Advance acoustic | SC750 ST | Sound in Our World

SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 1
Copyright © 2014 ELENCO® Electronics, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced by
any means; electronic, photocopying, or otherwise without written permission from the publisher.
Patents: 7,144,255; 7,273,377; & other patents pending
753096
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 2
Table of Contents
Basic Troubleshooting
Parts List
How to Use Snap Circuits®
About Your Snap Circuits® Parts
Introduction to Electricity
Light in Our World
!
WARNING FOR ALL PROJECTS WITH
A ! SYMBOL - Moving parts. Do not
touch the motor or fan during operation.
Do not lean over the motor. Do not
launch the fan at people, animals, or
objects. Eye protection is recommended.
Basic Troubleshooting
1
2-4
5-7
8-11
12
13-15
!
WARNING: SHOCK HAZARD - Never
connect Snap Circuits® to the electrical
outlets in your home in any way!
WARNING: CHOKING HAZARD - Small
parts. Not for children under 3 years.
1. Most circuit problems are due to incorrect assembly, always
double-check that your circuit exactly matches the drawing for it.
2. Be sure that parts with positive/negative markings are
positioned as per the drawing.
3. Be sure that all connections are securely snapped.
4. Try replacing the batteries.
5. If the motor spins but does not balance the fan, check the
black plastic piece with three prongs on the motor shaft, and
replace it if it is damaged (this kit includes a spare). To
replace, pry the broken one off the motor shaft using a
screwdriver, then push the new one on.
6. If a fiber optics circuit isn’t working, make sure the clear &
black cable holders are pushed all the way onto the
LED/phototransistor, and the fiber optic cable is pushed into
the holders as far as it will go. The cable should be standing
straight up in the holders.
7. If the flexible sheet in the sound energy demo container is
damaged, replace it with a spare (if one was included), or use
household plastic wrap.
8. If the echo IC (U28) stops working, turn the circuit off and on
to reset it.
ELENCO® is not responsible for parts damaged due to incorrect
wiring.
Note: If you suspect you have damaged parts, you can follow the
Advanced Troubleshooting procedure on pages 23-25 to determine which
ones need replacing.
-1-
Sound in Our World
DOs and DON’Ts of Building Circuits
Advanced Troubleshooting
Project Listings
Projects 1 - 392
Other Snap Circuits® Projects
Conforms to all applicable U.S.
government requirements.
!
WARNING: Some projects are intended for use with
headphones (not included in this set). Headphones
performance varies, so you should use caution. Permanent
hearing loss may result from long-term exposure to sound
at high volumes. Start with as low a volume as possible,
then carefully increase to a comfortable level. Ringing or
discomfort in the ears may indicate that the sound levels
are too high; immediately discontinue using the
headphones with this product and consult a physician.
WARNING: Always check your wiring before
turning on a circuit. Never leave a circuit
unattended while the batteries are installed.
Never connect additional batteries or any
other power sources to your circuits.
Discard any cracked or broken parts.
Adult Supervision:
Because children’s
abilities vary so much, even with age groups,
adults should exercise discretion as to
which experiments are suitable and safe (the
instructions should enable supervising
adults to establish the experiment’s
suitability for the child). Make sure your child
reads and follows all of the relevant
instructions and safety procedures, and
!
Batteries:
● Use only 1.5V AA type, alkaline batteries (not
included).
● Insert batteries with correct polarity.
● Non-rechargeable batteries should not be
recharged. Rechargeable batteries should
only be charged under adult supervision, and
should not be recharged while in the product.
● Do not mix old and new batteries.
16-21
22
23-25
26-29
30-164
165
keeps them at hand for reference.
This product is intended for use by adults
and children who have attained sufficient
maturity to read and follow directions and
warnings.
Never modify your parts, as doing so may
disable important safety features in them,
and could put your child at risk of injury.
CAUTION: Persons who are extremely
sensitive to flashing lights and rapidly
changing colors or patterns should exercise
caution when playing with this toy.
CAUTION: High intensity light. Do not look
directly at white LED (D6).
● Do not connect batteries or battery holders in
parallel.
● Do not mix alkaline, standard (carbon-zinc),
or rechargeable (nickel-cadmium) batteries.
● Remove batteries when they are used up.
● Do not short circuit the battery terminals.
● Never throw batteries in a fire or attempt to
open its outer casing.
● Batteries are harmful if swallowed, so keep
away from small children.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 3
Parts List (Colors and styles may vary) Symbols and Numbers (page 1)
Important: If any parts are missing or damaged, DO NOT RETURN TO RETAILER. Call toll-free (800) 533-2441 or e-mail us at:
help@elenco.com. Customer Service ● 150 Carpenter Ave. ● Wheeling, IL 60090 U.S.A.
Qty.
ID
r1
Name
Base Grid
(11.0” x 7.7”)
Symbol
Part #
Qty.
ID
Name
Symbol
Part #
6SCBG
r1
C4
100mF Capacitor
6SCC4
r3
1
1-Snap Wire
6SC01
r1
C5
470mF Capacitor
6SCC5
r7
2
2-Snap Wire
6SC02
r1
C7
1mF Capacitor
6SCC7
r3
3
3-Snap Wire
6SC03
r1
D1
Red Light Emitting
Diode (LED)
6SCD1
r1
4
4-Snap Wire
6SC04
r1
D6
r1
5
5-Snap Wire
6SC05
r1
D8
Color Light Emitting
Diode (LED)
6SCD8
r1
6
6-Snap Wire
6SC06
r1
JA
Audio Jack
6SCJA
r2
B1
6SCB1
r1
Jumper Wire (black)
6SCJ1
r1
C2
6SCC2
r1
Jumper Wire (red)
6SCJ2
Battery Holder - uses
two (2) 1.5V type “AA”
(not Included)
0.1mF Capacitor
White Light Emitting
Diode (LED)
You may order additional / replacement parts at our website: www.snapcircuits.net
6SCD6
-2-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 4
Parts List (Colors and styles may vary) Symbols and Numbers (page 2)
Important: If any parts are missing or damaged, DO NOT RETURN TO RETAILER. Call toll-free (800) 533-2441 or e-mail us at:
help@elenco.com. Customer Service ● 150 Carpenter Ave. ● Wheeling, IL 60090 U.S.A.
Qty.
ID
Name
r1
M1
Motor
Symbol
Part #
Qty.
ID
Name
Symbol
Part #
6SCM1
r1
R3
5.1kW Resistor
6SCR3
r1
Spare Motor Top
6SCM1T
r1
R5
100kW Resistor
6SCR5
r1
Glow Fan Blade
6SCM1FG
r1
RP
Photoresistor
6SCRP
r1
Disc Holder
6SCM1DH
r1
RV
Adjustable Resistor
6SCRV
r1
Set of Disc Cutouts
(6 pcs. / set)
6SCM1DS
r1
RV3
500kW Adjustable
Resistor
6SCRV3
r1
Q1
PNP Transistor
6SCQ1
r2
S1
Slide Switch
6SCS1
r1
Q2
NPN Transistor
6SCQ2
r1
S2
Press Switch
6SCS2
r1
Q4
Phototransistor
6SCQ4
r1
SP2
Speaker
6SCSP2
r1
R1
100W Resistor
6SCR1
r1
U22
Color Organ
6SCU22
-3-
You may order additional / replacement parts at our website: www.snapcircuits.net
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 5
Parts List (Colors and styles may vary) Symbols and Numbers (page 3)
Important: If any parts are missing or damaged, DO NOT RETURN TO RETAILER. Call toll-free (800) 533-2441 or e-mail us at:
help@elenco.com. Customer Service ● 150 Carpenter Ave. ● Wheeling, IL 60090 U.S.A.
Qty.
ID
Name
r1
U23
r1
Part #
Qty.
Strobe IC
6SCU23
r1
U24
Infrared Receiver
6SCU24
r1
Tower LED
Attachment
r1
U26
Keyboard
6SCU26
r1
Egg LED Attachment
6SCEGG
r1
U27
Voice Changer
6SCU27
r1
Prismatic Film
6SCFILM
r1
U28
Echo IC
6SCU28
r1
6SCFRGB
r1
Red/Green/Blue
Filters Set
X1
Microphone
6SCX1
r1
Stereo Cable
9TLSCST
r1
Fiber Optic Cable
6SCFC
r1
r1
Fiber Optic Cable
Holder, clear
6SCFCHC
r1
6SCFCHB
r1
r1
r1
Symbol
Fiber Optic Cable
Holder, black
Fiber Optic Tree
6SCFT
ID
Name
Mounting Base
(for fiber optic tree)
Symbol
Part #
6SCFMB
6SCTOWER
Base for Sound
Energy Demo
Container
6SCSEDCB
Flexible Sheet for Sound
Energy Demo Container
(may include spare)
6SCSEDCF
Tube for Sound
Energy Demo
Container
You may order additional / replacement parts at our website: www.snapcircuits.net
6SCSEDCT
-4-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 6
How to Use Snap Circuits®
Snap Circuits® uses building blocks with snaps
to build the different electrical and electronic
circuits in the projects. Each block has a
function: there are switch blocks, light blocks,
battery blocks, different length wire blocks, etc.
These blocks are different colors and have
numbers on them so that you can easily
identify them. The blocks you will be using are
shown as color symbols with level numbers
next to them, allowing you to easily snap them
together to form a circuit.
You need a power source to build each circuit.
This is labeled B1 and requires two (2) 1.5V
“AA” batteries (not included).
Usually when the motor M1 is used, the glow
fan will usually be placed on it. On top of the
motor shaft is a black plastic piece (the motor
top) with three little tabs. Lay the fan on the
black piece so the slots in its bottom “fall into
place” around the three tabs in the motor top.
If not placed properly, the fan will fall off when
the motor starts to spin.
For Example:
This is the switch block which is green and has
the marking S2 on it. The part symbols in this
booklet may not exactly match the appearance
of the actual parts, but will clearly identify them.
This is a wire block which is blue and comes
in different wire lengths.
This one has the number 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ,
or 6 on it depending on the length of the wire
connection required.
There is also a 1-snap wire that is used as a
spacer or for interconnection between different
layers.
-5-
A large clear plastic base grid is included with
this kit to help keep the circuit blocks properly
spaced. You will see evenly spaced posts that
the different blocks snap into. The base has
rows labeled A-G and columns labeled 1-10.
Next to each part in every circuit drawing is a
small number in black. This tells you which
level the component is placed at. Place all
parts on level 1 first, then all of the parts on
level 2, then all of the parts on level 3, etc.
Some circuits use the jumper wires to make
unusual connections. Just clip them to the
metal snaps or as indicated.
This set contains 6 pre-punched cardboard
discs. These will be used with a strobe light in
project 46 and others. The discs may be
supplied as a single sheet; just punch them
out.
To remove a disc
from the holder, use
your fingernail, or
use a pencil to push
it up from beneath
one of the tabs.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 7
How to Use Snap Circuits®
This set contains three LED attachments,
which can be mounted on the LED modules
(D1, D6, D8, and on U22) to enhance their
light effects. The egg and tower attachments
are mounted directly on the LEDs, but the fiber
optic tree must be mounted using the
mounting base, as shown. This is described in
the projects.
In some projects, the fiber optic cable will be
mounted on the LEDs (D1, D6, D8, and on
U22) or the phototransistor (Q4). This is done
by placing the clear and black cable holders
onto the LED/phototransistor, then inserting
the fiber optic cable all the way into the holder.
For best performance the cable should stand
straight up in the holders, without bending
them. This is described in the projects.
Egg LED attachment
mounted to D6
Black cable holder
mounted to Q4
Clear cable holder
mounted to D1
Egg
Light Tower
LED attachment
mounted to D1
Fiber Optic Tree
LED attachment
mounted to D8
Fiber Optic Tree
LED attachment
mounted to U22
Fiber Optic Tree
Light Tower
Correct
Incorrect
Note: While building the projects, be
careful not to accidentally make a direct
connection across the battery holder (a
“short circuit”), as this may damage and/or
quickly drain the batteries.
-6-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 8
How to Use Snap Circuits®
Sound Energy Demonstration
Container Assembly
(Adult supervision recommended)
This set contains a sound energy
demonstration container, which will sometimes
be placed over the speaker. Its use is
explained in project 198.
To assemble it, lay the tube and flexible sheet
over the base, and then push the tube into the
base, as shown. Do not disassemble it except
to repair it. This set may include a spare for the
flexible sheet, and household plastic wrap also
works.
Tube
Base
-7-
Flexible
sheet
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 9
About Your Snap Circuits® Parts
(Part designs are subject to change without
notice).
BASE GRID
The base grid is a platform for mounting parts
and wires. It functions like the printed circuit
boards used in most electronic products, or like
how the walls are used for mounting the electrical
wiring in your home.
BATTERY HOLDER
The batteries (B1) produce an electrical voltage
using a chemical reaction. This “voltage” can be
thought of as electrical pressure, pushing
electricity through a circuit just like a pump
pushes water through pipes. This voltage is
much lower and much safer than that used in
your house wiring. Using more batteries
increases the “pressure”, therefore, more
electricity flows.
SNAP WIRES & JUMPER WIRES
The blue snap wires
are wires used to
connect components.
They are used to
transport electricity and do
not affect circuit performance.
They come in different lengths to
allow orderly arrangement of connections
on the base grid.
The red and black
jumper wires make
flexible connections for
times when using the snap wires
would be difficult. They also are
used to make connections off the base grid.
Battery Holder (B1)
MOTOR
The motor (M1) converts electricity into
mechanical motion. An electric current in the
motor will turn the shaft and the motor blades,
and the fan blade if it is on the motor.
Glow-in-the-dark Fan
How does electricity turn the shaft in the motor?
The answer is magnetism. Electricity is closely
related to magnetism, and an electric current
flowing in a wire has a magnetic field similar to
that of a very, very tiny magnet. Inside the motor
is a coil of wire with many loops wrapped around
metal plates. This is called an electromagnet. If
a large electric current flows through the loops,
it will turn ordinary metal into a magnet. The
motor shell also has a magnet on it. When
electricity flows through the electromagnet, it
repels from the magnet on the motor shell and
the shaft spins. If the fan is on the motor shaft,
then its blades will create airflow.
Shell
Magnet
Power Contacts
Shaft
Wires transport electricity just like pipes are used
to transport water. The colorful plastic coating
protects them and prevents electricity from
getting in or out.
Motor (M1)
Electromagnet
-8-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 10
About Your Snap Circuits® Parts
RESISTORS
Resistors “resist” the flow of electricity and are
used to control or limit the current in a circuit.
Snap Circuits® LIGHT includes 100W (R1), 5.1kW
(R3), and 100kW (R5) resistors (“k” symbolizes
1,000, so R5 is really 100,000W). Materials like
metal have very low resistance (<1W), while
materials like paper, plastic, and air have nearinfinite resistance. Increasing circuit resistance
reduces the flow of electricity.
The 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3) is a
500kW resistor that can be adjusted between
200W and 500kW.
500kW Adjustable Resistor (RV3)
CAPACITORS
The 0.1mF, 1mF, 100mF, and 470mF capacitors
(C2, C7, C4, & C5) can store electrical pressure
(voltage) for periods of time. This storage ability
allows them to block stable voltage signals and
pass changing ones. Capacitors are used for
filtering and delay circuits.
-9-
SPEAKER
Slide & Press
Switches
(S1 & S2)
The speaker (SP2)
converts electricity into
sound
by
making
mechanical vibrations.
These vibrations create
variations
in
air
pressure, which travel
across the room. You
“hear” sound when your
ears feel these air
pressure variations. Speaker (SP)
MICROPHONE
The adjustable resistor (RV) is a 50kW resistor
but with a center tap that can be adjusted
between 200W and 50kW.
Adjustable Resistor (RV)
The slide & press switches (S1 & S2) connect
(pressed or “ON”) or disconnect (not pressed or
“OFF”) the wires in a circuit. When ON they have no
effect on circuit performance. Switches turn on
electricity just like a faucet turns on water from a pipe.
The photoresistor (RP) is a light-sensitive
resistor, its value changes from nearly infinite in
total darkness to about 1000W when a bright light
shines on it.
Photoresistor (RP)
Resistors (R1, R3, & R5)
SLIDE & PRESS SWITCHES
The microphone (X1) is actually a resistor that
changes in value when changes in air pressure
(sounds) apply pressure to its surface. Its
resistance typically varies between 1kW and
10kW.
Capacitors (C2, C4, C5, & C7)
Microphone (X1)
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 11
About Your Snap Circuits® Parts
TRANSISTORS
The PNP & NPN transistors (Q1 & Q2) are
components that use a small electric current to
control a large current, and are used in switching,
amplifier, and buffering applications. They are
easy to miniaturize, and are the main building
blocks of integrated circuits including the
microprocessor and memory circuits in computers.
The strobe IC (U23) contains resistors,
capacitors, and transistors that are needed to
make a strobe light circuit. A schematic for it is
available at www.snapcircuits.net/faq.
LEDs
(D1, D6, & D8)
CTL
ELECTRONIC MODULES
PNP & NPN Transistors (Q1 & Q2)
The Infrared module (U24) is a miniaturized
infrared receiver circuit for remote control.
The phototransistor (Q4) is a transistor that
uses light to control electric current.
Infrared module (U24)
Phototransistor (Q4)
LEDs
The red, white, and color LEDs (D1, D6, & D8)
are light emitting diodes, and may be thought of
as a special one-way light bulbs. In the “forward”
direction, (indicated by the “arrow” in the symbol)
electricity flows if the voltage exceeds a turn-on
threshold (about 1.5V for red, about 3.0V for
white, and in between for other colors);
brightness then increases. The color LED
contains red, green, and blue LEDs, with a microcircuit controlling then. A high current will burn
out an LED, so the current must be limited by
other components in the circuit. LED’s block
electricity in the “reverse” direction.
The color organ (U22) contains resistors,
capacitors, transistors, a tri-color LED, and
integrated circuits. The LED in it can change
colors by direct control, or in synch with an audio
input signal. A schematic for it is available at
www.snapcircuits.net/faq.
R
G
OUT
IN
(–)
FB
Connections:
R - red color control
G - green color control
B - blue color control
(+) - power from batteries
(+) INP - circuit input
FB - feedback connection
(–) - power return to batteries
IN - audio input jack
OUT - audio output jack
INP
See projects 5, 6, 33,
and 35 for examples
of proper connections.
(+)
(–)
Connections:
(+) - power from batteries
(–) - power return to batteries
OUT - output connection
CTL - strobe speed control
NC - not used
NC
OUT
See project 47 for example of proper connections.
The keyboard (U26) contains resistors,
capacitors, switches, and an integrated circuit. It
can produce two adjustable audio tones at the
same time. The tones approximate musical notes,
and may not be exact. The tone of the green keys
can be adjusted with the tune knob or using
external resistors and capacitors. A schematic for
it is available at www.snapcircuits.net/faq.
B
Connections:
(+) - power from batteries
RES - resistor freq adjust
CAP - capacitor freq adjust
OUT - output connection
(–) - power return to batteries
Keyboard (U26)
See projects 186, 191, & 210 for example of proper
connections.
-10-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 12
About Your Snap Circuits® Parts
The echo IC (U28) contains resistors, capacitors,
and integrated circuits that are needed to add
echo effects to a sound. A schematic for it is
available at www.snapcircuits.net/faq.
Connections:
(+) - power from batteries
G+ - gain control
G– - gain control
ADJ - echo adjust
INP - input connection
OUT - output connection
(–) - power return to
batteries
The audio jack (JA) is a connector mounted on
snaps, and is used for interfacing your music
device or external speaker to Snap Circuits®.
See projects 195 & 226 for
examples
of
proper
connections.
The voice changer (U27) contains resistors,
capacitors, and an integrated circuit that are
needed to record and play back sound at
different speeds. A schematic for it is available at
www.snapcircuits.net/faq.
OTHER PARTS
The LED attachments can be used with any of
the LEDs (red, white, color, and the color organ)
to enhance the light effects.
Fiber Optic Tree
Light
Tower
Audio Jack (JA)
The sound energy demonstration container is
used to show that sound waves have energy,
and can move things around. See project 198.
The fiber optic cable carries light between two
places. The light can be encoded to transmit
information. The clear and black holders are
used to attach it to circuits.
The stereo cable is used to connect your music
device to the color organ (U22) or audio jack
(JA).
Connections:
(+) - power from batteries
SPD - speed adjust
The disc holder and discs produce amazing effects
SP+ - speaker (+)
SP– - speaker (–)
when used with the Strobe Effects circuit (project 47).
MIC+ - microphone (+)
MIC– - microphone (–)
REC - record
PLY - play
(–) - power return to batteries
-11-
See project 192 for example of
proper connections.
Egg
Prismatic film separates light into
different colors. The red, green, & blue
filters filter out colors.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 13
Introduction to Electricity
What is electricity? Nobody really knows. We only know how to produce it,
understand its properties, and how to control it. Electricity is the movement of subatomic charged particles (called electrons) through a material due to electrical
pressure across the material, such as from a battery.
There are two ways of arranging parts in a circuit, in series or
in parallel. Here are examples:
Power sources, such as batteries, push electricity through a circuit, like a pump
pushes water through pipes. Wires carry electricity, like pipes carry water. Devices
like LEDs, motors, and speakers use the energy in electricity to do things. Switches
and transistors control the flow of electricity like valves and faucets control water.
Resistors limit the flow of electricity.
The electrical pressure exerted by a battery or other power source is called
voltage and is measured in volts (V). Notice the “+” and “–” signs on the battery;
these indicate which direction the battery will “pump” the electricity.
The electric current is a measure of how fast electricity is flowing in a wire, just
as the water current describes how fast water is flowing in a pipe. It is expressed
in amperes (A) or milliamps (mA, 1/1000 of an ampere).
Series Circuit
The “power” of electricity is a measure of how fast energy is moving through a
wire. It is a combination of the voltage and current (Power = Voltage x Current). It
is expressed in watts (W).
The resistance of a component or circuit represents how much it resists the
electrical pressure (voltage) and limits the flow of electric current. The relationship
is Voltage = Current x Resistance. When the resistance increases, less current
flows. Resistance is measured in ohms (W), or kilo ohms (kW, 1000 ohms).
Nearly all of the electricity used in our world is produced at enormous generators
driven by steam or water pressure. Wires are used to efficiently transport this
energy to homes and businesses where it is used. Motors convert the electricity
back into mechanical form to drive machinery and appliances. The most important
aspect of electricity in our society is that it allows energy to be easily transported
over distances.
Note that “distances” includes not just large distances but also tiny distances. Try
to imagine a plumbing structure of the same complexity as the circuitry inside a
portable radio - it would have to be large because we can’t make water pipes so
small. Electricity allows complex designs to be made very small.
Parallel Circuit
Placing components in series increases the resistance; highest
value dominates. Placing components in parallel decreases the
resistance; lower value dominates.
The parts within these series and parallel sub-circuits may be
arranged in different ways without changing what the circuit
does. Large circuits are made of combinations of smaller series
and parallel circuits.
-12-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 14
Light in Our World
What would our world be like without light?
Moving and doing things in total darkness
would be much more difficult, because
everyone would be blind. Plants rely on
sunlight for energy and would die without it. If
all the plants die, then people and animals
would have nothing to eat, and would starve.
Let’s hope we never have to live in a world
without light.
Light is energy, traveling at high speed.
Sunlight can warm up your skin, as can bright
lights in a concert hall or playhouse. Light can
carry information. For example, our brains
analyze the light received in our eyes, to learn
what is around us. In fiber optic cables, beams
of light carry data between cities. Infrared light
from a remote control can tell a TV to change
to a different channel.
Light moves as super-tiny charges, which are
so full of energy they go flying off in all
directions.
This happens when a material has too much
energy, and some of the energy changes form.
For example, a light bulb makes light when an
electric current makes the filament so hot that
it glows. Some of the energy in a burning fire
escapes by changing to light. Our bright sun
makes so much light because it is basically a
gigantic ball of thermonuclear reactions. Light
emitting diodes (LEDs) make light by
converting excess electrical energy.
Light bulb
filament
-13-
Glowing
light bulb
filament
Close-up
view of the
Sun
Glowing
white LED
(D6)
You “see” when light enters your eyes. When
you turn on a light in a room, the light shines
on everything around it. When light shines on
something, some of the light is absorbed into
it, and the rest is reflected off. The absorbed
light is converted to heat, and the reflected
light is scattered around the room. Some of the
shining and reflected light might reach your
eyes. Your brain interprets the light into your
eyes, and makes the mental picture you see.
White light beam
Mental picture
Reflected light
When all the light shining on something is
absorbed, with none reflected towards your
eyes, then you can’t see it. The object will
appear dark. The brighter an object appears,
the more light was reflected off it and into your
eyes. Some materials, like air and clear glass,
let light pass through them.
You can only see the
moon when light from the
sun bounces off it, and
reflects to earth.
You can’t see a beam of light traveling across
a room, unless something scatters the light
and some reaches your eyes. In a dusty room,
sometimes you can see the dust particles
floating in the air when sunlight hits them.
In this photograph,
sand
has
been
tossed into the air,
which is illuminated
by a narrow beam of
sunlight coming down
into the canyon.
When you turn on a
light, you instantly
see everything. This
happens
because
light is very fast, and
travels about 186,000
miles a second in air.
Light rays can bend when they pass between
different materials, such as air and water. Light
bends because its speed changes. The speed
of light in water is only about 125,000 miles a
second.
The part of the pen in water
looks distorted, because light
changes speed when entering
and leaving the water.
When you look directly out a
glass window, you can see
clearly through it. When you
look through the window at a
wide angle, you can see
through it, but also see a reflection in it. When
you try to look through the window at a really
wide angle, you can’t see through it at all, and
only see reflections. Try looking through a
window in your home at really wide angles.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 15
Light in Our World
When light hits a glass surface at a wide
enough angle, all the light is reflected. Fiber
optic cables have arrays of flexible glass
fibers. In these cables, light rays move through
by bouncing along the inside walls at wide
angles, and can travel great distances. Light
moves through the cable even if it is bent a
little, but if there is a tight bend then most of
the light will be absorbed instead of reflected
forward.
White light beam
Orange
Orange reflected light
Cable slightly bent
Cable with
tight bend
Any color of light can be made, by mixing
different amounts of red, green, and blue light.
Mixing equal amounts of these colors
produces white light. If you look at a TV screen
with a magnifying glass, you will see it actually
consists of tiny red, green, and blue lights,
using different intensities to make all the
colors.
Light beam
(full strength)
Weak light beam
Translucent materials, such as the tower and
egg LED attachments in this set, allow some
light to pass through but scatter it around.
Color
The things around you have different colors
because they reflect the colors that you see,
while absorbing the other colors. Light
produced by the sun or a light bulb is called
white light. White light is not really a color itself,
but is a mixture of all the colors seen in a
rainbow.
White light shines on an orange. All colors in
the light are absorbed except orange, which is
reflected off. The reflected orange light
reaches our eyes, so we see it as having
orange color.
White light can be split up into its different
colors. This happens when light passes
between different materials, and the different
colors in it are bent by different amounts. You
can see this by viewing white light through
prismatic film, as you do in project 67.
Sometimes water in the air can bend sunlight
by just the right amounts, and make a rainbow.
Color filters allow one color to pass through,
and absorb the other colors. When you look
through a red filter, everything looks red (or
black, if there isn’t any red in what you are
looking at). This set includes red, green, and
blue filters, so try looking through them.
White light beam
Red filter
Red light beam
This set includes several LEDs (D1, D6, D8,
and in U22) with different colors. The color
emitted by an LED depends on the material
used in it. LEDs are more energy-efficient than
incandescent light bulbs, can be made smaller,
and last longer.
The LED in the color organ module (U22)
contains separate red, green, and blue LEDs.
The color organ can combine these colors to
make yellow, cyan, purple, and white, as
shown in project 6. The color organ does not
allow you to adjust the amount of each color.
In project 50, several colors are mixed
together on a spinning disc.
Red
Magenta
Blue
White
Cyan
Yellow
Green
-14-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 16
The Spectrum of Light
Light in Our World
The light our eyes see is only part of what is around us. Visible light,
infrared light, radio waves (including TV broadcasting and cell phones),
microwaves, and x-rays are all forms of electromagnetic radiation. They
are actually changing electric and magnetic fields. This radiation travels
like waves in water, spreading out from where it was created. These
waves all travel at the speed of light, but some are longer (higher
wavelength) and some repeat faster (higher frequency). Together they
are called the electromagnetic spectrum:
The visible colors (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet) have
different wavelengths. In the right conditions white light from the sun can
be separated according to wavelength, producing a rainbow of color. This
happens with an actual rainbow, and with prismatic film.
Why is the sky blue? Some sunlight is scattered by tiny particles in the
earth’s atmosphere. The shorter wavelength blue light is scattered more
than the other colors, so the sky appears blue. At sunrise or sunset,
longer wavelength
colors like red or
yellow are more
visible in the sky,
because
sunlight
passes through more
of the atmosphere
before reaching your
eyes. In space, the
sky always appears
black because there
is no atmosphere or
scattering effect.
-15-
Infrared
Infrared light is invisible light given off by
anything warm. Infrared is used in remote
controls to control TVs and appliances.
Infrared is invisible, so it doesn’t disrupt
your view of the TV. Infrared doesn’t go
through walls, so it doesn’t interfere with
devices in other rooms.
The remote control sends a stream of
infrared light pulses to the TV, encoded with
the desired commands. The infrared light is
created using an infrared light emitting
diode (LED). Infrared detectors convert the
received light to electric current, and
decode the commands. The detectors are
tuned to focus on the infrared light, and
ignore visible light. This set contains an
infrared detector (U24), which can be
activated by a TV remote control; see
projects 42 and 43 for examples.
Infrared has other uses such as night vision
devices help to see people and animals in
the dark, by looking at the heat they give off
as infrared light. You probably saw this in
the movies.
Glow-in-the-dark
Some materials can absorb light, store it for a while, and slowly release
it back out. “Glow-in-the-dark” materials can be “charged” by bright light,
then will slowly emit light and “glow” for a while in a dark room. The glow
fan blade in this set has a glow powder mixed in the plastic.
It’s like a slow, delayed reflection of the light.
Sound
Sound, like light, spreads out like waves from where it was made. Sound
is variations in air pressure. You “hear” sound when your ears feel these
air pressure variations. Sound has much longer wavelength than light,
which enables sound to travel around corners. Sound can also be
thought of as a wave of vibration, and can travel through water and solid
objects. Sound travels about 1,000 feet per second in air, and about
5,000 feet per second in water.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 17
Sound in Our World
Sound is a variation in air pressure created by
a mechanical vibration. See projects 13 & 51
for a demonstration of this. These air pressure
variations travel across the room like waves,
so we call them sound waves. You “hear”
sound when your ears feel these air pressure
variations, and convert them to nerve pulses
that your brain interprets. Eventually the
energy of a sound wave is absorbed, and
becomes heat.
Sound waves can also be thought of as waves
of temporary compression that travel through
materials. Notice that at a loud concert you can
sometimes feel the pressure waves, in
addition to hearing them. Sound waves can
travel through liquids and solids but their
speed may change and their energy may be
reduced, depending on the characteristics of
the material. Sound waves can only travel
through a compressible material, and so
cannot travel through a vacuum. Outer space
is silent, because there is no air or other
material for sound waves to travel through.
The “hearing” part of your ear is inside your
skull; the flaps you see are just funnels to
collect the sound and pass it along to your
eardrum inside. When you were young your
brain learned to interpret the difference in the
information collected from your two ears, and
use it to know which direction a sound came
from. If one of your ears is clogged, then it is
difficult to determine a sound’s direction.
You can compare sound waves from your
voice to waves in a pond. When you speak,
the movements in your mouth create sound
waves just as tossing a rock into the pond
creates water waves. Sound waves travel
through air as water waves travel across the
pond. If someone is nearby, then their ears will
feel the air pressure variations caused by your
sound waves just as a small boat at the other
side of the pond will feel the water waves.
Sound and water waves
If the mechanical vibration causing the sound
wave occurs at a constant rate, then the sound
wave will repeat itself at the same rate; we
refer to this as the frequency of the sound
wave. Nearly all sound waves have their
energy spread unevenly across a range of
frequencies. When you say a word, you create
a sound wave with energy at various
frequencies, just as tossing a handful of
various-sized rocks into the pond will create a
complicated water wave pattern.
Frequency measures how many times
something occurs per second, expressed in
units called hertz (Hz). The metric prefixes can
be used, so 1,000 repetitions per second is 1
kilohertz (kHz) and 1,000,000 repetitions per
second is 1 megahertz (MHz). The range of
frequencies that can be heard by the human
ear is approximately 20 to 20,000 Hz and is
referred to as the audio range.
