available online through Murdoch University

available online through Murdoch University
Conference on Conservation
Agriculture for Smallholders in
Asia and Africa
7-11 December, 2014
CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS
Proceedings of the Conference on Conservation
Agriculture for Smallholders in Asia and Africa
Published in 2014
Published as an e-book on USB. For enquiries please
contact Prof. Richard Bell
The committee thanks the following people for reviewing papers
Dr. C. Johansen
Prof. R. W. Bell
Dr. Md. E Haque
Prof. Dr. M. Rahman
Dr. T. Krupnik
Dr. Md. A. Hashem
Dr. Y. Niino
Mr J. Esdaile
Prof. Dr. M Jahiruddin
Dr. J. McHugh
Dr. J. Desbiolles
Dr. K. Flower
Dr. I. Malik
Dr. S. Mann
Dr. W.H. Vance
Citation
The correct reference for papers presented at this conference is:
Entire proceedings
Vance WH, Bell RW, Haque ME (2014) Proceedings of the Conference on Conservation
Agriculture for Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensingh,
Bangladesh. Published as an E-book. p xx.Paper in proceedings
Paper in proceedings
[Authors] (2014) [Title of Paper] In: Proceedings of the Conference on Conservation
Agriculture for Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensingh,
Bangladesh. (Eds. WH Vance, RW Bell, ME Haque). pp xx-xx.
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
ii
Conference Host
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
http://www.bau.edu.bd/
Conference Organizers
Conference Sponsors
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
iii
Bangladesh Agriculture University, Mymensingh
Local Organizing Committee
Prof. Dr. Lutful Hassan (Director, BAURES)
Chairman
Prof. Dr. M. Abul Khair Chowdhury
Member
Prof. Dr. Zahirul Haque Khandaker
Member
Prof. Dr. M. Mosharraf Hossain (Farm Power & Machinery)
Member
Prof. Dr. M. Jahiruddin (Soil Science)
Member
Prof. Dr. Mahfuza Begum (Agronomy)
Member
Prof. Dr. M. Moshiur Rahman (Agronomy)
Member
Prof. Dr. M. Akhteruzzaman (Ag. Economics)
Member
Prof. Dr. M. Mazibur Rahman (Soil Science)
Member
Prof. Dr. M. Obaidul Islam (Crop Botany)
Member
Prof. Dr. M. Harun-ur-Rashid (Dairy Science)
Member
Prof. Dr. M. Amirul Islam (Statistics)
Member
Dr. M. Habib (Director, GTI)
Member
Dr. M.A. Awal (Director,Transport)
Member
Dr. M. Enamul Haque (IDE)
Member
Mr. Saiful Islam (Addl. Registrar)
Member
Prof. Dr. M. Rafiqul Islam (Soil Science)
Member-Secretary
Food Committee
Accommodation and Transportation
Committee
Prof. Dr. M. Mazibur Rahman
Prof. Dr. M. Mosharraf Hossain
Prof. Dr. M. Obaidul Islam
Prof. Dr. M. Akhteruzzaman
Prof. Dr. M. Harun-ur-Rashid
Poster and Exhibition Committee
Venue Organizing Committee
Prof. Dr. M. Moshiur Rahman
Prof. Dr. Mahfuza Begum
Dr. Dr. M. Romij Uddin
Mr. M. Saiful Islam
Bangladesh night
Dr. M. Amirul Islam
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
iv
International Advisory Committee
Dr. A. Kassam
School of Agriculture, Policy and Development,
University of Reading
Dr. T Friedrich
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Italy
Nations, Rome
Dr. J. Dixon
Research Program Manager/Senior Advisor,
Cropping Systems and Economics, Australian
Centre for International Agricultural Research
Australia
Mr. R.J. Esdail
Consultant
Australia
Prof. John Blackwell
Institute for Land, Water &Society, Charles Sturt
University
Australia
Dr J. Tullberg
Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of
Queensland
Australia
Dr. S. Mkomwa
African Conservation Tillage Network
Kenya
Dr. C. Roth
Program Leader, Agricultural Systems Program,
CSIRO
Australia
Dr Md. A. Hashem
Principal Research Scientist, Department of
Agriculture and Food Western Australia
Australia
Dr. J. Desbiolles
Barbara Hardy Institute,, University of South
Australia
Australia
Dr. A. Noble
Director, CGIAR Research Program on Water,
Land and Ecosystems
Sri Lanka
Dr. G. Gill
Weed & Crop Ecology, The University of
Adelaide
Australia
Prof. J. Duxbury
School of Integrative Plant Science, Crop and
Soil Sciences, Cornell University
USA
Dr. C. Meisner
Country Director for South Asia (Bangladesh)
(WorldFish)
Bangladesh
Prof. P. Hobbs
School of Integrative Plant Science, Crop and
Soil Sciences Section, Cornell University
USA
Dr. B. Gerard
Program Director, Global Conservation
Agriculture, International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Mexico
Dr. K. Sayre
Consultant, CIMMYT
Mexico
Dr. B. Govaerts
Associate Director, Global Conservation
Agriculture Program, CIMMYT
Mexico
Dr. A. McDonald
Project Leader, India Country Coordinator,
Executive Committee Chair, CIMMYT
Nepal
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
UK
v
Dr. O. Erenstein
Program Director, Socio-Economics Program,
CIMMYT
Mexico
Dr. J. Kirkegaard
Plant Industry, CSIRO
Australia
Dr. J.C. Legoupil
CANSEA, CIRAD
Laos
Dr. M. Centritto
Institute for Plant Protection, National Research
Council
Italy
Dr. R. Serraj
Crop and Environmental Sciences Division,
International Rice Research Institute
Philippines
Dr. R.G. Singh
Director Research, Bihar Agricultural University
India
Dr. S. E. Justice
Agriculture Mechanization Specialist, CIMMYT
Nepal
Dr. B. Bouman
Director of the Global Rice Science Partnership,
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)
Philippines
Dr. R.J. Buresh
IRRI
Philippines
Dr. E.Humphreys
IRRI
Philippines
Dr. C Thierfelder
CIMMYT
Zimbabwe
Dr. K. Giller
Wageningen University and Research Centre
The Netherlands
Mr W. Crabtree
Crabtree Consulting
Australia
Prof. R. Lal
School of Environment and Natural Resources
Ohio State University
USA
Prof. Hongwen Li
Conservation Tillage Research Centre under
Ministry of Agriculture, College of Engineering,
China Agricultural University
P. R. China
International Committees
Organizing Committee
Mr Deepak D. Khadka
Country Director, IDE Bangladesh
Dr. Md. Enamul Haque
Adjunct Associate Professor, Murdoch University - Australia
and Team Leader IDE Bangladesh (Executive Secretary)
Dr. J. Krishna Biswas
Director General, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
Dr. M. Amirul Islam
Director Research, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
Dr. Md. K. Sultan
Director Research, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute
Prof. Dr. Md Jahiruddin
Professor, Department of Soil Science, Bangladesh Agricultural
University
Prof. Dr. Lutful Hassan
Director, BAURES, Bangladesh Agricultural University
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
vi
Dr. Engr. S. Ahmed
Member Director, Natural Resources Management (NRM)
Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council
Dr. Yuji Niino
Land Management Officer, Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
Dr. Md. Abdur Rahman
CSO and Head of Farm Machinery and Postharvest Technology
Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
Dr. Evan Christen
Research Program Manager, Land and Water Resources,
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
Dr. John Dixon
Research Program Manager/Senior Advisor, Cropping Systems
and Economics, Australian Centre for International Agricultural
Research
Md. Mizanul Hoque
Chief Executive, Hoque Corporation
Mr M. A. Musa
Executive Director, PROVA
Mr. A. A. Chowdhury
Managing Director, Alim Industries Ltd.
Dr. Paul Fox
IRRI Representative for Bangladesh
Dr. T. P. Tiwari
Cropping Systems Agronomist, CIMMYT International
(International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
Prof. Richard Bell
Professor, Murdoch University (Chairman)
Dr. Wendy Vance
Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Murdoch University
Dr. Abul Hashem
Principal Research Scientist, Department of Agriculture and
Food Western Australia
Programme Committee
Prof. Dr. Lutful Hassan
Director, BAURES, Bangladesh Agricultural University
Prof. Richard Bell
Professor, Murdoch University
Dr. Wendy Vance
Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Murdoch University
Dr. Md. Enamul Haque
Adjunct Associate Professor, Murdoch University - Australia
and Team Leader IDE Bangladesh
Dr. Yuji Niino
Land Management Officer, Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
Prof. Dr. Md. Mosharraf
Hossain
Professor, Department of Farm Power and Machinery
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Dr. Engr. S. Ahmed
Member Director, Natural Resources Management (NRM)
Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council
Dr. J. Krishna Biswas
Director General, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
Dr. M. Amirul Islam
Director Research, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
vii
Dr. Md K. Sultan
Director Research, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute
Dr. Tim Krupnik
Systems Agronomist CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center)
Dr. Paul Fox
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) Representative for
Bangladesh
Editorial Committee
Dr. Chris. Johansen
Agricultural Consultant
Prof. Dr. Richard Bell
Professor, Murdoch University
Prof. Dr. M. Jahiruddin
Professor, Department of Soil Science Bangladesh
Agricultural University
Dr. Abul Hashem
Principal Research Scientist, Department of Agriculture and
Food Western Australia
Prof. Dr. M. M. Rahman
Professor, Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agriculture
University
Dr. Md. Enamul Haque
Adjunct Associate Professor, Murdoch University - Australia
and Team Leader IDE Bangladesh
Dr. Tim Krupnik
Systems Agronomist CIMMYT (International Maize and
Wheat Improvement Center)
Dr. Ross Brennan
Research Scientist Department of Agriculture and Food of
Western Australia
Acknowledgements
Md. Nur Nobi Mia
Field Manager, IDE, Bangladesh
Afzal Hossian Lovelu
Officer, Conference Assistance IDE, Bangladesh
Md. Khairul Alam
PhD John Allwright Fellow, Murdoch University
Mrs Taslima Zahan
PhD Fellow, Bangladesh Agriculture University
Md. Mobarak Hossain
PhD Fellow, Bangladesh Agriculture University
Md. Shahidul Islam
Driver, IDE, Bangladesh
Md. Shafiqul Islam
Local Service Provider - Godagari
Md. Younus Ali
Local Service Provider - Durgapore
Md. Kuddus Gazi
Local Service Provider - Durgapore
Md. Ahsan Habib
Local Service Provider – Godagari
Md. Omar Faruk
Local Service Provider - Sadar, Thakurgaon
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
viii
Md. Khairul Amin Akanda
Local Service Provider - Gouripur
Sr. Sujon Kumar Biswas
Local Service Provider - Baliakandi
Kanchana Archvaniyut
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
Hotel Eastern Residence Dhaka
Upazilla Nilbahi Officer, Gouripur, Mymnesingh
Upzilla Agriculture Officer, Gouripur, Mymnesingh
Farmers of Gouripur Upazilla, Mymensingh
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
ix
List of Exhibitors
ACI Motors
Herbicides
Alim Industries
VMP, PTOS, PT, Thresher, Maize Sheller
BAU Farm Machinery
Seeder and planter
BARI
Bed planter, Thresher
BRRI
Transplanter prototype, farm machinery
CA Project
VMP, VSTP, Fodder Chopper, Mini Mill
Syngenta
Herbicides
Auto Crop Care
Herbicides, Farm Machinery
Hoque Corporation and Alam Engineering
VMP, USG Applicator
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
x
Messages
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
xi
Message
On the occasion of the Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for Smallholders in
Asia and Africa, 7-11 December 2014, at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh I
feel proud that the Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) is organizing an international
conference on ‘Conservation Agriculture for Smallholders in Asia and Africa’, at the
Bangladesh Agricultural University Campus, Mymensingh, Bangladesh during 7-11
December 2014. I gratefully note that some other national and international organizations
have extended their good hands in organizing this conference. Those organizations are
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute
(BARI), Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Alim Industries Limited, International
Development Enterprises (IDE), Department of Agriculture and Food of Western Australia,
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), Food and Agricultural
Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Rice Research Institute (IRRI),
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) and Murdoch University,
Australia. Around 150 participants from 19 countries of the world are attending this
International Conference. My university and I myself are privileged to be the host and part
of this conference. Indeed, BAU always encourages such transnational scientific gathering as
part of its research and education operations and international functions.
In Bangladesh, BAU is the oldest and premier seat of higher agricultural education and
research in the country having more than 50 years of international reputation. BAU focuses
on improving the quality and standard of higher agricultural education to produce first-rate
agriculturists, agricultural scientists and researchers for shouldering the responsibilities of
agricultural development of Bangladesh. The missions of BAU have been to develop the art
and science of agriculture for the well being of humanity, and to educate agriculturists to
high standards of scientific, managerial and professional competence in harmony with the
environment, and to share knowledge and skills with world partners.
Since inception in 1961, BAU has expanded its frontiers in various fields of agriculture such
as Veterinary Science, Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Agricultural Engineering &
Technology, Food Engineering, Agricultural Economics & Rural Sociology and Fisheries. BAU
always maintain a kind of flexibility to integrate the latest scientific advancement in order to
meet the challenges of the new millennium. The university remains open to promote
research partnerships and collaborations both within and beyond the university reaching
national and international research organizations, industry, government agencies and other
universities and scholars from around the world. BAU cooperates with countries in various
parts of the world to exchange ideas, conduct research that enables Faculties to carry out
work of importance to its international functions. These functions are carried on in
collaboration with the researchers of participating universities, research organizations,
government agencies and various countries. One such organization is Murdoch University
(MU), Western Australia with which BAU has productive partnership since 2011. As a part of
such partnership, we are jointly implementing a project titled, Overcoming Agronomic and
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
xii
Mechanization Constraints to Development and Adoption of Conservation Agriculture in
Diversified Rice-Based Cropping in Bangladesh, funded by ACIAR. The aim of the project is to
develop, and accelerate the adoption of Conservation Agriculture for selected soils, crops
and cropping systems in Bangladesh, especially in rainfed areas and those with
supplementary irrigation, so that agriculture can benefit from cost-saving crop production
technologies and sustainable resource management. An interdisciplinary research team
comprising teachers from the disciplines of machinery, agronomy, weeds and soil of BAU
are carrying out this research under the leadership of Prof. Richard W Bell of Murdoch
University. It is very encouraging that the project has substantial progress and by now has
achieved very useful findings.
The theme of the present conference is very time demanding and appropriate particularly
for Bangladesh as small farms accounted 88% of the total numbers of farm. Nevertheless,
these small farms are the major contributor to our agricultural production and economy.
Conservation agriculture is now widely practiced in large-scale mono-crop based
commercial farming mostly in USA, Canada, Brazil, Australia and Argentina as it provides
"win-win" situation for both farmers and the environment. It improves soil qualities,
biodiversity, soil moisture conservation and air quality by reducing emission. However, small
farmers, especially around Asia, are yet to adopt this beneficial farming principle to arrest
their soil and environmental degradation. Most of the farmers of this region still believe that
soil tillage is an essential farm operation for crop production, thus, practices aggressive
tillage. It is already proven that increased tillage intensity may deteriorate soil qualities and
can affect crop yield.
It is proven from our collaborative research findings with Murdoch University (Australia)
that adoption of conservation agriculture is feasible to these small farms having mostly rice
based cropping pattern. Indeed, it was a big challenge for scientists to practice conservation
agriculture in rice based cropping system that practices throughout the South and East Asia.
I am very happy to learn that conservation agriculture was successfully adopted in rice
based cropping pattern without any influencing the system productivity. Moreover, it
reduces the cost of cultivation, seed, water and farm labor and increases crop yield by 1015% in addition to soil and environmental conservation. Therefore, I believe that the
Conservation Agriculture conference would create an opportunity to build up awareness
among farmers, agriculture advisors, scientists, policy makers and private sectors to
disseminate this beneficial technology in this region.
It is expected that some exciting findings on Conservation Agriculture will be presented in
this conference. I hope that a large number of educationists, scientists and researchers from
home and abroad attending the conference will discuss and share their latest research
findings. This knowledge based discussion will solve the bottlenecks if there is any for
adopting conservation agriculture to this region.
I wish the conference a great success.
Professor Dr. Md. Rafiqul Hoque
Vice-Chancellor, Bangladesh Agricultural University
Mymensingh, Bangladesh
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
xiii
Message from Australian High Commissioner to the Regional Conference on Conservation
Agriculture for Smallholders in Asia and Africa,
Mymensingh, 7-11 December 2014
The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research – known as ACIAR – operates
as part of the Australian Aid Program. Australia’s Minister for Foreign Affairs, the Hon Julie
Bishop MP, has describe ACIAR as a ‘diamond’, highlighting its years of work sharing its
expertise, technologies, and management methods with developing countries, notably the
countries of our region, the Indo-Pacific.
Australia and the countries of South Asia share similar challenges to agricultural productivity
growth, including drought and water management, and face many similar food grain and
livestock production constraints. Australian expertise therefore has much to offer the
region – especially as land and water resources come under increasing pressure from
growing population and expanding disposable income.
This is certainly true in the case of Bangladesh, where ACIAR has been working since the
mid-1990s. ACIAR has helped improve the productivity of food crops like pulses, wheat and
maize, and is also improving farming systems in order to support broader food security – an
approach encompassing conservation agriculture, farm mechanisation, saline land
management and adaptation to climate change, particularly in rice/ wheat and rice/ maize
systems.
As a long-standing partner for Bangladesh on food security, Australia proudly supports this
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for Smallholders in Asia and Africa. ACIAR
experts are joined by representatives from Australia’s Murdoch and Charles Sturt
universities, and from the Western Australia Department of Agriculture and Food. We’re
grateful for the hospitality and contribution of our friends in the Bangladesh Agricultural
University, Mymensingh.
The conference is a timely exercise in sharing what we know about the effects of
conservation agriculture on smallholders, identifying the obstacles to its further adoption
around the world, and considering how we might engage smallholders, researchers and the
private sector in surmounting these obstacles. Joining their colleagues from Bangladesh and
other countries, the Australian representatives look forward to sharing Australia’s
experience in conservation agriculture.
I wish you a very productive meeting. Australia’s support for agricultural productivity and
food security in Bangladesh is an integral part of our wider development assistance in
Bangladesh, valued at over A$90 million this financial year and among the largest country
programs Australia runs. It’s a reflection of Bangladesh’s importance to Australia. Recalling
our Foreign Minister’s praise for ACIAR, I look forward to showing her its work when she
visits Bangladesh.
Greg Wilcock
Australian High Commissioner to Bangladesh
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
xiv
Message
On the event of the Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for Smallholders in
Asia and Africa, 7-11 December 2014, at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh
I am much happy that the Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) is organizing an
international conference on ‘Conservation Agriculture for Smallholders in Asia and Africa’, at
the Syed Nazrul Islam Hall, Bangladesh Agricultural University Campus, Mymensingh,
Bangladesh during 7-11 December 2014. We are grateful to the national and international
organizations for their active in organizing this conference. They are Bangladesh Agricultural
University (BAU), Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Bangladesh Agricultural
Research Institute (BARI), Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Alim Industries Limited,
International Development Enterprises (IDE), Department of Agriculture and Food of
Western Australia, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), Food
and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Rice Research
Institute (IRRI), International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) and
Murdoch University, Australia. Around 150 participants from 19 countries of the world are
attending this International Conference.
In Bangladesh, BAU is the oldest and premier seat of higher agricultural education and
research in the country having more than 50 years of international reputation. BAU focuses
on improving the quality and standard of higher agricultural education to produce first-rate
agriculturists, agricultural scientists and researchers for shouldering the responsibilities of
agricultural development of Bangladesh. Since inception in 1961, BAU has expanded its
frontiers in various fields of agriculture such as Veterinary Science, Agriculture, Animal
Husbandry, Agricultural Engineering & Technology, Food Engineering, Agricultural
Economics & Rural Sociology and Fisheries. BAU always maintain a kind of flexibility to
integrate the latest scientific advancement in order to meet the challenges of the new
millennium.
In 1984, Bangladesh Agricultural University established BAU research system (BAURES) for
coordination and management of all research projects. BAU research system promotes
development of collaboration among different institutions, universities and donor agencies
at home and abroad. It encourages formation of research team by the teachers and
researchers for formulation of demand led research projects and provide direct assistance in
exploring the research funds from the potential donor agencies. It also monitors the
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
xv
research progress and organizes annual research workshop on all projects every year.
BAURES has so for completed 1207 research projects and currently implementing 213
projects funded by national and international agencies. Under the research a large number
of environmental friendly innovative agricultural technologies was developed and released
to the end users (farmers) through proper dissemination policy.
The theme of the present conference is very time demanding and appropriate particularly
for Bangladesh as small farms accounted 88% of the total numbers of farm. Nevertheless,
these small farms are the major contributor to our agricultural production and economy. It
improves soil qualities, biodiversity, soil moisture conservation and air quality by reducing
emission. However, small farmers, especially around Asia, are yet to adopt this beneficial
farming principle to arrest their soil and environmental degradation. Most of the farmers of
this region still believe that soil tillage is an essential farm operation for crop production,
thus, practices aggressive tillage. It is already proven that increased tillage intensity may
deteriorate soil qualities and can affect crop yield. Therefore, I believe that the Conservation
Agriculture conference would create an opportunity to build up awareness among farmers,
agriculture advisors, scientists, policy makers and private sectors to disseminate this
beneficial technology in this region.
We trust that a large number of educationists, scientists and researchers from home and
abroad attending the conference will discuss and share their latest research findings. This
knowledge based discussion will contribute significantly in adopting conservation agriculture
to this region.
I wish the conference a great success.
Prof. Dr. Lutful Hassan
Director
Bangladesh Agricultural University Research System (BAURES)
and
Chairman, Local Organizing Committee
CASH Conference
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh
E-mail: [email protected]
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
xvi
PROGRAM
DAY 1: Sunday (7 December, 2014)
Time
Activities
Location
4:00 - 7:00 p.m.
Registration
Syed Nazrul Islam Conference Hall, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh
7:00 - 9:00 p.m.
Welcome Reception and Dinner
Community Centre, BAU
Time
Activities
Location
8:30 – 10:00 a.m.
Registration
Syed Nazrul Islam Conference Hall, BAU
DAY 2: Monday (8 December, 2014)
Inaugural Session:
Syed Nazrul Islam Conference Hall, BAU
Chair
Professor Dr. Lutful Hassan, Chairman, Local Organizing Committee – CASH Conference, and
Director, Bangladesh Agricultural University Research System
Chief Guest
Professor Dr. Md. Rafiqul Hoque, Honorable Vice-Chancellor, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh
Guests of Honor
Dr. Mike Robson, FAO Representative in Bangladesh
Dr. Jiban Krishna Biswas, Director General, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
Professor Dr. Mesbauddin Ahmed, Convener, Dean Council, Bangladesh Agricultural University
Dr. Md. Rafiqul Islam Mondal, Executive Chairman, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council and Director General,
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute
10:00 – 11:00 a.m.
Welcome address, Overview of the Conference and Background to CA research findings in Bangladesh
11:00 – 11:45 a.m.
Keynote presentation
Overview of the current status of Conservation Agriculture globally and challenges with designing and adapting CA to the
circumstances of the smallholders
11:45 – 12:40 p.m.
Speech – Chief Guest, and Guests of Honour
12:40 – 12:50 p.m.
Concluding Remarks and Vote of Thanks by Session Chair
1:00 – 2:00 p.m.
Lunch at Community Centre, BAU
Professor Dr. Richard W.
Bell, Murdoch University
Professor Dr. Amir
Kassam, University of
Reading, UK
Technical Sessions:
Syed Nazrul Islam Conference Hall
Session 1: Chair: Dr. Yuji Niino, Land Management Officer, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
2:00-2:40 p.m.
Keynote paper: Design and development of - and access to - Conservation Agriculture
machinery, implements and tools for smallholders
Saidi Mkomwa, Executive Director of the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT),
Hongwen Li, Jack Desbiolles
2:40 - 2:55 p.m.
Evaluation of a mechanical rice transplanter under minimum tillage unpuddled soil conditions
M.A. Hossen, M.M. Hossain, M.M. Alam, M.E. Haque, and R.W. Bell
2:55 - 3:10 p.m.
Residue handling capacity of the Versatile Multi-crop Planter for two-wheel tractors
M.E. Haque, R.W. Bell, M. Jahiruddin, W. Vance, M.A. Islam, and N. Salahin
3:10 - 3:25 p.m.
Mechanised dry direct seeding of rice: a Cambodian development
S. Pao, N. Pen,J. Desbiolles, B. Som, S. Chea, S. Chuong, S. Justice
3:25 - 3:40 p.m.
Optimising the furrow cutting process in rotary strip-tillage
M.A. Matin, J.M.A. Desbiolles and J.M. Fielke
3:40 - 4.00 p.m.
Tea/coffee break
4:00 - 4:15 p.m.
Evaluation of two wheel tractor operated seed drill (Gongli Africa) in Arusha, Tanzania
W.M. Baitani and G.L. Mwinama
4:15 - 4:30 p.m.
Furrow openers design can improve seed placement and emergence in strip tillage
M.A. Hoque, M.M. Hossain, A.T.M.Z. Uddin, T.J. Krupnik, D.B. Pandit, S. Yasmin and
M.K. Gathala
4:30 - 4:45 p.m.
Application of a slack-based DEA model for benchmarking energy inputs use efficiency of
selected conservation tillage technology options
S. Aravindakshan, Frederick J. Rossi, and T.J. Krupnik
4:45 - 5:00 p.m.
Cost effective small no-till seeder for two wheel tractor in Bangladesh
Md. Israil Hossain, J. Esdaile, M.K. Gathala, T.P. Tiwari and Md. Ilias Hossain
5:00 - 5:30 p.m.
Panel discussion
All speakers
Session 2: Chair: Dr. Richard W. Bell, Professor, Murdoch University
5.30-7.00 pm
Poster discussion - 2-minute presentations at the poster display
Authors of all poster papers
DAY 3: Tuesday (9 December, 2014)
Session 3: Chair: Professor Dr. Mahfuza Begum, Bangladesh Agricultural University
8:30 - 9:10 a.m.
Keynote paper:
Weed management in Conservation Agriculture
D. Lemerle and A. Hashem
9:10 - 9:25 a.m.
Crop establishment techniques and weed control strategies for zero-till planted soybean-wheat
rotation in India
Seema Sepat and A.R. Sharma
9:25 - 9:40 a.m.
Weed control efficacy of herbicides in wheat under strip tillage system
M.M. Rahman, T. Zahan, A. Hashem, M. Begum, R.W. Bell and M.E. Haque
9:40 – 9:55 a.m.
Weed control efficacy of herbicides in unpuddled transplanted Aman (summer) rice
T. Zahan, M. M. Rahman, A. Hashem, M. Begum, R. W. Bell and M. E. Haque
9:55 – 10:10 a.m.
Weed management in mustard (Brassica napus L.) under minimum tillage and crop residues
M.M. Hossain, M. Begum, M.M. Rahman, A. Hashem, R.W. Bell and M.E. Haque
10:10 – 10:30 a.m.
Tea/coffee break
10:30 – 10:45 a.m.
Row spacing, herbicides and nitrogen effect on crop-weed competition in cereal-broadleaf crop
rotation
A. Hashem, W. Vance, R. Brennan and R. Bell
10:45 – 11:00 a.m.
Productivity of garlic grown under different tillage conditions and mulches under organic
production systems
M.A. Rahim, Md.A. Kabir, Md.S. Alam and P.W. Simon
11:00 – 11:15 a.m.
Evaluation of conservation tillage and weed management options on production potential and
weed incidences in dry seeded rice
M.H. Rashid, J. Timsina, N. Islam, M.K Gathala and J.K Biswas
11:15 –11:30 a.m.
Wheat cultivation under conservation tillage options: a promising, low cost and profitable
technology for small holders in Faridpur (Bangladesh)
M. Elahi Baksh, F.J Rossi, Md.M. Uddin, Z. Hasan, F. Haque, T.J. Krupnik, A.A. Miah,
and T.P.Tiwari
11:30 - 11:45 a.m.
Soil health, weed dynamics and wheat grain yield in different rice-wheat rotations
Muhammad Farooq
11:45 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.
Including maize in a rice-wheat cropping system with minimum tillage and crop residue
retention
M. Ataur Rahman
12:00 - 12:30 p.m.
Panel discussion
All speakers
12:30 - 1:30 p.m.
Lunch at Community Centre, BAU
Photo session
Session 4: Chair: Professor Dr. Peter Hobbs, Cornell University
1:30 - 2:10 p.m.
Keynote paper:
Christian Thierfelder and Tim Krupnik
Soil-water relations and water productivity in smallholder conservation agriculture systems of
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
ii
Southern Africa and South Asia
2:10 - 2:25 p.m.
Soil organic carbon, water stable aggregates and microbial attributes as influenced by
conservation agriculture production system (CAPS) in a Fluventic Haplustepts under North
Central Plateau Zone of Odisha
K.N. Mishra, A. Mohanty, Pravat Kumar Roul, S. Dash, C. Chan-Halbrendt, T. Idol, and
A. Pradhan
2:25 - 2:40 p.m.
Effects of minimum tillage practices and crop residue retention on soil properties and crop
yields under a rice-based cropping system
Nazmus Salahin, M. Jahiruddin, M.R. Islam, R.W. Bell, M.E. Haque and M.K. Alam
2:40 - 2:55 p.m.
Minimum tillage and increased residue retention improves soil physical conditions and wheat
root growth in a rice-based cropping system
M.A. Islam, R.W. Bell, C. Johansen, M. Jahiruddin, M.E. Haque
2:55 - 3:10 p.m.
Changes in soil organic C, nitrogen and chemical properties under no-till cropping systems on a
red oxisol in Cambodia
Florent Tivet, S. Boulakia, S. Pheav, V. Leng, R. Kong, L. Séguy
3:10 - 3:25 p.m.
Impact of phosphorus placement methods after three years of different tillage practices on
maize productivity and soil properties
Md. Khairul Alam, N. Salahin, S. Pathan, R.A. Begum, A.T.M.A.I. Mondol and R.W. Bell
3:25 – 3:40 p.m.
Grain yield and phosphorus accumulation of field grown chickpea to subsoil phosphorus under
a dry topsoil in the High Barind Tract
Enamul Kabir
3:40 – 4:30 p.m.
Tea/coffee break,
All participants
4:30 – 4:45 p.m.
Effect of tillage type on soil water content and chickpea yields
Wendy H. Vance, R.W. Bell, C. Johansen, M.E. Haque, A.M. Musa, A.K.M. Shahidullah
and M.N.N. Mia
4:45 – 5:00 p.m.
Tillage and nutrient management in boro rice under rice-mustard-rice cropping system
P.C. Goswami, D. Mahalder, M.K.I. Rony, M.H. Rashid
5:00 – 5:30 p.m.
Panel discussion
All speakers
5:30 – 7:00 p.m.
Panel discussion event: enhancing effectiveness of public financing for agriculture
Civil Society Budget Advocacy Group, Uganda
Poster viewing and exhibition stall visit
DAY 4: Wednesday (10 December, 2014)
Session 5: Chair: Dr. Thakur P Tiwari, Country Representative & Cropping Systems Agronomist, CIMMYT-Bangladesh
8:30 - 9:10 a.m.
Keynote paper: Commercialisation, adoption and continuous improvement of Conservation
Agriculture-based technologies
Rafael Fuentes Llanillo, IAPAR – Instituto Agronômico do Paraná, Londrina, Parana,
Brazil.
9:10 - 9:25 a.m.
Adoption and Impact of the Raised Bed Technology in Rajshahi
M. A. Monayem Miah, Moniruzzaman, S. Hossain, J.M. Duxbury, J.G. Lauren
9:25 – 9:40 a.m.
Conservation Agriculture packages in the subsistence farming systems of Eastern India
A.K. Chowdhury, P.M. Bhattacharya, P.K. Mukherjee, T. Dhar and A. Sinha
9:40 - 9:55 a.m.
Agronomic performance of pigeon pea relay intercropping with maize or sorghum under
minimum-tillage of Ghana and Burkina Faso
H. Omae, R. N. Issaka, A. Barro, M. M. Buri, S. Simpore, J. Kombiok, J. Ali and F.
Nagumo
9:55 - 10:10 a.m.
Adoption of conservation agriculture in South-western Bangladesh
M. Harunur Rashid, D. Mahalder, M.K.I. Rony, P.C. Goswami, T. Russell
10:10 - 10:25 a.m.
Strip tillage in maize: farmers’ preferences and profit potential in charland of Bangladesh
D.B. Pandit, M.A. Arafat, M.E. Haque, M.A. Alam, T.J. Krupnik, T.P. Tiwari and M.K.
Gathala
10:25 - 10:45 a.m.
Panel discussion
All speakers
10:45 – 11:00 a.m.
Tea/coffee break
11:00 a.m. – 12:45
p.m.
Minimum tillage planting demonstration; experimental field visit (longterm and herbicide trials) at BAU Farm
12:45 – 1:30 p.m.
Lunch at Community Centre, BAU
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
All participants
iii
1:30 - 5.00 p.m.
Field visit of Conservation agriculture rotation experiments and on-farm demonstrations at
Gouripur
6:00 – 6:30 p.m.
Closing session: Syed Nazrul Islam Conference Hall, BAU
All participants
Welcome address
Professor Dr. Lutful Hassan, Director, BAURES
Brief presentation on Smallholders' CA and Conference
Professor Dr. Richard W Bell, Murdoch University, Australia
Voice from Smallholders CA Stakeholders
Selected farmers, Service Providers, Input Dealers, Researchers, Extensionists, etc
Speech by Chief Patron
Professor Dr. Md. Rafiqul Hoque, Honorable Vice-Chancellor, Bangladesh Agricultural
University, Mymensingh
Speech by Chief Guest
Principal Motiur Rahman, Honorable Minister, Ministry of Religious Affairs, Government
of People's Republic of Bangladesh
6.30-8.00 p.m.
Bangladesh Night, Syed Nazrul Islam Conference Hall, BAU
8:00 - 9:30 p.m.
Conference Dinner at Community Centre, BAU
DAY 5: Thursday (11 December, 2014)
Session 6: Chair: Professor Dr. Richard W Bell, Murdoch University
8:30 – 8:45 a.m.
Improving soil and crop productivity through resource conservation technologies in drought
prone area
M. Ilias Hossain, M.E. Haque, M.R.I. Mondal and M.K. Sultan
8:45 – 9:00 a.m.
Wheat requires less amount of applied fertilizers in long term zero tillage
M.A.Z. Sarker, M.M. Akhter and A. Hossain
9:00 – 9:15 a.m.
Conservation systems improves soil physical health and resource use efficiency in rice-wheat
rotation
Ahmad Nawaz, and Muhammad Farooq
9:15 – 9:30 a.m.
Effects of conservation agriculture and nitrogen fertilization on carbon footprint in the wheatmungbean-rice cropping system
M.A. Kader, S. Farhan, M.E. Haque and M. Jahiruddin
9:30 – 9:45 a.m.
The impact of conservation and conventional tillage systems on hydro-physical properties of a
Ferric Acrisol
S.A. Mesele, B.F. Amegashie, C. Quansah and R.C. Abaidoo
9:45 – 10:00 a.m.
Direct seeded rice (DSR) - sustainable rice production system in East India plateau
A. Kumar, Abdul Mannan Choudhury, B. Bellotti, P.S. Cornish
10:00 - 10:20 a.m.
Tea/coffee break
10:20 - 11:00 a.m.
Keynote paper: Policy and institutional arrangements for the promotion of conservation
agriculture for small farmers in Asia and Africa. And reflections on the Conference
Peter Hobbs, Simon Lugandu and Larry Harrington
11:00 - 11:30 a.m.
Panel discussion
All speakers
11:30 - 12:30 p.m.
Panel discussion with leading CA grass root-level stakeholders: Smallholders CA – what is
possible or not possible?
Selected farmers, local service providers, input dealers, retailers, herbicide company,
private sector, machinery manufacturers (Facilitator: M.E. Haque)
12:30 - 1:00 p.m.
Concluding remarks from Conference Chair
1:00 – 2:00 p.m.
Lunch at Community Centre, BAU then scheduled departures
2:00 – 4:00 p.m.
Round table discussion on mechanisation and commercialisation of CA
Venue: Agriculture Faculty Conference Room, BAU
(Chair: Professor Richard W. Bell)
Invited participants (drawn from research, manufacturing, service providers, and
extension)
Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
iv
Oral and Poster Papers
Page
Inaugural Session
Overview of the current status of Conservation Agriculture globally and challenges with
designing and adapting CA to the circumstances of the smallholders
Amir Kassam.................................................................................................................................... 2
Session 1
Design and development of CA-based crop establishment and herbicides
spraying machinery, implements, tools for smallholders
Design and development of - and access to - Conservation Agriculture machinery, implements
and tools for smallholders
Saidi Mkomwa1, Li Hongwen2 and Jacky Desbiolles3 ...................................................................... 6
Evaluation of a mechanical rice transplanter under minimum tillage unpuddled soil conditions
M.A. Hossen,1 M.M. Hossain,1 M.M. Alam,1 M.E. Haque2 and R.W. Bell2..................................... 10
Residue Handling Capacity of the Versatile Multi-crop Planter for Two-wheel Tractors
M.E. Haque1*, R.W. Bell1, M. Jahiruddin2, W. Vance1, M.A. Islam1, and N. Salahin2 ..................... 13
Mechanised Dry Direct Seeding of Rice: a Cambodian Development
S. Pao1, N. Pen2,4, J. Desbiolles3, B. Som1, S. Chea2, S. Chuong5, S. Justice6 .................................. 15
Optimising the furrow cutting process in rotary strip-tillage
M. A. Matin1, J. M. A. Desbiolles2 and J. M. Fielke2....................................................................... 18
Evaluation of Two Wheel Tractor Operated Seed Drill (Gongli Africa) in Arusha, Tanzania
W.M. Baitani and G. L. Mwinama ................................................................................................. 20
Furrow Openers Design can Improve Seed Placement and Emergence in Strip Tillage
M. A. Hoque 12, M. M. Hossain2, ATMZ Uddin2, T.J Krupnik3, D.B. Pandit3, S Yasmin3, M.K.
Gathala3......................................................................................................................................... 22
Application of a Slack-based DEA Model for Benchmarking Energy Inputs Use Efficiency of
Selected Conservation Tillage Technology Options
Sreejith Aravindakshan1,2, Frederick J. Rossi1, and T.J. Krupnik1 ................................................... 24
Cost Effective Small No-till Seeder for Two Wheel Tractor in Bangladesh
Md. Israil Hossain1, Jeff Esdaile2, MK Gathala3, TP Tiwari3 and Md. Ilias Hossain1 ....................... 27
Session 2
POSTERS
Impacts of Conservation Tillage Machinery on Service Provider’s Livelihood: A Farm Level Study
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
v
M. A. Monayem Miah1 and M.E. Haque2 ...................................................................................... 31
Weed Management in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Minimum Tillage and Crop Residues
M.M. Hossain1, M. Begum1, M.M. Rahman1 and A. Hashem2 ...................................................... 33
Cowpea an efficient intercrop in banana improves soil health and income under Conservation
Agriculture Production System (CAPS)
S. N. Dash1, S. Behera1, K. N. Mishra1, P. K. Roul1, C. Chan Halbrendt2, T.W.Idol2 and A. Pradhan2
...................................................................................................................................................... 36
Productivity, Profitability and Soil Properties as Influenced by Maize Based Conservation
Agriculture Production Systems in Rainfed Uplands of India
P. K. Roul1, K. N. Mishra 1, S. N. Dash1 , Aliza Pradhan2, T.W. Idol2 , C. Chan Halbrendt2........... 38
Aerobic rice cultivation on adoption of water saving technologies and improving agronomic
practices during summer season under conservation agriculture
A. Zaman and Gangarani Th. ......................................................................................................... 40
Conservation agriculture for smallholders farming on efficient water resources utilization to
combat adverse effect of global warming
A. Zaman, D. Pal and P. B. Chakraborty ........................................................................................ 43
Management of weeds through bio-herbicides in soybean
Debesh Pal, A. Zaman, Heipormi Sungoh and R.K.Ghosh ............................................................. 46
Optimization of seedling density as influenced by seed rate for mechanical transplanting
M.A. Hossen1, M.M. Hossain1, M.E. Haque2, R.W. Bell2 and M.A. Rahman3 ................................ 48
Conservation Agriculture-the light house to sail for sustainable agricultural growth in
Bangladesh
Md. Nazim Uddin Mondal ............................................................................................................. 50
Performance Evaluation of Compressor and Lever Operated Type Sprayers for Weed Control
M.S. Hossen1, M.M. Hossain1 and ME Haque2 ............................................................................. 53
Performance of Maize Hybrid under Conventional and Strip-Tillage Systems inThree Districts of
Bangladesh
Md. Saiful Islam1, Anup K Gosh2, Khaled Hossain1, Mahbubur Rahmand3, Abul Khayer1, Mustafa
Kamarul Hassan1, Jagdish Timsina1 and Mahesh K Gathala1 ........................................................ 55
Weed Incidences and Crop Performance of Zero Tilled Dry Seeded Rice under Different Weed
Management Options
M.H Rashid1, J. Timsina2, M.K Gathala3, M.M Kamal1 and J.K Biswas4 ......................................... 58
Productivity of Lentil as Influenced by Different T. Aman Rice Varieties in High Barind Tract
M.E.A. Pramanik1, M.A. Salam1, A.K. Chaki2, A.S.M.M.R. Khan2 and M. Akhtar Hossain2 ............ 60
Soil Moisture Conservation as Influenced by Mulching and Tillage and its Effect on Potato Yield
in High Barind Tract
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
vi
A.K.Chaki1, M.A. Salam2, A.S.M.M.R. Khan1, A.K. Choudhury1 and M.E.A. Pramanik2.................. 62
An Introduction of a Change Hypothesis to Promote Small-scale Farmer-friendly 2WTs
Innovation in Conservation Agriculture, Bangladesh
Ismat Ara ....................................................................................................................................... 64
Conservation agriculture increases land and water productivity of a rice-wheat-mung system on
the High Ganges River Flood Plain of Bangladesh
M.J. Alam1,2,3, E. Humphreys2 and M.A.R. Sarkar3 ........................................................................ 66
Study on inundation periods of land for mechanical transplanting under minimum tillage
unpuddled transplanting
M.A. Hossen1, M.M. Hossain1, M.M. Alam1, M.E. Haque2, and RW Bell2,..................................... 68
Development of the riding-type rice transplanter for unpuddled transplanting
M.A. Hossen1, M.M. Hossain1, M.M. Alam1, M.E. Haque2 and R.W. Bell2..................................... 70
Effect of different green manures on rice productivity and soil conservation
M.R. Islam, N. Jahan and M.H. Sumon .......................................................................................... 72
Practices of Conservation Agricultural Technologies in Diverse Cropping Systems in Bangladesh
M. Akteruzzaman1, Hasneen Jahan1, M.E. Haque2 ....................................................................... 74
Effect of Application Timings of Pre Emergence Herbicides on Weed Efficacy and Crop
Phytotoxicity in Dry Seeded Rice
Sharif Ahmed................................................................................................................................. 76
Computational Modelling and Finite Element Analysis of Strip Tillage Components for
Fabrication Purposes
E. Lam1*, M. A. Hoque 12, R.K. Das3, M.K. Gathala1, T.J Krupnik1 ................................................... 79
Fodder Chopper for Livestock Producers: A Case Study of Commercialization of Machinery for
Smallholders in Bangladesh
M.E. Haque1*, R.W. Bell1, S.R. Waddington2, N.R. Sarker3, and M. Jabed Ali4 .............................. 82
Soil organic carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvement under systems of rice
intensification (SRI) technique
Dilip Kumar Das ............................................................................................................................. 84
Pea as Relay Crop in between Monsoon rice and Summer rice: a Resource Conservation
Technology
Md. Omar Ali1, Matiur Rahman2, William Erskine3 and Al Imran Malik 3.................................... 86
Comparison of greenhouse gas emission characteristics between rice cropping and fallow
season in a temperate paddy soil
MD. Mozammel Haque1, Pil Joo Kim2, 3 ......................................................................................... 87
Effect of Different Tillage Options on Soil Moisture Conservation in Chickpea and Lentil Field
under Rainfed Conditions
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
vii
M.A. Salam1, M.E.A. Pramanik1, A.S.M.M.R. Khan2, A.K. Chaki2 and S. Ishtiaque2 ...................... 89
Pulses De-husking Mill for Smallholders: A Case Study of Commercialization of Machinery for
Small Entrepreneurs in Bangladesh
M.E. Haque1*, R.W. Bell1, Abdul Karim2, M.G. Neogi3 ................................................................... 91
Sustainable Livelihood Outcome through Water Resource Management: A Case Study on
Household Character in North West Region in Bangladesh
Iffat Ara1, Jeff Connor2, Bertram Ostendorf3, John Kandulu2........................................................ 94
Strengthening Conservation Agriculture in Cambodia
Sovuthy Pheav12, Stéphane Boulakia23, Rada Kong2, ViraLeng12, Veng Sar2, Kem Soeurng2, Olivier
Husson3, FlorentTivet23, and Lucien Séguy4 .................................................................................. 96
Influence of conservation tillage on livelihood improvement in the deltaic eco-system of
Sundarban, India
P. B. Chakraborty, A. Bakley, A. Zaman, and A. Chanak................................................................ 98
Session 3
Weed Management: Suitable weed management options (chemical,
mechanical, crop rotation and biological)
Weed Management in Conservation Agriculture
D. Lemerle1 and A. Hashem2 ....................................................................................................... 101
Crop Establishment Techniques and Weed Control Strategies for Zero-till Planted SoybeanWheat Rotation in India
Seema Sepat1 and AR Sharma2 ................................................................................................... 104
Weed Control Efficacy of Herbicides in Wheat under Strip Tillage System
M. M. Rahman1, T. Zahan1, A. Hashem2 , M. Begum1 R. W. Bell3 and M. E. Haque3 ................... 107
Weed Control Efficacy of Herbicides in Unpuddled Transplanted Aman (Summer) Rice
T. Zahan1, M. M. Rahman1, A. Hashem2, M. Begum1, R. W. Bell3 and M. E. Haque3 .................. 110
Weed Management in Mustard (Brassica napus L.) under Minimum Tillage and Crop Residues
M. M. Hossain1*, M. Begum1, M. M. Rahman1, A. Hashem2, R. W. Bell3 and M. E. Haque3 ....... 112
Row Spacing, Herbicides and Nitrogen Effect on Crop-Weed Competition in Cereal-Broadleaf
Crop Rotation
A. Hashem1, W. Vance2, R. Brennan1 and R. Bell2 ....................................................................... 114
Productivity of garlic grown under different tillage conditions and mulches under organic
production systems
Md. Abdur Rahim1, Md. Ahsanul Kabir2, Md. Shamsul Alam3 and Phillip W. Simon4 ................. 116
Evaluation of Conservation Tillage and Weed Management Options on Production Potential and
Weed Incidences in Dry Seeded Rice
M.H Rashid1, J. Timsina2, N. Islam3, M.K Gathala4 and J.K Biswas5 ............................................. 118
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
viii
Wheat cultivation under conservation tillage options: a promising, low cost and profitable
technology for small holders in Faridpur (Bangladesh)
Md. Elahi Baksh, Frederick J Rossi, Md. Mohi Uddin, Zakaria Hasan, Fazlul Haque, Timothy J.
Krupnik, Azahar Ali Miah, and Thakur P. Tiwari .......................................................................... 120
Soil Health, Weed Dynamics and Wheat Grain Yield in Different Rice-Wheat Rotations
Muhammad Farooq .................................................................................................................... 123
Including Maize in a Rice-Wheat Cropping System with Minimum Tillage and Crop Residue
Retention
M. Ataur Rahman ........................................................................................................................ 125
Session 4
Soil and water management, and agronomy for smallholder
Soil-water relations and water productivity in smallholder conservation agriculture systems of
Southern Africa and South Asia
Christian Thierfelder1* and Tim Krupnik2 ................................................................................... 128
Soil organic carbon, water stable aggregates and microbial attributes as influenced by
conservation agriculture production system (CAPS) in a Fluventic Haplustepts under North
Central Plateau zone of Odisha
Kshitendra Narayan Mishra1, Ayesha Mohanty1, Pravat Kumar Roul1, Satyanarayan Dash1,
Catherine Chan-Halbrendt2, Travis Idol2, and Aliza Pradhan2 ..................................................... 131
Effects of Minimum Tillage Practices and Crop Residue Retention on Soil Properties and Crop
Yields under a Rice-based Cropping System
N. Salahin1, M. Jahiruddin2, M.R. Islam2, R.W. Bell3, M.E. Haque3 and M.K. Alam1 .................... 133
Minimum tillage and increased residue retention improves soil physical conditions and wheat
root growth in a rice-based cropping system
M. A. Islam1, R. W. Bell1, C. Johansen2, M. Jahiruddin3, M. E. Haque1 ........................................ 135
Changes in soil organic C, nitrogen and chemical properties under no-till cropping systems on a
Red Oxisol in Cambodia
Florent Tivet1,2, Stéphane Boulakia1, Sovuthy Pheav3,2, Vira Leng2, Rada Kong2, Lucien Séguy4 137
Impact of Phosphorus Placement Methods after Three Years of Different Tillage Practices on
Maize Productivity and Soil Properties
Md. Khairul Alam1, N. Salahin1, S. Pathan2, R.A. Begum1, A.T.M.A.I. Mondol 1 and R.W. Bell3 .. 139
Grain yield and phosphorus accumulation of field grown chickpea to subsoil phosphorus under a
dry topsoil in the High Barind Tract
Enamul Kabir ............................................................................................................................... 141
Effect of Tillage Type on Soil Water Content and Chickpea Yields
W. H. Vance1, R. W. Bell1, C. Johansen2, M.E. Haque1, A. M. Musa4, A. K. M. Shahidullah4 and M.
N. N. Mia3 .................................................................................................................................... 143
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
ix
Tillage and Nutrient Management in Boro Rice under Rice-Mustard-Rice Cropping System
P.C. Goswami1, D. Mahalder1, M. K. I. Rony1, M. H. Rashid2....................................................... 145
Session 5
Commercialisation, adoption and continuous improvement of conservation
agriculture-based technologies
Commercialisation, Adoption And Continuous Improvement of Conservation Agriculture-Based
Technologies
Rafael Fuentes Llanillo ................................................................................................................ 148
Adoption and Impact of the Raised Bed Technology in Rajshahi District of Bangladesh
M. A. Monayem Miah1, Moniruzzaman1, S. Hossain2, J. M. Duxbury3, J. G. Lauren3 .................. 150
Conservation Agriculture Packages in the Subsistence farming System of Eastern India
A.K.Chowdhury, P.M.Bhattacharya ,P.K.Mukherjee, T.Dhar and A.Sinha .................................. 152
Agronomic performance of Pigeon pea Relay Intercropping with Maize or Sorghum under
Minimum-Tillage of Ghana and Burkina Faso
H. Omae1, R. N. Issaka2, A. Barro3, M. M. Buri2, S. Simpore3, J. Kombiok4, J. Ali2 and F. Nagumo1
.................................................................................................................................................... 154
Adoption of Conservation Agriculture in South-western Bangladesh
M. Harunur Rashid1, Debabrata Mahalder2, M. Khairul Islam Rony2, Palash Chandra Goswami2,
Timothy Russell2 .......................................................................................................................... 156
Strip Tillage in Maize: Farmers’ preferences and profit potential in Charland of Bangladesh
D.B. Pandit, M.A. Arafat, M.E. Haque, M.A. Alam, T.J. Krupnik, T.P. Tiwari and M.K. Gathala .. 159
Session 6
Policy and institutional framework of conservation agriculture
Improving Soil and Crop Productivity through Resource Conservation Technologies in Drought
Prone Area
M. I. Hossain1, M.E. Haque2, M.R.I. Mondal1 and M K Sultan1 ................................................... 162
Wheat Requires Less Amount of Applied Fertilizers in Long Term Zero Tillage
M.A.Z. Sarker, M.M. Akhter and A. Hossain ............................................................................... 165
Conservation systems improves soil physical health and resource use efficiency in rice-wheat
rotation
Ahmad Nawaz1 and Muhammad Farooq1, 2, 3.............................................................................. 167
Effects of Conservation Agriculture and Nitrogen Fertilization on Carbon Footprint in the WheatMungbean-Rice Cropping System
M.A. Kader1, S. Farhan1, M.E. Haque2 and M. Jahiruddin1.......................................................... 169
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
x
The Impact of Conservation and Conventional Tillage Systems on Hydro-physical Properties of a
Ferric Acrisol
S.A. Mesele1, B.F. Amegashie1, C. Quansah1 and R.C. Abaidoo1 ................................................. 171
Direct Seeded Rice (DSR) - Sustainable Rice Production System in East India Plateau
Ashok Kumar1, Abdul Mannan Choudhury1, Dr. Bill Bellotti2, Dr. Peter S Cornish2. ................... 173
Policy and institutional arrangements for the promotion of conservation agriculture for small
farmers in Asia and Africa
Peter Hobbs1, Simon Lugandu2 and Larry Harrington3 ............................................................... 176
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
xi
Inaugural Session
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
1
KEYNOTE PAPER
Overview of the current status of Conservation Agriculture globally and
challenges with designing and adapting CA to the circumstances of the
smallholders
Amir Kassam
School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, UK
([email protected])
Background
The global empirical evidence shows that farmer-led transformation of agricultural
production systems from tillage-based to Conservation Agriculture (CA) (comprising no or
minimum mechanical soil disturbance (i.e. no-tillage), maintenance of soil mulch cover, and
crop species diversification) is now a world-wide phenomenon. In recent years the spread of
CA has gathered even more momentum as a new paradigm for ‘sustainable production
intensification’, and it is considered to be a climate-smart option.
The updated information on the current status of CA in 2013 globally presented in this paper
applies only to arable cropland and is based on several sources: official statistics (e.g. Canada
and USA); survey estimates by no-till farmer organizations and agroindustry (e.g. Australia,
Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay), by Ministry of Agriculture (e.g. China, Malawi,
Zimbabwe), NGOs (e.g. Europe, Russia, Madagascar, Zambia), and well-informed
individuals from research and development organizations (e.g. India, Kazakhstan, Ukraine).
It has been possible to update the database during 2013 for most countries, except for Africa
where much of the information is still from the 2010 database. An overview of adoption of
CA in individual countries in 2010/11 is given in Friedrich et al. (2012) and in different
regions world-wide in 2013 in Kassam et al. (2014). The latest global state of the art review
of CA is given in Jat et al. (2014).
Global spread of CA
The information on the global adoption of CA for arable cropping systems by continent is
shown in Table 1. In 2010, CA was practiced globally on about 125 M ha (8.8% of the global
arable cropland), across all continents and covering most agro-ecologies, including temperate
environments (Friedrich et al., 2012). The updated database for 2013 shows that the global
spread of arable CA across all continents is some 157 M ha (11 % of the global arable
cropland). However during the 2013 updating of the CA database, it was discovered that the
actual spread of CA in 2010 was higher than the reported 125 M ha in Friedrich et al. (2012),
more like 145 M ha.
While in 1973/74 the CA system was practiced only on 2.8 M ha worldwide, the area had
increased in 1999 to 45 M ha, and by 2003 the area had expanded to 72 M ha. Over the past
10 years CA area has increased at an average rate of some 8 M ha per year, reflecting the
increased interest of small and large farmers in switching over to CA. About 50 % of the
global CA area is located in the developing regions (Table 1). South America has 42.2 % of
the total global area under CA (corresponding to 60.0 % of its arable cropland), United States
and Canada has 34.4 % (24.0 % of its arable cropland), Australia and NZ 11.4 % (35.9 %),
Asia 6.6 % (3.0 %), Russia and Ukraine 3.4 % (3.3 %), Europe 1.3% (2.8 %), and Africa 0.8
% (0.9 %). Europe and Africa are considered to be the developing continents in terms of CA
adoption. Good and long lasting research in these continents has shown positive results for
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
2
CA systems, and CA adoption has now begun to make progress as more attention is paid to
its promotion by governments and the development community. Arable crop area under CA
in Europe has more than doubled since 2010, and indications are that there has been a
substantial increase in CA area in Africa in countries such as Zambia, Mozambique,
Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar and Burkina Faso although more recent data is needed to
confirm this.
Except in very few countries (USA, Canada, Australia, Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay,
Uruguay), CA is not being “mainstreamed” in agricultural development programmes and in
only few countries (e.g. Canada, Kazakhstan, China, Zambia) it is backed by government
policies and some public institutional support. Thus, globally the total CA arable area is still
relatively small compared to areas farmed using soil tillage. However, it is expected that large
areas of agricultural land in Asia, Africa and Europe will increasingly switch to CA in the
coming decades as is already occurring on large farms in Kazakhstan, on small farms in
India, China and Zambia, and larger and smaller farms in Europe.
Challenges
CA represents a fundamental change in production system thinking, and some refer to this as
a paradigm change equivalent to the paradigm change from flat earth to round earth. The
roots of the origins of CA lie largely in the farming communities, and its initial adoption has
been mainly farmer-driven including by smallholders such as those in Paraguay. Research
across Asia and Africa has shown that CA does offer many economic, environmental and
social benefits for smallholder farmer (Jat et al., 2014). However, evidence across many
countries has shown that the rapid adoption and spread of CA requires a change in
commitment and behaviour of all concerned stakeholders. For the farmers, a mechanism to
experiment, learn and adapt is a prerequisite. For scaling, communication and mutual support
is important which can be provided through innovation networks or farmer associations or
farmer learning groups such as Farmer Field Schools. Further, the transformation calls for a
sustained policy and institutional support role that can provide incentives and required
services to farmers to adopt CA practices and improve them over time (Friedrich and
Kassam, 2009).
Challenges to designing and adapting CA to the circumstances of the smallholder in Asia and
Africa vary across agro-ecologies (including the level of land degradation) and prevailing
farming systems, whether in the upland or lowland environment, and whether rainfed or
irrigated. Challenges include the need to build farmers’ capacity to change to CA, making
affordable equipment and machinery available, and providing short-term financial incentive
to switch to CA. Smallholders across Asia and Africa are adopting CA in upland cropping
systems, especially in areas that have support programmes in place, offering know-how,
participatory learning opportunity, input support and market access (Jat et al., 2014; ACT,
2014). Thus challenges are being selectively addressed for increasing the adoption of CA
(Johansen et al., 2012).
In the monsoon regions of Asia, farming systems are dominated by wetland rice grown in
paddies with puddled/destructured soils. Transforming such systems into CA systems is a
complex technical, economic and social challenge. In Bangladesh and elsewhere in Asia as
well as in Africa, several CA approaches for smallholder farmers are showing promise for
private sector involvement for commercialization (Johanssen et al., 2012; Haque et al., 2013).
For rice-based systems, these approaches include: the direct seeded rice production on
permanent no-till permanent ‘narrow’ beds, or direct seeded rice production in no-till levelled
paddies, or direct seeded rice in no-till soils with sub-surface micro-irrigation
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
3
To accelerate the wide-spread adoption of CA by smallholders in Asia and Africa requires the
committed long-term support and involvement of individuals and institutions across the entire
spectrum of public (including policy), private (including farmers) and civil sectors. This is
increasingly occurring in recent years and is facilitating the generation of locally adapted
research knowledge on key challenges such as: the availability and use of CA equipment and
machinery; maintenance of soil mulch cover; management of competition for crop residues;
effective integrated weed management; and economically and ecologically sustainable
cropping systems, including more productive integration of livestock into CA systems (Jat et
al., 2014).
References
ACT (2014) 1st Africa Congress on Conservation Agriculture. Book of Condensed Papers. 18-21
March 2014, Lusaka, Zambia. African Conservation Tillage (ACT).
Friedrich T, Kassam AH (2009) Adoption of Conservation Agriculture Technologies: Constraints and
Opportunities. IV World Congress on Conservation Agriculture. 4-7 February 2009, New Delhi,
India.
Friedrich T, Derpsch R, Kassam AH (2012) Overview of the global spread of Conservation
Agriculture. Facts Reports, Special Issue 6: 1-7.
Haque E, Rahman SN, Bell RN (2013) Smallholders’ Minimum Tillage Planter Adoption: A
successful case of private sector involvement for technology commercialization. 1st CIGR InterRegional conference on Land and Water Challenges on Water, Environment and Agriculture:
Challenges for Sustainable Development, Bari, Italy.
Jat RA, Sahrawat KL, Kassam AH (2014) Conservation Agriculture: Global Prospects and
Challenges. CABI, Wallingford. 393 pp.
Johanssen C, Haque E, Bell R, Thierfelder J (2012) Conservation Agriculture for smallholder rainfed
farming systems. Field Crops Research doi 10:1016.j.fcr.2011.11.026.
Kassam AH, Friedrich T, Derpsch R, Kienzle J (2014) Worldwide adoption of CA. 6th World
Congress on Conservation Agriculture, 22-27 June 2014, Winnipeg, Canada
Table 1. Area of arable cropland under CA by continent in 2013
(source: FAO AquaStat: www.fao/ag/ca/6c.html)
Continent
Area
Per cent of
Per cent of
(M ha)
global total
arable land
South America
66.2
42.2
60.0
North America
54.0
34.4
24.0
Australia & NZ
17.9
11.4
35.9
Asia
10.3
6.6
3.0
Russia & Ukraine
5.2
3.3
3.3
Europe
2.1
1.3
2.8
Africa
1.2
0.8
0.9
Global total
157
100
11.0
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
4
Session 1
Design and development of CA-based crop
establishment and herbicides spraying machinery,
implements, tools for smallholders
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
5
KEYNOTE PAPER
Design and development of - and access to - Conservation Agriculture
machinery, implements and tools for smallholders
Saidi Mkomwa1, Li Hongwen2 and Jacky Desbiolles3
1
African Conservation Tillage Network, KARI NARL Compound, Waiyaki Way, P. O. Box
10375, Nairobi, Kenya; Corresponding author’s email: [email protected]
2
China Agricultural University, Conservation Tillage Research Centre, Ministry of
Agriculture, China
3
Barbara Hardy Institute, University of South Australia, ML Campus - Office J1-12, Mawson
Lakes SA 5095 – Australia
Small holdings form the majority of farms worldwide and produce 80 % of the food in
developing countries. The world needs to produce 70 % more food using existing natural
resources to feed the projected 9 billion people by 2050. While the world population is
expected to increase by 33 % by 2050, it will increase by 115 % in Africa and by 21 % in
Asia. Being home of the hungry and with a burgeoning population, Asia and Africa are the
regions where food security will be more urgent in the coming years. They will have to
supply the larger part of their food requirements, through intensification of production on
arable land. The USA experienced devastating Dust Storms in the 1930s because of intensive
ploughing. Ukraine has serious soil erosion because of the same reason; China reports dust
storms every year because of exposed cultivated land in spring. So, while Asia and Africa
have to produce more food, they cannot follow the same way of destroying land and
environment. They must use a sustainable intensification with minimum negative social and
environmental consequences, that is, Conservation Agriculture (CA).
