of the
cabin crewmembers will always address the greatest threat to safety.
The greatest danger is the risk of hypoxia, and the possibility of being ejected
from the aircraft. Therefore, the immediate action for cabin crewmembers will
always be.
•
Immediately, don the nearest oxygen mask, sit down or grasp a
fixed object, and hold on, until given clearance by the flight crew to
move around the cabin.
•
To consider their own oxygen requirements post depressurization. The
cabin crew should transfer to portable oxygen during the post
depressurization walk about, to prevent the symptoms of hypoxia.
Remember, physical activity requires more oxygen than sitting down. An
incapacitated crewmember is no longer able to perform safety duties, and
aid passengers.
Communication is a lifeline during any emergency. The information that cabin
crewmembers can give passengers will save lives. The sharing of information is
vital during any emergency, whether it is between crewmembers or passengers.
Aircraft safety and survival is a team effort.
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8. TURBULENCE MANAGEMENT
8. TURBULENCE MANAGEMENT
8.1.
INTRODUCTION
During a flight it is common for aircraft to encounter turbulence. Turbulence is
the leading cause of injury to passengers and cabin crew in non-fatal accidents.
Initiatives can be taken to reduce turbulence-related injuries, with little or no
financial cost to the operator.
The aim of this Chapter is to:
•
Increase cabin crew awareness of the hazards of turbulence
•
Provide strategies to enable the cabin crew to effectively manage the cabin
during turbulence
•
Help cabin crewmembers to ensure safety in the cabin and prevent turbulencerelated injuries.
8.2.
STATISTICAL DATA
Turbulence-related injuries to cabin crewmembers occur much more frequently
than turbulence-related injuries to passengers, because cabin crewmembers are
constantly working in the cabin.
IATA, Safety Trend Evaluation, Analysis and Data Exchange System (STEADES)
performed a study of turbulence-related injuries to cabin crewmembers.
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8. TURBULENCE MANAGEMENT
Analysis revealed that from January 1st 2004 to December 31st 2004 there were
232 reported cases of turbulence-related injuries to cabin crewmembers, and
that.
•
64% of the injuries were due to cabin crewmembers not being
secured during turbulence
•
44% of the injuries occurred in the galley
•
9% of these
crewmembers.
incidents
resulted
in
serious
injury
to
cabin
In the majority of these cases, cabin crewmembers were lifted off the floor, or lost
their balance, resulting in foot, ankle and back/spinal injuries.
Other cabin crew injuries were due to loose items in the cabin, such as trolleys.
Figure 1
Damage to cabin ceiling panel during turbulence
8.3.
TURBULENCE DEFINITIONS
The levels of turbulence are defined and described as follows.
•
Light Turbulence.
Light turbulence momentarily causes slight, erratic changes in the aircraft
altitude or attitude.
−
Passengers may feel a slight strain against seat belts
−
Liquids are shaking but are not splashing out of cups
−
Trolleys can be maneuvered with little difficulty.
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•
8. TURBULENCE MANAGEMENT
Moderate Turbulence.
Moderate turbulence, causes rapid bumps or jolts.
•
−
Passengers feel definite strain against seat belts
−
Liquids are splashing out of cups
−
Trolleys are difficult to maneuver
−
It is difficult to walk or stand in the cabin.
Severe Turbulence.
Severe turbulence causes large abrupt changes in the aircraft altitude and
attitude.
−
Passengers are forced violently against their seatbelts
−
Items fall or lift off the floor
−
Loose items are tossed about the cabin
−
It is impossible to walk.
8.4.
8.4.1.
TURBULENCE MANAGEMENT
CREW COMMUNICATION AND COORDINATION
Two-way communication between the cabin crew and the flight crew is necessary
in order to manage turbulence and prevent turbulence-related injuries. There are
Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s) that can be implemented to enable the
flight crew and the cabin crew to improve communication and effectively manage
the aircraft and the cabin during turbulence.
For example, use common terminology when communicating the severity of
turbulence.
•
Light turbulence
•
Moderate turbulence
•
Severe turbulence.
Using common terminology ensures that the flight crew and the cabin crew share
a common understanding of the level of turbulence expected. This enables the
cabin crew to perform the appropriate actions and duties, to effectively manage
the cabin during turbulence.
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Note.
On large aircraft, it is possible that the forward section of the aircraft will
experience less turbulence than the aft section of the aircraft. Therefore,
the flight crew may not be aware of the level of turbulence experienced in
the aft section of the cabin.
It is important that the cabin crew inform the flight crew of turbulent conditions in
the cabin during the flight.
8.4.2.
ANTICIPATED TURBULENCE
The flight crew should be briefed on the en-route weather as part of the
preparation for
the flight. Therefore, the flight crew can be aware of possible areas of turbulence
that are forecast for the flight.
The preflight briefing between the flight crew and the cabin crew should include
information about the areas of turbulence expected during the flight, and
the procedures to be applied in the case of turbulence, for example.
•
If areas of turbulence are forecast during the flight
•
Estimated time until reaching the area of turbulence
•
The severity of the expected turbulence (i.e. light, moderate or severe
turbulence)
•
The actions that the Captain wants the cabin crew to perform when turbulence
is expected
•
The signal that flight crew will give to the cabin crew to indicate that the
aircraft is no longer going through turbulence (for example, by calling the
cabin crew via the cabin interphone, or Passenger Address (PA).
8.4.3.
UNANTICIPATED TURBULENCE
During the flight, the aircraft may encounter areas of turbulence that were not
forecast.
For example, Clear Air Turbulence (CAT), which usually occurs at high altitudes,
during cruise the aircraft, may suddenly enter an area of turbulence. Clear Air
Turbulence can be forecast but cannot be detected by the aircraft radar, so there
is often no warning.
When an aircraft encounters, or is about to encounter, moderate or severe
turbulence there may be little or no time for preparation.
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If the flight crew turns on the FASTEN SEAT BELT signs and makes an
announcement for “all passengers and crew to fasten seat belts immediately”, the
cabin crew should.
•
Immediately sit down and secure themselves (if a crew seat is not near or is
not available, the cabin crewmember should use a passenger seat)
•
Instruct passengers via the PA to fasten their seat belts
•
Stay seated until advised by the flight crew or until the FASTEN SEAT BELT
sign is switched off.
If time permits before the turbulence encounter, the flight crew should advise the
cabin crew.
•
How much time is available to secure the cabin
•
The level and expected duration of the turbulence encounter
•
How the flight crew will inform the cabin crew that the aircraft is no longer
going through turbulence (for example, by calling the cabin crew via the cabin
interphone, or Passenger Address.
8.4.4.
CABIN CREW PERSONAL SAFETY
Turbulence-related injuries to cabin crewmembers are more frequent than
turbulence-related injuries to passengers. Cabin crew should be aware of the
types of hazards in the cabin that can cause harm during a turbulence encounter.
When a cabin crewmember loses balance during a jolt, they may injure
themselves by striking armrests, ceiling video screens or in-flight entertainment
equipment connected to passenger seats.
Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) Advisory Circular 120-88A recommends that
training courseware should be used to increase cabin crew awareness of their
vulnerability during moderate and severe turbulence encounters. During cabin
crew initial and recurrent training, it is recommended to use real scenarios and
interviews with cabin crewmembers that have experienced moderate to severe
turbulence, in order to demonstrate that “turbulence can be stronger than you
are”.
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8.4.5.
8. TURBULENCE MANAGEMENT
BALANCING SAFETY AND SERVICE
The role of cabin crew requires that both safety and service duties be performed
during the flight.
It is important that Operators develop strategies that can enable the cabin crew to
effectively manage both safety and service duties.
For example, if turbulence is anticipated to occur after takeoff or during approach,
the cabin service can be adapted according to the flight conditions. If turbulence
is expected near the destination, starting the cabin service earlier will give the
cabin crew sufficient time to correctly secure the cabin before approach.
Cabin crew should not risk injury by continuing cabin service during moderate or
severe turbulence. If the turbulence is too intense, the cabin crew should.
•
Inform the Purser and the flight crew
•
Stop the cabin service
•
The cabin crew should be seated without delay, whether or not they have been
instructed to do so by the flight crew.
8.4.6.
CABIN MANAGEMENT
It is possible that loose objects, such as passenger baggage, or service
equipment, such as trays, trolleys, etc. become projectiles, and cause injury to
cabin crewmembers and passengers during turbulence.
Operators should develop and implement strategies to enable the cabin crew to
efficiently manage the cabin, in order to ensure safety and prevent turbulencerelated injuries. Some practices can be applied to assist the cabin crew, for
example.
•
•
Ensuring that trolleys do not remain unattended in front of exits, outside
the galleys, or in the aisles during cabin service
Frequently checking the cabin during the flight to ensure that.
−
The cabin is kept tidy, in order to limit the amount of loose objects, such as
glasses and trays
−
Passenger baggage is not left in the aisles
−
All the overhead stowage compartments are closed during the flight.
If the cabin crew implements the above-mentioned strategies, they will need less
time to secure the cabin in the case of turbulence.
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8.4.7.
8. TURBULENCE MANAGEMENT
GALLEY MANAGEMENT
Many cabin crew injuries occur in the galley areas. These injuries are mostly due
to galley equipment or objects that are not secured, for example.
•
Trolleys that remain in the galleys without the brakes being applied
•
Galley compartments that are not correctly latched and closed, falling from
their stowage, and, spilling their contents
•
Bottles, coffee pots, and service items falling of the galley countertops.
After each service, the cabin crew should.
•
Stow trolleys in their correct stowage
•
Set the trolley brake to on, when the trolley is not being moved
•
Close and lock the doors of trolleys and stowage compartments immediately
after each use
•
Stow service equipment that is not in use
•
Stow service equipment that is in use in a drawer so that it can be easily
stowed in the event of turbulence
•
Use the latches provided on coffee/beverage makers to keep coffee pots
secured, in order to prevent hot contents from spilling.
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8. TURBULENCE MANAGEMENT
Cabin crew should never use the galley standard units as a seat or a ladder. The
galley standard units should be in their correct location, closed and latched when
not in use.
Securing the galley after each service and restraining all equipment after each
use, means that less time is needed to secure the galley in the event of
turbulence. Therefore, this enables the cabin crew to secure themselves rapidly
and prevent injuries.
8.4.8.
PASSENGER MANAGEMENT
The most effective way to prevent passenger and cabin crew injuries during
turbulence is to sit down and keep your seatbelt fastened.
The best way to help prevent turbulence-related injury is to use seat belts. The
flight crew and cabin crew should encourage the use of seat belts and the
importance of passenger compliance with the FASTEN SEAT BELT signs.
Flight safety organizations recommend that, during the after takeoff
announcement, the flight crew and cabin crew should advise passengers to always
keep their seat belts fastened while seated.
When the FASTEN SEAT BELT sign comes on during the flight due to turbulence,
a Passenger Address (PA) must be made to advise passengers to return to their
seats and fasten belt, until the seat belt sign has been switched off.
When the FASTEN SEAT BELT sign comes on in-flight due to turbulence, the cabin
crew must.
•
Make an announcement to advise passengers to return to their seats and
fasten their seat belts until the Captain has turned the seat belt sign off
•
Walk through the cabin and check that all passengers are seated with their
seat belts fastened
•
Make periodic announcements when the FASTEN SEAT BELT signs are on for a
long time, or when passengers do not comply with the FASTEN SEAT BELT
signs.
Note.
When the FASTEN SEAT BELT signs remain on for reasons other than
turbulence, the effectiveness of the FASTEN SEAT BELT sign is reduced
for passengers and cabin crew.
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8.5.
8. TURBULENCE MANAGEMENT
POST TURBULENCE
When the turbulence is over, the flight crew will advise the cabin crew that they
can resume their cabin duties.