Just as there are sound waves caused by
mechanical vibrations, there are also electrical
waves caused by electrical variations. Just as
sound waves travel through air, electrical
waves travel through wires. A microphone
senses pressure variations from sound waves
and creates electrical waves at the same
frequencies. A speaker converts electricity into
sound, by using the energy in electrical waves
to create mechanical vibrations (sound waves)
at the same frequencies.
How does the speaker make sound? An
electric current flowing through a wire has a
very, very tiny magnetic field. Inside the
speaker is a coil of wire and a magnet. The coil
of wire concentrates the magnetic field from
the flowing electric current, enough to make
the magnet move slightly, like a vibration. The
magnet’s vibration creates the air pressure
variations that travel to your ears.
Speaker
sound waves
Your speaker can only create sound from a
CHANGING electrical signal, for unchanging
electrical signals it acts like a 32 ohm resistor.
(An unchanging signal does not cause the
magnet in the speaker to move, so no sound
waves are created). Electrical variations at
high frequencies (referred to as radio
frequencies) cannot be heard by your ears, but
can be used to create electromagnetic radio
waves, which travel through air and are used
for many forms of communication. In AM and
FM radio, voice or music is superimposed on
radio waves, allowing it to be transmitted over
great distances, to later be decoded and
listened to.
-16-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 18
Sound in Our World
In stereo, sound is produced on several
speakers (or earphones) with varying
frequencies/loudness on each. This gives the
impression that the sound is coming from
different directions, and is more pleasing to
listen to. Mono sound is the same on all
speakers, and is easier to produce. Note that
a “stereo speaker” can be several speakers
(possibly of different sizes) in one package.
Your Snap Circuits® speaker (SP2) is a mono
speaker. Surround sound is a technique for
placing several speakers (with different
sounds from each) around the listener, to
create a more interesting listening experience.
Sound waves travel very fast, but sometimes
you can perceive the effects of their speed.
Ever notice how sometimes you see lightning
before you hear the thunder? The reason is
because light travels at about 186,000 miles
per second, while sound travels at only about
1,100 feet per second in air. Sound can travel
through liquids and solids, but with increased
speed (the speed depends on the material’s
compressibility and density). Sound travels 4.3
times faster in water than in air; this difference
in speed confuses our ears, making it difficult
to perceive the direction of sound while
underwater.
The loudness of sound waves is a measure of
the pressure level, and is expressed in
decibels (dB, a logarithmic scale). Long-term
exposure to loud sounds can lead to hearing
loss. Here are some examples of sound levels:
A sonic boom is a shock wave that occurs
when an object travels through air at
supersonic speeds (faster than the speed of
sound). These sonic shock waves are similar
to how the bow of a boat produces waves in
the water. Sonic shock waves can carry a lot
of sound energy and can be very unpleasant
to hear, like an explosion. Aircraft can fly at
supersonic speeds, and the sonic boom
produced is so unpleasant that aircraft are
rarely permitted to fly at supersonic speeds
over populated areas.
Surround sound
Sound Source
Threshold of pain
Chain saw
Normal conversation
Calm breathing
Hearing threshold
-17-
Level
130dB
110dB
50dB
10dB
0dB
It’s hard to perceive
sound direction
underwater.
Sonic boom
Sound waves can reflect off walls and go
around corners, though their energy may be
reduced depending on the angle and the
roughness of the surface. Sometimes sound
waves can be channeled to focus in a certain
direction. As an example, get a long tube, like
the ones for wrapping paper. Use one of the
projects that make a continuous tone, such as
projects 6 or 92. Hold one end of the tube next
to the speaker (use the yellow side with the
grating) and the other end near your ear, then
remove the tube and compare the sound
volume at the same distance from the speaker.
The long tube should make the sound
reaching your ear louder, because sound
waves reflect off the tube walls and stay
concentrated, instead of spreading out across
the room.
Speaker
Placing a long tube next to
the speaker keeps its sound
waves together longer.
Long tube
Sound waves
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 19
Sound in Our World
Some of a sound wave’s energy can reflect off
walls or objects and come back to you.
Normally you don’t notice these reflections
when you are speaking because not all of the
energy is reflected, and the delay is so short
that your ears can’t distinguish it from the
original sound, but sometimes (such as in a
very large open room) you can hear them these are echoes! You hear an echo when a
lot of the energy of your voice is reflected back
to you after a noticeable delay. The delay time
is the distance (to the reflection point and
back) divided by the speed of sound. Most
people cannot distinguish reflected sound
waves with delays of less than 1/15 of a
second, and perceive them as being part of
the original sound. Echoes can be simulated
electronically by replaying a recorded sound
with a small delay and at reduced volume. See
project 10 and others for examples.
Engineers developing sensitive audio
equipment need to make very accurate sound
measurements. They need rooms that are
sealed from outside sounds, and need to
minimize the measured signal’s reflections off
the walls/ceiling/floor. Specialized rooms have
been designed for this, called anechoic
chambers. These chambers are virtually
soundproof and have specially shaped
materials (usually made of foam) on the walls
to absorb sound waves without producing any
echoes. These chambers simulate a quiet,
open space, allowing the engineers to
accurately measure the equipment being
tested.
Small pushes at the right
moment will make the swing
go higher.
Sound waves reflecting off a wall
Anechoic chamber
In project 195, if your speaker is too close to
your microphone then the echo sound can be
picked up by the microphone and echoed
again and again until you can’t hear anything
else. The same thing can occur in telephone
systems, and these systems sometimes have
echo-cancelling circuitry to prevent problems
(especially in overseas calls, where the
transmission delay times may be longer).
the swing very hard to make it go high, you just
need to keep adding energy at the right
moment. In project 198 (Sound Energy
Demonstration), the frequency is tuned to the
speaker’s natural frequency, making it vibrate
noticeably.
Everything has a natural frequency, its
resonance frequency, at which it will vibrate
more easily. When sound waves strike an
object at its natural frequency, the object can
absorb and store significantly more energy
from the sound waves, as vibration. To help
understand this concept, think of a playground
swing, which tends to always swing back and
forth at the same rate. If you push the swing at
the ideal moment, it will absorb energy from
you and swing higher. You don’t need to push
Resonance is an important consideration in
the design of musical instruments, and also in
construction. If high winds blow on a tall
building or a bridge at the structure’s resonant
frequency, vibrations can slowly increase until
the structure is torn apart and collapses.
A cone can help you project your voice. A cone
keeps the sound waves (air pressure variations)
together longer, so they don’t spread out so
quickly. Long ago, people who had trouble
hearing used an ear trumpet, which helps
collect sound waves. A person would speak into
the wide end of the ear trumpet, and the trumpet
makes the sound louder at the listening person’s
ear. Electronic hearing aids have replaced ear
trumpets. Doctors use a stethoscope to hear
inside patient’s bodies. A stethoscope uses a
cone-like structure to collect sound waves; then
passes them into the doctor’s ear.
-18-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 20
Sound in Our World
Electronically we amplify sound by converting
the sound waves into an electrical signal,
amplify the electrical signal, and then convert
that back to sound waves.
Cone
Ear Trumpet
Ultrasound waves are above 20 kHz, beyond
the range of human hearing. Bats use
ultrasound waves to effectively “see” in the
dark. Ultrasound waves are also used in
medical imaging, to create pictures of muscles
and organs in the human body. Ultrasound
waves are sometimes used in cleaning items
like jewelry.
Stethoscope
There are many other applications for sound
waves. Here are some examples:
In SONAR (short for SOund Navigation And
Ranging), sound waves are sent out underwater
at various frequencies and the echoes are
measured; the distance to any objects can be
determined using the time for the echoes to
arrive, and the speed of sound. SONAR is used
for navigating around underwater obstacles and
for detecting other ships, especially submarines.
SONAR is also used by the fishing industry to
help find and harvest fish. Sound waves can
also be used to determine the depth of an oil
well. RADAR (RAdio Detection And Ranging) is
similar to SONAR but uses radio waves instead
of sound waves.
SONAR
Ultrasound photo of a heart (echocardiogram)
Ultrasonic welding is used in industry to bond
materials (usually plastics) together using high
frequency sound waves. The energy of the
sound waves is concentrated at the points to
be bonded, and basically melts the material at
the contact points. This can create a strong
bond, without using glue or nails. Ultrasonic
welding has been used to bond the bottoms of
Snap Circuits® parts in the past, and might still
be used for the speaker (SP2) and
microphone (X1).
Phase 1
Phase 2
Pressure is applied The horn vibrates
the plastic parts
by the horn.
very quickly.
Horn
Plastic
parts
Anvil or jig
-19-
Ultrasonic welding
Phase 3
The plastic parts
melt together from
the friction created.
Earthquakes are compression waves, similar
to sound waves but with enormous power.
Using triangulation from several measurement
points, and knowing how fast these waves can
travel across the earth’s surface, scientists can
determine where the earthquake began (called
the epicenter).
Music
The subject of music is one where the worlds
of art and science come together.
Unfortunately, the artistic/musician field works
with qualities that depend on our feelings and
so are difficult to express using numbers while
science/engineering works with the opposite clearly defined, measurable qualities. As a
result, some of the terms used may seem
confusing at first, but you will get used to them.
Music is when vibrations (creating sound
waves) occur in an orderly and controlled
manner forming a pattern with their energy
concentrated at specific frequencies, usually
pleasant to listen to. Noise is when the
vibrations occur in an irregular manner with
their energy spread across a wide range of
frequencies, usually annoying to hear (static
on a radio is a good example). Notice how
some people refer to music that they don’t like
as noise. In electrical systems, noise is
undesired interference that can obscure the
signal of interest.
Another way to think of this is that the ear tries
to estimate the next sounds it will hear. Music
with a beat, a rhythm, and familiar instruments
can be thought of as very predictable, so we
find it pleasant to listen to. Notice also that we
always prefer familiar songs to music that we
are hearing for the first time. Sudden, loud,
unpredictable sounds (such as gunfire, a glass
breaking, or an alarm clock) are very
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 21
Sound in Our World
relationships between both of your ears. The
same thing applies to stereo sound. You may
have heard the term acoustics; this is the
science of designing rooms for best sound
effects.
unnerving and unpleasant. Most electronic
speech processing systems being developed
use some form of speech prediction filters.
Take a piece of string or rope roughly 4 feet
long and tie one end of it to a chair or other
piece of furniture. Swing the other end up and
down so that you have a cyclic pattern, as
shown:
Now swing it three times as fast (three times
the frequency), to produce this pattern:
Now try to swing it five times as fast (five times
the frequency), to produce this pattern:
Since the later patterns are frequency
multiples of the first, we refer to them as
overtones (the music term) or harmonics (the
electronics term) and the original pattern is
called the fundamental. If you could combine
all three of the above patterns onto the string
then you would get a pattern, which looks like
this:
This combined pattern (a single fundamental
with overtones) is called a tone (and a pure
tone is a single fundamental with no
overtones). Notice that each pattern is more
difficult to produce than the one before it, with
the combined pattern being quite complicated.
And also notice that the more complicated
patterns are much more interesting and
pleasing to look at than the simpler ones. Well
the same thing applies to sound waves.
Complex patterns that have many overtones
for each fundamental are more pleasant to
listen to than simple patterns. If many
overtones were combined together, the results
would approximate a square wave shape.
All traditional music instruments use this
principle, with the instrument shapes and
materials perfected through the years to
produce many overtones for each fundamental
chord or key that is played by the user. Grand
pianos sound better than upright pianos since
their larger shape enables them to produce
more overtones, especially at lower
frequencies. Concert halls sound better than
small rooms because they are designed for
best overtone performance and to take
advantage of the fact that sound waves can
reflect off walls to produce different overtone
A commonly used musical scale (which
measures pitch) will now be introduced. This
scale is called the equal temperament scale,
expressed in hertz. You might think of this as
a conversion table between the artistic and
scientific worlds since it expresses pitch in
terms of frequency. Each overtone (overtone
0 being the fundamental) is divided into 12
semitones: C, C# (“C-sharp”), D, D#, E, F, F#,
G, G#, A, A#, and B. The semitones increase
by the ratio 12:2, or 1.05946. Musical notes
(tones) are the measure of pitch and are
expressed using both the semitone and the
overtone, such as A3, G#4, D6, A#1, and E2.
(frequency in hertz and rounded off)
Overtone
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Overtone
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
C
C#
D
D#
E
F
16.4
17.3
18.4
19.4
20.6
21.8
32.7
34.6
36.7
38.9
41.2
45.7
65.4
69.3
73.4
77.8
82.4
87.3
130
139
147
156
165
175
262
278
294
311
330
349
523
554
587
622
659
698
1047 1109 1174 1245 1319 1397
2093 2217 2344 2489 2637 2794
4186 4435 4698 4978 5274 5588
8372 8870 9397 9956 10548 11175
F#
G
G#
A
A#
B
23.1
24.5
26.0
27.5
29.1
30.9
46.2
49.0
51.9
55.0
58.3
61.7
92.5
98.0
104
110
117
123
185
196
208
220
233
247
370
392
415
440
466
494
740
784
831
880
932
988
1480 1568 1661 1760 1865 1976
2960 3136 3322 3520 3729 3951
5920 6271 6645 7040 7459 7902
11840 12542 13290 14080 14917 15804
-20-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 22
Sound in Our World
On your U26 keyboard, the blue keys
approximate the 5th overtone notes, and the
green keys approximate the 6th overtone
notes; actual frequency may vary from the
musical scale. The tone of the green keys can
be adjusted with the tune knob, allowing them
to be in tune with the blue keys, or out of tune
with them. The tone of the green keys may
also be adjusted using external resistors and
capacitors, which can change the frequency
range dramatically (and even beyond the
hearing range of your ears), and can create an
optical theremin. Your keyboard can play one
blue note and one green note at the same
time; if you press two keys of the same color
at the same time, only the higher note will be
played. Projects 186-189 and 210-212
demonstrate the capabilities of the U26
keyboard.
On most instruments, when you play a note
the sound produced is initially loud and then
decreases with time. On your U26 keyboard,
a note ends when you release the key, unless
you connected external resistors to produce a
continuous tone. More complex electronic
instruments can simulate more notes at the
same time, have more advanced techniques
for producing overtones, and continue to play
the note with decreasing loudness after the
key has been released.
The musical world’s equivalent to frequency
is pitch. The higher the frequency, the higher
the pitch of the sound. Frequencies above
2,000 Hz can be considered to provide treble
tone. Frequencies about 300 Hz and below
provide bass tone.
Up to now, the musical measures of pitch and
loudness have been discussed. But many
musical sounds have the same pitch and
loudness and yet sound very different. For
-21-
example, the sound of a guitar compared to
that of a piano for the same musical note. The
difference is a quality known as timbre. Timbre
describes how a sound is perceived, its
roughness. Scientifically it is due to differences
in the levels of the various overtones, and so
cannot be expressed using a single number.
Now consider the following two tones, which
differ slightly in frequency:
If they are played at the same time then their
sound waves would be added together to
produce:
Notice that the combined wave has a regular
pattern of where the two tones add together
and where they cancel each other out. This is
the effect that produces the beat you hear in
music. Two tones (that are close in frequency
and have similar amplitude for their
fundamental and for each of their overtones)
will beat at the rate of their frequency
difference. Rhythm is the pattern of regular
beat that a song has.
Now observe this tone:
The frequency is slowly increasing and
decreasing in a regular pattern. This is an
example of vibrato. If the frequency is
changing slowly then it will sound like a varying
pitch; a fast vibrato (several times a second)
produces an interesting sound effect. The
alarm IC (U2, included in Snap Circuits®
models SC-100, 300, 500, or 750) produces
sounds using the vibrato effect.
Tempo is a musical term, which simply
describes how quickly a song is played.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 23
DOs and DON’Ts of Building Circuits
After building the circuits given in this booklet, you may wish to experiment on your own.
Use the projects in this booklet as a guide, as many important design concepts are
introduced throughout them. Every circuit will include a power source (the batteries), a
resistance (which might be a resistor, capacitor, motor, integrated circuit, etc.), and wiring
paths between them and back. You must be careful not to create “short circuits” (very lowresistance paths across the batteries, see examples at right) as this will damage
components and/or quickly drain your batteries. Only connect the color organ (U22), strobe
IC (U23) and infrared module (U24), keyboard (U26), voice changer (U27), and echo IC
(U28) using configurations given in the projects, incorrectly doing so may damage them.
ELENCO® is not responsible for parts damaged due to incorrect wiring.
Here are some important guidelines:
ALWAYS USE EYE PROTECTION WHEN EXPERIMENTING ON YOUR OWN.
ALWAYS include at least one component that will limit the current through a circuit, such
as the speaker, capacitors, ICs (which must be connected properly), motor,
microphone, phototransistor, or resistors.
ALWAYS use LEDs, transistors, and switches in conjunction with other components that
will limit the current through them. Failure to do so will create a short circuit
and/or damage those parts.
ALWAYS connect capacitors so that the “+” side gets the higher voltage.
Examples of SHORT CIRCUITS - NEVER DO THESE!!!
Placing a 3-snap wire directly
across the batteries is a
SHORT CIRCUIT.
!
NEVER
DO!
!
NEVER
DO!
This is also a
SHORT CIRCUIT.
When the slide switch (S1) is turned on, this large circuit has a SHORT
CIRCUIT path (as shown by the arrows). The short circuit prevents any
other portions of the circuit from ever working.
ALWAYS disconnect your batteries immediately and check your wiring if something
appears to be getting hot.
ALWAYS check your wiring before turning on a circuit.
ALWAYS connect the color organ (U22), strobe IC (U23) infrared module (U24),
keyboard (U26), voice changer (U27), and echo IC (U28) using configurations
given in the projects or as per the connection description on page 8.
NEVER connect to an electrical outlet in your home in any way.
NEVER leave a circuit unattended when it is turned on.
NEVER touch the motor when it is spinning at high speed.
NEVER use headphones at high sound levels.
For all of the projects given in this book, the parts may be arranged in different ways without
changing the circuit. For example, the order of parts connected in series or in parallel does
not matter — what matters is how combinations of these sub-circuits are arranged together.
You are encouraged to tell us about new programs and circuits you
create. If they are unique, we will post them with your name and state
on our website at:
www.snapcircuits.net/learning_center/kids_creation
Send your suggestions to ELENCO®: elenco@elenco.com.
ELENCO® provides a circuit designer so that you can make your own
Snap Circuits® drawings. This Microsoft® Word document can be
downloaded from:
www.snapcircuits.net/learning_center/kids_creation
or through the www.snapcircuits.net website.
!
NEVER
DO!
!
!
NEVER
DO!
WARNING: SHOCK HAZARD - Never connect Snap Circuits®
to the electrical outlets in your home in any way!
!
Warning to Snap Circuits® owners: Do not connect
additional voltage sources from other sets, or you
may damage your parts. Contact Elenco® if you have
questions or need guidance.
-22-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 24
Advanced Troubleshooting (Adult supervision recommended)
ELENCO® is not responsible for parts
damaged due to incorrect wiring.
If you suspect you have damaged parts,
you can follow this procedure to
systematically determine which ones need
replacing:
(Note: Some of these tests connect an LED directly
across the batteries without another component to
limit the current. Normally this might damage the
LED, however Snap Circuits® LEDs have internal
resistors added to protect them from incorrect
wiring, and will not be damaged.)
1. Red LED (D1), motor (M1), speaker
(SP2), and battery holder (B1): Place
batteries in holder. Place the red LED
directly across the battery holder (LED + to
battery +), it should light. Do the same for
the motor, it should spin. “Tap” the speaker
across the battery holder contacts, you
should hear static as it touches. If none
work, then replace your batteries and
repeat. If still bad, then the battery holder
is damaged.
If the motor spins but does not balance the
fan, check the black plastic piece with three
prongs on the motor shaft, and replace it if
it is damaged (this kit includes a spare). To
replace, pry the broken one off the motor
shaft using a screwdriver, then push the
new one on.
2. Red & black jumper wires: Use this minicircuit to test each jumper wire, the LED
should light.
-23-
3. Snap wires: Use this mini-circuit to test
each of the snap wires, one at a time. The
LED should light.
4. Slide switch (S1) and Press switch (S2):
Use this mini-circuit; if the LED doesn’t light
then the slide switch is bad. Replace the
slide
switch
with the press
switch to test it.
5. 100W (R1) and 5.1kW (R3) resistors: Use
the mini-circuit from test 4 but replace the
switch with the 100W resistor (R1); the LED
will be bright if the resistor is good. Next
use the 5.1kW resistor in place of the 100W
resistor; the LED should be much dimmer
but still light.
6. White LED (D6) and color LED (D8): Use
this mini circuit; if the white LED doesn’t
light then D6 is bad. Replace the white LED
with the color LED; it should change colors
in a repetitive pattern, otherwise D8 is bad.
7. 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3),
Microphone (X1), Photoresistor (RP),
and Phototransistor (Q4): Use the minicircuit from test 6 but replace the 100W
resistor with RV3. Turning RV3’s knob all
the way to the left (counter-clockwise)
should make the LED dim or off; otherwise
RV3 is bad. Next, replace RV3 with the
microphone (+ on right); if blowing into the
microphone does not change the LED
brightness then X1 is bad. Next, replace
the microphone with the photoresistor (RP)
or phototransistor (Q4, + on right). Waving
your hand over the RP/Q4 (changing the
light that shines on it) should change the
brightness of the LED or that part (RP or
Q4) is bad.
8. Adjustable resistor (RV): Build project
160, but use the red LED (D1) in place of
the color LED (D8). Move the resistor
control lever to both sides. When set to
each side, one LED should be bright and
the other off (or very dim); otherwise RV is
bad.
9. PNP transistor (Q1): Build the mini-circuit
shown here. The red LED (D1) should only
be on if the press switch (S2) is pressed. If
otherwise, then Q1 is damaged.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 25
Advanced Troubleshooting (Adult supervision recommended)
10. NPN transistor (Q2): Build the minicircuit shown here. The red LED (D1)
should only be on if the press switch (S2)
is pressed. If otherwise, then Q2 is
damaged
11. Strobe IC (U23) and 100kW resistor
(R5): Build the mini-circuit shown here,
and turn on the switch (S1). The speaker
should make a buzzing sound or U23 is
bad. Next use the 100kW resistor in place
of the 5.1kW resistor; the sound should be
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
a beeping sound now or R5 is bad.
12. Infrared module (U24): Build project 42,
the remote control should turn the red LED
(D1) on; otherwise U24 is bad.
13. Color organ (U22): Do project 183. If
parts A or B do not work, U22 is damaged.
If part C does not work, then there may be
a problem with U22, with your stereo
cable, with your music device, or you may
not have your music device on the right
settings.
18. Sound energy demonstration container:
If the flexible sheet is damaged,
disassemble the container and replace the
flexible sheet; this set may have included
a spare for it, or you can use household
plastic wrap.
14. Keyboard (U26): Build project 272, but
omit the 0.1mF capacitor (C2) and the
5.1kW resistor (R3). You should hear a
tone when you press any key. Turning the
TUNE knob while pressing any green key
should change the tone slightly. Now add
R3 to the circuit, and you should hear a
continuous tone. If any of this does not
work then the keyboard is damaged.
15. 0.1mF (C2), 1mF (C7), 100mF (C4), and
470mF (C5) capacitors: Build project 272;
removing C2 from it should change the
tone, or C2 is damaged. Next, replace C2
with C7; the pitch of the tone should be
lower now, or C7 is damaged. Next,
replace C7 with C4; you should hear a
click about once a second, or C4 is
damaged. Next, replace C4 with C5; you
should hear a click every few seconds, or
C5 is damaged.
16. Voice changer (U27): Build project 190.
Follow the project’s instructions to confirm
that you can make a recording and play it
back at different speeds.
17. Audio Jack (JA) and stereo cable: If
you have headphones, use them to test
the audio jack using project 197. If you
have a music device, use it to test the
audio jack using project 244. Use project
244 to test your stereo cable.
-24-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 26
Advanced Troubleshooting (Adult supervision recommended)
19. Echo IC (U28): Build the circuit shown at
right, turn it on, and set the knob on the
500kW adjustable resistor (RV3) to the
right. Press any keys on the keyboard; you
should hear tones with echo, and be able
to adjust echo level using the lever on the
adjustable resistor (RV). Removing the
1mF capacitor (C7) should reduce the
volume a little. Sometimes an echo IC
problem can be fixed by turning the circuit
off and back on to reset it.
-25-
ELENCO
®
150 Carpenter Avenue
Wheeling, IL 60090 U.S.A.
Phone: (847) 541-3800
Fax: (847) 520-0085
e-mail: help@elenco.com
Website: www.elenco.com
You may order additional / replacement
parts at: www.snapcircuits.net
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:39 PM Page 27
Project Listings
Project #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
Description
Page #
Color Light
30
White Light
30
Red Light
30
Light Show
31
Voice Light Show
32
Play the Color Organ
32
Flying Saucer
33
Super Flying Saucer
33
Big Circuit
34
Super Circuit
35
See the Sound
36
Fiber Optics
36
Tones Over Light
37
Color Optic Sounds
37
Color Light Transporter
38
Color Optics
38
High Power Fiber Optics
39
High Color Optics Sounds
39
Sound Maker
40
Strobe Light
40
Color Strobe Light
40
Red Strobe Light
40
Noisy Strobe Light
41
Noisy Red Strobe Light
41
Double Strobe Light
41
Louder Strobe Light
41
Louder Color Strobe Light
41
Triple Strobe Light
42
Noisy Double Strobe Light
42
Noisy Triple Strober
42
Triple Light Noisy Motion Strober 42
Automatic Light
43
Color Oscillator
43
Project #
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
Description
Page #
Slow Color Oscillator
43
Dance to the Music
44
Super Dance to the Music
44
Super Dance to the Music (II)
44
Follow the Music
45
Color Organ - Headphones
45
Adjustable Light Dance
46
Suspended Raindrops
46
Infrared Detector
47
Audio Infrared Detector
47
Photo Infrared Detector
48
Photo Audio Infrared Detector
48
Photo Audio Infrared Detector (II) 48
Strobe Effects
49
Slow Strobe Effects
49
Stable Strobe Effects
50
Strobe Effects (II)
50
Strobe Effects (III)
50
Strobe Effects (IV)
50
Strobe Effects (V)
50
Strobe Effects (VI)
51
Make Your Own Strobe Effects 51
Another Strobe Light
51
Motor Strobe Effects
52
Motor Strobe Effects (II)
52
Motor Strobe Effects (III)
52
LEDs Together
53
LEDs Together (II)
53
Brightness Control
54
Resistors
54
Resistors & LEDs
54
Big Brightness Adjuster
54
Low Power Brightness Control 55
Project #
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
Description
Page #
Low Power Resistors & LEDs
55
Persistence of Vision
55
Prismatic Film
56
Look at the Lights
56
Scattering Light
56
Color Fiber Light
56
One Way Plastic
57
White Blinker
57
Red Blinker
57
Red & White
57
Color Selector - Red
58
Color Selector - Green
58
Color Selector - Blue
58
Color Selector - Cyan
58
Color Selector - Yellow
58
Color Selector - Purple
58
Color Selector - White
58
LED Color Spectrum
59
LED Color Spectrum (II)
59
LED Color Spectrum (III)
59
LED Color Spectrum (IV)
59
LED Color Spectrum (V)
59
Blinking Beeping
60
Blinking Blinking
60
Blinking Control
60
Blinking Control Beeping
60
Triple Blinker
61
Funny Speed Motor
61
Funny Speed Motor with Light
61
Counting Light
62
Adjustable Counting Light
62
Bright Off Light
63
R/C Blink & Beep
63
-26-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 28
Project Listings
Project #
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
-27-
Description
Page #
Stuck On Light
64
Stuck On Lights
64
White Blinker
64
Low Voltage Stuck On Lights
64
Stuck On Motor & Lights
64
Funky Light & Sound
65
Light & Sound
65
Light & Motion
65
Adjustable Light & Sound
65
Adjustable Light & Motion
65
Blinking Step Motor
66
Blink Step Beep
66
Day Blinker
67
Night Blinker
67
Night Light Show
67
Daylight Light Show
67
Buzzer
68
Higher Pitch Buzzer
68
Photo Light & Motion
68
Slow Light & Motion
68
Light Up the Fan
68
High Power Buzzer
69
Buzz Fan
69
Photo Buzzer
69
Step Beeper
69
Wacky Buzzer
69
Fiber Fun
70
Fiber Fun Backwards
70
More Fiber Fun
70
Other Fiber Fun
70
Morse Code
71
Fiber Shut-Off
71
Blow On Fiber
72
Project #
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
Description
Page #
Fiber Music
72
Fiber Color Organ
73
Bright Fiber Color Organ
73
Motor Power
74
More Motor Power
74
Reflection Detector
74
Cup & String Communication
75
Slow Motor Speed Control
76
Slow Motor Start Aid
76
R/C Motor
76
Series Lights
77
Wacky Sound Control
77
Musical Shapes
78
Human & Liquid Sounds
78
Human & Liquid Light
78
Blow On the Light
79
Blow Off the Light
79
Transistor
80
Another Transistor
80
Charging & Discharging
81
Mini Capacitor
81
Adjustable Charging & Discharging 81
Mini Battery
81
Photo Current Amplifier
82
LEDs & Transistors
82
PNP Amplifier
82
Photo Control
83
Resistance Director
83
Current Controllers - Series
84
Current Controllers - Parallel
84
Blow Sound Changer
85
Short Light
85
Shorter Light
85
Project #
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
Page #
Description
Photo Light Control
86
Air Pressure Light Control
86
Slow On, Slower Off
86
Delayed Photo Speed Control
87
Delayed Speed Control
87
Delayed Speed Control (II)
87
Audio Delayed Speed Control
87
Photo Speed Control
87
Light Buzz
88
Light Buzz (II)
88
Delay Lights
88
Touch Light
89
Narrow Range Tone
89
Slow Off Lights
89
3D Pictures
90,91
Super Infrared Detector
91
Infrared Optical Audio
92
Test the Color Organ
92
Electronic Keyboard
93
Aligning the Keyboard
93
Be a Musician
94
Be a Musician (II)
94
Optical Theremin
95
Keyboard Slider
95
Voice Changer
96
Voice Changer & Light
96
Color Light
96
Echo
97
Echo with Headphones
97
Louder Echo with Headphones
97
Sound Energy Demonstration 98,99
Keyboard in Stereo
100
Optical Theremin in Stereo
100
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 29
Project Listings
Project #
Description
Page #
199
Light & Sound
202
Brighter Light, Sound, & Motion 102
200
201
See Saw
Light, Sound, & Motion
101
101
102
Project #
Description
Page #
231
Softer Optical Keyboard Echo
112
234
Super Optical Keyboard Echo for Headphones
113
232
233
Reflection Detector
112
268
LED Voice & Keyboard Echo
125
Audio Dark Light
125
114
206
Voice Changer with Echo
104
238
Amplified Photo Brightness Adjuster
115
209
Lower Pitch Keyboard
207
208
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
Sound Controlled Light
104
239
Very Low Pitch Keyboard
105
242
Low Pitch Keyboard
Echo Speed Changer
Keyboard Echo
Lower Pitch Keyboard Echo
105
105
105
106
223
224
225
Color Short Light
106
106
108
108
Keyboard with Optical Theremin 109
Adjustable Dual Range Keyboard 109
Adjustable Dual Range Keyboard (II) 109
Adjustable Dual Range Keyboard (III) 109
Your Music with Echo
110
Your Music with Echo and Light 110
229
Sound On Light
230
Your Music without Echo
244
Low Power Audio Amplifier
Audio Amplifier with L/R Control
116
116
117
Low Power Your Music without Echo 117
Microphone Resistance - LED
Your Music Speed Changer
228
243
241
116
248
Low Pitch Optical Keyboard Echo
226
227
Audio Amplifier
Keyboard Echo with Stereo Effects 107
Optical Keyboard Echo
Keyboard with Optical Theremin (II) 109
221
240
115
Adjustable Music without Echo 117
220
222
Amplified Big Brightness Adjuster
115
245
Optical Echo in Stereo
219
Photo Brightness Adjuster
106
217
218
237
111
Your Music Speed Changer (II) 111
Your Music Speed Changer (III) 111
Super Optical Keyboard Echo
111
112
246
247
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
Adjustable LED Keyboard Control 123
Sound is Air Pressure - Keyboard 114
Sound is Air Pressure
Keyboard Voice Changer & Light 103
123
124
235
205
Page #
Capacitor Keyboard Control
103
236
264
Description
Photo LED Keyboard Control
265
Keyboard with Voice Changer
Optical Keyboard with Voice Changer 103
263
113
Bright Reflection Detector
203
204
Project #
L/R Music Amplifier
118
Another Transistor Amplifier
118
Time Light
120
119
Microphone Resistance - Audio 119
Time Light (II)
120
Easier Adjust Time Light
120
Lower Day Light
121
Small Adjust Time Light
Day Light
Dark Light
120
121
121
Blow Noise
121
Bright or Loud?