CA - a farming strategy based on three principles of minimum soil disturbance (or direct
seeding), permanent vegetative soil cover and crop rotation - is seen as the alternative to
conventional tillage systems, having multiple benefits with regard to productivity and
sustainability. The benefits of CA have been widely recognized and various forms of CA
systems have been widely adopted in many parts of the world. However, there are some key
factors that limit the widespread adoption of CA in Africa and Asia. For instance, the first
two core principles of CA call for specialised machinery for seeding on unploughed fields
with surface residues, management of cover crops or crop residues, and non-tillage based
weed management. Direct seeding and management of soil cover are also the most difficult to
implement without access to appropriate farm machinery and in essence are the weakest links
in the CA adoption chain. Competing needs for residue from livestock may result in simpler
machinery being suitable for the direct seeding task under low and no residue ‘partial CA’
systems.
In contrast with Asian countries that experienced the Green Revolution, the farm power
available per area of agricultural land in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been stagnating over
the past three decades (FAOSTAT 2012), accentuated by the collapse of most government
tractor hire schemes, the decline in number of draught animals and the growing shortage
(quantity and quality) of human labour. The better mechanised Asia region faces, like Africa,
a prominent problem in the unavailability of suitable CA equipment for crop establishment
and herbicide spraying to suit small-sized land holder farmers (He et al. 2014).
While the unavailability of appropriate low-cost CA seeders (either imported or locally
manufactured) is an immediate obstacle to CA adoption, an additional access pathway to CA
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
6
seeders may exist in the form of low-cost upgrading of existing conventional seeders to
render them suitable for low disturbance direct seeding, especially into low residue
environments, as is exemplified in the CA development work by ICARDA in the Middle East
(ICARDA, 2012), also duplicated in north Africa.
Functional CA equipment will need to match the available power sources (hand, animal, two
wheel and four wheeled tractors); the different soils and crops; terrain and ergonomic needs.
A successful CA enterprise will also depend on the role played by the availability and quality
of parallel inputs such as herbicides, pesticides, seeds and fertilisers. In addition to the need
to perfect the technical performance of the system, innovations to enhance machinery
affordability, simplicity and suitability for the local manufacturing industry and repair
workshops, and the physical accessibility to proven designs at the local level can greatly
contribute to a market pull of CA technology options.
A review of literature on mechanisation of smallholder CA in Africa and Asia conducted for
the purpose of the Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for Smallholders in
Asia and Africa arrived at the following conclusions:
•
•
•
The need for local manufacturing to have CA seeders continually evolving to address
emerging issues and backed up by spares and repair services. This calls for dedicated
support to local research and development. The traditional manufacturing of hand and
animal traction CA seeders in Brazil (with some 25 no-till planter manufacturers) is
now being challenged with affordable and novel seeder solutions by workshops in
Africa and manufacturers in China and India. China and Bangladesh are renowned
manufacturers of two-wheeled tractor seeders, with new seeder solutions also
emerging in South East Asia.
CA seeders for 2 wheel tractors vary greatly and their ground engaging components
may include either passive furrow openers (tine and/or disc blades) or active rotary
blade systems producing a full or strip-till direct seeding. A CA seeder of any size
can be considered as an association of seeding system single row units, whereby their
cumulated individual performance – including their interactions – dictate the seeder
overall field performance in practice. Research focussed on the mechanics and
performance of single row seeding system units can therefore be applicable across the
scale of mechanisation.
Effective field performance of CA seeders needs to take into account effective
management of soil cover (cover crops or crop residues) that seeks to minimise
residue disturbance and not block the seeder in operation; nor inhibit precision
metering and placement of seeds and fertilisers; while achieving seed covering and
furrow firming for firm seed-soil contact, that does not interfere with seedling
emergence. He et al. (2014) concludes in their study that there are small to medium
size no-till/minimum-till seeders which can promote the extension of CA in Africa
and Asia with variable levels of soil disturbance and residue management. However,
their development is slow and their uptake limited. They further recommend that: (1)
Policy support, including subsidies, is crucial for the rapid development of the
seeders, including provision of adequate research projects, funds and establishing
proper guiding mechanisms for the implementation of CA; (2) Further improvements
can be made on developed CA seeders to suit a wider range of crops and soils in
different geographical regions; (3) Development of no-till seeder anti-blocking
technology is necessary to ensure good performance and adoption of CA seeders in
high residue environments; (4) Universities, research institutions and enterprises
should have closer cooperation to design suitable no-till/minimum-till seeders for
different cropping areas.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
7
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The contrasting supply models of agricultural mechanization, based on the
experiences of some Asian countries where smallholders dominate, as is the case for
SSA, are presented by: India (where medium to large scale farmers own medium-size
machines and hire out their services to other farmers); China (where specialized
enterprises migrate over large areas), and; Bangladesh (where small-scale contractors
(who may or may not be farmers) own small machines and hire out their services to
farmers). The more socially inclusive and higher mechanisation levels achieved in
Bangladesh and other South and South East Asian countries is an outstanding model
for smallholders elsewhere.
While past initiatives of promoting mechanization in SSA generally failed, the
situation is changing rapidly, with agriculture becoming more intensive and more
commercially-oriented addressing previous pitfalls of lack of demand for
mechanization. As a model, the boom in ownership of motorcycles all the way to rural
areas in many SSA and South East Asian countries has been accompanied by the
parallel development of repair services infrastructure and increased availability of fuel
and lubricants that could also support CA marketing systems.
Appropriate and equitable mechanization (with gender mainstreaming considerations)
may be achieved by supporting the promotion of small machines, affordable to
farmers and service providers, with a technology adapted to the knowhow of local
repair workshops, and suitable for small and fragmented fields encompassing hand,
animal traction, small 2-wheel tractors and 4-wheel micro-tractors (typically not
powerful enough to conventionally plough but suited to CA). Larger 4-wheel tractors
should be considered in areas with larger farm and contract servicing acreages. The
demand for mechanization is exacerbated by the shortage of farm labour due to rural–
urban migration, higher labour cost, and the ageing farmer population. Reductions in
the number of work animals due to epidemics and pasture land pressure calls for
motorised mechanisation.
For smallholder mechanization to succeed, it is essential that all key stakeholders in
the machinery supply (manufacturers; importers; distributors and dealers) chain are
involved, together with leading farmers in developing and promoting solutions. The
private sector must also be making a profit from their businesses. A supply chain of
CA product spares and repair services needs to be developed. Support to rural
workshops, better trained mechanics, operators and service providers are essential to
build the expansion structure of the enterprise.
Beside the mechanised CA services (direct seeding, herbicide application, combine
harvesting and straw/stover spreading) farmers/service providers need to diversify to
other services including irrigation water pumping, threshing, shelling and farm
transportation to unlock labour bottlenecks and widen service provision revenue
streams.
To develop equipment adapted to local environments, research institutions, NGOs and
farmer organisations need to form platforms for joint innovation and adapting the CA
concept to specific local situations. The South–South linkages are a valuable platform
to share experiences from similar environments. The 2WT newsletter coordinated by
Australia-based Jeff Esdaile, the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT)
(www.act-africa.org), and the Conservation Agriculture Alliance for Asia and Pacific
(CAAAP) are good examples of information sharing and need to forge stronger ties.
Extension and training: The early CA adopters face many hurdles, so high-efficiency
extension mechanisms and CA expert groups must be funded to provide training and
technical support, including free access by farmers to demonstration seeders with
technical support. Demonstration of CA seeders must be made under a systems
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
8
approach reflecting associated practice changes such as early sowing and reduced
seed rate, and maintaining flexibility in the implementation of the CA system, all in
the spirit of lowering adoption risks to the small holder farmers. In addition, engaging
with policy makers where targeted machinery subsidies can support early stage
adoption may be worth consideration based on each country’s financial situation.
References
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). FAOSTAT database available at
http://faostat3.fao.org/home/index.html. Consulted September, 2014.
He J, Zhang ZQ, Li HW, Wang QJ (2014). Development of small/medium size no-till and
minimum-till seeders in Asia: A review. Int J Agric & Biol Eng, 2014; 7(4): 1-12.
ICARDA (2012) Conservation Agriculture: Opportunities for Intensified Farming and
Environmental Conservation in Dry Areas. Research to Action 2. Accessed 16 Nov 2014
at www.icarda.org/conservation-agriculture/teaser.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
9
Evaluation of a mechanical rice transplanter under minimum tillage
unpuddled soil conditions
M.A. Hossen,1 M.M. Hossain,1 M.M. Alam,1 M.E. Haque2 and R.W. Bell2
1
Dept. of Farm Power and Machinery, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU),
Mymensingh, [email protected], [email protected],
[email protected]
2
Murdoch University, Australia, [email protected] [email protected]
Introduction
Labour shortages for rice transplanting across Asia are stimulating interest in mechanical
transplanting. While the transplanters have been evaluated in puddled soils, there is little
understanding of their efficacy for transplanting into soils following minimum tillage such as
zero tillage, strip tillage and raised beds. This study was conducted to evaluate the
performance of a mechanical rice transplanter (4 rows walk-behind type daedong rice
transplanter, model DP480) under minimum tillage options at Bangladesh Rice Research
Institute research farm, Gazipur and on a farmer’s field at Kumarkhali, Kushtia, Bangladesh
during the irrigated dry season of 2012-13 and the non-irrigated wet season of 2013.
Materials and methods
The bed, strip, zero and conventional tillage treatments were arranged in a randomized
complete block (RCB) design with three replications. A Versatile Multi-crop Planter (Haque
et al., 2001) was used to prepare the beds and strips during the irrigated dry season whereas
the strips and beds were prepared using a conventional rotary tiller powered by a 2-wheel
tractor (2WT) and manually during the non-irrigated wet season, respectively. A rotary tiller
powered by a 2WT was used for the conventional tillage treatment, consisting of two dry
pass, one wet passes and one leveling operation. Seedlings were prepared in plastic trays with
135 gm pre-germinated seeds in each tray. BRRI dhan28 and BRRI dhan49 varieties were
used during the irrigated dry and the non-irrigated wet seasons, respectively. Textural classes
of Gazipur and Kushtia soils were clay loam and loamy soil, respectively. The benefit-cost
ratio (BCR) of each treatment was computed based on total income and production cost of
rice under different tillage options. Break-even analysis was also conducted to predict the
necessary annual use of the rice transplanter for making a profit.
Results
The un-puddled strip tillage saved about 50-70% for tillage time and fuel consumption. Strip
and zero tillage saved 22 and 28%, respectively, of the water required up to transplanting,
compared to bed and conventional tillage. In loam and clay loam soil, soil resistance,
measured by a hand penetrometer at 5 cm operating depth, during transplanting varied from 3
to 4 N/cm2 and 15 to 24 N/cm2 during the irrigated dry season of 2012-13 whereas it was 2 to
12 N/cm2 and 0 to 9 N/cm2 respectively during the non-irrigated wet season of 2013.
Overall, strip and zero tillage showed significantly higher field capacity (0.131 to 0.134
ha/hr) followed by conventional and bed tillage (0.115 to 1.21 ha/hr) whereas rice
transplanter showed significantly better performance during Aman season in loamy soil
conditions (0.140 ha/hr). In clay loam soil, strip tillage showed significantly higher field
capacity (0.14 ha/hr) during the irrigated dry season of 2012-13 whereas field capacity of rice
transplanter under strip and zero tillage was identical (0.13 ha/hr) during the non-irrigated
wet season of 2013. In loam soil, significantly higher field capacity was observed in
conventional tillage (0.13 ha/hr) followed by strip and zero tillage (1.2 ha/hr) during the
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
10
irrigated dry season of 2012-13 whereas zero (0.16 ha/hr) and strip (0.15 ha/hr) tillage
showed significantly highest field capacity during the non-irrigated wet season of 2013.
Tillage options also showed significant effects on fuel consumption of rice transplanter
operations except on loamy soil during the non-irrigated wet season of 2013. In both loam
and sandy loam soil, conventional tillage consumed significantly more fuel during irrigated
dry season of 2012-13. In clay loam soil, strip tillage consumed significantly less fuel in both
seasons. Averaged over two seasons, bed and conventional tillage consumed significantly
more fuel (4.8 to 5.0 litre/ha) followed by strip and zero tillage (4.1 to 4.3 litre/ha). Overall,
strip and zero tillage saved about 18 and 14%, respectively, of the fuel required for
mechanical transplanting.
Highest percentage of missing hills was observed for bed and zero tillage (11.5 to 13.3%)
because of more floating plants, followed by conventional tillage (9.9%). On the other hand,
strip tillage resulted in the minimum number of missing hills (7.5%) due to fewer floating and
deeply buried plants. In both seasons, minimum tillage resulted in more floating hills whereas
buried hills occurred more often in conventional tillage due to differences in soil strength.
Picker misses and mechanical damage to plants also varied with tillage treatment, soil
condition and seasons. Transplanter slippage significantly reduced the plant to plant spacing
during transplanting in conventional tillage from the pre-set spacing compared to minimum
tillage in both irrigated dry and non-irrigated wet season soil conditions. Weed infestation and
weeding cost increased substantially for un-puddled transplanting during the irrigated dry
season.
Averaged over two seasons and two soil types, strip tillage gave significantly higher yield
(5.3 t/ha) followed by zero, conventional and bed tillage (5.0 to 5.1 t/ha). On the other hand,
Boro season gave more yields over Aman season whereas clay loam soil gave more yield
advantages compared to loamy soil. However, zero tillage showed better performance in clay
loam soil whereas zero tillage in loamy soil over other tillage options in both Boro and Aman
season (Table 1).
Table 1. Grain yield overview of transplanted rice under different tillage systems
Seasons
Boro/12-13
Aman/2013
Mean
LSD0.05
Level of
significance
Soil type
Grain yield (t/ha)
BT
ST
ZT
CT
Mean
Clay loam
5.5
6.0
6.1
5.8
5.9a
Loam
5.1
5.4
5.0
5.1
5.2b
Clay loam
4.6
4.9
5.0
4.8
4.8c
Loam
4.7
4.7
4.4
4.6
4.6d
5.0b
5.3a
5.1b
5.1b
Season(S)=0.13, Soil type(St)=0.13, Tillage=0.18, S×St=0.18 and St×T=0.226
Season=**, Soil type=**, Tillage=* , S×St=**, S×T=NS, St×T=** and
S×St×T=NS
Note: BT-Bed tillage, ST-Strip tillage, ZT-Zero tillage, CT-Conventional tillage, NS-Not significant, *significant at 5%, **-significant at 1%, Data followed by different letters differ significantly.
However, strip tillage showed highest BCR (1.60) followed by zero tillage (1.56) compared
to bed (1.50) and conventional tillage (1.52). Break-even usage of mechanical rice
transplanter was about 6.5 ha/yr irrespective of tillage method.
Conclusions
The mechanical rice transplanter Model DP480 was suitable to operate in both puddled and
un-puddled conditions. However, the rice transplanter showed better performance under both
strip tillage and zero tillage systems. Rice production under un-puddled strip tillage
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
11
significantly increased BCR relative to conventional practices. The mechanical transplanter
has promise as a means of decreasing labour for rice establishment even under minimum
tillage and unpuddled transplanting of rice.
References
Haque ME, Bell RW, Islam AKMS, Sayre KD, Hossain MM (2011) Versatile multi-crop planter for
two-wheel tractors: an innovative option for smallholders. In: Gilkes, R.J., Nattaporn, Prakongkep
(Eds.), 5th World Congress of CA incorporating 3rd Farming Systems Design Conference. 26–29
September 2011, Brisbane, Australia, 102-103 pp.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
12
Residue Handling Capacity of the Versatile Multi-crop Planter for Twowheel Tractors
M.E. Haque1*, R.W. Bell1, M. Jahiruddin2, W. Vance1, M.A. Islam1, and N. Salahin2
1
2
Murdoch University, Australia; * [email protected]
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh
Introduction
Crop residue retention is one of the core principles of conservation agriculture (CA).
However, the level of retention and residue handling characteristics depend on household use
of residue, crop type, residue type (loose or anchored), freshness (or weathering status), water
content in residue, soil type, soil water content in the field, type of implements used to sow
the next crop, disease of previous crops, height of residue, etc. Over the last decade,
innovations made to a wide range of 2-wheel tractor (2WT) seeding implements now permit
reliable seeding into minimally disturbed soil and moderate levels of crop residue. This
provides a window of opportunity to develop CA cropping systems for small holder farmers
in Asia and Africa, not only in terms of reduced soil disturbance but also with respect to
biomass cover and crop rotation. The Versatile Multi-crop Planter (VMP) was designed as
multi-functional and multi-crop 2WT-based planter for smallholders with capability for seed
and fertilizer application in variable row spacing (Haque et al., 2011) but its capacity for
residue handling using single-pass shallow-tillage (SPST), strip tillage (ST), zero tillage (ZT),
bed planting (BP), and conventional tillage (CT) has not been systematically tested.
Materials and Methods
Since 2010, a total of seven VMPs were used to establish >4,000 on-farm and on-station
trials and demonstration plots into various crop residue types and retention levels in different
parts of Bangladesh. The soil moisture levels of the plots, where measured, ranged from 15 to
41 %. Data on tillage type used, residue type and height, and ease of operation were collected
from 2,157 on-farm trials and farmers’ demonstration plots where each year the VMPs were
used to establish many crops (Table 1). The plot size was ranged from 112 to 1333 m2. Onfarm data were collected using structured questionnaires and 12 focus group discussions with
farmers and service providers of VMP; on-station data were collected and analysed by Excel.
Results and Discussion
When crop residue accumulates on the rotary shaft and/or the furrow openers this lengthens
the sowing operation due to the time required to clear the machine and there are also
problems with seed and fertiliser placement which may affect crop establishment. Each
tillage type available with the VMP has varying capacity to cope with the volume and height
of residue retained from the previous crop.
Strip Tillage (ST): In total 1062 trials were conducted with various residue retention levels. In
case of ST with sharp and straight rotary blades that aligned with furrow openers minimal
residue accumulation occurred on the rotary shaft or furrow openers if the height of anchored
residue was < 60 cm. (equivalent to 5.5 t of rice or wheat residue per ha). If loose and > 40
cm high, rice and wheat residue (up to 4.5 t/ha) accumulated on the rotary shaft and furrow
openers especially if the residue was fresh and wet.
Bed Planting (BP): Out of 2,002 trials that retained rice, wheat, and mungbean residue (Table
2), only 16 trials used two tillage passes for forming and/or reshaping beds and planting crops
in various levels of retained residue. In case of BP, 20 cm of any type of residue accumulated
on furrow openers and needed to be cleaned by an operator quite often. Higher amounts of
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
13
residue retention and multiple tillage passes enhanced the residue accumulation on the rotary
shaft and furrow openers, which was severe if loose and fresh residue was retained in the
field.
Zero Tillage (ZT): Residue accumulation on furrow openers was observed if the height of
residue was>20 cm; and was more severe with greater amounts of loose residue and tall
anchored residue. Higher residue accumulation with furrow openers was observed even with
very low retention (<0.4 t/ha) when the retained loose rice or wheat residue was >10 cm long.
Conventional Tillage (CT): Higher residue accumulation on the rotary shaft was observed
when the retained anchored residue (Table 2) height was > 30 cm (equivalent to 3.37 t/ha)
with 3-4 tillage passes to prepare land. Higher residue accumulation on the rotary shaft was
observed even at very minimal retention (<0.4 t/ha) when the retained loose residue (Table 2)
was > 30 cm long.
Table 1. Crop-wise residue retention and performance evaluation of VMP under different
tillages options for sowing (n=includes the total number of on-farm trials plus farmers’
demonstration plots).
Crop species
Rice
Wheat
Chickpea
Jute
Lentil
Maize
Mungbean
Mustard
Total:
Tillage type
ST (n)
BP (n)
511
64
232
20
27
13
66
24
86
20
66
87
20
26
4
1101
165
ZT (n)
8
12
8
28
CT (n)
321
203
8
159
68
62
20
22
863
Total
% of total
904
455
48
261
182
128
127
52
2157
41.9
21.1
2.2
12.1
8.4
5.9
5.9
2.4
100
Table 2. Height and weight of retained residue of rice, wheat, and mungbean into which
following crops were sown using VMP under various tillage systems.
Crop and height
(cm) of retained
residue
Rice, >50
Rice, 20- 50
Rice, <20
Wheat,>40
Mungbean,>30
Total:
Residue retained (mean of all (n) determinations)
Strip Tillage (ST) Bed Planting (BP) Zero Tillage (ZT)
n
t/ha
n
t/ha
n
t/ha
27
4.8
27
4.4
27
4.5
267
3.1
20
3.1
8
2.8
414
1.5
21
1.5
8
2.5
342
2.9
28
2.8
8
2.3
12
2.8
12
2.8
1062
108
51
-
Conven. Tillage (CT)
n
t/ha
27
4.6
253
3.2
322
1.5
167
2.7
12
2.8
781
Reference
Haque ME, Bell RW, Islam AKMS, Sayre K, Hossain MM (2011) Versatile multi-crop planter for
two-wheel tractors: an innovative option for smallholders. In: Gilkes, R.J., Nattaporn, Prakongkep
(Eds.), 5th World Congress of Conservation Agriculture incorporating 3rd Farming Systems
Design Conference. 26–29 September 2011, Brisbane, Australia. pp. 102-103.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
14
Mechanised Dry Direct Seeding of Rice: a Cambodian Development
S. Pao1, N. Pen2,4, J. Desbiolles3, B. Som1, S. Chea2, S. Chuong5, S. Justice6
1
Cambodia Agricultural R&D Institute, [email protected] ;[email protected]
General Directorate of Agriculture, Cambodia, [email protected]
3
University of South Australia, Australia, [email protected]
4
Russeykeo Agric. Equipment Manufacturer (RAEM), Cambodia, [email protected]
5
Royal University of Agriculture, Cambodia, [email protected]
6
National Agriculture and Environmental Forum, Nepal, [email protected]
2
Introduction
Rice accounts for over 80 % of Cambodia’s cropping area with 75 % being rainfed and
grown in the monsoon. Cambodia is witnessing a shift away from traditional transplanting to
direct seeding of rice using manual broadcasting techniques, due to increasing labour
shortage. Seed broadcasting is easy to implement, requiring low labour for fast crop
establishment. However, limitations include high seed rate, high losses to predation, often
poor and staggered crop establishment and high weed burden. Cambodian agriculture is also
undergoing a significant mechanisation shift, with a rapidly increasing adoption of 2 wheel
tractors (2WT) used for land preparation and transportation.
Materials and Methods
The concept of a simple drill implement adapted to the expanding 2WT power source was
adopted to improve crop establishment quality with direct seeding, anticipating potential
benefits as follows:
• Accurate seed placement at optimum depth to maximise field establishment rate
• Row seeding to facilitate mechanical/manual weeding
• Limited or no predation risks or lodging relative to surface established crops
• Time and cost saving when used under zero-tillage to direct sow into unprepared land
• Possibility of establishing rice in stored moisture under rainfed systems
• Opportunity to place fertiliser in the seed row for better nutrient use efficiency
The role of mechanized seeding with accurate seed placement in cultivated soils is critical to
minimizing the input cost of quality seeds, and is seen as the first adoption step in Cambodian
lowland towards reduced tillage and no-tillage rice crop establishment. Imported drills (e.g.
Australian Rogro tine & press wheel, Thai disc, Chinese rotary till 2BFG-100) were first
evaluated for their suitability to Cambodian conditions. A specific challenge for sowing rice
is the ability to maintain a shallow seeding depth (1-2cm) under typically uneven and poorly
prepared paddy field conditions, which has clear repercussions on operating depth gauging.
The following describes the process of adaptive field research, highlighting a range of
limitations on field performance, ergonomics and practicality aspects:
- Any significant drill weight overhang requires substantial front ballast (60-80kg) to improve
manoeuvrability. In poorly levelled land conditions as well as during ditch crossing, a heavy
2WT+drill combination, even well balanced, results in highly fluctuating reactions at the
handle bar during manoeuvring, increasing operator risk and fatigue.
- A rigid mounting of the drill to a 2WT limits steerability at work unless the drill is lifted out
of the ground, which implies higher work burden.
- The need for small modifications to existing 2WT for hitching a new drill implement
creates limitations to drill sharing across users
- The need for tools to adjust the drill in the field hinders the use of optimum drill settings by
the operator
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
15
- A centralised hopper fitted above the handle bars significantly reduces the operator field of
vision, impairing the capacity to consistently sow straight and makes refilling more
cumbersome for shorter operators.
- Tine openers are prone to seed boot outlet blockage in wet conditions especially with poorly
trained or careless operators, while seed outflow can be impaired when seeding in seedbeds
dirty with weed residue. Design solutions are a trade-off with seed placement accuracy.
- The power-take-off operated rotary till drill specific to Chinese DF tractors, implies higher
adoption and operating costs for mechanised seeding in the Cambodian context, currently
dominated by Thai made 2WT, and increases tillage intensity. Effective strip-till
modifications are required to make the technology more attractive in a CA context.
Results and Discussion
The following specifications were then finalised for the development of a locally adapted
Cambodian seeder solution (see Fig. 1):
1. ‘Trailer-like’ pulled and self-contained Fig. 1: Cambodian RAEM drill
seeder unit with a simple ‘pin and go’
hitching process suitable for any 2WT
available on-farm.
2. Simple to operate drill, with a base model
affordability target at US$500.
3. Seed-only hopper in full view of the
operator and with unhindered vision
forward, including seed funnelling
shallow partitions, and adjustable fluted
roller seed metering system.
4. Two side depth-gauging wheels, placed
near the row of openers and with spanner-less adjustment for seeding depth and
work/transport change-over.
5. Four disc openers set at 20-25cm row spacing with adjustable furrow closers (option for
six disc openers set at 15cm row spacing for dry and early wet season rice).
6. Independent and contour following star-wheel ground drive,attached to the drill only,
and with on/off clutch positions activated manually from the tractor handle bar
The seeder design solutions, field evaluation and promotion were led by agricultural
engineers while manufacturing solutions were optimised by the local workshop. A process of
participatory co-learning was applied in fine-tuning performance, manufacturing quality and
design specifications. Joint field activities enabled the manufacturer to also assess farmer
interest and experience first-hand the field handling issues.The Cambodian drill is 97% made
locally with only the metering units imported from China, retails at US$650 and weighs
around 110kg. The simplicity of the drill design as a trailed unit is an operator friendly
feature helping to facilitate gender mainstreaming of mechanised direct seeding technology,
by requiring little or no lifting during a specific field seeding operation. The metering system
can also handle a range of seed sizes for dry season rotation crops such as mung bean and
maize. The RAEM drill has been tested in cultivated sandy, sandy-loam and clay-loam soils,
as well as soft zero-till sandy soils (10-12% of the rice area), with rice establishment being
most reliable with good follow-up rainfall and/or with irrigation, achieving similar field
establishment rate and grain yield to existing commercial drills. Limitations to date have
included poor disc opener penetration in compact soil conditions (resulting in shallow or
surface seed placement), soil build up and blockages in excessively sticky soil conditions,
and uneven crop establishment in rainfed systems with unreliable follow-up rainfall. A
version with tine openers is being evaluated for use in harder soil conditions, a press wheel
option for more reliable rice establishment in rainfed systems and a double hopper for
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
16
combined seed-fertiliser application are being planned. Early signs of adoption interest are
being witnessed following a number of field demonstrations to date.
Acknowledgements
The work reported was conducted as part of project CSE-2009-037 funded by the Australian
Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). The indirect contributions to this
work from many other project partners are respectfully acknowledged.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
17
Optimising the furrow cutting process in rotary strip-tillage
M. A. Matin1, J. M. A. Desbiolles2 and J. M. Fielke2
1
2
CIMMYT-Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. [email protected]
Agric. Mach. Res. & Design - Barbara Hardy Institute, Univ. of South Australia, Australia
Introduction
Efforts to develop strip-tillage drills for two-wheeled tractors have often used conventional
bent rotary blades designed for full disturbance soil tillage. These conventional blades have
lengthwise and sidelong sections which cut, carry and throw soil during tilling and help
pulverise the soil. However, in strip-tillage the blades result in unwanted soil scattering out of
the tilled furrow (leading to a poor furrow backfill 1 which is insufficient to cover seeds) and
high power requirement. An improved understanding of the rotary strip-till furrow cutting
process would help design blades to produce a desired soil cutting and throwing effect for an
improved seedbed and reduce power requirements. This study investigated the furrow cutting
process and the outcomes as affected by blade geometry and rotary speed with the aim of
optimising into an efficient strip-tilling process.
Materials and Methods
The conventional rotary blades (43 mm wide, 56° bent) were modified to reduce their width
to about half (22 mm wide, 22° bent) or straightened (7 mm wide) and were fitted to an
experimental rotary tilling unit (detail presented by Matin et al. 2014). Tests in a reconstituted
sandy loam soil used 4 blades per furrow set for a cutting width and depth of 50 mm. The
progression of soil cutting and throwing at 125–500 rpm rotary speed (forward travel speed
of 0.7 m s-1) was recorded using a high speed camera at 1000 frames s-1. The furrow backfill
was measured as the percentage of the original soil remained in the tilled furrow. Tilth quality
of the backfilled soil was expressed as the ratio of soil breakage (RSB) and measured as the
percentage (by weight) of the clods 20 mm or longer. An in-line torque transducer was used
to measure the peak and average power requirements.
Results and Discussions
Soil cutting and throwing process
Analysis of the high speed video images revealed that the soil cutting and throwing process
varied greatly, depending on the blade geometry. Increasing the rotary speed generally
increased the soil scattering and thus reduced the furrow backfill for all the blades.
The conventional blade bent and twisted the soil slice cut in each bite (Fig. 1) and showed the
highest soil fracture ability during its entry into the soil and the strongest soil throwing ability
from the soil entrainment by its sidelong section. The cut soil was thrown laterally and
backward and also carried over (a small proportion) to the front of the rotor. Thus, the blade
left the least amount of soil in the furrow as backfill (Fig. 2) required for covering seeds.
In contrast, the half-width blade developed a few soil cracks during its entry into the soil and
pushed off the cut soil slices toward the opposite furrow edge whereby some soil was lost out
of the furrow. Although there was a minor bending and twisting of the cut soil slice, the blade
achieved a soil tilth similar to the conventional blade mainly due to: i) cutting the thinnest
soil slice in each bite (Fig. 1) which broke easily, and ii) movement of the cut soil slice
1
Furrow backfill is the amount of the original soil remained in the tilled furrow after a tillage operation
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
18
toward the opposite furrow edge where it was re-cut and broken further into finer clods by the
following blade. There was a considerable lateral soil throw during the blade exit out of the
furrow from the more open orientation of the sidelong section. However, due to a shorter
sidelong section there was virtually no soil lifting or carrying over.
Having no sidelong section, the straight blade produced some effective soil cutting action
which created a fine tilth without significant soil throw. Entry of the tip of the blade into the
soil created few cracks pushing the cut soil slice toward the opposite edge of the furrow. An
important observation was that the laterally-thrown soil was blocked by the following blades
and guided inward to the furrow. This blocking helped increase the backfill and improved the
soil tilth through a process of cumulative clod fracturing. No soil lifting and minor lateral soil
throw was observed during the blade exit out of the furrow. Therefore, the straight blade
produced a desirable soil cutting action which involved cutting, re-cutting and re-directing
clods, with a minor lateral and backward soil throwing.
Peak and average power requirements
Irrespective of the rotary speed, the peak power was at least twice the average power for all
the blades. The straight blade required 17–22% lesser peak power (Fig. 3) and 8–25% lesser
average power (Fig. 4) compared to the conventional or half-width blades at 375–500 rpm.
This would be due to the low amount of soil throw (as indicated by high amount of backfill,
see Fig. 2) by the straight blade even at the high rotary speeds, compared to the other blades.
Generally, the peak and average power requirements increased with the rotary speed (Fig. 3
and 4). However, they remained almost unchanged for the increase of the rotary speed from
250 rpm (40 mm bite) to 375 rpm (27 mm bite) for all the blades indicating the advantage of
using a medium rotary speed between 250–375 rpm for an increased effectiveness of the
rotary strip-tillage systems. However, this speed may vary depending on the actual field
conditions (soil strength, soil moisture, residues, etc.) and would require field investigations.
Extrapolation of the results for a 9 kW two-wheeled tractor-operated six-row seed drill fitted
with the conventional and the straight blades shows that the peak engine power requirement
at 500 rpm rotary speed would be 13.7 and 11.4 kW, respectively (assuming 82% overall
power transmission efficiency as per Beeny and Greig, 1965). This will occasionally overload
the engine at 33.3 Hz. The study recommends the use of straight blades and suggests the
blades be distributed onto the rotor so that no more than three blades cut the soil at one time.
Figure 1. Patterns of Figure 2. Furrow backfill Figure 3. Peak power
soil cutting at 250 rpm
and soil tilth
requirement
Figure 4. Average
power requirement
References
Beeny JM, Greig DJ (1965) The efficiency of a rotary cultivator. Journal of Agricultural Engineering
Research 10: 5–9.
Matin, MA, Fielke JM, Desbiolles JMA (2014) Furrow parameters in rotary strip-tillage: Effect of
blade geometry and rotary speed. Biosystems Engineering 118: 7–15.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
19
Evaluation of Two Wheel Tractor Operated Seed Drill (Gongli Africa) in
Arusha, Tanzania
W.M. Baitani and G. L. Mwinama
Centre for Agricultural Mechanization and Rural Technology (CAMARTEC), Tanzania,
[email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]
Introduction
Two wheel tractors (2WTs) have played a very important role in agricultural production in
many Asian countries. They have increased cropping intensity, yields and saved costs of
ploughing operations in Asian countries including Nepal (Dhakal et al., 2001) and India
(Singh, 2002). Two WTs have different uses including haulage, disc ploughing, disc
harrowing, mould board ploughing, rotary tillage and direct seeding. With attachments, they
can also be used for boom spraying and crop harvesting. In stationary state, 2WTs can be
used to run water pumps and maize shellers. In summary, 2WT as a source of farm power can
be used to perform different field operations depending on the need and innovations by
different stakeholders (Mwinama, 2013).
While the 2WTs have been highly adopted in most Asian countries, the situation is not so for
African countries. The reason may be the notion in Africa that the only potential operation
for such machines is ploughing. For example, there are increasing numbers of 2WTs in
Tanzania most of which are only used for rotary tillage in rice fields (Lyimo, 2011).
The Gongli Africa direct seeder (GADS) is used for direct seeding in conservation agriculture
(CA). It was developed as a collaboration among Australia, Kenya and Tanzania under the
Farm Power and Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Intensification (FACASI), Project.
GADS can be attached to a 2WT during direct seeding and detached when the 2WT is used
for other operations. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of
GADS in planting maize in silt soils as compared to manual planting (MP) which in the
indigenous method of planting in Tanzania.
Materials and Method
The study was conducted in the VETA area situated in Njiro Arusha district. The total area
used for maize placement was four acres of silt soil. This area was divided into 12 small plots
from which data for different parameters were averaged. The GADS prototype was operated
by a 16 hp Greaves power tiller. In GADS performance evaluation the parameters involved
were manpower requirement, work rate, seed placement depths, plant population, cost of
operation and operation technical challenges. The GADS performance evaluation was based
on Regional Network for Agricultural Machinery (RNAM) procedures of the Economic and
Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (RNAM, 1983). These are the standards adopted
by CAMARTEC which has statutory rights to test agricultural machineries and equipment in
Tanzania.
Based on the efficiency of its functional parts and comfort in operating the machine, gear 3
low was used. Seed placement was done when the soil was dry. The maize variety was SC525 which is among the high yielding varieties preferred in Arusha.
Results and Discussion
Comparisons made in the study to evaluate performance of GADS included manpower
requirement (man-hours/acre), work rate (acres/hr), seed placement depth (cm), plant
population (plants per acre), and cost of operation. With GADS direct seeding average values
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
20
of manpower requirement, work rate, seeding depth, plant population, and cost of operation
were 6.04 man-h/acre, 0.331 acre/h, 4.7 cm, 25,400 plants per acre and 14.19 USD,
respectively. In hand planting, the average values of manpower requirement, work rate,
seeding depth, plant population, and cost of operation were 16 man-h/acre, 0.0625 acre/h, 7.2
cm, 22,100 plants per acre and 21.21 USD respectively (Table 1). The results clearly show
that the use of GADS is preferable as it costs 60-70% of the manual operation in only 20% of
the time for manual operation.
Table 1. Performance evaluation results of Gongli Africa direct seeding as compared to
manual seed placement
Parameter
Average
GADS seed placement
Speed of operation (m/s)
0.519
Speed of operation (km/h)
1.868
Work rate (acre/hr)
0.331
Work rate (ha/hr)
0.134
Fuel consumption (L/hr)
0.696
Fuel consumption (L/acre)
2.10
Fuel consumption (L/ha)
5.19
Theoretical field capacity (acre/hr) 0.415
Theoretical field capacity (ha/hr)
0.168
Field efficiency (%)
79.7
Depth of operation (cm)
4.7
Plants population (plants per acre) 25,400
Cost of operation (USD)
14.19
MP seed placement
N/A
N/A
0.0625
0.0253
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
7.2
22,100
21.21
% (MP/GADS)
N/A
N/A
18.9
18.9
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
87
150
References
Dhakal NH, Pariyar MP, Shrestha KB (2001) Baseline Study in Agricultural Mechanization Needs in
Nepal. New Delhi, India. 84pp.
Lyimo M (2011) Country Presentation on Agricultural Mechanization in Tanzania. Proceedings of
workshop on Boosting Agricultural Mechanization in Rice-based systems in Sub-Sahara Africa,
6–8 June, 2011, Saint Louis, Senegal. 19pp.
Mwinama G (2013) Development of power tiller operated rice combine harvester for smallholder
farmers in Tanzania. MSc dissertation, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania,
90pp.
Odigboh EU (2000) Mechanization of the Nigerian agricultural industry: Pertinent Notes, Pressing
Issues, Pragmatic Options. A public lecture, Saturday, April 15, 2000. International Conference
Centre, Abuja. 64pp.
RNAM (1983) Testing Codes and Procedures for Farm Machinery Technical Series No. 12. RNAM,
Philippines. 297pp.
Singh G (2002) Agricultural Machinery industry in India (Manufacturing, Marketing and
Mechanization Promotion). [http://agricoop.nic.in/Farm%20Mech.%20PDF/05024-09.pdf] site
visited on 28/03/2012.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
21
Furrow Openers Design can Improve Seed Placement and Emergence in
Strip Tillage
M. A. Hoque 12, M. M. Hossain2, ATMZ Uddin2, T.J Krupnik3, D.B. Pandit3, S Yasmin3,
M.K. Gathala3
1
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), 2Bangladesh Agricultural University
(BAU) 3International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). Email:
[email protected]
Introduction
Strip tillage is a form of minimum tillage used in conservation agriculture (CA) systems.
With strip tillage, sowing lines are cultivated while the inter-row space is left undisturbed
(Licht and Al-Kaisi, 2005). Appropriate seeding machinery has crucial importance to
improve crop performance for CA adopters. The Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute
(BARI) has developed two wheel tractor (2WT) operated seeder modified as strip till seeding
mechanism by introducing the soil cutting blades in front of the seeding line, and inclined
plate seed metering devices with fertilizing attachment and press wheels behind the seeding
line to ensure the furrow is well closed and soil contact with seed is suitable for germination
(Hossain et al., 2012). Furrow openers are also a key component to ensure proper seed soil
contact as well as maintain proper seed depth. The regular furrow opener supplied with
Power Tiller Operated Seeded (PTOS) is shoe type. Shoe-type openers have the disadvantage
of a higher rate of soil moisture loss due to greater soil disturbance. The type of furrow
opener used varies with soil and operating conditions (Chaudhuri, 2001). Research on
performance of different types of furrow opener for 2WT-operated seeder is scarce in
Bangladesh. This experiment thus evaluates strip tillage performance for different furrow
geometries, and assesses which combination ensures the best seed placement.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted in farmer’s fields of Babugang, Barisal and Regional
Agricultural Research Station (RARS), BARI, Jamalpur in April 2014. T-inverted furrow
openers were designed and fabricated at Farm Machinery and Postharvest Process
Engineering division, BARI, Gazipur for 2WT with different rake angles. Maize seed (variety
NK40) was sown in 10 × 7.2 m plots with 25 cm anchored rice residue. Line to line distance
and seed to seed distance for maize planting were 60 and 20 cm respectively. At least five
days before planting, 1 kg active ingredient of glyphosate ha–1 was applied in 320–400 L ha–1
of water with a three-nozzle flat-fan spray boom. A PTOS fitted with an inclined plate seed
metering device and fluted roller fertilizer metering system was used for sowing maize seed
in strip tillage with five different geometries of the furrow openers. Treatments (T) were: T1=
Shoe type furrow opener which is generally supplied with Chinese PTOS and usually seed is
placed by air drop under full tillage; T2= Modified shoe type furrow opener which is
generally supplied with inclined plate planter designed from Wheat Research Center (WRC),
BARI; T3=T-inverted furrow opener with 55° rake angle; T4= T-inverted furrow opener with
65° rake angle and T5= T-inverted furrow opener with 75° rake angle. A randomized
complete block design with three replications was used. The PTOS was operated with
modified blade design with 15° tip angle and 480 rpm of rotary shaft. 60 cm line-to-line and
20 cm plant-to plant spacing were maintained. Observations of emergence were taken every
two days from sowing onwards from a 2 m long strip per plot. Data for mean emergence time
(MET), emergence rate index (ERI), and seedling emergence degree (PE) were calculated by
using the equations given in Bilbro and Wanjura (1982): where MET is mean emergence time
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
22
(day); ERI is emergence rate index, seedlings/day-m; PE is percentage of emergence (%);
N1…n is number of seedlings emerging since the time of previous count; T1…n is number of
days after the sowing; Ste is number of total emerged seedlings per meter and n is number of
seeds sown per meter. Data were analyzed using CROPSTAT statistical program.
Results and Discussion
All design of T-inverted furrow openers (Table 1) performed better than the existing Chinese
or WRC made furrow opener in case of planting maize seed with the inclined plate planter
(Fig. 1). Shoe type (T1) and modified shoe type (T2) furrow openers were unable to place all
the seeds beneath the tilled soil of strip. 53% and 58% of maize seeds were not placed in the
furrow but rather bounced onto the soil surface during planting by the shoe type furrow
opener both at Barisal and Jamalpur, respectively. Placement of seed into the furrow slot was
at least 20% improved by the modified shoe furrow opener even though more than 30% seeds
were not covered with soil in both locations. Conversely, there was no significant variation
among the T-inverted furrow openers in seeding performance and subsequent seed
emergence, indicating their superiority over the shoe-type opener for strip tillage. Further
work needs to be conducted to isolate the effect of the inverted-T design from seeding depth
by manipulating shank length on all the openers.
Table 1. Pictorial and dimensional outline of different furrow openers
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
105×178×35
110×210×60
180×350×25
180×350×25
180×350×25
Figure
16
Jamalpur
14
70
MET (days)
% seeds uncover
Barisal
60
50
40
30
12
10
8
6
20
4
10
2
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
Barisal
Jamalpur
120
1.0
100
0.8
80
0.6
0.4
0.2
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
Barisal
Jamalpur
60
40
0
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
Barisal
Jamalpur
6
20
0.0
0
0
1.2
Seeding depth (cm)
Jamalpur
PE (%)
Barisal
80
ERI (Seedlings/day)
Dimensions,
(L×H×W) mm
5
4
3
2
1
0
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
Figure 1. Percentage seeds uncover, mean emergence time (MET), emergence rate index
(ERI), seeding emergence degree (PE) and seeding depth for different furrow openers.
References
Bilbro JD, Wanjura DF (1982). Soil crusts and cotton emergence relationships. Transactions of the
ASAE 25: 1484-1487
Chaudhury C (2001) Performance evaluation of various types furrow openers on seed drills-a review.
J. Agric. Eng. Res. 79:125-137.
Hossain MI, Hossain I, Mamun MAA, Siddiquie NA, Rahman MM, Rahman MS (2012) Two wheel
tractor operated strip tillage seeding equipment for dry land farming. International Journal of
Energy Machinery. 5, 35-41
Licht MA, Al-Kaisi M (2005) Strip-tillage effect on seedbed soil temperature and other soil physical
properties. Soil Till. Res. 80, 233–249.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
23
Application of a Slack-based DEA Model for Benchmarking Energy Inputs
Use Efficiency of Selected Conservation Tillage Technology Options
Sreejith Aravindakshan1,2, Frederick J. Rossi1, and T.J. Krupnik1
1
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Bangladesh Country Office,
[email protected]
2
Farming Systems Ecology Group, Wageningen University, the Netherlands
Introduction
The share of energy input costs in agriculture varies widely by crop and region. Energy costs
are one of the more rapid growing cost components of rice-wheat systems of Bangladesh
(Mottaleb and Mohanty, 2014). The efficient use of energy inputs and resource conserving
tillage in rice-wheat systems is increasingly important in terms of both economic productivity
and environmental concerns. Alternative technologies that improve the energy inputs use
efficiency, productivity, and profitability of rice-wheat farming systems may very well
contribute to poverty reduction in Bangladesh. Conservation agriculture (CA) and associated
conservation tillage (CT) practices could thus be of potential benefit to myriad farmers
seeking alternative practices to enhance profitability through increased energy input
efficiency. Since studies on on-farm energy inputs use efficiency in rice-wheat systems are
scarce compared to those coming from researcher-controlled, on-station environments, this
research analyzes the energy inputs use efficiency of three CT options, plus a control group
under traditional tillage (TT), based on data collected from actual farm households and under
farmers’ own management practices. In addition, a non-parametric benchmarking technique
is subsequently applied to compute the wasteful quantities of energy inputs.
Methodology
Data were collected during 2012 from 328 farm households (HHs) in three districts
(Dinajpur, Rajshahi, and Nilphamari) in northwest Bangladesh, as part of the Cereal Systems
Initiative for South Asia (CSISA) project. Farm HHs were selected randomly for three CT
types (n=82 for each): strip tillage (ST), as an explicit CA practice; bed planting (BP); and
power tiller operated seeder (PTOS). In addition, 82 TT farmers (i.e. non-adopters) were also
selected as a control group. Although both TT and CT farmers used two-wheel operated
tractor, the present study confined CT description to a reduction in frequency of tillage passes
in conjunction with the usage of direct seeding equipment. A non-parametric input-oriented
Slack-based Data Envelopment Analysis (S-DEA) was employed, using an input-output
model (Tone, 2001; Bogetoft and Otto, 2011), to estimate the “slack” (wasteful quantities of
energy inputs applied) of individual energy inputs (NPK fertilizers, pest control, fossil fuel,
irrigation water, labor, and seeds) within the technology options available at the observed
level of outputs (grain and straw yield). Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is widely used in
agricultural research and the S-DEA is a modification, which is able to deal directly with the
input excesses and the output gaps of the farms under evaluation. The underlying technical,
institutional, and selected socioeconomic factors determining energy input use efficiency
were also analyzed using a Tobit model.
Results
The technical efficiency (TE) estimates presented in the ‘bean density’ plots (Figure 1)
clearly show higher energy inputs use efficiency of the CT technologies. The adapted-Li test
(not shown) indicates significant differences between the energy inputs use efficiency of the
CT options and TT, rejecting the equality of distributions of adopters and non-adopters across
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
24
efficiency ranges (Li, 1996). PTOS achieved the
highest energy inputs efficiency score (0.92),
followed closely by BP and ST (both equal 0.91),
whereas TT lags well behind (0.68). The average
estimates from the S-DEA suggest opportunities for
significant energy input reduction for the CT options,
as well as TT. For example, Table 1 presents the
possible reduction in energy input use through
benchmarking for ST (the representative CA option)
and for TT. It is interesting to note that the efficient
use of inputs for TT is not on par with those of ST;
because of its inherent resource saving principles,
wheat farmers employing ST
operate at a higher efficiency
frontier than TT farmers.
Perhaps most importantly from
the perspective of the farmers,
the benchmarking allows on
average, a 7.4%, 7.6% , 8.7%
and 12.9% decrease in energy
input costs in case of BP,
PTOS,
ST,
and
TT,
respectively (Figures 2 and 3).
Table 1. Energy input use benchmarking of CA [ST] and TT through technical efficiency
improvements
ST (n=82)
Actual use
Eff. use
Human labour
psd/ha
57.55 (31.74)
54.97 (29.47)
Diesel fuel
litres/ha 44.53 (11.68)
40.06 (9.61)
Nitrogen (N)
Kg/ha
111.3 (32.90)
97.75 (24.83)
Kg/ha
44.66 (20.19)
40.54 (15.85)
Phosphorous (P2O5)
Kg/ha
70.09 (27.33)
60.35 (20.66)
Potassium (K2O)
Pesticides
Kg/ha
1.88 (1.72)
1.05 (0.91)
3
M /ha
2,493 (988.2)
2,346 (853.0)
Irrigation water
Seed (wheat)
Kg/ha
128.9 (31.55)
126.4 (22.29)
Note: mean values are shown, with standard deviations inside parentheses.
Energy inputs
Unit
TT (n=82)
Actual use
83.20 (45.40)
57.51 (10.04)
141.5 (40.90)
78.85 (29.58)
70.09 (30.81)
2.70 (2.56)
3,770 (797.2)
168.5 (28.79)
Eff. use
71.94 (24.00)
48.22 (11.80)
124.0 (20.99)
66.23 (14.21)
64.46 (25.15)
1.38 (1.16)
3,627 (609.8)
161.7 (24.31)
The Tobit results indicate that education, training, experience in CT, and the split application
of nitrogen positively affect energy input use efficiency, while the delayed application of
fertilizers and the frequency of advice received from input dealers negatively affect energy
inputs use and efficiency (Table 2). Private agro-input dealers are sought after more often for
advice than extension; they are likely to be biased towards intensive input use and therefore
are not a reliable source of information. This study clearly demonstrates the superiority of
conservation tillage in terms of input use efficiency; it also highlights the importance of
educating farmers regarding efficient input management (in particular for nitrogen) in order
to achieve more optimal and profitable cropping systems.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
25
Table 2. Tobit model estimates: determinants of energy input use efficiency
Variable
Estimate
Pr (> t)1
Cultivable land owned (ha)
0.00 (0.00)
0.34
Distance to the main road (kms)
0.01 (0.01)
0.45
Distance to the CA hub (kms)
0.00 (0.00)
0.07
Education (years)
0.01*** (0.00)
0.00
Age (years)
0.00 (0.00)
0.74
Frequency of advice received from input dealer (nos.)
-0.03*** (0.00)
0.00
Training (nos.)
0.02** (0.00)
0.00
Experience in CA (nos.)
0.01*** (0.00)
0.00
Access to credit (dummy)
0.00 (0.01)
0.65
Involvement in farming (ordered: 1,2,3)
-0.02* (0.01)
0.03
Household size (nos.)
0.00 (0.00)
0.73
Off-farm income (%)
0.00 (0.00)
0.09
Livestock owned (nos.)
0.00 (0.00)
0.21
Awareness on soil and water conservation (dummy)
-0.01 (0.01)
0.37
Split application of nitrogen (dummy)
0.06*** (0.01)
0.00
Distance to the market (kms)
0.00 (0.00)
0.57
Application of nitrogen before irrigation (dummy)
0.01 (0.01)
0.40
Delay in nitrogen application at crown root stage (dummy)
-0.04** (0.01)
0.01
1
p-value [Pr (>t)]: probability of obtaining a test statistic < 0.05 denotes the significant effect of the
exogenous variable on TE.
References
Mottaleb KA, Mohanty S (2014) Farm size and profitability of rice farming under rising input costs.
Journal of Land Use Science.
Bogetoft P, Otto L (2011) Benchmarking with DEA, SFA, and R, Springer-Verlag.
Li Q (1996) Nonparametric testing of closeness between two unknown distribution functions.
Econometric Reviews 15: 261-274.
Tone K (2001) A slack-based measure of efficiency in data envelopment analysis. European Journal
of Operational Research 130: 498-500.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
26
Cost Effective Small No-till Seeder for Two Wheel Tractor in Bangladesh
Md. Israil Hossain1, Jeff Esdaile2, MK Gathala3, TP Tiwari3 and Md. Ilias Hossain1
1
Regional Wheat Research Centre, BARI, Rajshahi, Bangladesh, [email protected];
[email protected]
2
Agricultural Consultant, ACIAR Project, NSW, Australia; [email protected]
3
CIMMYT Bangladesh, Dhaka; [email protected]; [email protected]
Introduction
Conservation agriculture (CA) based two wheel tractor (2WT) operated seeding implements
are becoming popular among farmers. About 700,000 2WT are operating in Bangladesh. In
Bangladesh, no-till seeder of 2WT was first developed in WRC, BARI with FAO-CIMMYT
supported programme (2003-04). This seeder had no press wheel and limitation to bold size
seeds sowing. The no-till seeder was improved with ACIAR support with the introduction of
lighter weight toolbar frame, press wheel attachment, seed and fertilizer box fixing over the
handle bar of a tractor for free flow of seeds to ground (Hossain et al., 2009). This seeder
performed better through crop residue but operators were still not satisfied due to the height
of seed box which blocked the forward view of the field being seeded. Therefore, a userfriendly, small 2WT no till seeder was developed capable of handling most seeds and
managing residue properly.
Materials and methods
Two wheel tractor operated no-till seeder is a pull type seeder and it has been
developed in BARI Rajshahi. The major components and specifications are
shown in Table 1. All accessories were set up under the handle bar of the
tractor. Field performance and adaptive trials were conducted in the farmers’
fields by attaching a 12Hp Chinese Dongfeng 2WT in North West drought
prone area during 2011-14 for wheat, mungbean, chickpea, maize and rice
establishment (Fig.1).
Figure 1. 2WT
operated no till seeder
Table 1. Specification of 2WT operated no-till seeder and accessories
S.N.
1
2
3
Items of no-till seeder
Power
Hitch plate
Toolbar frame
4
5
6
7
8
Seed & fertilizer box
Seed meter
mechanism
Furrow opener
Press wheel
Power transmission
9
10
Depth control bar
Over all dimension
Specification
12-16 Hp, 2WT; one operator
120 x 150 mm; Steel plate
800 x 1120 mm; 3 bar; 50mm Sq
stainless steel
800x330 mm; 22 gauge steel plate
170 mm, Inclined plate, variable
cell size
510x70x10mm“T” type; Steel
250-50 mm; rubber coated
Chain No. 428 with different size
sprocket
460 x 10 mm steel bar
2460x1120x1200 mm weight; 115
kg (without engine)
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
Remarks
Dongfeng type
Clump and lock pin used
Middle bar position
adjustable
Plate adjustable 30-60o
position
Using used car leaf spring
Seeding row adjustable
Power from wheel axel
Turning 1.5 m space
27
Field performances of the seeder were recorded as per Regional Network of Agricultural
Machinery (RNAM) Test Code. Cost was calculated according to the farm machinery
utilization method (Hunt, 1995).
Results and Discussion
Field performance of the no-till seeder for wheat, maize, mungbean, chickpea establishment
in several farmers’ field indicated that crops can be established immediately after rice harvest
using residual soil moisture. There was enough ground clearance (45 cm) between soil
surface and toolbar frame. Furrow opener layout facilitated crop residue passage without
blockage. Row positions can be adjusted sliding the clamp of tynes on the toolbar frame.
Effective field capacity of the seeder was 0.12 ha/hr. Seeding with 4 tynes was more
appropriate for soft to medium hard soil and 3 tynes for hard soils. The inclined plate seed
metering device performed satisfactorily with small to large seeds (Table 2).
The seeder was tested in a wheat-mungbean-rice crop rotation lasting 4 years at Rajshahi
where the soil type is dominantly silty clay loam. Rice was seeded directly in
unploughed/unpuddled soil. There were no significant yield variations between no-till and
conventional method (Table 3). Weed management in no-till rice cultivation is still
challenging to convince traditional rice farmers.
Table 2. Crop establishment by no-till seeder
Parameter
Variety
Seed rate (kg/ha)
Row to row spacing (cm)
Average seed to seed distance (cm)
Number of row per pass
Depth of planting (cm)
Plant population (m2)
Width of soil opening slits (cm)
Planting uniformity (%)
Wheat
Prodip
120
20
1
4
4
198
2-3
85
Maize
NK 40
20
60
20
2
5
9
2.5-3
95
Mungbean
BARI Mug-6
23
30
5
3
4
34
2-3
88
Chickpea
BARI Sola 9
35
40
8-10
3
5
32
3
94
Table 3. Comparison of yield (t/ha) between no till and conventional planting method
Wheat
Year
2011
2012
2013
2014
LSD
(0.05)
Mungbean
Maize
Rice
Chickpea
No till
Conv.
No till
Conv.
No till
Conv.
No till
3.6
3.7
3.7
3.9
3.3
3.3
3.4
3.5
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9
3.4
3.5
3.63
3.72
3.5
3.7
3.6
4.0
8.3
8.2
8.6
8.8
Conv
.
8.7
8.4
8.7
8.9
0.12
0.11
0.11
0.12
0.119
0.11
0.26
0.23
1.8
2.1
1.7
Conv
.
1.2
1.2
1.1
0.23
0.19
No till
Planting cost and break-even point used for no-till seeder was calculated on the basis of fixed
cost and variable cost. There were significant cost differences between no-till and
conventional practice (Table 4). Break-even point of no till seeder was 4.0 ha.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
28
Table 4. Comparison of cost of planting by no-till and conventional system
Cost of planting (Tk./ha)
Wheat
Mungbean
Maize
No till seeder
2175
2175
1975
Conventional method
5437
5437
14500
**
**
**
1 US$= Tk.78.0 ** indicates highly significant at 1% level
Sl No.
1
2
Planting system
Chickpea
2175
5437
**
Rice
2175
8675
**
The 2WT (9Kw) no-till seeder can pull 4 tynes in soft to medium hard soil but 3 tynes in hard
soil and it was capable of seeding through heavy rice and wheat residue (1.5 - 2.4 t/ha)
without blockages as there are sufficient clearance between toolbar frame and ground surface.
The seeder is low cost (US$ 350-400; without power unit), light in weight and local
manufacturer can fabricate complete set of no-till seeder within a short period of time. The
no-till seeder can be used in other Asian countries where the 2WT is the common farming
equipment.
Acknowledgments
CIMMYT and ACIAR for technical and financial support to conduct this research work and
to all farmers and technicians associated with this no till seeder work.
References
Hossain MI, Esdaile RJ, Bell RW, Holland C, Haque E, Sayre K, Alam M (2009). Actual Challenges:
Developing low cost no-till seeding technologies for heavy residues; Small-scale no-till seeders
for two wheel tractors. Proceedings of 4th World Congress on Conservation agriculture, New
Delhi.
Hunt D (1995) Farm Power and Machinery Management. Cost Determination. 9th Edition, Iowa State
University Press, America.
Saunders DA (1988) Crop management research: Summary of results, 1983-88. Monograph No.5:
Wheat Research Centre, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
29
Session 2
POSTERS
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
30
Impacts of Conservation Tillage Machinery on Service Provider’s
Livelihood: A Farm Level Study
M. A. Monayem Miah1 and M.E. Haque2
1
Agricultural Economics Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur,
[email protected]
2
Adjunct Associate Professor, Murdoch University, Australia, [email protected]
Introduction
Most tillage operations in Bangladesh are done by power tiller to lower cost and decrrease
time required for cultivation (Islam, 2000; Miah, 2000; Barton, 2000; Miah et al., 2002;
Haque et al., 2008). The traditional tillage method reduces soil organic carbon at double rate
and decreases soil fertility (Grace, 2003), has losses of irrigation water and soils (Sayre and
Hobbs, 2003), and damages the ecological environment (Grace, 2003). Therefore, the concept
of conservation tillage has arisen all over the world which is new in Bangladesh. A power
tiller operated seeder (PTOS) is a two wheel tractor operated seed drill, widely used for
establishment of various crops. The sowing of seeds and laddering operations are completed
simultaneously in a single pass using PTOS in many areas of Bangladesh. Most of the grain
seeds like wheat, paddy, maize, jute, pulses, oilseeds etc are sown in line using PTOS. The
owners of PTOS are using this device for their own land cultivation and earning cash income
through custom hiring to other farmers. The custom hiring of PTOS is highly profitable at
farm level (Miah et al. 2010) and many service providers could improve their livelihood
through this machine. The socioeconomic impacts of this popular conservation tillage
implement have not been done in the country. Therefore, the present study was conducted to
explore the socio-economic profile of the PTOS service providers; to find out the usages
pattern and problems of PTOS at service providers’ level; and to determine the impacts of
PTOS on the livelihoods of service providers.
Materials and methods
This study was conducted at four Upazillas namely Bochagonj, Fulbari and Dinajpur Sadar
under Dinajpur district and Baliakandi under Rajbari district. The reason of this selection was
that PTOS is being widely used in Dinajpur and Rajbari districts. A total of 53 service
providers taking 47 persons from Rajbari and six persons from Dinajpur district were
randomly selected for the study. Data and information were gathered from selected service
providers of PTOS through administering household survey using pre-tested interview
schedules during July, 2008. The impacts of PTOS on the livelihoods of service providers
were assessed through analyzing ‘Before’ and ‘After’ socio-economic standings of the service
providers.
Results and discussion
The study reveals that PTOS has made a tremendous improvement in the livelihoods of its
service providers in the study areas. The average land holding has increased by 8.6%.
Significant increase was registered in the value of calves (33%), goats (82%) and chickens
(27%). The annual household income was significantly increased by 63.4% during postownership period. Both the quantity and value of farm equipment and household assets were
significantly increased after having PTOS. Again, the number and value of semi-pacca
building were significantly increased by 42% and 69% respectively during post-ownership
period. On the contrary, the numbers of Katcha-pacca and Katcha houses decreased by 3.7%
and 17.1% respectively. The amount of loan received during PTOS ownership period was
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
31
about 50.5% higher than that of pre-ownership period. The increased income of beneficiaries
are mostly spent on farm machinery, nutritious food, clothes, health care, education expenses
and making of houses that indicate higher standard of living to some extent, compared to pre
PTOS service period. The service providers encountered problems like higher fuel cost, lack
of riding facility, non-availability and higher price of spare parts, roller jam, and lack of
trained driver.
Due to higher adoption of PTOS, financial support and technical assistance should be made
available by the government of Bangladesh for service providers and local manufacturers.
Fuel cost may be reduced for small holder farmers. Training on repair and maintenance of
PTOS for operators is highly required. Furthermore, research work should be carried out to
improve the machine with riding facilities and adding fertilizers application system with
existing PTOS that will improve fertilizer uses efficiencies.
