STM38041308
SPV1040
High efficiency solar battery charger with embedded MPPT
Datasheet - production data
Description
The SPV1040 device is a low power, low voltage,
monolithic step-up converter with an input voltage
range from 0.3 V to 5.5 V, and is capable of
maximizing the energy generated by even a
single solar cell (or fuel cell), where low input
voltage handling capability is extremely important.
TSSOP8
Thanks to the embedded MPPT algorithm, even
under varying environmental conditions (such as
irradiation, dirt, temperature) the SPV1040 offers
maximum efficiency in terms of power harvested
from the cells and transferred to the output.
Features
• 0.3 V to 5.5 V operating input voltage
The device employs an input voltage regulation
loop, which fixes the charging battery voltage via
a resistor divider. The maximum output current is
set with a current sense resistor according to
charging current requirements.
• 140 mΩ internal synchronous rectifier
• 120 mΩ internal power active switch
• 100 kHz fixed PWM frequency
• Duty cycle controlled by MPPT algorithm
• Output voltage regulation, overcurrent and
overtemperature protection
• Input source reverse polarity protection
• Built-in soft-start
• Up to 95% efficiency
• 3 mm x 4.4 mm TSSOP8 package
The SPV1040 protects itself and other application
devices by stopping the PWM switching if either
the maximum current threshold (up to 1.8 A) is
reached or the maximum temperature limit (up to
155 °C) is exceeded.
An additional built-in feature of the SPV1040 is
the input source reverse polarity protection, which
prevents damage in case of reverse connection of
the solar panel at the input.
Applications
Table 1. Device summary
• Smart phones and GPS systems
• Wireless headsets
Order code
• Small appliances, sensors
SPV1040T
• Portable media players
Package
Packaging
Tube
TSSOP8
SPV1040TTR
Tape and reel
• Digital still cameras
• Toys and portable healthcare
March 2013
This is information on a product in full production.
DocID18080 Rev 5
1/15
www.st.com
15
Contents
SPV1040
Contents
1
Block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2
Pin description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3
Maximum ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1
Absolute maximum ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2
Thermal data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4
Electrical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5
Typical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6
Detailed description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.1
Soft-start mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.2
Startup mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.3
MPPT mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.4
Constant voltage regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.5
Constant current regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
6.6
Overcurrent protection (OVC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
6.7
Overtemperature protection (OVT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
6.8
Shutdown mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
6.9
Undervoltage lockout (UVLO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
6.10
Reverse polarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
6.11
Burst mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.12
Sleep-IN mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7
Package mechanical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
8
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2/15
DocID18080 Rev 5
SPV1040
1
Block diagram
Block diagram
Figure 1. Block diagram
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Figure 2. Simplified application circuit
L
Lx
XSHUT
VPV
GND
CIN
MPP-SET
RS
VOUT
ICTRL_PLUS
ICTRL_MINUS
VBATT
RF1
CF
RF2
R1
COUT
VCTRL
R2
AM02612v1
For setting up the application and simulating the related test results please go to
www.st.com/edesignstudio
DocID18080 Rev 5
3/15
Pin description
2
SPV1040
Pin description
Table 2. Pin description
Pin
Name
Type
1
MPP-SET
I
2
GND
Description
Non-inverting input to sense the PV cell voltage. It cannot be left
floating.
Ground Power ground reference.
8
XSHUT
I
Shutdown input pin:
XSHUT = LOW: device in Power Off mode
XSHUT = HIGH: device enabled for Operating mode
This pin cannot be left floating.
3
LX
I
Booster inductor connection.
7
ICTRL_PLUS
I
Non-inverting input of constant current control loop. It cannot be left
floating.
6
ICTRL_MINUS
I
Inverting input of constant current control loop.
It cannot be left floating.
5
VCTRL
I
Non-inverting input of constant voltage control loop.
It cannot be left floating.
4
VOUT
O
Booster output voltage.
