JF - Part 7 - cd3wd407.zip - Offline -Technology for Ujamaa Village Development in Tanzania

JF - Part 7 - cd3wd407.zip - Offline -Technology for Ujamaa Village Development in Tanzania
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oreiy
and Comparative
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XVIII
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TECK’JOLOGY
FOR UJMAA VILLAGE
DEVELOPMENT
IN TANZANIA
BY
DAVID J. VAIL
FOREIGNAND COMPARATIVESTUDIES/EASTERNAFRICA XVIII
/mm
DAVID JEREMIAHVAIL is an Assistant
Professor
of Economics
at Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine.
During 1972-73 he was
Agricultural
Economic Advisor to the Common Market and Economic
Affairs
Secretariat
of the East African Cownunity in Arusha,
Tanzania.
This paper steiils from concurrent
ww:k as an Economic
Consultant
to the "Interrediate
Technology
Project"
at the
Tanzania Agricultural
Machinery Testing Unit -- TAMID -- in
Arusha.
The project
is directsd
by the Crop Production
Division of the Tanzania Ministry
of Agriculture,
with assistance
[email protected]? the United Nations International
Labor Organization.
The
views expressed
in this paper are those of the author and should
not be attributed
either
to the Tanzania Government or to the
International
Labor Organization.
Copyright
197s
by
M~xwIs;LiSCHOOLOF CITIZENSHIP AND PiiBiiC AFFAIRS
SYRACUSEUNIVERSITY, SYRACUSE, NEWYORK, U. S. A.
Library
of Congress
Catalog
Card NunbeT: 74-25876
TECHNOLOGY
FOR THE FIRST STAGE OF UJCMAA(SOCIALISM)
IN RURAL TANZANIA
“The true proletarian
in Tanzania is not the docker 01‘ the urban
worker with a fiwd
salary,
but rather the peasant farmer, with
For although he owns his means of
a much lower azrage
income.
production,
the%? --his
hand tools-often remain laughable.”
Rene Dumont, “Tanzanian
p. 5s.
Tanzania
its
economjc
for
the
raising
their
sharpened
organized
core
by the
political
leadership
to bring
a larger
society.
modernization
socio-economic
,the increasing
conWo1
resources
in the end,
In the
development
simpiest
incremental
progression
~escxrces.
Decisions
democratic
procedures
over
econo%ic
the
terms,
toward
on village
(with
unit
agrarian
population
ujamaa is
(mamaa),
allocation
is
strategy
the
for
Tanzmia’s
of ujamaa villages,
(a tendency
communal ownership
guidance
The communally
an incipient
over
intended
in
The contrast
actively
of the poorer
oppor-
and the co-operative
seven years
of the population
resource
living.
in the Tanzanian
structure
labor
create
strategy.
formation
in
directly
of “familyhood”
and to reverse
by a minority
of
underpinnings
voluntary
class
will
to participate
For the past
of the
top priority
that
standards
on principles
proportion
rural
and,
rural
has encouraged
of economic
a stratified
and material
and microeconomic
a co-operative
political
populace
of Tanzania’s
by giving
development
philosophical
operating
the Arusha Declaration,”
nations
of rural
agricultural
socialist
focus
social,
process
entire
village,
building
to a type
own productivtty
institutional
After
from most African
strategy
tunities
is
diffe-rs
Agriculture
into
the
tendency
reflected
toward
in
land and capital
peasants).
to be a gradual,
and deployment
of productive
are to be taken through
from market signals
as well
as public
-2-
sector
agencies).
either
be equal
Ultimately,
(for
to work performed
access
collective
(in
to goods,
services
the case
sexices
and cash
such as health
of money income
care)
and private
income w<ll
or according
consumer
goods
such as foodstuffs).
It
village
is widely
acknowledged,
formation
has encountered
in 1967.
These
tational
comings
with
capacities
experience
Tanzanians
in ujamaa villages
in early
(less
than
economic
relying
acceptable
development
there
report
private
circwcstances,
rapid
lllanzania:
XG. 1 ;;muzi'i-
end of
thar
actively
of disillusioned
of the
Official
1971,
yet
one rillion
participating
in
wajamaa (village
(farm plots).
the emphasis
on a collective
It could
incentives,
in income and wealth,
Collectivizing
:97::,
p. 5.
failure
Tanzanians.
by the
fewer
population)
a drift
economic
of rrlral
of personnel
such a geographically
stem from the
actually
Such short-
so short
and with
1.6 million
might be questioned.
and equitable
4,
are
shambas
upon more individualistic
disparities
also
the majority
10% of the rural
Numerous sources
In these
of modernization,
and implemen-
TANU Party.
so porn,
ujamaa
-_-
of the strategy
organizational
in a nation
reached
1974 that
members) back to their
ulating
to attrxt
that
inception
and the ruling
But the difficulties
concept
appears
since
limited
the Government
population.
registration
thelo.
from the
in the processes
-village
1
of
difficulties
would seem to be inevitable
dispersed
it
stem in part
even by Government officials,
be argued
but vigilant
stand
development
the Villagers,"
mode of rural
a greater
than doe5
Africa
that
policies
to prevent
chance
unof
stim-
a commitment to
Confidential,
15,
-3-
the relatively
unappealing
But despite,
past
several
achieving
million
"Great
or possibly
years,
Tanzanians
the
villages
would
Government
contrary
to the
independence
spirit
Nyerere
undoubtedly
of the wananchi
siate
to spearhead
pants
a socialist
are grounds
the moral
communization
(citizens,
the
to oversee
built
cownon people)
1976 target
is
device
in economic
who are bairgsent
the -village
drive.
recognize
p.
to be in their
6.
contain
around
countenance
is
also
years
the
such means and the
%oots participation
a firm,
areas
the rural
and activities
(or nuclear
family)
decision-
realizable
and challenge
10 % or 100% of
individual
of
in twelve
and political
less
to rural
facilities
It
the
collectivization.
between
to motivate
ujamaa
whether
order.
would
considered
leader-
or the tools
governed
rural
i,>lning
doubting
in short
upon grass
and TANU cadres
and even sympathizers
thar
suasion
Nyerere
the Chinese
?~.Y political
for
has been
President
democracy
have to be organized
1.
-Ibrd.,
either
assurances
the contradiction
?+hether ujvillages
they.will
?here
apparatus
than an inspirational
Government
previous
yet
perceives
Conceivably
objective
its
that
magnitude,
of
of twelve
would r;;-al
aA cog the deadline.
in which Tanzania
to suggest
of police
end of
I., rei;tive
from the
the intention
Communization
coming two years
out compulsory
creztion
making.
abandoned
evidence
1973 declared
by 1976.l
1950's
and TANU can muster
to caxy
espoused
of the
be voluntary;
coercion
of
in the
of the inauspicious
in late
odds to be againx
ship has apparently
communization.
because
"ujamaaization"
Leap Forward"
must reckon
of
the Government
universal
rural
policy
the young
in large
people
numbers
by 1976,
which particiinterest
as well
as ?he interest
country
its
of
t!L. :~arger collectivity
the prevai:
smallholding
security
:ag aura?
of
as well
land.
as hopeful
to induce
ties
to the ujamaa way of
duction
could
---
people
a basis
not
attain
President
build
life
Nyerere
is correct
accordin,
equality,
mutual
responsibility,
to work.
But it
is clear
the rural
smallholders
along
the truism
This
and
of
and
this
essay
to cement
organized,
in Tanzania
that
--
to appeal
to the
step
individual
problem
with
it
their
is necessary
commodity pro-
well-being
-__-___
in short,
can,
of creating
and in fact
activity
that
that
it
that
existing
grass
roots
address
the
culture"
members
arises
he labels
ujamaa
material
cooperative
cannot
for
--
expect
economic
peasantry
collective
issue
obligation
leaders
only
to
wa:
and universal
the Tanzanian
his
must,
not
impossible
spontaneously
commitment to
coercion
is
national
Such consciousness
tl;rough
"it
"tradirional
themselves
in fostering
a minimum of
will
principles
today
to re-organize
that
essay
cooperative
consciousness.
and a first
The State*
is
family
a premise
crucially,
of material
in claiming
such lines
practice,
consciousness
of a level
-.---
to the proto-socialist
socialist
is the classic
is
the
well-being
economy in cooperative
socialists."
organized
possess
current
and,
a village
has expressed
without
Nyerere
modernization
of
It
villages
the village
on the nuclear
a degree
prospects.
after
the promise
centers
In much of
individually.
socialism
of whether
future
to form uj
for
which holds
---
life
It provides
that
to establish
way of
or the nation!.
does
not
through
practice
motivations.
institutions
is
This
and
and a maximum of voluntarism.
provide
certain
critical
services
Since the TANU Party and the Governmental apparatus overlap,
and since
both participate
in rurai deveiopmenf
planning,
the term %%iie?' is used lil
this paper to connote Party or Government, operating
separately
qr in concert.
TV fledgling
ujamaavillages
apric~ltural
extension
ment plan.)
But the
from above.
Thus the popular
advice
State
and %jamaa
na kujitegemea”
necessities
as well
rural
its
socialism.
starting
the State
point
this
policy,
This
lacks
essay
social
,’
unequal
status
nations
if
systematic
reinforce
rather
reflects
contributors
will
and vigorous
President
along
h‘yerere’s
stated
action
lather
some aspects
the whole people
“have”
vision
vs.
of
“have
the good
Zaire
pro&active
lines
society.
without
opportunities,
Tanzania
and by
and Ethiopia
resources,
and class
that
and poor
that
that
activity
the development
of
the likely
institutions
production
as
Tanzanian
most of Africa
taken to mold
be subverted
not”
2nd current
within
of
acrivities.
development
such as Kenya,
into
functions
emplqment
by signs
individual
variant
objectives
about
ecmomic
characterize
objective
production
of past
wealth,
the basic
will
national
of skepticisrr.
income,
and work)
describe
the Tanzanian
develop-
development
(socialism
in co-operative
is -not
than
rural
with the promotional
countries
and beneficiaries
harden
Tanzania’s
is persuaded
ownershi~p of
bringi;<
for
power that
neighboring
na kazi”
to achieve
of
The author
than private
of
effort
engineer
principles
a degree
distribution
co-operative
objective
of
to
facilities,
the village
and self-reliance)
primarily
and political
froa
%jamaa
wajamaa together
it
in general.
the evidence
slogans
takes
ii: sympathy with Tanzania’s
rhe highly
capability
is critical
and although
in formulating
the
(socialism
and deals
essay
are community health
and guidance
2s ideological
ir bringing
Although
(some examples
and collective
then the
prose%
as both
stratification
are the antithesis
of
The central
co-operative
rural
purpose
village
capital
carpentry
goods
farm activities,
of a.
sector),
paper
and blacksmithing
producing
combined
that
to demonsrrate
relies
heavily
with relatively
and places.
The idea
illustration.
of
techniques
mechanjzed
knowledge
farm and non-
skills
borrowed
is perhaps
implies
a midd?r
a
and materials,
from other
best
a broad
rwge
by
ground between
cultivation
manual labor
times
conveyed
and head porterage
of unaided
stage
economic
technology":
such as tractor
provides
for
scale,
and fully
and lorry
and engine
of potentially
power,
valuable
from which to choose.
It wiil
be argued that
the financial
for
example,
of motivational
(craftsmen),
toil
agricultural
the
result
not.
for
overcome
pius
that
twhnology.
is
impetus
can be partly
in arducws
a broad
diffusion
and manpower capabilities
mechanization,
increased
it
(a small
considerable
available
technolok;
techniques
of world
Tanzania
is
"intermediate
agriculture
the stock
techniques
there
that
in the formative
and concepts
intermediate
Between the two extremes
tools
that
tools
h-iilage.
workshops
contribution
such as hoe cultivation
and motorized
the proposition
and equipment
upon locally
simple
In Tanzanian
traditional
fundis
tools
in what has come to be called
technology
lack
is to develop
can make a substantial
It seeks
potential
of this
of the
It will
by the
also
is within
in a way that
be argued
that
consolidation
in labor
to enhancing
will
productivity
of
a well
contribute
to
apparent
created
for
and the decrease
selected
the well-being
the
tractor
in much of
employment opportunities
from the adoption
productivity
such technology
State,
ujamaa village
increase
In addition
of
intermediate
of w
several
themselves,
jmportant
-7-
objectives:
export
adequate
ezrnings
The case
Section
the
for
I.
relevance
in the Second Five
tools
summarizes
for
ujamaa
Year Development
and deficiencies
Section
the actual
cultural
tools
if
indicates
Machinery
technology.
diffused
development
Unit)
Section
IV. raises
Recent
readers
Tanzanian
in both
will
efforts
crop
(SFYP).
from the general
development
on agricultural
Section
of uj,,,
II.
roles
mechanization
some
to date.
of TAMTU (Tanz--.ia
and spreading
that
strategy
investigates
implementation
a warning
an intermediate
intermediate
negative
Agri-
effects
technology,
on Tanzania's
scholarly
of
literature
it;
in p&rtitular,
-Plan for
the main themes of this
through
of cooperatively
order.
the
new implements
run rural
Strategy
a socialist
society
and popular
journalism.
with Tanzania's
leaders.
the implications
and,
Philosophy
Development
to create
policies
in working
of proposals
Ujamaa as a Social
philosophy
stressing
activities
rural
can have powerful
have some familiarity
developmental
selective,
Tanzania's
in creating
and Economic
documented
expanding
pattern.
I.
~'
proceeds
and prtextial
Testing
indiscriminately,
population.
technology
Plan
of the cnaracteristics
III.
the nor-f;lrr!
tax base.
an intermediate
to the specific.
',
suppiies
and an enlarged
for
and stresses
food
this
essay:
resume is
brief.
Nyerere's
of the --Second Five
(1) the mechanization
and power sources
industries
to produce
Since
circumstances
of President
strategy
have been well
and (2)
such tools
moSL
and the
It
is
also
writings,
TANU
Year Development
of rural
the establishmmr!nt
and maintain
them
We should
policy
first
makers.
at economic
almost
The population
of
wage earners
in 1974)
is
still
ail1
increase
per year
through
socialist
bent,
qpporturitjes
oriented
by over
toward
broad
rural.
population,
formance
of
ment goodl.
thi,s
1
The Economic
Govern%%
Printer,
in farming
Even if
through
century.
agricultural,
the Tanzanian
satisfying
non-farm
of agricultural
at least
-Survey,
1972).
1971-72,
the
at an
number of
crop).
Tables
active
populati,,",
cont?nue
to
the
grow
wage employment
population
and by ovel‘
apart
1%
fr?m
creation
livelihoods
depends
350,000
agricultural
1970's
per
any
of
development.
economy is
commodities
one c&h
cent
growth must be heavily
The capacity
sector.
will
emphasizes
and especially
fostering
actual
non-farm
the
in ec;momic
of
per
significantly,
the
and
farming.
three
In consequence,
that
such as Axe1 and machinery,
produce
However,
efforts
90% rural
in smallholder
of 6% per year,
strategy
over
at nearly
participation
the agricultural
earned by nports
households
of
underlies
of the economically
to come.'
rate
nexus
Tanzanian
in 1971 and unofficially
primarily
2% per year
a development
Beyond the problem
rural
decades
the rest
for
years.
292,220
engaged
to grow at the high
still
three
confronting
has increased
than ten per ,ent
numbers for
life"
are engaged
are growing
(officially
less
of
in 1974 remains
wage employment
and the number of people
continues
force
6.1% in the past
non-farm
in absolute
active
and the labor
Non-agricultural
rate
some "facts
demographic-economic
of the economically
The population
annual
of
An unrvoidable
development.
all
annum.
take note
dependent
to
heavily
(the
import
a growing
upon the percritical
develop-
upon foreign
exchange
majority
The Government
29 and 30,
for
of Tanzanian
depends
for
(Dar es Salaam:
a large
The
-9.
proportion
chat
oil
of
its
stem ultimately
seeds
assessment
values
--
analysis
to a modern,
Ta;lzania's
in the
era;
core
traditional,
views
emerging
of
Nyerere's
essay
preceded
in the villages).
relations:
and that
built
"Socialism
ujamaa
is therefore
of a policy
an ominous
of
worth-
--
from the
that
Colonial
characterized
in the
I:@ a new
-
base.