References
Barton D (2000) Options for farm power usein primary cultivationon small farms: Summary of main
findings. Journal of Agricultural Machinery and Mechanization, 4(1): 1-4, 2000.
Grace PR (2003) Rice-Wheat System and Climatic Change. Addressing Resource Conservation Issues
in Rice-Wheat Systems of South Asia: A Resource Book. Rice-Wheat Consortium for the IndoGangetic Plains - International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, New Delhi, PP. 63-67
Haque ME, Hossain MI, Wohab MA, Sayre KD, Bell RW, Hossain MI and Timsina J (2008)
Agricultural Mechanization in Bangladesh and Conservation Agriculture: The Opportunities,
Priorities, Practices and Possibilities. Forth International Conference of Conservation Agriculture.
Forthcoming. February 2009, New Delhi, India.
Islam MS (2000) Socio-economic impacts of power tiller adoption on small farming in Bangladesh. J.
of Agril. Mach. & Mech. 4(1): 77-85.
Miah MAM, Islam MS, and Miah MTH (2002) Socio-economic impacts of farm mechanisation on
the livelihoods of rural labourers in Bangladesh. Journal of Farm Economy, 12: 147-162.
Miah MAM, Haque ME, Baksh ME and Hossain MI (2010) Economic analysis of power tiller
operated seeder operations at farm level, Journal of Agricultural Engineering, The Institution of
Engineers, Bangladesh, Vol. 38/AE, No. 1, June 2010.
Miah TH (2000) Economic impacts of using power tillers and draught animals for primary cultivation
of small farms in Bangladesh. J. of Agril. Mach. & Mech. 4(1): 69-75.
Sayre KD and Hoobs P (2003) Raised Bed System of Cultivation for Irrigated Production Condition.
Bed planting course, CIMMYT, Mexico.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
32
Weed Management in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Minimum
Tillage and Crop Residues
M.M. Hossain1, M. Begum1, M.M. Rahman1 and A. Hashem2
1
Department Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University. E-mail:
[email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]
2
Principal Research Scientist (weed science), Department of Agriculture and Food, Western
Australia. [email protected]
Introduction
Different tillage system can influence the composition of weed species and changing from
traditional tillage to conservation (minimum tillage) can lead to shifts in weed flora in
agricultural plant communities (Ball and Miller, 1993). The shift from conventional tillage to
conservation, can make control weed difficult (Andrew and Kelton, 2011). Many weed
species flourish when intense tillage operations are minimized and therefore, minimum tillage
has been characterized by greater weed densities than conventional tillage systems
(Sosnoskie et al., 2006). With a reduction in tillage, farmers lose weed control offered from
seed burial and pre-sowing germination. As a result, producers wishing to adopt minimum
tillage are likely to be primarily dependent upon on the extensive use of chemicals applied,
such as pre-sowing, pre- emergence and post-emergence. But options for weed control must
reduce selection pressure for herbicide resistance as well as provide season-long weed
suppression. A cover crop or previous crop residue help in reducing weed infestation through
reduced weed emergence. An on-farm experiment was conducted, to examine the
performance of tillage practices and residue levels on crop and weeds.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted on farm at the Vangnamari union under Gouripur upazila of
Mymensingh district of Bangladesh from 28 November 2013 to 23 February 2014. Wheat cv.
BARI Gom-26, was sown with 6 tillage and weed control practices viz., W1: Conventional
tillage + one weeding (Control); W2: Roundup (RU) + Strip tillage (ST); W3: RU+ ST + Preemergence (PE) herbicide (Pendimethalin); W4: RU+ ST + Post-emergence (PO) herbicide
(Affinity 50.75 WP); W5: RU+ ST + PE + PO; W6: RU+ ST + weed-free, and 2 levels of
crop residue viz., Cr1: Current (20%) residue and Cr2: Increased (50%) residue. The
treatments were laid out in randomized complete block design with 4 replications using unit
plots of 9 m × 5 m. Weed species and plant densities were recorded randomly from 4
locations of 0.25 m2 each at 21 days after sowing (DAS), 40 DAS and flowering stages.
Weed dry matter assessed by harvesting biomass which was then oven dried at 700C for 72
hours. The crop was harvested at maturity from 3 locations of 3 m2 quadrats and grain yield
was recorded. Data were subjected to ANOVA using MSTAT-C and means separated by
Duncan's Multiple Range Test.
Results and Discussions
Weed infestation
The experimental plots were infested with 18 weed species belonging to 7 families, of which
15 were annuals and 3 perennials (Table 1). Of these weed species, 6 belonged to Poaceae, 5
to Solanaceae, 2 to each of Asteraceae and polygonaceae and 1 each of the remaining 3
families. The 5 most abundant weeds were Alternanthera sessilis, Cynodon dactylon,
Echinochloa crussgalli, Cyperus rotundus and Eclipta alba.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
33
Table 1. Weed infestation in the experiment plots at the Vangnamari union under Guoripur
upazila of Mymensingh district of Bangladesh in 2013 - 2014 wheat crop (*annual species,
** perennial species)
Species
Alternanthera
sessilis*
Centipeda minima **
Eclipta alba *
Spilanthes acmella*
Cyperus rotundus**
Echinochloa
crusgalli*
E. colonum *
Digitaria sanguinalis
*
Eleusine indica *
Family
Amaranthaceae
Density
404
Species
Cynodon dactylon**
Family
Poaceae
Density
303
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Campanulaceae
3
129
13
Poaceae
Polygonaceae
Polygonaceae
2
1
1
Cyperaceae
Poaceae
169
199
Parapholis incurva*
Rumex maritimus *
Polygonum
coccineum *
Physalis minima *
Solanum torvum *
Solanaceae
Solanaceae
9
17
Poaceae
Poaceae
41
85
S. carolinense *
S. rostrum *
Solanaceae
Solanaceae
22
2
Poaceae
9
Nicotiana
plumbaginifolia *
Solanaceae
12
Effect of tillage on weed and crop
High weed density in the untreated control (W1) has resulted in significant reduction (7%) of
wheat yield (Table 2). Roundup application at pre-sowing (W2) did significantly reduced
weed density and biomass but this reduction was not high enough to increase grain yield of
wheat compared to untreated weedy treatment (W1). Although application of Roundup plus a
pre-emergence with or without a post-emergence application of herbicide significantly
reduced weed density and biomass, these treatments did not improve wheat yield compared to
Roundup alone.
Table 2. Effect of tillage on density, dry matter and yield of wheat at the Vangnamari union
under Guoripur upazila of Mymensingh district of Bangladesh
Tillage and weed
control
W1: Conventional
tillage + one weeding
W2: Roundup (RU) +
Strip tillage (ST)
W3: RU+ ST + Preemergence (PE)
herbicide
W4: RU+ ST + Postemergence (PO)
herbicide
W5: RU+ ST + PE
herbicide + PO
herbicide
W6: RU+ ST + weed
free
CV (%)
LSD(0.05)
Weed density (no. m-2)
21
40
Flowering
DAS
DAS
Weed dry matter (gm-2)
21
40
Flowering
DAS
DAS
Yield
(t ha-1)
30 a
23 a
46 a
19 a
14 a
24 a
3.28 c
21 b
17 b
30 b
18 a
13 a
16 b
3.33 bc
16 c
15 c
24 c
16 b
12 ab
13 c
3.39 b
17 c
15 c
25 c
14 c
10 c
13 c
3.40 b
15 d
13 d
20 d
12 d
8d
10 d
3.42 b
0e
0e
0e
0e
0e
0e
3.52 a
7.28
1.22
9.15
1.29
6.94
1.69
7.25
0.98
2.40
0.23
6.17
0.80
2.21
0.08
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
34
The highest weed density at 21 DAS (30), 40 DAS (23) and flowering (46) and dry matter
19, 14 and 24 gm-2 on that 3 times, respectively and lowest yield (3.2 t ha-1) were found in
W1 while the value for density and dry matter were nil in W6. However, the lowest density
15, 13 and 19 m-2 and dry matter 12, 8 and 10 gm-2 were obtained at 21 DAS, 40 DAS and at
flowering, respectively, on W5. W6 yielded the highest (3.52 t ha-1) while the second highest
(3.4 t ha-1) from W5. The second highest yields were also produced from W4 and W3 (Table
2).
Effect of residues on weed and wheat
28
15
9
11
14
12
15
18
12
15
14
20
20 % residue
50% residue
20
25
11
30
3.6
3.73
10
Density
Dry matter
Flowering
40 DAS
21 DAS
Flowering
0
40 DAS
5
21 DAS
Weed density, dry matter
and wheat yield
Figure 1 reveals that, the weed
density at 50% residues was reduced
by 19 to 30% compared to 20%
residues suggesting that higher
residues significantly reduced weed
emergence. Biomass of weed at 50%
residues was also significantly lower
than 20% residues further suggesting
that high residues not only reduced
density of weeds but also reduced
weed plant size. The reduction in
weed density and biomass due to
increased residues has increased
wheat yield by about 4%.
Yield
Figure 1. Effect of residues on weed and wheat
Reference
Andrew P and Jessica K (2011) Weed Control in Conservation Agriculture, Herbicides, Theory and
Applications, Prof. Marcelo Larramendy (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-975-2. InTech, Available:
http://www.intechopen.com/books/herbicides-theory-and-applications/weed-control-inconservation agriculture
Ball DA and Miller SD (1989) A comparison of techniques for estimation of arable soil seedbanks
and their relationship to weed flora. Weed Research, 29: 365-373.
Sosnoskie LM, Herms CP and Cardina J (2006) Weed seedbank community composition in a 35 years
old tillage and rotation experiment. Weed Sci.54, 263-273.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
35
Cowpea an efficient intercrop in banana improves soil health and income
under Conservation Agriculture Production System (CAPS)
S. N. Dash1, S. Behera1, K. N. Mishra1, P. K. Roul1, C. Chan Halbrendt2, T.W.Idol2 and A.
Pradhan2
1
Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, India
University of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii
[email protected]; [email protected]
2
Introduction
Vast areas of coastal Odisha in eastern India are inhabited mostly by poor people practicing
rainfed agriculture and suffering from resource degradation, soil erosion and run off leading
to low productive capacity. Persistent use of conventional farming practices based on
extensive tillage combined with in situ burning of crop residues have magnified these
problems. Intercropping and cover cropping within banana fields, an important fruit crop of
the region, may help to address these problems (Yadukumar, 2007). The present study had
the objective of finding more efficient intercrops or mulching treatments to improve farmers’
income and soil health.
Materials and Methods
A banana field was selected in tropical coastal Odisha during 2012-13. The seven treatments
in the inter row space of banana included four intercrops; a polythene mulch; an easily
decomposable Glyricidia maculeata leaf mulch and a control, i.e. without any intercrop or
mulch. The intercrops were leguminous vegetable cowpea and horse gram; non leguminous
bottle gourd and sweet potato. There were three replicates of each treatment. The soil of the
experimental site was slightly acidic (pH 5.5), medium in organic carbon (6.0 g kg-1) with
low available phosphorus (10.5 kg P ha-1) and potassium (93.6 kg K ha-1). All the intercrops
were rainfed while banana was drip irrigated after the rainy season. All the crops were raised
following standard cultural practices. Minimal tillage and residue incorporation in soil were
followed for all the intercrops. The banana plants were recorded for their growth and yield
related characters while the soil physical properties and major plant nutrients in the soil were
assessed before and after complete cropping sequence. Economic analysis of all the
treatments was based on the cost of inputs in the local market and sale price of produce at the
farm gate. Banana equivalent yield was calculated by converting yield of intercrops to the
yield of banana on the basis of prevailing market prices of the individual crops.
Results and Discussion
Experimental results revealed a highly significant increase in growth characters and yield of
banana plant by intercropping with cowpea which is in agreement with the findings of Rao
and Reid (1987). In the absence of any weed control measure, which is in line with
conservation agriculture, banana yields were not high. Polythene mulch had least weed
incidence in the initial stage but could not maintain weed control later on due its low
durability. On the other hand sweet potato controlled the weeds very effectively due to its
good plant stand; quick growth and high canopy cover (96 %). Soil physical and chemical
parameters were influenced to a great extent by the treatments. Though pH and bulk density
were not affected, soil organic carbon significantly increased by 25 % from surface
decomposition of Glyricidia leaf mulch and 18.3 % by intercropped cowpea over the initial
status (6 g kg-1) at the end of one cropping cycle. Significant increase in available
phosphorus in soil could be observed by 26 % due to improved nutrient cycling through
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
36
higher crop residue inputs associated with lower nutrient losses under minimum tillage
system. Maximum banana yield (34.9 t ha-1) was obtained from polythene mulch but the net
return from complete crop cycle was reduced on account of its high cost (US $ 3507). In
general, we found that banana intercropped with cowpea could achieve significantly
increased banana equivalent yield (40.9 t ha-1) and net return (US $ 3752 hectare-1) and
therefore would find wide acceptance by the farmers.
Table 1. Effect of various intercrops and other treatments on weed incidence, yield and
economics of banana intercrop system
Treatment
Banana + Cowpea
Banana +
Horse gram
Banana +
Bottle gourd
Banana +
Sweet potato
Banana
+
G.maculeata leaf
Banana
+
Polythene mulch
Banana (Control)
SEm(±)
CD (P = 0.05)
Canopy
cover
(%)
Dry
weight of
weeds
(t ha-1)
Banana
bunch
yield
(t ha-1)
Total
banana
equivalent
yield
(t ha-1)
Total cost
of
cultivation
($ ha-1)
Total
Net Return
($ ha-1)
Benefit:Cost
Ratio in the
complete
system
84
2.04
34.5
40.9
3179
3752
2.18
85
2.21
32.5
36.2
2691
3437
2.28
71
2.73
29.0
33.0
2839
2758
1.97
96
2.00
30.1
36.0
3103
3006
1.97
0
2.43
31.7
31.7
2529
2840
2.12
87
3.18
34.9
34.9
3507
2401
1.68
0
5.59
0.21
0.66
22.5
0.65
2.01
22.5
0.68
2.10
2141
1679
1.78
References
Rao MM, Reid ED (1987) Studies on plantain-based cropping systems in the Windward Islands.
International cooperation for effective plantain and banana research. Proceedings of the third
meeting, Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 27-31 May, 1985: 46-54.
Yadukumar N (2007) Development of sustainable cashew based cropping systems- Inter and mixed
cropping with cashew. National Seminar on Research, Development and Marketing of Cashew,
20-21 Nov., 2007, Goa. Souvenir and Extended Summaries. pp.62.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
37
Productivity, Profitability and Soil Properties as Influenced by Maize
Based Conservation Agriculture Production Systems in Rainfed Uplands of
India
P. K. Roul1, K. N. Mishra 1, S. N. Dash1 , Aliza Pradhan2, T.W. Idol2 , C. Chan Halbrendt2
1
2
Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, India, [email protected]
University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA, [email protected]
Introduction
Rainfed agriculture accounts for two-thirds of total cropped area and half of the total value of
agricultural output in India. Small land holdings, rainfall uncertainty, and few resources
constrain productivity. Participatory methods were used to identify conservation agriculture
production systems (CAPS) to overcome productivity constraints and improve livelihoods.
An investigation was made to evaluate CAPS effects on crop productivity, profitability, and
soil properties.
Materials and methods
An on-station experiment was conducted for 3 consecutive years. In the 1st season (JuneOctober) of cropping cycle four treatments were applied in triplicate:
T1: Conventional tillage with sole maize (Zea mays); T2: Conventional tillage with maize +
cowpea (Vigna unguiculata); T3: Minimum tillage with sole maize;T4: Minimum tillage with
maize + cowpea. Improved varieties of maize and cowpea were used.
In the 2nd season (November-January) of cropping cycle, residual effects of four treatments
(main plot) and direct effects of cover crop treatments (sub plot) were tested in a split plot
design:
NCC: no cover crop (fallow); CC1: Mustard (Brassica juncea) as a cover crop; CC2:
Horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) as a cover crop.
Results and discussion
There was no effect of tillage or intercropping on maize yield (Figs. 1 and 2). However,
cowpea provided additional yield with intercropping. Minimum tillage resulted in 27% labor
savings with the highest profitability of $403 ha -1 yr-1 for MT-M+C and the lowest
profitability of $311 ha -1 yr -1 for CT-M. No significant effect of treatments was noticed on
bulk density, organic carbon, pH, and nutrient contents. Conventional tillage had more microaggregates (53-125 µ) while minimum tillage had more macro-aggregates (>250 µ) (Fig. 3).
More macro-aggregates implied more resistance to dispersion and thereby caused less soil
erosion.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
38
2011
8000
2012
2013
6000
4000
2000
0
CT-M
CT-M+C
MT-M
MT-M+C
-1
Figure 1. Effect of CAPS on maize yield (kg ha )
15000
Horsegram
10000
b
Mustard
Cowpea
a
Maize
a
b
5000
0
CT-M
CT-M+C
MT-M
MT-M+C
-1
Figure 2. Effect of CAPS on maize equivalent yield (kg ha )
>250 microns
100
b
80
53-250 microns
a
b
a
60
40
20
0
Initial
b
b
a
a
CT-M
CT-M+C
MT-M
MT-M+C
NCC
Horsegram Mustard
Figure 3. Effect of CAPS on soil water stable aggregates
Conclusion
Minimum tillage with intercropping is most effective in terms of crop productivity, labor
saving and profitability.The effect of tillage, intercropping and cover crops on soil physical,
chemical and biological status need multiple years of adoption to demonstrate effects.
Project was funded by USAID SANREM FtF Innovation Lab.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
39
Aerobic rice cultivation on adoption of water saving technologies and
improving agronomic practices during summer season under conservation
agriculture
A. Zaman and Gangarani Th.
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, West Bengal, India
[email protected]
Introduction
Increasing physical water scarcity is a main constraint for irrigated rice (Oryza sativa)
production (Peng et al., 2006). By 2025, the per capita available water resources in Asia are
expected to decline by 15–54 percent compared with 1990 (Moya et al., 2001). The supply of
water for irrigation is endangered by declining water quality, declining resource availability,
increased competition from other users, and increasing costs.
At the farm level, water inputs can be reduced by decreasing the relatively large and
unproductive losses from seepage, percolation, and evaporation. Water-saving irrigation
technologies such as saturated soil culture and alternate wetting and drying can drastically
diminish these losses. In Asia, upland rice is aerobically grown with minimal inputs and it is
usually planted as a low yielding subsistence crop in the adverse upland conditions (Lafitte et
al., 2002). With predictions suggesting that many Asian countries will have severe water
problems by 2025, aerobic rice under conservation agriculture gives hope to farmers who do
not have access to enough water to grow flooded lowland rice. A new concept of growing
rice using less water is aerobic rice: high-yielding rice grown in non-puddled aerobic soil
using supplementary irrigation just like upland crops. Aerobic rice is crop grown in welldrained, non-puddled & non-saturated soils without ponded water (Bouman et al., 2007).
Growing rice in conservation agriculture, with the use of external inputs such as
supplementary irrigation, fertilizers and aiming at high yields (Bouman et. al., 2007) has been
established. Main driving force behind aerobic rice is economic water use. Farmers in Brazil,
China, and India are pioneering this system where water is scarce or costly. Preliminary
studies in Italian climatic environments have shown promising results when rice was grown
under dry land conditions, using sprinkler or flushing irrigation rather than flooding,
indicating that rice does not necessary require flooded conditions for high yield and good
grain quality (Losavio et.al., 1997; Russo and Nardi, 1996). However, new aerobic rice
varieties and specially designed management strategies are needed if this system is going to
be successful. Through the adoption of water-saving irrigation technologies, rice land will
shift away from being continuously anaerobic to being partly or even completely aerobic.
Materials and Methods
A field experiment on growth and yield of aerobic rice in summer season under various
moisture regimes and planting techniques in upland condition was carried out at the Regional
Research Station of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur (India) during
summer seasons of 2011 and 2012. The station located in a sub-tropical region at 23◦N
latitude, 89◦E longitude and at an elevation of 9.75 m above sea level. The soil of the
experimental field is sandy clay loam in texture and the depth of the soil is shallow to
medium with total nitrogen (0.072 %), moderate in phosphorus (15.70 kg ha-1) and potassium
(193.58 kg ha-1) content. The soil was moderately alkaline in reaction (pH 6.8). Organic
carbon content of soil was 0.67 per cent. The bulk density of soil was 1.47 g cc-1. The
experiment was laid out in a split plot design and replicated three times. The treatment consist
of three irrigation regimes viz., IW/CPE =1, IW/CPE =1.5 and IW/CPE = 2 and four
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
40
treatments on planting techniques viz., P1: Sprouted seeds, P2: Non-sprouted seed, P3:
Soaking seeds overnight (12 hrs), P4: Soaking seeds overnight (12 hrs) followed by shade
drying.
Result and Discussion
The results revealed that scheduling of irrigation at IW/CPE = 2 registered significantly
maximum growth attributes in viz., plant height (85.98 cm), tiller number (374.17 m-2), leaf
area index (3.26), dry matter accumulation (974.97 g m-2), crop growth rate (8.22 g m-2d-1) .
Root characters viz., root length (24 cm), root volume (12.72 cc hill-1 ) and root weight
(121.95 g hill-1) also registered maximum when irrigation was scheduled at IW/CPE = 2. The
yield attributes panicle length (21.29 cm), filled grains per panicle (84.46) test weight (16.80
g), and also grain yield (4.13 t ha-1) and straw yield (5.84 t ha-1) were significantly higher
with scheduling of irrigation at IW/CPE = 2 irrigation regime. Amongst planting technique,
sprouted seeds showed maximum growth attributes viz., plant height (85.98 cm), tiller
number (376.89 m-2), leaf area index (3.26), dry matter accumulation (1018 g m-2) crop
growth rate (8.18 g m-2d-1). Root characters viz., root length (24.24 cm), root volume (12.59 g
hill-1) and root weight (124.05 g hill-1) was significantly higher when sprouted seeds were
used. The same trend was followed in yield attributes viz., panicle length (21.38 cm), filled
grains per panicle (88.11) test weight (17.12 g), grain yield (4.16 t ha-2) (Table 1) and straw
yield (5.84 t ha-1. Application of irrigation at IW/CPE ratio of 2.0 along with sprouted seeds
recorded significantly maximum water use efficiency (3.84 kg ha-1_mm) than rest of the
irrigation regimes. With regard to the production economics in pooled data, highest gross
return, net return and consequently highest B:C ratio was obtained in the treatment
combination IW/CPE of 2.0 coupled with sprouted seeds (IRs 61000, Rs 2574 and 1.73
respectively). On the basis of results it could be concluded that, scheduling of irrigation at
IW/CPE = 2 irrigation regime coupled with sprouted rice seeds soaked for 48 hrs was found
suitable as upland aerobic summer rice for maximum growth, yield and monetary benefit.
And that saved up to 40% of irrigation requirement for rice cultivation during summer season
under aerobic situation.
References
Bouman BAM, Humphreys E, Tuong TP, Barker R, (2007) Rice and water. Adv Argon., 92:187–237.
Lafitte RH, Courtois B, Arraudeau M, (2002) Genetic improvement of rice in aerobic systems:
progress from yield to genes. Field Crops Res, 75:171-190.
Losavio N, Ventrella D, Vonella AV, Russo S, Arcuti P, (1997). Coltivazione del riso “in asciutta”. In
: L’Informatore Agrario, 16: 7-8
Moya P, Hong L, Dawe D, Chen CD (2001) Comparative assessment of on-farm water saving
irrigation techniques in the Zhanghe Irrigation System. Water saving irrigation for rice:
Proceedings of an International Workshop Wuhan, China. 81–96.
Peng Shao Bing, Bouman B, Visperas R, Castaneda AM, Nie Li Xiao, Park Hong Kyu, (2006)
Comparison between aerobic and flooded rice in the tropics: agronomic performance in an eightseason experiment. Field Crops Research, 96 (2/3): 252-259.
Russo S, Nardi S, (1996). Effetti della coltura asciutta sulla qualità del granello. In: L’Informatore
Agrario LII, n. 12: 75-78.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
41
Table 1. Effect of moisture regimes and planting techniques on grain yield of rice under
aerobic condition in conservation agriculture
Grain Yield (t ha-1)
2012
Treatment
2011
Pooled
Moisture regimes
I1
2.93
3.08
3.00
I2
3.46
3.61
3.54
I3
4.00
4.26
4.13
SEm( + )
0.06
0.04
0.04
CD at 5%
0.25
0.14
0.12
Planting techniques
P1
4.07
4.25
4.16
P2
3.03
3.24
3.14
P3
3.30
3.34
3.32
P4
3.45
3.76
3.60
SEm( + )
0.08
0.08
0.06
CD at 5%
0.23
0.24
0.16
I1: Irrigation when IW/CPE = 1; I2: Irrigation when IW/CPE = 1.5; I3: Irrigation when
IW/CPE = 2; P1: Sprouted seeds; P2: Non-sprouted dry seeds (control); P3: Soaking seeds
(12hrs); P4: Soaking seeds overnight (12hrs) followed by shade drying.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
42
Conservation agriculture for smallholders farming on efficient water
resources utilization to combat adverse effect of global warming
A. Zaman, D. Pal and P. B. Chakraborty
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viwsavidyala, Mohanpur West Bengal, [email protected]
Introduction
There is a nexus between conservation agriculture, water resource availability and global
warming in relation to smallholders particularly in Asia and Africa. The concept of soil
conservation means proper land use, protecting the land from all forms of deterioration,
rebuilding eroded soil, conserving moisture, proper drainage and irrigation where needed,
building of soil fertility and increasing yield and farm income at the same time. Today,
“conservation” means embracing integrated management of all natural resources such as soil,
air, water, woodland, pasture, wildlife, in short, of our environment. In broader sense, soil
and water conservation means better farming for obtaining yield on sustained basis which has
gained prime importance. Hence, appropriate system performance indicators, to assess the
sustainability as influenced by tillage methods and soil management, are now established as
Conservation Agriculture and that is paramount importance of smallholders in Asia and
Africa. Simultaneously, global warming is when the earth heats up (the temperature rises)
when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous oxide, and methane) trap heat
and light from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere, which increases the temperature. This hurts
many people, animals, and plants. Many cannot take the change, so they die. The greenhouse
effect is when the temperature rises because the sun’s heat and light is trapped in the earth’s
atmosphere. The heat and light can get through the atmosphere, but it can’t get out. As a
result, the temperature rises. Sometimes the temperature can change in a way that helps
us. The greenhouse effect makes the earth appropriate for people to live on. Without it, the
earth would be freezing, or on the other hand it would be burning hot, that would be freezing
at night because the sun would be down. Although the greenhouse effect makes the earth able
to have people living on it, if there gets to be too many gases, the earth can get unusually
warmer, and many plants, animals, and people will die. They would die because there would
be less food (plants like corn, wheat, and other vegetables and fruits). This would happen
because the plants would not be able to take the heat. Gradually, people, plants, and animals
would all die of hunger. Greenhouse gasses are gasses are in the earth’s atmosphere that
collects heat and light from the sun. With too many greenhouse gasses in the air, the earth’s
atmosphere will trap too much heat and the earth will get too hot. As a result people,
animals, and plants would die because the heat would be too strong. Global warming is
affecting many parts of the world. Global warming makes the sea rise, and when the sea
rises, the water covers many low land islands. This is a big problem for many of the plants,
animals, and people on islands particularly the smallholders in Asia and Africa becoming
worst suffers. The water covers the plants and causes some of them to die. When they die,
the animals lose a source of food, along with their habitat. Although animals have a better
ability to adapt to what happens than plants do, they may die also. When the plants and
animals die, people lose two sources of food, plant food and animal food. Global warming is
doing many things to people as well as animals and plants. It is killing algae, but it is also
destroying many huge forests. The pollution that causes global warming is linked to acid
rain. Acid rain gradually destroys almost everything it touches. Global warming is also
causing many more fires that wipe out whole forests.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
43
Adoption of conservation agriculture for smallholders
Acharya and Sharma (1994) reported the beneficial effects of conservation agriculture
systems with crop residues or mulching or green manure mulching for improving moisture
availability, controlling weeds and regulating soil temperature have been widely investigated
in rice-wheat and maize-wheat cropping systems; Sharma and Behara (2006) stated the
modern concept of conservation tillage aims at improving resource-use-efficiency with
minimum soil disturbance, soil cover through residues and adoption of spatial and temporal
crop sequences for achieving higher productivity while protecting natural resources and
environment. Lal (1995) observed that long-term and large-scale ecosystem studies are
necessary to assess the effectiveness of various conservation tillage systems in reducing
pollution of natural waters by sediments, nutrients and pesticides). Gupta et. al. (2006)
reported that area planted with wheat adopting Zero-till drill has been rapidly increasing
where rice-wheat system is now practiced well over two million hectare of arable land. Gajri
et al., (1992) stated that zero-tillage was also found feasible in winter crops, namely wheat,
mustard, linseed and chickpea following Kharif crops of maize, green gram or soybean.
Conservation tillage with mulching proved beneficial for enhancing water and nutrient use
efficiency.
Water Resource
There is also growing recognition that functionally intact and biologically complex
freshwater ecosystems provide many economically valuable commodities and services to
society (ecosystem services) beyond simply direct water supply. These services include
flood control, transportation, recreation, purification of human and industrial wastes, habitat
for plants and animals, and production of fish and other foods and marketable goods. These
ecosystem benefits are costly and often impossible to replace when aquatic systems are
degraded.
Deliberations about water allocation should therefore, always include provisions for
maintaining the integrity of freshwater ecosystems, including the need to maintain minimum
in-stream flows and to anticipate the impact of hydrologic modifications on downstream
environments (Flint et al. 1996). Otherwise, we have few safeguards that will protect the
systems that sustain us.
Besides being an integral part of the ecosystem, water is a social and economic good.
Demand for water resources of sufficient quantity and quality for human consumption,
sanitation, agricultural irrigation, and manufacturing will continue to intensify as populations
increase and as global urbanization, industrialization, and commercial development
accelerates (Flint and Houser 2001). Water runs like a river through our lives, touching
everything from our vigor and the fitness of natural ecosystems around us to farmers’ fields
and the production of goods we consume. It is critical that efforts intended to be sustainable
fully consider the health and operation of aquatic ecosystems and that the environmental
value of watersheds be recognized when making economic and social decisions on water
allocation and use.
On-farm Water Management
Selection of crop(s) and crop sequence(s) also played an important role for enhancement of
water use efficiency through crop cultivation and related agronomic practices. Conservation,
distribution and utilization of irrigation water are the basic parameters of on-farm water
management. Optimum scheduling of irrigation, suitable method adoption, conjunctive use of
rain, surface and ground water for crop cultivation having improved agro-technology
adoption and provision of drainage. Application of proper amount of water at proper time
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
44
increased the water use efficiency and crop yield maximization with given amount of water
reducing evaporation and deep percolation. Scheduling of irrigation with limited water
availability is a big challenge to the irrigation experts that needs rigorous research.
Conclusion
Research on conservation agriculture lacks systemic investigations with special reference to
smallholders. Research on conservation tillage should always be supported by detailed
analyses of soil properties, environmental factors and crop characteristics. A system approach
is essential for wide adaptation of conservation agriculture, the need of the hours for
smallholders those to be adopted successfully in a wide range of soils and environments; they
must fit into the overall scheme of the present and the future trends in the farming systems of
a region and must meet the rising social and economic aspirations of the farming community.
Long-term and large-scale ecosystem studies are necessary to assess the effectiveness of
various conservation systems in reducing pollution of natural waters by sediments, nutrients
and pesticides.
References
Acharya CL, Sharma PD (1994) Soil and Tillage Research, 32: 291-302
Dhindwal AS, Poonia SR (1994). On-farm water management – a success story. Intensive
Agriculture. 32(1-2)37-38
Flint RW, Sterrett SB, Reay WG, Oertel G.F, Dunstan WM (1996) Agricultural and environmental
sustainability: A watershed study of Virginia’s Eastern Shore. In Watershed ’96 A National
Conference on Watershed Management, edited by Tetra Tech. Washington, DC: Water
Environment Federation.
Flint RW, Houser WL (2001). Living a Sustainable Lifestyle for Our Children’s Children.
Campbell, CA: Universe.
Gajri PR, Arora VK, Prihar SS (1992) Soil and Tillage Research, 24: 167-182;
Gupta RK, Jat ML, Gill MS (2006). In: National Symposium on Conservation Agriculture and
Environment, Oct, 26-28, BHU, Varanasi;
Lal R (1995). Tillage Systems in the Tropics. pp.178;
Svadlenka R (2003) The emerging water crisis and its implications for global security. World Hunger
Year, 1:1-5.
Sharma AR, Behera UK (2006). In: National Symposium on Conservation Agriculture and
Environment, Oct, 26-28, 2006, BHU, Varanasi;
Westhurizen AJ, Annandale JG (1996) Encouraging irrigation scheduling: A Cost-benefit Approach.
Proc. of ICID/FAO Workshop, Rome, Water Report 8
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
45
Management of weeds through bio-herbicides in soybean
Debesh Pal, A. Zaman, Heipormi Sungoh and R.K.Ghosh
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture,
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur,West Bengal, India
[email protected]
Introduction
In Indian agriculture, soybean was introduced mainly as a source of protein but it also
provides oil. It is grown mostly during the kharif season producing high yield as a rainfed
crop or low yield as a summer/spring crop. Several factors are responsible for a reduction in
yield, weed plays an important role which acts also alternate host of pests having serious
effect on soybean crop. Continuous use of heavy dose of chemicals is encouraging resistance
development in different pests and endangering the ecosystem. Resistance development
among weeds to herbicides is of great concern. The yield loss due to weed in soybean was to
the tune of 20-77 percent. Resistance to specific synthetic herbicides is increasing
dramatically in the last two decades leading to lowering the land values resulting farmers to
run out of the weed controlling chemicals. Now it is imperative to concentrate on research to
find out some natural extract from plants having allelopathic effect or bio-herbicide property
to control this menace.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted with soybean variety PK-327 in Gangetic new alluvial soil
(Inceptisol) with sandy clay loam texture having good irrigation and drainage facility and
medium fertility (pH 6.9). The experiment was conducted at the Instructional Farm, Bidhan
Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Jaguli, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India in medium
land topography situated at 22˚56' N latitude and 88˚32' E longitude at an altitude of 9.75 m
above the mean sea level (MSL) during the pre-kharif and kharif season of 2011and 12. The
experiment studied the potentiality of different botanicals for their bio-herbicidal properties
and its effect on the growth and yield of crop. The experiment was laid out in Randomised
Block Design having 9 treatments viz T1-Bambusa vulgaris raw leaves extract @ 5%, T2Cucumis sativa raw leaves extract @ 5%, T3-Blumea lacera raw leaves extract @ 5%, T4Echinochloa colona raw leaves extract @ 5%, T5 -Ageratum conyzoides raw leaves extract
@ 5%, T6-Cyperus difformis raw extract @ 5%, T7- Imazethapyr @1000.0g ha-1 at 7 DAS,
T8-Hand weeding at 15 DAS and 30 DAS, T9-Weedy check. All the botanicals or bioherbicides were applied as pre-emergence at 2 DAS.
Results and Discussion
The best treatment among the botanicals or bio-herbicides was T2-Cucumis sativa raw leaves
extract @ 5% treatment followed by T5 -Ageratum conyzoides raw leaves extract @ 5% and
T1-Bambusa vulgaris raw leaves extract @ 5% treatments in terms of minimizing weed
density as well as dry weight of weed and maximizing crop yield. The overall best treatment
T8-Hand weeding at 15 DAS and 30 DAS significantly recorded maximum seed yield
(2316.67 kg ha-1 and 2273.33 kg ha-1) which was significantly different from all other (Table
1) treatments. Next best treatment T7- Imazethapyr @1000 g ha-1 at 7 DAS during pre-kharif
which was statistically at par with all the bio-herbicide treatments during pre-kharif season.
In kharif season, this treatment was significantly at par with T1-Bambusa vulgaris raw leaves
extract @ 5% , T2-Cucumis sativa raw leaves extract @ 5% and T5 -Ageratum conyzoides
raw leaves extract @ 5% treatments. It was observed that the ability of the botanicals to
manage mostly grassy weed flora because of presence of phenol and alike compounds
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
46
namely rutin and tricin in bamboo, sisymbrifolin in cucumber (Ho et. al, 2008), coumarin in
Ageratum conyzoides (Tran et. al.2004; Kato et. al, 2001). These allele chemicals are
responsible for higher weed control efficiency with lower weed dry weight. Imazethapyr
normally inhibited weed flora germination and growth by branched chain amino acid bio
synthesis with the help of Acetolactate (ALS) / Actohydroxy acid (AHAS) and block the
normal function of enzyme ALS/AHAS/ which is essential in amino acid (protein) synthesis.
So botanicals may however, be an alternative promising method for weed management which
are safer in nature, less costly than chemical as well as mechanical hand weeding, easily
available everywhere with its easy preparation. It was also proved that all the bio-herbicides
tested here had no detrimental effect on the soil micro organisms in the long run and
ultimately conserve the soil health.
Table 1. Effect of treatments on Seed yield, Weed Index (%) and Increase of seed yield over
control (%)
Treatments
Seed yield(kg/ha)
Weed index
%increase of seed
yield over control
Prekharif
1700.00
1800.00
Kharif
Pre-kharif
Kharif
1626.67
1723.33
26.63
22.31
25.12
20.7
Prekharif
33.85
41.73
1500.00
1466.67
1617.33
1533.33
1883.33
2273.33
1096.67
109.21
30.21
29.21
24.6
31.07
17.99
52.65
30.97
32.48
25.58
29.45
13.34
49.51
27.32
29.13
37.56
25.74
49.61
82.44
-
SEm (±)
1616.67
1640.00
1746.67
1596.67
1900.00
2316.67
1270.00
124.91
CD (P=0.05)
374.42
327.36
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
T9
Kharif
48.31
57.06
36.73
33.72
47.4
26.64
62.53
88.96
-
T1: Bambusa vulgaris raw leaves extract @ 5% at 2DAS, T2: Cucumis sativa raw leaves extract @
5% at 2DAS T3: Blumea lacera raw leaves extract @ 5% at 2DAS, T4: Echinochloa colona raw
leaves extract @ 5% at 2DAS, T5: Ageratum conyzoides raw leaves extract @ 5% at 2DAS, T6:
Cyperus difformis raw leaves extract @ 5% at 2DAS, T7: Imazethapyr 10 %[email protected] 1000.0g ha-1, T8:
Hand weeding (15 DAS and 30 DAS), T9: Weedy check.
References
Ho LT, Toshiaki T, Kiyotake S, Duong-van-chin, Kato- Noguchi H (2008) Allelopathy and the
allelopathic activity of a phenyl propanol from cucumber plants. Plant Growth Regulation. 56 (1):
1-5.
Kato- Noguchi H (2001). Assessment of the allelopathic potential of Ageratum conyzoides. Biologia
Plantarum. 44 (2): 309-311.
Tran DX, Tawata S, Nguyen HH, Tran DK, Chung III Min (2004). Assessment of phytotoxic action
of Ageratum conyzoides L. (bill goat weed) on weeds. Crop Protection. 23 (10): 915-922.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
47
Optimization of seedling density as influenced by seed rate for mechanical
transplanting
M.A. Hossen1, M.M. Hossain1, M.E. Haque2, R.W. Bell2 and M.A. Rahman3
1
Department of Farm Power and Machinery (FPM), Bangladesh Agricultural University
(BAU), Mymensingh, [email protected], [email protected]
2
Murdoch University, Australia, [email protected] [email protected]
3
Farm Machinery and Post Harvest Technology Division, BRRI, Gazipur
[email protected]
Introduction
Mechanization of rice cultivation, including transplanting, is spreading in Bangladesh in
order to reduce the cost of production, the need for labour and to increase productivity of rice
cultivation. Quality seedlings are a key factor for the success of mechanical rice
transplanting. Seeding density in the seedling tray has considerable influence on seedling
quality, and hence on plant establishment and the percentage of missing hills in the field after
transplanting. There are combined effects of seedling adjustment options of the rice
transplanter and seedling density on number of plants per hills and percentage of missing
hills. Rice grain size and shape in terms of length, breadth and length-breath ratio differs
among rice varieties. Based on size and shape, rice grain can be classified as bold, medium
and slender, long and extra long (Belsnio, 1992). This study, conducted during the irrigated
dry season of 2013-14, aimed to identify the optimum seed rate for quality seedlings
production to minimize the percentage of missing hills. In addition, suitable seedling
adjustment option of the rice transplanter for different seedling densities were identified to
maintain optimum numbers of seedlings per stock (plants/hill) by the rotary picker of the
transplanter.
Materials and Methods
Rice varieties BR3 (L/B ratio=2.77), BRRI dhan28 (L/B ratio=3.87), BRRI dhan29 (L/B
ratio=3.62) and BRRI dhan50 (L/B ratio=1.85) were selected as bold, medium and slender
and extra long grain types, respectively. Daedong DP 480 model rice transplanter was used to
test the number of plants per hill and percentage of missing hills for identifying the optimum
density of seedlings of different varieties under different seed rate. Germination percentage
was 90, 86, 89 and 87% for BR3, BRRI dhan28, BRRI dhan29 and BRRI dhan50,
respectively. Seed rates were 100, 120, 130, 140, 150 and 160 gram of seeds/tray. Stroke area
of the rotary picker (area of cut) under 9 seedling adjustment options of the rice transplanter
was measured to find out the number of effective strokes per tray and number of trays
required per hectare. Width of cut during stroke of the rotary picker under each of the 9
seedling adjustment options was 1.2 cm whereas depth of cut per stroke of the picker started
from 1.12 cm for option 1 with the increments of 0.8 cm with successive options. As seedling
adjustment options changed from 1 to 9, the number of strokes per tray decreased from 1200
to 656 and the number of trays per hectare for transplanting increased from 185 to 339.
Results
Percentages of the seedlings emerged from the sown seeds decreased from 61 -70% to 54 59% with increasing seed rate irrespective of the variety. Seedlings height ranged from 197
mm for BRRI dhan50 to 179 cm for BR3. Averaged across the four varieties, plant height
increased from 178 mm with 100 grams of seeds/tray to 186 mm for 130 grams of seeds/tray
and decreased from 185 mm with 140 grams of seeds/tray to 182 mm for 160 grams of
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
48
seeds/tray. Highest seedling strength (0.04 gram/cm) was observed for BR3 and lowest (0.02
g/cm) for BRRI dhan50. Interaction of variety and seed rate also showed significant effect on
seedling strength. With increased seed rate, seedling strength decreased.
Average number of plants per stock of the rotary picker of the rice transplanter increased and
percentage of missing hills decreased with increasing both seed rate and seedling adjustment
options of the rice transplanter irrespective of variety (Table 1). In case of bold grain paddy,
seedlings per stroke and percentage of missing hills for the seed rate of 130, 140 and 150 g of
seeds/tray varied from 3.2-5.4 to 3.5-6.4 and 14-4 to 13-3 respectively for 5 to 8 seedlings
adjustment options of the rice transplanter which is almost same. Seedlings per stroke and
percentage of missing hills of medium and slender grain paddy (BRRI dhan28 and BRRI
dhan29) for the seed rate of 140, 150 and 160 g of seeds/tray was found to be almost the same
(2.7-6.8 to 3.0-6.8 and 12-3 to 12-1 respectively), for 5 to 7 seedlings adjustment options of
the rice transplanter. However, there was minimum difference of seedlings per stroke and
percentage of missing hills among 120, 130 and 140 gram of seeds/tray (2.5-6.8 to 2.5-8.6
and 12-2 to 11-1 respectively) for the options of 3-7 for extra long and slender paddy (BRRI
dhan50).
Table 1. Seedlings per stroke and percentage of missing hills as affected by seed rate and
seedling adjustment options of the rice transplanter
Seeds/tray Seedlings/stroke and % of missing hills for 1 to 9 seedling adjustment options of the
transplanter
BR3
BRRI dhan28
BRRI dhan29
BRRI dhan50
Seedlings % of Seedlings % of Seedlings % of Seedlings % of
/stroke missing /stroke missing /stroke missing /stroke missing
hills
hills
hills
hills
100 g
2.5-4.6
27-14
2.0-4.5
25-12
2.15-4.5
24-10 2.4-5.5
18-8
120 g
2.6-5.1
22-10
2.5-5.1
21-9
2.5-6.5
20-8
2.5-6.8
12-2
130 g
3.2-5.4
14-4
2.5-6.0
13-3
2.5-6.7
15-5
2.4-7.5
13-2
140 g
3.3-5.9
13-4
2.7-6.8
12-3
2.8-6.9
12-2
2.5-8.6
11-1
150 g
3.5-6.4
13-3
2.8-7.7
13-2
3.0-7.5
12-1
2.5-8.5
11-3
160 g
2.9-5.3
14-5
3.0-6.8
12-4
3.0-6.8
12-1
3.0-9.9
11-1
Conclusion
Based on missing hills and number of seedling per hills under different seedling adjustment
options, 130g of seed/tray for bold grain, 140 g/tray for medium and slender grain and 120
g/tray for extra long and slender paddy were suitable for the studied transplanter.
References
Belsnio B (1992) The anatomy and physical properties of the rice grain. Towards integrated
commodity and pest management in grain storage, FAO Corporate documents repository. URL:
http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5048E/x5048E00.htm
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
49
Conservation Agriculture-the light house to sail for sustainable agricultural
growth in Bangladesh
Md. Nazim Uddin Mondal
M.Sc, Tropical Agriculture Development (Crops), The University of Reading, UK
Former Deputy Director, Agriculture Extension, Department of Agriculture Extension
Gazipur, Bangladesh. Email: [email protected]
Introduction
Agriculture value addition (annual % growth) in Bangladesh was last measured at 3.11 of
6.32 of total growth in 2012 (World Bank 2012). The rural economy constitutes a significant
component of the national GDP, with agriculture accounting for 21% and the non-farm
sector, which is also driven primarily by agriculture, for another 33% (World Bank 2011).
The sustainability of the growth of agriculture sector is a daunting task with loosing 1% of
arable land per year (Mahbub, 2003) and continuous degradation of soil fertility (Karim et el
2000). Because of limited knowledge on conservation agriculture (CA) among the people the
issue of land degradations is avoided. This paper includes an initiative to provide basic
knowledge on CA to build awareness among the people. Progress of CA, Global and IndoGangetic-Plain are mentioned to compare the current status of Bangladesh along with the
organizations involved. Possible constraints are depicted along with recommendations for
adoption of CA in Bangladesh.
Materials and methods
Conservation agriculture can be defined by a statement given by the Food and Agricultural
Organization of the United Nations) as “a concept for resource-saving agricultural crop
production that strives to achieve acceptable profits together with high and sustained
production levels while concurrently conserving the environment” (FAO 2007). Advantages
of CA for the farmer are less machinery cost, 70% fuel saving, 50% labour saving, 20-50 %
input saving, less drudgery, stable yields, food security= better livelihood/income (FAO
2011).
Results and Discussions
The global agricultural production systems based on CA comprising minimum mechanical
soil disturbance, organic mulch cover, and crop species diversification, is now practiced
globally on about 117 M ha in all continents and all agricultural ecologies, including in the
various temperate environments. (Kassam et al., 2010). In Indo-Gangetic-Plains in 2005
about 1.9 million ha were reported under no-tillage in this region (Rolf et al.,). By 2006-07,
the area under zero-till was escalated at around 3 million hectares (RWC) was possible due to
availability reasonably priced high quality implements from the private sector and technical
support from extension service and external fund support (Harrington and Hobbs, 2009). In
Bangladesh research and development work on conservation tillage was started in the name
of Resource Conserving Technology (RCT). Power tiller operated seeders were imported
from China in 2003-04, 10 ha area was brought under zero-till drill (Roy et al., 2004).
Australian Centre for International Agriculture (ACIAR) is pioneer in promoting CA and
they are funding different organizations. International Development Enterprise (iDE) has
been implementing projects supported by ACIAR. CIMMYT developed CA equipment
Versatile Multiple-Crop Planter (VMP) is useful for strip tillage, minimum tillage, bed
formation and conventional tillage (Islam et al., 2010). Sustainable and Resilient Farming
Systems Intensification (SRFSI) for South-Asia, an ACIAR project, focuses on CA
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
50
partnering with national research and development institutions, NGOs and INGOs, CG
Institutes, Australian universities and CSIRO (BSS, 2014). CSISA Mechanization and
Irrigation Project aims to unlock agricultural productivity in southern Bangladesh also based
on conservation agriculture (Krupnik 2013). Cereal Systems Intensification in South Asia
(CSISA) a BMGF and USAID funded project implemented jointly by IRRI and CIMMYT
also worked on CA in central and northern Bangladesh ( Ali MA et al., 2011).
The major reasons depicted for poor adaption of CA in Bangladesh:
1. Limited knowledge on CA: Inadequate knowledge on CA among the framers,
extension agencies, scientists, policy makers and general mass.
2. Technical constraints: Quality drill, training facility and spare parts are not available,
suitable herbicides and knowledge of application is limited among farmers.
3. Extension constraints: Department of Agriculture Extension (DAE) responsible for
technology transfer to farmers has no work in the name of CA.
4. Lack of government polices: There are no legislation or policy in the name of CA to
save the soil from degradation.
5. Financial constrain: To sustain current agriculture growth a huge amount of money is
required to initiate project on CA but it is absent in the government or donor budget.
6. Attitude of the general mass: Due to knowledge gap the attitude about CA remains
wrong that “Good tilth good crop”.
Recommendations to overcome constrains of adoption of conservation Agriculture:
1. Awareness building: Awareness on CA be build up involving farmers, researchers,
extension agencies, civil societies, professionals, media etc.
2. Government Policy: There should be Govt. policy on CA, in this respect the concern
ministries should create posts with particular assignment on CA.
3. Education and training on CA: Curricula on CA should be introduced in the
universities and the institutes engaged to provide education/training on agriculture.
4. Incorporation of CA in National Agriculture Research and Extension System NARES:
DAE staffs should be trained on specific CA technology packages and should be in
the hand to transfer to the farmers based country on research findings.
5. Legislation: There should be legislation for CA, to prevent activities by human or use
of machines harmful for soil properties.
6. Availability of equipment and herbicides: Suitable CA equipment for seeding/planting
crops, herbicides and service providers should be made available to the farmer.
7. Support from the international donor: More donors should come forward for the
expansion of CA in Bangladesh to sustain the growth of agriculture production.
References
Ali M. Akkas Mondal, N U, Mazid MA, Cereal Systems Initiative for south Asia (CSISA), IRRICIMMYT Project, Gazipur Hub, BSRI campus, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Sangbad
Shangstha BSS ,2014 Rangpur.
FAO (2007) http://www.fao.org/ag/ca
Harrington LW, Hopps PR (2009) The Rice-Wheat Consortium and the Asian Development Bank:
Book published by IRRI, ISBN 978-971-0247-6,38p.
Islam AKMS, Haque ME, Hossain MM, Saleque MA, Bell RW (2010) Water and fuel saving
technologies: Unpuddled bed and strip tillage for wet season rice cultivation in Bangladesh
Karim Z, Iqbal MA (ed.) (2000) Impact of Land Degradation in Bangladesh: Changing Scenario in
Agricultural Land Use, Bangladesh Agricultural ResearchCouncil, Dhaka, Bangladesh, (in press).
Krupnik,TJ,2013,http://blog.cimmyt.org/cereal-systems-initiatives-for-south-asia-mechanization-andirrigation-project-launched/
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
51
Kassam A H, Friedrich T, Derpsch R 2010 Conservation Agriculture in the 21st Century: A Paradigm
of Sustainable Agriculture. Invited paper at the European Congress on Conservation Agriculture,
October 2010, Madrid, Spain.
Mahbub A. 2003. Agricultural land loss and food security: An assessment. IRRI, Manila, The
Philippines.
Rice-Wheat Consortium (RWC) (2004) web site -- http://www.rwc-prism.cgiar.org/rwc Rolf Derpsh,
Consultant and Theodor Friedrich, [email protected] KC, Farm Machinery and
Postharvest Process Engineering Division, Bangladesh
Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh, E-mail: [email protected]
World Bank, Agriculture - value added (annual % growth) in Bangladesh
http://www.tradingeconomics.com/bangladesh/agriculture-valueadded-annual-percentgrowth-wb-data.html
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
52
Performance Evaluation of Compressor and Lever Operated Type
Sprayers for Weed Control
M.S. Hossen1, M.M. Hossain1 and ME Haque2
1
Farm Power and Machinery Department, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh,
[email protected]; [email protected]
2
Murdoch University, Australia, [email protected]
Introduction
In Bangladesh most of the farmer use manual weed control practices like hand hoe. However,
virtually weed-free conditions are now possible using the range of herbicides available.
Herbicides are particularly useful for inter-row weeding especially when it is difficult to hoe
in the planted row without damaging the crop. So herbicides spraying can be the most
suitable approach for farmers because it is less time consuming and less laborious way for
weed control. It is the most effective way also because it destroys not only weed foliage but
also roots, rhizomes, stems and the apical shoots. Even in conservation agriculture (CA)
system weed control is the main factor which can be effectively controlled by spraying
herbicide with sprayer before planting. This is why performance evaluation of sprayers is
now important to control weeds.
Materials and methods
The research was conducted to evaluate the performance of two sprayers named compressor
type sprayer (CTP) and lever operated sprayer (LOP). The sprayers were tested at three
different pressures and three different water-chemical ratios. The sprayers were calibrated at
the Farm Power and Machinery laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University. The
pressures were 2.5 kg/cm2, 2 kg/cm2 and 1.5 kg/cm2 and the water-chemical ratios were 1 L:
15 ml, 1 L: 20 ml and 1 L: 30 ml. The average walking speeds were 2.37 km/hr and
2.43km/hr for CTP and LOP over 50 m, respectively. The nozzle of the CTP was single while
the nozzle of the LOP was double. Data was taken from 3 days after application of herbicide
and continued up to 7 days.
Results and discussions
At 7 day maximum weed death occurred in both compressor and lever operated type sprayers
(Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). A comparison between CTP and LOP was drawn on the basis of percent
green weed after seven days.
Figure 1. Experimental plot after 7 days Figure 2. Experimental plot after 7 days for
for CTP at pressure 2 kg/cm2 and water LOP at pressure 2 kg/cm2 and water chemical
chemical ratio 1 L:20 ml
ratio 1 L:20 ml
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
53
For 2.5 kg/cm2 pressure and water-chemical ratio 1 L: 20 ml, the percent green weeds was
apparently same for both CTP and LOP (Table 1). But the CTP was cost effective for weed
control. The operational cost was 1367 Taka/ha and 3831 Taka/ha for CTP and LOP,
respectively. The field efficiency was about 88 percent for both sprayers. Therefore it can be
concluded that a CTP with a pressure gauge might be used rather than LOP for weed control.
Table 1. Effect of variable pressures for weed control by compressor and lever operated type
sprayer
Pressure
(1.5-8)
kg/cm2
water
chemical
ratio
(L : ml)
1.5
1:20
2
1:20
2.5
1:20
1.5
1:20
2
1:20
2.5
1:20
No. of
green
weeds
before
applicat
ion
No. of
No. of
No. of
green
weeds
weeds
weeds
after 5
after 7
after 3
days of days of
days of applicat applicat
applicat-ion
-ion
ion
Compressor type sprayer
1276
1230
452
1406
1383
542
1356
1303
365
1440
1412
548
1483
1456
564
1390
1367
436
1354
1309
423
1389
1333
375
1467
1412
512
Lever operated sprayer
1223
1131
357
1236
1203
332
1353
1108
304
1340
1219
442
1463
1396
244
1490
1377
353
1334
1209
320
1289
1183
272
1427
1212
232
%
green
weeds
foliage
after 7
days.
%
average
green
weeds
foliage
12
18
16
13
17
21
4
0
8
0.94
1.29
1.18
0.9
1.17
1.5
0.30
0
0.54
1.14
19
14
13
21
15
9
3
4
8
1.55
1.13
0.96
1.66
1.03
0.6
0.23
0.31
0.54
1.21
1.19
0.28
1.09
0.36
References
Alam M, Husain D (2010) Variability of Lever Operated Knapsack sprayer. Vol-41,No. 03, AMA:6469.
Alam M, Bell MA, Mortimer AM, Hussain MD, Bakker RR, Castro ECJr, Razote EB (2000)
Pesticides application techniques of rice farmers in Philippines and option to improve application
and protect the environment. The XIV Memorial CIGR World Congress 2000. Japan.:29-36.
Dent DR, Baines A, Hutchings O, Neale T, Ho T, Sully G, Sully A (1993) Knapsack sprayer
calibration: perception of swath width and problems of computation. International Journal of Pest
Management 39: 3, 321-324.
IRRI. (1992). Development of a set of minimum standard specifications for Lever Operated Knapsack
sprayers. In. Hastings, J. J and Quick G. R, editors. Small sprayer standards, safety and future
direction for Asia, IRRI.: 98.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
54
Performance of Maize Hybrid under Conventional and Strip-Tillage
Systems inThree Districts of Bangladesh
Md. Saiful Islam1, Anup K Gosh2, Khaled Hossain1, Mahbubur Rahmand3, Abul Khayer1,
Mustafa Kamarul Hassan1, Jagdish Timsina1 and Mahesh K Gathala1
1
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre, Bangladesh Office, Bangladesh,
[email protected],
2
Rangpur Dinajpur Rural Services, Rangpur, Bangladesh, [email protected]
3
Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh, [email protected]
Introduction
Rice-maize cropping system has expanded in Bangladesh due to the demand for maize in
poultry and aquaculture and also human consumption (Timsina et al., 2010). Approximately
0.83 million ha was occupied by maize in 2012 (AIS, Krishi Dairy, 2013). However, average
farm yield of maize is much lower than attainable yields and such large yield gaps suggest
substantial scope for improvement. Hence, germplasm and management constraints need to
be overcome to ensure that maize is profitable, resource-efficient, and grows in a manner that
ensures food security and livelihoods. Since maize is a relatively new crop in Bangladesh,
better agronomic management practices, and better genotypes are under development. Tillage
options are required; however, there is also lack of information on genotype x tillage
interaction in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of maize
hybrids under conventional and strip tillage across different environment in Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted in 18 farmers’ fields of two upazila in each district in
Comilla (23°28'N), Rangpur (25°42'N) and Rajshahi (24°22'N) under the agro ecological
zone of Middle Meghna River Floodplain, Active Tista Floodplain, Tista Meander
Floodplain, and Active Ganges Floodplain, respectively (FRG2012).
The experiment was conducted in a split-split plot design with 50 m2 the smallest plot size
and with 3-replicates in each Upzilla. Tillage options viz. strip tillage (ST) and conventional
tillage (CT) were considered as main plots and six maize hybrids viz. BHM-9 ( BARI
hybrid), Sunshine (Syngenta hybrid), Pinacle (Monsanto), 900M Gold (Monsanto), 981
(Monsanto), and Pacific 984 (BRAC hybrid) as sub-plots. Strip tillage (ST) was done by
single pass, making strips by maintaining 60 cm row spacing with 6 cm depth for seed
sowing and immediately covering the seed with soil and simultaneously applying basal
fertilizer by 2-wheel power tiller operated seeder. Conventional tillage (CT) was formed by 3
full tillage passes by 2-wheel power tiller, followed by a single planking, and then manual
seeding by dibbling. The spacing was 60 cm between rows and 20 cm between plants in each
row.
In all treatment plots were fertilized as recommended based on site specific nutrient
management and cultural practices carried out properly when necessary. At crop maturity all
yield contributing characteristics and grain yield were estimated from each plot in sampling
area of 10.08 m2. Data were analysed using the mix-model procedure of the Statistical
Analysis System (SAS institute, 2001) and means effects were separated by Turkey’s test.
Results and Discussions
The interactions between tillage options and maize hybrids, and among sites and hybrids
were non-significant for all characters except 1000-grain weight. Plant height and cob length
were significantly higher in CT that in ST but other parameters, grains per cob, 1000-grain
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
55
weightand cob girth were similar between CT and ST. The1000-grain weight of Pinnacle was
highest followed by 900M Gold, 981 and BHM-9, respectively, and statistically identical
with Pacific 984 and Sunshine. The lowest 1000-grain weight was for BHM-9 which was
significantly lower than other hybrids except 981. The longer cobs were formed in 900M
Gold followed by Pacific 984.
For crop yield and partial economics the sites (upazila) and replications (farmer) were highly
significant effects (p=.001). The site x hybrids interactions were significant for grain yield,
gross return and net income (p=0.06). The interaction indicated that the maize hybrids
performed differently in different sites. Tillage was unable to show any significant effects on
yield parameters. The cost of production was higher in CT than ST but it was reverse for net
income. BHM-9 and produced the highest stover yield among hybrids followed by 900M
Gold, Sunshine, 981, Pinnacle and Pacific 984, respectively. It was due to more plant height
in the hybrid. Grain yield was the highest for 900M Gold, Sunshine and 981(9.29-9.55 t ha-1).
BHM-9 and Pacific produced lowest grain yield among the hybrids. The highest biomass was
found in Sunshine, BHM-9 and 900M Gold (19.9-19.4 t ha-1) and lowest in Pacific 984 and
Pinnacle with the remaining hybrids produced intermediate biomass.
As with grain yield, gross return and net income were highest for 900M Gold, Sunshine and
981. These higher returns were due to higher grain yield. However, there was no effect of
tillage type on net income differences among maize cultivars.
Table 1.Crop yields and partial economics under different tillage options at different
locations during 2012-13 in Bangladesh
Hybrids
981
900MGold
BHM9
Pacific984
Pinnacle
Sunshine
Tillage
CT
ST
ANOVA
Site
Rep
Tillage
Hybrid
Site x Hybrid
Tillage x hybrid
Yield (t ha-1)
Stover
Grain
Biomass
9.61bc
9.78abc
10.3a
9.31c
9.56bc
10.1ab
18.9abc
19.3ab
19.3ab
18.3c
18.7c
19.4a
0.49a
0.4a
0.46b
0.49a
0.49a
0.48ab
BDT (1 BDT = 0.0129241 USD)ha-1
Production Gross
Net income
cost
return
106569
185905ab
79336ab
106827
191363a
84536a
106167
179717c
73550c
106158
179505c
73348c
106371
182238bc
75867bc
106591
187123ab
80532ab
19.2
18.8
0.48
0.49
110740A
102155B
185256
183362
74516B
81207A
0.001
0.001
0.064
0.009
0.075
0.737
0.001
0.001
0.372
0.014
0.195
0.883
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.981
0.999
0.999
0.001
0.001
0.257
0.002
0.031
0.654
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.007
0.068
0.718
9.29ab
9.55a
8.93c
8.94c
9.09bc
9.32ab
9.93
9.23
9.63
9.14
Probability
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.107
0.281
0.019
0.002
0.127
0.021
0.862
0.619
HI
These results suggest that 900M Gold is better grain yielding hybrid of maize among the
tested six hybrids but no significance differences with 981 or Sunshine under the both tillage
system in three districts and ST was more profitable than CT. However, there was no
indication that cultivar performance varied with strip tillage compared to the conventional
tillage under which prior selection has been conducted.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
56
References
FRG (2012) Fertilizer Recommendation Guide, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC),
Farmgate, Dhaka 1215. PP.11-17
Krishi Dairy (2013) Agriculture Information Service (AIS), Khamar Bari, Dhaka1215, P. 13
SAS Institute (2001) SAS/STAT- User Guide. Version 8-1 SAS Inst., Cary, Nc.
