MICRQFICHE REFERE LIBRARY A project of Vo!unteers in Asia Published by: The Max*dellSchool Syraclise University Syracuse, New York 132213 Paper copies are $ 3.50. &vailable from: Publishing Desk 211 Maxwell Sch,loi Syracuse University Syracuse, New York 13210 Reproduced by permission of The Maxwell Scbtioi. Reproduction of this microfiche document in any form is subject to the same restrictions as those of the original document. oreiy and Comparative Studies/Eastern Africa Series XVIII Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs Syracuse Univwsiiy Fe,- two !:ecades the Maxwell researc!~ programs a concentration School nas had as a major thrust of its teaching and upon the work outside our national borders. In 1975 ibis commitment to foreign and comparative studies stands as a sine qua non of our intel!ectual endewofi. Increasingly the scholar and teacher is obliged to consider the influences on his work from outside our borders in order to diminish wture of rhe social sciences. the c,ilture-bound Mar~wzi!‘s organization for teaching and research purposes emphasized discrete areas of the world: Soviet and East Europe, Latin America, Eastern Africa and South Asia. In addition, numerous faculty members have come here with interests in Western European countries and subiects. During the fifties and sixties. grants to subsidize a variety of such programs and interes’ts came abundantly to Maxwell as to many other universities. That day is now gone - in fact, the scarcity cf 5:n& for supporting teaching and research about the :est of the world is a disturbing tez::ty. As the pressures for neo-isolationism grow. as the energy shortage and related more sharply its extra-national role. “crises” unfold, the university should feel even The Foreign and Comparative Studies Program is the present expression of Maxwell’s awareness of the imperative for attention to foreign and international questions. This Program coordinates and supervises undergraduate and graduate concentrations which involve comparative and area studies. It encourages and motivates faculty cooperation in inter-regional research and teaching itie; of the present day. The Foreign and Comparative more effectively Studies to meet the demands and opportun- Monograph Series is a central part of this [email protected] It subsumes the series previously published by the Eastern African Swdies Program and envisions an expansion of the output from the Latin American, South Asian, Soviet and East European and Western European faculties. Today, Maxwell has a large number of faculty members whose research interests include these areas. This series is a medium for their publishing manuscripts scheduled to appear in standard journals at a later date, monographs too long to appear in journals and yet not of book length, and other items. Scholars elsewhere are invited to submit their manuscripts for consideration for pub!ication as parts of the series. Chairman, Editorial Publications Advisory Guthrie Committee Committee Birkhead, - - James L. Newman Eastern African Studies Foreign and Comparative Chairman Edwin Bock Robert Gregory Robert Jensen Area Studies Robert Kearney Ronald McDonald Marshall H. Segall Publishing Desk 21 ‘I Maxwell School Syracuse University Syracuse, New York 13210 USA TECK’JOLOGY FOR UJMAA VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT IN TANZANIA BY DAVID J. VAIL FOREIGNAND COMPARATIVESTUDIES/EASTERNAFRICA XVIII /mm DAVID JEREMIAHVAIL is an Assistant Professor of Economics at Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine. During 1972-73 he was Agricultural Economic Advisor to the Common Market and Economic Affairs Secretariat of the East African Cownunity in Arusha, Tanzania. This paper steiils from concurrent ww:k as an Economic Consultant to the "Interrediate Technology Project" at the Tanzania Agricultural Machinery Testing Unit -- TAMID -- in Arusha. The project is directsd by the Crop Production Division of the Tanzania Ministry of Agriculture, with assistance [email protected]? the United Nations International Labor Organization. The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and should not be attributed either to the Tanzania Government or to the International Labor Organization. Copyright 197s by M~xwIs;LiSCHOOLOF CITIZENSHIP AND PiiBiiC AFFAIRS SYRACUSEUNIVERSITY, SYRACUSE, NEWYORK, U. S. A. Library of Congress Catalog Card NunbeT: 74-25876 TECHNOLOGY FOR THE FIRST STAGE OF UJCMAA(SOCIALISM) IN RURAL TANZANIA “The true proletarian in Tanzania is not the docker 01‘ the urban worker with a fiwd salary, but rather the peasant farmer, with For although he owns his means of a much lower azrage income. production, the%? --his hand tools-often remain laughable.” Rene Dumont, “Tanzanian p. 5s. Tanzania its economjc for the raising their sharpened organized core by the political leadership to bring a larger society. modernization socio-economic ,the increasing conWo1 resources in the end, In the development simpiest incremental progression ~escxrces. Decisions democratic procedures over econo%ic the terms, toward on village (with unit agrarian population ujamaa is (mamaa), allocation is strategy the for Tanzmia’s of ujamaa villages, (a tendency communal ownership guidance The communally an incipient over intended in The contrast actively of the poorer oppor- and the co-operative seven years of the population resource living. in the Tanzanian structure labor create strategy. formation in directly of “familyhood” and to reverse by a minority of underpinnings voluntary class will to participate For the past of the top priority that standards on principles proportion rural and, rural has encouraged of economic a stratified and material and microeconomic a co-operative political populace of Tanzania’s by giving development philosophical operating the Arusha Declaration,” nations of rural agricultural socialist focus social, process entire village, building to a type own productivtty institutional After from most African strategy tunities is diffe-rs Agriculture into the tendency reflected toward in land and capital peasants). to be a gradual, and deployment of productive are to be taken through from market signals as well as public -2- sector agencies). either be equal Ultimately, (for to work performed access collective (in to goods, services the case sexices and cash such as health of money income care) and private income w<ll or according consumer goods such as foodstuffs). It village is widely acknowledged, formation has encountered in 1967. These tational comings with capacities experience Tanzanians in ujamaa villages in early (less than economic relying acceptable development there report private circwcstances, rapid lllanzania: XG. 1 ;;muzi'i- end of thar actively of disillusioned of the Official 1971, yet one rillion participating in wajamaa (village (farm plots). the emphasis on a collective It could incentives, in income and wealth, Collectivizing :97::, p. 5. failure Tanzanians. by the fewer population) a drift economic of rrlral of personnel such a geographically stem from the actually Such short- so short and with 1.6 million might be questioned. and equitable 4, are shambas upon more individualistic disparities also the majority 10% of the rural Numerous sources In these of modernization, and implemen- TANU Party. so porn, ujamaa -_- of the strategy organizational in a nation reached 1974 that members) back to their ulating to attrxt that inception and the ruling But the difficulties concept appears since limited the Government population. registration thelo. from the in the processes -village 1 of difficulties would seem to be inevitable dispersed it stem in part even by Government officials, be argued but vigilant stand development the Villagers," mode of rural a greater than doe5 Africa that policies to prevent chance unof stim- a commitment to Confidential, 15, -3- the relatively unappealing But despite, past several achieving million "Great or possibly years, Tanzanians the villages would Government contrary to the independence spirit Nyerere undoubtedly of the wananchi siate to spearhead pants a socialist are grounds the moral communization (citizens, the to oversee built cownon people) 1976 target is device in economic who are bairgsent the -village drive. recognize p. to be in their 6. contain around countenance is also years the such means and the %oots participation a firm, areas the rural and activities (or nuclear family) decision- realizable and challenge 10 % or 100% of individual of in twelve and political less to rural facilities It the collectivization. between to motivate ujamaa whether order. would considered leader- or the tools governed rural i,>lning doubting in short upon grass and TANU cadres and even sympathizers thar suasion Nyerere the Chinese ?~.Y political for has been President democracy have to be organized 1. -Ibrd., either assurances the contradiction ?+hether ujvillages they.will ?here apparatus than an inspirational Government previous yet perceives Conceivably objective its that magnitude, of of twelve would r;;-al aA cog the deadline. in which Tanzania to suggest of police end of I., rei;tive from the the intention Communization coming two years out compulsory creztion making. abandoned evidence 1973 declared by 1976.l 1950's and TANU can muster to caxy espoused of the be voluntary; coercion of in the of the inauspicious in late odds to be againx ship has apparently communization. because "ujamaaization" Leap Forward" must reckon of the Government universal rural policy the young in large people numbers by 1976, which particiinterest as well as ?he interest country its of t!L. :~arger collectivity the prevai: smallholding security :ag aura? of as well land. as hopeful to induce ties to the ujamaa way of duction could --- people a basis not attain President build life Nyerere is correct accordin, equality, mutual responsibility, to work. But it is clear the rural smallholders along the truism This and of and this essay to cement organized, in Tanzania that -- to appeal to the step individual problem with it their is necessary commodity pro- well-being -__-___ in short, can, of creating and in fact activity that that it that existing grass roots address the culture" members arises he labels ujamaa material cooperative cannot for -- expect economic peasantry collective issue obligation leaders only to wa: and universal the Tanzanian his must, not impossible spontaneously commitment to coercion is national Such consciousness tl;rough "it "tradirional themselves in fostering a minimum of will principles today to re-organize that essay cooperative consciousness. and a first The State* is family a premise crucially, of material in claiming such lines practice, consciousness of a level -.--- to the proto-socialist socialist is the classic is the well-being economy in cooperative socialists." organized possess current and, a village has expressed without Nyerere modernization of It villages the village on the nuclear a degree prospects. after the promise centers In much of individually. socialism of whether future to form uj for which holds --- life It provides that to establish way of or the nation!. does not through practice motivations. institutions is This and and a maximum of voluntarism. provide certain critical services Since the TANU Party and the Governmental apparatus overlap, and since both participate in rurai deveiopmenf planning, the term %%iie?' is used lil this paper to connote Party or Government, operating separately qr in concert. TV fledgling ujamaavillages apric~ltural extension ment plan.) But the from above. Thus the popular advice State and %jamaa na kujitegemea” necessities as well rural its socialism. starting the State point this policy, This lacks essay social ,’ unequal status nations if systematic reinforce rather reflects contributors will and vigorous President along h‘yerere’s stated action lather some aspects the whole people “have” vision vs. of “have the good Zaire pro&active lines society. without opportunities, Tanzania and by and Ethiopia resources, and class that and poor that that activity the development of the likely institutions production as Tanzanian most of Africa taken to mold be subverted not” 2nd current within of acrivities. development such as Kenya, into functions emplqment by signs individual variant objectives about ecmomic characterize objective production of past wealth, the basic will national of skepticisrr. income, and work) describe the Tanzanian develop- development (socialism in co-operative is -not than rural with the promotional countries and beneficiaries harden Tanzania’s is persuaded ownershi~p of bringi;< for power that neighboring na kazi” to achieve of The author than private of effort engineer principles a degree distribution co-operative objective of to facilities, the village and self-reliance) primarily and political froa %jamaa wajamaa together it in general. the evidence slogans takes ii: sympathy with Tanzania’s rhe highly capability is critical and although in formulating the (socialism and deals essay are community health and guidance 2s ideological ir bringing Although (some examples and collective then the prose% as both stratification are the antithesis of The central co-operative rural purpose village capital carpentry goods farm activities, of a. sector), paper and blacksmithing producing combined that to demonsrrate relies heavily with relatively and places. The idea illustration. of techniques mechanjzed knowledge farm and non- skills borrowed is perhaps implies a midd?r a and materials, from other best a broad rwge by ground between cultivation manual labor times conveyed and head porterage of unaided stage economic technology": such as tractor provides for scale, and fully and lorry and engine of potentially power, valuable from which to choose. It wiil be argued that the financial for example, of motivational (craftsmen), toil agricultural the result not. for overcome pius that twhnology. is impetus can be partly in arducws a broad diffusion and manpower capabilities mechanization, increased it (a small considerable available technolok; techniques of world Tanzania is "intermediate agriculture the stock techniques there that in the formative and concepts intermediate Between the two extremes tools that tools h-iilage. workshops contribution such as hoe cultivation and motorized the proposition and equipment upon locally simple In Tanzanian traditional fundis tools in what has come to be called technology lack is to develop can make a substantial It seeks potential of this of the It will by the also is within in a way that be argued that consolidation in labor to enhancing will productivity of a well contribute to apparent created for and the decrease selected the well-being the tractor in much of employment opportunities from the adoption productivity such technology State, ujamaa village increase In addition of intermediate of w several themselves, jmportant -7- objectives: export adequate ezrnings The case Section the for I. relevance in the Second Five tools summarizes for ujamaa Year Development and deficiencies Section the actual cultural tools if indicates Machinery technology. diffused development Unit) Section IV. raises Recent readers Tanzanian in both will efforts crop (SFYP). from the general development on agricultural Section of uj,,, II. roles mechanization some to date. of TAMTU (Tanz--.ia and spreading that strategy investigates implementation a warning an intermediate intermediate negative Agri- effects technology, on Tanzania's scholarly of literature it; in p&rtitular, -Plan for the main themes of this through of cooperatively order. the new implements run rural Strategy a socialist society and popular journalism. with Tanzania's leaders. the implications and, Philosophy Development to create policies in working of proposals Ujamaa as a Social philosophy stressing activities rural can have powerful have some familiarity developmental selective, Tanzania's in creating and Economic documented expanding pattern. I. ~' proceeds and prtextial Testing indiscriminately, population. technology Plan of the cnaracteristics III. the nor-f;lrr! tax base. an intermediate to the specific. ', suppiies and an enlarged for and stresses food this essay: resume is brief. Nyerere's of the --Second Five (1) the mechanization and power sources industries to produce Since circumstances of President strategy have been well and (2) such tools moSL and the It is also writings, TANU Year Development of rural the establishmmr!nt and maintain them We should policy first makers. at economic almost The population of wage earners in 1974) is still ail1 increase per year through socialist bent, qpporturitjes oriented by over toward broad rural. population, formance of ment goodl. thi,s 1 The Economic Govern%% Printer, in farming Even if through century. agricultural, the Tanzanian satisfying non-farm of agricultural at least -Survey, 1972). 