After moderate to severe turbulence, the cabin crew must check the cabin for
damage and passenger injuries. The cabin crew should provide first aid treatment
to injured passengers or crewmembers, and reassure passengers if necessary.
In addition, the Purser must report the cabin status to the flight crew.
8.6.
SUMMARY
•
Cabin crew must be aware of their own safety during turbulence
•
The flight crew and cabin crew preflight briefing, should include the following
subjects:
−
Anticipated areas of turbulence during the flight
−
The importance of keeping the flight crew informed of the conditions in
the cabin.
•
Use standard terminology when referring to the severity of a turbulence
encounter, to ensure that all cabin crewmembers and flight crewmembers
understand the meaning and the required actions
•
Encourage the use of seat belts. During the after takeoff passenger
announcement, the cabin crew should advise passengers to use their set belts
during the flight, and request that passengers keep their seat belts fastened at
all times when seated
•
Effectively use the Passenger Address (PA) system and other types of
communication with passengers during turbulence to ensure safety.
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8.6.1.
9. DANGEROUS GOODS AWARENESS
TURBULENCE MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES
The following levels of turbulence can be encountered during a flight.
- Light turbulence
- Moderate turbulence
- Severe turbulence.
The cabin crew should always use these terms when communicating turbulent
conditions to the flight crew or other cabin crewmembers.
The table below describes the turbulence procedures for cabin crew.
LIGHT TURBULENCE
MODERATE
TURBULENCE
SEVERE TURBULENCE
- Visually check that all
passengers are seated with
their seat belts fastened and
hand baggage is stowed
-When the cabin crew
are
returning to their crew
seats, check that all
passengers
are seated with their
seat
belts securely fastened
and
hand baggage is stowed
- The cabin crew must not
attempt to visually check
passenger compliance
- Infants must be
removed
from bassinets and
secured with an infant
seat belt (if applicable)
on the guardians lap, or
secured in an approved
car seat.
- The cabin crew must
immediately sit down. Take the
nearest seat (including
passenger seat ) and fasten
seatbelt/harness.
- Infants must be removed
from bassinets and secured
with an infant seat belt (if
applicable) on the guardians
lap, or secured in an
approved car seat.
- Give the "cabin secure" to
the Chief Purser
- Chief Purser informs the
flight crew that the cabin is
secure.
- Give the "cabin
secure"
to the Chief Purser
- Chief Purser informs
the
flight crew that the
cabin
is secure.
216
- If trolleys are in the cabin,set
the brakes on all trolleys that are
in use in the current location
- Place jugs/pots of hot
beverages on the floor
WARNING
Cabin crew must not risk
personal injury by continuing
service during turbulent
conditions.
The personal safety of the
cabin crew is the priority
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9. DANGEROUS GOODS AWARENESS
9. DANGEROUS GOODS AWARENESS
9.1.
INTRODUCTION
Many everyday items and substances can be dangerous when transported by air.
Due to the variations in temperature and pressure during a flight, some of these
items may leak or break, generating toxic fumes or possibly starting a fire.
Employee’s who may come into contact with dangerous goods need to be aware
of the nature of such goods, their potential for causing incidents and accidents
and how they should be dealt with.
9.2.
DEFINITION OF DANGEROUS GOODS
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) defines dangerous goods as;
“Articles or substances which are capable of posing a risk to health, safety,
property or the environment and which are shown in the list of dangerous goods
in the Technical Instructions or which are classified according to those
Instructions.”
(ICAO Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air)
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) “Technical Instructions
for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air”, provides Operators with
the basic legal requirements for transporting dangerous goods by air.
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the International Air
Travel Association (IATA) provide guidance material for Operators who wish to
develop their dangerous goods training programs. The ICAO and IATA guidance
material is updated annually and provides Operators with an excellent source of
information on dangerous goods.
Many aviation authorities require that Operators provide dangerous goods training
for cabin crew during initial and recurrent training.
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Operators should include dangerous goods as part of the cabin crew training
program to increase cabin crew awareness to:
•
The risks involved in carrying dangerous goods by air
•
How to deal with a dangerous goods incident onboard the aircraft.
9.3.
REPORTED DANGEROUS GOODS INCIDENTS
Prohibited dangerous goods may inadvertently be carried onboard an aircraft by
passengers who are not aware of, or who deliberately ignore, the regulations.
Items that passengers are entitled to carry onboard an aircraft may also cause an
incident.
The following are some examples of cases where baggage contained dangerous
goods onboard the aircraft.
•
“Upon arrival, customs officers found a passenger's baggage contained 48 long
fireworks (roman candle type), 32 packets of friction ignition (match style)
fireworks and 2 cigarette lighters, all packed in the same bag. The passenger
had started his journey with another operator and had made two transit stops
prior to connecting with the flight in question.” (Source. Civil Aviation
Authority, United Kingdom Safety Regulation Group, Dangerous Goods Monthly
Report, April 2007).
•
The picture below shows damage to passenger baggage due to damaged
bottles of 35-percent hydrogen peroxide solution in water, an oxidizer with
corrosive properties that leaked in a cargo compartment.
The bottles were in an ice chest that was checked in by a passenger on the
flight.
The suitcase was found smoldering in the cargo compartment by the baggage
handlers.
Photo Credit. National Transportation Safety Board, (NTSB) DCA-99-MZ-001
Damage to Passenger Baggage
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9.4.
9. DANGEROUS GOODS AWARENESS
DANGEROUS GOODS CLASSIFICATIONS
The main document of reference used by operators is the International Air
Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGR) guide. The
IATA DGR provides operators with information regarding the marking, packaging,
labeling and, the documents required for dangerous shipments, based on
international and national air regulations.
The IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations are developed in accordance with the
ICAO Technical Instructions.
Dangerous goods are classified into hazard classes. Each hazard class is divided
into several sections and specific labels are applied to each one of these classes
and/or sections.
A system of diamond-shaped placards and labels are used to identify dangerous
goods. Different colors and symbols, such as a flame for flammables or skull and
crossbones for poisons, identify the dangers associated with the product.
Note.
These symbols are subject to revision. Operators should refer to the IATA
Dangerous Goods Regulations.
Class 1. Explosives – Explosive substances, explosive articles, and pyrotechnic
devices, for example, ammunition, and fireworks.
Class 2. Gases
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Class 2.1 Flammable Gases. Gases, which ignite on contact with an
ignition source, such as acetylene and hydrogen
Class 2.2 Non-Flammable Gases. Gases, which are neither flammable
nor poisonous.
Class 2.3 Poisonous Gases. Gases liable to cause death or serious injury
to humans if inhaled for example hydrogen cyanide
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Class 3. Flammable liquids – Examples are petrol, alcohol, and perfume.
Class 4. Flammable solids – Examples are matches, flammable metal powder
ƒ
Class 4.1. Spontaneous Combustibles
ƒ
Class 4.2. Dangerous When Wet - Solid substances that emit a
flammable gas when wet or react with water when wet, such as sodium and
potassium.
Class 5. Oxidizing Agents and Organic peroxides
ƒ
5.1 Oxidizing Agent - oxidizing agents, which are not organic such as
ammonium nitrate and chemical oxygen generators.
ƒ
5.2 Organic Peroxides – are thermally unstable substances that may
undergo
heat
generating,
self-accelerating
decomposition.
These
substances are sensitive to impact or friction, or may create a dangerous
reaction when in contact with other substances. These substances may be
explosive and burn rapidly. Some examples are, fertilizers, and pool
chemicals.
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Class 6. Toxic (poisonous) and infectious substances
ƒ
Class 6.1 Toxic substances - those substances that are liable to cause
death or injury if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin.
Examples are pesticides and poisons, mercury.
ƒ
Class 6.2 Infectious substances - those known to contain, or reasonably
expected to contain, pathogens, such as Bacteria, Viruses, medical waste
(used needles).
Class 7. Radioactive materials
Class 8 Corrosives –Corrosive substances can dissolve organic tissue or severely
corrode certain metals for example, hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid contained in
batteries.
Class 9 Miscellaneous - Hazardous substances such as dry ice and magnets.
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9.5.
9. DANGEROUS GOODS AWARENESS
DANGEROUS GOODS ACCEPTED IN THE CABIN
Passengers and cabin crewmembers are permitted to carry a limited amount of
classified dangerous goods for personal use in their carry-on baggage, such as:
−
Toiletry articles. e.g. perfume, nail polish, nail polish remover
−
Small lithium and lithium-ion batteries, such as those found in portable
electronic devices
−
Alcoholic beverages, with an alcohol content of less than 70%
−
Dry ice.
Note.
The types of items that are authorized onboard the aircraft may vary in
each country, depending on the local aviation authority and security
regulations.
Other classified dangerous goods that are permitted in the cabin include required
emergency equipment, in accordance with airworthiness regulations, such as:
−
Oxygen
−
Fire extinguishers
−
CO2 gas cylinders to inflate the life vests.
−
9.6.
PROHIBITED DANGEROUS GOODS
The discovery of the following items in the cabin must be considered as a
dangerous goods incident as the items below are strictly prohibited for transport
in the cabin.
•
Explosives - fireworks, flares, toy gun caps
•
Compressed gases - filled or partly filled aqualung cylinders (including camping
gas cylinders)
•
Flammable liquids and solid - lighter fuel, non-safety matches, paints, thinner,
fire lighters
•
Oxidizers - some bleaching powders
•
Organic peroxides - some types of solid hydrogen peroxide
•
Poisons - arsenic, cyanide, and weed-killer
•
Irritating materials - Tear gas devices
•
Infectious substances - live virus materials
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•
Radioactive materials - medical or research samples which contain radioactive
sources
•
Corrosives - acids, alkalis, wet cell type car batteries, caustic soda
•
Magnetized materials - instruments containing magnets.
9.7.
DANGEROUS GOODS HANDLING
Operators should provide dangerous goods response kits onboard the aircraft to
enable the cabin crew to deal with a dangerous goods incident. A dangerous
goods response kit usually contains the following minimum equipment.
−
Large, heavy quality polyethylene bags
−
Bag ties to seal the bags correctly after use
−
Long rubber gloves.
If a dangerous goods response kit is not provided onboard the aircraft, the cabin
crew must improvise using the equipment that is available. There are many pieces
of equipment in the cabin that the cabin crew may use in this case, such as.
−
Oven gloves/fire gloves that can be covered with plastic bags to protect the
hands
−
Large and small polyethylene bags, e.g. waste bin bags, duty free bags or
airsickness bags
−
Absorbent materials, e.g. paper towels, newspapers, headrest covers, etc.
−
Catering boxes
−
Towels
−
Blankets.
9.8.
DISCOVERY OF DANGEROUS GOODS IN THE CABIN
The first alert to a dangerous goods spillage or leak may be from a passenger who
notices an unusual odor or fumes, or who simply identifies an item that is leaking
from cabin baggage.
When a dangerous good is discovered in the cabin, the cabin crew must notify
the flight crew immediately.
The cabin crew should ask the passenger concerned to identify the item. The
passenger may be able to provide the cabin crew with some guidance on the
hazard involved.
The cabin crew should try to collect as much information as possible, e.g. check
for.
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−
A dangerous goods label
−
Numbers on the packaging
−
Written information on the packaging
−
Odors
−
Fumes
−
Smoke
−
An effect on passengers.
•
In the case of a spill of known or suspected dangerous goods in powder form.
•
Leave everything undisturbed
•
Do not use a fire extinguisher or water
•
Cover the area with polyethylene, plastic bags and blankets
•
Isolate the area until after landing.
9.9.
CREW COMMUNICATION AND COORDINATION
The cabin crew should provide the flight crew with an accurate description of the
item, and the effects in the cabin, in order to help the flight crew to apply the
appropriate procedure. It is essential that the cabin and flight crews coordinate
their actions and that they keep each other fully informed of their actions and
intentions.