Timsina J, Jat L, Mangi, Kaushik M (2010) Rice- maize systems of South Asia: Current status, future
prospects and research priorities for nutrient management. Pant Soil.335:65–82.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
57
Weed Incidences and Crop Performance of Zero Tilled Dry Seeded Rice
under Different Weed Management Options
M.H Rashid1, J. Timsina2, M.K Gathala3, M.M Kamal1 and J.K Biswas4
1
BRRI Regional Station, Rajshahi, [email protected] [email protected]
IRRI-CSISA Bangladesh, [email protected]
3
CIMMYT-Bangladesh, [email protected]
4
BRRI Gazipur, Bangladesh, email: [email protected]
2
Introduction
Conventional transplanting for rice production is achieved by intense tillage under ponded
water conditions which requires more time, labor, energy and more water availability. In
recent years, there has been shifting from TPR to DSR cultivation in several countries of
Southeast Asia due to increase labor cost and reduced profit margin. Since hand weeding is
become expensive due to shortage of labour and higher costs, use of herbicides can be a
better cost effective alternative to control weeds. Keeping this in view, the present field
investigation was carried out to test the response of weed management techniques in dry DSR
under zero tillage system.
Materials and Methods
The trial comprising fourteen combinations of weed management for DSR under zero tillage
was conducted in BRRI Rajshahi during wet season of 2011 and 2012. The weed
management options were 1. Panida (Pandimethalin; pre-emergence herbicide), 2. Panida +
Hammer (Carfentrazone-ethyl post emergence herbicide); 3. Panida+Sunrise
(Ethoxysulfuron; post-emergence herbicide), 4. Panida +1 Hand weeding (HW), 5. Topstar
(Oxydiargyl; pre-emergence herbicide), 6. Topstar + Hammer 7. Topstar +Sunrise, 8. Topstar
+1 HW, 9. Hammer 10. Hammer + 1 HW, 11. Sunrise 12. Sunrise + 1 HW, 13. Weed free (3
Hand weeding) and 14. Weedy. Post-emergence-Nominee Gold (Bispyribac Na+) was used
instead of Sunrise during 2nd year. The sowing of seeds was done directly by power tiller
operated seeder (PTOS) with slightly opening the untilled soil.. Glyphosate was applied in
untilled soil before sowing of seeds. Total weed data were counted in dry matter basis at 28
and 56 DAS. Data were analyzed using Crop Stat (version 7.2).
Results and discussion
Total weed dry matter of weeds at 28 and 56 days after seeding were significantly affected by
weed management options (Table 1). The weed dry biomass of weeds either 28 DAS and 56
DAS was found higher in weedy check compared to the treatments. The treatments
comprised of post emergence either alone or with pre-emergence proved to be comparatively
superior in decreasing dry weight at 28 DAS . The biomass at 56 DAS was the lowest in
weed free and nominee gold +1HW treatments, respectively during 2011 and 2012. Among
the herbicide applied plots, the highest weed dry biomass at 56 DAS was observed in Panida
treatment. Next to panida treatment, the lower crop weed competition was observed in
Topstar indicated that pre-emergence caused less suppression on weeds intensity which was
supported by Chauhan et al. (2006). The crop weed competition was found better in the
following order as weed free> any post –emergence herbicide + 1HW>any pre-emergence +
1HW>any pre-emergence + any post emergence>any post emergence>any pre emergence.
The weed management packages had significance influence on grain yield and the higher
yield was found in weed free and that was the lower in weedy treatment across the years. It
also found that Weed free, Topstar + 1HW and Hammer + 1HW treatments produced
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
58
statistically similar grain yield during first year. The pre or post emergence herbicide alone or
in combination of pre and post emergence did not produce remarkable yield in first year
compared to 1 HW plus one pre or post emergence herbicide. The grain yield of rice in 2nd
year was comparable among weed free, any pre or post-emergence+1HW and the
combinations of pre + post-emergence. Although the gross return was higher but the gross
margin was comparatively lower in weed free treatment. Next to weed free, higher gross
return was found in the treatments receiving pre or post-emergence + 1 HW. In contrast,
without manual weeding treatments had more gross return. Increasing labor cost of manual
weeding treatments caused lower gross return which was supported by Sanjay et al. (2008).
Table 1. Effect of weed management options on weeds dry matter, grain yield, gross return
and gross margin in DS Aman rice under zero tillage system, 2011 and 2012
Treatments
Panida
Panida+Hammer
Panida+SR/NG
Panida+1HW
Topstar
Topstar+Hammer
Topstar+SR/NG
Topstar+1HW
Hammer
Hammer+1HW
Sunrice/N. Gold
SR/NG+1HW
Weed free
Weedy
LSD(0.05)
Weed dry wt. (g
-2
m ) at 28 DAS
2010
2011
13.2
9.9
4.43
5.23
5.91
2.91
9.41
3.04
9.35
6.25
5.40
6.44
4.30
5.25
8.60
3.63
6.02
6.81
5.30
7.43
5.11
1.88
5.50
4.59
12.3
9.91
19.1
13.8
6.33
4.58
Weed dry wt. (g
-2
m ) at 56 DAS
2010
2011
39.6
46.5
23.6
27.6
26.3
37.3
12.3
16.5
37.8
29.9
18.5
16.1
21.4
14.0
16.0
23.1
33.8
36.8
14.6
17.5
28.9
14.0
18.2
12.2
11.5
9.5
107
89.0
25.8
35.6
Grain yield
-1
(t ha )
2010 2011
3.28
2.90
3.33
5.00
3.53
4.50
3.74
3.93
3.56
3.06
3.52
4.12
3.08
4.63
4.17
4.18
2.81
4.33
4.05
5.09
2.87
4.63
3.82
4.70
4.64
5.24
2.08
2.49
0.67
1.17
Gross return (Tk.
-1
ha )
2010
2011
53710
51318
58210
85286
51700
77168
57780
68811
54880
53116
46900
73265
66390
80128
68300
73493
57800
75434
48150
87665
61530
80823
63350
82074
76010
89543
36060
44650
13078
19044
Gross margin
-1
(Tk. ha )
2010
2011
28117
24567
30274
56050
23732
47917
23937
31560
30423
27500
20199
45280
39318
51756
35551
37335
33657
50133
15664
51770
37321
55472
30707
46023
35292
44592
13217
20699
13051
19008
Conclusion
In conclusion, the crop weed competition was lower in weed free followed by any postemergence + 1HW. Grain yield and gross return was remained higher in weed free treatment
in both the years but gross margin was comparatively lower due to increase weeding cost.
One hand weeding + any pre or post emergence herbicide performed well in regards to yield
and also the gross margin and gross return.
Acknowledgements
The authors acknowledge the financial support by the ACIAR
References
Chauhan BS, Gill G, Preston C (2006) Tillage systems affect trifluralin bioavailability in soil. Weed
Science 54: 669-676
Mahajan G, Johnson DE, Chauhan BS (2009) Weed management in aerobic rice in north western
Indo-Gangetic Plains. J. Crop Improv. 23: 366-382
Sanjay MT, Setty TK, Prabhakaran, Nanjapa HV (2008) Investigation of crop establishment methods
and weed management practices on productivity and economics in rice. Mysore J. Agril Sci. 42:
60-66
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
59
Productivity of Lentil as Influenced by Different T. Aman Rice Varieties in
High Barind Tract
M.E.A. Pramanik1, M.A. Salam1, A.K. Chaki2, A.S.M.M.R. Khan2 and M. Akhtar Hossain2
1
On-Farm Research Division, BARI, Barind Station, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
[email protected], [email protected]
2
On-Farm Research Division, BARI, Gazipur,Bangladesh. [email protected],
[email protected], [email protected]
Abstract
Lentil (Lens culinaris) production by using residual soil moisture after harvest of short
duration T. Aman rice is increasing in High Barind Tract. An experiment on lentil (BARI
Masur-7) was conducted to evaluate the suitable T. Aman rice variety for lentil production
using residual soil moisture. The treatments were i.e., T1: Swarna-lentil, T2: BINA dhan7lentil, T3: BRRI dhan33-lentil, T4: BRRI dhan39-lentil, T5: BRRI dhan49-lentil and T6: BRRI
dhan57-lentil. The maximum number of pods plant-1, seeds pods-1, thousand seed weight,
seed and stover yield was obtained from treatment T2 (BINA dhan-7 - lentil) and the
minimum was from treatment T1 (Swarna-lentil). So, sowing of lentil seed at just after
harvest of BINA dhan7 rice and BRRI Dhan 33 T. Aman rice varieties were optimum for
maximizing the yield of lentil in High Barind Tract soil.
Introduction
In the High Barind Tract (HBT), a vast area of land remains fallow after harvesting of T.
Aman rice. The area and production of lentil (Lens culinaris) has increased in this region.
Lentil is a deep rooted crop and a low amount of moisture is required. Normally the farmer
has less chance to cultivate lentil after harvesting of long duration T. Aman rice varieties
Swarna. BINA Dhan7, BRRI-Dhan39 and BRRI Dhan49 are short duration rice varieties.
These high yielding T. Aman rice varieties may be suitable for getting higher yields from
both rice and lentil crops using present soil moisture. The HBT, specifically north-western
part of Rajshahi division, is different from other parts of the country due to its undulating
topography and compact, low fertile soils. A crop production system with high yield targets
cannot be sustainable unless balanced nutrient inputs are supplied to soil against nutrient
removal by crops (Bhuiyan and Panaullah, 1991). Therefore, the present study will be under
taken to find out the suitable T. Aman rice variety for lentil production using residual soil
moisture.
Materials and Method
An experiment on lentil was conducted at farmer’s field of FSRD site Kadamshahar,
Godagari, Rajshahi (AEZ 26) during Rabi season 2012-13 & 2013-14 to evaluate the suitable
T. Aman rice variety for lentil production using residual soil moisture for maximizing the
yield. The experimental design had six treatments; laid out in a randomized complete block
design with eight dispersed replications. The treatments were; T1: Swarna-lentil, T2: BINA
dhan-7-lentil, T3: BRRI dhan33-lentil, T4: BRRI dhan39-lentil, T5: BRRI dhan49-lentil and
T6: BRRI dhan57-lentil. Lentil variety (BARI Masur-7) was used in this study. The land was
fertilized with 24-18-20 N-P-K kg ha-1 (FRG, 2005) in the form of urea, triple super
phosphate and muriate of potash, respectively. Seeds of lentil were sown in line maintaining a
spacing of 30 cm × 5 cm on 5-24 November 2012 and 10-30 November 2013. Lentil was
harvested on 15-30 February 2013 and 16-30 February 2014. Data was collected on yield and
yield components from 10 randomly selected plants per plot. The data were analyzed
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
60
statistically and the mean differences were calculated by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test
(Gomez and Gomez, 1984).
Results and Discussion
Yield of T. Aman rice and lentil responded significantly differences among the treatments.
Average of two years results revealed that the maximum grain yield of T. Aman rice (4.73
tha-1) was recorded from T2 followed by T3 and T4 but minimum yield (3.50 t ha-1) from T1
(Table 1). However, for lentil, average of two years results show the maximum seed yield
(1.68 t ha-1) was for T2 and T3 (1.61 t ha-1) and lowest yield (0.78 t ha-1) in late sowing
treatment (T1) (Table 1). The cost-benefit analysis of average 2012-13 & 2013-14 results
showed that T2 produced the maximum gross margin of Taka (Tk.) 150730 ha-1 and the
lowest Tk. 64260 ha-1 from T1 (Table 1). This variation occurred due to the variation of
yield. Treatment T2 was found economically profitable and viable among treatments for the
cultivation of T. Aman rice and lentil in the High Barind Tract soil.
Conclusion
From two years results, it may be concluded that sowing of lentil seed just after harvest of T.
Aman rice (BINA Dhan 7 and BRRI Dhan 33) was optimum for maximizing the yield of
lentil production in High Barind Tract soil as maximum soil moisture prevails in the plot than
other treatments.
Table 1. Yield and economic return of different T. Aman rice varieties and lentil at FSRD
site, Kadamshahar, Godagari, Rajshahi (Average of 2012-13 & 2013-14)
Rice yield (t ha-1)
Grain
Straw
Total
Gross
variable
Gross return
Treatments
margin
cost
(Tk. ha-1)
(Tk. ha-1)
(Tk. ha-1)
T1
3.50 d
4.98 c
0.78 f
122230
57970
64260
T2
4.73 a
5.96 a
1.68 a
208700
57970
150730
T3
4.33 ab 5.50 ab
1.62 b
196140
57970
138170
T4
4.18 bc 5.35 ab
1.57 c
190490
57970
132520
T5
4.05 bc 5.20 bc
1.42 d
176800
57970
118830
T6
3.96 c
5.10 bc
1.15 e
156880
57970
98910
CV (%)
5.36
9.74
4.50
Price (Tk kg-1): Urea 20, TSP 22, MP 15, Gypsum 6, Zinc sulphate 130, Boric acid 130, Rice
seed 40, Lentil seed 100, Lentil – 70, Rice- 18 & Rice straw-1
Lentil seed
yield (t ha1
)
References
BARC (Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council). (2005) Fertilizer Recommendation Guide.
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Farmgate, New Airport Road, Dhaka-1215. pp. 211213.
Bhuiyan NI, Panaullah GM (1991) Effect of NPK fertilizer on the grain yield of transplanted rice and
soil fertility. Long-term study. Bangladesh J. Soil. Sci. 22 (1&2): 41-50.
Gomez KA, Gomez AA (1984) Statistical procedures for agricultural research (2nd Edn). An
International Rice Research Institute Book. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA .680p.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
61
Soil Moisture Conservation as Influenced by Mulching and Tillage and its
Effect on Potato Yield in High Barind Tract
A.K.Chaki1, M.A. Salam2, A.S.M.M.R. Khan1, A.K. Choudhury1 and M.E.A. Pramanik2
1
On-Farm Research Division (OFRD), Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI),
Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh. 2OFRD, BARI, Barind Station, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
Corresponding author’s Email: [email protected]
Introduction
Availability of soil moisture is the most limiting factor for growing winter crop in High
Barind Tract (North Western part) of Bangladesh. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an
important vegetables crop, cultivated in Rabi (winter season) season in Bangladesh. The High
Barind Tract (HBT) is a drought-prone area characterized by grey terrace soil, low organic
matter, low rainfall, high temperature and low soil pH (<6). In the case of dry land farming,
the use of mulch is beneficial to conserve soil moisture, reduce soil temperature, minimize
evaporation loss and enhance root growth (Allamaras et al. 1977; Gupta and Gupta, 1986).
On the other hand moisture conservation may be determined by tillage type in rainfed
cultivation. It is recognized that minimum tillage improves soil water conservation. Since,
most of the lands in the HBT of Bangladesh remain fallow in winter season due to shortage
of water, a combination of different mulching materials and tillage options will be the best
soil moisture conservation techniques for potato production. Considering scarcity of water,
the present experiment was undertaken to find out the suitable tillage methods and mulch
application to conserve residual soil moisture for the better growth and yield of potato during
Rabi season in the HBT of Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods
A field trial was conducted at the OFRD site Kadamshahar, Godagari, Rajshahi during Rabi
seasons of 2012-13 and 2013-14.The initial soil in the experimental field contained a pH
value 5.7, 0.89 % organic matter, 0.07 % total nitrogen, available P, S, B and Zn were 12.4,
14.7, 0.16 and 0.85 mg/kg soil, respectively. The treatments comprised two different tillage
options viz., reduced tillage (one ploughing followed by laddering) and conventional tillage
(4 ploughings followed by laddering) and three different mulch materials viz., rice straw
cover on the soil surface @ 3 t ha-1, rice straw cover on the soil surface @ 5 t ha-1 and no
mulch. The trial was laid out in split plot design with six dispersed replications. Tillage
treatments were placed in the main plots and mulch treatments in the sub-plots. Potato variety
Cardinal was used in the study. The potato seeds were sown on 24-26 November 2012 and
25-30 November 2013 with the line sowing (40 cm x 20 cm). A fertilizer dose of 100-25100-15-10 kg N–P-K-S-Mg/ha was applied in the field. Soil moisture regimes of the
experimental plots were recorded at a depth of 0-15 cm at 15-day intervals. Only a single
irrigation was applied during 30-35 days after planting for establishment of the crop. The
crop was harvested on 23-26 February 2013 and 26-28 February 2014. The data were
analyzed statistically and the mean differences were adjudged by Duncan’s Multiple Range
Test and student t-test (Gomez and Gomez, 1984).
Results and Discussion
Soil moisture regime: Average over two years the soil water in the reduced tillage plots with
5 t of straw mulch ha-1 decreased at slowest rates followed by reduced tilled plots with 3 t of
straw mulch ha-1 (Table 1). On the other hand, conventional tilled plots with no mulch
decreased at highest rates.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
62
Combined effect of tillage options and mulching: The highest tuber yield (25 t ha-1) and net
return was recorded from the combination of reduced tillage coupled with 5 t straw mulch
ha-1. The reason for higher yield in reduced tillage and 5 t ha-1straw mulch might be due to
decreased soil temperature and more efficient conservation of water which favoured growth
and development of the crops during the growing period. The lowest yield was recorded in
no- mulch irrespective of tillage options. Mondal et al. (2003) also reported that straw mulch
was more effective than soil mulch in mustard. Reduced tillage (one ploughing) coupled with
straw mulch at the rate of 5 t ha-1 might be a good option for better soil moisture
conservation, higher economic benefit and yield of potato in High Barind Tract of
Bangladesh.
Table 1. Changes in soil moisture (%) of potato field as influenced by tillage and mulch at
different days after sowing (Average of two years)
Tillage and straw
(t ha-1)
Reduced + 5
Reduced + 3
Reduced + 0
Conventional + 5
Conventional + 3
Conventional + 0
0
39.0
38.0
33.7
38.9
35.8
34.5
15
37.7
35.0
32.1
36.9
34.5
31.9
Days after sowing (DAS)
30
45
60
36.1
38.6
33.6
33.3
36.5
31.5
30.2
32.5
28.8
35.2
36.9
32.1
32.3
33.4
29.3
30.6
31.5
27.3
75
32.2
27.3
24.6
31.8
27.5
24.4
90
30.7
26.3
23.5
29.7
25.7
23.1
Table 2. Yield and yield contributing character, cost and return analysis of potato as
influenced by tillage options and mulch at Kadamshahar, Godagari, Rajshahi (Average of two
years)
Tillage and straw (t ha-1)
No. of
Tuber weight Tuber yield Net return
tuber
BCR
(t ha-1)
(Tk ha-1)
plant-1 (g)
-1
plant
Reduced + 5
10.4a
634a
25.0a
139000
2.25
Reduced + 3
9.88ab
595ab
23.5ab
126800
2.17
Reduced + 0
6.66c
500bc
20.8bc
104200
2.01
Conventional + 5
8.53b
566b
21.8b
116100
2.13
Conventional + 3
7.43bc
447c
21.0bc
104500
1.99
Conventional + 0
6.20c
448c
19.3c
95200
1.97
CV (%)
8.1
7.6
6.1
* Means followed by different letters were significantly different at 5% level by DMRT
References
Allamaras RE, Hallauer EA, Nelson WU, Evans SSD (1977) Surface energy balance and soil thermal
property modification by tillage induced soil structure. Tec. Bull. 306. Univ. of Minnesota.
Gupta JP, Gupta GK (1986) Effect of tillage and mulching on soil environment under and condition.
Soil & Tillage Res. 7 : 233-240.
Gomez KA, Gomez AA (1984) Statistical procedures for agricultural research (2nd Ed.). An
International Rice Research Institute Book. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA .680 p.
Mondal NA, Hossain SMA, Bhuiya MSU, Jahiruddin M (2003) Performance of dry land crops as
influenced by mulching and tillage. Ph.D. thesis. Dep. Agron., Bangladesh Agril. Univ.,
Mymensingh.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
63
An Introduction of a Change Hypothesis to Promote Small-scale Farmerfriendly 2WTs Innovation in Conservation Agriculture, Bangladesh
Ismat Ara
Department of Philosophy, Govt. Bangla College, Dhaka. Bangladesh. i[email protected]
Introduction
In Bangladesh, the emergent agricultural technology known as conservation agriculture (CA)
may be hampered as local small-scale farmers (SSFs) have no provision in national
agricultural policy and governance. In this paper, the main question is how in the name of the
elite-driven agriculture governance and policy (EDAGP), national and international
agricultural reforms have affected SSFs in Bangladesh and how CA through agricultural
technology innovation will overcome the barriers created by the EDAGP. Based on this
premise, emphasis will be placed onto a. identifying the impacts of important national and
international agricultural reforms on Bangladeshi SSFs; b. categorizing the obstacles that CA
encounters in the new technology adoption process; and c. proposals to solve the abovementioned obstacles through the proposed ‘Change Model for Pro-poor National Agricultural
Policy’. To achieve this research aims the relevant research questions are: is the change
model worthwhile for empowering the SSFs, and; more importantly, what factors will compel
the elite groups to partake in Pro-poor national agricultural policy (PPNAP)? Thus the paper
aims to provide an insight into the EDAGP in Bangladesh, to provide an understanding of the
effectiveness of the institutional interventions and identify the obstructions created by this
approach. The key contribution of this paper is to help policy makers understand the
obstacles and potentialities of promoting a PPNAP. In fact, two related facts are important to
identify the research gaps: what type of strategic alliances among diverse national and
international stakeholders will compel the rich farmers and elite groups to accept a smallscale farmer friendly agriculture policy? And, what strategic and institutional changes will
ensure small-scale farmer’s friendly gradual reforms within related agricultural institutions,
and farmers’ group?
This paper primarily draws on the literature on food security and agricultural governance of
Bangladesh as well as conservational farming project reports of ACIAR projects in
Bangladesh and from working papers of national and international agricultural organizations
on small-scale farming.
Results and Discussion
The process of changing policy is not easy. Establishing a change hypothesis becomes
difficult when throughout the change process it becomes evident that not only inadequate
laws but also inefficient law enforcing institutes are also responsible for SSFs marginalization
(Lewis and Hossain 2008). The change hypothesis has designed a change model through a
power analysis that tries to make a strategic alliance between the vertical (across local,
national and global levels) and horizontal levels (among local stakeholders) so that not only
the visible forms of obstacles but also the invisible (mindsets of SSFs) as well as the hidden
forms of obstacles become minimized (Gaventa 2006). In the case study the suggested
change process is cumulative and sequential. Especially, when the rich farmers and elite
groups are the promoted groups of any existing policy, there is less chance that without any
strong strategic alliance among diverse national and international stakeholders a new
agricultural policy adoption will be possible.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
64
Conclusions
This paper aims to provide an insight into the EDAGP in Bangladesh, to provide an
understanding of the effectiveness of the institutional interventions and identify the
obstructions created by this approach. Hence, this project will endeavor to postulate a change
hypothesis. The key contribution of this project is to help policy makers understand the
obstacles and potentialities of promoting a PPNAP. From the paper it is evident that the SSFs
get promoted when improved agriculture governance with developed new technologies and
an effective targeting strategy from the national and international level act together.
References
Gaventa J (2006) Finding the Spaces for Change: A Power Analysis. IDS Bulletin. Volume 37,
Number 6. Institute of Development Studies, United Kingdom.
Lewis D, Hossain A (2008) Understanding the Local Power Structure in Rural Bangladesh.
Sidastudies no. 22.pp.1-120. Stockholm: Sida. http://personal.lse.ac.uk/lewisd/images/Lewis&HSidaStudies-22.pdf
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
65
Conservation agriculture increases land and water productivity of a ricewheat-mung system on the High Ganges River Flood Plain of Bangladesh
M.J. Alam1,2,3, E. Humphreys2 and M.A.R. Sarkar3
1
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, [email protected]
International Rice Research Institute, [email protected]
3
Bangladesh Agricultural University, [email protected]
2
Introduction
Cropping systems on the High Ganges River Flood Plain of Bangladesh are highly diverse,
but usually include puddled transplanted rice (PTR) during the rainy season (aman rice).
However, establishment costs of PTR are high due to intensive tillage and the high labour
requirement for transplanting. Furthermore, puddling for rice damages soil structure and
impairs the performance of non-rice crops in the rotation. Also, groundwater levels are
declining due to intensive pumping during the dry season. Therefore, we established an
experiment to evaluate the effects of reduced tillage and aman residue retention on land and
irrigation water productivity of a rice-wheat-mung cropping system.
Materials and methods
The experiment evaluated 3 tillage/establishment method (TE) treatments in main plots (9 m
x 22 m) – TE1: PTR followed by conventional tillage and sowing of wheat or mungbean in a
single pass using a power tiller operated seeder (PTOS); TE2, dry seeded rice (DSR)
followed by wheat and mungbean, with all 3 crops established with the PTOS; TE3: DSR
followed by wheat and mungbean with all crops established with the PTOS but using strip
tillage. There were two levels of aman rice straw retention in sub plots – none (removed at
ground level), or retention of 40 cm high standing straw, and 3 replicates. The site was on a
clay loam soil at BARI, Jessore. Safe alternate wetting and drying (AWD) water management
was used for all rice crops, based on soil tension of 15 kPa at 15 cm soil depth. Rice
equivalent yield of wheat and mungbean was calculated based on their prices relative to that
of rice. Data were analysed by ANOVA using a split plot design.
Results and discussion
Yield of the second and third wheat crops was significantly higher (by 12-14%) when grown
in rotation with DSR compared with PTR (data not presented). Aman straw retention
significantly increased yield of the second mungbean crop (by 6%) and the second and third
wheat crops (by 10%). DSR and PTR had similar yield each year. However, irrigation input
to DSR was ~55% of that to PTR.
Total system rice equivalent yield was not affected by TE treatment in the first 2 years (Fig.
1A), however, the systems with DSR (TE2,3) reduced total irrigation input by about 600 mm
(35%) compared with the system with PTR (TE1) (Fig. 2A). Rice residue retention
significantly increased system yield (by 0.5 t ha-1 or 3%), compared with residue removal in
the second year, and when averaged over the first 2 years (Fig. 1B). Rice residue retention
significantly reduced system irrigation input in the second year, by 50 mm or 4% (Fig. 2B).
Irrigation water productivity (WPI) was highest in the systems with DSR (TE2,3), with no
difference between conventional and strip tillage after 2 years (Fig. 3A). Rice residue
retention also gave a small but significant increase in WPI (Fig. 3B).
The similar yields of PTR and DSR were consistent with the findings of Sudhir-Yadav et al.
(2011) who also compared DSR and PTR on a clay loam soil with safe AWD water
management. Yield of wheat declined after only one year of puddling on this soil which had
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
66
not previously been puddled. Along similar lines, other studies show that on soils with a
history of puddling, yields of wheat start to improve after 2-4 years of replacement of PTR
with DSR (e.g. Gathala et al. 2011).
20
20
TE3
TE2
(-R)
System Productivity (t ha-1)
System Productivity (t ha-1)
TE1
15
10
5
0
(+R)
15
10
5
0
2011-12
2012-13
Mean
2011-12
2012-13
Mean
Figure 1. (A) System productivity (rice equivalent yield) of tillage/ establishment treatments
(TE- see materials and methods), and (B) residue treatments, in the first 2 years.
2500
2500
TE1
TE2
TE3
2000
Irrigation (mm)
2000
Irrigation (mm)
(+R)
(-R)
1500
1000
500
1500
1000
500
0
0
2011-12
2012-13
Mean
2011-12
2012-13
Mean
Figure 2. (A) System irrigation input of TE, and (B) residue treatments, in the first 2 years.
20
20
TE1
TE2
(-R)
TE3
15
System Grain WPI
15
System Grain WPI
(+R)
10
10
5
5
0
0
2011-12
2012-13
Mean
2011-12
2012-13
Mean
Figure 3. (A) System irrigation water productivity of TE, and (B) residue treatments, in the
first 2 years.
References
Gathala MK, Ladha JK, Kumar V, Saharawat YS, Kumar V, Sharma PK, Sharma S, Pathak H (2011)
Tillage and crop establishment affects sustainability of South Asian rice–wheat system. Agron. J.
103: 961-971.
Yadav S, Gill G, Humphreys E, Kukal SS, Walia US (2011) Effect of water management on dry
seeded and puddled transplanted rice. Part 1: Crop performance. Field Crops Res. 120: 112–122.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
67
Study on inundation periods of land for mechanical transplanting under
minimum tillage unpuddled transplanting
M.A. Hossen1, M.M. Hossain1, M.M. Alam1, M.E. Haque2, and RW Bell2,
1
Dept. of Farm Power and Machinery (FPM), Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU),
Mymensingh, [email protected], [email protected],
[email protected]
2
IDE- Murdoch University, Australia, [email protected] [email protected]
Introduction
In Bangladesh and other countries in Asia, manual transplanting of rice into puddled soil is
conventional practice but relies on access to cheap readily-available labour. Besides being
costly and time consuming, puddling results in degradation of soil (Chauhan et al., 2012).
The use of continuous puddling results in the formation of a hard pan with a consequent
increase in bulk density and lowering of hydraulic conductivity below the plow layer (Singh
et al., 2009). To overcome labour and water shortages, mechanical transplanting of rice under
minimum tillage is of considerable interest but little is known of the optimal inundation for
soils before transplanting. In this study both farmers’ participatory and research station-based
experiments evaluated the performance of a mechanical rice transplanter at Bangladesh Rice
Research Institute research farm, Gazipur and on farmers’ fields at Kushtia and Rangpur,
Bangladesh under minimum tillage options and varied inundation periods.
Materials and Methods
The Versatile Multi-crop Planter and a rotary tiller both powered by a two-wheel tractor
prepared the strip and conventional plots, respectively. Two dry and one wet pass followed
by one leveling operation produced conventional puddling of soil. Seedlings of cv. BRRI
dhan28 were raised at 130 gram of pre-germinated seeds in each tray. Textural classes at
Gazipur, Kushtia and Rangpur were clay loam, loamy and sandy loam soil, respectively. Soil
resistance during transplanting was measured by a hand penetrometer at 5 cm operating
depth. Tillage treatments in a split plot design with three replications were strip tillage (ST),
zero tillage (ZT) and conventional tillage (CT) and the inundation periods as sub-plots before
transplanting were 12, 18 and 24 hrs. The 4 row walk-behind type Daedong rice transplanter,
model DP480 was used to transplant into the strip, zero and conventional tillage plots.
Results
Average tillage time for ST and CT was 11.0 and 24.8 hr/ha. Un-puddled ST saved 56% of
tillage time and fuel consumption compared to CT. Conventional tillage demonstrated
significantly higher soil resistance (22.4 N/cm2) in clay loam soil whereas ZT and ST (in the
furrow of the strip) demonstrated higher soil resistance (16.8 and 14.6 N/cm2 respectively) in
sandy loam soil at 0-5 cm operating depth. Soil resistance varied among the soils in the order
sandy loam > loam > clay loam soil. In clay loam soil, highest field capacity (area coverage
per unit time) of the transplanter was observed for ST and ZT (0.128- 0.127 ha/hr). In loamy
soil¸ CT showed higher field capacity. In clay loam and loamy soil, field capacity of the rice
transplanter decreased with increased of inundation periods. By contrast, in sandy loam soil
higher field capacity of the rice transplanter was observed for 18 hrs inundation period. In
sandy loam soil, ST and ZT saved about 20% fuel consumption over CT. Inundation period
showed insignificant effect on fuel consumption in all cases.
Tillage showed significant effect on volume of water required for transplanting. Strip and ZT
saved 10-20%, 15-30% and 20-30% of the water required to prepare soils for transplanting of
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
68
rice in clay loam, loam and sandy loam soil, respectively compared to CT. On the contrary,
inundation periods before transplanting had no significant effect on volume of water required
in three types of soil.
Tillage treatment did not affect the percentage of missing hills in clay loam and sandy loam
soil conditions. In loam soil, however, lowest percentage of missing hills was observed for
ST. Zero tillage provided more missing hills because of more floating plants followed by CT.
On the other hand, ST provided minimum missing hills. There were fewer missing hills with
24 hrs inundation with each tillage treatment. There have no inundation effect on weed
infestation. Zero and ST showed significantly height weed infestation compared to CT.
Strip tillage gave significantly higher yield in loam and sandy loam soil (Table 1). There was
no significant difference in yield between ZT and CT in sandy loam soil. Inundation period
showed significant effect on yield in three types of soil. In sandy loam soil, 18 hrs for ST and
24 hrs for ZT and CT gave highest yields. However, averaged across three soil types, ST with
18 hrs inundation period showed higher BCR 1.54 followed by 1.51 and 1.45 for CT and ZT,
respectively, with 24 hrs inundation period.
Table 1. Grain yield at 14 % moisture content (t/ha) as affected by tillage treatment and
inundation period (IP) in three soil types.
Clay loam soil
Loam soil
Sandy loam soil
IP12
IP18
IP24 Mean IP12
IP18
IP24 Mean IP12
IP18
IP24 Mean
ST
4.7
5.1
5.3
5.0
4.7
5.5
5.4 5.2 a 6.0 cd 7.0 a 6.3 bc 6.4 a
ZT
5.2
5.2
5.6
5.3
4.3
4.5
4.8 4.5 c 5.2 f 5.8 de 6.5 ab 5.8 b
CT
4.8
5.4
5.7
5.3
4.7
4.8
5.3 4.9 b 5.5 ef 5.8 ef 6.3 bc 5.8 b
Mean 4.9 b 5.2 ab 5.5 a
4.6 b 5.0 a 5.2 a
5.6 c 6.1 b 6.4 a
LSD0.05
T= NS, IP=0.40 and
T= 0.22, IP =0.23 and
T= 0.24, IP =0.25 and
T × IP = NS
T × IP = NS
T × IP = 0.4240
Note: ST=Strip tillage, ZT=Zero tillage, CT=Conventional tillage, NS-Not significant, *-significant at
5%, **-significant at 1%, Data followed by different letters differ significantly.
Conclusions
Rice transplanter operation and rice production under minimum tillage was satisfactory
irrespective of soil especially under ST. Averaged across three soil types, 18 hrs inundation
for ST and 24 hrs inundation for ZT and CT showed more benefit for rice production.
References
Chauhan BS, Mahajan G, Sardana V, Timsina J and Jat ML (2012) Productivity and sustainability of
the rice-wheat cropping system in the Indo-Gangetic plains of the Indian subcontinent: problems,
opportunities, and strategies. Adv. Agronomy 117: 315-369.
Singh UP, Singh Y, Kumar V and Ladha JK (2009) Evaluation and promotion of resource conserving
tillage and crop establishment techniques in rice-wheat system in Eastern India, In: JK Ladha,
Yadvinder S, O Erenstein and B Hardy Eds, Integrated crop and resource management in the ricewheat system of South Asia. International Rice Research Institute, New Delhi, pp. 151-176.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
69
Development of the riding-type rice transplanter for unpuddled
transplanting
M.A. Hossen1, M.M. Hossain1, M.M. Alam1, M.E. Haque2 and R.W. Bell2
1
Dept. of Farm Power and Machinery (FPM), Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU),
Mymensingh, [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
2
Murdoch University, Australia, [email protected]; [email protected]
Introduction
Transplanters have been developed for rice seedling planting into puddled soils to alleviate
labour shortages and reduce costs of rice establishment (Adhikari et al., 2006). Although
tillage for rice establishment is significantly mechanized in Bangladesh, 16-18 % of total
production costs are due to tillage and land leveling (BRRI, 2013). Development of a rice
transplanter suitable for unpuddled transplanting under minimum tillage conditions could
further minimize the land preparation cost which will be of interest to small-holder farmers.
No significant work to date has been conducted in Bangladesh to develop a rice transplanter
for minimum tillage unpuddled soil conditions. The following development study was
conducted to modify and evaluate a riding-type, 6-row mechanical rice transplanter for
unpuddled soil conditions.
Materials and Methods
A strip tillage mechanism was attached in front of and in line with the rotary picker for
transplanting rice seedlings (Fig. 1). Fabrication was conducted according to a design made at
the FMPHT Division, BRRI. Engine power available at a 3600 rpm was conveyed to the strip
tillage rotary shaft with the arrangement of a belt-pulley, worm gearing, shaft-universal joint,
involutes spline shaft and bevel gear resulting in a 450 rpm rotary blade speed. A leveroperated tensioning pulley was included into the belt drive to engage and disengage the
power to the strip tillage shaft. A B-section V belt (380 groove angle) was used based on
design power and rpm of the engine shaft pulley. A straight-face worm gear was designed to
reduce main shaft speed to 450 rpm from a secondary shaft speed of 2250 rpm considering
transmitted power 1.75 kW. The tine was designed to produce a 2 cm deep ×2 cm wide strip
(Fig. 1). The modified rice transplanter was evaluated for transplanting seedlings in moisturesaturated and unpuddled soils produced under minimum tillage.
Results
The values of specific draft (Barger et al., 1978) varied from 1.4 to 2 N/cm2 of furrow cross
section area for sandy soils, 2 to 5 N/cm2 for sandy or silt loam soil and 4 N/cm2 for clay
loam soils and declined with increased soil moisture content up to 11.7%. A 2.6 N/cm2 force
was thus assumed for torque calculation considering a soil specific draft of 4 N/cm2 and 35%
reduction for saturated condition. It was calculated that about 1.0 kW power is required to cut
strips simultaneously across the width of the rice transplanter in operation. A double-groove
pulley of 12.5cm diameter was attached to the engine shaft to replace the single-groove
pulley and to share the engine power for strip tillage by transmission to the secondary shaft
attached below the engine shaft. Centre-to-centre distance of the engine shaft and the
secondary shaft is 33.0 cm. A pulley (20 cm diameter) was attached to the secondary shaft to
reduce the engine rpm from 3600 to 2250. Diameter of the secondary shaft was critically
designed to be 2.3 cm considering the combined twisting and bending moments. Input shaft
of the worm gear was coupled with the secondary shaft because of equal speed of the worm
and the secondary shaft. Tangential load acting on the gear was calculated as 1088 N and
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
70
design tangential load was calculated as 2007 N. The design load was more than the
tangential load acting on the gear (1088 N). The design is also safe from the stand point of
dynamic, static and wear load because of more loads compared to the tangential load. Design
diameter of the worm shaft was 14.05 mm (taken 20 mm) considering resultant bending
moment and equivalent twisting moment on the worm shaft.
Bevel gears were used to
connect the 90 degree
intersecting
shafts
to
transmit main shaft power
to the rotary shaft of the
strip tillage tine. Equal
bevel gear having equal
teeth and equal pitch angle
connected two shafts whose
axes intersected at a right
angle. Because of same
teeth, pitch angle for pinion
and gear is same of 45
degree. An involutes spline
shaft was used in the
developed transplanter in
Figure 1. Rice transplanter developed for unpuddled
between bevel gear and main
transplanting
shaft with hub to slide along
the shaft. Total length of the shaft is 23.3 cm along with 17.5 cm spline shaft and hub.
Transmitted torque of the spline shaft is same as the main shaft torque because of same rpm.
Torque of the main shaft is 37.15 N-m based on transmitted load 1.75 Kw. The developed
transplanter was tested in the FMPHD soil bin. During test, average strip size was 2.0 x 2.10
cm. Seedlings were placed uniformly in the strip without damage.
Conclusion
A commercial riding-type mechanical rice transplanter was modified to operate under
minimum tillage unpuddled transplanting with the capability of making strips concurrently
with rice transplanting, in a one pass operation following basic land preparation without
puddling. The developed transplanter performed well in preliminary tests by making strips
and by satisfactory seedling placement in unpuddled soil.
References
Adhikari U, Justice S, Tripathi J and Bhatta MR (2006) Performance evaluation of non-puddled rice
transplanting methods. Paper presented at 25th National Summer Crop Workshop, National
Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa.
BRRI (2013) Annual research report 2013, Agricultural Economic Division, Bangladesh Rice
Research Institute, presentation at the annual research review workshop, BRRI, Gazipur, 2013.
Barger EL, Bainer R and Kepner RA (1978) Principles of Farm Machinery (3rd edition), Published by
SK Jan for CBS publishers and distributors, New Delhi, India, pp. 151.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
71
Effect of different green manures on rice productivity and soil conservation
M.R. Islam, N. Jahan and M.H. Sumon
Department of Soil Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh
[email protected]
Introduction
Green manure (GM) is a kind of organic fertilizer grown chiefly to supply nitrogen (N) to the
main crop in a cropping system. It can also draw up other nutrients from deeper soil layers
and enrich the surface soils. From the economic point of view, green manuring with locally
available resources offers an opportunity since the chemical fertilizers are increasing in cost.
Islam et al. (2014) reported that in-situ application of green manure produced higher rice
yield. Pre-rice green manuring with Sesbania greatly contributes to improving soil fertility
and organic matter build up of the soils in Rice-Rice or other important cropping patterns.
Besides Sesbania, mungbean and blackgram can also be used as GM crops. The present
research assessed the effect of different green manures on the growth and yield of rice cv.
BINA dhan7 to determine a suitable combination of GM and N fertilizer for rice.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during
the monsoon season of 2013 to study the effect of different GM on the growth and yield of
rice. Five GM treatments were: Fallow (No GM), GM with Sesbania aculeata, Sesbania
rostrata, blackgram (Vigna radiata) and mungbean (Vigna mungo). After chopping GM at 50
days, short duration rice BINA dhan7 was planted with nine treatment combinations: T1 (No
GM + 100% recommended dose of N), T2 (Sesbania aculeata + 75%N), T3 (Sesbania
aculeata + 50%N), T4 (Sesbania rostrata + 75%N), T5 (Sesbania rostrata + 50%N), T6
(Vigna radiata + 75%N), T7 (Vigna radiata + 50%N), T8 (Vigna mungo + 75%N) and T9
(Vigna mungo + 50%N). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block
design with three replications. The crop was harvested at maturity and the yield attributes,
grain and straw yields were recorded. The residual effect of GM was also evaluated on the
succeeding wheat crop. Effects on physico-chemical properties of soil due to GM were also
assessed (data not shown).
Results and Discussion
Panicle length and filled grains panicle-1 of BINA dhan7 responded positively to application
of Sesbania when applied with 75% N (Table 1). Grain yield and straw yield, N uptake in
grain and straw also had significant positive response with the application of Sesbania
aculeata and Vigna radiata when applied with 75% N (Table 1 & 2). The positive response
of GM might be due to the release of N. The release of nutrient from GM is relatively slow so
it acts like a continuous supply of nutrient throughout the crop growth period with benefits over
fertilizer N application. Application of fertilizer N dissolves quickly and N becomes available
instantly and thus a greater part of it is lost from the system through volatilization,
denitrification, leaching loss. Only 35% of the added N from fertilizer is used by the plant and
the rest is lost; which determines the efficiency of combined application of GM and chemical
fertilizers. The results presented from the experiment also show that GM can compensate 25%
reduction of recommended fertilizer N dose but not 50%.
Conclusion
Green manuring with leguminous crops is a widely used practice in rice cropping systems in
Bangladesh and has potential for reducing use of fertilizer-N application besides improving
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
72
soil fertility. Research panicle length, filled grains per panicle, grain and straw yield and N
uptake were higher in the plots treated with GM in combination with 75% recommended N
fertilizer. Among the GM crops Sesbania aculeata performed better. Therefore, Sesbania
aculeata with 75% of recommended N fertilizer application could be recommended for
BINA dhan7 production in aman season in Bangladesh.
Table 1. Effects of different green manures with different levels of nitrogen on yield
components and yields of rice cv. BINA dhan7
Treatments Plant height (cm)
Effective
Panicle
Grains
Grain
Straw
tillers hill-1
length
panicle-1
yield
yield
-1
(No.)
(cm)
(No.)
(kg ha ) (kg ha-1)
T1
88
12
23.7
87
4253bc
4542
T2
88
12
24.6
96
5483a
5160
T3
86
12
24.5
100
4221bc
4456
T4
85
11
24.2
96
4293bc
4992
T5
84
12
23.6
82
4624b
5482
T6
88
12
23.7
89
5408a
5358
T7
86
11
23.3
86
4531bc
5080
T8
88
13
24.1
82
4125c
4628
T9
81
11
21.9
81
4306bc
4788
P value
0.15
0.33
0.21
0.10
<0.001
0.29
Means in a column having common letters do not differ significantly at P<0.05.
Table 2. Effects of different green manures with different levels of nitrogen on N uptake by
rice
Treatments
N uptake (kg/ha)
Grain
Straw
Total
T1
55c
25
80cd
T2
65ab
32
98ab
T3
53c
25
78d
T4
52c
32
84bcd
T5
59bc
35
93abc
T6
70a
31
101a
T7
58bc
27
85bcd
T8
51c
26
77d
T9
51c
27
78d
P value
<0.001
0.402
<0.001
Means in a column having common letters do not differ significantly at P<0.05.
Reference
Islam MR, Hossain MB, Siddique AB, Rahman MT, Malika M 2014. Contribution of green manure
incorporated in combination with nitrogen fertilizer in rice production. SAARC J. Agric.
Submitted.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
73
Practices of Conservation Agricultural Technologies in Diverse Cropping
Systems in Bangladesh
M. Akteruzzaman1, Hasneen Jahan1, M.E. Haque2
1
Department of Agricultural Economics, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
[email protected]
2
Murdoch University, Australia, [email protected]
Introduction
In order to feed the increasing population of Bangladesh, priority was given to produce more
food in terms of grain through intensification of land usage. As a result, the immediate
objective of more grain production have been achieved and grain (especially rice) production
has increased manifold. For a shorter period, Bangladesh has attained self sufficiency in food
(rice) production. On the contrary, over extraction of soil nutrients was followed in this food
production strategy which includes introduction of various HYVs and hybrids, and using
higher doses of chemical fertilizer and pesticides. In addition, the increased use and increased
price of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, pesticides, irrigation, etc.) resulted in much higher
production cost day by day. The scenario is that though the grain production has been
increased many times, the farmers who produced crops became marginalized. In this context,
conservation agriculture (CA) is becoming increasingly important in overcoming the
problems of declining agricultural productivity both in developing and developed world.
Conservation agriculture offers a powerful option for meeting future food demands and
contributing in sustainability of agriculture and rural development. Farmers (CA adopters)
and other stakeholders who are new or are at the initial stages of converting to CA require
tangible evidence on the benefits and impacts of CA. It is necessary to know whether CA
significantly increases productivity and food security for their families or not. It is also a
crucial question to the CA adopters whether CA helps them to save production costs and
generate income or not. Based on the above discussion, the main objective of this paper is to
investigate the present status of CA practiced by the farmers in Bangladesh. The specific
objectives are as follows:
i) To investigate the present status of CA in respect to knowledge, tillage operation,
weed control, and usage of various crop rotations in different parts of Bangladesh.
ii) To identify the constraints and opportunities to adoption of CA in diversified ricebased cropping systems
iii) To suggest some policy guidelines for popularizing CA in Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods
A multistage sample technique was applied to gather the required data and information.
Firstly, four districts (Thakugaon, Rajshahi, Rajbari and Mymensingh) were selected
considering different soil types and cropping systems. Secondly, the households were
selected through FGD considering the adoption level of CA such as cultivation by minimum
tillage, retention of crop residues and crop rotations. Thirdly, the households were
categorized by cropping systems, mostly rice based (rice-pulses or rice-oilseed) cropping
systems. Both the former CA research sites and new research sites were included in the
sample for a better understanding of CA techniques used. Thus, a total of 458 farms were
selected followed by a field reconnaissance and key informants interviews with different
stakeholders for baseline survey.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
74
Results and Discussion
The respective costs for four tillage types by season are presented in Table 1. Methods of
weed control and crop rotation practices by households are presented in Table 2 and Table 3,
respectively.
Table 1. Cost of Tillage Operations by Season
Types of tillage
Draft Power
Power tiller
Tractor
Seeder machine
*1 US$= 78 BDT.
Rabi
No. of
tillage
3.04
1.55
1.38
1.70
Cost in
BDT/hectare
4258
1186
1070
1371
Kharif I
No. of
Cost in
tillage
BDT/hectare
3.55
3829
1.75
1373
1.67
1317
1.86
1210
Kharif II
No. of
Cost in
tillage
BDT/hectare
3.13
2994
1.80
1415
1.89
1672
1.83
1223
Table 2. Methods of Weed Control Operation by the Respondent Households
By traditional practices
By CA practices
Crop
No. of HH
% of HH
No. of HH
% of HH
Rice
374
81.7
131
28.6
Wheat
183
40.0
12
2.6
Jute
162
35.4
12
2.6
Pulses
46
10.0
7
1.5
Oilseeds
19
4.2
10
2.2
Vegetables
145
31.7
47
10.3
Table 3. Crop Rotation Practices by the Respondent Households
Crop Rotation (Yes)
Crop Rotation (No)
Area
No. of HH
% of HH
No. of HH
% of HH
Mymensingh
65
55.1
53
44.9
Rajbari
63
39.4
97
60.6
Rajshahi
52
43.3
68
56.7
Thakurgaon
0
60
100
Total
180
39.3
278
60.7
The perceived constraints of CA technologies reported by the farm households are: low
production at minimum tillage (47.7%), growing of more weeds (47.4%), lower level of
animal feed (36.3%), lower level of cooking fuel (35.2%), and bothering job (29.9%). On the
other hand, the reported opportunities to adopt CA technologies are: low cost of labour for
seeding, weeding and harvesting (43.3 %), increased soil fertility through crop rotation (30.8
%), herbicides can be used to control weeds (14.4%), and crop residues can be handled easily
to procure animal feed (8.7 %).
Conclusion
On the basis of the findings, promotion of knowledge on the benefits of CA technologies
should be ensured through training by Department of Agricultural Extension and local NGOs.
In addition, government should come forward to provide agricultural machineries through
local workshops at reasonable price. Finally, research on crop rotations and cropping patterns
for harvesting the benefits of CA technologies is also suggested.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
75
Effect of Application Timings of Pre Emergence Herbicides on Weed
Efficacy and Crop Phytotoxicity in Dry Seeded Rice
Sharif Ahmed
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh, and
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Baños, Philippine. [email protected]
Introduction
Due to the decreasing availability of labor and water, farmers in many Asian countries are
shifting from puddled transplanted rice to dry seeded rice (DSR) (Pandey and Velasco 2005).
DSR can be established directly in the field with no prior tillage (zero tillage) or following
dry tillage (reduced tillage). Dry-seeding readily enables mechanization of rice crop
establishment using seeder powered by a 2-wheel tractor, or using 4-wheel tractor mounted
seed drills, with low labor requirement. Dry seeding also reduces irrigation water requirement
through elimination of puddling. However, weeds are major constraints to its success when
grown under non-ponded conditions (Chauhan and Opeña, 2012). Pre-emergence herbicides
are considered to be the best tool to manage weeds in DSR. Several pre-emergence herbicides
are now available in the market, but selection of right herbicide is very important to suppress
weeds from the existing weed seed bank, in an economical way. In addition, environmental
conditions, such as soil water content at the time of application, can influence both herbicide
efficacy and crop phytotoxicity by altering herbicide absorption, translocation, or metabolism
(Chauhan and Johnson, 2011). So, herbicide application timing and soil moisture condition
are very important to reduce both the crop phytoxicity and to increase the herbicide efficacy
on weeds. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the effect of time of application
of soil-applied herbicide on rice plant establishment, weed growth and crop yield in dryseeded rice.
Materials and methods
There were three times of herbicide application [before sowing (BS), after sowing but before
irrigation (ASBI), after sowing and irrigation (ASI)] and four methods of weed control
(weed-free, partial-weedy, oxadiargyl 80 g active ingredient (ai) ha-1, pendimethalin 1000 g
ai ha-1), in a split plot design. In the partial-weedy treatment, only one hand weeding was
performed at 40 DAS. Rice plant density (no. m-2) was determined at 14 DAS. The crop was
sown into dry tilled soil using a seed-drill with a fluted roller seed-metering device and a
power tiller linked to a 2-wheel tractor. Weed density was determined at 20 DAS, and weed
density and biomass were determined at 40 DAS, separated into grasses, broad leaves and
sedges. At harvest, panicle density (no. m-2) was determined at 4 randomly selected locations
in each plot. Rice grain yield was determined from an area of 6.6 m2. Grain yield was
converted to t ha−1 at 14% moisture content. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the
means were separated using least significant differences (LSD) at the 5% level of
significance using Crop Stat 7.2.
Results and Discussion
Rice plant stand was highly affected by application time, weed control method and their
interaction (Fig.1). Rice plant density was decreased with pendimethalin at all application
times, by 43 (BS), 19 (ASBI) and 12% (ASI) compared with the non treated plots (188 to 195
rice plants m-2). In contrast, oxadiargyl did not affect plant density, regardless of application
time. Application of pendimethalin to dry soil before irrigation had more phytotoxicity than
when applied after irrigation. At 20 DAS, there was a significant interaction between
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
76
herbicide timing and weed control method on density of grass and broad leaf weeds, but not
sedges (Fig. 2). Pendimethalin was very effective against grasses regardless of application
time, reducing the grass population to zero when applied BS or ASBI, and reducing it to 92%
of the grass weed density when applied ASI, compared with the non-treated plots. Oxadiargyl
was also effective against grasses when applied ASBI and ASI. But the performance of
oxadiargyl was very poor when applied BS and reduced the grass density by only 38 %. At
40 DAS, the interactions between application time and weed control method on total weed
density and total weed biomass were significant (Fig. 3). This was largely due to the fact that
application of pendimethalin before sowing had a significant effect on weed density and
weed biomass, while oxadiargyl did not. There was consistently better herbicide performance
with application after sowing and irrigation. Yields with oxidiargyl and pendimethalin were
similar, with maximum yield (4.0 t ha-1) with application after sowing and irrigation, 1 t ha-1
lower than yield of the weed-free treatment. Herbicide application after sowing and irrigation
increased yield by 2.1 t ha-1 compared with the weedy treatment (1.9 t ha-1). The study
suggests that to increase herbicide efficacy on weeds and reduce phytotoxicity to dry seeded
rice, both oxadiargyl and pendimethalin should be applied after sowing and irrigation. In
addition, our study also suggests, preplant application of pendimethalin may not be feasible,
and this may reduce some mechanization options (e.g., spray with a tractor before
irrigation/wet conditions).
Figure 1. Effect of application time and weed
control method on rice plant density at 14 DAS.
Figure 2. Effect of application time and weed control
method on weed density (number m -2) of grasses,
broad leaf weeds and sedges at 20 DAS.
Figure 3. Effect of application time and weed control
method on weed density (number m -2) and biomass
(g m-2) at 40 DAS.
Figure 4. Effect of application time and
weed control method on grain yield (t ha -1).
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
77
References
Chauhan BS, Johnson DE (2011) Growth response of direct-seeded rice to oxadiazon and bispyribacsodium in aerobic and saturated soils. Weed Science 59:119–122.
Chauhan BS, Opeña J (2012) Effect of tillage systems and herbicides on weed emergence, weed
growth, and grain yield in dry-seeded rice systems. Field Crops Res 137:56–69.
Pandey S, Velasco L (2005) Trends in crop establishment methods in Asia and research issues. Pages
178–181 in Rice is Life: Scientific Perspectives for the 21st Century: Proceedings of the World
Rice Research Conference. Los Baños, Philippines: IRRI, and Tsukuba, Japan: JIRCAS.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
78
Computational Modelling and Finite Element Analysis of Strip Tillage
Components for Fabrication Purposes
E. Lam1*, M. A. Hoque 12, R.K. Das3, M.K. Gathala1, T.J Krupnik1
1
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). 2.Bangladesh Agricultural
Research Institute (BARI), 3.International Development Enterprises (iDE)
Email: [email protected] and [email protected]
Introduction
New agricultural implements are being developed at an accelerating pace to meet the growing
needs of farmers who practice conservation agriculture (CA). In Bangladesh, most CA
technologies are modifications of available materials and devices, retooled to meet the
immediate needs of individual farmers in the field. While such innovations can be effective,
their applicability for scaling-up is limited due to development within a range of constraints
intended for prototyping. This approach fails to consider the stress capabilities of component
materials, the impact on draft capacity of the engine, or manufacturing and commercial
viability; all are crucial for bringing an agricultural implement to market. By using
computational modelling software, multiple iterations of existing field innovations can be
virtually tested, saving time and money otherwise spent for field-testing. This method of
structural analysis, called finite element analysis (FEA) can determine modes of failure
including where loads can exceed maximum yield stresses. Designs can also be geared to
meet manufacturing and distribution specifications such as fabrication time, material
selection, and weight constraints.
Materials and methods
We analysed inverted-T style furrow openers, which use two tubes for seed and fertilizer
delivery and a reinforced front edge, for CA based direct seeding of crops in Bangladesh
(Krupnik et al., 2013). Our work builds on designs developed by M.A. Hoque through
CIMMYT supported research at BARI and the Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU).
Dassault Systemes Solidworks® Premium (2014, Vélizy-Villacoublay, France) was used for
the three-dimensional modelling and stress-testing of the furrow opener.
Inverted-T furrow openers are intended for operation in conjunction with the CA practice of
strip tillage. In worst-case scenarios, the opener might be used by itself in a zero-till fashion
(requiring the use of additional press wheels). The shear forces that would be imparted on the
opener were based on the yield strength of soils with limited to excessive soil cohesion, from
20 to 640 kPa (Hawkins and Hudson, 1992). Material cost predictions were based on plain
carbon steel of 574 USD/t (Management Engineering & Production Services, 2014). Labour
cost analyses were based on reported best practices of Bangladeshi labour at 0.81 USD/h, and
Chinese labour at 4.00 USD/h.
Four virtual designs were tested: Shoe Style-Current (SS-C) furrow opener included on the
power tiller operated seeders (PTOS) that are manufactured in China, and which can be
converted for strip tillage, Furrow Opener-Prototype 1 (FO-P1), which is one of the versions
currently under field testing, an alternate Furrow Opener-Manufactured 1 (FO-M1) which
would be caste and uses the least amount of labour, and Furrow Opener-Manufactured 2 (FOM2), which moves the strength into an internal truss design to minimize weight and costs.
Stress analysis of FO-M2 was conducted only on the internal truss, to ensure it had enough
strength to handle the design forces. Each inverted-T simulation had an applied pressure on
the leading edge of 637,000 N/m2, the equivalent of a high resistance soil with a resistance of
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
79
640kPa. All used plain carbon steel as the material with a yield strength of 2.20594e+8 N/m2,
and tensile strength of 3.99826e+8 N/m2.
Results and Discussion
All designs were capable of withstanding the applied design force of 640kPa. They also had a
factor of safety more than two, i.e. they could withstand at least double the applied design
forces. FEA of the designs show FO-M2 had the best balance of cost, weight, and strength
out of all the designs (Table 1). Displacement visualizations show fatigue would be
systematic in all designs except FO-M2, where it would be isolated to the forward members
of the truss. FO-M2 uses 61.6% of the steel in FO-P1, and 46.9% of the steel in FO-M1,
while sustaining the structural capacity requirements. Based on this, it is possible to utilize a
truss similar to FO-M2 to reduce weight and costs while retaining the required strength.
Further analysis and field testing is required to determine how different materials will impact
the performance of the FO-M2 design.
Table 1. Stress analysis applied to four potential inverted-T furrow opener configurations.
Von Mises stress is the amount of load subjected to a member. If the imparted stress is higher
than the yield strength of the material, FEA would indicate structural failure. Displacement is
a measure of deflection, based on distributed loads and material properties, allowing for
predictions of systematic stress. The blue and red colors indicate the lowest displacement to
highest displacement, respectively.
Image of 3D Model
(Not to Scale)
Name:
SS-C
Mass (kg):
0.57185
Primary Machining
Welding,
Method:
Cutting
Predicted Material Cost
$0.33
per Single Opener (USD):
Predicted Hours of
0.82
Labour per Unit (h):
Predicted Labour Cost
$0.66a, $3.28b
per Unit (USD):
Predicted Sum per Unit
$0.99a, $3.61b
(USD):
Von Mises Stress Min
79.212
N/m2:
5.99159e+7
Max
N/m2:
Max Displacement mm:
0.0965558
Displacement
Visualization:
(Highly exaggerated to
emphasize how stresses
are transferred through
each design)
a
Bangladeshi Labour bChinese Labour
FO-P1
1.30227
Welding,
Grinding
$0.75
FO-M1
1.64549
Casting
FO-M2
0.77187
Welding,
Pressing
$0.44
1.78
$1.10 at 500
units
NA
$1.44a, $7.12b
NA
$0.77a, $3.80b
$3.22a, $7.87b
$1.10
$1.21a, $4.24b
9.33157e-19
1.10291e+7
8.01343e-18
1.69544e+7
72.4005
1.04183e+8
0.0074994
0.00858932
0.0283803
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
0.95
80
References
Hawkins A, Hudson J (1992) Engineering Description of Mudrocks. Quarterly Journal of
Engineering Geology 25: 17-30.
Valle S, Krupnik T, Gathala M (2013) Improved blades and tines for seed drills used with two-wheel
tractors in conservation agriculture in Krupnik, T., Valle, S., McDonald, A., Justice, S., Hossain,
I., & Gathala, M. Made in Bangladesh: Scale-Appropriate Machinery for Agricultural Resource
Conservation. Bangladesh: CIMMYT
Management Engineering & Production Services (2014, August 3) MEPS - ASIAN CARBON
STEEL PRICES. Retrieved from MEPS: http://www.meps.co.uk/Asian%20Price.htm
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
81
Fodder Chopper for Livestock Producers: A Case Study of
Commercialization of Machinery for Smallholders in Bangladesh
M.E. Haque1*, R.W. Bell1, S.R. Waddington2, N.R. Sarker3, and M. Jabed Ali4
1
Murdoch University, Australia, [email protected] [email protected]
Ex-CIMMYT Agronomist, Mexico, [email protected]
3
Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka, [email protected]
4
Modern Engineering Workshop, Sayedpur, [email protected]
2
Introduction
Farmers in Bangladesh are very interested to produce more milk products and beef to meet
rising consumer demand. Small and medium livestock farmers have between 10 and 30 cows
or beef cattle. A major constraint to the expansion of dairy holdings and beef production in
Bangladesh is the scarcity of quality fodder, especially during the dry winter season (Haque
et al., 2008). Straw from paddy rice is the main source of fodder for livestock in Bangladesh,
but has being abundant and low quality (Haque et al., 2008). Napier grass, fodder maize,
para, jambo grass, triticale and lathyrus are all grown as higher quality fresh fodder
supplements to rice straw. These fodders are normally fed to cattle in the form of whole fresh
or dried stems and leaves, and commonly 15 to 20 per cent of the material is refused and
wasted. To reduce wastage, some farmers are trying to chop straw and other fodders by hand
for their cattle but this is slow, laborious and costly. To overcome the problem, the Power
Straw and Fodder Chopper (PSFC) was developed in 2006 and commercialized. This short
paper describes the PSFC, its uses, initial experiences with its promotion and marketing by
the Pilot Program on Increasing the Availability of Quality Fodder for Dairy Production in
Bangladesh
(PPIAQFDP)
funded
by
DANIDA.
