Flow Measurement SITRANS F M ■ System information SITRANS F M

Flow Measurement SITRANS F M ■ System information SITRANS F M
© Siemens AG 2011
Flow Measurement
SITRANS F M
System information SITRANS F M
electromagnetic flowmeters
SITRANS F M diagnostics
■ Function
B = Magnetic flux density which permeates the flowing medium
perpendicular to the flow direction.
The diagnostic functions are all internal tools in the meter:
• Identification in clear text and error log
• Error categories: function; warning; permanent and fatal
errors
• Transmitter self-check including all outputs and the accuracy
• Sensor check: coil and electrode circuit test
• Overflow
• Empty pipe: partial filling; low conductivity; electrode fouling
v = flow velocity of medium
SITRANS F M Verificator (MAG 5000 and 6000 )
d = internal diameter of metering tube
The SITRANS F M Verificator is an external tool designed for
MAG 5000 and MAG 6000 with MAG 1100, MAG 1100 F,
MAG 3100, MAG 3100 P or MAG 5100 W sensors to verify the
entire product, the installation and the application.
All electromagnetic flowmeters are based on Faraday’s law of induction:
UM = B ⋅ v ⋅ d ⋅ k
UM = Measured voltage induced in the medium perpendicular to
the magnetic field and the flow direction. The voltage is tapped
at two point electrodes.
k = proportionality factor or sensor constant
Sensor
4
The goal is to improve operation, reduce downtime and maintain
measurement accuracy as long as possible.
The SITRANS F M Verificator is highly advanced and carries out
the complex verification and performance check of the entire
flowmeter system, according to unique Siemens patented principles. The whole verification test is automated and easy to operate so there is no opportunity for human error or influence. The
system is traceable to international standards and tested by
WRc (Water Research Council).
UM
V
d
B
Function and measuring principle of electromagnetic measurement
An electromagnetic flowmeter generally consists of a magnetically non-conducting metering tube with an internal electrically
non-conducting surface, magnet coils connected in series and
mounted diametrically on the tube, and at least two electrodes
which are inserted through the pipe wall and are in contact with
the measured medium. The magnet field coils through which the
current passes generate a pulsed electromagnetic field with the
magnetic flux density B perpendicular to the pipe axis.
This magnetic field penetrates the magnetically non-conducting
metering tube and the medium flowing through it, which must
have a minimum electrical conductivity.
According to Faraday’s law of induction, a voltage UM is generated in an electrically conducting medium, and is proportional to
the flow velocity v of the medium, the magnetic flux density B,
and the distance between the electrodes d (internal diameter of
pipe).
The signal voltage UM is tapped by the electrodes which are in
contact with the medium, and passed through the insulating
pipe wall. The signal voltage UM which is proportional to the flow
velocity is converted by an associated transmitter into appropriate standard signals such as 4 to 20 mA.
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Siemens FI 01 · 2012
SITRANS F M Verificator
• Stand alone Verificator to measure a number of selected parameters in the flow sensor and a transmitter which affects the
integrity of the flow measurement
• Up to 20 measurements can be stored in the Verificator
• The Verificator can be connected via a serial cable to a PC enabling download of the data. A Windows program enables
printing and management of verificator reports.
Verification - Steps
Verification of a SITRANS F M flowmeter consists of the following
test routines:
1. Transmitter test
2. Flowmeter and cable insulation test
3. Sensor magnetism test
© Siemens AG 2011
Flow Measurement
SITRANS F M
System information SITRANS F M
electromagnetic flowmeters
1. Transmitter test
The transmitter test is the traditional way of on-site testing on the
market and checks the complete electronic system from signal
input to output.
Transmitter test
Using the excitation power output, which is generated to drive
the magnetic field of the sensor, the verificator simulates flow
signal to the transmitter input. By measuring the transmitter outputs the verificator calculates its accuracy against defined values. Test includes:
• Excitation power to drive the magnetic field
• Signal function from signal input to output
• Signal processing – gain, offset and linearity
• Test of analogue and frequency output
The verification of the sensor magnetism is a "boost" test of the
magnetic field coil. The test ensures that the magnetism behaviour is like the first time, by comparing the current sensor magnetism with the "fingerprint" which was determined during initial
calibration and stored in the SENSORPROM memory unit.
