Adaptec | AEC-4412B | Storage router and method for providing virtual local storage

US008015339B2
(12) Ulllted States Patent
(10) Patent N0.:
Hoese et al.
(54)
(45) Date of Patent:
Sep. 6, 2011
STORAGE ROUTER AND METHOD FOR
(58)
PROVIDING VIRTUAL LOCAL STORAGE
710/8*13, 36438, 1264131, 250, 305; 709/258;
714/42; 711/110*113
See aPPhCaUOn ?le for Complete Search hlstory
(56)
References Cited
(75) Inventors: Geoffrey B. Hoese, Austin, TX (U S);
Jeffry T- Russell, Cibolo, TX (Us)
Field of Classi?cation Search ................ .. 710/1*5,
(73) Assignee: Crossroads Systems, Inc., Austin, TX
US, PATENT DOCUMENTS
(Us)
(*)
US 8,015,339 B2
.
3,082,406 A
.
Not1ce:
.
.
3/1963 Stevens
.
(Continued)
Subject to any d1scla1mer, the term of this
patent
U.S.C. is154(b)
extended
by 3801'days.
adjusted under
AU
647414
(21) App1.No.: 12/552,913
3/1994
(Continued)
OTHER PUBLICATIONS
(22)
Flled:
sepl 2’ 2009
American National Standard for Information Systems: Fibre Chan
_
(65)
_
_
nel4Cross-Point Switch Fabric Topology (PC-XS); X3Tl l/Project
Pm" Pubhcatlo“ Data
US 2009/0319742 A1
959D/Rev 1.30. 114 pgs, Jun. 17, 1994.
Dec. 24, 2009
.
(Contmued)
Related U_s_ Application Data
(63)
_
_
_
Primary Examiner * Christopher B Shin
_
(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * Sprinkle IP Law Group
Cont1nuat1on of apphcatlon No. 11/ 851,724, ?led on
Sep. 7, 2007, HOW Pat. NO. 7,689,754, which is a
continuation of application No. 1 1/442,878, ?led on
May 30, 2006, now abandoned, which is a
continuation of application No. 11/353,826, ?led on
(57)
ABSTRACT
A storage router (56) and storage network (50) provide virtual
local storage on remote SCSI storage devices (60, 62, 64) to
Fibre Channel devices. A plurality of Fibre Channel devices,
Feb. 14, 2006, now Pat. No. 7,340,549, which is a
such as Workstations (58), are connected to a Fibre Channel
continuation of application No. 10/658,163, ?led on
Sep. 9, 2003, now Pat. No. 7,051,147, which is a
continuation of application No. 10/081,110, ?led on
Feb. 22, 2002, now Pat. No. 6,789,152, which is a
continuation of application No. 09/354,682, ?led on
Jul. 15, 1999, now Pat. No. 6,421,753, which is a
transport medium (52), and a plurality of SCSI storage
devices (60, 62, 64) are connected to a SCSI bus transport
medium (54) The storage router (56) interfaces between the
Fibre Channel transport medium (52) and the SCSI bus trans
port medium (54). The storage router (56) maps between the
Workstations (58) and the SCSI storage devices (60, 62, 64)
continuation of application No. 09/001,799, ?led on
and implements access controls for storage space on the SCSI
Dec. 31, 1997, now Pat. No. 5,941,972.
storage devices (60, 62, 64). The storage router (56) then
allows access from the Workstations (58) to the SCSI storage
(51) Int_ CL
devices (60, 62, 64) using native low level, block protocol in
G06F 13/00
(52)
(200601)
accordance with the mapping and the access controls.
US. Cl. ......................... .. 710/305; 710/11; 709/258
58
58
58
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\
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WORKSTATION
WORKSTATION
WORKSTATION
A
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49 Claims, 2 Drawing Sheets
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STORAGE DEVICE
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STORAGE DEVICE
STORAGE
BUS
WORKSTATION
\
A STORAGE
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WORKSTAHQN
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,
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66
68
B STORAGE
WORKSTATION
WORKSTATION
Li MANAGEMENT “J
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/
/
C STORAGE
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5B
76
WORKSTATION
D STORAGE
72
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WORKSTATION
STORAGE DEVICE
64 /
WORKSTATION
E STORAGE
74
US 8,015,339 B2
Page 2
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CrossPoint 4400 Fibre to Channel to SCSI Router Preliminary
Datasheet;
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and
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RAID Manager 5 with RDAC 5 for UNIX V.4 User’s Guide (LSI
Letter dated May 12, 1997 from Alan G. Leal to Barbara Bardach
Emails Dated Jan. 13-Mar. 31, 1997 from P. Collins to M0 re: Status
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between Hewlett-Package Company and Crossroads Systems, Inc.
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Exhibits D055).
(CRDS 02057) (CD-ROM Chaparral Exhibits P130).
CR4x00 Product Speci?cation (CRDS 43929) (CD-ROM Chaparral
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(KalwitZ Ex 4 (CNS 181639-648)) (CD-ROM Chaparral Exhibits
Symbios LogiciHardware Functional Speci?cation for the
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Exhibits D074).
(CD-ROM Chaparral Exhibits D057).