Materials and methods
The PSFC was fabricated with locally
available materials and can be powered a 4 hp
diesel engine or single phase electric motor.
The main functional parts of the PSFC were:
the toolbar frame, cutter blades, safety cover,
power transmission pulley, feeding rollers and
feeding tray (Figure 1). As far as possible, it
was fabricated using locally available
materials including M.S. angle, solid bar, M.S.
sheet, cutter blades, ball bearings, and feeding Figure 1. Power Straw and Fodder
tray. Performance evaluation of the PSFC has Chopper (PSFC) being demonstrated.
been done through various laboratory tests and
on- farm monitoring. Several rounds of improvements were made based on feedback from
farmers, operators and manufacturers. Data were also collected to determine the labour
requirement and costs of chopping various straws and fodder types by the conventional
methods and using the PSFC. From the beginning, Modern Engineering Workshop (MEW)
was engaged to fabricate the first prototype of the PSFC with the condition that once the
prototype was shown to be successful MEW would produce and market it commercially. It
was also agreed that the project would initially support MEW with demonstration. The
PPIAQFDP supported MEW in demonstrations and other promotional activities with the
PSFC in several districts where the PPIAQFDP was working. To create demand, PPIAQFDP
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
82
procured 6 PSFC and demonstrated them in the project working districts its use in 2006
through the network of the Department of Livestock Services (DLS). Since 2008, the ACIAR
funded projects (LWR LWR-2005-001 and LWR-2010-080) has been provided technical
support to MEW for improvement and commercialization of PSFC.
Results and Discussions
The PSFC could chop 480 kg of rice or wheat straw per hour and 1150 kg of fresh napier or
maize fodder plants per hour into pieces 4 to 6 cm long. The operational cost of the chopper
was Tk 105 (US$ 1.35) per hour. Tk 840 (US$ 10.77) was required to chop the same amount
of straw or fresh fodder manually by hand. Depending on farmer’s buying capacity, MEW
has released new models (Table 1). The MEW demonstrated the chopper through project
support, attending various agricultural fair, etc. Until April 2014, MEW was able to sell 610
units of various models with a pricing range of Tk. 24,000-55,000 (Table 1). To create
demand initially, the project provided 50% of the purchase cost as a promotional price to 12
small dairy farmers in six districts of Bangladesh. At the beginning, MEW tried to involve
local level agricultural machinery marketing dealers to sell the chopper. However, until 2010,
demand was not sufficient to attract dealers to sell MEW choppers through their network.
Project-led various promotional efforts with MEW e.g., operation, repair and maintenance
training; demonstrating the PSFC at local agricultural fairs; PSFC demonstration during cattle
farmers’ training programs at Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI) and
Department of Livestock Services (DLS); awareness raising; etc were the major interventions
to boost-up commercial sale of PSFC in Bangladesh. Since 2011, ten local dealers (one each
in Thakurgaon, Dinajpur, Rangpur, Satkhira, and Bogra districts; and five in Nilphamari
district) have been sold about 40% of MEW choppers; the rest were sold by MEW directly to
the dairy farmers based on information support from BLRI, DLS, etc. There is no simple,
shortcut approach to commercialize small-scale agricultural machineries in the smallholder
community (Haque et. al., 2013), however, a multi-dimensional approach e.g., initial price
support; demand creation and technical support by project staffs, stakeholder institutions
(BLRI and DLS) helped to commercialize the PSFC.
Table 1. Capacity, price and number of unit sold of fodder chopper upto end of April, 2014.
Model
Capacity
Unit price
Unit sold
Comments
(kg/hr)
(Tk)1
PSFC
480
47,500**
80
Original model developed by senior author
Fixed 86
350
24,000*
120
Modified version by MEW without safety cover
01Spring
350
26,000*
300
Modified version by MEW without safety cover
011Mobile
450
35,500*
50
Modified version by MEW without safety cover
014MC
600
55,000***
60
Modified version by MEW with safety cover
Total:
610
*=without power engine; **=with 4 hp diesel engine; ***= with 3 hp single phase electric motor. Cost of 4 hp
diesel engine Tk. 12,000; and 4 hp electric motor Tk. 10,000 per set. 1Tk. 78=US$ 1.00.
References
Haque ME, Waddington SR, Sarker ZI, Sarker NR, Akteruzzaman M (2008) Production and
promotion of triticale as high quality fodder and feed in small-scale dairy farmers of Bangladesh.
Progressive Agriculture 19(2): 217-228.
Haque ME, Nabila SR, Bell RW (2013) Smallholders Minimum Tillage Planter Adoption in
Bangladesh: A successful case of private sector involvement for technology commercialization. In
Water, Environment and Agriculture: Challenges for Sustainable Development. Proceedings. Eds
N. Lamaddalena, M. Todorovic and L. S. Pereira. CIHEAM-Institute of Agronomy Mediterranean
Bari, Valenzano, Italy. pp. 68-69.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
83
Soil organic carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvement under
systems of rice intensification (SRI) technique
Dilip Kumar Das
Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi
Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, West Bengal, India email:[email protected]
Introduction
Rice production in India has increased during the last 60 years by nearly 425 per cent or 4.3
times from 20.58 million tonnes in 1950 to nearly 87.5 million tonnes during the year 200910. There is considerable increase in productivity of rice in India during the recent past. The
productivity of rice which was 668 kg ha-1in 1950-51 has reached to 2,066 kg ha-1 during
2001-02. The increase in productivity of rice is about 209 per cent and this increase is due to
introduction of high yielding rice varieties responsive to high dose of fertilizers coupled with
improved package of practices evolved by Agricultural Scientists of various regions.
Among the micronutrients, zinc is the most limiting nutrient whose deficiency is a wide
spread nutritional disorder of wetland rice. Widespread occurrence of zinc deficiency has
been reported from many parts of the world where high yielding, fertilizer responsive
varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) are being grown intensively under low land puddled soil
conditions (Ponnamperuma 1977. Zinc is one of the essential micronutrient elements most
commonly deficient in flooded rice soils and has Zinc deficiency in rice appears right from
seedling stage in nursery and three weeks after transplanting in transplanted plots. Rice being
the crop having high water requirement, there is a need to search for alternate methods to
reduce water requirement of rice without reduction in the yield. Systems of rice
intensification (SRI) seems to be a promising technique to overcome the storage of water in
irrigated rice. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to study the integrated
approach of nutrient management under SRI technique using less water with the following
objectives
1. to increase the soil organic carbon contents in soil and hence soil fertility using less
water
2. to increase yield and uptake of nutrients
Materials and methods
Field experiments were conducted during the year 2008-09 and 2009-10 at the “Model
Demonstration Farm”, Water Management Research Station, Ranaghat, district of Nadia,
West Bengal, India (23°11’N latitude and 88°33’E longitude), with an altitude of 7.00 m
above the mean sea level. The soil of the experimental field is typically of Gangetic new
alluvial (aeric endoaquept) having medium water holding capacity and moderate fertility
status. The experiment was laid out in randomised block design (RBD) with 8 treatments
each replicated thrice. Recommended doses of 120 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 , 60 kg K2O and Zn at 5
ha-1 were applied. Nitrogen to be applied which was divided into ¼, ½ and ¼ parts. At basal
1/4th of N along with full amount of P2O5 and K2O were applied. First top dressing of ½ N
was at 21 days after transplanting (DAT) and second ¼ N was made at 42 DAT. FYM
applied two week before the final land preparation. 18 and 22 day old rice seedlings (cv. IET4786) were transplanted with a spacing 25cm × 25cm with single seedling per hill. Periodic
soil and plant samples were collected and analysed following suitable analytical methods.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
84
Results and Discussions
The results reveal the mean amount of organic carbon content in soil has been found to be
increased being highest (1.14%) in the treatment T6 where FYM at 10 t ha-1 along with
recommended NPK and Zn at 5 kg ha-1 were applied togetherly. The highest mean available
N (298.80 kg ha-1) , P2O5 (202.56 kg ha-1) and K2O (273.78 kg ha-1) were recorded in the
treatment T6 where FYM at 10 t ha-1, recommended NPK and Zn at 5 kg ha-1 was applied
togetherly. The highest extractable Zn content was recorded in the treatment T7 where
recommended NPK, FYM at 10 t ha-1 and Zn at 10 kg ha-1 were applied togetherly. Such
increase in the DTPA-extractable Zn content in soil due to combined applications of
recommended doses of NPK, FYM at 10 t ha-1 and Zn at 10 kg ha-1 as ZnSO4 might be due to
the acidification of rhizosphere resulting in release of H+ from the roots to balance excess
intake of cations over anions and H+ generated in the oxidation of Fe+2 by root released O2
(Naik and Das, 2008). The yield of rice during both the years have been found to be
significantly varied with treatments, being mean highest yield of grain (66.80 q ha-1) was
recorded in the treatment T6 where integrated approach was made i.e. recommended levels of
NPK, FYM at 10 t ha-1 and Zn at 5 kg ha-1 were applied togetherly. The results further reveal
that about 97 and 98 per cent of the variability towards contributing grain yield of rice were
recorded from effective and abortive tillers, and panicle length, grains per panicle and test
weight respectively. The highest uptake of N (66.28 kg ha-1)) and K (23.38 kg ha-1) by
grain was recorded in the treatment T6 where recommended NPK, FYM at 10 t ha-1 and Zn
at 5 kg ha-1 were applied togetherly. The overall results suggest that the approach of
integrated nutrient management (INM) i.e. the application of NPK (120:60:60 kg ha-1) and
organic matter 10 t ha-1 along with Zn at 5 kg ha-1 have been proved best management
practice for rice cultivation during rabi season under systems of rice intensification (SRI)
with respect to maintain optimum soil organic carbon and soil fertility with the simultaneous
increase in yield of rice.
References
Naik SK, DK Das (2008) Relative performance of chelated zinc and zinc sulphate for lowland rice
(Oryza sativa L.). Nutrient Cycling in Agro-ecosystem, 81: 217-227.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
85
Pea as Relay Crop in between Monsoon rice and Summer rice: a Resource
Conservation Technology
Md. Omar Ali1, Matiur Rahman2, William Erskine3 and Al Imran Malik 3
1
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur Bangladesh, E-mail:
[email protected];
2
International Rice Research Institute, Dhaka, Bangladesh and
3
Centre for Plant Genetics and Breeding, The University of Western Australia
Abstract
Bangladesh is one of the most populous and poverty affected country in the world. The soil
condition is poor in nutrients and water content. However, growing of legumes helps in
improving the soil condition and pea (Pisum sativum) as a food legume has a great role in
human food, animal feed and sustainable agriculture. Whereas, after harvesting of monsoon
rice, it is difficult to timely sowing of pea as a sole crop due to late harvest of rice/excess soil
moisture/ soil moisture goes down before rice harvest under high to medium high lands. In
this circumstances, relay cropping of pea as green pod for vegetable and fodder production
in the standing monsoon rice field, 15-20 days before rice harvest has a great opportunity.
This ensures timely sowing and best use of residual soil moisture and also low cost
technology. But for better adaptation and successful crop production within the window of
two rice, it needs selection of suitable variety along with production techniques. Pea has been
tested as relay crop with rice at on- station as well as on-farm in three locations during rabi
season of 2011-2013. It was found that, a variety, Natore local produced the highest green
pod yield (4.8 t -5.3 t/ha) and fodder yield (8.4 t- 8.5 t/ ha) with maximum gross margin was
TK.145809-152836/ha (US$ 1870-1960/ha), and BCR (4.04- 4.65). Hence, if peas can be
inserted in between monsoon and summer rice as vegetable and fodder (cash crop) a large
area of lands may bring under pea cultivation. It also enhance pea production as green pod &
fodder, farmer’s income, and human & animal nutrition, create job opportunity for green pod
picking which all together will increase the livelihood of small farmers and to ensure soil
health improvement for sustainable production system.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
86
Comparison of greenhouse gas emission characteristics between rice
cropping and fallow season in a temperate paddy soil
MD. Mozammel Haque1, Pil Joo Kim2, 3
1
Soil Science Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh,
[email protected]
2
3
Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju
Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju
Introduction
There were numerous studies done about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission characteristics
in rice paddy soils. However, such studies were done only during rice cultivation period and
mainly focused on the individual GHG emission impact without the overall quantification of
the total global warming potential (GWP). In particular, mono-rice paddy soils like in Korea
and Japan are flooded for less than 100 days during cropping season, and aerobically
managed under dried soil condition over 200 days a year. Therefore, it is necessary to
simultaneously investigate their individual contributions during rice cropping and fallow
season.
Materials and methods
In order to quantify the impact of flooded rice cultivation and dried fallow seasons on total
GWP in mono-rice cultivation system, two fertilization systems (NPK, and NPK+Cover
crop) were installed in a typical rice paddy soil, and the emission patterns of CH4, CO2, and
N2O were monitored for two consecutive years. In NPK+Cover crop treatment, a seed
mixture of barley and hairy vetch were broadcasted with 75% and 25% of each
recommendation (barley 140 kg ha-1, and vetch 90 kg ha-1) after rice harvesting in 2010 and
2011, respectively. In the early June, 2011 and 2012, around 36 Mg ha-1 of the fresh aboveground biomass was harvested, and the chopped biomass was mixed mechanically in the
surface soil one week before rice transplanting. The recommendation rates of chemical
fertilizers (N-P2O5-K2O = 90-45-57 Kg ha-1) were applied in two treatments. Transparent
glass chambers which have surface area 62 cm x 62 cm and height 112 cm were placed
permanently on the flooded soil to monitor CH4 and N2O emission rates during rice
cultivation. In addition, acrylic column chambers (D. 20 cm and H. 20 cm) were placed inner
soil surface between rice plants for evaluating CO2 emission rates during rice cultivation and
three gases emission patterns during the fallow seasons.
Results and Discussion
The contribution of seasonal GWP scales to the annual GWP value was big different between
the fallow season and the rice cultivation season (Fig. 1.). In the NPK treatment, total GWP
value was 14.2-16.0 Mg ha-1. Around 51-60% of total GWP was affected by the seasonal
GWP value during the fallow season. However, cover crop cultivation during the fallow
season and biomass addition as a green manure for the rice cultivation significantly increased
total GWP value to 60.5-60.7 Mg ha-1 in the NPK+Cover crop treatment, mainly due to CH4
and CO2 emission increase during rice cultivation. Different with that in the NPK treatment,
about 79-81% of total GWP value were affected by the seasonal GWP value during rice
cultivation. Carbon dioxide was the most influential GHG in increasing the growth scale of
the total GWP during the dried fallow season, but CH4 most strongly influenced the total
GWP scale during the rice cropping season irrespective with the soil management condition.
The contribution of CH4 to the annual GWP value was significantly increased by cover
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
87
cropping and its biomass addition from 25-30% in NPK to 58-60% of NPK+Cover crop.
In conclusion, the impact of greenhouse gas emission during the dried fallow season covered
around 20-60% of total GWP scale, and then we need to develop soil management strategy to
decrease GHG emission during the fallow season in mono rice paddy soil.
CH4
1st year
1st year
CO2
60
60
GWP (Mg CO2 ha-1)
N2O
45
45
30
30
15
15
0
0
2nd year
2nd year
60
60
45
45
30
30
15
15
0
0
Fallow
season
Rice
season
Whole
year
Whole
Rice
Fallow
season season year
NPK+Cover crop
NPK
Treatment
Figure 1. Contribution of major greenhouse gas emissions to total global warming potential
(GWP) during the dried fallow season and rice cropping season in a mono-rice paddy soil.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
88
Effect of Different Tillage Options on Soil Moisture Conservation in
Chickpea and Lentil Field under Rainfed Conditions
M.A. Salam1, M.E.A. Pramanik1, A.S.M.M.R. Khan2, A.K. Chaki2 and S. Ishtiaque2
1
On-Farm Research Division (OFRD), Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI),
Barind Station, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Email: [email protected];
[email protected]
2
OFRD, BARI, Gazipur, Bangladesh.Email:; [email protected];
[email protected] ,[email protected]
Introduction
Rainfed agriculture in the High Barind Tract (HBT) of north-west Bangladesh is constrained
by drought due to erratic and low rainfall from October-April. There is only a short period
after harvest of rice during which surface soil moisture is conducive for sowing of cool-dry
season (Rabi) crops. Tillage practice plays a vital role in conservation of residual soil
moisture in rainfed cultivation. For greater root density and better plant performance
minimum tillage is being advocated. However, information on sowing time and tillage
options for chickpea and lentil cultivation using residual soil moisture after harvest of T.
Aman rice in High Barind Tract is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was carried out to
evaluate the effect of tillage practices for chickpea and lentil using residual soil moisture after
harvest of T. Aman rice.
Materials and Method
An experiment on chickpea and lentil was conducted on a farmer’s field, Kadamshahar,
Godagari, Rajshahi, during Rabi season 2013-14 to evaluate the effect of tillage practices on
chickpea and lentil using residual soil moisture after harvest of T.Aman rice. The chickpea
variety (BARI Chola 9) and lentil variety (BARI Masur-6) were used in this study. The soil
texture of trial plots belongs clay loam to sandy clay loam. The experiment was designed
with six treatments laid out in a randomized complete block design with six dispersed
replications. The treatments were i.e., T1: One conventional tillage, T2: Two conventional
tillage, T3: Three conventional tillage, T4: One power tiller operated tillage, T5: Two power
tiller operated tillage and T6: PTOS. The land was fertilized with 24-18-20 N-P-K kg ha-1
(FRG, 2005), respectively. Seeds of chickpea and lentil viz. T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 were broadcast
while T6 (PTOS) was sown on 10-15 November 2013. Soil moisture regimes of the
experimental plots were recorded at a depth of 0-15cm at 15 days intervals. Observations
were made on yield components from 10 randomly selected plants per plot. The data were
analyzed statistically and the mean differences were adjudged by Duncan’s Multiple Range
Test (Gomez and Gomez, 1984).
Results and Discussion
The maximum number of plants m-2pods plant-1, seeds pods-1, thousand seed weight and
grain yield were generally found in T6 and T5 for both chickpea and lentil (Table 1). Soil
water(%) was decreased with the increasing of days after sowing (DAS) both lentil and
chickpea field. Maximum soil water (%) was found 30.0 to 32.2 in minimum tillage options.
So, just after harvest of T.aman rice with minimum tillage for lentil and chickpea production
might be a good options for better soil water content.
After harvest of T.Aman rice, chickpea and lentil could be grown with PTOS (T6) for
maximizing yield of chickpea and lentil production in High Barind Tract to available soil
moisture.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
89
Table 1. Yield and yield component of chickpea as influenced by different tillage practices
after harvest of T.aman rice Rabi season 2013-14
Plant height
Treatment
(cm)
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
No. of plant
m-2
No. of pods
plant-1
30.0e
33.0cd
34.5c
30.8d
37.0b
39.5a
38.5c
42.3bc
43.8ab
40.7bc
45.9ab
48.0a
38.8d
41.4cd
43.9bc
40.8cd
44.9ab
47.9a
No. of seeds 1000- seed
pod-1
weight (g)
1.06e
1.26cd
1.35c
1.15de
1.58b
1.75a
Stover yield
(t ha-1)
14.0d
15.1c
16.6b
14.7c
17.8a
18.3a
1.31e
1.40c
1.46b
1.36d
1.51a
1.54a
Seed yield
(t ha-1)
2.44c
2.59abc
2.62abc
2.52bc
2.68ab
2.76a
Table 2. Yield and yield component of lentil as influenced by different tillage practices
after harvest of T.Aman rice during Rabi season 2013-14
Treatment
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
Plant height No. of plant
(cm)
m-2
33.6d
125.1d
36.3c
132.6bc
38.8b
137.5ab
35.0cd
129.1cd
40.8b
141.0a
43.5a
143.6a
No. of pods
plant-1
76.6c
86.1b
89.1b
80.6c
93.5a
95.8a
No. of seeds 1000- seed
pod-1
weight (g)
1.00b
13.9d
1.33ab
14.8c
1.50ab
15.8b
1.33ab
13.9d
1.66a
16.3b
1.83a
17.0a
Stover yield
(t ha-1)
1.39c
1.53abc
1.59abc
1.43bc
1.68ab
1.74a
Seed yield
(t ha-1)
1.03c
1.05bc
1.11b
1.04c
1.21a
1.24a
Table 3. Changes in soil water (% gravimetric) of chickpea field as influenced by various treatments
at differenttillage practices during 2013-14
Treatment
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
0
32.3
31.8
30.0
32.6
31.9
31.7
15
29.8
29.1
28.8
30.0
28.9
28.9
Days after sowing (DAS)
30
45
26.8
25.1
26.0
24.8
25.8
24.1
25.2
23.2
24.8
23.0
24.5
22.0
60
22.5
21.8
20.9
21.1
20.9
20.0
75
20.1
20.0
19.5
20.0
19.8
19.8
90
19.8
19.1
19.0
19.0
18.2
18.5
Table 4. Changes in soil water (% gravimetric) of lentil field as influenced by various treatments at
different tillage practices during 2013-14
Treatment
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
0
31.5
31.0
30.0
31.5
32.1
32.2
15
28.5
28.0
26.0
27.4
26.9
26.1
Days after sowing (DAS)
30
45
26.5
24.2
25.8
23.6
24.4
21.2
25.7
22.2
24.6
21.7
25.5
21.2
60
21.5
20.2
19.1
20.2
19.7
19.2
75
19.8
19.5
18.8
19.8
18.9
18.0
90
18.2
18.1
18.0
18.5
18.1
17.8
References
BARC (Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council)(2005). Fertilizer Recommendation Guide.
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Farmgate, New Airport Road,
Gomez KA, GomezAA(1984). Statistical procedures for agricultural research (2nd Edition). John
Wiley and Sons, New York, USA .680 p.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
90
Pulses De-husking Mill for Smallholders: A Case Study of
Commercialization of Machinery for Small Entrepreneurs in Bangladesh
M.E. Haque1*, R.W. Bell1, Abdul Karim2, M.G. Neogi3
1
Murdoch University, Australia; *Corresponding email: [email protected]
Masuda Engineering Workshop, Katakhali Bazar, Motihar, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
3
IRRI Bangladesh Office, Dhaka
2
Introduction
Pulse crops such as lentil, mungbean, blackgram and lathyrus are important in the traditional
diet of Bangladesh. However, the production of pulses has been declining over the last two
decades. The bulk of the pulse grains are consumed as dal and therefore need to be dehusked. Currently farm households de-husk pulses by locally-fabricated rudimentary devices,
known as jata or daki, resulting in a high percentage of crushed (~35% dust), broken or split
grain (>90%). Such dal receives a lower price than properly milled de-husked full grain.
Thus, farmers sell unhusked pulses grain in the local market and ultimately that goes to a
large mill for de-husking. The large pulse de-husking mills are mostly located in the bigger
cities of Rajshahi and Dhaka division of Bangladesh which are remote from small pulse
growers. There is a significant price gap between unhusked pulses at the farm gate and dehusked dal at the final point of sale. On the other hand, mechanized de-husking mills where
farmers can de-husk pulses and produce quality dal for family consumption or to sell at
higher price are not commonly available in small towns. The lack of mills to de-husk small
quantities of pulses (~5 kg) has also discouraged farmers from growing pulses. These factors
are contributing to decline in pulse production by small and marginal farmers. To overcome
the problem, the pulse de-husking mill (Mini Mill) was developed in 2009 and
commercialized in Bangladesh. The present paper is a case study of a development and
commercialisation process for mechanisation of farm operations for smallholders in
Bangladesh. In this short paper we describe the Mini Mill, its uses, initial experiences with its
promotion and marketing.
Materials and methods
With the ACIAR Project LWR/2005/001funding support the Mini Mill was fabricated with
locally available materials and can be powered an 8 hp diesel engine or electric motor. The
main functional parts of the Mini Mill were: the wooden platform, power transmission pulley,
feeding chamber, sieve, collecting tray, safety cover, ball bearings, etc. Performance
evaluation of the Mini Mill was completed through laboratory tests and on- farm monitoring.
A few cycles of improvements were made based on feedback from farmers, operators and
manufacturers. Data were also collected to determine the costs of de-husking, efficiency,
recovery, and number of runs required for full polish dal. From the beginning, Masuda
Engineering Workshop (MEW) was engaged to fabricate the first prototype of the Mini Mill
with the condition that once the prototypewas shown to be successful MEW would produce
and market it commercially. It was also agreed that the project would initially support MEW
with demonstrations and other promotional activities in several districts. To create demand,
the Project procured 5 Mini Mills and demonstrated with 50% price support to the service
providers in the project working districts in 2010 through the network of the project
partnering organizations (Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute [BARI], Rangpur and
Dinajpur Rural Services [RDRS], ICARDA, CIMMYT). Since 2012, the ACIAR funded
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
91
project LWR-2010-080 has provided technical support to MEW for improvement and
commercialization of the Mini Mill.
Results and Discussion
As in large scale mills, the Mini Mill for pulses uses an abrasive roller to polish seed. It
removes 99% of the seed coat of whole de-husked lentil, and >70% in the case of mungbean
and blackgram grains. The recovery rate of the de-husked grain was 85% of the original unhusked. Full polishing of the pulses requires about four runs through the mill (as is the case
with large mills). Ex-factory price of the Mini Mill was Tk. 22,000 (US$300) per unit.
Attachment of additional tools at the cost of Taka 16,000 allows for de-husking of chickpea,
lathyrus, pigeon pea, and making wheat and maize flour. Since 2010, a total of 25units of the
Mini Mill have been commercially manufactured and marketed by MEW. Since the setup of
the initial four Mini Mills in February 2011 to the end of May 2012, a total of 77.5 t of lentil,
mung bean and black gram have been de-husked providing service to 1,676 pulse growing
farmers in these areas. The maximum de-husking was accomplished in Rangpur (60 t, mostly
black gram), followed by Magura (11 t, mostly lentil), Faridpur (5 t, mostly lentil), and
Madaripur (2 t, mostly lentil). The maximum number of farmers (757) served using the Mini
Mill was in Magura, followed by Rangpur (429), Faridpur (346), and Madaripur (145). The
Mini Mill Service Providers have been charging Taka 5 per kg of pulses in Faridpur, Magura
and Madaripur districts, but only Tk. 3-4 per kg in Kurigram. Other than Kurigram, the
pulses farmers have brought small quantity of pulses (mostly 5 - 25 kg each) for de-husking.
In Kurigram, in addition to small pulse farmers, small pulse marketing businessmen have
emerged to buy un-husked pulses from local markets of that area and use the Mini Mill for
processing and sale to the larger markets at upazila or district level market. The Mini Mill
owners have not reported major difficulties yet with operation and maintenance of the mill
and no design and manufacturing defects were identified. The demand for Mini Mills in the
pulse-growing farmers’ community has been increasing to enhance consumption by farmers
of their own pulses even a small quantities (e.g. 5 kg). Alternatively, pulse farmers can dehusk their own grain and sell directly to local markets for higher profit.
At the beginning, MEW tried to involve local agricultural machinery dealers to sell the Mini
Mill. However, demand was not sufficient to attract dealers to sell Mini Mill through their
network. Project-led promotional efforts with MEW e.g., operation, repair and maintenance
training; demonstrating the Mini Mill at local agricultural fairs; project -led video display,
distribution of leaflets, demonstration during farmers’ training programs at BARI and RDRS;
awareness raising; etc were the major interventions to commercialize sales of the Mini Mill in
Bangladesh. All of the Mini Millswere sold by MEW directly to the small rice and wheat
mill owners of the pulses growing areas, based on information support from existing Mini
Mill owners (who purchased mills with 50% price support), BARI and RDRS, etc. There is
no simple, shortcut approach to commercialize small-scale agricultural machinery in the
smallholder community (Haque et al., 2013), however, a multi-dimensional approach e.g.,
initial price support; demand creationand technical support by project staff and stakeholder
institutions (BARI, RDRS, ICARDA, CIMMYT) helped to commercialize the Mini Mill.
Further interventions may yet be needed to accelerate and disperse sales more widely in
target pulse growing areas.
References
Haque ME, Nabila SR, Bell RW (2013) Smallholders Minimum Tillage Planter Adoption in
Bangladesh: A successful case of private sector involvement for technology commercialization. In
Water, Environment and Agriculture: Challenges for Sustainable Development. Proceedings. Eds
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
92
N. Lamaddalena, M. Todorovic and L. S. Pereira.CIHEAM-Institute of Agronomy Mediterranean
Bari, Valenzano, Italy. pp. 68-69.
Diesel Engine
Mini Mill
Figure 1. Pulses de-husking mill (Mini Mill) being demonstrated.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
93
Sustainable Livelihood Outcome through Water Resource Management: A
Case Study on Household Character in North West Region in Bangladesh
Iffat Ara1, Jeff Connor2, Bertram Ostendorf3, John Kandulu2
1
School of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Adelaide, SA-5000, Australia
[email protected])
2
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Australia
3
School of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Adelaide, SA-5000, Australia
Introduction
Water resource management has become a key element for improved livelihood globally
(Rockström, Lannerstad and Falkenmark 2007). Also, household’s demographic and socioeconomic character impacts sustainable livelihood for smallholder. Bangladesh is an agrarian
country where agriculture contributes 23.5 percent national GDP and offers 60 percent of
rural employment (BBS 2012). The present study covered the North West (NW) region of
Bangladesh that represented as a major source of national food production. Livelihood and
economy in NW region is heavily depending on natural resources where 75 percent of the
land is used for agriculture (BBS 2012). Moreover, 59 percent of the cultivable land is under
irrigation and nearly 75 percent of irrigation water comes from groundwater in NW
(Banglapedia 2003). Moreover, this area is frequently affected by flood and drought which
sometimes adversely affect livelihood. Understanding livelihood impacts of water resources
is challenging because many aspects of spatial setting, household character, and broad
economic drivers affect livelihoods. There is no investigation that features evaluation of how
spatially heterogeneous natural resources including water access as well as household
character influence livelihood outcomes like income and nutrition in Bangladesh.
Materials and methods
Present study included detail household character with spatial information characterizing
natural resource determinants of districts where those households were located. Present study
used 2010 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) dataset and
different secondary sources. It further aggregated geographic information as per each district
in NW. It was then categorized into five capitals as physical, financial, human, social and
natural for analysis and interpretation. Study examined two separate sets of statistical
(multiple linear regression) tests for both nutrition and income to see influences of those on
livelihood outcomes in NW of Bangladesh.
Results and Discussions
Overall the nutrition and income model had moderate explanatory power with an R-square
value of 0.26 and 0.29 for calorie consumption and income respectively. Different forms of
capitals were statistically significant for two of those models and it varied regionally across
NW. The key finding was proportion of the area under severe drought in each districts was
impacted calorie consumption negatively. On the other hand proportion of zilla area where
household is located inundated by major flood was impacted on income positively. However,
households reporting exposure to flood in the survey year was impacted negatively on
average yearly income in a short run. On the other hand, regionally impact of severe drought
and major flood differed across the North West region of Bangladesh (Figure 1).
Present study showed socio-economic development through industrialization that created
wage income was major contributors to both household income and nutritional well-being.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
94
Also, natural resource management constrain, like drought might impact ground water access
which may not sustain in future. It is important to incorporate actual geographical coordinates
for each household including their detail characters and merge with more natural resource
accumulation at different administrative level in North West region of Bangladesh.
References
Rockström J, Lannerstad M, Falkenmark M (2007) Assessing the water challenge of a new
green revolution in developing countries. Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences, 104, 6253-6260
Banglapedia. 2003. National encyclopedia of Bangladesh. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Asiatic
Society of Bangladesh
2012. Year book of Agricultural Statistics of Bangladesh 2012. ed. B. B. o. Statistics. Dhaka,
Bangladesh: Government of Banglades
a
b
Figure 1. Regional impact of severe drought on calorie consumption (a) and regional impact
of major flood on yearly income (b) in North West regions Bangladesh.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
95
Strengthening Conservation Agriculture in Cambodia
Sovuthy Pheav12, Stéphane Boulakia23, Rada Kong2, ViraLeng12, Veng Sar2, Kem Soeurng2,
Olivier Husson3, FlorentTivet23, and Lucien Séguy4
1
Agricultural Land Resources Management Department, General Directorate of Agriculture,
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery
2
Conservation Agriculture Service Center, [email protected]
3
Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement,
[email protected]
4
Agroecoriz, international consultant
Introduction
In Cambodia, after the restoration of peace, spontaneous migration from the central plains to
the peripheral areas changed drastically the development of the Western and Northern
provinces. The area of annual upland crops (i.e., soybean, maize, cassava) soared from
120,000 ha in 2000 to about 800,000 ha in 2013. However, in combination with the harsh
climate, and high rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization, mechanized farming
exacerbated the problem of soil degradation. Maintaining productive capacity of the soil is a
crucial element for long-term improvement of livelihoods. In 2004, the Cambodian Ministry
of Agriculture and Forestry (MAFF) has hosted a research and development program led by
the General Directorate of Agriculture (GDA), the CIRAD, and since 2009 through a
partnership with the North Carolina A&T. The program is directed at local smallholders and
based on conservation agriculture (CA) and diversified direct seeding mulch-based cropping
(DMC) systems. The activities took place in Kampong Chamand Battambang provinces.
Methods and Results - A Holistic Approach based on Diagnostic, Design, Assessment,
Training and Extension (DATE)
DATE is a multi-scale, multi-stakeholder participatory approach, integrating scientific and
tacit knowledge. The approach combines de novo innovation through expert-based
prototyping, keeping the range of possible options wide open, and a step-by-step design,
favouring adaptation and learning processes. DATE is built on four main components: a
diagnosis and three loops of cropping system design. The diagnosis provides a multi-scale
analysis of the agricultural systems. On this basis, a large range of cropping system are
designed and tested at different scales, with three successive learning loops (Husson et al.,
forthcoming).
1st loop - Experimental Units for diversified DMC systems
DMC systems are based on a large diversity of cover/relay crops in association, succession
and rotationwith the main staple and cash crops (Séguy et al., 2006; Boulakia et al., 2012).
The aim is to diversify and increase the biomass input allowing a continuous C flux above
and below ground, increasing soil organic C accumulation, improving hydraulic properties,
nutrients cycling, soil fauna and microbial functional diversity. Experimental units were
established for a total of 21ha integrating three main components: (i) engineering of DMC
systems, (ii) thematic studies for in-depth analysis of biophysical processes, and (iii)
preservation of a large diversity of cover/relay crops (28 species, 40 cultivars) and staple
crops (i.e., soybean, mungbean, rice-bean, cow pea, rice) to diversify the cropping systems
and to anticipate market changes.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
96
2nd and 3rd loops - On-farm assessment and network of pre-extension
The second loop takes place in farmers’ fields where the most promising systems are tested
by farmers in interaction with agronomists and researchers. In addition, machinery for smallscale farming is also assessed with equipment that fit different farms’ conditions (i.e., hand
jab seeder, planters for power tiller and tractor). Precious information on practicability and
management principles are developed. Feed-back from the smallholders is recorded
throughout the process, so that every constraint can be taken into account during the
experimental phase (Chabierski et al., 2012).The third loop takes place through a network of
pre-extension where the changes in technical and economic performances are assessed in real
conditions and the constraints to adoption are reviewed, to identify and test measures to
facilitate the dissemination process. The integration of these three loops into a holistic
innovation approach feeds the overall learning-by-doing process. In RattanakMundol
(Battambang) and Dambae (Kampong Cham) districts, these networks cover a total of 9
villages and involved 250 households on ∼400 ha in 2013.
Discussion
After a first period based on the generation of innovative cropping systems, technologies,
assessment and preservation of a large diversity of species and cultivars, developing
knowledge and know-how, there is a need for increased collective learning, participation
amongst the main actors, integration of the different components of the farming systems, and
developing a participatory land use planningcombining development needs and preservation
of rural environment (Bourgoin et al., 2012). Thus, there is a need to develop an iterative and
integrative approach that unites engineering, research, extension, training, and higher
education.To go through this process, the General Directorate of Agriculture has established
in 2013 the Conservation Agriculture Service Center (CASC) aiming at developing
engineering, training, research activities, and promoting CA through partnerships. The center
will benefit of the regional initiatives carried-out by the Conservation Agriculture Network in
South East-Asia (CANSEA, http://cansea.org.vn/).
References
Boulakia S, Chabierski S, Phâlly K, San S, Kong R, Vira L, Veng S, Kimchhorn C, Séguy L (2012)
Adaptation of direct-sowing mulch-based cropping systems for annual cash crop production in
Cambodian rainfed uplands. Conservation agriculture and sustainable upland livelihoods
innovations for, with and by farmers to adapt to local and global changes: Proceedings the 3rd
International Conference on Conservation Agriculture in Southeast Asia, held in Hanoi, Vietnam.
pp 92-108
Bourgoin J, Castella JC, Pullar D, Lestrelin G, Bouahom B (2012) Toward a land zoning negociation
support platform: “Tips and tricks” for participatory land use planning in Laos. Landscape and
Urban Planning 104: 270-278
Chabierski S, Rada K, Sona S, Boulakia S (2012) Conservation agriculture as an alternative to
plough-based cassava cropping in the upland borders of Kampong Cham, Cambodia: preliminary
results of extension. Conservation agriculture and sustainable upland livelihoods innovations for,
with and by farmers to adapt to local and global changes: Proceedings the 3rd International
Conference on Conservation Agriculture in Southeast Asia, held in Hanoi, Vietnam. pp 282-284
Husson O, Tran Quoc H, Boulakia S, Chabanne A, Naudin K, Chabierski S, Tivet F, Bouzinac S,
Lienhard P, Michellon R, Enjalric F, Rakotondramanana Moussa N, Jullien F, Balarabe O,
Rattanatray B, Castella JC, Fovet-Rabot C, Charpentier H, Séguy L forthcoming. Co-design of
innovative cropping systems matching biophysical and socio-economic diversity. The DATE
approach and Conservation Agriculture in Madagascar, Lao PDR and Cambodia.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
97
Influence of conservation tillage on livelihood improvement in the deltaic
eco-system of Sundarban, India
P. B. Chakraborty, A. Bakley, A. Zaman, and A. Chanak
Regional Research Station (Coastal Saline Zone), Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya,
Kakdwip 743 347, South 24-Parganas, West Bengal, India. [email protected]
Introduction
Growing a second crop following winter rice in typically clay-loam saline soil of Sundarban
is essential for improving people’s livelihood that is impaired mostly by root-zone stress as
well as rise in soil temperature (≥10C). Information on root-zone environment and its impact
on crop growth and productions, especially under saline eco-system, are limited. Hence, this
study was planned to examine the effect of conservation tillage on modification of root-zone
environment and its influence on growth and productivity of some selected winter crops in
saline eco-system of Sundarban.
Methods
Lentil (Lens esculenta), gram (Cicer arietinum) and mustard (Brassica campestris) were
sown in the harvested wet-season rice fields adopting conservation tillage practices, viz.
conventional (CT), strip (ST) and zero (ZT), along with mulches e.g. paddy straw (M1) and
transparent polyethylene (M2); while a treatment was kept without mulch (Mo) as control.
Treatments were replicated thrice in 33–factorial design. Daily weather data was collected
from meteorological observatory of the research station. Standard methods were used to
measure and estimate moisture and salinity of soil collected from four profile depths. Soil
temperature at 0.15 m depth and biometric observations were recorded in situ, periodically.
Crop yields were recorded at harvest. Moisture conservation efficiency (MCE) was calculated
after Dastane and Joshi (1961). Moisture use efficiency (MUE) and Moisture use index
(MUI) were calculated following Chakraborty (2000).
Results
Results reveal that conservation tillage reduced evapotranspiration rate from1.65 to1.35 mm
d-1 irrespective of crops and cropping years (Fig-1). It not only helped in lowering soil
salinity, in general, from 2.32 to 0.58 d Sm-1, but also modified soil temperature which varied
with nature of mulch. Addition of poly-mulch (M2) increased temperature by 1.7 °C, whereas
straw mulch (M1) decreased it by 0.7 °C (Fig. 1). Such reductions were most pronounce under
ZT or ST in association with paddy-straw mulch, which helped in reducing stress and thereby
developing the root-zone environments, conducive for growth and yield of crops irrespective
of the years (Table 1). This, however, was associated with moisture conservation efficiency
(MCE) of tillage and mulch. Further, significantly higher MCE (Table1) under both
minimum tillage (ST or ZT) and mulch, in general, indicates its effectiveness in conserving
profile moisture. This was more conspicuous during wet-year when crops, in general,
produced relatively higher grain yield; but, considerable reduction in yield was more
pronounce due to prevalence of prolong dry spell. However, 1.43-1.09 and 2.34-2.10 times
higher MUE, irrespective of mulches, in wet and dry years respectively (Table 1) over control
(M0) indicates such tillage practices conserve soil moisture better even under drought and
adverse climatic condition. Conversely, MUI, in general, was relatively higher in dry year
both with minimum tillage and mulch and best performance was recorded under M1. Among
the crops, MUI of lentil was highest, which was Rs.99.94 and Rs.156.97 ha-1 mm-1 in wet and
dry years respectively, followed by gram and mustard. Hence, lentil may be successfully
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
98
incorporated in this mono-cropped area adopting ST or ZT together with paddy-straw mulch
following wet-season rice, which will indeed substantially help in improving livelihood vis-àvis quality of life of people of the delta.
Table 1. Grain Yield, Moisture Use Efficiency (MUE), Moisture Conservation
Efficiency(MCE) and Moisture Use Index (MUI) of the winter crops grown with
tillage and mulch
Treatments
Grain Yield,
MUE,
MCE,
MUI,
kg ha-1
Kg ha-1mm-1
%
Rs ha-1mm-1
Yw
Yd
Yw
Yd
Yw
Yd
Yw
Yd
Crops:
Lentil
982
779
5.26
6.01
80.59
66.03
99.9
157
Gram
744
671
6.97
4.88
80.87
67.09
87.1
88.5
Mustard
584
29
1.65
0.21
76.65
55.77
47.9
4.8
LSD (p= 0.05)
0.73
0.92
1.31
1.39
10.9
20.8
Tillage:
Conventional
841
484
4.32
3.47
75.82
60.65
77.2
81.7
Strip
762
487
5.16
3.61
82.80
62.82
83.1
84.5
Zero
541
568
3.38
4.02
80.09
65.51
57.7
84.0
LSD (p= 0.05)
0.19
0.31
2.17
NS
6.2
1.4
Mulch:
No mulch
596
291
3.76
2.04
74.82
55.31
60.1
46.8
Paddy straw
943
648
5.39
4.78
82.40
65.42
94.8
102
Polythelene
633
540
4.06
4.28
82.90
68.15
68.5
101
LSD (p= 0.05)
0.57
0.82
2.23
1.83
6.6
8.6
Note: Y, indicates cropping year and subscripts w and d indicate wet and dry seasons respectively.
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
CT+M0
CT+M1
CT+M2
Evaporation rate, mm/d
ST+M0
ST+M1
ZT+M2
ZT+M0
ZT+M1
ZT+M2
Treatment Combinations
Soil Temperature, 0C
Soil Salinity, d S/m
Figure 1. Rate of evapotranspiration (mm d-1), temperature (0C) salinity (dS m-1) of soil as
influenced by conservation farming
References
Chakraborty PB (2000) Conservation practices for utilization of residual soil moisture for growing
winter crops in Sundarban delta. In: Advances in Land Resource Management. Soil Conservation
Society of India, New Delhi, India. pp. 388-396.
Dastane MG, Joshi MS (1967) Evaluation of Moisture Conservation Methods. Proc. Dry Farming
Seminar, Bombay, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
99
Session 3
Weed Management: Suitable weed management
options (chemical, mechanical, crop rotation and
biological)
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
100
KEYNOTE PAPER
Weed Management in Conservation Agriculture
D. Lemerle1 and A. Hashem2
1
Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (Charles Sturt University & New South Wales
Department of Primary Industries), Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga NSW 2678,
Australia, [email protected]
2
Principal Research Scientist, Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 75
York Road, Northam, WA 6401, Australia. [email protected]
Weeds have a major impact on global agriculture and food security through reduced
production and high costs of control. Conservation agriculture (CA) with stubble retention
and no-till is very important for improving soil condition by increasing organic matter,
microbial content, reducing power cost and increasing water use efficiency. Tillage and
stubble burning are replaced by herbicides for weed control in CA, leading to increased
selection pressure for herbicide resistance. World-wide 238 species (138 dicots and 100
monocots) have evolved resistance to 22 of the 25 known herbicide mode of action and to
155 different herbicides in 83 crops in 65 countries (Heap 2014). New knowledge is urgently
required to ensure durable and safe herbicide use, develop cost-effective non-chemical
(cultural and physical) options and integrate these with herbicide use. In this paper we discuss
the challenges and opportunities for managing weeds in CA to reduce threats of resistance,
and ultimately decrease weed control costs for farmers.
Challenges
Herbicides are simple and cost-effective and it is not until farmers ‘hit the wall’ with
resistance that they consider cultural and physical control options, even when the
considerable benefits of integrated weed management are widely promoted. Resistance to
glyphosate is rapidly spreading due to overuse in CA systems and the rapid adoption of
glyphosate-resistant crops. This is of considerable concern given the lack of new modes of
action entering the market place to replace herbicides as resistance spreads. Adoption of CA
changes weed infestations and control options (e.g. Derksen et al. 1993 Feldman et al. 1996;
Torresen et al. 2003; Staricka et al. 1990), leading to increasing dominance of difficult-to–
control species, especially biennial, perennial, wind-dispersed and herbicide-resistant species;
staggered patterns of weed emergence; decreased crop emergence, early vigour and
competitiveness; concentration of weed seeds on or near the soil surface; and reduced
herbicide efficacy of soil applied herbicides. Complex interactions of weed species with
climatic and soil interactions cause variable and unpredictable weed responses to CA.
Opportunities
One of the most cost-effective ways to reduce the spread of resistant weeds is to maintain
diverse rotations enabling different control tactics to reduce weed seedbanks and seedbank
replenishment. Many cultural control options were used prior to the development of selective
herbicides, and are still used in some areas where herbicides are unavailable. Techniques
include (e.g. Radosevich et al. 1997; Upadhyaya and Blackshaw 2007), crop competition,
preventing the spread of weeds between fields by machinery or livestock, rotating crops and
pastures, delaying sowing, strategic tillage, thermal weeding (flaming) and tactical burning,
grazing by livestock in the pasture phase, using living mulches, and intercropping and cover
crops. Crop competition is an important low-cost tactic for weed management (e.g. Lemerle
et al. 2001; Mohler 2001) and can be manipulated by agronomy to favour the crop growth
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
101
and suppress weeds by choice of vigorous crop species and cultivar, elevated seeding rate,
narrow row spacing, large seed size and quality, shallow seeding depth, careful and safe
herbicide use, strategic fertiliser timing and placement, crop row orientation, green/brown
manuring, immature seed head trimming, inter-row weed control, hand weeding, rouging, and
correct use of pesticides for disease and pest control. Breeding for crop traits linked to
competitive ability, including early vigour, shading ability and allelopathy also needs to be
considered. Recent advances in thermal weed control have seen the development of infrared
and microwave weeders. Making silage or cutting hay of very weedy crop for animal forage
can be an effective option for certain weed species (Blackshaw and Rode 1991) by removing
weeds prior to seed set to avoid seedbank replenishment. Weed contamination of grain or
forage can spread weeds to new sites and must be avoided. Retention of stubble can minimise
weed emergence and reduce moisture loss. The roles of infrequent strategic stubble burning
and tillage are currently being reconsidered by farmers for use within the cropping rotation.
Deep burial of Lolium rigidum using a mouldboard plough is an effective control tactic in
some soils (Douglas and Peltzer 2004). Innovations such as the Harrington Seed DestructorR,
a machine that pulverises weed seed at harvest shows potential. New crops with resistance to
glyphosate, glufosinate and other existing herbicide modes of action are under
development. New uses for existing chemistry and greater use of residual herbicides are also
being examined. The efficacy of herbicides can be improved when combined with increased
competitive ability in crops. New strategies, such as the use of site-specific weed
management, integration of bio-control, and utilising the benefits of biodiversity for weed
seed predation, also offer potential future options.
Conclusions
Weeds will continue to evolve to changing cropping systems and farmers will adapt their
management strategies accordingly. The future performance of herbicides is expected to
decline with the spread of resistance and with climate change. At early stages of CA
adoption, farmers should adopt and continue cost-effective cultural tactics including crop
competition with herbicide options. Research is required to provide information on the
percentage efficacy of new control tactics on the important weed species impacting on crop
productivity. Farmers require knowledge and understanding to assess the technological and
socio-economic feasibility of new control options. Adoption of new technologies is most
likely when they are practical, cost-effective, adaptable, and fit within the small land holding
farming system.
References
Blackshaw RE and Rode LM (1991) Effect of ensiling and rumen digestion by cattle on weed seed
viability. Weed Science 39: 104-108.
Bond W, Grundy AC (2001) Non-chemical weed management in organic farming systems. Weed
Research 41: 383–405.
Derksen DA, Lafond GP, Thomas AG, Loeppky HA, Swanton CJ (1993) Impact of agronomic
practices on weed communities: tillage systems. Weed Science 41: 409–417.
Douglas A, Peltzer SC (2004) Managing herbicide resistant Annual Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.)
in No-Till systems in Western Australia using occasional inversion ploughing. Proceedings 14th
Australian Weeds Conference. Wagga Wagga, Sept. 6-19, 2004.
Feldman SR, Alzugaray C, Torres PS, Lewis P (1996) The effect of different tillage systems on the
composition of the seedbank. Weed Research 37: 71–76.
Heap IM (2014) The international survey of herbicide resistant weeds. Available at:
wwwweedscience.com.
Lemerle D, Gill GS, Murphy CE, Walker SR, Cousens RD, Mokhtari S, Peltzer S, Coleman R,
Luckett DJ (2001) Genetic improvement and agronomy for enhanced wheat competitiveness and
weed management. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 52: 527-548.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
102
Mohler CL (2001) Enhancing the competitive ability of crops. In Ecological Management of
Agricultural Weeds (Eds M Liebman, CL Mohler & CP Staver. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. UK
Radosevich S, Holt J, Ghersa C (1997) Weed Ecology: Implications for Management. John Wiley,
USA.
Staricka JA, Burford PM, Allmaras RR Nelson WW (1990). Tracing the vertical distribution of
simulated shattered seeds as related to tillage. Agronomy Journal 82: 1131–1134.
Torresen KS, Skuterud R, Tandsaether HJ, Hagemo MB (2003) Long-term experiments with reduced
tillage in spring cereals. I. Effects on weed flora, weed seedbank and grain yield. Crop Protection
22: 185–200.
Upadhyaya MK, Blackshaw RE (2007) Non-chemical Weed Management: Principles, Concepts and
Technology, CAB Press, UK.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
103
Crop Establishment Techniques and Weed Control Strategies for Zero-till
Planted Soybean-Wheat Rotation in India
Seema Sepat1 and AR Sharma2
1
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, India;
[email protected]
2
Directorate of Weed Science Research, Jabalpur - 482004, (MP), India
Introduction
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] has emerged as one of the major rainy season cash crops
in central India. Recently, in India, conservation agriculture adoption in rice-wheat cropping
system is increasing especially in Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). Wheat productivity can be
enhanced 10-25% with the adoption of zero tillage but little is known about conservation
agriculture (CA) practices for soybean-wheat rotation. Weed management is very crucial in
CA. In IGP, application of pre-emergence (PE) herbicides followed by hand weeding (HW)
is the most prevalent practice. The recent hike in labour prices has made farming
uneconomical, and most of the farmers in this region are marginal and resource poor. A
substitute of HW is required in which weed growth at later stages can be checked. For this
mixture of PE and post emergence (POE) herbicides could be used. Further, in CA, retention
of crop residue will reduce initial growth of weed. Keeping this in view, a new conservation
approach of weed management i.e. straw mulch + POE was tested. A four year field
experiment was conducted to assess the effects of different tillage and weed management
practices on system productivity and weed control efficiency in soybean-wheat cropping
system of India.
Materials and methods
The field experiment was conducted during 2010-11 to 2013-14 at the research farm of
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. The treatments (16) comprised of
combinations of 4 tillage and crop establishment techniques (conventional tillage – raised bed
(CT-B); conventional tillage – flat bed (CT-F); zero tillage – raised bed (ZT-B) and zero
tillage – flat bed (ZT-F) in main plots and 4 weed control strategies viz., no herbicide in both
crop; IWM (pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha PE+ HW 30 DAS in soybean and isoproturon 1.0
kg/ha POE + HW in wheat); sequential application of herbicides (SHA)(pendimethalin 0.75
kg/ha PE+ imazethapyr 0.075 kg/ha POE 30 DAS in soybean and mesosulfuron +
iodosulfuron 0.40 kg/ha POE 30 DAS in wheat) and conservation approach of weed
management (CAWM) (wheat straw mulch+ imazethapyr 0.075 kg/ha POE 20 DAS in
soybean and soybean mulch+ isoproturon. 1 kg/ha POE in wheat) in subplots, allocated
randomly in a split plot design and replicated thrice. Soybean (cv PS 9072) was sown in
rows at 30 cm apart so as to get two row on each bed (70 cm centre to centre spacing), while
three rows of wheat (cv HD 2895) were accommodated on the respective beds. Soybean was
sown during first week of July and manually harvested about 10 cm above the ground level
during first week of November. Wheat was sown in third week of November and harvested in
third week of April across the years. System productivity of the system was worked out by
adding wheat yield in to wheat equivalent yield for respective years. Here, wheat equivalent
yield (WEY) of system was calculated by using the following formula: WEY = (yield of
soybean (t/ha) x price of soybean (INR/t))/ price of wheat (INR/t).
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
104
Afterwards, system productivity was pooled across four years and analysis of variance was
performed to draw some logical conclusions. Here, weed control efficiency (WEC) of the
herbicides is calculated by using following formula:
WEC = [{Weed density (number/m2) in control plot – weed density (number/m2) in treated
plot} X 100]/ Weed density (number/m2) in control plot.
A three factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to test the significance of
treatments. Critical difference (CD at P=0.05) was used to determine whether means differed
significantly or not. Microsoft excel (Microsoft Corporation, USA) was used for statistical
analysis of data.
Results and Discussions
System productivity and net returns
There was no significant (P< 0.05) influence of tillage on system productivity of soybeanwheat over the years. But, net returns were increased by adoption of zero tillage (Table 1).
This is mainly due to saving in diesel costs. Averaged over four years, the system
productivity of the system was varied from 2.69 to 4.74 t/ha. Raised bed planting gave 9.91%
higher system productivity over flat bed. System productivity and net returns were
significantly influenced by weed control strategies (Table 1). The highest system productivity
was found with integrated weed management (IWM) followed by sequential application of
herbicides (SHM), which remained at par with conservation approach of weed management
(CAWM). Contrary, highest net returns was found in SHM compared to IWM, which may be
due to increased prices of labor involved in hand weeding. Weedy check gave lowest yield
and net returns.
Weed dry weight and weed control efficiency
Weed dry weight, weed control efficiency and % yield increase over control were
significantly influenced (P< 0.05) by tillage and crop establishment techniques in soybean
(Table 1). Zero tillage gave more weed dry weight than conventional tillage. Hence, weed
control efficiency and weed index was found higher in conventional tillage. This is mainly
due to mechanical knock down of weeds in conventional tillage practices. The % yield
increase over control was higher in zero tillage, mainly due to better growth of soybean.
Raised bed was superior over flat bed in terms of weed dry weight, weed control efficiency
and weed index. Weed control strategies significantly influenced weed dry weight and weed
control efficiency (Table 1). Integrated weed management (IWM), sequential application of
herbicides (SHM) and conservation approach of weed management (CAWM) was found at
par in terms of weed dry weight in soybean (g/m2) at 60 DAS. The highest weed control
efficiency and % yield increase over control was found in IWM over the rest of treatment.
The apparent visible control of weeds could be a possible reason that instead of higher cost of
hand weeding, this practice is still popular amongst farmers. The CAWM was found at par
with SHM with respect to % yield increase over control. This is mainly due to retention of
straw at soil surface, which improved soil health (Sepat et al., 2013). This could be a potential
strategy to control weed in future. The highest weed index was found in CAWM, which
indicate that still there is a scope to control weeds in long run.
Conclusion
From present investigation it can be concluded that zero-tillage with either raised bed or flat
bed is suitable for the soybean-wheat rotation in the Central Plateau of India. Application of
pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha PE+ HW at 30 DAS in soybean and isoproturon 1.0 kg/ha POE +
HW in wheat can be substituted by sequential application of herbicides viz., pendimethalin
0.75 kg/ha PE+ imazethapyr 0.075 kg/ha POE 30 DAS in soybean and mesosulfuron +
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
105
iodosulfuron 0.40 kg/ha POE 30 DAS in wheat. Conservation approach of weed management
that is straw mulch followed by post emergence herbicide application can be a better
alternative in long term.
Table 1. Effect of tillage, crop establishment techniques and weed management on system
productivity and weed indices (mean over four years)
System
productivity
(t/ha)
Net
returns
(x 103
INR*/ha)
Weed dry
weight in
soybean
(g/m2)
Weed
control
efficiency
(%)
Weed
Index
% Yield
increase
over
control
60 DAS
Tillage
Conventional
Zero
LSD(P=0.05)
4.02
4.21
NS
Crop establishment technique
Raised bed
4.31
Flat bed
3.92
LSD(P=0.05)
0.30
Weed control strategies
IWM
4.74
SHA
4.55
CAWM
4.48
Weedy check
2.69
LSD(P=0.05)
0.16
*1 INR=60 US $
76.7
84.2
6.4
65
78
8.0
64.6
60.1
1.94
21.9
13.3
NS
29.5
32.6
NS
75.3
85.6
6.4
76
67
8.0
61.0
63.8
1.94
18.1
17.0
NS
29.3
32.8
NS
92.8
96.1
88.9
44.11
3.89
28
32
36
190.0
8.0
85.1
83.3
81.1
1.24
19.3
24.7
26.4
7.89
50.0
39.0
35.2
12.44
References
Sepat S, Behera UK, Shrama AR, Das TK, Bhattacharyya R (2014) Productivity, organic carbon and
residual soil fertility of a pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)–wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system
under different tillage and residue management practices in the Western Indo-Gangetic Plains of
India. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., India, Sect. B Biol. Sci. DOI 10.1007/s40011-014-0359-y.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
106
Weed Control Efficacy of Herbicides in Wheat under Strip Tillage System
M. M. Rahman1, T. Zahan1, A. Hashem2 , M. Begum1 R. W. Bell3 and M. E. Haque3
1
Bangladesh Agricultural University, [email protected] , [email protected]
[email protected]
2
Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, [email protected]
3
Murdoch University, Australia, [email protected]
Introduction
Rice-wheat–mungbean cropping system has been established as a profitable and highly
accepted cropping pattern mostly under rainfed system in Bangladesh to improve water- and
nutrient-use efficiency and sustain crop productivity (Naresh et al., 2013). Conventional full
tillage (3-4 passes) is done for sowing of wheat but considering the environmental and
economic advantages, strip tillage (single pass) is becoming popular now-a-days (Norberg,
2010). Wheat gives better yield performance and economic return under strip tillage than
conventional full tillage (Hossain et al., 2004; Siddique, 2004; Hossain et al., 2014), but weed
is the major barrier to crop production in the strip tillage system. Weeding is generally done
by manual or mechanical means but the recent increased cost and decreased availability of
labour forced farmers to rely on herbicide as the best option for weed control. Although
herbicides help to control weed effectively at lower cost, repeated use of herbicides with
same mode of action may lead to herbicide resistance in weeds. Therefore, it is important to
select herbicides with different modes of action to control weed successfully by avoiding
development of herbicide resistance in weeds. This study evaluated the weed control efficacy
of some selected herbicides in wheat field under strip tillage system for identifying herbicides
with different modes of action.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural
University, Mymensingh from Nov 2013 to Mar 2014 which included eighteen treatments
(Table 1) in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Pre-plant
application of Glyphosate was applied @ 3.75 L ha-1 on 16 Nov 2013. Seed of BARI Gom-26
was sown @ 120 kg ha-1 on 23 November 2013 with a Versatile Multi-crop Planter (VMP)
and the fertilizer was applied at recommended rates with VMP during seeding. Weed
population and biomass were collected from randomly selected three locations of 0.25 m2
each at 30 and 50 days after sowing (DAS). The crop was harvested on 19 Mar 2013 and the
grain yield was recorded. The collected data were statistically analyzed using standard
protocol.
Results and Discussion
At 25 DAS, no weed was found with T5 and T7 but the lowest amount was observed with T15,
T3, T9, T11 and T18. The lowest weed biomass at 50 DAS was found with T3 followed by T7,
T13 and T15 (Fig. 1a). Thus the highest weed control efficiency (WCE) was found with T5 and
T7 at 25 DAS while the highest WCE at 50 DAS was found with T15, T3 and T13 (Fig. 1b).
The highest grain yield was obtained with T7 and consequently the yield increase over control
(YOC%) was also the highest with T7 followed by T8, T15, T3 and T9 (Fig. 1c and 1d). The
study revealed that Pendimethalin or pretilachlor could be used for pre-emergence application
followed by ethoxysulfuron and/or any of the post-emergence herbicides such as
carfentrazone-ethyl, carfentrazone-ethyl + isoproteuron or 2,4-D for effective weed control.
