Behringer | TUBE ULTRA-QT1951 | User`s manual | Behringer TUBE ULTRA-QT1951 User`s manual

Version 1.1
November 2001
TUBE ULTRA-Q®
www.behringer.com
ENGLISH
T1951
User’s Manual
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
CAUTION:
To reduce the risk of electric shock, do not remove
the cover (or back). No user serviceable parts inside;
refer servicing to qualified personnel.
WARNING: To reduce the risk of fire or electric shock, do not
expose this appliance to rain or moisture.
This symbol, wherever it appears,
alerts you to the presence of
uninsulated dangerous voltage inside
the enclosure—voltage that may be
sufficient to constitute a risk of shock.
This symbol, wherever it appears, alerts
you to important operating and maintenance instructions in the accompanying
literature. Read the manual.
DETAILED SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS:
All the safety and operation instructions should be read before the appliance is operated.
Retain Instructions:
The safety and operating instructions should be retained for future reference.
Heed Warnings:
All warnings on the appliance and in the operating instructions should be adhered to.
Follow instructions:
All operation and user instructions should be followed.
Water and Moisture:
The appliance should not be used near water (e.g. near a bathtub, washbowl, kitchen sink, laundry tub, in a wet
basement, or near a swimming pool etc.).
Ventilation:
The appliance should be situated so that its location or position does not interfere with its proper ventilation.
For example, the appliance should not be situated on a bed, sofa, rug, or similar surface that may block the
ventilation openings, or placed in a built-in installation, such as a bookcase or cabinet that may impede the
flow of air through the ventilation openings.
Heat:
The appliance should be situated away from heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other
appliances (including amplifiers) that produce heat.
Power Source:
The appliance should be connected to a power supply only of the type described in the operating instructions
or as marked on the appliance.
Grounding or Polarization:
Precautions should be taken so that the grounding or polarization means of an appliance is not defeated.
Power-Cord Protection:
Power supply cords should be routed so that they are not likely to be walked on or pinched by items placed
upon or against them, paying particular attention to cords and plugs, convenience receptacles and the point
where they exit from the appliance.
Cleaning:
The appliance should be cleaned only as recommended by the manufacturer.
Non-use Periods:
The power cord of the appliance should be unplugged from the outlet when left unused for a long period of time.
Debris and Liquid Entry:
Care should be taken that debris and/or liquids do not enter the enclosure through openings.
Damage Requiring Service:
The appliance should be serviced by qualified service personnel when:
- The power supply cord or the plug has been damaged; or
- Debris or liquid has entered the appliance; or
- The appliance has been exposed to rain; or
- The appliance does not appear to operate normally or exhibits a marked change in performance; or
- The appliance has been dropped, or the enclosure damaged.
Servicing:
The user should not attempt to service the appliance beyond that which is described in the operating instructions. All other servicing should be referred to qualified service personnel.
2
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
FOREWORD
Dear Customer,
We thank you for expressing your confidence in BEHRINGER products by purchasing the BEHRINGER
TUBE ULTRA-Q. It is one of my most pleasant tasks to write this preface, as our engineering team has made
it possible to enhance the traditional tube circuitry design (particularly for our VINTAGER series of products),
and adapt it to meet the high sound quality and dynamics requirements of modern, pro-level audio technology.
The fact that we are still fascinated by “antique” tube radios and amps as well as the fine and warm tonal
character that we usually associate with them, are the reasons why vacuum tubes have kept their ground even
in state-of-the-art circuit topologies used especially in professional audio technology or high-end devices. We
are particularly proud that we have found an extremely effective symbiosis between solid-state and tube
technologies making them affordable to anybody interested in audio technology. As always, our top-priority
concern when developing this device was the demanding end user, in other words: you. It was our major goal
to meet your demands. Sure, it meant a lot of hard work to develop such a product, but the fun has made it all
worthwhile. The shine in the eyes of the many interested musicians at the Music Fair 1997, when they saw our
VINTAGER models for the first time, was a lasting incentive driving our development efforts.
It is our philosophy to share our joy with you, because you are the most important member of the BEHRINGER
family. With your highly competent suggestions for new products you’ve greatly contributed to shaping our
company and making it successful. In return, we guarantee you uncompromising quality (manufactured under
ISO9000 certified management system) as well as excellent technical and audio properties at an extremely
favorable price. All of this will enable you to fully unfold your creativity without being hampered by budget
constraints.
We are often asked how we can make it to produce such high-grade devices at such unbelievably low prices.
The answer is quite simple: it’s you, our customers! Many satisfied customers means large sales volumes
enabling us to get better conditions of purchase for components, etc. Isn’t it only fair to pass this benefit back
to you? Because we know that your success is our success, too!
I would like to thank all people whose help on “Project TUBE ULTRA-Q” has made it all possible. Everybody
has made very personal contributions, starting from the designers of the unit via the many staff members in our
company to you, the user of BEHRINGER products.
My friends, it’s been worth the trouble!
Thank you very much,
Uli Behringer
3
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
TUBE ULTRA-Q®
2 x 4-Band Parametric Tube Equalizer
T1951
s 4-band parametric stereo equalizer with selected 12AX7 tubes
s ULTRA-TUBE circuitry (UTC) adds desired amount of warmth without additional noise
s Parallel filter architecture ensures minimal phase shifting
s Precision state-variable filters with constant-Q characteristic
s Ultra low-noise 4580 audio operational amplifiers offer outstanding performance
s Switchable shelving filter functions remove unwanted frequencies
s Each band can be bypassed and is fully adjustable from notch filter to broadband equalization
s Broad frequency band overlapping allows extreme boost/attenuation
s High-quality detented potentiometers and switches with vintage-style knobs
s Cut-in delay to avoid switch-on “thumps”
s Relay-controlled hard bypass with auto bypass function in case of power failure
s Servo-balanced gold-plated XLR and 1/4" TRS inputs and outputs
s BEHRINGER’s high-performance OT-1 output transformer retrofitable
s High-quality components and exceptionally rugged construction ensure long life even under the most
demanding conditions
s Manufactured under ISO9000 certified management system
4
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................6
1.1 The concept .................................................................................................................................... 6
1.2 Before you get started ..................................................................................................................... 6
1.3 Control elements ............................................................................................................................. 7
2. OPERATION ............................................................................................................................9
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 9
The TUBE ULTRA-Q in the signal path ........................................................................................... 9
Filter settings .................................................................................................................................. 9
Setting of the tube stage ................................................................................................................ 11
3. APPLICATIONS ..................................................................................................................... 11
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
Filtering out unwanted frequencies ................................................................................................. 11
Shelving filters and “Roll Off” .......................................................................................................... 12
Equalizers as creative audio tools ................................................................................................. 12
The TUBE ULTRA-Q as tube interface ........................................................................................... 14
EQ-ing a P.A. system ................................................................................................................... 14
4. TECHNICAL BACKGROUND .............................................................................................. 16
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
Function ........................................................................................................................................
The “Constant-Q” principle .............................................................................................................
The concept of parallel filters .........................................................................................................
