Midistart MIDI controller keyboard, Mopho Keyboard User manual

Midistart MIDI controller keyboard, Mopho Keyboard User manual

Operation Manual

Mopho

Operation Manual

Version 1.1

August 2010

Dave Smith Instruments

1210 Cabrillo Hwy N

Half Moon Bay, CA 94019-1449

USA

©2010 Dave Smith Instruments www.DaveSmithInstruments.com

Tested To Comply

With FCC Standards

FOR OFFICE USE

This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules.

Operation is subject to the following two conditions:

(1) This device may not cause harmful interference and

(2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.

This Class B digital apparatus meets all requirements of the Canadian Interference-Causing Equipment Regulations.

Cet appareil numerique de la classe B respecte toutes les exigences du Reglement sur le materiel brouilleur du

Canada.

For Technical Support, email: [email protected]

Contents

Quick Start................................................................................................. 1

Getting Connected .................................................................................... 3

Basic Operation......................................................................................... 5

Global Parameters .................................................................................... 9

Oscillators................................................................................................13

Mixer........................................................................................................16

Filter ........................................................................................................17

Envelopes................................................................................................18

LFO .........................................................................................................19

Sequencer ...............................................................................................21

Modulators...............................................................................................26

Miscellaneous Modulators.......................................................................27

Clock .......................................................................................................28

Miscellaneous Parameters......................................................................30

Modulation Sources ................................................................................32

Modulation Destinations..........................................................................33

Using USB...............................................................................................35

Using Audio In.........................................................................................37

Using Poly Chain.....................................................................................38

Support....................................................................................................41

MIDI Implementation ...............................................................................43

MIDI Messages....................................................................................44

NRPN Messages .................................................................................47

Global Parameter Data........................................................................48

Program Parameter Data ....................................................................50

Sysex Messages .................................................................................57

Packed Data Format............................................................................59

Quick Start

Thanks for purchasing your Mopho synthesizer! Listen to the sounds, twiddle some knobs, have some fun!

Please Register!

Please go to www.davesmithinstruments.com and register your synth. If you purchased directly from us, there is no need to register—we already have your contact information.

Powering Up

Plug in the power supply, connect (in stereo!) to your mixer/sound system, and start playing!

Try applying keyboard pressure (aftertouch) and the mod wheel. Many sounds are fairly simple at first, then come alive when you use the controllers. With other sounds, you may need to hold the notes a while to let the sound unfold.

Playing in different ways has a big effect on the programs.

Selecting and Editing Programs and Global Settings

You can use the increment and decrement (Inc/Yes and Dec/No) switches to step through the programs. Use Param 1 to scroll quickly through the programs.

Param 2 changes banks. There are 3 banks of 128 programs.

If you want to edit a program, just turn any knob. The new value will be displayed in the bottom line of the LCD (the top line displays the programmed value for handy reference).

After turning knobs, just hit Program so the LCD goes back to the program/bank screen, allowing you to change programs again.

Press and hold Program briefly to display the Global menu and change higher level parameters such as MIDI channel number, Transpose/Detune, and so on.

The Param 1 knob changes the displayed page and Param 2 or increment and decrement change the values. These settings are remembered when the synth is turned off.

Summary

You should be up and running now; for more operation information, read on. Or,

just look up specific parameters for detailed notes. Pages 32 and 33 contain a

handy reference for mod sources and destinations. At some point you should read through the manual to discover all the little features that you might not notice at first.

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Don’t forget you get a free editor for Mac OS or Windows with your purchase.

Download it from www.soundtower.com/mopho.

I should mention that this manual does not include explanations of basic analog synthesizer functions. It assumes you already know what an oscillator is, how a low-pass filter affects the sound, what an ADSR envelope looks like, and so on.

Fortunately, these days it is quite easy to find such resources on the Internet. If you want to learn the lingo and the basics, just try a search in Google (or the search engine of your choice), something like “analog synthesizer tutorial.”

You’ll find plenty of good reading material.

Have fun!

Dave Smith

Special thanks to:

The DSI Team: Chris Hector, Andrew McGowan, Joanne McGowan, and Tracy

Wadley. Thanks also to Alan Crarer and Jeff Tilley.

2

Getting Connected

Mopho has several inputs and outputs on its back panel.

Power Input

Connect the power supply included with your Mopho. The power supply comes with different AC adaptor prongs that enable it to work almost anywhere in the world. If for whatever reason you need to use a different supply, it must match the specifications printed on the front panel.

Note

: The power supply label says “Evolver” on it; we use the same supply for the Mophos, mono Evolvers, Prophets, and Tetra.

USB

Mopho transmits and receives MIDI data via this standard, Type B, USB receptacle. See

Using USB

on page 35

for more information.

MIDI In

To receive MIDI data from another device, connect this to the other device's MIDI Out.

MIDI Out/Thru

To send MIDI data to another device, connect this to the other device's MIDI In. This output can also be configured as a MIDI Thru using the

MIDI Out Select parameter in the Global menu.

Poly Chain

Multiple synths can be poly chained for increased polyphony. For details, see

Using Poly Chain

on page 38.

Note:

When Poly Chain is turned off in the Global menu, the Poly Chain output simply mirrors the MIDI Out and transmits the same data.

Sustain

Accepts a momentary, normally open or normally closed footswitch to control sustain or to latch the arpeggiator. See “Sustain” under

Global

Parameters

on page 9

for more information.

Pedal/CV

—This input can be connected to two types of controllers: a standard expression pedal that has a variable resistor on a TRS (tip-ring-sleeve) ¼ inch phone plug, or a synthesizer or other device capable of producing a control voltage. The control voltage range is 0 to 3.3 volts DC, and the input is protected against higher and negative voltages. For more information, see “Pedal” in

Global Parameters

on page 9

and

Miscellaneous Parameters

on page 30.

Note:

This input is heavily filtered for smooth, clean operation, so there is a limit to the speed at which it will respond.

Audio In

Mopho can be used as a signal processor. Audio is routed through the filter, envelopes, and VCA and

—w hen the signal level is high enough

— a gate is generated. See

Using Audio In

on page 37.

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Audio can also be used to advance the sequencer when Seq Trigger is set to

Audio In. See

Sequencer

on page 21 for more information.

Left Out/Right Out

Mopho’s unbalanced left and right outputs.

Phones

A ¼ inch stereo headphone jack.

4

Basic Operation

If you’re familiar with analog, subtractive synthesis there shouldn’t be anything that looks terribly foreign or strange about Mopho’s front panel. All of the basic building blocks are there. But one of the challenges of making a compact synth is giving the user access to all the parameters within a limited amount of panel area. Mopho has most of the parameters of the Prophet ’08, plus a couple more, with a front panel that is more than 55% smaller!

Fortunately, several of the synth components have similar control requirements.

For example, Mopho has two oscillators and both oscillators have identical control parameters. With a switch to select oscillator 1 or 2, one set of controls can do double duty. Another set of controls handles most of the parameters for all three envelope generators. And you can select both oscillators or all three envelopes to edit a parameter simultaneously in all of them.

Other, less frequently used parameter names appear in light gray above the corresponding knob or switch. Turn on Shift to access those parameters.

And finally, program-level parameters that are not typically performance oriented are found in the Miscellaneous Parameters section.

The front panel is arranged so that the basic signal path components are in order from left to right in the row closest to the keyboard: oscillators into mixer into filter. (The VCA is the last part of the signal chain, but other than the Amplifier

Envelope, the only other control directly associated with the VCA is VCA

Level, which is in Miscellaneous Parameters.) The second row consists of various modulators, including envelopes, LFOs, and the sequencer. The remaining programmable parameters are for turning the arpeggiator and sequencer on and off, setting the tempo and note value, and the aforementioned

Miscellaneous Parameters.