122
Listen to the Light Change
122
Adjustable Listen to the Light Change 122
LED Keyboard Control
LED Keyboard Control (II)
123
123
266
267
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
Capacitor Keyboard Control (II)
Voice & Keyboard Echo
Photo LED Keyboard Echo
Photo LED Keyboard
Oscillator
Oscillator (II)
Oscillator (III)
124
124
125
125
126
126
126
Oscillator (IV)
126
Oscillator (VII)
126
Oscillator (V)
Oscillator (VI)
Oscillator (VIII)
126
126
126
Adjustable Oscillator
127
Adjustable Oscillator (IV)
127
Adjustable Oscillator (II)
Adjustable Oscillator (III)
127
127
Water Detector
127
3V Audio Amplifier
129
Clicker
Clicker with Echo
Mini Music Player
128
128
129
Voice Echo with Light
129
Color Sound (III)
130
Color Sound
Color Sound (II)
Backwards Color Sound
White Light
130
130
130
131
-28-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 30
Project Listings
Project #
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
-29-
Description
Page #
Red to White
131
Alarm
131
Super Voice Echo with Light
132
Press Echo
132
Photo Echo
132
Loud Press Photo Echo
132
Knob Echo
132
Echo Light Headphone
133
Echo Light Headphone Variants 133
Press Echo Light
133
Photo Echo Light
133
Another Voice Echo Light
134
Daylight Voice Echo
134
Dark Voice Echo
135
Dark Echo Light
135
Dark Echo Variants
135
Day Echo Light
136
Day Echo Variants
136
Photo Light Timer
136
Adjustable Photo Light Timer
136
Tone Stoppers
137
Tone Stoppers (II)
137
Tone Stoppers (III)
137
Tone Stoppers (IV)
137
Tone Stoppers (V)
138
Alarm Light
138
Voice Changer with Headphones 138
Day Keyboard
139
Night Keyboard
139
Color Keyboard
140
Color Keyboard (II)
140
Color Keyboard (III)
140
Color Keyboard (IV)
140
Project #
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
Page #
Description
Color Keyboard (V)
141
Color Keyboard (VI)
141
Adjustable Voice Changer & Light 141
Adjustable Voice Changer & Light (II) 141
Play Fast
142
Red First
142
Adjustable Timer Tone
143
Photo Timer Tone
143
Delay Lamp
143
Adjustable Delay Lamp
143
Water Alarm
144
Continuity Tester
144
High Low Light
144
Flicker Clicker
145
Fast Flicker Clicker
145
Slow Flicker Clicker
145
Timer Tone
145
Little Battery
146
Tiny Battery
146
Little Battery Beep
146
Capacitors in Series
147
Capacitors in Series (II)
147
Capacitors in Series (III)
147
More Capacitors in Series
147
Capacitors in Parallel
148
Capacitors in Parallel (II)
148
Capacitors in Parallel (III)
148
More Capacitors in Parallel
148
Resistors in Series
149
Resistors in Parallel
149
Lots of Resistors in Series
150
Lots of Resistors in Parallel
150
Be a Loud Musician
151
Project #
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
Description
Page #
Be a Loud Musician (II)
151
Transistor Audio Amplifier
152
Transistor Audio Amplifier (II)
152
Make Your Own Parts
153
Color Touch Light
153
Test Your Hearing
154
See the Sound
154
See the Spectrum
155
Blinking Colors
155
Optical Sound Maker
156
Optical Strobe Light
156
Left Right Bright Light
156
Weird Echo
156
Pulsing Light Echoes
157
Photo Pulsing Light Echoes
157
Sound Effects
157
Funky Sound Effects
157
Fiber Optic Echo
158
Fiber Strobe Echo
158
Daylight Color Fiber Echo
159
3 Tones
159
Another 3 Tones
159
Tone Speed Changer
160
Light Echo
160
Fiber Keyboard Control
161
Fiber Optic Feedback
161
Funky Fiber Feedback
162
3 Tones & Light
162
Light Dance Audio Override
163
Light Dance Light Override
163
Crazy Circuit
164
Tone Speed Adjuster
164
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 31
Project 1
+
+
Placement Level
Numbers
LED Attachments
Project 2
Snappy says the color
LED actually contains
separate red, green, and
blue lights, with a microcircuit controlling them.
White Light
The white LED produces very bright light.
LEDs are this one are increasingly being
used for home lighting and flashlights. They
are more efficient than normal light bulbs.
Use the circuit built in project 1, but replace
the color LED (D8) with the white LED (D6).
Try it with one of the LED attachments, and
in a dark room.
Color Light
Snap Circuits® uses electronic blocks that
snap onto a clear plastic grid to build different
circuits. These blocks have different colors
and numbers on them so that you can easily
identify them.
Build the circuit shown on the left by placing
all the parts with a black 1 next to them on the
board first. Then, assemble parts marked with
a 2. Install two (2) “AA” batteries (not
included) into each of the battery holders (B1)
if you have not done so already.
Turn on the slide switch (S1), and enjoy the
light show from the color LED (D8). For best
effects, place one of the LED attachments
(tower, egg, or fiber optic tree) on the color
LED, and dim the room lights. The fiber optic
tree must be used with its mounting base.
Project 3
Red Light
The red LED is not nearly as bright as the
other LEDs. LEDs like this one are used as
indicators in many products in your home.
They are inexpensive, but don’t produce
much light.
Use the circuit built in project 2, but replace the
white LED (D6) with the red LED (D1). Try it with
one of the LED attachments, and in a dark room.
-30-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 32
Project 4
Light Show
+
Snap Circuits® uses electronic blocks that snap
onto a clear plastic grid to build different
circuits. These blocks have different colors and
numbers on them so that you can easily
identify them.
+
+
-31-
LED Attachments
Build the circuit shown above by placing all the
parts with a black 1 next to them on the board
first. Then, assemble parts marked with a 2.
Then, assemble parts marked with a 3. Then,
assemble parts marked with a 4 (just one end
of the red jumper wire, in this circuit). Install
two (2) “AA” batteries (not included) into each
of the battery holders (B1) if you have not done
so already.
If desired, place any of the LED attachments
(tower, egg, or fiber optic tree) on any of the
LEDs (red (D1), color (D8), white (D6), or the
LED on the color organ IC (U22). Note that the
fiber optic tree requires its mounting base.
Turn on slide switch (S1) and enjoy the show!
Placement Level
Numbers
All the lights in this set are LEDs - Light
Emitting Diodes. LEDs convert electrical
energy into light; the color of the light
emitted depends on the characteristics
of the material used in them.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 33
Project 5
Voice Light Show
Build the circuit as shown, and place one of the LED attachments
(tower, egg, or fiber optic tree) over the LED on the color organ (U22).
Turn on the switch (S1) and talk. The color organ light will follow your
voice, in tone and loudness.
How does it work? The
microphone converts your
voice to an electrical signal,
which controls an electronic
counter in the color organ.
The counter controls a redgreen-blue LED.
Project 6
LED
Attachments
Play the Color Organ
Build the circuit as shown, and turn on the switch (S1). Place one of the
LED attachments on the color organ (U22). Wet your fingers, and touch
them between the point marked “X”, and points marked “R”, “G”, or “B”
in the drawing. Try X with every combination of R, G, and B, including
touching them all at the same time.
The light in the color organ module is
actually red, green, and blue LEDs together.
The points marked R, G, and B control the
light for those colors. Combining red and
green makes yellow, green and blue makes
cyan, red and blue makes purple, and
combining all three colors makes white.
LED Attachments
-32-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 34
Project 7
+
!
Flying Saucer
The air is being blown down through the blade and
the motor rotation locks the fan on the shaft. When
the motor is turned off, the blade unlocks from the
shaft and is free to act as a propeller and fly through
the air. If speed of rotation is too slow, the fan will
remain on the motor shaft because it does not have
enough lift to propel it.
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan or motor during operation.
Do not lean over the motor. Fan may
not rise until switch is released.
+
Project 8
Push the press switch (S2) until the motor reaches
full speed, then release it. The fan blade should rise
and float through the air like a flying saucer. Be
careful not to look directly down on fan blade when it
is spinning.
If the fan doesn’t fly off, then press the switch several
times rapidly when it is at full speed. The motor spins
faster when the batteries are new.
The glow fan will glow in the dark. It will glow best
after absorbing sunlight for a while. The glow fan is
made of plastic, so be careful not to let it get hot
enough to melt. The glow looks best in a dimly lit
room.
Super Flying Saucer
This circuit will make the fan spin faster and fly higher than the
preceding circuit, making it easy to lose your fan.
WARNING: Elenco® Electronics Inc. is not responsible for lost or
broken fans! You may purchase replacement fans at www.
snapcircuits.net.
Push the press switch (S2) until the motor reaches full speed, then
release it. The fan blade should rise and float through the air like a flying
saucer. Be careful not to look directly down on fan blade when it is
spinning.
-33-
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch the fan
or motor during operation. Do not lean over the
motor. Fan may not rise until switch is released.
Eye protection is recommended for this circuit.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 35
Project 9
Big Circuit
This circuit does a lot of
different things at once.
MP3
player
LED Attachments
Build the circuit as shown. Place either the glow
fan or the light fan on the motor (M1) shaft, so
that it is stable on the little black piece. Place
the clear fiber optic holder on the color LED
(D8) and the black fiber optic holder on the
phototransistor (Q4), then insert the fiber optic
cable between them, but don’t let it lay close to
the fan on the motor. For best performance the
fiber optic cable should stand straight up in the
holders, without bending them. Connect a
music device to the color organ (U22) as
+
Clear
Black
shown, and start music on it. For best effects,
place one of the LED attachments over the light
on the color organ.
Turn on slide switch (S1). Adjust the lever on
the adjustable resistor (RV) and the volume
control on your music device for best sound and
light effects.
Push the press switch (S2) until the motor
reaches full speed, then release it. The fan will
!
WARNING: Moving parts.
Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do
not lean over the motor.
rise into the air like a flying saucer. Be careful
not to look down on the fan when it is spinning.
“Playing the Color Organ”: turn off or
disconnect your music device. Wet your fingers,
and touch them between the point marked “X”,
and “R”, “G”, or “B” in the drawing.
The infrared detector (U24) and 100kW resistor
(R5) are only used to support the other
components.
-34-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 36
Project 10
Super Circuit
Clear
Headphones
(optional)
Music device
(optional)
Black
+
Build the circuit as shown. Place the glow fan on the motor (M1) shaft, so that it is stable on the little black
piece. Place the clear fiber optic holder on the white LED (D6) and the black fiber optic holder on the
phototransistor (Q4), then insert the fiber optic cable between them, but don’t let it lay close to the fan on the
motor. For best performance the fiber optic cable should stand straight up in the holders, without bending
them. For best effects, place one of the LED attachments over the light on the color organ, and one on the
color LED (D8).
Optional: connect a music device to the color organ (U22) as shown, and start music on it (the color organ
light will change to the music, but you will not hear it unless you also connect headphones).
Turn on slide switch (S1). A tone is hear from the speaker (SP), and all the lights (D1, D6, D8, and on U22)
are on.
Push the press switch (S2) until the motor reaches full speed, then release it. The fan will rise into the air like
a flying saucer. Be careful not to look down on the fan when it is spinning.
-35-
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do
not touch the fan or motor
during operation. Do not lean
over the motor. Fan may not
rise until switch is released.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 37
Project 11
See the Sound
Build the circuit as shown, turn off the left slide switch (S1), and turn
on the right slide switch. Press keys on the keyboard (U26) to make
sounds and change the light on the color organ (U22). Turn on the
left slide switch to add optical control, and wave your hand over the
photoresistor (RP) to also change the sound and light. For best
effects, place the egg LED attachment on the color organ.
Next, try removing the 1mF capacitor (C7) and see how the sounds
change.
Next, try replacing the photoresistor with the phototransistor (Q4, “+”
on right) and wave your hand over it.
Project 12
Next, replace the left slide switch with the 500kW adjustable resistor
(RV3). Turn the knob on it while varying the light to the phototransistor.
Fiber Optics
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear cable holder on the red LED
(D1) and the black cable holder on the phototransistor (Q4), then place the
fiber optic cable into the holders as far as it will go. For best performance
the cable should stand straight up in the holders, without bending them.
Turn on slide switch (S1) and move the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV)
around. The sound from the speaker (SP2) changes as you move the lever on RV.
Clear
This project is more exciting than it looks. The tone sounds produced
by the strobe IC (U23) are played on the speaker (SP2), even
though there is no electrical connection between them.
The left half the circuit makes a coded light signal, which you see in
the red LED (D1). The right half of the circuit decodes the light signal
and plays it on the speaker. The fiber optic cable is used to transmit
the light signal between the two sides of the circuit. There is no
electrical connection between the left and right halves of the circuit,
only a light connection using fiber optics! If your fiber optic cable was
longer, the two halves of the circuit could be many miles apart.
This circuit is an example of using fiber optic cables for
communication. Fiber optics allows information to be transmitted
Black
across great distances at very high speeds with very low distortion,
by using light.
-36-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 38
Project 13
Tones Over Light
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear cable holder on the red LED
(D1) and the black cable holder on the phototransistor (Q4), then place
the fiber optic cable into the holders as far as it will go. For best
performance the fiber optic cable should stand straight up in the holders,
without bending them.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and move the lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV) around. The sound from the speaker (SP2) changes as
you move the lever on RV.
Clear
Black
Project 14
This is similar to project 12 but
not as loud. The project 12
circuit uses a two-transistor
amplifier while this circuit only
has one transistor.
Color Optic Sounds
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear cable holder on the color LED
(D8) and the black cable holder on the phototransistor (Q4), then place
the fiber optic cable into the holders as far as it will go. For best
performance the fiber optic cable should stand straight up in the holders,
without bending them.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and push the press switch (S2). Light is
transmitted from the color LED, through the fiber optic cable, to control
the strobe IC (U23) and speaker (SP2).
Clear
-37-
Black
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 39
Project 15
Light can travel through
fiber optic cables over
great distances, even
through bends and
curves.
Color Light Transporter
Build the circuit as shown. Place the black cable holder on the color
LED (D8), then place the fiber optic cable into the holder as far as it will
go. For best performance the fiber optic cable should stand straight up
in the holder, without bending it. Leave the other end of the cable free.
Turn on the switch (S1), and look into the loose end of the fiber optic
cable. Flex the cable into loops but don’t dent it. Take the circuit into a
dark room and see how the cable looks.
You can use the clear cable holder on the color LED instead of the black
holder.
Black
Project 16
Color Optics
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear cable holder on the
color LED (D8) and the black cable holder on the
phototransistor (Q4), then place the fiber optic cable into the
holders as far as it will go. For best performance the fiber optic
cable should stand straight up in the holders, without bending
them.
Clear
Black
Turn on the switch (S1). The color LED (D8) turns on and off
repeatedly as it changes colors. This produces interesting
effects when connected to the speaker circuit through the fiber
optic cable.
-38-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 40
Project 17
High Power Fiber Optics
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear cable holder on the
white LED (D6) and the black cable holder on the phototransistor
(Q4), then place the fiber optic cable into the holders as far as it
will go. For best performance the fiber optic cable should stand
straight up in the holders, without bending them.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and move the lever on the
adjustable resistor (RV) around. The sound from the speaker
(SP2) changes as you move the lever on RV.
Clear
Black
Project 18
Black
Clear
-39-
Try removing the black cable holder and just holding the fiber optic
cable next to the phototransistor with your fingers. Hold it at
different angles and compare the sound. You may not hear
anything, due to background light in the room. Take the circuit into
a dark room or place your fingers around the phototransistor to
block the room light to it. Now put the black cable holder back on,
remove the clear cable holder, and try holding the fiber optic cable
at different positions around the white LED. You can also replace
the white LED with the red LED (D1) or the color LED (D8).
High Color
Optics Sounds
Build the circuit as shown. Place the
clear cable holder on the color LED (D8)
and the black cable holder on the
phototransistor (Q4), then place the fiber
optic cable into the holders as far as it will
go. For best performance the fiber optic
cable should stand straight up in the
holders, without bending them.
Turn on the slide switch (S1). Light is
transmitted from the color LED, through
the fiber optic cable, to control the strobe
IC (U23) and speaker (SP).
The circuits on this page are similar to
projects 12 and 14, but have the fiber
optic transmitting sub-circuit (with the
LED) and the receiving sub-circuit (with
the phototransistor) using the same
voltage sources. Normally the
transmitting and receiving circuits will
be in different locations with separate
voltage sources, but they were
combined here to increase the power.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 41
Project 19
Project 20
Strobe Light
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the
speaker with the white LED (D6). Now you
have a strobe light!
When S2 is pressed, the light may be blinking
so fast that it appears to be on continuously.
Sound Maker
The strobe IC (U23) produces an
electrical “tone”. The pitch of the “tone” is
adjusted by changing how much electricity
flows into its upper-left snap, using a
resistor. The electrical tone it produces
can be used to make sound using a
speaker, or to control the flash rate of an
LED see project 20, the Strobe Light).
Project 21
Color Strobe
Light
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the white
LED with the color LED (D8).
The color LED will not be
changing colors like it does in
other circuits. When the strobe
IC (U23) turns the color LED
on and off, it resets the colorcontrol microcircuit in the color
LED. Even your slowest strobe
speed is too fast for the color
LED.
Build the circuit and turn on the
switch (S1). You hear sound from
the speaker. Adjust the sound
using the lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV), and by pushing the
press switch (S2).
Note: In rare cases the circuit
may not work at all settings on
RV. If this happens, move the RV
lever to the side near the strobe
IC, turn the slide switch off and on
to reset the circuit, and only move
the RV lever over a small range.
Project 22
Red Strobe
Light
Use the preceding circuit but replace the color
LED (D8) with the red LED (D1).
-40-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 42
Project 23 Noisy Strobe Light
Modify the project 19 circuit to be this
one, which has the white LED (D6)
next to the speaker (SP2). Build the
circuit and turn on the switch (S1).
Adjust the blink rate and sound using
the lever on the adjustable resistor
(RV), and by pushing the press
switch (S2).
Project 26
-41-
Note: In rare cases the circuit may
not work at all settings on RV. If this
happens, move the RV lever to the
side near the strobe IC, turn the slide
switch off and on to reset the circuit,
and only move the RV lever over a
small range.
Project 24
Noisy Red
Strobe Light
Use the preceding circuit but replace the
white LED (D6) with the red LED (D1) or
the color LED (D8).
Project 25
Double
Strobe Light
Use the preceding circuit but replace the
speaker and LED with any two LEDs (red,
white, or color).
Louder Strobe Light
Modify the preceding circuit to be this one, which
has the white LED (D6) in parallel with the speaker
(SP2). Build the circuit and turn on the switch (S1).
Adjust the blink rate and sound using the lever on
the adjustable resistor (RV), and by pushing the
press switch (S2).
This circuit is louder
than
the
previous
circuits because the
speaker is in parallel
with the LED instead of
in series with it. This
increases the voltage
across the speaker,
making it louder.
Project 27
Louder Color
Strobe Light
Use the preceding circuit but
replace the white LED (D6)
with the red LED (D1) or the
color LED (D8).
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 43
Project 28 Triple Strobe Light
Build this circuit and turn on the slide
switch (S1). Adjust the blink rate using
the lever on the adjustable resistor
(RV), and by pushing the press switch
(S2).
Note: In rare cases the circuit may
not work at all settings on RV. If this
happens, move the RV lever to the
side near the strobe IC, turn the slide
switch off and on to reset the circuit,
and only move the RV lever over a
small range.
Project 30 Noisy Triple Strober
Build this circuit and turn on the
slide switch (S1). Adjust the blink
rate and sound using the lever on
the adjustable resistor (RV), and by
pushing the press switch (S2).
Note: In rare cases the circuit may
not work at all settings on RV. If this
happens, move the RV lever to the
side near the strobe IC, turn the
slide switch off and on to reset the
circuit, and only move the RV lever
over a small range.
Project 29
Noisy Double
Strobe Light
Use the preceding circuit but replace one
of the LEDs (D1, D6, or D8) with the
speaker (SP).
Project 31
Triple Light Noisy
Motion Strober
Use the preceding circuit but replace the
speaker (SP) with the motor (M1, “+” toward
white LED), then place the speaker across
the points marked A & B in the drawing. Do
not place any fan on the motor.
The LEDs (D1, D6, & D8) flash, the speaker
makes noise, and the motor shaft spins or
wiggles. Adjust the blink rate, sound, and
motor spin using the lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV), and by pushing the press
switch (S2).
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan or motor during operation.
-42-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 44
Automatic Light
Project 32
Build the circuit and turn on the slide switch (S1). Set the lever on the
adjustable resistor (RV) so the white LED (D6) just turns off. Slowly
cover the phototransistor (Q4) and the white LED brightens. Adjust the
light to the phototransistor to turn the white LED on or off.
This is an automatic street lamp that you can turn on at a certain
darkness and turn off by a certain brightness. This type of circuit is
installed on many outside lights and forces them to turn off and save
electricity. They also come on when needed for safety.
You can replace the white LED with the color LED (D8) or the red LED
(D1), but you may need to readjust the sensitivity using the lever on RV.
Project 33
Color Oscillator
Build the circuit as shown, and place
one of the LED attachments (tower,
egg, or fiber optic tree) over the LED on
the Color Organ (U22). Turn on the
switch (S1) and watch. The color organ
light will change colors on its own.
-43-
LED
Attachments
This circuit is an oscillator; it
uses the color organ to control
itself.
Project 34
Slow Color
Oscillator
Use the preceding circuit,
but replace the 0.1mF
capacitor (C2) with the 1mF
capacitor (C7). The circuit
works the same way, but
does not change colors as
quickly.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 45
Project 35
MP3
player
Dance to the Music
This circuit amplifies the
music so it can be heard
on the speaker. This is a
simple circuit, so sound
quality may not be as good
as your other music
players.
LED
Attachments
Project 36 Super Dance to the Music
This circuit is similar to the preceding one,
but louder and more sensitive. Build the
circuit as shown. Connect a music device
(not included) to the color organ (U22) as
shown, and start music on it, set the volume
to mid-range. Place one of the LED
attachments over the light on the color
organ. Turn on the switch (S1) and
SLOWLY ADJUST the lever on the
adjustable resistor (RV) for best sound;
there will only be a narrow range where the
sound is clear. Adjust the volume on your
music device for best sound quality.
MP3
player
LED
Attachments
Build the circuit. Connect a
music device (not included)
to the color organ (U22) as
shown, and start music on
it. Place one of the LED
attachments over the light
on the color organ. Set the
lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV), and the
volume control on your
music device, for best
sound quality and light
effects. The color organ
light will “dance” in synch
with the music. Compare
fast and slow songs, and
different loudness levels.
Project 37
Super
Dance
to the
Music (II)
Use the preceding circuit,
but remove the 100mF
capacitor (C4). The sound
will not be as loud, but will
be less distorted. Adjust RV
and the volume on your
music device for best
sound.
-44-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 46
Project 38
Follow the Music
Build the circuit. Connect a music device (not
included) to the color organ (U22) as shown, and
start music on it. For best effects, place one of the
LED attachments over the light on the color organ.
Set the volume control on your music device for
best sound quality and light effects. The color
organ light will “dance” in sync with the music.
Compare fast and slow songs, and different
loudness levels.
MP3
player
Headphones
MP3
player
-45-
Project 39
LED
Attachments
Color Organ - Headphones
Compare the sound quality
of using headphones in this
circuit, to using the speaker
in the preceding circuit.
Build the circuit. Connect a music device (not
included) and your own headphones (not
included) to the color organ (U22) as shown,
and start music on it. For best effects, place
one of the LED attachments over the light on
the color organ. Set the volume control on
your music device for best sound quality and
light effects. The color organ light will “dance”
in synch with the music.
Output signal to headphones is mono, so you
will not hear stereo effects.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 47
Project 40
Faucet
Project 41
Adjustable Light Dance
Build the circuit as shown. For best effects, place one of the LED
attachments over the light on the color organ. Turn on the switch (S1)
and move the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV) to change the tone
of the sound and “speed” of the light.
LED
Attachments
Suspended Raindrops
Build the circuit as shown. Connect the white LED (D6) to the red &
black jumper wires. Turn on the slide switch (S1). Go to a water faucet
and adjust the faucet so water is dripping at a steady rate. Dim the room
lights and hold the white LED so it shines on the dripping water. Try to
set the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV) so that the dipping water
drops appear suspended in mid-air. You may need to adjust the drip
rate on the faucet to make this work. You may get better results if you
replace the 100kW resistor (R5) with the 5.1kW resistor (R3). Also, try
setting the strobe rate to minimum and adjusting the drip rate.
-46-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 48
Project 42
Remote
Project 43
Remote
Infrared Detector
TV remote controls transmit a
sequence of pulses representing the
TV model and the button that was
pressed. The U24 infrared detector
is just looking any infrared signal.
You need an infrared remote
control for this project, such
as
any
TV/stereo/DVD
remote control in your home.
Build the circuit and turn on
the switch (S1). Point your
remote control toward the
infrared module (U24) and
press any button to activate
the red LED (D1).
Sometimes this circuit may
activate without a remote
control, due to infrared in
sunlight or some room lights.
If this happens, try moving to
a dark room.
Audio Infrared Detector
Sunlight and other light
sources emit some
infrared light, and may
activate the infrared
detector. See if you can
activate it without a
remote control.
You need an infrared remote control for this
project, such as any TV/stereo/DVD remote
control in your home.
Build the circuit, set the lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV) all the way towards the infrared
module (U24), and turn on the switch (S1).
Point your remote control toward the infrared
module and press any button to activate an
alarm sound. The lever on the adjustable
resistor sets how long the alarm plays for, but
it only works over a narrow range.
Next, replace the 100W resistor (R1) with the
5.1kW resistor (R3). The alarm sound is a little
different, but the control range on RV is wider.
-47-
Sometimes this circuit may activate without
a remote control, due to infrared in sunlight
or some room lights. If this happens, try
moving to a dark room.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 49
Project 44
Remote
Photo Infrared Detector
The phototransistor can
detect light, and infrared
light is light. The infrared
module (U24) is designed to
focus only on infrared light.
You need an infrared remote control for
this project, such as any TV/stereo/DVD
remote control in your home.
Build the circuit and turn on the switch
(S1). Place the mounting base
(normally used with the fiber optic tree)
on the phototransistor (Q4). Set the
lever on the adjustable resistor (RV) so
the red LED (D1) just turns off; if it never
turns off, move away from room lights.
Point your remote control directly into
the mounting base on Q4, and press
any button to activate the red LED (D1).
Project 45 Photo Audio Infrared Detector
You need an infrared remote
control for this project, such
as
any TV/stereo/DVD
remote control in your home.
Remote
Build the circuit and turn on
the switch (S1). Place the
mounting base (normally
used with the fiber optic tree)
on the phototransistor (Q4).
Set the lever on the
adjustable resistor (RV) so
the sound just turns off (if it
never turns off, move away
from room lights. Point your
remote control directly into
the mounting base on Q4,
and press any button to
activate the sound.
Project 46
Photo Audio
Infrared
Detector
(II)
Use the preceding circuit,
but replace the 0.1mF
capacitor (C2) with the
100mF capacitor (C4). The
circuit works the same way,
but the sound stays on
longer and is more
pleasant.
-48-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 50
Project 47
Strobe Effects
Build the circuit as shown. Take the colored disc shown and install it into the disc holder,
then place the disc holder on the motor (M1). Connect the white LED (D6) to the red &
black jumper wires.
For best effects, do this in a dimly lit room. Turn on the slide switch (S1). Push the press
switch (S2) until the motor spins continuously (if it stops after you release the press
switch, replace your batteries). Hold the white LED upside down over the disc holder so
it shines on the spinning disc, and move the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV) slowly
while watching the pattern on the spinning disc.
The motor spins the disc so fast that it looks like a blur. However, as you slowly adjust
RV the pattern on the disc appears to slow down, stop, and reverse direction. Patterns
close to the disc center may be moving at different speeds, or in different directions, from
patterns farther from the center! Some patterns may become clear while others are still
blurred.
If the motor does not continue spinning after you release S2, then replace your batteries. If
it still won’t keep spinning then replace the 5.1kW resistor (R3) with a 3-snap wire.
OPTIONAL
(Adult supervision required)
The disc holder rests on the motor top
loosely and vibrates, making the disc
pattern blurry even when the RV setting
makes the pattern “stop”. The disc
patterns will appear clearer if you
permanently mount the disc holder to the
motor top. This set contains a spare
motor top, which can be used for this.
This requires removing the motor top
from the motor whenever you want to
switch from using the disc holder to
using the glow fan, so is optional, and
requires adult supervision.
Tab
Tab
Tab
Slide tabs into slots.
-49-
Place disc holder onto
the motor as shown.
Hold white LED (D6)
over disc as shown.
How does this work? The strobe IC is making the
white LED flash so fast that your eyes think it is on
continuously. RV sets the flash rate, and at some
settings the LED flashes are synchronized with
speed of the patterns spinning on the disc, making
them appear visible instead of blurred.
When the disc pattern is totally blurred, it will appear
as purple, orange, and light green. Combining equal
amounts of red & blue makes purple, red & yellow
makes orange, and yellow & blue makes green.
If you want to do
this, pry the motor
top off the motor
shaft
using
a
screwdriver.
Lay the spare motor
top in the disc holder
upside down, and bond
together with glue (glue
not included).
After the glue dries,
push the modified
disc holder on the
motor shaft and
install a disc cutout.
When you want to
return to using the
glow fan, replace the motor top disc
holder with the normal motor top.
Project 48
Slow Strobe
Effects
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the 3-snap on the
adjustable resistor (RV) with the 100kW resistor (R5).
The circuit works the same, but the strobe rate is much
slower (now you can see the LED flashing), so the strobe
effects are different. Slowly adjust the setting on RV as
before, and watch the patterns on the spinning disc.
Note: In rare cases the LED may not flash at all settings
on RV. If this happens, move the RV lever to the side
near the strobe IC, turn the slide switch off and on to
reset the circuit, and only move the RV lever over a small
range.
Bonus for owners of other Snap Circuits® sets: If you
have a second 100kW resistor (from model SC-100 / 300
/ 500 / 750 or other sets), place it directly over the R5
that replaced the 3-snap in the above circuit (and place
a 1-snap under one side of the additional R5). Stacking
the two 100kW resistors together creates a “medium”
range of strobe speeds, in between the speeds created
with the 3-snap and single 100kW. Adjust the RV setting
and watch the strobe effects as before.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 51
Project 49
Stable Strobe Effects
The 0.1mF capacitor has no electrical
effect,but it helps to hold the motor in place
better and reduce vibrations. Less motor
vibration makes the disc holder more
stable, and so makes the patterns a little
clearer. See if you can notice a difference.
Use the circuits from projects 47 and 48,
but add the 0.1mF capacitor (C2) next to
the motor, as shown here. Set the strobe
speed so the patterns are visible, and
see if they look less blurred than before.
Project 50
Strobe Effects (II)
When the disc pattern is totally blurred,
it appears to be white. Combining equal
amounts of red, green, and blue makes
white. The LED in the color organ IC
combines red, green, and blue lights to
make white.
Replace the disc in the disc holder with the one
shown here, and repeat projects 47-49. Observe
the strobe effects. To remove a disc from the
holder, use your fingernail, or use a pencil to push
it up from beneath one of the tabs.
Project 52
Project 53
Project 51
Strobe Effects (III) Strobe Effects (IV) Strobe Effects (V)
Replace the disc in the disc holder with the one
shown here, and repeat projects 47-49.
Observe the strobe effects. At some RV
settings, the rainbow of colors comes into view.
Replace the disc in the disc holder with the one
shown here, and repeat projects 47-49.
Observe the strobe effects. With this pattern,
some areas may appear to be moving at
different speeds or directions. Sometimes you
can see all the colors on the disc, but
sometimes you can see all the colors except
blue, which is hidden.
Replace the disc in the disc holder with the one
shown here, and repeat projects 47-49.
Observe the strobe effects. This unusual
pattern produces several amazing displays at
different RV settings.
-50-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 52
Project 54
Strobe Effects (VI)
Replace the disc in the disc holder with the one
shown here, and repeat projects 47-49. Observe
the strobe effects. When the disc pattern is totally
blurred, it will appear as purple, cyan, and yellow.
Combining equal amounts of red & blue makes
purple, green & blue makes cyan, and red &
green makes yellow.
Project 56
Project 55
Make Your Own
Strobe Effects
Draw your own patterns on paper or cardboard, then cut them to the same
size as our discs. You can also draw patterns on the backs of our discs.
