SDAIE Outline

SDAIE Outline
OFFICE OF CURRICULUM, INSTRUCTION, & PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
MIDDLE SCHOOL COURSE OUTLINE
(Revised June 2012)
Department
Science
Course Code
4122
Course Title
Science 8 SDAIE
Abbreviation
Sci 8 SDA
Grade Level
8
Course Length
1 year
Co-requisites
Teacher Certification
BCLAD / BCC
ELD English 3
or
CLAD / LDS / SB 395, 1969
COURSE DESCRIPTION:
Eighth grade SDAIE science is designed specifically for the needs of English Language Learners
(ELLs) who are at the High Intermediate and Early Advanced levels of listening, speaking,
reading, and writing proficiency in English. Students in this course cover the same content and
utilize the same basic textbook as their Fluent English Speaker counterparts. The course delivery
varies in pacing, instructional methodology, and supplemental materials. It is designed to provide
depth versus breadth of the content standards, while providing more comprehensible input and
literacy development in the content area.
Eighth grade science is a standards and laboratory based program. Students should spend
approximately forty percent (40%) of their class time on hands-on activities. Introductory
principles of physics and chemistry will be explored in detail, with some related topics from earth
and life sciences included. Constructivist methods of teaching are employed to ensure the best
possible comprehension and retention or science concepts. Science activities will be based on
the California Science Standards as delineated in the California Science Framework and will
utilize the skills and techniques outlined in the Investigation and Experimentation Strand of the
Content Standards.
GOALS: (Student needs this course is intended to meet)

Students will learn all of the California State Standards for 8th Grade Science, which
emphasize physical sciences. The use of well-designed, memorable experiences and the
application of scientific knowledge and methodology are essential in helping students achieve
appropriate comprehension of the content.

Students will improve their ability to learn independently by drawing generalizations from
science related articles, books, graphs, charts, and diagrams. Regular opportunities are
provided for students to clearly communicate their understanding through oral and written
explanations of science concepts.

Students will study the applications of science in everyday life to inspire them to consider
pursuing advanced studies in science and explore the wide variety of related career choices
available.
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 2
ACADEMIC LITERACY IN SDAIE CLASSES FOR ELLs AT LEVEL 3 and LONGTERM ENGLISH LEARNERS:
The ELD Standards of reading, writing, listening and speaking describe the linguistic pathway that ELLs take to
achieve academic literacy in English. SDAIE content area classes play an important role in developing and
strengthening students’ progress towards this goal. Students should be encouraged to expand their English skills,
even though grammatical and vocabulary approximations will occur during this process.
When content-area information and materials have been made comprehensible through instruction in the SDAIE
class, ELLs at each level will progress through the following phases of developing academic literacy in English. The
students’ degrees of literacy in their primary language will significantly affect the pace that students move through
these levels.
ELD Level 3.
Upon entering ELD Level 3, students are increasing their control of academic English
proficiency about topics that have been explicitly taught to them and some topics that may be
new to them. There will be wide gaps in vocabulary. ELLs progressing through this level will:






participate in group/class projects, discussions and presentations with simple sentences and complex sentences
(with increasing accuracy and fluency when given modeling and constructive feedback)
use content area reading strategies (especially pre-reading, KWL, academic participation cards, anticipation guides,
Reciprocal Teaching and Question/Answer Relationships) to analyze concepts from taught texts and other course
reading materials. By the end of level 3, ELLs are able to comprehend most texts written at 4th grade level.
Students continue to need extensive modeling and direct instruction, especially when encountering figurative
language and sentences with numerous clauses.
respond to Curriculum Embedded Assessment prompts (read to them and clarified for
them as needed) orally and with simple and complex sentence structures
use writing in a variety of ways such as, but not limited to, class note-taking, learning logs, interactive notebooks,
response logs, and completing student handouts, homework, and class projects. Students continue to need
extensive modeling and direct instruction, especially when writing at differing formality levels for a variety of
audiences.
understand the need for using test-taking strategies (using taught vocabulary) on the required district/state
assessments, such as, End of Course Exams (with alternate presentation and response), CST, and CELDT.
Long-Term English Learners.
Long-term English learners demonstrate a significant gap between their oral English fluency
(high) and their English literacy proficiency (low), even though they have had many years of
instruction in English. ELLs progressing through this level will:





participate in group/class projects, discussions and presentations with sentences that demonstrate conversational
English proficiency
need to be taught how to use content area reading strategies (especially pre-reading, KWL, academic participation
cards, anticipation guides, Reciprocal Teaching and Question/Answer Relationships) to analyze concepts from
taught texts and other course reading materials. Students need extensive modeling, direct instruction, and oral
discussions before, during and after reading.
respond to Curriculum Embedded Assessment prompts (clarified orally to them as needed). Students need
extensive modeling, direct instruction, and oral discussions to move them beyond writing sentences that reflect only
conversational English.
use writing in a variety of ways such as, but not limited to, class note-taking, learning logs, interactive notebooks,
response logs, and completing student handouts, homework, and class projects. Students continue to need
extensive modeling and direct instruction, especially when writing at differing formality levels for a variety of
audiences.
understand the need for using test-taking strategies on the required district/state assessments, such as, End of
Course Exams, CST, and CELDT.
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 3
CONTEXT: CONTENT SCOPE AND SEQUENCE
6th
Physical Sciences
Earth Sciences
Life Sciences
Density (Qualitative) -------- (CA 8)
Energy
Temperature vs. Heat
Heat Transfer
Earth’s Layers
Plate Tectonics
Mountain Building
Earthquakes, Faults, and Epicenters
Volcanoes
California Geology
Mechanical & Chemical Weathering
Minerals ---------------------------------------- (LB)
Rock Cycle (Igneous, Metamorphic, and
Sedimentary Rocks) -------------------------- (LB)
Sun’s Effect on Weather
Convections
Solar Energy
Atmospheric Conditions
Natural Resources
Stratigraphy: Fossil Locations Rock (CA 7)
Geol. Timeline of Earth’s History ----- (CA 7)
Formation of Fossils ---------------------- (CA 7)
Methods of Dating Earth’s History --- (CA 7)
Food Chains / Food Webs
Ecosystems
Human Impacts on Ecosystems --------- (LB)
7th
8th
Six Designated Lessons from Project
ALERT Health Curriculum
Cell Similarities & Differentiation
Function of Cell Structures
Energy at the Cellular Level
Photosynthesis / Respiration
Mitosis
Genetics
DNA
RNA
Protein ----------------Sexual / Asexual Reproduction
Meiosis ----------------------------------------DNA, Genes, & Alleles
Dominant & Recessive Traits
Theory of Evolution
Natural Selection
Body Systems
Taxonomic Keys ----------------------------Kingdoms & Major Phyla -----------------Observing and Defining Motion
Forces and their Effects
Gravity’s Larges Scale Effects
Basic Atomic Theory
Periodic Table as a Tool
Metals, Non-metals, Inert Gases
Electrons beyond the Bohr Model
Ions and Isotopes
Physical & Chemical Properties
Element vs. Compound Properties
Chemical Bonding
Atoms and Ions Forming Solids
Phases and Molecular Motion
Chemical Formulas
Chemical Equations & Conservation
of Matter
Exothermic vs. Endothermic
Acids, Bases, and pH
Density & Buoyancy
Light, Levers in the body,
& Heart Function ---- (CA 7)
Galaxies and Stars
Life Cycles of Stars (Nebular Theory,
Novas, etc.)
Distances in Astronomy
Light Sources and Reflectors in the
Universe
Cosmology (Universe Origin) -------- (LB)
Solar System
(LB)
(LB)
(LB)
(LB)
Simple Machines
and the Human Body ------------- (CA 7)
Blood Pressure and Heart Valves --- (CA 7)
Organic Chem. / Biochem.
Three Designated “Booster Lessons”
from Project ALERT Health Curriculum
Notes regarding non-aligned content:
(LB) => Long Beach specific content; not found in CA Science
Content Standards
(CA 7) => 7th grade content which has been moved to 6th or 8th grade
th
to accommodate reduced science instruction in 7 grade
(CA 8) => 8th grade content which should be presented qualitatively
in 6th grade to help explain convections and other Earth
science related content
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 4
CONTEXT: SKILLS SCOPE AND SEQUENCE
Investigation and Experimentation:
Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations.
As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands,
students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:
6th
7a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
Develop a hypothesis.
Select and use appropriate tools and technology (including calculators, computers, balances,
spring scales, microscopes, and binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.
Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop qualitative statements about the
relationships between variables.
Communicate the steps and results from an investigation in written reports and oral
presentations.
Recognize whether evidence is consistent with a proposed explanation.
Read a topographic map and a geologic map for evidence provided on the maps and
construct and interpret a simple scale map.
Interpret events by sequence and time from natural phenomena (e.g., the relative ages of
rocks and intrusions).
Identify changes in natural phenomena over time without manipulating the phenomena (e.g., a
tree limb, a grove of trees, a stream, a hillslope).
7th
7a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Select and use appropriate tools and technology (including calculators, computers, balances,
spring scales, microscopes, and binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.
Utilize a variety of print and electronic resources (including the World Wide Web) to collect
information as evidence as part of a research project.
Communicate the logical connection among hypothesis, science concepts, tests conducted,
data collected, and conclusions drawn from the scientific evidence.
Construct scale models, maps and appropriately labeled diagrams to communicate scientific
knowledge (e.g., motion of Earth’s plates and cell structure).
Communicate the steps and results from an investigation in written reports and verbal
presentations.
8th
9a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.
Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data.
Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.
Recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationship y=kx and apply this
to interpret graphs constructed from data.
Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the
relationships between variables.
Apply simple mathematical relationships to determine one quantity given the other two
(including speed = distance/time, density = mass/volume, force = pressure x area,
volume=area x height).
Distinguish between linear and non-linear relationships on a graph of data.
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 5
CA CONTENT STANDARDS
Grade 8 Focus On Physical Science:
Motion
1. The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position. As a basis for understanding this concept,
students know:
a.
position is defined in relation to some choice of standard reference point and a set of reference directions. [CST]
b.
average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed and that the speed of an object along
the path traveled can vary. [CST]
c.
how to solve problems involving distance, time, and average speed. [CST]
d.
the velocity of an object must be described by specifying both the direction and the speed of an object. [CST]
e.
changes in velocity may be due to changes in speed, direction, or both. [CST]
f.
how to interpret graphs of position versus time and graphs of speed versus time for motion in a single direction.
[CST]
Forces
2. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know:
a.
a force has both direction and magnitude. [CST]
b.
when an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the result is the cumulative effect of all the forces. [CST]
c.
when the forces on an object are balanced, the motion of the object does not change. [CST]
d.
how to identify separately the two or more forces that are acting on a single static object, including gravity, elastic
forces due to tension or compression in matter, and friction. [CST]
e.
when the forces on an object are unbalanced, the object will change its velocity (that is, it will speed up, slow down,
or change direction). [CST]
f.
the greater the mass of an object, the more force is needed to achieve the same rate of change in motion. [CST]
g.
the role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars and the solar system. [CST]
Structure of Matter
3. Elements have distinct properties and atomic structure. All matter is comprised of one or more of over 100
elements. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know:
a.
the structure of the atom and how it is composed of protons, neutrons and electrons. [CST]
b.
compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements. Compounds have properties that are different
from the constituent elements. [CST]
c.
atoms and molecules form solids by building up repeating patterns such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long chain
polymers. [CST]
d.
the states (solid, liquid, gas) of matter depend on molecular motion. [CST]
e.
in solids the atoms are closely locked in position and can only vibrate, in liquids the atoms and molecules are more
loosely connected and can collide with and move past one another, while in gases the atoms or molecules are free to
move independently, colliding frequently. [CST]
f.
how to use the Periodic Table to identify elements in simple compounds. [CST]
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 6
Earth in the Solar System (Earth Science)
4. The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from the study of stars and galaxies, and their
evolution. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know:
a.
galaxies are clusters of billions of stars, and may have different shapes. [CST]
b.
the sun is one of many stars in our own Milky Way galaxy. Stars may differ in size, temperature, and color. [CST]
c.
how to use astronomical units and light years as measures of distance between the sun, stars, and Earth. [CST]
d.
stars are the source of light for all bright objects in outer space. The moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight, not
by their own light. [CST]
e.
the appearance, general composition, relative position and size, and motion of objects in the solar system, including
planets, planetary satellites, comets, and asteroids. [CST]
Reactions
5. Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of molecules.
As a basis for understanding this concept, students know:
a.
reactant atoms and molecules interact to form products with different chemical properties. [CST]
b.
the idea of atoms explains the conservation of matter: in chemical reactions the number of atoms stays the same no
matter how they are arranged, so their total mass stays the same. [CST]
c.
chemical reactions usually liberate heat or absorb heat. [CST]
d.
physical processes include freezing and boiling, in which a material changes form with no chemical reaction. [CST]
e.
how to determine whether a solution is acidic, basic or neutral. [CST]
Chemistry of Living Systems (Life Science)
6. Principles of chemistry underlie the functioning of biological systems. As a basis for understanding this
concept, students know:
a.
carbon, because of its ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements, has a central role in the
chemistry of living organisms. [CST]
b.
living organisms are made of molecules largely consisting of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and
sulfur. [CST, LS10]
c.
living organisms have many different kinds of molecules including small ones such as water and salt, and very large
ones such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins and DNA. [CST, LS10]
Periodic Table
7. The organization of the Periodic Table is based on the properties of the elements and reflects the structure of
atoms. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know:
a.
how to identify regions corresponding to metals, nonmetals and inert gases. [CST]
b.
elements are defined by the number of protons in the nucleus, which is called the atomic number. Different isotopes
of an element have a different number of neutrons in the nucleus. [CST]
c.
substances can be classified by their properties, including melting temperature, density, hardness, heat, and
electrical conductivity. [CST]
Density and Buoyancy
8. All objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid. As a basis for understanding this concept,
students know:
a.
density is mass per unit volume. [CST]
b.
how to calculate the density of substances (regular and irregular solids, and liquids) from measurements of mass and
volume. [CST]
c.
the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid it has displaced. [CST]
d.
how to predict whether an object will float or sink. [CST]
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 7
Note: This section has been moved to 8th grade in Long Beach to accommodate singlesemester 7th grade science programs.
th
Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science)
(CA 7 Grade Standard Set)
6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions. As a basis for understanding this concept,
students know …
a.
visible light is a small band within a very broad electromagnetic spectrum.
b.
that for an object to be seen, light emitted by or scattered from it must be detected by the eye.
c.
light travels in straight lines if the medium it travels through does not change.
d.
how simple lenses are used in a magnifying glass, the eye, a camera, a telescope, and a microscope.
e.
that white light is a mixture of many wavelengths (colors) and that retinal cells react differently to different
wavelengths.
f.
light can be reflected, refracted, transmitted, and absorbed by matter.
g.
the angle of reflection of a light beam is equal to the angle of incidence.
h.
how to compare joints in the body (wrist, shoulder, thigh) with structures used in machines and simple devices
(hinge, ball-and-socket, and sliding joints).
i.
how levers confer mechanical advantage and how the application of this principle applies to the musculoskeletal
system.
j.
that contractions of the heart generate blood pressure and that heart valves prevent backflow of blood in the
circulatory system. [LS10]
Investigation and Experimentation
9. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis
for understanding this concept and addressing the content the other three strands, students should develop
their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:
a.
plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis. [CST]
b.
evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data. [CST, LS10]
c.
distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test. [CST, LS10]
d.
recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationship y=kx and apply this to interpret graphs
constructed from data. [CST]
e.
construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationships between
variables. [CST]
f.
apply simple mathematic relationships to determine a missing quantity in a mathematic expression, given the two
remaining terms (including speed = distance/time, density = mass/volume, force = pressure x area, volume = area x
height). [CST]
g.
distinguish between linear and non-linear relationships on a graph of data. [CST]
CST = Standards assessed on the California Standards Test
th
LS10 = Standards assessed on the 10 grade No Child Left Behind Biology/Life Science Test
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 8
DISTRICT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS:
The Long Beach Unified School District has common assessments and assignments that are required for
eighth grade science. The Performance Standard Criteria are shown in the table below. The objective is to
have all students achieve at or above the Proficient Level and receive a C or better in the course.
Performance level is determined by the average of the assessments or assignments.
Science Performance Standard Criteria
Graded Student Work
Standards-Based Classroom
Assessments
Written Response / Lab Report /
OES
(6 point scale)
Written Response / Lab Report /
OES
(4 point scale)
End-Of-Course Exam
Not Proficient
Partial Proficient
Proficient
Average is a 1
or less than 60%
Average is a 2
or 60% - 69%
Average is a 3
or 70% - 84%
Advanced
Proficient
Average is a 4
or 85% - 100%
Less than 60%
60% - 69%
70% - 84%
85% - 100%
1-2
3
4
5-6
1
2
3
4
Less than 46%
46% - 58%
59% - 72%
73% - 100%
STATE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS:
The California State Board of Education has identified the following performance levels for the California
Standards Test (CST) in 8th Grade Science. The objective of Long Beach Unified School District is to have all
students achieve at or above the Proficient Performance Standard (Level). The table below indicates the
estimated percent correct (based on 2007 CST data) and the Scaled Score (SS) on the Content Standards
Test.
Far Below Basic
Below Basic
Basic
Proficient
Less than 33%
SS 150 – 252
33% - 45%
SS 253 – 299
46% - 58%
SS 300 – 349
59% - 72%
SS 350 – 402
Advanced
Proficient
73% - 100%
SS 403 – 600
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 9
OUTLINE OF CONTENT AND RECOMMENDED TIME ALLOTMENT:
Content sequencing and time allocations are only suggestions and may be adjusted to suit school site
curriculum plans and student needs.
SCIENCE 8
Notes about Glencoe materials:
1. Each Chapter “Fast File” includes lab worksheets, review worksheets, etc. to support the text.
2. The Presentation Disc includes all transparencies so that they can be show using an LCD projector.
3. Video Labs on the “Super DVD” are different from the labs in the textbook. Pause or stop the video before showing
“Expected Outcomes” until the students have conducted their own experiments.
Structure of Matter
15% CST
3. Each of the more than 100 elements have distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of
matter are composed of one or more of the elements.
Standards and
Assessments
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
“Students know…”
 Describe the structure of the
… the structure of the
atom as having mostly empty
atom and know it is
space with a tiny, massive
composed of protons,
nucleus at its center.
neutrons and electrons.