Non-Programmable Controls

The front panel controls can be divided into two groups, programmable and nonprogrammable. Everything contained within a gray “module” is programmable.

The non-programmable controls are for things like selecting programs and transposing the keyboard. Their state—on, off, transposed, whatever—is not saved along with the program.

Transpose

—Allows the keyboard to be transposed in one octave increments two octaves up or down. When transposed one octave, the corresponding LED will be lighted, but dim. If the LED is brightly lit, Mopho is transposed two octaves.

Shift

—Used to access the shifted parameters.

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Program

—Press to return Mopho to program mode. Hold to select global mode.

Compare

—When editing a Program, press Compare to hear the saved version.

Turn Compare off to return to the edited version. Compare can also be used to audition write destinations when moving a program.

Write

—Press Write to save the program and write any edits to memory. You can write the program to the same location or choose a different program number using Param 1; Param 2 chooses the bank. Press Inc/Yes to confirm the write and Dec/No (or Write again) to abort.

While there is a write pending, press Compare to hear the program in the target destination prior to saving. Just be sure to turn Compare off before you actually hit the Inc/Yes switch to save.

Param 1

— Used to scroll through programs in program mode. In global mode, used for scrolling through the global menu items.

Param 2

—Used to change banks in program mode and edit the displayed parameter in edit and global modes.

Inc/Yes

and

Dec/No

—Increment or decrement programs in program mode or values in edit mode and global mode. Also used to confirm or cancel/abort an operation.

Push It

—Push It is a manual trigger. Its behavior depends upon the Push It

Mode, Note, and Velocity settings, which are programmable. Why is a manual trigger necessary when there are already 32 other manual triggers (that is, the keys)? It is surprsingly handy, especially in Toggle mode. It can be used to start and stop the sequencer or to just latch a droning note on. And that frees up both hands to twist knobs!

Tap Tempo

—With Shift on, Push It becomes Tap Tempo for setting the internal clock’s BPM.

If Push It is set to Toggle mode and Sequence and Shift are on, tap five times to set the tempo and toggle the Push It Note on, starting the sequencer. That is, a 4count to set the tempo and then a tap on beat 1 to start. To stop, turn Shift off and press Push It again.

Tap Tempo can also be used to change the tempo while a sequence is playing. If

Shift is on while a sequence is playing, tap the button 5 times and the sequence speed will change to the tapped tempo on the fifth hit. You can continue to tap the button, slowing down or speeding up, and the sequence tempo will adjust accordingly. The sequence will average and smooth out any small timing differences.

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Modes of Operation

Mopho has three operating modes: program, edit, and global. In program mode,

Param 1, Param 2, and Inc/Dec are used to change from one saved program to another. As soon as any of the programmable parameters are edited, that parameter is displayed on the LCD, with the programmed value on the top line, and the new, edited value on the bottom line. That is edit mode. To exit edit mode and return to program mode, just press Program.

To enter global mode, briefly press and hold Program until the light goes off and a global parameter is displayed on the LCD. Param 1 scrolls through the items in the global menu and Param 2 and Inc/Dec change the values. For more information, see

Global Parameters

on page 9.

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8

Global Parameters

Mopho’s Global parameters affect all programs globally. Examples include

MIDI channel and fine tune. To edit the Global parameters, hold down the

Program switch until Global Parameter is displayed. The Param 1 knob changes the global parameter and Param 2 knob and increment and decrement buttons change the value.

Transpose:

-12…+12—

Master Transpose control, 0 is centered. Steps in semitones.

Fine Tune:

-50…+50—

Master Fine Tune control; 0 centered. Steps in cents (50 cents = 1/2 semitone).

MIDI Channel:

ALL, 1…16—

Selects which MIDI channel to send and receive data, 1 to 16. All receives on all 16 channels.

Clock:

see table—

Sets the clock status.

Display

Internal

MIDI Out

MIDI In

Midi In/Out

MIDI Clock Setting

MIDI clock is neither sent nor received

MIDI clock is sent

MIDI clock is received

MIDI clock is received and transmitted

MIDI Parameter Send:

NRPN, CC, Off—

Changes to the values of Mopho’s front panel controls are transmitted via MIDI as Non-registered Parameter Number

(NRPN) controllers or as Continuous Controllers (CC). Transmission of parameters can also be turned off. See

MIDI Implementation

on page 43 for

details.

Note:

NRPNs are the preferred method of parameter transmission, since they cover the complete range of all parameters, while CCs only handle the main parameters.

MIDI Parameter Receive:

All, NRPN, CC, Off—

Sets the method by which

Mopho receives parameter changes via MIDI. As with transmission, NRPNs are the preferred method, though some controllers may only be able to send CCs.

MIDI Control:

Off, On—

When On, the synth will respond to MIDI controllers, including Pitch Wheel, Mod Wheel, Pedal, Breath, Volume, and Expression.

MIDI SysEx:

Off, On—

When On, the synth will respond to received MIDI

SysEx messages, and will transmit them, when prompted, to the MIDI Out. See

Sysex Messages

on page 57 for details.

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MIDI Out Select:

Out, Thru—

MIDI Out can be switched to MIDI Thru to daisychain multiple MIDI devices.

Poly Chain:

Off, Out 1, Out 4, Out 5, Out 8, Out 12, Out 16

—Used to expand the polyphony via the Poly Chain output and one or more DSI synths—Mopho,

Tetra, or Prophet. See

Using Poly Chain

on page 38 for more information.

Local Control:

Off, On—

When on (the default), the keyboard and front panel controls directly affect Mopho. When off, the controls are transmitted via MIDI but do not directly affect the “local” synth (that is, Mopho). This is primarily useful for avoiding MIDI data loops that can occur with some external sequencers.

Audio Out:

Stereo, Mono—

Mopho defaults to stereo operation. When set to

Mono, this parameter defeats all pan settings and modulation, effectively making each of the outputs a mono output.

PotMode:

Relative, Passthru, Jump —

The rotary controls on Mopho’s front panel are a mixture of “endless” rotary encoders and potentiometers or “pots.”

The pots are identifiable by their lined knobs and the fact that they have about

330°of travel. There are three pot modes to determine how the synth reacts when the programmable parameters are edited. (Master volume is not programmable, so these modes don’t apply.)

When set to Relative, changes are relative to the stored setting. In Relative mode, the full value range is not available until either the minimum or maximum value and the respective lower or upper limit of the pot’s travel is reached.

For example, the Resonance parameter has a value range of 0 to 127. Let’s say the physical position of the Resonance pot is the equivalent of a value of 100. If you switch to a program that has a stored Resonance setting of 63 and turn the pot all the way up, it will only go to 90. To get to the maximum value of 127, you first have to turn down until the value is at the other extreme and the pot is at the limit of its travel (in this case, 0 and fully counter-clockwise, respectively).

In Passthru mode, turning the pot has no effect until after the edited value equals the preset value (that is, until the edited value “passes through” the stored value).

Jump mode uses an absolute value based upon the position of the pot when edited: turn a pot and the value jumps immediately from the stored value to the edited value.

Sustain:

Norm +, Norm -, Arp +, Arp

- —A momentary footswitch connected to

Mopho’s Sustain input can be used either as a sustain pedal or to latch the

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arpeggiator. Mopho can be configured for use with either normally open (+) or normally closed (-) footswitches. When set to Arp+ or Arp-, the footswitch will act as a sustain pedal when the Arpeggiator is off.