(September
1967)
of ujvijijini
trend
a path
the dangers
transition
production
yet
molded
s!~ould be encoilraged
and Rural Development"
he describes
creed.
outline
inherited
of a gradual
on a modernized
TANU's adoption
In it
--
the
accepted,
issues:
economy,
relationships
and the possibility
PW-al socialism
important
Classes
national
have substantially
It
development.
mwalimu,
and his
development.
of rural
culture
unique
situation,
society,
on several
communalistic
society;
immediately
cuTrent
pattern
called
an
reinforces
on rural
are not uni~versally
of socio-economic
pre-Colonial,
developing
aspirations
sectors
stress
--
copra,
And
Thus,
Antagonistic
Nyerere
TanzaniaUs
humane and egalitarian
inchoate
economic
Julius
cotton,
such as textiles
and other
heavy
incomes
sector.
populace.
and the Emergeace of
--_
Independence,
summarize his
the
Tanzania's
of Tanzania's
strategy
to
underlie
and his
manufactures
agriculture
areps,
supply
industrial
among the rural
between
in rural
Fanners
to the growing
has shaped and articulated
interpretntion
form of
that
:~..d since
His zoc-al
while
production.
is primarily
Toward Exploitation
Before
generated
many urban-produced
of key linkages
'Tendencies
teacher
for
utensils
the nnrmazive
crop
raw materials
the market
and household
upon incomes
from cash
and orher
finally,
his
tax revenues
in rural
(socialism
social
and
-10.
There has been a general acceptance
of the social
attitudes
and
ideas of ow colonial
masters.
We have grt rid of the foreign
government,
lx: we have not yet rid r;.rse,ies
of the individualisLic
social
attitudes
which they represented
and "aught.
For it was
from these ovei-seas contacts
that we developed the idea that the
way to the comfort and prosperity
which everyone wants is through
saifishness
a.ld individual
advancement.1
'IXhepredominant
means by which economic
emerge in the countryside
prominent
forms
it
is the
has taker. are
spread
estate
and petty
has be??
characteristic
and the solution
it
poses
are relatively
easily
to
sell
production
State
past
levels
and los?
year,
a new series
aras
to the ptiblic
in the past
and citizens,
coffee
sector
virtually
1
J. N. Nyerere,
Socialism,
(Nairobi:
In the former,
with,
principally
sisal,
managers
ownership
problems
problem
the wners
of maintaining
when such farms revert
have not been
wheat,
expatriate
by forcing
the economic
efficiency
solved.)
to the
In the
hzs occurred
and dairy
of West Kilimanjaro
and in sisal
Region
estates
(sisal,
sharp
in particular,
increase
The expropriated
all
capitalist
in world
has become attract5re
prices
for
owners are a mix of
hard fibers
expatriates
of whom are Asians.'
view a more serious
by the petty
(coffee,
The most
(with compensation)
with the
two years.)
cultivation.
of expropriations
of Morogoro
In Nyerera's
posed
experienced
fanning
has begun to
to the socio-political
(In many cases
and production
their
among the wheat,
growing
State.
farming.
dealt
stratification
of cash crop
large
livestock)
out to the
capitalist
class
variant
threat
to egalitarian
of private
commercial
"Socialism
and Rursl Development,"
Oxford University
Press, 19681, p.
2
For a review of the plight
of Tanzania's
the expropriated
estate owners, see "Tanzania:
Confidential,
15, No. 11 @lay 31, 1974).
principles
farming.
is
Enter-
in FTeedom,a~z
340.
citizen
Asians,
Asian Anxieties,"
including
Africa
-ll-
prising
Africans
addition
to
Nyerere
vie:%
use the s'~rplus
their
Patrimony
and begin
such an enterpr!re
means by which the capitalist
resources.
The crux
to the ownei-, while
p.?*er,
wirh no share
.Although
resemblance
to Marx's
proletarianization
Volume I,
population
density
landless.
studies
gives
Although
haye documented
The studies
cash crop
suggest
production,
is
likely
it
to
and Rural
labor
is that
a close
and the
land enclosure
expands
this
society
of
scarcer,
evenutally
z.
the
of the landless
very
tendency
of independent
landlords
crop
movement
and as
cumulative
and the
far
growing
initially
Development,"
he drew this
accumulation”
and that
in many cash
extend
their
bears
where the predominance
stratification,
over productive
selling
land relatively
increases
rural
of the
and entrepreneurship
that
has not yet proceeded
existence
IWI$.
1
Nyerere , "Socialism
2
sequence
that
essay
the British
The danger
to the point
its
to
tasks.
regardless
capital,
of "Primj~:ive
class
cultivation
control
European history,
during
way to a polarized
this
land,
land in
they generate.'
making arable
declines.
develop
gained
izs cash crop production.
the land-owner
laborers
might ultimately
smallhrlders
Part VIII).
increases,
power of
or land-poor
characterization
of the yeomanry
(Capital,
economic
of
for
exploitative,
in Nyerert's
from a reading
to acquire
are reduced
vaiue
is no indication
analysis
to
employees
in the surplus
there
initially
the retwns
his
sales
to use wage labor
as inherently
farmer
is that
accrue
conceptual
from cash crop
based
in Tanzania,
areas.'
on differential
to the dominance
c&.,
pp.
of
342-3.
1. Cliff=,
"The Policy
of Ujamaa Vijijini
and Class Stwggle,"
Socialism
in Tanzania,
L. Cliffe
and 3. Saul, eds.,
Vol. II (D&r es Salaam:
East Africrpublishing
House, 1973), pp. 203-208.
,
-12-
borh rural
local
co,
s0ciety.l
-e and local
politics
In Nyerere's
perhaps
by a numerically
overly
small
optimistic
s:ratum
of
words:
The small scale capita&t
a-ilculture
we now have is not
really
a danger; but our fp-i
are on the wroflg -nth,
and if
we continue
to encouragt I:T even to help the development
of agrJcultura1
capitalism,
we shall never become a socialist
state.
Two further
relationships
this
eleme.?ts
are 9:
essay.
Fir:-,
upon peasant
marketing
-rpecial
nature
of
life
(e.g.,
co-operative
ar:i farming
iqxts
xsise
the real
incomes
are !Iltimately
to claim
paid
that
opportunities
bureaucracy
it
is parasitic,
Two requirements
are that
popular
of rural
many former
control,
earn their
State
and that
privileges
needs
--
social
functions
bureaucrats,
through
through
rather
another
far
strategy
perquisites
above
constructive
service
Development,"
is
valid
of the peasantry.
this
tendency,
returned
to
remain necessary,
to the people.
H. Thoden Ban Yelzen,
"Staff,
Kulaks and Peasants,"
In economic usage, oligopoly
exists
when there
153-179.
who control
a narket.
and Rural
peasant
development
counteract
1
2.
kyerere , "Socialism
which
Thus it
exploitation
as they
farm
the typical
be debureaucratized,
insofar
been inertia-
in supp1yir.g
taxer.
to
:;iaf
connnissionors,
than enhances
form of
century
bodies
has often
example
and other
stratum
stifles
development
for
in
iu tt,ic
district
The bureaucracy
social
made later
Tanzania
chief,
by the peasants
if
existing
and parastatal
colonial
The salaries
of this
for
of rural
governmental
to peasant
advice.
oi
to rhe proposals
feature
officers).
bound and nrresponsive
critique
relevance
a prominent
is the bureaucratic
impinge
of Nyerere's
2.
G.,
in ibid.,
are afew
p.
344.
pp.
sellers
-1%
The subordinate
Tanzanian
rural
status
culture,
of women is a third
one which
atedates
exploitative
the
colonial
feature
era.
of
Spccificallj.
It ii impossible
to deny th;it the women <id, and s;ill
do, more
than their fair $hare of work in the f?elds
and in the Ez~es.
By virtue
of their sex they suffered
fTom inequaiit:es
which
had nothing to do with their
contribution
to familg welfare.
Alrhough it is wrong to sugges" that they hxe aii,ays been
aa oppressed
group, it is true ,lhat in traditional
society1
ill-freatmeni
and enforced
subservience
could be their !ot.
agriculturaiist
response
who has advised
to Nyerere’s
request
in such tasks
socialist
for
regimes
guidance
2s hauling
from Mali
in forxulating
water,
pounding
to Cuba.
rural
grain
In
develop-
and gathering
--In Nyerere’s
conception,
the good srxiety
in contemporary
ostulates
traditional
African
Africa
to have be=.,: part
will
of
cultures.
most important
among: them were mutual respect
among extended
family
members,
a high degree
R. Dumont, Tanzanian Agriculture
After
Tanzania Government, DEVPLAN. 1969; see~c~ly
"Recommendations,"
pp. 3-5.
and mutual responsibility
of
equality
in access
the Arusha
DeClaTatiOn,
-"Swmnary" anr
to
the
-14-
basic
material
needs of
and a universe:
the
labor
cf
obligation
degree
ethnic
of
groups
social
And Nyerere
scholars
elders,
hilrself
and the
example,
with
points
existence
is not
not
nonetheless,
others
labor
were starving),
(no one lived
out
of
serve
of equality.“3
that
of
from
vision
One wants to keep
East
a
Nyerere’s
view.
cultures
exercise
of power by
and status
is
largely
“scientific
“powerful
as “an instructive
of those
or kingdom suggests
contradicts
somewhat
(as reflected,
of herds).
rigorous
with
knowledge
arbitrary
in uealth
or size
of this
of most pre-colonial
sometimes
inequalities
in the tradition
tradition”
of chiefdom
shortcomings
Nyerere’s
the validity
Our p’esent
wratification
in number of wives
a “living
2
a tradition
of womer., the
As Saul has put it,
::learly
while
in Physical
have questioned
life.
and economic
in the subordination
for
tc participate
image of pre-coloni
African
(no one feasted
others).’
Even smpathetic
simplistic
subsistence
and selective,
socialism.”
historical
analogy,”
intuitive
But if
legitimacy,”
supporting
in mind that Nyerere
it
the “moral
does not
indulge
ujamaa
does,
imperative
in
1
Nyerere,
“Socialism
and Rural
Development,”
z
cit.,
pp.
337-340.
2
See for example, L. Cliff*
“Planning
Rural Development,”
in Towa?ds
Socialist
Planning,
Uchumi Editorial
Board, (Dar es Salaam: Tanzaniamhing
“Traditional
Society
and Cooperatives,”
House, 1972), p. 93; Migot-Adholla,
in Cooperatives
and Rural Development -in East Africa,
C. Widestrand,
ed.,
Bakula, “‘ll~e Effect
of
(New York: Africzmshing
Corp.,
1970); am.
&Tanzania,
Traditionalism
on Rural Development, I’ in Building Ujamaa Villages
J. H. Proctor,
ed.,
(Tanzania Publishing
House, 1971).
3
John S. Saul, “Nyerere
Volume I, pp. 180-182.
on Socialism,”
in Cliffe
and Saul,
eds.,
op.
cit.,
the romantic
notion
that
an egalitarian,
lies
jus?
below
"human nature"
extent
that
these
by the colonial
that
attitudes
family,
clan
bas?~s for
and economic
:
both
forms
;,; ~,
jl,,
ships
among people.
built
upon,
of
seriously
of Nye~ere's
--
for
of modern production
rapid
economic
occur
larger
To the
undermined
is
a faith
and that
than the
in institution
techniques,
But social
contradict,
trans-
spheres;
activities
or exploitative
building
ujamaa can be
in separate
the medium of
relationships
individualistic
the better
development.'
do not occur
through
optimism
and cm a scale
With perseverance
Ujamaa social
a base
they have been
can be influenced
transfonation
of development
psyche.
the core
or age-set.
application
institutional
formation
Still,
comuunalistic
in the Tanzanian
exist,
can be established
and with judicious
the
surface
once
and behavior
ujamaa relationships
traditional
did
experience.
human attitudes
the
non-exploitative,
rather,
and relationand cannot
economic
be
production
,:'
and distribution.
:(~,,;
F>,,
,,
Two elements of Nyerere's
view of the change-over
:~:,,,
,< capitalism
tc uiaroaa are of special
importance for this
and its
dependence
and cooperative
on local
production
,',~,~but the objective
and contraction
of
different
building
pace
1
Nyerere,
2.
-Ibld.,
take
from village
to village
"Socialism
and Rural
348-9,
355-8.
toward
that
the diversity
in different
different
parts
forms
and will
and from region
Development,"
for
expansion
IV . . . in living,
recognizes
circumstances
-will
pp.
steadily
its
rural
gradualism
Individualistic
are bound to co-exist
initiative.
And Nyerere
and environmental
means that
activities
individual
essay:
and -self-reliance.
must be to progress
in distribution."
economic
initiative
from emergent
9.
of cooperation
in working
and
of cultural,
of the country
proceed
to region.
&,
some time,
p.
16
340.
at a
-16-
The gradualist
wariness
about
limited
water
an immediate
capability
services
and directly
improvement
will
will
foot
cannot
do many things
for
(agricultwal
over
for
upon the
is no short
state
are complementary
to,
the heavily
capitalized
that
predominated
in rural
this
state
on the basis
to
ability
to give
links,
formal
Through
cadre
training
programs
to give
tangible
assistance
the agricultural
But,
assistance.)
popu-
fundamentally,
many things
to them or
also
results
development
cawnand,
and when motorized
equipment
the typical
rewlt
apathy.
was peasant
do a fair
to develop
share
Inputs
substitute
settlement
of
of productive
self-reliance.
from above,
much less
of
(As taxpayers,
but cannot
on self-reliance
to
expansion
(road
care,
lorries).
in the mobilization
term alternative
with
responsibility
veterinary
(tractors,
time.
and the state's
infrastructures
extension,
the state's
and especially
there
were organized
physical
capital
revenues,
rely
of the peasants'
them.
In planning,
The emphasis
wafamaawith
increase
a recognition
commitment to communal life
most of the bill
ujamaa villages
-~-
from both
and administration,
and growth in government
lation
full
productive
of planning
to the iiajamaa
stems
to provide
supplies!,
educationj
approach
for,
partly
local
strategy
of the
with orders
was supplied
to
cotton
disillusionmeX
farming
projects
When projects
the wananchi
coming
and run by the state,
Scheme members had little
self-reinforcing
by the
work and initiative.
1960's.
of the work or to repay
a self-sustaining,
supplied
from leaders'
schemes and block
resources,
sense
pi-oduction
cooperative
of
loans,
outlook.'
1
See L. Cliffe
and G. Cunningham, "Ideology,
Organization
and the
Settlement
Schemes in Tanzania,"
in Cliffe
and Saul, eds., 2.
c&.,
pp. 131-140;
also H. Ruthenberg,
ed., Smallholder
Farming and Smallholder
Agriculture
g
-Tanzania,
(Munich: Weltforum Verlag,
1968).
The majority
Review of
---
of
Past Agriculture
As the
learn
the
such projects
colonial
period,
synopsis
will
help
perspective.
agricultural
policy
from which the
developed
colonial
farming
the concept
one could
predomineted
economy.
population
remained
By Independence,
sale
played
of private
smallholder
roles
plenting
materials,
1
L. Cliffe,
going
"Plann;ng
Rural
to
strategy
in
back to the early
in an
overview
of
Development,"
dualism
as it
a mixture
areas,
without
of
applied
of cash
crop
development
estate
and subsistence
attachment
households
or livestock
less-
settler
and a sEbstantia1
of Tanganyika
to
agricultural
commercialized
significant
one crop
is
proportion
of
to the market
were probably
product
primarily
British
Protectorate
market network.
critical
helped
development
in a more detailed
Fully
the majority
The German Colonial
government
an effort
of ujamaa policies
the pattern
other
of at least
in the national
positive
say that
of
failures.
condensed.)'
economic
in some areas,
engz.ged in production
for
are
was "polyistic."
was rharacteristic
the African
interested
L. Cliffe,
of
as social
suggests,
policy,
the discussion
paragraphs
Tanganyika
production
see
rural
agricultural
to place
should
countries
of
paragraph
Tanzania's
(Readers
following
Modifying
in
underlies
as well
Folicies
of the preceding
failings
A brief
historical
Development
illustration
from past
1970's.
have been financial
administration
roles
farming
in stimulating
the provision
Rural
of
the
the partial-commercialization
among the indigenous
te prz!m-..+P cash
"Planning
and later
population.
crop production:
agronomic
Development,"
the supply
and other
op.