9.10. PROTECTION
The cabin crew should put on gloves before they touch leaking, suspicious
packages or items in order to protect their hands. If rubber gloves are not
provided, fire-resistant gloves or oven gloves covered by polyethylene bags are a
suitable alternative.
The cabin crew should also use Portable Breathing Equipment (PBE) to protect
themselves from fumes or smoke.
If there are fumes or smoke, the cabin crew should take prompt action and move
passengers away from the affected area, provide wet towels or cloths to
passengers, and instruct passengers to breathe through them.
If the item or substance is emitting fumes or smoke, or if there is a fire, the cabin
crew must apply the procedures for smoke and fire.
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Water should not be used on a spillage or when fumes are present as it may
spread the spillage or increase the fumes. Consideration should also be given to
the possible presence of electrical components when using water extinguishers.
9.11. DANGEROUS GOODS REMOVAL
The dangerous good and the associated contaminated materials should be
removed from the cabin.
The dangerous good should be placed in a dangerous goods bag or a polyethylene
bag, with the broken part or opening facing upwards. Put all materials that
become contaminated when removing the dangerous good in the same bag.
Close the bag and expel excess air, twist the open end of the bag, and seal it by
tying a knot or using a bag tie.
Note.
The cabin crew must not make the bag airtight. It must be tight enough
to be secure, but not so tight that pressure equalization cannot take
place.
Take off the gloves, and avoid skin contact with any contaminants. Put the gloves
in the second bag. Place the first bag into the second dangerous goods bag using
the same procedure.
All contaminated materials, such as seat covers and sections of carpet should be
treated in the same manner as a dangerous good.
9.12. STOWING DANGEROUS GOODS ITEMS
After the cabin crew cleans up the dangerous goods spill, they must ensure that
the polyethylene bags containing the dangerous goods are safely stowed and
secured.
If a catering box is available, the cabin crew can use it to store the bags
containing the dangerous goods.
Dangerous goods should be stored in a location that is as far away from the
cockpit and passengers as possible. The cabin crew may use an aft galley or aft
lavatory, if possible. However, boxes or plastic bag(s) must not be stored against
the pressure bulkhead or fuselage wall.
If the cabin crew uses a lavatory to store dangerous goods, boxes should be put
on the floor, bag(s) should be stowed in an empty waste container, and the
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lavatory door should be locked from the outside. Using the lavatory to store the
dangerous goods will prevent fumes from entering the cabin.
Note.
In a pressurized aircraft, if a lavatory is used, any fumes will be vented
away from passengers.
When moving a box that contains dangerous goods, the cabin crew must ensure
that the opening remains upward. When moving a bag, the cabin crew must
ensure that
the receptacle containing the dangerous goods remains upright.
Regardless of the location of the catering box or bag, the cabin crew must secure
them firmly to prevent them from moving.
9.13. REPORTING A DANGEROUS GOODS INCIDENT
The cabin and flight crew should coordinate to complete an Air Safety Report
following a dangerous goods incident, in many countries this report is mandatory.
This report should include:
−
The date of the incident or accident, or the discovery of undeclared or
incorrectly declared dangerous goods
−
The flight number and flight date
−
A description of the goods and the location found in the cabin
−
The type of packaging, and the packaging specification marking on it
−
Passenger details, e.g. seat number, name, address
−
Crew actions
−
Any other relevant information.
The cabin crew must enter the details of the incident in the aircraft maintenance
logbook, so that the maintenance personnel can replace the dangerous goods kit
(if installed) and repair any damage to the cabin caused by the incident.
After landing, notify the ground personnel all the known facts about the
Dangerous Goods item and where it is stowed.
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9.14. DANGEROUS INCIDENT GOODS CHECKLIST
INITIAL ACTION
The cabin crew must notify the flight crew of:
−
The nature and location of the dangerous good
−
The type of dangerous goods, if possible (passenger may be able to assist)
−
Whether or not passengers are affected, e.g. if there is smoke or fumes in
the cabin.
IN THE CASE OF FIRE
The cabin crew must apply the basic firefighting procedure.
Note.
The cabin crew must use the firefighting procedure to control any fire. In
general, the cabin crew must not use water on a spillage or when there
are fumes. This is because water may cause the spillage to spread or may
increase the fumes. The cabin crew should also consider whether or not
there are electrical components in the area when using water
extinguishers.
IN THE CASE OF SPILLAGE OR A LEAK
The cabin crew must:
•
Collect the emergency response kit (if equipped) or other useful items
•
Put on rubber gloves and Portable Breathing Equipment (PBE)
•
Move passengers away from the area, distribute wet towels or cloths, and
instruct passengers to place the wet cloths over their nose and mouth and
breathe through them.
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REMOVAL OF DANGEROUS GOODS
The cabin crew must remove a dangerous good as follows:
1. Put the dangerous good in a dangerous goods bag or a polyethylene bag,
with the broken part or opening facing upwards.
2. Put all materials that become contaminated when removing the dangerous
good in the same bag.
3. Close the first bag and expel excess air, twist the open end of the bag, and
seal it using one bag tie.
Note.
The cabin crew must not make the bag airtight. It must be tight
enough to be secure, but not so tight that pressure equalization
cannot take place.
4. Take off the gloves, and avoid skin contact with any contaminants. Put the
gloves in the second bag.
5. Place the first bag into the second dangerous goods bag using the same
procedure.
6. Tag and stow the bag in the lavatory. Tag and lock the lavatory door with a
dangerous goods tag.
7. Treat all contaminated materials, such as seat covers and sections of carpet
in the same manner as a dangerous good.
8. Cover the carpet/floor area where the dangerous good has leaked/spilled.
9. Regularly inspect the lavatory used for dangerous goods stowage and the
contaminated areas in the cabin.
10. Make an entry in the cabin/aircraft maintenance logbook.
11. Complete An Air Safety Report of the incident.
AFTER LANDING
The cabin crew must provide the ground/maintenance personnel with all
necessary information regarding the dangerous good and where it is located.
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10. BOMB ON BOARD
10.1. INTRODUCTION
There are many different forms of bomb threats, the majority of which are
hoaxes. However, a bomb threat, no matter which form it takes, should be
regarded as a legitimate threat to flight safety.
Types of bomb threats.
•
Specific. The operator, flight number, aircraft type, departure time, and
destination are positively identified. The location of the bomb on board the
aircraft may also be given
•
Non-specific. May identify a flight by destination, origin or departure time.
These types of threats usually take the form of a telephone call. The bomb threat
will be treated according to the operator’s policy and security procedures.
However, there are other threats that may occur onboard the aircraft:
•
Passenger made bomb threat
•
An anonymous written message found onboard the aircraft, such as a
message on the mirror in the lavatory, on an airsickness bag, or on a piece
of paper left visible to passengers or crew
In the event of a threat made in-flight, notify the flight crew immediately.
The captain will decide the course of action to take. The cabin crew should wait for
further instructions.
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11. Crew Resource Management
SUSPECT ITEM
How would cabin crewmembers determine a suspect item onboard?
The three following questions may help to determine a suspect object:
•
Is the item characteristic “normal” to the location?
•
Has the item been hidden?
•
Does the object look obviously suspicious?
The cabin crew should report any doubts regarding any unusual item. The
crewmember that finds the item should:
•
Notify the flight crew immediately
•
Notify all other crewmembers.
DO NOT
•
Leave the suspect object unattended, ask another crewmember to
stay and guard over the area, to prevent any inadvertent movement
or handling
•
Touch or disturb the object
•
Move it until the Captain has made the decision to move the item to
the Least Risk Bomb Location (LRBL)
•
Cut or disconnect, any wires or strings
•
Use electronic devices in the vicinity of the suspect object.
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Provide the flight crew with as much information as possible.
•
Exact location
•
Description of the object - give as much detail as possible
•
Size
•
Color
•
Any particular odor.
The cabin crew should wait for further instructions from the flight crew. The
Captain will decide whether to implement the ‘Bomb on Board’ procedure.
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10.3.
11. Crew Resource Management
BOMB ON BOARD CABIN CREW PROCEDURE
When a suspect device is found in the cabin.
WARNING
Do not cut or disconnect any wires Do not attempt to gain entry to internal
components of a closed or sealed suspect device. Any attempt may result in an
explosion. Booby-trapped closed devices have been used on aircraft in the past.
WARNING
Alternative Least Risk Bomb Locations LRBL must not be used without consulting
with an aviation explosives security specialist. Never take a suspect device to the
cockpit.
The LRBL location for each aircraft is documented in the Aircraft Flight Manual.
EOD PERSONNEL ON BOARD.............................. CHECK
Announce. "Is there any EOD personnel on board?” By using the initials, only persons
familiar with EOD (Explosive Ordnance Disposal) will be made aware of the problem.
BOMB..... .... .... DO NOT OPEN, DO NOT CUT WIRES, SECURE AGAINST SLIPPING,
AVOID SHOCKS
Secure in the attitude found and do not lift before having checked for an anti-lift ignition
device.
PASSENGERS............................. ...................... LEAD AWAY FROM BOMB
Move passengers at least 4 seat rows away the bomb location. On full flights, it may be
necessary to double up passengers to achieve standoff from the suspect device.
Passengers near the bomb should protect their heads with pillows, blankets.
All passengers must remain seated with seat belts on and, if possible, head below the top
of the head rest. Seat backs and tray tables must be in their full upright position.
Service items may need to be collected in order to secure tray tables.
Distance from an explosion is one of the best protective measures for passenger safety.
Placing seat backs and tray tables in their full, upright positions will provide additional
protection
CREW REST AREAS............................... EVACUATE
For aircraft equipped with crew rest areas (Main Deck and Lower Deck).
PORTABLE ELECTRONIC DEVICES ....................... SWITCH OFF
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BOMB ON BOARD CONT’D..
Move it in the position found to the prepared LRBL base with the card in place beneath it.
Stabilize it on top of the plastic sheet above the 10 inches (25 cm) of wetted materials
and center it against the inside surface of the door.
Position the bomb in the attitude found, as close to the center of the LRBL door.
CAUTION
Ensure that when the suspect device, when placed in the stack against the door,
is above the slide pack but NOT against the door handle, and if possible, avoid
placement in the view port.
LEAST RISK BOMB LOCATION ..................................................COMPLETE
Place an additional sheet of thin plastic over the bomb.
CAUTION
Do not omit the plastic sheets, as the suspect device could get wet and
possibly short circuit electronic components causing inadvertent device
activation.
Saturate soft blast -attenuating materials for example, blankets or clothes, with water or
any other nonflammable liquid and carefully pack at least 10 inches (25 cm) of wetted
material around and on top of the bomb.
Arrange luggage and blast attenuating materials in a manner that prevents excessive
weight from being applied directly in the bomb, and fill the entire the entire remaining
area above the bomb with soft blast-attenuating materials, for example, seat cushions up
to the cabin ceiling and out to the aisle.
LRBL ......................................................................... SECURE
Secure the LRBL stack in place using seat belts, headset cords, ties, or other appropriate
materials.
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BOMB ON BOARD CONT’D..
LRBL Stack
PASSENGERS.................................................... MOVE/ADVISE
Move passengers at least 4 seat rows away from the least risk bomb location (RH aft cabin
door). On full flights, it may be necessary to double up passengers to achieve standoff
from the suspect device.
Passengers near the bomb should protect their heads with pillows, blankets.
All passengers must remain seated with sea belts on and, if possible, head below the top
of the headrest. Seat backs and tray tables must be in their full upright position.
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BOMB ON BOARD CONT’D..
CABIN CREW....................... NOTIFY FLIGHT CREW LRBL SECURED
Note.
Consider disarming the door directly across from the LRBLto enable the response
team to open this door from the outside, if needed during their procedures.
