Maestro | A1084 | User`s manual | Maestro A1084 User`s manual

GPS Receivers A2100-A/B
A Description of Maestro’s
GPS Receiver Module A2100-A/B
User’s Manual
Version 1.9
Revision History
Rev.
0.1
0.2
0.3
Date
08-24-09
01-25-10
01-29-10
0.4
02-11-10
0.5
0.6
02-12-10
03-09-10
0.7
04-15-10
0.8
02-09-11
1.1
05-04-11
1.2
1.3
1.4
05-17-11
06-03-11
10-28-11
1.5
1.6
1.7
01-04-12
03-01-12
05-24-12
1.8
1.9
06-01-12
07-25-12
mm-dd-yy
Written by
Checked by
Approval by
V1.7 – Jul-12
Description
First draft, based on A1084 V1.1
RoHS, pin-out, clean-up, …
nWAKEUP correction, new pictures, ON_OFF correction,
BOOTSEL correction
Minimum configuration updated (!), ON_OFF voltage in 6.3 DC
characteristics corrected
New title picture, updated label information
Included A2100-B; additional Minimum configuration for active
antenna, emphasized that VANT is an input
Label correction; adaptations after firmware 4.0.1 release; others …
1.Shutdown sequence introduced; more figures defined; smaller
corrections 2. New style; moved to Maestro
1.Order number correction 2. Modify MEMS details 3. Modify
packaging describe
1.Tracking current updated
1.Correction of Mechanical Characteristics
1.Updated Table 6&7: A2100-A/B electrical characteristics
2.Add sensor description
Add describe of the EVA2100-B
1.Add Firmware Updates information
1. Updated of the antenna Gain,
2. link to 1PPS application note and 1PPS timing accuracy remarks added,
3.Recommended Solder PAD Layout drawing added.
Update nRST pin description
Add 5Hz Navigation Update Rate and I2C interface of A2100-B
Name
Happy wen
Sam Law, Matthieu
Frank Tang, Calvin Yau
User’s Manual
Date
07-25-12
07-25-12
07-25-12
Signature
HW
S L,M
F T,C Y
Page 2 of 41
Disclaimer
THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS PROPRIETARY INFORMATION OF MAESTRO
WIRELESS SOLUTIONS LIMITED. IT MAY NOT BE COPIED OR TRANSMITTED
BY ANY MEANS, PASSED TO OTHERS, OR STORED IN ANY RETRIEVAL
SYSTEM OR MEDIA, WITHOUT PRIOR CONSENT OF MAESTRO OR ITS
AUTHORIZED AGENTS.
THE INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS, TO THE BEST OF OUR
KNOWLEDGE, ENTIRELY CORRECT. HOWEVER, MAESTRO CAN NEITHER
ACCEPT LIABILITY FOR ANY INACCURACIES, OR THE CONSEQUENCES
THEREOF, NOR FOR ANY LIABILITY ARISING FROM THE USE OR
APPLICATION OF ANY CIRCUIT, PRODUCT, OR EXAMPLE SHOWN IN THE
DOCUMENT.
THE PRODUCT (HARD- AND SOFTWARE) DESCRIBED IN THIS
DOCUMENTATION IS NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES
OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF MAESTRO.
THIS DOCUMENT MAY PROVIDE LINKS TO OTHER WORLD WIDE WEB SITES
OR RESOURCES. BECAUSE MAESTRO HAS NO CONTROL OVER SUCH SITES
AND RESOURCES, MAESTRO SHALL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
AVAILABILITY OF SUCH EXTERNAL SITES OR RESOURCES, AND DOES NOT
ENDORSE AND IS NOT RESPONSIBLE OR LIABLE FOR ANY CONTENT,
ADVERTISING, PRODUCTS, OR OTHER MATERIALS ON OR AVAILABLE FROM
SUCH SITES OR RESOURCES. MAESTRO SHALL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE OR
LIABLE, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, FOR ANY DAMAGE OR LOSS CAUSED OR
ALLEGED TO BE CAUSED BY OR IN CONNECTION WITH USE OF OR
RELIANCE ON ANY SUCH CONTENT, GOODS OR SERVICES AVAILABLE ON
OR THROUGH ANY SUCH SITE OR RESOURCE.
MAESTRO RESERVES THE RIGHT TO CHANGE, MODIFY, OR IMPROVE THIS
DOCUMENT OR THE PRODUCT DESCRIBED HEREIN, AS SEEN FIT BY
MAESTRO WITHOUT FURTHER NOTICE.