In the "boost" test the verificator changes the magnetic field in
certain pattern and with high voltage to get quick stable magnetic condition. This unique test is fulfilled without any interference or compensation of surrounding temperature or interconnecting cabling.
• Changes in dynamic magnetic behaviour
• Magnetic influence inside and outside the sensor
• Missing or poor coil wire and cable connection
Certificate
The test certificate generated by a PC contains:
• Test result with passed or failed
• Installation specification
• Flowmeter specification and configuration
• Verificator specification with date of calibration ensuring
traceability to international standards.
2. Insulation test
Flowmeter insulation test
The verification test of the flowmeter insulation is a „cross talk“
test of the entire flowmeter which ensures that the flow signal
generated in the sensor is not affected by any external influences.
In the "cross-talk" test the verificator generates a high voltage
disturbance within the coil circuit and then looks for any "crosstalk" induced in the flow signal circuit. By generating dynamic
disturbances close-coupled to the flow signal, the flowmeter is
tested for noise immunity to a maximum level:
• EMC influence on the flow signal
• Moisture in sensor, connection and terminal box
• Non-conductive deposit coating the electrodes within the sensor
• Missing or poor grounding, shielding and cable connection.
3. Sensor magnetism test
Order No.
Description
SITRANS F M Verificator
Sensor magnetism test
• 11 ... 30 V DC, 11 ... 24 V AC, 115 ... 230 V, 50 Hz
FDK-083F5060
• 11 ... 30 V DC, 11 ... 24 V AC, 115 ... 230 V, 60 Hz
FDK-083F5061
Note:
It is mandatory to have the Verificator returned to the factory
once a year for check and re-verification.
Siemens FI 01 · 2012
4/23
4
© Siemens AG 2011
Flow Measurement
SITRANS F M
System information SITRANS F M
electromagnetic flowmeters
■ Technical specifications
Siemens offers accredited calibrations assured to ISO 17025 in
the flow range from 0.0001 m³/h to 10 000 m³/h.
Siemens Flow Instruments accredited laboratories are recognized by ILAC MRA (International Laboratory Accreditation Corporation - Mutual Recognition Arrangement) ensuring international traceability and recognition of the test results worldwide.
Flowmeter Calibration and traceability
To ensure continuous accurate measurement, flowmeters must
be calibrated. The calibration is conducted at Siemens flow facilities with traceable instruments referring directly to the physical unit of measurement according to the International System of
Units (SI).
A calibration certificate is shipped with every sensor and calibration data are stored in the SENSORPROM memory unit.
Therefore, the calibration certificate ensures recognition of the
test results worldwide, including the US (NIST traceability).
Flowmeter uncertainty
MAG 5000 with MAG 1100, MAG 1100 F, MAG 5100 W, MAG 3100, MAG 3100 P
and MAG 6000 with MAG 1100 (PFA), MAG 1100 F (PFA)
Flowmeter uncertainty
[±% E]
3.0
4
2.8
V: Flow velocity
E: Meter uncertainty as a percentage of measured value
v ≥ 0.1 m/s (0.3 ft/s) --> E: ± 0.4 ± 1 mm/s *
v < 0.1 m/s (0.3 ft/s) --> E: ± (0.25/v) % of measured value
2.6
2.4
2.2
2.0
* MAG 5100 W (Order No. 7ME652...) with DN 350 ... 1200
v ≥ 0.1 m/s (0.3 ft/s) --> E: ± 0.4 ± 2 mm/s
v < 0.1 m/s (0.3 ft/s) --> E: ± (0.25/v) % of measured value
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
[m/s]
0
3.3
6.6
9.9
13
16
20
23
26
30
33
36
39
[ft/s]
MAG 6000 and MAG 6000 I with MAG 1100 (not PFA), MAG 1100 F (not PFA), MAG 5100 W, MAG 3100 and MAG 3100 P
[±% E]
Flowmeter uncertainty
1.4
V: flow velocity
E: meter uncertainty as a percentage of measured value
v ≥ 0.1 m/s (0.3 ft/s) --> E: ± 0.2 ± 1 mm/s *
v < 0.1 m/s (0.3 ft/s) --> E: ± (0.125/v) % of measured value *
1.2