EVACUATION/DISEMBARKATION..............................................EXECUTE
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11. CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
11.1.
INTRODUCTION
“Crew Resource Management is the effective use of available resources (e.g.
crewmembers, aircraft systems and supporting facilities), to achieve safe and
efficient operations” (JAR-OPS and ICAO).
Aviation has reached a very high level of safety with very low accident rates in
recent years. This can be attributed to the efforts of the many people involved in
the design, manufacture, and training, and the aviation authorities who take time
and effort to ensure the highest possible levels of flight safety. The ultimate goal
is to obtain zero accidents. However, accidents do still happen!
Accident analysis indicates that there are many factors that contribute to an
accident. Accidents rarely occur due to one particular cause, but are in fact
attributed to a chain of events. Some accidents have been attributed to the
failings of both flight crew and cabin crewmembers, to communicate.
Therefore, to improve performances and help crewmembers realize the factors
that influence the way crewmembers communicate, make decisions, manage
stress and increase situational awareness skills; “Crew Resource Management”
(CRM) was born.
The every day operation of an aircraft requires very complex planning and
coordination. Think for a moment of how many teams of people are involved in
just getting one aircraft off the ground, a lot, isn’t it. Now, think of when cabin
crewmembers board the aircraft and the number of tasks to be accomplished
before takeoff. The flight crew is also bombarded with tasks. Sometimes it can be
overwhelming, every day does not always run smoothly, and just to complicate
matters further, we are all HUMAN!! The “Human Factor” is a big part of the
equation!
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Since 1940, three out of four accidents have had at least one contributory
factor relating to human performance.
CRM addresses the human factors elements of flying, such as interpersonal
relationships, stress, fatigue and how they can affect performance. The correct
application of CRM skills helps to create an effective crew, and is a valuable tool
that helps crewmembers to assess situations, and react accordingly. CRM
promotes vigilance in order to prevent errors that may occur due to human error.
Initially, CRM was for pilots only. Today, it is a mandatory part of initial and
recurrent cabin crew training in JAA, CAA, and FAA operating regions, and many
countries throughout the world.
CRM should not been seen a “just another training course”, but as a means to
help crewmembers to be objective, effective and cope with what can sometimes
be a very hectic working environment. CRM helps crewmembers to develop
knowledge, skills and attitudes that will reduce the risk of error.
11.2.
COMMUNICATION AND COOPERATION
JAR-OPS 1.989 Terminology –Definition of Cabin Crew
“Cabin Crew Member; A crew member, other that a Flight Crew Member, who
performs, in the interests of safety of passengers, duties assigned by the operator
or the commander of the aircraft”.
The cabin crewmember should function as an extension of the flight crew, to
ensure safety in the cabin. Flight crew and cabin crew should function as one
team with a common goal - flight safety.
Any situation, feeling, word, behavior, observation that alerts cabin
crewmembers to a possible threat to flight safety, must immediately be
reported to the Purser and the flight crew.
In order to better understand why there is sometimes a lack of communication
between the flight crew and the cabin crewmembers, it is necessary to go back in
time to see how the two different cultures began.
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“In the 70 -year history of the commercial airlines, traditions and roles have
evolved which influence the crew of today. The original aviators were intrepid
pilots who risked life and limb to deliver the mail for the U.S post office. Despite
the primitive aircraft and the lack of radio guidance, those independent, selfreliant fliers persevered. In contrast, the original flight attendants were nurses
and were selected to be compliant and subservient. Therefore, two very different
types of people were called upon to work together is close proximity to one
another. A rigid chain of command was adopted from the military and maritime
traditions and the pilots and stewardesses were relegated in to separate
departments. Moreover, the early flight manuals instructed crews not to converse.
Remnants of those guidelines are still in evidence today”
(Source, Mahler, 1991; Chute and Weiner, 1994; 1995.)
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There are many factors that can affect crew communication, such as:
•
The flight crew report to operation/cabin crew to onboard service
•
Separate scheduling, different duty time regulations
•
Flight crew is mostly male/cabin crew is mostly female
•
Technical versus social orientation
•
Bad or poor perception of each others duties
•
Two very different areas of the aircraft separated by a reinforced door
•
Sterile cockpit rule
•
Crew pairings.
Communication is essential for the safe operation of an aircraft. However, poor
communication continues to contribute to many safety issues within the industry.
The incident and accident reports highlight the fact that there is need for
improvement in this area, particularly concerning flight and cabin crew
communication.
Flight and cabin crewmembers have the same goals - the safety of the flight being
the highest priority. Most crew’s work well together, and communication is open
between the flight crew and the cabin crew. However, it is important to realize
how flight safety can be compromised, when a barrier to communication exists or
there is no communication at all.
Many accident analyses have indicated that communicating information between
the cabin and the cockpit, and vice versa, is vital to flight safety. The following is
an extract from the accident report of an accident that took place in the United
Kingdom. This is one of a few major accidents that could have had a different
outcome, if there had been sufficient communication.
“The three flight attendants in the rear of the cabin saw evidence of fire from the
No 1 engine, and two of them briefly saw light colored smoke in the cabin.”
“The commander then broadcast to the passengers on the cabin address system
that there was trouble in the right engine which had produced some smoke in the
cabin, that the engine was now shutdown and they could expect to land at east
Midlands Airport in about 10 minutes. The flight attendants who saw signs of fire
in the left engine later stated that they had not heard the commander’s reference
to the right engine. However, many of the passengers who saw the fire were
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puzzled by the commanders reference to the right engine, but none brought the
discrepancy to the attention of the cabin crew”
Following the accident, the AAIB (in Section 2.1.2.2 “Coordination between the
flight deck and the cabin”) made the following analysis.
“It was extremely unfortunate that the information evident to many of the
passengers of the fire associated with the left engine did not find its way to the
flight deck even though, when the commander made his cabin address broadcast,
he stated that he had shut down the “right” engine. The factor of the role
commonly adopted by passengers probably influenced this lack of communication.
Lay passengers generally accept that the pilot is provided with full information on
the state of the aircraft and they will regard it as unlikely that they have much to
contribute to his knowledge. Even those passengers who noticed the commander’s
reference to the right engine might well have assumed that the commander had
made a slip of the tongue, or that the commander had dealt with it. It cannot be
regarded as surprising that information from the passengers was not made
available to the pilots.
The same information was available to the 3-cabin crew in the rear of the aircraft
but they, like the passengers, would have had no reason to suppose that the
evidence of the malfunction they saw on the left engine was not equally apparent
to the flight crew from the engine instruments. In addition, it would appear that
there was not the same awareness of the possible error, since these cabin
crewmembers heard the commander’s reference to the right engine. This may
have because the cabin crews, engaged in their own duties, were not aware of
any more than the general sense of the broadcast. In addition, cabin crew are
generally aware that any intrusion into the flight deck during busy phases of flight
may be distracting, and this is particularly true if the flight crew are known to be
dealing with an emergency. There can thus be at these times a firm division
between flight deck and cabin, and it is notable in this context that in this accident
the flight service manager made not initial attempt to approach the flight deck
until he was called.
However, it must be stated that had some initiative been taken by one or more of
the cabin crew who had seen the distress of the left engine, this accident could
have been prevented. It must be emphasized, nonetheless, that present patterns
of airline training do not provide specifically for the exercise of coordination
between cabin and flight crew in such circumstances” (Source AAIB UK Aircraft
Accident Report No. 4/90 (EW/C1095).
This is an example of what can happen when people do not communicate, when
we “Don’t tell the pilot”, and assume that “the pilots know”. Pilots may not always
be aware of a fault. Therefore, cabin crewmembers can play a crucial role by
giving critical information to the flight crew in a timely and accurate manner.
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BRIEFING AND CABIN CREW COMMUNICATION
Effective communication between the cabin crew is vital to the every operation of
the aircraft, and is conducive to:
ƒ
Establishing common objectives
ƒ
Exchanging information
ƒ
Monitoring activity
ƒ
Reporting situations.
•
Setting a friendly and professional atmosphere.
At the beginning of each duty, a briefing is held for the cabin crew to meet and
review together the details and requirements for the following duty period.
Briefing is probably the most important part of any flight preparation. Unlike many
other types of work were co-workers know each other and have had time to build
up a rapport, flight crew do not always know each other, and yet have to work
together in close proximity, and sometimes, for very long periods of time. Briefing
is where the rapport building should start by encouraging openness, friendliness,
mutual respect and professionalism. Briefing is the starting block for a high
performance crew.
Briefing, as the word suggests, should be ‘brief’! What are the ingredients of a
good briefing? Well, it can be as simple as A-B-C.
•
A= Appropriate
•
B= Brief
•
C=Clear and Concise.
The briefing should be relevant, and appropriate to the flight.
The briefing should be brief, and should cover the main points!! A briefing should
be prepared for each individual flight otherwise, it becomes routine and repetitive,
and the crew’s attention will be lost!! Focus on details that are specific to the
flight.
The aim of the briefing is to organize the crew activities. It is important that every
crewmember knows their allocated work position, and their safety responsibilities.
The briefing must be understood by all crewmembers. Always give crewmembers
the opportunity to ask questions, and remember.
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“A simple but well understood plan of action, supported by all is preferable to a
possibly brilliant but manifestly misunderstood plan” (Dèdale, Briefings, Europe).
Briefings are the ideal moment for cabin and flight crew to set the tone, and the
expectations for a flight. It is also the opportunity to advocate open two-way
communication between the cabin and the flight crew. Joint crew briefings assist
in creating a working environment that is more conducive to a safe operation.
•
Crewmembers should introduce themselves
•
Use professional and friendly language
•
Be respectful of each other
•
Be safety conscious
•
Cabin crewmembers should be encouraged to report to the purser, or the
flight crew, anything that they feel may pose a threat to the safety of the
flight
•
Discuss the “Sterile Cockpit” rule with the pilots, and the circumstances
that are acceptable for contacting the flight crew during this time
•
Understand each other’s workload.
Joint cabin crew/flight crew briefings are important. If is not possible to meet
before boarding the aircraft, every effort should be made for the crew to meet
together before departure. The flight crew and the Purser should encourage open
communication from all crewmembers. All crewmembers should feel that they will
be listened to, and that information and feedback are welcome and appreciated.
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Maintaining a common picture of a situation is achieved through direct
communication, briefings and the use of documented procedures.
Communication is a two–way transfer. Communication also means listening.
Listening is an important ‘skill’. Active listening demands attention to be directed
towards the speaker and the message. If, you listen to the other person, you will
gain more information. There is also a chance that they will listen to what you
say.
11.4. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
Barriers to communication are highly undesirable onboard the aircraft. However it
is important to be aware of these barriers, and manage them before they become
a source of conflict that will result in a breakdown of communication.
•
Uncommunicative attitudes. It is not easy to communicate with someone
who does not want to communicate.
•
Hierarchy. It is more difficult to be assertive with a senior colleague, than
with a colleague of the same job level.
•
Non-verbal components can ‘betray’ you. For example, during a PA
announcement, additional signs such as breathing, voice, hesitations, and
accent contribute to the message.
•
Workload can impair, or even prevent communication. When there is a
high workload, there is less time to communicate. If communication is forced
during a high workload, it is possible that crewmembers will forget about the
task in hand, and return to their original activity to early or too late in the
sequence, consequently committing errors of commission (i.e. repeating
actions already done), or errors of omission (i.e. forgetting steps in the
sequence).
•
Cultural differences. Cultural differences and language can seriously
confuse communication. Cultural differences are not just limited to different
countries of origin, but education, upbringing, and values. For example,
English is spoken in England and in the United States, however, the meaning
of a word in England may not have the same meaning in the United States.
The same word may have two totally different meanings, depending on what
side of the Atlantic you are on.