Identify the proton, neutron, and
(3,a)
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Biography of an Atom
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Students draw and label the
structure of an atom.



Focus on PS, 4:1,2
PH FoPS, 14:3 and 18:1
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST:10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
Atom
nucleus
electron
proton
electrical charge
neutron
energy
orbital
mass
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Circle map (brainstorm) of atom
TripleVenn Diagram: proton vs.
neutron vs. electron
Tree Map: structure of atom
Reciprocal Teaching Reading
Strategy: Predicting, Clarifying,
Summarizing and Questioning.
SKILLS FOCUS:
Modeling, evaluation
Evaluate the accuracy and
reproducibility of data.
(I&E 9.b)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Diagramming Atoms
Students practice drawing energy
level diagrams of the first 20
elements.
 Focus on PS, Design Your Own
Lab, “Build an Atom” pp 204-5
 Focus on PS, Launch Lab,
“What’s in the Box?” p 171
 Bohr’s Atom Cards
Students work in groups to
create a “deck” of 20 cards
showing energy level diagrams of
elements 1-20. Arrange cards in
the pattern of the Periodic Table.
Students examine the diagrams
to identify patterns explaining
why the elements are arranged
as they are.
 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “How do
Atoms Differ?” p 203
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “How Big
are the Particles?” p 181
2 Days
Students construct a threedimensional model of an
assigned atom using clay,
Play-Doh, marshmallows,
and/or other soft materials.
This model will be presented
to class as if the student is the
element, speaking in first
person. Information that needs
to be presented:
 name and symbol of
element
 number of protons,
neutrons, and electrons
 how the proton number
makes the element unique
 placement of electrons in
orbitals

electron as the major particles
that make up atoms.
Recall that each element is
made up of one type of atom,
which is determined by the
number of protons in the
nucleus.
Explain that each electron has a
definite energy that keeps it
moving around the positive
nucleus to which it is attracted.
Describe how electrons fill up
orbitals at different energy
levels (which the Bohr “solar”
model oversimplifies).
Explain how the experiments of
Ernest Rutherford and Neils
Bohr helped develop our
understanding of the atom using
indirect evidence; and that
today’s modern equipment,
which can make more direct
observations of the atom, has
confirmed their inferences.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 10
Structure of Matter (cont’d)
15% CST
3. Each of the more than 100 elements have distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of
matter are composed of one or more of the elements.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
… compounds are
formed by combining
two or more different
elements and that
compounds have
properties that are
different from their
constituent elements.
(3,b)
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: What’s the Matter?
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Individuals or pairs are able to
sort elements from compounds
when given cards with
examples of each.
Small groups categorize which
properties are physical and
which are chemical when
given a list or series of pictures
and or descriptions.
Students are given cards with
formulas of either ionic or
covalent bonds. They must
name the elements in each
formula and sort each card by
its type of bonding.
Small groups compare and
contrast ionic and covalent
bonding by dramatization,
cartoon, advertisement, or
poster.
“Students are able to …”
 Explain how ionic bonds form.
 Explain how covalent bonds
form.
 Define compounds as
combinations of two or more
elements that have physical and
chemical properties that are
usually different from that of
their constituent elements.
 Describe examples of ionic
compounds made from metals
and non-metals and organic
(covalent) compounds made
from carbon and other
elements.
(Note: At this point, the focus is
on how and why atoms combine,
not on products and reactants,
nor on balancing equations.
Standards 5a and 5b will address
this again in the context of
chemical reactions.)
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Focus on PS, 5:1
PH FoPS, 14:1, 18:3, 18:4,
and 17:2
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST:10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
compound
chemical bond
ionic bond
covalent bond
chemical reaction
molecule
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: ionic bond vs. covalent bond
Tree Map: chemical bonding,
chemical reactions, ionic bond,
covalent bond, elements,
compounds, metals, and
nonmetals (showing their
connections).
Bridge Map: An element is to a
compound as a ___ is to a ___.
Circle Map: bonding
SKILLS FOCUS:
Modeling, observation,
experimentation
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
(I&E 9.a)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Create models of simple
chemical reactions where
atoms or elements combine to
form molecules. Have students
research the properties of the
elements and the resulting
compound. They may also
research where the reaction
takes place in nature or in human
applications.
(Adapted from CA Science
Framework, p 135. The activity
in the Framework is actually
more relevant to standard 5a and
5b.)
 Focus on PS, Launch Lab,
“Structures Made of Atoms”,
p 215
 Modeling Molecules
Students use molecular model
kits to construct models of ionic
and covalent compounds.
 Focus on PS, Ch 5 Fast File,
“Phlogiston or Oxygen?” p 17
 Focus on PS Lab Manual,
“Chemical Bonds” pp 23-6
 Focus on PS, Presentation Disc
Ch 5, CA Sci8 CIM_Covalent_
Bond.avi, Animation: Covalent
Bonding
 Focus on PS, Presentation Disc
Ch 5, CA Sci8 CIM_Ionic_
Bond.avi, Animation: Ionic
Bonding
5 Days
Small groups are divided into
either ionic or covalent bond
groups. Each group presents a
skit, poster or analogy that
shows, explains, or
demonstrates their particular
bonding process. Examples of
different compounds with their
formulas are presented.
Task Analysis
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 11
Structure of Matter (cont’d)
15% CST
3. Each of the more than 100 elements have distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of
matter are composed of one or more of the elements.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
… atoms and molecules  Identify and describe the
structure of crystals of table salt
form solids by building
as having a regular cubic
up repeating patterns,
structure with sodium and
such as the crystal
chlorine ions alternating in a
structure of NaCl or
three-dimensional array with the
long-chain polymers.
corners of the cubes forming the
(3,c)
lattice.
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
PT: A Salty Situation
(Note: The carbon chemistry that
underlies organic polymers is
specifically addressed in
standard 6a. Specific, important
biological polymers are
addressed in standard 6c.)
Focus on PS, 5:2
PH FoPS, 18:5, 20:1 and 21:2
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST:10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
three-dimensional array
crystal
physical property
lattice
chemical property
organic
solution
polymer
dissolving
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Circle Map: crystals
SKILLS FOCUS:
Modeling, experimentation,
observation
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis
(I&E 9.a)
LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:
 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “Ionic
Radii and Lattice Energies”,
p 239
 Focus on PS, Lab, “Growing
Crystals”, pp 240-1
Note: Students should observe
crystals under the microscope or
polarized material if possible.
 Bond Blob
Combine saturated solution of
sodium borate (Borax) with
polyvinyl acetate (white glue) to
form a Silly Putty-like polymer:
crosslinked polyvinyl acetate.
4 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Small Groups build either a
model of a crystal (like NaCl)
or a model of an organic
polymer to present to the
class. The presentation needs
to explain the “why” of the
particular shape and “how “
this shape contributes to the
chemical and physical
properties.
 Grow crystals from a solution
and explain how this process
leads to the building up of
atoms on a lattice.
 Identify and describe organic
polymers as long, repetitive,
and string like molecules with
atoms of C, H, O, and N.
 Construct models of crystals
and organic polymers.
 Explain how the shape of a
molecule contributes to its
chemical and physical
properties.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 12
Structure of Matter (cont’d)
15% CST
3. Each of the more than 100 elements have distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of
matter are composed of one or more of the elements.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
(Note: This standard provides the
… that in solids the
atoms are closely locked particle level description of states
of matter that helps to explain the
in position and can only
phase changes described in
vibrate; in liquids the
standard 3d.)
atoms and molecules
are more loosely
 Describe how the atoms or
molecules of a solid vibrate, but
connected and can
do not move around, and will
collide with and move
form a pattern that is a balance
past one another; and in
between forces that cause the
gases the atoms and
atoms and molecules to repel
molecules are free to
and be attracted to each other.
move independently,
 Describe how the atoms or
colliding frequently. (3,e)
molecules of a liquid can slide
Focus on PS, 6:1
PH FoPS, 6:3 and 15:1
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST:10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
density
state of matter
solid
liquid
gas
plasma
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Triple Venn Diagram or Double
Bubble Map: solid vs. liquid vs.
gas
Reciprocal Teaching Reading
Strategy using Focus on PS.
Students chart Predicting,
Clarifying, Questioning, and
Summarizing.
Construct large KWL chart in
groups of 3-4
Flow Map of “Disappearing Ice
Cube” lab
SKILLS FOCUS:
Modeling, experimentation
Distinguish between linear and
nonlinear relationships on a graph
of data.
(I&E 9.g)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Launch Lab,
“Model for Particle Movement”,
p 251
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab,
“Observing Fluid Motion”, p 255
 GEMS: Dry Ice Investigations,
Activity 1, Session 3 models
particle motion in solid, liquid,
and gas without using actual dry
ice. (Details re. dry ice storage
and safety are included for the
other activities.)
 Focus on PS, Presentation Disc,
Ch 6, “CA Sci8 CIM_States_of_
M #110.avi”, Animation: particle
motion in plasma, gas, liquid,
solid
4 Days
past one another allowing it to
flow without changing the
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
density of the substance very
CR: Change of State
much meaning that the
molecules are as close to each
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
other in a liquid as they are in a
Small groups create skits to
solid.
demonstrate how motion of

Describe how the atoms or
atoms increases when
molecules of a gas move about
changing from a solid to a
liquid to a gas. As each state
feely and collide randomly with
of matter is being dramatized a
each other and the walls of the
narrator explains the change in
container allowing the density of
the atoms or molecules
gas to be much lower than that
movement.
of a liquid or solid meaning that
the molecules are further apart.
[CST]
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 13
Structure of Matter (cont’d)
15% CST
3. Each of the more than 100 elements have distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of
matter are composed of one or more of the elements.
Standards and
Assessments
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
“Students know…”
 Explain how all molecules are in
… the states of matter
constant motion.
(solid, liquid, gas)
 Describe how the freedom of
depend on molecular
motion increases as a
motion.
(3,d)
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Change of State





(Note: Standard 3e describes the
states of matter at the atomic
level. Standard 5d addresses the
fact that phase changes are a
physical process in contrast to a
chemical process.)
Focus on PS, 6:2
PH FoPS, 6:3, 15:1,
15:2, and 15:4
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST:10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
pressure
sublimation
energy of motion condensation
thermometer
freezing
change of state
evaporation
melting
boiling
vaporization
melting or freezing point
boiling or condensation point
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: temperature vs. thermometer
Circle Map: condensation
Continue with Cornell Notes
SKILLS FOCUS:
Experimentation, graphing,
observation
Distinguish between variable and
controlled parameters in a test.
(I&E 9.c)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “Sensing
Evaporation,” p. 268
 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “Boiling
Point and Pressure,” p. 274
 Focus on PS, Lab, “Change of
State … Liquids,” p.276-7
 Focus on PS, Ch 6 Fast File:
“Water Desalinization”, p. 18
 Focus on PS, Super DVD Video
Lab CH 6, “Testing Viscosity of
Common Liquids”
 LHS GEMS, Dry Ice
Investigations
5 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Small groups create skits,
graphics or demonstrations to
make 2 new vocabulary terms
come alive in a presentation to
class. They need to include
how the motion of the atom
relates to their vocabulary
terms. The assigned new
terms are:
Grp 1 – temperature and
thermometer
Grp 2 – melting and freezing
Grp 3 – sublimation and
condensation
Grp 4 – evaporation and
boiling