A set
cit.
advice
of
of
seeds
to cultivators,
or
the articulation
of
and in a rather
smallholders
ox plows)
metal
passive
with
and transportation
way, the
both
and with
activities
a marketing
fostering
farm inputs
(such
consumer goods
(examples:
kerosene
that
lamps,
of rural
as metal
promoted
cotton
for
export
commerce that
hoes
and,
an interest
textiles,
crops,
supplied
in some areas,
in money-earning
bicycles,
corrugated
roofing).
It would be wrong,
however,
to conclude
providing
certain
invisible
hand of the market mechanism.
a time of
"commandism."
infrastructural
Bukoba and Kilimanjaro
requiring
certain
practices.
of peasant
TZL"ga"yi,kEL
to give
Yet,
orders,
development
of
discontent
rather
see3
than to
the post-Independence
peasant
to the
of
fueled
the
areas
dates
cash
crop
or forced
and it
of
and persuade
and even into
(called
by-laws)
and cultivation
sales)
or to
labor.
This
lack
of confidence
was one of
the independence
te"dency
as Sukunuland,
regulations
the regimes
the wananchi
farming
era was most certainly
in such
imprisonment
educate
period
left
out of
reflects
that
as we will
after
planting
(financed
by fine,
and abilities
the government,
culti.xators,
acreages,
to pay taxes
that
The colonial
were hemmed in by a set
of rural
in the attitudes
sources
Cash crop
was punishable
modus operandi
investments,
minimum crop
Failure
obey by-laws
into
network
the prime
movement in rural
a burea?"cratic
farmers,
the attempts
administratio"
has persisted
to create
ujamaa
villages.
Along
holder
capital
areas
cash
with
crop
intensive
efforts
in the post-World
the
productio",
projects
of new settlement.
to
War II period
admninistr-+ion
create
;;;;der:aok
mechanized
commercial
The famous Tanganyika
Groundnut
to stimulate
x fw
small-
l.zgor
agriculture
more
i"
Scheme was the
-19-
largest
of
financiai
these
disaster,
strat~egy
in the
projects,
rather
farming
systems,
Mission
te
Within
projects.
and yet
1960's.
Plan's
carrying
1960's.
crops.
foliowing
the eight
block
farming
to be a heavy drain
rural
development.
left
-m+s
to ____
of 'economic
benefits
the schemes
had fin extremely
households
97.
that
little
was very
high
into
-P&n
quantithe
in areas
plan
(1965-69).'
where cash
implementation
"trans-
which was charged
approach."
Nyerere
as a focus
for
spontaneous
was contradicted
settlements
got
off
with
and others
economic
and largely
by actual
on the
practices
the ground
capital
low (for
and the
opportunity
to the settlers.
reasons
cost,
the development
discussed
in ?he sense
process
while
in
in the midskilled
They were characteristically
initiative
Bank
and mechanization
which oversaw
WA],
of Agriculture,
villages
1960 World
and in terms of
In effect,
of partly
existing
in terms of
taken root.
Agency
development
of the African
and tobacco,
conception
of
of the
a
"transformation"
Year Development
crops
settlements
by a command mechanism that
a few thousand
export
proved
rural
large
primarily
of new village
The schemes proved
for
Five
"impro-vement
his
it
on resettlement
the
However,
p.
agriculture
such as tea
Settlement
and self-reliant
1Ibid
;,
in the
were couched
and the Ministry
out programs
manpower available
only
the --First
the major
the Village
were drawn to the idea
most of
toward
emphasis
had not previously
projects,
cooperative
of
for
of new export
modernization.
policy
management and control"
objectives
targets
between
formation"
of public
The Mission's
upon "expert
production
was split
to be a model for
by the recommendations
became 2 comerstone
production
inception
was reinforced
settlers,
crop
its
improvwent
relying
The First
proved
of
than a gradual
iulganyika.
establishment
also
The bias
projects,
tative
it
a few years
run
Ihe ratio
below),
that
they
leaving
and
brought
out
-20.
hiindreds
of
of public
I
thousands
sector
@utput
of
least
doubied.'
Peasant
parts
of the country,
every
for
and others
substantially
only
of
cash crop
labor
to adopt
groups
their
were disturbed
orientation
and at the signs
in Tanzanian
both within
ethnic
groups
of
of the growth,
farming
and increased
of an individualistic
1960's
groundnuts)
from many ethnic
of the TANU left-wing
society,
strategy
the
fraction
(excepting
an eagerness
their
during
a negligible
agriculturalists,
demonstrated
by a different
allocation.
gl‘cw very
smallholder
the productivity
Yet Nyerere
z;;,~
,,,
,,,:
>;c;;
,,,,,
t<;;;;
>,,,~
did
Schemes accounted
production
raised
and resource
,:ash crops
while
that
:,,,
~;z;;,;,
3:~
promotion
of
but SettIemeni
who might have been mobilized
and many
innovations
money incomes.
at the entrenchment
growing
and between
at
stratification
regions
of
the
country.
In s!xn, the
formation
1960's
zailure
approach"
combined
ment strategy
and the very
to provide
-Between Li&wa
--
As mentioned,
targets
projects.
The shift
of policy
by the Party's
'Ibid
-,
p.
100.
Uj
Five
in the late
National
for
and highly
of private
smallholder
in the Second
--___---
instrument
the
fanning
of rural
in the
develop-
to a more complex
in October
Five
Year Plan
goal
of quantitative
of agricultural
was mandated by the TANLI Executive
Conference
"trans-
vijijini.
Year Plan stressed
1960's
capitalized
the sharp redirection
and Technology
and the policy
tools
success
call
the First
production
cgmmandist
a basis
That Tanzanians
The Connection
choice
of the
1967,
"transformation"
goal-set
ad
Council,
then ratified
and finally
a new
incorporated
-21-
into
the --Second
Five
between
the 3
be read
as a definitive
m
forth
Year Development
document and plan
and its
links
blueprint
to the approach
Most importantly,
to building
"concentrating
to complete
mean that
learning
family
the Plan
Uj.
That
attention
on limited
Ujamaa over
while,
to
peasant
a short
" . .
live
implementation
for
in the -Plan have an important
approach
-Plan in 1969.l
bearing
espouses
is,
on this
The strategy
it
is
not
to
the yproach
to
as set
essay.
a "frontal,"
as opposed
to "selective,"
the 1960's
strategy
which
are capable
of time."
To follow
families
in Tanzania
of the population
discrepancies
mechanization,
the -Plan rejects
areas
that
However,
to agricultural
a few thousand
shanbas."2
indicate
development.
period
Ujamaa, the rest
Subsequent
continues
of
of making movement
such a course
would
are living,
to
live
01‘
on single-
xlopted,
11 . . . is to move towards Ujamaa on all possible
fronts,
mobili~ring
the full
range of Governmental and political
ixtitutions
behind
the principles
of Ujamaa.
Under this approach we would seek to
ensure that large segments of the society
will make some movement
towards socialism."3
It is
acknowledged
cooperatives
limited
that,
need help
resources
rather
although
in getting
thin
"fledgling
on their
to pursue
Ujamaa Villages
feet,"
a frontal
the State
approach.
and production
must spread
As a result,
its
most
1
An indication
of the divergence
of views on development strategy
in the
late 1960's,
between the political
leadership
and the professional
planners,
is that the Economic Comm'ttee of the Cabinet rejected
an early draft of the
Five Year Plan as insufficiently
oriented
toward ujamaa.
As noted in the bo'y
of this essay,
the Plan as finally
adopted still
conveyed an tmpression
of
ujamaa philosophy
and programs hastily
superimposed upon, rather than integral
with,the
"planners'
plan."
2.
Unlted Republic of ?anzania,
Second --Five Year Plan, for July
June 1974, Volume I:
General Analysis
es Salaam: 1969), p. 27.
31bid.
1969 -
-22-
villages
cannot
expect
assistance
in the
shown that
where
adverse
effects,
emphasis
is
structures
short
diverting
the
roots
success
training.
is
the State
of
and,
[are]
closely
This
*eems~to
pp.
2.
Ibld.,
p.
26.
3.
Ibld.,
p.
29.
attraction
of the Plan
very
1.
Ibld.,
production
it
"has
can have
Again,
on investment
village
for
in infra-
village
activity
In particular,
the
concept
is
a
by providing
required
an
to make a
techniques
and a fruitful
ecOnOm
and solid;
there
Plan reflects
to cooperative,
of
organization,
cooperative
and other
the
by which
a belief
division
as opposed
thti
of
to
individ-
3
production.
vijijini.
of
scale
^_._^_Z^
cn,~~rsnce,
objective."'
"Among the inputs
agricultural
manpower
and self-mobilization
the village
More concretely,
large
sources
to stimulate
must fertilize
can be increased."'
linked
lavishly,
some kind of project
and backsliding.
and opportunities;
economies
that
immediately
disillusionment
The paragraphs
not
an awareness
required
can be major
ualistic,
xheme
true
self-reliance
and leadership
an Ujamaa Village
significant
labor
initiative,
too
from its
extension
ideas
production
community
to education,
that
of
is given
assistance
to avoid
of
or professional
the settlement
and providing
improvement
input
Moreover,
assistance)
The Plan reveals
recognition
FE.
of material
with Government and T.&W concentrating
agricultural
ity,
deal
(material
on grass
the villagers,
a great
27-28.
to the
reflect,
that
deal
discussion
with agricultural
of the frontal
mechanization
strategy
for
are
ujamaa
-23-
"A compartmentalized
pattern
of thinking
[that has] developed
.
in the planner's
view that there is an ujamaa program, on the one
hand, wd that there is an agricultural
development program on
the other;
missing,
therefore.
is a more meaningful
and integrated
alternative
approach which sees ujamaa, socialist
production
relations,
as a principle
which underlies
all rural planning."'
This,
as argued
below,
is one of
the most serious
deficiencies
in Tanzanian
planning.
Yet there
are Ltrong
and the plannei
implicit
development
ization.
The rt:erencr
villages,
for
example,
:mplies
productivity
/1
bone 2nd sinew.
However,
;:z,,:
,p
from experience
by warning
',,,,
,,~,
is
or requires
the
high cost
simple
prototype
forms
and low cost
stage,
skills,
materials
implement,
or set
Tanzanians.
1
2
the Plan conveys
Second
Five
forms
of
implements
there
"Planning
Year Plan,
is
2.
the
designed
The implication
is
not that
that,
Development,"
cit.,
pp.
successful
37-38.
to
trials
at the
endowments of
any specific
level
p.
technology
spectacular
and problems
at the
oar r&.,
trector
and tested
resource
to the needs
learned
is subject
commitment to "less
a confirm&ion
Rural
and one that
local
suited
human
a lesson
that
with
is
for
the
that mechanization
By citing
a growing
to increase
reveals
had taught
already
consistent
and finance.2
Rather,
L. Cliffe,
equipment
moderr-
in m
power souxes
assumption
of uj
economic
production"
on mechanization
Experience
espousal
technology,
other
mode of production
capital
the
rural
scale
in tools
in implementation.
of mechanization,"
for
large
the facile
tractorization.
an intrinsically
of
substitute
section
against
between
technology
innovation
of human labol~ and to
numerous manmade failures
of
a tools
to "advantages
il
,*
,,j:,,
,,, ',
implies
of
connections
99.
of
of
all
economic
-24-
development
prevailing
make a contribwion
a5 one element
The -Plan Proper
tj
be Produced
fxctories
both
and also
pr,%enting
ality.
in much of-the
indicates
of
that
by specialized,
by local
country,
a concerted
complete
call
fcr
specialization
drive
new tools
to raise
on successful
relatively
large
scale
In his
of
speech
Nyerere
integrated
in agriculture,
he made the
designs
are
farm equipment
of May 28th,
stressed
rural
can
productivity.
based
craftsmen.'
a program
and simple
implemems
the -Plan to the TANU Conference,
In his
cheap
1969,
the latter
development,
following
potenti-
going
beyond
statement:
"Although mass production
is the best and cheapest u;';y of
meeting the needs of OUI‘ people for certain
types of goods,
therz are many others where the needs can best be met by
labor inteasive
small scale industries
and craft workshops. 1>2
There
is
successfully
some evidence
borne
hand experience
technology"
implementing
w.
empirically,
that
Tanzania.
effort
these
to
This
It is
obstacles
hard to avoid
to "ujamaaize"
obstacles
will
pp.
seeks
be.
ix and xiii.
that
litt!e
contention
utilized
conclusion
of
idxs
rural
in a short
craft
conceptually
set
workshops
for
and
out in the --Second
Plan
ujamaa in much of
the more urgent
period
by first
in the strategy
have stymied
that
is being
corroborated
to date
t3 demonstrate,
which so far
the
this
documentation,
application
the population
'Ibid.
2.
E.,
essay
that
indicates
have been
a systematic
overcome
ground"
But the available
in 1972 and 1973,
and "intermediate
can help
out.
"on the
of
time,
the
frontal
the more awesome
-25-
11.
By 1972,
nearly
the official
1.8 million
adopted
not yet
Implementation
--
showed over
In terms
the villages
of
sheer
cooperative
a group of people
to
locations
plementation.
govenrmental
belie
tractors)
for
to financial
villages
in the
capital
latter
programs.
In effect,
relying
hoe)
category
and shoka
of
Tanzania,
stage,"
on paper,
imply
and
where
be aware that
that
for
they have con-
settlement.
Actual
home-
of cases.)
in the methods of
this
essay
of villages
in buildings
tl;a?
of
further,
technical
assistance
traditional
is
a
receive
(es-
have no such privileged
It appears,
have been left
im-
that
and equipment
that
hand tools
--
most
in developing
to map out their
own course
panga
(machete),
(axe).
1
Development
P.R. Ngeze, "Some Aspects of Agricultural
(Oar es Salaam: East African Agricultural
Economics Society
Appendix.
2
Republic
.iuccess.
the official
should
proportion
have had little
upon the use of
"formative
the arguments
goods.
with moderate
but had taken no tangible
weaknesses
of villages
they
strategy"
only
village
a small
or capital
the "frontal
Further,
does not
investment
and the majority
access
of development,
between
for
with
the
(Readers
in the majority
importance
and loans
I,"
a charter,
a physical
ujamaa villages
implemented
existed
some fundamental
polarization
grants
(digging
village
to construct
Of particular
toward
production
that
4,900
III).L
and working.
have not chxged
The numbers also
pecially
living
form an uj
01‘ even plan
tendency
villages
wajamaa had drawn up and signed
toward
structed
include
(Stage
of Uj
numbers.
were at "Stage
in communal production
apparently
prospective
jembe
statistics
members.'
80% of
engaged
statistics
stead
in the
--
in the ---Second Five Year Plan was being
However, over
steps
Tendencies
Economic
w,
1971-72,
9.
in Ujamaa Villages,"
Conference,
1973),
cit.,
pp.
61-62.