Pedal:

see table —

Sets the destination for the Pedal/CV input. Note that this input is heavily filtered for clean operation, so there is a limit to the speed it will respond to changes.

FootCtrl Routed to the Foot Control Modulation

Breath Routed to the Breath Control Modulation

Expressn Routed to the Expression Modulation

LpFilter Routed to the low-pass filter

LpF Half Routed to the low-pass filter, but with half the range

The input will also accept control voltages in the range of 0 to 3.3 volts DC. It is protected against higher or negative voltages.

MIDI Pressure:

Off, On —

When On, the Mopho will respond to received MIDI pressure (aftertouch) messages and will transmit pressure from the keyboard to

MIDI Out.

Velocity Curve:

1…4 —

Sets one of the four velocity curves for the keyboard to adjust the velocity response to your playing style.

Pressure Curve:

1…4 —

Sets one of the four pressure curves for the keyboard to adjust the aftertouch to your playing style.

Basic Patch

Press the Write button to load a basic patch into the edit buffer.

The patch will not actually be written to the current program location unless intentionally written to memory in program mode using the Write button.

Reset Globals

Mopho does not have a full hardware reset, but select this parameter and press Write to reset the global parameters to their factory defaults.

Balance Tweak:

-14…14

—Adjusts the left/right output balance by approximately +/- 4 dB.

MIDI SysEx Dump:

see table—

Allows dumping of Programs in SysEx format via MIDI. Also enables the translation of Mopho Keyboard programs into formats readable by other DSI synths. Tetra’s voice architecture and voice program parameters are basically the same as the Mopho Keyboard’s. The desktop Mopho’s Feedback Gain is not programmable, so some tweaking of that control may be necessary to match the sound to the keyboard. And the Prophet’s

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voice architecture is almost identical, but lacks the sub octave generators and feedback.

Display MIDI Transmit Operation

Current Program Dump current program

Current Bank Dump all 128 programs in current bank

All Banks Dump all programs in all 3 banks

Current Prog P08 Dump the current program in Prophet ’08 format

CurrentProgMopho Dump the current program in desktop Mopho format

CurrentProgTetra Dump the current program in Tetra format

Current Bank P08 Dump the current bank in Prophet ’08 format

CurrentBankMopho Dump the current bank in desktop Mopho format

CurrentBankTetra Dump the current bank in Tetra format

Press Write to start transmission. This feature is handy for saving Programs on a computer in SysEx format, or for sending them to another Mopho via a direct

MIDI connection. The dumps include Program and Bank numbers, so when received, the programs will be stored in the same location.

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Oscillators

The Oscillators section contains the primary controls for Mopho’s two digitally controlled analog oscillators or DCOs. “Digitally controlled” does not mean the oscillators themselves are digital, just that the oscillators’ frequencies are under digital—rather than voltage—control. The advantage to that is that the tuning is exceptionally stable over a ten-octave range without having to compensate for variables like temperature. The audio signal path is still completely analog.

Oscillator Select

Choose oscillator 1, oscillator 2, of both. When both 1 and 2 are selected, changes made to the other oscillator parameters affect both oscillators.

Frequency:

C 0…C 10—

Sets the base oscillator frequency over a 10 octave range, from 8 Hz to 8KHz, stepping in semitones. C3 is middle C, the first octave is 0 (C0, C#0, etc.), the second octave is 1 (C1, C#1, etc.), and so on.

Fine Frequency:

-50…+50—

Fine tune control with a range of a quartertone up or down. Zero is centered. Steps are in cents (50 cents = 1/2 semitone).

Shape Select:

Sawtooth, Triangle, Saw-Tri, Square, Off

—Selects the oscillator waveshape. If none of the shapes are lighted, the oscillator is off.

Sawtooth

Triangle

Saw-Triangle

Square

Pulse Width:

0...99

—Sets the pulse width or

duty cycle

of the square wave. A value of 50 results in a true square wave with equal alternating high and low levels. Increasing or decreasing the value from 50 causes the waveshape to become asymetrical. Lower values narrow the postive-going portion of the

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wave, higher values widen it. At the extreme values, the pulse goes completely flat, which allows for some interesting possibilities with pulse width modulation.

0 50

Pulse Width

99

Glide:

0...127

—Sets the oscillator glide (

portamento

) rate. Glide can be set independently for each oscillator. Low values are faster. See also “Glide Mode” in

Other Oscillator Parameters

.

Sub Octave:

0...127

—Controls the level of a square wave pitched one octave below oscillator 1 or two octaves below oscillator 2.

Other Oscillator Parameters

These additional, less performance-oriented oscillator controls are found in the

Miscellaneous Parameters section.

Oscillator Sync:

Off, On

—Turns oscillator hard sync on. With sync on, whenever oscillator 2 resets, oscillator 1 is forced to restart.

Oscillator 1

Oscillator 2

Oscillator 1 synced to

Oscillator 2

Tip:

Try routing an envelope or the mod wheel to oscillator 1 frequency for the familiar sync sweep sound.

Oscillator 1 Keyboard Tracking:

Off, On

—Turns keyboard tracking off or on for oscillator 1.

Oscillator 2 Keyboard Tracking:

Off, On

—Turns keyboard tracking off or on for oscillator 2.

Oscillator Slop:

0...5

—The amount of random oscillator frequency tuning slop.

The analog oscillators in Mopho are very accurate, and will not drift. This works great for accurate sounds, and allows precise de-tuning. Oscillator Slop allows subtle amounts of frequency drift. For larger amounts, use a random LFO or white noise mod.

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Glide Mode:

FixRate, FixRate A, FixTime, FixTime A

—Determines how the oscillators respond when Glide is on.

FixRate:

The time to transition between notes varies with the interval between the notes; the greater the interval, the longer the transition time. The glide rate is fixed.

FixRate A:

The same as FixRate, but glide is only applied when playing legato.

That is, glide only occurs when a note is held until the next note is played. This effectively allows glide to be turned on and off from the keyboard.

FixTime:

Glide is set to a fixed time, regardless of the interval between notes.

FixTime A:

The same as FixTime, but glide only occurs when playing legato.

Pitch Wheel Range:

0...12

—Sets the bend range, in semitones, of the pitch wheel. The setting is the range in the positive or negative direction. For example, a setting of 7 lets you bend a note up or down by a fifth.

Key Assign:

Low Note, LowRetrig, HighNote, HighRetrig, LastNote,

LastRetrig

—Key Assign (aka note priority) determines what note gets priority when more than one note is played on the keyboard or via MIDI. Low-note priority is most common in vintage synths and is often used for playing trills by holding a note and repeatedly tapping a lower note. LowRetrig causes the envelopes to be retriggered with each keystroke. HighNote and HighRetrig are similar to the low note settings, except that the highest note is given priority.

And LastNote and LastRetrig give priority to the last note played.

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Mixer

The Mixer section balances the levels of the outputs of the Oscillators section and noise generator, and the Audio In/feedback loop before routing the summed signals to the low-pass filter.

Mix:

0...127

—Mixes the outputs of oscillators 1 and 2 in varying amounts. A setting of 0 is equivalent to 100% oscillator 1 and 0% oscillator 2. A setting of

127 is just the opposite. A setting of 64 is a 50/50 mix of both oscillators.

Feedback Level/External Volume Level:

0...127—

Left Out is normalled to

Audio In. (The Voice Architecture diagram on page 8 details Mopho’s signal routing.) If nothing is plugged in to the Audio In jack, increasing the Feedback

Level causes more and more of the left output signal to be fed back into the audio path pre-filter. As the level increases, so does the effect of the feedback.