Put them on the disc holder and repeat projects 47-49. Have a contest
with your friends to see who can make the most interesting strobe effects!
You can also find lots of fun patterns and visual illusions by doing a search
on the internet. There is no limit to what you can do!
Another Strobe Light
This circuit is similar to project 47, and works the same way. Build the
circuit as shown. Take one of the colored discs and install it into the disc
holder, then place the disc holder on the motor (M1). Connect the white
LED (D6) to the red & black jumper wires.
For best effects, do this in a dimly lit room. Turn on the slide switch (S1).
Push the press switch (S2) until the motor spins continuously (if it stops
after you release the press switch, replace your batteries). Hold the
white LED upside down over the disc holder so it shines on the spinning
disc, and move the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV) slowly while
watching the pattern on the spinning disc.
The motor spins the disc so fast that it looks like a blur. However, as
you slowly adjust RV the pattern on the disc appears to slow down, stop,
and reverse direction. Patterns close to the disc center may be moving
at different speeds, or in different directions, from patterns farther from
the center!
If the motor does not continue spinning after you release S2, then
replace your batteries. If it still won’t keep spinning then replace the
5.1kW resistor (R3) with the 100W resistor (R1).
Tab
-51-
Tab
Tab
Slide tabs into slots.
Place disc holder onto
the motor as shown.
Hold white LED (D6)
over disc as shown.
You can reduce the strobe speed by replacing the 3-snap on the
adjustable resistor (RV) with the 100kW resistor (R5), just as is done in
project 48.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 53
Project 57
Motor Strobe Effects
This project is similar to project 47. Build the circuit as shown. Take one
of the colored discs and install it into the disc holder, then place the disc
holder on the motor (M1). Connect the white LED (D6) to the red &
black jumper wires.
For best effects, do this in a dimly lit room. Turn on the slide switch (S1).
Set the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV) down towards the 4-snap.
Hold the white LED upside down over the disc holder so it shines on
the spinning disc, and move the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV)
slowly while watching the pattern on the spinning disc.
The motor spins the disc so fast that it looks like a blur. However, as
you slowly adjust RV the pattern on the disc appears to slow down, stop,
and reverse direction. Patterns close to the disc center may be moving
at different speeds, or in different directions, from patterns farther from
the center!
Compare this circuit to the one in project 46. This project changes the
strobe effects by using RV to control the motor speed, while project 46
does it by using RV to control the LED flash rate. Getting the best strobe
effects by adjusting the motor speed is more difficult, because the motor
takes time to adjust its speed, while the LED flash rate adjusts instantly.
Tab
Tab
Tab
Place disc holder onto
the motor as shown.
Hold white LED (D6)
over disc as shown.
Project 58
Motor Strobe Effects (II)
Slide tabs into slots.
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the 100W resistor (R1) with the
5.1kW resistor (R3). The circuit works the same, but the LED flash rate is
slower, so the strobe effects are different. Adjust the setting on RV as
before, and watch the patterns on the spinning discs.
Project 59
Motor Strobe Effects (III)
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the 5.1kW resistor (R3) with the
100kW resistor (R5). The circuit works the same, but the LED flash rate is
slower (now you can see the LED flashing), so the strobe effects are
different. Adjust the setting on RV as before, and watch the patterns on
the spinning discs.
-52-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 54
Project 60
LEDs Together
Turn on the slide switch (S1), and compare the brightness of the three
LEDs.
Next, remove any of the LEDs and see how the brightness of the others
changes.
The voltage needed for an LED to turn on
depends on the light color. Red light needs the
least, green needs more, but blue and white
need the most. The color LED (D8) contains red,
green, and blue LEDs.
Project 61
The R1 resistor reduces the voltage available to
the LEDs. The LED brightness varies because
some of the LEDs need more voltage than is
available. The red LED (D1) will dominate the
other colors because it turns on more easily.
LEDs Together (II)
Modify the preceding circuit by moving the slide switch (S1) to the
location shown here. Compare the brightness of the LEDs. Some LEDs
may not turn on.
Next, remove any of the LEDs and see how the brightness of the others
changes.
This circuit reduces the voltage to the circuit,
because only one set of batteries is connected.
The limited battery voltage is split between the R1
resistor and the LEDs. The remaining voltage
across the LEDs is enough to activate the red
LEDs, but may not be enough to activate the other
colors. With the reduced voltage, the red LED will
dominate even more than in the preceding circuit.
-53-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 55
Project 62
Brightness Control
Build the circuit and turn on the slide switch (S1). Move the lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV) to vary the brightness of the light from the white LED (D6). If desired,
you may place any of the LED attachments (tower, egg, or fiber optic tree) on the LED.
Resistors are used to control or limit the flow of electricity in a circuit.
Higher resistor values reduce the flow of electricity in a circuit.
In this circuit, the adjustable resistor is used to adjust the LED brightness,
to limit the current so the batteries last longer, and to protect the LED
from being damaged by the batteries.
What is Resistance? Take your hands and rub them together very fast.
Your hands should feel warm. The friction between your hands converts
your effort into heat. Resistance is the electrical friction between an
electric current and the material it is flowing through.
Project 63
Resistors
Use the circuit built in project
62, but replace the 3-snap
with one of the yellow
resistors in this set (R1, R3, or
R5). Observe how each
changes the LED brightness
at different settings for the
adjustable resistor.
The R1 resistor (100W) will have
little effect, since it will be
dominated by the adjustable
resistor. Resistor R5 (100kW) is a
high resistance, which greatly
restricts the flow of electricity, so
the LED will be very dim or off.
Resistor R3 (5.1kW) will be in
between those.
The adjustable resistor can be set for as low as 200W, or as high as
50,000W (50kW).
Project 64
Resistors & LEDs
Project 65
Big Brightness
Adjuster
Use the circuits from projects 62 and 63, but replace the white
LED (D6) with the red LED (D1) or color LED (D8). Vary the
adjustable resistor lever and change the yellow resistors to see
how the light varies with each LED.
Vary the brightness of the color LED (D8)
using the 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3).
The 500kW adjustable resistor
(RV3) can be set for as low as
200W, or as high as 500,000W
(500kW), so the color LED will
only light on a small portion of
RV3’s range.
-54-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_A.qxp 7/25/14 2:40 PM Page 56
Project 66
Low Power Brightness Control
Build the circuit and turn on the slide switch (S1).
Move the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV) to
vary the brightness of the light from the color LED
(D8). For best effects, do this in a dimly lit room.
At some RV settings the LED will be very dim,
and some of its colors may be totally off.
Project 68
Black
-55-
Project 67
Low Power
Resistors & LEDs
Use the circuit from project 64, but replace the
color LED (D8) with the red LED (D1) or white
LED (D6). Vary the adjustable resistor lever to
see how the light varies with each LED. The white
LED may not be on at all.
Persistence of Vision
Build the circuit as shown. Place the black fiber optic cable
holder on the white LED (D6) and insert the fiber cable into
the black holder as far as it will go. Turn on the slide switch
(S1). Take the circuit into a dark room and wave the cable
around while watching the loose end. Try it with the lever
on the adjustable resistor (RV) at different settings. The
light coming out the loose end of the fiber optic cable will
separate into short segments or dashes of light.
“Persistence of Vision” works because the
light is changing faster than your eyes can
adjust. Your eyes continue seeing what they
have just seen.
In a movie theater, film frames are flashed on
the screen at a fast rate (usually 24 per
second). A timing mechanism makes a light
bulb flash just as the center of the frame is
passing in front of it. Your eyes see this fast
series of flashes as a continuous movie.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 1
Project 69
Prismatic Film
This is the same circuit as project 1, but you will view it
differently. Turn on the switch (S1), and view the LED
through the prismatic film (the clear slide). Prismatic film
makes interesting light effects.
Replace the color LED (D8) with the white LED (D6) and
red LED (D1); view them through the prismatic film.
Prismatic film separates light
into different colors. White
light is a combination of all
colors.
Project 71
Scattering Light
Use the project 69 circuit, but view
the color LED through various semitransparent liquids, glassware, and
plastics. Juices, Jello, and cloudy
glass or plastic work well.
Replace the color LED with the
white LED (D6). The white LED is
brighter, but does not change color.
Semi-transparent materials
scatter the light without
completely blocking it, so a
wide area of the liquid or
material is lit up by the light.
This happens in the egg and
tower LED attachments.
Project 70
Look at the
Lights
View different light sources in and around
your home through the prismatic film.
Project 72
Color Fiber Light
Use the circuit from project 69, but place the clear cable
holder on the color LED (D8), then place the fiber optic
cable into the holder as far as it will go. Turn on the
switch, then take the circuit into a dimly lit room and see
the light coming out the open end of the cable. The light
travels through the cable even as you bend it around.
-56-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 2
Project 73
Side view of base grid
Project 74
Build the circuit shown, but build it without using the base grid. Turn on
the switch (S1) and view the color LED (D8) light through the base grid.
Then turn the base grid on its side and try to see through it; you can’t.
Try viewing other lights through other clear materials.
The main surface of the base grid is flat and smooth,
giving a nice transition for light rays to pass through.
If you look closely at the side edges (using a
magnifying glass helps), you will see they are slightly
curved. These curves, and the angle of the light
hitting them, cause more light to be scattered or
reflected than light hitting the main surface. Some
materials can also pass light better in some
directions than in other directions, due to their
physical structure.
White Blinker
Build the circuit as shown and turn on
the switch (S1). Both LEDs are
blinking.
The color LED (D8)
has a microcircuit
that changes the
light colors. As it
does this, it changes
the current through
the circuit - which
also affects the
brightness of the
white LED (D6).
-57-
One Way Plastic
Project 75
Red Blinker
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the white LED (D6)
with the red LED (D1).
Project 76
Red & White
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the color LED (D8)
with the white LED (D6). Both LEDs light, but neither in
blinking.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 3
Project 77 Color Selector - Red
Build the circuit as shown. Place
the fiber optic tree and mounting
base on the color organ (U22).
Turn on the switch (S1). The color
organ makes a red light. Remove
the fiber optic tree and mounting
base, and look at the light through
the prismatic film.
Prismatic
film
Project 79
Color Selector - Blue
Project 78
Color
Selector Green
Use the preceding circuit, but
remove the 2-snap between points
A & B, and add one between points
C & D. Now the color is green.
Look at it using the fiber optic tree,
and then the prismatic film.
Project 80
Color Selector - Cyan
Use the preceding circuit, but remove the 2-snap
between points C & D, and add one between points
E & F. Now the color is blue. Look at it using the fiber
optic tree, and then the prismatic film.
Use the preceding circuit, but add a 2-snap between
points C & D. Now the color is cyan, which is a
combination of green and blue. Look at it using the
fiber optic tree, and then the prismatic film.
Use the preceding circuit, but remove the 2-snap
between points E & F, and add one between points
A & B. Now the color is yellow, which is a
combination of red and green. Look at it using the
fiber optic tree, and then the prismatic film.
Use the preceding circuit, but remove the 2-snap
between points C & D, and add one between points
E & F. Now the color is purple, which is a combination
of red and blue. Look at it using the fiber optic tree,
and then the prismatic film.
Project 81
Color Selector - Yellow
Project 82
Color Selector - Purple
Project 83
Color Selector White
Use the preceding
circuit, but add a 2snap between points C
& D. Now the color is
white, which is a
combination of red,
green, and blue. Look
at it using the fiber optic
tree, and then the
prismatic film.
Black is made by
turning off all the
colors.
-58-
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Project 84 LED Color Spectrum
Build the circuit as shown, and turn
on the switch (S1). The white LED
(D6) will be on. Look at the white LED
through the prismatic film to see the
color spectrum of white light, which is
all the colors of a rainbow. For best
effects, do this in a dimly lit room.
Now remove the 2-snap across
points W-W, and place it across
points C-C (the color LED), then
points R-R, G-G, and B-B (for the
color organ). Using the prismatic film,
look at the color spectrum produced
by the color LED, and the different
colors from the color organ. Compare
them to the white LED spectrum.
Project 86
LED Color Spectrum (III)
Use the preceding circuit, but place 2-snaps across points R-R, G-G,
and B-B. Use the prismatic film to look at the color spectrum. View from
different directions and different angles.
With the above connections, the color organ (U22) produces white
light. The actual color spectrum you see will vary with your viewing
angle, because the light is produced using separate red, green, and
blue LEDs next to each other.
Now remove the 2-snaps from R-R, G-G, and B-B, and place one
across W-W, so the circuit is like the project 82 drawing. Use the
prismatic film to view the color spectrum from the white LED (D6)
again, and compare it to the white light spectrum from U22. The D6
spectrum does not vary as much with the viewing angle because the
light is produced by a single LED, and it is brighter.
-59-
Project 85
LED Color
Spectrum (II)
Use the preceding circuit, but remove the 2-snap
across points W-W and place 2-snaps across R-R
and G-G. Use the prismatic film to look at the color
spectrum. View from different directions and
different angles.
Next, move the 2-snaps to R-R and B-B, and look
at the spectrum. Then move the 2-snaps to G-G and
B-B and look at the spectrum. View from different
directions and different angles.
For each combination, the color spectrum should be
mostly light of the 2 individual colors you are
combining.
Project 87
LED Color Spectrum (IV)
Use the circuit combinations from projects
82-84, but look at the different lights through
the red, green, or blue filters instead of the
prismatic film. Each filter only allows you to
see light of that color, and blocks the other
colors. If you put all three filters together
then all light is blocked.
Actually, the red filter will pass a little of the
green light, the blue filter will pass a little of
the green light, and the green filter will pass
a little of the green and blue light. This is
because green light is between red and
blue light in the color spectrum, and the
filters are not perfect. See page 13 for more
information about the color spectrum.
Project 88
LED Color
Spectrum (V)
Repeat project 82, but
place the black fiber optic
cable holder with the fiber
optic cable on the LED you
want to view. Look at the
light coming out the other
end of the cable using the
prismatic film, and view in a
dimly lit room. The light is
not as bright but the beam
is narrower, so the color
spectrum may be clearer.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 5
Project 89
Blinking Beeping
Build the circuit as shown and turn on the switch
(S1). The color LED (D8) will be blinking and you
hear beeping from the speaker.
The color LED (D8) has a
microcircuit that changes the
light colors. As it does this, it
changes the current through
the circuit. The transistor (Q2)
amplifies
the
changing
current and uses it to control
the speaker (SP2).
Project 91
Blinking Control
Build the circuit as shown and turn on the
switch (S1). The color LED (D8) and white
LED (D6) will both be blinking. The color LED
will be brighter than in the preceding circuit.
The white LED is controlled by the color LED
using the transistor (Q2). If you remove the
color LED from the circuit then the white LED
will not blink.
Project 90
Blinking
Blinking
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the
speaker with the red LED (D1). Now the
red LED will also be blinking.
Project 92
Blinking Control
Beeping
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the
white LED (D6) with the speaker (SP). Now
the blinking LED controls a beeping sound.
-60-
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Project 93
Triple Blinker
Build the circuit as shown and turn on the switch (S1). Three LEDs (D1,
D6, and D8) will be blinking.
The red and white LEDs are controlled by the color LED using the
transistor (Q2). If you remove the color LED from the circuit then the
other LEDs will not blink.
Project 94
Funny Speed Motor
Build the circuit as shown and turn on the switch
(S1). The color LED (D8) is blinking and the motor
(M1) spins at different speeds. Try this circuit with the
glow fan on the motor, and without the fan.
The motor is controlled by the color LED using the
transistor (Q2). If you remove the color LED from the
circuit then the motor will not spin.
!
-61-
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan or motor during
operation.
In this circuit the color LED is
powered by one set of batteries, and
the motor is powered by different set.
This was done because the motor
produces electrical pulses as it spins,
and these pulses can confuse the
color LED.
Project 95
Funny
Speed
Motor
with Light
Use the preceding circuit, but
add the red LED (D1) across
points A & B (“+” to A). This
adds another blinking light.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 7
Project 96
Project 97
Counting Light
The color organ is counting
how many times light turns the
phototransistor on or off. At
some count levels, the color
organ changes colors.
Build the circuit as shown and turn
on the switch (S1). Place one of the
LED attachments over the LED on
the color organ (U22). Connect the
color LED (D8) using the red &
black jumper wires and hold it just
above the phototransistor (Q4), so
that it shines directly into the
phototransistor. For best effects, do
this in a dimly lit room. Every few
seconds, the color organ light will
change colors.
Adjustable Counting Light
Build the circuit as shown and turn on the
switch (S1). Place one of the LED
attachments over the LED on the color
organ (U22). Connect the white LED (D6)
using the red & black jumper wires and hold
it just above the phototransistor (Q4), so
that it shines directly into the
phototransistor. For best effects, do this in
a dimly lit room. The color organ light will
change colors, the lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV) controls how fast the colors
change.
-62-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 8
Project 98
Bright Off Light
Build the circuit as shown and turn on the switch (S1). Place the circuit in
a dark room or cover the phototransistor (Q4); the color LED (D8) should
be on. Shine light on the phototransistor and the color LED turns off.
Project 99
Remote
R/C Blink & Beep
You need an infrared remote control for this project, such as any
TV/stereo/DVD remote control in your home.
Build the circuit and turn on the switch (S1). Point your remote control
toward the infrared module (U24) and press any button to activate the
red LED (D1) and speaker (SP2).
Sometimes this circuit may activate without a remote control, due to
infrared in sunlight or some room lights. If this happens, try moving to a
dark room.
-63-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 9
Project 100
Stuck On Light
Build the circuit as shown, and note that several parts
are stacked over others. Turn on the slide switch
(S1); nothing happens.
Now push the press switch (S2); the white LED (D6)
turns on and stays on. The white LED will stay on
until you turn off the slide switch.
Project 102
The two transistors act as
an electronic device
called an SCR (Silicon
Controlled Rectifier). An
SCR is a three-pin device
that once its control pin is
triggered, remains on
until the current flow
through it stops.
White Blinker
Build the circuit as
shown, and note that
several parts are stacked
over others. Turn on the
slide switch (S1); nothing
happens.
Now push the press
switch (S2); the motor
(M1) turns on and stays
on. The motor will stay on
until you turn off the slide
switch.
+
!
WARNING: Moving
parts. Do not touch
the fan or motor
during operation.
Project 101
Stuck On
Lights
Use the preceding circuit, but
replace the 100W resistor
(R1) with the color LED (D8)
or the red LED (D1).
Project 103
Low Voltage Stuck On Lights
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the motor with the
red LED (D1).
Project 104
Stuck On Motor & Lights
Use the project 102 circuit but place the red LED (D1) next to
the motor at base grid locations G5-G7 (“+” to G5). Connect the
red LED to the adjacent points on the motor using the red &
black jumper wires, making sure the jumper wires do not touch
the motor or fan.
Turn on the slide switch (S1), then push the press switch (S2).
The motor spins and the red LED is dim. Turn off the circuit,
remove the fan from the motor, and turn the circuit back on. Now
the red LED is bright because it takes less electricity to spin the
motor without the fan, leaving more electricity for the red LED.
-64-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 10
Project 105
Funky Light & Sound
Build the circuit as shown
and turn on the switch
(S1). The color LED (D8)
is used to control the
strobe
IC
(U23),
producing
unusual
effects.
Project 106
Light & Sound
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the
color LED (D8) with the 100kW resistor (R5)
or the 5.1kW resistor (R3).
Project 107
Light & Motion
Repeat projects 105 & 106 but replace the
speaker with the motor (M1) and glow fan
(motor “+” toward S1).
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan or motor during
operation.
Project 108 Adjustable Light & Sound
Modify the preceding circuit to match
the one shown here. Use the lever on
the adjustable resistor (RV) to control
the light & sound. At some settings the
white LED (D6) may not light, or will
appear to be on continuously.
Project 109
Adjustable
Light &
Motion
Use the preceding circuit, but
replace the speaker with the
motor (M1) and glow fan
(motor “+” toward S1).
!
-65-
WARNING:
Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan or motor
during operation.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 11
Project 110
Blinking Step Motor
Build the circuit as shown and turn on the switch (S1). The color LED
(D8) is used to control the strobe IC (U23), which turns on the motor
(M1) in short bursts.
To have 3 LEDs, place the red LED (D1) directly over the white LED
(D6).
Project 111
Blink Step Beep
Build the circuit as shown, and leave the fan off the motor (M1). Turn
on the switch (S1). The color LED (D8) is used to control the strobe IC
(U23), which turns on the motor (M1), white LED (D6), and speaker
(SP2) in short bursts. The motor top may only have slight movement.
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the motor during operation.
-66-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 12
Project 112
Day Blinker
Project 113
Night Blinker
Build the circuit as shown and turn
on the switch (S1). The color LED
(D8) is off when there is light on the
phototransistor (Q4). Cover or shine
light on the phototransistor to turn
the color LED on or off.
Build the circuit as shown and turn
on the switch (S1). The color LED
(D8) is on when there is light on the
phototransistor (Q4). Shine light on
or cover the phototransistor to turn
the color LED on or off.
Project 114
LED Attachments
MP3
player
-67-
If the color LED comes on too easily,
reduce the sensitivity by replacing
the 5.1kW resistor (R3) with the
100kW resistor (R5).
Night Light Show
Build the circuit as shown.
Connect a music device (not
included) to the color organ
(U22) as shown, and start
music on it. Place one of the
LED attachments over the
light on the color organ. Turn
on the switch (S1), then cover
the phototransistor (Q4) to
see a light show. Adjust the
volume on your music device
for best light effects.
Replace the 100kW resistor
(R5) with the 5.1kW resistor
(R3) to make the light brighter.
Project 115
Daylight
Light Show
Use the preceding circuit, but
swap the locations of the
phototransistor (Q4) and the
100kW resistor (R5), put the
“+” side of Q4 towards the
NPN transistor (Q2). Now
covering the phototransistor
turns off the light show.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 13
Project 116
Buzzer
Project 117
Higher Pitch Buzzer
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the 1mF capacitor (C7) with the
0.1mF capacitor (C2). The pitch of the tone is higher now, but the circuit
may not make noise on all settings for the adjustable resistor.
This circuit is an
oscillator, which uses
feedback to control
the pitch of the
sound.
Project 119
Slow Light &
Motion
Use the circuits from projects 116-117,
but replace the 0.1mF capacitor (C2)
with the 100mF capacitor (C4), “+” to
the right. Turn the switch on and
patiently wait. The speaker will beep
and the color LED (D8) will flash every
5-20 seconds, depending on the
resistors.
Build the circuit as shown and
turn on the switch (S1). Move
the lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV) to vary the pitch
of the buzzing sound.
Project 118
Photo Light & Motion
Use the circuits from projects 116-117, but add the photoresistor (RP)
across base grid locations B2-B4 (between RV and R1), on level 3. Vary
the amount of light on the photoresistor to change the sound, while also
varying RV.
Project 120
Light Up the Fan
Build the circuit as shown, place the glow fan on the motor
(M1), and turn on the slide switch (S1). Place the circuit in a
dark room and push the press switch (S2) to spin the fan.
The color LED (D8) lights up the spinning fan.
The circuit with the color LED is not
electrically connected to the circuit with the
motor. This was done because the motor
produces electrical pulses as it spins, and
these pulses can confuse the color LED.
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan or motor during
operation.
-68-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 14
Project 121
High Power Buzzer
Project 122
Buzz Fan
Build the circuit as
shown and turn on the
switch (S1). Move the
lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV) to vary
the pitch of the buzzing
sound. The motor (M1)
may not spin.
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not touch
the fan or motor during operation.
Project 124
Step Beeper
Use the circuits from projects 121-122, but replace the 0.1mF capacitor
(C2) with the 100mF capacitor (C4), “+” to the right. The motor will move
in small bursts, with long intervals or almost continuously, depending on
the resistors and phototransistor.
Next, replace the color LED (D8) with the white LED (D6). See how the
circuit works now.
-69-
Use the preceding circuit, but place the 5.1kW
resistor (R3) directly over the 100kW resistor
(R5) using a 1-snap. The pitch of the tone is
higher now, and the fan spins. The circuit may
not make noise on all settings for the adjustable
resistor. The motor may not spin.
Project 123
Photo Buzzer
Use the circuits from projects 121-122, but add the
phototransistor (Q4) across base grid locations B2B4 (between RV and R1, “+” on the left), on level 3.
Shine a bright light on the phototransistor to change
the sound, while also moving the lever on RV.
You can also place the phototransistor directly
over the 100kW resistor, as done for the 5.1kW
resistor in project 124. For this arrangement,
“+” on Q4 should be on the right.
Project 125
Wacky Buzzer
Repeat projects 121-122, but add the 100mF capacitor (C4) across the
points marked A & B in the drawing (“+” to A). The motor may not spin but
the sound is different. The sound may not be very loud.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 15
Project 126
Black
Clear
Clear
Black
Fiber Fun
Build the circuit as shown.
Place the clear cable holder on
the color LED (D8) and the
black cable holder on the
phototransistor (Q4), then
place the fiber optic cable into
the holders as far as it will go.
Turn on the slide switch (S1).
Light is transmitted from the
color LED, through the fiber
optic cable, to control the NPN
transistor (Q2) and red LED
(D1).
Project 128
You can replace the red LED
with the white LED (D6), but
the white LED may be dim or
not light.
More Fiber Fun
Build the circuit as shown. Place the
clear cable holder on the color LED (D8)
and the black cable holder on the
phototransistor (Q4), then place the
fiber optic cable into the holders as far
as it will go. For best performance the
fiber optic cable should stand straight up
in the holders, without bending them.
Turn on the slide switch (S1). Light is
transmitted from the color LED,
through the fiber optic cable, to control
the PNP transistor (Q1) and red LED
(D1). The speaker is used to help limit
the current through the color LED,
and will not make noise.
For more fun, swap the locations of
the color LED (D8) and red LED (D1).
You may also replace either LED with
the white LED (D6), but the white LED
may be dim or not light.
Project 127
Fiber Fun
Backwards
Use the preceding circuit but
swap the locations of the
phototransistor (Q4) and the
100kW resistor (R5), keep the
“+” side of Q4 in the same
direction. Now the red LED
will be on whenever the color
LED is off.
Project 129
Other
Fiber Fun
Use the preceding circuit but
swap the locations of the
phototransistor (Q4) and the
100kW resistor (R5), keep the
“+” side of Q4 in the same
direction. Now the red LED
will be on whenever the color
LED is on.
-70-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 16
Project 130
Morse Code
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear cable holder on the red
LED (D1) and the black cable holder on the phototransistor (Q4),
then place the fiber optic cable into the holders as far as it will go.
For best performance the fiber optic cable should stand straight
up in the holders, without bending them.Turn on the slide switch
(S1), then push the press switch (S2) several times to send secret
messages between the circuits using Morse Code. If your fiber
optic cable was a lot longer, you could use this circuit to send
messages to your friends in different cities. The speaker is used
to help limit the current through the red LED, and will not make
noise.
Black
If desired, you can swap the locations of the red and white LEDs
(D1 & D6).
Note: If the white LED (D6) does not light or is dim, replace it
with the color LED (D8). The white LED can be brighter and won’t
change colors, but requires higher voltage to activate.
Clear
Morse Code: The forerunner of today’s telephone system
was the telegraph, which was widely used in the latter half
of the 19th century. It only had two states - on or off (that is,
transmitting or not transmitting), and could not send the
range of frequencies contained in human voices or music.
A code was developed to send information over long
distances using this system and a sequence of dots and
dashes (short or long transmit bursts). It was named Morse
Code after its inventor. It was also used extensively in the
early days of radio communications, though it isn’t in wide
use today. It is sometimes referred to in Hollywood movies,
especially Westerns. Modern fiber optics communications
systems send data across the country using similar coding
systems, but at much higher speeds.
Project 131
-71-
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
._
_...
_._.
_..
.
.._.
__.
....
..
.___
_._
._..
__
MORSE CODE
N
_.
O
___
P
.__.
Q
__._
R
._.
S
...
T
_
U
.._
V
..._
W
.__
X
_.._
Y
_.__
Z
__..
._._._
Period
Comma _ _ . . _ _
Question . . _ _ . .
1
.____
2
..___
3
...__
4
...._
5
.....
6
_....
7
__...
8
___..
9
____.
0
_____
Fiber Shut-Off
Use the preceding circuit but swap the locations of the phototransistor (Q4) and the 100kW resistor (R5), keep the “+” side of Q4
in the same direction. Now pushing the press switch will turn off the LED in the right half of the circuit.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 17
Project 132
Blow On Fiber
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear
cable holder on the color LED (D8) and the
black cable holder on the phototransistor
(Q4), then place the fiber optic cable into the
holders as far as it will go. For best
performance the fiber optic cable should
stand straight up in the holders, without
bending them.
Clear
+
Project 133
Turn on the slide switch (S1), and blow on
the microphone or talk loudly into it. The
signal from the microphone will be sent
through the fiber optic cable to the right half
of the circuit, to activate the red LED (D1).
Black
Fiber Music
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear
cable holder on the color organ (U22) and
the black cable holder on the phototransistor
(Q4), then place the fiber optic cable into the
holders as far as it will go. For best
performance the fiber optic cable should
stand straight up in the holders, without
bending them.The clear holder will be a
loose fit.
Clear
MP3
player
Black
Connect a music device (not included) to
the color organ as shown, and start the
music on it. The music plays on the speaker
(SP2) while the LED on the color organ
controls the red LED (D1) through the fiber
optic cable. Set the volume control on your
music device for best light & sound effects.
-72-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 18
Project 134
Fiber Color Organ
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear cable holder on
the color organ (U22) and the black cable holder on the
phototransistor (Q4), then place the fiber optic cable into
the holders as far as it will go. For best performance the
fiber optic cable should stand straight up in the holders,
without bending them.The clear holder will be a loose fit.
Clear
Turn on the slide switch (S1), and blow on the microphone
or talk loudly into it. The signal from the microphone will
change the LED on the color organ, then send the light
through the fiber optic cable to the phototransistor, which
controls the red LED (D1).
(Optional)
MP3
player
Project 135
Optional: Connect a music device (not included) to the
color organ as shown, and start the music on it. The music
device will control the red LED. Set the volume control on
your music device for best light effects. If you replace the
red LED with the speaker (SP), then you get sound effects
(beeping, not music).
Bright Fiber Color Organ
Black
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear cable
holder on the color organ (U22) and the black cable
holder on the phototransistor (Q4), then place the
fiber optic cable into the holders as far as it will go.
For best performance the fiber optic cable should
stand straight up in the holders, without bending
them. The clear holder will be a loose fit.
Clear
(Optional)
MP3
player
-73-
Black
Turn on the slide switch (S1), and blow on the
microphone or talk loudly into it. The signal from
the microphone will change the LED on the color
organ, then send the light through the fiber optic
cable to the phototransistor, which controls the
white LED (D6).
Optional: Connect a music device (not included)
to the color organ as shown, and start the music
on it. The music device will control the white LED.
Set the volume control on your music device for
best light effects.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 19
Project 136
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan or motor during
operation.
Motor Power
Build the circuit as shown, push the
press switch (S2), and look at the
brightness of the red LED (D1). Try it
three ways: with no fan on the motor,
with the glow fan on the motor, and
keeping the motor from spinning with
your fingers. When the motor is
spinning, you will hear noise from the
speaker (SP2).
The motor needs a lot of electricity to
start spinning, but needs less the faster
it is spinning. When kept from spinning
by your fingers, the motor sucks up all
the electricity, leaving none to light the
red LED. With the fan on the motor, the
LED gets enough electricity to light.
When the motor is spinning without the
fan, the LED gets lots of electricity and is
bright.
Project 137
More Motor Power
Use the preceding circuit but replace the red LED
(D1) with the color LED (D8), see how it
compares to the red LED.
The color LED needs more
electricity to light than the
red LED. The motor “noise”
that you hear on the
speaker can also confuse
the color LED and disrupt
its color pattern.
Project 138
Reflection Detector
Build the circuit as shown and turn on the switch (S1). Place the mounting
base over the phototransistor (Q4). Set the lever on the adjustable resistor
(RV) all the way toward the NPN transistor (Q2). Move the circuit into a dimly
lit room, so that the color LED (D8) is off.
Place a mirror directly over the white LED (D6) and photo-transistor (Q4), or
hold it facing a wall mirror. When enough light from the white LED reaches
the phototransistor, the color LED will turn on, indicating that a reflection has
been detected.
The mounting base is used to block direct light from the white LED to the
phototransistor, and to shield the phototransistor from room light. If your room
is very dark, you may get better results by placing the mounting base over
the white LED instead of the phototransistor.
-74-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 20
Project 139
Cup & String Communication
Light, radio signals, and sound all travel through air like waves travel through
water. To help you understand how they are like waves, you can make a
cup & string telephone. This common trick requires some household
materials (not included with this kit): two large plastic or paper cups, some
non-stretchable thread or kite string, and a sharp pencil. Adult supervision
is recommended.