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 3 of 41
Table of Contents
1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 6
1.1 Feature Overview.............................................................................................. 6
1.2 Characteristics Overview .................................................................................. 7
1.3 RoHS and Lead-Free Information ..................................................................... 7
1.4 Label ................................................................................................................. 8
1.5 Characteristics .................................................................................................. 9
1.5.1 GPS Characteristics ................................................................................................... 9
1.5.2 Mechanical Characteristics......................................................................................... 9
1.6 Handling Precautions ........................................................................................ 9
2 Ordering Information ....................................................................................... 10
2.1 GPS Receivers A2100-A/B ............................................................................. 10
2.2 Packing of the A2100-A/B ............................................................................... 10
2.3 Additional Equipment ...................................................................................... 13
3 Quick Start........................................................................................................ 14
3.1 Minimum Configuration ................................................................................... 14
3.2 Antennas......................................................................................................... 15
3.2.1 Passive Antennas..................................................................................................... 15
3.2.2 Active Antennas........................................................................................................ 15
3.3 Serial Port Settings ......................................................................................... 16
3.4 Improved TTFF ............................................................................................... 16
3.5 Firmware Updates(Flash-based module only) ................................................ 16
4 Mechanical Outline .......................................................................................... 17
4.1 Details Component Side A2100-A / B ............................................................. 17
4.2 Details Solder Side A2100-A/B ....................................................................... 18
5 Pin-out Information .......................................................................................... 19
5.1 Layout A2100-A .............................................................................................. 19
5.2 Description A2100-A Signals .......................................................................... 20
5.3 Layout A2100-B .............................................................................................. 21
5.4 Description A2100-B Signals .......................................................................... 22
6 Electrical Characteristics ................................................................................ 24
6.1 Operating Conditions ...................................................................................... 24
6.2 Absolute Maximum Ratings ............................................................................ 25
6.3 DC Electrical Characteristics........................................................................... 26
7 Mounting........................................................................................................... 27
7.1 Proposed Footprint for Soldering .................................................................... 27
7.2 Recommended Profile for Reflow Soldering ................................................... 28
8 Use of GPS Antennas ...................................................................................... 29
8.1 Connecting a GPS antenna to the GPS receiver ............................................ 29
8.2 Antenna Connections...................................................................................... 31
8.2.1 Passive Antennas..................................................................................................... 31
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 4 of 41
8.2.2 Active Antennas........................................................................................................ 31
9 Quality and Reliability...................................................................................... 32
9.1 Environmental Conditions ............................................................................... 32
9.2 Product Qualification ....................................................................................... 32
9.3 Production Test ............................................................................................... 32
10 Applications and Hints .................................................................................. 33
10.1 Initial Module Start ........................................................................................ 33
10.2 Proper Shutdown .......................................................................................... 33
10.3 SiRFawareTM Support ................................................................................... 33
10.4 Push-to-Fix Mode.......................................................................................... 33
10.5 Hibernate Mode............................................................................................. 34
10.6 Extended Ephemeris..................................................................................... 34
10.7 Antenna Status Adaptation ........................................................................... 35
10.7.1 Antenna Sensor...................................................................................................... 35
10.7.2 Antenna Sensor with Current Limiter...................................................................... 36
10.8 VANT Pin ...................................................................................................... 37
10.9 TM_GPIO5 pin (1 pulse per second pin)....................................................... 37
10.10 5 Hz Navigation Update Rate...................................................................... 38
11 Evaluation Kit EVA2100-A/B ......................................................................... 39
12 Related Information ....................................................................................... 40
12.1 Contact.......................................................................................................... 40
12.2 Related Documents....................................................................................... 40
12.3 Related Tools ................................................................................................ 40
13 List of Figures ................................................................................................ 41
14 List of Tables .................................................................................................. 41
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 5 of 41
1 Introduction
The GPS modules A2100-A and A2100-B are Maestro’s first implementation of
CSR’s SiRFstarIV chip on GPS modules. Both are highly integrated GPS receivers
that can be used as SMT components. A very easy implementation (power, serial,
ON_OFF, and antenna) allows receiving position, velocity and time information.
NOTE: Care must be taken to implement an orderly shut-down sequence along with
supplying power for a certain period of time after initiating the shut-down sequence.
Abrupt removal or drop of power while the module is running has risks ranging from
minor impact on TTFF to fatal, permanent corruption of flash memory code area!
While the A2100-A is a module designed for a 3.3V environment, the A2100-B works
with 1.8V Vcc and 1.8V I/Os.
1.1 Feature Overview
The A2100-A and A2100-B are based on the well-established A1084 outline and
offer new, outstanding features.
• Fast, responsive location experience
o High-sensitive navigation engine with tracking down to -163dBm
o 48 track verification channels
o SBAS (WAAS, EGNOS, MSAS, GAGAN)
• Breakthrough micro power technology
o Requires only 50 – 500µA to maintain hot start capability
• Active jammer remover
o Removes in-band jammers up to 80dB/Hz
o Tracks up to eight CW (continuous wave) jammers
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 6 of 41
1.2 Characteristics Overview
The module’s most important characteristics are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A2100-A
o Operable at 3.3V / 19mA (typ.) @ 1 fix per second
o UART interface at 3.3V CMOS level
o SPI Slave support at 3.3V CMOS level
A2100-B
o Operable at 1.8V / 30mA (typ.) @ 1 fix per second
o UART interface at 1.8V CMOS level
o SPI Slave support at 1.8V CMOS level
o I2C Master support at 1.8V CMOS level
Direct passive antenna support
Switched antenna voltage for active antenna support
Small form factor of 15.24 mm x 15.24 mm (0.6” x 0.6”)
Supported temperature range: -40°C to +85°C
Single-sided SMT component, for reflow soldering
Tape & reel packaging
The A2100-A and A2100-B receiver modules are available as off-the-shelf components, 100% tested and shipped in standard tape-and-reel package.
1.3 RoHS and Lead-Free Information
Maestro’s products marked with the lead-free symbol either on the module or the
packaging comply with the "Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament
and the Council on the Restriction of Use of certain Hazardous Substances in
Electrical and Electronic Equipment" (RoHS).
All Maestro GPS receiver modules, smart GPS antenna modules and telematics
units are RoHS compliant.
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 7 of 41
1.4 Label
The A2100-A labels hold the following information:
Figure 1: A2100-A label
The label is placed on the shield of the module. The data matrix code holds the
product type, software version, software release, hardware release, factory code,
year & week of assembly and a 6-digit serial number. The A2100-B's labels show a
"B" instead of the "A", e.g. "A2100-B405-01-01".
NOTE: Hardware revision (rr) of the series product starts with 01. A hardware revision above 50 shows the module was produced before the product was fully qualified
(Engineering Samples).
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 8 of 41
1.5 Characteristics
The modules are characterized by the following parameters.
1.5.1 GPS Characteristics
Channels
Correlators
Frequency
Tracking Sensitivity (1)
Horizontal Position Accuracy
Time To First Fix – TTFF
(theoretical minimum values;
values in real world may differ)
Stand alone
Obscuration recovery (2)
Hot start (3)
Warm (4)
Cold (5)
48, parallel tracking
~ 400,000
L1 (= 1,575 MHz)
-163 dBm
< 2.5 m CEP (SA off)
0.1 s
<1s
< 32 s
< 35 s
Table 1: A2100-A/B GPS characteristics
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Typical with good antenna – see also paragraph “3.2 Antennas”
The calibrated clock of the receiver has not stopped, thus it knows precise time (to the µs level).