substance goes from solid to
liquid to gas.
Define temperature as the
average energy of motion of the
atoms and molecules of a
substance, which is what a
thermometer measures.
Identify melting, vaporization,
sublimation, condensation, and
freezing as changes of state
and evaporation and boiling as
two types of vaporization.
Recall the temperatures at
which water experiences phase
changes (at normal pressure).
Explain that some substances
have very specific melting and
boiling points (listed in
chemistry handbooks), which
can be used to identify them.
Explain that some substances
have more than one stable solid
phase, such as diamond, which
can exist as graphite or
diamond.
Explain how a gain or loss in
energy or changes in pressure
contribute to changes in state
and describe how the molecular
motion of a substance changes
as pressure and/or energy
changes.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 14
Structure of Matter (cont’d)
15% CST
3. Each of the more than 100 elements have distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of
matter are composed of one or more of the elements.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
… how to use the
periodic table to identify
elements in simple
compounds.
(3,f)
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: What’s the Matter?
In groups of four, categorize a
list of atoms by placing them in
their proper groups and
periods. Then list the
characteristic properties of
each group.
Numbered Heads Together:
Ask questions where teams of
4 students must quickly locate
atomic numbers, weights, or
symbols of elements from the
periodic table.
“Students are able to …”
(Note: This standard is just a
reintroduction to the periodic
table – it was first introduced in
rd
th
3 and 5 grades – so avoid
getting too specific here.
Standard set 7 will address more
specific details of the
organization and information
found in the periodic table.)
 Identify elements found in
common, simple compounds.
 Identify the atomic number as
the number of protons in the
nucleus of an atom.
 Explain that the periodic table is
organized in order of increasing
atomic number from left to right
and top to bottom
 Explain that the periodic table is
organized into vertical columns
that contain elements with
similar properties.
 Identify the chemical symbol,
atomic weight, and atomic
number of an element from the
periodic table.
 Explain that different periodic
tables exist with different
information to suit the needs to
different areas of science.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Focus on PS, 7:1
PH FoPS, 16:1 and 18:2
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST:10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
periodic table
atomic number
atomic weight
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: atomic # vs. atomic weight
Circle Map: periodic table
Bridge Map or analogy: periodic
table is to a calendar as a _____is
to a __________.
SKILLS FOCUS:
Analyzing
Construct appropriate graphs from
data and develop quantitative
statements about the relationship
between variables.
(I&E 9.e)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “Can You
Guess the Element?” p. 300
 Periodic Table Comparisons
Students should be given the
opportunity to use the periodic
table for reference and to
compare the information on
different periodic table such as
one use for physicist vs. one
used for chemists.
CA Sci. Framework, p 137
2 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Small groups build assigned
vertical columns of the periodic
table with colored, pre-cut, and
uniformed sized squares of
construction paper. On the
colored square they include
the name and symbol of the
element, atomic #, and atomic
weight. All of the completed
squares are organized to build
a class periodic table.
Task Analysis
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 15
Periodic Table
12% CST
7. The organization of the Periodic Table is based on the properties of the elements and reflects the
structure of atoms.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Review the structure of the
… how to identify
periodic table according to
regions corresponding
properties of the elements.
to metals, nonmetals
o Identify the location of metals on
and inert gases.
(7,a)
the left side of the periodic table,
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Biography of an Atom
In partners, students take
turns finding and pointing to a
specific area of the periodic
table as directed by the
teacher (metals, gases, noble
gases, semimetals), while the
other partner describes the
characteristics of the elements
in that specific area.
\
Focus on PS, 7:1
PH FoPS, Ch 16:1,2,3
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
inert
metal
nonmetal
semimetal
noble gas
reactive
property
semiconductor
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Triple Venn Diagram or Triple
Bubble Map: metal vs. nonmetal
vs. semimetal
with most reactive metals on the
far left.
o Identify the location of nonmetals
on the right of the periodic table,
with the most reactive nonmetals
next to the inert gases on the far
right.
 Explain that scientists use the
term “noble gas” instead of inert
gas, because these elements
can be made to react to form
compounds under special
laboratory conditions.
 Identify the semimetals as
elements with properties typical
of both metals and nonmetals
making them essential as
semiconductors in computer
chips.
 Identify elements that have
been named after famous
scientists or the locations of
laboratories that discovered the
elements.
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Circle Map: noble gas
SKILLS FOCUS:
analyze, justify
Focus on PS, 7:2
(p 309)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Material Brainstorming
Students brainstorm a list of
objects that are commonly made
of metal. For each type of object,
challenge students to think of
other materials the objects could
be made of. Then have students
describe the properties that allow
the materials to be used for each
purpose.
 Focus on PS, Presentation Disc
Ch 7: “CA Sci8
Cim_Periodic_Table.avi”,
Animation: properties of
transition metals
 Focus on PS, Lab Manual,
“Relationships Among Elements”,
p. 43-4
4 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
In small groups have students
respond to questions on the
periodic table using white
boards, such as which
elements are named after:
planets
famous scientists
states and countries.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 16
Periodic Table (cont’d)
12% CST
7. The organization of the Periodic Table is based on the properties of the elements and reflects the
structure of atoms.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Explain that the number of
… each element has a
protons in the nucleus (the
specific number of
atomic number) of an atom
protons in the nucleus
identifies element.
(the atomic number) and
o Explain that atoms with different
each isotope of the
atomic numbers are different
element has a different
elements.
o Explain that even though the
but specific number of
number of protons is fixed for a
neutrons in the nucleus.
given element, the number of
(7,b)
neutrons may vary, forming
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Biography of an Atom
Focus on PS, 4:3
and 7:2
PH FoPS, Ch 16:1
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
atomic number
proton
nucleus
isotope
radioactive
massive
stable
emit
spontaneous
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: element vs. isotope
Circle Map: isotope
SKILLS FOCUS:
organize, classify
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 “Isotope Race”
Student groups make postersized game board with outline of
nucleus and four energy levels.
Students use 3 types of pieces
(coins, dried beans, poker chips,
etc.) to represent protons,
neutrons, and electrons.
Teacher names an isotope (i.e.,
carbon-14) and teams race to
build model correctly.
 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “Visual
Explanation of Half-Life”, p. 312
 Focus on PS, Presentation Disc
Ch 4, “CA Sci8
CIM_Atom_makeup.avi”
Animation: structure of nucleus
 Focus on PS, Super DVD Ch 4
Video Lab “Atomic Structure”
 Focus on PS, Lab Manual,
“Isotopes and Atomic Mass”,
p. 95-6
3 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Partners using a periodic table
explore some of the
differences in the elements
from the information on the
table. First they look at the
masses of the elements
moving from left to right on the
table then they look at the
masses looking from top to
bottom. After they discuss
their findings they are each to
record their new
understanding of the
differences observed on postits and place them on a chart
at the front of the room.
Teacher shares and discusses
these understandings with the
class.
isotopes of the element.
 Identify the isotopes of
hydrogen: the most common
isotope, protium, has one
proton; deuterium has one
proton and one neutron; tritium
has one proton and two
neutrons.
 Describe how some isotopes
are radioactive, meaning that
the nucleus is unstable and can
spontaneously emit particles or
trap an electron to become a
new element with a different
atomic number. (i.e., element
43, technetium, element 86,
radon, and element 92,
uranium, have no stable
isotopes.)
 Explain that the masses of
elements’ atoms in the periodic
table increase from left to right,
and from top to bottom.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 17
Periodic Table (cont’d)
12% CST
7. The organization of the Periodic Table is based on the properties of the elements and reflects the
structure of atoms.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Recall that the physical
… substances can be
properties of substances reflect
classified by their
their chemical composition and
properties, including
atomic structure.
their melting
temperature, density,
 Explain that the melting
temperature or hardness of
hardness, and thermal
elements is related to the forces
and electrical
that hold atoms and molecules
conductivity.
(7,c)
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Biography of an Atom
PT: Density Rocks!
Small groups create a
“Chemical Family Album”. The
album illustrates at least one
characteristic of three
chemical families and one
characteristic of each element
in these families.
 Define density as the mass per
unit volume.
 Explain that density is the result
of both the masses of individual
atoms and the closeness with
which atoms are packed.
 Explain that electrical and
thermal conductivity are depend
on how tightly electrons are held
to individual atoms.
 Explain that metal atoms
arrange in regular patterns in
which some electrons are free
to move from atom to atom,
making both electrical and
thermal conductivity easy.
Focus on PS, Ch 7:1,3
PH FoPS, Ch 16:1,2,3
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
intermolecular force
density
thermal
conductivity
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS
Circle Maps: density and thermal
conductivity
SKILLS FOCUS:
identify cause/effect
LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, ”Which
Parachute”, p. 319
 Focus on PS, Lab, ”Investigating
Physical Changes”, p. 320-1
 Focus on PS, Lab Manual,
”Identifying Metals and
Nonmetals”, p. 93-4
3 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Partners select a metal from
groups 1-13, then describe
themselves as if they were that
metal, including their position
in the periodic table, their
properties (density, electrical
and thermal conductivity, and
how they are used,
together.
 Explain that even slight atomic
differences can cause
dramatically different properties
(i.e., carbon is a solid, even at
very high temperatures, while
nitrogen, the very next element,
is a gas, even at extremely low
temperatures).
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 18
Reactions
12% CST
5. Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of
molecules.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Identify physical and chemical
… physical processes
properties.
include freezing and
 Identify physical changes as
boiling, in which a
changes that do not change the
material changes form
identity of a substance.
with no chemical
 Identify and describe examples
reaction.
(5,d)
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: What’s Cooking?
CR: Change of State
Small groups take a list of
examples of changes and
classify them as physical or
chemical and explain why to the
class or to other small groups.
In small groups, students
perform various teacherprovided activities in which
substances are mixed and
change takes place. Group
members decide if each change
is physical or chemical and
explain why.
last activity listed in right column.)
 Compare and contrast physical
and chemical changes.
(Note: Standard 7c applies
analysis of physical properties in
the context of relationships of
elements in the periodic table.)
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Focus on PS,
Ch 7:3 (physical)
Ch 8:1 (chemical)
KEY VOCABULARY:
PH FoPS, Ch 15:4
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: physical change vs. chemical
change and physical property vs.
chemical property
and 17:1
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
physical change
physical property
chemical property
SKILLS FOCUS:
Experiment
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
(I&E 9.a)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab,
“Chemical / Physical Change”,
p. 345
 Reversing Physical Changes
Students mix iron fillings with
sand and recover the iron using a
magnet to demonstrate that no
chemical change occurred.
CA Science Framework, p. 142
End District Quarter 1 Exam Material
3 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Partners research two examples
of chemical change and two
examples of physical change
and demonstrate to class.
of physical changes including
changes of state such as
freezing and boiling.
 Demonstrate how physical
changes can be reversed. (See
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 19
Reactions
12% CST
5. Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of
molecules.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Explain how when atoms and
… reactant atoms and
molecules react, products are
molecules interact to
made with different chemical
form products with
properties and often different
different chemical
physical properties.
properties.
(5,a)
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: What’s Cooking?
(Note: This standard extends the
content of standard 3b.)
Focus on PS, Ch 8:1
PH FoPS, Ch 17:1
and 17:2
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
chemical reaction
atom
product
molecule
physical property
reactant
chemical property
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: physical properties vs.
chemical properties and atom vs.
molecule
Flow Map: reactants to product(s).
Circle Map: chemical reaction
SKILLS FOCUS:
Experimentation
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
(I&E 9.a)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Design Your Own
Lab, “Dirty Jewelry” p. 366-7
 Focus on PS, Launch Lab, “Can
You See… ?”, p. 335
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab,
“Chemical / Physical Change”,
p. 345
 LHS GEMS, Chemical Reactions
3 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
In small lab groups have
students identify each
chemical in a test tube that will
be part of a chemical reaction
(vinegar & baking soda) and
on a data table record the
physical properties of each
reactant. Pour the vinegar into
the baking soda and record
the observations including a
description of the product.
Compare and contrast the
properties of the reactants and
the product. Have students
write the formulas for the
reactants identifying the
elements and compounds then
write out the formula for the
product. Students record the
reactants in one color and the
product in another color.
Students explain what
happened in this chemical
reaction.
 Perform and explain simple
chemical reactions, identifying
the elements and compounds
involved in those reactions.
 Compare and contrast the
differences in properties
between the reactants and
products of a chemical reaction.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 20
Reactions (cont’d)
12% CST
5. Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of
molecules.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Explain the concept of
… the idea of atoms
conservation of matter, which
explains the
states that matter cannot be
conservation of matter:
created or destroyed in a
In chemical reactions
chemical reaction; the atoms
the number of atoms
are only rearranged.
stays the same no
 Prove the law of conservation of
matter how they are
matter through a lab or
arranged, so their total
demonstration or by modeling
mass stays the same.
the chemical reaction.
(5,b)  Balance simple chemical
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Sweet!
Focus on PS, Ch 8:2
PH FoPS, Ch 17:2
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
conservation of matter
system
balanced chemical equation
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn diagram or Double Bubble
Map: coefficients vs. subscripts
Circle Map: conservation of matter
Flow Map: steps for balancing an
equation
SKILLS FOCUS:
Experimentation, evaluation
Evaluate the accuracy and
reproducibility of data.
(I&E 9.b)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “Where
does the tablet go?” p. 348
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “Burning
of Methane”, p. 357
 Focus on PS, Super DVD, Ch 8
Video Lab, “Designing a Team
Equation”
 Focus on PS, Lab Manual,
“Conservation of Mass,”
p. 47-9
 “Modeling the Carbon Cycle”
Use molecular model kit to
construct 1 glucose and 6
oxygen molecules. Rearrange to
form carbon dioxide and water
molecules. Write the balanced
equation.
Note: Gumdrops and tooth
picks may also work and
various reactions should be
modeled in this activity.
4 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Partners balance teacher
generated equations, then
check their answers with other
partners. Next, each set of
partners selects an equation to
put on a poster or overhead to
present to class or the poster
can be presented as a ‘Stay
and Stray’.
equations, referencing the law
of conservation of matter when
explaining how the equation
balances.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 21
Reactions (cont’d)
12% CST
5. Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of
molecules.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Identify chemical bonds as the
… chemical reactions
energy that holds atoms
usually liberate heat or
together to form molecules.
absorb heat.
(5,c)
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
th
CR: 4 of July Pancake
Breakfast
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Partners present a poster,
demonstration, dramatization or
practical examples of exo- and
endo- reactions.
Small lab groups design an
experiment to decide if a
“chemical reaction” takes place
as the iron in steel wool rusts.
Focus on PS, Ch 8:3
PH FoPS, Ch 14:3,
17:1, and 17:3
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
chemical bond
exothermic
endothermic
release
absorption
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: release vs. absorption and
exothermic reactions vs.
endothermic reactions
Circle Map: chemical bonds
Tree Map: chemical bonds
SKILLS FOCUS:
Graphing, experimentation
Construct appropriate graphs from
data and develop quantitative
statements about the relationship
between the variables. (I&E 9.b)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Data Lab,
“Temperature Change as
Chemicals React”, p. 364
 Activity: Demonstrate hot packs
and cold packs used for athletic
injuries that use chemical
reactions to change temperature.
 LHS GEMS, Chemical Reactions
– very good exothermic reaction
3 Days
In small lab groups, perform
chemical change labs and
identify which chemical reactions
are endothermic and which are
exothermic (e.g., Alka-Seltzer in
water is endo-, yeast in peroxide
is exo-, metal in acid is exo-).
Students record their responses
on a data table.
 Explain that chemical bonds are
made and broken during
chemical reactions resulting in a
release and/or absorption or
energy.
 Define exothermic reactions as
reactions where more energy is
released than absorbed.
 Explain why exothermic
reactions feel warm or even hot.
 Define endothermic reactions as
reactions where more energy is
absorbed than released.
 Explain why endothermic
reactions feel cool or even cold.
 Compare and contrast specific
examples of exothermic and
endothermic reactions.
 Explain why evaporation is not
an endothermic chemical
reaction even though the
process absorbs heat (feels
cool).
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 22
Reactions (cont’d)
12% CST
5. Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of
molecules.
Standards and
Assessments
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
“Students know…”
 Describe the distinctive
… how to determine
properties of acids, bases, and
whether a solution is
neutral substances.
acidic, basic or neutral.
(5,e)  Explain how the pH scale uses
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
PT: Acid or Base?
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
In small lab groups have
students use cabbage juice to
test various solutions in class.
Classify the substances and
chart the results.
In small lab groups students
demonstrate which of 4
solutions is best at cleaning
pennies and whether the pH of
a solution is related to its
cleaning abilities.
Students make a 3-column
chart by folding notebook
paper with 2 folds. Label
columns: Acid, Base or
Neutral. List examples that are
used in class, ones that have
been found at home and ones
researched.
Practical Research: “How to
treat insect bites that are
acidic and those that are
basic”. Zike, Teaching Science
with Foldables.