Take the cups and punch a tiny hole in the center of the bottom of each with
a sharp pencil (or something similar). Take a piece of string (use between
25 and 100 feet) and thread each end through each hole. Either knot or tape
the string so it cannot go back through the hole when the string is stretched.
Now with two people, have each one take one of the cups and spread apart
until the string is tight. The key is to make the string tight, so its best to keep
the string in a straight line. Now if one of you talks into one of the cups while
the other listens, the second person should be able to hear what the first
person says.
Tiny hole
Cups
String
Telephones work the same way, except that
electric current replaces the string. In radio, the
changing current from a microphone is used to
encode electromagnetic waves sent through the
air, then decoded in a listening receiver.
Knot
String threaded
through cup bottom
Pencil
Taut string
-75-
How it works: When you talk into the cup, the cup
bottom vibrates back and forth from your sound
waves. The vibrations travel through the string by
pulling the string back and forth, and then make
the bottom of the second cup vibrate just like the
first cup did, producing sound waves that the
listener can hear. If the string is tight, the received
sound waves will be just like the ones sent, and
the listener hears what the talker said.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 21
Project 140
Slow Motor Speed Control
The motor needs a lot of electricity to start
spinning, but needs less the faster it is
spinning. The resistors (R1 & RV) are
limiting how much electricity flows, so the
motor can barely spin.
Build the circuit as shown; do not place the fan on the
motor. Set the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV)
toward the 3-snap. Turn on the switch (S1) to start the
motor (M1). If the motor does not spin, then give it a
push to get it started. Use the lever on the adjustable
resistor to control the motor speed. If the motor does
not spin even after giving it a push then replace your
batteries.
Turn off the switch and turn the motor shaft counterclockwise with your fingers. Now turn the switch on try
turning the motor counterclockwise; now it is harder
because the circuit is trying to turn the motor clockwise
at the same time.
Project 141
Slow Motor Start Aid
Project 142
R/C Motor
You need an infrared remote control for
this
project,
such
as
any
TV/stereo/DVD remote control in your
home.
Use the preceding circuit but add the 100mF
capacitor (C4) directly over the 100W resistor (R1),
“+” side towards the motor. The circuit works the
same, but starts more easily.
Build the circuit and turn on the switch
(S1). Point your remote control toward
the infrared module (U24) and press
any button to spin the motor (M1).
If you have a larger 470mF capacitor (C5), which is
included with some other Snap Circuits® sets, then
you can use it in place of the 100mF capacitor. It will
make the motor start even more easily.
The capacitor allows a short surge of
electricity to flow through it until it
charges up. This short surge bypasses
the higher resistance of the resistors,
and helps the motor get going.
Next, remove the 100mF capacitor
(C4). The circuit woks the same, except
now the motor moves in small steps.
Remote
!
Sometimes this circuit may activate
without a remote control, due to
infrared in sunlight or some room
lights. If this happens, try moving to a
darker room.
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan or motor during operation.
-76-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 22
Project 143
Series Lights
This circuit has all the parts
connected in a series. Swapping
the locations of any parts in the
circuit (without changing the
direction of their “+” side) will not
change how the circuit works. Try it.
The LEDs are dim because the
batteries need to overcome the
activation voltage level for every
LED in the series before any can
light. That doesn’t leave much
voltage to overcome the resistance
in the circuit. If you replace one of
the LEDs with a 3-snap, the others
will be much brighter. Try it.
Project 144
Build the circuit and turn on the switch
(S1). Place the circuit in a dimly lit room.
Some of the LEDs (D1, D6, & D8) will
be blinking, but none will be very bright.
If nothing lights then replace your
batteries.
The LEDs are blinking because a colorchanging circuit in the color LED is
turning that LED on and off, which also
affects the other LEDs.
Wacky Sound Control
Build the circuit and turn on the slide switch (S1). Vary the amount of
light on the phototransistor (Q4) and push the press switch (S2) to
change the sound.
-77-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 23
Project 145
Build the circuit and turn on
the switch (S1). Make your
parts using either the water
puddles method (A), the
drawn parts method (B), or
the pencil parts method (C).
Touch the metal in the
jumper wires to your parts
and read the current.
Long, narrow shapes have more
resistance than short, wide ones.
The black core of pencils is
graphite, the same material used
in the resistors in the pivot stand.
Project 146
Human & Liquid
Sounds
Use the preceding circuit but touch the metal in
the jumper wires snaps with your fingers. Wet
your fingers for best results. Your fingers will
change the sound, because your body resistance
is less than the 100kW resistor (R5) in the circuit.
Next, place the loose ends of the jumper wires in
a cup of water, make sure the metal parts aren’t
touching each other. The water should change
the sound.
Now add salt to the water and stir to dissolve it.
The sound should have higher pitch now, since
salt water has less resistance than plain water.
Don’t drink any water used here.
Musical Shapes
Method A (easy): Spread some water on the
table into puddles of different shapes, perhaps
like the ones shown here. Touch the jumper
wires to points at the ends of the puddles.
Method B (challenging): Use a SHARP pencil (No. 2 lead is best)
and draw shapes, such as the ones here. Draw them on a hard, flat
surface. Press hard and fill in several times until you have a thick,
even layer of pencil lead. Touch the jumper wires to points at the
ends of the drawings. You may get better electrical contact if you wet
the metal with a few drops of water. Wash your hands when finished.
Method C (adult supervision and permission required): Use
some double-sided pencils if available, or VERY CAREFULLY break
a pencil in half. Touch the jumper wires to the black core of the pencil
at both ends.
Project 147 Human & Liquid Light
Build the circuit and turn on the switch (S1).
Touch the metal in the jumper wire snaps with
your fingers. Use the lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV) to adjust the sensitivity of the
circuit. You may see a difference in the light
brightness just by pressing the contacts harder
with your fingers.
Next, place the loose ends of the jumper wires
in a cup of water, make sure the metal parts
aren’t touching each other. The water should
change the light brightness. Readjust sensitivity
using RV.
Now add salt to the water and stir to dissolve it.
The light should be brighter, since salt water has
less resistance than plain water. Readjust
sensitivity using RV.
Don’t drink any water used here.
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SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 24
Project 148
Project 149
Blow On the Light
The microphone is a resistor
that changes in value due to
changes in air pressure on its
surface.
Build the circuit and turn on the slide
switch (S1). Set the lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV) to the top. If the white LED
(D6) is on, move the lever on RV until the
LED just shuts off. Now blow on the
microphone (X1) to turn the white LED on.
Blow Off the Light
Build the circuit and turn on the slide switch (S1). Wait for the white LED
(D6) to come on. Blow into the microphone (X1) to make the white LED
flicker. If you blow hard enough, the LED will turn off for a moment.
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SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 25
Project 150
Transistor
Build the circuit and turn on the slide switch (S1). Slowly move the lever
on the adjustable resistor (RV) across its range while watching the
brightness of the red & white LEDs (D1 & D6).
Transistors, such as the NPN transistor (Q2),
can amplify electric currents. In this circuit,
the adjustable resistor controls a small
current going to the transistor through the
red LED. The transistor uses this small
current to control a larger current through the
white LED. At some RV settings, the control
current is too small to light the red LED, but
the transistor-amplified is large enough to
light the white LED.
Project 151
Another Transistor
The PNP transistor (Q1) is just like
the NPN transistor (Q2), except that
the currents flow in opposite
directions.
This circuit is just like the preceding one,
except uses a different type of transistor.
Build the circuit and turn on the slide
switch (S1). Slowly move the lever on the
adjustable resistor (RV) across its range
while watching the brightness of the red
& white LEDs (D1 & D6).
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SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 26
Project 152 Charging & Discharging
Turn on the slide switch (S1) for a few seconds, then
turn it off. The red LED (D1) is dimly lit for a few
moments but goes completely dark as the batteries
(B1) charge up the 100mF capacitor (C4). The
capacitor is storing electrical charge.
Now press the press switch (S2) for a few seconds.
The white LED (D6) is initially bright but goes dim as
the capacitor discharges itself through it.
The C4 capacitor value (100mF) sets how much
charge can be stored in it, and the R3 resistor value
(5.1kW) sets how quickly that charge can be stored or
released.
Now swap the locations of the white & red LEDs, and
try the circuit again. Both LEDs have the same
electrical current flowing through them, but white LED
is much brighter than the red LED because it is a
super-bright LED while the red one isn’t.
Project 154 Adjustable
Charging &
Discharging
-81-
Modify the project 152
circuit to be this one,
which has the adjustable
resistor (RV) instead of
the 5.1kW resistor (R3).
Use the lever on RV to
adjust the capacitor
charge & discharge rate,
setting it towards the red
LED (D1) will make the
LEDs flash brighter but
get dim faster.
Project 153
Mini
Capacitor
Use the project 152 circuit but
replace the 100mF capacitor (C4)
with the 0.1mF capacitor (C2).
The circuit works the same, but
the LEDs will only light very
briefly, because the smaller
0.1mF capacitor stores much less
electricity than the larger 100mF
capacitor.
Project 155 Mini Battery
This circuit is similar to the
preceding one, but may be
easier to understand. Set the
lever on the adjustable resistor
(RV) towards the 100mF
capacitor (C4). Place the white
LED (D6) across the points
marked B & C; the LED lights
as the capacitor charges. Next,
place the white LED across
points A & B instead; now the
LED lights as the capacitor
discharges. Move the white
LED back to B & C and repeat.
Use the lever on RV to vary the
charge / discharge rate.
The capacitor is storing energy
like a mini battery.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 27
Project 156 Photo Current Amplifier
Build the circuit, turn on the switch (S1), and vary the
amount of light on the phototransistor (Q4) using your
hand. Compare the brightness of the white LED (D6) and
color LED (D8).
Swap the locations of the white and color LEDs, and
compare the brightness now.
Project 158
The NPN transistor (Q2) is a current
amplifier. When a small current flows
into Q2 through the left branch
(through Q4), a larger current will
flow into Q2 through the right branch
(with R1). Green arrows shown the
current flow. So the LED on the
right side will be brighter than the
LED on the left side. The current in
the right branch might be 100 times
larger than in the left branch.
Project 157
LEDs &
Transistors
Use the preceding circuit but
replace either LED (D6 or D8)
with the red LED (D1). Compare
all three LEDs, in both locations.
LED brightness depends on the
materials used, construction
quality, and the current through it.
The white LED is super-bright,
the red LED is low-brightness,
and the color LED is between the
others.
PNP Amplifier
The PNP transistor (Q1) is just like the
NPN transistor (Q2), except that the
currents flow in opposite directions.
Green arrows shown the current flow.
This circuit is just like the preceding one except
it uses a different type of transistor. Build the
circuit, turn on the switch (S1), and vary the
amount of light on the phototransistor (Q4)
using your hand. Compare the brightness of
the white LED (D6) and color LED (D8).
Replace either LED (D6 or D8) with the red
LED (D1). Compare all three LEDs, in both
locations.
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SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 28
Project 159
Photo Control
Set the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV) all the way towards the
press switch (S2). Turn on the slide switch (S1), and push the press
switch. The color LED (D8) will light for a while and then slowly turn off.
The brighter the light on the phototransistor (Q4), the shorter the color
LED stays on.
You can replace the color LED with the red LED (D1) or the white LED
(D6).
Also, replace the 100mF capacitor (C4) with the 470mF capacitor (C5)
to make the light stay on longer.
Project 160
The adjustable resistor can be
adjusted from about 200 ohms to
about 50,000 ohms.
The white LED is a super-bright
LED, so will be brighter than the
others at comparable resistance.
-83-
Resistance Director
Move the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV)
across its range and watch the brightness of
the white and color LEDs (D6 & D8).
Replace either LED with the red LED (D1) and
compare it too.
You can also replace one of the battery holders
(B1) with a 3-snap wire, and compare the LED
brightnesses at lower voltage.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 29
Project 161
Current Controllers Series
Resistors are used to control the
amount of current through a
circuit. Increasing the resistance
decreases the current.
Turn on either or both switches (S1 & S2) and
compare the white LED (D6) brightness.
This circuit has the 100W resistor (R1), the 5.1kW
resistor (R3), and the 100kW resistor (R5)
arranged in series. The switches are used to
bypass the larger resistors. The largest resistor
controls the brightness in this arrangement.
Project 162
Current Controllers Parallel
Turn on either or both switches (S1 & S2) and compare the white LED
(D6) brightness.
This circuit has the 100W resistor (R1), the 5.1kW resistor (R3), and the
100kW resistor (R5) arranged in parallel. The switches are used to
disconnect the smaller resistors. The smallest resistor controls the
brightness in this arrangement.
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SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 30
Project 163
Blow Sound Changer
When you turn on the switch (S1), you hear a siren sound. Blow into
the microphone (X1) to change the sound.
RV is used as a fixed resistor (50kW); so moving its control lever will
have no effect.
Project 164
Short Light
Build the circuit, turn on the slide switch (S1), and push
the press switch (S2). The white LED (D6) is on for a
while and then shuts off. Turning S1 off and back on will
not get the light back on. Push S2 to get the light back on.
Replace the white LED with the color LED (D8) to change
the light style.
RV is used as a fixed resistor (50kW); so moving its
control lever will have no effect.
-85-
The light is on while the 100mF
capacitor (C4) is charging, and shuts
off when the capacitor gets fully
charged. Pressing S2 discharges the
capacitor. The charge-up time is set
by the capacitor’s value and resistors
R5 and RV.
Project 165
Shorter
Light
Use the preceding circuit but
replace the 100kW resistor (R5)
with the smaller 5.1kW resistor
(R3). Now the light doesn’t stay
on as long.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 31
Project 166
Photo Light Control
The phototransistor
uses light to control
electric current. As
more light shines on
the phototransistor,
the current through
it increases, making
the LED brighter.
Project 168
Turn on the switch (S1).
Control the white LED
(D6)
brightness
by
varying the amount of
light on the phototransistor
(Q4).
Try
holding the red, green,
and blue filters over the
phototransistor and see
how they affect it.
Replace the white LED
with the red LED (D1) or
the color LED (D8) and
compare them.
Project 167
Air Pressure Light Control
Blow on the microphone (X1).
The white LED (D6) will flicker,
because the resistance of the
microphone changes when
you blow on it.
Talking into the microphone
also changes its resistance,
but you will not be able to
notice the difference here.
You can replace the white LED
with the red LED (D1) or the
color LED (D8), but they will
not be very bright.
Slow On, Slower Off
Turn on the slide switch (S1), nothing happens. Now push the press
switch (S2) and hold it down. The color LED (D8) takes a few seconds
to turn on, then will very slowly get dim after S2 is released. The
adjustable resistor (RV) controls the shut-off time.
You can replace the color LED with the red LED (D1) or the white LED
(D6).
The 100mF capacitor (C4) controls the color LED
through the PNP transistor (Q1). Pressing S2 quickly
charges up the capacitor, and releasing S2 allows the
capacitor to slowly discharge. Capacitors can store
electric charge and release it when needed, so they
are often used in timing circuits like this.
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Project 169
Delayed Photo Speed Control
Turn on the switch (S1), the motor
(M1) spins. As you move your
hand over the phototransistor
(Q4), the motor slows. Cover the
phototransistor with your hand.
The motor slows down and may
stop, but will speed up in a few
seconds. Also try shining a
flashlight into the phototransistor.
Project 171
Delayed Speed Control (II)
Use the circuit from project 169, but swap the
locations of the phototransistor (Q4) and 5.1kW
resistor (R3); put “+” on Q4 towards C4. Now
increasing the light to the phototransistor slows
down the motor, instead of speeding it up.
Project 172
Audio Delayed Speed Control
Use the circuit from project 169, but replace the
phototransistor (Q4) with the microphone (X1, “+”
on top). Clap, talk loudly, or blow into the
microphone to change the motor speed.
-87-
!
WARNING:
Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan or motor
during operation.
Project 170
Delayed
Speed
Control
Use the preceding circuit, but
replace the 100mF capacitor (C4)
with the much smaller 0.1mF
capacitor (C2). Now varying the
light to the phototransistor has only
a small effect on the motor speed.
Project 173
Photo Speed Control
Turn on the switch (S1), and set the adjustable resistor (RV) so the motor (M1) just spins. Slowly
cover the phototransistor (Q4) and the motor spins faster. Place more light on the phototransistor
and the motor slows down.
! WARNING:
Moving parts. Do
not touch the fan
or motor during
operation.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 33
Project 174
Light Buzz
Turn on the switch (S1). If there is
enough light on the phototransistor
(Q4), then nothing will happen. Cover
the phototransistor with your finger,
now the speaker (SP2) makes noise
and the color LED (D8) flashes. Wave
your fingers over the phototransistor to
vary the sound.
Project 176
Project 175
Light Buzz
(II)
Use the preceding circuit, but
replace the 0.1mF capacitor (C2)
with the larger 1mF capacitor (C7).
The sound is different now.
Delay Lights
Turn on the slide switch (S1), and push the press switch (S2). The color
and white LEDs (D6 & D8) come on slowly but will stay bright for a long
time after you release the press switch. Connect the red jumper wire
across points A & B if you get tired of waiting for the LEDs to turn off.
Replace the 5.1kW resistor with the 100kW resistor. Now you have to
push the press switch for much longer to make the LEDs bright.
Replace the 100mF capacitor (C4) with the smaller 0.1mF capacitor (C2).
Now the LEDs turn on and off much faster, because C2 does not store
as much electricity as C4.
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SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:05 PM Page 34
Project 177 Touch Light
Build the circuit. It doesn’t do
anything, and may appear to be
missing something. It is missing
something, and that something is
you.
Touch points A & B with your fingers.
The white LED (D6) may be lit. If
isn’t bright, then you are not making
a good enough electrical connection
with the metal. Try pressing harder
on the snaps, or wet your fingers
with water or saliva. The LED should
be bright now. You can replace the
white LED with the red or color
LEDs (D1 & D8).
Project 179
Project 178
Narrow Range Tone
Turn on the switch (S1)
and move the lever on
the adjustable resistor
(RV) around. The circuit
makes a tone sound, but
only over a small range
of settings on RV.
Replace
the
0.1mF
capacitor (C2) with the
1mF capacitor (C7). The
tone is a little different
now.
Slow Off Lights
Turn on the slide switch (S1), and push the press switch (S2). The red
and color LEDs (D1 & D8) stay on for a few seconds after you release
the press switch.
You can change how long the LEDs stay on for by replacing the 100mF
capacitor with the 0.1mF capacitor, by replacing the 100kW resistor (R5)
with the 5.1kW resistor (R3), or by removing the 100kW resistor.
For more fun, try swapping the locations of the LEDs, or replacing either
with the white LED (D6).
-89-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 35
Project 180
Look at the pictures here; they probably look blurry. Now place
the red filter in front of your left eye and the blue filter in front of
your right eye, and look at the pictures again. Now the pictures
look clearer, and you can see them in three dimensions (3D).
3D Pictures
These pictures contain separate red &
blue images, taken from slightly different
viewpoints, combined together. When
you view them through the red & blue
filters, each eye sees only one image.
Your brain combines the two images
into the single picture that you “see”, but
the differences between the two images
make the combined picture seem threedimensional.
How 3D works:
Most people have two eyes, spaced
about 2 inches apart. So each eye sees
the world a little differently, and your
brain uses the difference in views to
calculate distance. For each object in
view, the greater the difference between
the two scenes, the closer it must be. If
you close one eye, you will have a
harder time judging distance – try
catching a ball with just one eye! (Be
sure to use a soft ball if you try playing
catch with one eye.)
When you watch a 3D movie in a
theater, you wear 3D glasses so that
each eye will see a different image. The
movie screen actually shows two
images, and the glasses filter them so
that only one image enters each eye.
Most movie theaters use polarized
images and glasses with polarized
lenses, so that each eye sees a different
image.
Another way to make 3D is using red &
blue images, then view using glasses
with red & blue filters, as you are doing
in this project. Unfortunately this method
does not give you the color quality that
the polarization method has.
-90-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 36
3D Pictures
Project 181
Remote
-91-
Super Infrared Detector
Infrared light can be given off by anything
warm. Sunlight and room lights emit some
infrared light, in addition to visible light. This
circuit is very sensitive, and may often be
activated without a remote control. TV remote
control receivers look for a sequence of pulses
that identify an infrared message directed to
their TV set model, so will not be activated by
sunlight or room lights.
You need an infrared remote
control for this project, such as
any
TV/stereo/DVD remote
control in your home.
Build the circuit. The red LED
(D1) will be dim. Turn on the
switch (S1). Point your remote
control toward the infrared
module (U24) and press any
button to activate the white
LED (D6). Once activated, the
white LED stays on until the
switch is turned off.
Note: This circuit can activate
without a remote control, due
to infrared in sunlight or some
room lights. If this happens, try
moving to a dark room.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 37
Project 182
Remote
Infrared Optical Audio
You need an infrared remote control for this project,
such as any TV/stereo/DVD remote control in your
home.
Clear
Black
Project 183
Headphones (Optional)
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear cable holder
on the white LED (D6) and the black cable holder on
the phototransistor (Q4), then place the fiber optic cable
into the holders as far as it will go. For best performance
the fiber optic cable should stand straight up in the
holders, without bending them.
Turn on the switch (S1). Point your remote control
toward the infrared module (U24) and press any button
to activate the white LED (D6). Light is transmitted from
the white LED, through the fiber optic cable, to control
the strobe IC (U23) and speaker (SP2).
The motor (M1) is used as a 3-snap here, and will not
spin. Sometimes this circuit may activate without a
remote control, due to infrared in sunlight or some room
lights. You may get better results in a dark room.
Test the Color Organ
This project tests the features of the color organ (U22), and will be referenced by
the Advanced Troubleshooting section on page 24.
A. Build the circuit, and turn on the switch (S1). The light on top of the color organ
should be changing colors.
MP3
player
B. Remove the 0.1mF capacitor (C2), add a 2-snap across the points marked Y &
Z, and reset the circuit by turning it off and on using the switch. Connect the
red jumper wire between the point marked “X”, and points marked “R”, “G”, or
“B” in the drawing. Touching R should make the light red, G should make it
green, and B should make it blue.
C. Remove the 2-snap that was added across points Y & Z. Connect a music
device (not included) and headphones (optional, and not included) to the color
organ as shown, and start music on it. Set the volume control on your music
device so that the light on the color organ is changing (the light will not change
if your volume is set too high or too low).
-92-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 38
Project 184
Electronic Keyboard
Snap Circuits® uses electronic blocks that snap onto
a clear plastic grid to build different circuits. These
blocks have different colors and numbers on them
so that you can easily identify them.
Placement Level
Numbers
(1-snap wire is placed
under the speaker)
Placement Level
Numbers
Build the circuit shown on the left by placing all the
parts with a black 1 next to them on the board first.
Then, assemble parts marked with a 2. Then,
assemble the part marked with a 3. Note that the 1snap wire is placed beneath the speaker (SP).
Install two (2) “AA” batteries (not included) into each
of the battery holders (B1) if you have not done so
already.
Turn on the slide switch (S1), and press any of the
keys on the keyboard (U26) to hear tones. Two
tones may be played at the same time, one tone
from the blue keys and one tone from the green
keys. If you press two keys of the same color then
the higher pitch one will be played.
Project 185 Aligning the Keyboard
Use the preceding circuit. Press one of the green
keys and turn the TUNE knob on the keyboard to
adjust the pitch of the tone. The TUNE knob will
not affect the blue keys.
-93-
Now turn the TUNE knob while pressing the blue
C key and the green C key at the same time.
Slowly turn the knob across its entire range, and
see how the sound varies. At most TUNE knob
positions you will notice separate tones from the
blue and green keys, but there will be a knob
position where the blue and green tones blend
together and seem like a single musical note - this
is the best TUNE setting to play songs with. The
blue and green keys are now aligned together.
Snappy says the green keys
have approximately double
the pitch (frequency) of the
blue keys. When the blue
and green keys have been
aligned using the TUNE
knob, then they have
(almost) exactly double the
pitch, and sound good
together because they are in
harmony.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 39
Project 186
To play a song, just press the key corresponding with the letter shown. If
there is a “–” after a letter, press the key longer than usual.
Mary Had a Little Lamb
E D C D E E E– D D D–
Ma-ry had a
lit-tle lamb,
ED C D
Lit-tle lamb, lit- tle lamb.
EE E
Ma-ry had a
E G G–
E
D
D
lit-tle lamb, Whose fleece was white as
Row, Row, Row Your Boat
C– C– C D E– E D E F
Row, row,
row your boat,
CCCGGG
Mer-ri-ly, mer-ri-ly,
Gen-tly down the
EEE CCC
mer-ri-ly, mer-ri-ly,
The Farmer in the Dell
––G C C C C C–– D
The
E––
dell,
far-mer in the
G– G A
Heigh-ho the
dell,
The
G E C D
der-ry-oh, the
Muffin Man
D G G A
B C G F#
Do you know the
muf-fin man Who
Do you know the muf-fin man, The
D G
E D
G A B G G
G
G G F F
Up a-bove the
C C G G
E
E D–
Twin-kle, twin-kle, lit-tle star,
stream.
G F E D C–––
Life is but a
dream.
E E E E
far-mer in the
E E D D C––
far-mer in the dell.
E A A G
F# D D
lives on Dru-ry
Lane?
muf-fin man, the muf- fin man?
A A D D
G––
D D C–
How I won-der what you are.
G G F F
world so high, Like a dia-mond
A A G
snow.
G–––
Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star
C C G G A A G
F FE E
Twin-kle, twin-kle, lit-tle star,
C–––
F FE E
E E D–
in the sky.
D D C––
How I won-der what you are.
Be a Musician
Rain, Rain, Go Away
G E
GGE
G G E A
Rain, rain,
F F
go a-way.
Come a-gain some
DD D F F D
We want to go out- side and play.
G G E
o-ther day.
G F E D E C C– Rain, rain,
go a-way.
For He’s a Jolly Good Fellow
––C E E E D E F E E D D D C D For
he’s a jol-ly good
E C D
–
fel-low, For
fel-low, For
E EED E
he’s a jol-ly good
he’s a jol-ly good
F– A A
fel-low, Which no-bo-dy can de- ny.
Ring Around the Rosy
G G E A G E F G G E A
Ring a-round the
F D
Ash-es,
ro-sy, A
F D F
ash-es, We
G G G F D C–
poc-ket full of
G G
all fall
C–
down!
Mystery song (see if you recognize it)
CCDC
F E–
CCDC
G F–
CCCA
FFE
A# A# A F G F–
GE
pos-ies,
Some songs have
been modified to make
them easier to play on
your keyboard.
Project 187 Be a Musician (II)
Use the preceding circuit and songs, but press both the blue and green keys
for each note, at the same time. Try this with the blue and green keys aligned
(as per project 2), but also try them at different TUNE knob settings (so the
keys are out of alignment.
-94-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 40
Project 188
Optical Theremin
Build the circuit as shown. Turn on both slide switches (S1), and move
your hand over the photoresistor (RP). You can adjust the sound just
by moving your hand around. See what range of sounds you can
produce, then change the amount of light in the room, and see how
sound the range of sounds has changed. There may not be any sound
if there is too much or too little light on the photoresistor.
You can play the keyboard (U26) keys while adjusting the sound using
the photoresistor, to get a combination of sound effects. Turn off the left
slide switch to disable the photoresistor sound effects.
Project 189
A theremin is an electronic musical instrument where
you change the sound by moving your hands around
near it (without touching it); using the tiny changes
your hands have on the electromagnetic field of an
antenna. This circuit is an optical theremin because
instead you adjust the sound by changing the amount
of light reaching a photosensor (the photoresistor).
Keyboard Slider
Modify the preceding circuit to match this one. Turn on both slide
switches (S1), and move the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV)
around to change the sound. At some settings there may not be any
sound.
You can play the keyboard (U26) keys while changing the sound with
the adjustable resistor, to get a combination of sound effects. Turn off
the left slide switch to disable the adjustable resistor sound effects.
-95-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 41
Project 190
Placement Level
Numbers
Voice Changer
Build the circuit shown on the left by placing all the parts with a black
1 next to them on the board first. Then, assemble parts marked with
a 2. Then, assemble the part marked with a 3. Install two (2) “AA”
batteries (not included) into each of the battery holders (B1) if you
have not done so already. Be sure to install the microphone (X1)
with its “+” side positioned as shown.
+
Project 191
Voice Changer & Light
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the
3-snap wire that is next to the speaker
(SP2) with the color LED (D8, “+” to the
left). Now when you press S2 to play the
recording, the sound will not be as sound,
but the color LED will be flashing.
Set the 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3) to mid-range, turn OFF the
left slide switch (S1), and then turn on the right slide switch. Now
turn on the left slide switch, you hear a beep signaling that you may
begin recording. Talk into the microphone until you hear a beep
(signaling that recording time is over), then turn off the left slide
switch to exit recording mode. Push the press switch (S2) to play
back the recording, and turn the knob on RV3 to change the
playback speed. You can play your recording faster or slower by
changing the setting on RV3.
Recording time is 6 seconds at normal speed, but this can be
changed depending on the setting of RV3 when you are making the
recording.
Project 192
+
Egg LED
Attachment
Color Light
Build the circuit as shown. Turn on the slide switch
(S1), and enjoy the light show from the color LED
(D8). For best effects, place the egg LED attachment
on the color LED, and dim the room lights.
LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes)
convert electrical energy into light;
the color of the light emitted
depends on the characteristics of
the material used in them.
The color LED actually contains
separate red, green, and blue
lights, with a micro-circuit
controlling them.
-96-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 42
Project 193
If the speaker is too close to the
microphone, then the speaker’s sound
will be picked up by the microphone and
be echoed again and again and again,
until you can’t hear anything else. The
same thing can happen if the room is too
noisy, or if you talk too loud.
Echo
Build the circuit as shown, and place it in a quiet
room. Connect the speaker (SP2) using the red &
black jumper wires, and then hold it away from the
microphone (X1). Turn on the slide switch (S1). Talk
into the microphone, and listen the echo on the
speaker. Adjust the amount of echo using the lever
on the adjustable resistor (RV); move the lever up
for more echo or down for less echo. Try this at
different RV settings, because the effects are very
interesting with both high and low echo amounts.
Also try it while saying different words/sounds.
Note: you must hold the speaker away from the
microphone or the circuit may self-oscillate due to
feedback. You also need a quiet room, with low
background noise.
Project 194 Echo with Headphones
Build the circuit as shown, and connect your own
headphones (not included in this set) to the audio
jack (JA). Turn on the bottom slide switch (S1).
Talk into the microphone, and listen the echo on your
headphones. Set the 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3)
for most comfortable sound level (turn to the left for
higher volume, most of RV3’s range will be very low
volume), then adjust the amount of echo using the
lever on the adjustable resistor (RV); move the lever
up for more echo or down for less echo. Try this at
different RV settings, because the effects are very
interesting with both high and low echo amounts. Also
try it while saying different words/sounds.
Turn on the top slide switch to make the sound
louder, or turn it off to make the sound softer.
!
-97-
WARNING:
Headphones performance
varies, so use caution. Start with low volume,
and then carefully increase to a comfortable
level. Permanent hearing loss may result from
long-term exposure to sound at high volumes.
Headphones
(not included)
Turning on the top slide switch
adds the 0.1mF capacitor (C2)
to the circuit, which increases
the amplification in the echo
IC. With headphones, the
sound can be made louder
because the microphone does
not pick it up easily.
Project 195
Louder Echo
with
Headphones
Use the preceding circuit,
but replace the 0.1mF
capacitor (C2) with the 1mF
capacitor (C7). The sound is
louder now when both slide
switches (S1) are on.
If you hold your headphones
next to the microphone (X1),
you may hear a whining
sound,
because
the
headphones sound might be
picked
up
by
the
microphone and be echoed
again and again and again.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 43
Project 196
Sound Energy Demonstration
Assemble the Sound energy demonstration container (as per page 7, or
shown on next page) if you have not done so already. Build the circuit as
shown. Turn off the left slide switch (S1) and turn on the right slide switch.
Lay the speaker (SP2) down on the unused 3-snap and 6-snap wires (to
elevate it slightly off the table); be sure it is lying flat, and place the sound
energy demonstration container over it. Pour some salt, glitter, small foam
or candy balls of 0.1 inch diameter or less (not included) or similar into the
container, but not enough to cover the bottom.
Press the keys on the keyboard to make sound. For some keys the
salt/glitter/balls will vibrate and bounce or dance around in the container,
find the key that gives the best effects. Most keys will create little or no
vibration. For the best key, adjust the TUNE knob on the keyboard for best
effects.
Now turn on the left slide switch and move the lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV) around. At some positions the salt/glitter/balls will vibrate and
bounce or dance around in the container; find the setting that gives the
best effects. Press some keyboard keys to add more sound effects.
