Apple | Macintosh PowerBook 1400 | User`s manual | Apple Macintosh PowerBook 1400 User`s manual

Follow the instructions in this
chapter to set up your computer
and learn the basics.
1
Getting Started
The information and illustrations in this chapter provide an overview of your
Macintosh PowerBook system and get you started using the computer. To
begin, take a few moments to review some important details about the
computer’s hardware, software, and learning materials.
Becoming familiar with your Macintosh PowerBook
Your PowerBook is designed to keep you working productively in any
location. With a PowerBook, you have
m easily expandable hardware
m specialized programs for mobile computing and versatile productivity
applications, in addition to Macintosh system software
m interactive online instructions for using the computer, a manual for setting
up and troubleshooting, and print and electronic manuals for application
programs provided with the computer
Hardware at a glance
The illustration on the next page shows the built-in features of your computer,
including the slots for PC Cards, the expansion bay for adding a CD-ROM
drive or other internal device, and the ports for connecting to a network, a
printer, and other external equipment.
1
Sleep indicator
Speaker grill
¤ Brightness control
Trackpad
O Contrast control
Trackpad button
Microphone
Battery
On/off key
Expansion bay
(CD-ROM drive
installed)
- Sound
Exchangeable
BookCover
output port
¯ Power
PC Card eject buttons
adapter port
Two PC Card
(PCMCIA card) slots
√ Sound
input port
Security slot
Expansion port
(for optional video, network,
or other expansion card)
g SCSI port (HDI-30)
Infrared window
´ Printer/External
V Apple Desktop
Bus (ADB) port
Reset button
modem port
Software for mobility and efficiency
Your PowerBook comes with a variety of applications, utility programs, and
control panels that provide broad functionality and flexibility.
In the Applications folder
m Apple Internet Connection Kit, complete software for using the Internet
m Apple Telecom, software for using a modem to send faxes
m ClarisWorks, for word processing, graphics, spreadsheet, database, and
telecommunications
m Claris Organizer, for managing contacts and calendar information
m PowerBook File Assistant, for synchronizing file contents when you have
several versions of a file
m Apple IR File Exchange, for sending and receiving files using the
computer’s infrared window
m Remote Access Client, for connecting to a computer located elsewhere
In the Apple Extras folder
m MoviePlayer, for viewing QuickTime movies
m A template for making BookCover inserts to display on the computer’s case
m Specialized files for use with a PC Card modem
In the Utilities folder
m Battery Recondition, for extending the useful life of batteries
m Drive Setup, for testing, formatting, and partitioning hard disk drives and
drives for removable media (except PC Cards), such as optical disks
m Disk First Aid, for testing and repairing floppy disks and hard disks or
removable media (except PC Cards)
In the Control Panels folder
m Apple Location Manager, for saving groups of system settings, called
“locations,” that you can use in different operating environments, such as
your office and home
Each folder contains other items as well.
Getting Started
3
Control Strip for quick changes
The Control Strip appears on the desktop when you start up your PowerBook
for the first time. This strip lets you change common settings quickly—by
pressing an icon and then choosing the option you want from a pop-up menu.
Monitor
battery’s charge
Turn
AppleTalk
on or off
Play
audio CD
Set screen’s
colors or grays
Turn
Spin
filesharing down the
on or off hard disk
Set screen’s
resolution
Adjust for power
conservation or
performance
Put computer
to sleep
Change
default
printer
Adjust
sound
volume
(The Control Strip on your PowerBook may not look exactly like the
illustration, depending on your computer’s settings.)
You can adjust the Control Strip and add or remove items from it. For
instructions, see “How do I use the Control Strip?” in the “Customizing
Your Computer” topic area of Mac OS Guide, available from the
Guide (h) menu.
Learning materials and other information about the computer
Your PowerBook comes with a user’s manual that provides the information
you need for setting up the computer, caring for it, and finding solutions to
problems with the hardware. Depending on the PowerBook model you have,
other manuals may be included as well.
The majority of instructions for using your PowerBook are online—in the
Macintosh Tutorial, which introduces new users to the computer, and Mac OS
Guide, which offers step-by-step instructions for the primary tasks you
perform with the computer.
The Guide menu
You use the Guide menu to open Macintosh Tutorial or Mac OS Guide.
4
Chapter 1
The Guide menu contains online instructions for using Macintosh system
software when the Finder is the active program. In addition to Mac OS Guide
and the tutorial, the Guide menu contains an explanation for using the Guide
online instructions (About Apple Guide) and a summary of shortcuts.
The Guide menu usually provides online help for other applications when
they are active.
You also use the Guide menu to turn balloons on or off. When turned on,
balloons display a description of the item on the screen at the pointer’s
location. The illustration shows the balloon for the Trash.
When you have questions about the computer
When you have questions about using your Macintosh, you can look for
answers in several places. These include
m Mac OS Guide and other online instructions available in the Guide menu
m electronic manuals and Read Me documents on your computer’s hard disk
m files that provide demonstrations and tours of the hardware and software
(on the hard disk)
m the printed manuals that came with your computer and with any additional
application programs or equipment you’re using
m Apple’s World Wide Web sites and other information sources on the
Internet (by modem)
m the Apple support center (by telephone)
Getting Started
5
Where to find answers
The summary that follows indicates the type of information you can expect to
get from each information source.
On the computer’s hard disk
In the Guide menu
The Guide menu (marked with the h icon) is your main source
of information about the Macintosh. You can learn basic skills in
the tutorial and get interactive, step-by-step help for tasks in
Mac OS Guide.
In electronic manuals
For some programs, condensed instructions and reference
information are supplied in an online manual. This type of document
usually contains illustrations and bookmarks you use for quick
access to the items you need. You can print this manual also.
In Read Me documents
The Read Me files that come on your computer’s hard disk
contain late-breaking information about your PowerBook and
some of the software that comes with your PowerBook.
In software samplers and tours
Some files on your hard disk offer a tour of the computer’s features
or an introduction to one or more applications.
6
Chapter 1
In the printed materials
In this book
Macintosh
PowerBoo
k
User’s Man
ual
Use this book to set up and learn about your computer and for
useful tips and suggestions if you have problems while using your
computer.
In other manuals
For answers to questions about other equipment or about
application programs you have purchased, see the manuals
that came with them.
On the Internet
At Apple’s Web sites
Apple maintains a number of sites on the World Wide Web
that provide software updates, product information, and technical
information. The central site is http://www.apple.com.
Several other Apple sites (linked to the central one) provide
PowerBook updates, product details, and mobile computing
solutions.
Over the telephone
From Apple’s customer support line
If you can’t find an answer in any of the materials provided, call the
Apple Assistance Center. (See the service and support information
that came with your computer for the phone number.)
Getting Started
7
Preparing to set up the computer
Now that you know some essential details about your PowerBook, you’re
ready to set it up and begin using it.
To set up your computer for the first time, you need the power adapter and
the power cord that came with it.
When setting up your computer, place your computer on a sturdy, flat surface
near a grounded electrical outlet. Before following the setup instructions in
this chapter, you may want to read “Arranging Your Work Area and
Equipment” in Appendix A for tips on adjusting your work furniture and
computer so that you’re comfortable when using the computer.
Plugging in the computer
Plugging in the power adapter recharges the computer’s battery. You should
plug in the power adapter in case the battery has been drained during
shipping or storage.
WARNING Use only the power adapter that came with your Macintosh
PowerBook computer (model number M4896, 45W AC Adapter).
Adapters for other electronic devices (including other Macintosh
PowerBook models and other portable computers) may look similar,
but they may damage your computer.
8
Chapter 1
When you are ready to begin, follow these steps:
1
Plug one end of the power cord into the power adapter and the other end into a threehole grounded outlet or power strip.
Note: It’s important to plug the adapter into a wall outlet before attaching it to
the computer.
WARNING This equipment is intended to be electrically grounded. The
power adapter that came with your Macintosh PowerBook is equipped
with a three-wire grounding plug—a plug that has a third (grounding)
pin. This plug will fit only a grounded AC outlet. This is a safety
feature. If you are unable to insert the plug into the outlet, contact a
licensed electrician to replace the outlet with a properly grounded
outlet. Do not defeat the purpose of the grounding plug!
2
Plug the power adapter plug into the power adapter port (marked with the icon ¯) on the
back panel of the computer.
¯ Power adapter port
Power cord
Power adapter plug
Power adapter
Getting Started
9
Opening the display
1
Slide the latch to the left and lift up the display.
Slide the latch to the left to open the display.
2
Position the display at a comfortable viewing angle.
You can adjust the angle of the display at any time by tilting it toward or away
from you.
10
Chapter 1
Removing the battery label (if necessary)
Most new PowerBooks are shipped with a label covering the battery to
protect it from losing its charge completely. If there is a label, you need to
remove it before the battery will provide power for the computer.
1
With the display open, peel off the part of the label on the computer’s case, taking care
not to tear the label.
2
Close the display.
3
Move the latch under the battery to the right and hold it in that position.
4
Slide the battery out of its compartment.
1 Slide and hold the latch to the right.
2 Slide the battery out.
5
Carefully remove the label from the battery.
Avoid touching the battery’s metal contacts as you peel off the label.
6
Replace the battery and open the display.
Getting Started
11
Turning the computer on
To turn on the computer for the first time:
m Press the Power key (marked with “on/off”) at the upper-right corner of the keyboard
to turn the computer on.
Power key
on/off
You should hear a tone when you turn on the computer. It takes the computer
a few minutes to start up. You’ll see the Mac OS startup screen as the system
software is loaded on the computer. In a few moments the Macintosh desktop
appears, like the picture below.
Note: Your screen should look very similar to this, but it may not look exactly
the same.
12
Chapter 1
Problems turning the computer on?
m Nothing happened when you pressed the Power key.
The battery may be drained. Make sure you plug in the power adapter,
and that the power adapter is firmly connected to both the computer and a
power source. If the power adapter is plugged into a power strip, make sure
the power strip is plugged in and turned on. Then try pressing the
key again.
If the computer still doesn’t turn on, see “Problems Starting Up the
Computer” in Chapter 6.
m The computer made a sound, but you can’t see anything on the screen.
Adjust the brightness control (marked with the icon ¤) and contrast
control (O) until an image appears and the screen is easy to read.
¤ Brightness control
O Contrast control
Getting Started
13
m You see a picture of a disk with a blinking question mark on the screen.
This icon usually means that the computer can’t find system software on
the hard disk or any disks attached to the computer. You may need to
reinstall system software. See “Reinstalling the Mac OS System Software”
in Chapter 7.
What’s next?
You’ve now finished setting up your Macintosh PowerBook. Continue with
one of the following steps:
m If you are new to the Macintosh, turn to the next section, “Learning the
Basics.”
m If you have additional equipment to connect to your computer, see
Chapter 3, “Connecting Additional Equipment and Changing BookCovers,”
for instructions. (If you are a new Macintosh user, you should complete
“Learning the Basics” before connecting additional equipment.)
m If you have application programs that you want to install on your computer,
see Chapter 4, “Installing and Using Application Programs,” for
instructions. (If you are a new Macintosh user, you should complete
“Learning the Basics” before installing application programs.)
IMPORTANT If you need to turn off your computer at any point, read the
instructions in “Turning the Computer Off” later in this chapter to learn the
correct procedure for turning off your Macintosh PowerBook computer.
14
Chapter 1
Learning the basics
If you are new to the Macintosh, you should begin by looking at the easy-touse program called the Macintosh Tutorial. The tutorial teaches you the basic
skills you’ll need to use your computer. To start the tutorial, follow these
steps:
1
Move your finger on the trackpad to move the arrow pointer (8) on the screen.
Place your index finger on the trackpad and your thumb on the trackpad
button. Don’t press the trackpad button yet.
Move your finger across the trackpad, watching the arrow on the screen.
Notice that the arrow on the screen moves in the same direction that you
move your finger on the trackpad.
Trackpad
Trackpad button
The trackpad is sensitive not only to the direction you move your finger, but
also to how fast you move your finger. If you want the pointer to move a short
distance across the screen, move your finger slowly across the trackpad. The
faster you move your finger, the farther the pointer moves on the screen.
Getting Started
15
Tips for using the trackpad
For best results when using the trackpad, keep in mind these tips:
m Use your index finger (left or right hand). Use only one finger.
m Use only your finger on the trackpad (and be sure your finger is dry).
Do not use a pen or any other object.
m Sometimes humidity or condensation may cause moisture to gather
on the trackpad. If this happens, gently wipe the trackpad with a
clean cloth before you use it.
m You can use the trackpad to click and drag. For instructions, see
“How do I use the trackpad to click and drag?” in the “Customizing
Your Computer” topic area of Mac OS Guide, available in the
Guide (h) menu.
2
Move your finger on the trackpad so that the tip of the arrow (8) points to the question
mark in the upper-right portion of the screen.
3
With the tip of the arrow (8) on the question mark, press and hold down the trackpad
button.
A list of choices (called a menu) appears. This is the Guide (h) menu, which
is the place to go when you have a question about how to use your computer.
4
While holding down the trackpad button, move the arrow (8) until the words “Macintosh
Tutorial” are highlighted, then release the trackpad button.
A window appears welcoming you to the tutorial. You can set aside this book
for now and follow the instructions you see on the screen. When you have
completed the tutorial, return to this book.
16
Chapter 1
Reviewing the basics
You can use the following illustrations to review the elements you use on your
screen to do work with your computer.
Icons
Menu
Window
Control Strip
Menus
The strip across the top of the screen is called the menu bar. The symbols and
words in it represent menus of commands. To open a menu, place the pointer
on the symbol or word for the menu and press the trackpad button.
Guide menu
To find an answer to a question,
look in the Guide (h) menu.
Application menu
You can have several
application programs open
at once. To see which program
is active or to switch from one
program to another, use this
menu (called the
Application menu).
Getting Started
17
Icons
Icons are small pictures that represent disks, programs, documents, and
folders. You can double-click any icon to open it and see what it contains.
This icon represents your computer’s internal hard disk.
Icons like this one represent application programs, which you use to create
documents and do other work.
Icons like this one represent documents, which you can create and edit.
Icons like this represent folders. A folder contains other icons.
To throw away an item you no longer want, drag it to the Trash icon and choose
Empty Trash from the Special menu.
Windows
Windows are boxes that display text, graphics, or icons. To change the shape
or position of a window, or to close the window, use the elements shown here.
Close box
To close a window,
click the close box.
Title bar
To move a window, drag it by the middle of the title
bar (anywhere in the bar except the small boxes).
Scroll arrow
To bring hidden portions
of a window’s contents into
view, click one of the four
scroll arrows.
To make a partially
covered window
active, click
anywhere in it.
18
Chapter 1
Size box
To change the shape or size of
a window, drag the size box.
Control Strip
The Control Strip gives you a quick and easy way to monitor and update your
PowerBook’s power management options and other useful features. For
instructions on using the Control Strip, see “How do I use the Control Strip?”
in the “Customizing Your Computer” topic area of Mac OS Guide, available
in the Guide (h) menu.
Reviewing the Guide menu
The Guide (h) menu is your main source of information when you’re
working with your computer. The menu is identified by a question
mark (h) in the upper-right corner of the screen.
Getting Started
19
Using Mac OS Guide to get answers to your questions
When you have a question while working with your computer, you can get the
answer by choosing Mac OS Guide from the Guide (h) menu.
1
Pull down the Application menu (in the upper-right corner of the screen) and choose
Finder to make it the active application program.
A checkmark in the menu indicates that the Finder is the active program.
2
Pull down the Guide menu (marked with the h icon) and choose Mac OS Guide.
The Mac OS Guide window appears.
Whenever you use Mac OS Guide, its window remains in front of other
windows. If the window gets in your way, you can move it by dragging its
title bar (the gray bar across the top of the window).
20
Chapter 1
3
Notice the three buttons at the top of the window: Topics, Index, and Look For.
Mac OS Guide gives you three ways of finding information:
m Topics lets you choose from a list of general subjects; it is like the table of
contents in a book.
m Index lets you choose from an alphabetical list of more specific subjects; it
is like the index in a book.
m Look For lets you search for information related to a specific word or
phrase that you type.
If you have problems while using Mac OS Guide, see “Tips for Using Mac OS
Guide” later in this chapter.
Getting answers with the Topics button
1
In the Mac OS Guide window, click the Topics button.
A list of general topics appears on the left side of the Mac OS Guide window.
(Depending on the hardware and software you have, the list of topics may
look different.)
Getting Started
21
2
Click “Customizing Your Computer” in the list of topics.
When you click any topic area, a list of related questions appears on the right
side of the Mac OS Guide window.
To get instructions,
click a question…
…and then click OK.
3
Click the question “How do I set the time and date?” and then click OK. Or double-click
the question.
A small window appears with instructions for you to follow.
If you want to
return to the main
Mac OS Guide
window, click here.
4
Click here to see the next
step (if there is one).
Read and follow the instructions in this window.
Mac OS Guide provides step-by-step instructions to answer the question you
selected. When you have completed each step, click the right arrow in the
lower-right corner to see the next step.
5
When you have completed all the steps, click the Topics button in the lower-left corner to
return to the main Mac OS Guide window.
Try the other ways of finding information in Mac OS Guide also: Use the
Index button to display a list of keywords, and use the Look For button to
search for a word or phrase that you enter.
22
Chapter 1
Tips for using Mac OS Guide
Here are a few tips for using Mac OS Guide effectively:
m Mac OS Guide is available only when you are in the Finder—the
desktop area where you can see the icons of disks, folders, and files.
(Other programs may also have help available in the Guide menu,
however.) If you don’t see Mac OS Guide in the Guide menu, pull
down the Application menu (to the right of the Guide menu) and
choose Finder.
m Follow the steps when you’re instructed to; don’t skip ahead or read
ahead. That way the computer can check to make sure you’ve done a
step correctly.
m Unlike most windows, the Mac OS Guide window stays in front of
other windows on the screen so that your instructions are never
covered. If you need to move the Guide window out of the way, drag
it by the title bar at the top of the window.
You can also move the window out of the way by clicking the zoom
box. Click the box once to shrink the window; click it a second time
to expand the window to its original size.
m If you need more information about an instruction or a term, click
the button labeled “Huh?” to get further explanation. (The “Huh?”
button is dimmed when no additional information is available.)
m If you want to return to the main Mac OS Guide window, click the
Topics button in the lower-left corner of the Guide window.
m When you’re finished using Mac OS Guide, click the close box in the
upper-left corner of the window.
Close box
Title bar
Zoom box
Topics button
“Huh?” button
Right arrow
Getting Started
23
Turning the computer off
Always use one of the following methods to shut down the computer. If you
don’t, you risk losing any work you haven’t previously saved on a disk. You
also risk losing any open documents.
Turning the computer off with the Power key
To turn the computer off, press the Power key. Detailed instructions follow.
1
If the computer is in sleep, press the Power key (or any key on the keyboard except Caps
Lock or the trackpad button) to wake it.
For information on the sleep feature of your Macintosh PowerBook, see
“Putting the Computer to Sleep,” next.
2
Press and hold the Power key for about two seconds.
The following dialog box appears on the screen:
3
24
Chapter 1
Press the Return key on the keyboard (or click the Shut Down button in the dialog box).
Turning the computer off with the Shut Down command
You can also turn your computer off by using the Shut Down command in the
Special menu. Follow these steps:
1
If the computer is in sleep, press the Power key (or any key on the keyboard except Caps
Lock or the trackpad button) to wake it.
2
Move the tip of the arrow to the word “Special” at the top center of the screen.
If the word “Special” does not appear at the top of the screen, you’re not
working in the Finder. Choose Finder from the Application menu at the
far-right end of the menu bar.
3
With the tip of the arrow on the word Special, press and hold down the trackpad button.
4
While holding down the trackpad button, move the arrow until the words “Shut Down”
are highlighted. Then release the button.
Trouble? If a problem with the computer prevents you from using the Power
key or choosing Shut Down—for example, if the computer “freezes” so that
the pointer does not respond to the trackpad—you can turn off the computer
by pressing the reset button on the back of the computer. Use this method
only if you cannot choose Shut Down or Restart when you press the Power
key, or if you cannot choose either command from the Special menu.
Getting Started
25
Putting the computer to sleep
Sleep is a power conservation feature of Macintosh PowerBook computers,
reducing the amount of power the computer draws when it’s not being used.
When the computer is in sleep, it has a darkened screen and appears to be off.
A small green light flashes on the top of the display case when the computer
is in sleep. (Note: The computer must be on in order for you to put it to sleep.)
To put the computer to sleep, do this:
1
Press and hold the Power key for about two seconds.
A dialog box appears.
2
Click the Sleep button.
WARNING Once you put your computer to sleep, listen for the hard disk
to stop spinning before you move your Macintosh PowerBook. Moving
your Macintosh PowerBook with the hard disk spinning can damage
your computer.
Other ways of putting your computer to sleep
m You can choose the Sleep command from the Special menu to put your
computer to sleep.
26
Chapter 1
m You can also put your computer to sleep by closing the display.
When the computer is in sleep, a small green light flashes in the upper-right
corner of the display.
After closing the display, be sure to check that the sleep light is blinking (at
the top-right edge of the display). If you don’t see the blinking light, open the
display and use the Control Strip or the Special menu to put the computer in
sleep.
Note: You may notice that the computer sleeps when the display is not closed
completely. Sleep is initiated by a magnet-controlled switch that may engage
before the display is flush with the lower part of the computer’s case. Also,
you may need to open the display to an angle of about 45 degrees to
disengage the sleep switch. (Then press any key, except Caps Lock or the
trackpad button, to wake the computer.)
Sleep indicator
For information on other ways of putting the computer to sleep, see the
“Batteries & Power” topic of Mac OS Guide, available in the
Guide (h) menu.
Getting Started
27
Automatic sleep
If you don’t use the computer for several minutes, it goes to sleep
automatically. This conserves battery power.
To wake the computer, press any key on the keyboard (except Caps Lock or
the trackpad button). The screen reappears as it was before the computer
went to sleep.
Note: If the display is partly or fully closed, open it about halfway (to an
angle of 45 degrees) and press a key to wake the computer.
You can control the automatic sleep feature. For more information on sleep
and automatic sleep, see the “Batteries & Power” topic of Mac OS Guide,
available in the Guide (h) menu.
Restarting a computer that’s already on
You need to restart your computer—turn it off and back on again—when you
want to make certain changes to settings, use a newly installed system
software file, or start up the computer using a different disk.
You may also need to restart if you see a “system error” message on the
screen (indicating a temporary software problem). In this case, use the
trackpad to click the Restart button that appears.
Follow these instructions to restart your computer:
1
Press and hold the Power key for about two seconds.
A dialog box appears.
28
Chapter 1
2
Click the Restart button.
You can also do this to restart:
m Choose Restart from the Special menu.
If the Special menu does not appear in the menu bar, you’re working in the
wrong program. Click anywhere on the desktop to return to the Finder.
When you choose Restart, the computer prompts you to save your work,
closes all open programs, and restarts itself.
Restarting using either of the methods outlined above does not affect your
RAM disk (if you created one) or its contents.
Trouble? If a problem with the computer prevents you from using the Power
key or choosing Restart—for example, if the computer “freezes” so that the
pointer does not respond to the trackpad—you can turn off the computer by
pressing the reset button on the back of the computer. Use this method only if
you cannot choose Shut Down or Restart from the dialog box that appears
when you press the Power key, or if you cannot choose either command from
the Special menu.
Getting Started
29
Read this chapter for information
on using expansion bay
modules and PC Cards.