Focus on PS, Ch 9:2
(9:1 provides background on
solutions and introduces key
vocabulary.)
PH FoPS, Ch 19:2,3
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
acid
pH scale
base
indicator
neutral
litmus paper
concentration
pH meter
hydrogen ion
pH paper
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: acid vs. base
Circle Map: pH scale
SKILLS FOCUS:
Experimentation, comparison
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
(I&E 9.a)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Comparing Indicators
Determine the color ranges of
various indicators (phenol red,
bromthymol blue, universal
indicator, phenolphthalein, etc.)
by testing with adic, base, and
neutral solutions.
 LHS GEMS, Of Cabbages and
Chemistry
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab,
“Determine pH”, p. 406
 Focus on PS, Design Your Own
Lab, “Solubility and pH”, p. 408-9
 Focus on PS, Pres. Disc Ch 9,
“CA Sci8 CIM_Acid_Reactions.avi”,
video of chemical reactions
involving acids
“CA Sci8 CIM_Polar_Moles.avi”,
animation: how water molecules
affect NaCl
 Focus on PS, Super DVD Ch 9
Video Lab, “Testing pH Using
Natural Indicators”
 LHS GEMS, Acid Rain
3 Days
Students make a two- tab
book to compare and contrast
acids and bases. Make a
hamburger fold of notebook
paper and cut the top in the
center from the edge to the
fold line. Flap 1 write Acid in
the center and Flap 2 write
Base. At the bottom of Flap 1
write the numbers 1-7 and on
Flap 2 write out 8-14, which
correspond to the pH scale.
On the inside have students
record their information on
each and give examples of
each.

the concentration of hydrogen
+
ions (H ) in solution to classify
substances as acidic, neutral, or
basic.
Explain how the pH scale to
identifies substances as acids,
bases, or neutral.
Explain how indicators are used
to identify substances as acids
or bases.
Use indicator solutions, pH
paper, pH meters, and/or litmus
paper to identify substances as
acids, bases, or neutral.
Compare and contrast acids
and bases.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 23
Chemistry of Living Systems (Life Science)
5% CST
6. Principles of chemistry underlie the functioning of biological systems.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Describe how carbon is unique
… carbon, because of
in that it easily bonds to itself
its ability to combine in
and to many other elements to
many ways with itself
form a great variety of large
and other elements, has
molecules.
a central role in the
 Explain that a carbon atom will
chemistry of living
make four separate covalent
organisms.
(6,a)
bonds, which can be single,
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Sweet!
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Sweet!
PT: What’s in your Food?
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
combine
covalent
molecule
properties
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
TripleVenn Diagram or Triple
Bubble Map: linear vs. planar vs.
tetrahedral, with examples and
drawings
Circle Map: covalent bonds
Bubble Map: Carbon
SKILLS FOCUS:
describe, model
o Describe and identify linear
carbon molecules, like acetylene
and carbon dioxide.
o Describe and identify planar
carbon molecules, like
formaldehyde, ethylene, and
graphite.
o Describe and identify tetrahedral
carbon molecules, like methane
and carbon tetrachloride.
 Explain that the shapes of
molecules have a great
influence on chemical
properties.
everything from proteins to
DNA, and from fats to bone.
Appx
Time
Focus on PS, Ch 10:1
PH FoPS, Ch 21:1-3
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Construct models of carbon
based molecules by using
commercial modeling kits, or try
gumdrops or marshmallows and
toothpicks
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab,
“Modeling Organic Compounds”,
p. 434
 Focus on PS, Launch Lab, “Life
Chemical”, p. 419
 Hydrocarbon Challenge
Given molecular models (or
gumdrops and toothpicks)
students create models of
hydrocarbons and record
molecular and structural
formulas.
KEY VOCABULARY:
biomass
organic
compound
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Circle Map: organic
SKILLS FOCUS:
observe, experiment
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
(I&E 9.a)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Organic Composition
Demonstration
Teacher may burn organic
material such as bone, wood, or
candles. Hold glass or plate
above a flame to condense
droplets of water, one of the
combustion products. Teacher
can hold a heat-treated glass
beaker or test tube in flames to
collect carbon deposits in the
form of soot. Have students
compare this to the burnt edges
of a hamburger or piece of toast.
CA Science Framework, p. 144
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “Water in
Celery”, p. 425
 Focus on PS, Lab Manual,
“Proteins: Chemistry and
Identification”, p. 69-72
1 Day
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
For 6b & 6c:
Students create a colorful
foldable on the 6 common
elements that make up the
most molecules in living
organisms. Start with a
hotdog fold of notebook paper
and list the six elements on the
front. Open the paper and on
the left list as many molecules
found in living organisms that
are made from these six
elements. On the right side,
explain and describe the
molecules and what they do
for the organism.
PH FoPS, Ch 21:1-3
double, or triple.
 Explain that there are a variety
of shapes for carbon based
molecules:
 Explain that living organisms
… living organisms are
are made up of many atoms,
made of molecules
but that carbon and only five
consisting largely of
other elements make up most of
carbon, hydrogen,
Earth’s biomass.
nitrogen, oxygen,
 Describe how the six common
phosphorus and sulfur.
elements combine in a great
(6,b)
variety of ways to produce
[CST, LS10]
Focus on PS, Ch 10:2
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
3 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Small groups must create,
describe and identify models
of 3 different carbon
molecules. The shapes that
need to be created are:
linear
planar
tetrahedral
These shapes and
descriptions, along with
examples of their
corresponding molecules and
formulas will be presented to
class with an explanation of
how the shapes of the
molecules influence their
chemical properties.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 24
Chemistry of Living Systems (Life Science) (cont’d)
5% CST
6. Principles of chemistry underlie the functioning of biological systems.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
[CST, LS10]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
PT: What’s in your Food?
Focus on PS, 10:1,3
PH FoPS, 21:3
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
carbohydrates
proteins
biochemistry
function
fats
DNA
reactions
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Circle Map: biochemistry
SKILLS FOCUS:
analyze
fats.
 Explain how organisms also
require simple substances such
as water and salt to support
their functioning.
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Lab, “Polarity and
Living Systems”, p. 444-5
 Exploring Simple Compound
Content
Squeeze water from celery or
turnips to demonstrate its
presence. Follow up by asking
how to show the presence of
water in fruits and vegetables, or
how they know that there is salt
in their bodies (perspiration).
CA Science Framework, p. 144
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
(See 6b)
Motion
2 Days
… living organisms have  Explain that living organisms
require a variety of molecules,
many different kinds of
some that contain carbon and
molecules, including
some that do not.
small ones, such as
 Explain that the molecules that
water and salt, and very
make up organisms and control
large ones, such as
biochemical reactions are
carbohydrates, fats,
usually large, like DNA,
proteins and DNA. (6,c)
proteins, carbohydrates and
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
13% CST
1. The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
… position is defined in  Describe the position of a
person or object in relation to a
relation to some choice
standard reference point, this
of standard reference
point is usually called the origin.
point and a set of
 Describe the position of a
reference directions.
person or object using reference
(1,a)
directions, such as in front of, in
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
PT: Marshmallow Catapult
Individual students illustrate
the position of a person or
object in relation to a standard
reference point with labels.
Then write a description of the
position of the person or object
using reference directions.
Focus on PS, Ch 1:1
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
reference point
PH FoPS, Ch.1:1
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Circle Map: reference point
Large KWL charts in groups of 3-4
SKILLS FOCUS:
observe, graph, measure
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
[CST]
(I&E 9.a)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Launch Lab, “Get
From Here to There”, p. 45
 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “Graph
Relative Positions”, p 55
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab,
“Negative Positions”, p 49
1 Day
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
In small groups students take
turns to demo to each other a
standard reference point, then
describe the position of a
person or object in relation to
the reference point by using a
reference direction such as,
away from, behind, in front of,
left, right, or north, south, east,
west.
back of, to the side of, etc.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 25
Motion (cont’d)
13% CST
1. The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
… average speed is the  Calculate speed.
 Apply the modernized version of
total distance traveled
the metric system (International
divided by the total time
Systems of Units) to measure
elapsed and that the
distance and time.
speed of an object along
 Compare and contrast the
the path traveled can
calculations for speed and
vary.
(1,b)
average speed.
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: A Snail’s Tail
CR: Of Parachutes and Apples
Partners calculate speed using
the ISU metric system to
measure distances in m
(meters) and time in s
(seconds). They complete
several teacher created
problems before making up 3
of their own.
described at the bottom of the list of
LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES).
Focus on PS, Ch 1:2
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
speed
PH FoPS, Ch. 1:1
Appx
Time
distance
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: speed vs. average speed
Circle Map: distance
Continue w/ Cornell Notes
SKILLS FOCUS:
predict, observe, apply, measure,
record
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis
(I&E 9.a)
Evaluate the accuracy and
reproducibility of data.
(I&E 9.b)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “Measure
Average Speed”, p. 63
 Focus on PS, Presentation Disc,
Ch 1, CA Sci 8
nCIM_Distance_vs #11D.avi”,
Animation: Graphing Distance vs.
Time
 Average Speed Investigations
Students create experiments
where time and distance are
measured to determine average
speed, results are compared
among students, and accuracy is
evaluated.
CA Science Framework, p. 126-7
3 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Students make study cards
(Flash Cards) of the formulas
used in the Motion Unit. The
first card is:
speed = distance/time
One side of the card is the
formula and the opposite side
explains the formula and gives
an example.
Students will use these
throughout the unit to self- test
and to test their partners.
 Create and perform
experiments to study speed (as
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 26
Motion (cont’d)
13% CST
1. The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Apply the d=rt formula to solve
… how to solve
problems involving distance,
problems involving
time and average speed.
distance, time, and
average speed.
(1,c)  Demonstrate how, given any
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: A Snail’s Tail
CR: Full Throttle
Focus on PS, Ch 1:2
PH FoPS, Ch.1:1
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
distance
rate
time
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Circle Map: rate
SKILLS FOCUS:
apply simple mathematic
relationships to determine a
missing quantity in a mathematic
expression, given the two
remaining terms.
(I&E 9.f)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Applying Math,
p. 62
 Average Speed Variations
Investigation
Students create and perform a
series of experiments to
investigate the effect on average
speed when one condition at a
time is changed.
2 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Students add to their formula
cards the 3 following math
formulas:
d = rt
t = d/r
r = d/t
One side of the card states the
formula while the opposite side
explains the formula and gives
an example. These formulas
can be used with examples
that match but written on an
additional card for a “Mix
Freeze Match” activity.
Partners practice several
teacher-generated problems
that implement all 3 formulas.
Then each partner generates
one and shares. Students
self-test their knowledge and
understanding of the formulas
using their study cards. They,
also, quiz their partners.
two quantities from the d=rt
formula, the third quantity can
be calculated: t=d/r and r=d/t.
 Explain how real, measurable
variables affect one another
when they are connected by an
equation. (LBUSD)
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 27
Motion (cont’d)
13% CST
1. The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position.
Standards and
Assessments
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
“Students know…”
 Define vector quantities as
… the velocity of an
measurable quantities that
object must be
require both the magnitude and
described by specifying
direction.
both the direction and
 Identify the vector quantities of
the speed of an object.
displacement, velocity,
(1,d)
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: A Snail’s Tail
CR: Of Parachutes and Apples
CR: Accelerated Thinking
Focus on PS,
Ch 1:1,2
PH FoPS, Ch.1:1
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
velocity
accleration
vector quantities
magnitude
displacement
force
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or double bubble:
speed vs. velocity
acceleration, and force.
 Contrast vector and non-vector
quantities, such as
displacement vs. distance and
velocity vs. speed.
 Describe and demonstrate how
the direction and strength of a
force may be indicated
graphically by using an arrow.
Circle Map: velocity
SKILLS FOCUS:
observe, apply, model
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Model the meaning of velocity,
specifying both speed and
direction, by simulating the role
of an air traffic controller.
 Focus on PS, Ch 1 Fast File,
“You’ve Been Displaced”, p. 62
3 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Students make a vocabulary
study sheet for self-testing and
partner testing. Make a hotdog
fold and on the front, vertically
list the following vocabulary
words: displacement, velocity,
acceleration, and force. On the
inside right record the
definitions and any illustrations
to help remember.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Partners are given laminated
cards that illustrate the
movement of an object and
they make arrows on the card
to graphically indicate the
direction and strength of the
force. The arrows point in the
direction that the force is being
applied, and its length
indicates magnitude.
 Describe how either a change in
… changes in velocity
speed or a change in direction
may be due to changes
can change velocity.
in speed, direction, or

Define acceleration as any
both.
(1,e)
[CST]

MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Partners demo and define
acceleration using toy cars
and/or balls. Sets of partners
present to the class.

In small groups students
define and demo velocity and
present 3 ways to change the
velocity of an object in motion.
Groups present to each other
and select the best ones to
demo for class.


KEY VOCABULARY:
acceleration
PH FoPS, Ch.1:3
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Circle Map: acceleration
SKILLS FOCUS:
observe, model
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis
(I&E 9.a)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Students design experiments to
show the various ways to cause
changes in velocity.
3 Days
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Accelerated Thinking
change in velocity: speeding up,
slowing down, or changing
direction.
Explain that any time you feel a
force acting on you or “pull” (for
instance, when driving in a car)
an acceleration is occurring.
Demonstrate how to change
velocity by changing the speed
of an object’s motion but not the
direction.
Demonstrate how to change
velocity by changing the
direction of an object’s motion
but not the speed.
Demonstrate how to change
velocity by changing both the
speed and direction of an
object’s motion.
Focus on PS, Ch 1:2
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 28
Motion (cont’d)
13% CST
1. The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Plot and interpret motion graphs
… how to interpret
by plotting position (d) in
graphs of position
distance units (meters,
versus time and graphs
centimeters, miles) on the
of speed versus time for
vertical axis and time (t) in time
motion in a single
units (seconds, minutes, hours)
direction.
(1,f)
on the horizontal axis.
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: A Snail’s Tale
CR: Full Throttle
Pairs interpret motion graphs
(generated by teacher) to the
class, using their new
vocabulary terms.
Partners plot and interpret
graphs of speed vs. time using
the ISU and share with the
class.
v = d/t = rise/run = slope
 Calculate the slope of a position
versus time graph and identify
the numerical answer as the
speed in the units used on the
axes.
 Plot and interpret graphs of
speed (v) versus time (t).
 Calculate the area under a
speed versus time graph and
identify the numerical answer as
the distance traveled by the
object according to the
equation:
Focus on PS, Ch 1:3
PH FoPS, Ch. 1:1 and 1:3
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
horizontal (or x) axis
vertical (or y) axis
slope
area
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or double bubble:
horizontal axis vs. vertical axis
Circle Map: motion graph
SKILLS FOCUS:
graph, interpret, explain
Review the direction of vertical,
horizontal, diagonal.
Construct appropriate graphs from
data and develop quantitative
statements about the relationships
between variables.
(I&E 9.e)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Data Lab,
“Learning from a Graph”, p 73
 Focus on PS, Design Your Own
Lab, “Graphing Motion”, pp 74-75
d = v x t = height x width = area
End District Quarter 2 Exam Material
4 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Students add this fifth formula
to their formula study cards
(Flash Cards):
V = d/t = rise/run = slope
Partners calculate slope and
explain their understanding to
each other, using teacher
generated problems.
 Explain that since speed can be
calculated as v = d/t, with d
being the amount of rise and t
being the amount of run (as
math teachers put it), then
speed is equal to the slope of
the graph. In symbols,
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 29
Forces
13% CST
2. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Model pushes and pulls,
… a force has both
pointing out both the magnitude
direction and magnitude.
and direction of force.
(2,a)
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Focus on PS, Ch 2:1,2
PH FoPS, Ch 2:1,3
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Partners draw an example of
two opposing forces acting on
an object and illustrate one
force overcoming the other.
Then take a measurement of
the distance the object moved
from the point of origin. Give a
value of positive to the
distance if greater distance is
pushed or negative value if
greater distance was pulled.
KEY VOCABULARY:
force
magnitude
direction
friction
Circle Map: Sir Isaac Newton
Circle Map: friction
Tree map of force, push, pull,
magnitude, direction, friction,
arrows
Large KWL chart in groups of 3-4
SKILLS FOCUS:
observe, record, measure
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
(I&E 9.a)
Evaluate the accuracy and
reproducibility of data.
(I&E 9.b)
Focus on PS, 2:1
PH FoPS, Ch 2:2
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Friction Experiments
First, create lab activities that
teach students how to use a
spring scale to measure pulling
forces. (Be careful that they do
not continually pull the spring
scale to and beyond its maximum
reading.) Then, have students
design lab activities to explore
the forces of friction:
- using different surfaces
- using different amounts of
applied forces
- different speeds
 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “Add
Vertical Forces”, p 95
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “Measure
Friction”, p 105
KEY VOCABULARY:
Newton (N)
resulting force
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Vector Diagrams
SKILLS FOCUS:
apply, observe, hypothesize
Apply simple mathematic
relationships to determine a
missing quantity in a mathematic
expression, given the two
remaining terms.
(I&E 9.f)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Science Concepts
Activity, p 107 TE
2 Days
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Tug-of-War
the force magnitudes (positive
force in one direction added to
the negative force value pulling
in the opposite direction) to
determine the resulting
unbalanced force.
 Recall that a Newton of force is
about equal to the weight of half
a stick of butter or of a small
apple.
(per 180
days)
3 Days
[CST]
Appx
Time
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn diagram or double bubble:
magnitude vs. direction
 Explain that the direction and
strength of a force (as with any
vector quantity) can be
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
graphically indicated by using
CR: Tug-of-War
an arrow: (Review from Standard 1d)
 Draw the length of the arrow
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
to be proportional to the
Individuals create a vocabulary
book for the new terms in the
strength (magnitude) of the
Forces Unit, making sure to
force.
include illustrations, examples
 Draw the direction of the
and explanations.
arrow to indicate the direction
The vocabulary book needs to
that the force is applied.
contain illustrations and
 Demonstrate that forces acting
explanations of the use of the
along a line, to the left and to
‘arrow’ in explaining the
direction and strength of a
the right, act either in a positive
force. Show how the arrow is a
direction and are represented in
graphic indicator of any vector
positive quantities or in a
quantity.
negative direction and are
represented as negative
quantities.
 Explain that friction is a reaction
force that opposes motion.
[CST]
 Demonstrate how to assign
… when an object is
positive or negative values to
subject to two or more
force vectors acting in opposite
forces at once, the result
directions along a straight line.
is the cumulative effect

Use simple algebraic addition of
of all the forces.
(2,b)
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 30
Forces (cont’d)
13% CST
2. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Compare and contrast the
… how to identify
weight of an object (how hard it
separately the two or
pushes down on whatever is
more forces that are
beneath it) to the mass of an
acting on a single static
object (how much material it is
object, including gravity,
made of).
elastic forces due to
 Explain that the force of gravity
tension or compression
(what we commonly call the
in matter, and friction.
“weight” of an object) can be
(2,d)
shown as a force vector pointing
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Of Parachutes and Apples
Partners create a demo and
definition of ‘balanced forces’,
explaining the types of forces
acting on the object and why
they are called ‘balanced’. It
should be pointed out that
there is no change in velocity
when the forces are balanced.
These demos are presented to
other partners.
o Explain that when an object is
supported from below, like a
book resting on a table, the
supporting force is an elastic
compression force caused by the
compression of the table’s
molecules, which are resisting
being pushed together.
o Explain that when an object is
supported from above, like a yoyo hanging on a string, the
supporting force is an elastic
tension force caused by the
molecules resistance to being
pulled apart.
 Demonstrate the presence of
friction force by showing that a
gentle horizontal push on a
book that rests on a table does
not move it.
Focus on PS, Ch 2:2
PH FoPS, Ch 2:3 (does not
mention compression force)
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
weight
gravity
force
static
elastic
compression
tension
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: horizontal vs. vertical
Circle Map: balanced forces
SKILLS FOCUS:
identify, predict, draw conclusions
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
(I&E 9.a)
Evaluate the accuracy and
reproducibility of data.
(I&E 9.b)
Distinguish between variable and
controlled parameters in a test.
(I&E 9.c)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Launch Lab, “Feel
the Force”, p 85
 Focus on PS, Design Your Own
Lab, “Comparing Mass and
Weight”, p 117
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “Elastic
Force”, p 102
 Focus on PS, Ch 2 Fast File,
“Weight, Mass, and the Gold
Rush”, p 23
 Focus on PS, Super DVD, Ch 2
Video Lab, “Static and Sliding
Friction”
5 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Partners act out the meanings
of the terms horizontal and
vertical for each other.
toward the center of the Earth
(a.k.a., down).
 Explain that when an object is
dropped the force of gravity
alone causes the velocity to
increase rapidly in the down
direction.
 Explain that an object at rest
must have an upward
supporting force to balance the
force of gravity.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 31
Forces (cont’d)
13% CST
2. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Demonstrate that there is no
… when the forces on
change in the velocity of an
an object are balanced,
object when it is acted upon by
the motion of the object
balanced forces.
does not change. (2,c)
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Tug-of-War
Partners create a demo and
definition of ‘balanced forces’,
explaining the types of forces
acting on the object and why
they are called ‘balanced’. It
should be pointed out that
there is no change in velocity
when the forces are balanced.
These demos are presented to
other partners.
Focus on PS, Ch 2:1
PH FoPS, Ch 2:1
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
friction
vertical
horizontal
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: horizontal vs. vertical
Circle Map: balanced forces
SKILLS FOCUS:
identify, predict, draw conclusions
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
(I&E 9.a)
Evaluate the accuracy and
reproducibility of data.
(I&E 9.b)
Distinguish between variable and
controlled parameters in a test.
(I&E 9.c)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Practice Skills,
Recognize Cause and Effect,
p 91 TE
3 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Partners act out the meanings
of the terms horizontal and
vertical for each other.
o Explain and diagram how a
person sitting in a chair has
balanced forces acting on them
(gravity pulling down, chair/floor
pushing up).
o Demonstrate in a tug of war
game that if there is equal force
from both sides, the rope will not
move.
o Explain and diagram how a car
driving down a straight road at
constant speed has balanced
forces acting on it (Vertical
Forces: gravity pulling down,
road pushing up, Horizontal
Forces: drive wheels pushing
forward, friction pulling
backwards).
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 32
Forces (cont’d)
13% CST
2. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Explain and demonstrate how
… when the forces on
an unbalanced force acting on
an object are
an object at rest causes the
unbalanced, the object
object to move in the direction
will change its velocity
of the applied force.
(that is, it will speed up, (For
instance, when gently pushing
slow down, or change
horizontally on a book resting on a
direction).
(2,e) table, the forces are balanced –
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Of Parachutes and Apples
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Partners demonstrate
examples of balanced and
unbalanced force on an object
at rest, explaining why there is
motion in the direction of the
applied force.
Focus on PS, Ch 2:3
PH FoPS, Ch 2:1,5
KEY VOCABULARY:
unbalanced forces
perpendicular
centripetal force
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
(I&E 9.a)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS: Mini Lab, “Does
Water Exert a Force?”, p 110
 Marble Roller Coasters
Use sections of foam pipe
insulation (cut in half length-wise)
and masking tape to create a
track for a marble. Have
students identify and describe
the different types of acceleration
that the marble experiences, and
the forces responsible for each.
Object Motion
After Force
Unbalanced
Force
Object Motion
Before Force
centripetal force: the force directed
to the center of the circle).
 Explain why an unbalanced
force acting on a moving object
at a non-perpendicular angle to
the path will affect both the
speed and the direction of the
object.
 Predict (roughly) the changes in
velocity if forces are shown to
be acting on an object.
(per 180
days)
SKILLS FOCUS:
identify, predict
 Explain and give an example of
how, for an object in motion, an
unbalanced force acting in the
same direction of the motion will
cause the object to speed up.
 Explain and give an example of
how, for an object in motion, an
unbalanced force acting in the
opposite direction of the motion
will cause the object to slow
down; and if the force continues
the object may slow to a stop or
even begin to move faster in the
opposite direction.
 Explain how when an
unbalanced force that acts
perpendicular to direction to a
moving object (it gets smacked
from the side), the force will
deflect it from its path, changing
its direction but not its speed.
 Explain that if the perpendicular
force is continuous, the object
will travel in a circle (caused by
Appx
Time
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: balanced forces vs.
unbalanced forces
pushing and friction – until the point
where the book begins to move, at
which point the pushing force is no
longer balanced by the friction.)
(A useful image: Picture a train
running down a track. If the engineer
suddenly throws the drive wheels into
reverse, those wheels will spin
backwards while the train continues
forward, but the train will begin to slow
down. Eventually the train would
come to a stop and begin picking up
speed going backwards. Rockets
drifting through space can also be
used as examples.)
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
6 Days
Partners demonstrate how an
unbalanced force can act on
an object in motion. Show
how a force going in the same
direction as the motion causes
the object to speed up or how
a force in the opposite
direction slows the motion.
Students share their
demonstrate to the class.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
NonPerpendicular
Unbalanced
Force
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 33
Forces (cont’d)
13% CST
2. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Recall that when the forces
… the greater the mass
acting on an object are
of an object, the more
unbalanced, the velocity of the
force is needed to
object must change by
achieve the same rate of
increasing, decreasing, or
change in motion. (2,f)
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Tug-of-War
o Give examples and demonstrate
how the larger the unbalanced
force applied, the faster the
velocity of an object will change.
o Give examples and demonstrate
how the greater the mass, the
slower the velocity of an object
will change.
Focus on PS, Ch 2:3
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
acceleration
PH FoPS, Ch 2:2
Appx
Time
deceleration
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: acceleration vs. deceleration
Circle Map: forces
SKILLS FOCUS:
estimate, calculate, analyze
Distinguish between variable and
controlled parameters in a test.
(I&E 9.c)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Solve for
Acceleration, p 109
 Focus on PS, Identifying
Misconceptions, p 109 TE
 Focus on PS, Applying Math,
“Force and Acceleration”, p 115
 Focus on PS, Ch 2 Fast File, “Off
to the Races”, p 24
 Focus on PS, Super DVD, Ch 1,
Video Lab, “Force and
Acceleration”
5 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Small groups create posters of
terms used in the Forces Unit
for a “Stay and Stray”. Each
group is assigned one term
from the following list:
Balanced forces
Unbalanced forces
Acceleration
Deceleration
These posters need to include
definitions and drawings or
pictures that demonstrate a
change in velocity.
changing direction.
 Define acceleration as the rate
of change in velocity.
 Identify cases of acceleration
(speeding up, slowing down, or
changing direction) from
descriptions, demonstrations, or
video clips.
 Determine the direction and
relative magnitude of the
unbalanced force causing an
observed acceleration (or
deceleration).
 Explain how both amount of
mass and magnitude of force
affect acceleration (how quickly
velocity changes).
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 34
Forces (cont’d)
13% CST
2. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity.
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
“Students know…”
 Define gravity as the attraction
… the role of gravity in
of every particle of matter for
forming and maintaining
every other particle of matter.
the shapes of planets,
 Explain that because gravity
stars and the solar
pulls toward the center of
system.
(2,g)
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Of Parachutes and Apples
Create a storyboard describing
the pluses and minuses of
having a machine that can turn
gravity on and off (think about
small scale and big scale.)



Focus on PS, Ch 11:1,
and 12:2,3
PH FoPS, Ch 2:3,5
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
gravity
attraction
planets
orbital
spherical
galaxy
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Circle Map: gravity
objects, it causes large objects
like the Sun, planets, and
moons to be spherical.
Explain that gravity creates
enormous internal pressures
within the Sun and planets.
Explain that gravity holds the
atmosphere on Earth and other
planets, with the greatest
pressure at the surface.
Explain that Isaac Newton
proved that the force that
causes objects to fall to Earth
(gravity) was the same force
that holds the Moon in orbit
around the Earth.
Explain that the same
understanding of how gravity
causes objects to orbit each
other describes how the solar
system, galaxies, and the entire
universe hold together.
Flow Map: gravity (as the concept)
with Sun, planets, Earth, Newton,
and universe on the left and the
effects of gravity listed on right
side.
SKILLS FOCUS:
model, compare, identify
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Science Concepts,
“Scaffolding”, p. 467 TE
Good questions, but answers are
misleading. For second question, a
better answer is, “Gravity changes the
velocity’s direction into a huge curve. At
the orbital distance, if the velocity stays
the same, it will balance gravity’s pull.
The velocity does stay the same,
because there is no friction in outer
space. For the fourth question, change
the answer to, “It would move further
away from the Earth. If it has enough
velocity, it may even escape Earth’s
gravity.
Effect of Gravity
on the Moon’s Path
(Isaac Newton’s Discovery)

Orbital
path of
the Moon
Direction of force of
mutual gravitational
attraction
of Earth and Moon
5 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Students create a Flip Book
with 6 pages:
Title: Gravity
p.1 – definition
p.2 – shaping large objects
p.3 – pressure
p.4 – Sir Isaac Newton
p.5 – gravity/matter/distance
Small groups assigned to
create a poster presentation
on one of the 5 gravity topics.
Students fill in their Flip Books
during the presentations.

Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Path of the Moon if there were
no gravitational attraction.
Standards and
Assessments
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 35
Density and Buoyancy
8% CST
8. All objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Recall that density is calculated
… density is mass per
by dividing the mass of some
unit volume.
(8,a)
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
PT: Density Rocks!
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
PT: Density Rocks!
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
density
mass
volume
units
gram
milliliter
cubic centimeter
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Circle Map:Density
SKILLS FOCUS:
identify units, measure
 Explain that density may be
expressed in any units of mass
and volume.
 Recall that most common units
for density are grams per cubic
3
centimeter (g/cc or g/cm ) for
solids and grams per milliliter
(g/mL) for liquids.
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
(I&E 9.a)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Applying Math,
“Density Equation to find Mass
and Volume”, p. 138
 Density of Water Lab
Student pairs or groups measure
masses of five or more water
samples, each with different
volume. Calculate and compare
density of all samples. Identify
possible sources of error.
3
(Note: 1 cm = 1 mL)
 Determine the volume of a
geometrically regular solid by
measuring with a ruler and
applying the appropriate
geometry formula.
 Determine the volume of an
irregular shaped solid by
measuring water displacement.
Appx
Time
Focus on PS, Ch 3:1
Also, Tools of the
Physical Scientist:
“Graduated Cylinder”,
p. 10
“Triple-beam Balance”,
p. 11
PH FoPS, Ch 3:3 and 14:2
KEY VOCABULARY:
quantity
volume
regular
irregular
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: regular shaped solid vs.
irregular shaped solid
Flow Map: Steps of how to
calculate density of a regular
shaped solid
SKILLS FOCUS:
measure, calculate
Construct appropriate graphs from
data and develop quantitative
statements about the relationships
between variables.
(I&E 9.e)
Apply simple mathematic
relationships to determine a
missing quantity in a mathematic
expression, given the two
remaining terms (including density
= mass/volume).
(I&E 9.f)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Data Lab,
“Calculate Density”, p. 139
 Density Cubes Lab
Obtain cubes of various materials
(metals, plastics, woods) with
similar volumes. Measure and
compare masses and densities.
Extend by determining densities
of irregular shaped solids of
similar the same materials,
determining the volume by
immersion in graduated cylinder.
2 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Lab Skill Test (Practicum):
Students determine the tare
mass of various irregular
objects in containers using the
triple beam balance and
record their calculations. They
then determine volume of the
irregular solids by using water
displacement and calculate the
density. Students are
assessed on measurements
and calculations.
PH FoPS, Ch 3:3
centimeter of a substance has the
same density as a cubic kilometer.)
 Determine mass by placing
… how to calculate the
material on a balance or scale
density of substances
and subtracting the mass of its
(regular and irregular
container.
solids, and liquids) from
measurements of mass  Determine the volume of a liquid
by using a graduated cylinder.
and volume.
(8,b)
[CST]
Focus on PS, Ch 3:1
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
1 Day
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Students make another study
card (Flash Card) for a new
formula:
l x w x h = volume
3
(in cubic centimeters or cm )
Partners measure various
‘regular’ solids to calculate
their volume. They then
measure and record in grams
(g) the mass of the previous
regular solids on the triple
beam balance. Then calculate
and record the density of the
same regular solids using the
density formula: D = m/v
Students make study flash
card for this equation, too.
quantity of material by its
volume.
 Explain that density is
independent of the quantity of
the substance. (i.e., A cubic
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 36
Density and Buoyancy (cont’d)
8% CST
8. All objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
… the buoyant force on  Explain that buoyant force is
equal to the weight of the
an object in a fluid is an
volume of fluid displaced by an
upward force equal to
object.
the weight of the fluid
 Explain that the net force acting
the object has
on a submerged body is the
displaced.
(8,c)
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Focus on PS, Ch 3:2,3
PH FoPS, Ch 3:3
difference between the upward
buoyant force and downward
pull of gravity on the object (the
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
object’s weight).
PT: Whatever Floats Your
 Explain that if a submerged
Boat
solid object weighs less than the
volume of fluid it displaces, the
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
object will rise to the surface
In small groups, students
and float.
measure the volume of various
 Explain that if a submerged
objects then measure the
water the objects displace,
solid object weighs greater than
recording the results in a 3
the volume of fluid it displaces,
column data table: object’s
the object will sink.
name, weight, and displaced

Explain that if the weight of the
water weight. Students need to
object and the volume of fluid it
explain Archimedes’ principle
displaces are the same, the
as they are weighing the
object is said to be neutrally
objects.
buoyant and will not sink or rise
to the surface.
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
PT: Whatever Floats Your
Boat
Discover Activity)
The length of a hydrometer
submerged in an unknown liquid (V)
compared with the length submerged
in water (W) can be used to determine
the density of the unknown liquid
(W/V). The ratio works because the
density of water is 1.0 g/mL.
KEY VOCABULARY:
magnitude
buoyant
values
submerged
Circle Map: buoyancy
SKILLS FOCUS:
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
(I&E 9.a)
Evaluate the accuracy and
reproducibility of data.
(I&E 9.b)
Focus on PS, Ch 3:3
PH FoPS, Ch 3:3
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Launch Lab,
“Beach Ball Under Water”, p. 127
 Focus on PS, Super DVD, Ch 3
Video Lab, “Measuring Buoyant
Force”
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “Buoyant
Force”, p. 149
 Foil Lab
Students use a six-inch square of
aluminum foil to create a “boat”.
Compare buoyancy of boats by
adding pennies until the boat
sinks. The maximum buoyant
force is the weight of the boat
just before sinking.
KEY VOCABULARY:
density
submerged
hydrometer
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Circle Map: hydrometer
SKILLS FOCUS:
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
(I&E 9.a)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Investigation Lab,
“Homemade Hydrometer”,
p. 156-7
 GEMS: Ocean Currents, Activity
4, “Layering Liquids”, p. 71-85
 Focus on PS, Ch 3 Fast File,
“Buoyant Forces”, p. 21 and
“Controlling a Hot-Air Balloon”,
p. 22
 Focus on PS, Lab Manual,
“Floating in Freshwater and in
Ocean Water”, p. 21-2
3 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
In small groups, students are
asked to discuss the sinking of
the Titanic and why they
believe it sank. Then they are
asked to imagine that they are
reporters and have been
asked to write a newspaper
column the day after the
Titanic sank. The column
needs to explain why the
unsinkable ship sank after
striking an iceberg. Remind
students to think about what
they have learned about
density, volume, and buoyancy
when solving this problem and
writing this column. Focus on
PS, Performance Assessment
within text, p. 88.
a fluid is to compare the density
of the substance or object with
the density of the fluid either by
measuring or my looking up
values on a table of densities.
 Explain that if an object is less
dense than the liquid, it will
float.
 Demonstrate or illustrate how
materials with densities greater
than that of a liquid can be
made to float if they can be
shaped to displace a volume of
the liquid equal to their weight
before they submerge
completely.
 Explain how the density of
liquids can be measured by
using a hydrometer. (See p. 82
(per 180
days)
4 Days
[CST]
Appx
Time
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
buoyant vs. submerge
[CST]
 Explain that the most direct way
… how to predict
to predict whether a substance
whether an object will
or solid object will sink or float in
float or sink.
(8,d)
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 37
Earth in the Solar System (Earth Science)
12% CST
4. The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars and galaxies and their
evolution.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
… galaxies are clusters  Explain that stars are not
uniformly distributed throughout
of billions of stars and
the universe, but clustered by
may have different
the billions in galaxies.
shapes.
(4,a)
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: In a Galaxy Far, Far Away
Option: Individual students
build the 3 shapes of the
galaxies using pipe cleaners.
Label and explain each.
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: In a Galaxy Far, Far Away
Outline or make a Flow Map of
the life cycle of a star and
include Illustrations.
Partners using the H-R
diagram, locate several stars
from a given list and explain
the brightness and the
temperature of each.
 Identify the bright band of stars
cutting across the night sky as the
Milky Way galaxy as seen from
Earth, which lies within the disk of
the galaxy.
 Use the Hertzsprung-Russell
(H-R) Diagram to describe and
estimate the age of stars.
o Classify stars according to size,
temperature and color.
o Explain typical life cycles of a
star.
 Explain that light from the Sun
and other stars indicates that the
Sun is a fairly typical star.
 Use a “black-body” temperature
spectrum chart to identify star
colors in order from coolest
temperatures (red) to moderate
temperatures (yellow, like the Sun
at 5,500oC) to hottest
temperatures (blue).
Alternatively, students could explain
the black body radiation spectrum by
describing how, as metal gets heated,
it goes from red hot, to orange, to
yellow, to white hot. Arc welders use
even higher temperatures causing
sparks that give off blue and even
ultraviolet light.
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
galaxy
cluster
elliptical
spiral
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Triple Venn Diagram or Triple
Bubble: irregular vs. elliptical vs.
spiral
Circle Map: galaxy
SKILLS FOCUS:
classify, Infer from evidence
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Photos of Astronomical
Objects:
o www.nasa.gov
o www.space.com
 Focus on PS , Data Lab,
“Universe Expanding”, p. 535
Focus on PS, 12:1
Hertzsprung-Russell
Diagram, p. 515
PH FoPS, Ch 23:2
and 24: 2-4
KEY VOCABULARY:
galactic disk
H-R Diagram
luminosity
black body radiation
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Circle Map: H-R Diagram
SKILLS FOCUS:
classify, draw conclusions from
data
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Design Your Own
Lab; “A Star is Born”, p. 536-7
(Research Project)
 Focus on PS, Lab Manual,
“Absolute and Apparent
Magnitudes”, p. 81-4
4 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Individuals make a 3-Tab
foldable on the life of the stars.
Make a hamburger fold with
notebook paper and make 2
cuts in the top half to have 3
equal size flaps (cut from edge
of paper to center). Label
each flap:
1 – while dwarf
2 – neutron star
3 – black hole
Under each flap write parallel
descriptions of how they are
alike and how they are
different.
PH FoPS, Ch 24:2,4
 Recall that some of the fuzzy
points of light in the sky that
were originally thought to be
stars, are now known to be
distant galaxies.
 Explain that galaxies appear to
form clusters that are separated
by vast expanses of empty
space.
 Describe how galaxies are
classified by their differing sizes
and shapes.
 Draw examples of the most
common galaxy shapes (spiral,
elliptical, irregular).
 Explain how astronomers have
inferred the existence of planets
orbiting some stars.
 Explain that the sun is a star
… the Sun is one of
located on the rim of a typical
many stars in the Milky
spiral galaxy called the Milky Way,
Way galaxy and that
and orbits the galactic center
stars may differ in size,
(which in similar spiral galaxies
temperature, and color.
appears as a bulge of stars in the
(4,b)
middle of the disk).
[CST]
Focus on PS, 12:3
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST:10%.)
2 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Individual students create a 3part foldable to show the 3
most common galaxy shapes:
spiral, elliptical and irregular.
Label, illustrate and explain
each. (Use a pyramid fold and
display.)
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 38
Earth in the Solar System (Earth Science) (cont’d)
12% CST
4. The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars and galaxies and their
evolution.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Explain that distances from
… how to use
astronomical objects are so
astronomical units and
enormous that measurement in
light years as measures
units such as centimeters,
of distance between the
meters, and kilometers are not
Sun, stars, and Earth.
useful. (Similar logic explains why
(4,c)
we do not count our age in seconds,
[CST]
hours, or days.)
15
(one light year (ly) = 9.462 x10
meters, or approximately 6 trillion
miles).
 Explain that the most distant
objects in the universe are
estimated to be 10 to 15 billion
light years from the solar
system.
PH FoPS, Ch 24:2
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
astronomical object
astronomical unit (AU)
interstellar
intergalactic
light year (ly)
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Circle Maps: light year and
astronomical unit
SKILLS FOCUS:
Calculate using scientific notation
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Solar System Scale Model
Students create a scaled drawing
of the solar system using AUs as
the basic measuring unit on cash
register tape or using sidewalk
chalk on a sidewalk or blacktop
area.
CA Science Framework, p. 138
 Focus on PS, Launch Lab,
“Measure Distance”, p. 459
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab,
“Modeling the Size of Nebulae”,
p. 520
 Focus on PS, Super DVD Ch 12
Video Lab, “Measuring Parallax”
 The Effects of Distance
Calculate distances to
astronomical objects in AU and
ly. Explain how these distances
would impact radio signals.
3 Days
 Define astronomical units (AU)
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
as the average distance from
CR: Star Search
the Earth to the Sun (1 AU =
11
1.496x10 meters).
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
 Explain why AUs are useful for
Partners construct a data table
measuring distances within the
that illustrates in AUs the
solar system.
distances between the Sun
 Measure and graph a scaled
and each planet and the
model of the solar system
distances between the planets.
Explain why normal units of
showing distances between the
distance are not used.
Sun and each planet, and
between planets of the solar
system, in astronomical units
(AUs).
 Explain that interstellar and
intergalactic distances need an
even larger unit of length, and
are expressed in terms of how
far light travels in one year
Focus on PS,
11:1 p. 466 (AU)
12:1 p. 509 (ly)
12:3 p. 531 (ly)
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST:10%.)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 39
Earth in the Solar System (Earth Science) (cont’d)
12% CST
4. The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars and galaxies and their
evolution.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Explain that the light energy
… stars are the source
from the Sun and other stars is
of light for all bright
caused by nuclear fusion
objects in outer space
reactions that occur deep inside
and that the Moon and
the stars’ cores.
planets shine by
o List the elements that are most
reflected sunlight, not by
abundant in stars (primarily
hydrogen, a smaller amount of
their own light.
(4,d)
helium, and much smaller amounts
of all the other elements).
[CST]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: In a Galaxy Far, Far Away
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Individuals create a 2-sided
foldable from a hotdog fold:
example:
Side 1
Side 2
Galactic
Luminators
Galactic
Illuminators
SUN
Moon
Add many more examples and
explain why they are sources
of light or reflect light.
 Explain that ancient peoples
observed that some objects in
the night sky were fixed
(constellations) and some were
“wanderers” (planets).
 Explain that careful
observations showed that
planets travel in nearly circular
(slightly elliptical) orbits about
the Sun.
 Distinguish between stars,
which are sources of light
energy, and other bright objects
in outer space that shine by
reflected light, not by their own
light, such as the Moon and
planets.
 List examples of exploratory
space missions that have
yielded information about our
solar system, including
spacecraft flying by or orbiting
astronomical bodies, soft
landing of spacecraft fitted with
instruments, and the visits of
astronauts to the Moon.
Focus on PS, 12:1,2
PH FoPS, Ch 5:3, 16:4,
22:2-4, 23:2, and 24:1,3
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST:10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
nuclear fusion
compression
planets
constellation
eclipses
elliptical
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram: constellation vs.
planets
Circle Map: nuclear fusion
Bubble Map: stars
SKILLS FOCUS:
observe, read charts, research
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “Identify
Elements in a Star”, p. 517
 Focus on PS, Lab Manual,
“Spectral Analysis”, p. 85-7
 History of Space Exploration
Research
Have groups of students
research and report on various
space exploration programs,
highlighting the methods used
and the information gathered.
 Modeling Reflection
Use an eclipse or the phases of
the Moon to show that planets
(and the Moon) do not generate
the light that makes them visible.
 Researching Reflection
Students research and describe
some of the information about
the reflectivity, structure, and
composition of the Moon and the
planets yielded by exploratory
space missions.
 GEMS: Earth, Moon, and Stars
 NASA Solar System Exploration
website, Missions
http://solarsystem.nasa.gov
5 Days
Small Group Creative
Research Mission
presentation:
“Exploratory Space Mission”
 name the mission
 name the spacecraft
 if manned, give names of the
astronauts, or if unmanned
give the destination(s)
 length of mission
 scientific information yielded
 most interesting part of the
mission to the students
 describe various aspects, like
food, free time, excursions
outside the space craft
Give personal opinions on
whether the cost and gains
from the mission are justified
compared with how the money
could have been spent in other
needed programs.
o Explain that nuclear fusion is the
result of small atom nuclei
colliding at high speed (hot
temperature) until they stick
together to form a larger nucleus,
which releases a large amount of
energy.
o Explain how most stars are born
from the gravitational
compression, which heats and
squeezes hydrogen gas until
fusion reaction begins.
o Explain that a stable star has a
balance between the inward pull
of gravity and the outward
pressure from the heat of the
fusion reaction.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 40
Earth in the Solar System (Earth Science) (cont’d)
12% CST
4. The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars and galaxies and their
evolution.
Standards and
Assessments
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
“Students know…”
 Identify the names and relative
… the appearance,
order of orbits of the nine known
general composition,
planets in the solar system.
relative position and
 Recall how the planets compare
size, and motion of
with respect to size, distance
objects in the solar
from the Sun, period of
system, including
revolution about the Sun (length
planets, planetary
of year), period of rotation about
satellites, comets, and
their own axis (length of day),
asteroids.
(4,e)
tilt of axis, composition,
[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: In a Galaxy Far, Far Away

MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Small groups create a
mnemonic for memorizing the
9 planets in their order from
the Sun and each presents
theirs to the class.

Culminating Activity:
“Solar System Trading Cards”
Individuals select 6 objects in
the Solar System: Sun, inner
planet, outer planet, and either
a comet, asteroid or
meteoroid. Each student adds
two more of their choice. One
side of card is the name and
an illustration. The back of the
card contains 5 or more facts
about the object.
Focus on PS, Performance
Assessment book, p.68.


Focus on PS, 11:1,3,4
PH FoPS, Ch 23:1,3-5
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST:10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
orbit
period
revolution
rotation
axis
planet
asteroid
comet
asteroid belt
satellite
moon
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn diagram or Double Bubble
Map: rotation vs. revolution
Circle Map: orbit
SKILLS FOCUS:
research, recall, describe, identify
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Planetary Travel Agency
Groups of students choose a
planet and create a futuristic
travel brochure to their planet,
which includes accommodations
and activities that relate to the
temperature, gravity,
atmosphere, length of day, length
of year, etc., etc.
 NASA Solar System Exploration
website: images, articles, fact
lists, “kid-friendly” section,
missions, etc.
http://solarsystem.nasa.gov
 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “How
Large are the Planets?”, p. 485
 Focus on PS, More to Discover,
Addressing Naïve Conceptions,
p. 744 TE
 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “How do
Craters Appear?”, p. 492
 Focus on PS, Lab, “Model the
Solar System”,
p. 494-5
End District Quarter 3 Exam Material
5 Days
Individuals create a Flip Book
on the 9 planets. It includes
information on their size,
distance from the Sun, period
of revolution about the Sun,
period of rotation about their
own axis, tilt of axis,
composition, atmosphere,
appearance and any other
interesting information
researched. A planet can be
assigned to each group to
research and present. As each
group presents the other
students fill in their Flip Books.
atmosphere, and appearance.
Contrast the inner planets from
the outer planets.
Explain how objects in the solar
system attract toward one
another gravitationally, with the
Sun being, by far, the most
massive object and exerting the
strongest gravitational force.
Identify relatively small objects
made of mostly rock (asteroids)
or the ice of condensed gases
(comets) that also orbit the Sun.
Locate the asteroid belt on a
diagram of the solar system.
Identify the natural objects
orbiting planets as satellites or
moons.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 41
Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science)
0% CST
(CA 7th Grade Standard Set)
6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
… visible light is a small  Draw and label a diagram that
arranges electromagnetic
band within a very broad
waves on a continuum from
electromagnetic
longest to shortest wavelength
spectrum.
(7-6,a)
Focus on PS, Ch 4:2
(p. 189-190, very brief)
and 12:1 (p. 510-511)
absorption spectra of
stars
KEY VOCABULARY:
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Can’t You See it?
PH FoPS, 7:1-2, 9:1-2,
and 10:2
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: nanometer vs. wavelength
Partners use prisms to
disperse white light into colors
of the spectrum. Each student
then diagrams and explains
the results.
Small groups create a poster
with pictures relating to radio
waves, microwaves, infrared
waves, visible light, ultraviolet
rays, x-rays, and gamma rays.
They are to include written
descriptions of these waves
and their applications. They
should also include any
associated dangers.
(per 180
days)
electromagnetic (EM) spectrum
wave
infrared
continuum
radiation
wavelength
nanometer (nm)
frequency
Circle Map: electromagnetic
spectrum
SKILLS FOCUS:
Apply simple mathematic
relationships to determine a
missing quantity in a mathematic
expression, given the two
remaining terms (including speed
= distance/time = f).
(I&E 9.f)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 GEMS: Invisible Universe
4 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Class creates a giant EM
spectrum. Small groups are
each assigned a portion of the
spectrum to create visuals and
explanations to share with the
class. Finished product can be
posted in class or hallway.
(electromagnetic spectrum).
 Explain that visible light is a
very small band within a very
broad electromagnetic (EM)
spectrum.
 Describe some common
applications of EM waves based
on their wavelengths, including
AM and FM radio, television,
radar, microwaves, and infrared
radiation.
 Explain that the human eye can
see wavelengths from about
800 nanometers (0.000 000 8
meter) that appear red, to 400
nanometers (0.000 000 4 meter)
that appear blue/violet.
 Describe how the colors
(ROYGBIV) in the visible
spectrum are not discrete, but
overlap each other as a
continuous spectrum.
Appx
Time
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 42
Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science) (cont’d)
0% CST
(CA 7th Grade Standard Set)
6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Explain that for an object to be
… that for an object to
seen, light emitted from a
be seen, light emitted by
luminous object, or scattered by
or scattered from it must
an illuminated object, must be
be detected by the eye.
detected by the eye.
(7-6,b)
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Can’t You See it?
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Partners sort cards by
examples of luminous objects
and illuminated objects. They
explain to each other why
each example is placed in the
particular stack.
 Compare the color and
brightness of light emitted from
various luminous objects (i.e.,
the Sun, fluorescent light,
incandescent bulb, etc.)
NOTE: Remind students to never
observe the Sun directly or they may
permanently damage their vision.
 explanation of rods and cones
 explanation of how light is
converted to electrical impulses.
Small groups present posters
to the class.
Focus on PS, Not
Addressed
PH FoPS, 7:3, 9:3,
and 10:1-4
PH FoLS, 22:3-4
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
emit
emission
luminous
illuminate
transparent
cornea
retina
lens
pupil
rod cells
cone cells
visual cortex
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: rod cells vs. cone cells and
luminous vs. illuminate
Brace Map: Eye and its structures
Flow Map: process of vision
SKILLS FOCUS:
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
(I&E 9.a)
Evaluate the accuracy and
reproducibility of data.
(I&E 9.b)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Cow / Sheep Eye Dissection
 GEMS: Color Analyzers
 “Our Sense of Sight: Part 1, Eye
Anatomy and Function” Web
site with background information,
diagrams, and lab activities from
Neuroscience for Kids.
http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/
eyetr.html
4 Days
 Describe how illuminating light
is absorbed, reflected, or
refracted by an illuminated
Small groups assign each
object to impart color and
person a structure of the eye
brightness.
to research. Then using a
 Demonstrate how the color of
diagram of the eye, each
an object depends on the
describes the part and how it
source of the light and the way
functions in the process of
the object interacts with it.
vision.
 Describe how light interacts with
Small group creates a poster
the cornea, pupil, and lens to
of how an image is seen by
create an image on the retina.
the eye from the moment the

Compare the structure and
eye picks up the image to the
function of the receptors on the
point when it reaches the
visual cortex of the brain. The
retina – rod cells and cone cells.
poster needs to include the
 Explain that the receptors on
following:
the retina convert light into
 illustrations with labels of each eye
electrical impulses that are
structure
transferred by the optic nerve to
 explanation of the function of each
the visual cortex of the brain.
structure
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 43
Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science) (cont’d)
0% CST
(CA 7th Grade Standard Set)
6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.
Standards and
Assessments
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
“Students know…”
… light travels in straight  Explain that in a vacuum or
uniformly transparent material,
lines if the medium it
light travels in straight lines.
travels through does not

Demonstrate that light travels in
change.
(7-6,c)
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
PT: The A-maze-ing Path of
Light
CR: The Cat Food Bandit
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Partners demo refraction and
explain why objects such as
pencils look as if they are
bending when partially placed
in water.



Focus on PS, Not
Addressed
PH FoPS, 7:3, 9:1,
and 10:2
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
uniformly
transparent
medium
optical
vacuum
refract
interface
density
index of refraction
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: vacuum vs. medium
Circle Map: refraction
SKILLS FOCUS:
observe, infer
Construct appropriate graphs from
data and develop quantitative
statements about the relationship
between variables.
(I&E 9.e)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Light Bending Explorations
Students explore the light
bending properties of various
transparent objects. For
instance, by observing a pencil
placed in a glass of water from
various vantage points, students
can confirm that the path of light
changes direction as it passes
from one medium to another.
CA Sci. Framework, p 120
 Light Bending Demonstrations
Demonstrate how mixing various
clear liquids (water, alcohol,
mineral oil, karo syrup) or
observing the air above heat
sources (candle, Bunsen burner)
show how density changes in
fluids bend light.
CA Sci. Framework, p 120
2 Days

straight lines if the medium it
travels through does not
change.
Describe how at the interface
between two media or between
a vacuum and a medium, light
rays will bend if they enter at an
angle other than perpendicular
to the interface.
Explain what happens to the
path of light when light travels
from one transparent medium
(such as air) into another
transparent medium with
different optical properties (such
as water).
Explain that transparent
materials, such as air and
water, may have differing
densities that cause light to
bend as it passes through the
material.
Explain that air heated by a
campfire can cause objects to
shimmer and that stars appear
to twinkle because of variations
in the density of air.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 44
Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science) (cont’d)
0% CST
(CA 7th Grade Standard Set)
6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 List several uses for simple
… how simple lenses
lenses including magnifying
are used in a magnifying
glasses, cameras, telescopes,
glass, the eye, a
microscopes, and the eye.
camera, a telescope,
 Demonstrate how combinations
and a microscope.
of lenses are used in telescopes
(7-6,d)
and microscopes to magnify
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
PT: The A-maze-ing Path of
Light
Students create a foldable to
compare and contrast the eye
to a camera.
refraction is different for each
color.
 Describe that the closely
spaced gaps in a diffraction
grating can separate white light
into its component colors
because of constructive
interference.
 Explain that the human
perception of color is due to the
presence of the cone cells in the
retina.
 Explain how full-color printing is
achieved using just 4 ink colors
printed in dot combinations too
small and close for the human
eye to resolve.
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
convex lens
concave lens
converging
diverging
optic
focal length
virtual image
real image
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: concave lens vs. convex lens
Circle Map: focal length
SKILLS FOCUS:
diagram, measure, investigate
Evaluate the accuracy and
reproducibility of data.
(I&E 9.b)
Focus on PS, Not
Addressed
PH FoPS, 7:2,3 9:2,3
and 10:2-4
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Modeling the Eye’s Lens
Students use a simple magnifier
to show how the cornea and lens
transform diverging light rays
from an object into rays of light
converging to form a focused
image. This can be done by
focusing light from ceiling lights
onto their desktop or by focusing
light from windows or doorway
onto a wall. Measuring the
distance from the lens to the
image gives the focal length of
the lens.
CA Science Framework, p. 121
 GEMS: Microscope Explorations
(includes several activities with
hand lenses and other
magnifiers)
 GEMS: More than Magnifiers
KEY VOCABULARY:
refraction
diffraction grating
prism
resolve
constructive interference
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Circle Map: prism
Magic Boxes: all Key Vocabulary
SKILLS FOCUS:
observe
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
(I&E 9.a)
Distinguish between linear and
non-linear relationships on a graph
of data.
(I&E 9.g)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
3 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Partners create a poster that
represents the spectrum of
visible light from the longest to
the shortest wavelength
(ROYGBIV). On the poster
each wavelength is labeled by
its length and the relationship
of the color to the angle of
refraction is explained.
PH FoPS, 7:3 and 10:2,4,5
objects.
 Diagram how the cornea and
lens of the eye take diverging
light rays from an object and
make them converge on the
retina.
 Determine the focal length of a
lens by measuring the distance
from the lens to the image it
forms.
 Demonstrate and explain how a
simple lens forms a magnified
virtual image when objects
viewed at a distance closer than
the lens’ focal length – like a
microscope.
 Demonstrate and explain how a
simple lens forms an inverted
real image that can be projected
onto surfaces when an object is
viewed from a distance longer
than the lens’ focal length – like
a camera.
 Explain that white (visible) light
… that white light is a
may be dispersed into a
mixture of many
spectrum of colors from red with
wavelengths (colors)
the longest wavelength to violet
and that retinal cells
with the shortest wavelength.
react differently to
 Explain that a prism disperses
different wavelengths.
white light into colors of the
(7-6,e)
spectrum because the angle of
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: The Eyes Have it
Focus on PS, Not
Addressed
Connections
3 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Small groups decide to do
research on either the
microscope or the camera to
present to class. They need to
use a model in their
presentation and to identify
each part from the model or an
illustration and explain its
function and applications.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 45
Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science) (cont’d)
0% CST
(CA 7th Grade Standard Set)
6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
… light can be reflected,  Define each of the interactions
of light with matter: reflection,
refracted, transmitted,
refraction, transmission, and
and absorbed by matter.
absorption.
(7-6,f)
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
PT: The A-maze-ing Path of
Light
CR: The Cat Food Bandit
CR: The Eyes Have it
Students make a 2–Tab Flap
(hamburger fold) foldable to
compare and contrast the
terms: reflected light and
refracted light.
Partners present demos and
explanations of how light
changes when hitting smooth
or rough surfaces.
Focus on PS, Not
Addressed
PH FoPS, 7:3 and 10:1-3
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
reflection
transmission
absorption
reemission
re-emit
optical properties
angle of incidence
angle of reflection
opaque
translucent
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Triple Venn Diagram or Triple
Bubble Map: opaque vs.
translucent vs. transparent with
examples of each.
Circle Map: transmit
Magic Boxes: reflection, refraction,
transmission, and absorption
SKILLS FOCUS:
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
(I&E 9.a)
Distinguish between variable and
controlled parameters in a test.
(I&E 9.c)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Defining by Observing
Students compare the abilities of
opaque, translucent, and
transparent materials to absorb
and scatter light. Students then
create, share, and compare
definitions. Adapted from the
CA Science Framework, p. 122
4 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Small groups present, with
explanations and
demonstrations, the terms
used in their ‘Magic Box’ (in
the Graphic Organizers).
 Demonstrate and explain that
when light rays encounter a
surface between two media,
such as air and glass, the light
may be refracted, reflected, or
both at the surface.
 Explain that light is transmitted
through a transparent medium
the atoms of the medium absorb
and reemit the light energy.
 Explain that light travels fastest
through vacuum and
progressively slower through
more optically dense materials
(diamond is the most optically
dense transparent material).
 Explain that light changes
direction (refracts) when going
from one medium to another
because it changes speed, as
long as the light does not hit
perpendicular to the surface, in
which case it will slow down (or
speed up) but continue going
straight.
 Explain and give examples of
how impurities or imperfections
in transparent materials cause
light to be scattered.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 46
Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science) (cont’d)
0% CST
(CA 7th Grade Standard Set)
6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
… the angle of reflection  Demonstrate how to draw a
normal line perpendicular to the
of a light beam is equal
surface of a reflective surface
to the angle of
on a diagram.
incidence.
(7-6,g)
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
PT: The A-maze-ing Path of
Light
CR: The Cat Food Bandit
CR: The Eyes Have it
Focus on PS, Not
Addressed
PH FoPS, 7:3 and 10:1
Sample “Light Race”:
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
normal line
perpendicular
angle of incidence
angle of reflection
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
Map: angle of incidence vs. angle
of reflection
SKILLS FOCUS:
use a protractor
x
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Light Race
On a piece of butcher paper,
students draw a start circle and a
finish “x” at opposite ends. Then
students use protractors and
string or meter sticks to set up
three plane mirrors (attached to
blocks) between the start and
finish. When complete, the
teacher uses a laser pointer to
see if the beam will complete the
race.
2 Days
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Students make a 2-tab
vocabulary book for ‘angle of
reflection’ and ‘angle of
incidence’.
 fold paper like a hamburger
 cut front of paper in half from the
edge to the fold
 label each flap with the term
 on the back of each half write the
corresponding definition
 across from the definition on the
back use a ruler to draw an
example of each angle and label
Explain how to measure the
angle from the perpendicular
line.
 Diagram how a light beam
reflecting off of a shiny surface
forms a reflected angle equal to
the incident angle (both
measured from the normal line).
 Explain how this applies to real
life situations (i.e., adjusting
mirrors in a car, shooting pool,
or avoiding glare).
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 47
Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science) (cont’d)
0% CST
(CA 7th Grade Standard Set)
6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.
Standards and
Assessments
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
“Students know…”
 Recall that Archimedes first
… how to compare
describes levers as a rigid rod
joints in the body (wrist,
that is able to rotate around a
shoulder, thigh) with
fixed pivot point called a
structures used in
fulcrum.
machines and simple
 Identify the three classes of
devices (hinge, ball-andlevers.
socket, and sliding
 Identify various examples of
joints).
(7-6,h)
levers, pointing out the fulcrum,
Students construct a Flip Book
for the joints and hinges in
body. Students are to illustrate
at least three (hinge, ball-andsocket, and sliding) and
explain their range of motion.
Then compare it to one of the
three classes of levers. Label
the fulcrum, input, and output
for each joint and hinge.
Focus on PS, Not
Addressed
PH FoPS, 2:1,2
and 4:1,3,4
1st Class
2nd Class
input point, and output point.
(i.e., a rake is a third class lever
where the top hand is the
3rd Class
fulcrum, the input point is the
lower hand, and the output point
is bottom of the rake.)
 Define work as force applied
times the distance over which it
is applied, or W = F x d.
st
 Explain and model how 1 and
nd
2 class levers can give a
mechanical advantage when
lifting heavy objects according
to the principle:
input W = output W