* MAG 5100 W (Order No. 7ME652...) with DN 350 ... 1200
v ≥ 0.1 m/s (0.3 ft/s) --> E: ± 0.2 ± 2.5 mm/s
v < 0.1 m/s (0.3 ft/s) --> E: ± (0.25/v) % of measured value
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0
0
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Siemens FI 01 · 2012
1
3.3
2
6.6
3
9.9
4
13
5
16
6
20
7
23
8
26
9
30
10
33
11
36
12
39
[m/s]
[ft/s]
© Siemens AG 2011
Flow Measurement
SITRANS F M
System information SITRANS F M
electromagnetic flowmeters
Reference conditions
Reference conditions (ISO 9104 and DIN EN 29104)
Temperature medium
20 °C ± 10 K (68 °F ± 18 °F)
Temperature ambient
25 °C ± 10 K (77 °F ± 18 °F)
Supply voltage
Un ± 1 %
Warming-up time
30 minutes
Incorporation in conductive pipe
section
• Inlet section
10 x DN (DN ≤ 1200/48”)
5 x DN (DN > 1200/48“)
• Outlet section
5 x DN (DN ≤ 1200/48”)
3 x DN (DN > 1200/48“)
Flow conditions
Developed flow profile
Additions in the event of deviations from reference conditions
Current output
4
As pulse output (± 0.1 % of actual
flow + 0.05 % FSO)
Effect of ambient temperature
• Display / frequency / pulse output
< ± 0.003 %/K act.
• Current output
< ± 0.005 %/K act.
Effect of supply voltage
< 0.005 % of measuring value on
1% change
Repeatability
± 0.1 % of actual flow for
v ≥ 0.5 m/s (1.5 ft/s) and conductivity > 10 μS/cm
Certificates
• EN 10204 2.1
Certificate of conformity, stating
that the delivered parts are made
of the material quality that was
ordered
• EN 10204 2.2
Test report certificate, a non
batch specific material analysis of
the ordered material
• EN 10204 3.1
Material analysis certificate, a
batch specific analysis of the
material issued by an independent inspector
Siemens FI 01 · 2012
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© Siemens AG 2011
Flow Measurement
SITRANS F M
System information SITRANS F M
electromagnetic flowmeters
■ Technical specifications
General specifications
4
IS (Intrinsic Safety) data
PROFIBUS device profile
3.00 Class B
Required sensor electronics
Certified
Yes, according to Profile for process
control devices v3.00.
Compact or remote mounted
SITRANS F M MAG 6000 I Ex de
FISCO
Yes
MS0 connections
1
Max. UI
17.5 V
MS1 connections
1
Max. II
380 mA
MS2 connections
2
Max. PI
5.32 V
Electrical specification DP
Max. LI
0 μH
Physical layer specifications
Max. CI
0 nF
Applicable standard
EN 50170 vol. 2
Physical Layer (Transmission
technology)
RS 485
Transmission speed
Number of stations
Loop resistance RC
15 ... 150 Ω/km
Loop inductance LC
0.4 ... 1 mH/km
≤ 1.5 Mbits/s
Capacitance CC
80 ... 200 nF/km
Up to 32 per line segment, (maximum
total of 126)
Max. Spur length in IIC and IIB
30 m
Max. Trunk length in IIC
1 km
Max. Trunk length in IIB
5 km
Cable specification (Type A)
Cable design
Two-wire twisted pair
Shielding
CU shielding braid or shielding braid
and shielding foil
Impedance
35 up to 165 Ω at frequencies from
3 ... 20 MHz
Cable capacity
< 30 pF per meter
Core diameter
> 0.34 mm², corresponds to AWG 22
Resistance
< 110 Ω per km
Signal attenuation
Max. 9 dB over total length of line section
Max. bus length
FISCO cable requirements
PROFIBUS parameter support
The following parameters are accessible using a MS0 relationship from a Class 1 Master.
MS0 specifies cyclic Data Exchange between a Master and a
Slave.
Cyclic services:
Input (Master view)
Parameter
MAG 6000/MAG 6000 I
Mass flow
Volume flow
✓
Temperature
200 m at 1500 kbit/s, up to 1.2 km at
93.75 kbit/s. Extendable by repeaters
Density
Electrical specification PA
Fraction A1)
Physical layer specifications
Fraction B1)
Applicable standard
EN 50170
Pct Fraction A1)
Physical Layer (Transmission
technology)
IEC-61158-2
Totalizer 1
✓
Totalizer 22)
✓
Transmission speed
31.25 Kbits/second
Batch progress2)
✓
Number of stations
Up to 32 per line segment, (maximum
total of 126)
Batch setpoint
✓
Batch compensation
✓
Batch status (running ...)