1971-72, the at an number of crop). Tables active populati,,", cont?nue to the grow wage employment population and by ovel‘ apart 1% fr?m creation livelihoods depends 350,000 agricultural 1970's per any of development. economy is commodities one c&h cent growth must be heavily The capacity sector. will emphasizes and especially fostering actual non-farm the in ec;momic of per significantly, the and farming. three In consequence, that such as Axe1 and machinery, produce However, efforts 90% rural in smallholder of 6% per year, strategy over at nearly participation the agricultural earned by nports households of underlies of the economically to come.' rate nexus Tanzanian in 1971 and unofficially primarily 2% per year a development Beyond the problem rural decades the rest for years. 292,220 engaged to grow at the high still three confronting has increased than ten per ,ent numbers for life" are engaged are growing (officially less of in 1974 remains wage employment and the number of people continues force 6.1% in the past non-farm in absolute active and the labor Non-agricultural rate some "facts demographic-economic of the economically The population annual of An unrvoidable development. all annum. take note dependent to heavily (the import a growing upon the percritical develop- upon foreign exchange majority The Government 29 and 30, for of Tanzanian depends for (Dar es Salaam: a large The -9. proportion chat oil of its stem ultimately seeds assessment values -- analysis to a modern, Ta;lzania's in the era; core traditional, views emerging of Nyerere's essay preceded in the villages). relations: and that built "Socialism ujamaa is therefore of a policy an ominous of worth- -- from the that Colonial characterized in the I:@ a new - base. (September 1967) of ujvijijini trend a path the dangers transition production yet molded s!~ould be encoilraged and Rural Development" he describes creed. outline inherited of a gradual on a modernized TANU's adoption In it -- the accepted, issues: economy, relationships and the possibility PW-al socialism important Classes national have substantially It development. mwalimu, and his development. of rural culture unique situation, society, on several communalistic society; immediately cuTrent pattern called an reinforces on rural are not uni~versally of socio-economic pre-Colonial, developing aspirations sectors stress -- copra, And Thus, Antagonistic Nyerere TanzaniaUs humane and egalitarian inchoate economic Julius cotton, such as textiles and other heavy incomes sector. populace. and the Emergeace of --_ Independence, summarize his the Tanzania's of Tanzania's strategy to underlie and his manufactures agriculture areps, supply industrial among the rural between in rural Fanners to the growing has shaped and articulated interpretntion form of that :~..d since His zoc-al while production. is primarily Toward Exploitation Before generated many urban-produced of key linkages 'Tendencies teacher for utensils the nnrmazive crop raw materials the market and household upon incomes from cash and orher finally, his tax revenues in rural (socialism social and -10. There has been a general acceptance of the social attitudes and ideas of ow colonial masters. We have grt rid of the foreign government, lx: we have not yet rid r;.rse,ies of the individualisLic social attitudes which they represented and "aught. For it was from these ovei-seas contacts that we developed the idea that the way to the comfort and prosperity which everyone wants is through saifishness a.ld individual advancement.1 'IXhepredominant means by which economic emerge in the countryside prominent forms it is the has taker. are spread estate and petty has be?? characteristic and the solution it poses are relatively easily to sell production State past levels and los? year, a new series aras to the ptiblic in the past and citizens, coffee sector virtually 1 J. N. Nyerere, Socialism, (Nairobi: In the former, with, principally sisal, managers ownership problems problem the wners of maintaining when such farms revert have not been wheat, expatriate by forcing the economic efficiency solved.) to the In the hzs occurred and dairy of West Kilimanjaro and in sisal Region estates (sisal, sharp in particular, increase The expropriated all capitalist in world has become attract5re prices for owners are a mix of hard fibers expatriates of whom are Asians.' view a more serious by the petty (coffee, The most (with compensation) with the two years.) cultivation. of expropriations of Morogoro In Nyerera's posed experienced fanning has begun to to the socio-political (In many cases and production their among the wheat, growing State. farming. dealt stratification of cash crop large livestock) out to the capitalist class variant threat to egalitarian of private commercial "Socialism and Rursl Development," Oxford University Press, 19681, p. 2 For a review of the plight of Tanzania's the expropriated estate owners, see "Tanzania: Confidential, 15, No. 11 @lay 31, 1974). principles farming. is Enter- in FTeedom,a~z 340. citizen Asians, Asian Anxieties," including Africa -ll- prising Africans addition to Nyerere vie:% use the s'~rplus their Patrimony and begin such an enterpr!re means by which the capitalist resources. The crux to the ownei-, while p.?*er, wirh no share .Although resemblance to Marx's proletarianization Volume I, population density landless. studies gives Although haye documented The studies cash crop suggest production, is likely it to and Rural labor is that a close and the land enclosure expands this society of scarcer, evenutally z. the of the landless very tendency of independent landlords crop movement and as cumulative and the far growing initially Development," he drew this accumulation” and that in many cash extend their bears where the predominance stratification, over productive selling land relatively increases rural of the and entrepreneurship that has not yet proceeded existence IWI$. 1 Nyerere , "Socialism 2 sequence that essay the British The danger to the point its to tasks. regardless capital, of "Primj~:ive class cultivation control European history, during way to a polarized this land, land in they generate.' making arable declines. develop gained izs cash crop production. the land-owner laborers might ultimately smallhrlders Part VIII). increases, power of or land-poor characterization of the yeomanry (Capital, economic of for exploitative, in Nyerert's from a reading to acquire are reduced vaiue is no indication analysis to employees in the surplus there initially the retwns his sales to use wage labor as inherently farmer is that accrue conceptual from cash crop based in Tanzania, areas.' on differential to the dominance c&., pp. of 342-3. 1. Cliff=, "The Policy of Ujamaa Vijijini and Class Stwggle," Socialism in Tanzania, L. Cliffe and 3. Saul, eds., Vol. II (D&r es Salaam: East Africrpublishing House, 1973), pp. 203-208. , -12- borh rural local co, s0ciety.l -e and local politics In Nyerere's perhaps by a numerically overly small optimistic s:ratum of words: The small scale capita&t a-ilculture we now have is not really a danger; but our fp-i are on the wroflg -nth, and if we continue to encouragt I:T even to help the development of agrJcultura1 capitalism, we shall never become a socialist state. Two further relationships this eleme.?ts are 9: essay. Fir:-, upon peasant marketing -rpecial nature of life (e.g., co-operative ar:i farming iqxts xsise the real incomes are !Iltimately to claim paid that opportunities bureaucracy it is parasitic, Two requirements are that popular of rural many former control, earn their State and that privileges needs -- social functions bureaucrats, through through rather another far strategy perquisites above constructive service Development," is valid of the peasantry. this tendency, returned to remain necessary, to the people. H. Thoden Ban Yelzen, "Staff, Kulaks and Peasants," In economic usage, oligopoly exists when there 153-179. who control a narket. and Rural peasant development counteract 1 2. kyerere , "Socialism which Thus it exploitation as they farm the typical be debureaucratized, insofar been inertia- in supp1yir.g taxer. to :;iaf connnissionors, than enhances form of century bodies has often example and other stratum stifles development for in iu tt,ic district The bureaucracy social made later Tanzania chief, by the peasants if existing and parastatal colonial The salaries of this for of rural governmental to peasant advice. oi to rhe proposals feature officers). bound and nrresponsive critique relevance a prominent is the bureaucratic impinge of Nyerere's 2. G., in ibid., are afew p. 344. pp. sellers -1% The subordinate Tanzanian rural status culture, of women is a third one which atedates exploitative the colonial feature era. of Spccificallj. It ii impossible to deny th;it the women <id, and s;ill do, more than their fair $hare of work in the f?elds and in the Ez~es. By virtue of their sex they suffered fTom inequaiit:es which had nothing to do with their contribution to familg welfare. Alrhough it is wrong to sugges" that they hxe aii,ays been aa oppressed group, it is true ,lhat in traditional society1 ill-freatmeni and enforced subservience could be their !ot. agriculturaiist response who has advised to Nyerere’s request in such tasks socialist for regimes guidance 2s hauling from Mali in forxulating water, pounding to Cuba. rural grain In develop- and gathering --In Nyerere’s conception, the good srxiety in contemporary ostulates traditional African Africa to have be=.,: part will of cultures. most important among: them were mutual respect among extended family members, a high degree R. Dumont, Tanzanian Agriculture After Tanzania Government, DEVPLAN. 1969; see~c~ly "Recommendations," pp. 3-5. and mutual responsibility of equality in access the Arusha DeClaTatiOn, -"Swmnary" anr to the -14- basic material needs of and a universe: the labor cf obligation degree ethnic of groups social And Nyerere scholars elders, hilrself and the example, with points existence is not not nonetheless, others labor were starving), (no one lived out of serve of equality.“3 that of from vision One wants to keep East a Nyerere’s view. cultures exercise of power by and status is largely “scientific “powerful as “an instructive of those or kingdom suggests contradicts somewhat (as reflected, of herds). rigorous with knowledge arbitrary in uealth or size of this of most pre-colonial sometimes inequalities in the tradition tradition” of chiefdom shortcomings Nyerere’s the validity Our p’esent wratification in number of wives a “living 2 a tradition of womer., the As Saul has put it, ::learly while in Physical have questioned life. and economic in the subordination for tc participate image of pre-coloni African (no one feasted others).’ Even smpathetic simplistic subsistence and selective, socialism.” historical analogy,” intuitive But if legitimacy,” supporting in mind that Nyerere it the “moral does not indulge ujamaa does, imperative in 1 Nyerere, “Socialism and Rural Development,” z cit., pp. 337-340. 2 See for example, L. Cliff* “Planning Rural Development,” in Towa?ds Socialist Planning, Uchumi Editorial Board, (Dar es Salaam: Tanzaniamhing “Traditional Society and Cooperatives,” House, 1972), p. 93; Migot-Adholla, in Cooperatives and Rural Development -in East Africa, C. Widestrand, ed., Bakula, “‘ll~e Effect of (New York: Africzmshing Corp., 1970); am. &Tanzania, Traditionalism on Rural Development, I’ in Building Ujamaa Villages J. H. Proctor, ed., (Tanzania Publishing House, 1971). 3 John S. Saul, “Nyerere Volume I, pp. 180-182. on Socialism,” in Cliffe and Saul, eds., op. cit., the romantic notion that an egalitarian, lies jus? below "human nature" extent that these by the colonial that attitudes family, clan bas?~s for and economic : both forms ;,; ~, jl,, ships among people. built upon, of seriously of Nye~ere's -- for of modern production rapid economic occur larger To the undermined is a faith and that than the in institution techniques, But social contradict, trans- spheres; activities or exploitative building ujamaa can be in separate the medium of relationships individualistic the better development.' do not occur through optimism and cm a scale With perseverance Ujamaa social a base they have been can be influenced transfonation of development psyche. the core or age-set. application institutional formation Still, comuunalistic in the Tanzanian exist, can be established and with judicious the surface once and behavior ujamaa relationships traditional did experience. human attitudes the non-exploitative, rather, and relationand cannot economic be production ,:' and distribution. :(~,,; F>,, ,, Two elements of Nyerere's view of the change-over :~:,,, ,< capitalism tc uiaroaa are of special importance for this and its dependence and cooperative on local production ,',~,~but the objective and contraction of different building pace 1 Nyerere, 2. -Ibld., take from village to village "Socialism and Rural 348-9, 355-8. toward that the diversity in different different parts forms and will and from region Development," for expansion IV . . . in living, recognizes circumstances -will pp. steadily its rural gradualism Individualistic are bound to co-exist initiative. And Nyerere and environmental means that activities individual essay: and -self-reliance. must be to progress in distribution." economic initiative from emergent 9. of cooperation in working and of cultural, of the country proceed to region. &, some time, p. 16 340. at a -16- The gradualist wariness about limited water an immediate capability services and directly improvement will will foot cannot do many things for (agricultwal over for upon the is no short state are complementary to, the heavily capitalized that predominated in rural this state on the basis to ability to give links, formal Through cadre training programs to give tangible assistance the agricultural But, assistance.) popu- fundamentally, many things to them or also results development cawnand, and when motorized equipment the typical rewlt apathy. was peasant do a fair to develop share Inputs substitute settlement of of productive self-reliance. from above, much less of (As taxpayers, but cannot on self-reliance to expansion (road care, lorries). in the mobilization term alternative with responsibility veterinary (tractors, time. and the state's infrastructures extension, the state's and especially there were organized physical capital revenues, rely of the peasants' them. In planning, The emphasis wafamaawith increase a recognition commitment to communal life most of the bill ujamaa villages -~- from both and administration, and growth in government lation full productive of planning to the iiajamaa stems to provide supplies!, educationj approach for, partly local strategy of the with orders was supplied to cotton disillusionmeX farming projects When projects the wananchi coming and run by the state, Scheme members had little self-reinforcing by the work and initiative. 