Figure 3. Pin connection (top view)
1
MPP-SET
XSHUT
8
2
GND
ICTRL_PLUS
7
3
LX
ICTRL_MINUS
6
4
VOUT
VCTRL
5
AM02613v1
4/15
DocID18080 Rev 5
SPV1040
Maximum ratings
3
Maximum ratings
3.1
Absolute maximum ratings
Table 3. Absolute maximum ratings
Symbol
MPP-SET
GND
3.2
Parameter
Analog input
Ground
Range [min, max]
Unit
[-5.5, VOUT]
V
0
V
XSHUT
Analog input
[-5.5, VOUT]
V
LX
Analog input
[-5.5, VOUT]
V
ICTRL_PLUS Analog input
[-0.3, VOUT]
V
ICTRL_MINUS Analog input
[-0.3, VOUT]
V
[-0.3, VOUT]
V
[-0.3, 5.5]
V
Value
Unit
135
°C/W
VCTRL
Analog input
VOUT
Analog output
Thermal data
Table 4. TSSOP8 thermal data
Symbol
Rth j-amb
Note:
Parameter
Thermal resistance, junction-to-ambient
Tjop
Junction operating temperature
-40 to 125
°C
Tstg
Storage temperature
-40 to 150
°C
RthJA was measured on a 2-layer PCB: FR4, 35 µm Cu thickness, 2.8 cm2
DocID18080 Rev 5
5/15
Electrical characteristics
4
SPV1040
Electrical characteristics
VMPP-SET = 0.5 V, VCTRL = Ictrl+ = Ictrl- = GND, XSHUT = 0.5 V, TJ = -40 °C to 125 °C,
unless otherwise specified.
Table 5. Electrical characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
Test condition
Min. Typ. Max. Unit
Input source section
VMPP-SET
Low boost voltage
threshold
VOUT = 3.3V
Iq
Quiescent current
ILOAD=0mA, VCTRL=2V, VOUT=3.3V,
60
80
μA
ISD
Shutdown current
VOUT = 3.3V, VCTRL=2V,
ILOAD = 0mA, XSHUT = GND
0.7
5
μA
Irev
Reverse input source
current
VMPP-SET=-4V, VOUT = 1.5V
1
5
μA
Undervoltage lockout
threshold for turn ON
@VOUT = 3.3V
VMPP-SET increasing
0.4
0.45 0.50
0.27 0.34
V
V
VUVLO
Undervoltage lockout
threshold for turn OFF VMPP-SET decreasing
@VOUT = 3.3V
0.14 0.24
V
Power section
RDS_ON-N
N-channel power
switch ON resistance
RDS_ON-P
P-channel
synchronous rectifier
ON resistance
VCTRL=2V
120
mΩ
140
mΩ
2
V
5.2(1)
V
3
W
Control section
VMPPT-THR
VOUT
POUT (2)
MPPT-mode threshold Vout increasing, VMPP-SET = 1.5V
Output voltage range
VMPP-SET ≥ 1.5V
Maximum output
power
VMPP-SET ≥ 1.5V
1.7
1.8
2
Maximum inductor
current peak
1.5
1.65
1.8
A
FPWM
PWM signal frequency
70
100
130
kHz
VREF
Internal VCTRL
reference voltage
VOUT ≥ 1.8V, VCTRL increasing
1.2
1.25
1.3
V
VIctrl
Sensing current offset
ICTRL+ - ICTRL- decreasing
40
50
60
mV
XSHUT logic LOW
XSHUT increasing
XSHUT logic HIGH
XSHUT decreasing
ILx
0.27 0.34
V
XSHUT
Thermal shutdown
6/15
DocID18080 Rev 5
0.14 0.24
V
SPV1040
Electrical characteristics
Table 5. Electrical characteristics (continued)
Symbol
Parameter
Test condition
Min. Typ. Max. Unit
Overtemperature
Temperature increasing
threshold for turn OFF
155
°C
Overtemperature
threshold for turn ON
130
°C
Tshutdown
Temperature decreasing
1. According to the absolute maximum ratings the output charge voltage cannot be above 4.8 V but if an
higher Vout up to 5.2 V is needed, a Schottky diode must be placed between the Lx and Vout pins as
shown in Figure 2. In such way the Schottky diode in parallel to the embedded P-channel MOSFET will
reduce the voltage drop between the VLX pin and the VOUT pin determined by the body diode when the
internal PMOS is OFF from 0.7 V down to 0.3 V.
2. Given Tj = Ta + RthJA x PD, and assuming RthJA = 135°C/W, and that in order to avoid device destruction
Tjmax must be ≤ 125 °C, and that in the worst conditions TA = 85 °C, the power dissipated inside the
device is given by:
Tj – T a
P D ≤ ----------------- = 295mW
R thJA
Therefore, if in the worst case the efficiency is assumed to be 90%, then PIN-MAX = 3.3 W and POUT-MAX = 3 W.