The bouncing salt/
glitter/balls
show
that sound has
energy! Typically the
E keys and the keys
near them give the
best effects, but your
results may vary.
Experiment with different materials in the container and see which give
the most impressive results. Our engineers found that nonpareils (round
decorative candy sprinkles) of up to 0.1” work best.
Try lifting the container a little higher above the speaker with your hands,
and see how much this affects the bounce height; see where you get the
best effects. Try it at best key or RV setting, and at other keys/settings.
Also, placing the speaker directly on the table (without the 3-snap and 6snap under it) should reduce the vibration a little, but you can try it to see
the difference.
Try removing the 0.1mF capacitor (C2), and see how the sounds and
bounce effects change. Next, remove the sound energy demonstration
container from the speaker and instead lay your hand on it for the best
setting, you can feel the speaker vibrate.
Don’t eat anything you placed into the sound energy demonstration
container.
Pour salt, glitter, or small foam/candy
balls (not included) into the container,
but do not cover the bottom.
Lay the speaker on the extra 3-snap
and 6-snap wires, to elevate it. Be
sure speaker lays flat.
-98-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 44
Part B: Optical Version
Modify the circuit to be this one, which has the
photoresistor (RP) instead of the adjustable
resistor (RV).
Turn on both slide switches and wave your hand
over the photoresistor (RP), to change how much
light shines into it. The sound changes as your
hand adjusts the light. At some hand positions the
salt/glitter/balls will vibrate and bounce or dance
around in the container; find the hand position that
gives the best effects. Press some keyboard keys
to combine their sounds with the photoresistor
sound. Try moving to an area with more or less
light, and wave your hand over the photoresistor
again.
Don’t eat anything you placed into the sound
energy demonstration container.
How does this work? There is a small range of
frequency at which the sound waves resonate
with
the
mechanical
construction
characteristics of the speaker, and cause the
speaker to vibrate noticeably. The speaker’s
vibration creates changes in air pressure. The
sound energy demonstration container covers
the speaker and traps the air pressure
changes, which then push/pull the flexible
sheet up/down quickly, making the
salt/glitter/balls bounce. Raising the speaker
and container by placing them on the snap
wires (or holding them) makes the vibrations
more noticeable, because otherwise the table
can dampen the vibrations.
Sound Energy Demonstration
Container Assembly
(Adult supervision recommended)
Tube
Flexible sheet
Container base
Pour salt, glitter, or small
foam/candy balls into the
container, but do not cover
the bottom.
-99-
Lay the speaker on the extra 3-snap and 6-snap
wires, to elevate it. Be sure speaker lays flat.
Speaker
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 45
Project 197
Keyboard in Stereo
This project requires stereo headphones or a stereo speaker; neither is included
with this set, but this set does include a stereo cable to facilitate connection to
your stereo speaker.
Build the circuit as shown. Connect your own headphones or stereo speaker to
the audio jack (JA). Turn on the slide switch (S1).
Press keys on the keyboard (U26) and listen to the sound on your headphones
or stereo speaker. Set the 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3) for most comfortable
sound level (turn to the left for higher volume, most of RV3’s range will be very
low volume), and then move the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV) to vary
the amplitude to each ear.
Headphones or
Stereo Speaker
(not included)
Project 198
!
WARNING:
Headphones
performance varies, so use
caution. Start with low volume,
then carefully increase to a
comfortable level. Permanent
hearing loss may result from
long-term exposure to sound
at high volumes.
In stereo, sound is produced on several
speakers with varying amplitude on each.
This gives the impression that the sound
is coming from different directions.
Optical Theremin in Stereo
Use the preceding circuit, but modify it by adding the photoresistor (RP) and
the parts next to it.
Press keys on the keyboard (U26) and wave your hand over the
photoresistor (to adjust the amount of light shining on it) while listening to
the sound on your headphones or stereo speaker. Set the 500kW adjustable
resistor (RV3) for most comfortable sound level (turn to the left for higher
volume, most of RV3’s range will be very low volume), and move the lever
on the adjustable resistor (RV) to vary the amplitude to each ear. There may
not be any sound if there is too much or too little light on the photoresistor.
Close your eyes and have a friend vary the light to the photoresistor and
moving the lever on the adjustable resistor. See if you get an impression of
the sound changing direction.
Headphones or
Stereo Speaker
(not included)
!
WARNING: Headphones performance varies, so use caution. Start with
low volume, then carefully increase to a comfortable level. Permanent
hearing loss may result from long-term exposure to sound at high volumes.
-100-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 46
Project 199
Light & Sound
Build the circuit as shown; note that a 2-snap wire is placed directly
under the speaker (SP2). Turn off the left slide switch (S1) and turn on
the right slide switch. Press keys on the keyboard (U26) to make sound
on the speaker (SP2) and light on the color LED (D8). If you hold a key
down then the color LED will change colors.
Now turn on the left slide switch. If there is light on the photoresistor
(RP), or if you press keys on the keyboard, then there will be sound
from the speaker and light from the color LED. Wave your hand over
the photoresistor to change the sound, or turn off left S1 to disable
photoresistor control. Holding a key down will also make the color LED
change colors.
Project 200
See Saw
Turn on the slide switch (S1), and move the lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV) around. The pitch of the sound will be lowest with the lever
in the middle position, and higher with it set to the left or right.
You can replace the 5.1kW resistor (R3) with the 100W resistor (R1) or
500kW adjustable resistor (RV3), but there may be no sound at some
settings.
-101-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 47
Project 201
Light, Sound, & Motion
Let’s add motion to the preceding circuit. Modify the circuit to match this
one. Turn off the left slide switch (S1) and turn on the right slide switch.
Lay the speaker (SP2) down on unused 2-snap and 6-snap wires (to
elevate it slightly off the table), be sure it is laying flat, and place the sound
energy demonstration container over it (the container should have been
assembled as per instructions on page 4). Pour some salt, glitter, small
foam or candy balls of 0.1 inch diameter or less (not included) or similar
into the container, but not enough to cover the bottom.
and bounce or dance around in the container; find the hand position that
gives the best effects. Press some keyboard keys to combine their sounds
with the photoresistor sound. Try moving to an area with more or less light,
and wave your hand over the photoresistor again.
Now turn on the left slide switch and wave your hand over the photoresistor
(RP), to change how much light shines into it. The sound changes as your
hand adjusts the light, and the color LED will light if there is bright light on
the photoresistor. At some hand positions the salt/glitter/balls will vibrate
Add the 0.1mF capacitor (C2) over the keyboard (U26) at base grid
locations D4-F4 (on level 3) and see how the circuit changed, especially
when pressing the green keys.
Press the keys on the keyboard to make sound and light the color LED
(D8). For some keys the salt/glitter/balls will vibrate and bounce or dance
around in the container, find the key that gives the best effects. Most keys
will create little or no vibration. For the best key, adjust the TUNE knob on
the keyboard for best effects. The color LED will not be very bright.
Experiment with different materials in the container and see which give
the most impressive results. Our engineers found that 0.1” round non
pareils (decorative candy sprinkles) work best.
Try lifting the container a little higher above the speaker with your hands,
and see how much this affects the bounce height; see where you get the
best effects. Try it at best key or RV setting, and at other keys/settings.
Also, placing the speaker directly on the table (without the 3-snap and 6snap under it) should reduce the vibration a little, but you can try it to see
the difference.
Place the sound energy
demonstration container over
the speaker. Pour salt, glitter,
or small foam/candy balls (not
included) into the container,
but do not cover the bottom.
Lay the speaker on the
extra 3-snap and 6-snap
wires, to elevate it. Be
sure speaker lays flat.
Project 202
Brighter Light, Sound, & Motion
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the 470mF capacitor
(C5) with the 1mF capacitor (C7). The color LED (D8) is
brighter now, but may not be changing colors.
-102-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 48
Project 203
Keyboard with Voice Changer
Set the 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3) to mid-range, turn OFF
the left slide switch (S1), and then turn on the right slide switch.
Now turn on the left slide switch, you hear a beep signaling that
you are recording. Press keys on the keyboard (U26) until you
hear a beep (signaling that recording time is over), then turn off
the left slide switch to exit recording mode. Push the press
switch (S2) to play back the recording, and turn the knob on
RV3 to change the playback speed. You can play your
recording faster or slower by changing the setting on RV3.
The keyboard overhangs the base grid, so be sure the
connections to it stay secure as you are pressing keys.
Project 204
Optical Keyboard
with Voice Changer
Recording time is 6 seconds at normal speed, but this can be
changed depending on the setting of RV3 when you are making
the recording. You won’t hear the notes when you are pressing
the keys during recording; you only hear them during playback.
This circuit is similar to the preceding one, but adds optical
control. Modify the preceding circuit by adding the
photoresistor (RP) and the parts next to it.
When making your recording, wave your hand over the
photoresistor to change the sound recorded, in addition to
pressing keys. The photoresistor may have no effect if there is
too much or too little light on it, so adjust the light on it if
necessary.
Project 205 Keyboard Voice
Changer & Light
-103-
Use either of the preceding circuits,
but replace the 3-snap wire that is next
to the speaker (SP2) with the color
LED (D8, “+” to the left). Now when
you press S2 to play the recording, the
sound will not be as sound, but the
color LED will be flashing.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 49
Project 206
Voice Changer with Echo
Build the circuit as shown; note that the microphone (X1) is covering a
2-snap wire, and that the 5.1kW resistor (R3) is a tight fit over the
adjustable resistor (RV) but does fit. Set the 500kW adjustable resistor
(RV3) to mid-range, set the adjustable resistor (RV) lever towards R3,
turn OFF the left slide switch (S1), and then turn on the right slide
switch.
Now turn on the left slide switch, you hear a beep signaling that you
are recording. Talk into the microphone (X1) until you hear a beep
(signaling that recording time is over), then turn off the left slide switch
to exit recording mode. Now move the lever on RV to set the echo level,
turn the knob on RV3 to change the playback speed, and push the
press switch (S2) to play back the recording. You can play your
recording faster or slower by changing the setting on RV3, and with
more or less echo by changing the setting on RV.
Project 207
+
+
Recording time is 6 seconds at normal speed, but this can be changed
depending on the setting of RV3 when you are making the recording.
RV should be set for no echo when making a recording.
Sound Controlled Light
Build the circuit as shown. Turn on the switch (S1) and set the lever on
the adjustable resistor (RV) so the color LED (D8) is just off. Talk loud into
the microphone (X1) or clap loudly near it to activate the color LED. Try a
long loud “ahhhhhhhh” directly into the microphone; this can make the
color LED change patterns.
The color LED may not be very bright, so this circuit works best in a dimly
lit room.
If the adjustable resistor’s lever is set too
low then the color LED will never turn
on; if it is set too high then the color LED
will never turn off.
-104-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 50
Project 208 Low Pitch Keyboard
Build the circuit as shown. Turn
off the left slide switch and turn on
the right slide switch (S1), and
press some of the green keys.
Now turn on the left slide switch
to add the 0.1mF capacitor (C2) to
the circuit, and press some green
keys again. The pitch (frequency)
of the sound is lower now. The
blue keys will not be affected.
Adding the 0.1mF capacitor lowers the frequency
(pitch) of the sound produced by the green keys,
and makes them similar to the blue keys.
Compare the sound for blue and
green keys at the same place on
the keyboard (such as C to C, F#
to F#, or B to B). Turn the TUNE
knob to align a pair of blue/green
together, or to take them out of
alignment. Experiment to see
some interesting effects.
Project 209
Lower Pitch Keyboard
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the
0.1mF capacitor (C2) with the 1mF
capacitor (C7). The pitch of the green keys
is much lower now. See how the blue and
green keys sound when pressed together.
Project 210
Very Low Pitch Keyboard
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the 1mF
capacitor (C7) with the 100mF capacitor (C4,
“+” on left) or 470mF capacitor (C5, “+” on left).
Press one of the green keys and hold it down;
all you should hear is a click about every
second with C4, or every few seconds with C5.
Project 211
Echo Speed Changer
Set the 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3) to mid-range, turn OFF the left
slide switch (S1), and then turn on the right slide switch. Set the echo
level using adjustable resistor (RV). Now turn on the left slide switch, you
hear a beep signaling that you are recording. Talk into the microphone
(X1) until you hear a beep (signaling that recording time is over), then
turn off the left slide switch to exit recording mode. Push the press switch
(S2) to play back the recording, and turn the knob on RV3 to change the
playback speed. You can play your recording faster or slower by
changing the setting on RV3, and with more or less echo by changing
the setting on RV.
-105-
Recording time is 6 seconds at normal speed, but this can be changed
depending on the setting of RV3 when you are making the recording.
C2 is only used to support RV, so is only connected on one side.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 51
Project 212
Keyboard Echo
Build the circuit as shown,
and turn on the slide switch
(S1). Press keys on the
keyboard (U26) and hear
the sound with echo on the
speaker (SP2). RV adjusts
the amount of echo, and
RV3 adjusts the volume. Try
this at different RV settings,
because the effects are
very interesting with both
high and low echo amounts.
Project 214
Optical Keyboard Echo
Build the circuit as shown,
and turn on both slide
switches (S1). Press keys on
the keyboard (U26) or shine
light into the photoresistor
(RP) to hear sound with echo
on the speaker (SP2). RV
adjusts the amount of echo,
and RV3 adjusts the volume.
Wave your hand over the
photoresistor to adjust the
pitch of the “optical” sound.
Try this at different RV
settings, because the effects
are very interesting with both
high and low echo amounts.
There may not be any sound
if there is too much or too
little light on the photoresistor.
Project 213
Lower Pitch
Keyboard Echo
Use the preceding
circuit, but add the
0.1mF
capacitor
(C2) or the 1mF
capacitor
(C7)
across the “CAP”
and “(–)” snaps on
the keyboard using
a 1-snap wire. The
pitch of the green
keys is lower now.
Project 215
Low Pitch
Optical
Keyboard Echo
Use the preceding
circuit, but add the
0.1mF
capacitor
(C2) or the 1mF
capacitor
(C7)
across the “CAP”
and “(–)” snaps on
the keyboard. The
pitch of the green
keys is lower now.
-106-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 52
Project 216
Keyboard Echo with
Stereo Effects
In this project you will listen to the keyboard sound both with
and without echo, at the same time (in stereo). This project
requires stereo headphones or a stereo speaker; neither is
included with this set, but this set does include a stereo
cable to help connect to your stereo speaker.
Build the circuit as shown; note that the 5.1kW resistor (R3)
is a tight fit over the adjustable resistor (RV) but does fit.
Connect your own headphones or stereo speaker to the
audio jack (JA). Turn on the slide switch (S1).
!
Headphones or Stereo
Speaker (not included)
WARNING: Headphones performance varies, so use caution. Start with
low volume, then carefully increase to a comfortable level. Permanent
hearing loss may result from long-term exposure to sound at high volumes.
Press keys on the keyboard (U26), and listen to the sound
on your headphones or stereo speaker. One ear (or side of
the speaker) hears the keyboard directly, set RV3 for most
comfortable sound level (turn to the left for higher volume,
most of RV3’s range will be very low volume). The other ear
(or side of the speaker) hears the sound with echo; adjust
the amount of echo using the lever on the adjustable resistor
(RV). Try this at different RV settings, because the effects
are very interesting with both high and low echo amounts.
If the echo sound is not loud enough then add the 1mF
capacitor (C7) next the echo IC (U28) as shown here:
The 100W and 5.1kW resistors (R1 &
R3) make the keyboard signal smaller,
otherwise it would be distorted by the
amplifier in the echo IC.
For best effects, try to set RV3 so that the sound level is
about equal on both sides of the headphones/speaker.
-107-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 53
Project 217
Optical Echo in Stereo
The project is similar to the preceding one, but adds optical
control using the photoresistor (RP). Rebuild the preceding
circuit to match this one. Follow the preceding circuit’s
instructions, except also turn on the slide switch next to the
photoresistor, and then wave your hand over the
photoresistor to change the sound.
The keyboard overhangs the base grid, so be sure the
connections to it stay secure as you are pressing keys.
In the preceding circuit you could add the 1mF capacitor (C7)
to make the echo sound louder, but do not have enough
parts to add it to this circuit.
1
Headphones or Stereo
Speaker (not included)
!
The 0.1mF capacitor (C2) is
being used as a spacer (a
1-snap wire) to support
other components.
WARNING: Headphones performance varies, so use caution. Start with
low volume, then carefully increase to a comfortable level. Permanent
hearing loss may result from long-term exposure to sound at high volumes.
Project 218
The light is on while the 470mF capacitor
(C5) is charging, and shuts off when the
capacitor gets fully charged. Pressing S2
discharges the capacitor. The charge-up
time is set by the capacitor’s value and
resistors R3 and RV.
Color Short Light
Build the circuit, turn on the slide switch (S1),
and push the press switch (S2). The color LED
(D8) is on for a while and then shuts off.
Turning S1 off and back on will not get the light
back on. Push S2 to get the light back on. If
desired, place the egg attachment on the color
LED.
RV is used as a fixed resistor (50kW); so
moving its control lever will have no effect.
-108-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 54
Project 219
Keyboard with Optical Theremin
Build the circuit as shown and
turn on the slide switch (S1).
Press keys on the keyboard
(U26), wave your hand over the
photoresistor (RP) to adjust the
amount of light shining on it, and
listen to the sound. Push the
press switch (S2) to change the
pitch of the green keys. There
may not be any sound if there is
too much or too little light on the
photoresistor.
Project 221
Adjustable Dual Range Keyboard
Build the circuit as shown and
turn on the slide switch (S1).
Press keys on the keyboard
(U26) and move the lever on the
adjustable resistor (RV) to
change the sound. Push the
press switch (S2) to change the
pitch of the green keys. There
may not be any sound at some
settings on RV.
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Project 220
Keyboard with
Optical
Theremin (II)
Use the preceding circuit, but
replace the 1mF capacitor (C7) with
the 0.1mF capacitor (C2). The pitch
of the green keys is higher when
S2 is pressed.
Project 222
Adjustable Dual
Range Keyboard (II)
Use the preceding circuit, but replace
the 0.1mF capacitor (C2) with the 1mF
capacitor (C7). The pitch of the green
keys is lower when S2 is pressed.
Project 223
Adjustable Dual
Range Keyboard (III)
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the
1mF capacitor (C7) with the 100mF
capacitor (C4, “+” on left) or 470mF
capacitor (C5, “+” on left). You will hear a
click at regular intervals. The interval
depends on the RV setting, it could be
several per second or many seconds apart.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 55
Project 224
MP3 player
Your Music with Echo
Build the circuit, and turn on the slide switch (S1). Connect
a music device (not included, but this set does include a
cable to connect it) to the audio jack (JA) as shown, and
start music on it.
Set the volume control on your music device for a
comfortable sound level, and adjust the amount of echo
using the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV); move the
lever up for more echo or down for less echo. Try this at
different RV settings, because the effects are very
interesting with both high and low echo amounts.
Try with different music, or with the touch-tones on your cell
phone.
Project 225
MP3 player
Your Music with Echo and Light
This circuit is similar to the preceding one, except
it adds light and has lower sound volume. Build the
circuit, and turn on the slide switch (S1). Connect
a music device (not included) to the audio jack (JA)
as shown, and start music on it. Set the knob on
the 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3) all the way to
the left (for loudest sound).
Set the volume control on your music device for a
comfortable sound level, and adjust the amount of
echo using the lever on the adjustable resistor
(RV). Try this at different RV settings. The color
LED (D8) will light when the sound is loud enough.
Try with different music, or with the touch-tones on
your cell phone.
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SCC-350_Manual_Part_B.qxp 7/25/14 2:06 PM Page 56
Project 226
Your Music Speed Changer
Build the circuit as shown. Set the 500kW adjustable resistor
(RV3) to mid-range, turn OFF the left slide switch (S1), and then
turn on the right slide switch. Connect a music device (not
included) to the audio jack (JA) as shown, and start music on it.
Now turn on the left slide switch, you hear a beep signaling that
recording has started. Wait until you hear a beep (signaling that
recording time is over), then turn off the left slide switch to exit
recording mode. Push the press switch (S2) to play back the
recording, and turn the knob on RV3 to change the playback
speed. You can play your recording faster or slower by changing
the setting on RV3. Try with different music, or with the touchtones on your cell phone.
MP3 player
To adjust the volume, adjust it on your music device before
recording, or see the next project.
Project 227
Your Music
Speed Changer
(II)
Use the preceding circuit, but
replace the 100W resistor (R1)
with a 3-snap wire to make the
sound louder, or with the 5.1kW
resistor (R3) to make the sound
quieter.
-111-
Project 228
Your Music
Speed Changer
(III)
Use the circuit from project 226,
but replace the 100W resistor
(R1) with the color LED (D8, “+”
to the left). Now when you press
S2 to play the recording, the
color LED will be flashing.
Recording time is 6 seconds at normal speed, but this can be
changed depending on the setting of RV3 when you are making
the recording.
Project 229
Sound On Light
Build the circuit as shown
and turn on the slide switch
(S1). Set the lever on the
adjustable resistor (RV) so
the color LED (D8) just
shuts off. Talk loudly into the
microphone (X1), blow on it,
or clap near it to make the
LED flicker on.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:10 PM Page 1
Project 230
Super Optical Keyboard Echo
Build the circuit as shown. Turn off the left slide switch (S1), and
turn on the right slide switch. Press some of the keyboard keys
and listen to the echo. Move the lever on the adjustable resistor
(RV) to change the amount of echo (up is maximum echo, down
is no echo). Try this at different RV settings, because the effects
are very interesting with both high and low echo amounts. The
color LED (D8) will light when any green key is pressed, but will
not be very bright.
Now turn on the left slide switch to add the photoresistor (RP) to
the circuit. Wave your hand over the photoresistor to change the
sound. Try it with different levels of light shining on the
photoresistor, and at different RV settings.
Project 231
Softer Optical
Keyboard Echo
Use the preceding circuit, but remove the
1mF capacitor (C7) from the circuit, or
swap it with the 0.1mF capacitor (C2), or
replace it with the 470mF capacitor (C5).
The sound volume is different now.
Project 232
This circuit is shown on the Snap
Circuits® Sound box cover; use
that picture to help in building it.
Reflection Detector
Build the circuit and turn the
slide switch (S1). Take it
into a dimly lit room, so that
the color LED (D8) is
flashing but there is no
sound.
Now hold a mirror directly
over the color LED and
photoresistor (RP). When
the mirror reflects the LED’s
light into the photoresistor,
a tone will be produced,
signaling that a reflection
was detected. The tone will
change as the LED flashes.
-112-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:10 PM Page 2
Project 233
Bright Reflection Detector
Project 234
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the color LED (D8)
with the white LED (D6). The circuit works the same way
except that the LED is brighter, making it easier to detect
a reflection. Also, once a reflection is detected, the tone
will not change because the white LED does not flash.
Super Optical
Keyboard Echo for
Headphones
Build the circuit as shown. This project requires stereo
headphones or a stereo speaker (neither is included).
Turn off the left slide switch (S1), and turn on the right slide
switch. Press some of the keyboard keys and listen to the
echo. Set the 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3) for most
comfortable sound level (turn to the left for higher volume,
most of RV3’s range will be very low volume). Move the
lever on the adjustable resistor (RV) to change the amount
of echo (up is maximum echo, down is no echo). Try this
at different RV settings, because the effects are very
interesting with both high and low echo amounts. The
color LED (D8) will light when any green key is pressed,
but will not be very bright.
-113-
!
Headphones or Stereo
Speaker (not included)
WARNING: Headphones performance varies, so use caution. Start with
low volume, then carefully increase to a comfortable level. Permanent
hearing loss may result from long-term exposure to sound at high volumes.
Now turn on the left slide switch to add the photoresistor
(RP) to the circuit. Wave your hand over the photoresistor
to change the sound. Try it with different levels of light
shining on the photoresistor, and at different RV settings.
Note that the “R” snap on the audio jack is not snapped
or connected, so there will not be any sound from the “R”
side of your headphones/speaker.
You can replace the 0.1mF capacitor (C2) with the 1mF
capacitor (C7) to lower the pitch of the green keys.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:10 PM Page 3
Project 235
Sound is Air Pressure
Sound is a variation in air pressure created by a mechanical
vibration. For a demonstration of this, take a stereo speaker in
your home (the larger the better), lay it on the floor, and start
some music.
1. Place your hand on your
stereo speaker and turn up
the volume. Do you feel the
speaker vibrate?
2. Now place a piece of paper
on the speaker; if the sound is
loud enough, you will see the
paper vibrate.
Project 236
3. Take a balloon (not included) and hold
it on the speaker. You should feel it
vibrating with the sound.
4. Get your parents’ permission for this part,
because it could get messy. Place the
sound energy demonstration container
(which should have been assembled as
per instructions on page 4) on the center
of the speaker. Pour some salt, glitter,
small foam or candy balls (0.1 inch
diameter or less) or similar into the
container, but not enough to cover the
bottom. Slowly increase the music
volume. When the music is at certain
frequencies, the salt/glitter/balls will
bounce around in the container.
Sound is Air Pressure Keyboard
Your Snap Circuits®
speaker (SP2) is not
powerful enough to
use for this, unless
using
the
sound
energy demonstration
container as done in
project 196.
Stereo Speaker (not included)
If you have a stereo speaker (not included), then
you can also do the preceding demonstration
using the sounds from your keyboard (U26). Build
the circuit as shown, and connect your stereo
speaker to it. Start with the left slide switch (S1)
turned off and the right switch turned on. Press
keys to find the one that gives the best effects with
the 3 experiments in the preceding project, then
turn the tune knob on the keyboard to see if you
can make the effects even better.
Now turn on the left slide switch to add the
photoresistor (RP) to the circuit. Move your hand
over the photoresistor to adjust how much light
shines into it, to change the sound to give the best
effects for the 3 experiments in the preceding project.
-114-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:10 PM Page 4
Project 237
Photo Brightness
Adjuster
Some materials, such as Cadmium Sulfide, change their
resistance when light shines on them. Electronic parts made
with these light-sensitive materials are called photoresistors.
Their resistance decreases as the light becomes brighter.
The resistance of your Snap Circuits® photoresistor changes
from nearly infinite in total darkness to about 1kW when bright
light shines directly on it. Note that a black plastic case
partially shields the Cadmium Sulfide part.
Project 238
Photoresistors are used in applications such as streetlamps,
which come on as it gets dark due to night or a severe storm.
Amplified Photo
Brightness
Adjuster
Vary the brightness of the color LED
(D8) by varying the amount of light
shining on the photoresistor (RP). Notice
that you have to cover the photoresistor
to make the color LED dim.
Next, replace the color LED (D8) with
the red or white LEDs (D1 & D6).
-115-
In the preceding circuit the photoresistor
directly controlled the current through the
color LED. In this circuit the current
through the photoresistor is amplified by
the NPN transistor (Q2), so the light on
the photoresistor must get very dark
before the color LED brightness is
reduced.
Project 239
Amplified Big
Brightness Adjuster
Vary the brightness
of the color LED
(D8) by varying the
amount of light
shining on the
photoresistor (RP).
Next, replace the
color LED (D8) with
the red or white
LEDs (D1 & D6).
Vary the brightness of the
color LED (D8) using the
500kW adjustable resistor
(RV3). The brightness won’t
change a lot; you may need
to view it in a dark room to
notice the difference. Placing
the egg attachment on the
color LED may help to notice
the brightness difference.
Compare this circuit to project 65 (Big
Brightness Adjuster). In project 65 the
color LED was dark for most of RV3’s
range. In this circuit the NPN transistor
(Q2) amplifies the current through
RV3, so the color LED is bright for
most of RV3’s range.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:10 PM Page 5
Project 240
MP3 player
Project 242
MP3 player
Audio Amplifier
Build the circuit, and turn
on the slide switch (S1).
Connect a music device
(not included) to the audio
jack (JA) as shown, and
start music on it. Set the
volume using the lever on
the adjustable resistor
(RV). This is a simple
amplifier, so the sound
may not be very loud.
Project 241
Low Power
Audio
Amplifier
Use the preceding circuit, but replace one
of the battery holders (B1) with a 3-snap
wire. The circuit works the same but is not
as loud now.
Audio Amplifier with L/R Control
Build the circuit, and connect the 2-snap wire between the
B1 battery holders last. Connect a music device (not
included) to the audio jack (JA) as shown, and start music
on it. Turn on both of the slide switches (S1), and set the
volume using the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV). This
is a simple amplifier, so the sound may not be very loud.
Turn off either of the slide switches to shut off the left or
right outputs of your music device. If the left and right
outputs of your music signal are the same, then turning off
one switch will reduce the volume a little.
When finished, remove the 2-snap wire between the
battery holders to turn off the circuit.
This circuit does not have an
on/off switch, because the slide
switches are being used to
control the music device outputs.
-116-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:10 PM Page 6
Project 243
MP3 player
Project 245
MP3 player
-117-
Your Music without Echo
Build the circuit, and turn
on the slide switch (S1).
Connect a music device
(not included, but this set
does include a cable to
connect it) to the audio
jack (JA) as shown, and
start music on it.
Set the volume control on
your music device for a
comfortable sound level.
Here we are using the
amplifier inside the echo
IC (U28), without adding
any echo effects to the
music.
Project 244
Low Power
Your Music
without
Echo
Use the preceding circuit, but
remove the 1mF capacitor
(C7) from the circuit, or
replace it with the 0.1mF
capacitor (C2). The volume is
not as loud now.
Adjustable Music without Echo
Modify the project 243 circuit to include a
volume control, the adjustable resistor
(RV). It works the same way, but adjust the
volume using the lever on RV.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:10 PM Page 7
Project 246
L/R Music Amplifier
Build the circuit, and turn on the slide switch (S1).
Connect a music device (not included) to the audio
jack (JA) as shown, and start music on it. Use the
lever on the adjustable resistor (RV) to adjust the
volume for the left and right outputs of your music
device; both won’t be loud at the same time.
MP3 player
Project 247
The left and right outputs of
your music device are intended
to control separate speakers,
but are combined here
because you only have one
Snap Circuits® speaker.
Another Transistor Amplifier
Vary the brightness of the color
LED (D8) using the 500kW
adjustable resistor (RV3).
Next, replace the color LED(D8)
with the red or white LEDs (D1 &
D6), and see how they compare.
This circuit is similar to
project 239 (Amplified Big
Brightness Adjuster), but
the color LED will not be
quite as bright. In this circuit
both the controlling current
(through
RV3)
and
controlled current (through
R1) also flow through the
color LED, reducing the
amplification.
-118-
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Project 248
Microphone
Resistance - LED
The microphone changes resistance when
exposed to changes in air pressure, such as
from sound waves or blowing on it. Talking
into the microphone or blowing on it will
change the LED brightness, but probably not
enough for you to notice the difference.
Build the circuit, and turn on the slide switch (S1).
The color LED (D8) is dimly lit, because the
resistance of the microphone (X1) keeps the
current low.
Push the press switch (S2) to bypass the
microphone, and the LED gets bright.
You can also try replacing the microphone with
the 5.1kW resistor (R3), to see how their
resistances compare.
Project 249
Microphone
Resistance - Audio
Build the circuit, and turn on the slide switch (S1).
The resistance of the 5.1kW resistor (R3) and
microphone (X1) determine the pitch (frequency)
of the tone.
Push the press switch (S2) to bypass the
microphone, and the tone changes.
-119-
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Project 250
Time Light
Build the circuit, and turn on the slide
switch (S1). Push the press switch (S2)
and set the 500kW adjustable resistor
(RV3) so the color LED (D8) just comes
on, then release the press switch. The
color LED will be bright for a while and
slowly get dim and go out. Push the press
switch again to reset the color LED’s timer.
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the
adjustable resistor (RV) with the 5.1kW resistor
(R3). The circuit works the same way, but the
color LED gets dim faster.
Easier Adjust
Time Light
Project 253
Small Adjust
Time Light
You can change RV3’s setting to keep the
color LED on much longer. The adjustable
resistor (RV) is used here as a fixed
resistor (of 50kW), so moving its lever will
have no effect.
Project 252
Project 251
Time Light (II)
Build the circuit, and turn on the slide
switch (S1) Push and release the press
switch (S2). Set the 500kW adjustable
resistor (RV3) so the color LED (D8) is on
and bright, then wait for it to get dim and
go out. Push the press switch again to
reset the color LED’s timer. The brighter
the color LED starts, the faster it gets dim.
The adjustable resistor (RV) is used here
as a fixed resistor (of 50kW), so moving its
lever will have no effect.
The 470mF capacitor (C5)
can store electricity. This
timer circuit works by slowly
charging up C5; the color
LED goes out when C5 gets
full. If you replace C5 with C2
or C7, the LED will go out
almost immediately because
these values can’t store
nearly as much electricity.