1960's. of the work or to repay a self-sustaining, supplied from leaders' schemes and block resources, sense pi-oduction cooperative of loans, outlook.' 1 See L. Cliffe and G. Cunningham, "Ideology, Organization and the Settlement Schemes in Tanzania," in Cliffe and Saul, eds., 2. c&., pp. 131-140; also H. Ruthenberg, ed., Smallholder Farming and Smallholder Agriculture g -Tanzania, (Munich: Weltforum Verlag, 1968). The majority Review of --- of Past Agriculture As the learn the such projects colonial period, synopsis will help perspective. agricultural policy from which the developed colonial farming the concept one could predomineted economy. population remained By Independence, sale played of private smallholder roles plenting materials, 1 L. Cliffe, going "Plann;ng Rural to strategy in back to the early in an overview of Development," dualism as it a mixture areas, without of applied of cash crop development estate and subsistence attachment households or livestock less- settler and a sEbstantia1 of Tanganyika to agricultural commercialized significant one crop is proportion of to the market were probably product primarily British Protectorate market network. critical helped development in a more detailed Fully the majority The German Colonial government an effort of ujamaa policies the pattern other of at least in the national positive say that of failures. condensed.)' economic in some areas, engz.ged in production for are was "polyistic." was rharacteristic the African interested L. Cliffe, of as social suggests, policy, the discussion paragraphs Tanganyika production see rural agricultural to place should countries of paragraph Tanzania's (Readers following Modifying in underlies as well Folicies of the preceding failings A brief historical Development illustration from past 1970's. have been financial administration roles farming in stimulating the provision Rural of the the partial-commercialization among the indigenous te prz!m-..+P cash "Planning and later population. crop production: agronomic Development," the supply and other op. A set cit. advice of of seeds to cultivators, or the articulation of and in a rather smallholders ox plows) metal passive with and transportation way, the both and with activities a marketing fostering farm inputs (such consumer goods (examples: kerosene that lamps, of rural as metal promoted cotton for export commerce that hoes and, an interest textiles, crops, supplied in some areas, in money-earning bicycles, corrugated roofing). It would be wrong, however, to conclude providing certain invisible hand of the market mechanism. a time of "commandism." infrastructural Bukoba and Kilimanjaro requiring certain practices. of peasant TZL"ga"yi,kEL to give Yet, orders, development of discontent rather see3 than to the post-Independence peasant to the of fueled the areas dates cash crop or forced and it of and persuade and even into (called by-laws) and cultivation sales) or to labor. This lack of confidence was one of the independence te"dency as Sukunuland, regulations the regimes the wananchi farming era was most certainly in such imprisonment educate period left out of reflects that as we will after planting (financed by fine, and abilities the government, culti.xators, acreages, to pay taxes that The colonial were hemmed in by a set of rural in the attitudes sources Cash crop was punishable modus operandi investments, minimum crop Failure obey by-laws into network the prime movement in rural a burea?"cratic farmers, the attempts administratio" has persisted to create ujamaa villages. Along holder capital areas cash with crop intensive efforts in the post-World the productio", projects of new settlement. to War II period admninistr-+ion create ;;;;der:aok mechanized commercial The famous Tanganyika Groundnut to stimulate x fw small- l.zgor agriculture more i" Scheme was the -19- largest of financiai these disaster, strat~egy in the projects, rather farming systems, Mission te Within projects. and yet 1960's. Plan's carrying 1960's. crops. foliowing the eight block farming to be a heavy drain rural development. left -m+s to ____ of 'economic benefits the schemes had fin extremely households 97. that little was very high into -P&n quantithe in areas plan (1965-69).' where cash implementation "trans- which was charged approach." Nyerere as a focus for spontaneous was contradicted settlements got off with and others economic and largely by actual on the practices the ground capital low (for and the opportunity to the settlers. reasons cost, the development discussed in ?he sense process while in in the midskilled They were characteristically initiative Bank and mechanization which oversaw WA], of Agriculture, villages 1960 World and in terms of In effect, of partly existing in terms of taken root. Agency development of the African and tobacco, conception of of the a "transformation" Year Development crops settlements by a command mechanism that a few thousand export proved rural large primarily of new village The schemes proved for Five "impro-vement his it on resettlement the However, p. agriculture such as tea Settlement and self-reliant 1Ibid ;, in the were couched and the Ministry out programs manpower available only the --First the major the Village were drawn to the idea most of toward emphasis had not previously projects, cooperative of for of new export modernization. policy management and control" objectives targets between formation" of public The Mission's upon "expert production was split to be a model for by the recommendations became 2 comerstone production inception was reinforced settlers, crop its improvwent relying The First proved of than a gradual iulganyika. establishment also The bias projects, tative it a few years run Ihe ratio below), that they leaving and brought out -20. hiindreds of of public I thousands sector @utput of least doubied.' Peasant parts of the country, every for and others substantially only of cash crop labor to adopt groups their were disturbed orientation and at the signs in Tanzanian both within ethnic groups of of the growth, farming and increased of an individualistic 1960's groundnuts) from many ethnic of the TANU left-wing society, strategy the fraction (excepting an eagerness their during a negligible agriculturalists, demonstrated by a different allocation. gl‘cw very smallholder the productivity Yet Nyerere z;;,~ ,,, ,,,: >;c;; ,,,,, t<;;;; >,,,~ did Schemes accounted production raised and resource ,:ash crops while that :,,, ~;z;;,;, 3:~ promotion of but SettIemeni who might have been mobilized and many innovations money incomes. at the entrenchment growing and between at stratification regions of the country. In s!xn, the formation 1960's zailure approach" combined ment strategy and the very to provide -Between Li&wa -- As mentioned, targets projects. The shift of policy by the Party's 'Ibid -, p. 100. Uj Five in the late National for and highly of private smallholder in the Second --___--- instrument the fanning of rural in the develop- to a more complex in October Five Year Plan goal of quantitative of agricultural was mandated by the TANLI Executive Conference "trans- vijijini. Year Plan stressed 1960's capitalized the sharp redirection and Technology and the policy tools success call the First production cgmmandist a basis That Tanzanians The Connection choice of the 1967, "transformation" goal-set ad Council, then ratified and finally a new incorporated -21- into the --Second Five between the 3 be read as a definitive m forth Year Development document and plan and its links blueprint to the approach Most importantly, to building "concentrating to complete mean that learning family the Plan Uj. That attention on limited Ujamaa over while, to peasant a short " . . live implementation for in the -Plan have an important approach -Plan in 1969.l bearing espouses is, on this The strategy it is not to the yproach to as set essay. a "frontal," as opposed to "selective," the 1960's strategy which are capable of time." To follow families in Tanzania of the population discrepancies mechanization, the -Plan rejects areas that However, to agricultural a few thousand shanbas."2 indicate development. period Ujamaa, the rest Subsequent continues of of making movement such a course would are living, to live 01‘ on single- xlopted, 11 . . . is to move towards Ujamaa on all possible fronts, mobili~ring the full range of Governmental and political ixtitutions behind the principles of Ujamaa. Under this approach we would seek to ensure that large segments of the society will make some movement towards socialism."3 It is acknowledged cooperatives limited that, need help resources rather although in getting thin "fledgling on their to pursue Ujamaa Villages feet," a frontal the State approach. and production must spread As a result, its most 1 An indication of the divergence of views on development strategy in the late 1960's, between the political leadership and the professional planners, is that the Economic Comm'ttee of the Cabinet rejected an early draft of the Five Year Plan as insufficiently oriented toward ujamaa. As noted in the bo'y of this essay, the Plan as finally adopted still conveyed an tmpression of ujamaa philosophy and programs hastily superimposed upon, rather than integral with,the "planners' plan." 2. Unlted Republic of ?anzania, Second --Five Year Plan, for July June 1974, Volume I: General Analysis es Salaam: 1969), p. 27. 31bid. 1969 - -22- villages cannot expect assistance in the shown that where adverse effects, emphasis is structures short diverting the roots success training. is the State of and, [are] closely This *eems~to pp. 2. Ibld., p. 26. 3. Ibld., p. 29. attraction of the Plan very 1. Ibld., production it "has can have Again, on investment village for in infra- village activity In particular, the concept is a by providing required an to make a techniques and a fruitful ecOnOm and solid; there Plan reflects to cooperative, of organization, cooperative and other the by which a belief division as opposed thti of to individ- 3 production. vijijini. of scale ^_._^_Z^ cn,~~rsnce, objective."' "Among the inputs agricultural manpower and self-mobilization the village More concretely, large sources to stimulate must fertilize can be increased."' linked lavishly, some kind of project and backsliding. and opportunities; economies that immediately disillusionment The paragraphs not an awareness required can be major ualistic, xheme true self-reliance and leadership an Ujamaa Village significant labor initiative, too from its extension ideas production community to education, that of is given assistance to avoid of or professional the settlement and providing improvement input Moreover, assistance) The Plan reveals recognition FE. of material with Government and T.&W concentrating agricultural ity, deal (material on grass the villagers, a great 27-28. to the reflect, that deal discussion with agricultural of the frontal mechanization strategy for are ujamaa -23- "A compartmentalized pattern of thinking [that has] developed . in the planner's view that there is an ujamaa program, on the one hand, wd that there is an agricultural development program on the other; missing, therefore. is a more meaningful and integrated alternative approach which sees ujamaa, socialist production relations, as a principle which underlies all rural planning."' This, as argued below, is one of the most serious deficiencies in Tanzanian planning. Yet there are Ltrong and the plannei implicit development ization. The rt:erencr villages, for example, :mplies productivity /1 bone 2nd sinew. However, ;:z,,: ,p from experience by warning ',,,, ,,~, is or requires the high cost simple prototype forms and low cost stage, skills, materials implement, or set Tanzanians. 1 2 the Plan conveys Second Five forms of implements there "Planning Year Plan, is 2. the designed The implication is not that that, Development," cit., pp. successful 37-38. to trials at the endowments of any specific level p. technology spectacular and problems at the oar r&., trector and tested resource to the needs learned is subject commitment to "less a confirm&ion Rural and one that local suited human a lesson that with is for the that mechanization By citing a growing to increase reveals had taught already consistent and finance.2 Rather, L. Cliffe, equipment moderr- in m power souxes assumption of uj economic production" on mechanization Experience espousal technology, other mode of production capital the rural scale in tools in implementation. of mechanization," for large the facile tractorization. an intrinsically of substitute section against between technology innovation of human labol~ and to numerous manmade failures of a tools to "advantages il ,* ,,j:,, ,,, ', implies of connections 99. of of all economic -24- development prevailing make a contribwion a5 one element The -Plan Proper tj be Produced fxctories both and also pr,%enting ality. in much of-the indicates of that by specialized, by local country, a concerted complete call fcr specialization drive new tools to raise on successful relatively large scale In his of speech Nyerere integrated in agriculture, he made the designs are farm equipment of May 28th, stressed rural can productivity. based craftsmen.' a program and simple implemems the -Plan to the TANU Conference, In his cheap 1969, the latter development, following potenti- going beyond statement: "Although mass production is the best and cheapest u;';y of meeting the needs of OUI‘ people for certain types of goods, therz are many others where the needs can best be met by labor inteasive small scale industries and craft workshops. 1>2 There is successfully some evidence borne hand experience technology" implementing w. empirically, that Tanzania. effort these to This It is obstacles hard to avoid to "ujamaaize" obstacles will pp. seeks be. ix and xiii. that litt!e contention utilized conclusion of idxs rural in a short craft conceptually set workshops for and out in the --Second Plan ujamaa in much of the more urgent period by first in the strategy have stymied that is being corroborated to date t3 demonstrate, which so far the this documentation, application the population 'Ibid. 2. E., essay that indicates have been a systematic overcome ground" But the available in 1972 and 1973, and "intermediate can help out. "on the of time, the frontal the more awesome -25- 11. By 1972, nearly the official 1.8 million adopted not yet Implementation -- showed over In terms the villages of sheer cooperative a group of people to locations plementation. govenrmental belie tractors) for to financial villages in the capital latter programs. In effect, relying hoe) category and shoka of Tanzania, stage," on paper, imply and where be aware that that for they have con- settlement. Actual home- of cases.) in the methods of this essay of villages in buildings tl;a? of further, technical assistance traditional is a receive (es- have no such privileged It appears, have been left im- that and equipment that hand tools -- most in developing to map out their own course panga (machete), (axe). 