✓
Max. basic current [IB]
14 mA
Fault current [IFDE]
0 mA
Bus voltage
9 ... 32 V (non Ex)
Output (Master view) Set Totalizer 1+2
Preferred cable specification
(Type A)
✓
Set Mode Totalizer 1+2
✓
Batch control
(start, stop ...)
✓
Cable design
Two-wire twisted pair
Conductor area (nominal)
0.8 mm2 (AWG 18)
Batch setpoint
✓
44 Ω/km
Batch compensation
✓
Loop resistance
1)
Requires a SENSORPROM containing valid fraction data.
Value returned is dependent on the BATCH function.
Impedance
100 Ω ± 20 %
Wave attenuation at 39 kHz
3 dB/km
When ON, Batch progress is returned.
Capacitive asymmetry
2 nF/km
When OFF, TOTALIZER 2 is returned.
Bus termination
Passive line termination at both
Max. bus length
Up to 1.9 km. Extendable by repeaters
4/26
Siemens FI 01 · 2012
2)
© Siemens AG 2011
Flow Measurement
SITRANS F M
System information SITRANS F M
electromagnetic flowmeters
Selection of sensor
Metric
m3/h
I/min.
2 · 10 6
100 000
50 000
20 000
0
180
DN 0 0
4
1
DN
0
110
DN 0
0
9
DN
70 0
DN
50 0
DN
00
4
DN
300
DN
10 000
5 000
2 000
1 000
500
200
D
100
0
N20
0
20 0
DN
0
0
16
DN
0
120
DN 0
0
10
DN 0
80
DN
600
DN
450
DN 0
35
N
D
25 0
DN
10 6
2 · 10 4
5 · 10 5
10 4
5 000
2 · 10 5
10 5
2 000
5 · 10 4
1 000
2 · 10 4
150
D N 25
1
DN
10 0
DN N80
D
65
DN
20
200
5000
100
2000
500
50
DN
25
50
DN
15
DN
10
DN
0.1
0.05
D
0.02
5
0.2
0.1
0.05
6
2
N3
DN
1
0.5
10
DN
0.2
2
20
1
0.5
10
5
100
2
20
200
40
DN
4
50
10
5
500
10 4
1000
50
I/s
1
0.02
0.5
0.01
2
0.005
0.01
0.2
0.005
0.1
0.05
0.002
0.002
0.001
0.0005
0.001
0.02
0.0005
0.01
0.005
0.0002
0,05
0.1
0.15 0.2
0.3
0.5
1
1.5
2
5
10 m/s
0.0002
0.0001
0.00005
)ORZYHORFLW\
Sizing table (DN 2 … DN 2000)
The table shows the relationship between flow velocity v, flow
quantity Q and sensor dimension DN.
Guidelines for selection of sensor
Min. measuring range: 0 to 0.25 m/s
Flow velocity calculation formula Units
v = 1273.24 ⋅ Q / DN2 or
v : [m/s], Q : [l/s], DN : [mm]
v = 353.68 ⋅ Q / DN2
v : [m/s], Q : [m3/h], DN : [mm]
Max. measuring range: 0 to 10 m/s
Normally the sensor size is selected so that the nominal flow velocity v lies within the measuring range 1 to 3 m/s.
Link to "Sizing program":
https://pia.khe.siemens.com/index.aspx?nr=11501
Example:
Flow quantity of 50 m3/h and a sensor dimension of DN 80 gives
a flow velocity of 2.7 m/s, which is within the recommended
measuring range of 1 to 3 m/s.
Siemens FI 01 · 2012
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© Siemens AG 2011
Flow Measurement
SITRANS F M
System information SITRANS F M
electromagnetic flowmeters
Imperial
MGD
GPM
1 000
500 000
500
200 000
200
I/min.