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Typical characteristics
5
SPV1040
Typical characteristics
Figure 4. Efficiency vs output voltage
3 PV cells - Vmp = 1.5 V, LX = 33 µH
AM14860v1
Pout/Pin
(%)
Pin = 0.25 W
Pin = 0.5 W
Pin = 1.0 W
Pin = 1.5 W
Pin = 2.0 W
95
90
Figure 5. MPPT efficiency vs output voltage
3 PV cells - Vmp = 1.5 V, LX = 33 µH
AM14861v1
Pin/Pmax
(%)
Pin = 0.25 W
Pin = 0.5 W
Pin = 1.0 W
Pin = 1.5 W
Pin = 2.0 W
97
95
93
91
85
89
80
87
75
3
3.5
4
4.5
85
3
Vout(V)
Figure 6. Efficiency vs output voltage
4 PV cells - Vmp = 2 V, LX = 33 µH
AM14862v1
Pout/Pin
(%)
98
Pin = 0.25 W
Pin = 0.5 W
Pin = 1.0 W
Pin = 1.5 W
Pin = 2.0 W
Pin = 2.5 W
96
94
92
3.5
4
4.5
Vout(V)
Figure 7. MPPT efficiency vs output voltage
4 PV cells - Vmp = 2 V, LX = 33 µH
AM14863v1
Pin/Pmax
(%)
Pin = 0.25 W
Pin = 0.5 W
Pin = 1.0 W
Pin = 1.5 W
Pin = 2.0 W
Pin = 2.5 W
97
95
93
90
88
91
86
89
84
87
82
80
3
8/15
3.5
4
4.5
Vout(V)
85
3
DocID18080 Rev 5
3.5
4
4.5
Vout(V)
SPV1040
Typical characteristics
Figure 8. Efficiency vs output voltage
5 PV cells - Vmp = 2.5 V, LX = 33 µH
AM14864v1
Pout/Pin
(%)
98
Pin = 0.25 W
Pin = 0.5 W
Pin = 1.0 W
Pin = 1.5 W
Pin = 2.0 W
Pin = 2.5 W
Pin = 3.0 W
Pin = 3.5 W
96
94
92
90
88
86
Figure 9. MPPT efficiency vs output voltage
5 PV cells - Vmp = 2.5 V, LX = 33 µH
AM14865v1
Pin/Pmax
(%)
97
Pin = 0.25 W
Pin = 0.5 W
Pin = 1.0 W
Pin = 1.5 W
Pin = 2.0 W
Pin = 2.5 W
Pin = 3.0 W
Pin = 3.5 W
95
93
91
89
84
87
82
80
3
3.5
4
4.5
85
3
Vout(V)
3.5
4
4.5
Vout(V)
Figure 10. VLX and ILX waveforms - D = 39%
Figure 11. VLX and ILX waveforms - D = 68%
VOUT = 3V
VOUT = 3V
VLX
ILX
ILX
VLX
For setting up the application and simulating the related test results please go to
www.st.com/edesignstudio
DocID18080 Rev 5
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Detailed description
6
SPV1040
Detailed description
The SPV1040 is a monolithic, high efficiency, low voltage, self-powered DC-DC converter
that operates over a 0.3 V to 5.5 V DC input voltage range and provides a single output
voltage.
The device provides regulated output voltage and current by sensing the VCTRL feedback
of the external resistor divider and the voltage drop on the external sense resistor Rs,
respectively.
High efficiency is ensured by low power consumption in any working mode and by the
embedded Perturb & Observe MPPT algorithm.
The SPV1040 guarantees its own safety and application safety by stopping the N-channel
power switch in case of overcurrent or overtemperature conditions.
6.1
Soft-start mode
In order to guarantee powerup even when VOUT is very low (battery completely discharged),
a proper startup strategy has been implemented.
Taking into account that the device is powered by the VOUT voltage, If VOUT is lower than
0.8 V, the device moves from power off to soft-start mode and the current flows from the
input to output through the intrinsic body diode of the synchronous rectifier. In this condition
VOUT follows the LX voltage. The IC exits Startup mode when VOUT reaches 0.8 V.
6.2
Startup mode
When VOUT goes above 0.8 V but it is still lower than 2 V, a proper biasing of both
MOSFETs is not yet guaranteed. In such conditions, the N-channel power switch is forced
ON with a fixed duty cycle and the energy is transferred to the load via the intrinsic body
diode of the P-channel synchronous switch. If the shutdown overcurrent limit is exceeded,
the power switch is immediately turned OFF. The SPV1040 leaves Startup mode as soon as
VOUT goes above 2 V.