1 Development P.R. Ngeze, "Some Aspects of Agricultural (Oar es Salaam: East African Agricultural Economics Society Appendix. 2 Republic .iuccess. the official should proportion have had little upon the use of "formative the arguments goods. with moderate but had taken no tangible weaknesses of villages they strategy" only village a small or capital the "frontal Further, does not investment and the majority access of development, between for with the (Readers in the majority importance and loans I," a charter, a physical ujamaa villages implemented existed some fundamental polarization grants (digging village to construct Of particular toward production that 4,900 III).L and working. have not chxged The numbers also pecially living form an uj 01‘ even plan tendency villages wajamaa had drawn up and signed toward structed include (Stage of Uj numbers. were at "Stage in communal production apparently prospective jembe statistics members.' 80% of engaged statistics stead in the -- in the ---Second Five Year Plan was being However, over steps Tendencies Economic w, 1971-72, 9. in Ujamaa Villages," Conference, 1973), cit., pp. 61-62. -26- Far from being organize rurai support like a frontal society along in a relatively in the schemes have stressed, projects manpower cannot cost5 foregone the of central importance. socialist public high economic If mobilization development into a relatively opportunity cost indeed comprehensive allccation, must reject of peasants of frustrated larger statistical the "privileged to use the State's to join village" resources bias to induce and 2. to private "nothing there family happening" if the majority fanning It is and manpower evidence, to argue the national to avoid has a is no anecdotal in Arusha and Tanga Regions, the ujmovement; wajamaa returning sufficient a then funneling objectives. investment are into the new villages since on public is population policy exhaustively, But there manpower -- objective, of stated material observations towns when they find 1 contention by village. by first-hand 1. wants: published rural use opportunity and trained proportion and contradicts document this village supported Tanzania to small which was and that Their is the priority suspiciously of the settlement in isolation. of the entire process resources not possible capitalized of capital of public approach" are highly be appraised and to re- looks or "transformation critics uses poverty the concentration As perceptive that alternative rural of ujamaa villages scheme, 1960's. much skilled -- lines, proportion settlement failure to eliminate socialist small Ihe discredited a strategic strategy that leadership (much less a high dropout or drifting 100%) rate to the in the village.' Interestingly, the national English language newspaper, the Daily News, provides the best source of tiecdotal documentation of the "privileged village" syndrome. Very often, probably at least once a week, the paper hails a new ujamaa village that has, for example, brought in its first bumper crop utilizing tractors, lorri~es and Storage facilities provided by the State. The polarization tendency implied by the State's lack of capability to provide all 5,000 villages (continued op. next page) -27 The almost indicate that cooperative report daily SI~CCBSSstories a sizable number of living. on ujamaz in a way that due to lends to systematic do leave one or a combination of the following News base nor the State economic the impression a cooperative Daily -- an economic ihe newspapers itself in establishing in the Tanzania -are developing neither the reports have been most successful usually villages Unfortunately, However, performance. reported that for agencies analysis of where villages production base, it factors:' 1. The location of villages along a new transport artery, such as the --i&&ktop roadThat runs from Lushoto toward Dar es Salaam; or, even "oi-e prominently, the new Tanzania-Zambia railroad, which is opening up vast areas of the Southwest. 2. The pronlisl --of land and physical infrastructures to landless @%anrs or people whose dwellings were widely dispersed across the countryside with poor access to clinics, water supplies or schools. 3. Grants of or soft butsa%%Kbuildlng fertiliiers~ 3. The Organization of Villages around new cash z, most prominently --tea and tobacco (z the South and West), but dlso cotton, maize, cashews ad dairy products in various parts of the country. But the majority sufficient land of for loans --.- Tanzanian their for capital supplies, households current needs. goods, particularly planting materials already produce By itself, tractors, 2nd a cash crop a borehole Limitations cificijls conference IJniversity and have OT a clinic on the public (Ministry of Agriculture) znd was a recurrent theme of informal discussions at the 1973 0;' the East African Agriculturzl Economics Society, held at the of C&r es Salaam. 1 Along tile Mozambique border heen prompted by defense needs -- is the formation of ujamaa villages has also the fear of armed Portuguese incursion. pwse render investment the extension in village wide village there entire production formation is s mechanism, rural populace And certainly of major unfeasible in the near no mixture into transportation Euture. of souxes of and heavy capital as the gaivanizing force So it in all compulsion communal living the principle arteries appears that and inducement, and production nation- likelihood to bring arrangements up to now cannot "II;XZSS" for the by 1976. be duplicated nationwide. A further form&ion local is roads, storage assessment in order. wafer cultural is on two interrelated of technology. seasonal peak labor labor when soil raise yields is a fine seedbed farming case large that in yield under crop rnimal interrow power in these weeding the quality of from rests and the pre-existing zones are the for late scarce skill, plots for to example increased 01‘ for before tractors a a all tasks, tilling can lead over manual labor peak season some operations, onset planting; planting,when Used with In sum, tl‘a~tors invest- and then planted or by permitting ox plowing. crop of agri- in farming result substitute move scale in annual that systems, tractorization arise village clinics, for a few weeks after Tractors tilth. housing, must be hoed or plowed too hard for by improving of bottlenecks demand arises inefficient ior induce land clearing, as the prime economic Sottlenecks sharp drops by mechanizing rains preparing of simultaneously. mechanically example, labor viewed the to have covered unnechxnized economies when fields span to avoid need weeding for Put simply, improvements materials chzracteristical?y Examples subsequent investment and building advantages: of ,?he main rains, short for capital But in previously developmer;. elimination Grants supplies and schools. ment in tractors of the use of the also in acreage -29and to more timely, Both of ating :hese worker animal and yield thorough factors and maintenance and draft is mwe costs running condition destroy the fragile that acre to pay financial1y.l raise production of tractol‘s technology per and more precise fertility so much higher with fuel, of Tanzanian that that capital, if acreage tractor tractors (e.g. through inappropriate ivation by P.B. Ngeze, a District Planning Officer by consoli- ope+ations in Iringa sesvarions rsal, Ngeze reports to plow and plant annual crops that labor to their tasks in East Africa, depressed Iringa repay private yields. their loans neglect As a result have been unable capital Since shamhas. (or of to cover to set weeding of aside operating neglect, sosts a depreciation of they are several tractors, fund for in the are used frequently communal shambas results the uajamaa's the and thinning Region pattern on communal shamhas, villager: on at Mikuuni when tractors Instead, in good in ways that e minimized A report per cultivation be kept they not be used soils oper- than with a human in both necessary requires of cultivation but the increases always in turn and supplied levels, substantial are almost lhis are performance fail allocate critical their farm in substantially villages in much less replacement to of A good summary of the problems inherent in tractorizing African =griCUltUre can be found in .J,C. deWiide, et al, Agricultural Development &Tropical Africa, -7 hns Hopkins University Press, 19671, Chapter 6, "ImplementS and The frequency of finaxcial failure in African tractorization is "Subsidized Tractor Mechanization," East African Community Specialist Committee Meeting in Agricultural Engineering, 1971. -3o- equipment after cooperative ization five yea*s).l work relations, may be Iess does ti.2 work for commandism:" In terms 5xancial than its seems to foster Instead shamhas."L the important away" mechanization tractor or six of self-reliance it wajamaa to work together. last analysis, tractors provide each of equipment villages)4 is exchange) (much less sidering that 1 P. 'D. (Arusha), 3 the cost budget of crash the 4920 villages B. Ngeze, Vail, i373. L. Cliffe, "Some Aspects recorded of could Rural equals for less one tractor of *., Mwalimu Visits to some in foreign the entire Ministry This figure Con- of the rural Development," z. To and mechanics. than one-sixth Agricultural imple and related -PIah period. drivers formation provided entirely 28-33% 1969-1974 comple- But in the to the actually (almost Uevelopment," 4 M. Mugoya, "Ujamaa in Practice: Development, December 1972, p. T.21. only the problem. from comments of wajamaa at Mikuuni "7lanning as the he effectively i?lus;rate tractors training include couple< efficient as a lure in 1972 with the and as provider, and coercion it will This for State in some villages. investment million. "the attitude and economically even if with the two or three $25-30 the tractors exercise an initial communal work: 3 using 4920 ujamaa villages "Give- us time to wn*k on our own see orders unfeasible, of tractor- effects. "a dependent organization arithmetic development cover gives a vital strategy simply require or roughly of Agriculture would not the would to have been a nationwide An elementary mented. officials and collective of ujamaa villages attitudinal of wajamaa to perceive means of ment to human labor implemented prompts of public To be sure, from poorly against tractor with the tendency ind;icing a foundation perverse attitudes us; " "the the tendency loss of building p. ok. z., ujamaa village 104. Makundusi," African p. 16, -31population, while villages fuel by 1976; costs -- is This ieaves ,:, nouncements ',,, : ,, : certainly increased ,from instead lacking other socialist tendency is work involves village inforced strongest The observed is -- anything as it the Soviet the countryside. lost time in walking in the people together villages. Pro- farm scale as Efficiency is crop storage is plots Union, yield follows simply worked by hoe or as Ngeze reports more rewarding than farms China and Cuba.) villagers, Getting several to grow cash crops and But in cultivation In Iringa, of cooperative season develop- communes and collective across that increased but plowing. for marketing, form ujamaa villagL.;. to bring or crop private budgeted away the drudgery by centralized as long their including wajamaa are permitted is to demonstrations. a problem The unattractiveness result supply, productivity plot also considerable other produce collectively. where wajamaa are not truly dispersed shamba. if (This water farming countries, have homesteads agriculture and that of agricultural incentives of in uj fuel that to take inducement economies extension a connnunal block work. its supply, key ingredients tangible in labor find input of a tractor emphasize individual rise of and considering general .- organizing wajamaa typically collective aiso all population in many of the non-tractorized by a central of imports research, that long as oxen are not used for that : for no _automatic planting year; the promise on ujamaa often grounds FE, last be used 8s.a work are the whole rural Tanzania are the problem efficiency by group -- that cannot HI cooperative ', enlist that in the extension apparent of farm labor to such as biochemical and agricultural it is considering have tripled expenditures ment, the goal miles farming on their of peak labor "ihe but continue together in for to communal each way to the is further private replots. demand, members allocate -32only eigi;i to sixteen poor weeding result, work reinforce to this per week to the communal plot.' and the the mjamaals by participating uting hours subsequent impression low yields that as Clif& and low returns notes, is and to communal he is making a personal An administrative in communal enterprise. problem, Late planting sacrifice deficiency contrib- that, "The (village) planning teams tend to formulate proposals for crops, (ph,,sical) layout, and (public) services once a village has been formed; there is perhaps too little emphasis on the actual cooperative organization of production, and also some avoidance of how one promotes cooperative acti-<ities among those who have not spontaneously expressed their interest in ujamaa."2 It is also apparent in Iringa that the Government and TAND are either or unable to counteract the discouragement political education."3 The change certainly important, abstractions of social existing motives of that Ngeze, it 3. L. Cliffe, Ngeze, that cit., "Planning OJ. - cit., p. which he prescribes the change can be built up by tangible And transformation Asked why they had joined higher pp. force. is upon incentives. must begin with the smallholders. motives. was for to think are not backed relationships. of Tanzania's those in consciousness is naive or exhortations and economic t!u? nature replied but it syndrome by using unwilling income, 20% that it an ujamaa village, was for "higher 10-11. Rural 15. Development," 2 c&., p. 99. income 62% and -33. local None said po1iticians.l anything TV indicate a pre-existing socialist c0**c10u**e**. Here, policy in li%ht making for capitzl to ujamaa: the greater primarily seeking enhance self-reliance encourage gredients. component; people effort use and water, regions, zones, will -- if and to carry carpenters, skills water livelihoods impact of mew1 The Creation, @ Intermediate are displayed blacksmiths, bicycle programs upon the State to and to than individualistic have numerous in- play a central role; in in the form of improved seeds and -- Adapation innovation e produce, be a powerful implements village fuel stimulus. can be redoubled workshop. Diffusion, by T.A.M.T.U. trading center and the 1 B. Bakula, "The Effect of Traditionalism Building UjamaaVillages in Tanzania, (Tanzania --- in the tools to transport can also Technology repairmen villages will mechanical in every for join be a critical from the soil, tasks much will in addition, out household is guide fly supply innovations should and people and will of tsetse that to provide more attractive to make them in a cooperative III. Craft dependence take many forms But, logic So the need financial central the villages; benefit. elimination be important. to wrest wajamaa learn will biochemical And the consolidating ,, of is the ~esouxes new uj by making it programs in arid of lacks personal In some regions most farming fertilizers majority instend collective evidence, the State tangible Effective effort. of the preceding like. in rural Tanzania by There is potentially on Rural Developmznt," in Publishing House, 1971), p.25. no shortage of economically efficient better for tools implements. expanded mediate ,,' ~ !,~ i,,', ~:;,i I;,~' ,: 1;. ;g:;,, ,&;;:,,~: skilled artisans to reproduce implement Another bottleneck, and knowledge inputs (materials and parts). Machinery solutions problems the past these by the UN International Pradxtion stzff, Division until ,g;;j:; :, two Tanzanian tip,,;:, ,~&& (,, was phased trainee consisted of grass four operates Ministry of hoots counterpartsi out according ?he Project "1. of the Tanzania ten years Testing Labor Organization recently, with almost for primarily, if (ILO) designs lacking: for of inter- factory-made Technology Project in Arusha has pursued TIE Project and located an expatriate advisor experience in African 1973, is supported in the Crop of Agriculture. In December, are sector Unit) years. and the tool-making The Intermediate Agricultural mechanically superior is the supply at TAMTD (Tanzania to of which might arise and became more sophisticated, yet Two things, designs. making implements simple, The professional (an agricu?wralist peasant fanning) expatriate staffin to plan. on four principles: Machinery for village people must be of such design and construction that the people can easily Tinderstand how it works and can feel confident about using and maintaining it. 2. Materials used m=st be such that an ordinary obtain them without too much difficulty. 