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(CD-ROM Chaparral Exhibits D058).
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Hewlett-Packard Roseville Site Property Pass for Brian Smith (Dun
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(Dunning Ex 15 (HP 326-33) (CD-ROM Chaparral Exhibits D079).
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HPFC-5000 Tachyon User’ s Manuel, First Edition (PTI 172419-839)
StorageWorks HSx70 System Speci?cation by Steve Sicola dated
(CD-ROM Chaparral Exhibits D084), May 1, 1996.
Jun. 11, 1996 4:57pm, Revision 4.
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VBAR Volume Backup and Restore (CRDS 12200-202) (CD-ROM
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US. Patent
Sep. 6, 2011
12
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US 8,015,339 B2
_—-____i_—/
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74
US 8,015,339 B2
1
2
STORAGE ROUTER AND METHOD FOR
PROVIDING VIRTUAL LOCAL STORAGE
Within, or locally connected to the Workstation. The Worksta
tion provides a ?le system structure that includes security
controls, With access to the local storage device through
TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION
native loW level block protocols. These protocols map
directly to the mechanisms used by the storage device and
consist of data requests Without security controls. NetWork
interconnects typically provide access for a large number of
This application is a continuation of, and claims a bene?t of
priority under 35 USC 120 of the ?ling date of US. patent
application Ser. No. 11/851,724 entitled “Storage Router and
computing devices to data storage on a remote netWork
server. The remote netWork server provides ?le system struc
Method for Providing Virtual Local Storage” ?led Sep. 7,
2007, now US. Pat. No. 7,689,754 issuedonMar. 30, 2010 by
inventors Geoffrey B. Hoese and Jeffrey T. Russell, Which is
ture, access control, and other miscellaneous capabilities that
include the netWork interface. Access to data through the
netWork server is through netWork protocols that the server
must translate into loW level requests to the storage device. A
a continuation of and claims the bene?t of priority of US.
patent application Ser. No. 1 1/442,878, by inventors Geoffrey
B. Hoese and Jeffrey T. Russell, entitled “Storage Router and
Method for Providing Virtual Local Storage” ?led May 30,
Workstation With access to the server storage must translate its
?le system protocols into netWork protocols that are used to
communicate With the server. Consequently, from the per
spective of a Workstation, or other computing device, seeking
2006 noW abandoned, Which is a continuation of and claims
the bene?t of priority of US. patent application Ser. No.
11/353,826, by inventors Geoffrey B. Hoese and Jeffrey T.
Russell, entitled “Storage Router and Method for Providing
Virtual Local Storage” ?led on Feb. 14, 2006, now US. Pat.
No. 7,340,549 issued Mar. 4, 2008, Which is a continuation of
and claims the bene?t of priority of US. patent application
Ser. No. 10/658,163, by inventors Geoffrey B. Hoese and
Jeffrey T. Russell, entitled “Storage Router and Method for
Providing Virtual Local Storage” ?led on Sep. 9, 2003 now
US. Pat. No. 7,051,147 issued May 23, 2006, Which is a
continuation of and claims the bene?t of bene?t of priority of
US. patent application Ser. No. 10/081,110 by inventors
Geoffrey B. Hoese and Jeffery T. Russell, entitled “Storage
Router and Method for Providing Virtual Local Storage” ?led
to access such server data, the access is much sloWer than
20 access to data on a local storage device.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
25
that provide advantages over conventional netWork storage
30
on Feb. 22, 2002, now US. Pat. No. 6,789,152 issued on Sep.
7, 2004, Which in turn is a continuation of and claims bene?t
of priority of US. application Ser. No. 09/354,682 by inven
tors Geoffrey B. Hoese and Jeffrey T. Russell, entitled “Stor
age Router and Method for Providing Virtual Local Storage”
35
?led on Jul. 15, 1999, now US. Pat. No. 6,421,753 issued on
Jul. 16, 2002, Which in turn is a continuation of and claims
bene?t of priority of US. patent application Ser. No. 09/001,
799, ?led on Dec. 31, 1997, now US. Pat. No. 5,941,972
issued onAug. 24, 1999, and hereby incorporates these appli
40
router then alloWs access from the Workstations to the SCSI
accordance With the mapping and the access controls.
According to another aspect of the present invention, vir
45
tual local storage on remote SCSI storage devices is provided
to Fibre Channel devices. A Fibre Channel transport medium
and a SCSI bus transport medium are interfaced With. A
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Typical storage transport mediums provide for a relatively
devices and methods.
According to one aspect of the present invention, a storage
router and storage netWork provide virtual local storage on
remote SCSI storage devices to Fibre Channel devices. A
plurality of Fibre Channel devices, such as Workstations, are
connected to a Fibre Channel transport medium, and a plu
rality of SCSI storage devices are connected to a SCSI bus
transport medium. The storage router interfaces betWeen the
Fibre Channel transport medium and the SCSI bus transport
medium. The storage router maps betWeen the Workstations
and the SCSI storage devices and implements access controls
for storage space on the SCSI storage devices. The storage
storage devices using native loW level, block protocol in
cations and patents by reference in their entireties as if they
had been fully set forth herein.