The receiver has estimates of time/date/position and valid almanac and ephemeris data.
The receiver has estimates of time/date/position and recent almanac.
The receiver has no estimate of time/date/position, and no recent almanac.
Note: Performance (sensitivity and TTFF) might slightly decrease below -30°C.
1.5.2 Mechanical Characteristics
A2100-A/B Mechanical
dimensions
Length
Width
Height
A2100-A/B Weight
15.24±0.20 mm, 0.6±0.008”
15.24±0.20 mm, 0.6±0.008”
2.9 mm, 0.115” (Max)
1.2 g, 0.042 oz
Table 2: A2100-A/B dimensions and weight
1.6 Handling Precautions
The GPS receiver module A2100-A/B is sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD).
Please handle with appropriate care.
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 9 of 41
2 Ordering Information
2.1 GPS Receivers A2100-A/B
The order number is built as follows:
•
•
A2100-Axxx
A2100-Bxxx
A2100-A for the A2100-A module and A2100-B for the A2100-B module. The “xxx”
refers to the current firmware version on the module. If no firmware version is referenced in an order, the latest version will be provided.
2.2 Packing of the A2100-A/B
The A2100-A/B GPS modules come in a tape and reel package suitable for pick and
place machines.
Figure 2: A2100-A/B tape specifications (1)
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 10 of 41
Figure 3: A2100-A/B tape specifications (2)
Figure 4: A2100-A/B tape specifications (3)
One complete reel holds 900 A2100-A/B modules.
There are 2 kinds of packaging for shipment:
A: One box holds 1 reel
Reel diameter: 33 cm
Inner box dimensions: 36(W) x 36(L) x 4.5 (H) cm
Box dimensions: 38.8 (W) x 38.8 (L) x 5.7 (H) cm
Gross weight: 2.05 Kg
Net weight: 1.17 Kg
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 11 of 41
B. One box holds 3 reels
Reel diameter: 33 cm
Inner box dimensions: 36 (W) x 36 (L) x 4.5 (H) cm
Outer box dimensions: 38 (W) x 38 (L) x 16 (H) cm
Gross weight: 6.13 Kg
Net weight: 3.51 Kg
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 12 of 41
2.3 Additional Equipment
EVA2100-A
EVA2100-B
Evaluation Kit (including one module A2100-A)
Evaluation Kit (including one module A2100-B)
Table 3: Additional equipment
A detailed description of the EVA2100-A/B Evaluation Kit can be found in the appropriate manual. The evaluation boards are always shipped with latest firmware
loaded.
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 13 of 41
3 Quick Start
In order to allow an easy and quick start with the A2100-A module, this chapter provides a short overview on the important steps to be taken to receive NMEA messages with position information on a serial port (UART).
NOTE 1: The A2100-A needs an external pull-up resistor to be configured for
UART operation. Please consider the pull-up resistor in your design or pull the
GPIO up right after reset by other means.
NOTE 2: The ON_OFF input of the A2100-A needs to be connected to output of
a microprocessor. For a wake-up, including the initial one after power on, a
LOW-HIGH transmission is mandatory.
3.1 Minimum Configuration
The following picture shows the minimum configuration for NMEA or binary outputs
received and commands sent via an RS232 interface based on the GPS module
A2100-A using a passive antenna.
Shown from top without lid; pads shown for better understanding
ANT_EXT
ANT_GND
10kΩ
A2100-A
GSD4e
ON_OFF
3.3V
Vcc
Tx
Rx
UART
nRST
GND
Pin 1
marker
Figure 5: Minimum configuration A2100-A
NOTE: It is recommended to supply Vcc continuously! Use SiRFawareTM or
other low power modes to reduce power consumption of the module while no
position information is required.
NOTE: Care must be taken to implement an orderly shut-down sequence along
with supplying power for a certain period of time after initiating the shut-down
sequence. Abrupt removal or drop of power while the module is running has
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 14 of 41
risks ranging from minor impact on TTFF to fatal corruption of flash memory
code area!
C2
0.1µF
RS232 Out
1
2
7
4
9
C4
0.1µF
3
C3
0.1µF
DB9 female
6
8
3.3V
C1+
V+
C1C2+
C2VT2O
R2I
Vcc
GND
T1O
R1I
R1O
T1I
T2I
R2O
MAX3232
Tx
C5
0.1µF
C1
0.1µF
RS232 Level Shifter
Rx
5
GND
Figure 6: RS232 level shifter
Remarks:
• Place C1 to C5 (here: 0.1µF) close to MAX3232. For capacity values see
datasheet of actual component used.
• Use 3.3V level shifter (MAX3232 or equivalent).
• External antenna input impedance is 50 Ω. Match as close as possible.
3.2 Antennas
Generally, the quality of the GPS antenna chosen (passive or active) is of paramount
importance for the overall sensitivity of the GPS system. Losses through a bad antenna, long cables or tracks or a bad antenna position can’t be compensated afterwards!
3.2.1 Passive Antennas
The A2100-A supports passive antennas via an integrated LNA directly.
3.2.2 Active Antennas
The A2100-A also supports active antennas directly, i.e. by offering an antenna
voltage feed pin (VANT – pin 15). It is recommended to use an active antenna with a
supply voltage of 3 to 5 VDC and a maximum current draw of 50 mA. The antenna
should have a gain ≥ 15dB but the total gain (antenna gain minus cable loss at the
antenna input of the module) should not exceed 30 dB. The noise figure should be ≤
1.5dB.
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 15 of 41
3.3 Serial Port Settings
In UART operation (defined by the external pull-up resistor as outlined in Minimum
Configuration) the default settings are:
•
NMEA, 4800 baud, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, no flow control
3.4 Improved TTFF
In order to improve the TTFF (Time To First Fix), it is recommended to keep Vcc
supplied at all times. This will allow taking advantage of sophisticated low power
mode features of the SiRFstarIV chip set. More details can be found in chapter
“Application Notes”.