2 000 000
1 000 000
500 000
100 000
100
78 "
66"
72 " " 5 4"
0
6
4"
48" 4
"
"
/42 36
"
0
4
30"
"
2
3
4"
28 " 2
8"
"
1
20
4"
"
1
6
1
12 " 10 "
50
20
10
5
2
4
1
50 000
20 000
50 000
5 000
2 000
0.1
0.05
200
0.01
50
2"
100
10
50
20
10
2
5
"
1
0.001
0.5
1/4"
0.0005
200
20
"
1/2
3 /8
1 000
500
5
0.002
2 000
100
1"
0.005
10 000
5 000
1½"
0.02
20 000
1 000
500
6"
5"
4"
3"
"
½
2
0.2
100 000
10 000
8"
0.5
200 000
2
1
0.2
0.0002
0.5
0.0001
"
1/8
0.00005
"
1/12
0.1
0.05
0.02
0.00002
0.01
0.00001
0.005
0.000005
0.2
0.1
0.05
0.002
0.001
0.002
0.000002
0.0005
0.001
0.000001
0.1
0.15 0.2
0.3
0.5
0.8
1
1.5
2
3
5
10
15 20
30 33 f/s
Flow velocity
Sizing table (1/12” … 78”)
The table shows the relationship between flow velocity v, flow
quantity Q and sensor dimension size.
Guidelines for selection of sensor
Min. measuring range: 0 to 0.8 ft/s
Flow velocity calculation formula Units
v = 0.408 ⋅ Q / (Pipe I.D.)2 or
v : [ft/s], Q : [GPM], Pipe I.D. : [inch]
v = 283.67 ⋅ Q / (Pipe I.D.)2
v : [ft/s], Q : [MGD], Pipe I.D. : [inch]
Max. measuring range: 0 to 33 ft/s
Normally the sensor size is selected so that the nominal flow velocity v lies within the measuring range 3 to 10 ft/s.
Example:
Flow quantity of 500 GPM and a sensor dimension of 6" gives a
flow velocity of 5.6 ft/s, which is within the recommended measuring range of 3 to 10 ft/s.
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Siemens FI 01 · 2012
Link to "Sizing program":
https://pia.khe.siemens.com/index.aspx?nr=11501
© Siemens AG 2011
Flow Measurement
SITRANS F M
System information SITRANS F M
electromagnetic flowmeters
Installation conditions
Vibrations
For partially filled pipes or pipes with downward flow and free
outlet the flowmeter should be located in a U-Tube.
Strong vibrations should be avoided.
In applications with strong vibrations, remote mounting of the
transmitter is recommended.
Install in U-tubes when pipe is partially filled
Installation in vertical pipes
Recommended flow direction: upwards. This minimizes the
effect on the measurement of any gas/air bubbles in the liquid.
The sensor must always be completely filled with liquid.
Install in vertical pipes with upward flow direction
Installation in horizontal pipes
Install in pipelines which are always full
The sensor must always be completely filled with liquid. Therefore avoid:
• Installation at the highest point in the pipe system
• Installation in vertical pipes with free outlet
The sensor must be mounted as shown in the below figure. Do
not mount the sensor as shown in the lower figure. This will position the electrodes at the top where there is possibility for air
bubbles and at the bottom where there is possibility for mud,
sludge, sand etc.
Do not install in pipelines which can run empty
Siemens FI 01 · 2012
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4
© Siemens AG 2011
Flow Measurement
SITRANS F M
System information SITRANS F M
electromagnetic flowmeters
Measuring abrasive liquids and liquids containing particles
Recommended installation is in a vertical/inclined pipe to minimize the wear and deposits in the sensor.
Potential equalization
Potential equalization
4
Install in vertical pipelines with upward flow direction if measuring abrasive liquids
Inlet and outlet conditions
min. 5 x Di
min. 3 x Di
The electrical potential of the liquid must always be equal to the
electrical potential of the sensor. This can be achieved in different ways depending on the application:
• Wire jumper between sensor and adjacent flange (MAG 1100,
MAG 3100)
• Direct metallic contact between sensor and fittings
(MAG 1100 F)
• Build-in grounding electrodes (MAG 3100, MAG 5100 W)
• Optional grounding/protection flanges/rings (MAG 1100,
MAG 3100, MAG 8000)
• Optional graphite gaskets on MAG 1100 (standard for
MAG 1100 High Temperature)
• MAG 8000 installed in plastic or coated pipes: two grounding
rings to be used.