However, use of herbicides with different mode of action within the same crop can delay the
evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
107
Table 1. Treatments used in the trial [‘fb’ stands for ‘followed by’, ‘HW’ stands for ‘hand
weeding’]
T1 = No weeding
T2 = Weed free (4 hand weeding)
T3=Pendimethalin fb pendimethalin
T4 = Pretilachlor fb pretilachlor
T5=Pendimethalin fb ethoxysulfuron
T6=Pyrazosulfuron ethyl fb
ethoxysulfuron
T7=Pendimethalin fb ethoxysulfuron fb
carfentrazone-ethyl
T8=Pretilachlor fb ethoxysulfuron fb
carfentrazone-ethyl
T9 = Pendimethalin fb carfentrazoneethyl
T10 = Pretilachlor fb carfentrazone-ethyl
T11 = Pendimethalin fb pyrazosulfuron-ethyl fb 2,4-D
T12 = Pretilachlor fb pyrazosulfuron-ethyl fb 2,4-D
T13 = Pendimethalin fb 2,4-D
T14= Pretilachlor fb 2,4-D
T15=Pendimethalin fb (carfentrazone-ethyl +
isoproteuron)
T16= Pretilachlor fb (carfentrazone-ethyl+ isoproteuron)
T17=Triasulfuron fb (carfentrazone-ethyl+ isoproteuron)
T18 = Triasulfuron fb 2,4-D
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 1. Effect of different herbicide treatments on (a) weed biomass, (b) percent weed
control efficacy on weed biomass at 50 DAS, (c) grain yield and (d) percent yield increase
over control during 2013-14 [Treatments are mentioned in Table 1]
References
Hossain MI, Rashid MH, Meisner CA, Justice S, Samad MA (2004) Performance evaluation of power
tiller operated seeder as a strip tillage seed drill of wheat. Annual Report 2003-2004, Wheat
Research Center, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Dinajpur
Hossain MI, Gathala MK, Tiwari TP, Hossain MS (2014) Strip tillage seeding technique: a better
option for utilizating residual soil moisture in rainfed moisture stress environments of north-west
Bangladesh. Int. J. Recent Development in Engg. and Tech. 2(4): 132-136.
Norberg OS (2010) Strip tillage for high-residue irrigated cropping systems. EM 9009. Corvallis,
OR: Oregon State University Extension Service.
Siddique MMAB (2004) Wheat demonstration by different tillage practices. Presented at Int. Review
Workshop held in Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur, 7-10 June.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
108
Naresh RK, Purshottam, Nanher AH (2013) Improving income and nutrition by incorporating
mungbean in the presence of surface retained residues in rice-wheat cropping system. Int. J. Life
Sc. Bt and Pharm. Res. 2(2): 158-164.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
109
Weed Control Efficacy of Herbicides in Unpuddled Transplanted Aman
(Summer) Rice
T. Zahan1, M. M. Rahman1, A. Hashem2, M. Begum1, R. W. Bell3 and M. E. Haque3
1
Bangladesh Agricultural University, [email protected]
Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, Australia
3
Murdoch University, Australia
2
Introduction
Rice is generally grown by seedling transplanting on puddle land to facilitate easy crop
establishment and weed control. Very recently, seedling transplanting is done in unpuddled
land just after strip tillage (a form of conservation tillage that clears crop residues in a narrow
zone of soil and loosen subsoil layers prior to planting, Mitchell et al., 2009) followed by
irrigation. The unpuddled transplanted rice gives yield similar to that of puddle transplanted
rice (Haque, 2009; Saharawat et al., 2009). The weed pressure during crop establishment is
low in the puddle transplanted system, but weed is the major barrier in strip till unpuddled
transplanted rice. The manual or mechanical weeding is no longer feasible because of scarcity
of labourers and increased labour costs. This labour situation has forced the farmers to rely on
herbicides as the best option for weed control. The continuous use of the same herbicide aids
the development of herbicide resistance in weeds which make weed control difficult.
Herbicide resistance can be managed by rotation of herbicides with alternate modes of action.
Therefore, it is essential to study the efficacy of a number of herbicides with different modes
of action for controlling weeds in unpuddled transplanted rice. The present study was aimed
to evaluate the weed control efficacy of herbicides with different modes of action for
sustainable weed management for unpuddled transplanted rice under the strip tillage system.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural
University, Mymensingh from June to November, 2013. The trial comprised eighteen weed
control treatments shown in Table 1. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete
block design with three replications. Seven days before transplanting of rice seedling, preplant glyphosate was applied @ 75 mL/10 L water. Strip tillage was done with a Versatile
Multi-crop Planter (VMP) and then the land was inundated to 3-5 cm standing water for 48
hours. Twenty five days old rice seedlings of variety BINA dhan7 were transplanted on 22
July 2013 and the fertilizers were applied as per recommended practice. The crop was
harvested at maturity on 04 November 2013. Data on weed, grain yield and relevant attributes
were recorded. Weed samples were taken from randomly selected three locations of 0.25 m2
each at 35 and 50 days after transplanting (DAT). Data were subjected to ‘ANOVA’ and
means were compared by DMRT using MSTATC.
Results and Discussions
Herbicide treatments exhibited significant effects on weed biomass at 35 and 50 DAT (Fig.
1a). At 35 DAT, pyrazosulfuron ethyl fb orthosulfamuron fb 2,4-D (T16) treated plots
produced the lowest weed biomass and highest (100%) weed control efficiency (WCE)
compared to the weedy control plot (Fig. 1b). Lower weed biomass also observed in T4, T8,
T11, T12, T14, T15, T17 and T18. But at 50 DAT, the highest weed control efficiency (85%) was
obtained from Butachlor fb Orthosulfamuron fb 2,4-D (T17) followed by T4, T5, T7, T10, T11,
T12, T13, T15, T16, T17 and T18. The highest grain yield and percent yield increase over control
(YOC%) was obtained from T16 followed by T15, T2, T3, T5, T4 and T17 (Fig 1c and 1d).
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
110
Therefore, pre-emergence application of pyrazosulfuron ethyl or pendimethalin or butachlor
followed by orthosulfamuron followed by either (butachlor+ propanil) or 2,4-D can be used
for effective weed control in unpuddled transplanted aman rice. However, repeated
application of the herbicides having same mode of action should be avoided within the same
crop to delay the evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds.
References
Haque ME (2009) On-farm evaluation of unpuddled transplanting on bed, strip, and single pass
shallow tillage for boro rice cultivation. Presented at the Annual Meeting of ACIAR Funded RiceMaize Project. BRAC Center, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 3-4 October, 2009.
Saharawat YS, Gathala M, Ladha JK, Malik RK, Singh S, Jat ML, Gupta RK, Pathak H, Singh K
(2009) Evaluation and promotion of integrated crop and resource management in the rice-wheat
system in northwest india. In: Ladha et al., editors, Integrated crop and resource management in
the rice-wheat system of south asia. Los Banos (Philippines): Int. Rice Research Institute. p 133150.
Mitchell J, Shrestha A, Mathews MC, Giacomazzi D, Goyal S, Bryant D, Hererra I (2009) Strip
tillage in California’s central valley. University of California, USA. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu.
Table 1. Treatments used in the trial [‘fb’ stands for ‘followed by’, ‘HW’ stands for ‘hand
weeding’]
T1 = No weeding
T2 = Weed free
T3 = Pendimethalin fb HW
T4 = Pyrazosulfuron Ethyl (Pyrazo ethyl) fb HW
T5 = Butachlor fb HW
T6 = Pretilachlor fb HW
T7=Pendimethalin fb (acetachlor+bensulfuron
methyl) (aceta+bensul)
T8=Pyrazo ethyl fb (aceta+bensul)
T9=Butachlor fb (aceta+ bensul)
T10= Pretilachlor fb (aceta+bensul)
T11=Pendimethalin
fb
orthosulfamuron
(orthosulfa)
fb (butachlor+ propanil) (buta+propa)
T12=Pyrazo ethyl fb orthosulfa fb (buta+ propa)
T13 = Butachlor fb orthosulfa fb (buta+ propa)
T14= Pretilachlor fb orthosulfa fb (buta+ propa)
T15 = Pendimethalin fb orthosulfa fb 2,4-D
T16 = Pyrazo ethyl fb orthosulfa fb 2,4-D
T17 = Butachlor fb orthosulfa fb 2,4-D
T18 = Pretilachlor fb orthosulfa fb 2,4-D
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 1. Effect of herbicides on (a) weed biomass at 35 and 50 DAT, (b) WCE (c) grain
yield and (d) YOC of unpuddled transplanted aman rice in 2013 [Treatments are mentioned in
Table 1].
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
111
Weed Management in Mustard (Brassica napus L.) under Minimum
Tillage and Crop Residues
M. M. Hossain1*, M. Begum1, M. M. Rahman1, A. Hashem2, R. W. Bell3 and M. E. Haque3
1
Bangladesh Agricultural University, *Email: [email protected]
Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia
3
Murdoch University, Australia
2
Introduction
Weed management is critical to obtaining profitable yields in minimum tillage system.
Innovative weed control strategies including chemical methods will continue to be an
essential component in the development of sustainable conservation agriculture (CA)
practices (Andrew and Kelton, 2011). Weed management in minimum tillage relied on
extensive use of herbicides. This may leads to the development of resistance in weeds. Crop
residue can decrease density and dry weight of perennial weeds by 35 and 75%, respectively,
and of annual weeds around 80% compared to no residue (Fisk et al., 2001). Wheat (Triticum
aestivum L.) residue can reduce weed seedling emergence in corn by 45% (Crutchfield et al.,
1986) and weed biomass in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) by 60% (Wicks et al., 1994).
These results suggest that, residue retention can be a promising method providing a
sustainable approach for suppressing weeds in conservation tillage. Therefore, a study was
undertaken to examine, weeds management and yield performance of mustard under
minimum tillage and different levels of residue retention.
Materials and Methods
An on-farm research was conducted at the Vangnamari union under Gouripur upazila of
Mymensingh district of Bangladesh during 13 November 2013 to 4 February 2014. In this
experiment a mustard CV. BARI sharisha-14, was sown with 6 tillage and weed control
practices viz., W1: Conventional tillage + one weeding (Control); W2: Roundup (RU) + Strip
tillage (ST); W3: RU+ ST + Pre-emergence (PE) herbicide (Pendimethalin); W4: RU+ ST +
Post-emergence (PO) herbicide (Oxadiazon); W5: RU+ ST + PE + PO; W6: RU+ ST +
weed-free, and 2 levels of crop residue viz., Cr1: Current residue (20%) and Cr2: Increased
residue (50%). The design was randomized complete block design with 4 replications
consisting 48 (6×2×4) plots of 9 m × 5 m each. Weed samples were taken randomly from
four locations of 0.25 m2 at 35 days after sowing (DAS). Weed populations were counted
species wise and then oven dried at 700C for 72 hours. The crop was harvested from three
locations of 3 m2 areas and grain yield was recorded. Data were subjected to analysis of
variance using MSTAT-C and means were separated by Duncan's Multiple Range Test.
Results and Discussions
Weed infestation
The experimental plots were infested with 24 weed species belonging to 13 families, of
which 18 were annuals and 6 perennials (Table 1). Of these weed species, 6 belonged to
Poaceae 3 to Cyperaceae, 2 to each of Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae
and each one of rest of the 7 families.
Tillage and weed control effect on weed and crop
The highest weed density (40 m-2) and dry matter (29 g m-2) was found in control (W1) while
both were nil in strip tilled (ST) weed free plots (W6). However, the lowest weed density (12
m-2) and
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
112
dry matter (6 gm-2) was recorded in ST followed by RU, PE and PO (W5) (Fig. 1). W1
yielded the lowest (0.58 tha-1) and the highest (0.95 tha-1) was recorded from W6 while the
second highest (0.90 tha-1) from W5 (Figure 2). The highest BCR (2.29) was calculated from
W5 in contrast to W6 (2.13) (Fig. 2).
4.00
W4
W5
W6
21
6
0.00
10
9
12
14
22
20
17
30
W3
29
31
W2
0.00
weed density (no. m-2 )
weed dry matter (gm-2 )
40
W1
0
Weed density
Yield
BCR
3.00
Yield (tha-1)
BCR
40
50
2.00
1.00
2.10
1.93
1.35
1.48
W2
0.96
0.87
0.65
W1
0.90
0.76
0.59
0.00
Weed dry matter
2.29
1.87
W3
W4
W5
W6
Fig.2. Tillage and weed control effect on
Yield and BCR
Fig.1. Tillage and weed control effect on weed
density and weed dry matter
Effect of crop residue on weed and mustard
Figure 3 shows that, at low crop residues, weed
density and weed dry matter were high but crop yield
was low. In contrast, weed density and weed dry
matter was low and crop yield was high at high crop
residue. These results suggest that, increased residue
might have reduced weed emergence and increased
crop yield by 52%.
Table 1: Weed infestation in the experiment plots
(*annual species, ** perennial species)
Species
Alternanthera sessilis *
A. philoxeroides *
Centipeda minima **
Eclipta alba *
Heliotropium indicum*
Brassica kaber *
Raphanus raphanistrum *
Spilanthes acmella*
Chenopodium album *
Cyperus rotundus **
Cyperus difformis *
Fimbristylis miliaceae *
Family
Amaranthaceae
Amaranthaceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Boraginaceae
Brassicaceae
Brassicaceae
Campanulaceae
Chenopodiaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Density
300
26
14
198
16
14
6
14
10
4
2
20
Species
Vicia sativa *
Desmodium triflorum **
Marsilea quadrifolia*
Jussiaea decurrens *
Echinochloa crusgalli *
E. colonum *
Digitaria sanguinalis *
Cynodon dactylon **
Leersia hexandra **
Panicum repens **
Polygonum coccineum *
Lindernia procumbens *
Family
Fabaceae
Fabaceae
Marsiliaceae
Onagraceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Polygonaceae
Scrophulariaceae
Density
8
2
15
10
99
29
5
9
4
6
46
38
Reference
Andrew P and Jessica K (2011) Weed Control in Conservation Agriculture, Herbicides, Theory and
Applications, Prof. Marcelo Larramendy (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-975-2. InTech, Available
:http://www.intechopen.com/books/herbicides-theory-and-applications/weed-control-inconservation agriculture
Crutchfield DA, Wicks GA and Burnside, OC (1986) Effect of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
straw mulch level on weed control. Weed Sci. 34:110-114.
Fisk JW, Hesterman OB, Shrestha A, Kells JJ, Harwood RR, Squire JM and Sheaffer CC (2001)
Weed suppression by annual legume cover crops in no-till corn. Agron. J. 93:319-325.
Wicks GA, Nordquist PT, Hanson GE and Schmidt JW (1994) Influence of winter wheat (Triticum
aestivum L.) cultivars on weed control in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Weed Sci. 42:27-34.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
113
Row Spacing, Herbicides and Nitrogen Effect on Crop-Weed Competition
in Cereal-Broadleaf Crop Rotation
A. Hashem1, W. Vance2, R. Brennan1 and R. Bell2
1
Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, Australia.
[email protected], [email protected]
2
Murdoch University, Australia. [email protected], [email protected]
Introduction
Proximity factors such as row spacing change the spatial distribution of crop plants and alters
the intensity of crop-weed competition (Fischer and Miles 1973). Narrow row spacing is
likely to facilitate crop plants with greater competitive ability than weeds, compared to wide
row spacing (Hashem et al. 1998). In dry land conservation agriculture (CA), wide rows may
ensure some temporal and spatial water availability at critical crop growth stages to ensure
profitable yields. However, good weed management becomes critical to the success of wide
row systems, as failure to control water-using weeds defeats the purpose of wide row
cropping where water conservation is the focus. Management of nitrogen (N) also greatly
affects the growth of weeds. While weeds may have easy access to applied N if top-dressed
on the soil surface at sowing time, strategic N application technique may maximise the access
of crop plants to N compared to weed plants such as annual ryegrass. This study was
undertaken to examine the interaction of N rate (and N application technique) and weed
control options under normal and wide row spacing in a wheat –lupin–canola rotation in CA.
Materials and Methods
To complement research and development on CA in Bangladesh, a three-year rotation trial
(wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)– lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) –canola (Brassica napus L.))
was conducted at Cunderdin [117.14E, 31.39S], Western Australia to examine the effect of
crop row spacing, herbicides and applied N on crops and weeds. N was applied in wheat and
canola but not in lupin.
Treatments
Rotations: Both wheat and lupin crops were grown in separate plots in 2012. Wheat plots of
2012 were rotated to lupin in 2013 while lupin plots of 2012 were rotated to wheat in the
2013 season. Roundup Ready® (RR) canola crop was grown in the 2014 season in all wheat
and lupin plots of 2013.
Row spacing, herbicide and nitrogen (N): Crops were sown at 22 cm and 44 cm row space in
each growing season (May to November). Triflur X® (trifluralin 480 g/L) at 2 L/ha and
Sakura® (pyroxasulfone 850 g/kg) at 118 g/ha were applied to wheat crop. Gesatop
Granules® (simazine 900 g/ha) at 1 kg/ha and Outlook® (dimethenamid-P 720 g/L) at 1 L/ha
were applied in lupin crop. Roundup Ready® (glyphosate 690 g/L) was applied at 900 g/ha in
2014 RR Canola at 2- and 5-leaf stages. Double super (17.5% P) at 50 kg/ha was applied in
all crops. Wheat and canola crops received three nitrogen treatments viz., N25 (25 kg N/ha),
N50 (50 kg N/ha) (N drilled in front of tynes as urea (46% N), and Flexi N50 (50 kg N/ha as
Flexi N (urea-ammonium nitrate (32%N)) solution placed at 7 cm depth for wheat and 4.5 cm
for canola). The trials were conducted in a randomised complete block design with four
replications using a unit plot of 20 m by 2 m under minimum tillage systems.
Data analysis
Data were subjected to ANOVA by Genstat 15th Edition. Means were separated by LSD.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
114
Results and Discussion
The main weed species was annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) with 610 plants/m2 in 2012
growing season, 80 plants/m2 in 2013, and 480 plants/m2 in 2014. Increases in row spacing
from 22 cm to 44 cm reduced wheat yield by 29% in 2013 season while row spacing did not
influence lupin grain yield in either season, suggesting that unlike wheat plant, lupin plant
growth is more plastic to produce vegetative growth and yield. Sakura® was more effective
on weeds in wheat than trifluralin while Outlook® was more effective than simazine in lupin,
leading to increases in grain yield of wheat and lupin in both seasons. The extent of wheat
grain yield increase due to Sakura® was greater in 44 cm than 22 cm. Flexi N50 had higher
initial weed plants than N25 or N50, indicating a possible stimulation of annual ryegrass
emergence by Flexi N. The weed plant number was lower in 22 cm row space than 44 cm
under flexi N.
Table 1. Effect of row spacing (RS), herbicide (H) and nitrogen (N) on the weed control and
grain yield in wheat in 2012 and 2013 seasons and effect of RS and H on weed control and
grain yield in lupin in 2012 and 2013 at Cunderdin, Western Australia. Wheat crop was not
harvested in 2012. ns = Not significant; “-“ indicates N was not applied in lupin crop.
Treatment
Weed control
in wheat crop
(p-values)
2012
2013
RS
ns
ns
H
0.003
N
Wheat yield
in 2013 (pvalues)
Weed control in
lupin (p-values)
Lupin yield (p-values)
2012
2013
2012
2013
<0.001
ns
<0.001
ns
ns
0.01
<0.001
<.001
ns
<0.001
0.01
ns
0.06
ns
-
-
-
-
RS*H
ns
0.03
ns
0.03
ns
ns
ns
RS*N
0.01
ns
ns
-
-
-
-
H*N
0.03
ns
ns
-
-
-
-
RS*H*N
0.04
0.05
ns
-
-
-
-
Complex three-way interactions occurred for weed control in wheat crop in both seasons. No
interaction between herbicides and row spacing on weed control was found in lupin in either
season, suggesting that lateral vegetative growth of lupins effectively suppressed weeds in
wide row lupin. No significant effect of N on wheat was found in 2013 season, probably due
to a possible N saturation resulted from residual N of 2012 lupin crop. In summary,
herbicides reduced weeds and increased grain yield in wheat and lupin crops. Close rows (22
cm) reduced weeds and increased grain yield in wheat crop but not in lupin. So, small holders
in CA should practise chemical and cultural weed control options to optimise cereal yield.
References
Fischer RA, Miles RE (1973) The role of spatial pattern in competition between crop plants and
weeds. A theoretical analysis. Mathematical Bioscience 18: 335-350.
Hashem Abul, Radosevich SR, Roush ML (1998) Effect of proximity factors on competition between
winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam). Weed Science
46:181-190.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
115
Productivity of garlic grown under different tillage conditions and mulches
under organic production systems
Md. Abdur Rahim1, Md. Ahsanul Kabir2, Md. Shamsul Alam3 and Phillip W. Simon4
1
Department of Horticulture, BAU
Hajee Danesh Science and Technology University
3
FTIP, BAU
4
University of Wisconsin, USA
2
Introduction
The poor yield of garlic may be due to the lack of inadequate soil and water management
practices with reference to soil water shortage in the soil profile. However, a considerable
amount of fallow land can be brought under garlic cultivation through utilization of residual
soil moisture as well as application of reduced supplemental irrigation. Unfortunately little
work has been done in Bangladesh to test the feasibility of garlic production by conserving
soil moisture through the management of tillage and mulch practice. From the previous
experiment it was found that both tillage as well as mulches exerted profound effects on yield
and yield contributing characters. Nevertheless, the present investigation was carried out to
observe the combined effect of mulches and tillage on garlic.
Materials and Methods
Expt 1. Effects of tillage and different thickness of water hyacinth mulch on the growth, yield
and storage quality of garlic: This experiment was conducted at the USDA Allium field
laboratory of BAU during 2006-2007 with objectives i) to compare the production of garlic
between with and without tillage (zero tillage) conditions and ii) to determine the appropriate
amount of mulch materials for soil conservation under zero tillage conditions. The treatments
were: Factor A: i) Conventional tillage ii) Zero tillage; Factor B: Different thickness of water
hyacinth mulch viz. i) 6 cm, ii) 8 cm, iii) 10 cm, iv) 12 cm and v) No mulch (control). The
experiment was set in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The
results were analyzed following the MSTAT package program.
Expt 2. Productivity of garlic grown under different tillage conditions and mulches in
presence of organic manure: This experiment was also conducted at the USDA Allium field
laboratory of BAU during 2006-2007 with objectives: i) to compare the production of garlic
under different tillage conditions; and ii) to identify the best mulches for garlic production.
The experiment consisted of Factor A: Tillage; i) Conventional or normal tillage (4
ploughings followed by laddering); ii) Puddling (2 ploughings followed by irrigation) and ii)
Zero tillage (without land preparation in the wet soil)- Factor B: Mulches (3) viz. i) Rice
straw; ii) Water hyacinth (Eichorina and iii) Sotty leaf (Curcuma amada) mulch. Design,
analysis and other practices same as Expt. 1.
Results and Discussion
A series of experiments were conducted in the field laboratory of USDA-Alliums’ project,
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during rabi seasons of 2006-2009 with the
main objective of determining the effect of manure, tillage and mulch on the growth, yield
and quality of garlic.
In 2006-2007 growing season, the treatment combination of zero tillage with the 10cm
thickness of mulch produced the highest yield (9.92 t/ha). Moreover, zero tillage conditions
showed the highest storage quality because it possessed the lowest values in case of weight
loss (8.45%), insect infested bulbs (6.67%) as well as percent rotten bulbs (2.44%) even after
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
116
150 days of storage. In contrast, conventional tillage with no mulch, and conventional tillage
with 6 cm mulch were found to have lower storage quality compared to the other treatment
combinations. Zero tillage garlic showed remarkable variation. However, differences were
not significant between rice straw and water hyacinth mulch. It was also noticed that both the
tillage conditions as well as mulches exerted profound effects on the yield and yield
contributing parameters. Puddling and zero tillage garlic resulted higher yield compared to
the conventional tillage.
In 2007-2008 growing season, a comparison of the developed package of production
technology for two registered varieties of garlic (BAU Garlic-1; BAU Garlic-2) with BARI
recommended technology under dry land (conventional cultivation method) and wetland
(zero tillage method) conditions made at BAU, Mymensingh during the growing season
2007-08. The results demonstrated that the growth of plants, development of bulb and yield
were significantly better in the newly developed technology than the BARI recommended
technology both under dry and wetland conditions. The garlic variety BAU Garlic-1 with the
developed technology yielded 21.40 t/ha under the dry land condition, and 14.20 t/ha under
the wetland conditions. Whereas, the garlic variety BAU Garlic-2 with the developed
technology yielded 17.91 t/ha under the dry land condition, and 12.10 t/ha under the wetland
condition.
Rice straw mulch showed better performance than the control or sotty (Curcuma amada) leaf.
The rice straw conserved more moisture in the soil compared to other mulch practices namely
water hyacinth or sotty leaf. The reason for higher yield in the rice straw mulch might be due
to decreased soil temperature and diurnal temperature fluctuation too, and more efficient
conservation of water, which favoured growth of the crop. High soil temperature suppressed
the rate of root elongation and decreased root density in the surface layer of unmulched bare
soil. The increased root density enhanced better uptake of water and nutrients and ultimately
increased plant height and yield of garlic. Furthermore, rice straw mulch prevented the weeds
and ultimately plants grew without any competition. These results are in agreement with the
experiences of Halim (2000) and Aliuddin (1986).
References
Aliuddin T (1986) Effect of soil tillage and application of mulch on yield of field grown garlic. Bull.
Penelitian Hortikultura,14(1):23-37 [Cited from Hort. Abstr., 59(4): 319,1989]
Halim A (2000) Effects of mulches on the growth and yield of some garlic germplasms. An M. S.
Thesis, Department of Horticulture, BAU, Mymensingh. p. 103.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
117
Evaluation of Conservation Tillage and Weed Management Options on
Production Potential and Weed Incidences in Dry Seeded Rice
M.H Rashid1, J. Timsina2, N. Islam3, M.K Gathala4 and J.K Biswas5
1
BRRI Regional Station, Rajshah, [email protected]
Consultant, IRRI-CSISA Bangladesh, [email protected]
3
Department of Agronomy, BAU, Mymensingh, [email protected]
4
Global CA program, CIMMYT-Bangladesh, [email protected]
5
BRRI Gazipur, Bangladesh, [email protected]
2
Introduction
The challenge of crop production is to produce more food at less cost and to improve water,
labor and land productivity. Direct seeded rice (DSR) is a resource conservation technology
that satisfies these requirements and is conducive to mechanization. The recent development
of post-emergence herbicides provides an opportunity to develop CA associated with dry
DSR. Hence DSR and adoption of conservation tillage based practices together with
mechanical seeder for crop establishment can be evolved as sustainable technology with low
cost in this region.
Materials and methods
The experiment was carried out at the BRRI Regional station, Rajshahi in the wet season of
2010 and 2011. The main plot treatments were Zero tillage (ZT), Strip tillage (ST), Minimum
tillage using PTOS (MT), Permanent bed (PB), Fresh bed (FB) and Conventional tillage
(CT). Except conventional tillage, other treatments were termed as conservation tillage. The
subplot treatments were Weed free (W1); Post emergence herbicide + 1 hand weeding (W2),
Pre-emergence herbicide + Post-emergence herbicide (W3), Post emergence herbicide (W4)
and Weedy control (W5). Pandimethalin (Panida) and bispyribac Na+ (Nominee Gold),
respectively were used for pre- and post-emergence weed control. The soil was low in OM
(1.35%), very low in available N (0.07%) and low in P, K, S and Zn. Except in CT, rice was
established in dry direct seeding with pre application of glyphosate. The rice variety was
BRRI dhan49. In case of ZT, little slits were made in the untilled soil by hook like tool and
then the seeds were sown on manually followed by covering the soil. Strip and minimum
tillage as well as seed sowing were done in untilled soil through one pass with PTOS
machine. Bed was prepared by bed planter in untilled soil as well as seed dropping was
occurred simultaneously. Data were analyzed using Crop Stat (version 7.2) program.
Results and Discussion
In 2010, the main effect of tillage did not affect dry matter of broadleaf weeds but it did little
influence in 2011 (Table 1). The maximum broadleaf biomass was recorded in MT and ZT in
2011 while CT obtained the lowest biomass. Sedge biomass was higher in FB which was
statistically comparable with other conservation tillage treatments during both the years. In
2010 and 2011, the maximum grass biomass was found in ST which was statistically similar
to other conservation tillage treatments. It was found that the dry matter of all categories of
weeds were top ranked in W5 which was statistically differed with rest of the treatments in
each year. The weed intensity was the same between W3 and W4 during both the years
indicated that the post-emergence (Bispyribac Na+) alone or combination with pre-emergence
had similar result. Mahajan et al. (2009) also cited that Bispyribac Na+ was very effective
against most of the weeds in DSR.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
118
The grain yield of rice was little affected by the tillage options across the years (Table 1). The
CT and MT, respectively recorded the highest and the lowest grain yield in both the years
where identical effect had been remained among CT, ZT, PB and FB in first year and among
CT, ST, PB and FB in the succeeding year. Irrespective of tillage treatments, the superior
grain yield of rice was found in W1closely followed by W2 across the years while the
significantly lower grain yield was recorded in W5.Among herbicide applied treatments, grain
yield was significantly superior in W2 over W3. Although the gross return remained higher in
CT a superior gross margin was recorded in PB followed by FB in both the years.
Irrespective of tillage options, higher gross return was found in W1 closely followed by W2 in
both the years. In contrast, the W2 obtained the higher gross margin over the years.
Table 1: Weeds dry matter, grain yield, gross return and gross margin as affected by tillage
and weed
Treatments
Weed dry matter at 2nd hand weeding
Broadleaf (g m-2) Sedge(g m-2)
Grass(g m-2)
2010
2011
2010 2011 2010
2011
Grain yield
(t ha-1)
2010
2011
Gross return
(Tk. ha-1)
2010
2011
Gross Margin
(Tk. ha-1)
2010 2011
Tillage
ZT
ST
MT
PB
FB
CT
LSD 0.05
6.3
5.2
6.4
4.6
4.5
4.2
6.3
4.8
5.7
4.9
4.4
3.7
9.6
9.7
16.4
13.7
18.9
7.4
5.3
5.2
9.0
7.6
9.8
8.1
26.6
20.3
28.1
17.5
24.7
8.6
16.0
12.3
15.9
16.9
16.4
6.8
3.95
3.89
3.73
4.22
4.21
4.28
3.93
4.05
3.71
4.33
4.18
4.37
ns
1.73
10.4
3.3
18.3
7.10
0.37
1.73
2.31
3.71
6.08
23.65
3.32
6.94
4.91
10.27
12.33
70.60
16.18
5.62
2.76
5.01
8.46
48.38
4.80
Weed management options
W1
1.22
0.86
W2
1.68
1.16
W3
2.91
2.64
W4
3.28
3.23
W5
16.93
16.97
LSD 0.05
1.53
2.10
2.55
2.51
5.73
7.56
44.91
9.45
4.65
4.59
4.25
3.85
2.90
0.31
0.39
75480
74344
70026
80370
80327
81540
3039
79664
81979
75215
87381
84179
87850
7110
38785
39904
35340
45406
45515
41624
3098
42143
47057
40027
51913
48854
46768
7279
4.82
4.76
4.20
3.90
2.78
0.34
88571
87144
80598
74830
53926
3110
96453
94902
85300
79173
57730
6379
44862
49452
45143
42443
23579
3052
51197
56366
494440
46471
27156
6315
In summary, CT obtained lower weeds biomass over the conservation tillage treatments, but
weed biomass was similar among the weed-free and herbicide applied treatments. The grain
yield and gross return were comparable among CT, PB and FB. The Bispyric Na+ +1 HW
(W2) treatment showed identical effect with weed free (W1) in relation to grain yield and
gross return. On the other hand W2 gained higher gross margin over CT in both the years.
Grain yield, gross return and gross margin were significantly superior in W2 over W3
indicated that post-emergence herbicide supplemented with one hand weeding is necessary
for DSR under conservation tillage system.
Acknowledgements
The authors acknowledge the financial and technical support provided by the ACIAR, IRRI,
CIMMYT and Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC).
References
Mahajan G, Johnson DE, Chauhan BS (2009) Weed management in aerobic rice in north western
Indo-Gangetic Plains. J. Crop Improv. 23, 366-382
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
119
Wheat cultivation under conservation tillage options: a promising, low cost
and profitable technology for small holders in Faridpur (Bangladesh)
Md. Elahi Baksh, Frederick J Rossi, Md. Mohi Uddin, Zakaria Hasan, Fazlul Haque,
Timothy J. Krupnik, Azahar Ali Miah, and Thakur P. Tiwari
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Bangladesh, House 10/B, Rd. 53,
Gulshan-2, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh. Email: [email protected]
Introduction
Increasing scarcity of resources (labour, water, and energy) and cost of production are major
challenges for the sustainability of wheat production in Bangladesh. Considering these
challenges, efforts are being made to develop improved cultivation practices with high yield
potential that reduce farmers’ production costs. Smallholders in Bangladesh cultivate wheat
by conventional tillage, which is both intensive and costly, involving several passes by 2
wheel tractor (2WT) and plankings to create the seedbed. Intensive tillage not only increases
cost of production, but it also delays the turnaround period after rice cultivation, often
delaying wheat planting such that a yield loss of around 32 kg/ha are incurred for each day’s
delay after November (Pathak et al. 2003; Rawson 2011). Conservation tillage options are
thought to: facilitate optimal sowing time by reducing turnaround time; improve crop
productivity while potentially conserving soil moisture and structure; and reducing land
preparation costs (resulting in a higher profitability). Thus, CIMMYT projects in Bangladesh
have been demonstrating wheat cultivation under conservation tillage technologies such as
bed planting (BP) and strip tillage (ST) with recommended fertilizer management at different
parts of Bangladesh, including Faridpur. These tillage implements are attached to the2WT,
which is ubiquitous in Bangladesh. Acceptance of any technology by farmers is dependent
upon its availability, its economic profitability, and its agronomic viability; as such, this study
was conducted to: (1) estimate the profitability of wheat cultivation with respect to tillage
options, and (2) make recommendations on the basis of economic performance.
Methodology
Description of Experiment: To analyze crop productivity and production costs under
conservation tillage, demonstrations involving BP and ST with fertilizer management were
conducted at different upazilas in greater Faridpur during the cool-dry (Rabi) season 2013-14.
A randomized complete block design was followed with 16 and 11 replications for BP and
ST, respectively. Tillage machines were operated by local service providers (LSPs) who
added the BP/ST implements to their existing 2WT for ploughing /seeding purposes. Two
separate demonstrations were conducted (one with BP and another with ST) on different
farmers’ plots. The treatments were: (T1) BP/ST+RF (recommended fertilizer), (T2)
BP/ST+FF (farmer’s fertilizer), and (T3) conventional tillage + FF. Seed was sown between
the 3rd week of November and the 1st week of December 2013, irrespective of location. For
T3, farmers used their own wheat cultivation practices, while they used project recommended
packages (including seeds, fertilizers, etc.) for T1. New varieties like BARI Gom 25, 26, 27,
28 were supplied to the farmers.
Economic Analysis: For economic analysis, all the data were collected from field
demonstrations conducted at Faridpur; contemporary market prices of inputs and outputs
were used to estimate the cost and returns. Total variable costs (TVC) included labor and
production inputs (e.g. tillage, planting, seed, fertilizer, pesticide, irrigation, harvesting,
threshing). The cost of labor used for different operations was based on person-days/ha
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
120
considering 8 hr/day. Gross returns (GR) included the total value of the main crop and any
by-products. Gross Margin (GM) was calculated by deducting TVC from GR. The benefitcost (BC) ratio was calculated by dividing gross return by TVC. All the cost and returns are
presented on a per hectare basis. Cumulative probability curves of GM were estimated to
compare the relative scenario of profitability of the tillage options.
Results and Discussion
Decending Cumulative Probability in %
Fig. 1 Cumulative probability curve on Gross margin of wheat yield under
For adopting both BP and ST options, all
ST with fert management at Faridpur
120%
operational costs except fertilizer and
herbicide use were less for T1 than the
100%
other treatments (farmers traditionally use
80%
less fertilizers compared to recommended
ST+RF
ST+FF
60%
doses, and they seldom use herbicides).
FP
40%
Among
all
costs,
land
preparation/seeding cost was remarkably
20%
lower for both BP and ST, followed by
0%
irrigation cost (Table 1). Cost of seed and
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
Gross margin of Wheat (Tk/ha)
labor were also reduced (by 19% and
18%, respectively) as compared to the
Note: ST= Strip till, RF= Recommended fertilizer, FF= Farmers fertilizer and FP=
Farmers’ practice
farmers’ practice (T3), since farmers
broadcast more wheat seed than the
recommended rate for machine line-sowing (120 kg/ha). Although the total variable cost was
approximately 16% less with farmers’ fertilizers dose (Table 1), the yield of wheat was
increased by 26% for BP and 28% for ST. Simultaneously, gross returns and gross margin
were also increased by using tillage machines (76-88% increase GM for BP, and 76-91%
increase for ST), which is the noteworthy impact of adopting conservation tillage machinery.
Figure 1 shows the cumulative probability curves for GM: there are clear differences between
the ST and farmer’s practice (FP) (BP not shown). Both of the conservation tillage options
(i.e. ST and BP) performed well, but performed even better with recommended fertilizer
doses-resulting in more economic benefits than obtained under the FF (Table 1, Figure1).
This study clearly demonstrates the potential for farmers to save on production costs while
increasing yield and revenue by adopting BP or ST as preferred tillage options for
establishment of wheat. Hence, by adopting these technologies where they are available,
farmers can save their scarce resources and earn increased profits. One must note, however,
that limited machinery supply in the market constrains the wider adoption of these valuable
technologies; this fact therefore needs to be accorded more attention to foster the adoption of
tillage technologies for the cultivation of Rabi crops such as wheat.
References
Pathak H, Ladha JK, Aggarwal PK, Peng S, Das S, Singh Y, Singh B, Kamra SK, Mishra B,
SastriASRAS, Aggarwal HP, Das DK, Gupta RK (2003)Trends of climatic potential and on-farm
yields of rice and wheat in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Field Crops Res. 80, 223–234.
Rawson HM (ed) (2011) Sustainable intensification of Rabi cropping in Southern Bangladesh using
wheat and mungbean, ACIAR Tech.Rep.78. Australian Centre for International Agricultural
Research: Canberra. 256 pp.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
121
Table 1. Percent changes in cost and returns (BDT/ha) for adoption of conservation tillage
over farmers practice at Faridpur, 2014
Cost/returns
(BDT/ha)
Land preparation
cost
Seed cost
Fertilizer cost
Labour cost
Irrigation cost
Herbicide cost
Harvest& carrying
cost
Total variable Cost
Yield (t/ha)
Bed planting option
Strip Till option
% change in comparison to FP
BP+R BP+F
ST+R
ST+F
F
F
F
F
BP+RF
BP+FF
FP
ST+RF
ST+FF
FP
5,187
5,187
8,669
4,446
4,446
8,273
-40
-40
-46
-46
4,392
4,392
5,328
4,392
4,392
5,400
-18
-18
-19
-19
11,467
2,709
9,611
209
8,138
2,709
9,611
209
7,989
3,294
11,754
209
11,321
3,910
8,758
3,335
7,273
3,910
8,758
3,335
7,171
4,470
12,171
1,816
44
-18
-18
0
2
-18
-18
0
58
-13
-28
84
1
-13
-28
84
14,550
13,742
14,882
13,079
13,094
13,710
-2
-8
-5
-4
48,125
4.594
43,988
4.261
52,125
3.646
49,241
4.820
45,208
4.438
53,010
3.757
-8
26
-16
17
-7
28
-15
18
Gross Return
100,873
93,556 80,219
105,66
97,369
82,610
26
17
28
18
Gross Margin
52,748
49,568 28,094 56,455
52,161
29,600
88
76
91
76
BCR
2.10
2.13
1.54
2.15
2.15
1.56
36
38
38
38
Note: BP= Bed Planting, ST= Strip till, FP=Farmers’ practice, RF=Recommended fertilizer dose, FF= Farmers’ fertilizer
dose
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
122
Soil Health, Weed Dynamics and Wheat Grain Yield in Different RiceWheat Rotations
Muhammad Farooq
Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
[email protected]
Introduction
The rice-wheat rotation is the predominant cropping system in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP)
of South Asia. However, this system is being threatened by declining water availability,
increasing labor costs and environmental concerns (Farooq et al., 2011). Developing
strategies for the sustainability of the rice-wheat cropping system is imperative to ensure food
security for the future generations. Adoption of resource conservation technologies, like
aerobic rice culture and zero tilled (ZT) wheat planting, offer a pragmatic option to address
many of the key constraints. However, information on soil health and weed dynamics in ZTwheat following aerobic rice in the region is lacking. This study was conducted to monitor
the soil health, weed dynamics and wheat grain yield in different tillage-based rice-wheat
rotations.
Materials and Methods
This study was conducted at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture,
Faisalabad (31.25°N, 73.06°E and 183 masl), Pakistan during three consecutive years 200809 to 2010-11. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with four
replications. After the harvest of flooded or aerobic rice, soil was sampled from a depth of 05 cm. Total soil porosity was estimated following Vomocil (1965) and root penetration
resistance was measured according to Bradford (1986). Wheat was sown during the second
week of November and was harvested during the last week of April. In ZT, wheat was
directly drilled into the rice stubbles with zero tillage drill. In deep tillage, the field was
ploughed with chisel plough followed by two cultivations with cultivator and two plankings.
In conventional tillage (CT), after rice harvesting field was ploughed with chisel plough
followed by two cultivations with cultivator and two plankings. Data on total weed density
were recorded 30 days after sowing from two places in each plot. Weeds were removed from
the whole field by hoeing. Data collected were statistically analysed by analysis of variance
followed by a mean separation by least significant difference.
Results and Discussion
Root penetration resistance was higher after flooded rice, irrespective of seeding method in
flooded culture, than aerobic rice; however there was tendency of decreased root penetration
resistance over time after aerobic rice (Table 1). Total soil porosity was higher after the
harvest of aerobic rice than the flooded rice, seeded by any method, during all experimental
years. Nonetheless, soil porosity tended to increase in fields vacated by aerobic rice over time
(Table 1). Total weed density was higher in wheat planted after aerobic rice than the crop
planted after flooded rice; however, that was more in ZT-wheat than CT-wheat during all
three experimental years. A decreasing trend in weed density, over time, was noted in ZTwheat planted after aerobic rice (Table 2). During year 1, maximum wheat grain yield was
recorded from aerobic rice–CT wheat followed by flooded rice–CT wheat and aerobic rice–
ZT wheat. However during the 2nd and 3rd years of experimentation, wheat grain yield was
more when planted, by CT or ZT, after aerobic rice than the crop planted after flooded rice
(Table 2). Nonetheless, after flooded rice, grain yield was higher in CT-wheat than ZT-wheat
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
123
(Table 2). Soil physical properties were better after aerobic rice than flooded rice during all
experimental years (Table 1) as a puddling-induced hard pan, formed during seedbed
preparation for flooded rice, was not present in aerobic rice culture (Farooq and Nawaz,
2014). Puddling disturbed the soil health, which influenced the germination, growth and yield
of post-rice wheat (Table 2). As seed of several weeds are damaged during flooding in rice,
less weed infestation was noted in wheat planted after flooded rice (Table 2). Wheat grain
yield tended to increase in ZT-wheat planted after aerobic rice over time (Table 2). Zero
tilled-wheat after aerobic rice seems a pragmatic option for the sustainability of rice-wheat
cropping systems in the IGP.
Table 1. Influence of different rice production systems on soil physical properties
Root penetration resistance (kPa)
Total soil porosity (%)
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Direct seeded aerobic rice
874 b
863 b
858 b
52 a
54 a
57 a
Direct seeded flooded rice
906 a
905 a
897 a
46 b
43 b
42 b
Transplanted flooded rice
919 a
917 a
921 a
44 b
42 b
41 b
LSD (P = 0.05)
25.3
29.7
27.3
3.1
5.5
4.6
Treatments
Table 2. Wheat grain yield and total density of associated weed in different rotations
Treatments
Total weed density (m-2)
Grain yield (t ha-1)
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Aerobic rice – ZT wheat
125 a
137 a
114 a
4.11 b
4.56 a
4.78 a
Aerobic rice – CT wheat
107 b
113 b
103 b
4.61 a
4.57 a
4.64 a
Flooded rice – ZT wheat
98 c
101 c
95 c
3.56 c
3.79 c
3.87 c
Flooded rice– CT wheat
86 d
80 d
84 d
4.23 b
4.41 b
4.34 b
LSD (P = 0.05)
7.3
9.4
8.4
0.35
0.41
0.27
ZT= Zero tillage; CT= Conventional tillage
References
Bradford JL (1986) Penetrability. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. 2nd edition. Agronomy
Monograph. 9. Ed A. Klute. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI, pp. 463-478.
Farooq M, Nawaz A (2014) Weed dynamics and productivity of wheat in conventional and
conservation rice-based cropping systems. Soil Tillage Res 141: 1–9.
Farooq M, Siddique KHM, Rehman H, Aziz T, Lee DJ, Wahid A (2011) Rice direct seeding:
experiences, challenges and opportunities. Soil Tillage Res 111: 87–98
Vomocil JA (1965) Porosity. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Ed C.A. Blake. Madison, American
Society of Agronomy, pp. 299-314.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
124
Including Maize in a Rice-Wheat Cropping System with Minimum Tillage
and Crop Residue Retention
M. Ataur Rahman
Regional Wheat Research Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur,
Bangladesh. [email protected]
Introduction
More demand for food and livestock feed coupled with scarcity of arable land resulted in
intensified cereal cropping in Bangladesh. Inclusion of maize in the rice-wheat cropping
system facilitates further intensification. But the triple cereal system may cause soil nutrient
exhaustion that needs to be addressed through conservation agricultural (CA) practices. The
CA has the potential to improve and sustain system productivity (Wall et al. 2010). CA
ensures minimum soil disturbance while keeping crop residue in the field improves soil
quality. It also minimizes production constraints like water stress, weed infestation and
favored production factors like retention of residual moisture, root growth and N use
efficiency (Rahman et al. 2005). However, most of the CA works reported on either
single or double cropping systems and intervention of CA in a triple cereal system is
scarce. Thus the experiment aimed at evaluating CA practices in improving productivity of a
wheat-maize-rice cropping system.
Materials and Methods
The field trial was done at the research farm of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute,
Gazipur (lat 24° N, long 90°3´E, 8 m elev.) starting with a wheat crop in 2010-11. The
experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications of
four CA treatments imposed on the component crops under wheat-maize-rice cropping
system. The four treatments were: T1 = Conventional practices; T2 = Conservation practices
(wheat sown in post rice harvest field with standing straw using PTOS (Power tiller operated
seeder) followed by no-till maize and then puddled transplanted rice (PTR)); T3 = Bed
planting (wheat was sown by power tiller operated bed planter followed by no-till maize then
PTR); T4 = Conservation practice in Bed (same as T3 with standing residue retention of rice
and wheat). The crop varieties used were BARI GOM 26, BARI hybrid Maize 7 and BINA
Dhan 7 for wheat, maize and rice, respectively. The recommended rates of fertilizers for
wheat (N120P30K50 S20B1), maize (N200P50K80 S40Zn5B2) rice (N80P25K50S20) were applied in all
the plots. The wheat crop was irrigated thrice (crown root initiation, booting and grain filling
stages), two irrigations were applied in maize (post sowing and after germination) to ensure
germination and stand establishment and rice was rain-fed. After harvest, the grains were
dried and grain moisture was measured to converted grain yields to t ha-1 at 12% moisture
content for wheat and maize, and 14% moisture for rice. Soil samples were collected after
each cycle of cropping and analyzed following standard methods to estimate organic matter
(OM) and available nutrient contents.
Results and Discussion
CA practices of double zero tillage with standing crop residue retention (T2 and T4)
influences soil hydraulic properties resulting in higher soil moisture between irrigation events
in wheat. Excessive water was well-drained from the plots under CA causing favorable
moisture regimes in maize field during early monsoon. Thus by altering the soil moisture
regimes, CA contributed to stand establishment resulting in higher number of spikes/m2 of
wheat and the cobs/m2 of maize. Sharma and Acharya (2000) and Erenstein (2002) reported
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
125
the beneficial effect of crop residue on wheat yield. In the present study, CA practices either
on beds or on flat land (T2 and T4) were equally effective in improving grain yield of wheat
and maize for the last 3 years (Table 1). The residual effect of CA imposed on wheat and
maize crop had no effect on rice yield until the second year but then became significant in the
third year.
Soil OM did not decline due to triple cropping of cereals for 3 years but improved under CA
compared to initial soil and conventional practices (Fig. 1). Total N, available K and S
content slightly declined in conventional practices relative to the initial soil. On the contrary,
under CA the intensive wheat-maize-rice cropping did not cause nutrient decline but most of
the nutrients including N, P, S and B increased under CA. The study demonstrated that
inclusion of maize between wheat and rice with conservation practices has the potential to
improve productivity.
References
Erenstein O (2002) Crop residue mulching in tropical and
semitropical countries: An evaluation of residue
availability and other technological implications. Soil
Tillage Res. 67: 115-133.
Rahman MA, Chikushi J, Lauren JG (2005) Rice straw
mulching and nitrogen response of no-till wheat
following rice in Bangladesh. Field Crop Research.
91: 71-81.
Sharma PK, Acharya CL (2000) Carry-over of residual
soil moisture with mulching and conservation tillage
for rain fed wheat in north-west India. Soil Tillage
Res. 57: 43-52.
Wall PC, Chocobar A, Deckers J, Sayre KD (2010)
Conservation agriculture, improving soil quality for
sustainable production systems? In: Advances in Soil
Science: Food Security and Soil Quality. CRC Press,
Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 137-208.
Fig. 1. Effect of CA on available nutrient content
in soil after 3 years of wheat-maize-rice cropping
in relation to initial soil (Ini= Initial soil)
Table 1. Grain yield (t ha-1) of component crops
under CA practices from 2010-2011 to 2013-14. See Materials and methods for description of
treatments.
Treat-
Wheat
Maize
Rice
ment
201011
201112
201213
201314
2011
2012
2013
2011
2012
2013
T1
3.15
3.51
3.83
3.92
5.78
4.74
6.84
4.28
4.48
4.80
T2
T3
T4
LSD0.05
4.35
4.22
4.48
0.38
4.38
4.04
4.55
0.35
5.85
4.54
5.56
0.47
5.18
4.38
5.05
0.41
6.76
6.02
6.60
0.55
7.15
5.67
6.86
0.61
8.05
6.65
7.88
0.70
4.35
4.02
4.24
NS
4.65
4.32
4.84
NS
5.12
4.67
5.15
0.43
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
126
Session 4
Soil and water management, and agronomy for
smallholder
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
127
KEYNOTE PAPER
Soil-water relations and water productivity in smallholder conservation
agriculture systems of Southern Africa and South Asia
Christian Thierfelder1* and Tim Krupnik2
1
CIMMYT P.O. Box MP 163, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
*Corresponding author: [email protected]; Tel. +263772815230
²CIMMYT-Bangladesh. House 10/B, Road 53, Gulshan-2, Dhaka, 1213, Bangladesh:
[email protected]
Introduction
Smallholder, resource-poor farmers around the world are faced with dwindling agricultural
resources. The challenges of increasing soil degradation, rainfall variability, physical and/or
economic scarcity of irrigation, and the negative effects of climate change necessitate that
smallholders adapt traditional farming systems to increase production efficiency,
profitability, and resilience (Thierfelder et al. 2014). A proposed solution to these problems is
conservation agriculture (CA), which involves minimum soil disturbance, crop residue
retention, and rotation. Combining these practices may comprise an important part of the
solution to improving rainfed crop productivity in predominantly maize-based systems of
southern Africa. In southern Asia, by contrast, most cropping systems are rice-based,
commonly incorporating upland crops and irrigation. But despite irrigation availability,
energy costs for pumping are increasing, making water a progressively more costly resource.
These changes increase the need to better manage CA to improve soil-water relations to boost
yield and water productivity (WP). This study summarizes the benefits and constraints of CA
on soil-water relations and WP in rainfed and irrigated systems in southern Africa and
southern Asia and identifies strategies to adapt to climate variability and change.
Materials and Methods
The results from CA long-term trials, carried out from 2004-2014 in Zimbabwe and Zambia
were used in the southern African study (Thierfelder and Wall, 2009). Soil moisture was
measured using capacitance probes and infiltration was captured using a mini-rainfall
simulator. Other soil quality indicators (earthworm population, aggregate stability, soil
carbon) were routinely measured. All indicators were analysed and their impact on the
productivity of CA systems summarized. For the South Asia study, a systematic literature
review of studies focussing on CA, soil water relations, and WP was used. Common for these
studies were a minimum requirement on data quality standards, and that CA was compared to
conventional management. The studies were systematically analysed and summarized to
examine each systems’ impact on WP in irrigated and rainfed environments.
Results and Discussion
The results from on-station and on-farm trials in rainfed systems of southern Africa,
dominated by manual and animal traction seeding, showed that maize-based CA treatments
maintained higher rates of infiltration (14-42 mm h-1) as compared to conventionally
ploughed control treatments without residue retention. This contributed to increased soil
moisture and buffered against seasonal drought and dry-spells. Longer-term improvements in
soil structure and carbon, as well as increased biological activity, resulted from the combined
use of CA principles. This in turn increases the likelihood of greater yields with reduced risk
of crop failure. A regional assessment of eight different CA systems across a range of agro-
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
128
ecologies in southern Africa showed that in 80% of cases there was a positive yield response
to CA. The challenge for smallholder farmers in Africa is to implement all three CA
principles at once, as farmers face many constraints affecting the ability to retain residues,
practice rotations, apply adequate amounts of fertilizers and effectively control weeds (Wall
et al., 2013).
When considered in the context of rice-wheat crop rotations, which are for example common
in much of South Asia, CA can modify and reduce the influence of several biophysical
factors that negatively influence crop WP (Figure 1). In both rainfed and irrigated
environments, CA can help improve soil water relations and WP by reducing unproductive
evaporative losses. In fully and partially irrigated systems, CA and dry direct seeding save
water by reducing unnecessary flooding for soil puddling in rice. Irrigation volume and
frequency in unflooded, non-rice crops can also be reduced, although researchers rarely
design experiments to explicitly address this important point. Where tillage is avoided and
residues retained following monsoon rice, farmers can also benefit by ‘banking’ residual soil
moisture for the subsequent crop. The principles of how CA changes WP emerging from our
systematic analysis allow the development of generalized hypotheses for later field-testing.
However, because many farmers may not adopt the all three CA practices simultaneously, as
is the case in southern Africa, further research is needed to disentangle which principles most
influence soil-water relations and WP in different cropping sequences and environments. This
will also help defining pathways for sustainable intensification for smallholder farmers in the
future.
Figure 1. Theoretical representation of the relative and conceptual importance (high vs. low,
on the ordinate axis) and proximal (easy for farmers to manage or change) and distal
(difficult for farmers manage or change) placement of key biophysical and management
factors affecting WP in a generalized rainfed rice – irrigated wheat cropping pattern in S.
Asia on the abscissa. Panel A shows the generalized relation of these factors under
conventional tillage, while panel B depicts them under CA based crop management. The
sizes of boxes indicate significance and responsiveness of each factor to conversion from
conventional to CA management. Overlap indicates mechanistic relations between the
factors. For example, Panel A shows residual soil moisture under conventional management,
which is of low importance because pre-seeding tillage causes evaporative losses. It is also
restricted to the distal side of the x-axis, because it is more difficult for farmers to manage
than when compared to CA, where mulching and reduced tillage moves this factor to the
proximal of the x-axis, indicating that farmers can more easily manage and conserve soil
moisture. The importance of residual soil moisture in boosting WP is also relatively higher
under CA than with conventional practices.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
129
References
Thierfelder C, Rusinamhodzi L, Ngwira AR, Mupangwa W, Nyagumbo I, Kassie GT, Cairns JE
(2014) Conservation agriculture in Southern Africa: Advances in knowledge. Renew. Ag. Food
Syst. 1-21.
Thierfelder C, Wall PC (2009) Effects of conservation agriculture techniques on infiltration and soil
water content in Zambia and Zimbabwe. Soil Till. Res. 105: 217-227.
Wall PC, Thierfelder C, Ngwira A, Govaerts B, Nyagumbo I, Baudron F (2013) Conservation
Agriculture in Eastern and Southern Africa. In: Jat, R.A., Sahrawat, K.L., Kassam, A.H. (Eds.),
Conservation Agriculture: Global Prospects and Challenges. CABI, Wallingford Oxfordshire, UK.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
130
Soil organic carbon, water stable aggregates and microbial attributes as
influenced by conservation agriculture production system (CAPS) in a
Fluventic Haplustepts under North Central Plateau zone of Odisha
Kshitendra Narayan Mishra1, Ayesha Mohanty1, Pravat Kumar Roul1, Satyanarayan Dash1,
Catherine Chan-Halbrendt2, Travis Idol2, and Aliza Pradhan2
1
College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-7,
Odisha, India, [email protected]
2
Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, University of Hawaii,
Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii
Introduction
Conservation agricultural production system (CAPS) with minimum tillage, legume intercrop
and a succeeding cover crop was established in 2011 at Regional Research and Technology
Transfer Station, Kendujhar, located under Eastern Peninsular Plateau in Odisha state of
India. The objective was to assess its impact on soil organic carbon, water stable aggregates
and microbial attributes after two years.
Materials and methods
The soils of the experimental site (200 50’ 55.38” N, 850 34’ 30.61” E and 499 m above the
MSL) developed from colluvial-alluvial deposits belong to Fluventic Haplustepts. The
climate is hot and sub humid with mean annual rainfall of 1473 mm. The treatments with
conventional (CT) and minimum (MT) tillage with maize sole (M) and maize cowpea
intercrop (M+C) as main plots during wet season and no cover crop (NCC), horse gram (H)
and mustard (T) as sub-plots during dry season were replicated thrice. Soil samples (0-10 cm)
collected initially (2011) and after two cropping cycles (2013) were analyzed for soil organic
carbon, water stable aggregates, microbial population, microbial biomass carbon (Vance et
al.,1987) and statistically complied by F-test (Gomez and Gomez, 1984).
Results and Discussion
Minimum tillage increased (Table 1) the water stable macro-aggregates (+12.7%) with
concomitant decrease in water stable micro-aggregates (-23.8%) over the conventional tillage
system. This might be attributed to the elevation of soil organic carbon (+20.0%) due to
greater residue inputs from crops in the surface soils associated with reduced biological
oxidation in less disturbed soils, hence increased microbial activity (Mikha et al., 2004) and
lower aggregate turnover rates. Moderation of the soil temperature and moisture due to
accumulation of soil organic matter in the soil surfaceunder minimum tillage systems
enhanced the population of bacteria (+10.8%), actinomycetes (+8.8%) and MBC (+8.1%)as
compared to conventional tillage (Balota et al., 2004). The inclusion of cover crops
(horsegram and mustard) also enhanced the soil organic carbon (+6.8%), actinomycetes
(+6.4%) and microbial biomass carbon (+5.8%) over no cover crop. Considerable buildup of
soil organic matter due to residue incorporation from crops and its protection under minimum
tillage contributed significantly in improving the status of macro-aggregates (r = 0.72**),
bacteria (r = 0.66**), actinomycetes (r = 0.72**) and MBC (r = 0.96**).Minimum tillage
with maize cowpea intercrop and the follow up horsegram cover crop appeared to be the
suitable CAPS for this undulating hilly tract for restoration of soil quality in the long run.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
131
Table 1. Effect of tillage and cropping systems on water stable aggregates, soil organic
carbon and microbial attributes
Treatments
WSA %
>250µm
WSA %
53-250µm
g kg
Bacteria
x106cfu g-1
Actinomycetes
x106cfu g-1
MBC
µg of C g-1
73.7
13.1
6.62
12.34
20.85
120.7
CT-M
69.9
15.9
6.12
13.19
21.40
112.9
CT-M+C
74.0
13.9
6.80
14.32
22.53
129.5
MT-M
78.5
11.9
7.58
15.02
23.19
157.0
MT-M+C
83.7
10.8
7.93
15.44
24.61
172.3
LSD (0.05)
4.00
1.00
0.60
0.82
1.17
7.21
NCC
74.9
13.6
6.81
14.28
22.35
130.3
H
78.2
12.7
7.54
14.78
23.77
155.5
T
76.5
13.1
6.98
14.43
22.68
142.9
LSD(0.05)
NS
NS
0.33
NS
0.94
7.02
Interaction
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
Initial
SOC
-1
Main plot
Sub plot
CT: Conventional tillage, MT: Minimum tillage, M: Maize, C: Cowpea, NCC: No cover
crop, H: Horsegram, T: Mustard, WSA: Water stable aggregates, SOC: Soil organic carbon,
MBC: Microbial biomass carbon
References
Balota EL, Filho AC, Andrade DS, Dick RP (2004) Long term tillage and crop rotation effects on
microbial biomass and C and N mineralization in a Brazilian Oxisol. Soil and Tillage Research
77: 137-145.
Gomez KA, Gomez AA (1984) Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research, Second Edition,
Wiley-Interscience Publication, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Mikha MM, Rice CW (2004).Tillage and manure effects on soil and aggregate associated carbon
and nitrogen. Soil Science Society America Journal 68: 809-816.
Vance ED, Brookes PC, Jenkinson DS (1987). An extraction method for measuring soil microbial
biomass carbon. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 19:703-706.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
132
Effects of Minimum Tillage Practices and Crop Residue Retention on Soil
Properties and Crop Yields under a Rice-based Cropping System
N. Salahin1, M. Jahiruddin2, M.R. Islam2, R.W. Bell3, M.E. Haque3 and M.K. Alam1
1
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Gazipur, [email protected],
[email protected]
2
Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), [email protected],
[email protected]
3
Murdoch University, Australia [email protected], [email protected]
Introduction
Average cropping intensity is 191% in Bangladesh but cropping patterns are mainly ricebased (BBS, 2012). Depletion of soil organic matter as well as other plant nutrients is one of
the most serious threats to the sustainability of agriculture in Bangladesh (Rijpma and
Jahiruddin, 2004). Hence, conservation agriculture (CA) practices such as minimal soil
disturbance, crop residue retention with suitable crop rotations could be a good option for
Bangladesh. However, the effects of CA practices in intensive rice-based rotations on soil
properties along with crop yields have not been adequately assessed in Bangladesh. The
present study was undertaken to determine the effects of minimum tillage practices and crop
residue retention on soil properties and crop yields under a rice-based cropping system.
Materials and Methods
The experimental site is located at Baliakandi upazilla, Rajbari district, in a sub-tropical, wet
and humid climate, characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons on the Low Ganges River
Floodplain. The soils are calcareous type with sandy loam to loamy texture. The four tillage
practices- zero tillage (ZT), strip tillage (ST), bed planting (BP) and conventional tillage (CT)
were allocated to the main plots and two levels of crop residue retention of rice and legume
residue i) low (20%), comparable to farmer’s retention practices and ii) high (50%) were
allocated to the sub-plots in a split-plot design with four replications in a rice-lentil-jute
cropping sequence. Soil samples were collected at the initiation of the experiment as well as
at the end of each cropping cycle in rice-lentil-jute cropping sequence from 0-5, 5-10 and 1015 cm and analyzed by standard methods for soil physico-chemical properties. Rice
equivalent yield (REY) of lentil and jute crops was computed as the yield of lentil and jute
crop divided by current market price of rice and multiplied by market price of lentil and jute
crop. The software package MSTATC was followed for statistical analysis.