2
Using Expansion Bay Modules and PC Cards
Using expansion bay modules
The floppy disk drive and the optional CD-ROM drive in your Macintosh
PowerBook are removable modules, which you can easily switch or replace
with another module. The place in your computer where modules go is called
the expansion bay. When no module is installed in the expansion bay, you can
use it to store an extra battery for your computer.
You can switch modules or remove a module while the PowerBook is turned
off or in sleep. All expansion bay modules are inserted and removed in the
same way.
To protect your work and to be sure that the computer recognizes which
module is in use, follow these precautions for removing or switching
expansion bay modules:
m Verify that the computer is in sleep or has been shut down.
m Before removing a module, first quit any programs that may be using files
on the disk in that module. Then drag the disk’s icon to the Trash or select
the icon and choose Put Away from the File menu.
IMPORTANT Don’t switch modules while the computer is starting up. Also take
care not to remove a module if a floppy disk or CD-ROM disc is inserted and
in use.
31
Removing an expansion bay module
To remove an expansion bay module from your Macintosh PowerBook, follow
these steps:
1
Quit any application programs or files that are using the floppy disk or compact disc
(CD) or other medium inserted in the expansion bay module.
Remember to save your work.
2
If a floppy disk or CD is inserted in the module, click its icon to select it and drag its icon
to the Trash (or choose Put Away from the File menu).
You should not remove the module if a disk is in use. If you have any other
kind of optional expansion bay module, make sure you drag the icon for its
media to the Trash or select the icon and choose Put Away from the
File menu.
3
Shut down the computer or put it in sleep.
Choose Shut Down or Sleep from the Special menu or use the Control Strip’s
sleep section.
4
Unlock the expansion bay module by sliding the module release latch on the bottom of
your Macintosh PowerBook in the direction of the arrow.
To unlock the module, slide and hold the latch
on the underside of the computer.
The figure above shows a floppy disk module. Your PowerBook may have a
CD-ROM drive installed in the expansion bay. (For more about the CD-ROM
drive, see “Using a CD in the CD-ROM Drive” later in this chapter.)
32
Chapter 2
WARNING If you remove a module while using the power adapter, be
careful not to tilt the computer on end or let its weight rest on the
adapter’s connector.
5
While holding the latch open, grasp the module by its gripping surface and pull it out of
the computer.
1 Slide and hold the latch on
the underside of the computer.
2 Hold the module
by the gripping surface and
pull it completely out of the computer.
IMPORTANT You should not remove an expansion bay module if it is in use or
you may lose data. If you try to remove the module when it is in use, you’ll
see a message telling you to reinsert it. Reinsert the module, quit any files
or programs that may be using the floppy disk or CD (or other medium
inserted in the module), and then drag the disk’s icon to the Trash or choose
Put Away from the File menu. Then put the computer in sleep (or shut it
down) and remove the module.
Using Expansion Bay Modules and PC Cards
33
Inserting an expansion bay module
Follow these steps to insert an expansion bay module:
1
Make sure the computer is in sleep or shut down.
2
Slide the module in until you hear it click into place.
Make sure the gripping surface is facing down. Use a smooth motion but don’t
move the module too slowly. (The computer may not recognize the module if
you insert it very slowly.)
The latch clicks closed when the module is in place.
Insert the CD-ROM drive module
all the way in until it clicks.
Check to see if the latch
returns to the right.
The figure above shows a CD-ROM drive. Follow the same procedure to
insert any expansion bay module.
Using a CD in the CD-ROM drive
Many PowerBooks have the optional CD-ROM drive installed in the
expansion bay at the factory. If you have a CD-ROM drive, you insert or
remove it in the same way as any other module.
34
Chapter 2
Inserting a disc
To load a compact disc in the drive, follow these steps:
1
Start up the PowerBook, if it’s not already on.
2
Press the Open button to open the tray of the CD-ROM drive.
The tray opens.
(If the tray doesn’t open, a disc may already be in the drive. Drag its icon to
the Trash to open the tray. You’ll see a message if the disc is in use.)
3
Place a CD-ROM disc in the tray, with the label facing up.
Make sure the disc is lying flat in the tray.
1 Push the
Open button.
2 Insert the disc,
label side up.
4
Push the tray in to close it.
Using Expansion Bay Modules and PC Cards
35
Note: When the CD-ROM drive is in use, you may notice some vibration as
the compact disc spins rapidly. Certain discs can cause the drive to vibrate
because they have heavily inked artwork or a label that creates an imbalance
as the drive spins.
Some vibration is not unusual for a high-speed CD-ROM drive. To minimize
vibration from unbalanced compact discs, do not put labels on your CDs. In
addition, place the computer on a flat, solid surface when using the
CD-ROM drive.
Ejecting a disc
Follow these instructions to open the tray and eject a CD-ROM disc from
the drive:
1
Open the tray.
There are several ways to open the tray of your CD-ROM drive.
If a CD-ROM disc icon appears on your screen:
m Select the disc icon on your screen and drag the icon to the Trash.
m Click the disc icon and choose the Put Away command in the File menu.
m While the CD player’s window is active, choose Eject CD from the File
menu, or simultaneously press the x and E keys.
If no CD-ROM disc icon appears on your screen:
m Press the Open button on your CD-ROM drive.
2
Take the disc out of the tray.
Store your disc in a safe place, away from heat, dust, and moisture.
3
Push the tray in to close it.
To avoid possible damage to the tray or the drive, keep the tray closed when
you are not using it.
36
Chapter 2
Using PC Cards (PCMCIA cards)
PC Cards (also known as PCMCIA cards) are about the size of a thick credit
card and have a 68-pin connector at one end. They come in many varieties,
such as fax/modem cards, mass-storage cards, Ethernet connection cards, and
wireless communication cards. You can use PC Cards to expand your
Macintosh PowerBook’s capabilities.
This section tells you how to insert and eject PC Cards and provides
examples for setting up your communications software with a PC Card
modem. For information on using PC Cards, see the “Using PC Cards” topic
area of Mac OS Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu.
Inserting a PC Card
Your Macintosh PowerBook has two PC Card slots: an upper slot and a lower
slot. You can insert a card into either slot, or you can use both slots
simultaneously.
There are three types of PC Cards. The different types refer to the thickness
of the card. A Type I card is 3.3 millimeters (mm) thick, a Type II card is
5 mm thick, and a Type III card is 10.5 mm thick. Make sure you check the
documentation that came with your PC Card to verify that it is compatible
with your Macintosh PowerBook.
You can place a Type I or Type II card in either the upper or lower slot. You
can place a Type III card only in the lower slot. When a Type III card is in the
lower slot, you cannot use the upper slot. You may find it useful to get in the
habit of always using the lower slot to make sure the card you are using is
properly inserted.
IMPORTANT You cannot use an SRAM storage card (also called a flash RAM
card) as a startup disk on your PowerBook. Use SRAM cards for extra storage
only. If you try to use this type of PC Card to start up the computer, you’ll see
an error message. If this occurs, remove the SRAM card before you restart
the computer.
Using Expansion Bay Modules and PC Cards
37
To insert a card, do this:
m Insert the card, connector first and label up, into the slot. Make sure the card is level.
A Type I or Type II PC Card can be inserted in either the upper or lower slot.
A Type III PC Card must be inserted in the lower slot.
38
Chapter 2
You’ll feel some resistance as you slide the card in. When the card is firmly
seated, you hear a click. Use a smooth motion but don’t move the card in too
slowly. (The computer may not recognize the card if you insert it very slowly.)
An icon for the PC Card appears on the desktop.
You are now ready to use the card.
Ejecting a PC Card
Your computer must be on or off in order to eject a PC Card. You cannot eject
a PC Card when the computer is in sleep.
IMPORTANT Before you eject a card, make sure that nothing is blocking the
card’s slot. If you want to use the card again immediately, pull it out about an
inch more and then push it back in. (If you don’t follow this procedure and
you try to push the card back in to use it again, the card will not engage
properly.)
To eject a PC Card when the computer is on, follow these steps:
1
If the computer is in sleep, press the Power key (or any key on the keyboard except Caps
Lock or the trackpad button) to wake it.
2
Click the PC Card’s icon to select it.
3
Drag the card’s icon to the Trash.
In a few seconds the computer ejects the card partway.
4
Grasp the card and pull it out of the slot.
IMPORTANT Do not pull on a PC card before it has been ejected out of the
slot. Forcing a PC Card out of the slot may damage your computer or card.
Using Expansion Bay Modules and PC Cards
39
Other ways to eject a card
When the computer is turned on, you can also do any of the following:
m Click the card’s icon to select it, pull down the File menu, and choose Put
Away. After the card is ejected, pull it out of the slot.
m Click the card’s icon to select it, pull down the Special menu, and choose
Eject PC Card. After the card is ejected, pull it out of the slot.
To eject a PC Card when the computer is on or turned off, follow these steps:
m Press the eject button next to the slot containing the PC Card you want to
eject. (The eject buttons do not work if your computer is in sleep.) If the
card is not in use, it will be ejected.
Note: When the computer is on, this method of ejecting works for a PC Card
modem only.
Press the eject
button next to the slot
that contains the PC Card.
40
Chapter 2
If you can’t eject a card
If you are unable to eject a card, follow these steps:
1
Straighten one end of a paper clip.
2
Insert the end of the straightened paper clip into the hole next to the slot that contains
the card. Press gently but firmly until the card is ejected.
If you can’t eject a card,
insert the end of a
straightened paper clip
into the hole next to the slot.
This hole is for the upper slot.
This hole is for the lower slot.
3
Pull the card out of the slot.
Using Expansion Bay Modules and PC Cards
41
Using a PC Card modem
When you are using a PC Card modem, make sure you do the following:
1
Install the communications software you want to use.
PC Card modems work with your communications software by accessing a
feature of your Macintosh PowerBook’s software called the Communications
Toolbox. Your software must support the Communications Toolbox in order to
use PC Card modems. If you’re not sure whether or not your communications
software supports the Communications Toolbox, contact the software’s
manufacturer.
See the documentation that came with your communications software for
instructions on setting up a PC Card modem. Check to see if PC Card modem
files for your software were included.
Modem files for some communications programs come on your Macintosh
PowerBook’s hard disk or the CD-ROM disc that came with your computer.
The instructions for setting up your modem with these application programs
are given in the sections below. You can get other modem files from the
manufacturer of your communications software. You can use the instructions
in these examples as guidelines for setting up your PC Card modem with
other types of communications software.
2
Insert the PC Card modem.
When a PC Card modem is inserted, the following icon may appear on the
desktop:
Some card manufacturers may use a custom icon.
42
Chapter 2
3
Plug your modem into a working phone line.
4
Follow instructions for setting up your modem with the communications software you
are using.
Using Apple Remote Access with a PC Card modem
Apple Remote Access uses modem files (sometimes called connection scripts
or CCLs) to get the best performance from some modems. Follow these steps
to select your modem file:
1
Insert your PC Card modem.
2
Open the Remote Access Client application program.
If you need to install the software, open the Installer program or the Install
Remote Access Client icon and follow the instructions on the screen.
3
Open the Remote Access Setup control panel by choosing it from the Setup menu or
from the Control Panels folder in the Apple menu.
The following screen appears:
Select the modem you are using here.
Select the slot your PC Card
modem is inserted in here.
4
Choose your modem from the Modem pop-up menu.
If your PC Card modem is not listed, check in the ARA Connection Files
folder (inside the PC Card Modem Files folder in the Apple Extras folder on
your hard disk). If the file for your modem appears, drag it to the Extensions
folder (inside the System Folder). If the file for your modem is not listed, try
using an existing modem file from the pop-up menu (such as a different
model from the same manufacturer). If this doesn’t help, you may need to get
a connection script from your PC Card modem’s manufacturer.
Using Expansion Bay Modules and PC Cards
43
5
Choose the port that your PC Card modem is in.
You should see either the upper or lower PC Card slot listed. If you don’t,
make sure your modem is properly inserted. If you insert the PC Card
modem in the other slot, you need to reselect the modem port.
Using Apple Telecom and Fax Terminal with a PC Card modem
To use the Apple Telecom and Fax Terminal software with a PC Card modem,
follow these steps:
1
Insert your PC Card modem.
2
Open the Fax Terminal program by choosing it from the Apple menu.
If Fax Terminal is not in the Apple menu, you need to install the Apple
Telecom software, which is on the CD-ROM disc that came with your
computer.
3
Choose Preferences from the Fax menu.
A dialog box appears in which you indicate the type of modem and modem
port you’re using.
44
Chapter 2
4
Choose the type of PC Card modem you have in the pop-up menu on the upper left.
5
Choose the slot your modem is in from the pop-up menu on the upper right.
6
Change any other settings you want in the dialog box and click OK.
Then prepare and send your fax.
Configuring other software for use with a PC Card modem
Always be sure to specify the location of a PC Card modem when you
prepare to use software with it. Many programs are preconfigured for a
modem connected to the printer/external modem port, and you must change
that setting before you can make a successful connection.
Using Expansion Bay Modules and PC Cards
45
Read this chapter for information on
expanding your computer system
with additional hardware.
3
Connecting Additional Equipment
and Changing BookCovers
The illustration below shows where equipment should be connected to your
Macintosh PowerBook. In most cases, you should refer to the manuals that
came with your equipment for instructions on connecting it. Always shut
down your Macintosh PowerBook before you connect any cable other than
the power adapter.
BookCover
- Sound output port
¯ Power adapter port
√ Sound input port
Expansion port
g SCSI port (HDI-30)
V Apple Desktop
Bus (ADB) port
´ Printer/External
Infrared window
modem port
47
Additional information is provided in this chapter for adding the following
devices to your computer system:
m printers
m external modems
m SCSI devices
m external monitors
m sound input and output devices
m a security cable and lock
m exchangeable cover panels
m additional memory
Connecting a printer
The modem/printer port on your computer can accept either a direct
connection (to a printer such as a StyleWriter) or a network connection (to a
printer such as a LaserWriter).
To connect a printer directly to your Macintosh PowerBook using the
printer/external modem port, follow these steps:
1
Connect your printer as instructed in the manual that came with your printer and install
any software necessary to use the printer.
2
Open the Chooser from the Apple (K) menu.
3
Turn off AppleTalk by clicking the Inactive button in the AppleTalk section.
4
On the left side of the Chooser (in the upper section if you see two areas on the left),
select the type of printer you want to use.
5
On the right side of the Chooser, select the printer/modem port.
The printer is ready to use.
48
Chapter 3
Connecting an external modem
You can use a PC Card modem in your computer’s PC Card slot. For
information on connecting and using a PC Card modem, see the
documentation that came with your modem, “Using a PC Card Modem”
in the section “Using PC Cards (PCMCIA Cards)” in Chapter 2 of this
manual, and the “Using PC Cards” topic area of Mac OS Guide, available in
the Guide (h) menu.
You can also connect an external modem to the printer/external modem port
on the back panel of the computer.
To connect an external modem, follow these steps:
1
Make sure the computer is in sleep or shut down.
2
Connect the modem to a power source and to the phone line.
3
Make sure the modem is turned off.
4
Connect the modem cable to the port marked with this icon:
5
Turn on the modem.
6
Wake or restart the computer.
7
Make sure AppleTalk is turned off in the Chooser.
8
To use the modem with telecommunications software, be sure to indicate that the
modem is connected to the printer/external modem port in that software’s setup
procedure.
The external modem is ready to use.
Connecting Additional Equipment and Changing BookCovers
49
Connecting SCSI devices
A SCSI device is any product—including hard disk drives, CD-ROM drives,
and scanners—that communicates with your computer by means of a
standard electronic interface. (SCSI stands for Small Computer System
Interface.) You can attach up to six SCSI devices to your computer by linking
them together in a chain that starts at your computer’s SCSI port.
To connect a SCSI device to your Macintosh PowerBook, you need an Apple
HDI-30 SCSI System Cable or equivalent. This cable is light gray, is about 19
inches long, and has 29 pins in the small end that connects to the PowerBook
(one “missing” corner pin).
Refer to the manuals that came with your SCSI devices for instructions on
installing any necessary software, setting SCSI ID numbers, and connecting
SCSI cables and SCSI terminators. Refer to the illustrations on the next page
for the proper positioning of SCSI terminators. A SCSI chain of devices must
include a terminator attached to the first and last devices in the chain (but
nowhere else in the chain). Some devices include internal terminators. Your
Macintosh PowerBook is not internally terminated.
The names and the part numbers of the cables mentioned in this chapter are
the following:
Type of connection
Name of part
Part number
From your computer to
a SCSI device
Apple HDI-30 SCSI System Cable
M2538
From SCSI device to
a SCSI device
Apple SCSI Peripheral Interface Cable
M0207
For SCSI disk mode
Apple HDI-30 SCSI Disk Adapter Cable
M2539
To connect an
external monitor
PowerBook Video Adapter Cable
M3927
WARNING When connecting SCSI equipment, always turn off power to
all devices in the chain, including your computer. If you don’t, you
could lose information and damage your equipment.
50
Chapter 3
Where to add cable terminators when connecting a single SCSI device:
Connecting one SCSI device
Terminator
HDI-30 SCSI System Cable
Terminator
(If this SCSI device has an internal
terminator, omit this external terminator.)
Where to add cable terminators when connecting two or more SCSI devices:
Connecting more than one SCSI device
Terminator
(If this SCSI device has an internal terminator, omit this external terminator.)
HDI-30 SCSI
System Cable
SCSI Peripheral Interface Cables
Terminator
(If this SCSI device has an internal terminator, omit this external terminator.)
Using your Macintosh PowerBook as a hard disk
You can purchase a cable called the Apple HDI-30 SCSI Disk Adapter that
lets you connect your Macintosh PowerBook to another computer as a hard
disk. The PowerBook appears on the desktop of the other computer as a hard
disk icon, and you can transfer information between the computers by
dragging files. This feature is often called “SCSI disk mode.”
The Apple HDI-30 SCSI Disk Adapter cable is dark gray, is about 10 inches
long, and has 30 pins in the small end that connects to the PowerBook.
WARNING Follow the steps for connecting and using SCSI devices
carefully to avoid losing information and damaging your equipment.
Connecting Additional Equipment and Changing BookCovers
51
Connecting your computer as a hard disk
Before making any connections, you need to assign a unique SCSI ID
number to the PowerBook. The unique ID number allows the computer to
communicate with several connected devices. The ID number preset at the
factory is 2. If you have another SCSI device with that number, you must
change the ID number on it or in the PowerBook Setup control panel.
IMPORTANT If you want to use your PowerBook as the “controlling” computer
(with another PowerBook connected as a hard disk), be sure to see the special
information about SCSI disk mode in the Powerbook 1400 Read Me file on
your computer’s hard disk.
1
Choose Control Panels from the Apple (K) menu of your PowerBook.
2
Open the PowerBook Setup control panel.
3
In the SCSI disk mode section of the control panel, click the ID number you want
to assign.
If you are connecting the Macintosh PowerBook to an existing SCSI chain,
make sure to give it an ID number different from those of the other devices.
(Many devices include an ID number indicator on the back panel.)
52
Chapter 3
4
Close the PowerBook Setup control panel.
5
Press the Power (on/off) key on the PowerBook once and click Shut Down to turn the
PowerBook off.
6
Shut down the computer you are connecting to and turn off any other devices in the
SCSI chain.
7
Connect the small connector on the Apple HDI-30 SCSI Disk Adapter to the SCSI port on
your PowerBook.
8
If you are connecting the Macintosh PowerBook directly to the other computer (rather
than to an external device in the SCSI chain), attach a SCSI system cable to the other
computer. Make sure you have a terminator connected to the SCSI cable that is attached
to your PowerBook.
9
Connect the large connector on the Apple HDI-30 SCSI Disk Adapter cable to a SCSI
cable attached to the SCSI port on the last device in the SCSI chain, or to the SCSI
system cable on the other computer.
If the last device in the chain has an internal terminator, disconnect the
device and connect the PowerBook in its place.
WARNING Always shut down the PowerBook before connecting or
disconnecting the SCSI disk adapter cable. Connecting the adapter cable
while the computer is turned on can damage the computer.
10
Turn on the PowerBook by pressing the Power key.
After a few seconds a SCSI icon appears on the screen, showing the preset
ID number 2 or the ID number you assigned in step 3. (In some instances the
PowerBook screen may remain blank until the other computer or another
SCSI device is turned on.)
Connecting Additional Equipment and Changing BookCovers
53
WARNING If you do not see the SCSI icon, and the computer starts
normally or displays an error message, press the Power key to shut down
(if you can) and then immediately disconnect your computer from the
SCSI chain. (If you can’t choose Shut Down, try pressing the reset
button. If you cannot shut down your Macintosh PowerBook, you
should disconnect the cable anyway, or you may lose information.) Then
go back and repeat steps 5 through 9, making sure to use the proper
cables.
You cannot have password protection turned on in the Password Security
control panel while using your PowerBook in SCSI disk mode. Turn
password protection off if you experience problems. See “How do I turn
password security on and off?” in the “Setting Options” topic area of
Mac OS Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu.
11
Turn on the other SCSI devices in the chain, if any.
12
Turn on the other computer.
The PowerBook appears as a hard disk icon on the screen of the computer
you connected it to. You can now transfer and use files as if the Macintosh
PowerBook were an external disk drive.
54
Chapter 3
Simplifying the connection process
If you plan to use your Macintosh PowerBook regularly as a SCSI disk
with the same computer, you can leave the SCSI adapter cable attached to the
other computer or its SCSI chain. Make sure a terminator is attached between
the cable and the adapter. When you want to use your PowerBook as a hard
disk, simply shut down all devices and connect the adapter cable to the SCSI
port on your PowerBook.
These cables can stay attached to your
other computer or its SCSI chain.
Terminator
Connect and disconnect your computer here.
HDI-30 SCSI Disk Adapter
WARNING Always disconnect your Macintosh PowerBook from the
adapter cable when you are not using it as a hard disk. Your PowerBook
may not work correctly if the adapter cable remains attached.
Drawing battery power in SCSI disk mode
Your Macintosh PowerBook continues to draw battery power when you use it
as a hard disk. Low battery power is indicated by a blinking low-power
warning on the PowerBook’s screen.
If you see this warning while using your computer as a hard disk, either plug
in the power adapter or quit SCSI disk mode, as described in the next section,
so you can remove the battery for recharging.
Connecting Additional Equipment and Changing BookCovers
55
Quitting SCSI disk mode
1
Shut down the computer your PowerBook is connected to.
2
Press the Power (on/off) key once to turn the PowerBook off.
Occasionally the PowerBook may not shut down (the pointer freezes on the
screen). If this happens, press the reset button on the back panel to turn off
the computer.
3
Turn off any other SCSI devices in the chain.
4
Disconnect the PowerBook from the adapter cable.
If you plan to connect your PowerBook regularly to the same computer, you
can leave the adapter cable attached to the SCSI chain or the other computer.
IMPORTANT Do not leave the adapter cable attached to the PowerBook. If you
do, the computer may behave as though it is still in SCSI disk mode when you
try to restart.
5
If necessary, disconnect the adapter cable from the other computer or its SCSI chain.
Your equipment is now ready for normal use. If you disconnected the adapter
cable from the other computer or SCSI chain, make sure that the SCSI chain
is properly terminated.
56
Chapter 3
Connecting an external monitor
Your PowerBook has an expansion slot in which you can install an optional
video card for connecting an external monitor.
An external monitor connected to your computer can function as an extension
of your PowerBook’s built-in screen—that is, you can drag objects from one
screen to another and do your work on either one. Or you can show the same
image on both screens.
To connect an external monitor, you need to install a video card in the
expansion slot. For instructions on installing a video card or other card in the
expansion slot, see Appendix C.
You also need the PowerBook video adapter cable, which is available from
your Apple-authorized dealer. Contact your Apple-authorized dealer to
purchase a video card and adapter cable and for information on which
monitors are compatible with your PowerBook.