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the
adjustable resistor (RV) with the 5.1kW resistor
(R3). The circuit works the same way, but the
color LED can only light over a small part of
RV3’s range, and it gets dim faster.
-120-
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Project 254 Day Light
Build the circuit, and
turn on the slide
switch (S1). Set the
lever
on
the
adjustable resistor
(RV) so the color
LED (D8) just gets
bright. Now when
you block the light to
the
photoresistor
(RP), the color LED
will turn off. If the
color LED cannot be
turned on or off at
any RV setting, then
change your room
lighting.
Project 256 Dark Light
Build the circuit, and turn on the
slide switch (S1). Set the knob on
the 500kW adjustable resistor
(RV3) all the way to the right. If the
room light is bright then the color
LED (D8) should be off. Cover the
photoresistor (RP) or take the
circuit into a dark room, and the
color LED should turn on.
Next, replace the color LED (D8)
with the red or white LEDs (D1 &
D6).
-121-
Project 255 Lower Day Light
This circuit is like the
preceding one, but
can be used in
darker rooms. Build
the circuit, and turn
on the slide switch
(S1). Set the lever
on the adjustable
resistor (RV) so the
color LED (D8) just
gets bright. Now
when you block the
light to the photoresistor (RP), the
color LED will turn
off.
Project 257 Blow Noise
Build the circuit, and turn on the slide switch (S1). Blow into the
microphone (X1), and hear it on the speaker (SP2).
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:10 PM Page 11
Project 258
Project 259
Adjustable Listen to
the Light Change
Turn on the slide switch (S1). Set
the lever on the adjustable resistor
(RV) for different brightness levels
on the color LED (D8). You also
hear a clicking sound from the
speaker (SP2).
The transistor (Q2) amplifies the
LED current, to make the speaker
(SP2) sound louder.
Listen to the
Light Change
The
color
LED actually
contains separate red, green,
and blue lights, with a
microcircuit controlling them.
Each time the LED changes
colors, the voltage across it
changes. Each time the
voltage changes, you hear a
“click” from the speaker.
Turn on the slide switch (S1). The color
LED (D8) changes colors in a repeating
pattern, and you hear a clicking sound
from the speaker (SP2).
Project 260
Bright or Loud?
Turn on the slide switch (S1). Set the
lever on the adjustable resistor (RV) for
different brightness levels on the color
LED (D8). The color LED is bright on a
more limited range of RV settings than
in the preceding project, and the
speaker (SP2) is not nearly as loud.
Now push the press switch (S2); the
LED is dimmer but the sound is louder.
When S2 is off the transistor
(Q2) has little effect, and the
circuit is similar to project
46. With S2 pressed, the
transistor acts as an
amplifier, increasing the
current through the speaker.
The LED current is lower in
this arrangement.
-122-
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Project 261 LED Keyboard Control
Build the circuit, and turn on the slide
switch (S1). You hear a sound pattern
that is synchronized with the color LED
(D8) flashing. You can press keys on the
keyboard (U26) to change the sound.
The color LED turns off briefly when it
changes colors. Here the color LED
controls the keyboard through the
transistor (Q2), so when the color LED
turns off, the keyboard sound is also
turned off. This produces the sound
effects you hear.
Project 263
Photo LED
Keyboard
Control
Use the project 261 circuit, but
replace the 5.1kW resistor (R3) with
the photoresistor (RP). Wave your
hand over the photoresistor or adjust
the room lighting to vary the amount
of light shining on the photoresistor,
and listen to the sounds. You can
also press keys on the keyboard
(U26) to add more sounds.
-123-
Project 264
Project 262
LED
Keyboard
Control (II)
Use the preceding circuit, but
remove the 5.1kW resistor
(R3). Now there is only sound
when you press keys on the
keyboard, and the sounds for
some keys are different.
Adjustable
LED Keyboard
Control
Modify the project 261 circuit to match
this one. Turn on the slide switch (S1)
and move the lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV) to vary the sounds. You
can also press keys on the keyboard
(U26) to add more sounds.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:10 PM Page 13
Project 265
Capacitor Keyboard Control
Build the circuit, and turn both
slide switches (S1). You hear
a sound pattern that is
synchronized with the color
LED (D8) flashing. Move the
lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV) to change the
sound produced. You can also
press keys on the keyboard
(U26) to change the sound.
Adding the capacitor changes
the range of tones produced
by the keyboard.
Project 267
Project 266
Capacitor
Keyboard
Control (II)
Use the preceding circuit, but replace
the 1mF capacitor (C7) with the 0.1mF
capacitor (C2). The sounds are
different now.
Voice & Keyboard Echo
Build the circuit as shown. Place the circuit in
a quiet room. Connect the speaker (SP2)
using the red & black jumper wires, then hold
it away from the microphone (X1). Turn on the
slide switch (S1). Talk into the microphone or
press keys on the keyboard (U26), and listen
the echo on the speaker. Adjust the volume
using the knob on RV3. Adjust the amount of
echo using the lever on RV; move the lever up
for more echo or down for less echo. Try this
at different RV settings, because the effects
are very interesting with both high and low
echo amounts.
Note: You must hold the speaker away from
the microphone or the circuit may self-oscillate
due to feedback. You also need a quiet room,
with low background noise.
-124-
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Project 268
LED Voice Keyboard Echo
Build the circuit as shown. Place the circuit in a quiet
room. Connect the speaker (SP2) using the red & black
jumper wires, then hold it away from the microphone.
Turn on the slide switch (S1). Talk into the microphone
or press keys on the keyboard (U26), and listen the
echo on the speaker. Adjust the amount of echo using
the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV); move the
lever up for more echo or down for less echo. Try this
at different RV settings, because the effects are very
interesting with both high and low echo amounts.
The color LED (D8) lights when keys are
pressed but will be dim. It is easier to see
in a dimly lit room.
Project 270
Project 269
Photo LED Photo LED
Keyboard
Keyboard
Echo
Use the preceding circuit, but
replace the microphone (X1) with the
photoresistor (RP). As you are
pressing keys on the keyboard
(U26), vary the amount of light
shining into the photoresistor to
change the sound. Try it using
different settings on the adjustable
resistor (RV).
-125-
Use the preceding circuit, but
remove the adjustable resistor
(RV) from the circuit. Press keys
on the keyboard (U26), and vary
the light to the photoresistor (RP)
to adjust the volume. There won’t
be any echo effects now.
Note: You must hold the speaker away
from the microphone or the circuit may selfoscillate due to feedback. You also need a
quiet room, with low background noise.
Project 271 Audio Dark Light
Build the circuit, and
turn on the slide switch
(S1). Set the knob on
the 500kW adjustable
resistor (RV3) to the
right until the color LED
(D8) is off. Cover the
photoresistor (RP) or
take the circuit into a
dark room, and the
color LED should turn
on, and you hear
clicking
from
the
speaker (SP2). The
clicking will not be very
loud. Try replacing the
color LED (D8) with the
white LED (D6).
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:10 PM Page 15
Project 272
Oscillator
Build the circuit, and turn the slide switch
(S1). You hear a tone. You can also press
keys on the keyboard (U26) to change the
sound.
This circuit is an oscillator, because it
produces a repetitive electrical signal on its
own. You hear it as sound waves from the
speaker. The signal is produced by a circuit
inside the keyboard module, but may be
controlled using your Snap Circuits®
resistors and capacitors, and the keys on
the keyboard. The keys are actually
connecting different resistors inside the
keyboard, similar to the 5.1kW resistor (R3).
Project 275
Oscillator (IV)
Project 277
Oscillator (VI)
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the 100mF
capacitor (C4) with the 470mF capacitor (C5).
The clicks are now farther apart.
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the 470mF
capacitor (C5) with the 100mF capacitor (C4).
The clicks are faster now.
Project 276
Oscillator (V)
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the 5.1kW
resistor (R3) with the 100W resistor (R1). The
frequency of the sound is higher now, and you
hear several clicks a second.
Project 278
Oscillator (VII)
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the 100mF
capacitor (C4) with the 1mF capacitor (C7). The
frequency of the sound is much higher now, and
you hear a continuous tone.
Project 273
Oscillator (II)
Use the preceding circuit, but replace
the 0.1mF capacitor (C2) with the 1mF
capacitor (C7). The frequency (pitch)
of the sound is lower now.
Project 274
Oscillator (III)
Use the preceding circuit, but replace
the 1mF capacitor (C7) with the 100mF
capacitor (C4). The frequency of the
sound is now so low that you just hear
a clicking sound.
Project 279
Oscillator (VIII)
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the 1mF
capacitor (C7) with the 0.1mF capacitor (C2). Do
you hear anything? The circuit is producing a
high frequency tone, which may be too high for
your ears to hear, especially if you are older.
Now remove the 0.1mF capacitor from the
circuit. This makes the tone even higher
frequency, and you probably won’t hear
anything now. Dogs have better high frequency
hearing, so maybe your dog can hear it.
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Project 280 Adjustable Oscillator
Build the circuit, and turn the slide switch
(S1). Turn the knob on the 500kW
adjustable resistor (RV3) to see the range
of sounds that can be produced; there will
only be sound for a small part of RV3’s
range. You can also press keys on the
keyboard (U26) to change the sound.
Project 282
Adjustable
Oscillator
(III)
Use the preceding circuit, but
replace the 1mF capacitor (C7)
with the 470mF capacitor (C5).
You can hear a clicking sound
for a small part of RV3’s
adjustment range.
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Project 283
Adjustable
Oscillator
(IV)
Use the preceding circuit, but
remove the 470mF capacitor
(C5) from the circuit. See the
range of sounds that this
circuit can produce.
RV’s 500kW adjustment
range is wide, and the
oscillator circuit inside
the keyboard (U26)
won’t function over RV’s
full range. At some
settings the circuit may
function, but produce too
high of frequency for
your ears to hear.
Project 281
Adjustable
Oscillator
(II)
Use the preceding circuit, but
replace the 0.1mF capacitor
(C2) with the 1mF capacitor
(C7). The frequency (pitch) of
the sound is lower now.
Project 284 Water Detector
Build the circuit, and
initially leave the loose
ends of the red &
black jumper wires
unconnected. Turn on
the slide switch (S1);
nothing happens. Now
place the loose ends
of the red & black
jumper wires into a
cup of water, without
their snaps touching
each other. The color
LED (D8) should be
on now, indicating that
you have detected
water!
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:10 PM Page 17
Project 285
Clicker
Build the circuit, and turn the slide switch (S1). The color LED (D8) is
flashing, and you hear a clicking sound.
The color LED turns off briefly when
it changes colors. What you hear in
the speaker is the change in current
as the LED turns on or off.
Project 286
Clicker with Echo
Modify the preceding circuit to be this one, which adds echo effects.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and push the press switch (S2) to see the
color LED (D8) flashing and hear a clicking sound. When you release
the press switch, the color LED shuts off but you hear echo effects. Use
the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV) to set the echo level.
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Project 287 3V Audio Amplifier
Build the circuit, and turn on the
slide switch (S1). Connect a
music device (not included) to the
audio jack (JA) as shown, and
start music on it. Turn the knob
on the 500kW adjustable resistor
(RV3) to adjust the volume.
The transistor (Q2) amplifies the
current from your music device, to
make the sound louder. The
resistors (R1 & RV3) and
capacitors (C5 & C7) condition
the signal to minimize distortion.
MP3 player
Project 289
Project 288
Mini Music Player
To demonstrate how much the transistor was
amplifying the sound, connect the speaker
directly to the audio jack, as shown here, and
start music on your music device. If you don’t
hear anything then hold the speaker next to
your ear, or set the volume control on your
music device higher.
MP3 player
Voice Echo with Light
Build the circuit as shown, and place it in a quiet room.
Connect the speaker (SP2) using the red & black jumper
wires, then hold it away from the microphone (X1). Turn on
the slide switch (S1). Talk into the microphone, and listen the
echo on the speaker, and see it on the color LED (D8). Adjust
the amount of echo using the lever on the adjustable resistor
(RV); move the lever up for more echo or down for less echo.
Try this at different RV settings. You may need to talk loud
directly into the microphone to make the color LED bright.
Note: You must hold the speaker away from the microphone
or the circuit may self-oscillate due to feedback. You also
need a quiet room, with low background noise.
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Project 290
Color Sound
Normally the color LED changes colors, but here
it doesn’t, why? The U26 keyboard produces a
changing voltage, intended to produce sound on
the speaker. The color LED is designed for use
with a stable voltage (like the batteries); when
used with the changing voltage from the
keyboard, it gets confused and blurs its pattern.
Build the circuit and turn the slide switch
(S1). Press any key on the keyboard
(U26), but just one key at a time. The
color LED (D8) lights (mostly red), and
you hear a tone from the speaker (SP2).
The keyboard produces separate tones for the
blue and green keys, which are played together
at the speaker. The two tones are also control
the color LED. When the tones combine, it is
easier for the color LED to produce green and
blue color.
Now turn the TUNE knob while pressing
the blue C key and the green C key at
the same time. Slowly turn the knob
across its entire range, and see how the
LED color changes.
Red is the easiest color for the color LED to
produce, and blue is the hardest. So when the
voltage to it is weak, the more difficult colors get
dim first.
Project 291
Color Sound (II)
Use the preceding circuit, but add the 0.1mF
capacitor (C2) over the keyboard (U26)
using a 1-snap wire, as shown. Press a blue
and a green key at the same time, while
turning the TUNE knob.
Watch the colors on the color
LED (D8), and listen to the
sound.
Project 292
Color Sound (III)
Use the preceding circuit, but use the 1mF
capacitor (C7) instead of the 0.1mF capacitor
(C2). Press a blue and a green key at the
same time, while turning the TUNE knob.
Watch the colors on the color LED (D8), and
listen to the sound.
Next, replace the 1mF capacitor (C7) instead
of the 470mF capacitor (C5). Press one of
the green keys and hold it down. Every few
seconds, the color LED flashes and you hear
a click from the speaker.
Now press one blue key and one green
key at the same time, to produce 2
tones on the speaker. Watch the color
LED (D8) closely; you should see more
green and blue color than before. Try
viewing it in a dimly lit room.
The spectrum of LED color here
depends on your batteries. With strong
batteries you will see more green and
blue. With weak batteries you will mostly
see red.
Project 293
Backwards Color
Sound
Use any of the 3 preceding circuits, but reverse the
direction of the color LED (D8). The circuit works the
same, but the sound may not be as loud and the LED
may not be as bright.
Normally the color LED doesn’t work
when you connect it backwards, but in
this circuit it does. The changing
voltage produced by the keyboard
actually goes both ways (positive and
negative), so here the color LED will
work in either direction.
-130-
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Project 294
Project 295 Red to White
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the 5.1kW resistor (R3) with
the 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3). Press any key on the keyboard
(U26), but just one key at a time. Slowly turn the knob on RV3 from
right to left across its range while watching the color LED (D8)
closely. Notice how first red gets bright, then green too, then also
blue. This is best seen in a dark room. You can also try it with the
egg attachment on the color LED.
-131-
RV3 controls the voltage
to the color LED, through
transistor Q2. When the
voltage is low, the color
LED only produces red,
since that is the easiest
color for it to produce. As
the voltage increases,
green light is added, then
blue.
White Light
Build the circuit and turn the slide switch (S1). Press any key on the
keyboard (U26), but just one key at a time. The color LED appears
white, and isn’t changing colors like it normally does. If you look closely
at the color LED you can see separate red, green, and blue lights on it,
which combine to produce white. This is best seen in a dark room. You
can also view it with the egg attachment on the color LED, which helps
to blend the LED colors together.
The color LED actually contains separate red, green,
and blue LED controlled by a microcircuit. It is designed
for use with a stable voltage (like the batteries); when
used with the keyboard output (a changing voltage
intended to produce sound on the speaker), it gets
confused and blurs its pattern. The result appears white
because mixing equal amounts of red, green, and blue
light makes white light.
Project 296
Alarm
Build the circuit with the black jumper wire connected as shown, and turn it on.
Nothing happens. Disconnect the jumper wire and an alarm sounds.
You could replace
the jumper wire with
a longer wire and
run it across a
doorway to signal an
alarm when someone enters.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:10 PM Page 21
Project 297 Super Voice Echo with Light
Build the circuit as shown, and turn on
the slide switch (S1). Talk into the
microphone, and listen the echo on the
speaker, and see it on the color LED
(D8). Set the sound volume using the
knob on the 500kW adjustable resistor
(RV3). Adjust the amount of echo using
the lever on the adjustable resistor
(RV).
Note: There will only be sound if RV3
is set towards the left (most of its range
will have no sound). Also, at the loudest
RV3 setting the circuit may oscillate
and make a whining sound; just set the
RV3 volume a little lower to stop it.
Project 299
Photo Echo
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the press
switch (S2) with the photoresistor (RP), Adjust
the amount of light shining on the photoresistor
to change the sound and light.
Project 300
Loud Press
Photo Echo
Use the circuit from project 298 (with S2) or 299
(with RP), but replace RV3 with a 3-snap wire. The
sound will be louder but the light will be dimmer.
Project 301
Project 298
Press Echo
Use the preceding circuit, but
replace the microphone (X1)
with the press switch (S2).
Set RV3 to max volume (turn
it to the left). Press S2 to see
light on the color LED (D8),
and hear a clicking sound
from the speaker (SP2).
Knob Echo
Build the circuit as shown,
turn on the slide switch (S1),
and turn the knob on the
500kW adjustable resistor
(RV3). You hear clicking in the
speaker (SP2), and the color
LED (D8) flashes. Adjust the
amount of echo using the
lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV). Try this at
different RV settings.
If you remove the speaker
(SP2) from the circuit then the
color LED (D8) will be a little
brighter, because the echo IC
(U28) isn’t trying to control the
speaker at the same time.
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Project 302
Echo Light Headphone
Build the circuit as shown, and connect your
own headphones (not included) to the audio
jack (JA). Turn on the slide switch (S1).
Talk into the microphone, and listen the
echo on your headphones, and see it on
the color LED (D8). Set the 500kW
adjustable resistor (RV3) for most
comfortable sound level (turn to the left for
higher volume, most of RV3’s range will be
very low volume); then adjust the amount
of echo using the lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV). Only the left side of your
headphones will have sound.
!
+
-133-
WARNING: Headphones performance varies, so use caution. Start with
low volume, then carefully increase to a comfortable level. Permanent
hearing loss may result from long-term exposure to sound at high volumes.
Project 304
Headphones
(not included)
Press Echo Light
Build the circuit as shown, and
turn on the slide switch (S1).
Push the press switch (S2) to
see light on the color LED (D8),
and hear a clicking sound from
the speaker (SP2). Adjust the
amount of echo using the lever
on the adjustable resistor (RV).
Project 303
Echo Light
Headphone Variants
Use the preceding circuit, but
replace the microphone (X1) with
the press switch (S2). Press S2 to
see light on the color LED (D8),
and hear a clicking sound from
your headphones.
Next, replace the press switch with the
photoresistor (RP), Adjust the amount
of light shining on the photoresistor to
change the sound and light.
You can use a stereo speaker (not
included) instead of headphones.
When using it with the microphone
(X1), you may need to lower the
volume to prevent feedback into
the microphone.
Project 305
Photo Echo Light
Use the preceding circuit, but
replace the press switch with the
photoresistor (RP). Adjust the
amount of light shining on the
photoresistor to change the sound
and light. You may need a big
difference in brightness to notice
the effects.
Next, replace the photoresistor with
the microphone (connect the “+”
side to the echo IC (U28)). Talk
loudly directly into the microphone
to flash the light and hear your
voice on the speaker (SP2), but
your voice will be badly distorted.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:10 PM Page 23
Project 306
Another Voice Echo Light
Build the circuit as shown, and turn on the slide switch (S1). Talk into the
microphone (X1) to light the color LED (D8) and hear your voice on the speaker
(SP2). Adjust the amount of echo using the lever on the adjustable resistor
(RV).
Next, replace the microphone with the press switch (S2). Push the press switch
to see light on the color LED, and hear a clicking sound from the speaker.
+
Project 307
Daylight Voice Echo
Note that there is a 4-snap wire under Q2, partially hidden. Place the circuit in a quiet
room with bright light shining into the photoresistor (RP). Connect the speaker (SP2)
using the red & black jumper wires, then hold it away from the microphone (X1). Turn
on the slide switch (S1). If the speaker makes a whining sound that does not stop, then
you need brighter light on the photoresistor, or the room is too noisy.
Talk into the microphone, and listen the echo on the speaker. Now block the light to the
photoresistor to turn off the circuit; slowly wave your hand over it to turn the echo on and
off. You can adjust the amount of echo using the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV).
The photoresistor controls power to
the echo IC (U28), and acts as an
on/off switch. If there is some light on
it but not bright light, it may only
partially turn on the echo IC, causing
the echo IC to malfunction.
Also, you must hold the speaker
away from the microphone or the
circuit may self-oscillate due to
feedback. You also need a quiet
room, with low background noise.
-134-
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Project 308
Dark Voice Echo
The photoresistor controls power to the
echo IC (U28), and acts as an on/off switch.
If the photoresistor is not dark enough, it
may only partially turn on the echo IC,
causing the echo IC to malfunction.
Also, you must hold the speaker away from
the microphone or the circuit may selfoscillate due to feedback. You also need a
quiet room, with low background noise.
Project 309
Dark Echo Light
Modify the preceding circuit to match this
one; it uses the color LED (D8) instead of
the speaker (SP2). Turn on the slide switch
(S1); nothing will happen unless the room is
dark. This circuit only works if there is no
light on the photoresistor (RP).
Cover the photoresistor, talk into the
microphone, and see the light flash. You can
adjust the amount of echo using the lever
on the adjustable resistor (RV). Shine light
on the photoresistor to shut off the circuit.
If the color LED never turns off, then you
need to block light from the photoresistor
better.
-135-
Build the circuit as shown, and place it in
a quiet room. Connect the speaker (SP2)
using the red & black jumper wires, then
hold it away from the microphone (X1).
Turn on the slide switch (S1); nothing will
happen unless the room is dark. This
circuit only works if there is no light on the
photoresistor (RP).
Cover the photoresistor, talk into the
microphone, and listen the echo on the
speaker. You can adjust the amount of
echo using the lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV). Shine light on the
photoresistor to shut off the circuit.
If the speaker makes a whining sound that does
not stop, then you need to block light from the
photoresistor better, or the room is too noisy.
Project 310
Dark Echo
Variants
Use either of the preceding two
circuits, but replace the microphone
(X1) with the press switch (S2) or
500kW adjustable resistor (RV3). Press
S2 or turn the knob on RV3 to change
the sound or light.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 25
Project 311
Day Echo Light
Build the circuit as shown, and
place it where there is bright light
shining into the photoresistor
(RP). Turn on the slide switch
(S1). If the color LED never
turns off, then you need brighter
light on the photoresistor.
Project 313
Photo Light Timer
Build the circuit, and turn
on the slide switch (S1). If
there is light on the
photoresistor (RP) then
the color LED (D8) will be
on. Block the light to the
photo-resistor, and the
color LED should slowly
get dimmer and dimmer.
The 470mF capacitor (C5)
stores up some electricity,
and releases it when you
block the light.
Talk into the microphone, and
see the color LED (D8) flash.
Now block the light to the
photoresistor to turn off the
circuit; slowly wave your hand
over it to turn the echo on and off
while talking. You can adjust the
amount of echo using the lever
on the adjustable resistor (RV).
Project 312
Day Echo
Variants
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the
microphone (X1) with the press switch (S2)
or 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3). Press
S2 or turn the knob on RV3 to change the
light.
You can also replace the color LED (D8)
with the speaker (SP2). When used with the
microphone, you must connect the speaker
using the red & black jumper wires and hold
it away from the microphone, and also omit
C7.
Project 314
Adjustable Photo Light Timer
This circuit is similar to the
preceding one, except the color
LED (D8) stays on longer when
you block the light to the
photoresistor (RP). Use the lever
on the adjustable resistor (RV) to
set how long the color LED will
stay bright after the photoresistor
is covered.
The resistance of RV
slows down the discharging of the 470mF
capacitor (C5).
-136-
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Project 315
Tone Stoppers
Build the circuit and turn the slide switch (S1). Press any key on the
keyboard (U26). You hear a tone from the speaker (SP2), though it may
not be very loud.
Now push the press switch (S2) while pressing the same key. The
sound is louder now, because the press switch bypassed the 0.1mF
capacitor.
Capacitors can store electricity in small amounts. This
storage ability allows them to block stable electrical signals
and pass changing ones, making them useful in filtering and
delay circuits. Capacitors with higher values have more
storage capacity, and can pass changing signals more easily,
Project 316
Tone Stoppers (II)
Use the preceding circuit, but replace
the 0.1mF capacitor (C2) with the
larger 1mF capacitor (C7). Compare
the sound volume to the preceding
circuit.
The sound is a little
louder now because
the
larger
1mF
capacitor
passes
more of the tone
than the smaller
0.1mF capacitor did.
-137-
Project 317
Tone Stoppers (III)
Use the preceding circuit, but replace
the 1mF capacitor (C7) with the much
larger 470mF capacitor (C5). Compare
the sound volume to the preceding
circuits. How much difference does
pressing S2 make now?
The sound is much louder now because
the larger 470mF capacitor passes
much more of the tone than the smaller
1mF capacitor did. Now pressing S2
does not increase the sound, because
C5 is already passing all of it.
In this circuit the 0.1mF capacitor blocks most of the keyboard
tone signal. You can hear the difference when you press S2
to bypass the capacitor.
Project 318
Tone Stoppers (IV)
Use the circuit from project 316 (with the 1mF capacitor (C7)), but
add the 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3) as shown here. Slowly
turn RV3’s knob to vary the pitch (frequency) of the tone from
lowest to highest possible (there will only be sound for a small
part of RV3’s range). At the same time, press S2 on and off
several times, to see how C7 is changing on the sound.
Next, replace C7 with smaller C2 or larger C5, and compare the
capacitor’s effect as you vary the tone frequency.
C7 will give less change on
high frequency tones than
on low frequency tones; you
should be able to notice the
difference as you vary the
tone using RV3. The smaller
C2 will affect both high and
low tones a lot. The larger
C5 will have little effect on
both high and low tones.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 27
Project 319 Tone Stoppers (V)
In project 318, there is only sound for
a small part of RV3’s range, which
can be difficult to tune. To help,
modify the circuit to add the
adjustable resistor (RV) in series with
RV3, as shown. Slowly adjust RV
and RV3 to vary the tone from lowest
to highest possible, while pressing
S2 on and off, to see how the
capacitors (C7, or C2 or C5) change
the sound.
You can also replace RV3 with the
photoresistor (RP). Set RV to the left,
and then adjust the tone by varying
the light to RP, while comparing the
effects of the capacitors.
RV
is
more
sensitive and can
be adjusted from
200W to 50kW,
compared
to
200W to 500kW
for RV3.
Project 321
Project 320
Alarm Light
Build the circuit with the black
jumper wire connected as
shown, and turn it on.
Nothing happens. Disconnect
the jumper wire and the color
LED (D8)
comes
on,
signalling an alarm.
Voice Changer with Headphones
This project requires stereo headphones or a stereo speaker (neither
included); connect them to the audio jack (JA). Set the 500kW adjustable
resistor (RV3) to mid-range. Turn on both slide switches (S1), you hear a
beep signaling that you may begin recording. Talk into the microphone until
you hear a beep (signaling that recording time is over), then turn off the left
slide switch to exit recording mode. Push the press switch (S2) to play back
the recording and flash the color LED (D8), and turn the knob on RV3 to
change the playback speed. You can play your recording faster or slower by
changing the setting on RV3.
Adjust the volume to your headphones or stereo speaker using the lever on
the adjustable resistor (RV).
Recording time is 6 seconds at normal speed, but this can be changed
depending on the setting of RV3 when you are making the recording.
Headphones or Stereo Speaker (not included)
!
WARNING: Headphones performance varies, so use caution. Start with
low volume, then carefully increase to a comfortable level. Permanent
hearing loss may result from long-term exposure to sound at high volumes.
-138-
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Project 322
Day Keyboard
Build the circuit (note that there is a 4-snap wire under Q2, partially
hidden) and turn the slide switch (S1). Press keys on the keyboard
(U26). This keyboard only works during the day, so you have to have
light on the photoresistor or there won’t be any sound. If you cover the
photoresistor or place the circuit in a dark room then it won’t work. If the
light is dim then the sound may be abnormal.
Project 323
Night Keyboard
Build the circuit (note that there is a 4-snap wire under Q2, partially
hidden) and turn the slide switch (S1). Press any key on the keyboard
(U26) and set the 500kW adjustable resistor so the sound just shuts off.
Now block the light to the photoresistor (RP) and press some keys to
play tones.
-139-
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Project 324
Color Keyboard
Build the circuit and turn the slide switch (S1). Press and hold down any
green key on the keyboard (U26), and see what happens.
Project 325 Color Keyboard (II)
Project 326
Modify the preceding circuit by
adding the adjustable resistor
(RV) as shown here. Turn the
slide switch (S1). Move the lever
on the adjustable resistor around;
best effects are when it is to the
left. Press keys on the keyboard
(U26) at the same time. You will
see some cool effects.
Color Keyboard (III)
Build the circuit and turn the slide switch (S1). Press and hold down any
green key on the keyboard (U26), and see what happens.
Project 327 Color Keyboard (IV)
Modify the preceding circuit by
adding the 100W resistor (R1) and
replacing the 1mF capacitor (C7)
with the 470mF capacitor (C5), as
shown here. Turn the slide switch
(S1) to see some cool effects.
Press any of the blue keys for
more effects. Pressing the green
keys won’t do anything.
-140-
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Project 328 Color Keyboard (V)
Turn on the slide switch (S1).
Move the lever on the
adjustable resistor (RV) around
near the left (not the middle or
right). Press any of the blue
keys for more effects. Pressing
the green keys may not do
anything.
Project 329
Color Keyboard
(VI)
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the
1mF capacitor (C7) with the 0.1mF capacitor
(C2). The sound is a little different now, and
the green keys can change it.
Project 330 Adjustable Voice Changer & Light
Set the 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3) to
mid-range. Turn on both slide switches (S1),
you hear a beep signaling that you may begin
recording. Talk into the microphone until you
hear a beep (signaling that recording time is
over), then turn off the left slide switch to exit
recording mode. Push the press switch (S2)
to play back the recording, and turn the knob
on RV3 to change the playback speed. You
can play your recording faster or slower by
changing the setting on RV3.
Move the lever on the adjustable resistor
(RV) to change the brightness of the color
LED (LED) during playback. Most of RV’s
range will give little or no LED brightness.
-141-
Recording time is 6 seconds at normal speed,
but this can be changed depending on the
setting of RV3 when you are making the
recording.
Project 331
Adjustable
Voice
Changer &
Light (II)
Use the preceding circuit, but
swap the locations of the
speaker (SP2) and color
LED (D8). Now the color
LED is at full brightness
during playback, and RV
adjusts the sound volume.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 31
Project 332
Play Fast
Build the circuit and turn the slide switch (S1). Push the press switch
(S2) and play keys on the keyboard (U26). Play fast, because this
keyboard will only work for a few seconds! Push S2 again to restart the
keyboard and its timer.
Project 333
Red First
The voltage needed to turn on an LED
depends on the light color. Red needs the
least voltage, and blue needs the most.
With S1 at points C & D and S2 off, the
voltage to the color LED is lowest, and may
barely be enough to turn on the red color.
Pressing S2 bypasses the NPN transistor
(Q2), and boosts the LED voltage a little.
Shifting S1 to points A & B increases the
circuit voltage from 3V to 6V, making the
LED work for a greater part of RV’s range.
Turn on the slide switch (S1). Set the lever on
the adjustable resistor (RV) all the way to the
left. The color LED (D8) should be on, but may
be mostly red. Slowly move the lever on RV to
the right until the LED is completely off. Notice
that the red color stays on the longest.
Now push the press switch (S2) and adjust RV
again, watching the LED colors. Blue and green
color may also appear now, but may go dim
before red does.
Now move S1 from the points marked C & D to
the points marked A & B. Move RV’s lever
around again, watching the LED colors and
brightness. Try pushing S2 again, but it won’t
make as much difference now.
-142-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 32
Project 334 Adjustable Timer Tone
Note that there is a 3-snap wire
under Q2, partially hidden. Turn
on both slide switches (S1) and
push the press switch (S2). You
hear a tone, which turns off after
a while. Push S2 again to restart
the keyboard and its timer. Use
the adjustable resistor (RV) to set
how long the timer keeps the
sound on for, it can be set for a
few seconds or very long. You
can change the tone that plays by
pressing keys on the keyboard
(U26).
Project 336
Turning off the left slide switch
turns off the tone, but not the keys
or timer.