3. The construction of such machinery must be possible by using only tools and techniques'that can be found or easily learned in villages by ordinary people. 4. Machinery must fit in easily with village great change of routine for its adoption. will be very simple, and then they (sic) complex as people become more technically 1 G. Macpherson, "Appropriate Agricultural Engineering Meeting, Technology for Moshi, 1972. villager can life and require no At first xxhinery wiiiq ma-e minded." Tanzania Villages," Annual and -35- IInnelast .,e?;boration. It deserves reccgnize point that are appropriat~e is ievel could into welding plant equipment purchasing power and new technical shops will probably production self-reliant conception personnel of simple were only development are into capital recognized "it bellows increases development as sequential, discussed million rural not a onepaper Tanzanians az enterprising years anvils spurred on production, As the demand by increased some village scale the central in empldyment camnunes. to a portable or less."' with of C!~ina's shop at in this rural hoped that vaguely has played be is and lager goods cannot As intermediate mole specialized familiar Project development. over time, constraints Technology in the metal and stcme of five in stages. a two furrow moldboard methods life, in a period rural equipment of several village from goat-skin development e.g., and economic develcp evolve for and production of technical more sophisticated The Project is and abilities assimilated engine-driven for tools tn needs presenr technology value techniques, innovation The simple of of the Intermediate great workshop And technological zt their of conception made with more sophisticated time change. village The sponsors by simple [currently T.WTD). a dynamic some implements made efficiently plow s:,z%ests work- factories. role generation But the similarities that and in striking.2 1 G. Macpherson, "Intermediate pimeoj , September, i5ii. Technology and Village Development," 2 Two major differences between rural China and rural Tanzania are the more highly developed traditional tools and implements of the Chinese and the size difference between an average Chinese Commune (4,OOO-5,000 families) and a typical ujao?"a village (ZOO-300 families). These disparities suggest that a Chinese connnune is probably getter able than an -village to generate (continued on next page) -36Although it is convenient testing kit; the various of fo discuss implements; and Testing -- In the by their labor beasts search relatively tools; (productivity of resuits for of four and available for uses) initially As the implements implements the world them and copying justice the best to the complexity ~, advantage to poor countries for analysis and and a tool production fanning put it, from scratch. local But there the labor accelerated from shadow price that "there is saved local is by no need for international it CUT cheap them, trying The statement but conditions so many good, a matter of buying adaptation, of has been deriving fo There are production."l seasonal conditions. and then adapted i,t is problems: the "underemployment" to estimate IL0 advisor that have been guided of the benefits Tanzanian of technology of staff of the peak season imported own program to design throughout linked, the design workshop of many tasks. example, under various materials. Tanzanian arduousness few attempts, are the Project as a power source, economic Most designs closely tasks: an tnexpensive designs, empirical weeding are field. prominent sheer in al.+ernative mechanizing component of in the implement and the little specific them as separate human inefficiency of burden, work on the Project Prototypes understanding shortage, If the construction and the extension Designing aspects does diffusion does not point do up the of the its own ideas for tool innovations with le$s outside "extension" advice; and also that the larger scope for use of its products permits greater economies of scale in production. 1 G. Macpherson, personal communication. -37- stock of technical technology of the 1560's. offer a shortcut to better to novel ideas of farmers to design them to farmers. After others pensive if with the world from Senegal savings supply schemes from India, lifters and development would not beg thought to a mechanical under everyday time-motion -went back in expert (R&D). -- man- Perhaps of knowledge gives of by researchers found that the the villagers It was rejected local "for conditions. prototypes , some design and then did not hold technology were supple- the right could separate motorized in a village kernels to and DT exuse, or to the putative in one uj,aa reason" were scrapped up under constant ingenious had a $550.00 needed complicated was superior a technically loan weeding harrow). models they were too field of TAMi'D's inductive in villages if they for the number of work hours the wrong reason" women found that Part if already substitute with a donkey-drawn they economic comments on performance (e.g., with "for cannot board: the existing Such was the c&e because device conditions, or ~maintain, It was rejected the State. studies world" need and an a priori farmers' to zhe drawing to produce sheller. of what peasants was to demonstrate in "real improvement cause simply into of maize by hoe contrasted testing farmers Region in research weeders (peanut) designs, imported tractorization inter-row and groundnut to tap When possible, mented by rough weed an acre sense the payoff by local approach :~ that Tanzania's to test implement Inappropriate in isolation. calculation ,;, ,:,' ,,:, -- lags the ability An outsider's trials of time decade. witness from the Netherlands most importantly, working the past But the opportunity power and shortening access ova can be counterproductive, hand planters does knowledge $10.00 maize viiiage sheller, in Arusha given by in Mwanza befrom cobs faster by the customary This are kind intimarely project. m&hod of beating of familiar Notably agria:;tural "learning research, one of is the To offset a bias TAMTDtools Technology to give in favor are show cost station estimates and a capital preferences problems implements, painting its yet of the they I.T. in much East African xxxmes for with which aspects that something smallholder extends effective ground. even to a bias cheaper, implements farmers. esthetics. that the remains was a backlog on labor Intermediate in eye-caychiag amortization of pi-oven designs, inputs, charge. Intermediate colors, local It materials included Technology: complete costs, with productior purchased inputs the following: Designs __-- and Costs Approximate Production Cost A. Fol haling 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a. and trasportatioa: several variants of wheelbarrow several variants of hand cart . several variants of ox or donkey Wheel chair for invalids. . . . improved ox or donkey harness . For cuitivation 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. after look. there based expert must be right to be equally a store-bought about on the observable of factory-made group has advocated By mid-1973 arrogance to peasants' cobs the most encouraging where the technical which works at the research The TAMTDsensitivity of from the masses" is absent a sackful . . . . . . cart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $720 80 - 15 40 120 N1A. 3- tasks: clod cr!!sher for seedbed preparation. adjustable width animal-drawn weeding hand planter for maize or beans . . fertilizer applicator . . . . . . wooden-tooth harrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . harrow. . . . . . . . . . . . N.A. $15.00 6.00 6.00 18.00 5 -39- C. For food 11. solar vegetable drier (175 degree interior temperature) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $50 8mechanical maize sheller . . . . . . . . . . 12. 0. processing: 12 Miscellaneous: 13. hollow cement block bee hive . . . 14. “The materials nails, used old rubber water pipe, petrol Cost forward, ~, 65 include tires, self-employed :> and tools>. i',,, ,,: bits for or unforseen :, the availability irrigated ,, ,, extra of praduuction of the tools drudgery of tasks planter that handled hoe). family from using "saved" to welfare as well replaces in the 'G. Macpherson, "Intermediate ([email protected]), October, 1971. data dry season); labor them (for of for the work shop tools the economic under normal may lead to entirely are available of water (for example might stimulate 3. many TAMTUtools estimate way by reducing example, as Interpreted speed of the employment; method of chop-and-plant Technology steel), and straight- to estimate in alternative bolts, wage rate (i.e., is no ready in a qualitiative as by speeding the bent-over capital volumes but there simple an appropriate of new technology large spring relatively lifetimes little planks, and cre0sote.l is more difficult the working labor, burlap is for to shape) (especially imputing rate to haul production contribute of on which ox carts unpaid vehicles production adoption 2. activities, vegetable ', 'up or replace 1. (trimmed sheeting, it reasons, :::: returns to new implements: ,:s, ,-._: conditions are uncertain; ~,::: :I": novel plastic and a discount For several trees from scrap problems N.A. N.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of implement conceptual craftsmen . . ti branches paint," estimation despite mold a stand-up &. some the maize with a short at TAMT'J," -4o- Several economists in East African these methods functions agriculture require a "package" seeding and weeding through expansion payoff (especially lznd of weeding. Such data especially for Of course, use deductive out the agricultural reasoning some inappropriate saving the ~ou~unaliy-organized effect of mechanized available land/labor per worker, since fewer of acres ideas for ratio peak season crops which new implements labor per worker. should components on farm resource of the endowments on the quantitative effect and thoroughness farming and the agricultural their specific is effect and improved these seed rate, both of systems, farming. with weeding, plowing, The yield most East African economist combined ox-drawn For in yields. and also for system. farm production information zre not available production of planting, date, but peasant To measure as planting techniques,' estimating including timrliness farm unit), of innovations as an input/output and increase detailed per and other to affect of weeding. such variables not likely enhanced requires and labor on yields is the impact for farm unit acreage and thoroughness data innovations implements to innovation programming the of technical seedbeds, to quantify farm-level a model of of planted stems from better timeliness by linear abundant and framing example, have attempted for feel farming example, two acres In general local conditions conditions. is far less per worker rather bottlenecks be included for are it in the less engineer severe to weed The laborimportant where than ten acres when there is more difficult innovation can package L for are determine a partic- -See, for example, D. Vail, The public Sector as Stimulils of Innovation in African Smallholder Agriculture~n~Microfilms, 197l;and "Induced -Farm Innovation and Derived Scientific Research Strategy," East African Journal --of Rural Development, 6, No. 1 0973). -- -‘Il. ular locale tactic than to know which ones may be wide range tools, ventory the optimum under present of like implement brick produce from the villagers in volume. initiative village that technology a four-parish represents sketches a situation culture, how innovation similar of women, who must gather possibility as draft of most of Mainland for to communicate can raise firewood in.the and rely of and fetch on to sector but leaving much kind of modernizing the effect Most of that The second but demonstrates and ease at a considerable example it of natural example productivity water inter- the data come from in terms The first the labor in- implements Teso and Bukedi Districts, systems.' some From this the public the of Tanzania. to much of Tanzania, in most of Tanzania. greater animals has urged Uganda -- and farming in transport from the homestead a stimulus may help in Eastern set providing can have in much of Tanzania. stud; environment, on the between Nyerere models prototypes would seem to be precisely President Two thumbnail different interaction units, TAMTU's They have worked on a and wheelbarrows). decisions Such a creative be excluded. several can produce to guide to the village, self-reliance dryers craftsmen obviously circumstances. (including vegetable village (TA\TU) and socialist mediate designs molds, of designs, feedback should of Tanzania's sizable livestock relatively land-abundant Savannah areas toil distance illustrates utilization the the resources that encompass Tanzania. 