This invention relates in general to network storage
devices, and more particularly to a storage router and method
for providing virtual local storage on remote SCSI storage
devices to Fibre Channel devices.
In accordance With the present invention, a storage router
and method for providing virtual local storage on remote
SCSI storage devices to Fibre Channel devices are disclosed
50
small number of devices to be attached over relatively short
distances. One such transport medium is a Small Computer
con?guration is maintained for SCSI storage devices con
nected to the SCSI bus transport medium. The con?guration
maps betWeen Fibre Channel devices and the SCSI storage
devices and implements access controls for storage space on
the SCSI storage devices. Access is then alloWed from Fibre
Channel initiator devices to SCSI storage devices using native
System Interface (SCSI) protocol, the structure and operation
loW level, block protocol in accordance With the con?gura
of Which is generally Well knoWn as is described, for example,
tion.
in the SCSI-1, SCSI-2 and SCSI-3 speci?cations. High speed
55
serial interconnects provide enhanced capability to attach a
large number of high speed devices to a common storage
transport medium over large distances. One such, serial inter
connect is Fibre Channel, the structure and operation of
Which is described, for example, in Fibre Channel Physical
and Signaling Interface (FC-PH), ANSI X3230 Fibre Chan
nel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL), and ANSI X3272 Fibre Chan
nel Private Loop Direct Attach (FC-PLDA).
Conventional computing devices, such as computer Work
stations, generally access storage locally or through network
interconnects. Local storage typically consists of a disk drive,
tape drive, CD-ROM drive or other storage device contained
A technical advantage of the present invention is the ability
to centraliZe local storage for netWorked Workstations With
out any cost of speed or overhead. Each Workstation accesses
its virtual local storage as if it Were locally connected Further,
the centraliZed storage devices can be located in a signi?
60
cantly remote position even in excess of ten kilometers as
de?ned by Fibre Channel standards.
Another technical advantage of the present invention is the
ability to centrally control and administer storage space for
connected users Without limiting the speed With Which the
65
users can access local data. In addition, global access to data,
backups, virus scanning and redundancy can be more easily
accomplished by centrally located storage devices.
US 8,015,339 B2
3
4
A further technical advantage of the present invention is
providing support for SCSI storage devices as local storage
for Fibre Channel hosts. In addition, the present invention
helps to provide extended capabilities for Fibre Channel and
parent access to devices on the other medium. Storage router
44 routes requests from initiator devices on one medium to
target devices on the other medium and routes data betWeen
the target and the initiator. Storage router 44 can alloW initia
tors and targets to be on either side. In this manner, storage
for management of storage subsystems.
router 44 enhances the functionality of Fibre Channel 32, by
providing access, for example, to legacy SCSI storage devices
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
on SCSI bus 34. In the embodiment of FIG. 2, the operation of
storage router 44 can be managed by a management station 46
A more complete understanding of the present invention
and the advantages thereof may be acquired by referring to
the folloWing description taken in conjunction With the
accompanying draWings, in Which like reference numbers
connected to the storage router via a direct serial connection.
In storage netWork 30, any Workstation 36 or Workstation
40 can access any storage device 38 or storage device 42
indicate like features, and Wherein:
through native loW level, block protocols, and vice versa. This
functionality is enabled by storage router 44 Which routes
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a conventional netWork that
provides storage through a netWork server;
requests and data as a generic transport betWeen Fibre Chan
nel 32 and SCSI bus 34. Storage router 44 uses tables to map
devices from one medium to the other and distributes requests
and data across Fibre Channel 32 and SCSI bus 34 Without
FIG. 2 is a block diagram of one embodiment of a storage
netWork With a storage router that provides global access and
routing;
FIG. 3 is a block diagram of one embodiment of a storage
netWork With a storage router that provides virtual local stor
age;
FIG. 4 is a block diagram of one embodiment of the storage
router of FIG. 3; and
FIG. 5 is a block diagram of one embodiment of data How
Within the storage router of FIG. 4.
20
bene?cial, it is desirable to provide security controls in addi
tion to extended access to storage devices through a native
loW level, block protocol.
25
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a conventional network, indi
cated generally at 10, that provides access to storage through
30
a netWork server. As shoWn, netWork 1 0 includes a plurality of
Workstations 12 interconnected With a network server 14 via
a netWork transport medium 16. Each Workstation 12 can
FIG. 3 is a block diagram of one embodiment of a storage
netWork, indicated generally at 50, With a storage router that
provides virtual local storage. Similar to that of FIG. 2, stor
age netWork 50 includes a Fibre Channel high speed serial
interconnect 52 and a SCSI bus 54 bridged by a storage router
56. Storage router 56 of FIG. 3 provides for a large number of
Workstations 58 to be interconnected on a common storage
transport and to access common storage devices 60, 62 and 64
through native loW level, block protocols.
generally comprise a processor, memory, input/output
devices, storage devices and a netWork adapter as Well as
other common computer components. NetWork server 14
any security access controls. Although this extension of the
high speed serial interconnect provided by Fibre Channel is
35
According to the present invention, storage router 56 has
enhanced functionality to implement security controls and
uses a SCSI bus 18 as a storage transport medium to inter
routing such that each Workstation 58 can have access to a
connect With a plurality of storage devices 20 (tape drives,
disk drives, etc.). In the embodiment of FIG. 1, netWork
speci?c subset of the overall data stored in storage devices 60,
62 and 64. This speci?c subset of data has the appearance and
transport medium 16 is a netWork connection and storage
40
characteristics of local storage and is referred to herein as
devices 20 comprise hard disk drives, although there are
virtual local storage. Storage router 56 alloWs the con?gura
numerous alternate transport mediums and storage devices.
In netWork 10, each Workstation 12 has access to its local
tion and modi?cation of the storage allocated to each attached
Workstation 58 through the use of mapping tables or other
mapping techniques.
storage device as Well as netWork access to data on storage
devices 20. The access to a local storage device is typically
45
through native loW level, block protocols. On the other hand,
access by a Workstation 12 to storage devices 20 requires the
participation of netWork server 14 Which implements a ?le
system and transfers data to Workstations 12 only through
high level ?le system protocols. Only netWork server 14 com
municates With storage devices 20 via native loW level, block
protocols. Consequently, the netWork access by Workstations
provide partitioned subsets 66, 68, 70 and 72, Where each
partition is allocated to one of the Workstations 58 (Worksta
50
tions A, B, C and D). These subsets 66, 68, 70 and 72 can only
be accessed by the associated Workstation 58 and appear to
the associated Workstation 58 as local storage accessed using
native loW level, block protocols. Similarly, storage device 64
12 through netWork server 14 is sloW With respect to their
access to local storage. In netWork 10, it can also be a logis
tical problem to centrally manage and administer local data
distributed across an organization, including accomplishing
tasks such as backups, virus scanning and redundancy.
As shoWn in FIG. 3, for example, storage device 60 can be
con?gured to provide global data 65 Which can be accessed
by all Workstations 58. Storage device 62 canbe con?gured to
can be allocated as storage for the remaining Workstation 58
55
(Workstation E).
Storage router 56 combines access control With routing
such that each Workstation 58 has controlled access to only
FIG. 2 is a block diagram of one embodiment of a storage
the speci?ed partition of storage device 62 Which forms vir
netWork, indicated generally at 30, With a storage router that
tual local storage for the Workstation 58. This access control
provides global access and routing. This environment is sig
60
alloWs security control for the speci?ed data partitions. Stor
ni?cantly different from that of FIG. 1 in that there is no
netWork server involved. In FIG. 2, a Fibre Channel high
age router 56 alloWs this allocation of storage devices 60, 62
and 64 to be managed by a management station 76. Manage
speed serial transport 32 interconnects a plurality of Worksta
tions 36 and storage devices 38. A SCSI bus storage transport
medium interconnects Workstations 40 and storage devices
ment station 76 can connect directly to storage router 56 via a
65
direct connection or, alternately, can interface With storage
router 56 through either Fibre Channel 52 or SCSI bus 54. In
42. A storage router 44 then serves to interconnect these
the latter case, management station 76 can be a Workstation or
mediums and provide devices on either medium global, trans
other computing device With special rights such that storage
US 8,015,339 B2
5
6
router 56 allows access to mapping tables and shows storage
devices 60, 62 and 64 as they exist physically rather than as
Channel Protocol (FCP) to legacy SCSI devices attached to a
SCSI bus. The Fibre Channel topology is typically an Arbi
they have been allocated.
The environment of FIG. 3 extends the concept of single
Workstation having locally connected storage devices to a
trated Loop (FC_AL).
In part, the storage router enables a migration path Fibre
Channel based, serial SCSI netWorks by providing connec
tivity for legacy SCSI bus devices. The storage router can be
storage netWork 50 in Which Workstations 58 are provided
attached to a Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop and a SCSI bus
virtual local storage in a manner transparent to Workstations
to support a number of SCSI devices. Using con?guration
settings, the storage router can make the SCSI bus devices
58. Storage router 56 provides centraliZed control of What
each Workstation 58 sees as its local drive, as Well as What data
available on the Fibre Channel netWork as FCP logical units.
it sees as global data accessible by other Workstations 58.
Once the con?guration is de?ned, operation of the storage
Consequently, the storage space considered by the Worksta
tion 58 to be its local storage is actually a partition (i.e.,
logical storage de?nition) of a physically remote storage
router is transparent to application clients. In this manner, the
storage router can form an integral part of the migration to
neW Fibre Channel based netWorks While providing a means
device 60, 62 or 64 connected through storage router 56. This
means that similar requests from Workstations 58 for access to
to continue using legacy SCSI devices.
In one implementation (not shoWn), the storage router can
their local storage devices produce different accesses to the
storage space on storage devices 60, 62 and 64. Further, no
be a rack mount or free standing device With an internal poWer
supply. The storage router can have a Fibre Channel and SCSI
access from a Workstation 58 is alloWed to the virtual local
storage of another Workstation 58.
port, and a standard, detachable poWer cord can be used, the
20
The collective storage provided by storage devices 60, 62
FC connector can be a copper DB9 connector, and the SCSI
connector can be a 68-pin type. Additional modular jacks can
and 64 can have blocks allocated by programming means
be provided for a serial port and an 802.3 10 BaseT port, i.e.
Within storage router 56. To accomplish this function, storage
tWisted pair Ethernet, for management access. The SCSI port
of the storage router an support SCSI direct and sequential
router 56 can include routing tables and security controls that
de?ne storage allocation for each Workstation 58. The advan
25
tages provided by implementing virtual local storage in cen
access target devices and can support SCSI initiators, as Well.
The Fibre Channel port can interface to SCSI-3 FCP enabled
traliZed storage devices include the ability to do collective
backups and other collective administrative functions more
devices and initiators.
easily. This is accomplished Without limiting the performance
storage router uses: a Fibre Channel interface based on the
To accomplish its functionality, one implementation of the
level, block protocols and does not involve the overhead of
HEWLETT-PACKARD TACHYON HPFC-SOOO controller
and a GLM media interface; an Intel 80960RP processor,
high level protocols and ?le systems required by network
incorporating independent data and program memory spaces,
servers.
and associated logic required to implement a stand alone
processing system; and a serial port for debug and system
con?guration. Further, this implementation includes a SCSI
of Workstations 58 because storage access involves native loW
FIG. 4 is a block diagram of one embodiment of storage
router 56 of FIG. 3. Storage router 56 can comprise a Fibre
Channel controller 80 that interfaces With Fibre Channel 52
and a SCSI controller 82 that interfaces With SCSI bus 54. A
buffer 84 provides memory Work space and is connected to
both Fibre Channel controller 80 and to SCSI controller 82. A
supervisor unit 86 is connected to Fibre Channel controller
30
35
interface supporting Fast-20 based on the SYMBIOS 53C8xx
series SCSI controllers, and an operating system based upon
the WIND RIVERS SYSTEMS VXWORKS or IXWORKS
kernel, as determined by design. In addition, the storage
40
of the various elements, and to provide appropriate transla
tions betWeen the FC and SCSI protocols.
The storage router has various modes of operation that are
possible betWeen FC and SCSI target and initiator combina
80, SCSI controller 82 and buffer 84. Supervisor unit 86
comprises a microprocessor for controlling operation of stor
age router 56 and to handle mapping and security access for
requests betWeen Fibre Channel 52 and SCSI bus 54.
FIG. 5 is a block diagram of one embodiment of data How
Within storage router 56 of FIG. 4. As shoWn, data from Fibre
45
Channel 52 is processed by a Fibre Channel (FC) protocol
unit 88 and placed in a FIFO queue 90. A direct memory
access (DMA) interface 92 then takes data out of FIFO queue
90 and places it in buffer 84. Supervisor unit 86 processes the
data in buffer 84 as represented by supervisor processing 93.
This processing involves mapping betWeen Fibre Channel 52
and SCSI bus 54 and applying access controls and routing
functions. A DMA interface 94 then pulls data from buffer 84
and places it into a buffer 96. A SCSI protocol unit 98 pulls
device to extend the physical distance beyond that possible
via a direct SCSI connection. The last mode can be used to
55
The storage router of the present invention is a bridge
60
bus and enables the exchange of SCSI command set informa
tion betWeen application clients on SCSI bus devices and the
Fibre Channel links. Further, the storage router applies access
controls such that virtual local storage can be established in
remote SCSI storage devices for Workstations on the Fibre
Channel link. In one embodiment, the storage router provides
a connection for Fibre Channel links running the SCSI Fibre
tions. These modes are: FC Initiator to SCSI Target; SCSI
Initiator to FC Target; SCSI Initiator to SCSI Target; and FC
Initiator to FC Target. The ?rst tWo modes can be supported
concurrently in a single storage router device and are dis
cussed brie?y beloW. The third mode can involve tWo storage
50 router devices back to back and can serve primarily as a
data from buffer 96 and communicates the data on SCSI bus
54. Data How in the reverse direction, from SCSI bus 54 to
Fibre Channel 52, is accomplished in a reverse manner.
device that connects a Fibre Channel link directly to a SCSI
router includes softWare as required to control basic functions
carry FC protocols encapsulated on other transmission tech
nologies (e.g. ATM, SONET), or to act as a bridge betWeen
tWo FC loops (eg as a tWo port fabric).
The FC Initiator to SCSI Target mode provides for the basic
con?guration of a server using Fibre Channel to communi
cate With SCSI targets. This mode requires that a host system
have an FC attached device and associated device drivers and
softWare to generate SCSI-3 FCP requests. This system acts
as an initiator using the storage router to communicate With
SCSI target devices. The SCSI devices supported can include
SCSI-2 compliant direct or sequential access (disk or tape)
65
devices. The storage router serves to translate command and
status information and transfer data betWeen SCSI -3 FCP and
SCSI-2, alloWing the use of standard SCSI-2 devices in a
Fibre Channel environment.
US 8,015,339 B2
8
7
The SCSI Initiator to FC Target mode provides for the
LOGICAL UNIT. The BUS identi?cation is intrinsic in the
con?guration, as a SCSI initiator is attached to only one bus.
con?guration of a server using SCSI-2 to communicate With
Fibre Channel targets. This mode requires that a host system
Target addressing is handled by bus arbitration from informa
has a SCSI-2 interface and driver software to control SCSI-2
target devices. The storage router Will connect to the SCSI-2
tion provided to the arbitrating device. Target addresses are
assigned to SCSI devices directly through some means of
bus and respond as a target to multiple target IDs. Con?gu
ration information is required to identify the target IDs to
Which the bridge Will respond on the SCSI-2 bus. The storage
device speci?c softWare con?guration. As such, the SCSI
con?guration, such as a hardWare jumper, sWitch setting, or
protocol provides only logical unit addressing Within the
router then translates the SCSI-2 requests to SCSI-3 FCP
requests, alloWing the use of FC devices With a SCSI host
system. This Will also alloW features such as a tape device
acting as an initiator on the SCSI bus to provide full support
for this type of SCSI device.
In general, user con?guration of the storage router Will be
needed to support various functional modes of operation.
Con?guration can be modi?ed, for example, through a serial
port or through an Ethernet port via SNMP (simple netWork
management protocol) or the Telnet session. Speci?cally,
SNMP manageability can be provided via a B02.3 Ethernet
interface. This can provide for con?guration changes as Well
as providing statistics and error information. Con?guration
Identify message. Bus and target information is implied by
the established connection.
Fibre Channel devices Within a fabric are addressed by a
unique port identi?er. This identi?er is assigned to a port
during certain Well-de?ned states of the FC protocol. Indi
vidual ports are alloWed to arbitrate for a known, user de?ned
address. If such an address is not provided, or if arbitration for
a particular-user address fails, the port is assigned a unique
address by the FC protocol. This address is generally not
guaranteed to be unique betWeen instances. Various scenarios
20
can also be performed via TELNET or RS-232 interfaces With
menu driven command interfaces. Con?guration information
Within command structures to provide addressing to devices
internal to a port. The FCP_CMD payload speci?es an eight
can be stored in a segment of ?ash memory and can be
retained across resets and poWer off cycles. PassWord protec
tion can also be provided.
25
FC ports can be required to have speci?c addresses
30
iZation and partial recon?gurations of the Fibre Channel
address space. In an arbitrated loop con?guration, user con
?gured addresses Will be needed for AL_PAs in order to
insure that knoWn addresses are provided betWeen loop
recon?gurations.
35
assigned. Although basic functionality is not dependent on
this, changes in the loop con?guration could result in disk
targets changing identi?ers With the potential risk of data
corruption or loss. This con?guration can be straightforward,
and can consist of providing the device a loop-unique ID
(AL_PA) in the range of “01h” to “EFh.” Storage routers
could be shipped With a default value With the assumption that
most con?gurations Will be using single storage routers and
With respect to addressing, FCP and SCSI 2 systems
employ different methods of addressing target devices. Addi
tionally, the inclusion of a storage router means that a method
of translating device IDs needs to be implemented. In addi
tion, the storage router can respond to commands Without
byte LUN ?eld. Subsequent identi?cation of the exchange
betWeen devices is provided by the FQXID (Fully Quali?ed
Exchange ID).
In the ?rst tWo modes of operation, addressing information
is needed to map from FC addressing to SCSI addressing and
vice versa. This can be ‘hard’ con?guration data, due to the
need for address information to be maintained across initial
exist Where the AL-PA of a device Will change, either after
poWer cycle or loop recon?guration.
The FC protocol also provides a logical unit address ?eld
40
passing the commands through to the opposite interface. This
can be implemented to alloW all generic FCP and SCSI com
mands to pass through the storage router to address attached
no other devices requesting the present ID. This Would pro
vide a minimum amount of initial con?guration to the system
administrator. Alternately, storage routers could be defaulted
to assume any address so that con?gurations requiring mul
tiple storage routers on a loop Would not require that the
administrator assign a unique ID to the additional storage
routers.
devices, but alloW for con?guration and diagnostics to be
performed directly on the storage router through the FC and
Address translation is needed Where commands are issued
in the cases FC Initiator to SCSI Target and SCSI Initiator to
SCSI interfaces.
Management commands are those intended to be pro
Will retain the translation acquired at the beginning of the
cessed by the storage router controller directly. This may
include diagnostic, mode, and log commands as Well as other
vendor-speci?c commands. These commands canbe received
and processed by both the FOP and SCSI interfaces, but are
not typically bridged to the opposite interface. These com
mands may also have side effects on the operation of the
storage router, and cause other storage router operations to
change or terminate.
FC Target. Target responses are quali?ed by the FQXID and
exchange. This prevents con?guration changes occurring
50
during the course of execution of a command from causing
data or state information to be inadvertently misdirected.
Con?guration can be required in cases of SCSI Initiator to FC
Target, as discovery may not effectively alloW for FCP targets
to consistently be found. This is due to an FC arbitrated loop
supporting addressing of a larger number of devices than a
55
SCSI bus and the possibility of FC devices changing their
A primary method of addressing management commands
though the FCP and SCSI interfaces can be through periph
eral device type addressing. For example, the storage router
can respond to all operations addressed to logical unit (LUN)
AL-PA due to device insertion or other loop initialization.