3.5 Firmware Updates(Flash-based module only)
Firmware upgrade function is only valid for Flash-based module. If later firmware
changes are considered in a design it is necessary to connect the BOOTSEL pin of
the A2100. BOOTSEL pin is used to control the mode of operation mentioned on
table below:
BOOTSEL
Operating mode
Leave open
Normal operation
Pull up to 1.8V
Boot loader active for firmware upgrade
Table 4: BOOTSEL operating mode
A specific tool (SiRFFlash) is required for firmware upgrade upon request to Maestro.
Recommended circuitry on application board was indicated below.
Figure 7: BOOTSEL application
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 16 of 41
4 Mechanical Outline
4.1 Details Component Side A2100-A / B
15.24 (0.6)
15.24 (0.6)
All dimensions in [mm, (inch)]
Figure 8: Mechanical outline component side A2100-A/B
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 17 of 41
4.2 Details Solder Side A2100-A/B
15.24
1.0 x 0.8
13.716
1.27
2.54
7.62
2.54
12.7
15.24
1.27
1.27
1.5 x 1.5
7.62
Solder pad size (outer pads): 1.0 x 0.8
Solder pad size (inner pads): 1.5 x 1.5
All dimensions in [mm]
Figure 9: Mechanical outline solder side A2100-A/B
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 18 of 41
5 Pin-out Information
5.1 Layout A2100-A
RX0 / SPI DI [IN – 3.3V] 22
22
TX0 / SPI DO [OUT – 3.3V] 21
Bottom
1
1 nRST [IN – 3.3V]
21
2
2 BOOTSEL [IN – 1.8V]
ExtInt [IN – 1.8V] 20
20
3
3 Vcc 3.3V [PWRIN]
ON_OFF [IN – 3.3V] 19
19
4
4 WAKEUP [OUT – 3.3V]
I2C DIO [I/O – 1.8V] 18
18
5
5 Vout [OUT – 1.8V]
I2C CLK [OUT – 1.8V] 17
17
6
6 GND
TM_GPIO5 [OUT – 1.8V] 16
16
7
7 GND
VANT [IN – 3.3 to 5VDC] 15
15
8
8 GPIO6 / SPI CLK [IN – 3.3V]
N.C. 14
14
9
9 GPIO7 / SPI CS [IN – 3.3V]
ANT_GND 13
13
10
10 N.C.
ANT [IN – RF] 12
12
11
11 N.C.
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
“Pin 1” marker
Figure 10: Pin-out information (bottom view) A2100-A
Green Description: Host interface pins
Red Description: MEMS interface pins (Firmware405 just supports KXSD9, Firmware410 supports KXTF9)
Blue Description: Other
Center Ground pins are for shock / vibration resistance purpose.
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 19 of 41
5.2 Description A2100-A Signals
Pin Symbol
Function
Description
1
nRST
Input
Reset input, active low
2
BOOTSEL
Input
3
Vcc
Power Supply
Special boot mode – leave open for normal operation;
HIGH – boot loader active; HIGH level: 1.8V
3.0 – 3.6 VDC (power supply)
4
WAKEUP
Output
5
Vout
Voltage output
Status of digital section, Push-Pull output
Low = OFF, KA (Keep Alive)-only, Hibernate, or Standby mode
High = ON, operational mode
Identical logic to RFPWUP of A1084 on same pin!
Permanent 1.8V voltage output for up to 20mA current max.
6
GND
Power Supply
Ground (power supply)
7
GND
Power Supply
Ground (power supply)
8
Input
Configuration pin to run in UART mode (10k pull-up to 1.8V, e.g.
to Vout, pin 5), leave open for SPI mode.
SPI clock pin when module works in SPI mode
Unused configuration pin – reserved for future use, leave open
SPI chip select pin when module works in SPI mode
10
GPIO6
CTS
SPI CLK
GPIO7
RTS
SPI CS
N.C.
None
Leave open
11
N.C.
None
Leave open
12
ANT
Antenna Input
13
ANT_GND
RF GND
Antenna signal / Z=50 Ohm (antenna input) – must not exceed
30dB gain including cable loss
Antenna Ground
14
N.C.
None
Leave open
15
VANT
9
Input
16
Antenna Supply
Voltage Input
TM_GPIO5 Output
Power supply input for external active antenna – provide according voltage (up to 5.0 VDC) – switched internally
Time Mark – 1PPS signal
17
I2C CLK
Input
I2C clock input for MEMS interface
18
I2C DIO
Input/Output
I2C I/O for MEMS interface
19
ON_OFF
Input
20
ExtInt
Input
21
TX0
SPI DO
RX0
SPI DI
Output
Connect to push-pull output! This is mandatory!
- Set to LOW by default
- Toggle to HIGH and back to LOW
- for first start-up after power on
- to request a fix in SiRFawareTM or PTF mode
- to go into or wake up out of hibernate mode
Interrupt input for MEMS interface
(If ExtInt is not going to be used, it is recommended that this pin
be tied directly to ground. Otherwise, a 100K pull-down resistor
to ground should be connected to the ExtInt pin.)
Serial output 0, NMEA out if configured for UART
SPI data out pin when module works in SPI mode
Serial input 0, NMEA in if configured for UART
SPI data in pin when module works in SPI mode
22
Input
Table 5: Pin description A2100-A
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 20 of 41
5.3 Layout A2100-B
Bottom
1
1 nRST [IN – 1.8V]
21
2
2 BOOTSEL [IN – 1.8V]
ExtInt [IN – 1.8V] 20
20
3
3 N.C.
ON_OFF [IN – 1.8V] 19
19
4
4 WAKEUP [OUT – 1.8V]
I2C DIO [IN/OUT – 1.8V] 18
18
5
5 Vcc 1.8V [PWRIN]
I2C CLK [OUT – 1.8V] 17
17
6
6 GND
TM_GPIO5 [OUT – 1.8V] 16
16
7
7 GND
VANT [IN – 3.3 to 5VDC] 15
15
8
8 GPIO6 / SPI CLK [IN – 1.8V]
N.C. 14
14
9
9 GPIO7 / SPI CS [IN – 1.8V]
ANT_GND 13
13
10
10 N.C.
ANT [IN – RF] 12
12
11
11 N.C.
RX0 / SPI DI / I2C DIO [1.8V] 22
22
TX0 / SPI DO / I2C CLK [1.8V] 21
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
“Pin 1” marker
Figure 11: Pin-out information (bottom view) A2100-B
Green Description: Host interface pins
Red Description: MEMS interface pins (Firmware405 just supports KXSD9, Firmware410 supports KXTF9)
Blue Description: Other
Center Ground pins are for shock / vibration resistance purpose.