Results and Discussion
The highest available P was in ZT followed by ST, CT and the lowest result was in BP
practice whereas the highest available Zn was found in ST followed by BP, ZT and CT
practices. All other nutrients remained unchanged (data not shown). Retention of increased
amounts of previous crop residues (>6.0 t ha-1 year-1) significantly increased SOC and other
plant nutrients after 1-crop cycle under the rice–lentil-jute cropping sequence (data not
shown).
Soil bulk density and soil penetration resistance followed the sequence, ZT>ST>BP>CT,
while increased crop residue retention significantly decreased soil penetration resistance at 05 and 5-10 cm after the 4th crop harvest. Soil moisture content was inversely related to soil
bulk density and penetration resistance after 4th crop harvest due to different tillage and
residue management (Table 1).
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
133
In the first cropping year, the highest rice and lentil grain yield was attained in CT and the
lowest in ZT. However in the second year, the highest grain yield of rice and lentil was
attained in ST and BP. Lowest rice and lentil yields were obtained in CT (Table 2). The fibre
yields of jute followed the sequence: ST>ZT>CT>BP in both years. Higher crop residue
retention increased rice and jute yield in the second year but the opposite results were found
with lentil in the second year. Rice equivalent yield was significantly higher in ST compared
to other tillage practices whereas higher residue retention increased REY in the second
cropping year. Strip tillage with higher residue retention are showing promising results after 4
crops in terms of soil properties and crop yield in the intensive rice-lentil-jute crop sequence.
Table 1. Effects of tillage practices and crop residue retention levels on soil bulk density,
penetration resistance and soil water content after the harvest of the 4th crop
Penetration resistance
Bulk density (g cm-3)
Soil water content (%)
Treatments
(N/cm2)
0-5 cm 5-10 cm 10-15 cm 0-5 cm 5-10 cm 10-15 cm 0-5 cm 5-10 cm 10-15 cm
Tillage practices
ZT
1.54 a 1.56 a 1.57 a
87 a
179 a
249
33.4 b 32.9 b
32.0
ST
1.51 ab 1.52 ab 1.54 ab 67 b
158 a
230
33.7 b 33.0 b
32.7
BP
1.49 b 1.51 b 1.52 b
86 a
118 b
224
33.4 b 33.3 ab 33.1
CT
1.48 b 1.50 b 1.53 ab 58 b
116 b
206
35.5 a 34.2 a
34.0
P
*
*
*
*
*
NS
*
**
NS
Previous crop residue retention levels
Low
1.51
1.53
1.55
80
152
237
33.8
32.9
32.8
High
1.49
1.51
1.53
69
134
218
34.2
33.7
33.1
P
NS
NS
NS
**
**
NS
NS
*
NS
Table 2. Effects of tillage practices and crop residue retention levels on crop yields (t ha-1)
Rice
Lentil
Jute
Rice
Lentil
Jute
REY
REY
Treatments grain
seed
fibre
grain
seed
fibre
1st
2nd year
2012
2012-13 2013
2013
2013-14
2014
year
Tillage practices
ZT
2.66 b
1.40 b
4.61 a 5.81 bc 1.45 bc 4.62ab 21.8
22.5b
ST
3.24ab 1.76ab 4.69 a
6.71 a
1.65 ab 4.87 a
24.7
24.8 a
BP
2.88 b
1.51 b
2.98 c
6.28ab
1.93 a
3.39 b
18.8
22.5 b
CT
3.70 a
1.98 a
3.54 b
5.38 c
1.19 c
3.52 b
23.7
18.5 c
P
*
*
*
*
**
*
Ns
**
Previous crop residue retention levels
20%
1.70
4.08
5.82
1.62
3.85
22.8
21.6
50%
1.63
3.83
6.27
1.49
4.35
21.7
22.5
P
ns
ns
**
*
*
Ns
*
References
BBS (2012) Statistical Bulletin-Bangladesh, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Dhaka.
Rijpma J, Jahiruddin M (2004) National strategy and plan for use of soil nutrient balance in
Bangladesh. A consultancy report, SFFP, Khamarbari, Dhaka.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
134
Minimum tillage and increased residue retention improves soil physical
conditions and wheat root growth in a rice-based cropping system
M. A. Islam1, R. W. Bell1, C. Johansen2, M. Jahiruddin3, M. E. Haque1
1
Murdoch University, Australia, [email protected] ; [email protected] ;
[email protected]
2
Consultant, Leeming, Australia, [email protected];
3
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh, [email protected]
Introduction
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is grown in rice-based cropping systems of the eastern IndoGangetic Plain in soils subjected to repeated tillage to prepare puddled soil for preceding
monsoon rice (Oryza sativa L.). Such soils commonly have a hard plough-pan layer (10-15
cm depth) which limits root growth and yield of wheat (Mohanty et al., 2006). Conservation
agriculture offers the potential for improved soil physical properties and increased root
growth and yield of wheat (Aggarwal et al., 2006). However, it is unclear whether such
changes will occur in intensive rice-based cropping sequences and the dependence of
improvement on crop residue retention. A field experiment assessed changes in soil physical
properties after 7 consecutive crops in relation to minimum tillage and crop residue retention
levels.
Materials and methods
The study was conducted at Digram village in Rajshahi, Bangladesh (24°31 N, 88°22 E) in
the drought-prone ancient alluvial plain (High Barind Tract) during 2010-13. Only data of
2012-13 are presented here. Wheat was the first crop grown, followed by mungbean (Vigna
radiata L.) and rice. The sequence was repeated and ended with a 3rd wheat crop (crop
number 7 in the sequence). Main plots consisted of strip tillage (ST), bed planting (BP) and
conventional tillage (CT) while high residue (HR) and low residue (LR) levels were retained
on sub-plots. Each treatment was replicated four times. Volumetric soil water contents (SW)
were measured with a capacitance sensor and penetration resistance (PR) with a hand
penetrometer. In this study, SW and PR values for conventional tillage were compared with
the average of in-the-strip and between-the-strip values; and on top of the bed. Root volume
(RV) was recorded by water displacement and root length by the grid intercept method.
When the F-test was significant (GenStat 15th ed.), treatment means were separated by least
significant difference (lsd, P≤0.05).
Results and Discussion
Regardless of tillage method and residue management, PR and SW increased with soil depth
which may reflect the existence of a plough pan (Fig. 1a and 1b). At 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil
depth, the lowest PR value was obtained in the BP-system and the greatest PR obtained with
CT treatment. High residue decreased the penetration resistance and increased the SW level.
Regardless of treatments, wheat root volume and RLD decreased with increasing soil depth
(Fig. 2a), which might be related to increasing PR (Fig. 1b). In the surface layers (0-10 cm
soil depth), significantly greater root volume and root length density were found in beds than
other tillage treatments. High residue also enhanced the root growth in the surface layer of
soil (Fig. 2). At 10-20 cm depth, the root growth followed the order: BP > ST > CT. Below
20 cm soil depth, treatment variation in RV and RLD disappeared.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
135
7
ST
a)
Tillage
BP
CT
Soil volumetric water content(%)
Penetration resistance(MPa)
8
Depth
Residue
6
5
4
3
2
1
25
ST
b)
Straw
20
Depth
10
5
0
HR
LR
HR
CT
TillageX Depth
15
0
HR
BP
LR
LR
HR
0-5 cm
LR
HR
5-10 cm
LR
10-15 cm
5-10 cm
0-5 cm
Figure 1. The mean of a) PR and b) SW with increasing depth under different tillage and
residue treatments. Floating bars represent lsd for significant treatment differences.
Root volume (cm3) in 2012-13
a)
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
b)
0.5
1.0
ST-HR
ST-LR
20-30 cm
BP-HR
BP-LR
CT-HR
30-40 cm
Soil depth (cm)
10-20 cm
10-20 cm
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
ST-HR
ST-LR
20-30 cm
BP-HR
BP-LR
30-40 cm
CT-HR
CT-LR
CT-LR
40-50 cm
40-50 cm
50-60 cm
50-60 cm
60-70 cm
1.5
0-10 cm
0-10 cm
Soil depth (cm)
RLD (cm/cm3) in 2012-13
0.0
at 0-10 cm
T*; R*; TXRns
at 10-20 cm
T**; Rns ; TXRns
at 20-70 cm(10 cm increments of five soil depths)
Tns ; Rns ; TXRns
60-70 cm
at 0-10 cm
T*; R**; TXRns
at 10-20 cm
T**; Rns ; TXRns
at 20-70 cm(10 cm increments of five soil depths)
Tns ; Rns ; TXRns
Figure 2. The mean of a) root volume (cm3) and b) root length density (cm/cm3) under
different tillage and residue treatments. Error bars indicate ± 1 standard error.
Conclusions
Initial bed forming followed by minimum tillage planting for six consecutive crops decreased
soil impedance to root growth of wheat. Strip tillage for 7 consecutive crops also increased
root growth of wheat at 10-20 cm depth. High residue retention for six consecutive crops
increased SW and decreased mechanical impedance which led to increased root growth of
wheat. None of the tillage or residue retention treatments affected root growth or soil
properties below 20 cm after 7 consecutive crops. In an intensive (3 crops/year) rice-based
cropping system, the beneficial effects of CA on physical properties of the surface soil and on
root growth have developed relatively quickly.
References
Aggarwal P, Choudhary KK, Singh AK, Chakraborty D (2006) Variation in soil strength and rooting
characteristics of wheat in relation to soil management. Geoderma 136: 353-63.
Mohanty M, Painuli DK, Misra AK, Bandyopadhyaya KK, Ghosh PK (2006) Estimating impact of
puddling, tillage and residue management on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling emergence
and growth in a rice–wheat system using nonlinear regression models. Soil Till. Res. 87: 119-130.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
136
Changes in soil organic C, nitrogen and chemical properties under no-till
cropping systems on a Red Oxisol in Cambodia
Florent Tivet1,2, Stéphane Boulakia1, Sovuthy Pheav3,2, Vira Leng2, Rada Kong2, Lucien
Séguy4
1
Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement,
CIRAD, UR SIA, F-34398 Montpellier, France, [email protected]
2
Conservation Agriculture Service Center, [email protected]
3
Agricultural Land Resources Management Department, General Directorate of Agriculture,
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery
4
International consultant, Agroecoriz, France
Introduction
In Cambodia, small scale subsistence farming has quickly shifted to commercial farming
based on annual cash crop production (i.e., soybean, corn, and cassava). Conventional
plough-based practices adopted by the farmers growing two cycles per year have induced
progressive depletion of the soil fertility even on the deep and well-drained Red Oxisol of
Kampong Cham province. Coupling with climate change impacts and higher production
costs, it has jeopardized the agronomic and economic performances of the family farm. Since
2004, diversified no-till (NT) cropping systems were developed and assessed in terms of
technical practicability, agronomic performance, and economic profitability (Boulakia et al.
2012). In Cambodia, there is still a paucity of information on the effects of NT systems on
soil organic carbon (SOC) short- to medium-term dynamics. This research was carried-out to
assess the changes in SOC, N, and chemical attributes under contrasted cropping systems (till
and no-till × cropping sequence: main crop + cover/relay crops), and the capacity of mediumterm NT systems to increase SOC stock.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was set up in 2004 in Chamcarleu district (Kampong Cham province). The
climate of the region is characterized by a 7-month tropical wet season and a 5-month long
dry season, with annual rainfall of ∼1500 mm. Soil is classified as a red clayey Oxisol (718 g
clay kg-1, 272 g silt kg-1 in 0-30 cm depth). The cropping systems studied, implemented on 12
× 58.5 m plots, were: (i) farmer’s practices consisting of two crops per year, early wet season
sesame followed by soybean, managed under conventional plough-based tillage – CT; (ii)
NT1 - soybean managed under no-till with Stylosanthes guianensis and sorghum used as
relay crops and broadcast at a rate of 4 kg ha-1 and 15 kg ha-1, respectively; and (iii) NT2 two years rotational sequence between soybean and maize with S. guianensis and sorghum
used as relay crops after soybean, and stylo associated with maize at the sowing time. Six
bulk soil samples for five depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm) were collected in
November 2011. Soil bulk density (ρb) for each layer was measured by the core method. The
SOC and N stocks were estimated to 0.6-m depth by the dry combustion method, and
computed on an equivalent soil mass-depth basis.
Results and Discussion
Concentrations of SOC and N exhibited different patterns of distribution amongst tillage
treatments (Fig. 1). Soil OC concentration under NT was stratified within the top 20 cm layer,
while a uniform concentration was observed under CT due to the mixing effect of ploughing.
Among tillage treatments, the soil under NT2 was significantly (P<0.05) enriched in SOC
and contained 6.4 and 2.1 g kg-1 more SOC than that under CT in the 0-5 and 5-10 cm depths,
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
137
respectively. In addition, higher SOC concentration (P<0.05) was reported in NT2 soil when
compared with NT1 soil in 0-20 cm depth (Fig. 1). Expectedly, SOC concentration was
positively correlated with N concentration (R² = 0.96, P < 0.0001) across all soil depths.
However, higher C:N ratio values were found under NT1 and NT2 in 0-5 cm depth,
emphasizing a higher content of labile moieties. Soil pH, Ca2+ and CEC significantly
increased in NT2 soil in 0-20 cm depth (data not shown). The soils under NT1 and NT2 in 05 cm depth contained 2.07 and 3.37 Mg ha-1 more SOC and 0.15 and 0.25 Mg ha-1 more N
than that under CT after 7 years. However, averaged across soil depths, SOC stock in 0-60
cm depth were lower in NT1 soil (58.2 Mg C ha-1) than that recorded under CT (60.5) and
NT2 (63.1). Monoculture of soybean and use of S. guianensis every year as a relay/cover
crop may explain this result. S. guianensis performs well on this Red Oxisol. Its root system
is highly active even in the dry season, adding labile C in the subsoil that may enhance the
activity of the microbial communities and thus decrease SOC through a priming effect on
decomposition (Fontaine et al., 2007). By contrast, the biomass-C input of the two-year
rotational sequence between soybean and maize exhibits more balanced amounts of N and
hemicellulose when compared with NT1. Thus differences in biomass-C inputs (i.e., quantity
and quality) may explain this result. The combination of expert-based prototyping of NT
cropping systems and in-depth analysis of biophysical processes are essential to optimize the
use of cover/relay crops, enhance ecosystem services, and advance farm sustainability.
References
Boulakia S, Chabierski S, Phâlly K, San S, Kong R, Vira L, Veng S, Kimchhorn C, Séguy L (2012)
Adaptation of direct-sowing mulch-based cropping systems for annual cash crop production in
Cambodian rainfed uplands. Conservation agriculture and sustainable upland livelihoods
innovations for, with and by farmers to adapt to local and global changes: Proceedings the 3rd
International Conference on Conservation Agriculture in Southeast Asia, held in Hanoi, Vietnam.
pp 92-108
Fontaine S, Barot S, Barré P, Bdioui N, Mary B, Rumpel C (2007) Stability of organic carbon in deep
soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply. Nature 450: 277–281
Soil organic C (g kg-1)
4
6
8
10 12 14 16 18 20 22
-1
N (g kg )
0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4
C:N
5
6
7
8
9
10
CT Soybean
NT1 Soybean
NT2 Soybean - Maize
0-5
Soil layers (cm)
5-10
10-20
20-40
40-60
Figure 1. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N) and C:N ratio (mean ± Std. error,
n=6) under CT, NT1 and NT2
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
138
Impact of Phosphorus Placement Methods after Three Years of Different
Tillage Practices on Maize Productivity and Soil Properties
Md. Khairul Alam1, N. Salahin1, S. Pathan2, R.A. Begum1, A.T.M.A.I. Mondol 1 and R.W.
Bell3
1
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), [email protected];
[email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; 2DAFWA,
[email protected]; 3Murdoch University, [email protected]
Introduction
Minimal soil disturbance under conservation agriculture may limit the supply of immobile
nutrients (such as phosphorus) to plant roots due to stratification of these nutrients close to
the soil surface. Maize (Zea mays L.) roots usually do not proliferate into the middle of the
rows until the plant has six to seven fully emerged leaves but a high P concentration in maize
prior to the 6-leaf stage will significantly increase final grain yield (Aldrich et al. 1986).
Phosphorus availability is critical during the early stages of plant growth when the movement
of P to plant roots (P absorption by the plant) is reduced with cold soil temperatures (Alley et
al. 2009). This can occur during winter (rabi season) when most maize is grown in
Bangladesh (Ali et al. 2009). Also P moves very little in soils, and thus, available soil P
levels can be built with P fertilizer application appropriate for the tillage practice. The aim of
present study was to determine the effects of tillage practices and P placement methods on
soil physical, chemical and yield of maize crops on a Grey Terrace Soil in Bangladesh.
Materials and methods
The experiment was situated at BARI, Gazipur in agro-ecological zone 28 (Modhupur Tract).
The soil belongs to the Chhiata series of the Grey Terrace Soils (Aeric Albaquept).
Phosphorus was placed by a) broadcast according to farmers’ practice during final land
preparation, b) surface banding (application on the soil surfaces 3-5 cm apart and on both
sides of the row), and c) deep band (application at 6-8 cm below the surface 4-6 cm apart on
both sides of the row. Both the band placements were done at five leaf stage, i.e. at 30 DAS)
along with three tillage practices: a) zero tillage (ZT)- a single slit is opened by furrow opener
and seeds were sown, b) conventional tillage (CT)- ploughed by rotary tiller up to 10-12cm
depth (2 passes), and c) deep tillage (DT)- tillage by chiseling up to 25 cm depth followed by
rotavator (3 passes). Treatments were arranged with tillage assigned to main plots and P
placement methods in sub-plots. The maize residue was retained by weight over the three
years of experimentation (2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12).
Results and Discussion
The surface band P placement method gave higher yield (P <0.05) than other placement
methods (Fig. 1). In 2011-12 (P <0.05), the highest grain yield (9.4 t ha-1) was obtained by
surface band P placement with ZT followed by CT and DT under surface band P placement.
The minimum tillage practices under broadcast and deep band placement methods showed
the highest available and total P content in soil after harvesting of maize in 2012. The highest
available P (24 mg kg-1) and total P (288 mg kg-1) was in 0-6 cm soil treated by ZT along
with surface band applications, followed by broadcast applications under ZT. The deep band
placement under CT and DT showed the highest values of P for total and available P at 7-12
and 13-18 cm soil depth. These were followed by surface band under CT in the same depth
increments (Fig. 2).
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
139
Yield of maize (t ha-1)
10.5
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
9.5
8.5
7.5
6.5
5.5
Tillage practices x P placement methods
Figure 1. Effect of tillage practices and
P placement methods on maize yield
per hectare over three years of
experimentation. The standard error
values (±) are 0.25, 0.26 and 0.29 for
the years 2009-10, 2010-11 and 201112, respectively. (Legend: T1=Zero
Tillage, T2=Conventional Tillage, and
T3=Deep
Tillage,
whereas
P1=
Broadcast, P2=Surface band and
P3=Deep band).
Figure 2. Effects of tillage and P placement methods on available and total P in soil after
three years of maize cultivation. See Fig. 1 for abbreviations. (Standard errors (±) are 1.27,
0.66, 0.65 and 0.35 for Available P and 8.8, 6.8, 4.7 and 4.7 for total P at 0-6, 7-12, 12-18 and
19-24 cm soil depth respectively).
The effects of ZT with 30 % straw retention after three years of maize cultivation on soil
organic matter (OM) status, total N and moisture content at field capacity as well as
permanent wilting point and available water content were also significantly higher than CT
and DT. Tillage practices did not influence other physical and chemical properties. Neither
did P placement methods influence soil physical properties and OM status of soil.
Conclusions
The surface band P placement method with ZT, CT and DT gave significantly higher yield
than broadcast and deep band placements. The minimum tillage practices under broadcast
and deep band placement methods showed the highest available and total P content in soil
after harvesting of maize. Phosphorus was stratified in the topsoil with zero tillage along with
broadcasting and surface band applications but the CT and DT practices under broadcast and
deep band placements resulted in the almost similar distribution of P with soil depth up to 24
cm.
References
Aldrich SR, Walter OS, Robert GH (1986) Modern Corn Production. 3rd edition. A & L Publications,
Inc., Champaign, IL.
Ali MY, Waddington SR, Timsina J, Hodson D, Dixon J (2009) Maize-rice cropping systems in
Bangladesh: Status and research needs. Journal Agri. Science and Technology 3:35-53
Alley MM, Martz ME, Davis PH, Hammons JL (2009) Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization of Corn.
Virginia Cooperative Extension Publication. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
pp1-5
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
140
Grain yield and phosphorus accumulation of field grown chickpea to
subsoil phosphorus under a dry topsoil in the High Barind Tract
Enamul Kabir
Agrotechnology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna. [email protected]
Introduction
Chickpea usually responds poorly to surface applied phosphorus (P) fertilizer under dry
topsoil condition as in the High Barind Tract (HBT) soil of Bangladesh. However, in a pot
study, chickpea responded positively in respect of grain yield and P accumulation when P
was placed in the subsoil (10–30 cm) (Kabir et al. 2013). To test this response in the field,
chickpea was grown (by Versatile Multi-crop Planter, VMP, Johansen et al. 2012) in a HBT
soil. It was hypothesized that chickpea will produce significantly higher amount of grain and
accumulate more P if P fertilizer is placed below the surface. A positive yield response of
chickpea from this study would indicate the necessity of future modification of tynes of the
VMP to place P fertilizer deeper into the soil.
Materials and Methods
Chickpea was grown in 2013–14 season in a sandy loam soil (10 mg Olsen P /kg) in Jogpur
village of Godagari, Rajshahi. One level of triple superphosphate (TSP, 18% P) was placed in
the topsoil (7 cm) or subsoil (15 cm). A Nil-P treatment was also included. Initially the strips
made by the VMP (~7 cm). Then, all strips were dug 15 cm deep manually. After placing
TSP at 15 cm in subsoil-P treatments, all furrows were filled up by soil up to 8 cm from the
furrow bottom. Seeds were placed manually at 7 cm in the furrow (at the same depth of
topsoil P placement) and 10 cm apart. The seeds were covered manually. There were four
blocks. Half of each block was kept dry (dry treatments) under rain-out shelters; the
remaining half was kept well-watered by irrigation until maturity of the crop. For P
accumulation, plants samples were collected at five different stages and P concentration was
measured following standard method. All treatment plots were harvested at maturity. Data
were statistically analyzed by performing ANOVA for a randomized complete block design.
The treatment means were compared by least significant difference test (lsd) at 5% level of
significance.
Results and Discussion
Chickpea grain yield was not influenced either by water or P fertilizer placement treatments
(Table 1). From flowering to maturity, under well-watered condition, plants accumulated
significantly higher amount of total P when P was applied in either the topsoil or subsoil,
which was statistically similar to that of subsoil P treatment under dry topsoil condition only
at mid-podding stage. The Nil-P treatment accumulated the lowest amount of P. However, the
shoot P content was highest at mid-podding in all treatments then it started to decrease. Grain
P concentration was highest under well-watered plants with P supplied in the subsoil; the
lowest concentration of P was found in the Nil-P plants.
In this study, grain yield did not respond to added P suggesting that the initial topsoil P (10
mg/kg) was sufficient to meet the P requirement of chickpea. Moreover, the canopy of the
crop almost covered the soil surface that helped maintain better moisture availability in the
topsoil (moisture data not shown). In addition, the subsoil P was also substantial (data not
shown) and chickpea has access to the subsoil P (Kabir 2013). In contrast, very low soil P of
the study of Kabir (2013) (~1 mg Olsen P/kg) might be the cause of positive response of
chickpea to subsoil P placement under a dry topsoil condition. However, the lack of grain
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
141
yield response in the current study suggests that placement of P fertilizer should not go
deeper than the current depth (~7 cm) of the VMP in a high P soil of the HBT. As the topsoil
dries (~10 cm, more than the TSP placement depth by VMP) out during winter cropping in
the HBT, placement of P below this depth for a positive response still remains a matter of
investigation particularly in deep rooted crops. Because this study was at a single site; further
studies in lower P sites might provide better response of chickpea to subsoil P.
Table 1: Phosphorus (P) accumulation at different growth stages of chickpea and grain P
concentration and grain yield at maturity. “+P” means P applied as TSP in the topsoil or
subsoil. “-P” refers to no P applied. “+W” represents water was to the topsoil, or the subsoil
which was assumed to be well-watered (water was not applied to the subsoil). “-W” means no
water was applied to the topsoil. “P” and “W” in the left side of the slash (/) refer to the P and
water treatment of the topsoil while on the right side, P and water treatments were in the
subsoil.
Shoot phosphorus content (mg/plant)
Phosphorus
and water
treatment
+P-W/-P+W
-P-W/+P+W
-P-W/-P+W
+P+W/-P+W
-P+W/+P+W
-P+W/-P+W
At
flowering
13.9 c
15.5 b
8.4 d
17.0 ab
18.4 a
9.8 d
At midpodding
24.8 bc
32.4 a
19.9 cd
30.1 ab
32.3 a
24.0 d
At maturity
Shoot
19.2 ab
25.0 a
12.9 b
23.5 a
25.0 a
15.0 b
Grain
49.0 bc
59.9 b
44.0 c
75.6 a
79.3 a
53.1 bc
Grain P
(%)
Grain
yield/plot
(g)
0.40 b
0.42 b
0.35 c
0.42 b
0.46 a
0.35 c
1447 a
1515 a
1585 a
1713 a
1646 a
1634 a
Different letters indicate significant differences between the treatments.
Acknowledgement
This work was supported by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
under a JAF returnee Project C2012/221.
References
Johansen C, Haque ME, Bell RW, Thierfelderd C, Esdaile RJ (2012) Conservation agriculture for
small holder rainfed farming: Opportunities and constraints of new mechanized seeding systems.
Field Crops Res. 132: 18–32.
Kabir,E (2013) Phosphorus nutrition of chickpea under dry topsoil conditions as in the High Barind
Tract of Bangladesh. PhD thesis, Murdoch University, Australia.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
142
Effect of Tillage Type on Soil Water Content and Chickpea Yields
W. H. Vance1, R. W. Bell1, C. Johansen2, M.E. Haque1, A. M. Musa4, A. K. M. Shahidullah4
and M. N. N. Mia3
1
Murdoch University, Australia. [email protected], [email protected],
[email protected]
2
Agricultural Consultant, Australia. [email protected]
3
IDE-Bangladesh. [email protected]
4
PROVA, Bangladesh. [email protected]
Introduction
The development of 2-wheel tractors (2WT) with planters attached has given rise to one-pass
seeding, and the possibility of minimum tillage and conservation agriculture suitable for
smallholder agriculture. The main advantages of minimum tillage techniques include: soil
water conservation, targeted placement of seed and fertiliser, lower rates of fertiliser and
seed, less labour and fuel required, and less time required to sow a crop (Haque et al. 2010).
Germination, emergence and early seedling growth of cool and dry (rabi) season crops (such
as chickpea and lentil) grown on residual soil moisture can be limited in the silty clay soils of
the High Barind Tract, Bangladesh due to rapid drying and hard-setting of the surface soil.
One-pass seeding can minimise the time taken from rice harvest to sowing of the next crop
and increases the probability that the surface soil retains sufficient moisture for crop
establishment (Kumar et al. 2007). Minimum tillage is also a practice often used to conserve
water in the soil profile and it has been reported that in conditions of less tillage there was
greater soil water storage in the profile or greater soil water storage at depth in the profile
later in the growing season (Barzegar et al. 2003). The objective of this work was to
determine the effect of tillage type on: (i) seed-bed conditions and early chickpea
establishment; and (ii) available water content and crop water use.
Materials and methods
The trial was conducted in the Choighati village, Godagari, Rajshahi, Bangladesh, from
November 2009 to March 2010. It was conducted on Aeric Haplaquept which was
representative of the region in a randomised block design with four replications. The trial
had four tillage treatments applied using the Versatile Multi-crop Planter (VMP) attached to a
Dongfeng type 2WT: strip tillage (ST); zero tillage (ZT); broadcast; single pass shallow
tillage (SPST); and there was also a fallow plot. In the ST, ZT, and SPST treatments, the
fertiliser was delivered approximately 2 cm below the seed. Desi chickpea cv. Bari Chola 5
was sown at a rate of 45 kg/ha on 25 November 2009. Triple superphosphate (TSP) was
applied at sowing at a rate of 100 kg/ha. The TSP was drilled with the seed for the ST, ZT
and SPST treatments. Seed was primed with water for six hours, and dried for an hour prior
to sowing. Volumetric soil water content (θv) was measured by the MP406 capacitance
sensor (ICT International, Armidale NSW) intermittently in the soil surface of the seed row
(0-6 cm) from 5 days before sowing to 23 days after sowing. Profile soil water content
(SWC) to 60 cm depth was measured at sowing, 50% podding and physiological maturity.
From sowing to harvest there was no rainfall. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to
test the effects of treatments using GenStat V11.1 (VSN International Ltd, UK).
Results and Discussion
At sowing, θv in the seed-bed was 26 %, within the range where successful chickpea crop
establishment will occur, and slightly wetter than judged to be optimum. The rate of soil
drying in the seed-bed changed with tillage technique. Uncovered furrows (in ZT) and the
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
143
fallow soil lost more surface soil water than the other seed-beds created with variable levels
of soil disturbance (Fig. 1). In ST and ZT under the higher soil water contents there is
potential of smeared furrow walls and poor soil covering of the seed in the seed-bed which
can limit seed-soil contact. In addition, soil aggregate size and distribution in the seed-bed is
altered with the different tillage types. The difference in the aggregate size, pore distribution
and openness of furrows in the seed-bed may account for the difference in drying of the seedbed.
There was significant loss of SWC across all tillage treatments from sowing to podding (Fig.
2). The extraction of θv in the fallow treatment was limited to 20 cm from sowing to podding,
whilst in the tillage treatments θv was extracted to 60 and 80 cm (data not shown). From
podding to harvest there was little change in θv at each depth increment to 40 cm for sown
plots, however in the fallow treatment during this period losses of θv did occur. The θv in 0
to 40 cm depth at podding was less than 50 mm indicating there was very little water
remaining in that layer for pod filling, suggesting that plant roots were able to access water
deeper in the profile to achieve grain yields of 1087 to 1817 kg/ha. Frequent measurements
to monitor SWC of the profile between sowing and podding would determine if the different
tillage techniques had varied drying patterns that altered the allocation of water to the plants
during that period. Measurements only at podding and physical maturity have shown no
difference in SWC between tillage types. The SWC was below wilting point to 40 cm depth
at podding; indicating that any additional conservation of water in the profile due to
minimum tillage in a conservation agriculture system would be an advantage.
120
0 to 6 cm depth
30
25
20
15
10
5
Pre sowing
Broadcast
SPST
Strip
Zero
Floating error bars indicate l.s.d at
P=0.05 for each measurement date
Fallow
Profile soil water content to 40 cm (mm)
Volumetric soil water content (%)
35
50 % podding
harvest
100
Floating error bars indicate l.s.d at
P=0.05 for each measurement period
of either podding or harvest
80
60
40
20
0
0
Nov 15 Nov 20 Nov 25 Nov 30 Dec 05 Dec 10 Dec 15 Dec 20
Date
25th Nov Fallow Broadcast SPST
All plots
Sowing
Strip
Zero
Treatment
Figure 1. Volumetric soil water content pre Figure 2. Profile soil water content (mm/40
and post-sowing at 0 to 6 cm depth.
cm) at sowing, 50 % podding and harvest.
References
Barzegar AR, Asoodar MA, Khadish A, Hashemi AM, Herbert SJ (2003) Soil physical characteristics
and chickpea yield responses to tillage treatments. Soil Tillage Research 71: 49-57.
Haque ME, Esdaile RJ, Kabir E, Vance W, Bell RW, Musa AM, Shahidullah AKM, Nur Nobi MM,
Maruffuzaman M, Johansen C (2010) Minimum-tillage, mechanized sowing of pulses with twowheel tractors. In '19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World', 1-6
August 2010, Brisbane. (Eds RJ Gilkes and N Prakongkep), pp. 156-159. (IUSS: Australia)
Kumar J, Dusunceli F, Knights EJ, Materne M, Warkentin T, Chen W, Gaur PM, Bejiga PM, Yadav
SS, Satyanarayana A, Rahman MM, Yadav M (2007) Chickpea farmers. In 'Chickpea breeding
and management.' (Eds SS Yadav, R Redden, W Chen and B Sharma) pp. 602-616. (CABI:
United Kingdom)
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
144
Tillage and Nutrient Management in Boro Rice under Rice-Mustard-Rice
Cropping System
P.C. Goswami1, D. Mahalder1, M. K. I. Rony1, M. H. Rashid2
1
IRRI, Bangladesh [email protected] , [email protected]org , [email protected] >
BRRI, Gazipur, [email protected]
2*
Introduction
The dominant cropping pattern in Bangladesh is transplanted (t.) aman (wet season rice) –
fallow – boro (dry season rice). Recently effort is paid to fit mustard in–between two rice
crops (Islam, 2013). This would increase the productivity of rice cropping systems based on
the cultivation of two rice crops a year under reduced tillage system. Field observations
indicate that land to be used for cultivating boro rice that follows a mustard crop needs little
or no tillage allowing rice to be transplanted into unpuddled soil. Further residual phosphorus
and potassium fertilizer from the mustard crop allows boro rice to be grown with lower
fertilizer rates. This study was designed to test the validity of these field observations and
conducted at farmers’ fields in southwest Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods
The field trials were conducted during 2013–2014 on fields in Bashghata village in Sadar
Upazila under Satkhira district (22.75◦ N and 89.41◦ E) in Bangladesh. The area belongs to the
Ganges Tidal Flood Plain agro-ecological zone (AEZ13) and the soils are loamy in texture.
Rice was grown on tilled, reduced tilled and zero tilled soils on 13 February 2014. The study
was conducted with two factors - tillage and nutrient management. The tillage options wereconventional tillage (CT), unpuddled single tillage (ST) and zero tillage (ZT), and the
nutrient options were recommended NPK, recommended NK+50% P and recommended NP+
50% K. The recommended N, P and K rates were 120, 24, and 52 kg ha-1, respectively. The
experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with tillage options to the main plots and
nutrient options to the sub-plots with six replications each one being a farmer’s field. The
medium duration popular boro rice variety, BRRI dhan28 was used as the test crop. The other
crop management options were followed as per BRRI recommendation. Grain yield was
taken from a 10 m2 area in the centre of each plot and expressed at 14% moisture. The
statistical analysis was done using CropStat Version 7.2. Unless indicated otherwise,
differences were considered significant only at P ≤ 0.05. Economic analysis using farm gate
grain and inputs prices was performed to determine the efficiency of different treatment
combinations.
Results and Discussion
The interaction effect between tillage and nutrient management options was not significant;
however their individual effect was significant for grain yield of boro rice. The highest grain
yield was found in conventional tillage (4.91 t ha-1) followed by unpuddled reduced tillage
(4.81 t ha-1). The lowest grain yield was produced in zero tillage (4.57 t ha-1). Conventional
and unpuddled tillage plots had higher panicle numbers m-2 and more grains panicle-1. This
may account for their higher grain yield. The overall lower grain yields were due to late
transplanting of boro rice. Irrespective of nutrient management, total variable cost (TVC) was
higher in zero tillage followed by conventional tillage (Table 1). The lowest TVC was
recorded in reduced tillage of unpuddled transplanting. The higher TVC was mainly due to a
higher labour cost for transplanting and irrigation cost. Unpuddled and zero tilled
transplanting required more irrigation because of higher percolation loss. Conventional tillage
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
145
had the highest net return and benefit cost ratio (BCR) ($ 305 ha-1, 1.27, respectively)
followed by 50% P reduced treatment with the same tillage ($ 281 ha-1, 1.25, respectively).
Reduced P and K rates reduced net return compared to recommended nutrient doses for all
the tillage options. The lowest net return was recorded on zero tillage plots due to lower grain
yield and higher labour costs for transplanting and higher irrigation cost.
Table 1. Cost and return of boro rice (US dollar ha-1) under different tillage and nutrient
management options
Tillag
e
Nutrien Tillage Transplantin Fertilizer Irrigatio TVC Gross
t option cost ha- g cost ha-1
related
n cost ha-1
return
1
-1
-1
cost ha
ha
(ha-1)
CT
RR
77
77
139
474
1112 1417
50% P
77
77
120
474
1093 1370
50% K
77
77
129
474
1102 1371
ST
RR
19
96
139
504
1103 1384
50% P
19
96
120
504
1084 1341
50% K
19
96
129
504
1093 1346
ZT
RR
115
139
621
1220 1347
50% P
115
120
621
1201 1263
50% K
115
129
621
1210 1259
CT = Conventional tillage, ST = Unpuddled single tillage, ZT = Zero tillage
Net
BCR
return
(ha-1)
305
1.27
277
1.25
269
1.24
281
1.25
257
1.24
253
1.23
127
1.10
62
1.05
49
1.04
Reference
Islam, MR (2013) Maximization of crop yield in T. aman-mustard-boro cropping pattern by
agronomic manipulation. Half Yearly Progress Report, KGF, BARC.
The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance provided by USAID through the CSISA-BD project
that has made the implementation of this research possible.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
146
Session 5
Commercialisation, adoption and continuous
improvement of conservation agriculture-based
technologies
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
147
KEYNOTE PAPER
Commercialisation, Adoption And Continuous Improvement of
Conservation Agriculture-Based Technologies
Rafael Fuentes Llanillo
Farming Systems Program Leader, IAPAR – Instituto Agronômico do Paraná, Londrina,
Parana, Brasil. Email: [email protected]
No-Tillage Systems in Brazil started with the experiences of Herbert Bartz, a farmer of grains
in Northern Paraná State in 1972. The first ten years were of basic learning on system
development. The 1982-92 period was considered the decade of studies when all the
components of the system were studied, mainly mechanization aspects and weed control,
including in, Animal Traction No-Till.
Within this period several studies on general aspects of animal traction were supported in
Southern Brazil specifically in Parana State where the number of adopters at that time was an
impressive 80 % of the total number of farmers despite their small size. In 1984 the
Government of Parana State launched a special project to increase and support the use of
animal traction, according socioeconomic and environmental regional features, in order to
rationalize and improve the productivity of human labour. There were research actions to
evaluate and develop appropriate equipment and also breeding and reproduction centres to
improve the animals themselves. Publically-funded research, extension, promotion and
animal health agencies were involved. This project was the seed Small Farmers Oriented NoTillage System in Brazil. It was connected with two World Bank-supported Programs: Parana
Small Farmers Program (PRORURAL) and Parana Soil Conservation Program (PMISA/
PARANARURAL).
The NT seeder "Gralha Azul" together with “Queixada” knife-roller were developed in 1985
and showed the viability of no-till cropping under animal traction. Other complementary
studies on adapted soil management practices, weed control and cover crops were carried out.
Validation units at farm level were conducted from 1989 to 1993. From this initial step
around 30 small family factories of equipment were interested to develop improved no-till
equipment for the small farmers’ market. Because initially Gralha Azul was too heavy (100
kg), the major effort was to develop lighter equipment with better characteristics of
adaptation to difficult environments. Another crucial factor to promote small farmers’ no-till
adoption in southern Brazil was support of the Brazilian No-Till Farmers Federation in
acquiring 32 improved Gralha Azul seeders to be used at the farm level and promote the
system across 63 municipalities in Southern Parana. From the first 1,000 ha in 1994 adoption
jumped to around 90.000 ha in Paraná and an estimated 250.000 ha in the three states of
Southern Brazil in 2000 compared with total surface under NT around 20 million hectares in
this year. This example shows what the association of innovative and concerned small
farmers, efficient technical support of research and extension, existence of mechanical small
factories, government political will and a little bit of money can do. In this way, small
farmers achieved not only environmental conservation but also higher incomes and with
reduced labour permitting them to focus in other activities with higher added value. After
2000, the Small Farmers Conservation Agriculture in Brazil shifted its trajectory in four
different ways:
1. Decrease in Animal Powered No-Till in Brazil and Equipment Sales for Exports
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
148
After 2003/04, animal powered NT equipment total sales and exports decreased, giving way
to small motorized equipment for smallholders. There is now not much more research and
development in animal traction for NT. Even the perspectives created by the FAO Project
2009 in order to create joint ventures among Brazil, Kenya and Tanzania seems to have
stagnated.
2. Increase in Small Motorized No-Till in Small Farms
There was a strong increase in use of small and medium scale seeders for grains by Brazilian
smallholders. There is no more space for low labour productivity practices in soybeans, corn,
beans, wheat and rice in the country because of low profitability.
3. No-Till Expansion in Vegetables and Perennial Trees with Permanent Soil Cover
There was a strong development leaded by EPAGRI (research and extension institution of
Santa Catarina state) in tomato, onion, cucumber, squash and pepper. Fruits like orange,
mango, grapes among others can also be grown in CA. Presently these are more profitable
activities for Brazilian smallholders.
4. Organic No-till and Agroecological Farming with Integrated Commercialisation
Within CA only organic farming has a differentiated market for products. The challenge is to
reach soil minimum disturbance because of the weeds. But the best examples of
commercialisation are from this sector including farmers-consumers partnerships.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
149
Adoption and Impact of the Raised Bed Technology in Rajshahi District of
Bangladesh
M. A. Monayem Miah1, Moniruzzaman1, S. Hossain2, J. M. Duxbury3, J. G. Lauren3
1
Agricultural Economics Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI),
Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh. [email protected]
2
Regional Agricultural Research Centre, BARI, Jamalpur, [email protected]
3
Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.
Introduction
Crop establishment through bed planting is a good technique in the farming systems of
Bangladesh. It facilitates more optimum planting time for rice, wheat, maize, and pulses by
providing timelier field access because of better drainage. Once the beds are established there
are new opportunities to reduce crop turn-around time by re-using the same bed without
tillage (Sayre, 2003). This system has many advantages, such as reducing the seed rate,
requiring less irrigation water, imparting higher nitrogen use efficiency, reducing crop
lodging, and increasing crop yield over the conventional tillage/sowing systems (Meisner et
al., 1992; Hobbs et al., 1997; Fahong et al., 2003; Lauren et al., 2008). On-farm research
results revealed that this system saved 20-34 % irrigation water, 16-69 % planting cost, and
ensured higher crop yield compared to conventional systems (Hossain et al., 2010). The
objectives of the study were to evaluate the adoption and farmers’ practice of raised bed
technology at farm level since the close of the Soil Management Collaborative Research
Support Program (SMCRSP). Feedback from raised bed using farmers can be used to ensure
the success of the new project.
Materials and Methods
The study was conducted in those areas where the raised bed technique of crop production
was first introduced through SMCRSP between 2003 and 2008. Besides, the population of
this survey was those farmers who are currently using the raised bed practice or have used the
technique in the recent past. Primary data were collected from 13 villages under Durgapur
Upazila of Rajshahi district during May-June, 2011. A total of 195 raised bed technology
using farmers taking 15 farmers from each village were selected for interview. Again, 65
non-using farmers taking five farmers from each village were interviewed to know the causes
of non-adoption of this technology. Thus the total number of sample was 260. Data were
gathered through a pre-tested interview schedule. The collected data were analyzed through
tabular method using descriptive statistics to fulfill the objectives of the study. Probit
regression model was used to ascertain the probability of adoption of raised bed technology at
farm level.
Results and Discussion
Raised bed technology in crop production showed various positive benefits such as higher
crop yield, reduction in input use, reduction in production cost over conventional practice in
the study areas and were adopted well (56 %) by the respondent farmers. The probability of
adopting this technology was significantly influenced by extension contact, societal
membership, and the number of male members in the household (Table 1). Due to lack of
machine (96 %), most respondent farmers prepared raised bed by hand (83 %) without
maintaining recommended bed size which was due to farmers’ ignorance. The most
cultivated crops on bed were wheat (cultivated by 98 % farmers), maize (28 %), onion (16 %)
and mungbean (12 %). About 88 % respondent farmers were willing to continue this practice
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
150
in future with increased area of land. Most farmers mentioned about the livelihood
improvement but types of improvements were not clear to them since it was associated with
overall socio-economic development of the society. However, this immerging technology
increased farmers’ food security by 21.8 %, income by 13.5 % and livelihoods to some extent
(Table 2).
Table 1. Maximum likelihood estimates of variable determining adoption of raised bed
technology among respondent farmers
Marginal
Standard
zExplanatory variable
Coefficient effects (dy/dx)
Error
statistic
Constant
-1.3541***
-0.52117 -2.60
Age (year)
0.0039
0.00108
0.00904 0.44
Male member (No./HH)
0.3804***
0.10322***
0.00904 3.24
Education (year of schooling)
0.0037
0.00099
0.02283 0.16
Cultivated land (decimal)
0.0004
0.00011
0.00089 0.45
Extension contact (score; 0-20)
0.1239***
0.03364***
0.03075 4.03
Membership of society (score; 0-24) 0.1925***
0.05224***
0.07403 2.60
Note: No. of observation = 260; LR Chi-square (6) = 50.86; Log likelihood = -120.77505
***Co-efficient significant at 1% level
Table 2. Percent responses on the impact of bed technology on crop yield, food security,
income and livelihood
Particulars
Farmers’ responses
Frequency
Percentage
n = 195
Impacts on food security/income/livelihood
Positive impact
195
100
No impact
Type of positive impacts
1. Increase in production
136
69.7
2. Increase in household income
160
82.1
3. Increase in livelihood
113
57.9
4. Increase in food intake
26
13.3
References
Fahong W, Xuquing W, Sayre KD (2003) Comparison study on two different planting methods for
winter wheat in China. Bed planting course, CIMMYT, Mexico.
Hobbs PR, Giri GS, Grace P (1997) Reduced and zero tillage options for the establishment of wheat
after rice in South Asia. RCW Paper No. 2. Mexico, D.F.: Rice-Wheat Consortium for the IndoGangetic Plains and CIMMYT.
Hossain MI, Islam MS, Hossain I, Meisner CA, Rahman MS (2010) Seeding performance of two
wheel tractor operated bed planter for cereal crop establishment. International Journal of Energy
Machinery 3: 63-69.
Lauren JG, Shah G, Hossain MI, Talukder ASMHM, Duxbury JM, Meisner CA, Adhikari C (2008)
Research station and on-farm experiences with permanent raised beds through the Soil
Management Collaborative Research Support Program. In: Proceedings of a workshop
“Permanent beds and rice-residue management for rice–wheat systems in the Indo-Gangetic
Plain” held in Ludhiana, India, 7–9 September 2006. Australian Centre for International
Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia. P-124-132.
Meisner CA, Flores E, Sayre KD, Ortiz-Monasterio I, Byerlee D (1992) Wheat Production and
Grower Practices in the Yaqui Vally, Sonara, Mexico. Wheat Special Report No. 6. CIMMYT,
Mexico DF.
Sayre KD (2003) Raised bed System of Cultivation. Bed Planting course. CIMMYT, Mexico.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
151
Conservation Agriculture Packages in the Subsistence farming System of
Eastern India
A.K.Chowdhury, P.M.Bhattacharya ,P.K.Mukherjee, T.Dhar and A.Sinha
Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Coochbehar 736165, West Bengal, India.
[email protected]
Introduction
In eastern India dependency on monsoon for planting and crop production, small holdings (90
% less than 1 ha), poor infrastructure for irrigation and ground water development, severely
affect agriculture resulting in low crop yields and even crop failures. Further, nearly 40 % of
summer rice area (3 Mha) in Bihar and West Bengal remains fallow during the winter season
forming a rice fallow system. Planting a second crop after rice in this region depends on
availability of residual moisture in the soil. Intensification and diversification of the ricefallow system using no till wheat and food legumes provide an opportunity to strengthen food
as well as nutrition security in the region. Conservation agriculture (CA) based technologies
can meet dual aims of reducing production costs and improving productivity and profitability.
Keeping this view, a study on CA-based rice-wheat cropping system was undertaken in 200708 in the experimental field of the University. The tailoring of rice and wheat varieties,
incidence of weeds and their management, incidence of diseases and assessment of soil health
have been studied after five years continuous practice of CA.
Materials and Methods
The experimental plots were maintained at Pundibari, Coochbehar since 2007-08 with the
following cropping sequences:
A. Conventional tillage wheat- conventional tillage cowpea (var.CP-4) –puddled
transplanted rice
B. No-till wheat –no- till cowpea - direct seeded rice (DSR) by zero-tillage planter
C. No-till wheat –no- till cowpea - direct seeded rice by zero-tillage planter with residue
retained in the field
D. No-till wheat –no- till cowpea -direct seeded rice with addition of bio-fertilizers
(consortia of Azotobactor/Rhizobium/Azospirillum, Phosphate solubilizers and
Trichoderma) in each season
Another plot was maintained to study the varietal performance of rice and wheat crop under
tilled and no-tilled condition and to take notes on diseases and weed problems as occurred.
Observations recorded were i) yield of rice and wheat with system productivity, ii) Incidence
of diseases, iii) Incidence of weeds and its management, iv) Soil health parameters like soil
dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase activity (Page et al.1994), microbial biomass carbon
(Jenkinson and Powlson, 1976) and organic carbon percentage (Ziblske et al.2002).
Results and Discussion
Yields of rice varieties under direct seeded conditions with brown manuring were Hybrids:
NK Sahadri (6.4t/ha), NK 3325 (6.0t/ha), Arize 6444 (6.3t/ha), PHB 71 (5.6t/ha); HYVs:
Swarna sub 1(4.7t/ha), IET 15847(4.2t/ha), Nilanjana (4.1t/ha). Under no-till conditions the
yields of the different wehat varieties were: for timely sown conditions: HD 2733 (4.3t/ha),
PBW 343 (4.1t/ha), DBW39 (4.2t/ha); for late sown conditions: NW 2036 (3.6t/ha),
Francolin (3.7t/ha).
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
152
Disease dynamics in no-till rice and wheat
Rice: The severity of sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) disease indicates that the DSR plots
had higher (9 to 38%) Percent Disease Index (PDI) than puddled transplanted plots in the
initial years but the differences have been narrowed down (0.8 to 6% PDI) after five years
continuous practice of no till.
Wheat: No tilled wheat had more disease severity (138 to 342 higher Area Under Disease
Progress Curve, AUDPC) than conventional tillage irrespective of the varieties, however,
after five years continous practice of no- till, the differences in disease severity was reduced
and recorded less (-37 to 120) AUDPC .
Weed management in DSR
Integrated weed management practices that encompasses Glyphosate @ 1.5 kg/ha as preplant desiccators+ butachlor @ 1.5 kg/ha as pre-plant surface application + brown manuring
(Sesbaniarice co-culture) + 2,4-D @ 0.50 kg/ha at 35 days after sowing (DAS) was found to
be effective in controlling weeds in DSR during rainy season. Bispyribac sodium @ 25 g/ha
applied at 20 DAS was found to be effective in controlling grasses.
Weed management in no- till wheat
Considerable reduction of growth of dominant weed flora Polygonum persicaria L., P
pensylvanicum L.and P orientale L. was recorded in no till wheat, however, growth of other
broadleaved weeds Stellaria media Cyrill, S.aquatic Cyrill, Oldenlandia diffusa L., Vicia
sativaL.andV.hirsutaL.and grasses Cynodondactylon (L) Pers., Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv and
Digitaria sanguinalis (Retz.)Koel was increased considerably in succeeding years.
Application of glyphosate (1.50 kg ha-1) at 5 days before sowing followed by pre-emergence
application of metribuzin (0.20 kg ha-1) and post-emergence application of carfentrazoneethyl (25 g ha-1) at 32 days after sowing (DAS) was effective for controlling weeds in no till
wheat for profit maximization and controlling 2,4-D tolerant weeds (Mukherjee et al, 2011).
Measurement of soil health parameters in no-till fields:
It is observed that after five years of consecutive use of CA, no-till plots with bio-fertilizers
have significantly (P=0.05) higher soil enzyme activity (Dehydrogenase and Acid
Phosphatase), microbial biomass carbon and oxidizable organic carbon than conventional
fields than Conventional tillage plots (Table-1).
Selected References
Mukherjee PK, Bhattacharya PM, Chowdhury AK (2011) Weed control in Wheat (Tritium
aestivumL.) under terai-agroecological region of West Bengal. J Wheat Research 3:30-35.
Zibilske LM, Bradford JM, Smart JR (2002) Conservation tillage induced changes in organic carbon,
total nitrogen and available phosphorus in a semi-arid alkaline subtropical soil. Soil & Tillage
Research 66: 153–163.
Table1. Soil health parameter in conventional tillage (CT) and No-till bioprimed plots
Soil health parameter
CT
No –Till -Bioprimed
DHA (µg/g)
6.17
9.94
Acid Phospatase (µg/g /h)
180.6
206.0
Oxidiazable organic carbon (g/kg)
8.24
9.32
Microbial Biomass carbon (µg/g)
159.57
273.39
Wheat Yield (t/ha)
3.18
4.53
Rice Yield (t/ha)
5.38
6.15
System Productivity (t/ha)
9.43
11.92
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
153
Agronomic performance of Pigeon pea Relay Intercropping with Maize or
Sorghum under Minimum-Tillage of Ghana and Burkina Faso
H. Omae1, R. N. Issaka2, A. Barro3, M. M. Buri2, S. Simpore3, J. Kombiok4, J. Ali2 and F.
Nagumo1
1
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Japan,
[email protected]
2
Soil Research Institute (SRI), Ghana, [email protected]
3
Insitute of Environment and Agricultural Research (INERA), Burkina Faso,
[email protected]
4
Savanna Agricultural Research Institute (SARI), Ghana,[email protected]
Introduction
Mulching with crop residues and cover crops are important for realizing conservation
agriculture. Cover crop mulching gives opportunities for small holders to improve soil
fertility and weed management. However, the potential of cover crop mulching seems to be
restrained to the (sub) humid zones (Olaf.et al.). A study on the agronomic performance of
different intercropping systems, therefore, has been tested to evaluate the potential of
intercropping with maize or sorghum in several climatic zones of Ghana and Burkina Faso.
Materials and methods
We conducted on-station experiments in 6 sites of Ghana and Burkina Faso, where the
cropping pattern is single or dual with 800 to 1500 mm of annual rainfall (Fig. 1). Maize was
cultivated with mono, or intercropped with one of three different leguminous crops (mucuna,
pigeon pea, cowpea) under minimum-tillage (MT) or full-tillage (FT) conditions with four
replications according to the cropping calendar in Ghana. Maize was replaced by sorghum in
Burkina Faso. Once after pigeon pea was planted, it was continuously grown by pruning just
before each cropping season. Maize and leguminous residues were mulched in MT or
incorporated in FT plots except one plot where all crop residues were removed.
Figure 1. Location of Experimental sites and cropping calendar in the experiment
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
154
Results and Discussions
Owing to continuous growth during the off-season, pigeon pea gave highest turnover except
for Farako-ba where termite or birds disturbed its growth (Fig. 2). The volume of turnover in
pigeon pea seemed to reflect the volume of withdrawal or rainfall in off-season. Effective
utilization of off-season resources is, therefore, quite important for small holders who survive
under limited-resources conditions. The pigeon pea canopy suppressed weeds growth very
well during the off-season except for Farako-ba and Saria (Fig. 3). In Saria,
Figure 2. Turnover produced in off-season
Figure 3. Weeds biomass in off-season
existence of hardpan (petroferric) in
the surface or lower layer restricted
elongation of pigeon pea root to
deeper layer. As the result, more than
80% of pigeon pea died during offseason. This contrasts to the case of
Bawku, where pigeon pea survived
and continued vigorous growth
during off-season, because of no
existence of hardpan although annual
rainfall is similar (800mm) to Saria.
Maize or sorghum yielded highest in
pigeon pea plot in the following crop
season, 2013 except for Tamale (Fig.
4). These results were observed
regardless of whether cultivated in
minimum or full tillage.
Figure 4. Maize (Sorghum) yield in 2013
As conclusion, pigeon pea intercrop gives us profits as resources of mulch and nitrogen
fertilizer if we allow it to grow perennially in fields. Performance test of minimum-tillage
seeder is now going on with pigeon pea alley cropping at the farmer’s demonstration fields.
References
Olaf Erenstein (2003) Small holder conservation farming in the tropics and sub-tropics: a guide to the
development and dissemination of mulching with crop residue and cover crops. Agriculture,
Ecosystems and Environment 100: 17-37.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
155
Adoption of Conservation Agriculture in South-western Bangladesh
M. Harunur Rashid1, Debabrata Mahalder2, M. Khairul Islam Rony2, Palash Chandra
Goswami2, Timothy Russell2
1
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur. [email protected],2IRRI, Banani, Dhaka1213, Bangladesh
Introduction
There are 0.83 million hectares of arable land in coastal Bangladesh dominated by rice-based
cropping sequences. Cropping systems in coastal Bangladesh occur mostly on medium
highlands where only medium to long duration transplanted monsoon (T. Aman) rice
varieties are grown. The low cropping intensity in the area is largely due to unfavorable soil
salinity and unavailability of quality irrigation water in the dry season, though other factors
such as land tenure and poor water management systems also contribute. Soils remain
saturated due to poor drainage after T. Aman rice harvest delaying the preparation of land for
dry season winter and pre-monsoon crops. This results in planting of dry season crops during
early February. By this time residual soil moisture from the monsoon season has been lost
and soil salinity has greatly increased. Further crops planted in February will mature in May
when they are at risk of being damaged by early monsoon rains. The successful cultivation of
dry season crop in this situation requires agronomic practices that will permit early planting
into saturated soils. The USAID financed CSISA-BD project in collaboration with BRRI has
tested a number of reduced tillage systems to allow early planting of sunflower (Dibble
planting direct into rice stubble (Rashid et al. 2012a), oil seed mustard (broadcast sowing
over maturing Aman rice (Rashid et al. 2012b), direct drill plant of sesame into rice stubble
using a power tiller operated seeder (PTOS) and Boro rice grown in ghers (unpuddled direct
transplanting, Rony et al. 2013). Farmer-managed field trials and demonstrations were
conducted. The present study was undertaken to validate the performance of these reduced
tillage systems on farms.
Materials and methods
The farmers' participatory trials and demonstrations were conducted during 2013–2014 in
fields of trained farmers in Khulna, Satkhira and Bagerhat districts of coastal southwest
Bangladesh. The area belongs to the Ganges Tidal Flood Plain (AEZ13). The rice varieties,
BRRI dhan41, BRRI dhan54 were grown on saline soil sites in the 2013 T. Aman season
followed by sunflower or sesame in the 2013/14 dry season. The hybrid sunflower Hysun33
was dibbled into rice stubble in moist soil without tillage. In sesame growing areas, sesame
was sown earlier than normal by planting into single pass tilled fields with a PTOS. The
mustard varieties, BARI sarisha14 and BARI sarisha15 were sown by either broadcast
sowing over ploughed land or by broadcast sowing over maturing short duration T. Aman
rice varieties, BRRI dhan39 and BINA dhan7. The Boro (winter irrigated rice) variety, BRRI
dhan28 was grown on tilled and zero tilled soils in ghers (land surrounded by wider bund
mainly for shrimp and prawn cultivation). Other crop management practices were chosen by
the farmers. Grain yield was taken from a 10 m2 area in the centre of each plot and expressed
as t ha-1 at 14 % grain moisture for rice and 9 % moisture for oil seed crops. Statistical
analysis was done using CropStat Version 7.2.
Results and Discussions
Zero tilled dibbled and ploughed sunflower produced similar grain yield but due to lower
production costs (68 $ ha-1) dibble sunflower gave a higher net return (15 $ ha-1) (Table 1).
Importantly the dibbled sunflower matured on 15th April, 15 days earlier than ploughed
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
156
sunflower reducing the risk of damage in pre-monsoon rains. The highest sesame seed yield
was recorded from 5th February sown reduced tillage plots (0.95 t ha-1) followed by reduced
till sesame sown on the 25 January and 15 February. The first planting was affected by cold
at the initial growth stage. The lowest seed yield was gained from conventional tillage plots
(0.56 t ha-1) which was probably caused by lower plant population compared with reduced till
plots. The reduced tillage sesame seeded on 5 February matured 10 days earlier than
conventionally tilled plots. Although the relay mustard avoided the ploughing cost, it
produced significantly lower seed yield and net return than conventionally tilled plots. This is
attributed to the difficulty of applying phosphate and potassium basal fertilizers and irrigating
young seedlings under maturing rice. Despite this the system is promising as it allows early
planting and hence early harvesting of mustard in an T. Aman – Mustard – Boro rice
sequence where planting using conventional tillage methods is delayed by excess soil
moisture at T. Aman harvest time. Early mustard harvest then allows the earlier transplanting
of Boro rice which for most farmers has a higher priority than the mustard crop. This then
allows farmers to grow mustard as a third crop in a T. Aman rice – Boro rice cropping
sequence. The zero tilled Boro rice in gher produced a grain yield of 6.54 t ha-1 which was
significantly higher than tilled Boro rice (6.30 t ha-1). The adoption of zero tillage Boro
reduced the production cost (57 $ ha-1) significantly and earned higher net return (147 $ ha-1)
compared to existing system. The results show that adoption of CA based technology could
form the basis for cropping system intensification and reduced risk of pre-monsoon rain
storm crop damage in coastal southwest Bangladesh. However, suitable nutrient and water
management methods are needed in zero tilled dibbled and relay cropping systems to
maximize system productivity.
Table 1. Agro-economic productivity of various crops under different cropping systems
Crop
Tillage
option
Farmer
no.
Grain/
Total
seed yield variable cost
(t ha-1)
ha-1
Sunflower
Dibbled
150
2.29
461
Ploughed
90
2.39
529
LSD 0.05
0.12
43
Sesame
RT1
18
0.73
221
RT2
14
0.95
237
RT3
16
0.75
204
CT
12
0.56
226
LSD 0.05
0.15
25
Mustard
Relay
109
1.33
254
Ploughed
104
1.75
295
LSD 0.05
0.04
28
Boro
Zero tilled
6
6.54
1072
Ploughed
6
6.30
1162
LSD 0.05
0.08
7
RT = Reduced tillage, CT = Conventional tillage
Gross return
($ha-1)
1172
1225
62
417
551
433
321
87
770
1010
25
1572
1515
20
Net return
($ha-1)
711
696
72
197
314
229
95
90
516
715
39
500
353
22
BCR
2.75
2.50
0.21
1.93
2.32
2.38
1.43
0.57
3.38
3.63
0.24
1.47
1.30
0.02
References
Rashid MH, Nasrin S, Rony MKI, Mahalder D, Begum S (2012a) Sunflower cultivation after
harvesting of T. Aman rice in Saline area (In Bangla). Brochure. IRRI, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Rashid MH, Rony MKI, Nasrin S (2012b) Increasing productivity of rice-rice cropping system
adopting short duration rice and mustard and relay cropping. Proceedings of the International
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
157
Conference on Environment, Agriculture and Food Sciences, held on 11-12 August 2012, in
Phuket, Thailand. Planetary Scientific Research Centre.
Rony MKI, Rashid MH, Nasrin S, Saleque MA (2013) Effect of zero tillage on Boro rice cultivation
in ghers of south-western Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Agron. 16: 105-107.