6.3
MPPT mode
Once the device has exited Startup mode, the SPV1040 enters MPPT mode to search for
the maximum power point. The Perturb & Observe algorithm is based on monitoring either
the voltage or the current supplied by the DC power source unit so that the PWM signal duty
cycle is increased or decreased step by step according to the input power trend. Refer to
Figure 12, which illustrates the MPPT working principle.
6.4
Constant voltage regulation
The constant voltage control loop consists of an internal voltage reference, an op amp and
an external resistor divider that senses the battery voltage and fixes the voltage regulation
set-point at the value specified by the user.
10/15
DocID18080 Rev 5
SPV1040
6.5
Detailed description
Constant current regulation
The constant current control loop consists of an op amp and an external sense resistor that
feeds the current sensing circuit with a voltage proportional to the DC output current. This
resistor determines the current regulation set-point and must be adequately rated in terms
of power dissipation. It provides the capability to fix the maximum output current to protect
the battery.
6.6
Overcurrent protection (OVC)
When the current that flows through the inductor reaches 1.8 A (overcurrent shutdown limit),
the N-channel power switch is immediately forced OFF and the P-channel synchronous
rectifier is switched ON. Once the overcurrent condition has expired (the inductor current
goes below 1.8 A) the N-channel power switch is turned back ON.
6.7
Overtemperature protection (OVT)
When the temperature sensed at silicon level reaches 155 °C (overtemperature shutdown
limit), the N-channel power switch is immediately forced OFF and the P-channel
synchronous rectifier is switched ON. The device becomes operative again as soon as the
silicon temperature goes below 130 °C.
6.8
Shutdown mode
The XSHUT pin low shuts OFF all internal circuitry, achieving the lowest power consumption
mode.
6.9
Undervoltage lockout (UVLO)
In order to prevent batteries from over-discharging, the device turns OFF in case of MPPSET voltage lower than 0.24 V (no irradiation). A hysteresis has been implemented to avoid
unpredictable ON-OFF switching.
6.10
Reverse polarity
In order to avoid damage to the device and battery discharge when the solar panel
connection is reverse-inserted, a dedicated protection circuit has been implemented. In
such condition, the SPV1040 stays OFF until the panel is inserted correctly.
DocID18080 Rev 5
11/15
Detailed description
SPV1040
Figure 12. MPPT working principle
6.11
Burst mode
When the output voltage reaches the battery charge voltage, the MPP-SET voltage drops
below 450 mV, or the output current reaches the output maximum current limit, the duty
cycle D drops down to 10% and the device evolves from Operating mode to Burst mode.
The converter no longer works at constant frequency, but at frequencies gradually lower (1
TON over 1 PWM cycle, 1 TON over 2 PWM cycles, …,1 TON over 16 PWM cycles) prior to
entering Sleep-IN mode.
6.12
Sleep-IN mode
Once Sleep-IN mode has been entered, no current is provided to the load. The device exits
this mode once the cause which forced it into this state is no longer present.
12/15
DocID18080 Rev 5
SPV1040
7
Package mechanical data
Package mechanical data
In order to meet environmental requirements, ST offers these devices in different grades of
ECOPACK® packages, depending on their level of environmental compliance. ECOPACK®
specifications, grade definitions and product status are available at: www.st.com.
ECOPACK® is an ST trademark.
Table 6. TSSOP8 package mechanical data
mm
Symbol
Min.
Typ.
A
Max.
1.200
A1
0.050
0.150
A2
0.800
b
0.190
0.300
c
0.090
0.200
1.000
CP
1.050
0.100
D
2.900
3.000
3.100
e
–
0.650
–
E
6.200
6.400
6.600
E1
4.300
4.400
4.500
L
0.450
0.600
0.750
L1
1.000
0
8
Figure 13. TSSOP8 package mechanical drawing
DocID18080 Rev 5
13/15
Revision history
8
SPV1040
Revision history
Table 7. Document revision history
14/15
Date
Revision
Changes
08-Oct-2010
1
Initial release
06-Apr-2011
2
Updated cover page, DFN8 information deleted, Chapter 3,
Chapter 4 and Chapter 6
04-Oct-2011
3
– Updated Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 2 and Table 5
– Minor text changes
25-Jul-2012
4
Updated Figure 4, Figure 5, Figure 6, Figure 7, Figure 8, and
Figure 9.
21-Mar-2013
5
Updated Figure 1 and note 1 in Table 5.
DocID18080 Rev 5
SPV1040
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