When an audio cable is inserted in Audio In, the feedback loop is broken and the audio is processed by Mopho’s filter and VCA. In conjunction with the gain control, Audio In will accept a fairly wide range of signal levels from low-level sources like guitars to hotter, line-level signals. For more information, see

Using

Audio In

on page 37.

Feedback Gain/External Input Gain:

0...127

—Feedback Gain boosts the level of the feedback signal and is interactive with and dependent upon Feedback

Volume. If Feedback Volume is set to 0, then Feedback Gain has no effect.

(There is no feedback signal to boost.) However, Feedback Gain combined with higher levels of Feedback Volume can result in effects ranging from pleasing distortion to squirrelly harmonic weirdness.

This control is also used to boost the gain of signals processed via Audio In. For line-level signals, additional gain is typically unnecessary. For low-level signals, such as those from passive guitars or basses, External Input Gain boosts the signal to more useful levels.

Noise:

0...127

—Controls the volume of the white noise generator.

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Filter

Mopho features a selectable 2- or 4-pole, low-pass filter.

4-Pole

—Selects the filter configuration. When lighted, the filter is in 4-pole mode. A 4-pole, low-pass filter rolls off frequencies above the cutoff frequency at a slope of 24dB/octave. When the light is off, the filter is in 2-pole mode and has a slope of 12dB/octave and a more gradual rolloff of the higher frequencies.

Frequency:

0...164

—Sets the base filter cutoff frequency over more than 13 octaves. This control steps in semitones when turned slowly, but smoothly controls the filter without steps when turned at a faster rate.

Resonance:

0...127

—Emphasizes a narrow band of frequencies around the cutoff frequency. In 4-pole mode, high levels of resonance can cause the filter to self oscillate. In 2-pole mode, resonance is much more subtle.

Audio Mod:

0...127

—Controls the amount of audio from oscillator 1 used to modulate the filter cutoff frequency. For filter-only audio, set the oscillator Mix to 127, oscillator 2 Shape to Off, and oscillator 1 Shape to the desired waveshape. This is useful for bell-like FM sounds. A wide range of sounds can also be made using Audio Mod with the oscillators routed normally through the filter.

Key Amount:

0...127

—Sets the amount of modulation from the keyboard to the filter cutoff. A setting of 64 will step the filter in one semitone increments for each note, 32 would be quartertones, and so on.

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Envelopes

Mopho has three 5-stage (Delay + ADSR) envelope generators. Two are dedicated—one to the filter and the other to the amplifier—and the third is assignable to any modulation destination.

Envelope Select

—Selects the envelope to edit. When all three are lighted, the other envelope parameters control all three envelopes simultaneously.

Amount:

-127...127

—Sets the amount of modulation from the envelope to the destination: filter, amplifier, or the selected destination for envelope 3. The modulation amount can be positive or negative, allowing for inverted envelope control. (For the VCA, the range is 0-127, since you can't have a negative gain on a VCA!)

Delay:

0...127

—Sets a delay between the time the envelope is gated on and when the Attack portion actually begins

Attack:

0...127

—Sets the attack time of the selected envelope(s).

Decay:

0...127

—Sets the decay time of the selected envelope(s).

Sustain:

0...127

—Sets the sustain time of the selected envelope(s).

Release:

0...127

—Sets the release time of the selected envelope(s).

Velocity:

0...127

—Sets the amount of key velocity used to modulate the envelope amount.

Other Envelope Parameters

There are two additional parameters for envelope 3 in the Miscellaneous

Parameters section.

Envelope 3 Destination

—Sets the destination modulated by envelope 3. See

Modulation Destinations

on page 33 for a list of possible destinations.

Envelope 3 Repeat:

Off, On

—When on, causes the delay, attack, decay, and sustain portions of Envelope 3 to loop for as long as the envelope is gated on.

With repeat on, envelope 3 can even be used as a sort of complex LFO.

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LFO

Mopho has four low frequency oscillators (LFOs). The LFOs can be freerunning, synced to keystrokes, or synced to the sequencer and MIDI clock. To edit the LFO parameters, choose LFO in the Modulation section.

LFO Select:

1, 2, 3, 4

—Chooses the LFO to edit.

Tip:

The four numbered lights above the Frequency knob pulse at the frequency of the corresponding LFO. This can be a great aid in knowing which LFO to select for editing.

Destination

—See

Modulation Destinations

on page 33 for a list of possible

destinations.

Amount:

0...127

—Sets the amount of LFO routed to the destination.

Shape:

Triangle, Reverse Sawtooth, Sawtooth, Square, Sample and Hold

—The waveshape of the LFO. Sample and Hold generates a random value that changes once per cycle.

Frequency:

0...150

—Sets the LFO frequency. Speed ranges from slow (30 seconds) to very fast—at 90 (8 HZ, C-2) and above the speed steps in semitones, up to 150 (261 Hz, middle C).

Note

: Some of the analog functions may not respond well to the fastest

LFO speeds, due to speed limitations of the control voltages; but they will certainly generate some interesting sounds.

Clock Sync

—When on, the LFO syncs to the sequencer and clock—either the internal clock or an external MIDI clock. When synced to the internal clock,

BPM and Clock Divide both affect LFO frequency. When synced to an external clock, the external clock rate and Clock Divide affect the LFO frequency.

Editing Frequency shows the values in the following table.

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32 Steps

16 Steps

8 Steps

6 Steps

4 Steps

3 Steps

2 Steps

1.5 Step

1 Step

2/3 Step

1/2 Step

1/3 Step

1/4 Step

1/6 Step

1/8 Step

1/16Step

Sequence speed divided by 32; one LFO cycle takes 32 steps

Sequence speed divided by 16

Sequence speed divided by 8

Sequence speed divided by 6

Sequence speed divided by 4

Sequence speed divided by 3

Sequence speed divided by 2

Sequence speed divided by 1.5

One cycle per step

Two cycles every three steps

Two cycles per step

Three cycles per step

Four cycles per step

Six cycles per step

Eight cycles per step

Sixteen cycles per step

Tip:

Use Clock Sync to modulate a parameter in time with the sequencer.

For example, an LFO set to a triangle wave and a frequency of 16 steps can modulate the filter frequency for a sweep that is perfectly synced to the sequencer.

Key Sync

—When on, the LFO is re-started each time a new note is played. Key

Sync is set independently on each LFO.

20

Sequencer

For many musicians, the term sequencer has become synonymous with MIDI sequencer; that is, a computer-based application or dedicated hardware device for recording and playing back notes and performance gestures via MIDI. But sequencers were around long before MIDI. Mopho’s sequencer is much more like the original analog sequencers typically associated with modular synthesizer systems. The sequencer comprises four 16-step sequences that play in parallel.

Each sequence can be routed to a chosen destination, and each step in a sequence can be set to a different value used to modulate that destination. e n c e q u

S e

3

4

1

2

1 2 3 4

Steps

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Dest. 1

Dest. 2

Dest. 3

Dest. 4

v

= step value

Strictly speaking, Mopho’s sequencer does not play notes, nor does it transmit

MIDI data. If none of the sequence destinations are routed to oscillator frequency, the sequencer may not even affect the pitch. In Mopho terms, a sequence is just a series of events at timed intervals that changes the value of one of the synth’s parameters in discrete steps. Because the four sequences play in parallel, up to four parameters can be affected by each step, one per sequence.

For the most part, the sequence destinations are the same as the modulation destinations, which is appropriate: a sequence is just another modulation source.

For each sequence step, the envelopes are gated on for half the step’s duration.