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 21 of 41
5.4 Description A2100-B Signals
Pin Symbol
Function
Description
Reset input, active low
Special boot mode – leave open for normal operation;
HIGH – boot loader active; HIGH level: 1.8V
Leave open
1
2
nRST
BOOTSEL
Input
Input
3
N.C.
None
4
WAKEUP
Output
5
Vcc
Power Supply
Status of digital section, Push-Pull output
Low = OFF, KA (Keep Alive)-only, Hibernate, or Standby mode
High = ON, operational mode
Identical logic to RFPWUP of A1084 on same pin!
1.7 – 1.9 VDC (power supply)
6
GND
Power Supply
Ground (power supply)
7
GND
Power Supply
Ground (power supply)
8
Input
10
GPIO6
CTS
SPI CLK
GPIO7
RTS
SPI CS
N.C.
None
Configuration pin to run in UART mode (10k pull-up to 1.8V, e.g.
to Vcc, pin 5); leave open for SPI & host port I2C modes
SPI clock pin when module works in SPI mode
Configuration pin for communication mode. 10K to GND for host
port I2C mode; leave open for SPI & UART modes
SPI chip select pin when module works in SPI mode
Leave open
11
N.C.
None
Leave open
12
ANT
Antenna Input
13
ANT_GND
RF GND
Antenna signal / Z=50 Ohm (antenna input) – must not exceed
30dB gain including cable loss
Antenna Ground
14
N.C.
None
Leave open
15
VANT
9
Input
16
Antenna Supply
Voltage Input
TM_GPIO5 Output
Power supply input for external active antenna – provide according voltage (up to 5.0 VDC) – switched internally
Time Mark – 1PPS signal
17
I2C CLK
Input
I2C clock input for MEMS interface
18
I2C DIO
Input/Output
I2C I/O for MEMS interface
19
ON_OFF
Input
20
ExtInt
Input
21
TX0
SPI DO
(Host port
I2C_CLK)
RX0
SPI DI
Output
Connect to push-pull output! This is mandatory!
- Set to LOW by default
- Toggle to HIGH and back to LOW
- for first start-up after power on
- to request a fix in SiRFawareTM or PTF mode
- to go into or to wake up out of hibernate mode
Interrupt input for MEMS interface
( If ExtInt is not going to be used, it is recommended that this pin
be tied directly to ground. Otherwise, a 100K pull-down resistor
to ground should be connected to the ExtInt pin.)
Serial output 0, NMEA out if configured for UART
SPI data out pin when module works in SPI mode
Host port I2C clock pin when module works in host port I2C
mode
Serial input 0, NMEA in if configured for UART
SPI data in pin when module works in SPI mode
22
V1.7 – Jul-12
Input
User’s Manual
Page 22 of 41
(Host port
I2C_DIO)
Host port I2C data I/O pin when module works in hist port I2C
mode.
Table 6: Pin description A2100-B
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 23 of 41
6 Electrical Characteristics
6.1 Operating Conditions
Pin
3
Description
Vcc
Full power Mode (Searching) Peak Current(1)
Full power mode (Searching) Average Current(2)
Full power mode (Tracking) Average Current(3)
TricklePower Mode(4)
Push-to-Fix Mode
Micro Power Mode(SiRFaware TM)
Hibernate Status
Min
3.0V
Typical
3.3V
45mA
33.6mA
18.5mA
4.6mA
56.5uA
40uA
23.5uA
Max
3.6V
Typical
1.8V
62mA
56.5mA
39.7mA
9.2mA
291uA
31uA
22uA
Max
1.9V
Table 7: A2100-A electrical characteristics
Pin
5
Description
Vcc
Full power Mode (Searching) Peak Current(1)
Full power mode (Searching) Average Current(2)
Full power mode (Tracking) Average Current(3)
TricklePower Mode(4)
Push-to-Fix Mode
Micro Power Mode(SiRFaware TM)
Hibernate Status
Min
1.7V
Table 8: A2100-B electrical characteristics
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Peak searching current is characterized by millisecond bursts above average searching current
Average searching current is typically only the first two seconds of TTFF
Tracking current typically includes tracking and the post searching portion of TTFF
When TP(TricklePower™)Mode is enabled, the receiver maximises the navigation performance.
Under normal tracking conditions, the TP Mode performs normal TP Mode cycles, but in harsh
tracking environments, the receiver automatically switches to FP(Full-power) Mode to improve
navigation performance. When the satellites are sorted according to their signal strength, the
fourth satellite determines if the transition occurs or not. Currently, the threshold is 30dB-Hz to
enter TP Mode cycling and 26dB-Hz to return to FP Mode cycles. please refer to” SiRFstarIV
GSD4eGSD4t Power Management Modes (CS-212074-AN-2).pdf”.
*Remark: Test data based on firmware version GSD4e_4.1.0-P1_FLASH
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 24 of 41
6.2 Absolute Maximum Ratings
Symbol
Vcc
Vcc
Vin
Iov
Itdv
Tst
Vant
Iant
Parameter
Min Max Unit
A2100-A Power supply
-0.3 +4.6
V
A2100-B Power supply
-0.3 +2.2
V
Voltage to I/O pins
-0.3 +3.6
V
Input current on I/O pins
-10
10
mA
Absolute sum of all input currents during overload condition
200 mA
Storage temperature
-40
85
°C
Antenna supply voltage
0
5.5
V
Antenna supply current
0
50
mA
Table 9: Absolute maximum ratings
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only. Functional operation of the
device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational
sections of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating
conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 25 of 41
6.3 DC Electrical Characteristics
Symbol
TX0, WAKEUP
RX0
nRST
ON_OFF
BOOTSEL
Parameter
Voh @ 4mA
Vol @ 4mA
Vih
Vil
for safe reset
Vih
Vil
Vih
Min
2.6
Max Unit
Vcc
V
0.45
V
2.0 Vcc
V
0.8
V
0.2
V
1.35 Vcc
V
-0.3 0.45
V
1.35 2.2
V
Table 10: DC electrical characteristic A2100-A
Symbol
TX0, WAKEUP
RX0
nRST
ON_OFF
BOOTSEL
Parameter
Voh @ 4mA
Vol @ 4mA
Vih
Vil
for safe reset
Vih
Vil
Vih
Min
1.4
Max Unit
Vcc
V
0.4
V
1.1 Vcc
V
0.8
V
0.2
V
1.35 Vcc
V
-0.3 0.45
V
1.35 2.2
V
Table 11: DC electrical characteristic A2100-B
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 26 of 41
7 Mounting
This chapter describes the suggested mounting process for the A2100-A receiver
modules. In a RoHS compliant product with a RoHS compliant process it is recommended to use chemical tin as the counter-part to the module’s pins. This will
guarantee highest resistance against shocks.
7.1 Proposed Footprint for Soldering
Following soldering footprint parameters are recommended:
•
•
•
•
Copper and solder paste footprint are identical
Pad-shape / -size, inner pads: 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm
Pad-shape / -size, outer pads: 1.762 mm x 0.8 mm
Stencil thickness of 120 – 150 µm
Figure 12: Recommended Solder PAD Layout
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 27 of 41
7.2 Recommended Profile for Reflow Soldering
Typical values for reflow soldering of the module in convection or IR/convection
ovens are as follows (according to IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020D):
Parameter
Peak temperature (RoHS compliant process)
Average ramp up rate to peak (217°C to Peak)
Preheat temperature
Ramp up time from min. to max. preheat temperature
Temperature maintained above 217°C
Time within 5°C of actual peak temperature
Ramp down rate
Time 25°C to peak temperature
Value
245°C
3°C / second max.
min=150°C; max=200°C
60 … 120 seconds
60 … 150 seconds
30 seconds
6°C / second max.
8 minutes max.
Table 12: Reflow soldering profile A2100-A/B
The solder pads hold solder of a thickness of about 150 µm for improved solder
process results.
As results of soldering may vary among different soldering systems and types of
solder and depend on additional factors like density and types of components on
board, the values above should be considered as a starting point for further optimization.
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 28 of 41
8 Use of GPS Antennas
8.1 Connecting a GPS antenna to the GPS receiver
The ANT pin is used to connect a GPS antenna to the receiver. The design of the
antenna connection has to be done strictly according to RF design rules. A 50 Ω PCB
strip line is required. The following drawings shall explain the guidelines. A major rule
is to keep the strip line as short as possible. Additionally, antenna ground (ANT_GND)
should be routed to the ground plane of the PCB (the ground plane is on a lower PCB
layer) by vias as demonstrated in the drawing.
Top view
Motherboard Bottom Layer
Motherboard Top Layer
50Ωstrip line
GPS Receiver
ANT_GND
GPS Receiver
ANT_INT
ANT_GND
Vias to Top Layer
ANT_INT
Vias to GND Layer
GPS receiver solder pads
Figure 13: Antenna connector strip line A2100-A/B
In order to achieve the impedance of 50 Ω, the width of the strip line needs to be
calculated. It depends on the thickness or height of the PCB layer (both parameters
are shown in following drawing). For the calculation, it is assumed that the PCB
material is FR4.
Figure 14: Strip line parameters A2100-A/B
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 29 of 41
In this case, the width should be about 1.8 times the height of the PCB:
W = 1.8 x H
In the example, one would get a width of W = 1.8 x 0.8 mm = 1.44 mm.
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 30 of 41
8.2 Antenna Connections
8.2.1 Passive Antennas
A passive antenna connected to ANT input (pin 12) should be placed as close as
possible to the GPS receiver. The signal power lost by the antenna cable or lost by
the strip line on the PCB can not be recovered by the LNA (Low Noise Amplifier)
integrated in the GPS receiver.
A suitable Ground-Plane design should be considered depending on the antenna
type connected to ANT input (pin 12).
8.2.2 Active Antennas
General GPS active antenna specification:
Limitations:
•
•
Supply voltage (voltage fed into VANT pin) 5V (max.)
Supply current 50mA (max.)
Recommendations:
•
•
Gain ≥ 15dB (should not exceed 30 dB including cable loss)
Noise figure ≤ 1.5dB
The recommendations apply to the majority of active antennas that can be found in
the market. Anyhow, the quality of the GPS antenna chosen is of paramount importance for the overall sensitivity of the GPS system.
The system design needs to reflect the supply voltage of the antenna. If the supply
voltage is equal to Vcc, Vcc can be connected to VANT. If the antenna requires a
different supply voltage, the antenna bias can be provided through the VANT pin.
VANT is switched by the module, so current is only drawn when required.
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 31 of 41
9 Quality and Reliability
9.1 Environmental Conditions
Operating temperature
Operating humidity
MSL JEDEC (Moisture Sensitivity Level)
Storage
-40 … +85°C
Max. 85% r. H., non-condensing, at 85°C
3
6 months in original package.
Table 13: Environmental conditions
9.2 Product Qualification
Prior to product qualification the GPS receiver is preconditioned according to
EIA/JEDEC standard JESD22-A113-B / Level 3.