-26-
Far from being
organize
rurai
support
like
a frontal
society
along
in a relatively
in the
schemes have stressed,
projects
manpower cannot
cost5
foregone
the
of central
importance.
socialist
public
high
economic
If mobilization
development
into
a relatively
opportunity
cost
indeed
comprehensive
allccation,
must reject
of peasants
of frustrated
larger
statistical
the "privileged
to use the State's
to join
village"
resources
bias
to induce
and 2.
to private
"nothing
there
family
happening"
if
the majority
fanning
It
is
and manpower
evidence,
to argue
the national
to avoid
has a
is no
anecdotal
in Arusha and Tanga Regions,
the ujmovement;
wajamaa returning
sufficient
a
then funneling
objectives.
investment
are
into
the new villages
since
on public
is
population
policy
exhaustively,
But there
manpower --
objective,
of
stated
material
observations
towns when they find
1
contention
by village.
by first-hand
1.
wants:
published
rural
use
opportunity
and trained
proportion
and contradicts
document this
village
supported
Tanzania
to
small
which was
and that
Their
is the priority
suspiciously
of the settlement
in isolation.
of the entire
process
resources
not possible
capitalized
of capital
of public
approach"
are highly
be appraised
and to re-
looks
or "transformation
critics
uses
poverty
the concentration
As perceptive
that
alternative
rural
of ujamaa villages
scheme,
1960's.
much skilled
--
lines,
proportion
settlement
failure
to eliminate
socialist
small
Ihe discredited
a strategic
strategy
that
leadership
(much less
a high dropout
or drifting
100%)
rate
to the
in the village.'
Interestingly,
the national
English language newspaper,
the Daily News,
provides
the best source of tiecdotal
documentation
of the "privileged
village"
syndrome.
Very often,
probably
at least once a week, the paper hails
a new
ujamaa village
that has, for example, brought in its first
bumper crop utilizing
tractors,
lorri~es and Storage facilities
provided by the State.
The polarization
tendency implied by the State's
lack of capability
to provide
all 5,000 villages
(continued
op. next page)
-27
The almost
indicate
that
cooperative
report
daily
SI~CCBSSstories
a sizable
number of
living.
on ujamaz
in a way that
due to
lends
to systematic
do leave
one or a combination
of
the following
News
base
nor the State
economic
the impression
a cooperative
Daily
--
an economic
ihe newspapers
itself
in establishing
in the Tanzania
-are developing
neither
the reports
have been most successful
usually
villages
Unfortunately,
However,
performance.
reported
that
for
agencies
analysis
of
where villages
production
base,
it
factors:'
1.
The location
of villages
along a new transport
artery,
such as the
--i&&ktop
roadThat
runs from Lushoto toward Dar es Salaam; or,
even "oi-e prominently,
the new Tanzania-Zambia
railroad,
which is
opening up vast areas of the Southwest.
2.
The pronlisl --of land and physical
infrastructures
to landless
@%anrs
or people whose dwellings
were widely dispersed
across
the countryside
with poor access to clinics,
water supplies
or
schools.
3.
Grants of or soft
butsa%%Kbuildlng
fertiliiers~
3.
The Organization
of Villages
around new cash z,
most prominently
--tea and tobacco
(z
the South and West), but dlso cotton,
maize,
cashews ad dairy products
in various parts of the country.
But the majority
sufficient
land
of
for
loans
--.-
Tanzanian
their
for
capital
supplies,
households
current
needs.
goods, particularly
planting
materials
already
produce
By itself,
tractors,
2nd
a cash crop
a borehole
Limitations
cificijls
conference
IJniversity
and have
OT a clinic
on the public
(Ministry
of Agriculture)
znd was a recurrent
theme of informal discussions
at the 1973
0;' the East African Agriculturzl
Economics Society,
held at the
of C&r es Salaam.
1
Along tile Mozambique border
heen prompted by defense needs --
is
the formation
of ujamaa villages
has also
the fear of armed Portuguese
incursion.
pwse
render
investment
the extension
in village
wide village
there
entire
production
formation
is s
mechanism,
rural
populace
And certainly
of major
unfeasible
in the near
no mixture
into
transportation
Euture.
of
souxes
of
and heavy capital
as the gaivanizing
force
So it
in all
compulsion
communal living
the principle
arteries
appears
that
and inducement,
and production
nation-
likelihood
to bring
arrangements
up to now cannot
"II;XZSS"
for
the
by 1976.
be duplicated
nationwide.
A further
form&ion
local
is
roads,
storage
assessment
in order.
wafer
cultural
is
on two interrelated
of
technology.
seasonal
peak
labor
labor
when soil
raise
yields
is
a fine
seedbed
farming
case
large
that
in yield
under
crop
rnimal
interrow
power in these
weeding
the quality
of
from
rests
and
the pre-existing
zones
are the
for
late
scarce
skill,
plots
for
to
example
increased
01‘
for
before
tractors
a
a
all
tasks,
tilling
can lead
over
manual labor
peak season
some operations,
onset
planting;
planting,when
Used with
In sum, tl‘a~tors
invest-
and then planted
or by permitting
ox plowing.
crop
of agri-
in farming
result
substitute
move
scale
in annual
that
systems,
tractorization
arise
village
clinics,
for
a few weeks after
Tractors
tilth.
housing,
must be hoed or plowed
too hard for
by improving
of
bottlenecks
demand arises
inefficient
ior
induce
land clearing,
as the prime
economic
Sottlenecks
sharp drops
by mechanizing
rains
preparing
of
simultaneously.
mechanically
example,
labor
viewed
the
to
have covered
unnechxnized
economies
when fields
span to avoid
need weeding
for
Put simply,
improvements
materials
chzracteristical?y
Examples
subsequent
investment
and building
advantages:
of ,?he main rains,
short
for
capital
But in previously
developmer;.
elimination
Grants
supplies
and schools.
ment in tractors
of the use of
the
also
in
acreage
-29and to more timely,
Both of
ating
:hese
worker
animal
and yield
thorough
factors
and maintenance
and draft
is
mwe
costs
running
condition
destroy
the fragile
that
acre
to pay financial1y.l
raise
production
of tractol‘s
technology
per
and more precise
fertility
so much higher
with
fuel,
of Tanzanian
that
that
capital,
if
acreage
tractor
tractors
(e.g.
through
inappropriate
ivation
by P.B.
Ngeze,
a District
Planning
Officer
by consoli-
ope+ations
in Iringa
sesvarions
rsal,
Ngeze reports
to plow and plant
annual
crops
that
labor
to their
tasks
in East Africa,
depressed
Iringa
repay
private
yields.
their
loans
neglect
As a result
have been unable
capital
Since
shamhas.
(or
of
to cover
to set
weeding
of
aside
operating
neglect,
sosts
a depreciation
of
they
are
several
tractors,
fund for
in the
are used
frequently
communal shambas results
the uajamaa's
the
and thinning
Region
pattern
on communal shamhas, villager:
on
at Mikuuni
when tractors
Instead,
in good
in ways that
e minimized
A report
per
cultivation
be kept
they not be used
soils
oper-
than with a human
in both
necessary
requires
of cultivation
but the
increases
always
in turn
and supplied
levels,
substantial
are almost
lhis
are
performance
fail
allocate
critical
their
farm
in substantially
villages
in
much less
replacement
to
of
A good summary of the problems inherent
in tractorizing
African
=griCUltUre
can be found in .J,C. deWiide, et al, Agricultural
Development &Tropical
Africa,
-7
hns Hopkins University
Press,
19671, Chapter 6, "ImplementS and
The frequency
of finaxcial
failure
in African tractorization
is
"Subsidized
Tractor Mechanization,"
East African
Community Specialist
Committee Meeting in Agricultural
Engineering,
1971.
-3o-
equipment
after
cooperative
ization
five
yea*s).l
work relations,
may be Iess
does
ti.2 work for
commandism:"
In terms
5xancial
than
its
seems to foster
Instead
shamhas."L
the
important
away" mechanization
tractor
or six
of
self-reliance
it
wajamaa to work together.
last
analysis,
tractors
provide
each of
equipment
villages)4
is
exchange)
(much less
sidering
that
1
P.
'D.
(Arusha),
3
the cost
budget
of crash
the 4920 villages
B. Ngeze,
Vail,
i373.
L. Cliffe,
"Some Aspects
recorded
of
could
Rural
equals
for
less
one tractor
of
*.,
Mwalimu Visits
to
some
in foreign
the entire
Ministry
This
figure
Con-
of the rural
Development,"
z.
To
and mechanics.
than one-sixth
Agricultural
imple
and related
-PIah period.
drivers
formation
provided
entirely
28-33%
1969-1974
comple-
But in the
to the
actually
(almost
Uevelopment,"
4
M. Mugoya, "Ujamaa in Practice:
Development,
December 1972, p. T.21.
only
the problem.
from comments of wajamaa at Mikuuni
"7lanning
as the
he effectively
i?lus;rate
tractors
training
include
couple<
efficient
as a lure
in 1972 with
the
and
as provider,
and coercion
it
will
This
for
State
in some villages.
investment
million.
"the
attitude
and economically
even if
with the two or three
$25-30
the
tractors
exercise
an initial
communal work:
3
using
4920 ujamaa villages
"Give-
us time to wn*k on our own
see orders
unfeasible,
of
tractor-
effects.
"a dependent
organization
arithmetic
development
cover
gives
a vital
strategy
simply
require
or roughly
of Agriculture
would not
the
would
to
have been
a nationwide
An elementary
mented.
officials
and collective
of ujamaa villages
attitudinal
of wajamaa to perceive
means of
ment to human labor
implemented
prompts
of public
To be sure,
from poorly
against
tractor
with the tendency
ind;icing
a foundation
perverse
attitudes
us; " "the
the tendency
loss
of building
p.
ok.
z.,
ujamaa village
104.
Makundusi,"
African
p.
16,
-31population,
while
villages
fuel
by 1976;
costs
--
is
This
ieaves
,:,
nouncements
',,,
:
,,
:
certainly
increased
,from
instead
lacking
other
socialist
tendency
is
work involves
village
inforced
strongest
The observed
is
--
anything
as it
the Soviet
the
countryside.
lost
time
in walking
in the
people
together
villages.
Pro-
farm scale
as
Efficiency
is
crop
storage
is
plots
Union,
yield
follows
simply
worked by hoe or as
Ngeze reports
more rewarding
than
farms
China and Cuba.)
villagers,
Getting
several
to grow cash crops
and
But in cultivation
In Iringa,
of cooperative
season
develop-
communes and collective
across
that
increased
but plowing.
for
marketing,
form ujamaa villagL.;.
to bring
or crop
private
budgeted
away the drudgery
by centralized
as long
their
including
wajamaa are permitted
is
to
demonstrations.
a problem
The unattractiveness
result
supply,
productivity
plot
also
considerable
other
produce
collectively.
where wajamaa are not truly
dispersed
shamba.
if
(This
water
farming
countries,
have homesteads
agriculture
and that
of agricultural
incentives
of
in uj
fuel
that
to take
inducement
economies
extension
a connnunal block
work.
its
supply,
key ingredients
tangible
in labor
find
input
of a tractor
emphasize
individual
rise
of
and considering
general
.-
organizing
wajamaa typically
collective
aiso
all
population
in many of the non-tractorized
by a central
of
imports
research,
that
long as oxen are not used for
that
:
for
no _automatic
planting
year;
the promise
on ujamaa often
grounds
FE,
last
be used 8s.a
work are
the whole rural
Tanzania
are
the problem
efficiency
by group
--
that
cannot
HI cooperative
',
enlist
that
in the
extension
apparent
of farm labor
to
such as biochemical
and agricultural
it
is
considering
have tripled
expenditures
ment,
the goal
miles
farming
on their
of peak labor
"ihe
but continue
together
in
for
to
communal
each way to the
is further
private
replots.
demand, members allocate
-32only
eigi;i
to sixteen
poor
weeding
result,
work reinforce
to this
per week to the communal plot.'
and the
the mjamaals
by participating
uting
hours
subsequent
impression
low yields
that
as Clif&
and low returns
notes,
is
and
to communal
he is making a personal
An administrative
in communal enterprise.
problem,
Late planting
sacrifice
deficiency
contrib-
that,
"The (village)
planning teams tend to formulate
proposals
for crops,
(ph,,sical)
layout,
and (public)
services
once a village
has been
formed; there is perhaps too little
emphasis on the actual cooperative
organization
of production,
and also some avoidance
of how one promotes cooperative
acti-<ities
among those who have not spontaneously
expressed
their interest
in ujamaa."2
It
is also
apparent
in Iringa
that
the Government and TAND are either
or unable
to counteract
the discouragement
political
education."3
The change
certainly
important,
abstractions
of
social
existing
motives
of
that
Ngeze,
it
3.
L. Cliffe,
Ngeze,
that
cit.,
"Planning
OJ. - cit.,
p.
which he prescribes
the
change
can be built
up by tangible
And transformation
Asked why they had joined
higher
pp.
force.
is
upon
incentives.
must begin
with
the
smallholders.
motives.
was for
to think
are not backed
relationships.
of Tanzania's
those
in consciousness
is naive
or exhortations
and economic
t!u? nature
replied
but it
syndrome by using
unwilling
income,
20% that
it
an ujamaa village,
was for
"higher
10-11.
Rural
15.
Development,"
2
c&.,
p. 99.
income
62%
and
-33.
local
None said
po1iticians.l
anything
TV indicate
a pre-existing
socialist
c0**c10u**e**.
Here,
policy
in li%ht
making for
capitzl
to
ujamaa:
the greater
primarily
seeking
enhance
self-reliance
encourage
gredients.
component;
people
effort
use
and water,
regions,
zones,
will
--
if
and to
carry
carpenters,
skills
water
livelihoods
impact
of mew1
The
Creation,
@ Intermediate
are displayed
blacksmiths,
bicycle
programs
upon the State
to
and to
than individualistic
have numerous
in-
play
a central
role;
in
in the form of
improved
seeds
and
--
Adapation
innovation
e
produce,
be a powerful
implements
village
fuel
stimulus.
can be redoubled
workshop.
Diffusion,
by T.A.M.T.U.
trading
center
and the
1
B. Bakula, "The Effect
of Traditionalism
Building UjamaaVillages
in
Tanzania,
(Tanzania
---
in the tools
to transport
can also
Technology
repairmen
villages
will
mechanical
in every
for
join
be a critical
from the soil,
tasks
much
will
in addition,
out household
is
guide
fly
supply
innovations
should
and people
and will
of tsetse
that
to provide
more attractive
to make them in a cooperative
III.
Craft
dependence
take many forms
But,
logic
So the need
financial
central
the
villages;
benefit.
elimination
be important.
to wrest
wajamaa learn
will
biochemical
And the consolidating
,,
of
is
the ~esouxes
new uj
by making it
programs
in arid
of
lacks
personal
In some regions
most farming
fertilizers
majority
instend
collective
evidence,
the State
tangible
Effective
effort.
of the preceding
like.
in rural
Tanzania
by
There is potentially
on Rural Developmznt,"
in
Publishing
House, 1971), p.25.
no shortage
of
economically
efficient
better
for
tools
implements.
expanded
mediate
,,'
~
!,~
i,,',
~:;,i
I;,~'
,:
1;.
;g:;,,
,&;;:,,~:
skilled
artisans
to reproduce
implement
Another
bottleneck,
and knowledge
inputs
(materials
and parts).
Machinery
solutions
problems
the past
these
by the UN International
Pradxtion
stzff,
Division
until
,g;;j:;
:,
two Tanzanian
tip,,;:,
,~&&
(,,
was phased
trainee
consisted
of grass
four
operates
Ministry
of
hoots
counterpartsi
out according
?he Project
"1.
of the Tanzania
ten years
Testing
Labor Organization
recently,
with almost
for
primarily,
if
(ILO)
designs
lacking:
for
of
inter-
factory-made
Technology
Project
in Arusha has pursued
TIE
Project
and located
an expatriate
advisor
experience
in African
1973,
is
supported
in the Crop
of Agriculture.
In December,
are
sector
Unit)
years.
and
the tool-making
The Intermediate
Agricultural
mechanically
superior
is the supply
at TAMTD (Tanzania
to
of
which might arise
and became more sophisticated,
yet
Two things,
designs.
making implements
simple,
The professional
(an agricu?wralist
peasant
fanning)
expatriate
staffin
to plan.
on four
principles:
Machinery for village
people must be of such design and construction
that the people can easily
Tinderstand how it works
and can feel confident
about using and maintaining
it.
2.
Materials
used m=st be such that an ordinary
obtain them without too much difficulty.
3.
The construction
of such machinery must be possible
by using
only tools and techniques'that
can be found or easily
learned
in villages
by ordinary
people.