The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance provided by USAID through the CSISA-BD
project that has made the implementation of this research possible.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
158
Strip Tillage in Maize: Farmers’ preferences and profit potential in
Charland of Bangladesh
D.B. Pandit, M.A. Arafat, M.E. Haque, M.A. Alam, T.J. Krupnik, T.P. Tiwari and M.K.
Gathala
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), Bangladesh.
[email protected], [email protected]
Introduction
Cropping intensity in Mymensingh, Bangladesh is 212%, and 53% of the cropped area is
under T. Aman-Boro rice system. These crops are grown under conventional tillage i.e. 4-5
passes of tilling followed by 2-3 passes of laddering (Hossain et al., 2014) with inadequate
addition of organic matter. During Boro harvest some amount of residue is retained on the
soil surface but not after T. Aman. This repeated plowing and cross plowing causing land
degradation (Bezuaychu et al., 2002) and soil organic matter (SOM) declined <1%. Recently,
the adoption of maize cultivation has increased in this area replacing Boro rice due to higher
production cost of the later. In this situation, strip tillage with crop residue retention on the
soil surface is essential for sustaining soil productivity through the retention of higher soil
moisture content, replenishing SOM and so forth. Evidence suggests that strip tillage lowers
production cost compared to conventional tillage, and increases soil-water conservation, and
N and P availability (Zhang et al., 2009). To further field test and popularize this technique in
Rabi maize, farmers’ participatory strip tillage demonstrations with 25-30% straw retention
from the previous Aman crop were compared with conventional tillage as control were
established in 2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14.
Materials and methods
The farmers’ participatory demonstrations were conducted in Old Brahmaputra Flood Plain
soils, mostly on Charland, characterized by sandy loam to loam soils with low water holding
capacity and formed due to sedimentation from the Brahmaputra River. The soil formed
comparatively earlier has already come under rice cultivation and in comparatively younger
soils mainly Blackgram, Groundnut, vegetables are grown. Demonstrations were conducted
at four farmers’ fields as dispersed replications, each in paired plots; one seeded by strip
tillage planter and the other by conventional methods in Rabi season of 2011-12.
Conventional tillage in demonstrations entailed two times plowing and cross plowing,
followed by laddering by power tiller, and hand seeding. Twenty one demonstrations in
2012-13, and 10 demonstrations in 2013-14 were also conducted. Seeds of hybrid variety
‘Elite’ were sown during the last week of November to 3rd week of December depending on
locations each year in collaboration with farmers. Both treatments of a replication were
seeded in the same day. Spacing (row to row 60 and seed to seed 20 cm), fertilizer, irrigation
and other cultural practices were followed as per recommendation of Bangladesh Agriculture
Research Institute (Elahi MNE et al., 2009). Plot size was 1333 m2 each for strip and
conventional seeding. All crop management practices were done by farmers under the
guidance of CIMMYT staff. Data were recorded on yield, lodging, and economic parameters.
Tillage systems in each demonstration were evaluated by 10 farmers of the village. They
scored the tillage systems using a scale (1-10) where 10 was the best, and commented on the
prospects and problems of the tillage systems. Data were analyzed by two tailed paired t-test
using MSTAT-C program (Version 2.10, Michigan State University, Michigan, USA) after
verifying normality and homogeneity of variances.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
159
Results and Discussion
There was no significant yield difference between strip and conventional tillage systems in
any of the three years. Lodging in strip tillage plots was significantly lower than conventional
in all years, but it had no impact on yield as it was at the later stage of grain filling. The lack
in yield advantage may have been due to sowing on the same day, as maize yield typically
declines as the season progresses with late sowing. Where strip tillage is used to advance
sowing because less time is needed to prepare land, yield results may have been more
positive. Further research is needed to investigate this hypothesis. Farmers’ preference score
(FPS) was always significantly higher for strip tillage than conventional tillage, because
production cost in the strip tillage system was reduced due to its lower tillage cost and lack of
seeding labor cost. Gross margins from strip tillage maize were always higher in all years.
Similarly, the benefit cost (B:C) ratio was higher in strip tillage than conventional.
Participating farmers understood the advantages of strip tillage including that of straw
retention on the soil surface, and provisionally indicated they would be willing to maintain
1/3rd of aman residue on the soil surface, whereas the remainder is typically used as
household fuel. However, they raised the issue of weed control, because, no herbicide except
broad spectrum glyphosate and pre-emergent Pendimethylene is yet widely available in the
market. Farmers suggested that viable markets are needed to facilitate the commercial
viability of post emergent herbicide for maize. They advised that if the herbicide issue can be
solved, adoption of strip tillage cultivation in maize and other upland crops will increase
rapidly. During the study, some farmers expressed interest in becoming service providers to
carry out strip tillage on a fee-for-service basis with their neighbors.
Table 1: Yield, FPS, lodging tolerance and profit from strip tillage maize, Mymensingh,
Bangladesh
Yield (t/ha)
Year
Strip
Lodging (%)
FPS (no)
Gross margin ($/ha) B:C Ratio
Strip
Conv
Strip Conv.
Conv. Strip
Conv.
Strip
Conv
2011-12 9.54
9.41
7.97
30.7 **
7.12 ** 5.38
1042
813
2.46 1.88
2012-13 9.32
8.66
10.4
32.7 **
7.81 ** 5.62
1351
1024
2.78 2.09
2013-14 9.89
9.48
5.81
18.9 **
8.65 ** 6.25
1348
1062
2.71 2.07
References
Bezuayehu T, Gezahegn A, Yigezu A, Jabbar MA, Paulos D (2002) Nature and causes of land
degradation in the Oromiya Region: A review. Socio-economics and Policy Research Working
Paper 36. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. 34p.
Elahi MNE, Haque ME, Rashid MHO, Banik BR, Uddin MS, Ahmed SU (2009) Hybrid maize
production-Family Training Manual (in Bengali) Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute,
Gazipur, Bangladesh.
Hossain MI, Gathala MK, Tiwari TP, Hossain MS (2014) Strip tillage seeding technique: A better
option for utilizing residual soil moisture in rainfed moisture stress environments of North-West
Bangladesh. Int. J. Recent Development in Eng. Technol 4:132-136.
Zhang Z, Li H, He J, Wang Q, Golabi MH (2009) Influence of conservation tillage practices on soil
properties and crop yields for maize and wheat cultivation in Beijing, China. Australian J of Soil
Research. 47:362-371.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
160
Session 6
Policy and institutional framework of conservation
agriculture
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
161
Improving Soil and Crop Productivity through Resource Conservation
Technologies in Drought Prone Area
M. I. Hossain1, M.E. Haque2, M.R.I. Mondal1 and M K Sultan1
1
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, [email protected], [email protected],
[email protected] 2Murdoch University, Australia, [email protected]
Introduction
Resource conserving technologies (RCTs) provides immediate economic and environmental
benefits of crop establishment and thus improve systems yield. Rice is transplanted in flat
fields that are typically ponded for long periods that negatively affect soil properties for the
non-puddled crop (Kumar et al. 2000). Yields of rice and wheat in heat and water-stressed
environments can be raised significantly by adopting RCTs, which minimize unfavorable
environmental impacts, small and medium-scale farms (Kataki, 2001). Inclusion of grain
legumes in rice-wheat cropping system may be another option for increasing cropping
intensity, soil fertility and productivity. Crop residue, raised beds along with efficient N
fertilization strategies are likely to be key components of increase crop productivity and soil
fertility. Thus, crop residue management under bed systems along with efficient N
fertilization strategies were assessed the potential productivity and soil fertility in rice-wheat
system.
Materials and methods
A wheat-mungbean-rice cropping pattern was implemented over 9 years at RWRC, BARI,
Rajshahi, Bangladesh (2403'N, 88041'E, 18 m above sea level). The site has a drought prone
environment and is located in AEZ 11 with course-textured soil (BARC 2007). The area
receives only 757 mm mean annual rainfall, about 97% of which occurs from May to
September. Soil at the site is a calcareous silty loam with slightly alkalinity (pH 7.5), low OM
(0.8%) and low N (35 µ/g soil). The experiments consisted of 20 subplots with four
tillage/straw treatments (30% straw retention(SR)+permanent raised bed(PRB), 30% SR
+conventional tillage (CTP), 0% SR + PRB and 0% SR + CTP) and five N levels (0, 40, 80,
100 and 120% of recommended nitrogen) with three replication. Total system productivity
(TSP) for each treatment was calculated based on equivalent yields as follows: (rice grain
yield*1.35) + (wheat grain yield*1.39) + (mungbean grain yield*1.54). N-uptake by grain
and straw were calculated by the following formulae:
N-uptake by grain (kg ha-1) = Total N (%) in grain x grain yield (kg ha-1)/ 100
N-uptake by straw (kg ha-1) = Total N (%) in straw x straw yield (kg ha-1)/ 100
Results and discussions
a) Total system productivity
TSP increased 10-12% for all crops in 30% straw retention with PRB over conventional
(Figure 1). TSP of rice, wheat and mungbean was 12 t/ha per year. Lower TSP also occurred
from 0% SR with CTP due to reduced crop growth. Similar observations were made by Singh
(2003) in Mexico. TSP significantly increased by 11% in rice, 14% in mungbean with
increasing N levels up to 100%; and by 16% in wheat up to 120% N level (Figure 2). Highest
TSP occurred in PRB with 120 kg N/ha in wheat and 80 kg N/ha in rice, 20 kg N/ha in
mungbean. Lower TSP also occurred from 0% N with CTP due to less N uptake. Similar
observations were made by Yadvinder Singh et al. (2006). Averaged over 9 years, PRB +
30% SR increase 17% wheat yield, but there was no significant mungbean yield increase with
additional N with 30% SR. Average rice yield on PRB + 30% SR with 80% N was
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
162
significantly higher than with 0% SR at the same N rate, and there was no further yield
increase at higher N rates.
b) Nitrogen uptake
N uptake was significantly (P<0.5) influenced by straw retention and N levels. Increased N
uptake was 31% in rice, 25% in wheat and 19% in mungbean over conventional (Figure 3). In
PRB+30% SR plots, total N uptake was maximum at 50-100% by rice, 80-120% by wheat
and 50-100% by mungbean. Limon-Ortega et al. (2000) observed that permanent beds with
straw retention gave the highest average wheat grain yields (5057 t/ha), N use efficiency
(28.2 kg grain/kg) and total N uptake (133 kg/ha).
c) Environmental impact
Fuel used both conventional and reduced tillage system was showed in (Table 1). 54
litre/ha/year diesel used for PRB system where 96 litre/ha/year also used in conventional
method. PRB tillage system saved 42 litre/ha/year of costly diesel fuel which 44% less
emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. Witt et al. 2002 reported same results from their
experiment.
d) Soil organic matter (SOM)
After 9 years (2004 to 2013), increased organic matter by 0.72% (Table 2) from 30% SR both
rice and wheat straw and full residue retention from mungbean crops with PRB system into
the soil. Also P, K, S, Zn, B availability increased from 30% SR in same cases of residue
retention. Kumar and Goh (2000) reported that, in the longer term, residues and untilled roots
from crops can contribute to the formation of SOM.
Wheat
Mungbean
12
10
8
6
4
Rice
14
Total System Productivity(t/ha)
Rice
14
Wheat
Mungbean
12
10
8
6
4
2
%
N
%
N
ed
B
B
o
C
X
12
0
N
X
12
0
ed
%
N
X
10
0%
nv
ed
B
nv
o
C
X
10
0
X
80
%
N
N
N
X
80
%
ed
B
C
o
nv
X
40
%
N
B
ed
X
40
%
N
X
0%
X
0%
Conv x30%
Straw
nv
Bed x 30%
Straw
o
Conv x 0%
Straw
C
Bed x 0%
Straw
ed
0
N
0
2
B
Total Systems Productivity (t/ha)
e) Changes of soil physical propertise
After 9 years, lower bulk density was found from PRB over conventional from different
depth, increased infiltration rate and total pore space in same due to create loose soil into bed
with increase soil microorganisms.
Tillage options X N le ve ls
Tillage options x straw levels
Figure 1. TSP under tillage options & straw levels in
rice-wheat-mungbean system
160
Bed + 0%SR
Conv + 0%SR
Bed + 30%SR
Conv + 30%SR
N uptake (kg/ha)
140
Figure 2. TSP under tillage options & N levels in ricewheat-mungbean system
Table 1: Comparative use of diesel fuel and
CO2 emission on raised bed & traditional
120
100
Tillage
options
80
60
Diesel
used
CO2
emission
(litre/ha
(kg/ha
/year)
/year)
PRB
54
140.4
44
42
Conv.
96
249.6
-
-
40
20
0
0
40
80
100
120
Applied N levels (% Recommondation)
Figure 3. Total N uptake under different tillage options
& N levels
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
Less CO2 Fuel saved
emission
(litre/
(%)
ha/year)
163
Table 2. Chemical properties changes after 9 years
crop cycles
Table 3. Physical properties changes after 9 years crop
cycles
Characteristics
Tillage
options
Initial
Final
Differ
Organic Matter (%)
0.90
1.62
+ 0.72
Total N (%)
Exch.K (ml eq/100g soil)
0.12
0.26
0.19
0.48
+ 0.07
+ 0.22
Bed
Conv
Avail. P (mg / g soil)
Avail. S (mg / g soil)
Avail.Zn (mg/g soil)
Avail. B (mg /g soil)
24.5
25.6
0.84
0.19
52.5
38.9
6.13
0.37
+ 38.0
+ 13.3
+ 5.29
+ 0.18
LSD(0.05)
Bulk density (mgm-3)
0-10
cm
1.37
1.57
10-20
cm
1.59
1.79
20-30
cm
1.74
1.95
0.037
0.025
0.034
0.85
0.59
Total
pore
space
(vol.%)
53-59
43-48
0.032
NS
Infiltrati
on rate
(cmh-1)
Findings
Permanent beds with 80, 100 and 120% recommended N application were found similar
performances over all treatments with 30% straw retention. It was also found that 120% N
application with conventional tillage practice were obtained similar yield compare with 80%
N under permanent bed system for 30% straw retention. 0.72% OM increased after nine years
crop cycles for 30% residue retention from wheat & rice and full residue retained from
mungbean crops. Save 20% N after nine years crop cycles after residues retention from all
three crops.
Conclusions
80% N with 30% straw retention from wheat & rice and full residue retained from mungbean
crops under permanent beds were the best combination for getting higher productivity as well
as improve soil fertility in Bangladesh.
References
BARC (Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council) (2007) Fertilizer Recommendation Guide 2005.
pp 22-25.
Kataki PK, (2001) The rice-wheat cropping system in South: Trends, Constraints and Productivity- A
Prologue, J Crop Prod 3, 1-26
Kumar K, Goh KM (2000) Crop residue management, effects on soil quality, soil nitrogen dynamics,
crop yield and nitrogen recovery. Advances Agronomy 68: 197-319
Limon-Ortega AL, Sayre KD, Francis CA (2000) Wheat nitrogen use efficiency in a bed planting
system in Northwest Mexico. Agron J 92: 303-308
Singh Y. (2003) Crop Residue management in rice-wheat system. Addressing Resource Conservation
Issues in Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains. CIMMYT, New Delhi, India, p.
153.
Talukder ASM.HM, Sufian MA, Meisner CA (2002) Rice, wheat and mungbean yields in response to
N levels and management under a bed planting system. Proceedings published in the 17th World
Congress of Soil Science, Bangkok, Thailand, Symposium no. 11, p. 351
Yadvinder-Singh, Bijay-Singh, Ladha JK, Khind, CS, Kera TS (2006) Effects of residue
decomposition on productivity and soil fertility in rice-wheat rotation. Soil Science Society of
America Journal 68, 851-864
Witt C, Cassman KG, Olk DC, Biker U, Liboon SP, Samson MI, Ottow JCG (2002). Crop rotation
and residue management effects on carbon sequestration, nitrogen cycling and productivity of
irrigated rice systems. Plant Soil 225: 263-278
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
164
Wheat Requires Less Amount of Applied Fertilizers in Long Term Zero
Tillage
M.A.Z. Sarker, M.M. Akhter and A. Hossain
1
Wheat Research Centre (WRC), Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI),
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
Introduction
Upland crops can be grown successfully with zero tillage in the wheat-mungbean-rice
cropping pattern in a light soil (WRC 2009). In a long-term experiment, at WRC, Dinajpur, it
was observed that wheat yield was similar or higher in zero tillage than in conventional
tillage. Although only di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) was applied as basal fertilizer for
wheat according to recommendation for zero tillage, no symptoms of nutrient deficiency
were observed before top-dressing of other fertilizers. Hence it was hypothesized that lower
amounts of fertilizers (i.e., applied nutrients) in zero tillage than in conventional tillage might
be enough for optimum yield of wheat. This was tested by adjusting the fertilizer rates based
on soil test results in zero tillage compared to conventional tillage.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted for 2 consecutive years in a field where the wheat-mungbeanrice cropping pattern was followed in zero, conventional and alternate tillage (zero for wheat
and mungbean, and conventional for Aman or monsoon rice) in separate plots. The alternate
tillage was included since the establishment of monsoon rice was difficult in zero tillage. The
experiment was conducted in the cool-dry (rabi) season of 2011-12 and 2012-13 at WRC,
Dinajpur. Each replication was divided into 3 main plots in 2005-06. One plot was assigned
to conventional tillage and has been producing crops by ploughing conventionally for
decades. The other 2 plots were assigned to zero tillage from wheat in 2005-06. Of these 2
plots, one remained permanent zero i.e., all crops are produced in permanent zero tillage
condition, and in other plot alternate tillage has been being practiced from 2008-09. After
harvesting of monsoon rice i.e., before sowing wheat in every year (2011 and 2012) soil
samples from 0-15cm depth were collected from each sub-plot (Table 1). The fertilizer
treatments (sub-plots) were (i) F1 = recommended fertilizer (RF) (FRG 2005, BARC) and
WRC recommended application method (WRA), (ii) F2 = 75% RF and WRA, (iii) F3 = RF,
and only DAP was used as basal (during sowing) and other fertilizers were applied after 1st
irrigation i.e., 17-22 DAS (DAP), and (iv) F4 = 75% RF, and DAP. Two-third of urea and
other fertilizers were applied as basal and the rest of urea was applied as top-dressing after 1st
irrigation according to WRC recommendation. The unit plot size was 4.2×7.0m.
Table 1. Soil properties of different tillage options (before wheat sowing)
Tillage
option
ZT
CT
AT
pH
’11
6.29
5.83
5.67
’12
6.61
6.41
6.36
organic
matter
(%)
’11
1.24
1.10
1.06
Total N
Available Exchangeable Available
P
K
S
(meq/100g (µg/g soil)
(%)
(µg/g soil)
soil)
’12 ’11
’12 ’11
’12 ’11
’12 ’11 ’12
1.08 0.060 0.059 29.1 23.5 0.108 0.107 13.3 8.3
0.87 0.058 0.043 19.6 14.6 0.093 0.090 13.9 2.5
0.80 0.053 0.040 23.7 19.1 0.100 0.100 15.0 7.5
Mg
B
(meq/100g
soil)
’11 ’12
1.03 1.15
0.74 0.97
0.76 0.95
(µg/g soil)
’11
0.14
0.18
0.24
’12
0.93
0.55
0.94
ZT = Zero tillage, CT = Conventional tillage, AT = Alternate tillage
Fertilizer dose for wheat was calculated according to soil analysis for each treatment to
achieve 4.5±0.45 t ha-1 (BARC 2005). Provax-200 treated seed of wheat variety BARI Gom
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
165
26 was sown @ 130 kg ha-1 in lines 20cm apart on 01 December in 2011-12 and 08
December in 2012-13. After 1st irrigation different fertilizers were top-dressed according to
treatment. Grain yield was adjusted to a moisture level of 12%.
Results and Discussion
The difference among the sub-plots for soil properties was negligible. Therefore, average data
were considered for calculating the fertilizer dose. The soil analysis report before wheat
sowing in both the years showed that long term zero tillage improved the soil properties
(Table 1). It increased pH, organic matter, N, P, K and Mg of the soil. Based on soil analysis,
less fertilizer N, P, K and Mg were required compared to conventional tillage (data not
presented). In alternate tillage, the soil for rice after 2 zero tillage crops (wheat and
mungbean) reverses some of the effects of zero tillage, although P, S and B were higher than
conventional tillage.
Higher grain yield was obtained from zero tillage in both the years (Table 2). Lowest grain
yield was found in conventional tillage but it produced higher straw in 2011-12. In 2012-13
lower grain yield was also found in conventional tillage. Use of only DAP as basal fertilizer
(followed by top-dressing of all others after 1st irrigation) and fertilizer application according
to WRC recommendation produced almost similar yield in 2011-12 (Table 2). Reduced
amount of fertilizer produced lower yield than the recommended amount of fertilizers. Lower
grain yield in 2012-13 than in 2011-12 might be due to late sowing.
Table 2. Grain and dry matter yield of wheat (var. BARI Gom 26) as influenced by tillage
options and different fertilizer management
Treatment
Grain yield (kg ha-1)
2011-12
2012-13
Average
Dry matter (kg ha-1)
2011-12
2012-13
Average
Tillage options
ZT
4,767
3,761
4,264
9,864 ab
9,788 b
9,826
CT
4,565
3,585
4,075
10,386 a
8,851 c
9,619
AT
4,695
3,687
4,191
9,703 b
9,540 b
9,621
CV (%)
8.23
6.38
Fertilizer management
F1
4,773
3,903
4,338 a
10,248
10,026
10,137 a
F2
4,655
3,607
4,131 ab
9,862
9,159
9,511 bc
F3
4,735
3,671
4,203 ab
10,150
9,493
9,821 ab
F4
4,540
3,529
4,034 b
9,678
8,894
9,286 c
CV (%)
7.60
7.57
For details of the treatments see Materials and Methods, and Table 1. Means followed by different
letters (within a factor or interaction between year and tillage) are significantly different by least
significant difference at 5% level.
Conclusion
The applied fertilizer dose on the basis of soil test result was lower in long term zero tillage
but with this lower amount of fertilizer wheat achieved higher yield in zero tillage than
conventional tillage. For any tillage options optimum amount of nutrient should be supplied
for optimum yield.
References
BARC (2005) Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council. Fertilizer Recommendation Guide – 2005.
BARC, Farm gate, Dhaka. p 260.
WRC (2009) Wheat Research Centre. Annual Report 2008-2009. WRC, Dinajpur. p 181.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
166
Conservation systems improves soil physical health and resource use
efficiency in rice-wheat rotation
Ahmad Nawaz1 and Muhammad Farooq1, 2, 3
1
Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
[email protected]
2
The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, [email protected]
3
College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
Introduction
Rice-wheat cropping systems occupy 13.5 Mha of land in South Asia, spread from the IndoGangetic Plains to the foothills of Himalayan mountains. Conventional puddling is done in
rice fields followed by rice nursery transplanting in the puddled soils. After harvesting rice,
wheat is sown in the pulverized soil. This shows an edaphic divergence in conventional soil
management practice for rice and the requirements of the subsequent wheat crop (Farooq et
al., 2008). Puddling usually results in erratic crop establishment owing to poor contact of
seed with soil in cloddy post-rice puddled soils (Ringrose Voase et al., 2000; Farooq et al.,
2008).
Conservation agriculture has been found eco-friendly, with minimum soil disturbance and
offers a pragmatic option to resolve the edaphic conflict in the conventional rice-wheat
system (Hobbs et al., 2007). In this context, aerobic direct seeded rice helps in resolving the
edaphic conflict in the rice and proceeding crop accomplished with reduction in water input,
labor requirement, greenhouse gas emission (Farooq et al., 2009), and improved the input use
efficiency. The present study evaluated the conventional and conservation systems for soil
physical health and paddy yield.
Materials and Methods
This study was conducted on a sandy loam soil at the Agronomic Research Area, University
of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan (31°N, 73°E and altitude 184.4 masl). The experiment
was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications of the following
treatments viz. T1= Direct seeded rice (DSR) - zero tilled wheat (ZTW); T2 = DSR + sesbania
(brown manuring) – ZTW; T3 = DSR – ZTW + rice residues; T4 = Puddled transplanted rice
(Pu TPR) – ZTW; T5 = Puddled transplanted rice (Pu TPR) – conventional till wheat (CTW).
Rice in DSR treatments was directly drilled on 25 June in 2012 and on 24 June in 2013 at a
seed rate of 50 kg ha-1 in 22.5 cm spaced rows. In direct seeded rice, aerobic conditions were
maintained throughout the crop growth period. In transplanted rice, thirty day old nursery
seedlings (two seedlings per hill, 22.5 cm row spacing) were manually transplanted in
puddled field in the last week of July in both years. In all treatments irrigation and fertilizer
was applied given as per requirement of the crop. For brown manuring, seeding of sesbania
was done at the time of planting between the rows of direct seeded rice with the help drill at
seed rate of 65 kg ha-1. Sesbania crop was treated with a weedicide (MCPA @ 625 ml ha-1) at
the age of 30 days to kill it. Soil bulk density at 0-5 cm, and whole plot grain yields were
recorded. Benefit: cost ratio was calculated as the ratio of benefits to the total cost. Data
collected was analyzed by MSTAT-C software. Least significance difference (LSD) test at
5% probability level was applied to compare the treatments means
Results and Discussion
During both years, maximum soil bulk density was recorded in conventional rice production
systems while it was lowest in conservation rice production systems (Table 1), which may be
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
167
due to soil compaction which was developed due to puddling before rice transplanting and
continuous flooding of water in these systems. During the first year, maximum grain yield
was obtained in TR while it was lowest in DSR systems (Table 1), because continuous
rainfall made it impossible to control weeds effectively in DSR systems. However, during
second year, maximum grain yield was observed in DSR with sesbania manuring which
might be due to better weed management and improved soil health due to sesbania brown
manuring. Earlier it has been reported that simultaneous sowing of DSR and sesbania and
killing of young sesbania plants at 30–45 days after sowing could help to reduce weed
pressure and build up soil fertility in the RW system (Singh et al., 2007). Our study also
indicated that the maintenance of crop residues in zero-tilled improved yield of direct seeded
rice in the second year of experimentation. It might be possible that maintenance of crop
residues might have increased the organic matter content in that specific treatment resulting
in better water and nutrient acquisition, ultimately better crop yields. Benefit-cost ratio
highest in DSR systems during second year which might be due to less input requirement in
these systems interms of saving of water and labour resources.
Table 1: Impact of conventional and conservation rice systems on soil bulk density and
paddy yield and benefit-cost ratio
Treatments
Bulk density
(g cm-3)
2012
2013
Paddy yield
(t ha-1)
2012
2013
Benefit:cost
ratio
2012
2013
DSR – ZTW
DSR + SM –ZTW
DSR – ZTW + CR
TR – ZTW
TR – CTW
LSD Value
1.37 b
1.36 b
1.37 b
1.42 a
1.43 a
0.02
2.24 b
2.43 b
2.26 b
2.85 a
2.82 a
0.28
1.37
1.58
1.39
1.52
1.49
ns
1.38 b
1.37 b
1.35 b
1.43 a
1.44 a
0.04
3.28 b
3.76 a
3.75 a
3.06 b
3.16 b
0.26
2.47 b
2.98 a
2.97 a
1.71 c
1.80 c
0.24
DSR= Direct seeded rice; TR= Transplanted rice; ZTW= Zero tilled wheat; CTW=
Conventional tilled wheat; SBM= Sesbania brown manuring; CR= Crop residues
References
Farooq M, Basra SMA, Asad SA (2008) Comparison of conventional puddling and dry tillage in rice–
wheat system. Paddy Water Environ 6: 397-404.
Farooq M, Kobayashi N, Wahid A, Ito O, Basra SMA (2009) Strategies for producing more rice with
less water. Adv Agron 101: 351-388.
Hobbs PR, Sayre K, Gupta R (2007) The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363: 543–555.
Ringrose-Voase AJ, Kirby JM, Djoyowasito G, Sanidad WB, Serrano C, Lando TM (2000) Changes
to the physical properties of soils puddled for rice during drying. Soil Till Res 56: 83-104.
Singh S, Ladha JK, Gupta RK, Bhushan L, Rao AN, Sivaprasad B, Singh PP (2007). Evaluation of
mulching, intercropping with Sesbania and herbicide use for weed management in dry-seeded rice
(Oryza sativa L.). Crop Prot 26: 518-524.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
168
Effects of Conservation Agriculture and Nitrogen Fertilization on Carbon
Footprint in the Wheat-Mungbean-Rice Cropping System
M.A. Kader1, S. Farhan1, M.E. Haque2 and M. Jahiruddin1
1
Dept. of Soil Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh,
[email protected]
2
Murdoch University, Australia, [email protected]
Introduction
Recent trends towards mechanization on small farms create an opportunity to develop
conservation agriculture in Bangladesh. However, a range of soil processes under
conservation agriculture in rice-based cropping systems will differ from those in dry land
cropping systems. The emission of greenhouse gases for example may favour methane under
flooded conditions rather than carbon dioxide. The effect of nitrous oxide emission under
conservation agriculture in rice-based systems also needs to be determined. Thus, a study was
undertaken to determine whether minimum tillage by strip tillage, different levels of N
fertilizer and residue management altered the carbon footprint (CF) of wheat and mungbean
and whether unpuddled transplanting affected CF of monsoonal rice relative to puddled soils.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) Farm,
Mymensingh on an Aeric Haplaquept during November 2012-March 2013 (wheat), April
2013-June 2013 (mungbean) and July 2013-November 2013 (rice). There were two tillage
systems - conventional tillage and strip tillage, two residue retentions- low (20% of cereal
residue retained) and high (60% of cereal residue retained) retention and five nitrogen rates as
a % of the recommended fertilizer dose (RFD)- 60% RFD, 80% RFD, 100% RFD, 120%
RFD and 140% RFD. The recommended N (RFD) dose for wheat was 100 kg ha-1, 20 kg ha1 for mungbean and 75 kg ha-1 for rice. The experiment was designed in a split-plot design
with tillage systems and residue retentions distributed to the main-plots and N application to
the sub-plots. Carbon footprint was calculated using emission factors from the literature as
default values following Hillier et al. (2009) as per guidelines of ISO14040-44 (ISO 2006)
and IPCC (2006).
Results and Discussion
Fertilizers were among the highest sources of CF for all three crops. The contribution of
fertilizers in the CF of wheat, mungbean and rice were 77%, 55% and 69%, respectively. On
average the contribution of fertilizers in the CF over the year was 71%. Among the fertilizers,
N fertilizer contributed 92% of the overall CF of the year. This large contribution of N
fertilizer in CF is attributed to the fact that the manufacturing of N fertilizer requires high
energy inputs (Yan, 2012) and it is the principal source of CO2 and NO2 emission (Lal,
2004). Mitigation of greenhouse gases emission from crop production should be focused on
reducing N fertilizer use and N losses as N2O. The contribution of irrigation, machinery and
labor inputs to the overall CF of the year was 19%, 4% and 6%, respectively in addition to
71% from fertilizers.
The grain yield of the crops did not differ significantly between the two tillage systems
(except mungbean) as well as between two residue retention treatments. However, it varied
significantly with different rates of N application. The grain yield increased with increase in
N from 60 to 100% RFD for all the three crops then generally decreased with further increase
in N rates it mostly. Comparatively higher yield was observed in strip tillage than
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
169
conventional tillage (mungbean and rice) and might have resulted from lesser decomposition
of soil organic matter, better water conservation and increased biological activities in strip
tillage.
There was no difference in CF for all the crops between two tillage systems (except
mungbean) as well as between two residue retention treatments (except rice). Comparatively
higher CF was observed in conventional tillage than strip tillage (mungbean and rice) due to
higher soil disturbance and more carbon emission from fuel used by the tractor. In case of
residue retention, higher CF was observed in 60% residue retention than 20% residue
retention (wheat and mungbean). The CF varied significantly with different rates of N
application in mungbean and rice but did not differ significantly in wheat. Comparatively
higher CF was observed in mungbean followed by wheat and rice. However, when converted
into rice equivalent CF, then the highest value was observed in wheat (207 kg t-1) followed
by rice (99.5 kg t-1) and mungbean (85.6 kg t-1). The rice equivalent CF of wheat was almost
double that of rice and mungbean. The rice equivalent total CF for wheat-mungbean-rice
cropping system differed significantly between two tillage systems but did not differed
significantly between two residue retention and different rates of N application (Fig.1).
Comparatively higher rice equivalent total CF was observed in conventional tillage than strip
tillage (mungbean and rice) due to higher soil disturbance and more carbon emission from
fuel used by the tractor.
References
Lal R (2004) Carbon emission from farm operations. Environment International 30: 981–990.
Yan M, Pan GX and Chen L (2012) An analysis of carbon footprint of vegetable production in
Jiangsu, China. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 958: 203-210.
Figure 1. Carbon footprints of wheat-mungbean-rice cropping system under different tillage,
residue and N fertilizer management systems
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
170
The Impact of Conservation and Conventional Tillage Systems on Hydrophysical Properties of a Ferric Acrisol
S.A. Mesele1, B.F. Amegashie1, C. Quansah1 and R.C. Abaidoo1
1
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University
of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana. [email protected]
Introduction
Soil hydro-physical properties have significant impacts on soil moisture storage and
availability, the magnitude of runoff and soil loss, plant growth and yield on arable land (Lal
and Shukla, 2004). Among the major soil hydro-physical parameters, this study focused on
bulk density, porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Proper and efficient soil
conservation planning requires adequate knowledge of the responses of these parameters to
different management practices on cropland. Such information is however limited on tropical
soils. On the other hand, since plants store very little water compared to their daily
requirements, they must rely on the reserves of water stored in the soil (Ramos and MartínezCasasnovas, 2014). Optimizing in-situ moisture conservation on smallholder farms is
therefore pertinent to sustaining high crop growth and yield, particularly in rainfed
agriculture. In this context, this study assessed the relative performance of different tillage on
in-situ moisture storage and properties that affect its availability during critical dry spells.
Materials and Methods
The study was carried out on a Ferric Acrisol in the semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana.
The treatments comprised no-till (NT) and plough-plant (PP) grouped as conservation tillage,
and plough-harrow-plant (PHP) as conventional tillage; arranged in Randomized Complete
Block Design with three replications. The NT has crop residues with no soil disturbance
while the PP was disc ploughed with two traffic passes to a depth of 20 cm, then planting was
done manually. The PHP was tractor-driven, disc ploughed and harrowed with four to five
traffic passes to 30 cm soil depth; planting was done manually.
All measurements were taken after 3 consecutive cropping seasons of treatment application
except the control (initial) which was taken before treatment imposition. Bulk density was
determined by the core method (Blake and Hartge 1986). Soil total porosity was assessed
𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑘 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦
using 𝑇𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 1 − 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦x 100%. Volumetric water content (𝜃𝑣) was measured
gravimetrically on the soil core. Aeration porosity was determined as: 𝜀𝑎 = 𝑇𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 −
𝜃𝑣. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was measured by the falling head permeameter
method. Soil moisture storage was calculated as: 𝑆𝑚𝑠 = 𝜃𝑣 𝑥 𝑠𝑜𝑖𝑙 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ (𝑚𝑚). The data
were analysed using the repeated measurement ANOVA procedure in Genstat package 9th
edition. Means were compared using LSD (0.05).
Results and Discussion
The PP and PHP respectively increased the initial bulk density of 1.43 Mg/m3 at the 0-15 cm
depth by 19 % and 7 % and 1.54 Mg/m3 at 15-30 cm depth by 5 % and 3 % (Table 1). NT
virtually maintained the initial bulk density through to the end of the experiment. Given that
the initial bulk density was increased by the mechanical action of PP and PHP, it was not
surprising that total and aeration porosities were reduced. This was more so at the 0-15 cm
depth where initial total porosity decreased by 20 % and 10 % under PHP and PP
respectively.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
171
The relative sensitivity of total and aeration porosities to increases in bulk density is
exemplified by the magnitude of their exponents in their relationship with bulk density where
the former is -1.36 and the latter is -2.27. Percent Ks reduction was in the order of PP < NT
<PHP relative to the control. This reduction may be ascribed to soil compaction due to the
impact of raindrops and the increases in bulk density resulting from higher intensity of wheel
traffic of the tractor on PHP. The PP treatment recorded greater moisture storage at the 15 -30
cm depth than the NT and PHP treatments (Table 2) but its availability seems to be greater
with no-till which had lower bulk density, higher porosity and implicitly greater root growth
for moisture abstraction. During dry spells, conservation tillage practices that store greater
cumulative moisture, such as the PP (plough-plant), are preferable, especially in rainfed
agriculture. Such effect could be obtained on no-till field with adequate cover.
Table 1: Some soil hydro-physical properties as affected by conservation and conventional
tillage systems
Tillage System
Total Porosity (%)
Aeration porosity (%)
Depth (cm)
Bulk density
(Mg/m3)
0-15 15-30
0-15
15-30
0-15
15-30
Ks
(mm/h)
0-15
Control
1.43
1.54
49
42
38
31
634
NT
1.44
1.59
46
40
32
25
85
PHP
1.6
1.62
39
38
25
23
49
PP
1.53
1.59
42
40
28
18
128
LSD (P<0.05)
0.11
5
15
46
CV (%)
7
6
10
22
Table 2: Soil water storage at different depths during dry spells under different tillage
practices
Soil water storage (mm)
Depth (cm)
1st Sampling
0-15
15-30
Total
2nd Sampling
0-15
15-30 Total
3rd Sampling
0-15
15-30
Total
NT
PHP
19.2
19.5
29.5
52.3
48.7
47.8
20.8
21.1
27.4 48.2
50.5 71.6
20.5
23.1
78.5
32.3
99.0
55.4
PP
25.3
51.3
76.6
27.4
56.9 84.3
10.9
92.2
103.1
LSD (P<0.05)
CV (%)
12.3
28
1st sampling=24th October; 2nd sampling = 7th November and 3rd sampling = 21st November. All in 2013
References
Blake GR, Hartge KH (1986) Bulk density. In: A. Klute (Editor), Methods of agronomic moisture
constants and soil physical properties. Samsun 55139
Green TR, Ahuja LR, Benjamin JG (2003) Advances and challenges in predicting agricultural
management effects on soil hydraulic properties. Geoderma 116: 3–27
Lal R, Shukla MK (eds.)(2004) Principles of Soil Physics. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.
Ramos MC, Martínez-Casasnovas JA (2014) Soil water variability and its influence on transpirable
soil water fraction with two grape varieties under different rainfall regimes. Agric.,
Ecosys.Environ.185: 253–262
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
172
Direct Seeded Rice (DSR) - Sustainable Rice Production System in East
India Plateau
Ashok Kumar1, Abdul Mannan Choudhury1, Dr. Bill Bellotti2, Dr. Peter S Cornish2.
1
Professional Assistance for Development Action (PRADAN www.pradan.net),
[email protected]; [email protected] 2University of Western Sydney,
[email protected], [email protected]
Introduction
The East Indian Plateau (EIP) comprises much of the state of Jharkhand and parts of
adjoining West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. The EIP is characterised by high but variable
rainfall (1,100-1,600 mm, 80% received in June-September), frequent and sometimes long
dry spells within the monsoon, little irrigation (~10% of area), high runoff and soil erosion,
terraced mono-cropped paddy lands and subsistence agriculture. The whole area is
characterised by endemic poverty, food insecurity, comparatively paddy rice yield (<1.9
t/ha). Traditional cropping systems are characterised by mono-crop rice production that
experiences high climate-related risk, and is particularly vulnerable to subtle changes in
rainfall distribution associated with climate variability/change. Population pressure has
pushed rice cultivation onto the medium uplands, but these lands are poorly suited to
transplanted rice production systems. Cropping in the post-rainy (rabi) season is limited due
to lack of irrigation resources, and uncontrolled grazing by village cattle and goats. Most
villagers achieve only 50-60% food grain requirement, so forced migration in the nonmonsoon season is important for off-farm income at the cost of social upheaval. The
outcome of these forces is widespread malnutrition, limited medical care and low levels of
literacy. Perhaps not surprisingly, the region is a strong-hold for left wing extremist groups.
Within this context, overall objective of the research is to improve livelihoods by enabling
local farmers to develop flexible and responsive cropping and livestock systems that better
utilise available water resources including the residual water in soil after the monsoon,
thereby building resilience to climate change/variability at the household level.
Materials and methods
The research activities are being implemented in 3 research villages, 2 are in Jharkhand and 1
in west Bengal. Participatory on-farm research (OFR) in farmer’s fields and Action Learning
Cycle is followed rigorously to facilitate experiential learning for all. The cyclic process of
Plan—Do—Observe—Reflect—Plan is followed as core process. Women’s self-help groups
are the primary groups to take decisions on research questions, selection of farmers and
overall management of the research activities in the villages. Regular research planning,
review and learning meetings are held in the villages during each cropping season. During the
cropping seasons frequent field walks with the farmers are done to observe the treatment
effects and discuss what it means to them. The scientific data collection is done by trained
village resource persons and researchers. The soil and plant analysis is done in a reliable
laboratory.
The experimental design is paired fields. Two adjacent fields which are hydrological and biophysically similar are selected to compare DSR with farmers practice. Three online automatic
weather stations are installed in research villages to record and report local weather real-time
and long term (42 years) weather data are analysed to comprehend the climatic conditions.
Short duration (90 days) rice variety Anjali (IET 16430) and medium duration (120 days)
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
173
maturity rice variety Abhisek (IET 17868) were planted in the treatment plot while in the
control plot is under farmer’s practice.
Soil Fertility, Crop management, Yield, Biomass, labour requirement etc. and residual water
at harvest of paddy are recorded both for DSR and control plots. Regular learning workshops
are organized with the farmers and researchers to share observations and reflections to
articulate the learnings from research.
Results and Discussion
Data and results show that there is huge regional variation in annual rainfall, and the duration
of ponding water in the paddy fields of medium uplands was much more variable than the
rainfall itself. This makes transplanted paddy a risky crop in medium uplands because it
requires ponding of water. Although ponding duration is variable, there is good soil moisture
available every year which can support any crop that doesn’t require ponding.
Rainfall on the EIP (1971- 2010)
Risks and Opportunities
1971-2009
Rainfall varies
from year-to-year
But what about soil
water and ponding?
2006-08
2009
2005
The duration of ponding in medium uplands is much more
variable even than rainfall (0-106 days)
This is why transplanted rice crops fail so often
But note good soil water every year
Under these circumstances Direct Seeded Rice (DSR) has huge potential as it doesn’t require
ponding, puddling and transplantation. The DSR interventions include: 1. Short/medium
duration (90- 120 days) varieties; 2. Line planting with a furrow opener tool; 3. Weeding
twice (first at 15-20 DAS, second 30-35 DAS) with dry-land weeder. The yields from the
experiments are as below.
Rabi cropping opportunities
based on residual water - no irrigation!
Prior kharif crop
Planting water (mm)
Mean
Min
Max
193
127
96
80
281
181
111
68
41
38
239
132
90-day crop:
Transplanted rice
Un-bunded alternative
125-day crop:
Transplanted rice
Un-bunded alternative
October rainfall (av. 37 mm) is a bonus
The DSR was harvested almost one month before the transplanted rice creating opportunity
for early planting of Rabi crop. The DSR required 35 % less labour than transplanted rice
which reduces women’s drudgery and when implements arrive generally men use them,
further reducing women’s work.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
174
There is a potential for use of seed cum fertilizer drill (VMP tiller) which will further increase
the efficiency of DSR system and conserve the soil as it can sow seeds without ploughing.
One such planter was brought from IDE Bangladesh and it is under trial.
Acknowledgements
The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) and the Australian
Agency for International Development (AusAID) for support through projects
LWR/2002/100 and LWR/2010/082.
References
Cornish PS, Kumar A, Khan MA (2010) East India Plateau – Basket Case, or Future Food Basket?
http://www.regional.org.au/au/asa/2010/plenary/donald-oration/cornishp.htm
Cornish PS, Review Report (Nov 2013): Water harvesting and better cropping systems for the benefit
of small farmers in watersheds of the East India Plateau (LWR/2002/100). ACIAR, GPO Box
1571 Canberra ACT 2601 Australia.
Sabina Alkire and Suman Seth (2013) Multidimensional Poverty Reduction in India between 1999
and 2006: Where and How? OPHI, Department of International Development Queen Elizabeth
House (QEH) University of Oxford,
Haque ME, Bell RW. (2014) Versatile Strip Tillage Planter: An option for 2 wheel tractor based small
holders’ conservation agriculture in Asia and Africa, 1st African Congress on Conservation
Agriculture.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
175
KEYNOTE PAPER
Policy and institutional arrangements for the promotion of conservation
agriculture for small farmers in Asia and Africa
Peter Hobbs1, Simon Lugandu2 and Larry Harrington3
1
Cornell University, [email protected]
African Conservation Tillage Network, [email protected]
3
Harrington Consulting, [email protected]
2
Agriculture in Africa and Asia faces unprecedented challenges, among them population
growth, energy scarcity, natural resource degradation, market globalization and climate
change. Conservation agriculture (CA) can help address these challenges while enabling
sustainable intensification of small farm systems. Policies and institutional arrangements,
however, have a heavy influence on the pace of adoption and use of CA in Africa and Asia
(Rai et al. 2011).
Relevant policies and institutional arrangements that affect the use of CA may be found at
global, regional, national and local levels.
At the global level, the United Nations Millennium Goals (MDGs) present time-bound and
quantified targets for tackling extreme poverty by 2015. CA should be developed in the
context of these MDGs. At the regional level, some policies favor the use of CA. In 2003, for
example, The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) launched its
Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Program (CAADP) and secured
agreement from African governments to increase expenditures on agriculture from 2.4 to
10% by 2010. CAADP has developed a framework to involve key partners in spearheading
the roll-out of CA in Africa.
At the other extreme, community- and landscape-level policies and institutions can also affect
the feasibility of CA. Community-enforced arrangements for no burning of crop residues or
for control and regulation of animal grazing can be critical to the success of CA.
It is at the national level, however, that the most compelling and influential policies and
institutional arrangements are found that affect the use of CA, including those related to:
environment and sustainable development; availability of equipment, inputs and credit;
market development and market access; public-private sector relationships; smallholder
access to land and water resources; access to information; investment in agricultural research
and training; and cross-institutional coordination. Finally, there is the issue of gaps between
policy formulation and approval on the one hand and practical implementation on the other.
Policies and institutions focusing on environment and sustainable development affect CA in
many ways, for example: the presence of perverse incentives such as subsidies on tillage
equipment or diesel fuel vs. positive incentives such as payments for environmental services
to encourage CA practices. The national stance and policies towards climate change may also
be relevant: where threats of climate change are taken seriously and CA is seen as an
important mitigation strategy, powerful support for CA can be forthcoming.
Policies and institutions focusing on the availability of equipment, inputs and credit can also
be important. Import tariffs can increase the price of imported CA equipment and discourage
sharing of prototype equipment across regions, or at least spare parts for their repair and
maintenance. Credit facilities, even micro-credit, may make all the difference in determining
whether farmers or service providers can afford to purchase CA equipment. Seed sector
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
176
policies may also be relevant if they encourage vs. discourage the development and
dissemination of crop varieties suitable for use in CA systems. Policies on public-private
sector relationships are important here. Equipment development has been found to go faster
when in private sector hands, supported by public sector research.
When CA enables farm system intensification or diversification, availability and access to
markets for an expanded product range may affect CA profitability. Similarly, when farmers
enjoy secure access to land (land titling) and water resources, they are more likely to invest in
resource conserving practices with a long-term time horizon, such as CA. Readily-accessible
information on CA best practices will help farmers apply these practices wisely on their own
fields.
Service providers can help farmers adopt CA practices when they cannot afford to buy
tractors or CA equipment. Training service providers in CA also improves the likelihood that
it will be introduced successfully. Use of farmer-to-farmer extension and promotion of farmer
organizations to facilitate exchange of ideas and experiences can assist in accelerating
adoption. CA is a complex technology that is best promoted in participatory mode with a
network of stakeholders. Policies are needed to change the way research is carried out.
Farmer and local manufacturer participation and experimentation at the farm field level is a
key factor in fine tuning CA practices at the local level and accelerating adoption. All of
these can be supported by appropriate policies and institutional arrangements.
The fragmented nature and variety of institutions involved in natural resource or sustainable
land management (agriculture, forestry, national parks, energy, water, for example) in Africa
and Asia often inhibit fully effective implementation of new technologies. Institutional
coordination can lead to enhanced partnerships and harmonization of efforts to maximize the
benefits of CA. Examples include Intra- and inter--ministerial coordination, partnerships
between the private sector and civil society organizations and coordination between and with
development partners. There are also weak institutional and training capacities of the various
stakeholders to implement CA.
Finally, to enable CA to live up to its promise, countries must invest in local adaptation of
CA principles. Research investment must be adequate. And, for the long term, this
investment should include advanced training programs in CA leading to a cadre of trained
scientists, engineers, extension workers and other network members able to assist and enable
farmers to adopt eco-friendly technologies like CA.
References
Rai M, Reeves T, Collette L, Allara M (2011) Save and grow : a policymaker's guide to sustainable
intensification of smallholder crop production. Rome: FAO.
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
177
Participants
Name
Designation
Organization
Country
Email Address
1
2
Dr. Deirdre Lemerle
Dr. Abul Hashem
Professor
Principal Scientist
Charles Sturt University
Department of Agriculture and Food
Western Australia
Australia
Australia
<[email protected]>
<[email protected]>
3
4
Dr. Richard W. Bell
Dr. Wendy Vance
Murdoch University
Murdoch University
Australia
Australia
<[email protected]>
<[email protected]>
5
6
7
Ms. Iffat Ara
Mr. Md. Alam
Mr. Mohammad Murad Hossain
Professor
Post-Doctoral Research
Fellow
PhD Candidate
Chief Executive
Manager-Commercial, HR &
Admin
University of Adelaide
Alam Engineering Workshop
Alim Industries Limited
Australia
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
8
Mr. Alimul Ahshan Chowdhury
Managing Director
Alim Industries Ltd.
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
9
Dr. Sultan Ahmmed
Member Director
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
10
Dr. ASM Mahbubur Khan
Chief Scientific Officer
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
11
Dr. M.A. Monayem Miah
Senior Scientific Officer
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
12
Dr. M.A. Salam
Senior Scientific Officer
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
13
Dr. M.A.Z. Sarker
Principal Scientific Officer
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
14
Dr. Md. Ataur Rahman
Principal Scientific Officer
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
15
Dr. Md. Ilias Hossain
Senior Scientific Officer
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
16
Dr. Md. Khaled Sultan
Director of Research
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
17
Dr. Md. Omar Ali
Principal Scientific Officer
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Council
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Institute
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Institute
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Institute
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Institute
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Institute
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Institute
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Institute
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Institute
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
178
<[email protected]>
Name
Designation
Organization
Country
Email Address
18
Mr. A.K. Chaki
Scientific Officer
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Institute
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
19
Mr. Jahangir Alam
Scientific Officer
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Institute
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
20
Mr. M.A. Hoque
Senior Scientific Officer
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
21
Mr. Md. Khairul Alam
Scientific Officer
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
22
Mr. Md. Shoeb Hassan
CSO and Head
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Institute
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Institute
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Institute
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
23
Mr. MEA Pramanik
Scientific Officer
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
24
Mr. Nazmus Salahin
Scientific Officer
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
25
Dr. Md. Israil Hossain
Chief Scientific Officer
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Institute
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Institute
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Station
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
26
Dr. Hasneen Jahan
Associate Professor
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
27
Dr. M. Abdur Rahman Sarker
Professor and Coordinator
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
28
Dr. M. Amirul Islam
Professor
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
29
Dr. M. Mozibur Rahman
Professor
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
30
Dr. M.A. Awal
Director (Transport)
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
31
Dr. M.A. Kader
Professor
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
32
Dr. M.R. Islam
Professor
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
33
Dr. Mahfuza Begum
Professor
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
34
Dr. Masuma Habib
Director (GTI),
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
179
Name
Designation
Organization
Country
Email Address
35
Dr. Md. Abdur Rahim
Professor
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
36
Dr. Md. Aktaruzzaman
Professor
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
37
Dr. Md. Harun UrRashid
Professor
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
38
Dr. Md. Jahiruddin
Professor
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
39
Dr. Md. Mosharraf Hossain
Professor
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
40
Dr. Md. Rafiqul Islam
Professor
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
41
Dr. Moshiur Rahman
Professor
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
42
Dr. Obaidul Islam
Professor
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
43
Dr. Zahirul Haque Khandaker
Professor
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
44
Md. S.M Shamimul Alam Saikot
Volunteers
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
45
Md. Sakhawat Hossain Tuhin
Volunteers
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
46
Md. Samsuzzaman Shamim
Volunteers
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
47
Md. Sashed Hasan
Volunteers
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
48
Mr. M. Mobarak Hossain
PhD Fellow
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
49
Mr. Saiful Islam
Additional Registrar
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
50
Mr. Sanowar Santu
MS Student
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
51
Mr. Sharif Ahmed
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
180
<[email protected]>
Name
Designation
Organization
Country
Email Address
52
Mrs. Taslima Zahan
PhD Fellow
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
53
Professor Dr. Lutful Hassan
Director
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
54
Samia Lutfa Hasan
Volunteers
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
55
Sayeda Kairun Nahar Sirin
Volunteers
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh
56
Dr. Jatish Chandra Biswas
CSO and Head
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
Bangladesh
57
Dr. Md. Abdul Jalil Mridha
CSO and Head
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>;
<[email protected]>
<[email protected]>
58
Dr. Md. Abdur Rahman
CSO and Head
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
59
Dr. Md. Harunur Rashid
Senior Scientific Officer
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
Bangladesh
<[email protected])>
60
Dr. Md. Harunur Rashid
Senior Scientific Officer
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
61
Dr. Mozammel Haque
Senior soil scientist
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
62
Mr. F. M. Moinuddin
CSO and Head
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
63
Mr. Md. Anwar Hossen
Senior Scientific Officer
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
64
Mr. Md. Harun Ar Rashid
Senior Scientific Officer
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
65
Mr. Jabed Ali Roni
Senior Accountant
BAURES
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
66
Dr. Frederick Rossi
Agricultural Economist
CIMMYT
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
67
Dr. T.P. Tiwari
CIMMYT
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
68
69
Dr. Asad Sarwar Qureshi
Dr. DB Pandit
Cropping Systems
Agronomist
Senior Scientist
Cropping Systems
Agronomist
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
<[email protected]>
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
181
Name
Designation
Organization
Country
Email Address
70
Dr. M. Abdul Matin
Agricultural Engineer
CIMMYT
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
71
72
73
Dr. Sreejith Aravindakshan
Dr. Timothy Krupnik
Mr. E. Lam
Engineering Consultant
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
<[email protected]>
<[email protected]>
74
Mr. Nazim Uddin Mondal
Ex-Deputy Director
Department of Agricultural Extension
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
75
Dr. Bimol Kumar Pramanik
Department of Agricultural Extension
Bangladesh
76
Dr. Shaiful Alam
Upazila Agriculture Officer
(UAO)
Upazila Agriculture Officer
(UAO)
Department of Agricultural Extension
Bangladesh
77
Mr. Md. Azizul Islam
Department of Agricultural Extension
Bangladesh
78
Mr. Md.Nurul Islam
Department of Agricultural Extension
Bangladesh
79
Mr. Md.Shajahan Shiraj
Department of Agricultural Extension
Bangladesh
80
Mrs. Rubina Yesmin
Department of Agricultural Extension
Bangladesh
81
Ms. Ismat Ara
Upazila Agriculture Officer
(UAO)
Upazila Agriculture Officer
(UAO)
Upazila Agriculture Officer
(UAO)
Upazila Agriculture Officer
(UAO)
Assistant Professor
Govt. Rashiduzzoha Mahila College
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
82
83
Mr. Mizanul Hoque
Dr. Md. Enamul Haque
<[email protected]>
<[email protected]>
Md. Abdus Salam
Hoque Corporation
Murdoch University - Australia and IDE
Bangladesh
Alipur, Durgapur, Rajshahi
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
84
Chief Executive
Adjunct Associate Professor
& Team Leader
Farmer
Bangladesh
85
86
Md. Ahsan Habib
Md. Fokrul Amin
Local Service Provider
Farmer
Godagari, Rajshahi
Gouripur, Mymensingh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
87
Md. Khairul Amin Akanda
Local Service Provider
Gouripur, Mymensingh
Bangladesh
88
Md. Mizanur Rahman Mizan
Farmer
Sadar, Mymensingh
Bangladesh
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
182
<[email protected]>
Name
Designation
Organization
Country
89
Md. Muzu Akanda
Local Service Provider
Gouripur, Mymensingh
Bangladesh
90
91
92
93
94
95
Md. Nur Nobi Mia
Md. Omar Faruk
Md. Ramjan Hossain Faruk
Md. Safiqul Islam
Md. Sohidul Islam
Md. Yunus Ali
Field Manager
Local Service Provider
Farmer
Local Service Provider
Driver
Local Service Provider
IDE Bangladesh
Sadar, Thakurgaon
Sadar,Thakurgaon
Godagari
IDE Bangladesh
Durgapure, Rajsh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
96
Md. Rezaul Karim
Farmer
IDE Bangladesh
Bangladesh
97
Mr. Afzal Hossain Lovelu
IDE Bangladesh
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
98
Mr. Deepak D. Khadka
Officer-Conference
Assistance
Country Director
IDE Bangladesh
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
99
Muhammed Riazul Rahman
Assistant - Administration
IDE Bangladesh
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
100
101
Sr. Sowpan Kumar Biswas
Dr. Yam Kanta Gaihre
Farmer
Deputry Chief of Party
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
102
Dr. Md. Elahi Baksh
Applied Ag Economist
IDE Bangladesh
International Fertilizer Development
Center (IFDC)
CIMMYT
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
103
104
105
Mr. Md. Saiful Islam
Dr. Md. Enamul Kabir
Mr. Md. Arefur Rahaman
Consultant
Professor
Principal Program Officer
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
<[email protected]>
<[email protected]>
106
Mr. Md. Jahangir Alam
Program Officer
CIMMYT
Khulna University
Mennonite Central Committee (MCC)
Bangladesh
Mennonite Central Committee (MCC)
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
107
Md. M. Jabed Ali
Modern Engineering Workshop
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
108
Mr. Abdullah Musabbir Sabbir
Ms. student
MS Student, BAU
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
109
Mr. Abu M.Musa
Executive Director
PROVA
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
183
Email Address
<[email protected]>
Name
Designation
Organization
Country
Email Address
110
Prof. Mritonjoy Biswas
Associate Professor
Sylhet Agricultural University
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
111
Dr. M.A. Sobhan
Research Consultant
UBUNIG (Policy Research for
Development Alternative
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
112
Mr. Golam Rabbi Badal
Senior Researcher
UBUNIG (Policy Research for
Development Alternative
Bangladesh
<[email protected]>
113
Mr. Md.Abdur Rahim Mintu
Executive Director
USEKA
Bangladesh
114
115
116
Md. Mahabub Alom
Md. Moni
Dr. Rafael Fuentes Lanillo
IAPAR - Agronomic Institute of Paraná
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Brazil
<[email protected]>
117
Dr. B. Som
IT Technician
IT Technician
PhD in agronomy,
Researcher in SocioEconomics
Agricultural Engineer
Cambodia
<[email protected]il.com>
118
Dr. Florent Tivet
Agronomist
Cambodia Agricultural Research and
Development Institute
Research Organization
Cambodia
<[email protected]>
119
Mr. Girma Moges
Ethiopian Agricultural Research
Institute
Ethiopia
<[email protected]>
120
Mr. Samuel Ayodele Mesele
Ghana
<[email protected]>
121
Dr. Debesh Pal
India
<[email protected]>
122
Ms. Seema Sepat
Scientist
Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame
Nkrumah University of Science and
Technology.
Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra
Krishi Viswavidyalaya
Indian Agricultural Research Institute
India
<[email protected]>
123
Dr. Pravat K. Roul
Orissa University of Agriculture and
Technology
India
<[email protected]>
124
Mr. Abdul Mannan Choudhury
Associate Director of
Research, Directorate of
Research-cum-Host Country
PI, SMARTS
Team Leader
PRADAN
India
<[email protected]>
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
184
Name
Designation
Organization
Country
Email Address
125
Dr. Apurba Chowdhury
Professor
Uttor Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya
India
<[email protected]>
126
Dr. Hide Omae
Senior Researcher
Japan
<[email protected]>
127
Dr. Joseph Mutua
Kenya
<[email protected]>
128
Dr. Saidi Mkomwa
Japan International Research Center
for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS)
Kenya Network for Dissemination of
Agricultural Technologies (KENDAT)
African Conservation Tillage Network
Kenya
<[email protected]>
129
Dr. Birun Lin
Research Fellow
Guangdong Academy of Agricultural
Sciences
P. R. China
130
Dr. Jianguang Hu
Research Fellow
P. R. China
131
Dr. Dingke Zheng
Associate Professor
Guangdong Academy of Agricultural
Sciences
South China Agricultural University
132
Dr. Xiangru Tang
Professor
South China Agricultural University
P. R. China
133
Dr. Yinggang Ou
Professor
South China Agricultural University
P. R. China
134
Mr. Dantong Yang
Associate Professor
South China Agricultural University
P. R. China
135
Dr. Ahmad Nawaz
University of Agriculture
Pakistan
<[email protected]>
136
Dr. Muhammad Farooq
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Pakistan
<[email protected]>
137
Mr. Aliou Babou
Yaajeende Project Agriculture
Development and Nutrition for Food
Security
Senegal
<[email protected]>
138
Dr. W.M. Baitani
Centre for Agricultural Mechanization
and Rural Technology (CAMARTEC)
Tanzania
<[email protected]>
139
140
Dr. Yuji Niino
Mr. Julius Mukunda
Coordinator
FAO
Civil Society Budget Advocacy Group
Thailand
Uganda
<[email protected]>
<[email protected]>
141
Ms. Carol Namagembe
Program Associate
Civil Society Budget Advocacy Group
Uganda
<[email protected]>
Associate Professor
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
185
P. R. China
Name
Designation
Organization
Country
Email Address
142
Dr. Amir Kassam
Professor
University of Reading
<[email protected]>
143
Dr. David Kahan
144
Mr. Scott Justice
Specialist
CIMMYT
United
Kingdom
United
Kingdom
USA
<[email protected]>
145
Dr. Peter Hobbs
Professor
Cornell University
USA
<[email protected]>
146
147
Dr. Christian Thierfelder
Ms. Portia Njani
Research Technician
CIMMYT
Government Organization
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
<[email protected]>
<[email protected]>
148
Mr. Rukuni Clopas
University of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
<[email protected]>
CIMMYT
Regional Conference on Conservation Agriculture for
Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December 2014, Mymensigh, Bangladesh
186
<[email protected]>
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement