Winter Expedition to the Southwestern Kara Sea


Investigations on Formation and Transport of Turbid


Winter Expedition in die südwestlich Kara See


Sediment-beladenem Meereis

By Dirk Dethleff, Peter Loewe, Dominik Weiel,

Hartmut Nies, Gesa Kuhlmann, Christian Bahe and

Gennady Tarasov


Polarforsch. 27 1 (1 998)

ISSN 01 76



Winter Expedition t o the Southwestern Kara Sea

- lnvestigations On Formation and Transport of Turbid e a - l c e

Winter Expedition in die südwestlich Kara See


Untersuchungen Ãœbe Bildung und Transport von

Sediment-beladenem Meereis

Dirk Dethleff

GEOMAR Research Center for Marine Geosciences,

Wischhofstr. 1-3, D-241 48 Kiel, Germany. e-mail: ddethlef @

Peter Loewe

Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency, Postfach

301220, D-20305 Hamburg, Germany. e-mail: [email protected]

Dominik Weiel

GEOMAR Research Center for Marine Geosciences,

Wischhofstr. 1-3, D-241 48 Kiel, Germany. e-mail: [email protected]

Hartmut Nies

Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency, Postfach

301 220, D-20305 Hamburg, Germany. e-mail: [email protected]

Gesa Kuhlmann

GEOMAR Research Center for Marine Geosciences,

Wischhofstr. 1-3, D-241 48 Kiel, Germany. e-mail: gkuhlman

Christian Bahe

Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency, Postfach

301 220, D-20305 Hamburg, Germany. e-mail: [email protected] m3.

Gennady Tarasov

Murmansk Marine Biological Institute, 17 Vladimirskaya

St., Murmansk, 18301 0, Russia, e-mail: mmbi


Winter Expedition to the Southwestern Kara Sea. Content

From Kiel (Germany) to Amderma (Siberia)


Background informations and purpose of the expedition .................................

Area of investigation


Methods and Material


Sampling methods. material obtained and field measurements .....................

Laboratory methods




Radionuclide determination ....................................................................................

Preliminary Results

............................................................................................ lce conditions in the investiqation area ................................................................

Fast ice


Flaw leads


Drift ice






Shelf bottom deposits ..............................................................................................

Suspended particulate matter (SPM) ...................................................................

Sea-ice inclusions and ice core salinity distribution ..........................................

Particulate snow content 20



Sea-ice sediment-entrainment in the AmdermaIVaygach flaw lead


2 3

Quantification, transport and pathways of SW Kara Sea ice-sediments ........ 27



I .

Course o f t h e Expedition

I . I

F r o m K i e l (Germany) t o Amderma (Siberia)

The KaBaEx '97 (Kara and Barents Seas Expedition 1997) to the Siberian Kara

Sea was carried out from April 1 to 25, 1997. While the scientific Crew, consisting of

Dirk Dethleff, Peter Loewe, and Domink Weiel, started On April 1 from Hamburg, the container with the expedition equipment was sent by cargo vessel and lorry from

Kiel over Kemi and Rovaniemi (Finland) to Murmansk (Russia) already two weeks before (Fig. 1).







Fig. 1: Course of the expedition.

Hamburg to Kirkenes we used the aircraft, while

- after crossing the

NorwegianIRussian border east of Kirkenes

O n foot

- the last part of the journey to

Murmansk was undertaken in a van provided by the Murmansk Marine Biological


After 8 days of final preparations we left Murmansk by aircraft On April 9 towards

Vorkuta (Fig. 1). From Vorkuta we accessed Amderma by a Russian MI-8 helicopter

On April 11.

On April 22, after 11 days of field and laboratory work, we left Amderma and reached


- passing Murmansk and St. Petersburg


On April 25. The container was sent back 4 weeks later through our Russian colleagues and reached Kiel at the end of May.

1 . 2 Background informations and purpose of the expedition

From October to June the Siberian shelf regions from the Barents Sea to the

Chukchi Sea are characterized by recurring extended flaw leads, separating the landfast ice from seeward drifting ice (Fig. 2). Occurrence, maintainance and dynamics of the leads are mainly steered by regional atmospheric pressure conditions (e.g. Zakharov 1966, Martin & Cavalieri 1989, Dethleff et al. 1993).

Accordingly, offshore winds cause lead-opening, while onshore blowing storms push the drift ice against the fast ice edge and thus, initiate the closure of the open water areas.

In an open lead, the relatively warm water is exposed to the cold atmosphere, The net upward heat flux results in formation of new ice which is advected off-shore and partly exported to the Central Arctic Basin and, thus, can considerably feed the

Transpolar Drift System. Dense brines, rejected during ice formation, may contribute to the Cold Arctic Halocline, and to Intermediate- and Deep Water renewal.

Through turbulent hydrodynamic oceanlbottom interactions such as Langmuir circulation, thermohaline convection, wave-action and tidal currents, unconsolidated fine-grained surface deposits can be re-suspended and floated upward in the flaw lead areas. The material can be entrained into newly forming ice by the mechanisms of suspension freezing (e.g. Reimnitz et al. 1992) and filtration (Osterkamp & Gosink

1984, Dethleff et al. 1994). Since these hydrodynamic entrainment processes seem to activate preferably small grains, Arctic sea-ice sediments generally consist mainly of silt and clay sized clastic material with a mean grain size in the medium to fine silt range (e.g. Kempema et al. 1989, Larssen et al. 1987, Dethleff et al. 1993, Reimnitz et al. 1993a, Nürnber et al: 1994). The incorporated sediments will be transporled via the Transpolar Drift System towards the North Atlantic where they are released due to local ice-melt.

Extremely little is known about the origin and pathways of turbid sea-ice produced over the Kara Sea shelf and, in particular, in coastal flaw leads. This report investigates sedimentological and mineralogical tracers such as quantitative and qualitative sample composition, clay mineral abundances and silt size distribution etc. in shelf surface deposits, suspended particulate matter and sea-ice incorporations. The main objective is to identify and trace possible mechanisms of material resuspension, sediment entrainment into locally formed sea-ice and its subsequent regional and Iong range dispersal.

Fig. 2: Modern configuration of recurring Eastern Arctic flaw leads and polynyas between coastal fast ice and drifting ice (both not indicated here) as derived from

NOAAIAVHRR and LANDSAT satellite images, Barnett (1991), Buzov (1991),

Groves & Stringer (1991), Dethleff et al. (1993), Dethleff et al. (1994), Schwarz

(1994), Dethleff (1995) and Pavlov & Pfirman (1995) and, after estimations of ice thicknesses based On 10-days integrated Russian ice charts for the period from

1972-1 990 (AARI, St. Petersburg). The stippled off-coastal areas reflect the sea-ice- sediment sources <30 m water depth on the Arctic shelves as reworked from

Reimnitz et al. (1 992).

In order to accomplish these goals, during the joint RussianIGerman


'97 winter expedition detailed oceanographic and sedimentological data were collected in the southwestern Kara Sea (Fig. 3). In pariicular, we i) studied the configuration of fast ice, flaw leads and drifting ice, ii) learned more about local oceanography and turbulent hydrodynamic processes of fine-grained sediment resuspension, iii)

identified, quantified and qualified the entrainment of hydromechanically activated bottom material and atmospheric particles into locally formed new ice, and iv) quantified and traced the possible regional dispersion of ice inclusions into adjacent shelf seas, the Central Arctic and the northern North Atlantic Ocean supported by modeling results.

Fig. 3: Arctic overview chart (a), the SW Kara Sea and adjacent


Barents Sea (b), and the area of investigation (C). Sampling sites are indicated by dots. Water depths are given in m.

1 . 3 Area



The inner part of the Kara Sea between Novaya Zemlya, the Siberian mainland and

Severnaya Zemlya may be regarded as a semi-enclosed Arctic shelf sea. Water depths widely range between 20 and 200 m (Fig. 3). The Novaya Zemlya trough has a depth of more than 400 m. Shallow, near coastal areas with water depths below

50 m are dominated by fine-grained surface deposits (Geogruppen


1994) and thus, provide optimum conditions for sediment resuspension and formation of turbid ice (compare Fig. 2).

The occurrence of flaw leads in the western Kara Sea along the northeastern coast of Novaya Zemlya and off the eastern coast of Vaygach Island (Fig. 4) is attributed to predominating westerly winds (e.g. Martin & Cavalieri 1989, Dethleff & Reimnitz

1996). The area east and south of Novaya Zemlya is investigations


- according to recent Russian characterized by very high probabilities of flaw lead recurrence

(about 50 %; V. K. Pavlov, 1996, AAR1 St. Petersburg, pers. comm.). This makes these sites to the most important and interesting locations for investigations On turbulent processes of bottom/ocean/sea-ice interactions, sediment entrainment into newly forming ice and subsequent dispersion of incorporated clastic material

- and attached pollutants

- in the entire Arctic Ocean.

Fig. 4: NOAA 12 visible band satellite image from April 10, 1993 showing recurrent, coastal flaw leads in the ice-covered, western Kara Sea. Boxes A-C represent the east Novaya Zemlya lead sections (adapted from Martin & Cavalieri 1989), while box D contains the AmdermaIVaygach flaw lead investigated during April 1997 field work. The black traces represent sea-ice foreward trajectories based On dimatic parameters (reworked from Nies et al. in prep.).

The salinity and temperature distribution in the southern and southwestern Kara Sea is mainly influenced by Atlantic water inflow from the Barents Sea through Kara

Strait, while the local river discharge is of minor importance (Pavlov & Pfirman

1995). Temporary inflow of river water from the Barents Sea through the Kara Strait can be expected by the Pechora Current (Pfirman et al. 1997a). During summer, surface temperatures and salinities in the investigation area range from 2-10 OC and

25-30 psu, respectively, with a pronounced halo- and thermocline in the upper water column (Pavlov et al. 1994). Towards the bottom, salinities increase to as much as

>34 psu and, temperatures decrease to as low as -1.8 'C. During winter, the vertical salinity and temperature distribution in the water column is generally uniformly stratified since ice formation and subsequent brine rejection cause efficient mixing.

Informations on the oceanic current patterns in the western and southwestern Kara

Sea are contradictive. According to e. g. Pavlov & Pfirman (1995) and also deduced by Nürnber et al. (1995) from clay mineral distribution patterns in bottom sediments, the surface water is dominated by a wind- and thermohaline induced cyclonic circulation pattern, which consists of the southward directed, near-coastal Eastern

Novaya Zemlya Current, and the northward, off-coastal Yamal Current. However, as shown by King et al. (1997) and Johnson et al. (1997) through ice-buoy trajectories and acoustic-doppler-current-profiler (ADCP) data, the water transport along the east coast of Novaya Zemlya down to depths of as much as 350 m is generally northward directed with no indication for water inflow to the Kara Sea around the northern tip of Novaya Zemlya. This could also be shown through modeling results

(Harms 1997). Thus, the postulated counter-clockwise surface-current pattern in the western Kara Sea, which is frequently cited in Russian and international literature, could not be corroborated in recent times.


2 . 1 Sampling methods, material obtained and field measurements

The sample material was collected at 8 sites along the coast of Cape Jugorsky and close to Vaygach Island, southwestern Kara Sea (Fig. 3, Table 1, annex). Stations 1,

2, and 3 were located close to the coast on the fast ice or attached drift ice with fast ice character. The sampling sites were accessed by scidoos and Snow cats. Stations

4, 5, and 6 were located close to the lead


200-300 m) on fast ice-attached drift ice, while stations 7 and 8 were chosen on a drift ice floe in the flaw lead and directly on the edge of fast ice, respectively. Stations 4-7 were accessed by a Russian helicopter of the MI-8 type.

Bottom sediments

Shelf surface deposits for sedimentological purposes were sampled using an

EKMAN-BIRGE grap constructed by HYDROBIOS, Kiel, Germany, The gear was lowered to the shelf bottom through the penetrated ice Cover. Additionally, we used a small stainless steel gravity corer with macrolone tube, which was designed for the use through a 10 cm ice bore hole.

A total of 15 surface (interval: 0-5 mm) and 7 mixed surface1subsurface (interval: 0-

30 mm) sediment samples was obtained at sites 1-8 (Fig. 3, Table 2). The sediments

obtained were filled in plastic bottles and containers and stored under cold or freezing conditions varying between +4O and -1 5OC.