4.
Machinery must fit in easily
with village
great change of routine
for its adoption.
will be very simple,
and then they (sic)
complex as people become more technically
1
G. Macpherson,
"Appropriate
Agricultural
Engineering
Meeting,
Technology
for
Moshi, 1972.
villager
can
life
and require
no
At first
xxhinery
wiiiq
ma-e
minded."
Tanzania
Villages,"
Annual
and
-35-
IInnelast
.,e?;boration.
It deserves
reccgnize
point
that
are appropriat~e
is
ievel
could
into
welding
plant
equipment
purchasing
power and new technical
shops will
probably
production
self-reliant
conception
personnel
of
simple
were only
development
are
into
capital
recognized
"it
bellows
increases
development
as sequential,
discussed
million
rural
not
a onepaper
Tanzanians
az enterprising
years
anvils
spurred
on production,
As the
demand
by increased
some village
scale
the central
in empldyment
camnunes.
to a portable
or less."'
with
of C!~ina's
shop at
in this
rural
hoped that
vaguely
has played
be
is
and lager
goods
cannot
As intermediate
mole specialized
familiar
Project
development.
over time,
constraints
Technology
in the metal
and stcme
of five
in stages.
a two furrow moldboard
methods
life,
in a period
rural
equipment
of several
village
from goat-skin
development
e.g.,
and economic
develcp
evolve
for
and production
of technical
more sophisticated
The Project
is
and abilities
assimilated
engine-driven
for
tools
tn needs
presenr
technology
value
techniques,
innovation
The simple
of
of the Intermediate
great
workshop
And technological
zt their
of
conception
made with more sophisticated
time change.
village
The sponsors
by simple
[currently
T.WTD).
a dynamic
some implements
made efficiently
plow
s:,z%ests
work-
factories.
role
generation
But the similarities
that
and
in
striking.2
1
G. Macpherson,
"Intermediate
pimeoj , September,
i5ii.
Technology
and Village
Development,"
2
Two major differences
between rural China and rural Tanzania are the
more highly developed
traditional
tools
and implements of the Chinese and the
size difference
between an average Chinese Commune (4,OOO-5,000
families)
and
a typical
ujao?"a village
(ZOO-300 families).
These disparities
suggest that
a Chinese connnune is probably
getter
able than an -village
to generate
(continued
on next page)
-36Although
it
is
convenient
testing
kit;
the various
of
fo discuss
implements;
and Testing
--
In the
by their
labor
beasts
search
relatively
tools;
(productivity
of resuits
for
of
four
and available
for
uses)
initially
As the
implements
implements
the world
them and copying
justice
the best
to the complexity
~, advantage
to poor
countries
for
analysis
and
and a tool
production
fanning
put it,
from scratch.
local
But there
the
labor
accelerated
from
shadow price
that
"there
is
saved
local
is
by
no need for
international
it
CUT
cheap
them, trying
The statement
but
conditions
so many good,
a matter of buying
adaptation,
of
has been
deriving
fo
There are
production."l
seasonal
conditions.
and then adapted
i,t is
problems:
the "underemployment"
to estimate
IL0 advisor
that
have been guided
of the benefits
Tanzanian
of technology
of
staff
of the peak season
imported
own program to design
throughout
linked,
the design
workshop
of many tasks.
example,
under various
materials.
Tanzanian
arduousness
few attempts,
are
the Project
as a power source,
economic
Most designs
closely
tasks:
an tnexpensive
designs,
empirical
weeding
are
field.
prominent
sheer
in al.+ernative
mechanizing
component
of
in the
implement
and the
little
specific
them as separate
human inefficiency
of burden,
work on the Project
Prototypes
understanding
shortage,
If
the construction
and the extension
Designing
aspects
does
diffusion
does not
point
do
up the
of the
its own ideas for tool innovations
with le$s outside "extension"
advice;
and
also that the larger scope for use of its products permits greater
economies
of scale in production.
1
G. Macpherson,
personal
communication.
-37-
stock
of technical
technology
of the
1560's.
offer
a shortcut
to better
to novel
ideas
of
farmers
to design
them to farmers.
After
others
pensive
if
with
the world
from Senegal
savings
supply
schemes
from India,
lifters
and development
would not beg thought
to a mechanical
under everyday
time-motion
-went back
in expert
(R&D).
--
man-
Perhaps
of knowledge
gives
of by researchers
found
that
the
the villagers
It was rejected
local
"for
conditions.
prototypes
,
some design
and then
did not hold
technology
were supple-
the right
could
separate
motorized
in a village
kernels
to
and
DT exuse,
or
to the putative
in one uj,aa
reason"
were scrapped
up under constant
ingenious
had a $550.00
needed
complicated
was superior
a technically
loan
weeding harrow).
models
they were too
field
of TAMi'D's inductive
in villages
if
they
for
the number of work hours
the wrong reason"
women found that
Part
if
already
substitute
with a donkey-drawn
they
economic
comments on performance
(e.g.,
with
"for
cannot
board:
the existing
Such was the c&e
because
device
conditions,
or ~maintain,
It was rejected
the State.
studies
world"
need and an a priori
farmers'
to zhe drawing
to produce
sheller.
of what peasants
was to demonstrate
in "real
improvement
cause
simply
into
of maize by hoe contrasted
testing
farmers
Region
in research
weeders
(peanut)
designs,
imported
tractorization
inter-row
and groundnut
to tap
When possible,
mented by rough
weed an acre
sense
the payoff
by local
approach
:~
that
Tanzania's
to test
implement
Inappropriate
in isolation.
calculation
,;,
,:,'
,,:,
--
lags
the ability
An outsider's
trials
of time
decade.
witness
from the Netherlands
most importantly,
working
the past
But the opportunity
power and shortening
access
ova
can be counterproductive,
hand planters
does
knowledge
$10.00
maize
viiiage
sheller,
in Arusha
given
by
in Mwanza befrom cobs
faster
by the customary
This
are
kind
intimarely
project.
m&hod of beating
of
familiar
Notably
agria:;tural
"learning
research,
one of
is the
To offset
a bias
TAMTDtools
Technology
to give
in favor
are
show
cost
station
estimates
and a capital
preferences
problems
implements,
painting
its
yet
of the
they
I.T.
in much East African
xxxmes
for
with which
aspects
that
something
smallholder
extends
effective
ground.
even to
a bias
cheaper,
implements
farmers.
esthetics.
that
the
remains
was a backlog
on labor
Intermediate
in eye-caychiag
amortization
of pi-oven designs,
inputs,
charge.
Intermediate
colors,
local
It
materials
included
Technology:
complete
costs,
with productior
purchased
inputs
the following:
Designs
__--
and Costs
Approximate
Production
Cost
A.
Fol haling
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
a.
and trasportatioa:
several
variants
of wheelbarrow
several
variants
of hand cart .
several
variants
of ox or donkey
Wheel chair for invalids.
. . .
improved ox or donkey harness
.
For cuitivation
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
after
look.
there
based
expert
must be right
to be equally
a store-bought
about
on the
observable
of factory-made
group has advocated
By mid-1973
arrogance
to peasants'
cobs
the most encouraging
where the technical
which works at the research
The TAMTDsensitivity
of
from the masses"
is
absent
a sackful
. . .
. . .
cart
. .
. . .
. .
.
. . . .
. . . .
.
.
. . . .
.
.
.
.
.
$720 80 -
15
40
120
N1A.
3-
tasks:
clod cr!!sher for seedbed preparation.
adjustable
width animal-drawn
weeding
hand planter
for maize or beans .
.
fertilizer
applicator
. . . .
. .
wooden-tooth
harrow . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
harrow. .
.
. .
. .
. .
. .
.
N.A.
$15.00
6.00
6.00
18.00
5
-39-
C.
For food
11.
solar vegetable
drier
(175 degree interior
temperature)
.
.
.
. . . . . . . .
. . . $50 8mechanical
maize sheller
. .
. .
. . . . . .
12.
0.
processing:
12
Miscellaneous:
13.
hollow cement block
bee hive . .
.
14.
“The materials
nails,
used
old
rubber
water pipe,
petrol
Cost
forward,
~,
65
include
tires,
self-employed
:> and tools>.
i',,,
,,:
bits
for
or unforseen
:, the availability
irrigated
,, ,, extra
of
praduuction
of the tools
drudgery
of tasks
planter
that
handled
hoe).
family
from using
"saved"
to welfare
as well
replaces
in the
'G. Macpherson,
"Intermediate
([email protected]), October,
1971.
data
dry season);
labor
them (for
of
for
the work shop
tools
the economic
under normal
may lead to entirely
are available
of water
(for
example
might stimulate
3. many TAMTUtools
estimate
way by reducing
example,
as Interpreted
speed
of the
employment;
method of chop-and-plant
Technology
steel),
and straight-
to estimate
in alternative
bolts,
wage rate
(i.e.,
is no ready
in a qualitiative
as by speeding
the bent-over
capital
volumes
but there
simple
an appropriate
of new technology
large
spring
relatively
lifetimes
little
planks,
and cre0sote.l
is more difficult
the working
labor,
burlap
is
for
to shape)
(especially
imputing
rate
to haul
production
contribute
of
on which
ox carts
unpaid
vehicles
production
adoption
2.
activities,
vegetable
', 'up or replace
1.
(trimmed
sheeting,
it
reasons,
:::: returns to new implements:
,:s,
,-._: conditions
are uncertain;
~,:::
:I": novel
plastic
and a discount
For several
trees
from scrap
problems
N.A.
N.A.
. . . .
. .
. . . . . . . . .
of
implement
conceptual
craftsmen
. .
ti
branches
paint,"
estimation
despite
mold
a stand-up
&.
some
the
maize
with a short
at TAMT'J,"
-4o-
Several
economists
in East African
these
methods
functions
agriculture
require
a "package"
seeding
and weeding
through
expansion
payoff
(especially
lznd
of
weeding.
Such data
especially
for
Of course,
use deductive
out
the agricultural
reasoning
some inappropriate
saving
the
~ou~unaliy-organized
effect
of mechanized
available
land/labor
per worker,
since
fewer
of
acres
ideas
for
ratio
peak season
crops
which new implements
labor
per worker.
should
components
on farm resource
of the
endowments
on the quantitative
effect
and thoroughness
farming
and the agricultural
their
specific
is
effect
and improved
these
seed rate,
both
of
systems,
farming.
with
weeding,
plowing,
The yield
most East African
economist
combined
ox-drawn
For
in yields.
and also
for
system.
farm production
information
zre not available
production
of planting,
date,
but
peasant
To measure
as planting
techniques,'
estimating
including
timrliness
farm unit),
of innovations
as an input/output
and increase
detailed
per
and other
to affect
of weeding.
such variables
not
likely
enhanced
requires
and labor
on yields
is
the impact
for
farm unit
acreage
and thoroughness
data
innovations
implements
to innovation
programming
the
of technical
seedbeds,
to quantify
farm-level
a model of
of planted
stems from better
timeliness
by linear
abundant
and framing
example,
have attempted
for
feel
farming
example,
two acres
In general
local
conditions
conditions.
is
far
less
per worker rather
bottlenecks
be included
for
are
it
in the
less
engineer
severe
to weed
The laborimportant
where
than ten acres
when there
is more difficult
innovation
can
package
L
for
are
determine
a partic-
-See, for example, D. Vail,
The public Sector as Stimulils of Innovation
in African Smallholder
Agriculture~n~Microfilms,
197l;and
"Induced
-Farm Innovation
and Derived Scientific
Research Strategy,"
East African
Journal
--of
Rural
Development,
6,
No.
1
0973).
--
-‘Il.
ular
locale
tactic
than to know which ones
may be
wide range
tools,
ventory
the optimum under present
of
like
implement
brick
produce
from the villagers
in volume.
initiative
village
that
technology
a four-parish
represents
sketches
a situation
culture,
how innovation
similar
of women, who must gather
possibility
as draft
of
most of Mainland
for
to communicate
can raise
firewood
in.the
and rely
of
and fetch
on
to
sector
but leaving
much
kind of modernizing
the effect
Most of
that
The second
but
demonstrates
and ease
at a considerable
example
it
of natural
example
productivity
water
inter-
the data come from
in terms
The first
the labor
in-
implements
Teso and Bukedi Districts,
systems.'
some
From this
the public
the
of
Tanzania.
to much of Tanzania,
in most of Tanzania.
greater
animals
has urged
Uganda --
and farming
in transport
from the homestead
a stimulus
may help
in Eastern
set
providing
can have in much of Tanzania.
stud;
environment,
on the
between
Nyerere
models
prototypes
would seem to be precisely
President
Two thumbnail
different
interaction
units,
TAMTU's
They have worked on a
and wheelbarrows).
decisions
Such a creative
be excluded.
several
can produce
to guide
to the village,
self-reliance
dryers
craftsmen
obviously
circumstances.
(including
vegetable
village
(TA\TU) and socialist
mediate
designs
molds,
of designs,
feedback
should
of Tanzania's
sizable
livestock
relatively
land-abundant
Savannah areas
toil
distance
illustrates
utilization
the
the
resources
that
encompass
Tanzania.
1
D. Vail,
Hi5toly
of Agricultural
Innovation
&Development
District,
w,
MaxwelrSchooi
of Citizenship
and Public Affairs,
University,
1971.
id Teso
-Syracuse
-42-
.A.
Wooden Wheelbarrow
The nearest
is
typically
source
water
so"rce,
of water
of walking
on the head,
week,
is
the
taxing
is
1
The return
time input
conceptually
platform,
but a $10 TAMTr)barrow
but it
dug well
A daily
gallons)
trip,
for
If
would be six
trip
six
hours
01‘ stream,
to the water
family
carrying
terrain.
vol~ume of water
two hours
--~ a~ saving
saved hours
calendar.
is
arable
of
fall
transferred
acres
per
the net value
repay
its
of
carry
four
If we assume,
use takes
forty
trips
pounds
of
were made in
per week or about
it;
cost
worker,
the sake
durable.
is
unimportant
is
in this
enough,
1
as it
then
labor
312
cotton
if
-the
short
The farmer
of the circuit
x,nually.
--
to
in
about
Ma~,y of
demand in the agriculture
that
all
of the saved
in South Mwanza with
crop,
$25 per year.
could
implements
term benefit/cost
could
easily
4.5
increase
Ihe barrow would
Under continuous
low cost
and
when
would be reduced
as a cash
year.
a lever
Assuming no change
input
simplicity,
by over
one year
case.
leg
easily.
a household
in the first
last
But this
only
of
growing
TAMIV barrow might
first
of peak labor
production
2.5-fold
debbes
and axle,
dramatically
per week or 208 hours
periods
for
crop
work efficiency
weekly
hours
a wheel
on the
four
the
to farm Lsks,
adult
simple:
can raise
used,
during
very
particularly
could
the total
high
is a borehole,
imperial
even on flat
compared with head porterage,
thus
it
per year.
a load-bearing
time
(four
time.
labor
A wheelbarrow
the
whether
or more from most homesteads.
a debbe
an hour
a typical
hours
a mile
to fetch
roughly
water
use,
are often
ratio
a
not
very
is
buy a new barrow
It should be noted that meeting at the water source is a significant
part cf women's socializing.
One can assume, however, that ujamaa village
women wili have ample opportunity
to meet and talk without dailyexcursions
to the borehole.
-45
each year
out of
the -returns
The benefit/cost
not
include
firewood,
hauling
larger
vegetable
account
estimate
the potential
carting
irrigation.
fact
that
is
and demand for
saving
device
Ml1
Inter-Row
advice
frustration
weeding.
However,
station
less
This
is
thoroughly
attain
particularly
weeding,
a barrow:
washing
effect
it
does
gathering
crops,
and for
or
dry-season
by not taking
as shortened.
But the seasonal
the economic
labor
This
true
pattern
returns
in similar
“Induced
For a discussion
see ibid.,
pp.
leitmotif
extension
of
to this
labor-
environmen~~s
of
farming.
ignorance,
seasons
of
of
agricultural
officers
because
of
optimum yield
usually
or the use of hired
1
Although
yields
this
backwardness
farmers
ex-
are wont to
late
in the more land-abundant
commonly produces
and attitr;les
during
is
such low yields
notions
in peasant
to peasants'
1
D. Vail,
tasks,
determines
where mechanization
from values
2
farmers
the officials'
observed
of family
as well
since
transporting
the welfare
fanning.
Agricultural
in Tanzania.
trials,
attributed
of
to fields,
communal pr~oduction
to weed plots
that
and thorough
those
uses
returns
Weeder
Exhortation
tension
that
for
the economic
more frequent
lightened
on private
labor
hold
for
understates
work is
based
supply
kraal
of water
It also
one.
from additional
manure from cattle
The example
B.
understates
payoff
quantities
of the
from the old
express
or scanty
annual
crop
zones.
stem from research
labor
permits
timely
25% ro 50% higher
difference
or laziness,
than from constraints
is
than
sometimes
in fact
it
on the
stems
supply
of peak demand.2
Fz+n Innovation,"
of factors
9-14.
limiting
2.
cit.,
pp.
the supply
of
l,l-12.
labor
for
cultivation
&tside
the
characterized
whicn sets
planting
four
the main rains.
arabie
by American
work.
acres
tasks
by hand and even where oxen are
but plowing.
technology,
land-abundant
year,
rather
productivity
of
::~,,
day)
;,,
::,
in extension
rather
suggest
and relatively
than
pez
advice.
If
of)
the binding
season
land
labor
(yield
scarce
--
would naturally
and mechanization.
TAMRJ's oxen or donkey-drawn
row spacings,
production
cost
ranges
is
available
is
labor.
lean
inter-row
an outstanding
from $7 to
$15,
for
vs.
land/
all
farm
employed
of Tanzania
relatively
at particular
times
of
then the
as output
per man-
be the maximand incorporated
are
severe,
fuller
weeder,
example of
this
(raise
If oxen are
depending
a high
and the highly
example,
already
the marginal
used for
utilization
with
would
of animal
adjustable
width
such a technology.
for
The
upon how much of the material
and how much has to be purchased
automobiles
tasks
to augment
toward
have
perform
on production,
bottlenecks
the
traction
from abandoned
labor
innovations
search
labor
should
technological
this
locally
acre)
is not
zones
infrequently
parts
constraint
for
factor
are
of
If
preparation,
in these
This
they
these
(measured,
per
seasonal
plowing,
different
to call
in most areas)
seedbed
many households
in use,
is
in the two months following
worker.
labor-scarce.
is
than of
a search
productivity
land,
adult
However,
is valid
(bimodal
of households
Given the seasonality
it
most of Tanzania
pattern
concentrated
per
standards.
zones,
Land clearing,
The majority
ratio
anything
highland
rainfall
tend to be highly
and ten
labor-using
,,,,
tempo of agricultural
and weeding
of
seasonal
labor
for
:
,,
,,,,,
z,;,
<,:,
and well-waiered
by a distinctly
the
the onset
between
fertile
from an urban rolling
(e.g.
mill).
leaf
spring
Unlike
steel
the more
elaborate
only
weeding
one row at a time,
(donkeys
are not
but it
in Northern
culturalists
in surrounding
training
and not to trample
wire
or rope muzzle
corn,
is
two rows of
The lower part
thus
acting
overlapping
", is
carried
field
this
,, crop
is
like
"L"
each "L"
a small
tines
covered
process
nvxe hours
son~e indication
is
the
animal
have leng been kept
use by agri-
animal
must have somewhat
to keep a straight
is necessary
from eating
weeds
or donkey
greater
important
to use a simple
the tender
leaves
of
plants.
hardwood
tines
se?
fashioned
?t right
pulled
a clean,
poles,
angles
through
shallow
hours
per
acre.
of the time
for
saving
the
to the
the
along
It is
that
if
the task
if
the
Cm average,
necessary
to thin
the
ihe planted
rows:
this
weeding.
results
rows of
and only
the cows.
steel.
of movement,
The tw
but only
thick
in diameter:
spring
direction
soil.
still
close-by
first
inches
from discarded
become too
of hand weeding
per acre
two to four
weeding,
once in each direction
sir
but they
It also
weed stems and roots
by hand and to do a bit
li
it
crop.
the
hoe w:
provide
twice,
requires
is
one bullock
For weeding,
the planted
shaped steel
out before
adds about
give
of
East Africa,
since
made from local
"L"
only
the TAMTUversion
and are coming into
plowicg,
to prevent
in West Africa,
requires
areas).
sorghum 01‘ other
The frame
,' ,with
also
Tanzania
than for
line
:' growing
used
common in most of
by the Masai
better
;
ha~rrows widely
The following
from mechanized
data
weeding.'
1
nb.
The main reason fx higher hand weeding time on cotton vis-a-vis
sorghum or millet
is that cotton is usually
planted on land fresh from fallow.
On this fertile
soil,
weed growth is more prolific
than on sorghum and millet
fields
planted
later in the rotation
cycle.
On the other hand, thinning
an
acre of millet
takes two hours more than an acre of cotton,
because the
millet
is planted continuously
along ICC.~,, while catton is spaced at six
to twelve inches.
-46-
for
Man-Hours
---
Weeding -One ACre'
one weeding
(includes
thinning)
1.
three
weedings
cotton
mechanic&
weeder
hand hoeing
2.
two
weedings
Finger
millet
mechanical
hand hoeing
food
and cash
the rains,
hours
it
more thorough
‘,,,
:,:,
,:
households
crops
is
of hoeing
shortages,
tically
possible
payoff
to this
,savannah zone of
cassava
is
a function
25
31
37
60
100
130
eastern
Uganda,
cotton
and minor
food
as a cash
of crops
varies
every
plowing,
the
endowaenrs
a study
of
of
use digging
millet,
manand
labor
and the degree
farm innovations
but they
of
more timely
severity
analogous
both
of total
of
can be demonstrated
system
and finger
both
worker,
the onset
the hundreds
with
proposition
a farming
crop
that
ox weeder can permit
This
of
for
at the same time following
o f land/labor
at the results
Farmers use oxen for
They cultivate
1.55
acres
innovation
concentration.
by looking
Tanzania.2
35
115
intuitively
by use of the
of plots.
rainfall
several
to grasp
weeding
which
seasonal
with
that need weeding
saved
Ihe actual
29
70
or sorghum
weeder
When we imagine
23
heuris-
in the
to
large
parts
hoes for
sorghum,
corn,
of
weeding.
peawts,
crops.
1
D. Vail,
The Public Sector
V and VI.
Thes&%samirh
other farm survey investigations
as Stimulus of Innovation,
the orders of magnitude
in East Africa.
'Teso,
with 30- 40 inches of annual rainfall,
many cattle,
with cotton and grain as the major
Kigoma, Southern Mwanza, Shinyanga and Morogoro
9.&.,
estimated
Appendices'
in many
binodally
distributed,
with
crops,
resembles much of
Regions of Tanzania.
-47-
In the
per
adult
rains,
(or
of
they
income.
daily
a year
for
give
"
table
its
of
Staple
time.
subsistence.
staples
(e.g.
By aalyzing
(after
it
boost
was possible
crop
mix and on the
--
But,
given
that
act
resources
of
conclude
labor
deduction
of the added costs)
parishes,
there
labor
that
cotton
and oxen plowing,
indicz.tes
the
orders
of magnitude.
to
secure
peanuts).
modo to maximize
mechanized
(collected
would
farm
of households.
comparable
40 to 50 years
opti-
weeding
and to e
the majority
of
a family
programming
productivity
for
(e.g.
and land use
linear
has been no innovation
of
foods
grosso
--
and by using
to
households
and variety
records
to peak season
Percentage
on the
of the main
take precedence
introduction
ago.
impact
since
The following
Increase
Wechzizing
Household
with the approach
01' more acres
crops
available
fan
had 4.5
food
millet)
from 48 households),
techniques,
In the survey
'the
labor
a pronounced
income
of households
Each year,
worker.
to use the remaining
cash crop
mization
,'
its
supplies
appear
two-thirds
must make numerous decisions
not jeopardize
adequate
studied,
equivalent)
a household
allocation
will
communities
in NET Farm Income
_--..-- by
Seeding and.!Veeding'
Resources
or less
negative
3.0
acres/worker
4.5
acres/worker
22%
6.0
acres/worker
36%
8.0
acres/worker
40%
1
D. Vail,
The Public Sector as Stimulus of Innovation,
x.
c&.,
Table
5.9, p. 128.
NetfsincGwas?erived
from gross ir.come by deducting
annual
._^ .
capital
charges for the weeder and harness,
using a 12'6 dlscounr
rare ano an
assumed working lifetime
of six years.
-48For the sake of simplicity,
innovation.
The above results,
a cheap mechanica!
labor
to only
seeder
20% to 40% of the
Uganda this
planted
at the optimum time.
planting,
which
conclusion
that
that
the
is
enables
there
of
size
ujamaa village
they have village
Designing
package
Tanzania."
total
(i.e.,
cost
craftsmen
mediate
"which
Nonetheless,
for
capital
rise
to
In
crops
up broadcast
led
to the
reinforcing,
pointed
mechanized
is precisely
effect
to the conclusion
a new set
seeding
of
labor
and weeding
for
Carpentry
shop
cost
$1000 provided
six
figure
shop can provide
cost.
However,
for
for
conraise
factory,
innovation
themselves,
local
once
experimentation.
-and Blacksmithing
-
group designed
be reproduced
When this
of powerful
to discover
out prototypes
Technology
their
the kind
be able
the TAMTLIproduction
Ternnology
low initial
because
to turn
could
per craftsman).
workplace
would give
and a Toolkit
----
of roughly
It also
in rows.
The study
or mutually
of
planting
of their
to give
weeding.
synergistic,
should
The TAMTU Intermediate
shops
proportion
an inducement
adoption
cuts
hand planting
get a larger
is
simultaneous
Tne seeder
for
with mechanized
innovations
farmers
a Worn
model for
to
And it
season,
the
as a single
enormously.
The seeder-weeder
that
required
and weeder together.
these
harvest
fanners
is a strong
at the harvest
the total
required
as the weeder.
level
incompatible
seeder
adoption
straints
however,
as well
eastem
in using
the weeder has been discussed
their
comparatively
$570 and tools
own workshop
easily
another
as a
throughout
$430.
The
workplaces,
or $167 per workplace
is
to more than $1100 per
compared
it
is
evide:lt
employment opportunities
even $167 per workplace
that
the Inter-
at an extremely
is more than many
-49.
ujvillages
are
"minimal"
open air
workbenches
rooted
wooden vices
for
weight
firmly
working
Tznzaxians
shelter
(to
don't
So an effort
1t consists
in the ground
large
pieces
compression,
from eastern
hundred years
to afford.
workshop.
to generate
,+apted
likely
African
essenrially
0~ against
of
and a small
a tree,
blacksmith's
the Ziinbabre culture
tectnology
two ingenious
the workman's
forge
going
of
local
own
with a bellows
back at least
in what is now Rhodesia).
in the we
a
two rugged handhewn
of wood and utiiizing
metallurgical
need lessons
has been made to design
materials
six
Rural
to put up a low Cost
around the work area.
The basic
wood rasp,
file
fabricating
and tools
lay of
less
than
outlay,
the
total
village
the labor
workshops,
other
metal
In ?wo villages
toolkit
and pencil.
several
screw driver,
materials
store-bought
costs
With it,
hard tools
the
tongs,
costs,
the minimal
knives,
$20 per workplace.
not
would presumably
on the slopes
many wajamaa,
chisel,
and sledge
implicit
labor
adze,
hammer.
saw,
for
compass,
Adding
at a cash
costs
$50 per workplace.'
be part
methods
axe,
shop can be established
exceed
the
a hammer, pliers.
group has devised
mallet,
Adding
of Mt.
not just
I.T.
such as a cold
punch,
would still
$1; and includes
to the
up,
outcash
In an ujamaa
of the comxiunal work obligation.
Meru where the
chosen
I.T.
group
trainee-craftsmen,
set
up prototype
turned
out
1
The inventory
and cost estimates
derived from personal
interviews
with
the TAMTUstaff
and from the wthor's
participation
in constructing
two
"Intermediate
Technology
in
ujamaa village
workshops.
Also, G. Macpherson,
the Rural Sector of Tanzania,"
November 1972, (TAMTUmimeo).
-so-
to &:p
cut
thatch
for
and shape poles,
dig
foundations,
group
has worked out
fro?0 the $11 "starter
set"
every village
by the project
touched
sets
have a strong
preference
for
store-bought
apart
with
these
leanings
in its
austerity."
But,
its
sidering
level
the
a village
variety
The strategy
the drawing
set
of tools,
may all
Spreading
for
board
often
for
one of the more
efficiency
(modern)
The I.T.
of
group has not encouraged
new ideas
the message:
place
contribute
is
that
is
painted
spread
conand
in the implements
in village-
a key ingredient
a more modern looking
to the
"socialist
refinements
may result
znd programs
and E farm implement
were
indulgence,
that
story
toward
unnecessary
inexpensive
short
peasants
bent
such economically
this
and durability.
image of a cement
natural
wajamaamay
fundis
than the cruder-looking
and cohesiveness
that
ranging
In practice,
and one might wish that
for
The moral
out with
in technical
roof.
pride
confidence
toolkits,
$115 set.
rather
are a relatively
in village
where enthusiasm
Work:
tools
show a stronger
pays
then they
the medium is
the commercial
work,
they wouid
greater
more sophisticated
off
that
if
metal
extension
by the workshop.
of success,
and prepare
to say that'neophyte
the more -wa kisasa
a corrugated
increase
planning,
Extension
prefer
own funds,
the
considering
produced
--
valid
from any differences
workshop
are
elaborate
wants to start
is probably
block
out of
wall
of store-bought
to a relatively
It
many villages
not as they
s series
of tools.
homemade ones,
Likewise,
a rear
the shop roof.
The I.T.
expensive
build
of
to
shop,
look
a
more like
a new technology.
New Technologies
getting
ar.d into
cooperative
use
rural
in -villages
workshops
is
and novel
still
implements
in the formative
-51.
stages.
not
As conceived
to get heavily
by the
involved
behind
this
tactic
is
about
5,000
ujmaa
villages
10,000
villages,
if
workshop had six
is
spread
over
craftsmen
train
others
several
it
need for
is
intermediate
desirable
“privileged
given
short
They,
in turn,
for
courses
in a series
of
Wheelbarrow.”
currently
instructors
technology
To facilitate
Swahili
language
An Enrlish
in press
at the
and others
cooperative
trained
artisans
village
workshops
enterprise
still
craftsmen
Given the
snlall
If this
course
would be very
that
narrow,
has prevailed
Px~al Train&g
a workshop
to
training
size
of
group to meet the quantitative
I.T.
the un-
up 6
SO the
Centers
now.
(RTC’s)
TAM’IV has prepared
called
Tanzania
Publishing
illustrated
to be
and how to make implements.
training,
textbook,
the
duplicating
chosen
language
in craft
were pursued,
craftsmen
pamphlets,
can
a need to train
the
this
with a fully
a typical
personalized
from the
training
exist
a fairly
syndrome
on how to build
can provide
to the RTC’s.
of
and
imply at least
private
is
future.
them directly.
Instructors
60,000
there
immediate
for
village”
If
already
one or two trained
as apprentices,
impossible
would
of establishing
and that
trainers
The reasoning
there
each.
a need for
process
shops,
in the
by training
as follows:
many of the existing
and the necessity
of
prime need is
that
villages
clearly
fundis
years,
to train
directly.
ujamaaization
imply
the
is
fundis
250 households
would
that
craftsmen
diffusion
sent
this
to cooperative
in their
the TAMTUstaff
skills,
and universal
they averaged
fundis,
thousand
village
sound and runs roughly
several
shift
the main task
in training
Even assuming
nationwide.