In the direct method, the translation to BUSzTARGET:
LUN of the SCSI address information Will be direct. That is,
Zero as a controller device. Commands that the storage router
to the values in effect on the SCSI bus. This provides a clean
Will support can include INQUIRY as Well as vendor-speci?c
management commands. These are to be generally consistent
With SCC standard commands.
translation and does not require SCSI bus discovery. It also
alloWs devices to be dynamically added to the SCSI bus
Without modifying the address map. It may not alloW for
complete discovery by FCP initiator devices, as gaps betWeen
device addresses may halt the discovery process. Legacy
SCSI device drivers typically halt discovery on a target device
at the ?rst unoccupied LUN, and proceed to the next target.
The SCSI bus is capable of establishing bus connections
betWeen targets. These targets may internally address logical
units. Thus, the prioritized addressing scheme used by SCSI
subsystems can be represented as folloWs: BUSzTARGET:
the values represented in the FCP LUN ?eld Will directly map
65
US 8,015,339 B2
10
3. The access controller claim 2, Wherein the representa
tions of the hosts are unique identi?ers and the representa
tions of the subsets of storage are LUNs.
4. The access controller of claim 3, Wherein the remote
storage comprises centraliZed storage connected to the access
controller and the hosts connect to the centraliZed storage
through the access controller.
5. The access controller of claim 3, Wherein the map further
maps the LUNs to physical storage locations.
6. The access controller of claim 5, Wherein the mapping of
LUNs to physical storage is created at the access controller.
7. The access controller of claim 3, Wherein the host iden
ti?cations are unique identi?cations.
8. The access controller of claim 2, Wherein the host iden
This Would lead to some devices not being discovered. HoW
ever, this allows for hot plugged devices and other changes to
the loop addressing.
In the ordered method, ordered translation requires that the
storage router perform discovery on reset, and collapses the
addresses on the SCSI bus to sequential FSP LUN values.
Thus, the PCP LUN values O-N can represent N+l SCSI
devices, regardless of SCSI address values, in the order in
Which they are isolated during the SCSI discovery process.
This Would alloW the PCP initiator discovery process to iden
tify all mapped SCSI devices Without further con?guration.
This has the limitation that hot-plugged devices Will not be
identi?ed until the next reset cycle. In this case, the address
may also be altered as Well.
In addition to addressing, according to the present inven
tion, the storage router provides con?guration and access
ti?cations are World Wide names.
9. The access controller of claim 2, Wherein the access
controller is operable to implement access controls to the
controls that cause certain requests from PC Initiators to be
directed to assigned virtual local storage partitioned on SCSI
storage devices. For example, the same request for LUN 0
(local storage) by tWo different FC Initiators can be directed
to tWo separate subsets of storage. The storage router can use
tables to map, for each initiator, What storage access is avail
centraliZed storage in a manner transparent to the hosts.
10. The access controller of claim 9, Wherein the map can
be modi?ed in a manner that does not involve the hosts.
11. The access controller of claim 1, Wherein the access
able and What partition is being addressed by a particular
request. In this manner, the storage space provided by SCSI
controller is operable to present to each host only the subset of
storage mapped to that host.
storage devices can be allocated to FC initiators to provide
20
25
12. The access controller of claim 1, Wherein the access
controller is operable to:
virtual local storage as Well as to create any other desired
con?guration for secured access.
present a LUN to a ?rst host and a second host;
Although the present invention has been described in
detail, it should be understood that various changes, substi
tutions, and alterations can be made hereto Without departing
from the spirit and scope of the invention as de?ned by the
map the presented LUN to different storage locations so
that requests for that LUN Will be directed to different
subsets of storage for the ?rst host and the second host.
13. The access controller of claim 1, Wherein the access
30
appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A system for providing virtual local storage on remote
controller is operable to:
35
storage devices to hosts, the system comprising:
remote storage;
alloWed Without involving a high level protocol or ?le system.
15. The access controller of claim 1, Wherein the map only
an access controller coupled to the remote storage, the
access controller comprising:
a ?rst controller operable to connect to and interface
With a serial transport medium, Wherein When the
access controller is connected to the serial transport
medium, the access controller is positioned betWeen
hosts connected to the serial transport medium and the
remote storage so that requests from the hosts to
access the remote storage pass through the access
40
16. The access controller of claim 1, Wherein the remote
17. The access controller of claim 1, Wherein the remote
storage comprises multiple storage devices.
45
supervisor unit operable to:
50
remote storage in order to implement centraliZed
55
use native loW level block protocol information in the
command to determine if the host is alloWed access
to the requested subset of storage in accordance
With the map; and
alloW the requesting host to access the requested sub
set of storage if the requesting host is alloWed
access to the requested subset of storage.
storage.
19. The access controller of claim 1, Wherein the ?rst
controller is a ?bre channel controller and the supervisor unit
comprises a processor coupled to the ?bre channel controller.
20. The access controller of claim 1, Wherein the supervisor
unit comprises a processor coupled to the ?rst controller.
21. The access controller of claim 20, Wherein the access
controller is further operable to connect to a second transport
medium.
22. The access controller of claim 21, Wherein the access
controller is operable to forWard an access request to a storage
device providing the requested subset of storage if the
60
2. The access controller of claim 1, Wherein the map con
tains representations of hosts mapped to representations of
virtual subsets of storage space representing virtual local
18. The access controller of claim 1, Wherein the access
controller is operable to access the map to determine if a
representation for the requesting host is mapped to a repre
sentation for the requested subset of storage space.
controller;
access controls to the subsets of remote storage;
process a command received from a host, Wherein the
command includes a native loW level block proto
col request for access to a subset of storage;
resides at the access controller.
storage comprises a single storage device.
a supervisor unit coupled to the ?rst controller, the
maintain a map that maps hosts connected to the serial
transport medium to subsets of storage space on the
present a LUN to a ?rst host and a second host;
map the presented LUN to a storage location so that
requests for that LUN from the ?rst ho st and the second
host Will be directed to the same storage location.
14. The access controller of claim 1, Wherein access is
65
requesting host is alloWed access to the requested subset of
storage Without involving a high level protocol or ?le system.
23. The access controller of claim 1, Wherein the access
controller is operable to connect to a second transport
medium.
24. The access controller of claim 23, Wherein the second
transport medium is operable to carry native loW level block
protocol communication.
US 8,015,339 B2
11
12
35. The method of claim 28, further comprising providing
25. The access controller of claim 23, wherein the access
controller is operable to forward an access request to a storage
the virtual local storage to the hosts in a manner transparent to
device providing the requested subset of storage if the
the hosts such that the virtual local storage has the appearance
and characteristics of virtual local storage.
36. The method of claim 28, wherein the access controller
is operable to implement access controls to the centraliZed
requesting host is allowed access to the requested subset of
storage without involving a high level protocol or ?le system.
26. The access controller of claim 25, wherein forwarding
the access request further comprises forwarding a native low
level block protocol access request.
27. A method for providing virtual local storage to hosts for
storage in a manner transparent to the hosts.
37. The method of claim 36, wherein the map can be
modi?ed in a manner that does not involve the hosts.
remote storage devices, comprising:
38. The method of claim 27, wherein the access controller
is operable to present to each host only the subset of storage
mapped to that host.
39. The method of claim 27, further comprising
providing an access controller coupled to one or more
storage devices;
connecting the access controller to a serial transport
medium between hosts connected to the serial transport
presenting a LUN to a ?rst host and a second host;
medium and the one or more storage devices so that the
one or more storage devices are remote storage for the
mapping the presented LUN to different storage locations
hosts and requests from the hosts to access the remote
subsets of storage for the ?rst host and the second host.
40. The method of claim 27, further comprising:
so that requests for that LUN will be directed to different
storage pass through the access controller;
maintaining a map that maps hosts connected to the serial
transport medium to subsets of storage space on the
remote storage in order to implement centraliZed access
controls to the subsets of remote storage;
processing a command received from a host, wherein the
command includes a native low level block protocol
request for access to a subset of storage;
presenting a LUN to a ?rst host and a second host;
20
25
using native low level block protocol information in the
43. The method of claim 27, wherein the remote storage
comprises a single storage device.
the requested subset of storage in accordance with the
44. The method of claim 27, wherein the remote storage
map; and
30
35
to physical storage is created at the access controller.
33. The method of claim 29, wherein the host identi?ca
tions are unique identi?cations.
34. The method of claim 28, wherein the host identi?ca
tions are world wide names.
requested subset of storage space.
46. The method of claim 27, further comprising coupling
the access controller to a second transport medium.
47. The method of claim 46, further comprising forwarding
an access request to a storage device providing the requested
subset of storage if the requesting host is allowed access to the
30. The method of claim 29, wherein the remote storage
31. The method of claim 29, wherein the map further maps
the LUNs to physical storage locations.
32. The method of claim 31, wherein the mapping of LUNs
comprises multiple storage devices.
45. The method of claim 27, wherein the access controller
is operable to access the map to determine if a representation
for the requesting host is mapped to a representation for the
subsets of storage are LUNs.
comprises centraliZed storage connected to the access con
troller and the hosts connect to the centraliZed storage
through the access controller.
without involving a high level protocol or ?le system.
42. The method of claim 27, wherein the map only resides
at the access controller.
command to determine if the host is allowed access to
allowing the requesting host to access the requested
subset of storage if the requesting host is allowed
access to the requested subset of storage.
28. The method of claim 27, wherein the map contains
representations of hosts mapped to representations of virtual
subsets of storage space representing virtual local storage.
29. The method of claim 28, wherein the representations of
the hosts are unique identi?ers and the representations of the
mapping the presented LUN to a storage location so that
requests for that LUN from the ?rst ho st and the second
host will be directed to the same storage location.
41. The method of claim 27, wherein access is allowed
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45
requested subset of storage without involving a high level
protocol or ?le system.
48. The method of claim 47, wherein the second transport
medium is operable to carry a native low level block protocol
communications.
49. The method of claim 47, wherein the access request
forwarded to the storage device comprises a native low level
block protocol access request.
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