Grounding
Installation between elbows, pumps and valves: standard inlet and outlet
pipe sections
To achieve maximum accurate flow measurement it is essential
to have straight length of inlet and outlet pipes and a certain distance between the flowmeter and pumps or valves.
It is also important to center the flowmeter in relation to pipe
flange and gaskets.
MAG 3100 (not PTFE), MAG 5100 W: with earthing electrodes in conductive and non-conductive pipes (no further action necessary)
M6 x 16
Ambient temperature-Installation
Temperature changes can cause expansion or contraction in the
pipe system. To avoid damage on the sensor use of proper gasket and torque should be ensured. For more information see sensor instruction.
MAG 1100, MAG 3100 (PTFE): without earthing electrodes in conductive
pipes (MAG 1100 use graphite gasket)
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Siemens FI 01 · 2012
© Siemens AG 2011
Flow Measurement
SITRANS F M
System information SITRANS F M
electromagnetic flowmeters
Δp [psi] Δp [mbar]
0.5
100
1.50
0.75
0.60
50
40
0.45
30
0.30
20
0.15
10
Without earthing electrodes in non-conductive pipes use grounding ring
(MAG 1100 use graphite gasket)
MAG 1100 F grounding via process connections. MAG 8000
grounding see MAG 8000 pages.
0.075
0.060
5
4
0.045
3
0.030
2
0.015
1
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
V=8 m/s
[25 ft/sec.]
V=7 m/s
[23 ft/sec.]
V=6 m/s
[20 ft/sec.]
V=5 m/s
[16 ft/sec.]
Vacuum
Avoid a vaccum in the measuring pipe, because this can damage certain
liners.
0.0075
0.0060
0.5
0.4
0.0045
0.3
0.0030
0.2
0.0015
0.1
1
V=4 m/s
[13 ft/sec.]
V=3 m/s
[10 ft/sec.]
V=2 m/s
[6 ft/sec.]
V=1.5 m/s
[5 ft/sec.]
V=1 m/s
[3 ft/sec.]
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
1
0.9
d1 /d2
Installation in large pipes
Pressure drop as function of diameter reduction between reducers
Example:
α ≤ 8°
d2
d1
α
Flow velocity (v) of 3 m/s (10 ft/s) in a sensor with a diameter reduction DN 100 (4”) to DN 80 (3”) (d1/d2 = 0.8) gives a pressure
drop of 2.9 mbar (0.04 psi).
Ambient temperature
Ambient temp.
C° (F°)
Reduction in nominal pipe diameter
60 (140)
The flowmeter can be installed between two reducers (e.g.
DIN 28545). Assuming that at 8° the following pressure drop
curve applies. The curves are applicable to water.
50 (122)
MAG 6000 I/MAG 6000 I Ex de
MAG 5000/6000
40 (104)
30 (86)
20 (68)
10 (50)
Temperature
of medium
0 (32)
50
(122
75
167
100
212
125
257
150 C°
302 F°)
Max. ambient temperature as a function of temperature of medium
The transmitter can be installed either compact or remote.
With compact installation the temperature of medium must be
according to the graph.
Siemens FI 01 · 2012
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4
© Siemens AG 2011
Flow Measurement
SITRANS F M
System information SITRANS F M
electromagnetic flowmeters
Sensor cables and conductivity of medium
Note
For detection of empty pipe the minimum sensor conductivity
must always be ≥ 20 μS/cm and the maximum length of electrode cable when remotely mounted is 50 m (150 ft). Special
shield cable must be used.
For DN 2, DN 3 or for 19" safety barrier remote mounting in
Ex applications special cable cannot be used, empty sensor
cannot be detected and the conductivity must be ≥ 30 μS/cm.
For remote mounted CT installations the maximum cable length
is 200 m (600 ft).
Compact installation:
Liquids with an electrical conductivity ≥ 5 μS/cm.
4
Remote installation
Standard cable
[μS/cm]
300
200
Conductivity
of medium
100
5
5
300 [m]
200
100
150 300
600
Cabel length
900
[ft]
Minimum conductivity of medium (using standard electrode cable)
Special cable
[μS/cm]
50
40
Conductivity
of medium
30
20
10
5
50 100
200
150 300 600
300
400
500
900 1200 1500
[m]
[ft]
Cable length
Minimum conductivity of medium (using special electrode cable)
4/32
Siemens FI 01 · 2012
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