1 D. Vail, Hi5toly of Agricultural Innovation &Development District, w, MaxwelrSchooi of Citizenship and Public Affairs, University, 1971. id Teso -Syracuse -42- .A. Wooden Wheelbarrow The nearest is typically source water so"rce, of water of walking on the head, week, is the taxing is 1 The return time input conceptually platform, but a $10 TAMTr)barrow but it dug well A daily gallons) trip, for If would be six trip six hours 01‘ stream, to the water family carrying terrain. vol~ume of water two hours --~ a~ saving saved hours calendar. is arable of fall transferred acres per the net value repay its of carry four If we assume, use takes forty trips pounds of were made in per week or about it; cost worker, the sake durable. is unimportant is in this enough, 1 as it then labor 312 cotton if -the short The farmer of the circuit x,nually. -- to in about Ma~,y of demand in the agriculture that all of the saved in South Mwanza with crop, $25 per year. could implements term benefit/cost could easily 4.5 increase Ihe barrow would Under continuous low cost and when would be reduced as a cash year. a lever Assuming no change input simplicity, by over one year case. leg easily. a household in the first last But this only of growing TAMIV barrow might first of peak labor production 2.5-fold debbes and axle, dramatically per week or 208 hours periods for crop work efficiency weekly hours a wheel on the four the to farm Lsks, adult simple: can raise used, during very particularly could the total high is a borehole, imperial even on flat compared with head porterage, thus it per year. a load-bearing time (four time. labor A wheelbarrow the whether or more from most homesteads. a debbe an hour a typical hours a mile to fetch roughly water use, are often ratio a not very is buy a new barrow It should be noted that meeting at the water source is a significant part cf women's socializing. One can assume, however, that ujamaa village women wili have ample opportunity to meet and talk without dailyexcursions to the borehole. -45 each year out of the -returns The benefit/cost not include firewood, hauling larger vegetable account estimate the potential carting irrigation. fact that is and demand for saving device Ml1 Inter-Row advice frustration weeding. However, station less This is thoroughly attain particularly weeding, a barrow: washing effect it does gathering crops, and for or dry-season by not taking as shortened. But the seasonal the economic labor This true pattern returns in similar “Induced For a discussion see ibid., pp. leitmotif extension of to this labor- environmen~~s of farming. ignorance, seasons of of agricultural officers because of optimum yield usually or the use of hired 1 Although yields this backwardness farmers ex- are wont to late in the more land-abundant commonly produces and attitr;les during is such low yields notions in peasant to peasants' 1 D. Vail, tasks, determines where mechanization from values 2 farmers the officials' observed of family as well since transporting the welfare fanning. Agricultural in Tanzania. trials, attributed of to fields, communal pr~oduction to weed plots that and thorough those uses returns Weeder Exhortation tension that for the economic more frequent lightened on private labor hold for understates work is based supply kraal of water It also one. from additional manure from cattle The example B. understates payoff quantities of the from the old express or scanty annual crop zones. stem from research labor permits timely 25% ro 50% higher difference or laziness, than from constraints is than sometimes in fact it on the stems supply of peak demand.2 Fz+n Innovation," of factors 9-14. limiting 2. cit., pp. the supply of l,l-12. labor for cultivation &tside the characterized whicn sets planting four the main rains. arabie by American work. acres tasks by hand and even where oxen are but plowing. technology, land-abundant year, rather productivity of ::~,, day) ;,, ::, in extension rather suggest and relatively than pez advice. If of) the binding season land labor (yield scarce -- would naturally and mechanization. TAMRJ's oxen or donkey-drawn row spacings, production cost ranges is available is labor. lean inter-row an outstanding from $7 to $15, for vs. land/ all farm employed of Tanzania relatively at particular times of then the as output per man- be the maximand incorporated are severe, fuller weeder, example of this (raise If oxen are depending a high and the highly example, already the marginal used for utilization with would of animal adjustable width such a technology. for The upon how much of the material and how much has to be purchased automobiles tasks to augment toward have perform on production, bottlenecks the traction from abandoned labor innovations search labor should technological this locally acre) is not zones infrequently parts constraint for factor are of If preparation, in these This they these (measured, per seasonal plowing, different to call in most areas) seedbed many households in use, is in the two months following worker. labor-scarce. is than of a search productivity land, adult However, is valid (bimodal of households Given the seasonality it most of Tanzania pattern concentrated per standards. zones, Land clearing, The majority ratio anything highland rainfall tend to be highly and ten labor-using ,,,, tempo of agricultural and weeding of seasonal labor for : ,, ,,,,, z,;, <,:, and well-waiered by a distinctly the the onset between fertile from an urban rolling (e.g. mill). leaf spring Unlike steel the more elaborate only weeding one row at a time, (donkeys are not but it in Northern culturalists in surrounding training and not to trample wire or rope muzzle corn, is two rows of The lower part thus acting overlapping ", is carried field this ,, crop is like "L" each "L" a small tines covered process nvxe hours son~e indication is the animal have leng been kept use by agri- animal must have somewhat to keep a straight is necessary from eating weeds or donkey greater important to use a simple the tender leaves of plants. hardwood tines se? fashioned ?t right pulled a clean, poles, angles through shallow hours per acre. of the time for saving the to the the along It is that if the task if the Cm average, necessary to thin the ihe planted rows: this weeding. results rows of and only the cows. steel. of movement, The tw but only thick in diameter: spring direction soil. still close-by first inches from discarded become too of hand weeding per acre two to four weeding, once in each direction sir but they It also weed stems and roots by hand and to do a bit li it crop. the hoe w: provide twice, requires is one bullock For weeding, the planted shaped steel out before adds about give of East Africa, since made from local "L" only the TAMTUversion and are coming into plowicg, to prevent in West Africa, requires areas). sorghum 01‘ other The frame ,' ,with also Tanzania than for line :' growing used common in most of by the Masai better ; ha~rrows widely The following from mechanized data weeding.' 1 nb. The main reason fx higher hand weeding time on cotton vis-a-vis sorghum or millet is that cotton is usually planted on land fresh from fallow. On this fertile soil, weed growth is more prolific than on sorghum and millet fields planted later in the rotation cycle. On the other hand, thinning an acre of millet takes two hours more than an acre of cotton, because the millet is planted continuously along ICC.~,, while catton is spaced at six to twelve inches. -46- for Man-Hours --- Weeding -One ACre' one weeding (includes thinning) 1. three weedings cotton mechanic& weeder hand hoeing 2. two weedings Finger millet mechanical hand hoeing food and cash the rains, hours it more thorough ‘,,, :,:, ,: households crops is of hoeing shortages, tically possible payoff to this ,savannah zone of cassava is a function 25 31 37 60 100 130 eastern Uganda, cotton and minor food as a cash of crops varies every plowing, the endowaenrs a study of of use digging millet, manand labor and the degree farm innovations but they of more timely severity analogous both of total of can be demonstrated system and finger both worker, the onset the hundreds with proposition a farming crop that ox weeder can permit This of for at the same time following o f land/labor at the results Farmers use oxen for They cultivate 1.55 acres innovation concentration. by looking Tanzania.2 35 115 intuitively by use of the of plots. rainfall several to grasp weeding which seasonal with that need weeding saved Ihe actual 29 70 or sorghum weeder When we imagine 23 heuris- in the to large parts hoes for sorghum, corn, of weeding. peawts, crops. 1 D. Vail, The Public Sector V and VI. Thes&%samirh other farm survey investigations as Stimulus of Innovation, the orders of magnitude in East Africa. 'Teso, with 30- 40 inches of annual rainfall, many cattle, with cotton and grain as the major Kigoma, Southern Mwanza, Shinyanga and Morogoro 9.&., estimated Appendices' in many binodally distributed, with crops, resembles much of Regions of Tanzania. -47- In the per adult rains, (or of they income. daily a year for give " table its of Staple time. subsistence. staples (e.g. By aalyzing (after it boost was possible crop mix and on the -- But, given that act resources of conclude labor deduction of the added costs) parishes, there labor that cotton and oxen plowing, indicz.tes the orders of magnitude. to secure peanuts). modo to maximize mechanized (collected would farm of households. comparable 40 to 50 years opti- weeding and to e the majority of a family programming productivity for (e.g. and land use linear has been no innovation of foods grosso -- and by using to households and variety records to peak season Percentage on the of the main take precedence introduction ago. impact since The following Increase Wechzizing Household with the approach 01' more acres crops available fan had 4.5 food millet) from 48 households), techniques, In the survey 'the labor a pronounced income of households Each year, worker. to use the remaining cash crop mization ,' its supplies appear two-thirds must make numerous decisions not jeopardize adequate studied, equivalent) a household allocation will communities in NET Farm Income _--..-- by Seeding and.!Veeding' Resources or less negative 3.0 acres/worker 4.5 acres/worker 22% 6.0 acres/worker 36% 8.0 acres/worker 40% 1 D. Vail, The Public Sector as Stimulus of Innovation, x. c&., Table 5.9, p. 128. NetfsincGwas?erived from gross ir.come by deducting annual ._^ . capital charges for the weeder and harness, using a 12'6 dlscounr rare ano an assumed working lifetime of six years. -48For the sake of simplicity, innovation. The above results, a cheap mechanica! labor to only seeder 20% to 40% of the Uganda this planted at the optimum time. planting, which conclusion that that the is enables there of size ujamaa village they have village Designing package Tanzania." total (i.e., cost craftsmen mediate "which Nonetheless, for capital rise to In crops up broadcast led to the reinforcing, pointed mechanized is precisely effect to the conclusion a new set seeding of labor and weeding for Carpentry shop cost $1000 provided six figure shop can provide cost. However, for for conraise factory, innovation themselves, local once experimentation. -and Blacksmithing - group designed be reproduced When this of powerful to discover out prototypes Technology their the kind be able the TAMTLIproduction Ternnology low initial because to turn could per craftsman). workplace would give and a Toolkit ---- of roughly It also in rows. The study or mutually of planting of their to give weeding. synergistic, should The TAMTU Intermediate shops proportion an inducement adoption cuts hand planting get a larger is simultaneous Tne seeder for with mechanized innovations farmers a Worn model for to And it season, the as a single enormously. The seeder-weeder that required and weeder together. these harvest fanners is a strong at the harvest the total required as the weeder. level incompatible seeder adoption straints however, as well eastem in using the weeder has been discussed their comparatively $570 and tools own workshop easily another as a throughout $430. The workplaces, or $167 per workplace is to more than $1100 per compared it is evide:lt employment opportunities even $167 per workplace that the Inter- at an extremely is more than many -49. ujvillages are "minimal" open air workbenches rooted wooden vices for weight firmly working Tznzaxians shelter (to don't So an effort 1t consists in the ground large pieces compression, from eastern hundred years to afford. workshop. to generate ,+apted likely African essenrially 0~ against of and a small a tree, blacksmith's the Ziinbabre culture tectnology two ingenious the workman's forge going of local own with a bellows back at least in what is now Rhodesia). in the we a two rugged handhewn of wood and utiiizing metallurgical need lessons has been made to design materials six Rural to put up a low Cost around the work area. The basic wood rasp, file fabricating and tools lay of less than outlay, the total village the labor workshops, other metal In ?wo villages toolkit and pencil. several screw driver, materials store-bought costs With it, hard tools the tongs, costs, the minimal knives, $20 per workplace. not would presumably on the slopes many wajamaa, chisel, and sledge implicit labor adze, hammer. saw, for compass, Adding at a cash costs $50 per workplace.' be part methods axe, shop can be established exceed the a hammer, pliers. group has devised mallet, Adding of Mt. not just I.T. such as a cold punch, would still $1; and includes to the up, outcash In an ujamaa of the comxiunal work obligation. Meru where the chosen I.T. group trainee-craftsmen, set up prototype turned out 1 The inventory and cost estimates derived from personal interviews with the TAMTUstaff and from the wthor's participation in constructing two "Intermediate Technology in ujamaa village workshops. Also, G. Macpherson, the Rural Sector of Tanzania," November 1972, (TAMTUmimeo). -so- to &:p cut thatch for and shape poles, dig foundations, group has worked out fro?0 the $11 "starter set" every village by the project touched sets have a strong preference for store-bought apart with these leanings in its austerity." But, its sidering level the a village variety The strategy the drawing set of tools, may all Spreading for board often for one of the more efficiency (modern) The I.T. of group has not encouraged new ideas the message: place contribute is that is painted spread conand in the implements in village- a key ingredient a more modern looking to the "socialist refinements may result znd programs and E farm implement were indulgence, that story toward unnecessary inexpensive short peasants bent such economically this and durability. image of a cement natural wajamaamay fundis than the cruder-looking and cohesiveness that ranging In practice, and one might wish that for The moral out with in technical roof. pride confidence toolkits, $115 set. rather are a relatively in village where enthusiasm Work: tools show a stronger pays then they the medium is the commercial work, they wouid greater more sophisticated off that if metal extension by the workshop. of success, and prepare to say that'neophyte the more -wa kisasa a corrugated increase planning, Extension prefer own funds, the considering produced -- valid from any differences workshop are elaborate wants to start is probably block out of wall of store-bought to a relatively It many villages not as they s series of tools. homemade ones, Likewise, a rear the shop roof. The I.T. expensive build of to shop, look a more like a new technology. New Technologies getting ar.d into cooperative use rural in -villages workshops is and novel still implements in the formative -51. stages. not As conceived to get heavily by the involved behind this tactic is about 5,000 ujmaa villages 10,000 villages, if workshop had six is spread over craftsmen train others several it need for is intermediate desirable “privileged given short They, in turn, for courses in a series of Wheelbarrow.” currently instructors technology To facilitate Swahili language An Enrlish in press at the and others cooperative trained artisans village workshops enterprise still craftsmen Given the snlall If this course would be very that narrow, has prevailed Px~al Train&g a workshop to training size of group to meet the quantitative I.T. the un- up 6 SO the Centers now. (RTC’s) TAM’IV has prepared called Tanzania Publishing illustrated to be and how to make implements. training, textbook, the duplicating chosen language in craft were pursued, craftsmen pamphlets, can a need to train the this with a fully a typical personalized from the training exist a fairly syndrome on how to build can provide to the RTC’s. of and imply at least private is future. them directly. Instructors 60,000 there immediate for village” If already one or two trained as apprentices, impossible would of establishing and that trainers The reasoning there each. a need for process shops, in the by training as follows: many of the existing and the necessity of prime need is that villages clearly fundis years, to train directly. ujamaaization imply the is fundis 250 households would that craftsmen diffusion sent this to cooperative in their the TAMTUstaff skills, and universal they averaged fundis, thousand village sound and runs roughly several shift the main task in training Even assuming nationwide. ILO advisor by -villages and the Wow to Make Yourself written by the House. set IL0 advisor, The text of designs will first a is provide RTC and instructions for construction likely costs gives help of production numerous 15 to 20, members (these " ix' ::,~ Office, are cluded village ians -,::,~ ,?;I to do two years training some of and apply their xnd economic to set-up these I, ipants in the things (like :,,," cbunter principles ,,, National attendance Construction Team of the Prime Minister's Some courses staff. It have in- Young educated Service, -villages. Tanzan- which more and more is a logical step to begin as well. courses is to get participants They are encouraged and to interpret of the farmers courses has helped the maize sheller) in the village. although can courses course and Rural direction as government from practice problems also that training The typical RTC instructors lninds to making tools. resistance ,enthusiastic, cadres in training terms of particular _,:,, :~,,, and three-week Tanzania. of tile It and implements development). as well indicates in the villages.' of -village craftsmen are reqaired of tools two-week of It how to make castings. who come under the in charge The emphasis ~' several primarily cadres, of helping :g ,, problems at RTC's in Northern consists s:>;; i 1972, composed and implements. as to the types particular January, have 5een held toolkits, and demonstrates suggestions most to solve Since is fo workshops, the that I.T. they staff, some participants to derive especially show B reluctance technical in from pattic- in pointing or are likely to courses hands new knowledge Feedback serve. need modification The response their to use their out to en- has generally been to do manual work 'The costs of putting out the pamphlet were underwritten by UNESCO. The text, e in Village Mechanization, is being financed in part by the Ford -Foundation. -53- and o?hers tractor. is cling to an image of nwdernity The greatest insufficient of State deficiency to make either functionaries mechanical A mxe symbolized in this approach is that 01‘ qualified "believers" who have little by the training thorough training rhey mwt method is pursued for a smaller know thoroughly and practical number of and believe at the Handeni Rural implements Training course out experience in craftsmen-teachers firmly Center that Paralleling have gone into its training several uj ,~ ,, and to ?he critical scrutiny activities, villages. "what they're of the villagers making under way. sting vindicating LIDEP is the Lushoto District. the basic the Intermediate This -- has been for that toolmaking will Technology staff as mentioned, learning to get process in shop and tool for design, approach. German aided Lushoto Integrated Development area. has been but the aim is also has been a valuable numerous modifications of talking where approach important range One purpose, is (Tanga Region), seem especially a broader while a two-week craftsmen-teachers A different tool and the technology. preferable: village lorry Project, in 1 -54- In most cases, drawing many curious demonstration 100 orders dilemma, farmers cowse, farmers for selling of this their areas. several An indication workshops wheelbarrows of the have repo-ted and ox cats. new and effective individualistic to be pressure to create from within showcase may serve workshops be no question the effective that as a core vigorous iaplementation cooperative rural of becoming Tanzania's progress being little else is implements entkrprise danger and not just the Ministry to impress over The to private and as a result purpose ingredient advocacy of this development. Potemkin This kind of ujamaa construction. 01‘ any element On the other Volleges: of skeptical to the concept a bit visiting superfic~iality levels of hand, dignitary of is crucial showcases visible is co- 'There can the nationwide of highly for higher-ups. of persuading at the highest every of Agriculture visiting to commit themselves made, to which done.' villages the constructive makers and administrators is that own advertisements, ujamaa organization. group operative have been their from neighboring the rewards appears Of course, shops has had is is that increases There for this from private of the I.T. farmers effect may discourage policy the village plan run the danger proof steered, and complacency to is that while a real cynicism. 1 Anecdotally, this is what happened in July, 1973, at Mikuuni ujamaa village in Arusha District. A great deal of effort on the part of Ministry officials, TANLIleaders and the T.WlW group went into preparation for a brief visit by Mwalimu Nyerere and Liberian President Tolbert. Ironically, it is difficult to imagine Tolbert taking much interest in efforts to build socialism in the villages. Since tendency rather Independence, of State rather impossible surveillance these ",,, "into the the rural President ,collaboration ': Faculty Nyerere planning top political ideas, the Intermediate with other public agencies of the University intermediate Indeed, Technology and utilized into its It is the recognition two the behavior education elected of graduates village are all signs are extremely State effort in the past for concerned apparatus.' group has initiated the mass media. of Dar es Salaam technology and of the major processes in the form to keep close of leadership and unresponsiveness 1 Monthly and annual reports of their efforts and progress -up the administrative ladder. See J. ment Printer, TANU, 1971). and the inclusion its of Agriculture officials and higher stress communication and operations secondary The to the top. 1971 guidelines and local and the apparatus the prime motivations the programs, of the sinecures, the common good. in the field.' decision-making in the District begun to incorporate 2 staff of young development ~, about bureaucratization To spread of with as bureaucratic work and to or even regional effort, infusion in their continually by the weak lines has been one of The decentralization jobs hard work for administrative central governmental ~~:i,:representatives i::,,that of the their off are reinforced for tendencies :,~: TANU cadres, slack on the performance to decentralize 1~ '> years. to view to from the bottom typically has had to struggle to sustained of bureaucrats than substance feedback :,, functionaries than corrmitments temptations ,,,,of Tanzania The (at Morogoro) teaching has curriculum and by junior staff -- i.e., their own version are R win source of information further Nyerere, "Decentralization," 1972); and TANI, Wwongozo: (Dar es Salaam: Tanzania GovernTAN0 Guidelines," (Dar es Salaam: -56- into i; its agricultural now producing metal-tooth harrow. designed marketing tools plus metal agricultural critical co-op: like tools issue block fiat dwellers copies simple mold, bread new ideas cadres, wall will of outstrip instructions (chwatis). to Rural the supply, technology to stock the in the rising making inputs has been written What may eventually newsheet, run were printed to a broad the range instructors, have greater Jitengenezee of villagers' for up in the Swahili in December, the home, children's Center a farm innovations of Agriculture's This may, in time,.become Training TAMTU- and metal-work become numerous, and illustrations for for and paint with and process. in the Ministry a trial ox cart (TFA), carpentry experience factory in Dar es Salaam and hoe blades sheeting workshops is a vernacular to appeal shelves plastic intermediate (Modern Farming). was designed contains with News and also on rural One thousand once village Project (UFI) factory to order by past in the diffusion Ukulima wa Kisasa ___-__ impact glue, I.T. Farmers Association enccuraged Judging and materials TAMTU's progress Daily -- of the such as plowshares nails, workshops. bottleneck Tanzania parts is being technology, demand for versions And the Twganyika materials village The TANTU farm implement The Ubungu Farm Implements ixplements. input research. more sophisticated is mass producing ujanaa engineering direct (Do-it-yours 1972.l The tria. interests. It making a workbench, clothing, monthly a stool, the principai to Village-level If). a cement and wheaten way of passing government and to the wajamaathemselves. 1. Jltengenezee is a joint venture of TAMTU and LIDEP; the West German aided "Lushoto Integrated Development Project" in Tgnga Region. LIDEP is another agency that has become deeply involved in the diffusion of intermediate technology. In sumary, fronts to trawl&e initiative agencies ideas into a central The concluding of their section will IV. 'f%e central trials the availability level, will bring levels of production persuasive either that or, it if about case for it will be adopted individualistic brand that two broad fall under technology it contribute policy: that of economic will questions it to or detract technology growth. about part laid. be encountered This terms, indication activities. the implementation and in But however there concluding that at the village productivity of rural inter- calculations is no assurance development to a collective out vigorously from ujamaa? a clear on paper, contribute be carried will economic produced in labor and in non-farm will work- has been well in economic gives equipment, as a prominent it the Government that from a priori conditions intermediate so adopted, is that, increases in agriculture the is both capital substantial to show tha:- and Conclusions paper under Tanzanian of writing, some of the problems Evidence of new kinds the and to demonstrate But the groundwork of this "works." on several program have not yet made village Warnings proposition technology and from field r: ,(: ,',~, to the wananchi, activity. examine sound program, As of this the ujamaa village has acted It has seized realities. can be attractive part group and economically work in ujamaa villages. directing mediate Technology village a technically technology how to make it shops its to design intermediate 3 the T.AMTUIntermediate section strategy as opposed to raises issues of an intermediate and effectively?; will One potential obstacle plementing agencies. a mystique equating is not only modernization present to stimulate ception to fit raising the volume simple country. quires vividly goals. This Getting teachers strate idea in the process spokesmen for are to the implements. of making, few and they contribution tend staff with implementing interested in keeping shop tools 1. This viewpoint aries in Arusha. the costs programs inputs wa5 communicated and to getting villagers is re- who can demondevelopment and persuasive at the top power levels of many of the junior of intermediate rich Western backward.' the bottleneck to the widespread to the author the and persuasive to perceive technologically problem in much of accepted aid agencies their about and reluctance become advocates, by the At at TAMTUshowed means teachers are likely which is confident leaders at af production. IL0 Advisor expertise This narrow a con- modernization, ta universally hierarchy Tanzania much too skepticism Until persists available and teaching and this I.T. implementation and factory-made is also technology initial and im- and motorization. who are committed, of there bound to be encountered their as a form of pafronization .Another forseeable of is that resources of the to be expatriates. and administrative nations, reducing of planning times economic with the required the political technology of testing, technology, people but it of an intermediate resistance intermediate public counterparts and administrators At present, charged while newcomers past the limited meaning of production several electrification ujamaa nationwide; even the Tanzania hands dirty with with the the fundamental some resistance in the superstructure It has been mentioned incompatible the outset, resides villages. by sevwal in the supply A xcessary TAN function- -59- ingredient plans, of the solution aggregated factories that to District mass produce question of socialiy desirable the ujamaa village shops. logistics ends, discount take pricing, the relatively prising if tools The preceding both will A carpentry workplace ative might one. be used reason for private just this in producing zones, who could there to of work- in favor term credit, especially are plenty easily serve in private that, subvert indiscriminately of in enter- the cooperative by the Tanganyika Corporation. very basic should is a in favor to short Trading question be obvious of -how intermediate that implements be a petty -- the technology is not and stocked capitalist such as wheelbarrows farming that of -- "social- $50 per establishment as a cooper- and beehives, can as farming. indivisibilities implements itself inherently at a cost as collective are no significant the is access as easily and using I.T. privileged can be built there If discrimination shop that that is not simply investment Ihe point village of urban shops, capital private of of private and in the use of to modernize is or prohibit producing the It But it and demand. are supplied raises The new implements, easily of scale of be diffused. in <he production istic." crop and the State point supply assistance. ar.d materials Farmers Association technology forms: with a bit and expansion mechanism must discriminate prohibition export levels, the requirements and inputs. and discourage and transport Tanzanians objective such tools several wealthy between and Regional the supply of outright of wajmma might cc-ordination of matching workshops Short is might The prime and economies deter small scale, use. Thus the answer to the question, contribute to further socio-economic whether intermediate stratification and the technology will entrenchment of an -so- individualistic ethos, a cooperative make use of strong ethos, the economic against of the difficult setbacks choice growth, to individual is of appropriate it confronts field already the idea to stimulate and second, to individuals sales the more productive of their have ro impose technology. group by and large will gear their encouraging established An illustrates rapid more inclined and remunerative, generate the ujamaa village workshops communal production outside that ox carts the village which acts This the low prices and chat its a supply ow-n demand. has two deficiencies: should activities to numbers of wheelbarrows, many Tanzanians