Suspended particulate matter (SPM)

A total of 22 SPM samples was collected at stations 1-8 either by Niskin bottle or sediment traps i) under the fast ice cover, ii) at the edge of fast ice (flaw lead) and iii) under drift ice floes in the flaw lead. Two samples were each taken in three different water depths: a) close to the surface, b) in the middle of the water column and C) near to the shelf bottom (compare Table 1 and 2). One of the subsamples was concentrated on mixed-ester membrane filters (0.45 pm Pore diameter) in the field lab while the other sample was conserved at temperatures between +4 and -15' C for further investigation in the home laboratory.

Sea ice sediments

Ice cores were taken at stations 1-7. The cores were divided into chunks of roughly

10-15 cm length and stored in plastic bags under freezing conditions. After microwave-melting the core sections were filtered using pre-weighted, mixed-ester membrane filters with 0.45 pm Pore diameter. The filtered material was frozen and dried for further sedimentological investigations.

Additionally, ice-sediments were collected from pressure ridges and turbid core sections at stations 2, 4, 5 and 7. The sampled material was filled in plastic bottles and stored at low temperature (+4O to +6O C) or under freezing conditions.

Particulate Snow content

Snow was collected at stations 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6. The Snow was melted and filtered in order to conserve the particle content for further sedimentological investigations.


Water volumes varying between 76 and 93 l were collected at stations 1, 4 and 6 in insolated aluminum box particularly designed for the application in cold regions. The sampled water was filled into 100 l containers, acidificated with HCI down to a pH of as low as 2 and run over an exchanger raisin of potassium-hexacyano-ferrate-(11)- cobaltate(1l) (KCFC), thereby absorbing Cs ions from sea water with a chemical yield of >95 %.

Mixed surface sediment samples (0 with the mechanic grab corer



30 mm depth) of ca. 400


800 g W.W. taken were stored in plastic containers in order to determine also man-made Cs ions and different other man-made radionuclides such as e.g. Pu.

Conductivity, temperature and density measurements in the water column (CTD)

2 different battery powered SIS-sondes (CTD plus 1000, SIS Meeres- und

Umwelttechnik GmbH, Kiel, Germany) were used to obtain CTD-profiles beyond the ice cover and in the flaw lead. Measurements were carried out at each station.

Reliable CTD profiles were obtained at 6 stations, 3 of which were recorded under fast ice (#2, #4, #5), 2 under drifting ice (#6, #7), and 1 (#8) in the flaw lead (compare section 3.2).

2 . 2 Laboratory methods

2.2.1 Sedimentology

Shelf surface deposits and sea-ice sediments were prepared for smear slide analyses in order to estimate the quantitative and qualitative sample composition under the microscope.

Further laboratory investigations include: wet sieving and Atterberg separation of coarse, silt and clay fractions of shelf surface deposits and sea-ice incorporated material qualitative and quantitative component analyses of coarse fractions granulometric silt analysis (LaserGranulometer, SediGraph) of both shelf surface deposits and sea-ice sediments qualitative and quantitative component analyses of silt fractions under the

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

X-ray diffractometry of clay fractions granulometric analysis, and qualitative and quantitative component analyses of

SPM and particulate Snow content.

2 . 2 . 2 Radionuclide determination

The shelf surface deposits obtained for radionuclide measurements were freeze- dried and homogenized. Both sediment and dissolved (ion-exchanged) samples were filled in beakers with a calibrated geometry. For spectrometric analysis we used high purity germanium detectors (HPGe). The samples were analyzed for different natural radionuclides.

3 .

Preliminary Results

3 . 1

Ice conditions in the investigation area

According to the chief of the Amderma Hydrometeorological Survey Station (pers. com. Andrej Anatoliwitsch), the 1996197 freezing period in the southwestern Kara

Sea began on December 10, 1996, and thus was extremely late as compared to former years. Additionally, the winter temperature regime was relatively "mild" resulting in local ice thicknesses not significantly exceeding 1 m.

3 . 1 . I

Fast ice

According to unpublished NOAA ice-charts (, during winter the inner part of the Kara Sea is completely ice covered (Fig. 5). Generally, a coastal fast ice band develops which has a width of roughly 10 km or even less and thus, is relatively narrow as compared to the Laptev Sea (see Dethleff et al. 1993;

Reimnitz et al. 1994). In case of offshore winds, the fast ice edge is bordered by flaw leads. In certain years (e.g. January 1998, compare no fast ice occurs along extended parts of the Cape Jugorski and Novaya Zemlya coast line in the western Kara Sea so that shore leads or polynyas develop instead of flaw leads.

During April 1997 field work, the fast ice canopy in the Amderma region was extremely narrow and partly had a width of only 500 m to 1.5 km. The edge of fast ice followed roughly the 10-15 m isobath thereby running in much shallower water as compared to extended areas of the eastern Kara Sea and most parts of the Laptev

Sea. East of Amderma, a coastal section of few km length revealed no coastal fast ice (compare Fig. 5) and the flaw lead (in this case a shore polynya) extended to the shore.

The fast ice consisted generally of first year ice. The uppermost core section (1 0-15 cm) was dominated by granular ice, while the lower sections were of columnar ice.

Bulk core thicknesses varied between 70 and 90 cm (stations 1 and 2) and, culminated

- at a site of likely rafted first year ice

- in 1.7 m thickness at station


(Table 1). The edge of fast ice was often bordered by 3


6 m high pressure ridges or extended compressional ice fields. This is also an essential difference to the Laptev

Sea, where a general lack of pressure ridges was reported along the fast ice edge

(Dethleff et al. 1993; Reimnitz et al. 1994). Hummocks of as much as 6 m height in areas of roughly 10-15 m water depth (or even below) might have led to formation of stamukhi thereby stabilising the coastal ice against onshore compression and dilational breakaways. However, we often could not clearly distinguish between ridged fast ice and compressed former drift-ice fields; this led to the assumption that the true width of the coastal fast ice partly might differ from what is indicated in NOAA ice charts.








Fig. 5: NOAA ice chart from field work period in April 1997. Local Amderma and

Vaygach Island ice conditions reveal a coastal fast ice Zone and adjacent drift ice of

7-10 tenths coverage (see egg-code in the upper left corner). For more detailed information on egg codes See NAVYINOAA Joint Ice Center atlasses (1 975-1 993) or

NOAA web site "".

3.1.2 Flaw leads

Open water between fast ice and drifting ice occurred during the entire period of field work. In the first part of field work, the air temperature ranged between -1 0 and -20° thereby enhancing temporarily new-ice formation over Open water in the roughly 1-2 km wide AmdermaIVaygach flaw lead. The new ice was collected in surface streaks together with small drift ice floes and advected offshore towards the drift ice. The parallel surface streaks of collected ice crystals and small floes indicated convergent helical oceanic vortices promoting mixing of the water column which might lead to resuspension of bottom material and formation of turbid sea-ice (see Dethleff


Due to ice melt induced by atmospheric temperature increase, and additionally strong local offshore winds, in the second part of field work the width of the (former) flaw lead increased to as much as 30-40 km, The heat flux reversal due to the warm atmosphere prechuded further ice formation. On the last day of field work, the wind changed from offshore to onshore directions thereby causing the rapid closure of the

Open water within roughly 24 hrs.

3.1.3 Drift


Drift ice occurred in and off the AmdermaIVaygach flaw lead in varying thicknesses

(0.68 to 0.89 m), floe sizes and Stages of development. The drilled cores consisted in the upper 10-15 cm of granular ice, and in the lower part of columnar ice. While the sampled 300-500 m large level ice floes consisted of "clean ice" with no or only little visible sediment inclusions, the marginal floe pressure ridges contained extremely turbid sea-ice. This was also observed during R/V "POLARSTERN" ARKXIII/2 cruise in the summer of 1997 in the central Arctic and in northern Fram Strait.

At station 4, off the edge of fast ice, we sampled wet, unconsolidated and significantly sediment-laden former lead ice. On contrary, the directly adjacent fast ice contained less particulate inclusions. We assume that the sediment-laden new ice was formed under turbulent conditions over shallow water depths (roughly 11 m) in the flaw lead and then pressed against the fast-ice edge through onshore winds.

The offshore drift velocity of large ice floes was determined by use of a GARMIN

GPS (Global Positioning System). The velocities varied between few m and several

100 mlh, culminating in 700 mlh in the wide Open Amderma lead off Vaygach Island due to southerly winds.

3 . 2 Oceanography

Little is known in western literature about the vertical salinity distribution o n the shallow Siberian shelves and

- particularly

- in the flaw lead areas during winter.

Churun & Timokhov (1995) reported data of vertical winter water mass distribution of the western Laptev Sea showing pronounced thermo- and haloclines due to perennial Khatanga and Lena river discharge. Bottom salinities increased partly to as much as 35 through brine rejection subsequent to ice extraction.

For the western Kara Sea, also few winter data are available on water mass stratification (e.g. Pavlov & Pfirman 1995) which are restricted to the Novaya Zemlya trough north of the investigation area (compare Fig. 2). A significant salinity increase from 32 to 34 was observed at around 30-40 m water depth indicating the continuous influence of the Ob and Yenisej River discharge on the structure of the upper local water column (surface layer).

Our preliminarily processed winter salinity profiles (Fig. 6) from the southwestern

Kara Sea show no strong riverine fresh water influence in the upper water column off the coasts of Cape Jugorsky and Vaygach Island. Without going too much into

Salinity Salinity Salinity


! 22.5 27 31.5

Temperature ('C) Temperature ('C)



9 1 8 2 7 3 6 0


9 1 8 2 7 3 6

Temperature (¡C Temperature (¡C

Salinity Temperature


Temperature ('C)


Temperature (¡C

. .

all stations all stations

Fig. 6: Salinity and temperature profiles from the area of investigation.

detail, we can say that the salinities generally tend to increase strongly at the uppermost meters, and then show a uniform distribution from the surface towards the shelf bottom at shallower water depths (#2, #3, # 5 ) , thereby displaying no indications for expressed halo- or thermoclines. This points

- in first approximation

- to a well mixed water column under the fast ice Cover. The salinity profiles at stations

6 and 7 slightly differ from the above Pattern by showing a distinct halo- and thermocline at roughly 30 m water depth with decreasing temperatures and increasing salinities towards the bottom (indicated by a horizontal grey bar, Fig. 6).

At a first rough glance, the salinity profile of the flaw lead (#8) generally represents a uniformly stratified

- and thus well mixed

- water column from 1 m down to 13 m water depth. However, taking a closer look to the data sets, both temperature and salinity values




towards the bottom. That means, the water becomes colder downwards despite decreasing salinity with increasing water depth.

The enhanced

- and flickering

- temperature in the upper water column might have been due to intensified sun Insolation promoting heating and the formation of microturbulences. The slightly fresher

- but colder

- bottom water might be due to stratification reversal through turbulent mixing of low salinity, cold surface water with denser bottom water during an extreme freezing event in the lead area previous to our sampling period.

3 . 3 Sedimentology

3 . 3 . 1

Shelf bottom deposits

According to Geogruppen AS (1990) the surface deposits in the investigation area consist mainly of silty sediments with varying percentages of sand and clay. This was generally confirmed by preliminary smear slide estimates of the sampled material (Table 3, Fig. 7). Accordingly, the grain size distribution of surface sediments in the investigation area vary between silt and sand, while the clay fraction is generally less abundant. Highest silt and sand portions On bulk sediment amount to as much as 85 % or even more, whereas the clay fraction generally does not exceed 20 % and often lies below 10 or even 5 %.

The qualitative sample composition reveals high percentages (65-80 %) of mainly angular to subrounded quartz and feldspar, while rounded clastic particles (e.g. glauconite), rock fragments, mica, biogenic components and opaque minerals are less abundant or even absent (Fig. 8). Angular to subrounded clastic particles are more abundant in the coarse fraction than in the silt spectrum.


Suspended particulate matter (SPM)

Very little is known about SPM content in Siberian shelf waters during winter.

Dethleff (1995a) reported winter (April) SPM concentrations of 1.24 mgll in the eastern Lena river pro-delta, Laptev Sea. The concentrations decreased to as low as 0.24 mgll along a 500 km northward surface water transect from the delta towards the Central Arctic Ocean.



Surface Deposits






Silt and

Ice Sediments



Fig. 7: Sand-silt-clay distribution of surface deposits, suspension load, sea-ice sediments and Snow entrapped particulate matter.


Diatoms, Spores etc

Opaque minerals

Org -clay-iron-aggr

Quartz, Fsp. (rounded)

Quartz, Fsp (subround

Quartz, Fsp (angular)

Fig. 8: Quantitative and qualitative composition of surface deposits and sea-ice sediments in the field work area. A) denotes sea-ice sediments, while B) represents shelf surface deposits.

At the KaBaEx fast ice stations nos. 1, 2 and 3, the SPM concentrations ranged from

0.55 mgll in the under-ice surface layer to 13.77 mgll in the nepheloid layer close to the shelf bottom (Fig. 9, Table 4). No such strong gradient was observed under the drift-ice at stations 5, 6 and 7, where the concentration of suspended material even tended to decrease towards the bottom. Under the compressed new-ice field off the fast ice edge at station 4, the SPM concentrations showed high values in surface waters (4.16 mgll) and then decreased towards the bottom to as low as 1.87 mgll.

Our first assumption was that the enhanced SPM concentration in the under-ice surface water was due to melting and ridging-induced sediment release from the tilted, turbid ice floes. However, the SPM composition and the degree of particle roundness did not bear resemblance to the ice-entrained material, but nearly equalled the local shelf surface deposits (see below).

Highest SPM concentrations were found in the sediment traps deployed at the fast ice edge (station 8, flaw lead) for a period of about 10 hrs. The content of particulate matter decreased from 38.33 mgll at the water surface to roughly 23 mgll close to the bottom. Most of the material trapped consisted of macroscopic copepods and other planctonic and nectonic organisms. The enhanced concentrations of living organic material, particularly in the uppermost part of the water column, resulted from favorable living conditions due to algae bloom, long daylight conditions and radiative heat gain of the surface water during the sampling period. In surface and bottom waters we detected traces of spherical fly ashes.

First results from binocular investigations (Table 5) reveal that the SPM shows generally silty composition. Percentages of the coarse fraction vary and clay sized material is less abundant. The silt fraction is dominated by angular quartz particles, whereas the coarse fraction contains partly enhanced abundances of fluffs (#1, #2), dark minerals (#6), copepods (#8) and particularly (well)rounded clastic material

(#3, #4, #5, #6, #7). Surprisingly, at most of the latter sites we found higher abundances of rounded, coarse (=I 00-500 pm) quartz particles close to the surface rather than in the middle of the water column and towards the bottom, where they actually should be expected. This points to a well mixed or even reversed water column stratification due to turbulences maintaining clastic particles of as much as

500 pm in diameter in suspension. The required current velocity of 40 to 50 cmls to keep such large particles in suspension could be provided by local tidal current

(Harms 1 997).

At station 4, where the highest abundances of sand-sized, (wel1)rounded clastics occurred in the upper water'column (Table 5), the Same material was found in the local shelf surface deposits (Table 3) at 9 m water depth. However, no such particles were found in local ice cores and ridges. This points to different probable processes active at this shallow site during and after initial ice formation (reminder: this location was sited at the edge of the Amderma lead, which was closed by compressed, wet, not completely consolidated, and sediment-laden new ice shortly before sampling): i) despite of being available in the suspension load, the (well)rounded, coarse- grained particles were not entrained into newly forming ice through the mechanism of suspension freezing during Open lead conditions; or ii) the (well)rounded material was not available in the SPM during initial ice formation in the lead area and was thus not entrained, or iii) the ice was formed at a different site. However, well rounded, large clasts are available at any site in the investigated area both in shelf

17 surface deposits and the water column. The above will be discussed in further detail in section 4.1

D )





0 0.4 0.8 1.2

SPM (mgll)

Station 1


1 6



0 )




0 1 2 3

SPM (mgll)

4 5 6

[ g ) l

SPM (mgll) l i l !

l l l

Water depth.

l m

5 10

SPM (mgll) *

1'5 20 25

SPM (mgll)



Water depth-

30 35

Fig. 9: Concentration of SPM at KaBaEx '97 sampling sites 1-8 (a-h). Water depths and nos. of sampling locations are indicated in the small shaded boxes.

3 . 3 . 3

Sea-ice inclusions and ice core salinity distribution

The sea-ice sediments obtained during KaBaEx but worldwide unique

'97 expedition represent a small


- sample set of the Kara Sea.

Fast ice

The fast ice cores revealed no or only minor visible inclusions varying between

1.59 and 20.50 mgll (Fig. 10). Few of the uppermost core sections showed slightly increased concentrations of particulate matter compared to the middle part of the fast ice cores, which contained less inclusions (except station



10, at around

100 cm core depth). The lowermost sections of all fast ice cores revealed also increased material loads due to enhanced microbiological activity.

The salinities in the fast ice cores varied from

0.8 to


Highest fast ice salinities were determined at station ice-salinity profile at station

2 (Fig. 10), the lowest were measured at station 3. The

2 represents a ?-shape type (Eicken

1992) with salinity decreasing near the core top and increasing towards the bottom. Generally, the decrease of salinity towards the top of the ?-type profile is typical for retextured and brine-drainaged second year ice. However, in this case

- and in some more cases reported below

- we definitely sampled first year ice.

At first glance, the fast ice core at station 3 revealed indiscriminate scattering distribution of salinity and particle inclusions. However, along with the unusual thickness of 1.70 m, which cannot result from seasonal thermodynamic ice-growth, the vertical distributions of salinity and particles provide hints for ice rafting in an earlier Stage of development. If we cut the ice core

- theoretically

- into two sections at the depth of 70-80 cm (Fig. I O ) , we obtain two very similar Sets of curves. The resemblance of these curves suggests that they represent the vertical salinity and sediment distributions of two formerly individual, roughly 80 cm thick floes or pieces of fast ice, which were formed close to each other under comparable oceanographic conditions and then were piled up through lateral compression. The shape of the salinity distributions is of ?-type for both core sections.

Drift ice

The drift ice (Fig. 10) was generally more turbid than the fast ice. Most of the material was concentrated in the uppermost

30-60 core Cm. The visible, fine-grained material was cloudy distributed, enriched in layers or concentrated in small aggregates. The particulate matter content in different core sections ranged from 2 to 35 mgll reaching an extremum of 140 mgll at station 5 (core section 12-22 cm, Fig. 10, compare also Table 3). The mean sediment load of all core sections was

9.91 mgll.

At station 4 we found visible sediment concentrations over the entire ice core with a minimum of roughly 10 mgll and a maximum of 35 mgll (Fig. 10). The drift ice cores at stations

5, 6, and

7 showed particulate matter contents below

10 or even 5 mgll.

The lowermost sections of all ice cores generally revealed increased material loads as compared to the middle part, which was again due to enhanced microbiological activity.

Particle content Particle content




12 18 24

Particle content Particle content mgl1)


- a

- 40














Particle content





160 i


0 2.5 5 7.5 10



0 2 4 6


Particle content Particle content


0 2 4 6


Particle content l





2 4 6




0 2 4 6


Particle content

(mgll; #5)

Fig. 10: Concentration of particulate matter and salinity distribution in ice cores (Fig. a to g refer to stations 1-7; Fig. h displays all stations, where the lower X-axis refers to station 5 only). T h e horizontal grey bar in Fig.

C represents the potential level of rafting.

Drift ice salinities varied from 2.0 to 6.7 and thus were in a smaller range than fast ice salinities. Highest salinities were measured in the uppermost core sections of station 4 and in the lowermost chunk of station 5 (Fig. 10). The drift ice salinity profiles were of C-, I- and ?-type shapes (compare Eicken 1992).

The salinity distribution at station 5 (Fig. 10) represents a less pronounced C-shape profile with slightly increasing values towards the top and the bottom. The C-type is considered typical of growing young or first-year Arctic sea-ice (compare Eicken

1992). Stations 6 and 7 (Fig. 10) reveal less pronounced C-shape profiles, which could also be interpreted as 1-shaped. According to Eicken (1992), the I-type has nearly constant salinities throughout the core or the salinity even decreases steadily towards the bottom. This was the case at Stations 6 and 7 except for the lowermost core sections.

The ice core at station 4 (Fig. 10) reveals the most interesting distribution of salinity and particle content. In first approximation, the salinity distribution can be classified as ?-type shape (compare Eicken 1992). Due to the steady salinity decrease towards the bottom, the curve may also be interpreted as 1-type. According to Eicken

(1992), a salinity drop by a factor of 2 from the top of the core towards the bottom results from the insulation efffect of Snow accumulation and increasing oceanic heat flux during winter. On the other hand, a substantial salt loss towards the core bottom may also be due to short-term, rapid ice growth followed by insignificant growth or thickness change for the rest of the season. Since the ice core at station 4 revealed the highest particle content in the upper 60-70 cm of all cores (except: cm 12-22, #5), we assume that the ice at station 4 was formed rapidly under extreme, turbulent freezing conditions in the Open lead thereby promoting the incorporation of

(re)suspended particulate matter.

Sedimentology of sea-ice inclusions

Smear slide analyses of particulate matter extracted from fast- and drift-ice cores reveal extremely high percentages in silt and clay fractions (85-95 'Io), while the sand fraction generally is underrepresented (compare Table 3, Fig. 8). According to subrounded clastic material (mainly quartz and feldpar) with highest abundances in the silt fraction, which represents on average 64.2 I (30-85


of the material. Well rounded particles do generally not occur in the sea-ice Sediments.

Organic-clay-iron aggregates, clay minerals and microorganisms partly appear in slightly enhanced portions of 5-25 %. Other clastic material or biogenic components, such as heavy and opaque minerals as well as plant debris, are generally infrequent. The less abundant coarse fraction (5-15 OIO) is mainly composed of aggregates consisting of fine grained material, idiomorphic gypsum minerals and varying biogenic material.

3 . 3 . 4 Particulate snow content

Concentrations of particulate matter in the Arctic Ocean Snow Cover vary between

0.4 mgll in the central Amerasian Basin (Mullen et al. 1972, Darby et al. 1974) and as much as 170 mg/l on the near coastal Laptev Sea fast ice (Dethleff 1993).

However, despite partly considerable concentrations of particulate matter in Arctic snow, a significant contribution of aeolian dust to sea-ice sediments was ruled out by most authors (e.g. Larssen et al. 1987, Pfirman et al. 1990, Wollenburg 1993,

Dethleff 1995a).

The content of particulate matter in Snow of the investigation area ranged from 1.87 to 11.37 mgll (compare Table 4) with a mean of 4.52 mgll. Highest concentrations occurred at station 1 in closest vicinity to the coast line, while lower particle contents were determined at those stations which were located more remote from land. As already proposed by Dethleff et al. (1993) for the Laptev Sea, decreasing particle concentrations in snow with increasing distance from the coast are due to the mechanisms of "aeolian" sediment transport which are mainly governed by wind direction and speed, and topographic conditions of the hinterland. Accordingly, higher concentrations of snow particles on sea-ice can be expected in areas where strong offshore winds erode sediment from exposed land surfaces or move sediment-laden snow off the coast line, while lower particle contents occur at sites of generally onshore winds or completely Snow covered hinterland.

Preliminary quantitative investigations of the material under the binocular reveal mainly fine grained distributions of filtered snow sediments (Table 6). The portion of the coarse fraction mainly ranges between 10 and 30 areal0I0 and does not exceed

40 % (mean: 28 %), while the silt fraction varies between 50 and 80 % (mean: 62 %).

Most of the silt fraction generally consists of fine silt. The clay fraction is less abundant with values between 5 and 20


(mean: 10 %).

Qualitative binocular investigations show that the coarse fraction of the sampled material partly consists entirely of fluffs, dust particles, plant debris and some clastic material. These types of "particles" were also detected at few stations in SPM samples of the upper water column and in filtered sea-ice sedirnents. However, most of the SPM filters, and particularly those of greater water depths (see above), were only insignificantly or not at all laden with fluffs and plant debris. Since all filtered samples were treated in the Same way we can rule out a man-made pollution due to unclean sampling procedure andlor laboratory conditions. The fluffs, dust particles and especially the plant debris thus may be of atmospheric origin and indicative of aeolian entrainment of particles into snow and ice.

The clastic material in snow sediments consists mainly of angular to subangular quartz and feldspar with quantities varying between 30 and 80 % (mean: 55 %). Well rounded spherical quartz, jeldspar and other particles are infrequent or not abundant. If rounded particles are present, they show mainly subprismoidal, sub- to wellrounded grain shapes. Dark minerals occur as generally slightly enhanced traces or in quantities of as much as 5


Rock fragments, mica and clay minerals occur only in traces. Irregularly shaped ash particles from waste- or coal combustion occur also in traces or low percentages, while spherical fly ashes were not abundant in snow sediments.

3 . 4 Radionuclides

According to recent studies (e.g. Joint Norwegian-Russian Expert Group 1996), most of the radioactive material

- such as reactors of submarines, barkes filled with liquid

and solid nuclear waste, and containers

- dumped by the former Soviel Union in the

Arctic were disposed in the fjords along the eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya a t water depths ranging between 10 and 40 m . One purpose of the expedition was to investigate if potentially radioactively contaminated shelf surface deposits could be entrained into newly forming ice at extremely shallow sites (< 50 m water depth) in the western Kara Sea.

Unfortunately, we did not get the permission from the Russian Ministries to conduct our planned process studies along the eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya in the vicinity of

- or directly in

- the nuclear dumping sites. Thus, the KaBaEx field study was carried out as a "substitute" in the SW Kara Sea where we found comparable bathymetric, oceanographical and sedimentological conditions to what w e can expect for the eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya and the dumping bays.

According to our analyses, "^CS contamination of surface deposits along the eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya is relatively low compared to the Baltic- and Irish

Seas (5-15 Bqlkg vs several 100 to 1000 Bqlkg). However,

"^CS and 6 0 ~ 0 concentrations are enhanced inside the bays with highest contamination inventories, amounting to as much as 100,000 Bqlkg sediment in close vicinity to dumped containers (Joint Norwegian-Russian Expert Group 1996, Dethleff et al.

1997a). The surface deposits of the three main dumping bays along the coast of

Novaya Zemlya are composed of extremely fine grained material with as much as 99 weightoh <63pm. From todays knowledge about the entrainment of fine grained surface deposits into new ice along the Siberian coast we can assume that the potentially contaminated bottom material in the Novaya Zemlya fjords is predestinated for resuspension and incorporation into newly forming ice.

The water samples taken at station 1, 4 and 6 (Table 7) showed '^CS activities expected "background" concentrations in the northern hemisphere, which still originales from the global atmospheric fallout of the weapon tests performed during the sixties. On contrary, the radioactive contamination of the North Sea, the North

Atlantic Ocean, and the Barents and Kara Seas through discharge from the reprocessing plants at Sellafield (UK) and La Hague (France) decreased significantly during the past years (Kershaw et al. 1997). This shows that the weapon lest fall-out still provides a stronger radioactive signal in the area of investigation as compared to the recent discharges of the North European reprocessing plants.

The KaBaEx surface sediment samples (Table 7) contained between 0.3 and 20 Bqtkg dry weight. Concentrations of "^CS,

"^CS activities

^CO and ^ ~ r n were below detection limit. The slightly enhanced

"^CS contaminations must be regarded as remnants from formerly stronger polluted Sellafield discharges. Thus, the transport of radioactivity from the Irish Sea to the Arctic Ocean is still documented in recent Kara Sea surface deposits, but cannot be traced in the modern water those detected in surface deposits sampled in 1993 and 1994 in the central Kara

Sea. These samples revealed

"^CS activities between detection limit and 22.1

Bqlkg. A possible release and transport of radioactivity from the Novaya Zemlya dumping sites towards the SW Kara Sea could not be traced in the KaBaEx samples.

4 . Discussion

Arctic sea-ice widely contains fine grained sediments either incorporated as layers and diffusively distributed clouds or enriched in surficial patches after one or several melting cycles. The geological and ecological importance of sediment inclusions in

Arctic sea-ice has been demonstrated in various studies (e.g. Reimnitz et al. 1992,

Nürnber et al. 1994, Weeks 1994, Pfirman et al. 1997b, Landa et al. accepted).

Sedimentological characteristics

- such as extremely high silt and clay percentages

- of sea-ice inclusions from various Arctic regions point to similar or identical entrainment processes active on the circumpolar shelf shallows during initial ice formation.

According to different authors (e.g. Reimnitz & Bruder 1972, Osterkamp & Gosink

1984, Reimnitz et al. 1992, 1993a, Dethleff et al. 1994), the following main mechanisms of turbid-ice formation can be pointed out:

(i) "suspension freezing": scavenging of fine grained (re)suspended particulate

matter from the water column through buoyant rising frazil ice crystals, and entrainment of sediment by upward floating material-laden anchor ice (generally regarded as the most effective mechanism among all proposed),

(ii) enrichment of (re)suspended particulate matter by filtration in surface grease-ice

streaks through convergent oceanic vortices, and

(iii) discharge of particle-rich river- or ocean water over near-coastal ice canopies

(this was also observed at KaBaEx station 8 during sediment trap deployment and recove ry) .

4 . 1

Sea-ice sediment-entrainment in the AmdermaIVaygach flaw lead

After Reimnitz et al. (1993a, b), the entrainment of shelf surface deposits into newly forming ice through suspension freezing occurs under turbulent conditions at extremely shallow sites of


m water depth (Fig. 11). According to our oceanographic and sedimentological data obtained in the AmdermaIVaygach region, at least during field work period (and probably through the entire winter) both the local flaw lead and the under-ice water column were well mixed down to the bottom or the minimum to a depth of 30 m. This led to the design of the following entrainment scenario.



AmdermaNavaach Flaw Lead

Clouds and Fog

Flaw lead

Towards Eastern Kara Se

and Transpolar Drift ?


Fig. 11: Exemplary Cross section of the AmdermaIVaygach flaw lead displaying possible hydrodynamic processes of turbid ice formation.

Turbulent oceanographic-sedimentological processes

Besides tidal currents and wind induced wave action, Langmuir circulation and thermohaline convection must be regarded as the main hydrodynamic processes responsible for oceanic mixing and resuspension of shelf surface deposits, and their subsequent entrainment into newly forming lead ice (Fig. 12). In contrast to the coastward fast ice, the enhanced material loads in the uppermost 60-70 core cm of the compressed drift ice close to or in the AmdermaIVaygach flaw lead points to intensified entrainment of (re)suspended material through the processes of suspension freezing and filtration into congealing frazil during the initial phase of ice formation over Open water.

The shelf surface deposits in the area of investigation provide a large reservoir for the entrainment of particulate matter into newly forming ice. Strong evidence for a substantial contribution of local surface deposits to ice incorporated material is due

to well comparing sedimentological characteristics of both environments when we consider the known processes of sediment entrainment into sea-ice deduced from former field work and laboratcry studies.

Frazil platelets




Profile length (m)


Fig, 12: Helical vortices in the water column (A) collect frazil ice in surface streaks

(B) thereby enhancing the filtration and enrichment

(C) of resuspended, fine grained surface deposits (D). The turbulent water masses may be forced through the wedge- like surface streaks of frazil and the fine grained SPM can be trapped in the slush ice

Cover in areas of downward motion. The collection efficiency of filtration and scavenging (enrichment) processes in western Arctic shelf areas were numerically approached and discussed e.g. by Osterkamp & Gosink (1 984).

Higher abundances of sub- to well rounded, coarse-grained clastic material (mainly quartz) of 100-250 um diameter was detected in southwestern Kara shelf surface deposits and in the water column. Abundances of rounded coarse clasts in the water column varied from station to station, but tended to decrease from the surface towards the near-bottom nepheloid layer (see section 3.2.2). On contrary, rounded, coarse-grained clastics were less abundant or practically absent in local sea-ice sediments (compare Fig. 8), which consisted mainly of angular silt. Irregularly shaped silt was also abundant in the shelf surface deposits, however, in lower concentrations as compared to sea-ice sediments.

This led to the assumption that hydrodynamic processes preferably activate and entrain fine grained, angular, clastic particles from the shelf surface or the nepheloid layer, thereby scavenging the angular silt matrix in bottom deposits and suspension load, and, simultaneously, enriching this grain spectrum in the newly forming ice cover. Sharma (1974) reported of turbid ice in the Bering Sea and also noted that the sediment composition in the ice was finer than that of the underlying shelf surface deposits.

Our findings are corroborated by suspended particle tank experiments carried out by

Reimnitz et al. (1993b). Despite being available in the tank water column, coarse grains were generally less entrained into the forming slush ice cover or even released from rising frazil ice crystals for two reasons: i) particles trapped On the surface of frazil flocs led to unbalancing and subsequent tilting of the crystals, and ii) the coarse particles rolled from the crystal surfaces after turbulent agitation of the tank water column (which can be compared to wave or vortice agitation in nature).

On contrary, due to their irrigular shape, coarse grained live plankton, diatoms and foraminifers, and particularly silt-sized clastic particles were entrained in significantly higher concentrations into the forming slush ice cover through rising frazil.

In short, turbulent hydrodynamic processes seem to be responsible for the entrainment and enrichment of sediment into newly forming sea-ice. Sea-ice incorporations reveal an extremely fine grained composition with a clay fraction even finer than that of deep sea sediments. This was observed during Atterberg grain size separation of Kara and Barents shelf sediments as well as sea-ice entrained material and deep sea deposits from the central Arctic Ocean.

Aeolian and riverine contribution

According to our data, a limited atmospheric contribution of non-clastic material

(fluffs etc.) to the coarse fraction of sea-ice sediments in the AmdermaIVaygach region can be postulated. A minor aeolian contribution of clastic material is generally restricted to the (fine) silt fraction, but may also occur in the coarse fraction (#4).

Aeolian entrainment of coarse clastics may be due to Snow drift, and wind induced rolling and saltation of particles from the land surface towards the ice. Dethleff et al.

(1993) reported sand to pebble sized rock material on the Lena river ice cover, which was propelled by the wind across the slick surface. In general, however, a significant contribution of saltated terrestrial clasts to sea-ice sediments can be ruled out due to continuous

- and protecting


Snow coverage on the land surface during the period of ice formation.

Riverine input to the hydro-cryo-sedimentological regime in the AmdermaIVaygach area seems to be also of minor importance since no large rivers discharge into that part of the Kara Sea (compare Fig. 3). Additionally, relatively low percentages of weil rounded clastic material

- implying a long range fluvial transport

- are abundant in local shelf surface deposits. Most of the material, that may be provided by coastal retreat through thermal abrasion andlor mechanical erosion during the short

Summer period, will be transported along shore towards the east. This can be inferred from active sand bars at the northwestern Kara river mouth (Karskaya Bay), and from eastward extended barrier islands (Torasavey, Levdiev) parallel t o the southern coast of the Baidaratskaya Bay. Conclusively, only little contribution of atmospheric, riverine and fluvial material to local sea-ice sediments can be expected in the southwestern Kara Sea.


Quantification, transport and pathways of sediments

SW Kara Sea ice-

The mechanisms described above afford the entrainment of considerable amounts of sediment into newly forming sea-ice. Minimum concentrations of sediment in

Arctic sea-ice amount to 800-3000 tlkm* (Barnes et al. 1982, Osterkamp



1984), while maximum concentrations were reported to reach as much as 90,000 tlkm2 (Gilberi 1983, McCann & Dale 1986). For example, annualy between 4 and 11 mio t of sediment can be exported from the Laptev Sea through sea-ice transport i) from winter flaw leads, and ii) after entrainment during fall freeze-up on extended areas of the shelf (Dethleff 1995b, Eicken et al. 1997). The entrained material contributes considerably to the sediment budget of the Siberian Branch of the

Transpolar Drift Ice System. After Wollenburg (1993) and Larssen et al. (1987), annualy between 7 and 150 mio t of ice-incorporated clastic material may leave the

Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait towards the North Atlantic.

According to sedimentological investigations supported by foreward and backward trajectory model results derived from drift buoy tracks, atmospheric pressure data and ocean current velocities (Pfirman et al. 1997b, Dethleff et al. 1997b), considerable portions of the sea-ice sediments sampled in the eastern central Arctic and in Fram Strait (e.g. Nürnber et al. 1994, Dethleff 1997) may have been entrained in the Laptev Sea, and the eastern and north western Kara Sea. After being transported into Fram Strait and the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the material will be released and thus can substantially contribute to the regional annual deep- sea sedimentation.

On contrast to the Laptev Sea, comparatively little is known about the origin and pathways of turbid sea-ice formed On the Kara Sea shelf and, particularly produced in near-coastal flaw leads. To estimate the possible ranges of entrainment and transportlexport rates of sediment through sea-ice from the AmdermaIVaygach flaw lead towards the central Kara Sea and the Arctic Mediterranean, we combined local lead-ice accumulation rates deduced from Martin & Cavalieri (1989) with our sea-ice sediment data and recent ice-drift modeling results.

First, we assumed the 4-year mean areal extent and ice formation rates of the east

Novaya Zemlya flaw lead sections A-C (Fig. 4, Table 8) from Martin & Cavalieri

(1 989) to be representative for the 1996197 winter season. Based On satellite images


4) and the general atmospheric winter conditions (Martin & Cavalieri 1989) we then estimated that the lead section D (AmdermalVaygach lead) has approximately the Same areal extent and ice production rates as section A. Since at maximum the upper 60-70 cm of an ice sheet might have been formed in a lead area under turbulent conditions (Zakharov 1966), we only considered the material load incorporated in the uppermost core-sections (Fig. 10) for the following sediment entrainment and export budgets. The resulting mean value of 11 mgll (=I1 g / m 3 = l 1x103 tlkm3) was then combined with the ice volume assumed for the

AmdermaIVaygach lead (Table 8).

Our results show that the AmdermalVaygach lead area D entrains roughly 80,000 t of sediment into new ice during the 1996197 winter season. The export rates of lead section D have to be significantly reduced as compared to the entrainment rates since

- according to both forward ice trajectory simulations (Dethleff et al. 1997b; See also Fig. 4) and numerical model estimates (I. Rigor, 1997, pers. comm.)

- the lead- ice formed in this area leaves the Kara Sea only with a probability of at maximum 10

/ before summer melt. By far the most of the ice produced in the AmdermaIVaygach lead will melt during the following Summer thereby releasing the sediment load to the central Kara shelf. Farther to the north along the east coast of Novaya Zemlya and in the eastern Kara Sea, the probability of turbid-ice export from near-coastal leads towards the central Arctic Ocean approximates 100%.

In order to estimate the

"^CS export through sea-ice entrained sediments from the

AmdermaIVaygach lead we combined the above sediment entrainment and export calculations with detected minimum and maximum radioactive contamination levels in surface deposits close to

- or directly beyond

- the flaw lead sections (Table 9).

Entrained and exported rates of l 3 7 C s differ significantly depending On i) the contamination level in the sediment source on the shelf surface, and ii) the local ice drift conditions. The minimum and maximum export rates of

CS are not expected to exceed 0.025 and 1.5 GBq, respectively. This is very little compared to the estimated total Kara Sea 1 3 7 ~ s

PBq. Furthermore, we have to consider in this context that the type of entrainment mechanism also through anchor ice directly floats upward into the congealing new-ice Cover, resuspended surface deposits, which are lifted up by rising frazil, get into contact with the surrounding water masses and release most ("99 %) of the 1 3 7 ~ s concentration through dissolution. Assuming that both frazil scavenging and anchor ice formation contribute 50


to the entrainment of sediments into the

AmdermaIVaygach lead-ice, we have to reduce the total l 3 ^ C s entrainment and export rates in Table 9 by factor 2,


C o n c l u s i o n s

The most important results of the KaBaEx '97 expedition are summarized as follows:

1) Near coastal flaw leads occur in the southwestern Kara Sea over extremely shallow water depths ranging from 10 to 15 m. The fast ice edge is often stabilized by grounded pressure ridges (stamukhi) formed through onshore pressing ice. This is an essential difference to what we have learned from the Laptev Sea and is rather comparable to the ice situation in the Alaskan Arctic (see Reimnitz et al. 1994).


During our field work only first-year ice was observed and sampled indicating that this area of the Kara Sea was ice free during the previous late summer.

3) (Re)suspended particulate matter

- and particularly coarse clasts

- partly revealed enhanced abundances in the upper water column. This points to a well mixed water column under the ice cover and in the AmdermaIVaygach flaw lead. This was supported by the evaluation of the CTD profiles,

4) The ice produced in the AmdermaIVaygach flaw lead was more turbid than the fast ice attached to the coast. We believe that turbulent processes of turbid ice formation are very effective in this shallow area during winter. Preferably fine grained material is incorporated into the newly forming ice, despite the shelf surface deposits consist mainly of sandy material. Fall freeze-up must also be regarded as an effective entrainment period.

5) Coarse grained, well rounded clasts were mainly found in shelf surface deposits and in the water column, while such particles were less abundant or even absent in the overlying sea-ice cover. This supports results from different studies (e.g. Reimnitz et al. 1993b) documenting that sand-sized, rounded clasts are generally less entrained from the water column into Arctic sea-ice than silt particles, and that the underlying shelf deposits tend to be coarser than local sea-ice sediments.


Furthermore, we postulate the scavenging of fine grained clasts from the bottom deposits through vortical resuspension and sea-ice entrainment. The fine grained material is lifted upward and enriched in the newly forming ice cover.


Aeolian and riverine transport from land to sea must be ruled out as important factor for the occurrence of (fine) particulate matter in SW Kara Sea ice.

8) Roughly 80,000 t of sedimeht were entrained into the AmdermaIVaygach lead ice during the 1996197 winter season. Due to unfavorable ice drift conditions, only 10

% of the sediment may leave that pari of the Kara Sea towards the central Arctic

Ocean, while most of the material will be released On the Kara shelf during Summer melt.

Irish Sea, the English Channel and the Baltic Sea. The amounts of sediment-bond are also low considering the total man-made Kara Sea radionuclide-inventory.

6 . A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s

We are indebted to all MMBI colleagues, particularly to Prof. Dr. Matishov, Dr,

Denisov, and Dr. Dimitri Matishov, who were decisively involved in the preparation and conductance of the KaBaEx '97 expedition. Dr.

G .

Tarasov and Andre)

Kondakov earned our highest respect for their great logistic preparation a n d field guidance and we especially thank Pavel (?) and Vilori Chasankayev for their kind technical and scientific support during the ice works. Furthermore, we appreciated the great hospitality and the cultural frankness of the people in Amderma, and we are very grateful to Andrej Anatoliwitsch, the chief of the local Hydrometeorological

Station, for his Open scientific discussion. The helicopter Crew earned our highest respect during the ice works. The project was funded by the "Bundesminister fü

Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit". The scientific content of this report does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the "Bundesminister fü Umwelt,

Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit". We gratefully thank Carsten Esch for his substantial help providing radio, telephone and e-mail contact between the expedition Crew and the home institutions. We gratefully thank Ortrud Runze for spell checking of this report,

7. R e f e r e n c e s

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Table 1: Station list.

Table 2: List of sampled material.



Smear slide analyses of bottom deposits and sea-ice sediments.

Table 4: Content of particulate matter in snow, ice and water column.

Table 5: Grain size distribution and sample composition of SPM.

Table 6: Grain size distribution and sample composition of particulate matter in the snow Cover.

Kara Sea.

Table 8: Areal lead extent, ice production rates and sediment entrainment

Kara Sea, in the SW sediments based on minimum and maximum contamination levels in local surface deposits.




Table 1: Station list.


Statior date







Type of snow, ice, watei

Sediment, CTD

Snow, ice, sedim

CTD snow, ice, sedirr

Wind aeed (mls



4-5 snow, ice, watei

Sediment, CTD snow, ice, watei

Sediment, CTD snow, ice, wate1

Sediment, CTD snow, ice, watei

Sediment, CTD water, Sediment

CTD, sed. trap

0-1 ; 4-5





Cloud overage (%









Snow thick ness (cm)

5-1 0


I ce Ice


fast relief level

Ice thick ness (cm


Floe a. Water salin. ca. Wate temp. ("C

34.1 -1.9


7-15 fast -ubble, ridges fast level








5 fixed drift level, rubble dr~ft level, rubble drift level, rubble drift level, rubble fast level- r~dges










500 34.5

500 34.5


- 1 8 4




-1 70

'able 2: List of sarnpled material.


Sample material suriace sediment water coumn


grease ice ice core (fiitered)

i e d sediments)

ice ridge



Sampling intewailldeptt

0-0 5 cm

0-3 cm

1 m

4 m from borehok

0-15 cm

15-31 Cm

31-45 cm

45-60 cm

60-75 cm

75-90 Cm no

(entratned sedaments)


0-3 cm water coiumn ice ridge

23-45 Cm

45-65 cm

65-80 Cm

80-97 cm

97-1 17 Cm

117-130 cm water coumn

0-3 Cm

2 m grease ice ice core (fiitered) sce ridge

(entrained sediments)

Snow suriace sediment water column grease ice ice core (fiitered)

8 < 5 a " d B ! S i n n c 0 1 Ã £

63 66




109-127 cm coli


Ce ridge


1 yes

0-0.5 cm

0-3 cm

1 m



9 m no

0-12 cm

12-24 cm

24-36 cm

36-52 Cm

52-68 Cm

66-84 cm

84-96 cm

96-1 10 cm

110-127 Cm yes

18 m no

0-12 cm

12-27 cm

27-40 cm

40-57 cm

57-72 cm

72-86 cm

86-1 00 cm

100-114 cm


128-1 42 cm

142-156 cm

156-170 cm no water column grease ice ice core

(entrained seoiments)

0-3 cm

1 m

10 m

20 m no

0-12 cm

1 2-22 Cm

22-39 cm

39-59 cm

59-75 cm

75-89 cm

Y ~ S lce ridge

(entrained Sediments)

snow suriace sediment water coumn no

0-0.5 cm

0-3 cm

1 m grease sce ice core (fiitered)



40 m no


28-44 cm

44-60 cm

60-68 cm ice ridge

(enlrained Sediments)

0-3 cm water column rease ice

28-44 Cm

44-60 cm

(entrained Sediments)

water column

CraT rease ice ice core (filtered)

(entramed sedimenls)

ice ridge

0-3 cm

Table 3: Smear slide analyses of bottom deposits and sea-ice sediments.



P n









Sedirnen Rernarks

L Y P L sand sed -suri


(in %) rounded


Rock fraqrnent:





30 sandy sil silty clay sed -suri icelridge







60 35


















85 silty sanc sed.-sud sand


Sllt sed -suri icelridge ice-core sand silty ciay ice-core silty sanc sed.-suri icelridge

Sllt silt sand sed.-suri icelridge





5 traces


5 traces


3paque Heavy Diatoms, Plant Remarks ninerals min. spores etc debris traces traces 5

- qz subangular in


fraction t r a y


- traces

1 traces traces

1 1

u b r

to subangular quartz in coarse fratt

15-20core cm,

(dtorn gypwrn m,nerais.

~ r

UaceS 5 traces traces traces traces traces traces




5 matwai traces


matenal mainly sponqae a dialoms. iine

10 middle sill traces more


silt in icethan in



traces much fine S~II traces



mainly aggr 01 fine


mal. high abund offine sil traces traces traces - quartz subangular to






Table 4: Content of particulate matter in snow. ice and water column.


Particle Remarks section mount


filtered ater (mi content

(mg/11 section


1060 11 37






3 14

2 48

2 27

2 31

1 97



snow jno visible inclus


0-16 no visible inclus

0 0




60-68 no visible inclus no visible tnclus

5 3

5 0

4 5 no visible ~nclus 4 0 brownish incl 6 1 fn2 mwat:rdepthi o-r




45-65 no visible inclus no visible inclus. no visible inclus no visible inclus.


80-97 no visible inclus. no visible inclus.


117-130 no visible inclus. brownish incl.


7 7

8 3

6 7

4 2

4 0




P M 1 0 m water deptd 34 5 snow lno visible incius




12-27 no visible inclus. no visible inclus



27-40 no visible inclus




86-100 no visibie inclus. no visible inclus. no visible inclus no visible inclus

100-114 no visible inclus.

114-1 28 no visible inclus

4 2

2 7


6 6

1 9


3 6

128-142 no visible inclus

142-156 no visible lnclus

4 6

3 2




brownish incl.



U m water depth 33.2











1 I 8 0



















5 50

2 38

0 5 5

1 72

2 75


2 4 9

1 59

2 08

2 15

2 31

8 49


1 67

5 82

1 87

4 45

6 27

7 72






1 6 1

6 10

5 4 3

2 41

2 96 ample los ample los ample los ample los total loss



20m water deptp 33 2

P M 40m water depld 33 7

0-17 n o visible incius


6 2





37m waler depth 33 3

2m waler depth 32 0

7m waler depth 33 7

12m waler depth 33 2

1100 -

4.18 810






68-84 no visible lnclus. visible inclusions no visible inclus. visible inclusions visible inclusions no visible inclus.






2 6














96-1 10

110-127 no visible inclus. no visible inclus. brownish incl




0-1 2






3 1


5m water depth 33.1


2.1 water deplh 33.1 no visible inclus. visible incluslons no visible inclus no visible inclus. no visible inclus. brownish incl.

6 1




















1 m water depth 32.8

10m water depth 32.8

20m water deptb 33.0 lended particulate matter brownish incl

. mlcrobiogenic activity, algae bloom




21 59


4 47


2 85 total loss

4 16

2 00

1 87


9.33 ample los ample los




2 1 4 rnount o filtered

'ater (ml

^articie content mg'1'1





















2 45

3 18

3 37

2 28

2 94

12 16

2 12

1 63

2 78


6 92

6 60

2 17

4 69

5 49

3 59



38 33

22 97

23 30

Table 5: Grain size distribution and sample composition of SPM.

Grain Size

Station Wafer Sand



(in %)

Silt Clay Sediment



7 0



20 type silt silt


(in %)




Quartz, Feldsparetc. angulad subround l(weil)round,

70 5




Rock Mica fragments (flocs)

- traces

Combust. Clay Opaque Heavy products traces

Min. minerals min



Micro- organism



tr. tr

I traces traces

I traces traces traces tr. fluffs, fossil raisin (amber) and subangular to subroundei tracesl traces



I tr

I quartz in coarse fraction quartz in coarse fraction





- traces 10 tr. traces traces traces traces tr. extremely fine silt; enhanced abundantes of silver



1 m

1 m






10 m

2 m





7 0





1 silt silt
















30 traces

1 1 traces traces tr.

Ir. traces traces traces traces traces

- traces tr. traces Ir. discolored combustion flocs (inorganic) extremely fine, ciastlcsllt matnx: high abundantes 01 fine silt matrcx; rounded to well rounded quartz in coarse traces traces high abundantes 01 rounded coarse clastics


20 m

1 m


50 2 0 sandy silt

35 5 0 15 sandysilt

2 0 m 2 0 7 0 10 silt








10 traces traces traces traces

5 tr tr traces traces traces


- traces traces traces



- traces traces

10 traces

15 traces







. tr

- httle mater~al rounded particles in coarse fraction abundance of angular dark minerals in coarse fraction dark minerais of less diameter as in suriace sample coarse fraction (-500pm) above the weak haiocline

Table 6: Grain size distribution and sample composition of particulate matter in the Snow Cover.

Grain Size (in %)

Station Sand Silt

Clay Sediment
























10 type silt sandy silt sandy silt sandy silt sandy silt




Station Quartz, Fsp. Fluffs






6 angular

















Rock fragments traces traces traces traces traces

Mica Combustion Clay Opaque Heavy products

Min " minerals min

Diatoms, spores etc tr. tr. tr. tr. tr lraces


5 traces traces


Ir. tr. tr tr, traces traces

5 traces traces tr tr tr.






Plant Fossil debris raisin







Ir tr

Ir. tr.

Remarks fluffs, quartz and comb products in coarse lraction high abund 01 fluffs in coarse lraction. less qu a comb prod fluffs, comb. prod, and quarlz (subangular) in coarse fraction subangular 10 subrounded quariz in coarse lraction hi. abund of fluffs in coarse fract

, less clast parlicl , much line silt

Table 7: 137Cs activities in surface deposits and surface water sarnples of the SW Kara Sea

Station Sedimeni







1 .oo












8: Areal lead extent, ice production rates and sedirnent entrainment in the SW Kara Sea

Lead section




Lead area

Ice Sediment Sediment Sediment volurne concentr. entrained exported

(krnA2) (kmA3)



1200* 17"

(mgll) (t) (1)



U *

7 1 1 77.000

"4-year mean frorn MARTIN and CAVALIERI (1989)


- 7700

Table 9: Entrained and exported rates of 1 3 7 0 in Amderrnnaygach lead-ice sediments based on minimum and maximum contamination levels in local surface deposits.


Lead section Sediment Sediment

(box) rninimum maximum

(Bqlkg) (Bqlkg)

Entrained minimurn



Entrained rnaximum


D 0.33





20.2 0.25 15

Exported rninirnum



Exported rnaximurn



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Heft Nr. 4111988



Heft Nr. 4'211988


"The zooplankton cornmunity in the deep bathyal and abyssal zones of the eastern North Atlantic" by Werner Beckmann

Heft Nr. 4311988


"Scientific cruise report of Arctic Expedition ARK IV/3"

Wissenschaftlicher Fahrtbericht der Arktis-Expedition ARK IV/3, compiled by Jör Thiede

Heft Nr. 4411988


"Data Report for FV 'Polarstern' Cruise ARK IV/1, 1987 to the Arctic and Polar Fronts" by Hans-Jurgen Hirche

Heft Nr. 45/1988


ãZoogeographi und Gemeinschaftsanalyse des Makrozoobenthos des Weddellmeeres

(Antarktis)'' von Joachirn VoÃ

Heft Nr. 4611988


"Meteorological and Oceanographic Data of the Winter-Weddell-Sea Project 1986

(ANT Vf3)" by Eberhard Fahrbach

Heft Nr. 4711988


,,Verteilung und Herkunft glazial-mariner Geröll am Antarktischen Kontinentalrand des östliche Weddellrneeres" von Wolfgang Oskierski

Heft Nr. 4811988


-Variationen des Erdmagnetfeldes an der GvN-Station" von Arnold Brodscholl

Heft Nr. 4911988


,,Zur Bedeutung der Lipide i m antarktischen Zooplankton" von Wilhelm Hagen

Heft Nr. 5011988


ãDi gezeitenbedingte Dynamik des Ekström-Schelfeises

Heft Nr. 5111988


,,Okomorphologie nototheniider Fische aus dem Weddellmeer, Antarktis" von Werner Ekau

Heft Nr. 5211988


,,Zusammensetzung der Bodenfauna in der westlichen Fram-Straße von Dieter Piepenburg


Heft Nr. 5311988


,,Untersuchungen zur Ökologi des Phytoplanktons im sudostlichen Weddellmeer

(Antarktis) im Jan./Febr. 1985" von Eva-Maria Nothig

Heft Nr. 5411988


,,Die Fischfauna des östliche und sudlichen Weddellmeeres: geographische Verbreitung, Nahrung und trophische Stellung der Fischarten" von Wiebke Schwarzbach

Heft Nr. 5511988


"Weight and length data of zooplankton in the Weddell Sea n austral spring 1986 (Ant V13)" by Elke Mizdalski

Heft Nr. 5611989


"Scientific cruise report of Arctic expeditions ARK IV/l, 2 & 3" by G. Krause, J. Meincke und J. Thiede

Heft Nr. 5711989


*Die Expedition ANTARKTIS V rnit FS ,Polarstern' 1986/87"

Bericht von den Fahrtabschnitten ANT V/4-5 von H. Miller und H. Oerter


Heft Nr. 5811989


,,Die Expedition ANTARKTIS VI mit FS ,Polarstern' 1987/88" von D. K. Füttere

Heft Nr. 5911989


,,Die Expedition ARKTIS Vlla, 1 b und 2 rnit FS ,Polarstern' 1988" von M. Spindler





ãEi zweidimensionales Modell zur thermohalinen Zirkulation unter dem Schelfeis" von H. H. Hellmer


Heft Nr. 6111989


,,Die Vulkanite im westlichen und mittleren Neuschwabenland,

Vestfjella und Ahlmannryggen, Antarktika" von M. Peters

Heft-Nr. 62/1989


"The Expedition ANTARKTIS Vll/1 and 2 (EPOS I) of RV 'Polarstern' in 1988/89", by I. Hempel

Heft Nr. 6311989


,,Die Eisalgenflora des Weddellmeeres (Antarktis): Artenzusammensetzung und Biomasse

Heft Nr. 6411989


"Meteorological Data of the G.-V.-Neumayer-Station (Antarctica)" by L. Helmes

Heft Nr. 6511989


,,Expedition Antarktis VIV3 in 1988189" by I. Hempel, P.


Schalk, V. Smetacek

Heft Nr. 6611989


,,Geomorphologisch-glaziologische Detailkartierung des arid-hochpolaren Borgmassivet, Neuschwabenland, Antarktika" von Karsten Brunk

Heft-Nr. 6711990


,,Identification key and catalogue of laival Antarctic fishes", edited by Adolf Kellermann

Heft-Nr. 6811990


,,The Expediton Antarktis VIV4 (Epos leg 3) and Vlll5 of RV 'Polarstern' in 1989", edited by W. Arntz, W. Ernst, I. Hempel

Heft-Nr. 6911990


,,Abhängigkeite elastischer und rheologischer Eigenschaften des Meereises vom

Eisgefuge", von Harald Hellmann

Heft-Nr. 70/1990


,,Die beschalten benthischen Mollusken (Gastropoda und Bivalvia) des

Weddellmeeres, Antarktis", von Stefan Hain




,,Sedimentologie und Paläomagneti an Sedimenten der Maudkuppe (Nordöstliche

Weddellmeer)", von Dieter Cordes.

Heft-Nr. 72/1990


ãDistributio abundante of planktonic copepods (Crustacea) in the Weddell Sea in summer 1980/81", by F. Kurbjeweit and S. Ali-Khan

Heft-Nr. 73/1990


,,Zur Frühdiagenes und östliche Weddellrneeres", von M. Schlüte




ãExpeditione von Rainer Gersonde und Gotthilf Hempel

Heft-Nr. 7511991


,,Quartär Sedimentationsprozesse am Kontinentalhang des Süd-Orkey-Plateau nordwestlichen Weddellmeer (Antarktis)", von Sigrun Grüni


76/1990 -,,Ergebnisse der faunistischen Arbeiten im Benthal von King George Island

Heft-Nr. 77/1990


,,Verteilung von Mikroplankton-Organismen nordwestlich der Antarktischen Halbinsel unter dem Einfluà sich ändernde Umweltbedingungen im Herbst", von Heinz Kloser

Heft-Nr. 7811991


Meeresgebiete", von Norbert R. Nowaczyk

Heft-Nr. 7911991


,,Ökophysiologisch Untersuchungen zur Salinitäts und Temperaturtoleranz



Stoffwechsels", von Ulf Karsten


80/1991 -,,Die Expedition ARKTIS Vllll mit FS ,Polarstern3 herausgegeben von Jör Thiede und Gotthilf Hempel

Heft-Nr. 8111991


,,Paläoglaziologi und Paläozeanographi im Spätquartà arn Kontinentalrand des südliche Weddellmeeres, Antarktis", von Martin Melles

Heft-Nr. 82/1991


Quantifizierung von Meereseigenschaften: Automatische Bildanalyse von Chlorophyll- und von

Salzgehaltsverteilungen", von Hajo Eicken

Heft-Nr. 8311991

- ,,Das Fließe von Schelfeisen - numerische Simulationen mit der Methode der finiten Differenzen", von Jurgen Determann

Heft-Nr. 8411991


,,Die Expedition ANTARKTIS-VIII/l-2, 1989 mit der Winter Weddell Gyre Study der Forschungsschiffe ,,Polarsternm und ,,Akademik Fedorov", von Ernst Augstein,

Nikolai Bagriantsev und Hans Werner Schenke

Heft-Nr. 8511991


,,Zur Entstehung von Unterwassereis und das Wachstum und die Energiebilanz des Meereises in der Atka Bucht, Antarktis", von Josef Kipfstuhl

Heft-Nr. 8611991


,,Die Expedition ANTARKTIS-VIII mit ,,FS Polarstern" 1989/90. Bericht vom

Fahrtabschnitt ANT-VIII / 5 " von Heinz Miller und Hans Oerter

Heft-Nr. 8711991

-"Scientific cruise reports of Arctic expeditions ARK VI / 1-4 of RV "Polarstern" in 1989", edited by G. Krause, J. Meincke & H. J. Schwarz

Heft-Nr. 8811991


ãZu Lebensgeschichte dominanter Copepodenarten (Calanus finmarchicus,

Heft-Nr. 8911991


,,Detaillierte seismische Untersuchungen am östliche Kontinentalrand des Weddell-Meeres vor Kapp Norvegia, Antarktis", von Norbert E. Kaul

Heft-Nr. 9011991


,,Die Expedition ANTARKTIS-VIII mit FS ,,Polarsternu 1989190.

Bericht von den Fahrtabschnitten ANT-VIIIf6-7", herausgegeben von Dieter Karl Futterer und Otto Schrems

Heft-Nr. 9111991

- "Blood physiology and ecological consequences in Weddell Sea fishes (Antarctica)", by Andreas Kunzmann



Nordpolarmeer", von Nicolai Mumm




,,Die Expedition ARKTIS VII mit FS ,,Polarstern", 1990.

Bericht vom Fahrtabschnitt ARK Vll/2", herausgegeben von Gunther Krause




,,Die Entwicklung des Phytoplanktons im östliche Weddellmeer (Antarktis) von Renate Scharek

Heft-Nr. 9511991

-,,,Radioisotopenstratigraphie, Sedimentologie und Geochemie jungquartäre

Sedimente des ostlichen Arktischen Ozeans", von Horst Bohrmann

Heft-Nr. 9611991

, Holozän Sedimentationsentwicklung im Scoresby Sund, Ost-Grönland" von Peter ~ a r i e n f e ~ d

Heft-Nr. 9711991

ãStrukturell Entwicklun und Abkuhlungsgeschichte der Heimefrontfjella

(Westliches Dronning Maud ~andl~ntarktika?',

Heft-Nr. 9811991

- ,,Zur Besiedlungsgeschichte des antarktischen Schelfes am Beispiel der

Isopoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca) , von Angelika Brandt

Heft-Nr. 9911992

modelling study", by Philippe Huybrechts


~ e f t - ~ r . 1 0 0 1 1 9 9 2

1990/9lU, heraus e eben von Ulrich Bathmann, Meinhard Schulz-Baldes,

Eberhard ~ahrbach,%ictor Smetacek und Hans-Wolfgang Hubberten

Heft-Nr. 10111992

,Wechselbeziehun en zwischen Schwermetallkonzentrationen

Cd, Cu, Pb Zn im [vieewasser und in i%oplanktonorganismen (Copepoda) der h k t i s und des Atlantiks", von Christa Pohl

Heft-Nr. 10W1992

Prasiola crispa ssp. antarctica unter osmotischem Streà und Austrocknung", von Andreas Jacob

Heft-Nr. 10311992

,,Zur Ökologi der Fische im Weddelmeer", von Gerd Hubold

Heft-Nr. 10411992

in Verbtndung mit der freien 0be8äch in marinen Seismogrammenc', von Andreas Rosenberger





- Radiation and Eddy Flux ~ x ~ e r i m e n t l 9 9 1

Christoph Kottmeier und Christian Wamser

Heft-Nr. 10611992

von Rudiqer Kock

- Ostracoden im E ipela ial vor der Antarktischen Halbinsel - ein Beitrag zur,

Systematik sowie zur"verbreitung und $opu18ionsstruktur unter Berücksichtigun der Saisonalitat",



von Dieter K. Futterer

Heft-Nr. 10811992

~ e o r g - v o n - ~ e u m a ~ e r

Methoden", von Uwe Nixdorf.

- Eine Untersuchung mit seismologischen und geodätische

Heft-Nr. 10911992

von Michael Weber.

Heft-Nr. 11011992

,,Sedimentfazies und Bodenwasserstrom am Kontinentalhang des nordwestlichen Weddellmeeres", von Isa Brehme.

Heft-Nr. 11111992

von Jurgen Weissenberger.

Heft-Nr. 11W1992

Ozean", von Jutta Wollenburg.

Heft-Nr. l l 3 l l 9 9 2


,Die Expedition ARKTIS Vlll/1 mit FS "Polarstern" 1991", herausgegeben von Gerhard Kattner.


Heft-Nr. 114/1992


,,Die Gründungsphas deutscher Polarforschung, 1865-1 875", von Reinhard A. Krause

Heft-Nr. 11511992


Scientific Cruise Re ort of the 1991 Arctic Expedition ARK Vlll/2 of RV "Polarstern" (EPOS II)", by Eike ~ a c h o r .

Heft-Nr. 116/1992


The Meteor010 ical Data of the Georg-von-Neumayer-Station (Antarctica) for 1988, 1989, 1990'ktd 1991", by &rt König-Langlo

Heft-Nr. 11711992

- Petro enese des metamorphen Grundgebirges der zentralen Heimefrontfjella

(westliches Dronning 'baudLand /Antarktis)", von Peter Schulze.

Heft-Nr. 11811993


,,Die mafischen Gäng der Shackleton Range / Antarktika: Petrographie,


Heft-Nr. 11911993


,,Gefrierschutz bei Fischen der Polarmeere", von Andreas P.A. Wöhrrnan


Heft-Nr. 12011993

- ,,Esst Siberian Arctic Re ion Ex edition '92: The Laptev Sea - its Significance for

Arctic Sea-Ice Formation and Transpolar sediment 8ux3', by D. Dethleff, D Nürnberg

M. Saarso and Y.




Expedition to Novaja Zemlja and Franz Josef Land with


Heft-Nr. 12111993


,,Die Expedition ANTARKTIS W3 mit FS 'Polarstern' 1992", herausgegeben von

Michael Spindler, Gerhard Dieckmann und David Thomas.

Heft-Nr. 12211993

- ,,Die Beschreibung der Korngestalt mit Hilfe der Fourier-Analyse: Parametrisierung der morphologischen Eigenschaften von Sedimentpartikeln", von Michael Diepenbroek.


Heft-Nr. 12311993

- von Sebastian Gerland.

Heft-Nr. 124/1993


Umsatz und Verteilung von Li iden in arktischen marinen Organismen unter

Heft-Nr. 12511993


,Ökologi und Respiration ausgewählte arktischer Bodenfischarten", von Christian F. von Dorrien.

Heft-Nr. 126/1993

-,,Quantitative Bestimmung von Paläoumweltpara,meter des Antarktischen

Heft-Nr. 12711993

- ,,Sedimenttransport durch das arktische Meereis: Die rezente lithogene und biogene Materialfracht", von Ingo Wollenburg.

Heft-Nr. 12811993


,,Cruise ANTARKTIS X/3 of RV 'Polarstern': CTD-Report", von Marek Zwierz.

Heft-Nr. 129/1993


Weddellmeer, Antarktis", von Frank Kurbjeweit

Heft-Nr. 13011993

- , Untersuchungen zu Temperaturregime und Massenhaushalt des


Abschmelzprozessen", von Klaus Grosfeld

Heft-Nr. 13111993

- herausgegeben von Rainer Gersonde

Heft-Nr. 13211993


Bildung und Ab abe kurzkettiger halogenierter Kohlenwasserstoffe durch

Heft-Nr. 133/1994


"Radiation and Eddy Flux Experiment 1993 REFLEX11

" by Christoph Kottmeier, Jör Hartmann, Christian Wamser, Axel kochert, dhristof Lüpkes

Dietmar Freese and Wolfgang Cohrs


Heft-Nr. 134/1994


"The Expedition ARKTIS-IWI", edited by Hajo Eicken and Jens Meincke

Heft-Nr. 135/1994

,,Die Expeditionen ANTARKTIS W6-8", herausgegeben von Ulrich Bathmann,

Victor Smetacek, Hein de Baar, Eberhard Fahrbach und Gunter Krause

Heft-Nr. 136/1994

- ,

Untersuchungen zur Ernahrungsökologi von Kaiserpinguinen (Aptenodyfes forsteri)


Heft-Nr. 13711994

- ,,Die känozoisch Vereisungsgeschichte der Antarktis", von Werner U. Ehrmann

Heft-Nr. 138/1994


,,Untersuchun en stratosphärische Aerosole vulkanischen Urs rungs und polarer stratospharischer Wolken mit einem%lehrwellenlangen-~idar von Georg Beyerle


Heft-Nr. 139/1994


,,Charakterisierung der Isopodenfauna (Crustacea, Malacostraca) des Scotia-Bogens aus biogeographischer Sicht: Ein multivariater Ansatz", von Holger Winkler.

Heft-Nr. 14011994


,Die Expedition ANTARKTIS W4 mit FS 'Polarstern' 1992", herausgegeben von F"eter Lemke

Heft-Nr. 141/1994


,,Satellitenaltimetrie übe

Ekströmisen Antarktis", von Clemens Heidland

Heft-Nr. 142/1994


"The 1993 Northeast Water Expedition. Scientific cruise report of RVPolarstern'

Arctic cruises ARK 1x12 and 3, USCG 'Polar Bear' cruise NEWP and the NEWLand expedition", edited by Hans-Jurgen Hirche and Gerhard Kattner

Heft-Nr. 14311994


,,Detaillierte refraktionsseismische Untersuchungen im inneren Scoresby Sund

Ost-Grönland" von Notker Fechner

Heft-Nr. 14411994


,,Russian-German Cooperation in the Siberian Shelf Seas: Geo-System

Laptev Sea", edited by Heidemarie Kassens, Hans-Wolfgang Hubberten, Sergey M . Pryamikov und Rudiger Stein

Heft-Nr. 1,4511994 - ,,The 1993 Northeast Water Expedition. DataReportof RV 'Polarstern'

Arctic Cruises 1x12 and 3", edited by Gerhard Kattner and Hans-Jurgen Hirche.



- "Radiation Measurements at the German Antarctic Station Neumayer

1982-1 992", by Torsten Schmidt and Gert König-Langlo

Heft-Nr. 14711994


Krustenstrukturen und Verlauf des Kontinentalrandes irn

Weddell Meer I

Heft-Nr. 14811994 - "The ex editions NORILSKITAYMYR 1993 and BUNGER OASIS 1993/94 edited by Martin Melles.


Heft-Nr. 14511994 - "Die Expedition ARCTIC' 93. Der Fahrtabschnitt ARK-1x14 mit

FS 'Polarstern' 1993", herausgegeben von Dieter K. Futterer.

r. 15011994


"Der Energiebedarf der Pygoscelis-Pinguine: eine Synopse", von Boris M. Culik.


15111994 ,,Russian-German Coo eration: The Transdrift l Expedition to the Laptev Sea", by Heidemane Kassens and Valeriy Karpiy.

Heft-Nr. 152/1994


Fahrtabschnitten I

Die Expedition ANTARKTIS-X mit FS 'Polarstern' 1992. Bericht von den

2", herausgegeben von Heinz Miller.

Heft-Nr. 15311994


"Aminosäure und Huminstoffe im Stickstoffkreislauf polarer Meere", von Ulrike Hubberten.

Heft-Nr. 15411994 - "Regional und seasonal variability in the vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the Greenland Sea". bv Claudio Richter.

Heft-Nr. 15511995 - "Benthos in polaren Gewässern" herausgegeben von Christian Wiencke und Wolf Arntz.

Heft-Nr. 156/1995 - "An ad'oint rnodel for the determination of the mean oceanic circulation, air-sea fluxes und mixing coefficienis", b y Reiner Schlitzer.



"Biochemische Untersuchungen zum Lipidstoffwechsel antarktischer Copepoden",


- "Die Deutsche Polarforschung seit der Jahrhundertwende und der Einfluà Erich von Drygalskis", von Cornelia Ludecke.

Heft-Nr. 159/1995


The distribution of 3"0 in the Arctic Ocean: Irnplications for the freshwater balance of the haloclin and the sources of deep and bottom waters", by Dorothea Bauch.

* Heft-Nr. 16011995

- "Rekonstruktion der spätquartär Tiefenwasserzirkulation und Produktivitä im östliche

Sudatlantik anhand von benthischen Foraminiferenvergesellschaftungen", von Gerhard Schmiedl.

Heft-Nr. 16111995


"Der Einfluà von Salinitä und Lichtintensitä auf die Osmol tkonzentrationen, die Zellvolumina sp. unter besonderer

Berücksichtigun der Aminosäur Prolin , von Jürge Nothnagel.

Heft-Nr. 162/1995 - "Meereistransportiertes lithogenes Feinmaterial in spätquartär Tiefseesedimenten des zentraler von Thornas Letzig.

Heft-Nr. 16311995 - "Die Ex edition ANTARKTIS-XI/2 mit FS "Polarstern" 1993/94", herausaeaeben von Rainer gersonde. gige Variation gesteinsmagnetischer Parameter in marinen d Umsatz biogener organischer Spurenstoffe: Sterole in antarktischen

Haft-Nr. 166/1995

- "Vergleichende Untersuchun en eines optimierten dynamisch-thermodynamischen Meereismode achtungen im Weddellrneer", von ~ o ~ ~ e r F i s c h e r .


- "Rekonstruktionen von Paläo-Umweltparameternanhan von stabilen Isotopen und schaftungen planktischer Foraminiferen irn Sudatlantik", von Hans-Stefan Niebler



"Die Expedition ANTARKTIS XI1 mit FS 'Polarstern' 1993194.

Bericht von den Fahrtabschnitten ANT Xll/1 und

2 "

herausgegeben von Gerhard Kattner und Dieter Karl Fütterer

Heft-Nr. 169/1995

- "Medizinische Untersuchun zur Circadianrhythmik und zum Verhalten bei Ãœberwinterer auf eint antarktischen Forschungsstation", von Hans ~ o t ? m a n n .

Heft-Nr. 17011995 - DFG-Kolloquium: Terrestrische Geowissenschaften - Geologie und Geophysik der Antarktis.