•
Difficulties due to the medium of transmission. Distortion of the
information due to background noise, excessive feedback (and volume level)
on the PA system, or poor volume of interphone.
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Assumptions. When Assumptions can be based on expectation and context.
Problems associated with assumptions can be minimized, if the message is
not ambiguous, and accurate feedback is given. Assumptions occur, when.
−
One of the parties ‘assumes’ that the other party knows or is aware of
a situation, and there is no communication at all
−
The sender of a message may assume that the person receiving the
message understands the content and context.
Lack of confidence. A lack of confidence in the abilities of other members
of the crew.
The following is an extract from a National Transportation Safety Board incident
report that addresses the importance of effective communication between
crewmembers.
“Given the acknowledged seriousness of the in-flight fire and the obvious
association of a report of smoke in the cabin with a strong possibility of a fire, the
safety board is deeply concerned by the captain’s apparent reluctance to accept
either the flight attendant’s or deadheading crewmembers report as valid or to
seek additional information to resolve his uncertainty”.
“The captain’s skepticism about the report of smoke was also reflected in the first
officer’s dialogue with the cabin crew”.
“In conclusion, the safety board believes that while it is unlikely that the captain
could have taken any action to land the plane more quickly, the flight crew failed
to use the cabin crew effectively to obtain an accurate understanding of the
developing problem. Had communications between the flight crew and the cabin
crew been more effective, the safety board believes that the captain would have
called for the fire/rescue equipment to meet the airplane and ordered an
emergency evacuation on the runway. The safety board believes that airlines
should use this example in cockpit and cabin crew coordination training to
illustrate the need for flight crews to more effectively use cabin crews in
describing suspected in-flight safety problems and to emphasize the need for
cabin crews to be assertive when communicating information about safety
problems to the flight crew.
The lack of close coordination and timely exchange of accurate information among
crewmembers were clearly problems during preparations for a possible emergency
landing of a DC-8 at Portland, Oregon, in 1978. during an in-flight fire aboard an
L-1011 at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 1980. during preparations of a possible
ditching of an L-1011 near Miami, Florida, in 1985; and during an in-flight fire
onboard a DC-9 at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1985. These instances, vividly support
improved coordination and communications and joint cockpit and cabin crew
training with respect to conducting emergency procedures and periodic
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emergency drills in which cockpit/cabin crew coordination and communication are
practiced” NTSB/HZM-88/0.
11.5. INFORMATION SHARING
Effective communication is complex. The tone, expression, and gestures all
contribute to the way the message is received by others. The meaning of the
message is driven by the receiver’s context.
Since the introduction of the “locked cockpit door” the majority of communication
between the flight crew and the cabin takes place via the interphone. This form of
communication does not provide visual feedback. It is important to understand
and to be understood using speech and tone only.
Shared information should be factual, and only important points should be
included. The crewmember giving the information should speak clearly in order t
be heard and understood. Keep the message short and simple. The person
receiving the message should always have the opportunity to ask questions, to
clarify the information. Answers should be clear, concise and factual. Don’t guess!
When receiving information it is important to clarify the important points with the
person that is giving the information, by paraphrasing the information to ensure
that the message has been correctly understood. Feedback should always be
encouraged.
11.6. SOURCES OF INFORMATION
One aspect of CRM is to consider all of the resources that are available. There are
many sources of information available on the aircraft, which enable crewmembers
to detect, assess and act effectively in various situations.
11.6.1.
PASSENGERS
Passengers can be a great source of information, and may sometimes be the first
to bring information regarding an unusual odor, for example, to the crewmembers
attention.
Always take into account passengers’ remarks regarding:
•
The cabin (noise, fumes, smoke, fire, loose objects etc.)
•
Other passengers behavior
•
Aircraft exterior (wings, fuselage etc.)
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Outside environment (runway, weather etc.).
Cabin crewmembers should follow up any reports from passengers regarding
anything unusual, and ensure that the purser and flight crew are informed.
Operators should encourage passengers to communicate with the cabin crew, one
airline has included the following phrase in its passenger briefing.
“If you have any safety concern during the flight, please do not hesitate to bring it
to the attention of a crewmember”.
Something as simple as this will encourage passengers to address the crew and
voice their concerns.
11.6.2.
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES
Standard operating procedures are a form of communication that is provided by
the operators to crewmembers, and details the procedures to be followed. When
the procedures are understood and adhered to, they provide a common ground
and understanding amongst the entire crew.
Many operators have crewmembers of different cultures and nationalities that are
sometimes based in various parts of the world. The common language of the
Standard Operating Procedures enables these crewmembers to work together and
communicate. When consistently applied, Standard Operating Procedures
provide a guaranteed form of communication.
11.6.3.
CABIN INTERCOMMUNICATION DATA SYSTEM (CIDS)
CIDS is an automated information system for flight crew, cabin crew and ground
personnel. CIDS operates, controls and monitors the main cabin systems such as,
air conditioning, communications, fire protection, ice protection, lights, waste and
water.
The CIDS system is also able to detect faults in its components, and the
connected equipment automatically.
If faults are detected, indications will appear on the Flight Attendant Panels
(FAPs), to alert crewmembers.
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COMMUNICATION WITH MAINTENANCE
Maintenance personnel are a vital part of the daily operation of the aircraft. Like
everyone involved in the operation of a departing or arriving aircraft, they also
have a heavy workload with time constraints, particularly during short turn around
times.
It is important that the purser communicates with the maintenance personnel in
order to understand the impact of any technical malfunction. For example,
deferred items, inoperative items, tripped circuit breakers, or any items that may
have effect on the flight.
When reporting items to maintenance, particularly when entering items in the
cabin maintenance logbook, the following points should be considered:
• Use clear terminology to report problems and actions taken
•
Clearly identify the location, and the description of the problem
Ensure that the cabin maintenance logbook is prepared well in advance of arrival,
and that all maintenance items have been listed.
Maintenance personnel should be extended the same courtesy and respect as any
other member of the crew. They are part of the same team and play a vital role in
daily operations.
•
Verbal communication between the Purser and the maintenance personnel
is important
•
Ensure that cabin crewmembers understand the impact of any technical
malfunction, and it’s possible effects on cabin service
•
Use clear terminology to report problems and the actions taken
•
Report the problem to the appropriate person, if possible.
11.6.5.
COMMUNICATION AND COOPERATION WITH CATERING PERSONNEL
When catering personnel are onboard the aircraft, a cabin crewmember should be
present in the galley areas to monitor catering operations. Catering personnel
may not understand the impact of their actions on safety. When monitoring
catering, cabin crewmembers should ensure that:
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•
Trolleys are operative and the brakes work
•
Ovens are checked thoroughly for unusual objects, papers, towels
•
Handles and latches on stowage bins are in working order.
11.6.6.
COMMUNCIATION AND COORDINATION WITH BOARDING STAFF
The boarding of the aircraft is a very coordinated task between the flight crew,
cabin crewmembers and ground personnel.
The priority of boarding staff is to board all the passengers to maintain an “on
time departure”.
However, there are days when, due the late arrival of an inbound aircraft, ground
personnel have the responsibility for all the passengers, and the possibilities of
missed connections.
In order to avoid confusion and passengers boarding before the cabin preparation
has been completed, cabin crewmembers should liaise with the boarding staff, for
example:
•
Inform the boarding staff of the cabin status
•
Ensure that boarding does not commence before the flight crew; cabin crew
and boarding teams have met.
Communication is the key element to the smooth and safe operation of a flight.
11.7. SUMMARY
To improve flight safety and promote efficient team work:
•
Use briefings to encourage communication and teamwork, and to build a
rapport with the crew. A good briefing will result in a high performing team!
•
Following Standard Operating Procedures ensures that all crewmembers are
familiar with the flight standards and expectations.
•
Communicate and cooperate with, other crewmembers, maintenance
personnel, catering staff, and boarding staff.
•
Communicate with passengers, and make them feel comfortable and able
to communicate with the crew.
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11.8.
11.8.1.
11. Crew Resource Management
FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE
PASSENGER CONFLICT
“Conflicts arise from the perception of incompatible needs or goals, and from the
impossibility or failure to render them compatible (Source ‘Briefings’ Dèdale,
Europe).
In recent years, reports of ‘unruly passenger behavior’ have become more
frequent, with a wide variety of anti-social behavior that ranges from verbal abuse
to physical assault.
Many of these incidents have had an impact on flight operations, flights being
diverted, delayed arrival and the knock back effect on the rest of the operation,
including missed passenger connections, inconvenience, and the financial cost
involved in diverting a flight.
Many passengers and crewmembers have been extremely upset and frightened by
the behavior of some unruly passengers.
Conflicts can take many forms. Some may be resolved through discussion and a
satisfactory conclusion found, without further consequences. However, when a
conflict becomes confrontational and hostile, it must be addressed immediately. If
the conflict occurs on ground, it should be resolved before leaving.
When a conflict becomes confrontational, it can generate emotional responses,
such as emotional tension and stress.
As a conflict escalates, communication deteriorates, and the conflict becomes
destructive. At this stage the people involved may develop acute stress. In turn,
acute stress affects performance.
Dealing with any type conflict requires tact, diplomacy, and most of all, the ability
to remain calm.
Most importantly, does the behavior of the passenger pose a threat to the safety
of the flight?
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How can cabin crew resolve passenger conflict? Conflict management is related to
attitude.
Listen, to allow the passenger to express his/her concerns, this helps to
reduce tension
ƒ
•
Be courteous, but firm
•
Address the issue, what is right, not who is right
•
Appeal to reason, before resorting to authority
•
Ensure cabin safety
•
Be assertive
•
Involve the crew and the purser
•
The purser should inform the flight crew, if necessary
•
Don’t take it personally.
The following is one example of passenger behavior that was a source of conflict
between a passenger onboard an aircraft, and the crewmembers that were
fulfilling the safety requirement.
“Passenger would not get off her cell phone when advised by the crew. The
Captain said, “Prepare for takeoff” and she wouldn’t get off the phone. Other
passengers yelled at her to get off the phone. She ignored them also. Then she
started screaming profanity to all the flight attendants and passengers”. (Source
ASRS report)
The conflict was due to non-compliance with an aviation safety regulation, and
interfered with the performance of crewmembers duties. The conflict arose due to
incompatible goals.
The goal of the passenger was to continue using the mobile phone, knowing that
it was prohibited. The goal of the crew was to ensure the safety of the flight, by
asking for the passenger to comply with an aviation regulation.
One of the most frequent sources of passenger conflict onboard the aircraft is
non-compliance with the ‘No Smoking’ rule.
Many aviation authorities throughout the world have very strict regulations
regarding passenger behavior, and clearly define the type of behavior that is
“unacceptable”. The regulations are also a resource for crewmembers that enables
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them to define the type of behavior that poses a threat to flight safety. The
following is an extract of the Air Navigation Order (ANO) 2000, from the United
Kingdom.
“63. A person shall not recklessly or negligently act in a manner likely to endanger
an aircraft, or any person therein.
64. A person shall not recklessly or negligently cause or permit an aircraft to
endanger any person or property.
65. A person shall not enter any aircraft when drunk, or to be drunk in any
aircraft.
66 (2). A Person shall not smoke in any compartment of an aircraft registered in
the United Kingdom at a time when smoking is prohibited in that compartment by
a notice to that effect exhibited by or on behalf of the commander of the aircraft.
67. Every person in an aircraft shall obey all lawful commands which the
commander of that aircraft may give for the purpose of securing the safety of the
aircraft and of the persons or property carried therein, or the safety, efficiency or
regularity of air navigation.