The duration varies according to the BPM and Clock Divide settings (or the

MIDI clock, if synced to an external source). The envelope settings of the current program ultimately determine how long each step plays, though, and longer (more legato) or shorter (more staccato) effects can be achieved by editing the envelope rates.

Mopho’s sequencer is a gated sequencer. That means it requires a note to be gated on—that is played from the keyboard, the Push It button, or via MIDI—in order for the sequencer to run. There is no dedicated start or play button and it

21

does not respond to MIDI start/stop/continue messages, but it can still sync to an external clock. Simply turn on the sequencer and then play and hold a note to start. Or use the Push It button’s toggle feature to latch a note on with one push and release it with another; in this case, the Push It button is essentially a

Start/Stop control.

Reset and Rest

Sequences have a maximum of 16 steps, but they can have fewer—from 1 to

15—using Reset. (Sequences of 16 steps reset automatically.) Reset appears immediately after the highest value setting for a step. Setting a step to Reset causes the sequence to jump back to the first step and continue playing.

Reset is set separately for each of the four sequences, so it must be set at the same step in all four sequences to shorten all the sequences equally. The following illustration shows an example in which all the sequences are eight steps in length. e n c e q u

S e

3

4

1

2

1 2 3 4

Steps

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

v

= step value; R = Reset

Tip:

Using Reset while programming a sequence can be helpful. For example, when programming a specific melodic line, start by shortening the sequence to four or eight steps until those steps are set, and then gradually move the reset point to lengthen the loop until the desired number of steps is playing.

Dest. 1

Dest. 2

Dest. 3

Dest. 4

Sequences do not have to be the same length, however, which makes for some very interesting, less repetitive patterns, particularly when sequences are set to odd and even numbers of steps. c e e n q u

S e

3

4

1

2

1 2 3 4

Steps

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

v

= step value; R = Reset

Dest. 1

Dest. 2

Dest. 3

Dest. 4

22

Sequence one has an additional value, Rest, that appears in the list after Reset.

Rest prevents the envelopes from being gated by the corresponding step, so a rest in sequence one affects all four sequences. If the sequences are the same length, rests will occur in the same place in all four sequences as they loop. If the sequences are different lengths, the rests in sequence one apply to whatever the current step happens to be in sequences two through four, resulting in a more random-sounding pattern (which can be really cool). In the following example, sequence one is 16 steps long and rests occur at steps 2, 6, 9, and 12. However, sequence two is only eight steps long, so rests occur at steps 2 and 6 the first time it plays through and then at steps 1 and 4—corresponding to steps 9 and 12 in sequence one—the first time it repeats. As sequence two loops, the rests will continue in the same alternating pattern. e n c e q u

S e

3

4

1

2

1 2 3 4

v

Steps

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

= step value; r = rest; R = Reset

Dest. 1

Dest. 2

Dest. 3

Dest. 4

Programming the Sequencer

Programming the sequencer is easy, but there are a few things to consider before you start. Most importantly, what do you want the sequence to do and what modulation destinations will provide the results you’re seeking? For example, is the sequencer going to control oscillator frequency? One sequence can control the frequency of both oscillators or one sequence can control oscillator 1 and another sequence can control oscillator 2 for harmonies or countermelodies. A typical application of the sequencer might have sequence one routed to the frequency of both oscillators, sequence two routed to filter cutoff, sequence three routed to filter resonance, and sequence four routed to amplifier envelope amount for accents. Many of the factory programs have sequences programmed, so you can refer to those to see how certain effects are being achieved.

To program a sequence:

1.

Turn the sequencer on.

2.

Choose Sequencer in the Modulation section.

3.

Choose the sequence to program: 1, 2, 3, or 4.

4.

Play a note to start the sequence playing.

23

To avoid having to hold a key down, set the Push It Mode (Misc.

Parameters) to Toggle. Then use Push It to start and stop the sequencer.

You may also want to change the Push It Note, the BPM, and the Clock

Divide.

5.

Choose a destination for the sequence.

6.

Use the Step and Value controls to enter the desired values.

As the sequence loops, you will hear your edits.

7.

Choose another sequence and follow the same basic steps until you’re happy with the results.

8.

Dont forget to write your edits to memory! Sequences are saved with the related program. Just press Write and then Yes to save the program and sequences.

More Sequencer Parameters

The previous section covers the basics of sequencer programming, but there are some additional parameters that affect the sound and user interaction with the sequencer.

Slew

In modular analog synthesizers,

a lag processor

or

slew limiter

is used to create a time-varying change—a smooth transition—between successive, discrete control voltage levels. The rate of change is called the

slew rate

and one common application is to create a glide (aka

portamento

) effect between notes.

Among the possible destinations for Mopho sequences two and four is a sequence-only parameter called Slew. Slew behaves a little differently from the other modulation destinations, in that it is not really a destination at all; instead, it affects the sequence above it. That is, if Slew is the chosen destination for sequence two, it controls sequence one, and Slew in sequence four controls sequence three.

In Mopho’s sequencer, Slew sets the slew rate between the previous step’s value and the current step’s value when the step is gated on. Confused yet? This should help: let’s say sequence one is routed to oscillator frequency and sequence two to Slew. Increasing the Slew value for step four will cause the oscillator frequency to glide from the step three value when step four is gated on. The higher the Slew value, the slower the slew rate. And the slew rate can be different for each step. But its not just for oscillator glide. Slew can be applied to any of the destinations. For example, sequence three could be routed to filter cutoff with Slew in sequence four used to create a less abrupt transition from one step to the next.

24

Note:

Depending upon the BPM and Clock Divide settings, the slew rate can actually exceed the time the envelopes are gated on, causing a step in the affected sequence to not reach its set value. For example, if Slew is applied to oscillator frequency, high Slew values may cause a step to sound flat or sharp. If that’s not what you want, simply reduce the Slew value.

Sequencer Trigger Modes

The Sequencer Trigger mode determines how the sequencer reacts to triggers and what constitutes a trigger. Sequencer Trigger is found in the Miscellaneous

Parameters section. The different modes are:

Normal–

A note on, from either the local keyboard or via MIDI, causes the sequencer to play from the first step. The sequencer resets to step one each time a new note is played. Each sequence step gates the envelopes.

No Reset–

As above, but the sequencer does not reset to step one for each note played. The sequencer is effectively free running.

No Gate–

The keyboard gates the envelopes, but the sequencer does not. The sequencer resets to step one each time a new note is played.

NoGateNR–

As above, but the sequencer does not reset to step one for each note played. Again, the sequencer is effectively free running.

Key Step–

Striking any key or playing a note via MIDI advances the sequencer one step.

Audio In–

Steps the sequencer and gates the envelopes when a signal at Audio In exceeds a preset threshold. External Volume does not affect the trigger and can be set at minimum. External Gain does boost the signal prior to the threshold detector and so will affect the triggering. And the level of the input signal will also have an effect.

Syncing an LFO to the Sequencer

One very useful way to modulate a parameter in sync with a sequence is using an LFO with Clock Sync. A setting of 16 Steps for LFO Frequency with a triangle wave selected and routed to the filter will provide a clean filter sweep over a 16-step sequence, perfectly in sync! This is much easier (and smoother) than manually programming a sequence to sweep the filter.

25

Modulators

Modulators lets you configure the modulation routing and amount for Mopho’s four general-purpose modulation slots.

Since each Mopho modulation source has a single destination, the four general purpose modulators provide a way to send a mod source (such as a sequence or

LFO) to additional destinations, with a different amount. There are also additional mod sources available here, such as Noise, allowing a wide variety of possibilities.

To configure a general-purpose modulation slot, select Modulators and choose the appropriate modulator: 1, 2, 3, or 4. Then use the Source, Destination, and

Amount parameters to route the modulation as desired.