On phase shift and time delay .......................................................................................................
Tubes used in the TUBE ULTRA-Q ................................................................................................
4.5.1 Tube history ........................................................................................................................
4.5.2 Design and functional principle of tubes ..............................................................................
4.5.3 Properties of tubes ..............................................................................................................
4.5.4 The best of both worlds .......................................................................................................
4.5.5 UTC circuit ..........................................................................................................................
4.5.6 Studio applications ..............................................................................................................
16
16
16
17
17
17
18
19
19
20
20
5. INSTALLATION ..................................................................................................................... 21
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
Rack mounting ..............................................................................................................................
Mains voltage ................................................................................................................................
Audio connections ........................................................................................................................
Transformer-balanced outputs (optional) ........................................................................................
21
21
21
22
6. SPECIFICATIONS ................................................................................................................. 23
7. WARRANTY ........................................................................................................................... 24
5
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
1. INTRODUCTION
With the BEHRINGER TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951 you have purchased an innovative device. Parametric equalizers
represent the most advanced form of equalization systems. With the TUBE ULTRA-Q you have purchased an
extremely musical and flexible device. Our ULTRA-Q range of devices has been a hit ever since we introduced
our first model some 5 years ago. This high-end parametric equalizer is based on many years of experience
and findings in equalizer technology and is used throughout the world in renowned studios, sound reinforcement systems as well as in broadcast and television studios. Improving the legendary ULTRA-Q even further
was a real challenge, and we are proud of our success. The BEHRINGER TUBE ULTRA-Q meets highest
requirements in terms of operation, sound, specifications and workmanship.
Even at the conception of the TUBE ULTRA-Q it was clear that we had to combine the outstanding technical
specifications of our ULTRA-Q with a warm tube sound. We are therefore proud to be able to present the
TUBE ULTRA-Q, a device featuring our newly developed UTC vacuum tube circuit combined with a nocompromise approach. The newly developed UTC circuit provides subtle sound enhancement rather than
showy effects processing. In particular, digital workstations can be considerably enhanced in their sound
character. You are free to use the TUBE ULTRA-Q before the recording sessions or later when you mix down
the music you recorded. You can also use it to brighten up entire MIDI productions or even movie sound
recordings and thus give them their finishing touch.
The philosophy behind BEHRINGER products guarantees a no-compromise circuit design and employs the
best choice of components. The op-amps, type 4580, used in the TUBE ULTRA-Q are chosen for their superior
signal-to-noise ratio, low distortion and linear performance. Additionally, the TUBE ULTRA-Q uses high quality
resistors and capacitors with very tight tolerances, high-grade switches as well other selected components.
The TUBE ULTRA-Q is manufactured under ISO900 certified management system.
With the exception of two 12AX7/ECC83 tubes, the TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951 is based on SMD technology
(Surface Mounted Device). These subminiature components known from aerospace applications ensure both
extreme packing density and greater reliability.
+
Please keep the manual after reading, in order to use it for future reference.
1.1 The concept
The heart of the TUBE ULTRA-Q is an extremely low-noise and transparent sounding state-variable filter. In
combination with the Constant-Q principle, the 4580 op-amp and the newly developed ULTRA-TUBE
technology, the TUBE ULTRA-Q achieves extremely low noise and distortion figures together with an
incredible warm sound. With four fully parametric bands, it offers you truly professional signal processing.
In the TUBE ULTRA-Q, two selected 12AX7 / ECC83 vacuum tubes are used. These triodes are capable of
handling a large dynamic range with little microphony. In addition to that their relative ruggedness and above
average life span and you can see why it’s one of the most popular and reliable pre-amp tubes on the market.
These features also ensure you their availability for many years to come.
Failsafe relays have been incorporated into the design of the BEHRINGER TUBE ULTRA-Q, which automatically and silently bypass the unit in the event of power supply disconnection or failure. These relays are
also active at switch-on to isolate the TUBE ULTRA-Q until the power rails have settled, thus preventing the
possibility of a potentially damaging switch-on thump.
1.2 Before you get started
Your BEHRINGER TUBE ULTRA-Q was carefully packed in the factory and the packaging was designed to
protect the unit from rough handling. Nevertheless, we recommend that you carefully examine the packaging
and its contents for any signs of physical damage, which may have occurred in transit.
+
If the unit is damaged, please do not return it to us, but notify your dealer and the shipping
company immediately, otherwise claims for damage or replacement may not be granted.
Shipping claims must be made by the consignee.
The BEHRINGER TUBE ULTRA-Q fits into two standard 19" rack units of space. Please allow at least an
additional 4" / 10 cm depth for the connectors on the back panel.
6
1. INTRODUCTION
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
Be sure that there is enough space around the unit for cooling and please do not place the TUBE ULTRA-Q on
high temperature devices such as power amplifiers etc. to avoid overheating.
+
Before you connect your TUBE ULTRA-Q to the mains, please make sure that your local
voltage matches the voltage required by the unit!
The mains connection of the TUBE ULTRA-Q is made by using a mains cable and a standard IEC receptacle.
It meets all of the international safety certification requirements. Please make sure that all units have a proper
ground connection.
+
Please ensure that only qualified persons install and operate the TUBE ULTRA-Q. During
installation and operation the user must have sufficient electrical contact to earth. Electrostatic charges might affect the operation of the TUBE ULTRA-Q!
For additional information please refer to chapter 5 “INSTALLATION”.
As a standard, the audio inputs and outputs on the TUBE ULTRA-Q are fully balanced. If possible, connect the
unit to other devices in a balanced configuration to allow for maximum interference immunity. The automatic
servo function detects unbalanced connections and compensates the level difference automatically (6 dB
correction).
1.3 Control elements
The BEHRINGER TUBE ULTRA-Q has four parametric filters organized in 4 different frequency bands. A
backlit VU meter shows the input or output level. Each channels comes with a Warmth control, and a tube
window.
Fig. 1.1: Control elements on the front panel
1
The INPUT control determines the input level applied to the device and can be set within a range from
-15 to +15 dB.
2
When the PEAK LED above the INPUT control lights up, it means that a level of at least 18 dBu is
present after the input stage. Adjust the INPUT control so that the PEAK LED lights up only with signal
peaks, make sure that it never lights up all the time. When the PEAK LED is on, there is still some 5 dB
of headroom left.
+
3
Please note that extreme boost settings in combination with a high input level can overload
the unit. In such a case, the input level must be reduced with the INPUT control.
The IN/OUT switch is used to enable/disable the entire equalizer section in the audio path. The switch
uses a relay-controlled hard bypass function, i.e. as long as it is not active or if the unit is switched off,
the inputs are directly connected to the outputs. The IN/OUT switch allows for A/B comparisons
between processed and unprocessed signals.
1. INTRODUCTION
7
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
4
The FREQUENCY control selects the filter’s center frequency, which can be freely chosen within the
frequency range of the associated band.
5
The LEVEL control determines the amount of level boost/cut. The setting range is from -15 to +15 dB.