68. No person shall while in an aircraft.
(a) Use any threatening, abusive or insulting words towards a member of the
crew of the aircraft;
(b) Behave in a threatening, abusive, insulting or disorderly manner towards a
member of the crew of the aircraft; or
(c) Intentionally interferes with the performance by a member of the crew of the
aircraft of his duties”.
IATA resolution RRP 1724 provides operators with a useful guideline for dealing
with “difficult” passengers, this includes Article 7. “Refusal and Limitation of
Carriage”, and Article 11 ‘’Conduct aboard Aircraft”.
Signs of misconduct may sometimes be seen at the check-in area, security
checkpoints or in the departure area. All employees that are involved with
passenger contact, check-in staff, security personnel, departure lounge staff, have
a responsibility to ensure that flight safety is not compromised due to passenger
misconduct. Many operators have their own policy on passenger behavior, what is
“acceptable” and “not acceptable”.
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STRESS
•
Stress is an automatic response to a perturbing situation
•
Stress is a vital adaptation mechanism, as it mobilizes resources against any
kind of aggression agent
•
Stress is not only a physical reaction but also an emotional one
•
A stressful situation can either be unexpected (for example, an emergency),
or anticipated (for example, when you know in advance that you will have
an overbooked flight, and therefore, difficult passengers).
Stress can be either good or bad. It is a question of intensity. Moderate stress
improves performance, and enables people to adapt to situations. However, when
the level of stress is beyond the individual’s capacity, stress may then become a
problem, and result in poor performance.
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The environment itself does not cause stress, but rather by the way individuals
interpret their environment and their perception of a situation. The response to
stress is automatic, however the way individuals react to stress is related to their
perception of their ability to cope.
This section aims to advise crewmembers how to recognize, prevent, and cope
with stress, and how to reduce the warning signs within one, and other
crewmembers.
The following types of stress affect people:
•
Acute stress comes from the pressure of managing a situation in the
immediate past, present or near future. Acute stress can be exciting and
thrilling in limited amounts, for a short period of time. However, too much
acute stress can be exhausting. People are immediately aware of acute
stress because it is new, a sudden surge.
•
Chronic stress is an accumulation of pressure and demands that build up
over a long period of time. The danger of chronic stress is that it is difficult
to identify the symptoms, because it is old, familiar and easy to get used to.
This may lead to a sense of hopelessness, and fatalistic helplessness. Over a
period of time, chronic stress can deplete physical and mental resources,
and can pose serious health risks (heart attack, stroke, cancer and suicide).
•
Anxiety or Anticipatory stress is in anticipation of an event that may be
viewed as dangerous or unpleasant, that the person has no control over.
Anxiety may be real or imaginary. Reactions to anxiety may vary from mild
discomfort, to intense anguish and the impression of immediate death.
Intense anxiety can cause an intense stress reaction, with all the affects of
stress.
The following are some of the symptoms and affects of stress.
•
Physiological symptoms. Dryness of mouth, sweating
•
Cognitive effects. Lack of concentration, forgetfulness, indecision
•
Health effects. Insomnia, nausea, headaches diarrhea
•
Behavioral symptoms. Restlessness,
appetite, excessive drinking
•
Subjective effects. Depression, mood swings, irritability, anxiety.
nervous
laughter,
change
in
Onboard the aircraft, the obvious source of stress would be dealing with any kind
of emergency situation. However, there are many kinds of stressful situations or
events, also called stressors.
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•
Mental stressors. Stress rises when you are under pressure, particularly
time pressure. This type of stress can be increased when you feel you are
lacking the knowledge, or the skills required to cope with the situation
•
Physical Stressors. Noise, light, vibration, pain, illness, fatigue
•
Professional stressors. Adverse working conditions, bad working
environment, airline mergers, strikes, and salary problems are all
professional stressors. Professional stressors may be intensified if the
individual also has private life stressors
•
Social stressors.
management
•
Private life stressors. Divorce, death, illness, change of life conditions or
environment. Even positive events such as a birth or marriage can be
stressors.
Conflicts
with
passengers,
colleagues,
or
even
When stress has been recognized, the tendency is to respond in one of two ways.
defensive or coping.
•
A defensive reaction to stress would be to take alcohol or medication,
denying that there is a problem, “when someone is in denial”, or quite
simply blaming someone else. A defensive reaction is only alleviating the
symptoms of stress, not the actual cause.
•
Coping with stress is dealing directly with the source of the stress, as
opposed to the symptoms. Strategies for coping with stress could be, facing
a problem directly, delegating workload, and prioritizing tasks. Coping with
stress requires assessing a situation, adjusting to a situation, or changing a
situation.
However, there are ways to help manage stress. Stress is a part of life that
cannot be avoided. Whether work related, personal or outside the control of the
individual, stress can affect how a person thinks and performs. Therefore, it is
important to effectively manage stress. A good healthy lifestyle, a positive
outlook, support from family, friends and peers are all valuable tools that help
build confidence and resistance to stress.
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Performing the following may help to relieve stress:
•
Sufficient sleep and a well balanced diet, particularly on stopovers, must be
organized around the need for rest
•
Regular physical exercise promotes good health and good self esteem, and
battles anxiety and depression
•
Talk to someone - a friend, or colleague
•
Relaxation exercises, breathing exercises
•
Tai Chi, yoga or stretching is an excellent way to integrate physical and
mental wellbeing
•
Learn to say no, to avoid overloading yourself
•
Do something that makes you feel good
•
Laugh!
11.8.3.
COPING WITH EVERY DAY STRESS
The cabin environment can be somewhat hectic at times, particularly when things
do not go according to plan. For example, if an oven is broken, and the service
starts ‘falling apart’ and things seem to be going from bad to worse. Well, the
good news is when you work as part of a crew you are not alone!! However, you
can do the following:
•
Accept the situation
•
Go back to basics, trust your skills and knowledge
•
Stick to documented procedures
•
Use all available resources, ask for help, and say that you are stressed
•
You are not alone, trust and have confidence in your colleagues
•
Keep your sense of humor.
Remain in control of yourself, and keep as cool as possible. This will help maintain
a calm atmosphere, and good working conditions in the cabin. In the event of an
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abnormal/emergency situation, staying calm will help to prevent passengers from
panicking. Panic is contagious, particularly onboard an aircraft.
It is important to remember your primary task, and focus your attention on
executing it ‘step by step’.
If danger is present, do not attempt to conceal it. Face the problem using all
available resources, and always ask for help.
Stress can also be managed at crew level. You are part of a crew, and as such you
have fellow crewmembers, a Purser and a Captain that you can rely on. Cabin
crewmembers should remember that they are also a resource for the others.
11.8.4.
STRESS DURING EMERGENCIES
During an emergency situation, it is normal for cabin crewmembers to feel
stressed. Reports have shown that crewmembers have not always remembered
emergency procedures, or have not adhered to procedures due to stress. In some
cases, the actions of the cabin crewmembers have contributed to an increase in
the number of passenger injuries.
The following is an extract from an accident report that gives a very clear example
of the kind of actions that can happen under stress.
“A DC-10 with 186 passengers and a crew of 15 overran the departure end of the
runway at Los Angeles, California, on March 1, 1978. When the airplane departed
the runway, the left main gear failed, causing the fuel tank to rupture. There was
a significant fire and an evacuation was initiated. When the airplane stopped, two
flight attendants who had 18 years and 4 years experience respectively, seated at
the L-1 exit unsuccessfully attempted to open the exit. The door was eventually
opened with the selector handle in the “disarmed” position, and the slide
remained in the container on the door. The flight attendant at R-3, with 18 years
experience, stated that she “automatically” disarmed the slide before opening the
exit. She realized what she had done, rearmed the exit and opened the door.
Another flight attendant with 21 years experience at L-4, stated that “My first
reaction, I just zeroed in on the panel, and the thing I saw was the disarming
handle. I disarmed the slide. I realized what I did. I jammed it back in.” The door
opened and the slide inflated”.
As demonstrated in this extract, there is a risk that behavior reverts to automatic
reactions, under conditions of stress. However, the cabin crewmembers in the
above extract, realized their error and rectified it.
One of the best tools to prevent stress in any emergency is TRAINING.
When cabin crewmembers feel that they do not have the skills to handle an
abnormal, or emergency situation, the rate of stress increases. This is also true
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when cabin crewmembers feel that they do not have the required or insufficient
knowledge.
Training develops the skills, and increases the knowledge to help cabin
crewmembers be effective during emergencies.
The ability of the cabin crewmembers to perform their duties successfully, during
an emergency, is directly linked to the quality of their emergency training. More
efficient reactions to stress can be taught through training.
Good and frequent training produces:
•
Good skills (that tend to be automatically activated)
•
Control over the situation
•
Efficient coping strategies
•
Increases confidence.
Good training increases confidence, and gives cabin crew the ability to cope with
stress in emergency situations. Cabin crewmembers should be confident in
knowing what the task requires, and knowing what they have to do.
11.8.5.
SLEEP
Having discussed the effects of conflicts and stress on performance, this section
focuses on the effects of sleep deprivation on individual performances.
Sleep deprivation is lacking sleep, whilst fatigue is due to consuming our mental
or physical resources. Both alter vigilance in a complex way.
The need for sleep varies amongst individuals. Some people need more sleep than
others.
90% of people sleep between 6 and 9 hours
•
Each individual has their own sleeping pattern
•
Sleeping patterns may change, or vary, according to health and age
•
Identifying and respecting your sleep pattern are conditions for good
performance.
Individuals know their own sleep requirement, and how much sleep they will need
in order to be refreshed. However, if the amount of sleep has not been sufficient,
particularly over a few days, the individual will build up a ‘sleep deficit’, that will
need to be recovered, otherwise it will affect the level of performance.
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As crewmembers’ sleeping patterns may change or be disrupted, due to the
nature of flight patterns. Long haul or short haul.
Long haul flights cross many time zones, and can therefore disturb sleep patterns.
Crewmembers are awake when they would normally be asleep and vice versa.
Short/Medium haul flights, with very early check-in times (sometimes 4.00am),
when most people are still in their beds can also disrupt sleep patterns.
Rest and sleep is vital for crewmembers. One hour of good quality sleep is
supposedly, good for two hours of activity. The amount of time for rest periods
and stopovers should be allocated wisely, and crewmembers should rest
sufficiently before going on a flight.
The nature of the work means that the crews do not always work everyday of the
week, or the same hours each day, nor do they eat at the same hour each day, or
sleep at the same hour each night. Just when a block of days off means that
crewmembers can start to get back to a “normal routine”, it is time for them to
leave again with their suitcase, to possibly fly around the world and back.
•
Sleep is a necessity
•
Sleep deprivation may lead to a serious health disorder
•
It is essential that crewmembers are well rested before taking a flight,
particularly on stopover
•
Ensure that the proper rest period requirements are respected.
Jar-Ops 1.085.
“Although the controls on flight and duty periods are intended to ensure that
adequate opportunities are provided for crewmembers to obtain rest and sleep,
individuals should ensure that proper advantage it taken of such opportunities”.
11.8.6.
FATIGUE
Consuming too much physical or mental energy causes fatigue. It is the bodies’
way of saying that there is a need for the individual to restore, and replenish their
energy. Fatigue can be attributed to many of the following factors.
•
Physical activity
•
Mental activity
•
Delayed sleep
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•
Sleep deprivation
•
State of health
•
Long hours
•
Working during normal sleep hours
•
Working on rotating shifts and schedules
•
Monotonous/repetitive tasks.
Whether cabin crew or flight crew, many of these factors apply to cabin crews
professional lives, and can affect performance. Crewmembers should be aware of
the symptoms of fatigue. The following is a list of some of the symptoms and
effects of fatigue.
•
Diminished perception (vision, hearing…) and lack of awareness
•
Reduction in motor skills, causing slow reaction, reduced coordination
•
Reduction in short term memory
•
Mood changes - depressed, elated, energetic
•
Channeled concentration - fixating on a single issue, and inability to
maintain an overview
•
Easily distracted
•
Poor judgment and decision making, leading to increased mistakes
•
Diminished standards.