ILO advisor
by -villages
and
the
Wow to Make Yourself
written
by the
House.
set
IL0 advisor,
The text
of
designs
will
first
a
is
provide
RTC
and instructions
for
construction
likely
costs
gives
help
of production
numerous
15 to 20,
members (these
"
ix'
::,~
Office,
are
cluded
village
ians
-,::,~
,?;I
to do two years
training
some of
and apply
their
xnd economic
to set-up
these
I,
ipants
in the
things
(like
:,,," cbunter
principles
,,,
National
attendance
Construction
Team
of the Prime Minister's
Some courses
staff.
It
have in-
Young educated
Service,
-villages.
Tanzan-
which more and more
is
a logical
step
to begin
as well.
courses
is
to get participants
They are encouraged
and to interpret
of the farmers
courses
has helped
the maize
sheller)
in the village.
although
can
courses
course
and Rural
direction
as government
from practice
problems
also
that
training
The typical
RTC instructors
lninds to making tools.
resistance
,enthusiastic,
cadres
in training
terms of particular
_,:,,
:~,,,
and three-week
Tanzania.
of
tile
It
and implements
development).
as well
indicates
in the villages.'
of -village
craftsmen
are reqaired
of tools
two-week
of
It
how to make castings.
who come under the
in charge
The emphasis
~'
several
primarily
cadres,
of helping
:g ,,
problems
at RTC's in Northern
consists
s:>;;
i
1972,
composed
and implements.
as to the types
particular
January,
have 5een held
toolkits,
and demonstrates
suggestions
most to solve
Since
is
fo workshops,
the
that
I.T.
they
staff,
some participants
to derive
especially
show B reluctance
technical
in
from pattic-
in pointing
or are likely
to courses
hands
new knowledge
Feedback
serve.
need modification
The response
their
to use their
out
to en-
has generally
been
to do manual work
'The costs of putting out the pamphlet were underwritten
by UNESCO. The
text, e
in Village
Mechanization,
is being financed
in part by the Ford
-Foundation.
-53-
and o?hers
tractor.
is
cling
to
an image of nwdernity
The greatest
insufficient
of State
deficiency
to make either
functionaries
mechanical
A mxe
symbolized
in this
approach
is
that
01‘ qualified
"believers"
who have little
by the
training
thorough
training
rhey mwt
method is pursued
for
a smaller
know thoroughly
and practical
number of
and believe
at the Handeni Rural
implements
Training
course
out
experience
in
craftsmen-teachers
firmly
Center
that
Paralleling
have gone into
its
training
several
uj
,~ ,, and to ?he critical
scrutiny
activities,
villages.
"what they're
of the villagers
making under way.
sting
vindicating
LIDEP is the
Lushoto District.
the basic
the Intermediate
This
--
has been
for
that
toolmaking
will
Technology
staff
as mentioned,
learning
to get
process
in shop and tool
for
design,
approach.
German aided
Lushoto
Integrated
Development
area.
has been
but the aim is also
has been a valuable
numerous modifications
of
talking
where
approach
important
range
One purpose,
is
(Tanga Region),
seem especially
a broader
while
a two-week
craftsmen-teachers
A different
tool
and the
technology.
preferable:
village
lorry
Project,
in
1
-54-
In most cases,
drawing
many curious
demonstration
100 orders
dilemma,
farmers
cowse,
farmers
for
selling
of
this
their
areas.
several
An indication
workshops
wheelbarrows
of
the
have repo-ted
and ox cats.
new and effective
individualistic
to be pressure
to create
from within
showcase
may serve
workshops
be no question
the effective
that
as a core
vigorous
iaplementation
cooperative
rural
of becoming
Tanzania's
progress
being
little
else
is
implements
entkrprise
danger
and not
just
the Ministry
to impress
over
The
to private
and as a result
purpose
ingredient
advocacy
of
this
development.
Potemkin
This kind
of ujamaa construction.
01‘ any element
On the other
Volleges:
of
skeptical
to the concept
a bit
visiting
superfic~iality
levels
of
hand,
dignitary
of
is
crucial
showcases
visible
is
co-
'There can
the nationwide
of highly
for
higher-ups.
of persuading
at the highest
every
of Agriculture
visiting
to commit themselves
made, to which
done.'
villages
the constructive
makers and administrators
is
that
own advertisements,
ujamaa organization.
group
operative
have been their
from neighboring
the rewards
appears
Of course,
shops
has had is
is that
increases
There
for
this
from private
of
the I.T.
farmers
effect
may discourage
policy
the village
plan
run the danger
proof
steered,
and complacency
to
is
that
while
a real
cynicism.
1
Anecdotally,
this is what happened in July,
1973, at Mikuuni ujamaa
village
in Arusha District.
A great deal of effort
on the part of Ministry
officials,
TANLIleaders and the T.WlW group went into preparation
for a brief
visit
by Mwalimu Nyerere and Liberian
President
Tolbert.
Ironically,
it is
difficult
to imagine Tolbert
taking much interest
in efforts
to build socialism
in the villages.
Since
tendency
rather
Independence,
of
State
rather
impossible
surveillance
these
",,, "into
the
the rural
President
,collaboration
': Faculty
Nyerere
planning
top political
ideas,
the
Intermediate
with
other
public
agencies
of
the University
intermediate
Indeed,
Technology
and utilized
into
its
It
is
the recognition
two
the behavior
education
elected
of
graduates
village
are all
signs
are extremely
State
effort
in the past
for
concerned
apparatus.'
group has initiated
the mass media.
of Dar es Salaam
technology
and
of the major
processes
in the
form
to keep close
of
leadership
and unresponsiveness
1
Monthly and annual reports
of their efforts
and progress
-up the administrative
ladder.
See J.
ment Printer,
TANU, 1971).
and the inclusion
its
of Agriculture
officials
and higher
stress
communication
and operations
secondary
The
to the top.
1971 guidelines
and local
and the
apparatus
the prime motivations
the
programs,
of
the
sinecures,
the common good.
in the field.'
decision-making
in the District
begun to incorporate
2
staff
of young
development
~, about bureaucratization
To spread
of
with
as bureaucratic
work and to
or even regional
effort,
infusion
in their
continually
by the weak lines
has been one of
The decentralization
jobs
hard work for
administrative
central
governmental
~~:i,:representatives
i::,,that
of the
their
off
are reinforced
for
tendencies
:,~: TANU cadres,
slack
on the performance
to decentralize
1~
'> years.
to view
to
from the bottom
typically
has had to struggle
to sustained
of bureaucrats
than substance
feedback
:,,
functionaries
than corrmitments
temptations
,,,,of
Tanzania
The
(at Morogoro)
teaching
has
curriculum
and
by junior staff
-- i.e.,
their own version
are R win source of information
further
Nyerere, "Decentralization,"
1972); and TANI, Wwongozo:
(Dar es Salaam: Tanzania GovernTAN0 Guidelines,"
(Dar es Salaam:
-56-
into
i;
its
agricultural
now producing
metal-tooth
harrow.
designed
marketing
tools
plus
metal
agricultural
critical
co-op:
like
tools
issue
block
fiat
dwellers
copies
simple
mold,
bread
new ideas
cadres,
wall
will
of
outstrip
instructions
(chwatis).
to Rural
the supply,
technology
to stock
the
in
the rising
making inputs
has been written
What may eventually
newsheet,
run were printed
to a broad
the
range
instructors,
have greater
Jitengenezee
of villagers'
for
up in the
Swahili
in December,
the home, children's
Center
a farm
innovations
of Agriculture's
This may, in time,.become
Training
TAMTU-
and metal-work
become numerous,
and illustrations
for
for
and paint
with
and
process.
in the Ministry
a trial
ox cart
(TFA),
carpentry
experience
factory
in Dar es Salaam
and hoe blades
sheeting
workshops
is a vernacular
to appeal
shelves
plastic
intermediate
(Modern Farming).
was designed
contains
with
News and also
on rural
One thousand
once village
Project
(UFI) factory
to order
by past
in the diffusion
Ukulima
wa Kisasa
___-__
impact
glue,
I.T.
Farmers Association
enccuraged
Judging
and materials
TAMTU's progress
Daily
--
of the
such as plowshares
nails,
workshops.
bottleneck
Tanzania
parts
is being
technology,
demand for
versions
And the Twganyika
materials
village
The TANTU farm implement
The Ubungu Farm Implements
ixplements.
input
research.
more sophisticated
is mass producing
ujanaa
engineering
direct
(Do-it-yours
1972.l
The tria.
interests.
It
making a workbench,
clothing,
monthly
a stool,
the principai
to Village-level
If).
a cement
and wheaten
way of passing
government
and to the wajamaathemselves.
1.
Jltengenezee
is a joint venture of TAMTU and LIDEP; the West German aided
"Lushoto Integrated
Development Project"
in Tgnga Region.
LIDEP is another
agency that has become deeply involved
in the diffusion
of intermediate
technology.
In sumary,
fronts
to trawl&e
initiative
agencies
ideas
into
a central
The concluding
of their
section
will
IV.
'f%e central
trials
the availability
level,
will
bring
levels
of production
persuasive
either
that
or,
it
if
about
case
for
it
will
be adopted
individualistic
brand
that
two broad
fall
under
technology
it
contribute
policy:
that
of economic
will
questions
it
to or detract
technology
growth.
about
part
laid.
be encountered
This
terms,
indication
activities.
the implementation
and in
But however
there
concluding
that
at the village
productivity
of rural
inter-
calculations
is no assurance
development
to a collective
out vigorously
from ujamaa?
a clear
on paper,
contribute
be carried
will
economic
produced
in labor
and in non-farm
will
work-
has been well
in economic
gives
equipment,
as a prominent
it
the Government
that
from a priori
conditions
intermediate
so adopted,
is that,
increases
in agriculture
the
is
both
capital
substantial
to show tha:-
and Conclusions
paper
under Tanzanian
of
writing,
some of the problems
Evidence
of new kinds
the
and to demonstrate
But the groundwork
of this
"works."
on several
program have not yet made village
Warnings
proposition
technology
and from field
r:
,(:
,',~,
to the wananchi,
activity.
examine
sound program,
As of this
the ujamaa village
has acted
It has seized
realities.
can be attractive
part
group
and economically
work in ujamaa villages.
directing
mediate
Technology
village
a technically
technology
how to make it
shops
its
to design
intermediate
3
the T.AMTUIntermediate
section
strategy
as opposed
to
raises
issues
of an intermediate
and effectively?;
will
One potential
obstacle
plementing
agencies.
a mystique
equating
is not
only
modernization
present
to stimulate
ception
to fit
raising
the volume
simple
country.
quires
vividly
goals.
This
Getting
teachers
strate
idea
in the process
spokesmen for
are
to the
implements.
of making,
few and they
contribution
tend
staff
with
implementing
interested
in keeping
shop tools
1.
This viewpoint
aries in Arusha.
the costs
programs
inputs
wa5 communicated
and to getting
villagers
is
re-
who can demondevelopment
and persuasive
at the top
power
levels
of
many of the junior
of
intermediate
rich
Western
backward.'
the bottleneck
to the widespread
to the author
the
and persuasive
to perceive
technologically
problem
in much of
accepted
aid agencies
their
about
and reluctance
become advocates,
by the
At
at TAMTUshowed
means teachers
are likely
which is
confident
leaders
at
af production.
IL0 Advisor
expertise
This
narrow a con-
modernization,
ta universally
hierarchy
Tanzania
much too
skepticism
Until
persists
available
and teaching
and this
I.T.
implementation
and factory-made
is also
technology
initial
and im-
and motorization.
who are committed,
of
there
bound to be encountered
their
as a form of pafronization
.Another forseeable
of
is
that
resources
of the
to be expatriates.
and administrative
nations,
reducing
of planning
times
economic
with the required
the political
technology
of
testing,
technology,
people
but it
of an intermediate
resistance
intermediate
public
counterparts
and administrators
At present,
charged
while
newcomers past
the
limited
meaning
of production
several
electrification
ujamaa nationwide;
even the Tanzania
hands dirty
with
with the
the fundamental
some resistance
in the superstructure
It has been mentioned
incompatible
the outset,
resides
villages.
by sevwal
in the supply
A xcessary
TAN function-
-59-
ingredient
plans,
of
the
solution
aggregated
factories
that
to District
mass produce
question
of
socialiy
desirable
the
ujamaa village
shops.
logistics
ends,
discount
take
pricing,
the relatively
prising
if
tools
The preceding
both
will
A carpentry
workplace
ative
might
one.
be used
reason
for
private
just
this
in producing
zones,
who could
there
to
of
work-
in favor
term credit,
especially
are plenty
easily
serve
in private
that,
subvert
indiscriminately
of
in
enter-
the cooperative
by the Tanganyika
Corporation.
very basic
should
is
a
in favor
to short
Trading
question
be obvious
of -how intermediate
that
implements
be a petty
--
the technology
is not
and stocked
capitalist
such as wheelbarrows
farming
that
of
--
"social-
$50 per
establishment
as a cooper-
and beehives,
can as
farming.
indivisibilities
implements
itself
inherently
at a cost
as collective
are no significant
the
is
access
as easily
and using
I.T.
privileged
can be built
there
If
discrimination
shop that
that
is not simply
investment
Ihe point
village
of urban
shops,
capital
private
of
of private
and in the use of
to modernize
is
or prohibit
producing
the
It
But it
and demand.
are supplied
raises
The new implements,
easily
of scale
of
be diffused.
in <he production
istic."
crop
and the State
point
supply
assistance.
ar.d materials
Farmers Association
technology
forms:
with a bit
and expansion
mechanism must discriminate
prohibition
export
levels,
the requirements
and inputs.
and discourage
and transport
Tanzanians
objective
such tools
several
wealthy
between
and Regional
the supply
of outright
of wajmma might
cc-ordination
of matching
workshops
Short
is
might
The prime
and economies
deter
small
scale,
use.
Thus the answer to the question,
contribute
to
further
socio-economic
whether
intermediate
stratification
and the
technology
will
entrenchment
of
an
-so-
individualistic
ethos,
a cooperative
make use of
strong
ethos,
the
economic
against
of
the difficult
setbacks
choice
growth,
to individual
is
of appropriate
it
confronts
field
already
the idea
to stimulate
and second,
to individuals
sales
the more productive
of
their
have ro impose
technology.
group
by and large
will
gear
their
encouraging
established
An
illustrates
rapid
more inclined
and remunerative,
generate
the ujamaa village
workshops
communal production
outside
that
ox carts
the village
which acts
This
the low prices
and chat
its
a supply
ow-n demand.
has two deficiencies:
should
activities
to
numbers of
wheelbarrows,
many Tanzanians
needs will
village
large
with TAMTUassistance.'
means of
outside
production
that
have been persuasive,
that
agencies
who want to foster
maize planters,
to meet local
to a market
contradicts
It is
the financial
implements
is
upon
and reward.
for
demonstrations
are within
that
workshops
market.
making implements
all
effort
will
intermediate
leaders
a population
built
as part
by the TAMTUI.T.
political
have put in orders
But the orientation
first,
encountered
technology
the State
of
society
in which State
to the
appropriation
cooperative
at workshops
that
of new tools
likelihood,
in the private
farmers
reaffirms
In all
already
that
upon the T
access
private
that
of an egalitarian
and create
than to collective
profit-making
and beehives
evolution
critically
but who face
One danger
private
depends
technology
sanctions
enumeration
or to the
concentrate
within
make private
as an obstacle
Through mid-1973,
these shops were at Malya (Mwanza Region),
and Handeni (Tanga Region),
and Tabora (Tabora Region).
on
the village,
agriculture
to voluntary
Soni,
Babati
-61-
I,
Where these
about
shops
the indications
sidering
tradiction
there
technology
be used
:: ',
plementation.
::
,,,,
to think
Another
inated
it
recruited
,tions
its
TAMW's
in ujamaa village
give
training
first,
priority
(Whether the customary
be eliminated
Tanzania
gives
the quality
withstanding
to these
of
its
customary
the Party
tasks
have also
provisions
is
yet
for
of
intermediate
that Tanzanian
levels,
role
It is
of the mode of im-
tends
patterns
to be don-
and colonial
been male.