6
The BANDWIDTH control determines the slope or quality of the filter. Settings from 0.03 (Q = 43) to 2
octaves (Q = 0,67) are possible. A small bandwidth (high Q) means that the only a small portion of the
total frequency range will be affected while a wide bandwidth (low Q) means that a large part will be
affected.
7
With the SHELF/PEAK switch the two outer bands can be switched from parametric (peaking
response) EQ to low and high pass (shelving EQ) filters respectively. Use this feature to eliminate
rumble, plop and breathing noises from the bottom end and noise or hiss from the top end. When
switched to PEAK mode the filters operate identical to the other filters.
8
The individual IN/OUT switches allow for enabling/disabling specific bands in the audio path. Use this
switch to check the influence of the separate filters and to switch unused filters of for maximum signal
integrity.
Fig. 1.2: Control elements on the front panel
9
The WARMTH control determines the amount of harmonics the UTC circuit adds to the signal. This is
the amount of tube sound (“WARMTH”) that is added.
10
The WARMTH meter displays the amount of added harmonics. This controls the amount of harmonics,
or tube sound (“WARMTH”), the UTC circuit adds to the signal.
11
Use the POWER switch to turn the TUBE ULTRA-Q on or off. When switched of the TUBE ULTRA-Q
automatically switches to a hard bypass mode, the signal is then led directly to the outputs.
12
14
13
15
Fig. 1.3: Rear panel elements of the TUBE ULTRA-Q
8
1. INTRODUCTION
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
12
SERIAL NUMBER. Please complete and return the warranty card within 14 days of the date of
purchase. Otherwise, you will lose your right to the extended warranty. Alternatively, you can register
online at our website under www.behringer.com.
13
FUSE HOLDER / VOLTAGE SELECTION. Before connecting the T1951, confirm that the voltage
display matches your local mains voltage. When replacing the fuse, you must always use the same
type. In many units the fuse holder can be installed in one of two positions, allowing you to switch
between 230 V and 115 V. If you wish to operate a unit outside Europe at 115 V, then a stronger fuse
must be used (see chapter 6 “SPECIFICATIONS”). The mains connection is made via the IEC
receptacle. An appropriate mains cable is included.
14
AUDIO IN. These are the audio inputs of your TUBE ULTRA-Q, available both as balanced 1/4" TRS and
XLR connectors.
15
AUDIO OUT. These are the audio outputs of your TUBE ULTRA-Q. Matching 1/4" TRS and XLR
connectors are wired in parallel. The automatic servo function recognizes balanced or unbalanced
connection and automatically compensates for the difference in level (correction 6 dB). The BEHRINGER
OT-1 output transformer is optionally retrofitable.
2. OPERATION
2.1 Introduction
The BEHRINGER TUBE ULTRA-Q gives you a combination of all technical properties both of parametric
equalizers and of narrow-band notch filters. With its excellent audio quality and outstanding specifications it is
simply better than any conventional equalizer. The ULTRA-Q can be used to make up for frequency response
deficiencies and to creatively process any audio material, thus giving you undreamed-of equalization flexibility.
It is a highly efficient and all-purpose tool both in creative audio processing in broadcast and television studios,
in video post-production and on stage. Each of its four bands can be freely adjusted in quality: from extremely
narrow to broad-band. The TUBE ULTRA-Q is superior to graphic equalizers in all respects.
The BEHRINGER TUBE ULTRA-Q uses our newly developed ULTRA-TUBE technology, a development
resulting from two years of intensive research work by our engineering team. The ULTRA-TUBE technology
overcomes the problems related to tube circuitry (see chapter 4) and generates upper harmonics even at low
levels to give your recordings more warmth and power.
2.2 The TUBE ULTRA-Q in the signal path
The best point to insert the TUBE ULTRA-Q in the signal path depends on the task on hand: basically, it can
be inserted in the main mix insert points of your mixing console, subgroup inserts, subgroup outputs, effects
paths or between signal processor(s) and mixing console/power amp, etc.
Due to its 2-channel architecture, you can also insert the TUBE ULTRA-Q in two independent channels of the
mixing console (if available). This way the TUBE ULTRA-Q acts as a high-quality and versatile channel EQ.
Depending on the wiring of the inserts on the console, you either need a special 1/4" stereo insert cable that is
routed to two mono jacks (send & return), or two separate cables for the send and return path. Connect the
insert sends of the subgroups to the inputs on the TUBE ULTRA-Q, and the insert returns to the outputs.
You can even connect the two channels of the TUBE ULTRA-Q in series to make one equalizer with 8 bands!
Connect the output of channel one with the input of channel two. Set the output of channel one as well as the
INPUT control of channel two at 0 dB.
2.3 Filter settings
You may find that getting to know a dual channel processor like the TUBE ULTRA-Q is easier when you
concentrate on one channel first. If you have a mixer, connect the TUBE ULTRA-Q to the insert of one channel
only.
Always start off by setting all controls to neutral. All gain controls at 0 dB and bandwidth wide. This prevents
wasted time looking for non-existent problems or that settings with a gain higher than 0 dB cause problems
2. OPERATION
9
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
like feedback. In live applications uncontrolled feedback can cause damage to loudspeakers and amplifiers.
By means of the INPUT control you can adapt the sensitivity of the TUBE ULTRA-Q to the input level. The
sensitivity can be varied within a range of -15 to +15 dB. Set the INPUT control so that the PEAK LED lights up
only rarely, it should never light up constantly. If the LED lights up it means that the level directly after the
INPUT control is exceeding +18 dBu, this means that there is still approx. 5 dB headroom until the
TUBE ULTRA-Q starts clipping.
+
+
Please note that extreme levels can be achieved with this unit. When a high input level is
combined with an extreme setting or multiple filters boosting the same frequency range, overloading can occur even though the input level was set correctly. This can not be contributed to
a malfunctioning of the unit but is a consequence of the settings that were chosen. If this
occurs please lower the input level or choose less extreme settings.
If extreme equalizer settings are necessary to achieve a usable frequency response, the alarm
bell should start ringing!
The shelving filters
In contrast to graphic equalizers with fixed frequencies and bandwidths you can freely set all filter parameters,
center frequency, bandwidth and gain, with a parametric equalizer. The two outer filters of the TUBE ULTRA-Q
can additionally be switched between shelving (SHELF) and bell characteristic (PEAK).
In the setting SHELF the filter resembles a normal tone control on a hifi amplifier, but with the possibility to alter
the start frequency and the slope of the filter. The frequency can be set within a wide range with the
FREQUENCY control. With the BANDWIDTH control the slope can be altered. When the control is turned
counter-clockwise the slope becomes steeper, turning the other way results in a more gentle slope. The
LEVEL control sets the amount of boost or attenuation. Use the shelving filters to control rumble, plop/
breathing noises and wind or tape hiss. With the freedom to set the frequency, slope and gain, the
TUBE ULTRA-Q can be tailored exactly to your needs giving you much more flexibility than any other standard
low-cut switch.