small F x LARGE d = LARGE F x small d
 A small input force applied over
a long distance can generate a
large output force over a small
distance.
 Explain that joints in the human
body act as fulcrums for the
bones acting as levers, while
the muscles provide the force.
 Identify arm and leg muscles as
rd
examples of 3 class levers that
work the opposite of gaining
mechanical advantage in that
they amplify a large force
applied by muscle over a short
distance into long, rapid motions
such as running or swinging a
baseball bat.
 Compare the joints in the wrist,
shoulder, and thigh with
structures used in machines
and simple devices like a hinge,
ball-and-socket, and sliding
joints.
Connections
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
lever
fulcrum
force
work
rigid
apply
input
output
amplify
rod
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Venn Diagram or Double Bubble
lever vs. fulcrum
Circle Map: force
SKILLS FOCUS:
model, classify
Apply simple mathematic
relationships to determine a
missing quantity in a mathematic
expression, given the two
remaining terms (Word = Force x
distance).
(I&E 9.f)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
4 Days
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
OES:
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Students create a 3-flap
foldable for the 3 Classes of
Levers. Fold paper like a
hamburger and divide the top
half evenly into 3 sections and
make two cuts from the edge
to the fold. Label each of the 3
st
nd
rd
Flaps, 1 , 2 , and 3 Class
Lever, and draw its example.
On the back of each flap
describe the lever and how it
increases mechanical
advantage. On the back page
across from its flap illustrate
an example of the lever being
used. Label its fulcrum, input
and output. In small groups
have students present
foldables and give feedback.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 48
Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science) (cont’d)
0% CST
(CA 7th Grade Standard Set)
6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
 Recall that a bone acts as a
… how levers confer
lever and a joint as the fulcrum,
mechanical advantage
while muscles supply the force
and how the application
and connective tissue transfers
of this principle applies
the force to specific places that
to the musculoskeletal
give an individual leverage for
system.
(7-6,i)
motions.
Focus on PS, Not
Addressed
PH FoPS, 4:1-4
(All I&E standards may be
assessed on 8th Grade CST: 10%.)
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
mechanical advantage
motion
machine
leverage
simple machine
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Circle Map: mechanical advantage
with examples
SKILLS FOCUS:
build, explore
 Explain how levers can be used
to take advantage of force or
speed.
 Build levers and hinges to show
how levers may be used to
increase force at the expense of
distance (like a crowbar) or
increase distance at the
expense of force (hand powered
catapults, for instance).
Plan and conduct a scientific
investigation to test a hypothesis.
(I&E 9.a)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Law of the Lever Explorations
Students explore the three types
of levers using meter sticks,
weight holders, hooked weights,
a pivoting support, and spring
scales. They should record their
observations, then organize and
summarize them, making
applications to practical, real
world levers.
Focus on PS, Not
Addressed
PH FoPS, 2:1,2,4
and 3:1,2
KEY VOCABULARY:
contraction
pressure
squeeze
physiology
valve
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS:
Circle Map: contraction
SKILLS FOCUS:
Construct appropriate graphs from
data and develop quantitative
statements about the relationships
between variables.
(I&E 9.e)
LABS / DEMOS / VISUALS:
 Heart Research
Students can study a model of
the heart (available at the SMRC)
or do research to learn more
about the physiology of the heart.
CA Science Framework, p. 123
process of blood flowing
through the heart. Each group
presents to class.
Also include 3 designated lessons of state mandated health education
from Project ALERT
Materials and training are available through the Health Curriculum Office (Ext 2967).
2 Days
If time permits:
 Define and give examples of the
other types of simple machines.
 Make examples of various
simple machines and explain
how it gives a mechanical
advantage.
 Recall that the heart is a pump
… that contractions of
in which blood enters a
the heart generate blood
chamber through a blood
pressure and that heart
vessel.
valves prevent backflow
 Explain how a valve closes off a
of blood in the
blood vessel to prevent blood
circulatory system.
from flowing in the wrong
(7-6,j)
direction.

Define pressure as the force per
[LS10]
unit of area and is measured in
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
various units, such as
OES:
millimeters of mercury (mmHg).
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
 Explain that when the heart
Partners research and present
muscle contracts, it squeezes
“Why we have valves in the
the blood (increases the
heart”.
pressure in the chamber), which
Small groups create
forces the blood into another
simulations to explain the
blood vessel.
Connections
3 Days
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
OES:
MODIFIED ASSESSMENTS:
Small groups assigned to
present one of the 3 classes of
levers. Each group builds and
presents one class of lever in
detail. They explain how levers
offer mechanical advantage
and give several examples.
Also, they relate their class of
lever to a particular joint in the
body pointing out the bone as
the lever and the joint as the
fulcrum.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 49
APPLICATION OF COURSE CONTENT: Career Connections
Related Major Skills & Characteristics – objective observation, careful measurement, curiosity,
problem solving, organizational skills, numerical reasoning, ability to analyze & interpret data, critical
thinking, reading comprehension, concise and accurate communication skills, computer literacy, logical
thinking, team skills, testing skills, practical safety awareness, evidence evaluating
Related Careers – Students who continue in the sciences can prepare for the following careers:
Aeronautical Engineer
(Rocket Scientist)
Analytical Chemist
Astronaut
Astronomer
Automotive Engineer
Biochemist
Biotechnologist
Chemical Engineer
Chemist
Electrical Engineer
Fire Fighter
Geneticist
Materials Scientist
Mechanical Engineer
Medical Researcher
Nuclear Physicist
Nurse
Physician
Physicist
Professor
Quality Control Specialist
Radiologist
Science Fiction Writer
Teacher
Technical Editor
Transportation Engineer
METHODS:
Lesson Design & Delivery: Teachers will incorporate these components of lesson design during direct
instruction and inquiry activities. The order of components is flexible, depending on the teacher’s vision for the
individual lesson. For instance, the objective and purpose, while present in the teacher’s lesson plan, are not made
known to the students at the beginning of an inquiry lesson.
Anticipatory Set
Objective
Essential
Standard Reference
Elements of
Purpose
Input
Effective
Modeling
Instruction
Check for Understanding
Model for Lesson Design Guided Practice
Using Task Analysis
Closure
Independent Practice
Some components may occur once in a lesson, but others will recur many times. Checking for understanding occurs
continually; input, modeling, guided practice and closure may occur several times. There may even be more than one
anticipatory set when more than one content piece is introduced.
Active Participation: Teachers will incorporate the principles of active participation and specific strategies to
ensure consistent, simultaneous involvement of the minds of all learners in the classroom. Teachers should include
both covert and overt active participation strategies, incorporating cooperative learning structures and brain research.
Some of the possible active participation strategies include:
OVERT
(Oral)
COVERT




Recall
Imagine
Observe
Consider






Pair/Share
Idea Wave
Choral Response
Give One, Get One
Socratic Seminar
Cooperative Discussion
Groups (i.e. Talking Chips,
Gambit Chips)
OVERT
(Written)





Restate in Journals / Notes
Response Boards
Graphic Organizers
Folded Paper
Ticket Out of Class
OVERT
(Gestures)




Hand Signals
Model with Manipulatives
Stand up / Sit down
Point to Examples
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 50
Baldridge Quality Tools: Students can become more positively involved in their education through goal setting,
self-assessment, and data tracking and analysis by making use of the following strategies:
BALDRIDGE TOOL
PURPOSES
Affinity Diagram
Flowchart
Force Field Diagram
Issues / Ideas Bin
– finding consensus, organizing complex information
– describing a process, planning a project, identifying problem steps in a process
– identifying obstacles, finding causes and solutions to problems
– handling individual questions/requests without stopping a group activity, providing
anonymous input, obtaining diverse input in specific areas.
– tracking goals and actual results
– tracking improvement efforts, identifying opportunities for change, finding out what’s
working and what’s not working in a process, procedure, activity, etc.
– displaying trends for goal setting
Data Folder
Plus / Delta
Class Data Graphs
Learning styles and learning challenges of your students may be addressed by implementing
combinations of the following:
Reading Strategies in Science








Learning Logs
Pre-teaching
Vocabulary
Pre-reading
Text Structures
Trail Markers
Reciprocal Teaching
Functional Text
SDAIE Strategies for English
Learners
Differentiation for Advanced
Learners







Curriculum Compacting
Tiered Assignments
Flexible Grouping
Acceleration
Depth and Complexity
Independent Study



Current Events
Peer Teaching
Guest Speakers








Tapping/Building Prior
Knowledge (Graphic
Organizers, Schema)
Grouping Strategies
Multiple Intelligences
Adapt the Text
Interactive Learning
(Manipulatives, Visuals)
Acquisition Levels
Language Sensitivity
Lower the Affective Filter
(including Processing Time)
Home/School Connection
(including Cultural Aspects)
Significant, Proven Science Strategies for ALL Science Students



Hands-On Labs
Inquiry Activities
Written/Oral Presentations



Short/Long-term projects
Essential Questions
Summarization
Please note that these strategies often overlap and should not be limited to specifically defined courses or student populations.
MATERIALS:
Basic Textbook and Supplementary Materials: Glencoe Science: Focus on Physical Science (CA Grade 8),
Glencoe McGraw Hill © 2007
eguidance.com web site for exploring careers
safety equipment: goggles, latex gloves, fire extinguisher
glassware: flasks, beakers, test tubes, etc.
measuring devices: triple beam balance, rulers, volumetric containers
chemical reagents
microviewers, hand lenses
appropriate technology
 Many items are available through Science/Math Resource Center (SMRC).
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 51
SUPPORT FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS:
Resources Accompanying the Basic Text:
Printed Study Guide (chapter summaries) available in five languages
Student workbooks available in Spanish
Text chapters on audiocassette available in English and Spanish
Unit review videos available in English and Spanish
Suggested alternate/supplemental activities geared for ELL’s
 Hands-on activities and projects
 Supplemental audio/visual
content materials
 Computer resources available
through software and the
internet





Newspapers and magazines
Guest speakers
Posters and models
Graphs and data tables
Music and songs
RESOURCES:
Documents
 Science Framework: .............. http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/fd/documents/scienceframework.pdf
[or find it posted in sections at the LBUSD Science Office website]






CST / NCLB Test Blueprints: ............................ http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/blueprints.asp
CST Reference Sheets: ...................................... http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/cstsciref.asp
CST Released Test Questions ............................ http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/css05rtq.asp
National Science Standards: .................... http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/nses/html/
Science Safety Handbook for CA Public Schools (1999)
can be ordered from the CDE at .................................... http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/rc/
LBUSD Approved Chemicals List, Chemical Hygiene Plan, and Science Fair Resources:
http://www.lbusd.k12.ca.us/Main_Offices/Curriculum/Areas/Science/teacher_resources.cfm
District Offices
 Science Curriculum Office
o

Science / Math Resource Center (SMRC)
o


(562) 997-8000 (ext. 2965)
o
o
wood shop / lumber room
copying, enlarging, and laminating
(562) 997-8000 (ext. 7145)
videos for check out to fit the curriculum (see your librarian for current catalogs)
district TV channels programming
Program Assistance for
(562) 997-8000 (ext. 8031)
Language Minority Students
technical assistance and professional development for English Language Development (ELD) and Specially
Designed Academic Instruction In English (SDAIE)
assistance in the implementation and maintenance of programs addressing the needs of English Language
Learners (ELLs)
PALMS Office
o
o

standards-based instructional materials
content integrated instructional materials
monthly theme-based literacy
supplements for science
Office of Multimedia Services (OMS)
o
o
(562) 997-8000 (ext. 2964)
hands-on materials, consumable material orders, alternative standards-based curriculum packets
Instructional Materials Workshop (IMW)
o
o
o

(562) 997-8000 (ext. 2963)
K-12 science standards, curriculum, professional development, science fair
Health Curriculum Office
o
curriculum and training for mandated health content
(562) 997-8000 (ext. 2967)
Science 8 SDAIE - Page 52
EVALUATION:
Student achievement in this course will be measured using multiple assessment tools.
Assessments will be used for diagnosing student understanding before instruction, monitoring student learning during
instruction, and evaluating student understanding after instruction.
SUGGESTED EVALUATION TOOLS:
Source
Diagnose
Monitor
Evaluate
th
Content Standards Test – 8
Grade Science
State Assessment
District Developed
Assessments
Grade Level Pretest
Glencoe Science:
Focus on Physical
Science
Reading Essentials: Before You Read
Launch Labs
New Vocabulary
Teacher Developed
Assessments
Accessing Prior Knowledge Activities
Pre-quiz
Pre-Test
Vocab. Knowledge Rating
Open-Ended Science
Performance Task
Reading Check questions
Science Notebook, “Summarize It”
Lesson Review: Summarize, Using
Vocabulary, Understanding Main Ideas,
Applying Science
Reading Essentials: Think it Over,
Reading Check, Picture This
Applying Math
Foldables
Active Folders
Mini Lab and Lab
Standards Review
Warm-Up
Quiz
Proving Behavior
Lab
End of Course Exam
Open-Ended Science
Standards Assessment
Performance Assessment
Sci Activities for Adv. Learners
Chapter & Unit Tests
Rubric Scored Projects, Labs,
and Writings
Open-ended Prompts
Chapter / Unit Test
Practicum
Semester Final Exam
SUGGESTED GRADE WEIGHTING:
(with some possible examples)
1. Assessment
o
o
o
o
o
2. Homework
o
o
o
o
o
~30%
objective tests including comprehensive finals
performance tasks (rubric scored)
open-ended questions (rubric scored)
portfolios
student self-evaluations
not more than 10%
discovery assignments
assignments reinforcing class lesson
essays
organization
research
3. Labs
o
o
~20%
lab reports
active participation
4. Projects
o
o
5. Classwork
o
o
o
o
~20%
science fair projects
research-based reports and projects
~20%
note taking skills
organization skills
oral presentations
individual and group projects and assessments
STANDARD GRADING SCALE:
Advanced Proficient A 90 – 100%
B 80 – 89%
Proficient
C 70 – 79%
D 60 – 69%
Partial Proficient
F
0 – 59%
Not Proficient
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Submitted by:
Eric Brundin (K. Lima)
School:
Science Office
Date:
6/2/08
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