Note: The video port transmits either 8-bit or 16-bit video signals, depending
on the type of expansion card you use.
Your PowerBook also supports most VGA and SVGA monitors. To connect a
VGA or SVGA monitor, you need an additional adapter cable, which should
come from the same source as the monitor.
To connect an external monitor, follow these steps. Also consult the
documentation that came with the monitor.
1
Press the Power (on/off) key once to get the Shut Down dialog box.
2
Click Shut Down or Sleep.
If you connect a monitor with your computer turned on, the computer will
not recognize the monitor.
Connecting Additional Equipment and Changing BookCovers
57
3
Place the monitor where you will be using it.
Keep the computer and the monitor at least 8 inches apart. Interference
between the monitor and your computer’s floppy disk drive can cause errors
on your floppy disks.
Floppy disk drive
8 inches minimum
Arrange the monitor so the top of the screen is slightly below eye level while
you work. Position the monitor to minimize glare and reflections on the
screen from lights and windows.
4
Make sure the monitor’s power cord is attached to the monitor. Then plug the other end
into a grounded outlet or power strip.
If your monitor’s power cord is designed to plug into the power receptacle on
the back of a computer, rather than into an electrical outlet, you can obtain a
cord with the correct plug from your Apple-authorized dealer.
If you are using a power strip, make sure it is turned on.
58
Chapter 3
5
Make sure the monitor cable is attached to the monitor. Then attach the other end of the
monitor cable to the PowerBook’s video adapter.
Video port
Video adapter
Monitor cable
6
Attach the video adapter to the video port (marked with the icon ™) on the computer’s
back panel.
7
Turn on the external monitor.
8
Press the Power (on/off) key to turn on your computer. (You can press any key if your
PowerBook is in sleep.)
The external monitor is automatically activated.
Trouble?
m Nothing happened when you tried to turn on the PowerBook.
Make sure that all your equipment is connected properly, then try pressing
the Power (on/off) key again.
Make sure that the battery is charged, or that the power adapter is plugged
into both the computer and an electrical outlet. If you are using a power
strip, make sure it is turned on.
m The computer is on, but the external monitor is dark.
Make sure that the monitor’s power cord is connected and its power switch
is on. Try adjusting the monitor’s brightness and contrast settings. If this
doesn’t work, try restarting your computer.
Connecting Additional Equipment and Changing BookCovers
59
Working with an external monitor
For information on displaying the menu bar on the external monitor or using
an external monitor for presentations, see the “Monitors” topic of Mac OS
Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu.
Note: The screen-dimming feature in the PowerBook control panel turns the
screen brightness down to a low level when you haven’t used the computer for
a few minutes. (You can think of dimming as “screen sleep.”) Dimming also
affects the external monitor. When you move your finger on the trackpad or
press a key on the keyboard, the brightness is restored on both screens. For
more information on screen dimming, see the “Batteries & Power” topic of
Mac OS Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu.
Disconnecting an external monitor
1
Make sure your computer is shut down or in sleep.
2
Make sure your monitor is switched off.
3
Disconnect the video adapter from the video port on the computer’s back panel. The
video port is marked with this icon: ™.
Press the small buttons on both sides of the connector to remove the video
adapter from the port.
Press here to remove the adapter.
60
Chapter 3
Connecting sound input and output devices
Your computer has a built-in microphone. For information on using the
microphone to record sounds, see the “Sound” topic of Mac OS Guide,
available in the Guide (h) menu.
Microphone
Your Macintosh PowerBook also has a stereo sound input port (marked with
the √ icon) for connecting external sound input devices that provide linelevel output. This port accepts a standard stereo miniplug like that used to
attach headphones to a portable tape player. You cannot use the internal
microphone and an external sound input device at the same time. For
instructions on selecting a sound device in the Monitors & Sound control
panel, see the “Sound” topic of Mac OS Guide, available in the
Guide (h) menu.
The Macintosh PowerBook also has a stereo sound output port (marked with
the - icon) to which you can connect externally powered speakers, an
amplifier, headphones, or other audio output devices. The sound output port
accepts a standard stereo miniplug, like that used to attach headphones to a
portable tape player.
Connecting Additional Equipment and Changing BookCovers
61
Connecting other devices
For instructions on connecting a device not discussed in this chapter—for
example, an external input device (such as a mouse) or networking
hardware—refer to the manuals that came with the device.
Attaching a security cable and lock to the computer
You can purchase a security cable and lock to protect your Macintosh
PowerBook. With a lock, you can secure your computer to a desk or table.
(Removable parts of the computer, such as the battery and disk drive in the
expansion bay, are not secured by a lock attached to the security slot on the
computer’s back panel.)
Security slot
Sample locking device
with security cable
See your Apple-authorized dealer or computer retailer for details on what
security devices are available.
Note: You can protect the contents on your hard disk by turning on password
protection in the Password Security control panel. For information on using
the Password Security control panel, see Mac OS Guide, available in the
Guide (h) menu.
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Chapter 3
Changing BookCovers on the computer’s case
Your Macintosh PowerBook comes with a removable panel, the BookCover,
on the top of the case (behind the display when the computer is open).You
can remove this panel and replace it with a different color. The computer
comes with one clear panel and one graphite-colored panel.
You can use the clear panel and put artwork under it to personalize your
computer or to keep track of meetings and appointments. A set of BookCover
inserts came with your computer—use these to make your PowerBook
stand out.
Removing a BookCover
Follow these steps to remove a BookCover.
1
Slide the latch to the left and open the display approximately 1 to 2 inches.
Slide the switch to the left to open the display.
Connecting Additional Equipment and Changing BookCovers
63
2
While holding the latch open by its downward-pointing hook, grasp the panel on the top
with your fingers and slide it toward you until it disengages from the case.
You can anchor one thumb (the one not holding the latch open) on the front
edge of the display case and push backward with it as you pull the BookCover
with your fingers.
When the panel disengages (after moving about half an inch), you can release
the latch hook.
1 Push and hold the latch all the way to the left.
2 Then slide the panel off.
3
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Chapter 3
Slide the panel away from the case and set it aside.
Adding an insert
Follow these steps to remove a panel and replace it with another panel.
1
Remove the BookCover as described in the previous section.
2
Place the insert on the plastic case and position it as you’d like it displayed.
Be sure the insert is not too thick for the BookCover to fit over it easily.
If the insert is smaller than the BookCover’s area, you may want to use a
small piece of tape to hold the insert in place.
Replacing a BookCover
Follow these steps to replace a BookCover.
1
Align the BookCover’s bottom edges with the grooves in the sides of the display case
and gently slide the BookCover toward the back of the computer. Stop when the two tabs
at the center of the BookCover reach the rear part of the display case.
Make sure the tabs slide into the slots.
Connecting Additional Equipment and Changing BookCovers
65
2
Make sure that the BookCover’s center tabs and the two shorter side tabs are all
positioned so that they will fit into the openings on the rear part of the display case.
It’s important to position the BookCover carefully to avoid breaking one of the
tabs when the cover snaps into the case. You may want to change the angle of
the display to see whether the tabs are in the proper position.
3
Move the latch hook to the left and hold it open with one thumb. Use your fingers to push
the BookCover backward until it snaps into place.
1 Push and hold the latch all the way to the left.
2 Then push the new panel all the way in and release the latch.
If any of the tabs is showing, hold the latch hook open and remove the
BookCover. Then realign the tabs and slide the cover into place.
4
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Chapter 3
Release the latch hook when the cover is in place.
Creating your own BookCover inserts
In addition to the set of printed inserts that came with the computer, you can
use the template on your hard disk to create new inserts. See the instructions
in the template’s folder for more information about using the template.
Examples of inserts you might make with the template include
m a weekly appointment calendar and To Do lists
m your latest digital art
m a travel itinerary, with key contact information and a small map
m a cartoon or comic strip (perhaps with weekly episodes)
m notes for a presentation
m a “cheat sheet” for procedures you tend to forget, such as how to set up for
sending a fax or how to connect to an information service you don’t use
often
m outline art for your children to color (and the finished pictures)
You’re likely to find other templates for BookCover inserts on popular
shareware forums or as supplements to commercial software.
Of course your inserts don’t have to come from the template. All sorts of
things would look good under the BookCover, including
m family pictures
m logos or insignias for your favorite club, sports team, or school
m a collage of colorful scraps and images
m assorted business cards
Connecting Additional Equipment and Changing BookCovers
67
Adding memory to your computer
Your Macintosh PowerBook comes with at least 12 MB of RAM. You can
increase your computer’s memory by adding a RAM expansion card. You can
find out how much memory your computer has by choosing About This
Macintosh from the Apple (K) menu in the Finder.
You can purchase memory upgrades from Apple-authorized dealers. For
complete instructions on installing a RAM expansion card, see Appendix C.
Your Macintosh PowerBook also supports virtual memory, a feature that
makes use of hard disk space to provide additional RAM. Your computer was
developed to take advantage of the virtual memory feature and comes with
virtual memory turned on.
For information on using virtual memory, see the “Memory” topic area of
Mac OS Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu.
Using infrared file transfer
Your Macintosh PowerBook has a built-in infrared (IR) window that can send
and receive files. You can exchange information with another PowerBook that
has IR capability or with a desktop computer that’s using an external IR
module.
To transfer files, your computer and the other IR device must be within 3 feet
of each other, with their IR windows facing. You use the Apple IR File
Exchange program, on your computer’s hard disk, to send and receive files.
Complete instructions for using the software are provided in the Apple IR File
Exchange Guide (available in the Guide [h] menu when IR software is the
active application).
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Chapter 3
Read this chapter for information on
installing and using application
programs on your computer.
4
Installing and Using Application Programs
Your PowerBook comes with some great software already installed that
includes such features as:
m hard disk password protection
m file exchange using the infrared window
m file synchronization
m DOS and Windows file compatibility
m Internet access
m productivity programs, including ClarisWorks and Claris Organizer
m fax transmission
m remote access to another Macintosh
Some of this software is already on your computer’s hard disk; some programs
and additional sample files are on the CD-ROM disc that came with your
PowerBook.
Using PowerBook Highlights
You can learn more about the software provided with your computer from an
icon on the hard disk called PowerBook Highlights. PowerBook Highlights
includes a short explanation of selected application programs on the hard
disk, as well as tips for handling files and working efficiently on battery
power.
69
To get started with your software, follow these steps:
1
Open the Macintosh HD icon (if necessary).
A window similar to this appears.
Important
information about
your PowerBook
A lively tour of the
computer’s hardware
The files used to
start up and control
your computer
An introduction to the
computer’s features
and software that also
provides tips and
service and support
information
Folders with the preinstalled
software and related information
A simple word-processing
program
2
Double-click the PowerBook Highlights icon.
If you don’t see a PowerBook Highlights icon, you can find a duplicate copy
on the CD that came with your computer.
If headings are not
displayed to the left of the
image (as in this figure),
click to display them.
Click the right or left
arrow to go forward
or back in the content.
Click a heading to see
the information for
that topic.
Use the topic headings (on the left in the figure) to see the information you
want. Use the arrows at the top of the window to move forward or back in
the content.
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Chapter 4
3
When you’re finished, choose Quit from the File menu to leave PowerBook Highlights.
IMPORTANT If you delete the PowerBook Highlights icon, you have not
deleted your preinstalled software. (Most of the software is in the
Applications folder on your computer’s hard disk.)
Getting help for application programs
Some application programs that come on your PowerBook (such as File
Assistant and Apple IR File Exchange) are documented in their own Apple
Guide online help systems. Follow these steps to see if a program has an
Apple Guide help system:
1
Open the application program.
2
Open the Guide (h) menu.
If an item appears in the Guide menu for your application program, choose it.
If an item does not appear, then there is no Apple Guide online help for that
program.
Installing and Using Application Programs
71
Installing application programs
You’ll probably want to buy and install additional application programs. Refer
to the manuals you receive with your programs for instructions on installing
and using them.
In most cases, you install application programs onto your internal hard disk
from a CD-ROM disc or from floppy disks that you receive as part of an
application program package. The following illustration shows how to insert a
floppy disk in the floppy disk drive.
Insert the disk metal end first, label side up.
(For information about using a compact disc to install programs, see “Using a
CD in the CD-ROM Drive” in Chapter 2.)
Working with several programs at a time
You can open as many application programs and desk accessories as your
computer’s memory allows.
All open programs are listed in the Application menu at the right end of the
menu bar. The name of the active program (the one you’re using right now)
has a checkmark next to it, and its icon appears in the menu bar.
The Finder icon
Commands to hide or
display open windows
A checkmark indicates
the active program
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Chapter 4
Open programs
Finding out which programs are open
If you have several programs and windows open, you can find out which
program is active and which other programs are open by pulling down the
Application menu.
Switching programs
You can switch to another open program or desk accessory by choosing its
name from the Application menu.
If a program’s icon is dimmed in the menu, that means its windows are
hidden. Choosing the program from the Application menu displays its
windows.
You can also switch to another program by clicking in a window that belongs
to an open program, or by double-clicking a program icon (or the icon of a
document that was created with the program).
Hiding and showing windows on the desktop
You can hide all windows except those of the active program by choosing
Hide Others from the Application menu.
The other programs remain open even though their windows are hidden.
When you switch to another program, its windows become visible again.
If you want to see all the open windows, choose Show All from the
Application menu.
Installing and Using Application Programs
73
Backing up your files
Making backup copies of important files is good protection against possible
damage to the originals.
Backing up and restoring system software and preinstalled programs
m You can make a set of backup floppy disks for the core system software on
your hard disk by using the Floppy Disk Maker application program. This
program and the disk image files it uses are in the System Backup folder,
inside the Apple Extras folder on your hard disk. Instructions for using
Floppy Disk Maker are in Appendix D.
m The CD-ROM disc that came with your computer contains disk images of
the complete system software and all application programs that were
preinstalled on your computer’s hard disk. You can make backup floppy
disks from these images using the Floppy Disk Maker application program.
(See Appendix D for instructions on making backup floppy disks.)
m If the System Folder on your hard disk is damaged, you can reinstall that
essential software from disk images on the hard disk or on the CD that
came with your computer. See “Reinstalling the Mac OS System Software”
in Chapter 7 for instructions.
m The CD that came with your computer also contains a program for
restoring the complete system software and all preinstalled application
programs from the disk images on the CD. See the document
“CD – Important Information” on the CD for instructions.
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Chapter 4
Tips for backing up all types of files
m You can back up an entire floppy disk by copying it to another floppy disk
or to a hard disk.
m You can use a commercial backup program to copy new and changed files
from a hard disk to another hard disk, to a tape drive, or to a series of
floppy disks.
m If your computer is on a network, you can back up files by copying them to
a shared disk on the network.
m You can back up files by copying them from one computer to the other
using SCSI disk mode. (See “Using Your Macintosh PowerBook as a
Hard Disk” in the “Connecting SCSI Devices” section in Chapter 3 for
more information on this procedure.)
Using “native” application programs
Your computer is compatible with nearly all application programs intended
for use with Macintosh computers. But certain programs are designed
especially for computers with PowerPC microprocessors. (These are
sometimes called “native” applications.) You’ll find that these programs take
best advantage of your computer’s speed.
Special memory requirements
Some native programs may be slightly larger than other programs and may
take up more memory. If you find that you are running out of memory when
you use programs designed for PowerPC microprocessors, you can use space
on your computer’s hard disk as additional memory. This feature is called
virtual memory. Your computer was developed to take advantage of the virtual
memory feature and comes with virtual memory turned on. For instructions
on how to use or increase hard disk space as memory, see the “Memory” topic
of Mac OS Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu.
You can also add more memory to your computer, as described in Appendix C.
Installing and Using Application Programs
75
Shared libraries
Native programs use special files called shared libraries. These files help the
programs to run more efficiently and can be used by more than one native
program simultaneously. Any necessary shared libraries are installed
automatically in the System Folder when you install native programs.
If a native program requires a shared library and there is not enough memory
available for the shared library, you’ll see a message that the program could
not be opened because of insufficient system memory. If this happens, see the
“Memory” topic of Mac OS Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu, for
instructions on turning on virtual memory.
If a required shared library is missing, you’ll see a message that the program
could not be opened because the shared library could not be found. If this
happens, follow the directions that came with your program to reinstall the
program. If the shared library is still missing, contact the program’s
manufacturer for assistance.
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Chapter 4
Read this chapter for
information about your
Macintosh PowerBook’s battery.
5
Power Management
Power sources
Your computer can draw its operating power from two sources.
m Main battery Your computer came with a nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH)
battery. This battery typically provides power for 2–4 hours of work time.
Exact work time depends on the Macintosh PowerBook model you have
and the battery conservation features you use.
m AC power You can run your computer from a grounded electrical outlet by
plugging in the power adapter.
These power sources are described in more detail in the following sections.
Monitoring the battery charge
There are three ways you can determine the charge level of your battery:
m See low-power messages on your display.
m Look in the battery monitor portion of the Control Strip.
m Look at the battery level icon next to the clock in the menu bar.
77
Responding to low-power messages
When the battery runs low, the computer displays a series of low-power
messages. The work time remaining after you see the first message varies
depending on how you are using the computer. It’s a good idea to act
promptly.
What you should do
When you see a low-power message, you should do the following:
m Plug in the power adapter, or
m Save your work and put the computer to sleep. Then
m Replace the empty battery with a charged one within two minutes.
IMPORTANT Always save your work when you see a low-power message.
What you should know
When the first low-power message appears, the screen dims automatically to
save power.
If you continue to work without plugging in the power adapter or changing
the battery, the computer displays a second low-power message and the screen
dims further.
The second message is followed by a third and final message indicating that
the computer is about to put itself to sleep or shut down. Within a few
seconds, the computer goes to sleep automatically to protect the contents of
RAM. All activities are interrupted. It’s a good idea to save your work when
you see the first two low-power messages to make sure you don’t lose
information.
If you continue working until the computer goes to sleep automatically, you
can wake it again as soon as you plug in the power adapter or replace the
battery with a charged battery.
If you can’t plug in the power adapter, the contents of RAM are retained in
sleep for about a day (as long as you don’t remove the battery).
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Chapter 5
IMPORTANT Recharge a depleted battery as soon as possible. Leaving a
depleted battery in the computer for a length of time (especially in a hot
location, such as the trunk of a car) may damage the battery so that it can’t
be recharged. If this happens, you need to replace the battery.
Using the Control Strip to monitor battery charge
The Battery Monitor portion of the Control Strip shows the current power
source and the approximate amount of charge left in your battery.
This icon indicates
the current
power source.
This icon indicates the rate at
which power is being drained
from the battery.
These indicators show the
approximate amount of charge
remaining, based on current
battery conservation settings.
For more information, see the question “How do I check the battery power
level?” in the “Batteries & Power” topic area of Mac OS Guide, available in
the Guide (h) menu.
Using the battery icon
The battery icon in the menu bar tells you the charge left in your battery.
The amount of black in the icon
indicates the charge level.
When a lightning bolt appears
in the icon, the battery is charging.
Power Management
79
Recharging the battery
To recharge the battery, plug in the power adapter. Do not use an external
recharger designed for another Macintosh PowerBook model.
Use only the power adapter that came with your computer or a recharger
designed specifically for this model.
¯ Power adapter port
Power cord
Power adapter plug
Power adapter
A lightning bolt icon appears in the battery monitor portion of the Control
Strip when the power adapter is plugged in and a battery is recharging.
The battery is recharged regardless of whether you are using the computer or
the computer is off or in sleep, so long as you use the adapter that came with
your computer.
Note: A battery recharges only in the battery compartment, on the left side of
the computer’s front panel. Although you can store a battery in the expansion
bay (on the right side of the front panel), the battery cannot be charged there.
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WARNING Use only the power adapter that came with your computer.
Adapters for other electronic devices (including other portable
computers) may look similar, but they may damage your computer.
The correct power adapter for your PowerBook 1400 series computer
supplies 45 watts of power (model number M4896). Adapters for older
models of the PowerBook provide lower wattages.
Removing or replacing the battery
To remove or replace the battery, follow these steps:
1
Save your work and then shut down the computer, put it to sleep, or plug in the
power adapter.
2
Close the display.
3
Push and hold the latch beneath the battery.
1 Slide and hold the latch to the right.
2 Slide the battery out.
4
While holding the latch open, pull the battery out of its compartment.
Power Management
81
5
Put the battery cap on the battery to protect the battery contacts.
Always snap the battery
cap on the battery when the
battery is out of the computer.
WARNING Always put the battery cap over the metal contacts when the
battery is not in the computer. If the battery’s metal contacts are not
covered, a short circuit could occur, creating a safety hazard.
6
If you are inserting another battery, remove the battery cap from the new battery to
expose the contacts. Then slide the battery into the battery compartment.
You can replace the battery with another NiMH battery. Make sure you only
use a battery that is designed for your Macintosh PowerBook. Store the
battery cap in case you want to remove and transport the battery later.
You can store an extra battery in the expansion bay if no module is installed
there.
7
If you just inserted a new battery, it’s a good idea to plug in the power adapter in case
the battery is not fully charged.
IMPORTANT Nickel-metal-hydride batteries contain metals that are hazardous
when released in the environment. It is inappropriate, and in some cases
unlawful, to throw batteries away with your household or business trash.
Instead of throwing away your spent batteries, dispose of them as described
here.
m In the United States Return spent batteries to your Apple-authorized service
provider, who will make sure they are included in Apple’s battery recycling
program.
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Chapter 5
m Elsewhere Many locations have government or Apple-sponsored collection
or recycling programs for spent batteries. Dispose of spent batteries in
accordance with the mandatory or voluntary battery collection programs
in your location. Contact your Apple-authorized service provider for
information about the recommended disposal procedures in your area.
Maximizing work time
Your Macintosh PowerBook’s battery typically provides 2–4 hours of work
time before you need to recharge. The actual work time available depends on
which model of Macintosh PowerBook you have, what equipment you’re
using with your computer, and what steps you take to conserve power while
you work.
Models with a CD-ROM drive are likely to get less total work time from the
battery than models without that drive.
Note: The CD-ROM drive consumes slightly less power if a compact disc is
in the drive when the drive is not in use. This is because the computer
continually checks the empty drive, which uses a small amount of power.
For battery conservation tips, see the “Batteries & Power” topic of Mac OS
Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu.
Power Management
83
Chapter 6
Tips and Troubleshooting
Chapter 7
Diagnostic Techniques
II
part
Consult this chapter if you have
questions or experience
problems using your computer.
6
Tips and Troubleshooting
When you have questions
If you want to know how to do a particular task with your computer, refer to
Mac OS Guide in the Guide (h) menu. For instructions on using Mac OS
Guide, see Chapter 1 of this manual. If the suggestions in this chapter and
Mac OS Guide don’t solve the problem, go to Chapter 7 for instructions on
some general diagnostic techniques.
When you run into trouble
While you’re using your computer, you may see a bomb icon or an error
message, or you may have a problem such as the pointer (8) “freezing” on the
screen. If you have trouble with your computer, take a few minutes to read the
information in this chapter and Chapter 7. If your problem is related to a
particular procedure, you should also look for information on that procedure
in Mac OS Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu. If you are unable to
access Mac OS Guide (for example, if your screen is “frozen”), refer to this
chapter to see if you can resolve the problem.
This chapter and Chapter 7 describe solutions to problems you may
experience with your computer. If the suggestions in these two chapters don’t
solve your problem, contact a local Apple-authorized service provider or call
the Apple Assistance Center. (See the service and support information that
came with your computer for the telephone number.) If your problem is with
third-party software or equipment, please call the software or equipment
manufacturer for help.
87
Problems starting up the computer
The computer doesn’t start up.
m The battery may need recharging. Plug the power cord into a working
outlet and then plug the power adapter into the computer. Let the battery
recharge for a few minutes.
m Check that the power cord is plugged into a working outlet. If it’s plugged
into a power strip, make sure the power strip is turned on. The power
adapter should get warm after being plugged in for 10 minutes. If it is cold,
make sure the adapter is securely plugged in and attached to the power
cord.
m The screen brightness may be turned down. Adjust the brightness control
(marked with the icon ¤) and contrast control (O), located to the right of
the display.
m Make sure the battery is properly seated in its compartment.
m Press the reset button on the back panel.
Reset button
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Chapter 6
The computer makes an unusual sound at startup.
m If you hear four tones, start up the computer with the Disk Tools disk that
came with your computer. If the computer does not start up, or if the hard
disk icon does not appear, the hard disk may need repair. Contact an
Apple-authorized service provider or call the Apple Assistance Center. If
the hard disk icon does appear, see Chapter 7.
m There may be a problem with the information stored in the area called
parameter RAM (PRAM) and nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM).
Resetting the PRAM and NVRAM erases the contents of your RAM disk,
if you have one. It also reverts the settings on most of your computer’s
control panels to their defaults (original, standard settings). You may want
to check the settings in your control panels for memory, networking, and
monitors, and any aspect of your work that seems affected after you reset
the PRAM and NVRAM.
Follow these steps to reset the PRAM and NVRAM:
1. Shut down your computer.
2. Make sure the Caps Lock key is not engaged.
3. Position the fingers of your left hand on these keys: Command (x),
Option, and R. Locate the P key, so you can find it quickly for step 4.
4. Press the Power key (marked with “on/off”) to turn on your computer.
Immediately after you hear the startup sound, press and hold down the
Command (x), Option, and R keys at the same time as you press and
hold down the P key.
5. When you hear the startup sound repeat twice, release the keys, then
immediately press and hold down the Shift key to start up with your
Extensions turned off. Release the Shift key when you see the message
“Extensions Disabled” during startup.
If you don’t see the “Extensions Disabled” message, wait until startup is
complete, then press and hold down the Shift key while you choose
Restart from the Special menu. Continue to hold down the Shift key
until the message appears.
Tips and Troubleshooting
89
6. Open the System Folder, then open the Preferences folder.
7. Drag the Display Preferences icon to the Trash.
8. Restart your computer without holding down the Shift key.
The computer starts up with your Extensions turned on again.
9. When the computer has finished starting up, restore any custom control
panel and network settings.
m If you hear eight tones, there may be a problem with a RAM expansion
card. If you installed a RAM expansion card in your computer, check
Appendix C to make sure the card is properly installed. If you purchased
an expansion card from a third-party manufacturer, contact the
manufacturer for help.
See also “The Computer Makes Unusual Sounds” in the section “Other
Problems While Working” later in this chapter.
The computer starts up, but the desktop doesn’t appear.
m The screen brightness may be turned down. Adjust the brightness control
(¤) and contrast control (O), located to the right of the display.
m There may be a problem with the display of the windows. Restart the
computer and hold down the Option key until the desktop icons appear.
(When the desktop appears, all windows will be closed.)
m The computer may be trying to start up using an external hard disk that
does not contain the correct system software. Shut down, disconnect the
external hard disk, and restart your computer.
m Start the computer, holding down the Shift key until you see the message
“Extensions off” in the Welcome to Macintosh box. If the computer starts
up, turn to Chapter 7 and try the steps given in the section “Checking Your
System Software Extensions.”
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When I start up the computer, I see a message about the system software.
m The system software on the startup disk you’re using may be incomplete or
damaged or may be the wrong version. Make sure you’re using the correct
disk as a startup disk.
m If you’re sure you’re using the correct startup disk, you may need to reinstall
system software. See “Reinstalling the Mac OS System Software” in
Chapter 7.
The computer displays a flashing question mark icon.
m This icon usually means that the computer can’t find system software on
any disks attached to the computer. If the computer is connected to any
external hard disks, make sure they are turned on. Then restart the
computer. If the problem recurs, the hard disk or its system software may
be damaged. See Chapter 7.
m Turn off the computer, disconnect all external devices except the power
adapter, and restart the computer. If the computer starts up, turn to
“Problems with Equipment Connected to Your Computer” later in
this chapter.
The computer freezes or displays an error message during startup.
m Turn off the computer, disconnect all external devices except the power
adapter, and restart the computer. If the computer starts up, turn to
“Problems with Equipment Connected to Your Computer” later in
this chapter.
m Start the computer, holding down the Shift key until you see the message
“Extensions off” in the Welcome to Macintosh box. If the computer starts
up, turn to Chapter 7.
About the codes in error messages: The number codes in error messages are
used in software development. Sometimes they can help a technician narrow
down the source of a problem. However, the codes are usually too general or
technical in nature to help you diagnose a problem yourself.
Tips and Troubleshooting
91
When the computer starts up, a message says there is not enough memory.
m There may not be enough memory to load all the system software
extensions you’ve installed. Restart the computer, holding down the
Shift key until you see the message “Extensions off” in the Welcome to
Macintosh box. Then try the following to increase available memory:
m Reduce the size of the disk cache in the Memory control panel.
m If you use a RAM disk, reduce its size or turn it off in the Memory
control panel.
m Remove some of the system software extensions from the Extensions
folder (inside the System Folder).
You need to restart the computer for these changes to take effect.
m If these suggestions don’t work, you can increase memory by installing a
RAM expansion card in your computer. See Appendix C for information.
The computer won’t restart.
m If the computer freezes, you can try to “force” the program you’re using
to quit by simultaneously pressing the keys Command (x), Option, and
Esc on your keyboard. Then click Force Quit in the dialog box that
appears. (Note: Unsaved changes in your current documents will be
lost.) Immediately save all open documents, quit all other open programs,
and restart the computer.
m Press the reset button on the back panel.
Note: You will lose any work you have not saved.
m If the problem recurs, reset the parameter RAM. (See “The Computer
Makes an Unusual Sound at Startup,” in the section “Problems Starting
Up the Computer” earlier in this chapter.) If the problem still occurs, see
Chapter 7.
Every time the computer starts up, it rebuilds the desktop.
m There may be a folder on your hard disk that has the same name as a file
the computer uses to keep track of information on your disks. Manually
search for a folder named “Desktop” or “Desktop file.” If you find one,
rename it “Storage.” Then restart the computer. (Do not use the Find File
feature to search for the desktop file. It may find it but you may not be able
to access it.)
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When the computer starts up, no icons appear in the windows, and the pointer alternates
between an arrow and a wristwatch, or an empty flashing box appears.
m There is a problem with the display of windows. Restart the computer,
holding down the Option key until the desktop icons appear. (When the
desktop appears, all windows will be closed.)
When I start up the computer, the display lights up for a moment, then shuts down.
m Make sure you are using the correct power adapter for your
computer model.
Problems working with programs
The computer freezes or displays a system error message.
m There may be a temporary software problem. To reset the computer, try the
following suggestions in order until the computer starts up normally:
1. If the computer freezes, you can try to quit the program you’re using by
pressing the keys Command (x), Option, and Esc on your keyboard.
Click Force Quit in the dialog box that appears. (You’ll lose unsaved
changes in that program’s documents.)
Immediately save all open documents and quit all open programs. Then
restart the computer.
2. If you see a message about a system error, press the reset button on the
back of your Macintosh PowerBook to restart the computer.
3. Reset the PRAM. (See “The Computer Makes an Unusual Sound at
Startup” in the section “Problems Starting Up the Computer” earlier
in this chapter for instructions.)
m If the problem recurs, it may involve one or more of your application
programs. See “The Computer Exhibits Odd Behavior, Such as Many
Unexplained System Failures,” next.
About the codes in error messages: The number codes in error messages are
used in software development. Sometimes they can help a technician narrow
down the source of a problem. However, the codes are usually too general or
technical in nature to help you diagnose a problem yourself.
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The computer exhibits odd behavior, such as many unexplained system failures.
m Check for multiple System Folders on your startup disk, using the Find File
command. Throw away extra System Folders (but do not throw away any
System Folders from your RAM Disk Backup folder). The System Folder
that your computer is using has a small computer icon on it.
m Check for viruses on all your disks, using a virus-detection program.
Eliminate any viruses the program finds.
If a problem recurs when you are using a particular program, try the
following:
m Consult the documentation that came with the program to make sure you
are using it correctly.
m Check for multiple copies of the program on your hard disk. Use the Get
Info command to check the programs’ version numbers. Keep one copy
of the latest version and throw away all other copies.
m Reinstall the program from a known good source (such as the original
program disks or the installer disks you made with Floppy Disk Maker).
m Increase the program’s memory. Quit the program, select its icon, choose
Get Info from the File menu, and type a larger number in the Preferred
Size box.
m Contact the manufacturer or vendor of the program to find out whether
the program contains software errors or “bugs” and whether an upgrade
is available.
m Check that the program is compatible with System 7.5. (See the
program’s documentation, or contact the manufacturer or vendor.)
m Make sure your control panels and system software extensions
(especially any that you recently added) are compatible with your
programs. See “Checking Your System Software Extensions” in
Chapter 7.
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A program won’t open.
m The application program may already be open. Check the Applications
menu to see what programs are running.
m There may not be enough memory available to open the program. Quit any
programs you’re not using and try again. If that doesn’t work, try restarting
the computer.
m If the program is on a floppy disk, make sure the disk is unlocked. (You
unlock a disk by sliding the tab at the corner of the disk so that it covers
the hole.)
m The program may be damaged, or it may not be compatible with PowerPC
technology. Check to make sure the software is PowerPC compatible, and
install it from a known good source (such as the original program disks).
m Contact the manufacturer or vendor of the program to see if the program is
compatible with System 7.5.
A program suddenly quits or disappears, or a message says a program has quit.
m There may be a temporary software problem. Restart the computer, then
try opening the program again.
m The program may have run out of memory. See the suggestions in “A
Message Says There is Not Enough Memory,” next.
m If the problem occurs when you are trying to print, there may not be
enough memory for printing.
m Contact the manufacturer or vendor of the program to see if the program
contains software errors or “bugs” and if it is compatible with the version
of system software you’re using.
A message says there is not enough memory.
m There may be a temporary software problem. Save your work, quit all open
programs, and restart the computer. If you can’t use the Restart command,
see the suggestions in “The Computer Freezes or Displays a System Error
Message,” earlier in this section.
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m If you get this message when you are trying to open or use a program,
follow these steps:
1. Choose About This Macintosh from the Apple (K) menu. Take note of
the number in the “Largest Unused Block” section. This number tells
you how much memory is available to open programs.
2. Quit the program if it’s open, select its icon, and choose Get Info from
the File menu. Take note of the numbers in the Minimum Size and
Preferred Size boxes.
3. If the number in the Minimum Size box is larger than the largest unused
block, not enough memory is available to use this program. To free
memory, quit open programs or restart the computer. You can also type
a smaller number in the Minimum Size box if you want to open the
program using less memory. But some programs don’t work well if you
assign them less memory.
4. If the number in the Preferred Size box is smaller than the largest
unused block, you may need to assign more memory to the program. (A
program may need more memory if you are working with complex
documents.) Type a larger number in the Preferred Size box.
m If you frequently want to open more programs than memory allows, try
the following:
m Use the Memory control panel to reduce the size of the disk
cache or remove or reduce the size of your RAM disk.
m Install a RAM expansion card in your computer. See Appendix C for
instructions.
When I try to open a document, a message says the program can’t be found.
m The document may have been created with a program that is not on your
hard disk, or with a different version of the program.
m You can also open a document from within a program by using the Open
command in the File menu. For more information, see the documentation
that came with your programs.
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m If you know the correct program is on your hard disk, there may be a
problem with the information that the computer uses to keep track of files.
Restart the computer and hold down the Command (x) and Option keys
until you see a message asking if you want to rebuild the desktop. Release
the keys and click OK.
Note: If you have Macintosh Easy Open installed, you must use the
Extensions Manager control panel to turn off all extensions except the
Macintosh Easy Open control panel before you follow the steps given
above to rebuild your desktop.
A window has disappeared.
m Another open window may be covering the one you’re looking for. Move,
resize, close, or hide windows until you see the one you want.
m The program the window is associated with may be hidden. Choose Show
All from the Application menu and then click the window you want, or
choose the program from the Application menu.
Other problems while working
The screen went blank.
m Screen dimming may be on. Move the pointer to restore the screen’s
brightness. You can adjust the interval before screen dimming takes effect,
or you can turn screen dimming off, using the PowerBook control panel.
m The computer may have gone to sleep. Press the Power key (or any key
except Caps Lock or the trackpad button) on the keyboard to wake it.
m The battery may be drained. Install a charged battery, or plug in the power
adapter and let the battery charge for a few minutes. Then try to wake or
start up the computer.
The computer won’t wake from sleep when I press a key.
m If the display is closed or partly closed, open it to an angle of at least 45
degrees. Then press any key (except Caps Lock or the trackpad button) to
wake the computer.
m You may be pressing a key that doesn’t wake the computer—the trackpad
button or Caps Lock key. Try pressing a different key.
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Some icons look different from usual.
m There may be a problem with the information that the computer uses to
keep track of files. Restart the computer and hold down the Command (x)
and Option keys until you see a message asking if you want to rebuild the
desktop. Release the keys and click OK.
Note: If you have Macintosh Easy Open installed, you must turn off all
extensions except the Macintosh Easy Open control panel before you
follow the steps given above to rebuild your desktop.
m You may be using a file-compression program to save space on your hard
disk. Some compression programs change the appearance of icons.
When trying to open or move a font file, I see an error message.
m The font file may be damaged. To remove damaged font files, follow
these steps:
1. Drag the Fonts folder out of the System Folder.
2. Restart the computer.
3. Open the Fonts folder that you dragged out and drag undamaged fonts to
the System Folder icon. Click OK in the dialog box.
4. Throw away the old Fonts folder.
5. Reinstall the damaged font from the original disk.
An icon is blinking in the menu bar.
m A program needs attention. Open the menu and choose the program whose
icon is blinking (it may have a diamond by its name). Respond to any
messages on the screen. If it’s not clear what you should do, consult the
documentation that came with the program.
A file can’t be thrown away.
m The file may be locked. Select the file’s icon, choose Get Info from the File
menu, and click the Locked checkbox to remove the X. You can delete
locked files that are in the Trash by holding down the Option key while
you choose Empty Trash from the Special menu.
m An application program may be using the file. Close the file or quit
the program.
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m If the file is on a floppy disk, the disk may be locked. Unlock the disk by
sliding the tab so that it covers the hole at the corner of the disk.
m The file may be in a shared folder that can’t be changed. You can throw
away the file by turning off file sharing temporarily (click Stop in the
Sharing Setup control panel). Or you can select the shared folder, choose
Sharing from the File menu, and uncheck the box labeled either “Can’t be
moved, renamed, or deleted” or “Same as enclosing folder.”
The computer makes unusual sounds.
m A program may need your attention. If an icon is blinking in the menu bar,
open the menu, choose the program whose icon is blinking (it may have a
diamond by its name), and take the necessary action.
m Open the Easy Access control panel (if it is installed on your computer)
and check whether any features are turned on.
m Select a different system sound in the Monitors & Sound control panel.
m The computer speaker periodically turns itself off to save power.
Sometimes this causes a clicking or popping noise. This sound is normal.
m If the sounds are regular or melodic, they may be caused by interference
from electrical equipment. Move the computer farther away from any such
equipment.
See also “The Computer Makes an Unusual Sound at Startup” in the section
“Problems Starting Up the Computer” earlier in this chapter.
I can’t access some of the memory on my computer.
m All computers set aside some memory for system overhead. Macintosh
PowerBook 1400 series computers set aside about 300K of RAM.
m If you want to open more programs than memory allows, you can use the
Memory control panel to decrease the size of the disk cache, or remove or
decrease the size of the RAM disk (if you’re using one). You can also have
a memory expansion card installed in your computer.
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Problems with hardware
Floppy disk drive
I can’t eject a floppy disk.
m The disk may be stuck. Restart the computer, holding down the button on
your trackpad. If the disk is not ejected, you can eject it manually.
Carefully insert the end of a straightened paper clip into the small hole
near the disk drive’s opening, and push firmly until the disk is ejected.
Insert the end of a
large, straightened
paper clip into
this hole.
I can’t save or copy files onto a floppy disk.
m The disk may be locked. Unlock it by sliding the tab at the corner of the
disk so that it covers the hole.
m The disk may be full. Throw away items on the disk that you no longer
need, or save the files on a different disk.
m The disk or disk drive may be damaged. Test it with Disk First Aid (on the
Disk Tools disk that came with your computer).
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Hard disk drive
The computer won’t start up from the internal hard disk, or the hard disk icon doesn’t
appear on the desktop.
m There may be a temporary software problem. Turn off the computer, wait
at least 10 seconds, and then turn it on again.
The hard disk keeps stopping and starting again.
m The hard disk may be going to sleep to conserve power. Use the
PowerBook control panel to change the power conservation settings.
The computer is using the wrong disk as a startup disk.
m Open the Startup Disk control panel and make sure the correct disk is
selected. Then restart the computer.
m If you’re trying to start up from an external hard disk, the computer may
not be recognizing the disk. See “Problems with Equipment Connected to
Your Computer,” later in this chapter.
m There may be a problem with your startup disk or with its system software.
See “Testing Your Hard Disk” in Chapter 7.
m Try resetting the PRAM to reestablish the original startup settings for the
computer.
Trackpad
The pointer won’t move.
m A program may be doing some work. Wait a few moments and then
try again.
m A temporary software problem may have caused the computer to “freeze.”
See “The Computer Freezes or Displays a System Error Message” in the
section “Problems Working With Programs,” earlier in this chapter.
The pointer sticks or jumps when I use the trackpad.
m Make sure to use only one finger on the pad and that your finger is dry.
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Keyboard
Typing on the keyboard produces nothing on the screen.
m Make sure the program you’re using is set to accept text input. Usually you
need to set an insertion point or select some text before typing. If you’re
using a communications program, you may need to turn on the “local
echo” setting.
m Open the Easy Access control panel and make sure Slow Keys is
turned off.
m Open Key Caps in the Apple (K) menu and check whether the computer is
recognizing keyboard input. If so, the keys in the Key Caps window will
darken when keys are pressed on the keyboard.
A key won’t stop repeating.
m Open Key Caps in the Apple (K) menu. If any keys in the window are
darkened, keys may be stuck down on your keyboard. This problem is
sometimes related to an incorrectly installed RAM expansion card. Review
the RAM card installation instructions in Appendix C.
PowerBook display
The screen went blank.
m Screen dimming may be on. Move the pointer to restore the
screen’s brightness.
m The computer may have gone to sleep. Press any key (except Caps Lock or
the trackpad button) on the keyboard to wake it.
m The battery may need recharging. Plug in the power adapter, let the
battery charge for a few minutes, and then try to wake or start up the
computer again.
The screen flickers.
m Adjust the brightness control (¤) and the contrast control (O).
m Open the Monitors & Sound control panel and set the computer to display
fewer colors or grays.
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m If tilting the display affects the flickering, there may be a loose cable.
Contact an Apple-authorized service provider, or call the Apple
Assistance Center (listed in the resource materials that came with your
computer).
The computer freezes when screen dimming takes effect.
m Screen dimming does not work with some programs. Open the PowerBook
control panel and turn off screen dimming.
External monitors
The monitor remains dark.
m Shut down the PowerBook. Then make sure the monitor is connected to
the PowerBook, plugged into an active outlet, and turned on. (Most
monitors have a light on the front panel to show whether they are on.)
The monitor is on, but no image appears.
m Screen dimming may be on. Move the pointer to restore the screen’s
brightness.
m Adjust the monitor’s brightness and contrast controls.
m Use the Monitors & Sound control panel to display an identification
number on the monitor. If no number appears, there may be a problem
with the connection, or the monitor may need repair. (See the “Monitors”
topic area of Mac OS Guide for instructions on using the Monitors &
Sound control panel.)
The external monitor does not show the menu bar.
m Use the Monitors & Sound control panel to designate the monitor that you
want to display the menu bar. (See the “Monitors” topic area of Mac OS
Guide for instructions on using the Monitors & Sound control panel.)
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The pointer won’t move from one monitor to another.
m The pointer moves between monitors in the area where the monitor icons
touch in the Monitors & Sound control panel. Open the Monitors & Sound
control panel and check that the positions of the monitor icons match the
positions of the actual monitors. If not, drag the icons until they are
positioned as you want them. (See the “Monitors” topic area of Mac OS
Guide for instructions on using the Monitors & Sound control panel.)
The monitor goes dark after a few minutes.
m Screen dimming may be turned on. Move the pointer to restore the screen’s
brightness. You can change the interval before screen dimming takes effect
in the PowerBook control panel.
The computer freezes when screen dimming takes effect.
m Screen dimming does not work with some programs. Open the PowerBook
control panel and turn off screen dimming.
There is wavy or jittery interference on the external monitor.
m This interference may be generated by a magnetic field. If the monitor is
near another piece of equipment (such as a TV, speakers, or another
monitor), move the monitor away from the equipment.
Printers
The computer can’t find the printer.
m Make sure the printer is connected and turned on.
IMPORTANT Make sure that all equipment is turned off before connecting or
disconnecting cables.
m The printer may not be selected in the Chooser. Open the Chooser and
select the printer you want to use. If the printer is connected to a port,
make sure the correct port is selected.
m Reset the parameter RAM. (See “The Computer Makes an Unusual Sound
at Startup” in the section “Problems Starting Up the Computer” earlier in
this chapter for instructions.) Then select the printer in the Chooser and try
printing again.
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The printer does not appear in the Chooser.
m Make sure you’ve selected the correct kind of printer on the left side of the
Chooser window. For example, if you’re using a StyleWriter II, make sure
to select StyleWriter II, not StyleWriter.
m Use the scroll bars to look through all the selections in the Chooser
windows.
m Check the connections between your computer and the printer, including
relevant sections of the network if appropriate. (See “Problems With
Networks and File Sharing” later in this chapter.)
m Make sure the correct printer software is in the Extensions folder inside
your System Folder.
m If you’re using a network printer, make sure that AppleTalk is active in the
Chooser. If you are using a printer connected directly to your computer,
make sure AppleTalk is inactive.
m If your network has zones, make sure the zone containing your printer is
selected.
Nothing happens, or an error message appears, when I try to print.
m There may not be enough memory for printing. Try the following:
m Quit the program immediately after sending the Print command.
m Increase the amount of memory that PrintMonitor uses. (Quit
PrintMonitor if it’s open, select it, choose Get Info from the File menu,
and type a larger number in the Preferred Size box.)
m Reduce the amount of memory the program uses.
m Make sure the printer is turned on. Some printers need to warm up for a
few minutes after you turn them on.
m The printer may be out of paper or may need attention. Check the printer
status lights and any messages on your screen.
m Open the Application menu. If the PrintMonitor program is there, choose it
and check for status messages.
m Reinstall your printer software.
m Reset the parameter RAM. (See “The Computer Makes an Unusual Sound
at Startup” in the section “Problems Starting Up the Computer” earlier in
this chapter for instructions.)
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SCSI equipment and SCSI disk mode
External SCSI equipment doesn’t work, or a hard disk icon does not appear on the
desktop.
m You cannot use password protection with your PowerBook in SCSI disk
mode. Turn password protection off in the Password Security control panel.
m Check that all cables are connected securely, that the devices are plugged
into working outlets, and that the devices are turned on.
IMPORTANT Make sure that all equipment is turned off before connecting or
disconnecting cables.
m Make sure that you turn on SCSI equipment before you start up the
PowerBook.
m Check that each connected SCSI device has a unique ID number
between 1 and 6.
m Make sure that SCSI cable terminators are correctly positioned. Follow the
instructions in “Connecting SCSI Devices” in Chapter 3.
I can’t turn on the computer after connecting a SCSI device.
m Turn on the SCSI equipment first, and then turn on the computer.
When I start up using SCSI disk mode, the desktop appears.
m You cannot use password protection with your PowerBook in SCSI disk
mode. Turn password protection off in the Password Security control panel.
m When you use SCSI disk mode, the computer should display an icon with a
number in it.
If the computer starts up normally, immediately press the Power key to shut
down (if you can) or press the reset button on the back panel to turn off the
computer. If you don’t, you might damage your information or equipment.
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m Make sure you are using the correct cable for SCSI disk mode. The HDI-30
SCSI Disk Adapter is about 10 inches long, is dark gray, and has 30 pins in
the connector (no “missing” pins). Do not use the HDI-30 SCSI System
Cable, which is light gray, is about 18 inches long, and has 29 pins in the
connector (one “missing” pin). That cable is for connecting SCSI
equipment to your PowerBook.
m Check that all cable connections are secure.
m The PowerBook’s battery may be drained. Plug in the power adapter and
let the battery charge for a few minutes. Then press the Power key on the
PowerBook’s keyboard to restart it, and restart the other Macintosh.
m Start up the other Macintosh with the Disk Tools disk that came with it (do
not use the disk that came with your PowerBook). If the connection works,
then a system software extension on the other Macintosh may be causing
the problem.
When I start up using SCSI disk mode, I see a flashing question mark icon.
m Make sure you are using the correct cable for SCSI disk mode. The HDI-30
SCSI Disk Adapter is about 10 inches long, is dark gray, and has 30 pins in
the connector (no “missing” pins). Do not use the longer, light gray HDI-30
SCSI System Cable.
m Make sure terminators are placed correctly in the SCSI chain. For more
information, see “Connecting SCSI Devices” in Chapter 3.
When I try to shut down with the computer in SCSI disk mode, the pointer freezes and
the computer doesn’t shut down.
m Press the reset button on the computer’s back panel to turn off the
computer.
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Problems with equipment connected to your computer
If a problem occurs while your Macintosh PowerBook is connected to
equipment such as SCSI equipment, external monitor, modem, printer, mouse,
or keyboard, these steps may help you determine the source of the trouble:
1
Shut down or turn off your Macintosh PowerBook and anything that’s connected to it.
Disconnect everything connected to your Macintosh PowerBook (except the power
adapter) and restart it.
Note: If you’re connected to a network, contact your network administrator or
warn other users before disconnecting from the network, because it may
interrupt network services.
If the problem does not recur, it is likely to be related to equipment connected
to your PowerBook.
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2
Shut down the Macintosh PowerBook.
3
Reconnect one device.
4
Make sure that the device is plugged into a working outlet and turned on, if applicable.
5
Start up the Macintosh PowerBook.
6
Repeat steps 2–5 until the problem recurs. The last device you connected may be
causing the problem.
Problems with networks and file sharing
Solutions to common problems
If you are having problems using the network or file sharing, try the following
before attempting further solutions:
m Make sure that AppleTalk is turned on in the Chooser.
m Open the AppleTalk or TCP/IP control panel and make sure the correct
network type is selected.
m Make sure that all the network software is installed. The Network and
AppleShare extensions should be in the Extensions folder. If you want to
use file sharing, the Sharing Setup control panel should be in the Control
Panels folder, and the File Sharing extension should be in the Extensions
folder. If any of these items is missing, use the CD-ROM disc that came
with your computer to reinstall the parts of the system software you need.
m Make sure the network is working by opening the Chooser and checking
for the shared disks and printers you usually use.
m Try connecting to the network from a different location, or connecting a
printer or another computer directly to the PowerBook using network
cables. If that works, the problem is likely to be in the network. If it doesn’t
work, the problem may be in the PowerBook or its network software.
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Solutions to other problems
The computer I want to connect to doesn’t appear in the Chooser.
m Make sure the computer you’re trying to connect to is turned on.
m Make sure file sharing is active on the computer you’re trying to connect to.
(That computer’s Sharing Setup control panel should say that file sharing
is on.)
I connected to another computer, but the shared disk I want to use is not available.
m You may already be connected to the shared disk. Check for its icon on
your desktop.
m You may not have the access privileges you need to use the shared disk.
Ask the network administrator or the owner of the shared item to give you
access. (See the “Sharing Files” topic area of Mac OS Guide, available in
the Guide [h] menu.)
I connected to another computer, but I can’t see any files.
m Make sure that files are being shared on the other computer. The File
Sharing Monitor control panel on that computer lists the items being
shared.
m Make sure you have the access privileges you need to view the files. Ask
the network administrator or the owner of the shared item to give you
access. (See the “Sharing Files” topic area of Mac OS Guide, available in
the Guide [h] menu.)
A message says that a disk can’t be ejected because it’s being shared.
m When you have file sharing turned on, you can’t eject disks (other than
floppy disks) that were connected to your computer when you started it up.
You can eject the disk by turning off file sharing in the Sharing Setup
control panel. After you’ve ejected the disk, you can turn file sharing
back on.
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A message says that file sharing can’t be turned on.
m Make sure AppleTalk is turned on in the Chooser.
m Make sure you have at least 400K of available space on your hard disk.
m Some disk-formatting programs don’t work with file sharing. If you use
such a program, contact the manufacturer or vendor for compatibility
information.
m There may be a problem with some of the information your computer
uses to start up file sharing. Follow these steps in order until the problem
is solved:
1. Open the Sharing Setup control panel and enter new information in the
Owner section. Then try again to turn on file sharing.
2. Remove the File Sharing folder from the Preferences folder (inside the
System Folder). Then restart the computer and try to turn on file
sharing.
3. Reset the parameter RAM. (For instructions, see “The Computer Makes
an Unusual Sound at Startup” in the section “Problems Starting Up the
Computer” earlier in this chapter.) Afterward, make sure to turn
AppleTalk back on and select the correct network type in the Network
control panel.
4. Remove the Users & Groups data file from the Preferences folder
(inside the System Folder). Restart the computer.
5. Reinstall system software.
A message says that an item can’t be shared.
m Make sure you have at least 1 MB of space available on your hard disk.
m Some removable storage devices can’t be shared. Check with the
manufacturer or vendor of the device for more information.
m Some disk-formatting programs don’t work with file sharing. If you use
such a program, check with the program’s manufacturer or vendor.
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The file-sharing section doesn’t appear in the Sharing Setup control panel.
m You may have turned off AppleTalk or file sharing using the Extensions
Manager control panel. Turn them back on.
m If the file-sharing and network software is not in your System Folder, use
the Installer icon in the Launcher to reinstall file-sharing and networking
software. (See “Doing a Custom Installation” in the “Reinstalling the
Mac OS System Software” section in Chapter 7 for more information.)
I can’t open a shared disk or folder.
m You may not have the access privileges needed to use the disk or folder.
Ask the network administrator or the owner of the shared item to give
you access.
m Check with the owner of the item to make sure you are entering your
name exactly as specified by the owner (including spaces and
capitalization) and try again.
Problems with Apple Remote Access
The Remote Access Setup control panel won’t open.
m Make sure that AppleTalk is turned on in the Chooser.
m If you still can’t open the control panel, reinstall the Apple Remote Access
software.
The modem is not listed in the Remote Access Setup control panel.
m Reinstall the modem software. If that doesn’t help, then reinstall the Apple
Remote Access software.
m If you are using a PC Card modem, make sure the modem file for your
modem is in the Extensions folder (in the System Folder). If it is not, check
to see if it’s in the PC Card Modem Files folder (in the Apple Extras folder)
and put the file in the Extensions folder. If you don’t find the file in either
location, contact the modem’s manufacturer to obtain the file.
m Contact the modem manufacturer to see whether your modem can use the
settings for another type of modem.
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The modem didn’t dial the phone number.
m Check that the phone cord is plugged into the computer and into a working
phone line.
m Try dialing the number again. Sometimes there is a temporary connection
problem.
m Quit the program and restart it. Sometimes this procedure solves
temporary problems with the modem.
m Another program may be using the modem. Quit all other programs that
use the modem.
m Try using another communications program. If that works, the problem
may be in the Apple Remote Access software. Reinstall the software.
The modem dialed the phone number, but the connection failed.
m Check that the phone cord is plugged into the computer and into a working
phone line.
m Make sure your modem is plugged into an analog phone line. Do not use a
digital phone line. Digital phone lines can damage your modem.
m Check with your Apple Remote Access administrator to make sure your
version of Apple Remote Access is compatible with the version on the
computer you’re calling. If you’re using a version of Apple Remote Access
later than 1.0, you can use the Remote Access Setup control panel to set
your software to work with version 1.0.
I’m connected via Apple Remote Access but I can’t see any shared disks.
m Open the Chooser and click the AppleShare icon. Shared disks should
appear on the right side of the Chooser. If you still don’t see any shared
disks, and your Chooser has a box labeled Zones, choose a different zone
(some networks don’t have zones).
m If there are still no shared disks, or you can’t connect to the one you want,
contact your Apple Remote Access administrator or the owner of the
computer you want to connect to.
Whenever I try to use Apple Remote Access, a message says it’s not installed correctly.
m This message sometimes appears if AppleTalk is turned off. Make sure
AppleTalk is turned on in the Chooser.
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Consult this chapter before you
call the Apple Assistance Center
to solve problems with system
software and your hard disk.
7
Diagnostic Techniques
This chapter provides a step-by-step approach to diagnosing and solving
problems involving system software and hard disks. Try the steps listed in
each section in the order they are given until your problems are fixed.
Checking your system software extensions
System software extensions are files that add features to your system software.
Some extensions are incompatible with one another or with certain programs.
To check whether an extension is causing problems, follow these steps:
1
Start up the Macintosh PowerBook while holding down the Shift key. Keep it held down
until you see the message “Extensions Disabled” during startup.
This procedure turns off extensions.
If this procedure solves your problem, then continue with this section. If not,
then turn to the next section, “Testing Your Hard Disk.”
2
Reset the parameter RAM (PRAM) and nonvolatile video RAM (NVRAM) by following the
steps below.
When you reset the PRAM and NVRAM, the settings on most of your
computer’s control panels revert to their defaults (original, standard settings).
You may want to check the settings in your control panels for memory,
networking, and monitors, and any aspect of your work that seems affected
after you reset the PRAM and NVRAM.
115
Follow these steps to reset the PRAM and NVRAM:
1. Shut down your computer.
2. Make sure the Caps Lock key is not engaged.
3. Position the fingers of your left hand on these keys: Command (x),
Option, and R. Locate the P key, so you can find it quickly for step 4.
4. Press the Power key (marked with “on/off”) to turn on your computer.
Immediately after you hear the startup sound, press and hold down the
Command (x), Option, and R keys at the same time as you press and
hold down the P key.
5. When you hear the startup sound repeat twice, release the keys, then
immediately press and hold down the Shift key to start up with your
extensions turned off. Release the Shift key when you see the message
“Extensions Disabled” during startup.
If you don’t see the “Extensions Disabled” message, wait until startup is
complete, then press and hold down the Shift key while you choose
Restart from the Special menu. Continue to hold down the Shift key
until the message appears.
6. Open the System Folder, then open the Preferences folder.
7. Drag the Display Preferences icon to the Trash.
8. Restart your computer without holding down the Shift key.
The computer starts up with your extensions turned on again.
If the problem does not recur, it may involve the disk cache, virtual
memory, or file sharing. You may be able to fix the problem by making
the disk cache smaller or using a smaller amount of virtual memory. If
the problem involves file sharing, contact your network administrator to
make sure there are no network problems.
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3
Turn off troublesome extensions using the Extensions Manager control panel.
Tips for locating problem extensions:
m If you recently installed a new item in the System Folder, it may be causing
the problem. If you recently installed a new application program, a new
extension may have been installed along with it. Check for new items in
the Extensions folder and Control Panels folder. Also check for items of the
kind “extension” or “control panel” in the System Folder itself.
m If two of your extensions provide similar features (such as two screen
savers or two clocks), they may be incompatible with each other. Remove
one of the extensions.
m If the computer is freezing or displaying an error message before it finishes
starting up, restart the computer and take note of the icons that appear at
the bottom of the screen. Many extensions display an icon as they start up,
and extensions start up alphabetically. The last extension that displays an
icon, or the one after it alphabetically, may be the problem extension.
4
Turn extensions back on, one extension at a time, in the Extensions Manager control
panel. Restart the computer after turning on each extension and test to see if the
problem recurs.
When you have located the problem extension, remove it from the System
Folder and contact the developer or vendor for compatibility information.
5
Go to the next section if you are still having problems.
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Testing your hard disk
The following steps will help you determine whether you have a problem
with your hard disk or a problem with the system software on your hard disk.
1
Start up your computer from the CD-ROM disc or the Disk Tools floppy disk that came
with your computer.
If you’re starting up from the CD, hold down the x-Shift-Option-Delete keys
as the computer starts up.
If the computer starts up normally, you may have a problem with the system
software on your hard disk. If the computer starts up but you don’t see the
hard disk icon, you may have a problem with the hard disk.
If the computer doesn’t start up normally, you may have a problem with
equipment connected to your PowerBook. See “Problems with Equipment
Connected to Your Computer” in Chapter 6. If nothing is connected, your
computer may need repair. Contact an Apple-authorized service provider, or
call the Apple Assistance Center.
2
Open the Drive Setup icon on the CD or floppy disk.
You may need to look in a folder called Utilities to find Drive Setup.
Note: If you’re using the CD, you can get on-screen help for the Drive Setup
application program by choosing the Drive Setup Guide, available in the
Guide (h) menu when Drive Setup is the active application. The on-screen
instructions are not available when you use Drive Setup on the Disk Tools
floppy disk.
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3
In the list of drives, click the disk you want to test.
4
Pull down the Functions menu and choose Test Drive.
5
When a message tells you that testing is complete, click Quit.
If testing indicates a repair is necessary, use Disk First Aid (available on the
CD or the Disk Tools floppy disk) or another disk repair utility to see if it can
repair the disk
6
If testing indicates that no repair is necessary, but you’re still having a problem with your
computer, go to the next section.
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Reinstalling the Mac OS system software
When should you install system software?
Your computer came with all the necessary Mac OS system software installed
on its internal hard disk, so you don’t need to install system software on that
disk unless you encounter software problems.
If you have a new hard disk or a newly initialized hard disk that doesn’t
contain system software, or if you want to upgrade to a more recent version of
system software on a hard disk, follow the instructions in “Doing a Normal
Installation” later in this chapter.
If you have a problem with your system software, you may see this icon in the
middle of the screen:
If this icon appears, follow the instructions in “Testing Your Hard Disk”
earlier in this chapter to test your startup hard disk and repair any damage.
If repairing the disk doesn’t help, follow the instructions in “Doing a Normal
Installation” to reinstall system software on your startup hard disk.
What if you don’t have system software disks?
Appendix D, “Making Backup Floppy Disks,” describes how to make a set of
system software disks in case your hard disk or some of its contents are
damaged. If you cannot start up your PowerBook from its hard disk, start it
up with the Disk Tools disk that came with your computer. Then follow the
instructions in Appendix D to make a set of system software disks.
If your PowerBook includes a CD-ROM drive or you have an external
CD-ROM drive, you don’t have to make a set of system software disks; you
can reinstall the complete system software (as well as the programs that were
preinstalled on your hard disk) from the CD.
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Doing a normal installation
Follow the steps in this section to do what is commonly called a “normal”
installation of system software.
If you’re installing system software on a new hard disk for the first time, make
sure that your hard disk has been initialized, a process that prepares the disk
to store information. (You initialize a disk using either the Drive Setup
program or the recommended hard disk utility that came with the hard disk.
Your internal hard disk was initialized at the factory.)
To do a normal installation, follow these steps:
1
Start up your computer from the CD that came with your computer or from the first
system software installer disk you made with Floppy Disk Maker (see Appendix D).
If you’re starting up from the CD, hold down the x-Shift-Option-Delete keys
as the computer starts up.
2
Locate the Install Mac OS icon and double-click it.
You see the following screen.
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Next, a screen appears describing the four steps in the installation process.
Step 1: Read important information
Click the first button to read about the installation process, as well as
compatibility and troubleshooting information.
Click here.
Read the onscreen document that appears. Since the onscreen document was
written after this book, it may contain additional information.
When you’re finished reading the document, choose Quit from the File menu
to return to the Install Mac OS screen.
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Step 2: Update your hard disk driver
Hard disks with old drivers might cause problems after reinstalling system
software. Your computer might not start up, or you might not see the hard disk
icons on the desktop. To avoid these problems, it’s a good idea to update your
drivers.
The disk utilities that Apple provides won’t update some disks. You can skip
step 2 if
m You don’t have an Apple hard disk. Check the instructions that came with
your computer or hard disk to see if the manufacturer includes or
recommends a disk utility, and use that utility to update the driver.
m You’ve previously used a disk utility from a manufacturer other than Apple
to format your disk or update the driver. You’ll need to use that utility again
to perform the update. Make sure to get the latest version of the utility
from the manufacturer. An old utility will not be able to update your disk
with the most current driver.
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Click the second button in the main Install Mac OS screen to update your
disk drivers.
Click here.
After you click the second button, you first see a dialog box asking you to
confirm that you can use the provided utilities. Click Continue.
The Drive Setup window appears.
To update your disk drivers, do the following:
1
Select the name of a hard disk attached to your computer.
2
Click Update Driver.
Repeat steps 1–2 to update the drivers on any additional attached disks.
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3
When you’ve finished updating the drivers on all your disks, close the window to quit the
Drive Setup program.
Step 3: Choose a disk for installation
Click the third button to select the disk on which you want to install the
Mac OS.
Click here.
In the dialog box that appears, choose the disk on which you’re going to
install the software. Then click Select.
Choose the destination
disk from this pop-up
menu.
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You see a message if you don’t have 70 MB (the amount necessary for the
standard installation) of available space on the disk you choose. Depending
on the installation options you select, you may need up to 120 MB. If there
isn’t enough space available, you need to remove files from the disk before
installing the software.
Step 4: Install the software
Click the fourth button to install the Mac OS and additional software.
Click here.
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1
In the dialog box that appears, select the software you want to install.
Note: Your screen may look slightly different from the picture below.
Remember to check the information presented in the first step on the main
Install Mac OS screen for late-breaking information. If you’re installing from
floppy disks, you won’t see all the choices available on the CD.
Click to put an X in
the box for each
software product you
want to install.
Recommended
choices are
preselected.
For more information
about custom
installations, see
“Doing a Custom
Installation” later in
this chapter.
You use the Options button to perform a clean
installation. For information, see the next section.
In addition to the Mac OS, you can choose to install the following optional
software:
m QuickDraw 3D, to view and manipulate 3D images on your computer
m MacLinkPlus translators, to easily open documents created in applications
you don’t have with appropriate applications you do have. (These
translators work with the Mac OS Easy Open control panel.)
m Apple Remote Access, to connect to a remote computer on an AppleTalk
network (such as your computer at work) using a modem
m Cyberdog, an application to explore the Internet
m Open Transport PPP software, to connect to the Internet using a modem
m English Text-to-Speech software, to have your computer read text aloud
m QuickDraw GX, for enhanced printing and typographical capabilities
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Installing a customized system: The Install Mac OS program installs the
software recommended for your model of computer. You can use the
Customize option to choose exactly which software to install. For instructions,
see “Doing a Custom Installation” later in this chapter.
2
Click Start to install the software you selected.
The Install Mac OS program checks your destination disk for any problems
and repairs them, if necessary. After your disk is tested, the software you
selected is installed.
If your disk has problems that can’t be repaired: Use a disk repair utility to see
if it can repair the disk. If you don’t have a disk repair utility, or if that utility
can’t repair the disk either, you may need to reinitialize the hard disk. To
reinitialize the hard disk, first back up your hard disk because reinitializing
erases everything on the disk. Next, use Drive Setup (available on the Disk
Tools floppy disk or on the CD) to reinitialize the hard disk. Then reinstall
system software and your application programs.
3
When the installation is complete, restart your computer.
If, after reinstalling system software by doing a normal installation, you still
experience problems with your computer, follow the steps in the next section
for doing a “clean” installation of system software.
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Doing a clean installation
This section provides instructions for what is commonly called a “clean”
installation of system software.
A normal system software installation replaces changed system files and adds
new ones, but leaves other files alone. When you install system software using
a “clean” installation, the Installer creates a new System Folder on your hard
disk. The old System Folder is renamed Previous System Folder. Since your
computer has a new System Folder, you must reinstall any extensions and
control panels that you added or that came with utility or application
programs. This can be a complicated procedure, but if you are experiencing
problems or your computer seems slow, performing a clean installation may
help.
Follow these steps to begin your clean installation.
1
Follow the instructions in the first three sections of “Doing a Normal Installation” earlier
in this chapter.
You should have completed the first three steps indicated in the main Install
Mac OS screen.
2
Click the fourth button on the main Install Mac OS screen.
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The following screen appears.
3
Click Options.
4
In the screen that appears, click the checkbox next to Create New System Folder, then
click OK.
Click to put an X
in this box, then
click OK.
5
Click Start.
A new System Folder is installed on your hard disk. (The old System Folder is
renamed Previous System Folder.)
Reinstall extensions, control panels, and other startup items. Reinstall items
from the original disks, if possible. Do not reinstall anything with the same
name as an item in the new System Folder. If you don’t have the original
disks, you can drag items one at a time from the Previous System Folder to
the new System Folder. Restart your computer after you reinstall each item to
make sure the reinstalled software is compatible with the Mac OS.
If any of your special software items cause software problems, contact the
software manufacturer for assistance or an upgrade.
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Doing a custom installation
For most computer users, the installation procedure described in “Doing a
Normal Installation” is best, because it automatically installs everything you
need for your model of computer. However, if you’d like to select only the
software specific to your needs, you can customize your installation. You can
install or update one or more specific files, or save space on your hard disk by
installing only the files you want.
You can also use the Customize option to add additional software or to install
a System Folder that can be used on any computer model compatible with the
Mac OS.
To install customized system software, follow these steps:
1
Follow the instructions in the first three sections of “Doing a Normal Installation” earlier
in this chapter.
You should have completed the first three steps indicated in the main Install
Mac OS screen.
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2
Click the fourth button on the main Install Mac OS screen.
The following dialog box appears.
3
Click Customize.
The following screen appears.
Note: Your screen may look slightly different from the picture below. If you’re
installing from floppy disks, you won’t see all the choices available on the CD.
Click to put an X in
the box for each
software product you
want to install.
Recommended
choices are
preselected.
To go back to the
easy installation
process, click
this button.
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You use the Options button to perform a clean
installation. For information, see the previous section.
4
Select the software you want to install.
You can choose to install some of the optional software described in “Step 4:
Install the Software” earlier in this chapter, and you can choose which
portions of the default system to install. You can choose from the following
additional options:
m Mac OS, the basic system software.
m OpenDoc, which adds new functionality to your applications in the form of
self-contained software “parts.” A variety of parts will be available from
Apple and other sources.
m OpenDoc Essentials, a set of software “parts” to get you started using
OpenDoc technology. To use OpenDoc essentials, you also need to install
OpenDoc.
Note: Cyberdog software also requires OpenDoc.
The Install Mac OS program will automatically check your destination disk
for any problems and repair it, if necessary. If you don’t want your disk to be
checked, click the Options button. In the dialog box that appears, click the
Check Destination Disk checkbox to remove the X.
To skip checking
your disk, click this
box to remove the X.
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5
Click Start.
If your disk has problems that can’t be repaired: Use a third-party disk repair
utility to see if it can repair the disk. If you don’t have a disk repair utility, or
if that utility can’t repair the disk either, you may need to reinitialize the hard
disk. To reinitialize the hard disk, first back up your hard disk because
reinitializing erases everything on the disk. Next, use Drive Setup (available
on the Disk Tools floppy disk or on the CD) to reinitialize the hard disk. Then
reinstall system software and your application programs.
The Mac OS program opens the Installer for the first software product you
selected. You’ll use the Installer to further specify which components you
want to install.
6
When you see the Installer’s welcome screen, click Continue.
The Easy Install dialog box appears.
If you want all the recommended components for this product, skip to step 9.
If you want to specify which components to install, follow steps 7–8 below.
7
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Open the pop-up menu and choose Custom Install.
The Custom Install dialog box appears, listing all available components for
the selected software product.
8
Scroll through the list of components and click the checkbox next to each component
you want to install.
To select individual items within each component, click the arrow to the left
of the component, then click the item you want to install. To get additional
information about a component, click the box with the letter i in it to the right
of the component. Files that support the components you chose may also be
installed.
9
Click Install.
10
Follow the instructions that appear on the screen.
11
Repeat steps 5–9 for all the software you selected.
The Install Mac OS application automatically opens the Installer for next
selected software package in the list.
12
After all the installations are completed, restart your computer to use your new software.
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Appendix A
Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
Appendix B
Using Your Keyboard
Appendix C
Installing Expansion Cards
Appendix D
Making Backup Floppy Disks
III
part
Refer to this appendix for important
health-related information
and safety tips.
Appendix A
Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
Health-related information about computer use
Muscle soreness, eye fatigue, and other discomforts and injuries sometimes
associated with using computers can occur from performing any number of
activities. In fact, misuse of the same muscles during multiple activities can
create a problem that might not otherwise exist. For example, if you engage
in nonwork activities that involve repetitive stress on the wrist—such as
bicycling—and also use your computer’s keyboard improperly, you may
increase your likelihood of developing wrist problems. Some individuals
are at greater risk of developing these problems because of their health,
physiology, lifestyle, and general exposure to stress. Work organization and
conditions, such as workstation setup and lighting, also play a part in your
overall health and comfort. Preventing health problems is a multifaceted task
that requires careful attention to the way you use your body every hour of
every day.
The most common health effects associated with using a computer are
musculoskeletal discomfort and eye fatigue. We’ll discuss each area of
concern below.
139
Musculoskeletal discomfort
As with any activity that involves sitting for long periods of time, using a
computer can make your muscles sore and stiff. To minimize these effects, set
up your work environment carefully, using the guidelines that follow, and take
frequent breaks to rest tired muscles. To make working with your computer
more comfortable, allow enough space in your work area so that you can
change position frequently and maintain a relaxed posture.
Another type of musculoskeletal concern is repetitive stress injuries (RSIs),
also known as cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs). These problems can
occur when a certain muscle or tendon is repeatedly overused and forced into
an unnatural position. The exact causes of RSIs are not totally understood, but
in addition to awkward posture, such factors as the amount of repetition, the
force used in the activity, the individual’s physiology, workplace stress level,
and lifestyle may affect the likelihood of experiencing an RSI.
RSIs did not suddenly arise when computers were invented; tennis elbow and
writer’s cramp, for example, are two RSIs that have been with us for a long
time. Although less common than other RSIs, one serious RSI discussed more
often today is a wrist problem called carpal tunnel syndrome, which may be
aggravated by improper use of computer keyboards. This nerve disorder
results from excessive pressure on the median nerve as it passes through the
wrist to the hand.
This section offers advice on setting up your work area to enhance your
comfort while you use your computer. Since the effects of repetitive
movements associated with using a computer can be compounded by those
of other work and leisure activities to produce or aggravate physical problems,
proper use of your computer system must be considered as just one element
of a healthy lifestyle.
No one, of course, can guarantee that you won’t have problems even when you
follow the most expert advice on using computer equipment. You should
always check with a qualified health specialist if muscle, joint, or eye
problems occur.
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Appendix A
Eye fatigue
Eye fatigue can occur whenever the eyes are focused on a nearby object for a
long time. This problem occurs because the eye muscles must work harder to
view an object that’s closer than about 20 feet (6 meters). Improper lighting
can hasten the development of eye fatigue. Although eye fatigue is annoying,
there’s no evidence that it leads to permanent damage.
Whenever you’re engaged in an activity that involves close-up work—such as
reading a magazine, doing craft work, or using a computer—be sure to have
sufficient glare-free lighting and give your eyes frequent rest breaks by
looking up and focusing on distant objects. Remember to have your eyes
examined regularly.
To prevent discomfort and eye fatigue:
m Arrange your work space so that the furniture is properly adjusted for you
and doesn’t contribute to an awkward working posture.
m Take frequent short breaks to give your muscles and eyes a chance to rest.
Arranging your work area and equipment
The suggestions in this section can help you work more comfortably with
your computer.
Chair
m An adjustable chair that provides firm, comfortable support is best. Adjust
the height of the chair so your thighs are horizontal and your feet flat on
the floor.
The back of the chair should support your lower back (lumbar region).
Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for adjusting the backrest to fit your
body properly.
Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
141
Keyboard and trackpad
m When you use the keyboard and trackpad, your shoulders should be
relaxed. Your upper arm and forearm should form an approximate right
angle, with your wrist and hand in roughly a straight line.
This
Not this
m You may have to raise your chair so your forearms and hands are at the
proper angle to the keyboard. If this makes it impossible to rest your feet
flat on the floor, you can use a footrest with adjustable height and tilt to
make up for any gap between the floor and your feet. Or you may lower
the desktop to eliminate the need for a footrest. Another option is to use a
desk with a keyboard tray that’s lower than the regular work surface.
m Use a light touch when typing or using the trackpad and keep your hands
and fingers relaxed. Avoid rolling your thumbs under your palms.
This
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Appendix A
Not this
Some computer users may develop discomfort in their hands, wrists, or arms
after intensive work without breaks. If you begin to develop chronic pain or
discomfort in your hands, wrists, or arms, consult a qualified health
specialist.
m Change hand positions often to avoid fatigue.
m Change the computer’s position.
The back of the keyboard is slightly elevated when the feet are in use.
Otherwise, the keyboard is level.
Mouse
m If you use an external mouse, position the mouse at the same height as
your keyboard. Allow adequate space to use the mouse comfortably.
Built-in display
m Adjust the angle of the display to minimize glare and reflections from
overhead lights and windows.
m You may need to adjust the brightness and contrast of the screen when you
take the computer from one work location to another, or if the lighting in
your work area changes.
Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
143
External monitor
If you use an external monitor, this suggestion may be helpful.
m If possible, arrange the monitor so the top of the screen is slightly below
your eye level when you’re sitting at the keyboard. The best distance from
your eyes to the screen is up to you, although most people seem to prefer
18 to 28 inches (45 to 70 cm).
Avoiding fatigue
m Change your seated position, stand up, or stretch whenever you start to feel
tired. Frequent short breaks are helpful in reducing fatigue.
m Allow adequate work space so that you can work comfortably. Place papers
or other items so you can view them easily while using your computer. A
document stand may make reading papers more comfortable.
m Eye muscles must work harder to focus on nearby objects. Occasionally
focus your eyes on a distant object, and blink often while you work.
m Clean your screen regularly. Keeping the screen clean helps reduce
unwanted reflections.
What about electromagnetic emissions?
There has been recent public discussion of the possible health effects of
prolonged exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low
frequency (VLF) electromagnetic fields. Such fields are associated with
electromagnetic sources such as television sets, electrical wiring, and some
household appliances—as well as computer monitors.
Apple has reviewed scientific reports and sought the counsel of government
regulatory agencies and respected health organizations. Based on the
prevailing evidence and opinions, Apple believes that the electric and
magnetic fields produced by computer monitors do not pose a health risk.
In response to those customers who wish to reduce their exposure to
electromagnetic fields, Apple has lowered the emission levels of its products.
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Appendix A
Important care and safety instructions
For your own safety and that of your equipment, read and follow all the
instructions in this section. Keep these instructions available for reference by
you and others.
Warning
m Electrical equipment may be hazardous if misused. Operation of this
product, or similar products, must always be supervised by an adult. Do not
allow children access to the interior of any electrical product and do not
permit them to handle any cables.
m Do not use the computer in or near water.
m Do not use cables that are frayed or otherwise damaged. Hold a cable by its
connector (the plug, not the cord) when connecting or disconnecting it.
m Always handle batteries carefully.
m Do not drop, puncture, mutilate, or burn the computer or battery.
m Transport batteries either inside the computer or with the protective cap
covering the battery contacts.
Caution
m If you have a problem with your computer and nothing in the computer
manual solves the problem, take the computer to your Apple-authorized
dealer or service provider. Attempting to repair the computer yourself may
void the limited warranty.
m Do not move the computer when you can hear its hard disk spinning.
When you put the computer to sleep, wait until the screen is blank before
moving the computer.
m Never force a connector into a port. Make sure that the connector matches
the port and that it’s right side up. If the connector and port do not join
easily, they do not match.
m Do not use the computer in wet or dusty environments.
Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
145
m Keep dirt and liquids away from the ports on the back panel, the keyboard,
and the trackpad. If you spill any food or liquid onto the computer, shut it
down immediately and unplug it before cleaning up the spill. Depending
on what you spilled and how much got into the computer, you may have to
bring the computer to an Apple-authorized service provider for cleaning.
m Do not touch the screen with any sharp or pointed objects.
m Use only the battery supplied with your computer, or an identical model.
Batteries designed for other portable computers may look similar, but they
may not work with your computer and may damage it.
m Use only the power adapter supplied with your computer, or an identical
model. Adapters designed for other electronic devices may not work with
your equipment and may damage it.
Important
m Use the computer only in environments where the temperature range is
between 41° F/5° C and 95° F/35° C.
m Do not expose the computer to very low (less than –13° F/–25° C) or very
high (more than 140° F/60° C) temperatures.
m If the computer has been in a cold place for several hours, let it warm up to
room temperature before you use it.
m Clean the computer’s outside surfaces with a damp (not wet) cloth. Clean
the screen with soft, lint-free paper or cloth and a mild glass cleaner. Do
not spray the glass cleaner directly onto the screen.
146
Appendix A
Caring for batteries
Always handle batteries carefully.
m Always put the battery cap on the battery when the battery is out of the
Macintosh PowerBook. The battery contacts should not be exposed when
the battery is out of the computer.
m Never get batteries wet.
m Do not short-circuit the battery terminals (that is, do not touch the
terminals with a metal object). Doing so may cause an explosion or a fire.
m Do not drop, puncture, disassemble, mutilate, or incinerate the battery.
m Recharge batteries only as described in this manual and only in ventilated
areas.
m Do not leave batteries in hot locations (such as the trunk of a car).
m Do not leave a battery in your computer for longer than a week without
plugging in the power adapter.
m Do not leave a battery in storage for longer than six months without
recharging it.
m Take dead batteries to an Apple-authorized service provider for recycling or
proper disposal. The batteries contain hazardous chemicals and should not
be thrown out with household or office trash.
Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
147
Handling floppy disks
Store disks at
temperatures
between 50° F
and 125° F.
Do not use a
pencil or an
eraser on a disk
or disk label.
Keep disks dry.
125° F (52° C)
50° F (10° C)
Do not touch the
exposed part of the
disk behind the
metal shutter.
148
Appendix A
Keep disks away
from magnets.
Avoid exposing
disks to extremely
hot temperatures.
Traveling with the Macintosh PowerBook
IMPORTANT Always bring either the CD-ROM disc or the Disk Tools floppy
disk that came with your computer when you travel (depending on which type
of disk drive you are using). If you experience system software problems
while traveling, you may need these disks to correct any problem.
Airplanes and airports
Some airlines have reported that use of portable electronic devices may have
interfered with the aircraft’s flight navigation or communications systems.
Many airlines restrict or manage the use of electronic equipment during
flights. Please respect the regulations of the airlines.
A properly tuned X-ray machine should cause no damage to your Macintosh
PowerBook. But the motors that drive the belts on some security machines
have magnets that can damage your information. To avoid problems, place
the Macintosh PowerBook close to the entrance of the machine and remove it
as soon as possible. At most airports you can also have the computer handinspected by security personnel.
Metal detectors should not damage the Macintosh PowerBook.
Security officials may require you to turn the Macintosh PowerBook on.
Make sure you have a charged battery on hand.
Handling your Macintosh PowerBook
The safety instructions earlier in this appendix also apply when you are
traveling. In addition, note these precautions:
m Do not transport your Macintosh PowerBook while it is turned on. Put
your computer to sleep or shut it down before you move it.
m Transport batteries either inside the computer or with the protective cap
covering the battery contacts. Do not transport unprotected batteries.
m Do not check your computer as baggage. Carry it with you.
Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
149
m Take the necessary plug adapters if you’re traveling overseas. (You may
need to use them with the power cord.) You do not need a voltage
transformer. The power adapter can handle 90 volts to 260 volts AC
(48 Hz to 62 Hz).
Check the diagrams below to determine which plug adapters you’ll need, or
ask your travel agent.
Outlet Type
Locations
United States, Canada, parts of Latin America, Japan, Korea,
the Philippines, Taiwan
Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), most of Europe,
parts of Latin America, the Middle East, parts of Africa, Hong Kong, India, most
of South Asia
Mexico, United Kingdom, Ireland, Malaysia, Singapore,
parts of Africa
China, Australia, New Zealand
International repair and service
Apple’s global limited warranty covers your Apple products for one year,
regardless of where the products were purchased. The Apple-authorized
service providers in more than 80 countries can handle most repairs (unless
the repair involves a component specific to another area of the world). Bring
a copy of your proof of purchase with you.
Because of variations in environment and power supplies, Apple is not
responsible for damage to Apple products used outside the United States.
150
Appendix A
Storing the Macintosh PowerBook
1
Save your work on a hard disk or floppy disks.
2
Press the Power key and click shut down, or choose Shut Down from the Special menu.
3
Close the display.
4
Store the computer in a cool, dry place.
Storage temperatures should remain between –25° C and 60° C (between
–13° F and 140° F). Avoid leaving the computer where temperatures may be
extreme or unpredictable—in the trunk of a car, for example.
Service and support
If your computer is malfunctioning but does not appear to be physically
damaged, shut it down (and leave the power adapter plugged in, if possible)
until you can get help.
If you know or suspect that your computer is physically damaged, disconnect
the power adapter, remove the battery, and do not use the computer until it
can be repaired.
See the service and support information that came with your computer for
information about customer assistance.
Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
151
Refer to this appendix for
information on using your
Macintosh PowerBook 1400
series keyboard.
Appendix B
Using Your Keyboard
The keyboard on the Macintosh PowerBook 1400 series computer works in
much the same way as the keyboards on other computers and on electric
typewriters. However, there are a few special keys you should know about.
Many of these keys allow you to give commands to the computer without
using the trackpad. For example, in many application programs, you can press
the x (Command) key at the same time as the Q key to quit a program.
The illustration on the following page explains the function of all the special
keys in the keyboard on the Macintosh PowerBook 1400 series computer.
153
Special keys on the Macintosh PowerBook 1400 series keyboard
esc
F1
F2
~
!
1
'
Delete key
Function keys
Escape key
F3
F4
@
#
2
3
$
4
F5
F6
%
5
F7
&
7
6
F9
F8
F10
(
9
*
8
F11
Q
Caps Lock key
caps lock
W
A
S
Z
shift
Control key
E
ctrl
Appendix B
D
X
T
F
C
Y
G
V
U
H
B
I
J
N
K
M
{
[
P
:
;
L
<
>
,
on/off
+
=
O
.
delete
}
]
"
'
?
/
\
return
shift
enter
option
Option key
154
R
F12
)
0
Tab key
tab
Power key
x (Command) key
Enter key
Arrow keys
Return key
Shift key
Arrow keys
Move the insertion point as an alternative to using the pointing device.
In some programs, the arrow keys have other functions.
Caps Lock key
A toggle Shift key for letters only (numbers and symbols aren’t affected).
A small upward arrow appears in the menu bar when Caps Lock is on.
x (Command) key
Works in combination with other keys as an alternative to choosing a menu
command.
Control key
In combination with other keys, provides shortcuts or modifies actions.
Delete key
Deletes selected material, or the character to the left of the insertion point.
Enter key
In a dialog box, pressing Enter is the same as clicking the outlined button.
In some programs, confirms information you have provided.
Escape key
The function of this key depends on the program you’re using.
Function keys
Some programs allow you to use function keys to give commands. You
can assign commands or action sequences to function keys with utility
programs.
Option key
In combination with other keys, produces special characters or modifies
actions.
Power key
Turns the computer on and off.
Return key
Moves the insertion point to the beginning of the next line. In a dialog box,
pressing Return is the same as clicking the outlined button.
Shift key
Produces capital letters (or the upper character on the key).
Tab key
Moves the insertion point to the next stopping place (such as a tab stop or
data field).
Typing special characters and symbols
You can type a variety of international and other special symbols and
characters (including characters with diacritical marks, such as accents)
by pressing combinations of keys.
The Key Caps program, which is installed with your system software,
shows you the characters produced when you type certain keys and key
combinations in the fonts available on your computer. Choose Key Caps
from the Apple (K) menu, then choose the font from the Key Caps menu.
Characters appear
here when you press
keys on the keyboard
or click them in
the window.
Characters available
in the Chicago font
To have Key Caps show more options for special characters, press each of
these keys or key combinations: Option, Shift, Shift-Option, Shift-x, and
Option-x.
Characters available
in the Chicago font
when the Option key
is pressed
The highlighted key represents the
key held down on the keyboard—
in this case, the Option key.
Using Your Keyboard
155
If you press the Option key, Key Caps outlines lightly the keys that you can
use in combination with letter keys to type letters with accents or other
diacritical marks.
If you see rectangles: If you see rectangles instead of diacritical marks on
some of the pictures of keys in Key Caps, try pressing Option-x to see the
diacritical marks. However, you only need to use the Option key (not
Option-x) in combination with the other keys to type letters with diacritical
marks.
If you press the Option key at the same time as a key for a specific diacritical
mark and then release both keys, Key Caps outlines in bold the keys
for letters that can be typed with that mark. (You’ll see that most key
combinations for diacritical marks can be used with the Space bar as well as
letter keys—producing the mark without a letter.)
The most common diacritical marks and how to create them are summarized
next.
Diacritical mark
Key combination
Grave accent ( ` )
Option-`, then type the character
Acute accent ( ´ )
Option-e, then type the character
Circumflex (^)
Option-i, then type the character
Tilde (~)
Option-n, then type the character
Umlaut ( ¨ )
Option-u, then type the character
The letter “c” with a cedilla (ç)
Option-c
m To type a letter or a space with a specific diacritical mark, press the Option key and
the key for the mark simultaneously. Then type the letter that needs the mark.
If you are having trouble getting a mark and letter to appear together, try
again. Be sure to press the Option key before (or at the same time as) the key
for the mark; then, after you release both keys, type the letter to be marked.
156
Appendix B
Special key combinations
If difficulties with your trackpad or computer don’t allow you to use standard
methods of quitting a program or restarting your computer, you can try using
these special key combinations.
To do this...
…press this key combination
Force a program to quit
x-Option-Esc
Force the computer to restart
x–Control–Power key
Here are other key combinations you may find useful.
To do this...
…press this key combination
Start a “debugging” application
used by software programmers*
x–Power key
Rebuild desktop
Shift key (while starting up)
release, then hold Option-x
*If you do not have a debugging program installed, your screen displays a prompt (>). To return to the desktop, press G.
Using Your Keyboard
157
Refer to this appendix for
instructions on installing an
expansion card in your
Macintosh PowerBook.
Appendix C
Installing Expansion Cards
You can purchase cards to augment your PowerBook’s operation. Two kinds of
cards are available for the computer. You can install two different types of
cards in the computer:
m a RAM card
m an expansion slot card with back-panel connector
You can install two RAM cards (one above the other, piggyback style) and
one expansion slot card.
Note: You should attempt to install a RAM card or an expansion slot card
only if you are comfortable working with electronic equipment. You should
read all of the following instructions before you begin. If the procedure
sounds like something you don’t want to do yourself, any Apple-authorized
service provider can install the card for you (for a service charge).
WARNING If you attempt to install a RAM card or an expansion slot card
yourself, any damage you may cause to your equipment will not be
covered by the limited warranty on your computer. See an Appleauthorized dealer or service provider for additional information about
this or any other warranty question.
159
Installing a RAM card
You need the RAM card and small Phillips and flat-blade screwdrivers for the
installation.
Make sure you are installing a RAM card made for a Macintosh PowerBook
1400 series computer. The RAM card must use low-profile memory chips.
The card has connectors on the top and bottom so that another RAM card can
be plugged into it, piggyback style. You can install this type of card in the
lower position (if no RAM card is already installed) or the upper position (if
a RAM card is already installed).
Connector
Connector
Low-profile memory chips
(The number and position of the
chips on your RAM card may differ
from those shown.)
To install the RAM card, follow these steps:
1
Check the amount of RAM currently installed in your computer by choosing About This
Macintosh from the Apple (K) menu.
You must be in the Finder to see About This Macintosh. If necessary, click
anywhere on the desktop to make the Finder active.
Make a note of the amount of built-in memory.
2
160
Appendix C
Disconnect all cables from the computer, including the power adapter. Make sure the
computer is turned off.
3
Remove the battery from the computer.
If you’re unfamiliar with this procedure, follow the instructions in “Removing
or Replacing the Battery” in Chapter 5 of this manual.
WARNING Do not install a RAM card without disconnecting the power
adapter and removing the battery. Installing a card while a power source
is connected could damage the computer.
4
Slide the speaker grill (above the top row of keys) to the left and lift it out of the
computer.
The grill is held in place firmly and may require some force to move it
sideways.
Slide speaker grill
to the left, then lift.
Set the speaker grill aside.
Installing Expansion Cards
161
5
Place your finger under the top edge of the keyboard and gently fold it forward so that
the keyboard rests upside down on the lower part of the computer’s case.
If you can’t easily put your finger under the keyboard, carefully slide the end
of the flat screwdriver under it and lift.
Take care not to move the bottom edge of the keyboard away from the case, to
avoid straining or disconnecting the keyboard’s cable.
162
Appendix C
6
Remove the six screws holding the metal heat shield in place. Then lift out the heat
shield and set the shield and screws aside.
Use the small Phillips screwdriver to loosen the screws.
Note that the two screws at the rear corners of the shield are longer than the
other four screws.
Long screws
Installing Expansion Cards
163
7
Locate the vertical connector for the RAM card near the right side of the computer.
The connector is approximately 2 inches in from the right side of the case.
The RAM card’s design allows for one card to be connected to the socket on
top of a card that is installed on the computer’s main logic board. Therefore,
your computer may have a RAM card already installed; if so, you will still
see the vertical connector on the top of the installed RAM card. (See the
illustration at the beginning of these instructions for reference.)
Vertical connector
for RAM card
RAM card fits into
vertical connector.
The area around the RAM card’s vertical connector may be partially obscured
if your computer has a card installed in the expansion card slot (the expansion
card slot is not used for a RAM card).
164
Appendix C
8
Carefully remove the RAM card from its packaging and position it above the area for
installation in the computer.
Hold the card by its edges on the left side, taking care not to touch any of the
components or the wires inside the connectors.
9
Tilt the right side of the card so that its right edge fits under the right edge of the
computer’s case and slip the card’s right edge into the card guide on the inside of the
case.
m If a RAM card has not been installed, slide the right edge of the card below
the card guide.