The parametric filters
When the first and the last filters are set to PEAK, they are identical to the two other filters. In that case the
filters have a peaking response or a “bell” curve. Start by boosting a fairly broad frequency band to locate the
frequency band you want to adjust. It is easier to locate problem frequencies by boosting them first. When the
problem frequency is located you can adjust the bandwidth to isolate the correct range. Now you can cut or
boost this range to suit your needs. The filters are set up in such a way that they cover the entire spectrum from
20 Hz to 20 kHz, while overlapping each other over a wide range. After finding the right setting you can tweak
the setting of each band to achieve maximum results.
During operation you can switch on and off the individual bands to make an A/B comparison between the
equalizer effect and the unprocessed signal. Due to the complex and partly difficult settings of parametric
equalizers such a facility is indispensable. Still, most parametric EQ’s have no band-specific in/out switches
which makes it difficult to keep track of what the various switches and controls do.
Adjusting the overall level
It is possible that you have to correct the overall level after setting the equalizer. It is possible that the effect of
the filters result in a higher or lower level than the original signal. Use the INPUT control to adjust the total level.
You can compare the processed and unprocessed level with the help of the IN/OUT switch.
+
10
Please note that the IN/OUT performs a hardware bypass. The input signal is fed directly to the
output. The INPUT control has no influence.
2. OPERATION
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
Fig. 2.1: Various filter qualities
2.4 Setting of the tube stage
With the settings you have achieved so far a considerable sound improvement can be made. You may not
know this, but you have already benefitted from the tube stage of the TUBE ULTRA-Q. Even when the WARMTH
control is turned fully counter-clockwise, subtle and hardly noticeable warmth and musicality is added to the
signal. You can now drastically increase the effect by turning up the WARMTH control.
With the tube stage featured in the BEHRINGER TUBE ULTRA-Q you can add the typical tube sound with the
WARMTH control. Increasing amounts of upper harmonics generated by the new UTC circuitry are then added
to the signal. This leads to more musical and transparent hights which combine perfectly with the enhancer/
exciter effect, which can perhaps even be reduced a little in favor of the warm tube sound. You can monitor the
amount of WARMTH that is added with a glance at the WARMTH meter.
3. APPLICATIONS
3.1 Filtering out unwanted frequencies
One of the most important tasks of the TUBE ULTRA-Q is the “notching out” of problem frequencies. With
“notching” or “peaking” we describe the specific attenuation of single frequencies or frequency bands. A notch
filter produces an effect that is the opposite of a band-pass filter. Specific frequencies or ranges can be
targeted like hum, rattle or feedback frequencies. Resonance in a room or microphone can be eliminated
effectively.
Fig. 3.1: Typical notch function
3. APPLICATIONS
11
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
Because of the wide overlap possibility of the different filters, the effect of two filters can be added together if so
desired. This way an even greater attenuation or boost can be achieved.
When notching out frequencies try to make the band as small as possible. Always as little as possible but as
much as needed.
3.2 Shelving filters and “Roll Off”
Switching one or two of the outer filters to SHELF enables you to adapt or limit the entire frequency response.
With the LEVEL control you can set the degrees of boost or attenuation, with the BANDWIDTH control the
slope and with FREQUENCY control the frequency from which the slope starts.
Practice has shown how important this feature is, as most acoustic problems are encountered in the extreme
low and high frequency ranges. Typical frequency response, hum or feedback problems must be handled
differently. The additional low and high shelving filters allow for a broad-band correction of the frequency curve,
while the parametric filters can be used to process narrow frequency bands (mains hum, feedback, etc.).
Fig. 3.2: Typical roll-off function
With “roll-off” we usually refer to a limitation of frequency bands by means of high or low pass filters.
If you set the LEVEL control at -15 dB, the BANDWIDTH control fully left and the FREQUENCY control
somewhere between 50 and 100 Hz, you have a very steep low-cut filter. This will eliminate rumble and
breathing noises very effectively without affecting the sound.
At the high cut side you can reduce tape hiss for example. Use this feature with caution however to prevent the
material from becoming muffled or sharp. It is advisable to use a dedicated denoiser like the BEHRINGER
MULTIBAND DENOISER SNR2000 to effectively eliminate tape noise. The TUBE ULTRA-Q is well suited for
in-the-field problem solving when unexpected hiss arises.
3.3 Equalizers as creative audio tools
The TUBE ULTRA-Q is an indispensable audio tool for application in recording studios, stage plays or radio
dramas. You can use it to distort voices, create telephone sounds and filter instruments to make them fit into
the mixdown.
The charts printed below give you some clues as to the acoustic significance of specific frequencies. Please
use them as suggestions for your own experiments with the TUBE ULTRA-Q.
12
3. APPLICATIONS
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
Center frequency (Hz)
1/3 octave
Effects on music
31 to 63
Fundamentals of bass drum, tuba, double bass and organ.
These frequencies give music a sense of power. If overemphasized they make the music "muddy". The 50 or 60
Hz band is also used to reject AC mains hum.
80 to 125
Fundamentals of lower tympani. Too much boost produces
excessive "boom". 100 or 125 Hz are also used for hum
rejection.
160 to 250
Drum and lower bass. Too much boost produces
excessive "boom". Also useful for 3rd harmonic mains hum
rejection.
315 to 500
Fundamentals of strings and percussion.
630 to 1k
Fundamentals and harmonics of strings, keyboards and
percussion. Boosting the 600 to 1 kHz range can make
instruments sound horn-like.
1.25k to 4k
Drums, guitar, accentuation of vocals, strings and bass.
Too much boost in the 1 to 2 kHz range can make
instuments sound tinny. Too much boost anywhere
between 1 to 4 kHz can produce "listening fatigue".
5k to 8k
Accentuation of percussion, cymbals and snare drum.
Reduction at 5 kHz makes overall sound more distant and
transparent. Reduction of tape hiss and system noise. The
1.25 to 8 kHz governs clarity and definition.
10k to 16k
Cymbals and overall brightness. Too much boost causes
sibilance. Reduction of tape hiss and system noise.
Tab. 3.1: Effects of equalization on music reproduction
3. APPLICATIONS
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TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
Center frequency (Hz)
1/3 octave
Effects on voice
40 to 125
Sense of power in some outstanding bass singers.
160 to 250
Voice fundamentals.
315 to 500
Important for voice quality.
630 to 1k
Important for voice naturalness. Too much boost in the 315 to 1 kHz
range produces a telephone-like quality.
1.25k to 4k
Voice fricatives-accentuation of vocals. Important to speech
intelligibility. Too much boost between 2 and 4 kHz can mask certain
speech sounds e.g. "m", "b", and "v" can become indistinguishable.
Too much boost anywhere between 1 and 4 kHz can produce
"listening fatigue". Vocals can be highlighted by slightly boosting the
vocal at 3 kHz and at the same time slightly dipping the instruments
at the same frequency.
5k to 8k
Accentuation of voice. The range from 1.25 to 8 kHz governs the
clarity of voice.
10k to 16k
Too much boost causes sibilance.
Tab. 3.2: Effects of equalization on voice reproduction
+
Use the SHELF function to create a small lift in the upper frequencies, this is especially useful
when using analog tape. Trying to recover lost brilliance is always tricky because you boost
hiss as well. It is better to record bright, you can always mix back the brilliance.
3.4 The TUBE ULTRA-Q as tube interface
If you want to use the TUBE ULTRA-Q purely as tube interface switch off all filters with their respective IN/OUT
switches but keep the master IN/OUT switch engaged.
Now you can add upper harmonics by turning up the WARMTH control. Percussive instruments gain in punch
while instruments that are rich in harmonics like horns gain transparency and brilliance.
Connect your TUBE ULTRA-Q via the channel or subgroup inserts of your mixer. This way you can add tube
sound to selected instruments or groups of instruments. The TUBE ULTRA-Q is also very adapt to processing
the entire mix. You can of course combine the tube and parametric equalizer functions of the TUBE ULTRA-Q.
3.5 EQ-ing a P.A. system
Parametric equalizers can also be combined with conventional graphic equalizers. The application of both is
conceivable in a P.A. system: the graphic equalizer can be used for broad-band corrections of the frequency
response, for example, to simulate a tone control circuit, to adjust the sound of specific speaker systems or to
enhance the low-range response and/or to make up for high-frequency loss caused by room acoustics. The
TUBE ULTRA-Q can then be used for the detailed correction and the notching out of resonances.
Before you insert an equalizer in your sound reinforcement system, you should clearly define its tasks. If you
fail to set up the EQ properly, it might deteriorate the sound image more than if you used no sound-processing
device at all.
In a sound reinforcement system equalizers are used in three major areas of application:
14
1.
Reducing the risk of feedback, while increasing the overall volume level.
2.
Improving the natural sound of music.
3.
Improving the intelligibility of speech.
3. APPLICATIONS
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
It is quite obvious that compromises must be made to meet these requirements. In rooms with poor acoustics
or a high level of background noise, both natural sound and acoustic power can usually not be realized
simultaneously. Priority must be given to one of these quality-improving measures.
However, it should be noted that even a perfectly natural sound is useless if the audience has difficulties
understanding what a speaker says, for example at an election campaign rally!
Before you start equalizing your system it will be useful to play back some music or speech program without
equalization. If the sound is distorted you should first try to eliminate this problem. In order to get a feel for the
room acoustics it might be helpful to “sweep” a sine tone generator over the entire audio range (i.e. the
frequency range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz), which is better than playing back a signal consisting of pink noise, as
it will enable you to identify “weak points” (room resonances, distortion, rattling noise) of both system and
location. In particular, the critical range between 2 and 4 kHz should be tested (if required, use the
TUBE ULTRA-Q as a band-pass filter to limit the frequency range). If you detect any problems, these are
definitely caused by the system itself and should not be fixed with an equalizer!
Finally, use the TUBE ULTRA-Q to fine-tune the system.
+
If extreme equalizer settings are necessary to achieve a usable frequency response, the alarm
bell should start ringing!
This does not mean that such settings should generally not be used, often enough they cannot be avoided if
the room acoustics are poor. Nevertheless, you should always try to change the room acoustics before you
start “tweaking” the response curve drastically.
Once the basic setting has been found, you can fine-tune the system using music and speech signals. If you
own a real-time analyzer (RTA) make sure that the measuring microphone is properly positioned. It should be
placed directly within the dispersion field of the sound system without being disturbed by acoustic characteristics of the room. Avoid placing it behind curtains, less than 1 m away from the walls, or on an open balcony,
as this would impair your measurements.
We recommend that you move the measuring mic on a circular line in front of the stage, so that you can
compare the measured results. In this context it should be made sure that the frequency response diagrams
do not differ excessively from each other. If you encounter any problems, change the position of the measuring
mic or check the system for proper phase.
Please verify that any background noise is at least 6 dB (better 10 dB) lower in level than your operating level;
otherwise you cannot trust your measurements!
Once the system has been adjusted as accurately as possible to yield the desired response curve, walk
around in the audience area and listen to the sound produced at various places. Remember to give your hearing
some pauses during the test and use different music or speech programs, so that you get a feel for the
response characteristics of the sound system.
It takes a lot of time and patience to set up an equalizer properly!
Additionally, you could experiment with a stage or house microphone directly connected to the analyzer, as
this will give you some clues as to local reflections, acoustic resonances and the lateral dispersion characteristics of the speakers. Once the overall adjustment of the sound system has been completed, any further
corrections should not be made on the system itself but in the respective channels of the mixing console, in
particular, when you find that certain microphones are susceptible to feedback.
Inserting an equalizer in the signal path
The best point to insert the TUBE ULTRA-Q in the signal path depends on the task on hand: basically, it can
be inserted in the line insert points of the mixing console, subgroup inserts, subgroup outputs, effect paths or
between signal processor(s) and mixing console/power amp, etc.
If you use a delay line unit (e.g. used in sound systems with additional room speakers) to make up for run-time
differences, the TUBE ULTRA-Q can be inserted either before or after the delay line unit.
If several similar speaker systems are controlled simultaneously (e.g. in a conference room), and if these
systems are positioned at different distances to the stage, you can use a delay line unit with multiple outputs
providing different delay times. In such a case the TUBE ULTRA-Q should be inserted before the delay line
unit.
3. APPLICATIONS
15
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
In complex sound reinforcement systems comprising different speakers located in varying acoustic
environments (e.g. theaters with front speakers, various side-fill speakers and/or balcony speakers) each
single time-delayed channel should be equipped with a separate TUBE ULTRA-Q, as this is the only way to
make provision for varying room acoustic and to adapt the speakers specifically.
What equalizers can’t do
Equalizers are not a miracle cure for poor audio systems, but can be highly useful and efficient audio tools to
musically fine-tune such a system. Fine-tuning often delivers astounding results in terms of acoustic power
and overall sound quality. Equalizers are definitely the most important accessories of your audio system. They
can work wonders when they are used properly, just as the old saying goes:
It’s the tone that makes the music!
4. TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
4.1 Function
Parametric equalizers represent the most advanced form of equalization systems. Basically, the user has
control over the three parameters that define the so-called Gaussian equalization curve: bandwidth, frequency
and amplitude boost/cut. Unlike graphic equalizers which provide a series of adjacent frequency bands to
approach a specific frequency, parametric equalizers allow for selecting a specific frequency directly. They can
be used to realize complex frequency curves with highest precision. Although the acoustic results of specific
equalizer settings cannot be predicted as easily as on graphic equalizers, parametric EQ’s are professional
audio tools of highest quality. It will certainly pay to invest some time to study their functioning principle and get
a feel for the way in which they can be used to modify the program material.
The newly developed UTC circuit provides subtle sound enhancement rather than showy effects processing. In
particular, digital workstations can be considerably enhanced in their sound character. You are free to use the
TUBE ULTRA-Q before the recording sessions or later when you mix down the music you recorded. You can
also use it to brighten up entire MIDI productions or even movie sound recordings and thus give them their
finishing touch.
Apart from the corrective function you can also use the TUBE ULTRA-Q as a creative tool. The TUBE ULTRA-Q
is an indispensable audio tool for application in recording studios, stage plays or radio dramas. You can use it
to distort voices, create telephone sounds and filter instruments to make them fit into the mixdown. All bands
are highly flexible with the possibility to achieve very narrow bands. In this respect the TUBE ULTRA-Q is
superior to a graphic equalizer.
4.2 The “Constant-Q” principle
One of the most important features any graphic or parametric equalizer has to offer is the independent control
of its various parameters. The special state-variable filters of the TUBE ULTRA-Q use the so-called
“Constant-Q” principle which prevents the parameters “frequency”, “bandwidth” and “amplitude” from
influencing each other. In the same way, the mutual influence of the individual frequency bands is avoided,
which is a fundamental requirement as it allows for clearly defined and repeatable filter settings. When several
filters are used simultaneously, the resulting overall filter curve can be calculated by adding/subtracting the
single band-specific filter curves.
4.3 The concept of parallel filters
Unlike conventional parametric equalizers the TUBE ULTRA-Q features a parallel filter configuration, which
offers a decisive advantage over series-type configurations: with parallel filters it is possible to reduce to a
minimum the phase shifts and delays usually associated with filters, which is the reason why the TUBE ULTRA-Q
is such a “musical” device.
Naturally, this concept, too, is subject to a few limitations: unlike series-type filter configurations the concept
of parallel filters allows only to a limited extent for an extreme boost/cut of frequencies. However, as extreme
settings are usually the result of an improperly adjusted sound image, it is imperative that deficiencies of this
16
4. TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
kind be identified and eliminated, before the actual “musical” fine-tuning of the sound image takes place. Still,
extreme settings can be realized by overlapping the frequencies of the individual bands.
4.4 On phase shift and time delay
Any analog filter, be it graphic or parametric, produces a certain amount of phase shift.
Particularly in narrow-band filters this phase shift leads to specific delay of the audio signal: the narrower the
filter and the higher the gain, the greater the time delay. In certain applications, the effect on the sound image
can be annoying.
Although the TUBE ULTRA-Q, owing to its unique concept, produces considerably less phase shift and hence
time delay than conventional parametric equalizers, this effect should nevertheless be taken into account.
+
Please also note that filters show a natural tendency to produce a “ringing” sound as their
bandwidth is narrowed, an effect that is caused by system-intrinsic noise modulation that
occurs with any kind of filter. It is therefore recommended that you set all filters not in use to a
mid-travel position or simply switch them off to minimize these side effects as effectively as
possible.
4.5 Tubes used in the TUBE ULTRA-Q
A closer look at developments and trends in audio technology shows that tubes are currently enjoying a
renaissance, in a time when even amateur musicians are free to use digital effects processors and recording
media, and ever more affordable digital mixing consoles are becoming a natural part of the equipment of many
semiprofessional studios. The manufacturers try with ever new algorithms to get the most out of DSP’s (Digital
Signal Processors), the heart of any digital system.
Still, many audio engineers, particularly old hands often prefer using both old and new tube-equipped devices.
As they want to use their warm sound character for their productions, they are ready to accept that these
“goodies” produce a higher noise floor than modern, transistor-based devices. As a consequence, you can find
a variety of tube-based microphones, equalizers, pre-amps and compressors in today’s recording and
mastering environments. The combination of semiconductor and tube technologies gives you the additional
possibility of using the best of both worlds, while being able to make up for their specific drawbacks.
4.5.1 Tube history
Due to many patent litigations, it is difficult to determine exactly when the tube was “born”. First developments
in tube technology were reported between 1904 and 1906. It was a research task of that time to find a suitable
method for receiving and rectifying high frequencies. On April 12, 1905, a certain Mr. Fleming was granted a
patent for his “hot-cathode valve” which was based on Edison’s incandescent lamp. This valve was used as a
rectifier for high-frequency signals. Robert van Lieben was the first to discover (probably by chance) that the
anode current can be controlled by means of a perforated metal plate (grid), one of the milestones in the
development of amplification tubes. In 1912, Robert van Lieben finally developed the first tube for the amplification of low-frequency signals. Initially, the biggest problem was to produce sufficient volume levels, which is
why resonance step-ups (though impairing the frequency response) were used to maximize the attainable
volume. Later, the objective was to optimize the electroacoustic transducers of amplifiers in such a way that a
broad frequency band could be transmitted with the least distortion possible. However, a tube-specific problem
is its non-linear amplification curve, i.e. it modifies the sound character of the source material. Despite all
efforts to ensure a largely linear frequency response, it had to be accepted that tube devices produce a “bad”
sound. Additionally, the noise floor generated by the tubes limited the usable dynamics of connected storage
media (magnetic tape machines). Thus, a one-to-one reproduction of the audio signal’s dynamics (expressed
as the difference between the highest and lowest loudness levels of the program material) proved impossible.
To top it all, tube devices required the use of high-quality and often costly transducers and sophisticated
voltage supplies.
With the introduction of semiconductor technologies in the field of audio amplification it soon became clear that
the tube would have to give way to the transistor, as this device featured an enormously enhanced signal-tonoise ratio, less complex power supply and improved frequency response. Plus, semiconductor-based circuits
can be realized much more easily—for less money. Two decades later, the introduction of binary signal
processing meant the beginning of a new era of recording media that provided plenty of dynamic response and
4. TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
17
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
allowed for loss-free copying of audio signals. As digital media were enhanced, however, many people began
to miss the warmth, power and liveliness they knew from analog recordings. This is why purists still today
consider digital recordings as “sterile” in sound.
4.5.2 Design and functional principle of tubes
Tubes can be roughly classified according to the number of electrodes they use. There are tubes with two,
three or five electrodes usually referred to as diodes, triodes or pentodes.
Fig. 4.1: Diode
The diode contains two electrodes in a vacuum glass bulb that have electrical connection to the outside. The
vacuum allows for a free movement of electrons. When one of the electrodes is heated up (= thus becoming a
cathode), it begins to emit electrons. When a positive dc voltage is applied to the other electrode (= anode), the
negative electrons start to wander from the cathode to the anode. With reverse polarity between cathode and
anode, a current flow is not possible because the unheated anode emits more or less no electrons. This design
was used, for example, as a rectifier in the power supplies of amplifiers. The magnitude and velocity of the flow
of electrons depend on the cathode’s temperature, the material it consists of, and the magnitude of the anode
voltage. When the electrons hit the anode they produce heat that is dissipated by using large anode plates.
Fig. 4.2: Triode
The triode has an additional metal grid between anode and cathode. By applying a negative voltage, this grid
can be used to control the internal resistance of the tube, and hence the anode current. When the grid bias
voltage (voltage between cathode and grid) becomes negative, the current flowing to the anode is reduced
because the negatively charged grid repels the arriving electrons. As a consequence, there are less electrons
to reach the anode. When the bias voltage is raised towards zero, the flow of electrons accelerates. When it
finally becomes zero or even positive, the grid current begins to flow which considerably reduces the current
flowing to the anode and can possibly destroy the tube. Triodes are most commonly used in pre-amps, often
in pairs arranged in one tube (twin triode).
Fig. 4.3: Pentode
18
4. TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
In a triode the capacitance between grid and anode is a problem with regard to high frequencies and large
amplification factors. For this reason, the pentode has a positively charged screen grid between the control grid
and the anode. However, the positive charge of the screen grid attracts electrons emitted from the anode plate
when it is hit by arriving electrons. To prevent this electron emission, a decelerating or suppressor grid is
placed between anode and screen grid. As it is negatively charged it blocks the electrons, so that they cannot
reach the screen grid. Pentodes are most commonly used in power stages.
4.5.3 Properties of tubes
In general, the saturation (overdriving) of both transistor and tube-based circuits results in various types of
distortion. These phenomena are quite complex in the real world, but for the sake of a straightforward
mathematical description we are going to classify them as linear and non-linear distortion. Linear distortion is
produced by frequency-dependent amplification or attenuation processes such as occurs in all kinds of filters
and equalizers. Linear-distortion signals have the same frequency portions both on the input and output sides,
but with different phase positions and amplitudes. Non-linear distortions have additional harmonics and
distortion components that were not contained in the original input signal.
For example, when the plainest of all oscillations, a sine wave with a fixed frequency f, is overdriven, new
oscillations with frequencies of 2*f, 3*f, etc. (integral multiples of the original frequency) are produced. These
new frequencies are referred to as upper harmonics grouped as odd and even harmonics. Unlike the transistor,
saturated tubes mostly produce even harmonics which are perceived by the human ear as more pleasant in
sound than odd harmonics. Another important aspect lies in the fact that tubes produce distortion more
gradually than transistors, which is why we speak of the “saturation” of a tube stage. When you overdrive a
transistor you get a sudden square deformation of the sine signal applied at the input, which produces an
extreme harmonic spectrum at the output.
Non-linear distortions are measured with a distortion factor that consists of the total harmonic distortion [k] and
partial harmonic distortions [kn]. The latter are defined as the ratio between the voltage of a single harmonic
and the voltage of the distorted overall signal. Thus, the content of even harmonics is expressed as k2, k4, ...
and that of odd harmonics as k1, k3, ...
kn =
Un
U ges
Formula for calculating partial harmonic distortion
The total harmonic distortion is the root of all squared distortion factors of the second and third degrees. Since
the higher harmonics have only little impact on the measured results, they can be neglected.
k = k 22 + k 32
Formula for calculating total harmonic distortion
In tube circuits the distortion factor k2 is used to describe an effect which the human ear classifies as
“pleasant”. Also the frequency bands in which distortion occurs play an important role because the human ear
differentiates very clearly in the frequency range of human speech.
4.5.4 The best of both worlds
Despite many efforts neither manufacturers nor developers have succeeded so far in simulating these positive
properties of the tube by means of other devices. Additionally, the natural capabilities of the tube to act as a
soft limiter can only be mimicked with highly sophisticated circuitry. Today’s studio technology requirements
are therefore met by a combination of both high-grade semiconductor and tube technologies. In this context,
tubes no longer serve their original purpose as amplifiers, but are used for the detailed shaping of sound.
4. TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
19
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
4.5.5 UTC circuit
In
Out
WARMTH
Fig. 4.4: UTC circuit
The TUBE ULTRA-Q splits up the audio signal applied at the input, and processes it differently for both signal
paths. Each of the two tube halves amplifies the original signal and the signal modified in its phase spectrum
(twin triode). Additional harmonics are produced by slightly overdriving the tube stage. When the two signals
are processed by the UTC circuit, the interference noise found in conventional tube circuits can be largely
eliminated, and the actual tube effect be added gradually. The more you turn the Warmth control to the right,
the more tube sound will be added to the original signal.
4.5.6 Studio applications
In a recording studio tubes do not perform the same task as they do in an overdriven guitar amp, where the
considerably higher saturation of the tube(s) leads to a full and often deliberate modification of the input signal
(in many cases combined with a heavy increase in noise floor levels). In the studio more subtle effects are
needed. Here, tube circuits add life to the signal’s tonal character and increase its power to make itself heard.
Often, tubes also increase the signal’s perceived loudness (in relation to the unprocessed signal), i.e. the
perceived loudness goes up although the volume level remains the same. This is because the dynamic range
of the applied audio signal is limited by the tube circuit, while the amplitude of the signal with the lowest
loudness is raised. Thus, increasing tube saturation produces a slight compression effect over the entire
dynamic range.
A similar effect can be perceived when analog tape is saturated. This saturation effect also compresses the
recorded audio material and produces additional harmonics.
20
4. TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
dB
100
Analog Mixing Console
Compact Disc
Analog Tape
Analog Records
FM Radio
25
Video Tape
50
Digital Tape (16 Bit)
75
Fig. 4.5: Dynamic range of various media
5. INSTALLATION
5.1 Rack mounting
The BEHRINGER TUBE ULTRA-Q fits into two standard 19" rack units of space. Please allow at least an
additional 4" depth for the connectors on the back panel. Be sure that there is enough air space around the unit
for cooling and please do not place the TUBE ULTRA-Q on high temperature devices such as power amplifiers
etc. to avoid overheating.
5.2 Mains voltage
Before you connect your TUBE ULTRA-Q to the mains, please make sure that your local voltage
matches the voltage required by the unit! The fuse holder on the female mains connector has 3 triangular
markers, with two of these triangles opposing each other. Your TUBE ULTRA-Q is set to the operating voltage
printed next to these markers, and can be set to another voltage by turning the fuse holder by 180°. CAUTION:
this instruction does not apply to export models exclusively designed, e.g. for 115 V operation!
5.3 Audio connections
The audio inputs and outputs on the BEHRINGER TUBE ULTRA-Q are fully balanced. If possible, connect the
unit to other devices in a balanced configuration to allow for maximum interference immunity.
+
Please ensure that only qualified persons install and operate the TUBE ULTRA-Q. During
installation and operation the user must have sufficient electrical contact to earth. Electrostatic charges might affect the operation of the TUBE ULTRA-Q!
5. INSTALLATION
21
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
Critical applications may require to build up a transformer-balanced configuration for the output signals, so as
to avoid interference from ground loops or potential differences. For this purpose, we offer our high-quality
output transformer OT-1 as a retrofit kit.
Fig. 5.1: Different plug types
+
Never use unbalanced XLR connections with microphone cables, as this would short-circuit
any phantom power transmitted over these cables!
5.4 Transformer-balanced outputs (optional)
In contrast to electronic balancing, the use of transformer-balanced outputs offers the advantage of galvanic
separation between units. Electrical potential differences and ground loops in audio installations do not
therefore impair the performance of the units. The transformer-balanced outputs, commonly used in radio and
TV engineering, can also be fitted retrospectively upon request. The BEHRINGER transformer OT-1 is
designed to the highest exacting standards and is available as an accessory.