Source

Selects a modulation source. See

Modulation Sources

on page 32 for

possible sources.

Amount:

-127…+127—

Sets the amount of modulation.

Destination

Selects a modulation destination. See

Modulation Destinations

on

page 33 for a list of possible destinations.

26

Miscellaneous Modulators

There are certain standard controllers that Mopho consigns to dedicated modulators, things like mod wheel, pressure (aka aftertouch), and velocity. The most obvious benefits to doing this is it provides a shortcut to setting up commonly used controllers and it frees up the four general-purpose mod slots for other, more Mopho-specific applications. Select Misc Mod in the

Modulation section to get started.

Source:

Mod Wheel (MIDI CC#1), Pressure, Breath Controller (MIDI CC#2),

Velocity, Foot Controller (MIDI CC#4)

—Selects the modulation source. The source can also be changed using the 1-4 button, though the 1-4 LEDs do not change.

Note:

There is a global parameter called Pedal for routing an expression pedal to various controllers or directly to the filter cutoff. See

Global

Parameters

on page 9 for more information.

Destination

—Chooses the destination to which the modulation source is routed.

See

Modulation Destinations

on page 33 for a list of possible destinations.

Amount:

-127…+127—

Sets the amount of modulation.

27

Clock

The Clock section contains the controls for the internal clock tempo and the note value for the arpeggiator and sequencer (and LFO, when Clock Sync is on).

There are also switches to turn the arpeggiator and sequencer on and off.

Arpeggiator

—Turns Mopho’s arpeggiator on and off. The tempo and note value are determined by the BPM and Clock Divide settings. Arpeggiator Mode is set in Miscellaneous Parameters. The different modes are:

Mode Behavior

Up

Down

Plays from lowest to highest note.

Plays from highest to lowest note.

Up Down

Assign

Plays from lowest to highest and back to lowest.

Plays notes in the order keys were pressed.

2 Octaves Up

2 Octaves Down

2 Octaves Up Down

2 Octaves Assign

2 Octaves Random

3 Octaves Up

3 Octaves Down

3 Octaves Up Down

3 Octaves Assign

3 Octaves Random

Plays keyed notes and the same notes one octave higher, from lowest to highest.

Plays keyed notes and the same notes one octave higher, from highest to lowest.

Plays keyed notes and the same notes one octave higher, from lowest to highest and back to lowest.

Plays a keyed note, then the same note one octave higher, in the order keys were pressed.

Randomly plays keyed notes and the same notes one octave higher.

Plays keyed notes and the same notes one and two octaves higher, from lowest to highest.

Plays keyed notes and the same notes one and two octaves higher, from highest to lowest.

Plays keyed notes and the same notes one and two octaves higher, from lowest to highest and back to lowest.

Plays a keyed note, then the same note one and two octaves higher, in the order keys were pressed.

Randomly plays keyed notes and the same notes one and two octaves higher.

Briefly hold the Arpeggiator switch down to latch arpeggiated notes. (The light will blink when latched.) Playing additional notes while latched adds them to the notes already playing.

28

The Arpeggiator can also be latched with a footswitch connected to the Sustain jack. See “Sustain” in

Global Parameters

on page 9.

The Arpeggiator (and Sequencer) can also sync to MIDI clock from an external sequencer or other device. See “Clock” in

Global Parameters

on page 9 for

more information.

Sequencer

—Turns Mopho’s gated sequencer on and off. See

Sequencer

on

page 21 for more information.

BPM:

30…250—

Sets the tempo for the sequencer in BPM (beats per minute).

The accompanying light flashes on the beat. When syncing to an external MIDI clock source, the BPM control has no effect.

Clock Divide

Sets the note value for each sequencer or arpeggiator step relative to the BPM. Also affects the LFO frequency when LFO Clock Sync is on. Clock Divide works with both internal and external clock sources. The following table lists the Clock Divide values.

Eighth

8 half

8swing

8 trip

16th

16half

16swng

16trip

32nd

32trip

64trip

BPM x 2

BPM x 2

BPM x 2

BPM x 3

BPM x 4

BPM x 4

BPM x 4

BPM x 6

BPM x 8

BPM x 12

BPM x 24

Eighth note

Eighth note, half swing timing

Eighth note, full swing timing

Eighth note triplets

Sixteenth note

Sixteenth note, half swing timing

Sixteenth note, full swing timing

Sixteenth note triplets

Thirty-second note

Thirty-second note triplets

Sixty-fourth note triplets

Note:

BPM is based on quarter notes, so clock divisions are relative to a quarter-note beat. For example, when Clock Divide is set to Eighth, two notes or steps will play per beat.

29

Miscellaneous Parameters

Miscellaneous Parameters groups together programmable parameters that do not conveniently fall into any obvious section or, if they do, are parameters that are less frequently used. They are important, but generally not required for performance.

Voice Volume:

0…127—

Sets the volume of the current program to match volumes between programs.

Note:

There is enough gain in the synth voice that with some settings, some mild clipping distortion may be heard. If this happens, try lowering the Voice Volume, and/or the Amp Envelope Amount (or Amp Envelope

Velocity).

Name

—The lower line of the LCD displays the name of the current program.

Use the Name parameter to edit the name. When Name is selected, a character blinks to indicate that it is active. To edit the character, use the Value knob, the

Param 2 knob, or the +/Yes or -/No switches. Use the Param 1 knob to edit another character.

Oscillator Sync

,

Keyboard Tracking

,

Slop

,

Glide Mode

,

Pitch Wheel Range

, and

Key Assign

are described under “Other Oscillator Parameters” in

Oscillators

on page 14.

Sequence Trigger

isdescribed under “Sequence Trigger Modes” in

Sequencer

on page 25.

Arpeggiator Mode

is part of the

Arpeggiator

description in

Clock

on page 28.

Envelope 3 Destination

and

Envelope 3 Repeat

are described under “Other

Envelope Parameters” in

Envelopes

on page 18.

VCA Level:

0…127—

Sets a base level for the VCA (Voltage Controlled

Amplifier). This essentially allows the VCA to be bypassed for programs that drone.

Note:

If VCA Level is on full, Envelope Amount has no effect. For normal operation from the keyboard, VCA Level should be set to 0. For

30

droning sounds, or possibly when using Mopho to process external audio, turn the VCA Level up.

Push It Mode:

Normal, Toggle, Audio In—

When set to Normal, Push It responds like a key: press it and a note plays, release it and the note ends. But when set to

Toggle, Push It turns the note on with one press and off with a second press.

This is handy for making a note drone or for latching a gated sequence on.

Somewhat related, the Audio In setting will generate a gate from Audio In.

When the audio signal gets above a certain fixed level, the gate will go on.

When it drops below that level, the gate will go off.

Push It Note:

C0…C10—

Sets the note that plays when Push It is pressed.

Push It Velocity:

0…127—

Sets the MIDI note-on velocity.

Unison On/Off

—Why does a monophonic synthesizer need a Unison switch?

Because it might be poly chained to another DSI synth, the Tetra being the obvious choice—five voices of analog power, in a very small footprint!

Unison Mode

—Sets how voices are allocated and tuned when unison is on.