Card
guide
Install first RAM card
below the card guide.
Card
guide
RAM card properly
installed.
Installing Expansion Cards
165
m If a RAM card is already installed, slide the right edge of the card above
the card guide.
A second RAM
card can be installed
above the card guide.
Card guide
10
Lower the left side of the card so that its connector is aligned with the vertical connector
in the computer and gently push the card down until it is seated.
If the two connectors don’t join easily, detach the card and align the
connectors again. Forcing the connectors together could damage the card or
the socket.
166
Appendix C
11
Replace the metal heat shield and fasten it in place with the screws.
Slide the front edge of the heat shield under the case, then lower the back of
the shield.
Be sure to put the long screws at the two rear corners of the shield.
Long screws
Installing Expansion Cards
167
12
168
Appendix C
Replace the keyboard by folding it backward and lowering the top edge into place.
13
Replace the speaker grill by lowering it into the opening above the top row of keys. Slide
the grill to the right to secure it.
Position it so that the three downward-pointing tabs are at the right front of
the grill. The tabs click into place when you slide the grill to the right.
Lower the speaker grill,
then slide it to the right.
14
Replace the battery and reconnect the plugs, cables, and power adapter.
Now you’re ready to use the expanded RAM in your PowerBook.
Installing Expansion Cards
169
Making sure the RAM card is properly installed
Once you have completed the process for installing a RAM card, you can
check to make sure the additional RAM is now available on your computer.
Follow these steps:
1
Press the Power (on/off) key to turn your computer on.
2
Choose About This Macintosh from the Apple (K) menu.
3
Look at the amount of memory in your computer.
Your total memory (or total built-in memory, if you have virtual memory
turned on) should be the amount of built-in memory you noted before
installing the RAM card plus the amount of RAM in the card that you just
installed.
If the total memory number does not include the amount of RAM you
installed, review the steps for installing a RAM card to make sure you
installed the card correctly. If you need more help, see an Apple-authorized
dealer.
If you hear eight tones when the computer starts up, there may be a problem
with the RAM card. If you installed the RAM card in your computer yourself,
review the steps in this appendix to make sure you installed the card correctly.
If you purchased an expansion card from a third-party manufacturer, contact
the manufacturer for help.
170
Appendix C
Installing an expansion slot card
You can install an expansion slot card in your PowerBook to add a port for
external connections to the computer. One type of expansion slot card
available for your Macintosh PowerBook 1400 series computer provides a
video connection for an external monitor.
You need the expansion slot card and small Phillips and flat-blade
screwdrivers for the installation.
To install an expansion slot card, follow these steps:
1
Disconnect all cables from the computer, including the power adapter. Make sure the
computer is turned off.
2
Remove the battery from the computer.
If you’re unfamiliar with this procedure, follow the instructions in “Removing
or Replacing the Battery” in Chapter 5 of this manual.
WARNING Do not install an expansion slot card without disconnecting
the power adapter and removing the battery. Installing a card while a
power source is connected could damage the computer.
3
Open the door that covers the ports on the back panel of the computer.
Installing Expansion Cards
171
4
Use a small flat-blade screwdriver to remove the expansion port cover.
The cover is held firmly in place by small tabs. You may need to pry it off by
placing the screwdriver in the small indentation at the center of the cover’s
right edge.
Expansion
port cover
Small flat-blade
screwdriver
Be sure to save the cover so that you can replace it should you remove the
expansion slot card later.
172
Appendix C
5
Slide the speaker grill (above the top row of keys) to the left and lift it out of the
computer.
The grill is held in place firmly and may require some force to move it
sideways.
Slide speaker grill
to the left, then lift.
Set the speaker grill aside.
Installing Expansion Cards
173
6
Place your finger under the top edge of the keyboard and gently fold it forward so that
the keyboard rests upside down on the lower part of the computer’s case.
If you can’t easily put your finger under the keyboard, carefully slide the end
of the flat screwdriver under it and lift.
Take care not to move the bottom edge of the keyboard away from the case, to
avoid straining or disconnecting the keyboard’s cable.
174
Appendix C
7
Remove the six screws holding the metal heat shield in place. Then lift out the heat
shield and set the shield and screws aside.
Use a small Phillips screwdriver to loosen the screws.
Note that the two screws at the rear corners of the shield are longer than the
other four screws.
Long screws
Installing Expansion Cards
175
8
Locate the horizontal connector for the expansion slot card near the center of the
computer.
The connector is about one-half inch to the right of the keyboard cable.
If you don’t see the horizontal connector next to the keyboard cable, an
expansion slot card may already be installed in your computer.
9
Remove the expansion slot card from its packaging and position it above the area for
installation in the computer.
Hold the card by its edges, with the connector facing down at the end closer to
you. Take care not to touch any of the components or the wires inside the
connectors.
The card’s package should also include two small screws and a plastic cover
with the center cut out. Set these aside for use when the card is installed.
10
Carefully lower the card into the computer, rear edge first, and guide it into position
against the back of the case.
As you slide the card into the computer, use a slight side-to-side movement to
fit it into the small space.
Expansion card socket
Expansion
card socket
176
Appendix C
11
Align the card’s connector with the horizontal connector in the computer and gently
push the card down until it is seated.
If the two connectors don’t join easily, detach the card and align the
connectors again. Forcing the connectors together could damage the card or
the socket.
Expansion card
properly installed
Installing Expansion Cards
177
12
Replace the metal heat shield and fasten it in place with the screws.
Slide the front edge of the heat shield under the case, then lower the back of
the shield.
Be sure to put the long screws at the two rear corners of the shield.
Long screws
178
Appendix C
13
Replace the keyboard by folding it backward and lowering the top edge into place.
Installing Expansion Cards
179
14
Replace the speaker grill by lowering it into the opening above the top row of keys. Slide
the grill to the right to secure it.
Position it so that the three downward-pointing tabs are at the right front of
the grill. The tabs click into place when you slide the grill to the right.
Lower the speaker grill,
then slide it to the right.
180
Appendix C
15
Secure the card to the expansion port on the computer’s back panel by fastening the two
screws supplied with the card into the holes in the port.
Use a small Phillips screwdriver to tighten the screws.
Expansion
card screws
Expansion
port cover
Slide bottom left
corner under wire.
16
Place the expansion port cover supplied with the card over the two screws and snap it
into place. Be sure that the lower-left corner of the cover is under the wire hinge of the
small door on the back panel.
The cover has plastic tabs that hold it in place. You may need to push hard to
attach the cover.
17
If you plan to use the expansion slot card immediately, connect the cable or other device
designed for use with the card through the opening in the cover.
See the expansion slot card’s manual for complete instructions.
18
Replace the battery and reconnect the plugs, cables, and power adapter.
Now you’re ready to use the expansion slot card in your PowerBook.
Installing Expansion Cards
181
Refer to this appendix for
information on backing up system
software on floppy disks.
Appendix D
Making Backup Floppy Disks
It’s a good idea to make backup copies of important software on floppy disks
in case your hard disk or some of its contents is damaged. You can use the
Floppy Disk Maker program, which is on your hard disk and on the CD that
came with your PowerBook, to make a set of system software disks or to back
up some key items.
Floppy Disk Maker is in the System Backup folder, inside the Apple Extras
folder on your hard disk. You can use it to make backup floppy disks of the
core system software from disk images that are also on the hard disk.
You can use Floppy Disk Maker with disk images on the CD to make backup
disks of all system software and programs that were preinstalled on your hard
disk. For more about using this backup program with the CD, see the file
“CD – Important Information” on the compact disc. To use the CD, your
computer must have the optional CD-ROM drive or you must have access to a
CD-ROM drive.
183
Making software disks
This section describes how to create floppy disks of the software that comes
on your computer.
Why make software disks?
Your Macintosh PowerBook computer comes with different kinds of software
installed. System software is the set of programs and other files that your
computer uses to start itself up, keep track of your files, and run application
programs. When you turn on your computer, it looks for a disk that contains
the system software. System software is always in a folder called the
System Folder.
Other included software gives you added functionality on your computer.
You need to make a copy of this software for safekeeping in case you ever
need to reinstall the software on your computer. The disks you need to install
and reinstall software from are called installer disks. You use the Floppy Disk
Maker application program to create your software installer disks.
What is a disk image?
A disk image is a discrete electronic representation of an individual disk.
The Disk Images folder in the Floppy Disk Maker folder on the CD contains
the disk images you need to create installer disks for both your system
software and the other software that was installed on the hard disk at the
factory. When you use Floppy Disk Maker, it copies the disk images onto
floppy disks. When you are finished making a set of disks with Floppy Disk
Maker, you’ll have a set of installer disks and will be able to reinstall the
software that comes on your computer.
184
Appendix D
What you need
Just as you need paper to make copies of important documents, you need
floppy disks to make copies of the information on your hard disk. You can
probably buy the floppy disks at the same place you bought your computer.
Floppy disks come in a variety of sizes and capacities. The ones you need for
backing up your hard disk are called high-density 3.5-inch disks. You can
recognize the disks by the way they look:
High-density disks
have two holes...
...and they have
this symbol.
Even though these disks have a hard plastic casing, they are called “floppy
disks” because the disk inside the casing is floppy.
Before you start making your disks, you’ll need to decide if you want to make
a full set or a minimum set of disks. When you make a full set, you’ll make
disks for your system software and most of the other software that comes on
your computer. When you make a minimum set, you’ll make just the core
system software disks. It is best to make a full set, so you’ll have installer
disks for your system software and most of the other software that comes on
your computer. However, making a full set requires more disks and more time
than making a minimum set. At the very least, make a minimum set of disks
now. If you choose to make a minimum set, you can make disks for the other
software later.
If you don’t have disks on hand, you can skip these instructions for the
moment. But the sooner you make the system software disks, the better. Buy
the disks as soon as possible; then return to this section and follow these
instructions.
IMPORTANT Be sure you make at least a minimum set of disks as soon as
possible, in case you need to reinstall your system software.
Making Backup Floppy Disks
185
Making a set of disks
To make backup copies of system software, follow these steps.
1
Locate the System Backup folder on the hard disk or the Disk Images folder on the CDROM disc and open it.
2
Open the Floppy Disk Maker program.
The program’s welcome screen appears.
3
Click Minimum Set or Full Set, depending on the kind of disk set you want to make.
If you are using the disk images on the hard disk, you cannot make a full set
of floppy disks. You must use the CD for a full disk set.
If you are making a minimum set, you can press the Return key. You can
make a minimum set first so you have a set of system software disks, and then
use Floppy Disk Maker to make the other disks later. (See “Making Individual
Disks,” later in this appendix, for instructions when you want to make the
additional disks.)
If you need to stop Floppy Disk Maker in the middle of making a set of disks,
click Quit. Floppy Disk Maker will remember where you were in the diskmaking process, and will resume where you left off when you restart Floppy
Disk Maker.
186
Appendix D
4
Follow the instructions on the screen until a message tells you that you’re finished.
Insert a new disk whenever the screen messages tell you to. Do not use the
Disk Tools floppy disk that came with your computer.
Insert the disk metal end first, label side up.
As you complete each disk, make a label with the name displayed on the
screen. Then immediately put the label on the disk so that you’ll know what
its contents are later.
5
When you’re finished, click Quit.
If you want to make more disks, click Continue and go to the next section,
“Making Individual Disks,” to learn about using Floppy Disk Maker’s custom
feature.
Be sure the floppy disks are properly labeled. Then store them in a safe, cool
place.
Making Backup Floppy Disks
187
6
If you quit in the middle of the disk-making process and want to resume copying, click
Resume Minimum or Resume Full (depending on the type of set you are making) when
you see the Floppy Disk Maker box.
Once you’ve made a full set of disks, you can delete the disk images to free up
space on your hard disk. However, keeping copies of at least the system
software images is a good idea. You should keep these disk images on your
hard disk, or backed up on an external hard disk or PC Card (PCMCIA card).
The disk images are found in a folder called Disk Images inside the Floppy
Disk Maker folder.
Making individual disks
If you made a minimum set of disks, you can go back and make disks of the
remaining software on your computer. You do this by using the custom
feature of Floppy Disk Maker. You can make an individual disk or a set of
disks for an application program. Follow these steps:
1
Open the Floppy Disk Maker application program.
2
When the Floppy Disk Maker dialog box appears, click Custom.
The following appears on the screen:
Folders containing
images of software
that comes on your
computer are listed
here. Click the folder
you want to copy and
then click Add.
188
Appendix D
After you click Add,
the folders you want to
copy appear here.
3
Click the icon for the folder you want to copy to select it.
If you want to make one individual disk for a program (in case you lost a disk
or an individual disk got damaged), double-click the program’s folder to open
it. Then click the icon of the individual disk image to select it.
The folder (or individual disk) appears in the list to the right under “Disk
images to be copied.”
4
Click Add.
Repeat steps 3 and 4 until all the software you want to copy appears in the list
to the right. The total number of disks you’ll need appears above the list in
the right of the window.
5
Click Copy.
Follow the instructions on the screen. Remember to label the disks as you
make them.
Making Backup Floppy Disks
189
Can’t Find It? See also Mac OS Guide’s
onscreen index. Open the Guide (h)
menu and choose Mac OS Guide;
then click the Index button.
Index
A
accent marks, typing 155–156
active program 72, 73
active window 18
acute accent (´), typing 155
ADB port. See Apple Desktop Bus
(ADB) port
adding memory 68. See also RAM card
air travel tips 149
amplifier, connecting 61
Apple Assistance Center 87, 115
Apple-authorized service providers. See
also Apple Assistance Center;
Apple customer support line;
help, sources of; troubleshooting
installing expansion cards 159
international repair and service 150
liquid or other spills on computer
equipment 146
obtaining monitor power cord
from 58
recovering information on a hard
disk 118
repair service 87, 118
return of spent batteries 82–83, 147
security devices, information
about 62
Apple customer support line 7
Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) port 47
Apple Extras folder 3, 43
Apple HDI-30 SCSI Disk Adapter Cable
50, 51, 53, 107
Apple HDI-30 SCSI System Cable
50, 107
Apple Internet Connection Kit 3
Apple IR File Exchange program 3, 68
Apple menu items
Key Caps program 102, 155–156
Apple Remote Access network
software 127
troubleshooting 112–113
using with PC Card modem 43–45
Apple SCSI Peripheral Interface
Cable 50
AppleTalk, turning on and off 48
Apple Telecom software 3, 44
Apple Web sites 7
application icon 18
Application menu
hiding and showing windows 73
making an open program active
17, 72–73
switching programs 73
191
Can’t Find It?
See also Mac OS
Guide’s onscreen index.
Open the Guide (h)
menu and choose
Mac OS Guide; then
click the Index button.
application programs
Apple Internet Connection Kit 3
Apple IR File Exchange 3, 68
Apple Telecom software 3, 44
backing up 74
Battery Recondition 3
Claris Organizer 3
ClarisWorks 3
Communications Toolbox 42
dimmed program icons 73
Disk First Aid 3, 119
Drive Setup 3, 118–119,
124–125, 134
Fax Terminal software 44
Floppy Disk Maker 183–189
getting help for 71
included with computer 3
installing 72
Key Caps 102, 155–156
MoviePlayer 3
native 75–76
PowerBook File Assistant 3
Remote Access Client 3
restoring 74
switching between 73
troubleshooting 71, 93–97
working with several at a time 72–73
Applications folder, software in 3
ARA. See Apple Remote Access network
software
ARA Connection Files folder 43
arrow keys 154
arrow pointer on screen. See pointer
attaching security cable and lock 62
audio output devices, connecting 61
automatic sleep feature 28
B
backing up
application programs 74
files 74, 75
with Floppy Disk Maker program
183–189
floppy disks 75
192
Index
information on a hard disk 74, 75,
183–189
system software 74, 183–189
tips for 75
battery
automatic sleep feature and 28
avoiding damage to 79, 145, 146, 147
care of 139, 145, 147
disposal of 82–83, 147
drained 13
low-power messages 78–79
maximizing work time with 83
monitoring charge level of 77–79
power management of 28, 77–83
recharging 80–81
removing or replacing 81–83
safety instructions 82, 145–150
SCSI disk mode 55
sleep mode and 28, 78
storing in expansion bay 31
troubleshooting 88
using Control Strip to monitor battery
charge 79
battery cap 82
battery compartment
illustration of 2
opening 81
battery icon 79
battery label, removing 11
Battery Monitor (Control Strip) 79, 80
Battery Recondition program 3
blinking icons 98
blinking question mark on screen 14, 91,
107, 120
bomb icon 87
BookCovers
adding insert to 65
changing on computer case 63–67
creating your own inserts 67
illustration of 47
insert templates 3
removing 63–64
replacing 65–66
brightness control 2, 13
built-in microphone 2, 61
C
cables
for external monitors 50, 59
safety instructions 145
for SCSI connections 50, 51, 53, 107
security 62
cable terminators 51
Caps Lock key 154
card. See expansion slot card, installing;
PC card; RAM card
carpal tunnel syndrome 140
CCLs (connection scripts) 43
CD-ROM discs
ejecting 36
file sharing and 110
inserting in CD-ROM drive 35–36
problems ejecting 110
starting up from 118, 121
CD-ROM drive
closing tray 36
opening tray 35, 36
power usage 83
reducing vibration in 36
removable 31–34
using CD-ROM discs in 34–36
CDs. See CD-ROM discs, PowerBook
1400 CD
cedilla (ç), typing 156
charge level of battery, monitoring
77–79
Chooser
connecting to other computers 110
connecting to printers 48
printing problems and 104–105
circumflex accent (ˆ), typing 156
Claris Organizer program 3
ClarisWorks program 3
cleaning computer equipment 146
clean installation of system software
129–130
close box on windows 18
closing CD-ROM drive tray 36
Command (x) key 154
commands. See also keyboard shortcuts
Eject CD command (File menu) 36
Eject PC Card command (Special
menu) 40
Empty Trash command (Special
menu) 18
Hide Others command (Application
menu) 73
Put Away command (File menu)
36, 40
Restart command (Special menu) 29
Show All command (Application
menu) 73
Shut Down command (Special
menu) 25
Sleep command (Special menu) 26
Communications Toolbox 42
compact discs. See CD-ROM discs
computer case, changing BookCovers on
63–67
computer equipment. See equipment
connecting
external modem 49
external monitor 57–60
other devices 62
PC Card modem 49
printer 48
SCSI devices 50–56
sound input and output devices 61
connection scripts (CCLs) 43
conserving power, sleep mode and
26, 28
contrast control 2, 13
Control key 146
control panels
Easy Access 102
Extensions Manager 117
Macintosh Easy Open 97, 98
Password Security 62
PowerBook Setup 52
Remote Access Setup 43–44, 112
replacing after clean installation 127
Sharing Setup 112
Startup Disk 101
Index
193
Can’t Find It?
See also Mac OS
Guide’s onscreen index.
Open the Guide (h)
menu and choose
Mac OS Guide; then
click the Index button.
Control Panels folder 117
Control Strip 4, 19, 79, 80
copying
information on a floppy disk 75
information on a hard disk 74–75
cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) 140
cursor. See pointer
customer service. See Apple Assistance
Center; Apple-authorized
service providers; Apple
customer support line; help,
sources of
custom installation of system software
131–135
Cyberdog software 127
D
debugging program, starting 157
Delete key 154
deleting items, with Trash icon 18
desktop
appearance of 12
appears when using SCSI mode 106
doesn’t appear 90
problems rebuilding at startup 92
rebuilding 97, 98, 157
devices. See also SCSI devices
SCSI devices 50, 106–107, 108
troubleshooting 108
diacritical marks, typing 156
diagnostic techniques 115–135
disconnecting external monitor 60
disk cache 116
Disk First Aid program 3, 119
disk image 184, 186, 188, 189
Disk Image folder 188
disks. See CD-ROM discs; floppy disks;
hard disk
disks, shared 112
Disk Tools disk 89, 118, 119, 120,
134, 149
display. See also external monitor; screen
adjusting 143
blank 13, 97
brightness control 2, 13, 143
194
Index
cleaning 146
contrast control 2, 13, 143
dimming 26, 78
frozen 102
opening 10
preferences icon 116
position of 10
sleep mode and 26, 27
troubleshooting 13, 102–103
Display Preferences icon 116
document icon 18
documents, backing up 74, 75
Drive Setup icon 118
Drive Setup program
description of 3
initializing hard disk 121
testing hard disk 118–119
updating hard disk 123–125
E
Easy Access control panel 102
Easy Install dialog box 134
eject button, PC Card and 40
Eject CD command (File menu) 36
ejecting
CD-ROM discs 36, 110
floppy disks 100
PC Card 39–41
Eject PC Card command (Special
menu) 40
electrical safety 9, 145, 146, 147
electromagnetic emissions, health effects
of exposure to 144
Empty Trash command (Special
menu) 18
English Text-to-Speech software 127
Enter key 146
equipment. See also connecting
arranging and adjusting for optimal
use 141–144
avoiding damage to 8, 26, 39, 81
becoming familiar with 1–7
cleaning 145, 146
guidelines for handling 145–151
illustration of 2
posture while using 141–144
preparing to set up 8
removable 31–34
safety precautions 8, 82, 145–150
storing 151
error messages. See also troubleshooting
during startup 91
number code in 91
problem extensions and 115, 117
troubleshooting 87, 93
errors. See troubleshooting
Esc key 154
Ethernet connection cards 37
expansion bay
battery storage and 31
cannot be used to recharge battery 80
illustration of 2
removable modules 31–34
expansion bay modules 31–34
expansion card socket 176
expansion port 2, 47, 181
expansion port cover 172, 181
expansion slot card, installing 159,
171–181
extensions. See system extensions
Extensions folder 117
Extensions Manager control panel,
testing for compatibility 117
external modem
connecting 49
PC Card modem 3, 42–45, 49, 112
troubleshooting 108, 112–113
external modem port 2, 43, 47, 49
external monitor
cable for 50, 59
card for 151
cleaning the screen 144
connecting 57–60
disconnecting 60
placement and position of 58, 144
screen dimming and 60
troubleshooting 59, 103–104, 108
eye fatigue, associated with computer use
141, 144
F
fatigue from computer use, avoiding
141, 144
fax/modem cards 37
Fax Terminal software 44
File menu
Eject CD command 36
Put Away command 36, 40
files
backing up 74, 75, 183–189
problems sharing 110
shared 112
troubleshooting 98–99
for use with PC Card modem 3
using infrared (IR) window to send
and receive 68
file sharing
CD-ROM discs and 110
memory and 111
troubleshooting 109, 110,
111–112, 116
Finder, making active 20
floppy disk drive
inserting floppy disk in 72
removable 31–34
troubleshooting 100
Floppy Disk Maker program 183–189
floppy disks
backing up 75
backing up system software on
183–189
ejecting 100
Floppy Disk Maker program 183–189
handling 148
high-density 185
inserting in floppy disk drive 72
installing application programs
with 72
installing system software with 127
troubleshooting 58, 100
folders. See also System Folder
Apple Extras 3, 43
Applications 3
ARA Connection Files 43
Index
195
Can’t Find It?
See also Mac OS
Guide’s onscreen index.
Open the Guide (h)
menu and choose
Mac OS Guide; then
click the Index button.