Basic qualification tests:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
MSL Classification according to J-STD-020C (MSL3 @ 245°C)
MSL Rework Compatibility according to J-STD-020C
Temperature Cycling –40°C … +85°C
Temperature Humidity Bias 70°C / 85% RH
Low / High Temperature Operating –40°C / +85°C
High Temperature Operating Life +85°C
Vibration Variable Frequency
Mechanical Shock
Please contact Maestro for detailed information.
9.3 Production Test
Each module is electrically tested prior to packing and shipping to ensure state of the
art GPS receiver performance and accuracy.
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 32 of 41
10 Applications and Hints
10.1 Initial Module Start
After initially applying power to the module, it is necessary to start the internal firmware by toggling the ON_OFF pin. Toggling is done by pulling the signal to HIGH for
about 200ms. This first toggling can be done after a LOW – HIGH transmission was
detected at the WAKEUP pin or by simply waiting for 1s after power-up. In case of
configuration for UART mode, messages should be transmitted afterwards. If no
messages should appear, a new toggling should be applied.
10.2 Proper Shutdown
The A2100-A/B modules require an orderly shutdown process to properly stop internal operation and complete any writes of critical data to BBRAM or Flash memory
data area. Abrupt removal or drop of main power while the system is running has
risks ranging from minor impact on TTFF to fatal, permanent corruption of flash
memory code area on the module.
A controlled and orderly shutdown while the A2100-A/B is running in full power mode
can be initiated by
•
•
A 200ms pulse on the ON_OFF pin,
According messages either in NMEA or OSP mode.
The shutdown is completed after maximum 1s. Therefore the module should be
supplied with voltage for that time after the shutdown sequence was initiated.
10.3 SiRFawareTM Support
SiRFawareTM is a low-power operating mode that seeks to maintain low uncertainty
in position, time, and frequency, and to maintain valid current Ephemeris using either
data collected from satellites in view or Extended Ephemeris methods.
The SiRFawareTM mode is entered using the One Socket Protocol, an extension of
the SiRF Binary Protocol. Please refer to the appropriate manual. In order to request
a fix and to exit SiRFawareTM it is necessary to toggle the ON_OFF pin. Toggling is
done by pulling the signal to HIGH for about 200ms.
10.4 Push-to-Fix Mode
Push-to-Fix mode is designed for the application that requires infrequent position
reporting. The receiver generally stays in a low-power mode, up to 2 hours, but
wakes up periodically to refresh position, time, ephemeris data and RTC calibration.
The push-to-fix mode is initialized and entered using the SiRF Binary Protocol.
Please refer to the appropriate manual, paying particular attention to the paragraph
titled “Set TricklePower Parameters”. In order to request a fix outside the specified
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 33 of 41
duty cycles, it is necessary to toggle the ON_OFF pin. Toggling is done by pulling the
signal to HIGH for about 200ms.
10.5 Hibernate Mode
In order to enter Hibernate Mode it is necessary to send a shutdown command or to
toggle to ON_OFF pin by pulling the signal to HIGH for about 200ms. Starting with
firmware version 4.0.1 the according command is supported in NMEA and SiRF
Binary mode. After a short delay the module will switch into hibernate mode. The
RTC will keep on running and SRAM is backed with the typical current of 20 μA
drawn from Vcc. To wake the module up again, toggling the ON_OFF pin is necessary (200ms pulse width).
10.6 Extended Ephemeris
The receiver is capable of supporting two versions of using Extended Ephemeris (EE)
data. The first one is the version, where the EE data are calculated on a server, are
transmitted to device incorporating the receiver, and are then loaded into the receiver.
These data can be valid for up to seven days.
The second version is the internal extrapolation of available “natural” Ephemeris data.
This is done automatically and no external support is required. The internally calculated EE data are valid for up to 3 days.
The receiver firmware will define which set of EE data to use or will neglect those in
case “natural” data are available. Both versions of EE data will help to further lower
power consumption in SiRFawareTM mode.
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 34 of 41
10.7 Antenna Status Adaptation
This chapter shall give assistance in designing a circuit for detecting if an active
antenna is connected to the module. The information about the antenna status can
be derived from the ANTSTAT signal generated by this circuit. The examples use
values for components that roughly result in the following ANTSTAT output:
•
•
•
Logic low when:
Logic high when:
Logic low when:
Iant < 9mA
9mA > Iant < 16mA
Iant > 16mA
10.7.1 Antenna Sensor
The following circuit is a proposal on how you can feed an antenna with 3.3V and
provide an output for the ANTSTAT pin. The value of the components may need an
adaptation in the final application. For example, the input current of the chosen
comparator goes into that equation. The thresholds defined in this circuit are quite
close to the ones described above. Their value is determined by resistors R4, R5,
and R3.
We strongly recommend simulating and testing the GPS receiver integrated in your
product design before implementing the finalized product in the appropriate market
application.
Figure 15: Application note: Antenna sensor adaptation
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 35 of 41
10.7.2 Antenna Sensor with Current Limiter
This proposal is similar to the first one, but includes a current limiter. Comments and
notes as above apply.
We strongly recommend simulating and testing the GPS receiver integrated in your
product design before implementing the finalized product in the appropriate market application. In any case it is the responsibility of the designer to test and verify the
implementation.
Current Limiter
Figure 16: Application note: Antenna sensor adaptation with current limiter
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 36 of 41
10.8 VANT Pin
The VANT pin is an input pin.
The supply voltage for an active GPS antenna on the ANT input has to be fed into the
Vant pin. The easiest way to do that is to connect Vcc to VANT. The maximum current is 50 mA.
Note: Shortcut between ANT and GND may damage the A2100-A GPS receiver
module. This should be avoided by using an antenna current limiter.
The circuit (chapter “10.7.2 Antenna Sensor with Current Limiter”) works for Vcc from
3V to 5V. The antenna current will be limited to 50 mA approximately.
If other transistors are used, other resistor values may be necessary as well. We
strongly recommend simulating and testing your realized version before using it.
10.9 TM_GPIO5 pin (1 pulse per second pin)
The 1PPS pin is an output pin.