Sleep and rest is essential to combat fatigue. There are also other factors that can
reduce the effects of fatigue.
•
Fatigue and physical activity - Regular physical activity of moderate
intensity increases resistance to both stress and fatigue. However, too
much physical activity before departure is tiring
•
Balanced meals - Try to avoid meals that are high in sugar or fat, either
before a flight or onboard the aircraft
•
A healthy lifestyle - Do not drink alcohol or drugs. Refrain from smoking.
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During a flight, particularly on a long haul night flight, serving the breakfast
before landing can require some extra effort.
This is the time when the cabin is noisy, the window shades go up (when the
sunlight is blinding!), passengers start to walk in the aisles as soon as the carts
are moved into the aisles, or there are many passengers waiting near the toilets,
this can be particularly annoying when the toilets are near the galley!!
It is easy to become irritated. If crewmembers are irritated, their attitudes
towards passengers and colleagues may change. It is important to recognize
fatigue, and accept it. Crewmembers should also remain professional, calm,
collected and efficient.
11.9. SUMMARY
Each individual can manage the factors that affect performance. To summarize
factors that affect performance.
•
Manage conflict. Listen and propose a safe solution. Involve the crew and
refer to the captain
•
Under stressful situations. Go back to basics, and use all available
resources. Refer to documented procedures.
•
Adapt your lifestyle.
and sleep!
Eat a well-balanced healthy diet, exercise regularly,
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11.10. ERROR MANAGEMENT
“It is the nature of man to err”, according to the roman philosopher Cicero some
two thousand years ago!!
Error has been defined as follows.
“Error will be taken as a generic term to encompass all those occasions in which a
planned sequence of mental or physical activities fails to achieve its intended
outcome, and when these failures cannot be attributed to the intervention of
some chance agency”,
(Source “Human error” by Professor James Reason.)
CRM addresses errors in two ways.
•
Detecting an error in the early stages, and correcting or controlling it
•
Reducing the possibility of error.
Part of the human condition is to make errors, no matter who the person is.
Everyone has made an error at one time or another. Errors are made when the
individual’s actions deviate from their intentions, or if the intention is not
appropriate. Therefore, an error by nature is never intentional.
The most common errors are slips, lapses and mistakes.
•
Slips. When the intended action does not go as planned (for example, taking
the wrong train or bus)
•
Lapses. Occur due to forgetfulness, or a lack of attention (for example,
forgetting to arm/disarm the aircraft doors)
•
Mistakes. Occur when there is fault in the plan or the intention, and the
individual believes that their action is correct, when in fact it is wrong (for
example, seeing smoke coming from a coffeemaker, and turning the wrong
coffeemaker off).
Part of cabin crewmember training is to learn from errors. Using the mockups, to
create realistic exercises for cabin crewmembers, provides the crewmembers with
the opportunity to learn from their errors, without suffering from the
consequences of committing the same error onboard the aircraft.
Making an error during an evacuation exercise in a mock-up, is not as serious as
making the same mistake in reality. For example, during an evacuation exercise
the crewmember may not assess conditions properly and may open the aircraft
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door, only to realize that there is “fire” outside the exit. The same gesture in a
real emergency situation could have disastrous results.
Cabin crew instructors should be aware that errors made during training exercises
should be treated as a learning experience, as opposed to a criticism of individual
performance.
The use of scenarios or accident analysis, where errors have occurred, is probably
the most effective method to learn how to detect and prevent future errors.
Experienced personnel can occasionally make errors. The errors they make are
different from the errors made by novices. Some errors made by experienced
personnel stem from complacency. Experience is not a “cure all”. Experienced
cabin crewmembers still make mistakes, and even benefit from them!! Life is a
learning process, each person can learn a lot from their own mistakes, and the
mistakes of others. The aim is to learn from errors, and adapt behavior to avoid
repeating the same error.
The downside of making errors is that every action has a reaction!
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Error and Consequence
The effects of an error depend on the situation, and the context in which
it occurs.
For example, a cabin crewmember forgets to disarm the door for arrival
that could provoke inadvertent slide deployment, which in turn
(depending on the context), could cause:
•
Flight delay/cancellation
•
Offloading of passengers
•
Serious injury to someone on the ground.
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11.11. VIOLATION
Sometimes errors are intentional. Another source of error is Violation. Contrary
to slips, lapses and mistakes, violations are intentional.
Violation is defined as “an intentional deviation from a regulation, procedure or
rule”. For example, if crewmembers do not perform preflight checks in accordance
with company policy, or if they cut corners on the in-flight service, “to save time”.
In the beginning, violations are intentional, but they can become routine. When a
violation becomes routine, it becomes the “Norm”, and the individual no longer
realizes that it is a violation and becomes complacent.
When violations become the “Norm”, they have a tendency to substitute the
official rules. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) provide a common language,
and provide the basis for communicating as a crew. If crewmembers regularly
violate the SOPs, the basis of communication is lost, and can cause confusion and
misunderstanding.
Group pressure and group conformity can produce a violation. For example, when
cabin crewmembers work for the same company, but are not based in the same
city/country. The majority of the cabin crewmembers are based in “A”, and a few
joining cabin crewmembers are based in “B”. Group pressure causes group “B” to
conform to group A’s behavior, because “That’s the way we do it here”. The
violation becomes the “norm”, and replaces the official regulation. The common
ground for communication is then compromised, and result in confusion.
Standard Operating Procedures are particularly important for Operators that have
personnel in various parts of the world, because they provide a common
language, and a tool that enables crews to work together effectively.
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WARNING
Most violations are a threat to safety
Violations are a threat to safety. By violation cabin crewmembers remove a layer
of defense against error, and weaken their safety net.
Management of violations has to be performed both at the individual and the team
level. Pursers and experienced cabin crewmembers should encourage colleagues
to respect rules and regulations, and understand operating procedures.
The best way to avoid violation is to decide not to violate!
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Standard Aviation Tools for Error Management
‹ Briefings
‹ Procedures
‹ Check-lists
These provide the tools to work, but they also provide a safety net
against error!
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11.12. TEAM PERFORMANCE
A team is made up of players. Each crewmember is a team player with a specific
role, and task just like a soccer team.
The teamwork between the players in a soccer match is quite amazing - the
players know intuitively who to pass the ball to, and how to pass it. The next
player controls the ball, and passes it to someone in a position to score a goal.
Over the years there have been many great soccer players, Pele, Zidane, and
Beckham, who have been singled out for their performances that contributed to
the success of their respective teams.
A good team does depend on individual performances;
performance takes precedence over individual performance.
however,
team
Great team performance depends on ‘synergy’. ‘Synergy’ is a technical term
from the world of medicine that means, “working together”.
When in synergy, the performance of a team working together, is higher than the
sum of the individual performances. 1+1>2!
Conditions for synergy are:
•
A shared goal
•
A clear crew structure
•
Clear task allocation
•
Team spirit
•
Good leadership.
The role of cabin crewmembers onboard the aircraft is complex, as there are two
clearly defined aspects the safety role, and the service role. Sometimes, there is
conflict between the two, which can have implications on performance.
The duality of the roles is somewhat Jekyll and Hyde, requiring cabin
crewmembers to be two different people, depending on the circumstances, one
minute smiling and pleasant, the next minute assertive and demanding when
dealing with a safety threat.
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The structure of the cabin crew ensures that crewmembers have specific roles,
and very specific duties. The application of good CRM within a crew creates the
right balance for the crew to work as an effective team.
In order for a team to be effective, they must be able to talk to each other, share
information, listen to each other and be assertive, when necessary.
In every effective team, there are leaders and followers. Followers should not be
thought of as ‘sheep following blindly’. Followers play a complimentary role to
leadership. A follower is the supporting role. Every effective leader needs support.
Captain
First Officer
Chief Purser/Purser
Cabin Crew
The Captain
The Captain is the leader onboard the aircraft. The Captain is ultimately
responsible for the safety of the aircraft.
“The commander shall have authority to give all commands he deems necessary
for the purpose of securing the safety of the airplane and of the persons or
property carried therein, and all persons carried in the airplane shall obey such
commands” Jar-Ops 1.085(e)(2).
The Captain’s decision is final.
The Captain is the leader of the crew, and has a responsibility to ensure that the
entire crew functions as a team.
The first Officer
If something happens to the captain, such as incapacitation, the first officer will
assume command of the aircraft.
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The Chief Purser/Purser
The Purser is responsible for all the cabin crewmembers, and is identified as the
leader of the cabin crew. The Purser allocates the workload and tasks, to the cabin
crewmembers.
The Purser is the communication link between the cabin and the Flight crew. The
captain informs the purser of any technical, or operational problems. The Purser,
shares the information with the other cabin crewmembers.
Cabin Crewmembers
The cabin crewmembers play a supporting role to the Captain, First Officer, and
Purser. The cabin crewmembers are the eyes and ears in the cabin for the flight
crew. They provide the flight crew with any pertinent information regarding
safety, unusual situations via the purser.
Trainees
Although trainees have no specific safety responsibilities onboard the aircraft,
every crewmember has a responsibility to help them and train them. Cabin
crewmembers should answer any questions that they may have on technical,
safety or service issues. Try and remember what it was like when you first
started. Experienced crewmembers are role models for trainees, and must show a
good example!
11.13. LEADERSHIP
The leadership onboard is established by the airline. Naturally, there will always
be the Captain, First Officer and sometimes a relief pilot in the cockpit. In the
cabin there is sometimes a Chief Purser, and pursers in different cabins, or just
one Purser for the entire aircraft.
The Purser is responsible for all the cabin crewmembers and their activities.
A leader is someone who through word, action and example can influence the
behavior and actions of others. A leader has the capacity to share the goals of the
team, understand the needs of the team, and motivate the team to achieve their
goals. Good leadership requires teamwork. The quality of the leader depends
largely on the relationship with the other members of the team.
There is a difference between authority and leadership. Leadership is an acquired
skill, whereas authority is assigned. A good leader has the correct balance of
both.
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The role of a leader is to:
•
Build the team
•
Manage the workload
•
Manage time
•
Coordinate and monitor activity
•
Prevent and solve conflicts
•
Listen to input from other members of the team
•
Make decisions
•
Provide and maintain standards
•
Supervise and intervene in case of a deviation from standards.
A good leader has the acquired knowledge, skills, expertise and professionalism to
motivate the rest of the team and inspire confidence. A good leader also:
•
Establishes an atmosphere that encourages communication and team
participation
•
Listens to feedback and input from others.
•
Motivates the team by appreciation, and the ability to praise when
appropriate
•
Takes the initiative and assists team members in completing tasks during
difficult situations
•
Remains calm in conflicts, and is able to be objective and propose solutions
•
Has the ability to differentiate between “what is right, not who is right”
•
Has good problem solving skills that involve gathering information,
identifying the problem, finding a solution, or another course of action
•
Informs other team members when there is a change of plan
•
Has a sense of humor - it always helps!!
A good leader is always a pleasure to work with, and can make a difference to the
work environment onboard the aircraft.
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11.14. SUMMARY
Good team performance and synergy require.
•
Crew structure
•
Clear and balanced allocation of roles and tasks
•
Good leadership
•
Good follower ship, and lots of team spirit
•
Compliance with procedures
•
Adherence to allocated tasks
•
Effective communication
•
Confidence to report any safety related items- even if in doubt!
As part of a crew, each person brings their knowledge, skill, experience,
individualism and personality to the team. Every crewmember has worth, and
contributes toward the team effort.
Exercising good CRM as part of work practice enhances team performance, and
more importantly reduces the risk of errors.