needs will village large with TAMTUassistance.' means of outside production that have been persuasive, that agencies who want to foster maize planters, to meet local to a market contradicts It is the financial implements is upon and reward. for demonstrations are within that workshops market. making implements all effort will intermediate leaders a population built as part by the TAMTUI.T. political have put in orders But the orientation first, encountered technology the State of society in which State to the appropriation cooperative at workshops that of new tools likelihood, in the private farmers reaffirms In all already that upon the T access private that of an egalitarian and create than to collective profit-making and beehives evolution critically but who face One danger private depends technology sanctions enumeration or to the concentrate within make private as an obstacle Through mid-1973, these shops were at Malya (Mwanza Region), and Handeni (Tanga Region), and Tabora (Tabora Region). on the village, agriculture to voluntary Soni, Babati -61- I, Where these about shops the indications sidering tradiction there technology be used :: ', plementation. :: ,,,, to think Another inated it recruited ,tions its TAMW's in ujamaa village give training first, priority (Whether the customary be eliminated Tanzania gives the quality withstanding to these of its customary the Party tasks have also provisions is yet for of intermediate that Tanzanian levels, role It is of the mode of im- tends patterns to be don- and colonial been male. This opportunity another will will thus raises village that ques- question.) rugs some grain? "women's work" Tile answers that have a profound and the ax;stence workshop ameliorate and pounding of male dominance equality working to participate that has made these in practice The habit will observation implements such as porterage living questior‘s of labor lines and construction? acd second, of the con- the craftsmen-trainees women have equal sex division confront in and Government functionaries and that to the production socialism. statutory of from higher up the regardless from Nyerere's programs to con- farm production socia:ist and activities, by ujamaa -- reluctance of the question: male, will decisions of women's more burdensome will all farm implements. But higher stifle are enthusiastic emanates and more aggregative that are virtually that of private be neutral follows household surprising at two levels: committees danger will From the precedents is not for term growth 01 to effect at both in the villages their ujamaa villages. Ftimulate potential by males. I!:,,:, history, ": i?, ,, that society, with officials demand for must soon be a resolution to local farm production maximum short of viable authority, naive prospective on increased between " ,,: _,, a large operating, one can sympathize the establishment ,~, ,, ;~ xural of the stress the bureaucracy, are currently effect deep. on Not- of the "Limoja wa Wanawake wa Tanzania" sex discrimination institutional is no longer 5tructwes A third danger, men may attempt labor, side to rejecting the right secure their This base is society does Reports from Chinese too have found transforming in Tanzania selecting (Lushoto time is more valuable co~m~on to agriculture not at Soni trip implements to make, than that sales Tanga Region), of farm claiming on the by the TAM'IV group District, crafts- disdaining and making private of a field that in "crafts- someone digging, so conditions.qv2 problem of peasant that is the village, about which socialis. it.' in two villages, within income than the farmers, November 1972 records they want special status The report phenomenon 01‘ that eliminate surfaced suggestions gain. would be wrong to assume that social automatically privileged villagers' personal men say that will it a significant which has already to higher for women's movement, peasants rural blown based into for trying poverty. to build from a mere institutional on economic socialists. proper craft 3 attitudes training. socialism The "New Man" of communes and Cuban state must emphasize candidates societies and rural emerge full elitism, all farms specialization, Clearly, toward socialist reorganization. indicate that they to be a problem Village the on a b?velopment collectivity As collective ownel‘s of in Committees when the workshops __1 See M. Mbi Ijvini, 2 G. Macpherson, 3 "The Participation "Safzi Report," of Women," 2. 5 November, 1972 &. (mime"). See,for exan;z?e, William Hinton, --FANSHEN, (New York: Vintage Books, Part IV, "h%o WI11 Educate the Educators," and R. Dumont, s: Socialism Development, :New York: Grove Press, 1970), pp. 229-232. 19651, and -63. and tools, the villagers and craftsmen's The problem remuneration. of motivating aggrandisement is not (Handeni District, the waj paying job Tange) skill tweaker than his craftsmen suggests town. the product shop that is efficiently them a large Socialist regimes of the broader into peasant galvanizing stake momentum for in Tanganyika Furthermore, rural for tion most rural and indignity that 1 Wacpherson, "Safari a higher in a country Tanzanians, galvanize Report," 2. cit. of work- such as China, and obstacles could an oppressor and it before socialist in trans- institutional at least by the kind or the degree usually nations In contrast, oppressive of establishing by the wajamaa should or feudalist against with village work. pitfalls but they was from a cooperative underdeveloped construction. so obviously has not been characterized after and the distribution controlled capitalist of a revolution was not life with socialist for skill problem labor in making it conm~nal societies, influence a yea in dealing to be derived in economically societies, modernizitig of The benefits Cuba and North Vietnam have encountered forming true: a marketable run and effectively tangible than done. Suwa Village he left Difficulties activity and to shun self- is training, said and the commitment to the ujamaavillage on the division among members. are more easily why this through self-interest.l decision-making over workshops The eXperienCe of He had acquired shortages, authority to work diligently one reason are but one manifestation collective things resolved. a carpenter material their But these easily in a nearby assert the craftsmen had supported with serious give must also rely upon the class to provide the colonial was terminated and since of traditions, peacefully. Independence, insecurity, movements. regime exploita- Tlws, the -64- difficulty that of mxr way of creating rural of the wananchi life and i:s Tanzania lacks ujamaaization socialism will future not the police the consistently ophy of its political rely of primarily, threatening the rural though not sticks. producing inexpensive one that can be widely State's fostering limited local an unproven to to achieve means. exclusively, planted across one that experimentation goal implements, voluntary. prepare than village the soil the that It must rather countryside philos- communal workshops, as an appetizing the Tazanian and self-reliance. for complete social and commerce toward a case of such a strategy therefore, carrots current existence. and humanistic upon tasty can help up their More important, has presented yet productive its One can conclude, in farming give by the fact collective economy must be predominantly This paper resources; in Tanzania be persuaded democratic leaders. enterprise compounded apparatus coercive contradicts organization for state sharply movemer~t from private easily prospects by 1976 through highest is carrot despite for -the ujamaa by PUBLICATIONSOF THE PROGRAMOF EASTERN AFRICAN smm -RN Winter, 1975 AFRICAN STUDIES I. II. Z;lmbia and the East African 1971. 139 pp. Community. The Conflict Over What Is to Be Learned in Schools: A History of Curriculum Politics in Africa. 1971. 113 pp: IV. Foreign Conflict Srhavior and Domestic Disorder in Africa. 1971. 128 pp. ,~, Available VIII. Stephen 0 4.50 P. Heynema" 4.50 John N. Collins 4.50 John A. Marcurn 2.50 of Agricultural Innovation and Development in Teso District, Uganda. 1972. 190 pp. David J. 5.50 The Zimbabwe Controversy: Colonial Historiography. David Chanaiwa 4.50 Martin 4.50 V. The Politics of Indifference: Portugal and Africs, A Case Study in American Foreign Policy. 1972. 41 pp. VI. Frank C. Ballance A History A Case of 1973. 142 pp. IX. The Union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar: A Study in Political Integration. i973. Vail Bailey 114 pp. 1. The Pattern of African A New Interpretation. XI. XII. XIII. Warren Weinstein John J. Grotpeter Islamization Among the Upper Pokomo. 1973. 166 pp. Robert L. Bunger, Protest Movements in Colonial East Africa: Aspects of Earl,.Y Africa" i&sponse to European Rule. 1973, 96 pp. & ix. Robert Strayer Education Versus 100 pp. XIV. Decolonization: 1973. 123 pp. for Local Edward I. Steinhart Robert Maxon What? British Policy Initiative. 1973. E viii. Ethnicify in Contemporary 1973. 59 pp. f, iv. 4.50 Jr. 5.50 4.50 4.50 Richard-D. Xeymq john~M. Trainor Africa. Robert H. Bates 3.50 EASTERNAFRI%N STUDIES (With XVI Eastern African Studies have become part Foreign and Comparative Studies Monographs of the Maxwell School, Syracuse University. ) YV. Class and Nationalism in South Africa" Protest: The South African Conmrunist Party and the "Native Republic": 1928-34. 1973. 57PP. XVI. Africans in European Eyes: The Portrayal of Black Africans in Fourteenth and Fifteenth Cent!= Europe. 1975. 98 PP. XVII. XVIII. Martin 4.50 Drought, Famine and Population Movements in Africa. 1975. 144~~. + vi. James L. Newman(ed.) 4.50 Technology for Rural Tanzania. David J. 3.50 Development 64pp. in Vail EASTERNAFRICAN BIBLIOGRAPHIC SERIES 1. A Bibliography of Malawi. 1965. 161 pp. Edward E. Brown Carol A. Fisher John B. Webster 5.00 2. A Bibliography on Kenya. 1967. 461 pp. John B. Webster Shirin G. Kassam Robert C. Peckham Barbara A. Skapa 8.00 3. The Guide to the Kenya National Archives Robert S. Gregory Robert Max"" Leo" Spencer 13.00 SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS 1. Basic Structure 151 pp. of Swahili. 2. Modern Makonde Sculpture 1966. Exhibit Catalog. James L. Brain 3.50 Aidron 4.00 Duckworth the $ 3.50 A. Mark Socialist 1975. Peter Legassick of -3- SPECIAL PUBLICATIO”IS (continued) 3. Shindano: StOTieS. Swahili 1971. Essays 55 pp. and Other Johannes G. Mlela Jean F. O’BaT Alice Grant William O’Barr 4. Africlna Microfilms at the E.S. Bird Library, Syracuse University: 4n Annotated Guide. 1975. 72 PP. David L. Easterbrook $2.50 3.50 OCCASIONALBIBLIOGRAPRIES 2. A Bibliography on Politics and Government in Uganda. 1965. 32 PP. Lucas Kuria 2.50 3. A Bibliography on Anthropology and Sociology in Uganda. 1965. 60 pp. Robert Peckhim Isis Ragheb Aidan Southall John B. Webster 3.50 4. A Bibliography on Anthropology and Sociology in Tanganyika and East Africa. 1966. 91 pp. Lucas Kuria John B. Webster 3.50 5. A Bibliography ss pp. Paulus Mohome John B. Webster 3.50 of Bechuanaland. Isis Ragheb John B. Webster 1966. A Supplement to a Bibliography of Bechuanaland. 1968. 32 pp. (formerly occasional bibliography # 12; now comb. with # 5 and sold as one publication) 7. A Select, Urbanism Preliminary Bibliography in Eastern Africa. 1967. 9. A Bibliography 10. A Bibliography 25 PP- on Lesotho. on Swaziland. 1968. Paulus Mohome John B. Webster Catherine Todd Barbara 50 pp. Paulus Mohome John B. Webster 2.50 Paulus Mohome John B. Webster 2.50 Ladislav 5.50 1968. 11. A Select Bibliography of Soviet Publications on Africa in General and East Africa in Particular, 1926-66. 1968. 125 pp. A. Skapa 2.50 on 45 pp. Venys $CASlONAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES (continued) A Supplement to a Select Bibliography of Soviet Publications on Africa. Fall 1968. 25 pp. Vlasti A Supplement to a Select Bibliography of Soviet Publications on Africa. 1969. 21 pp. Ladislav Venys A Suppiement to a Select Bibliography of Soviet Publications on _~ Africa. 1970. 17 PP. Ladislav Venys (The three Occasional and d 17. Occasional supplements were formerly Bibliographies # 14, #lS, They are now included in Bibliography t 11. 13. A Supplement to a Bibliography s 1969. 62 pp. 15. Education in Kenya Before .An Annotated Bibliography. IS. Venys of Independence: 1969. 196 pp. A Guide to the Coast Province Microfilm Collection, Kenya National Archive% Kenya Seyidie (Coast) Province, Correspondence and Reports, 1891-1162. 1971. 191 pp. 19. Microfilms Related to Extern Africa, Part I (Kenya). A Guide to Recent Acquisitions of Syracuse University. 1971. 88 pp. to a Select Bibliography Publications on Africa, 1972. 27 pp. Paulus L.A. Mohome Martin 4.50 Harvey Soff 4.50 R.F. 3.50 Morton 20. A Supplement Ladislav 21. Microfilms Related to Eastern Africa, Part (Kenya, Asian and Miscellaneous) A Guide to Recent Acquisiti.o& Syracuse University. 1973. 142 pp. David Leigh R.F. Morton of Soviet (1970-71). $ 3.50 Venys 2.50 4.50 SCASlONAL BIBLiOGP~PHIES (continued) 22. A Guide to Nyanza Province Microfilm Collection, Kenya National Archives, Part 1: Section lOB, Correspondence and Reports. 1925-1960. 1974. 137 pp. Alan C. Solomon C.A. Crosby 23. A Select Bibliography of Soviet Publications on Africa in General and Eastern Africa in Particualar, Supplement V (1972-73). 1974. 43 pp. Ladislav 24. A Guide to the Nyanza Province Microfilm Collection, Kenya National Archiis Part II: Section 1OA - Correspondence and Reports, 1899-1942. 1974. 50 pp. Alan C. Solomon 3.50 John B. Webster 4.50 Gary Gappert 3.50 James L. Brain 2.50 Venys 2.50 OCCASIONALPAPERS 16. The Political and Burundi. Development of Rwanda 1966. 121 pp. (Biblio.) 21. Capital Expenditure Planning in Zambia. 33. A Social Science 1968. 43 pp. 50. Basic 1969. Structure 34 pp. 51. A Short Dictionary Terms for Swahili 52. and Transitional 1966. 53 pp.- Vocabulary of Swahili, of Social Speakers. of Swahili Part & Science 1969.7ijpp. Environment Evaluation and Risk Adjustment in Eastern Afrjca. 1969. L. Brain 2.50 James L. Brain 3.50 Jams James L. Newman (ed.) 3.50 53. The Pokot of Western Kenya 1910-19633 The Response of A Conservative Pea,= to Colonial Rule. 1969, 54 pp. L.D. 3.50 57. National Liberation and Culture (1970 Eduardo Mondlane Memorial Lecture) 1970. 15 pp. Amilcar Si~pp. Patterson Cabral 3.00 Founded in 1924, the Maxwell School for fifty years has bee” training and educating young men and women for public service and academic careers. From the begi”ning the School has included all the University’s social science departments, and this combination of professional and academic programs has enriched the con!ent of ail Maxwell’s offerings. In addition to the traditional social science disciplines (Anthropology, Economics, Geography, History, Political Science, and Sociology), the School provides interdisciplinary degree programs in International Relations, Public Administration, the Social Sciences, and Urban and Regional Planning. Of the School’s approximately 700 candidates for advanced degrees about half are in the traditional social science departments and the other half in interdisciplinary prograri7s. Today, the Maxwell School has 130 faculty members and approximately 700 students enrolled in graduate degree programs. Each year approximately 225 students receive master’s degrees and 70 students Ph.D. degrees. In the three-year period, fall 1970 through spring 1973, Maxwell faculty members authored 75 books, 53 monographs, 296 articles, and 133 conference papers.
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