Display Mode

1 Voice Classic, two oscillator, monophonic mode

All Voices

AllDetune1-3

All available voices in unison

All available voices in unison with increasing levels of detuning among the voices

31

Modulation Sources

Display Source

Off

Sequence1

Sequence2

No source selected

Sequence 1

Sequence 2

Sequence3

Sequence4

LFO 1

LFO 2

LFO 3

LFO 4

Filt Env1

VCA Env 2

Envelope3

PitchBend

Mod Wheel

Pressure

MidBreath

Midi Foot

Midi Exp

Velocity

KeyNumber

Noise

EnvFollow

Peak Hold

Sequence 3

Sequence 4

LFO 1

LFO 2

LFO 3

LFO 4

Filter Envelope

Amp (VCA) Envelope

Envelope 3

Pitch Bend

Mod Wheel

Pressure (Aftertouch)

MIDI - Breath Controller

MIDI - Foot Controller

MIDI - Expression

Keyboard Note Velocity

Keyboard Note Number

Noise

Audio In Envelope Follower

Audio In Peak Hold

32

Modulation Destinations

Display Destination

Off

Osc 1 Freq

Osc 2 Freq

No destination selected

Oscillator 1 Frequency

Oscillator 2 Frequency

OscAllFreq

Osc Mix

NoiseLevel

Osc1 PulsW

Osc2 PulsW

Osc All PW

Low Pass

Resonance

Audio Mod

VCA Level

Output Pan

LFO 1 Freq

LFO 2 Freq

LFO 3 Freq

LFO 4 Freq

LFOAllFreq

LFO 1 Amt

LFO 2 Amt

LFO 3 Amt

LFO 4 Amt

LFOAll Amt

Env 1 Amt

Env 2 Amt

Env 3 Amt

EnvAll Amt

Env1Attack

Env2Attack

Env3Attack

EnvAll Att

Env1 Decay

Env2 Decay

Env3 Decay

EnvAll Dec

Env1Releas

Env2Releas

Env3Releas

EnvAll Rel

Mod 1 Amt

Mod 2 Amt

Oscillator 1 and 2 Frequency

Oscillator Mix

Noise Level

Oscillator 1 Pulse Width

Oscillator 2 Pulse Width

All Oscillators Pulse Width

Lowpass Filter Frequency

Resonance

Audio Mod Amount

VCA Amount

Stereo Pan Position

LFO 1 Frequency

LFO 2 Frequency

LFO 3 Frequency

LFO 4 Frequency

All LFO Frequencies

LFO 1 Amount

LFO 2 Amount

LFO 3 Amount

LFO 4 Amount

All LFO Amounts

Envelope 1 Amount (Level)

Envelope 2 Amount (Level)

Envelope 3 Amount (Level)

All Envelope Amounts (Levels)

Envelope 1 Attack Rate

Envelope 2 Attack Rate

Envelope 3 Attack Rate

All Envelope Attack Rates

Envelope 1 Decay Rate

Envelope 2 Decay Rate

Envelope 3 Decay Rate

All Envelope Decay Rates

Envelope 1 Release Rate

Envelope 2 Release Rate

Envelope 3 Release Rate

All Envelope Release Rates

Modulator 1 Amount

Modulator 2 Amount

33

Mod 3 Amt

Mod 4 Amt

Fback Vol

Sub Osc 1

Modulator 3 Amount

Modulator 4 Amount

Feedback Volume

Sub Oscillator 1 Level

Sub Oscillator 2 Level

Sub Osc 2

Fback Gain

Slew

Feedback Gain

Sequencer Slew*

*Appears as a destination in sequences 2 and 4 only.

34

Using USB

Mopho’s USB 2.0 port enables bidirectional MIDI communication with a computer. A MIDI interface and MIDI cables are not necessary, just a USB cable. Mopho is a Class Compliant USB device. That means it does not require any additional drivers to be installed to communicate with a Mac or Windows computer.

Mopho transmits and receives MIDI data via USB, but does not transmit audio.

Note:

MIDI In and USB should not be used at the same time, as overlapping messages from different sources may cause Mopho to respond unpredictably. MIDI Out and USB can be used at the same time and transmit the same data. Poly Chain Out is an independent MIDI bus and can be used regardless of the “normal” MIDI connection.

USB Notes

Under Mac OS X, Mopho will appear as a MIDI port when connected via USB and can be configured using the Mac’s Audio MIDI Setup application (typically found in Applications/Utilities).

Under Windows XP, the first time Mopho is connected via USB, the “Found new hardware” alert appears and Mopho is automatically installed—somewhat misleadingly—as “USB Audio Device.” If there is already another Class

Compliant USB device installed, Mopho will show up as “USB Audio

Device(2)” (or 3 or 4 or...).

To determine which USB Audio Device is Mopho:

1.

Open the System Control Panel

2.

Click the Hardware tab.

3.

Click Device Manager.

4.

Expand “Sound, video, and game controllers.”

5.

Right-click any “USB Audio Device” and choose Properties from the pop-up menu.

The General tab of the USB Audio Device Properties window displays the

Device Type, Manufacturer, and Location. For Mopho, the Location should read

“Location

n

(DSI Mopho).”

35

Windows Vista and Windows 7 behave the same as XP, but the device name is

DSI Mopho rather than USB Audio Device.

In Windows, if you unplug the USB cable and plug it back in while a program has the Mopho port open, you may have to resync. That usually means going to the USB Audio Device (or DSI Mopho) Properties, as in the procedure above, and clicking OK. If Mopho is no longer listed in the Device Manager under

“Sound, video, and game controllers,” power Mopho down and back up again while it is connected via USB. It should be detected on power up.

36

Using Audio In

The Audio In jack on Mopho’s rear panel can take audio from a variety of sources, including line level signals and guitars. But what happens to it once its inside and how do you get it out again? Simply plugging a guitar in does not mean you will actually hear something when you play it.

Mopho’s basic audio signal path goes from oscillators to mixer to filter to VCA.

Audio In goes into the mixer. (Mopho has no pitch detection capability, so the oscillators cannot track the pitch of the incoming signal. A pitch-to-MIDI converter is needed to play the synth from a guitar.) So the External Volume level must be up for Audio In to work. But you probably still won’t be able to hear it. There are two potential obstacles in the audio signal path: the filter and the VCA. If the filter’s cutoff frequency is turned down, audio does not pass through. And if the VCA Level (Misc. Parameters) is down or nothing is gating the amplifier envelope, no audio will pass through the VCA. The two most obvious ways around the VCA are to turn the VCA Level up, essentially bypassing the VCA, or use the sequencer to gate the envelopes. (You could also use the keyboard to gate the envelopes, but then you start to run out of hands!)

There are two programs in Bank 1 demonstrating ways in which to use Audio

In. Ext In Env Filt (Bank 1 Program 127) is a simple envelope filter. VCA Level is turned all the way up, allowing the audio to pass through the VCA. Both oscillators are turned off; if they were on, you’d hear them droning because

VCA Level is turned up. Modulator 1 Source is set to EnvFollow (envelope follower) and the destination is set to Low Pass (the filter). That means the level of the incoming audio controls the filter’s cutoff frequency. Resonance is also set at a moderate level, so you should hear a nice, squirty, blat at the peaks. For low-level signals like a passive guitar or bass, you will probably need to turn

External Gain up to make it work properly.

The other program, Ext In Sequence (Bank 1 Program 128) uses the sequencer to gate the envelopes for a pulsing, rhythmic effect. Press Push It! to latch the sequencer on. Noise level is up, providing little percussive noise bursts. The oscillators are still turned off. LFO 1 is synced to the sequencer and controlling the VCA’s output panning. Sequence 1 is controlling filter cutoff. Again, you may need to turn up External Gain for low-level signals. You can have a ton of fun playing with just Mopho and patches like this, but if you sync to an external sequencer or delay or both, things really get interesting!