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12. ABBREVIATIONS
12. ABBREVIATIONS
ABBREVIATIONS
A
AA
AAP
AAT
ABN
ABV
AC
A/C, AC
ACARS
ACP
ACU
ADB
ADIRS
ADS
ADV
AEVC
AFT
AIDS
AIP
ALT
ALTN
AMU
ANT
AOLS
APU
ARINC
ARN
ARPT
Amber
Airworthiness Authorities
Additional Attendant Panel
Aircraft Allocation Table
Abnormal
Above
Alternating Current
Aircraft
Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System
Area Call Panel
Air show Control Unit
Area Distribution Box
Air Data and Inertial Reference System
Automatic Dependent Surveillance
Advisory
Avionic Equipment ventilation Computer
After
Aircraft Integrated Data System
Attendant Indication Panel
Altitude
Alternate
Audio Management Unit
Antenna
Airbus On Line Services
Auxiliary Power Unit
Aeronautical Radio Incorporated
Aircraft Registration Number
Airport
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A/S
ASAP
ASP
ATC
ATR
ATSU
ATT
AVNCS
AWY
B
BARO
BAT
B/C, BC
BCL
BCRC
BFE
BGM
BIT
BMC
BRK
BRT
BTL
C
C1
CAB
CAPT
CAM
CAT
CAUT
C/B
CBMU
CC
CC1
CCB
CCL CIDS
CCOM
CCS
CECAM
CDU
CFDS
CG
CHA
CHG
12. ABBREVIATIONS
Airspeed
As Soon As Possible
Audio Selector Panel
Air Traffic Control
Audio Tape Reproducer
Air Traffic Service Unit
Attitude
Avionics
Airway
Blue
Barometric
Battery
Business Class
Battery Charge Limiter
Bulk Crew Rest Compartment
Buyer Furnished Equipment
Boarding Music
E Built-In Test Equipment
Bleed Monitoring Computer
Brake
Bright
Bottle
Centigrade
Coat-stowage 1
Cabin
Captain
Cabin Assignment Module
Category
Caution
Circuit Breaker
Circuit Breaker Monitoring Unit
Cabin Crew
Cabin Crew 1
Cabin Crew Bulletin
Caution Light
Cabin Crew Operating Manual
Cabin Communication System
Centralized Cabin Monitoring
Control and Display Unit
Centralized Fault Display System
Center of Gravity
Channel
Change
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CHK
CIDS
CIN
CIP
CKPT
C/L
CLB
CLG
CLR
CLSD
CM
CMC
CMD
CMS
CMT
CNTOR
COC
COMP
CPTR
CO
COM
CONF
CONT
CPCU
CR2
CRC
CRG
CRS
CRSD
CRZ
CSTR
CSU
CTL
CTL PNL
CTLR
CTR
CTU
CVR
Db
DCC
DCR
DEG
DES
DEST
12. ABBREVIATIONS
Check
Cabin intercommunication Data System
Change Identification Number
Cabin Interface Plug
Cockpit
Check List
Climb
Ceiling
Clear
Closed
Crewmember
Central Maintenance Computer
Command
Central Maintenance System
Cabin Management Terminal
Contactor
Customer Originated Changes
Compartment
Computer
Company
Communication
Configuration
Continuous
Cabin Pressure Control Unit
Crew Rest Compartment
Continuous Repetitive Chime
Cargo
Course
Crew Rest Smoke Detection
Cruise
Constraint
Cassette Stowage Unit
Control
Control Panel
Controller
Center
Cabin Telecommunication Unit
Cockpit Voice Recorder
Decibel
Digital Cockpit Controller
Dock-on Crew Rest
Degree
Descent
Destination
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12. ABBREVIATIONS
DET
DEU
DFDR
DIM
DIR
DISC
DISCH
DISPL
DIST
DN
DSCS
DSU
DU
DU
E
ECAM
ECS
EIS
ELEC
ELEV
ELMU
Detection
Decoder/Encoder unit
Digital Flight Data Recorder
Dimming
Direction
Disconnect
Discharge
Display
Distance
Down
Door Slide Control System
Data Server Unit
Display Unit
Documentary Unit
East
Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring
Environmental Control System
Electronic Instruments System
Electricity
Elevator, Elevation
Electrical Load Management Unit
EMER
EMER
ENG
EOD
EPSU
EVAC
F/A
FAIL
FAP
FAR
FBCRC
F/C, FC
FCOM
FCRC
FCU
FDAU
FDB
FDIU
FES
F/F
FF
FL
Emergency
EXIT R Emergency Exit Right (overwing)
Engine
Explosive Ordnance Disposal
Emergency Power Supply Unit
Evacuation
First Aid
Failure
Flight Attendant Panel
Federal Aviation Regulations
Full Bulk Crew Rest Compartment
First Class
Flight Crew Operating Manual
Forward Crew Rest Compartment
Flush Control Unit
Flight Data Acquisition Unit
Floor Disconnect Box
Flight Data Interface Unit
Fire Extinguishing System
Full Face (smoke mask)
Fast Forward
Flight Level
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FLT
F/O
FPEEPMS
FREQ
FSB
FSM
FSN
FT
FT/MN
FWC
FWD
FWS
G
G5
GEN
GND
GRVTY
GS
GWDU
H
HI
HP
HPV
HZ
HS
ICAO
IDENT
IFE
IFEC
IGN
IMM
IND
INOP
INT
INTENS
IPCU
IR
IRS
KG
KT
L
LAV
LAV34
12. ABBREVIATIONS
Flight
First Officer
Floor-Proximity Emergency Escape Path-Marking System
Frequency
Fasten Seat Belt
Fault System Management
Fleet Serial Number
Foot, Feet
Feet per Minute
Flight Warning Computer
Forward
Flight Warning System
Green
Galley 5
Generator
Ground
Gravity
Ground Speed
Galley Waste Disposal Unit
Hour, Hot
High
High Pressure
High Pressure Valve
Hertz
Handset
International Civil Aviation organization
Identification
In Flight Entertainment
In Flight Entertainment Center
Ignition
Immediate
Indication
Inoperative
Interphone
Intensity
Ice Protection Control Unit
Inertial Reference
Inertial Reference System
kilogram
Knot
Left
Lavatory
Lavatory 34
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LCD
LD
LDF
LDG
LD LAV
LDMCR
LED
L/G
LGCIU
LIM
LH
LO
LOM
LONG
LOS
LP
LRBL
LRU
LS
LSU
LT
LVL
M
MAIN
MAN
MB
MCDU
MD
MECH
MED
MEL
MIC
MIN
MKR
MLW
MM
MMEL
MMO
MN
MRT
MSA
MSG
MSU
MSU
12. ABBREVIATIONS
Liquid Crystal Display
Lower Deck
Lower Deck Facilities
Landing
Lower Deck Lavatory
Lower Deck Mobile Crew Rest
Light Emitting Diode
Landing Gear
Landing Gear Control Interface unit
Limitation
Left Hand
Low
List Of Modifications
Longitude
List Of Sections
Low Pressure
Least Risk Bomb Location
Line Replaceable Unit
Loudspeaker
Lavatory Service Unit
Light
Level
Magenta, Mach, Meter
T Maintenance
Manual
Milibar
Multipurpose Control and Display Unit
Main Deck
Mechanic
Medium
Minimum Equipment List
Microphone
Minimum
Marker (radio) Beacon
Maximum Design Landing Weight
Main Multiplexer
Master Minimum Equipment List
Mach Max Operating Speed
Minute
Manual Release Tool
Minimum Safe Altitude
Message
Minimum Safe Altitude
Media Server Unit
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MSL
MTOW
MWP
MZFW
N
N/A
NATS
NAV
ND
NM
NORM
NS
NTPD
O2
OAT
OBRM
OCCPD
OFF/R
OFST
OL
O/P
OPP
OPS
OPT
OR
OVBD
OVHD
OVHT
OVRD
OVSPD
OXY
P
PA
PAT
PAX
pb,PB
pb sw
PBE
PCB
PCU
PDF
PED
PERF
PES
12. ABBREVIATIONS
Mean Sea Level
Maximum design TakeOff Weight
Manual Warning Panel
Maximum design Zero Fuel Weight
North
Not Applicable
North American Telephone System
Navigation
Navigation Display
Nautical Mile
Normal
No Smoking
Normal Temperature Pressure Dry
oxygen
Outside Air Temperature
On Board Replaceable Module
Occupied
Off Reset
Offset
Outboard Left
Output
Opposite
Operations
Optional
Outboard Right
Overboard
Overhead
Overheat
Override
Overspeed
Oxygen
Purser
Passenger Address
Primary Access Terminal
Passenger
Pushbutton
Pushbutton Switch
Portable Breathing Equipment
Passenger Call Button
Passenger Control Unit
Portable Document Format
Portable Electronic Devices
Performance
Passenger Entertainment System
279
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Getting to grips with Cabin Safety
PIM
PISA
P/N
PNL
POS
PSIU
PSP
PSU
PT
PTP
PTT
PVIS
PWCU
PWR
QCCU
QT
QTY
R
RA
RAD
RADVR
RC
RCDR
RCL
RCVR
REG
REL
REV
REW
RH
RQRD
RS
RSVR
RTE
RTS
RVC
RWY
S
SAT
SB
SC
SCU
SDP
SDCP
12. ABBREVIATIONS
Programming and Indication Modul
Passenger Interface and Supply Adapter
Part Number
Panel
Position
Passenger Service Information Unit
Pre-selected Passenger
Passenger Service Unit
Point
Programming and Test Panel
Push To Talk
Passenger Visual Information System
Potable Water Control Unit
Power
Quantity Calculation and Control Unit
Quart (US)
Quantity
Right, Red
Radio Altitude
Radio
Random Access Digital Video Reproducer
Repetitive Chime
Recorder
Recall
Receiver
Regulation
Release
Reverse
Rewind
Right Hand
Required
Reset Restore
Reservoir
Route
Return To Seat
Remote Volume Control
Runway
South
Static Air Temperature
Service Bulletin
Single Chime
System Control Unit
Smoke Detection Panel
Smoke Detection Control Panel
280
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Getting to grips with Cabin Safety
SDCU
SEB
SEL
SELCAL
SEU
SERV INT
SFE
S/N
SPD
s/r12,
SSC
STAT
STBY
STD
STS
SW
SYS
T True,
TBC
TBD
T/C,TC
TCAS
TEMP
TK
TMR
T.O.
TU
UP
UTC
V
VC
VCC
VCR
VCU
VENT
VHF
VIB
VOL
VLV
VOD
VTR
W White,
WARN
12. ABBREVIATIONS
Smoke Detection Control Unit
Seat Electronic Box
Selector, Select
Selective Calling System
Seat Electronit Unit
Service Interphone
Seller Finished Equipment
Serial Number
Speed
SR12 Seat Row 12
Single Stroke Chime
Static
Standby
Standard
Status
Switch
System
Turn, Total
To Be Confirmed
To Be Determined
Tourist Class
Traffic-Collision Alert System Avoidance System
Temperature
Tank
Timer
Take Off
Tapping Unit
Upper
Universal Coordinated Time
Volt
Ventilation controller
Video Control Center
Video Cassette recorder
Video Control Unit
Ventilation
Very High Frequency
Vibration
Volume
Valve
Video On Demand
Video Tape Reproducer
West
Warning
281
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Getting to grips with Cabin Safety
WDO
WIPDU
WMS
WSHLD
WT
WWP
XML
XMTR
X-TALK
Y
YC
YC
12. ABBREVIATIONS
Window
Water Ice Protection Data Unit
Warning and Maintenance System
Windshield
Weight
Water Waste Page
Extensible Markup Language
Transmitter
Cross Table
Yellow
Economy Class, Tourist Class
Y/C Economy Class Front
282
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