Heft-Nr. 17111995 - "Strukturentwicklung und Petro enese des metamorphen Grundgebirges der nördliche

Heirnefrontfjella (westliches Dronning Maud L.and/~nfarktika)", von Wiffried Bauer.

Heft-Nr. 17211995

- "Die Struktur der Erdkruste im Bereich des Scoresby Sund, Ostgrönland

Ergebnisse refraktionsseismischer und gravimetrischer Untersuchungen'

, von Holger Mandler.

Heft-Nr. 17311995

- "Paläozoisch Akkretion am palaopazifischen Kontinentalrand der Antarktis in Nordvictorialand


P-T-D-Geschichte und Deformationsmechanismen im Bowers Terrane" von Stefan Matzer.

Heft-Nr. 174/1995

- "The Expedition ARKTIS-XI2 of RV 'Polarstern' in 1994" edited by Hans-W. Hubberten.

Heft-Nr. 175/1995


"Russian-Gerrnan Cooperation: The Expedition TAYMYR 1994", edited by Christine Siegert and Drnitry Bolshiyanov.

Heft-Nr. 17611995 - "Russian-Gerrnan Cooperation: Laptev Sea System", edited b Heidernarie Kassens,

Dieter Piepenburg, Jör Thiede, Leonid Timokhov, Hans-Wolfgang Hubberten and zergey M. Priamikov.

Heft-Nr. 17711995 - "Organischer Kohlenstoff in spätquartär Sedimenten des Arktischen Ozeans: Terrigener Eintra und marine Produktivität" von Carsten J. Schubert.

Heft-Nr. 178/1995

- "Cruise ANTARKTIS Xll/4 of RV 'Polarstern' in 1995: CTD-Report", by Jür

Heft-Nr. 179/1995 - "Benthische Foraminiferenfaunen als Wassermassen-, Produktions- und Eisdriftanzeiger im Arkt sehen Ozean", von Jutta Wollenburg.

Heft-Nr. 18011995


"Biogenopal und biogenes Barium als Indikatoren fü antarktischen Kontinentalhang, atlantischer Sektor", von Wolfgang J. Bonn.

Heft-Nr. 18111995

- "Die Expedition ARKTIS W1 des Forschungsschiffes ,Polarsternc 1994", herausgegeben von Eberhard Fahrbach.

Heft-Nr. 182/1995


"Laptev Sea System: Expeditions in 1994", edited by Heidemarie Kassens.

Heft-Nr. 183/1996


"Interpretation digitaler Parasound Echolotaufzeichnungen im östliche Arktischen Ozean auf dei

Grundlage physikalischer Sedimenteigenschaften", von Uwe Bergmann.




"Distribution and dynamics of inorganic nitrogen compounds in the troposphere of continental. coastal, marine and Arctic areas", by Maria Dolores Andres Hernandez.

Heft-Nr. 185/1996


"Verbreitung und Lebensweise der Aphroditiden und Polynoiden (Polychaeta) i m östliche Weddi meer und irn Lazarevmeer (Antarktis)", von Michael Stiller.

Heft-Nr. 186/1996

- "Reconstruction of Late Quaternary environmental conditions applying the natural radionuclides

"¡Th '¡Be "'Pa and '"U: A study of deep-sea sediments from the eastern sector of the Antrctic Circumpolar Current

System", by Martin Frank.

Heft-Nr. 187/1996


"The Meteorological Data of the Neumayer Station (Antarctica) for 1992, 1993 and 1994". by Gert König-Lang1 and Andreas Herber.




"Die Expedition ANTARKTIS-XI13 mit FS 'Polarstern' 1994", herausgegeben von Heinz Miller und Hannes Grobe.

Heft-Nr. 18911996


"Die Expedition ARKTIS-VIV3 mit FS 'Polarstern' 1990". herausgegeben von Heinz Miller und Hannes Grobe.

Heft-Nr. 190/1996


"Cruise report of the Joint Chilean-German-ltalian Magellan 'Victor Hensen' Campaign in 1994", edited by Wolf Arntz and Matthias Gorny.

Heft-Nr. 191/1996


"Leitfähigkeits und Dichtemessung an Eisbohrkernen", von Frank Wilhelms,

Heft-Nr. 192/1996


"Photosynthese-Charakteristika und Lebensstrategie antarktischer Makroalgen", von Gabriele Weykam.

Heft-Nr. 193/1996


"Heterogene Raktionen von NoOc und HBr und ihr Einfluà auf den Ozonabbau in der polaren

Stratosphäre" von Sabine Seisel.

Heft-Nr. 19411996


"Ökologi und Populationsdynamik antarktischer Ophiuroiden (Echinodermata)", von Corinna Dahm.

Heft-Nr. 19511996


"Die planktische Foraminifere Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (Ehrenberg) im Weddellmeer,

Antarktis", von Doris Berberich.

Heft-Nr. 196/1996


"Untersuchungen zum Beitrag chemischer und dynamischer Prozesse zur Variabilitä des

Heft-Nr. 197/1996


"The Expedition ARKTIS-XI/2 of 'Polarstern' in 1995", edited by Gunther Krause.

Heft-Nr. 198/1996


"Geodynamik des Westantarktischen Riftsystems basierend auf Apatit-Spaltspuranalysen", von Frank Lisker.

Heft-Nr. 199/1996


"The 1993 Northeast Water Expedition. Data Report on CTD Measurements of RV 'Polarstern'

Cruises ARKTIS IW2 and


by Gereon Budeus and Wolfgang Schneider.

Heft-Nr. 20011996


"Stability of the Thermohaline Circulation in analytical and numerical models", by Gerrit Lohmann

Heft-Nr. 201/1996


"Trophische Beziehungen zwischen Makroalgen und Herbivoren in der Potter Cove

(King George-Insel, Antarktis)", von Katrin Iken.

Heft-Nr. 20211996


"Zur Verbreitung und Respiration ökologisc wichtiger Bodentiere in den Gewässer um

Svalbard (Arktis)", von Michael K. Schmid.

Heft-Nr. 20311996


"Dynamik, Rauhigkeit und Alter des Meereises in der Arktis


Numerische Untersuchungen mit einem großskalige Modell", von Markus Harder.




"Zur Parametrisierung der stabilen atmosphärische Grenzschicht übe

Schelfeis", von Dörth Handorf.

Heft-Nr. 205/1996

- "Textures and fabrics in the GRIP ice core, in relation to climate history and ice deformation", by Thorsteinn Thorsteinsson.

Heft-Nr. 206/1996

- "Der Ozean als Teil des gekoppelten Klimasystems: Versuch der Rekonstruktion der glazialen

Zirkulation mit verschieden komplexen Atmosphärenkomponenten" von Kerstin Fieg.

Heft-Nr. 207/1996


"Lebensstrategien dominanter antarktischer Oithonidae (Cyclopoida, Copepoda) und Oncaeidae

(Poecilostomatoida, Copepoda) im Bellingshausenmeer", von Cornelia Metz.

Heft-Nr. 20811996


"Atmosphäreneinflu bei der Fernerkundung von Meereis mit passiven Mikrowellenradiometern", von Christoph Oelke.

Heft-Nr. 209/1996


"Klassifikation von Radarsatellitendaten zur Meereiserkennung mit Hilfe von Line-Scanner-Mess~ gen", von Axel Bochert.




Antarktis, vergesellschaftete Fauna", von Kathrin Kunzmann.




"Late Quaternary glacial history and paleoceanographic reconstructions along the East Greenland continental margin: Evidence from high-resolution records of stable isotopes and ice-rafted debris", by Seung-11 Nam.

Heft-Nr. 24211997


"Thermal, hydrological and geochemical dynamics of the active layer at a continuous site, Taymyr

Peninsula, Siberia", by Julia Boike.

Heft-Nr. 24311997


"Zur Paläoozeanographi hoher Breiten: Stellvertreterdaten aus Foraminiferen", von Andreas Mackensen.

Heft-Nr. 24411997


"The Geophysical Observatory at Neumayer Station, Antarctica. Geomagnetic and seismological





"Temperaturbedarf und Biogeographie mariner Makroalgen


Anpassung mariner Makroalgen an tiefe Temperaturen", von Bettina Bischoff-Bäsmann

Heft-Nr. 24611997


"Ökologisch Untersuchungen zur Fauna des arktischen Meereises", von Christine Friedrich.




"Entstehung und Modifizierung von marinen gelöste organischen Substanzen", von Berit Kirchhoff.

Heft-Nr. 24811997


"Laptev Sea System: Expeditions in 1995", edited by Heidemarie Kassens.

Heft-Nr. 24911997


"The Expedition ANTARKTIS Xllll3 (EASIZ I) of RV 'Polarstern' to the eastern Weddell Sea in 1996", edited by Wolf Arntz and Julian Gutt.




"Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Ökologi und Biodiversitä und Antarktis", von Andreas Starmans.




"Zeitliche und räumlich Verteilung von

Mineralvergesellschaftungen in spätquartär Sedimenten als Klimaindikatoren währen der Glazial/Interglazial-Wechsel", von Christoph Vogt.

Heft-Nr. 25211997


"Solitär Ascidien in der Potter Cove (King George Island, Antarktis). Ihre ökologisch Bedeutung und Populationsdynamik", von Stephan Kühne

Heft-Nr. 25311997 - "Distribution and role of microprotozoa in the Southern Ocean", by Christine Klaas.

Heft-Nr. 25411997


"Die spätquartä Klima- und Umweltgeschichte der Bunger-Oase, Ostantarktis", von Thomas Kulbe.

Heft-Nr. 25511997


"Scientific Cruise Report of the Arctic Expedition ARK-XIII/2 of RV 'Polarstern' in 1997", edited by Ruediger Stein and Kirsten Fahl.

Heft-Nr. 25611998


"Das Radionuklid Tritium im Ozean: Meßverfahre und Verteilung von Tritium im Südatlanti und im Weddellmeer", von Jürge SültenfuÃ




"Untersuchungen der Saisonalitä von atmosphärische Dimethylsulfid in der Arktis und Antarktis", von Christoph Kleefeld.




"Bellinghausen- und Amundsenmeer: Entwicklung eines Sedimentationsmodells", von Frank-Oliver Nitsche.

Heft-Nr. 25911998


"The Expedition ANTARKTIS-XIV/4 of RV 'Polarstern' in 1997", by Dieter K. Fütterer




"Die Diatomeen der Laptevsee (Arktischer Ozean): Taxonomie und biogeographische Verbreitung", von Holger Cremer.

Heft-Nr. 26111998- "Die Krustenstruktur und Sedimentdecke des Eurasischen Beckens. Arktischer Ozean:

Resultate aus seismischen und gravimetrischen Untersuchungen", von Estella Weigelt.




"The Expedition ARKTIS-XIII/3 of RV 'Polarstern' in 1997" by Gunther Krause.

Heft-Nr. 26311998


"Thermo-tektonische Entwicklung von Oates Land und der Shackleton Range (Antarktis) basierend auf Spaltspuranalysen", von Thorsten Schäfer




"Messungen der stratosphärische Spurengase CIO, HCI,


tragener Submillimeterwellen-Radiometrie", von Joachim Urban.

Heft-Nr. 26511998


"Untersuchungen zu Massenhaushalt und Dynamik des Ronne Ice Shelfs, Antarktis", von Astrid Lambrecht.

Heft-Nr. 26611998


"Scientific Cruise Report of the Kara Sea Expedition of RV 'Akademik Boris Petrov' in 1997", edited by Jens Matthiessen and Oleg Stepanets.

Heft-Nr. 26711998


"Die Expedition ANTARKTIS-XIV mit FS 'Polarstern' 1997. Bericht vom Fahrtabschnitt ANT-XIV/3", herausgegeben von Wilfried Jokat und Hans Oerter.

Heft-Nr. 26811998


"Numerische Modellierung der Wechselwirkung zwischen Atmosphär und Meereis in der arktischen Eisrandzone", von Gerit Birnbaum.

Heft-Nr. 26911998


"Katabatic wind and Boundaty Layer Front Experiment around Greenland (KABEG '97)",

Heft-Nr. 27011998


"Architecture and evolution of the continental crust of East Greenland from integrated geophysical studies", by Vera Schlindwein.




"Winter Expedition to the Southwestern Kara Sea


Investigations on Formation and Transport of

Turbid Sea-Ice", by Dirk Dethleff, Peter Loewe, Dominik Weiel, Hartmut Nies, Gesa Kuhlmann, Christian Bahe and Gennady Tarasov.


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