This
opportunity
another
will
will
thus
raises
village
that
ques-
question.)
rugs
some
grain?
"women's
work"
Tile answers
that
have a profound
and the ax;stence
workshop
ameliorate
and pounding
of male dominance
equality
working
to participate
that has made these
in practice
The habit
will
observation
implements
such as porterage
living
questior‘s
of
labor
lines
and
construction?
acd second,
of
the con-
the craftsmen-trainees
women have equal
sex division
confront
in
and Government functionaries
and that
to the production
socialism.
statutory
of
from higher
up the
regardless
from Nyerere's
programs
to
con-
farm production
socia:ist
and activities,
by ujamaa
--
reluctance
of the question:
male,
will
decisions
of women's more burdensome
will
all
farm implements.
But higher
stifle
are enthusiastic
emanates
and more aggregative
that
are virtually
that
of private
be neutral
follows
household
surprising
at two levels:
committees
danger
will
From the precedents
is not
for
term growth
01 to
effect
at both
in the villages
their
ujamaa villages.
Ftimulate
potential
by males.
I!:,,:, history,
":
i?,
,,
that
society,
with
officials
demand for
must soon be a resolution
to
local
farm production
maximum short
of viable
authority,
naive
prospective
on increased
between
"
,,:
_,,
a large
operating,
one can sympathize
the establishment
,~,
,,
;~ xural
of
the stress
the bureaucracy,
are currently
effect
deep.
on
Not-
of the "Limoja
wa Wanawake wa Tanzania"
sex discrimination
institutional
is no longer
5tructwes
A third
danger,
men may attempt
labor,
side
to
rejecting
the right
secure
their
This
base
is
society
does
Reports
from Chinese
too have found
transforming
in Tanzania
selecting
(Lushoto
time is more valuable
co~m~on to
agriculture
not
at Soni
trip
implements
to make,
than that
sales
Tanga Region),
of
farm
claiming
on the
by the TAM'IV group
District,
crafts-
disdaining
and making private
of a field
that
in
"crafts-
someone digging,
so
conditions.qv2
problem
of peasant
that
is
the village,
about which
socialis.
it.'
in two villages,
within
income than the farmers,
November 1972 records
they want special
status
The report
phenomenon 01‘ that
eliminate
surfaced
suggestions
gain.
would be wrong to assume that
social
automatically
privileged
villagers'
personal
men say that
will
it
a significant
which has already
to higher
for
women's movement,
peasants
rural
blown
based
into
for
trying
poverty.
to build
from a mere institutional
on economic
socialists.
proper
craft
3
attitudes
training.
socialism
The "New Man" of
communes and Cuban state
must emphasize
candidates
societies
and rural
emerge full
elitism,
all
farms
specialization,
Clearly,
toward
socialist
reorganization.
indicate
that
they
to be a problem
Village
the
on a
b?velopment
collectivity
As collective
ownel‘s of
in
Committees
when
the workshops
__1
See M. Mbi Ijvini,
2
G. Macpherson,
3
"The Participation
"Safzi
Report,"
of Women," 2.
5 November,
1972
&.
(mime").
See,for
exan;z?e, William Hinton, --FANSHEN, (New York: Vintage Books,
Part IV, "h%o WI11 Educate the Educators,"
and R. Dumont, s:
Socialism
Development,
:New York: Grove Press,
1970), pp. 229-232.
19651,
and
-63.
and tools,
the villagers
and craftsmen's
The problem
remuneration.
of motivating
aggrandisement
is
not
(Handeni District,
the waj
paying
job
Tange)
skill
tweaker than his
craftsmen
suggests
town.
the product
shop that
is
efficiently
them a large
Socialist
regimes
of
the broader
into
peasant
galvanizing
stake
momentum for
in Tanganyika
Furthermore,
rural
for
tion
most rural
and indignity
that
1
Wacpherson,
"Safari
a higher
in a country
Tanzanians,
galvanize
Report,"
2.
cit.
of
work-
such as China,
and obstacles
could
an oppressor
and it
before
socialist
in trans-
institutional
at least
by the kind or the degree
usually
nations
In contrast,
oppressive
of establishing
by the wajamaa should
or feudalist
against
with village
work.
pitfalls
but they
was
from a cooperative
underdeveloped
construction.
so obviously
has not been characterized
after
and the distribution
controlled
capitalist
of a revolution
was not
life
with
socialist
for
skill
problem
labor
in making it
conm~nal societies,
influence
a yea
in dealing
to be derived
in economically
societies,
modernizitig
of
The benefits
Cuba and North Vietnam have encountered
forming
true:
a marketable
run and effectively
tangible
than done.
Suwa Village
he left
Difficulties
activity
and to shun self-
is
training,
said
and the commitment to the ujamaavillage
on the division
among members.
are more easily
why this
through
self-interest.l
decision-making
over workshops
The eXperienCe of
He had acquired
shortages,
authority
to work diligently
one reason
are but one manifestation
collective
things
resolved.
a carpenter
material
their
But these
easily
in a nearby
assert
the craftsmen
had supported
with serious
give
must also
rely
upon the
class
to provide
the colonial
was terminated
and since
of
traditions,
peacefully.
Independence,
insecurity,
movements.
regime
exploita-
Tlws,
the
-64-
difficulty
that
of
mxr
way of
creating
rural
of the wananchi
life
and i:s
Tanzania
lacks
ujamaaization
socialism
will
future
not
the police
the consistently
ophy of
its
political
rely
of
primarily,
threatening
the rural
though not
sticks.
producing
inexpensive
one that
can be widely
State's
fostering
limited
local
an unproven
to
to achieve
means.
exclusively,
planted
across
one that
experimentation
goal
implements,
voluntary.
prepare
than
village
the soil
the
that
It must
rather
countryside
philos-
communal
workshops,
as an appetizing
the Tazanian
and self-reliance.
for
complete
social
and commerce toward
a case
of
such a strategy
therefore,
carrots
current
existence.
and humanistic
upon tasty
can help
up their
More important,
has presented
yet productive
its
One can conclude,
in farming
give
by the fact
collective
economy must be predominantly
This paper
resources;
in Tanzania
be persuaded
democratic
leaders.
enterprise
compounded
apparatus
coercive
contradicts
organization
for
state
sharply
movemer~t from private
easily
prospects
by 1976 through
highest
is
carrot
despite
for
-the
ujamaa by
PUBLICATIONSOF THE PROGRAMOF EASTERN AFRICAN smm
-RN
Winter,
1975
AFRICAN STUDIES
I.
II.
Z;lmbia and the East African
1971.
139 pp.
Community.
The Conflict
Over What Is to Be Learned
in Schools:
A History of Curriculum
Politics
in Africa.
1971.
113 pp:
IV. Foreign Conflict
Srhavior and Domestic
Disorder
in Africa.
1971.
128 pp.
,~,
Available
VIII.
Stephen
0 4.50
P. Heynema"
4.50
John N. Collins
4.50
John A. Marcurn
2.50
of Agricultural
Innovation
and Development in Teso District,
Uganda.
1972.
190 pp.
David J.
5.50
The Zimbabwe Controversy:
Colonial
Historiography.
David Chanaiwa
4.50
Martin
4.50
V. The Politics
of Indifference:
Portugal
and Africs,
A Case Study in American
Foreign Policy.
1972.
41 pp.
VI.
Frank C. Ballance
A History
A Case of
1973.
142 pp.
IX. The Union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar:
A Study in Political
Integration.
i973.
Vail
Bailey
114 pp.
1. The Pattern of African
A New Interpretation.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
Warren Weinstein
John J. Grotpeter
Islamization
Among the Upper Pokomo.
1973.
166 pp.
Robert
L. Bunger,
Protest Movements in Colonial
East
Africa:
Aspects of Earl,.Y Africa"
i&sponse to European Rule.
1973,
96 pp. & ix.
Robert
Strayer
Education
Versus
100 pp.
XIV.
Decolonization:
1973.
123 pp.
for
Local
Edward I. Steinhart
Robert Maxon
What? British
Policy
Initiative.
1973.
E viii.
Ethnicify
in Contemporary
1973.
59 pp. f, iv.
4.50
Jr.
5.50
4.50
4.50
Richard-D.
Xeymq
john~M. Trainor
Africa.
Robert
H. Bates
3.50
EASTERNAFRI%N STUDIES (With XVI Eastern African
Studies have become part
Foreign and Comparative Studies Monographs of the
Maxwell School,
Syracuse University.
)
YV. Class and Nationalism
in South Africa"
Protest:
The South African Conmrunist
Party and the "Native Republic":
1928-34.
1973.
57PP.
XVI. Africans
in European Eyes: The
Portrayal
of Black Africans
in
Fourteenth
and Fifteenth
Cent!=
Europe.
1975.
98 PP.
XVII.
XVIII.
Martin
4.50
Drought, Famine and Population
Movements
in Africa.
1975.
144~~. + vi.
James L. Newman(ed.)
4.50
Technology
for
Rural Tanzania.
David J.
3.50
Development
64pp.
in
Vail
EASTERNAFRICAN BIBLIOGRAPHIC SERIES
1. A Bibliography
of Malawi.
1965.
161 pp.
Edward E. Brown
Carol A. Fisher
John B. Webster
5.00
2. A Bibliography
on Kenya.
1967.
461 pp.
John B. Webster
Shirin G. Kassam
Robert C. Peckham
Barbara A. Skapa
8.00
3. The Guide
to the
Kenya National
Archives
Robert S. Gregory
Robert Max""
Leo" Spencer
13.00
SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS
1. Basic Structure
151 pp.
of Swahili.
2. Modern Makonde Sculpture
1966.
Exhibit
Catalog.
James L. Brain
3.50
Aidron
4.00
Duckworth
the
$ 3.50
A. Mark
Socialist
1975.
Peter
Legassick
of
-3-
SPECIAL PUBLICATIO”IS (continued)
3. Shindano:
StOTieS.
Swahili
1971.
Essays
55 pp.
and Other
Johannes G. Mlela
Jean F. O’BaT
Alice Grant
William O’Barr
4. Africlna
Microfilms
at the E.S. Bird
Library,
Syracuse University:
4n
Annotated Guide.
1975.
72 PP.
David
L. Easterbrook
$2.50
3.50
OCCASIONALBIBLIOGRAPRIES
2. A Bibliography
on Politics
and
Government in Uganda. 1965.
32 PP.
Lucas Kuria
2.50
3. A Bibliography
on Anthropology
and
Sociology
in Uganda. 1965.
60 pp.
Robert Peckhim
Isis Ragheb
Aidan Southall
John B. Webster
3.50
4. A Bibliography
on Anthropology
and
Sociology
in Tanganyika and East
Africa.
1966.
91 pp.
Lucas Kuria
John B. Webster
3.50
5. A Bibliography
ss pp.
Paulus Mohome
John B. Webster
3.50
of
Bechuanaland.
Isis Ragheb
John B. Webster
1966.
A Supplement to a Bibliography
of
Bechuanaland.
1968.
32 pp. (formerly
occasional
bibliography
# 12; now comb.
with # 5 and sold as one publication)
7. A Select,
Urbanism
Preliminary
Bibliography
in Eastern Africa.
1967.
9. A Bibliography
10. A Bibliography
25 PP-
on Lesotho.
on Swaziland.
1968.
Paulus Mohome
John B. Webster
Catherine
Todd
Barbara
50 pp.
Paulus Mohome
John B. Webster
2.50
Paulus Mohome
John B. Webster
2.50
Ladislav
5.50
1968.
11. A Select
Bibliography
of Soviet
Publications
on Africa
in General
and East Africa
in Particular,
1926-66.
1968.
125 pp.
A. Skapa
2.50
on
45 pp.
Venys
$CASlONAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES (continued)
A Supplement to a Select
Bibliography
of Soviet Publications
on Africa.
Fall 1968.
25 pp.
Vlasti
A Supplement to a Select
Bibliography
of Soviet Publications
on Africa.
1969.
21 pp.
Ladislav
Venys
A Suppiement to a Select
Bibliography
of Soviet Publications
on _~
Africa.
1970.
17 PP.
Ladislav
Venys
(The three
Occasional
and d 17.
Occasional
supplements were formerly
Bibliographies
# 14, #lS,
They are now included
in
Bibliography
t 11.
13. A Supplement to a Bibliography
s
1969.
62 pp.
15. Education
in Kenya Before
.An Annotated Bibliography.
IS.
Venys
of
Independence:
1969.
196 pp.
A Guide
to the Coast Province
Microfilm
Collection,
Kenya National
Archive%
Kenya Seyidie
(Coast) Province,
Correspondence
and Reports,
1891-1162.
1971.
191 pp.
19. Microfilms
Related to Extern
Africa,
Part I (Kenya).
A Guide to Recent
Acquisitions
of Syracuse University.
1971.
88 pp.
to a Select
Bibliography
Publications
on Africa,
1972.
27 pp.
Paulus
L.A.
Mohome
Martin
4.50
Harvey Soff
4.50
R.F.
3.50
Morton
20. A Supplement
Ladislav
21. Microfilms
Related to Eastern Africa,
Part
(Kenya, Asian and Miscellaneous)
A Guide to Recent Acquisiti.o&
Syracuse University.
1973.
142 pp.
David Leigh
R.F. Morton
of Soviet
(1970-71).
$ 3.50
Venys
2.50
4.50
SCASlONAL BIBLiOGP~PHIES (continued)
22. A Guide to Nyanza Province Microfilm
Collection,
Kenya National
Archives,
Part 1: Section
lOB, Correspondence
and Reports.
1925-1960.
1974.
137 pp.
Alan C. Solomon
C.A. Crosby
23. A Select
Bibliography
of Soviet
Publications
on Africa
in General
and Eastern Africa
in Particualar,
Supplement V (1972-73).
1974.
43 pp.
Ladislav
24. A Guide to the Nyanza Province Microfilm
Collection,
Kenya National
Archiis
Part II: Section
1OA - Correspondence
and Reports,
1899-1942.
1974. 50 pp.
Alan C. Solomon
3.50
John B. Webster
4.50
Gary Gappert
3.50
James L. Brain
2.50
Venys
2.50
OCCASIONALPAPERS
16. The Political
and Burundi.
Development of Rwanda
1966. 121 pp. (Biblio.)
21. Capital
Expenditure
Planning in Zambia.
33. A Social
Science
1968.
43 pp.
50.
Basic
1969.
Structure
34 pp.
51. A Short Dictionary
Terms for Swahili
52.
and Transitional
1966.
53 pp.-
Vocabulary
of Swahili,
of Social
Speakers.
of
Swahili
Part
&
Science
1969.7ijpp.
Environment Evaluation
and Risk
Adjustment in Eastern Afrjca.
1969.
L.
Brain
2.50
James L.
Brain
3.50
Jams
James L. Newman (ed.)
3.50
53. The Pokot of Western Kenya 1910-19633
The Response of A Conservative
Pea,=
to Colonial
Rule.
1969, 54 pp.
L.D.
3.50
57. National
Liberation
and Culture
(1970
Eduardo Mondlane Memorial Lecture)
1970.
15 pp.
Amilcar
Si~pp.
Patterson
Cabral
3.00
Founded in 1924, the Maxwell School for fifty years has bee”
training and educating young men and women for public service
and academic careers. From the begi”ning the School has
included all the University’s social science departments, and this
combination
of professional and academic programs has enriched
the con!ent of ail Maxwell’s offerings. In addition to the traditional social science disciplines (Anthropology,
Economics,
Geography, History, Political Science, and Sociology), the School
provides interdisciplinary
degree programs in International
Relations, Public Administration,
the Social Sciences, and Urban and
Regional Planning. Of the School’s approximately
700 candidates
for advanced degrees about half are in the traditional social
science departments and the other half in interdisciplinary
prograri7s.
Today, the Maxwell School has 130 faculty members and
approximately
700 students enrolled in graduate degree programs. Each year approximately
225 students receive master’s
degrees and 70 students Ph.D. degrees. In the three-year period,
fall 1970 through spring 1973, Maxwell faculty members
authored 75 books, 53 monographs, 296 articles, and 133
conference papers.
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