22
5. INSTALLATION
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
6. SPECIFICATIONS
Audio input
Connectors
Type
Impedance
Max. input level
CMRR
XLR and 1/4" TRS
RF filtered, servo-balanced input stage
50 kOhm balanced, 25 kOhm unbalanced
+21 dBu balanced and unbalanced
typ. 40 dB, >55 dB @ 1 kHz
Audio output
Connectors
Type
Impedance
Max. output level
XLR and 1/4" TRS
electronically servo-balanced output stage
60 Ohm balanced, 30 Ohm unbalanced
+21 dBu, +20 dBm balanced and unbalanced
System specifications
Bandwidth
Signal-to-noise ratio
THD
IMD
18 Hz to 30 kHz, +/- 3 dB
>100 dB, unweighted, 22 Hz to 22 kHz
0.002 % typ. @ +4 dBu, 1 kHz, unity gain
0.01 % typ. SMPTE
Filter section
Type
Level
Frequency
Bandwidth
state-variable parametric filter
variable (-15 dB to + 15 dB)
band 1: 20 Hz to 300 kHz
band 2: 60 Hz to 1.2 kHz
band 3: 250 Hz to 5 kHz
band 4: 1 kHz to 20 kHz
variable (0.03 to 2 octaves)
Function switches/indicators
Audio In/Out
Shelf/Peak
In/Out
Peak LED
Warmth
relay-controlled hard-wire bypass
switches outer bands from shelving to parametric
activates each filter bank
LED indicator of input overload
variable (+10 dB to +60 dB)
Power supply
Mains voltages
Mains connection
USA/Canada
120 V ~, 60 Hz
U.K./Australia
240 V ~, 50 Hz
Europe
230 V ~, 50 Hz
General Export Model
100 - 120 V ~, 200 - 240 V ~, 50 - 60 Hz
35 Watts max.
100 - 120 V ~: T 1 A H
200 - 240 V ~: T 500 mA H
standard IEC receptacle
Physical
Dimension (H x W x D)
Net weight
Shipping weight
3 1/2" (89.5 mm) x 19" (482.6 mm) x 8 1/2" (217 mm)
approx. 8 kg
approx. 10 kg
Power consumption
Fuse
BEHRINGER is constantly striving to maintain the highest professional standards. As a result of these efforts, modifications may be
made from time to time to existing products without prior notice. Specifications and appearance may differ from those listed or
shown.
6. SPECIFICATIONS
23
TUBE ULTRA-Q T1951
7. WARRANTY
§ 1 WARRANTY CARD/ONLINE REGISTRATION
To be protected by the extended warranty, the buyer must complete and return the enclosed warranty card within 14 days of
the date of purchase to BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik
GmbH, in accordance with the conditions stipulated in § 3. Failure to return the card in due time (date as per postmark) will void
any extended warranty claims.
Based on the conditions herein, the buyer may also choose to
use the online registration option via the Internet
(www.behringer.com or www.behringer.de).
§ 2 WARRANTY
1. BEHRINGER (BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH including all BEHRINGER subsidiaries listed on the enclosed page,
except BEHRINGER Japan) warrants the mechanical and electronic components of this product to be free of defects in material and workmanship for a period of one (1) year from the
original date of purchase, in accordance with the warranty regulations described below. If the product shows any defects within
the specified warranty period that are not due to normal wear
and tear and/or improper handling by the user, BEHRINGER shall,
at its sole discretion, either repair or replace the product.
2. If the warranty claim proves to be justified, the product will be
returned to the user freight prepaid.
3. Warranty claims other than those indicated above are expressly excluded.
§ 3 RETURN AUTHORIZATION NUMBER
1. To obtain warranty service, the buyer (or his authorized dealer)
must call BEHRINGER (see enclosed list) during normal business
hours BEFORE returning the product. All inquiries must be accompanied by a description of the problem. BEHRINGER will then
issue a return authorization number.
2. Subsequently, the product must be returned in its original
shipping carton, together with the return authorization number to
the address indicated by BEHRINGER.
3. Shipments without freight prepaid will not be accepted.
§ 4 WARRANTY REGULATIONS
1. Warranty services will be furnished only if the product is
accompanied by a copy of the original retail dealer’s invoice.
Any product deemed eligible for repair or replacement by
BEHRINGER under the terms of this warranty will be repaired or
replaced within 30 days of receipt of the product at BEHRINGER.
2. If the product needs to be modified or adapted in order to
comply with applicable technical or safety standards on a national or local level, in any country which is not the country for
which the product was originally developed and manufactured,
this modification/adaptation shall not be considered a defect in
materials or workmanship. The warranty does not cover any
such modification/adaptation, irrespective of whether it was
carried out properly or not. Under the terms of this warranty,
BEHRINGER shall not be held responsible for any cost resulting
from such a modification/adaptation.
3. Free inspections and maintenance/repair work are expressly
excluded from this warranty, in particular, if caused by improper
handling of the product by the user.
This also applies to defects caused by normal wear and tear, in
particular, of faders, potentiometers, keys/buttons and similar
parts.
4. Damages/defects caused by the following conditions are not
covered by this warranty:
s misuse, neglect or failure to operate the unit in compliance
with the instructions given in BEHRINGER user or service
manuals.
s connection or operation of the unit in any way that does not
comply with the technical or safety regulations applicable in
the country where the product is used.
s damages/defects caused by force majeure or any other
condition that is beyond the control of BEHRINGER.
5. Any repair or opening of the unit carried out by unauthorized
personnel (user included) will void the warranty.
6. If an inspection of the product by BEHRINGER shows that the
defect in question is not covered by the warranty, the inspection
costs are payable by the customer.
7. Products which do not meet the terms of this warranty will be
repaired exclusively at the buyer’s expense. BEHRINGER will
inform the buyer of any such circumstance. If the buyer fails to
submit a written repair order within 6 weeks after notification,
BEHRINGER will return the unit C.O.D. with a separate invoice
for freight and packing. Such costs will also be invoiced separately when the buyer has sent in a written repair order.
§ 5 WARRANTY TRANSFERABILITY
This warranty is extended exclusively to the original buyer (customer of retail dealer) and is not transferable to anyone who
may subsequently purchase this product. No other person (retail dealer, etc.) shall be entitled to give any warranty promise on
behalf of BEHRINGER.
§ 6 CLAIM FOR DAMAGES
Failure of BEHRINGER to provide proper warranty service shall
not entitle the buyer to claim (consequential) damages. In no
event shall the liability of BEHRINGER exceed the invoiced value
of the product.
§ 7 OTHER WARRANTY RIGHTS AND NATIONAL LAW
1. This warranty does not exclude or limit the buyer’s statutory
rights provided by national law, in particular, any such rights
against the seller that arise from a legally effective purchase
contract.
2. The warranty regulations mentioned herein are applicable
unless they constitute an infringement of national warranty law.
The information contained in this manual is subject to change without notice. No part of this manual may be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording of any kind, for any
purpose, without the express written permission of BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH.
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