Control Panels 117
Disk Images 188
Extensions 117
icon for 18
PC Card Modem Files 43
Preferences 117
shared 112
System Backup 183, 186
Utilities 3
fonts
Key Caps program 155–156
troubleshooting 98
frozen system. See also troubleshooting
during startup 91, 117
forcing computer to restart 157
forcing program to quit 92, 157
problem extensions and 116–117
reset button and 25, 29
screen dimming and 103, 104
SCSI disk mode and 107
troubleshooting 87, 93
function keys 146
G
grave accent (`), typing 155
grounded equipment 9
Guide menu 4–5
Drive Setup Guide 118
hiding and showing balloons 5
Mac OS Guide 20–23
overview 19
installing system software on
121–129
testing 118–119, 120, 128, 133–134
troubleshooting 101, 118–119
updating driver 121, 123–125
using your computer as 51–56
hard disk icon, appearance of 18
hardware, troubleshooting 100–107.
See also individual devices
hardware configuration, illustration of 2
HDI-30 SCSI Disk Adapter Cable 50,
51, 53, 107
HDI-30 SCSI port 2
HDI-30 SCSI System Cable 50, 107
headphones, connecting 61
health-related information, and computer
use 139–144
heat shield
removing 163, 175
replacing 167, 178
help. See also Apple Assistance Center;
Apple-authorized service
providers; Apple customer
support line; Guide menu; Mac
OS Guide; troubleshooting
for application programs 71
sources of 4–7, 150
Hide Others command (Application
menu) 73
“Huh” button in Mac OS
Guide window 23
I, J
H
handling
equipment 145–151
expansion slot card 176
RAM card 165
hard disk. See also Drive Setup program
backing up files on 74, 75, 183–189
initializing 121
196
Index
icons
application program 18
battery 79
blinking 98
blinking question mark 14, 91, 107,
120
bomb 87
change in appearance of 98
dimmed 73
document 18
Drive Setup 117
folder 18
Guide 17, 19, 20
hard disk 18
lightning bolt 80
lightning bolt in battery 79
missing 93
opening 18
PC Card modem 42
PowerBook Highlights 69–71
SCSI mode 53, 106
System Software Installer 122
Trash 18
ID numbers for SCSI devices 52
Index button, Mac OS Guide 21
infrared (IR) window. See also Apple IR
File Exchange program
illustration of 2, 47
transferring files with 68
initializing a hard disk 121
inserting
CD-ROM disc in CD-ROM drive
35–36
expansion bay module 34
floppy disk in floppy disk drive 72
PC Card 37–39
insertion point, moving with arrow keys
154
inserts. See BookCovers
installer disks, for system software 184
Installer program 134–135
installing
application programs 72
expansion cards 159–181
expansion slot card 171–181
RAM cards 159–170
installing system software 120–135
clean installation 129–130
custom installation 131–135
normal installation 120–128
Install Mac OS program 121–135
internal terminator 53
IR window. See infrared (IR) window
K
keyboard
correct posture for using 142–143
detaching 154, 166
removing 162, 174
replacing 168, 171
special keys on 154–157
troubleshooting 102, 108
using 153–157
keyboard shortcuts
to eject CD-ROM disc 36
to force application program to quit
92, 93, 157
to force computer to restart 157
to rebuild desktop 157
to start debugging application 157
Key Caps program 102, 155–156
key combinations. See keyboard
shortcuts
L
label. See battery label, removing
lightning bolt icon 80
lightning bolt in battery icon 79
lock, security 62
Look For button, Mac OS Guide 21
low-power messages, responding to
78–79
M
Macintosh desktop. See desktop
Macintosh Easy Open control panel,
rebuilding desktop and 97, 98
Macintosh Tutorial 15–16
MacLinkPlus translators 127
Index
197
Can’t Find It?
See also Mac OS
Guide’s onscreen index.
Open the Guide (h)
menu and choose
Mac OS Guide; then
click the Index button.
198
Index
Mac OS Guide 20–23. See also
Guide menu
“Huh” button 23
Index button 21
Look For button 21
tips for using 23
Topics button 21–22
troubleshooting and 87
Mac OS software 133
mass-storage cards 37
memory. See also RAM card;
parameter RAM
adding 68
checking use of 96, 160
contents preserved under low-power
conditions 78
file sharing and 111
requirements for native programs 75
requirements for shared libraries 76
troubleshooting 91, 95–96, 99
virtual 75
memory chips, requirements for 160
menu bar 17, 98
menus 16, 17
messages
error 87, 91, 93, 116
low-power 78–79
microphone 2, 61
modem, external
connecting 49
PC Card modem 3, 42–45, 49, 112
troubleshooting 108, 112–113
modem files 42
modem port, external
connecting 49
illustration of 2, 47
PC Card modem and 43
modules, removable 31–34
monitor. See display; external
monitor; screen
monitor cable 50, 59
monitoring charge level of battery 77–79
mouse
positioning 143
troubleshooting 108
MoviePlayer program 3
moving pointer on screen 15, 16
N
native programs 75–76
network, troubleshooting 109, 116
nonvolatile video RAM (NVRAM) 89,
115–116
normal installation 120–128
O
on/off key. See Power key
OpenDoc software 133
opening
battery compartment 81
CD-ROM drive tray 35, 36
display 10
icons 18
Mac OS Guide 20
menus 17
Open Transport PPP software 127
Option key 154, 155, 156, 157
P
parameter RAM (PRAM), resetting 89,
115–116
password protection, SCSI disk mode
and 106
Password Security control panel 62
PC Card
ejecting 39–41
inserting 37–39
problems ejecting 40, 41
types of 37
PC Card eject buttons 2
PC Card modem
configuring software for use with 45
connecting 49
modem files and 112
specialized files for 3
using 42–45
using Apple Remote Access with
43–45
PC Card Modem Files folder 43
PC Card Modem icon 42
PC Card slots 2, 37, 38, 39, 44
PCMCIA card. See PC Card
plug adapters 142
plugging in the computer 8–9
pointer
frozen on screen 87, 101, 107
moving on screen 15, 16
window problems and 93
ports
Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) 2
expansion 2
external modem 2, 43, 47, 49
HDI-30 SCSI 2
power adapter 2, 9
printer 2, 47, 48
SCSI 2, 47, 50
sound input and output 2, 47, 61
video 57, 59, 60
posture while using equipment 141–144
power adapter
avoiding damage to computer 8, 81
drained battery and 13
illustration of 9
plugging in 8–9
recharging battery with 8, 80–81
travel tips 142
troubleshooting 93
warning about 8
power adapter plug 9, 80
power adapter port 2, 9, 47, 80
PowerBook File Assistant program 3
PowerBook 1400 CD, normal installation
120, 121, 127, 132
PowerBook Highlights icon 69–71
PowerBook Setup control panel,
assigning SCSI disk mode
ID 52
PowerBook Video Adapter Cable 50
power cord 9, 80
Power key
failure of 13, 25, 29
illustration of 2, 12
sleep mode and 26
turning computer off with 24
turning computer on with 12
using to reset PRAM and
NVRAM 116
using to restart computer 28–29
power management 77–83
PowerPC microprocessor 75, 94
power problems, low battery 13
power usage. See also battery; power
adapter; power management
CD-ROM drive 83
sleep mode and 26
PRAM. See parameter RAM (PRAM)
Preferences folder 116
Previous System Folder 129
printer
connecting 48
troubleshooting 104–105, 108
printer port 2, 47, 48
problems. See troubleshooting
programs. See application programs
Put Away command (File menu) 36, 40
Q
question mark icon, blinking 14, 91,
107, 120
QuickDraw GX 127
QuickDraw 3D 127
quitting, forcing a program to 157
R
RAM. See memory
RAM card
installing 159–170
problems with 90, 170
testing 170
RAM card connector, locating 164
RAM disk, restarting computer and 29
Index
199
Can’t Find It?
See also Mac OS
Guide’s onscreen index.
Open the Guide (h)
menu and choose
Mac OS Guide; then
click the Index button.
200
Index
rebuilding the desktop
Macintosh Easy Open control panels
and 97, 98
method for 157
troubleshooting 92
recharging the battery 80–81
reinitializing a hard disk 118
reinstalling system software 120–135
Remote Access Client program 3
Remote Access Setup control panel
modem not listed in 112
using with PC Card modem 43–44
won’t open 112
removable modules 31–34
removing
battery 81–83
battery label 11
BookCover 63–64
expansion bay module 32–33
expansion port cover 172
heat shield 163, 175
keyboard 162, 174
speaker grill 161, 173
repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) 140
replacing
battery 81–83
BookCover 65
expansion port cover 181
heat shield 167, 178
keyboard 168, 179
speaker grill 172, 180
reset button 2, 25, 29
resetting parameter RAM (PRAM) and
nonvolatile video RAM
(NVRAM) 89, 115–116
Restart command (Special menu) 29
restarting the computer
methods for 28–29, 157
troubleshooting 29, 92
restoring
application programs 74
information on a hard disk 74, 75
system software 74
Return key 146
right-angle bracket (>) prompt 157
S
safety instructions
battery 82, 145, 146, 147
cleaning equipment 146
general precautions 145–148
grounding plug 9
screen. See also display; external monitor
adjusting 143–144
basic elements on 17
blank 97
brightness control 2, 13, 143
cleaning 136
contrast control 2, 13, 143
dimming 26, 78
frozen 102
moving pointer on 15, 16
sleep mode and 26, 27
troubleshooting 13, 102–103
scroll arrows on windows 18
SCSI cables 50, 51, 53, 107
SCSI chain 50–51, 52. See also SCSI
devices; SCSI disk mode
SCSI devices. See also SCSI disk mode
connecting 50–56
troubleshooting 106–107, 108
warning about 50
SCSI Disk Adapter Cable 50, 51,
53, 107
SCSI disk mode
battery use and 55
cable for 50
password protection and 106
purpose of 51
quitting 56
troubleshooting 54, 106–107
warning about 51, 54
SCSI ID number 50, 52
SCSI mode icon 53, 106
SCSI Peripheral Interface Cable 50
SCSI port (HDI-30) 2, 47
SCSI (Small Computer Systems
Interface) 50
SCSI System Cable 50, 107
SCSI terminators 50, 51
security cable and lock 62
security slots 2
setting up
becoming familiar with
equipment 1–7
plugging in the computer 8–9
preparing to set up the computer 8
shared disks. See also file sharing
backing up files to 75
ejecting CD-ROM discs 110
not available for use 110
Remote Access Setup network
software and 113
shared files. See file sharing
shared libraries, native programs and 76
Sharing Setup control panel 112
Shift key 115, 116, 154
shortcuts. See keyboard shortcuts
Show All command (Application
menu) 73
Shut Down command (Special menu) 25
shutting down your computer
with Power key 24
with Shut Down command 25
troubleshooting 25
size box on windows 18
Sleep command (Special menu) 26
sleep indicator 2, 27
sleep mode
automatic 28
ejecting PC cards and 39, 40
low power and 78
troubleshooting 97
waking from 27, 28
warning about 26
software. See application programs;
system software
software disks, making 183–189
software updates 7
sound input and output ports 2, 47, 61
sounds, unusual sound at startup
89–90, 99
speaker grill
illustration of 2
removing 161, 173
replacing 172, 180
speakers, external 61
special characters and symbols, typing
155–156
special keys 153–157
Special menu
Eject PC Card command 40
Empty Trash command 18
Restart command 29
Shut Down command 25
Sleep command 26
spills 146
starting up your computer 12, 154. See
also Power key; startup disk;
turning computer on
from the CD-ROM disc that came
with your computer 118, 120,
121
with extensions off 115
troubleshooting 13–14, 88–93,
106, 118
startup disk 101
Startup Disk control panel 101
stereo miniplug 61
storing the computer 151
switching between programs 73
System Backup folder 183, 186
system extensions
replacing 127
troubleshooting 115–117
turning off 115, 117
System Folder
in clean installation 129
compatible with all models 131
damaged 74
file-sharing software missing 112
multiple copies of 94
networking software missing 112
problem extensions or control panels
in 116
replacing special software in 130
Index
201
Can’t Find It?
See also Mac OS
Guide’s onscreen index.
Open the Guide (h)
menu and choose
Mac OS Guide; then
system software
backing up 74, 183–189
clean installation 129–130
custom installation 131–135
normal installation 121–128
on PowerBook 1400 CD 118, 119
reinstalling 120–135
restoring 74
troubleshooting 90, 91, 94, 115–128
using Floppy Disk Maker to create
backup copies of 120, 185–189
click the Index button.
T
Tab key 146
technical support. See Apple Assistance
Center; Apple-authorized
service providers, contacting;
help, sources of
templates for BookCover inserts 3
terminator
cable 51
internal 53
SCSI 50, 51
testing a hard disk 118–119, 120, 128,
133–134
testing a RAM card 170
tilde accent (˜), typing 156
title bar on windows 18
Topics button, Mac OS Guide 21–22
trackpad
correct posture for using 142–143
illustration of 2, 15
moving pointer with 15–16
tips for using 16
troubleshooting 101
using 15–16
trackpad button 2, 15
Trash, dragging items to 18
traveling, tips for 149–150
202
Index
troubleshooting 87–113. See also Apple
Assistance Center; Appleauthorized service providers;
Apple customer support line;
error messages; frozen system;
help, sources of; Mac OS Guide
Apple Remote Access 112–113
application programs 71, 93–97
battery 88
blinking question mark icon at startup
14, 91, 107
change in appearance of icons 98
debugging program, starting 157
desktop doesn’t appear 90
devices 108
diagnosing problems 115–135
display 13, 102–103
ejecting floppy disks 100
ejecting PC Cards 41
error messages 87, 91, 93, 116
extensions 116–117
external modem 108, 112–113
external monitor 59, 103–104, 108
files 98–99
file sharing 109, 110, 111–112
floppy disk drive 100
floppy disks 58, 100
fonts 98
forcing a program to quit 157
frozen system 87, 91, 92, 93, 107, 117
hard disk 101, 118–119
hardware 100–107
keyboard 102, 108
Mac OS Guide and 87
memory 91, 95–96, 99
modem, external 108, 112–113
monitor, external 59, 103–104, 108
mouse 108
network 109
power adapter 93
Power key 13, 25, 29
printer 104–105, 108
question mark icon at startup 14,
91, 107
RAM card 170
rebuilding desktop 92, 157
reinstalling system software 120–135
reset button 2, 25, 29
restarting the computer 29, 92, 157
right-angle bracket prompt 157
screen 13, 102–103
SCSI devices 106–107, 108
SCSI disk mode 54, 106–107
shared library missing 76
sleep mode 97
software compatibility 117
spills 138
starting up 13–14, 88–93, 106
system software 90, 91, 94, 115–135
trackpad 101
turning computer off 25
turning computer on 13–14,
88–89, 106
unusual sounds 89–90, 99
window display 93
turning computer off 24–25
with Power key 24, 154
with reset button 25, 29
with Shut Down command 25
troubleshooting 25
turning computer on. See also starting up
your computer; startup disk
method for 12, 154
troubleshooting 13–14, 88–93, 106
turning extensions off 115, 117
tutorial program 15–16
U
V
Video Adapter Cable 50, 57, 59, 60
video card 57, 171
video port 57, 59, 60
video RAM. See nonvolatile video RAM
virtual memory 75, 116
W, X, Y
waking the computer 27, 28
Web sites, Apple 7
windows
bringing hidden portions of into
view 18
changing shape of 18
changing size of 18
closing 18
hidden 97
hiding on the desktop 73
infrared (IR) 2, 47, 68
making active 18
moving 18
showing on the desktop 73
troubleshooting 93
wireless communication cards 37
work area, arranging 141–144
World Wide Web, Apple Web sites 7
wrist problems 139–140, 142–143
Z
“zapping” parameter RAM (PRAM) 89,
115–116
umlaut (¨), typing 156
unlocking expansion bay module 32
updating hard disk driver 123–125
utilities
Battery Recondition 3
Communications Toolbox 42
Disk First Aid 3, 121, 124
disk repair 119, 128
Drive Setup 3, 117–118, 121, 124
Utilities folder, software in 3
Index
203

Macintosh PowerBook
User’s Manual
Includessetup, troubleshooting, and important health-related
information for Macintosh PowerBook 1400 series computers
K Apple Computer, Inc.
© 1997 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved.
Under the copyright laws, this manual may not be copied, in whole or in part, without the
written consent of Apple. Your rights to the software are governed by the accompanying
software license agreement.
The Apple logo is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other
countries. Use of the “keyboard” Apple logo (Option-Shift-K) for commercial purposes without
the prior written consent of Apple may constitute trademark infringement and unfair
competition in violation of federal and state laws.
Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this manual is accurate. Apple is
not responsible for printing or clerical errors.
Apple Computer, Inc.
1 Infinite Loop
Cupertino, CA 95014-2084
408-996-1010
http://www.apple.com
Apple, the Apple logo, AppleLink, AppleShare, AppleTalk, Chicago, EtherTalk, LaserWriter,
LocalTalk, Mac, Macintosh, the Mac OS logo, OpenDoc, PlainTalk, PowerBook, PowerTalk,
QuickTime, and StyleWriter are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and
other countries.
Balloon Help, BookCover, Cyberdog, Disk First Aid, Extensions Manager, Finder, and
QuickDraw are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
Adobe, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, and PostScript are trademarks of Adobe Systems
Incorporated, which may be registered in certain jurisdictions.
ClarisWorks is a registered trademark and Claris Organizer is a trademark of
Claris Corporation.
Helvetica and Times are registered trademarks of Linotype-Hell AG.
PowerPC and the PowerPC logo are trademarks of International Business Machines
Corporation, used under license therefrom.
Simultaneously published in the United States and Canada.
Mention of third-party products is for informational purposes only and constitutes neither an
endorsement nor a recommendation. Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the
performance or use of these products.
Contents
Communications regulation information
Preface Welcome to PowerPC
vii
ix
Part I
1 Getting Started
1
Becoming familiar with your Macintosh PowerBook
Preparing to set up the computer
Plugging in the computer
Opening the display
8
8
10
Removing the battery label (if necessary)
Turning the computer on
11
12
Problems turning the computer on?
What’s next?
1
13
14
Learning the basics
Reviewing the basics
15
17
Reviewing the Guide menu
Turning the computer off
19
24
Putting the computer to sleep
26
Restarting a computer that’s already on
28
iii
2 Using Expansion Bay Modules and PC Cards
Using expansion bay modules
31
31
Using a CD in the CD-ROM drive
34
Using PC Cards (PCMCIA cards)
37
3 Connecting Additional Equipment and Changing BookCovers
Connecting a printer
48
Connecting an external modem
Connecting SCSI devices
49
50
Connecting an external monitor
57
Connecting sound input and output devices
Connecting other devices
61
62
Attaching a security cable and lock to the computer
Changing BookCovers on the computer’s case
Adding memory to your computer
Using infrared file transfer
68
68
4 Installing and Using Application Programs
Using PowerBook Highlights
69
Getting help for application programs
Installing application programs
71
72
Working with several programs at a time
Backing up your files
74
Using “native” application programs
iv
Contents
63
75
72
69
62
47
5 Power Management
Power sources
77
77
Monitoring the battery charge
Recharging the battery
77
80
Removing or replacing the battery
Maximizing work time
81
83
Part II
6 Tips and Troubleshooting
When you have questions
87
87
When you run into trouble
87
Problems starting up the computer
88
Problems working with programs
Other problems while working
Problems with hardware
93
97
100
Problems with equipment connected to your computer
Problems with networks and file sharing
Problems with Apple Remote Access
7 Diagnostic Techniques
109
112
115
Checking your system software extensions
Testing your hard disk
108
115
118
Reinstalling the Mac OS system software
120
Contents
v
Part III
Appendix A Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
139
Health-related information about computer use
Important care and safety instructions
Caring for batteries
145
147
Handling floppy disks
148
Traveling with the Macintosh PowerBook
Storing the Macintosh PowerBook
Service and support
151
151
Appendix B Using Your Keyboard
153
Typing special characters and symbols
Special key combinations
157
Appendix C Installing Expansion Cards
Installing a RAM card
160
171
Appendix D Making Backup Floppy Disks
183
Index
vi
159
Installing an expansion slot card
Making software disks
Contents
191
149
184
155
139
Communications regulation information
FCC statement
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device
in accordance with the specifications in Part 15 of FCC rules. See instructions if interference to
radio or television reception is suspected.
Radio and television interference
The equipment described in this manual generates, uses, and can radiate radio-frequency
energy. If it is not installed and used properly—that is, in strict accordance with Apple’s
instructions—it may cause interference with radio and television reception.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device
in accordance with the specifications in Part 15 of FCC rules. These specifications are designed
to provide reasonable protection against such interference in a residential installation. However,
there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.
You can determine whether your computer system is causing interference by turning it off. If
the interference stops, it was probably caused by the computer or one of the peripheral devices.
If your computer system does cause interference to radio or television reception, try to correct
the interference by using one or more of the following measures:
m Turn the television or radio antenna until the interference stops.
m Move the computer to one side or the other of the television or radio.
m Move the computer farther away from the television or radio.
m Plug the computer into an outlet that is on a different circuit from the television or radio.
(That is, make certain the computer and the television or radio are on circuits controlled by
different circuit breakers or fuses.)
If necessary, consult an Apple-authorized service provider or Apple. See the service and support
information that came with your Apple product. Or, consult an experienced radio/television
technician for additional suggestions.
IMPORTANT Changes or modifications to this product not authorized by Apple Computer, Inc.,
could void the FCC Certification and negate your authority to operate the product.
This product was tested for FCC compliance under conditions that included the use of Apple
peripheral devices and Apple shielded cables and connectors between system components. It is
important that you use Apple peripheral devices and shielded cables and connectors between
system components to reduce the possibility of causing interference to radios, television sets,
and other electronic devices. You can obtain Apple peripheral devices and the proper shielded
cables and connectors through an Apple-authorized dealer. For non-Apple peripheral devices,
contact the manufacturer or dealer for assistance.
Communications Regulation Information
vii
Industry Canada statement
This Class B device meets all requirements of the Canadian Interference-Causing equipment
regulations.
Cet appareil numérique de la Class B respecte toutes les exigences du Règlement sur le matériel
brouilleur du Canada.
VCCI Class 2 statement
Laser information
WARNING Making adjustments or performing procedures other than those specified in your
equipment’s manual may result in hazardous radiation exposure.
WARNING Do not attempt to disassemble the cabinet containing the laser. The laser beam used in
this product is harmful to the eyes. The use of optical instruments, such as magnifying lenses,
with this product increases the potential hazard to your eyes. For your safety, have this
equipment serviced only by an Apple-authorized service provider.
If you have an internal Apple CD-ROM drive in your computer, your computer is a Class 1
laser product. The Class 1 label, located in a user-accessible area, indicates that the drive meets
minimum safety requirements. A service warning label is located in a service-accessible area.
The labels on your product may differ slightly from the ones shown here.
Class 1 label
viii
Communications Regulation Information
Service warning label
Welcome to PowerPC
Congratulations on the purchase of your new Macintosh PowerBook
computer. Your computer is designed to give you the highest performance
combined with real ease of use—it’s easy to set up, easy to use, and easy to
expand. This book will guide you through the setup procedure, tell you how
to expand your computer, and provide many tips on using your new system.
Your computer is powered by the new † microprocessor (or “chip”).
This microprocessor was designed by Apple Computer, Inc., Motorola, Inc.,
and IBM Corporation. The † microprocessor uses Reduced
Instruction Set Computing (RISC) technology to deliver very high
performance at the lowest possible cost. The † RISC microprocessor
represents the state of the art in microprocessor design.
Your new computer will run almost all your existing Mac OS software, but for
best performance and greatest speed, look for the new software programs
designed especially for computers with † microprocessors. You’ll find
these programs at any software store that carries Mac OS products.
ix
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Chapter 2
Using Expansion Bay Modules and PC Cards
Chapter 3
Connecting Additional Equipment and Changing BookCovers
Chapter 4
Installing and Using Application Programs
Chapter 5
Power Management
I
part
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