In addition to precise positioning, GPS also allows for accurate timing due to the
synchronized atomic clocks in the GPS satellites. While the current date and time is
transmitted in NMEA sentences (UTC), an exact and accurate timing signal is provided via the 1PPS pin of the A2100 GPS receiver.
Under good signal conditions the 1PPS signal comes between 620ns and 710ns
after the full GPS system second which is accurately (around 10ns) synchronized to
UTC. Therefore the 1 second clock can be derived and maintained within around
90ns under good signal conditions.
Note:
The 1PPS clock accuracy directly depends on the position accuracy!
The GPS signals travel at the speed of light, therefore a position inaccuracy directly
translates into 1PPS inaccuracies.
10m position deviation ≈ 33ns 1PPS deviation (typically)
100m position deviation ≈ 333ns 1PPS deviation (typically)
The NMEA messages containing absolute timing information (UTC time) are provided around 300ms after the 1PPS signal typically. This may change with the GPS
receiver setup.
The 1PPS signal is provided on a “as is” basis with no accuracy specification. It’s
NOT recommended to use 1PPS signal for accurate timing application.
The given values are based on a 10 satellite, static GPS simulator scenario.
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 37 of 41
Figure 17: 1PPS waveform (reference)
10.10 5 Hz Navigation Update Rate
User can select 1Hz or 5Hz output rate of navigation computation and message, it
supports rapid change of direction and improves accuracy on sport-related applications.1Hz is the default Navigation Update Rate, If the user want to change to 5Hz
Navigation Update Rate, Please refer to command below:
Enable 5Hz Navigation Update Rate command
· NMEA command MID103 ($PSRF103,00,6,00,0*23)
· OSP command MID136 (A0 A2 00 0E 88 00 00 04 04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0F
02 00 A1 B0 B3 )
Disable 5Hz and return to 1Hz Navigation Update Rate, command:
·NMEA command MID103 ($PSRF103,00,7,00,0*22)
·OSP command MID136 (A0 A2 00 0E 88 00 00 04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0F
02 00 9D B0 B3)
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 38 of 41
11 Evaluation Kit EVA2100-A/B
For demonstration and easy evaluation of GPS performance Maestro offers an
evaluation kit (including one GPS A2100-A/B module). It contains a USB interface
with according drivers to connect easily to a PC. The USB interface is an extension of
the serial port 0, therefore sending NMEA sentences or binary information and accepting commands. At the same time it provides power to the module. Accompanied
by both an active and passive antenna it offers a ready-to-go set.
For the development of new software and applications the Evaluation Kit also provides
NMEA and binary messages on CMOS level via a terminal plug.
Figure 18: Evaluation kit EVA2100-A/B
For further information please contact Maestro.
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 39 of 41
12 Related Information
12.1 Contact
This manual was created with due diligence. We hope that it will be helpful to the user
to get the most out of the GPS module.
Inputs regarding errors or mistaken verbalizations and comments or proposals to
Maestro, Hongkong, for further improvements are highly appreciated.
Maestro Wireless Solutions Limited
Add:Unit 3603-09,36/F.,118 Connaught Road West,HK
Main Line: (852) 28690688
Fax: (852)25254701
support-gps@maestro-wireless.com
www.maestro-wireless.com
12.2 Related Documents
•
•
•
•
•
•
GPS Firmware GSD4e (Maestro)
GPS Evaluation Kit EVA2100-A/B (Maestro)
GSD4e NMEA Manual (SiRF)
GSD4e OSP Manual (SiRF)
Kionix: KXSD9 SERIES
http://www.kionix.com/accelerometers/accelerometer-KXSD9.html
Kionix: KXTF9 SERIES
http://www.kionix.com/accelerometers/accelerometer-KXTF9.html
12.3 Related Tools
•
•
•
GPS Cockpit (Maestro)
SiRFLive (SiRF)
SiRFflash (SiRF)
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 40 of 41
13 List of Figures
Figure 1: A2100-A label ........................................................................................... 8
Figure 2: A2100-A/B tape specifications (1)........................................................... 10
Figure 3: A2100-A/B tape specifications (2)........................................................... 11
Figure 4: A2100-A/B tape specifications (3)........................................................... 11
Figure 5: Minimum configuration A2100-A ............................................................. 14
Figure 6: RS232 level shifter.................................................................................. 15
Figure 7: BOOTSEL application ............................................................................. 16
Figure 8: Mechanical outline component side A2100-A/B...................................... 17
Figure 9: Mechanical outline solder side A2100-A/B.............................................. 18
Figure 10: Pin-out information (bottom view) A2100-A........................................... 19
Figure 11: Pin-out information (bottom view) A2100-B........................................... 21
Figure 12: Recommended Solder PAD Layout ...................................................... 27
Figure 13: Antenna connector strip line A2100-A/B ............................................... 29
Figure 14: Strip line parameters A2100-A/B........................................................... 29
Figure 15: Application note: Antenna sensor adaptation........................................ 35
Figure 16: Application note: Antenna sensor adaptation with current limiter.......... 36
Figure 17: 1PPS waveform (reference).................................................................. 38
Figure 18: Evaluation kit EVA2100-A/B.................................................................. 39
14 List of Tables
Table 1: A2100-A/B GPS characteristics ................................................................. 9
Table 2: A2100-A/B dimensions and weight ............................................................ 9
Table 3: Additional equipment................................................................................ 13
Table 4: BOOTSEL operating mode ...................................................................... 16
Table 5: Pin description A2100-A........................................................................... 20
Table 6: Pin description A2100-B........................................................................... 23
Table 7: A2100-A electrical characteristics ............................................................ 24
Table 8: A2100-B electrical characteristics ............................................................ 24
Table 9: Absolute maximum ratings ....................................................................... 25
Table 10: DC electrical characteristic A2100-A...................................................... 26
Table 11: DC electrical characteristic A2100-B...................................................... 26
Table 12: Reflow soldering profile A2100-A/B........................................................ 28
Table 13: Environmental conditions ....................................................................... 32
V1.7 – Jul-12
User’s Manual
Page 41 of 41
Download PDF