Delay Lamp
Push and release the press switch (S2), then turn on the
slide switch (S1). Nothing happens at first, but after a few
seconds the color LED (D8) turns on. Press S2 to turn off D8
and reset the delay timer.
The adjustable resistor (RV) is used as a fixed resistor, and
moving its lever won’t have any effect.
-143-
This circuit works because capacitor C5
can store electricity. When you turn on the
circuit, electricity flows through resistor RV
into C5. When C5 gets full, electricity starts
flowing into transistor Q2, which turns on
the color LED. Pressing S2 empties C5,
and resets the timer. Capacitors C2 and
C7 also store electricity, but only small
amounts; if used in this circuit they would
appear to fill up instantly.
Project 335
Photo Timer
Tone
Use the preceding circuit, but replace
the 5.1kW resistor (R3) with the
photoresistor (RP). The circuit works
the same way, but you can vary the
pitch of the tone by adjusting the
amount of light on the photoresistor.
Project 337
Adjustable
Delay Lamp
Use the preceding circuit, but replace
adjustable resistor (RV) with the
500kW adjustable resistor (RV3). Set
the knob on RV3 to different positions,
press S2 to start the timer, and see
how long it takes for the color LED to
turn on. Turning RV3’s knob clockwise
gives longer delay, turning counter
clockwise gives shorter delay.
RV3 controls how fast electricity flows
into capacitor C5. Increasing RV3’s
value makes it take longer to charge
up C5.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 33
Project 338
Water Alarm
Build the circuit, and initially leave the loose
ends of the red & black jumper wires
unconnected. Turn on the slide switch (S1);
nothing happens. Now place the loose ends
of the red & black jumper wires into a cup of
water, without their snaps touching each
other. You should hear a tone now, indicating
that you have detected water!
Don’t drink any water used here.
You could place this circuit
in your basement, then it will
sound an alarm if your
basement starts to flood
during a storm.
Project 340
Project 339
Continuity
Tester
Use the preceding circuit,
but instead connect the
loose ends of the jumper
wires
to
different
materials in your home. If
you hear sound, then the
material you tested has
low resistance and is a
good
conductor
of
electricity.
High Low Light
The left side of RV is connected to 6V, while
the right side is only connected to 3V; so the
color LED will be brighter when RV’s lever
is to the left. Moving the lever toward the
middle increases the resistance in the
circuit, and the higher voltage left side will
be less affected than the right side.
Turn on both slide switches (S1). Move the lever on
the adjustable resistor (RV) all the way to the left or
right, and watch the brightness of the color LED (D8).
The light should be a little brighter when RV’s lever is
to the left.
Now move RV’s lever toward one side, but not all the
way. There should be a larger difference between the
same positions on the left compared to the right.
-144-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 34
Project 341
Project 343
Slow Flicker
Clicker
Use the preceding circuit, but
replace the 1mF capacitor (C7)
with the larger 470mF capacitor
(C5). With RV set to the left,
the LED flashes and the
speaker clicks about once a
second. As you move RV’s
lever toward the right, the time
between
flashes/clicks
increases and can get very
long. Also try holding down one
of the blue keys; best effects
are when RV is set toward the
left.
-145-
Flicker Clicker
Turn on the slide switch
(S1). Move the lever on
the adjustable resistor
(RV) around to make the
color LED (D8) flicker and
make clicking or buzzing
on the speaker (SP2).
Press keys on the
keyboard (U26) for more
fun effects. Try pressing a
blue key and a green key
at the same time, while
moving
RV’s
lever
around.
Project 344
Project 342
Fast Flicker
Clicker
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the
1mF capacitor (C7) with the smaller 0.1mF
capacitor (C2). It works the same way, but
the tone has higher pitch, and the color
LED may appear to be on continuously.
If the speaker is buzzing
and the color LED is on
but not flashing, then the
color LED is probably
flashing so fast that it just
appears as a blur.
Timer Tone
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and
push the press switch (S2). You
should hear a tone; adjust its pitch
using the adjustable resistor (RV).
The tone shuts off after about 10
seconds. Push S2 again to re-start
the keyboard and its timer.
Some settings on RV may not
produce any sound. Press S2 and
set RV to where you hear sound.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 35
Project 345
Little Battery
Set the knob on the 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3) to the
left. Place the color LED (D8) across the points marked B &
C (“+” to B); the LED lights as the capacitor charges. Next,
place the color LED across points A & B (“+” to A) instead;
now the LED lights as the capacitor discharges. Move the
color LED back to B & C and repeat. Use the knob on RV3
to vary the charge / discharge rate, but keep it close to the
left (otherwise the LED would be too dim to see).
The capacitor is storing energy like a little battery.
Project 347
Batteries can hold a lot
more electricity than
capacitors
because
batteries store chemical
energy while capacitors
store electrical energy.
Project 346
Tiny Battery
Use the preceding circuit, but
replace the 470mF capacitor (C5)
with the smaller 1mF capacitor
(C7) or 100mF capacitor (C4). Set
RV3 all the way to the left. Place
the color LED across B & C to
charge C7, then across A & B to
discharge it. The LED will only
light briefly with C4, and will only
flash for a moment with C7,
because C4 and C7 can’t store
much electricity (C5 holds 470
times more than C7, and 4.7
times more than C4). The LED is
easier to see in a dimly lit room.
Little Battery Beep
The capacitor is storing
energy like a little battery.
The “beep” you hear is the
voice changer (U27) entering
recording mode, but you
can’t make any recording
with this circuit. Capacitor C5
can’t store enough electricity
to operate the voice changer
circuit, but it can power it long
enough to make a beep.
Set the knob on the 500kW adjustable
resistor (RV3) to mid-range. Place the
470mF capacitor (C5) across the
points marked B & C (“+” to C), then
SWING its “+” side around to point A
(without unsnapping it from point B).
Swing its “+” side between points C &
A several times.
When the capacitor (C5) touches point
C, the color LED (D8) flashes to show
that the batteries charged up the
capacitor. When the capacitor touches
point A, you hear beep from the
speaker (SP2) to show that the audio
circuit discharged the capacitor.
You can change the “beep” sound a
little by turning the knob on RV3.
-146-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 36
Project 348
Capacitors in Series
Turn on the right slide switch (S1). Press
any green key and compare the sound with
the left slide switch on or off.
With the left switch off, the 0.1mF and 1mF
capacitors (C2 & C7) are connected in
series. Turning on the left switch bypasses
the 0.1mF capacitor. Notice that having the
0.1mF included has a big effect on the tone.
Project 350
Capacitors in Series (III)
Use the project 348 circuit, but replace the 0.1mF
capacitor (C2) with the much larger 100mF
capacitor (C4). Press any green key and compare
the sound with the left slide switch on or off.
Now the tone is the same whether the left switch
is on of off, because connecting the large 100mF
in series with the small 1mF has little effect on the
total capacitance.
Swap the locations of the 1mF and 100mF
capacitors (C7 & C4). Press any green key and
compare the sound with the left slide switch on or
off (When the switch is off, hold down the key,
because you will only hear a click every few
seconds.) Now turning on the left switch has a big
effect on the circuit, because connecting the small
1mF in series with the large 100mF greatly
increases the total capacitance.
-147-
Think of capacitors as
storage tanks for electricity.
If you place a small storage
tank in series with a big
one, electricity flows into
both at the same time, but
the small one fills up
quickly and stops the flow.
Project 349
Capacitors
in Series (II)
Use the preceding circuit,
but swap the locations of
the 0.1mF and 1mF
capacitors (C2 & C7).
Press any green key and
compare the sound with the
left slide switch on or off.
The tone does not
change nearly as much
as in the preceding
circuit. When capacitors
are connected in series,
the
smaller
value
dominates the circuit.
Project 351 More Capacitors in Series
Turn on the right slide
switch (S1). Press any
green
key
and
compare the sound
when you remove one
or two of the capacitors
(C2, C5, and C7) and
replace them with a 3snap wire. You will only
hear a click every few
seconds if C5 is the
only one in the circuit.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 37
Project 352
Capacitors in Parallel
Turn on the right slide switch (S1). Press
any green key and compare the sound with
the left slide switch on or off.
With the left switch on, the 0.1mF and 1mF
capacitors (C2 & C7) are connected in
parallel. Turning off the left switch
disconnects the 0.1mF capacitor. Notice that
having the 0.1mF included has only a small
effect on the tone.
Project 354
Capacitors in Parallel (III)
Use the project 352 circuit, but replace the 0.1mF
capacitor (C2) with the much larger 100mF capacitor
(C4). Press any green key and compare the sound
with the left slide switch on or off. (When the switch is
on, hold down the key, because you will only hear a
click every few seconds.)
Turning on the left switch has a big effect on the circuit,
because connecting the large 100mF in parallel with
the small 1mF greatly increases the total capacitance.
Swap the locations of the 1mF and 100mF capacitors
(C7 & C4). Press any green key and compare the
sound with the left slide switch on or off. Now the tone
is the same whether the left switch is on of off,
because connecting the small 1mF in parallel with the
large 100mF has little effect on the total capacitance.
Think of capacitors as
storage tanks for electricity. If
you place a large storage
tank in parallel with a big one,
electricity flows into both at
the same time, but keeps
flowing until both are full.
Project 353
Capacitors in
Parallel (II)
Use the preceding
circuit, but swap the
locations of the 0.1mF
and 1mF capacitors (C2
& C7). Press any green
key and compare the
sound with the left slide
switch on or off.
The tone changes
much more now than in
the preceding circuit.
When capacitors are
connected in parallel,
the
larger
value
dominates the circuit.
Project 355 More Capacitors in Parallel
Turn on the right
slide switch (S1).
Press any green
key and compare
the sound when
you remove one
or two of the
capacitors (C2,
C5, and C7). You
will only hear a
click every few
seconds if C5 is in
the circuit.
-148-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 38
Project 356
Resistors in Series
Inside the keyboard module (U26) is an
oscillator circuit that produces separate
tones for the blue and green keys. The
frequency (pitch) of the tone is set using
an internal resistor-capacitor network,
with each key representing a different
resistor value. The green keys can be
adjusted using the tune knob.
The tone of the green keys can also be
changed using external resistors and
capacitors, which is done in many of the
projects.
Project 357
-149-
Turn on the right slide switch
(S1). Set the lever on the
adjustable resistor (RV) to each
side and compare the sound
with the left slide switch on or off.
With the lever up, RV is a 200W
resistor. Turning the left switch
off connects this in series with
the 5.1kW resistor (R3), and
has a small effect on the tone.
With the lever down, RV is a
50kW resistor. Turning the left
switch off connects this in
series with the 5.1kW resistor
(R3), and has a big effect on
the tone.
Resistors in Parallel
Think of resistors as
obstructions to the flow of
electricity. When there is only
one path for electricity and
part of it has a big
obstruction, not much will
flow. When there are several
paths for electricity and one
has a big obstruction, a lot
will flow because most will
flow
through
the
unobstructed path.
Turn on the right slide switch (S1). Set the
lever on the adjustable resistor (RV) to
each side and compare the sound with the
left slide switch on or off. If there is no
sound when the lever is set all the way up,
adjust it down a little until there is sound.
With the lever up, RV is a 200W resistor.
Turning the left switch off connects this in
parallel with the 5.1kW resistor (R3), and
has a big effect on the tone.
With the lever down, RV is a 50kW resistor.
Turning the left switch off connects this in
parallel with the 5.1kW resistor (R3), and
has a small effect on the tone.
Pressing any of the green keys now will
change the tone, by connecting resistors
inside the keyboard in parallel with your
R3-RV resistor network.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 39
Project 358
These five resistors are all
connected in series, so the
highest value, will have the
most effect.
Swapping the locations of any
parts in the circuit (without
changing the direction of their
“+” side) will not change how
the circuit works. Try it.
Project 359
Lots of Resistors in
Series
Turn on the slide switch (S1). There are five
resistors (R1, R3, RV, RV3, and RP),
connected in series, that are controlling the
current to the color LED (D8). See which
resistor has the most effect on the LED
brightness, by replacing them with a 3-snap
wire or the red/black jumper wires, one at a
time. The resistance of RV and RV3 depends
on their setting, so try them at different
settings. Note that the photoresistor’s (RP’s)
resistance can be very high if there isn’t bright
light shining on it.
Lots of Resistors in
Parallel
These five resistors are all
connected in parallel, so the
smallest one (R1, 100W),
will have the most effect.
Turn on the right slide switch (S1).
There are five resistors (R1, R3, RV,
RV3, and RP), connected in parallel,
that are controlling the current to the
color LED (D8). See which resistor
has the most effect on the LED
brightness, by removing them one at
a time. The resistance of RV and RV3
depends on their setting, so try them
at different settings.
-150-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 40
Project 360
Be a Loud Musician
It’s Raining, It’s Pouring:
A G E A G E
GG E
It’s
A
G E E
rain-ing, it’s pour-ing, Rain-y days aren’t
F F D D
like to jump, we
FF
D
D
bor-ing. We
G F E D
like to splash, Let’s hope it rains till
Jingle Bells
EE E E E E
E G C D E–
EC
mor-ning.
Jin-gle bells, jin-gle bells, Jin-gle all the way,
F F
FFFEEEE
Some songs have
been modified to
C G F D C–
make them easier
one horse o-pen sleigh. to play on your
keyboard.
Oh what fun it is to ride in a
Let’s play some more songs. Build the circuit shown here (it is similar
to the project 1 circuit, but louder), and turn on the slide switch (S1).
For best song quality, align the blue and green keys together: Turn the
TUNE knob while pressing the blue C key and the green C key at the
same time. Slowly turn the knob across its entire range, and see how
the sound varies. At most TUNE knob positions you will notice
separate tones from the blue and green keys, but there will be a knob
position where the blue and green tones blend together and seem like
a single musical note - this is the best TUNE setting to play songs with.
The blue and green keys are now aligned together.
To play a song, just press the key corresponding with the letter shown.
If there is a “–” after a letter, press the key longer than usual.
Project 361
Be a Loud Musician (II)
Use the preceding circuit and songs, but press both the blue and
green keys for each note, at the same time. Try this with the blue and
green keys aligned (as per project 2), but also try them at different
TUNE knob settings (so the keys are out of alignment.
-151-
London Bridge is Falling Down
G A G F
EF G
DE F
Lon-don Bridge is
G A
G
F
Lon-don Bridge is
fal-ling down,
E F G
D– G–
fal-ling down,
My fair
If You’re happy and You Know It
C C F F F F F F E F
If your’re hap-py
C C
GG
If your’re hap-py
and you know it,
G G
G G
and you know it,
A A A# A# A# A# D D
If you’re hap-py
A# A# G G
If your’re hap-py
and you know it,
G F
E C–
G–
clap your hands.
F G
A–
clap your hands.
A G F F–
And you real-ly want to show it,
D E
F–
clap your hands.
E A G E E
A green and yel-low bas-ket
F FDDFF D D G
la-dy.
A# A# A A
and you know it,
A Tisket, A Tasket
EGEFGE G C
A tis-ket a tas-ket,
E C
E F G
Fal-ling down, fal-ling down.
I wrote a let-ter to my love and
F E D E C–
on the way I dropped it.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 41
Project 362
Transistor Audio
Amplifier
Build the circuit with the speaker (SP2) connected
using the red & black jumper wires. Set the
adjustable resistor (RV) to mid-range, and turn on
the slide switch (S1). Hold the speaker next to your
ear and blow into the microphone (X1), or talk
directly into it with your mouth close to it.
This circuit amplifies your voice and plays it on the
speaker. It should be easy to hear the blowing, but it
may be difficult to understand your voice, because
there isn’t enough amplification and there will be
some distortion. Also, the sound from the speaker
may not be as loud as hearing your voice directly.
Project 363
With headphones it may be
easier to recognize the
difference between the
circuit sound and hearing
your voice directly, than it
had been with the speaker.
!
Transistor Audio
Amplifier (II)
Headphones
(not included)
If you have headphones (not included),
then modify the preceding circuit to match
this one, and connect your headphones to
the audio jack (JA). Set the adjustable
resistor (RV) to mid-range, and set the
500kW adjustable resistor (RV3) for most
comfortable sound level (turn to the left for
higher volume, most of RV3’s range will be
very low volume). Turn on the slide switch
(S1). Blow into the microphone (X1), or talk
directly into it with your mouth close to it.
The sound may not be very loud.
WARNING: Headphones performance varies, so use caution. Start with
low volume, then carefully increase to a comfortable level. Permanent
hearing loss may result from long-term exposure to sound at high volumes.
-152-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 42
Project 364
Build the circuit and turn on the switch (S1). Initially set the lever on the
adjustable resistor (RV) to the left, then move it later to vary the range of
sounds that can be produced. Make your parts using either the water
puddles method (A), the drawn parts method (B), or the pencil parts method
(C). Touch the metal in the jumper wires to your parts and listen to the sound.
Make Your Own Parts
Method A (easy): Spread some water on the table into
puddles of different shapes, perhaps like the ones
shown here. Touch the jumper wires to points at the
ends of the puddles. Small, narrow puddles may not
produce any sound.
Method B (challenging): Use a SHARP pencil (No. 2 lead is best) and draw
shapes, such as the ones here. Draw them on a hard, flat surface. Press hard
and fill in several times until you have a thick, even layer of pencil lead. Touch
the jumper wires to points at the ends of the drawings, then move them across
the drawing to vary the sound. You may get better electrical contact if you wet
the metal with a few drops of water. Wash your hands when finished.
Method C (adult supervision and permission required): Use some doublesided pencils if available, or VERY CAREFULLY break a pencil in half. Touch
the jumper wires to the black core of the pencil at both ends.
Long, narrow shapes
have more resistance
than short, wide ones.
The black core of
pencils is graphite,
the same material
used in the resistors.
-153-
Next, place the loose ends of the jumper
wires in a cup of water, make sure the
metal parts aren’t touching each other.
The water should change the sound.
The pitch may depend on the amount of
water, so see if adding more water to the
cup changes the sound.
Now add salt to the water and stir to
dissolve it. The sound should have
higher pitch now, since
salt water has less
resistance than plain
water.
Don’t drink any water used
here.
Project 365
Color Touch Light
Build the circuit. It doesn’t do anything,
and may appear to be missing
something. It is missing something,
and that something is you.
Touch points A & B with your fingers.
The color LED (D8) may be lit. If isn’t,
then you are not making a good
enough electrical connection with the
metal. Try pressing harder on the
snaps, or wet your fingers with water
or saliva. The LED should be on now.
If it isn’t very bright, then try going into
a dimly lit room.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 43
Project 366
Test Your Hearing
This project requires a smart phone with an internet connection, so you
can download a free app. Find and download a “function generator” app
that can generate sine and square signals. Visit the Snap Circuits® Sound
product page at http://www.elenco.com/downloads/scc350/ to find a few
suggestions.
Set the app for “Sine” function (for a
single tone), start it, and vary the
frequency across the available range.
You can listen to the sound directly on
your smart phone, or use the circuit in
project 242. Set the volume control on
your smart phone (and using RV, if
you are using project 242) so that the
sound is at a comfortable level for
middle frequencies.
See what range of frequency you can
hear. Notice that the sound is loud at
middle frequencies, but low (or no
sound at all) at low or high frequency.
There are two reasons for this:
Project 367
See the Sound
This project requires a smart phone with an internet connection, so you
can download a free app. Find and download an “oscilloscope” app that
lets your smart phone act as an oscilloscope. Visit the Snap Circuits®
Sound product page at http://www.elenco.com/downloads/scc350/ to find
a few suggestions.
An oscilloscope is an instrument that engineers use to actually look at
electrical signals. Constant tones are especially interesting to look at,
because they are repetitive and actually look like a wave.
Start the app and talk
into the smart phone’s
microphone, and watch
your voice on the screen.
Try making a single tone
at different frequencies,
or whistling, or snapping
your fingers.
1. Your hearing ability depends on frequency. Most people can hear
frequencies in the range of 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz, but much better in the
middle of this range than at the low or high ends of it. As you get older
you don’t hear higher frequencies as well, so use the same circuit to
see what range of frequency your grandparents can hear.
2. Your speaker’s ability to produce sound depends on frequency, and it
may not perform as well at low or high frequency. Speakers are only
designed to produce sound in the range that we can hear.
Part B: set the frequency on the function generator app to just below what
you can hear, then change the function from “Sine” to “Square” function
(for a tone with lots of overtones). You should be able to hear it now,
because a signal with overtones has some energy at higher frequencies,
which should be within your hearing range.
Next, use the one of the keyboard (U26) circuits such as projects 186 or
210-211. Make sound with the keyboard and see what it looks like.
Try an echo circuit such as project 214, and see what an echo looks like.
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SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 44
Project 368
This project requires a smart phone with an internet connection, so you can
download a free app. Find and download a “spectrum analyzer” app that
lets your smart phone view the frequency spectrum of a signal. Visit the
Snap
Circuits®
Sound
product
page
at
http://www.elenco.com/downloads/scc350/ to find a few suggestions.
See the Spectrum
A spectrum analyzer is an instrument that engineers use to look at the
frequency content of electrical signals, and shows which frequencies have
the most energy. A pure tone will have all its energy at a single frequency,
while a tone with overtones will have the most energy at the main tone,
but also have energy at multiples of the main tone. A complex sound will
have its energy spread across many frequencies.
Spectrum analyzers usually show data as a chart of energy content versus
frequency. Energy is usually shown in dB (decibels), a logarithmic
measurement, so the strongest frequencies have much more energy than
the weak ones shown. There is always a “noise floor” of background noise,
which can make weak signals difficult to observe.
Start the app and talk into the smart phone’s microphone, and watch the
frequency content of your voice on the screen. Try making a single tone
at different frequencies, or whistling.
Project 369
Next, use the one of the keyboard (U26) circuits such as projects 186, 191, or
210-211. Make sound with the keyboard and see what its frequency content
looks like.
Blinking Colors
Red light is easier for LEDs to produce than
white light. When the red and white LEDs are
connected in parallel (which happens when S2
is pressed), the red LED will dominate because
it turns on more easily.
Build the circuit as shown and turn on
the slide switch (S1). The white and
color LEDs (D6 & D8) are blinking.
Push the press switch (S2). Now the
red LED (D1) is blinking but the white
LED is off.
If you swap the locations of the red
and white LEDs, then the red LED will
be blinking and the white LED will be
off, and pushing the press switch
won’t change anything.
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SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 45
Project 370
Optical Sound
Maker
Build the circuit and turn on the switch (S1). Vary
the amount of light shining into the photoresistor
(RP) to change the sound from the speaker. Wave
your hand over the photoresistor to make music.
At low light levels there will not be any sound.
Note: If the photoresistor is covered or in a very
dark room, the circuit may lock up. If this happens,
increase the light and turn the slide switch off and
on to reset the circuit.
Project 372
Left Right Bright Light
Turn on the slide switch
(S1) and move the
lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV) around.
The color LED (D8) is
bright if the lever is to
the far left or far right,
and dim if the lever is in
the middle.
Project 371
Optical
Strobe Light
Use the preceding circuit, but replace the
speaker with the white LED (D6). Now you
have a light-controlled strobe light!
Project 373 Weird Echo
Turn on the slide
switch (S1). Move
the lever on the
adjustable resistor
(RV) around to vary
the echo.
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SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 46
Project 374
Project 375
Pulsing Light
Photo Pulsing
Echoes
Light Echoes
Build the circuit and turn on the slide
switch (S1). Adjust the red LED (D1)
flash rate using the 500kW adjustable
resistor (RV3), and adjust the echo level
using the adjustable resistor (RV).
Try replacing the red LED (D1) with the
white LED (D6).
Project 376
Remote
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Sound Effects
You need an infrared remote
control for this project, such as
any TV/stereo/DVD remote
control in your home.
Build the circuit and turn on the
switch (S1). Point your remote
control toward the infrared
module (U24) and press any
button to activate sound effects.
Sometimes this circuit may
activate without a remote
control, due to infrared in
sunlight or some room lights. If
this happens, try moving to a
dark room.
You can replace the red LED
(D1) with the white LED (D6).
Use the preceding circuit, but replace
the 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3)
with the photoresistor (RP). Now the
LED flash rate is controlled by
adjusting the amount of light shining
into the photoresistor.
Project 377
Funky Sound
Effects
Use the preceding circuit, but replace
the red LED (D1) with the color LED
(D8). The circuit makes noise when
you turn on the slide switch (S1), and
activating the infrared module (U24)
with your remote control adds
additional effects.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 47
Project 378
Fiber Optic Echo
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear cable holder on the white LED
(D6) and the black cable holder on the phototransistor (Q4), then place the
fiber optic cable into the holders as far as it will go. For best performance
the cable should stand straight up in the holders, without bending them.
Clear
Turn on slide switch (S1) and you hear weird sounds from the speaker
(SP2). Move the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV) around and see
if you can notice a difference in the echoes.
Black
Project 379
Clear
Fiber Strobe Echo
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear cable holder on
the white LED (D6) and the black cable holder on the
phototransistor (Q4), then place the fiber optic cable into the
holders as far as it will go. For best performance the cable
should stand straight up in the holders, without bending them.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and vary the amount of light
shining into the photoresistor (RP). You hear sound from the
speaker (SP2). Move the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV)
around to vary the amount of echo on the sound.
Note: The circuit may not work at low light levels on RP. If
this happens, increase the light to RP, and turn the slide
switch off and on to reset the circuit.
Black
Try replacing the photoresistor with the 500kW adjustable
resistor (RV3) and move its knob to adjust the sound, but
there will only be sound over the leftmost of RV3’s adjustment
range. If the circuit stops working, set RV3’s knob to the far
left, and turn the slide switch off and on to reset the circuit.
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SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 48
Project 380
Clear
Daylight Color Fiber
Echo
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear cable holder on the color LED
(D8) and the black cable holder on the phototransistor (Q4), then place
the fiber optic cable into the holders as far as it will go. For best
performance the cable should stand straight up in the holders, without
bending them.
Turn on slide switch (S1) and vary the amount of light shining into the
photoresistor (RP). You hear sound from the speaker (SP2), unless
there is no light on the photoresistor. Move the lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV) around to vary the amount of echo on the sound.
Black
Project 381
3 Tones
Build the circuit and
turn on the slide switch
(S1). Move the lever on
the adjustable resistor
(RV) to vary one tone,
press the green keys to
make a second tone,
and press the blue keys
to make a 3rd tone.
Turn the TUNE knob on
the keyboard (U26) to
adjust the tone of the
green keys.
-159-
Project 382
Another
3 Tones
Use the preceding circuit, but add the
0.1mF capacitor (C2) or the 1mF
capacitor (C7) over the keyboard (U26)
using a 1-snap wire, as shown. The
pitch of the green keys is lower now.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 49
Project 383
Tone Speed Changer
Set the 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3) to mid-range, turn OFF the
left slide switch (S1), and then turn on the right slide switch. Now
turn on the left slide switch, you hear a beep signaling that you are
recording. Wait for the second beep (about 10 seconds), which
signals that recording is finished. Push the press switch (S2) to play
back the recording, and turn the knob on RV3 to change the
playback speed. You can play your recording faster or slower by
changing the setting on RV3.
Recording time is 6 seconds at normal speed, but this can be
changed depending on the setting of RV3 when you are making the
recording. You won’t hear the tone when it is being recorded; you
only hear it during playback.
Project 384
Replace the 5.1kW resistor (R3) with the 100W resistor (R1), 100kW
resistor (R5), or photoresistor (RP) to vary the frequency of the tone
being recorded.
Light Echo
Turn on the slide switch (S1), and push the press switch (S2). The red
LED (D1) is on while S2 is pressed, and the white LED (D6) flashes.
The adjustable resistor (RV) controls how long the white LED flashes
for, controlling the “echo” of the light.
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SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 50
Project 385
Fiber Keyboard Control
Black
Clear
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear cable holder on the white
LED (D6) and the black cable holder on the phototransistor (Q4),
then place the fiber optic cable into the holders as far as it will go.
For best performance the cable should stand straight up in the
holders, without bending them.
Turn on the lower slide switch (S1) and press some of the green
keys on the keyboard (U26). Then turn on the upper slide switch
to activate the fiber optic cable, and also press some of the green
keys.
Next, replace the color LED (D8) with the photoresistor (RP) and
vary the light shining on it. Turn on both S1 switches and press
some of the green keys.
Project 386
Black
Clear
-161-
Fiber Optic Feedback
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear cable holder on
the color organ (U22) and the black cable holder on the
phototransistor (Q4), then place the fiber optic cable into
the holders as far as it will go. For best performance the
cable should stand straight up in the holders, without
bending them.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and press some of the green
& blue keys on the keyboard (U26). Try this at different
settings on the 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3).
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 51
Project 387
Funky Fiber Feedback
Clear
Black
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear cable holder on
the color organ (U22) and the black cable holder on the
phototransistor (Q4), then place the fiber optic cable into
the holders as far as it will go. For best performance the
cable should stand straight up in the holders, without
bending them.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and press some of the green
& blue keys on the keyboard (U26) to get interesting light
and sound effects.
Project 388
3 Tones & Light
Build the circuit and turn on the slide switch (S1). Move the lever
on the adjustable resistor (RV) to vary one tone, press the green
keys to make a second tone, and press the blue keys to make a
3rd tone. Turn the TUNE knob on the keyboard (U26) to adjust
the tone of the green keys.
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SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 52
Project 389
LED Attachments
Project 390
LED Attachments
-163-
Build the circuit, which is similar to project 35 (Dance
to the Music). Connect a music device (not included)
to the color organ (U22) as shown, and start music on
it. Place one of the LED attachments over the light on
the color organ. Set the lever on the adjustable
resistor (RV), and the volume control on your music
device, for best sound quality and light effects. The
color organ light will “dance” in synch with the music.
For the next part, you need the color organ light to be
changing slowly. Set your music device to play a song
with a slow beat, and set the volume control on it so
the sound is not too loud or too soft.
MP3
player
MP3
player
Light Dance Audio Override
Now blow on the microphone (X1) or talk loud directly
into it. The dancing light pattern should be interrupted
by your blowing/talking. If you don’t notice any
difference then lower the volume control on your music
device. Songs with a slower beat work best for this.
Light Dance Light Override
Build the circuit, which is similar to project 35
(Dance to the Music). Connect a music device
(not included) to the color organ (U22) as shown,
and start music on it. Place one of the LED
attachments over the light on the color organ.
Cover the phototransistor (Q4) with your hand
and set the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV),
and the volume control on your music device, for
best sound quality and light effects. The color
organ light will “dance” in synch with the music.
Uncover the phototransistor and shine a bright
light on it. The color organ light will stop changing
until you re-cover the phototransistor. The music
will not be affected.
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 53
Project 391
Crazy Circuit
Build the circuit as shown. Place the clear cable
holder on the color organ (U22) and the black
cable holder on the phototransistor (Q4), then
place the fiber optic cable into the holders as far
as it will go. For best performance the cable
should stand straight up in the holders, without
bending them.
Black
Turn on the right slide switch (S1). The adjustable
resistor (RV) controls the motor speed. Press
some of the green & blue keys on the keyboard
(U26) to get interesting sound and light effects.
Try it with the left slide switch both on and off, and
see how the effects change.
Project 392
Clear
The 100kW resistor (R5) is used as a 1-snap here
(supporting RV), and is only connected on one
side.
Tone Speed Adjuster
Set the 500kW adjustable resistor (RV3) to mid-range, turn OFF the left
slide switch (S1), and then turn on the right slide switch. Now turn on
the left slide switch, you hear a beep signaling that you are recording.
Move the lever on the adjustable resistor (RV) around until you hear a
second beep (about 10 seconds), which signals that recording is
finished. Push the press switch (S2) to play back the recording, and turn
the knob on RV3 to change the playback speed.
In this circuit there are two ways to adjust the tone speed: using the
lever on RV while you are recording, and using the knob on RV3 during
playback. Try both methods separately, and then together.
Recording time is 6 seconds at normal speed, but this can be changed
depending on the setting of RV3 when you are making the recording.
You won’t hear the tone when it is being recorded; you only hear it
during playback.
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SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 54
OTHER SNAP CIRCUITS® PRODUCTS!
For a listing of local toy retailers who carry Snap Circuits® visit www.elenco.com or call us toll-free at 800-533-2441. For Snap Circuits®
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Contains over 75 parts
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-165-
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SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 55
-166-
SCC-350_Manual_Part_C.qxp 7/25/14 2:11 PM Page 56
SCC-350 Light & Sound Combo Block Layout
Important: If any parts are missing or damaged, DO NOT RETURN TO RETAILER.
Call toll-free (800) 533-2441 or e-mail us at: help@elenco.com. Customer Service ● 150 Carpenter Ave.
Wheeling, IL 60090 U.S.A. Note: A complete parts list is on pages 2, 3, and 4 in this manual.
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