37

Using Poly Chain

Mopho’s Poly Chain output enables it to be connected to other DSI synths for up to 17-voice polyphony. Products that can be chained include the Tetra, Prophet

'08 (module and keyboard), desktop Mopho, and a second keyboard Mopho. It will not chain with the Evolvers and Poly Evolvers due to the different voice structures.

Note data from Mopho’s keyboard is intelligently processed so that, when one synth’s maximum polyphony is reached, additional notes are passed through the

Poly Chain output and routed to the next synth in the chain. All that is required is a single MIDI cable for each of the chained synths and a mixer for combining the audio outputs.

Tetra is the best candidate for poly chaining with the Mopho Keyboard; the voice architecture and programmable parameters are identical. The desktop

Mopho or Prophet ’08 will also work, but there are some differences between these synths and the Mopho Keyboard:

The desktop Mopho’s Feedback Gain control is not programmable and may need to be tweaked manually to match the Mopho Keyboard. Programs that don’t use feedback sound the same on both models.

The Prophet does not have feedback or sub octave generators.

Both the Prophet and Tetra have two layers for stacked and split programs;

Mopho does not. When Prophet or Tetra programs are loaded into Mopho, layer B is ignored.

You should have the same programs loaded into all the chained synths. The easiest way to do that is to use the Dump command in the Global menu to dump the programs via MIDI from one synth to the other(s).

The Poly Chain parameter is in the global menu. On the Mopho Keyboard, set

Poly Chain to the number of additional voices that will be chained: Out 1 (for poly chaining a Mopho), Out 4, Out 5, Out 8, Out 12, or Out 16. Refer to the illustration on page 40 for examples of the Poly Chain settings on the slave units.

You can now virtually ignore the slave unit or units, since the controls on the master will control all units as if they were a single synth. This includes saving a program; if you save an edited program on the master, it will also save the program on the slave(s).

38

Note

: If syncing to an external MIDI clock, set MIDI Clock (Global menu) on the master and any intermediate units to MIDI In/Out. Set the last instrument in the chain to MIDI In.

When Poly Chain is set to Off, the Poly Chain MIDI out jack simply duplicates the MIDI out jack.

39

2 Voices:

Mopho Kybd.

Poly

Chain

Out

Out 1

5 Voices:

Mopho Kybd.

Poly

Chain

Out

Out 4

6 Voices:

Mopho Kybd.

Poly

Chain

Out

Out 5

9 Voices:

Mopho Kybd.

Poly

Chain

Out

Out 8

9 Voices:

Mopho Kybd.

Poly

Chain

Out

Out 8

13 Voices:

Mopho Kybd.

Poly

Chain

Out

Out 12

13 Voices:

Mopho Kybd.

Poly

Chain

Out

Out 12

40

Mopho

MIDI

In

MIDI

In

Tetra

In End

MIDI

In

Tetra

Poly

Chain

Out

InOut4

MIDI

In

Tetra

Poly

Chain

Out

InOut4

Prophet

MIDI

In

In

MIDI

In

Tetra

Poly

Chain

Out

InOut8

MIDI

In

Tetra

Poly

Chain

Out

InOut8

MIDI

In

Mopho

MIDI

In

Tetra

In End

MIDI

In

Tetra

Poly

Chain

Out

InOut4

Prophet

MIDI

In

In

MIDI

In

Tetra

In End

Support

Troubleshooting

Here are a few suggestions for resolving problems that may occur.

The sequencer has stopped running.

Make sure Clock in the Global menu is set to Internal.

Some of the programs sound different.

Check the Mod Wheel position. The Mod Wheel can do a lot more than just add vibrato. Also, some of the programs use the sequencer to shape the sound so make sure Clock in the Global menu is set to Internal.

There is a ground hum in the audio output.

USB can cause ground loops, so try to resolve any grounding issues between the computer and Mopho. Or use MIDI, which is opto-isolated.

Mopho is behaving erratically.

This is almost always caused by a MIDI data loop. Make sure that any MIDI

Thru functionality is turned off on the MIDI interface/hardware or in the MIDI software application (sequencer or whatever). Disconnect all Mopho’s MIDI connections—MIDI and USB cables—and see if the problem persists. You can also monitor the MIDI traffic with MIDI Monitor (Mac OS) or MIDI-OX

(Windows) to see if Mopho is being overrun with duplicate messages.

An oscillator or the filter sounds strange or out of tune.

Hold Compare and press Osc Shape to run the calibration routine.

Note:

It is not necessary to run the calibration routine on a regular basis.

You should only run it if you are experiencing problems.

Still experiencing a problem with Mopho? Reset the Global parameters (in the

Global menu).

Contacting Technical Support

If you are still having a problem with Mopho, contact Technical Support at [email protected] Please include your Mopho’s serial number, the version of the operating systems (Main and Voice displayed on startup), and the purchase date.

Note:

If you have not already reset the Global parameters and run the calibration routine (see Troubleshooting above), you should do it before contacting Technical Support. It’s probably the first thing they’ll ask you to do.

41

Warranty Repair

Dave Smith Instruments warrants that Mopho will be free from defects in materials and/or workmanship for 1 year from the date of purchase. Please register your product online at www.davesmithinstruments.com to establish the date of purchase. (This is not a requirement for warranty service, but it will help expedite the process.)

Please contact [email protected] to determine the best course of action for getting your Mopho repaired. For your own protection, as well as ours,

please do not return any product to Dave Smith Instruments without a return authorization (RA) number

. To issue an RA number, Technical

Support needs:

Your name

Your return address

Your email address

A phone number where you can be reached

Your Mopho’s serial number

The date of purchase and where purchased

If you need to return your instrument for repair, you are responsible for getting it to DSI. We highly recommend insuring it and packing in the original packaging.

Damage resulting from shipping a product with insufficient packaging is not covered by warranty.

42

MIDI Implementation

Mopho receives MIDI data according to the mode controls under G

LOBAL

. In addition, there is interaction between some of the Program parameters that determine the overall response of Mopho to MIDI data.

Following are the Global parameters that affect response to MIDI:

MIDI Channel:

ALL, 1…16 —

Selects the MIDI channel to send and receive data, 1 to 16. All receives on any channel.

Clock:

see table —

Selects the MIDI clock status as follows:

Display MIDI Clock Setting

Internal

MIDI clock is neither sent nor received

MIDI Out

MIDI clock is sent

MIDI In

MIDI clock is received

MIDIn/Out

MIDI clock is received and transmitted

MIDI Parameter Send:

NRPN, CC, Off —

Changes to the values of Mopho’s front panel controls are transmitted via MIDI as Non-registered Parameter

Number (NRPN) controllers or as Continuous Controllers (CC). Transmission of parameters can also be turned off.

MIDI Parameter Receive:

All, NRPN, CC, Off —

Sets the method by which

Mopho receives parameter changes via MIDI. As with transmission, NRPNs are the preferred method, though some controllers may only be able to send CCs.

MIDI Control:

Off, On —

When On, the synth will respond to MIDI controllers, including Pitch Wheel, Mod Wheel, Pedal, Breath, Volume, and Expression.

MIDI SysEx:

Off, On —

When On, the synth will respond to received MIDI

SysEx messages, and will transmit them, when prompted, to the MIDI Out.

43

MIDI Messages

System Real-time Messages

Status Description

1111 1000 MIDI Timing Clock

Received Channel Messages

Status Second Third Description

1000 nnnn 0kkkkkkk 0vvvvvvv Note Off. Velocity is ignored

1001 nnnn 0kkkkkkk 0vvvvvvv Note On. Note off if vvvvvvv = 0

1010 nnnn 0kkkkkkk 0vvvvvvv Polyphonic Key Pressure

1011 nnnn 0vvvvvvv 0vvvvvvv Control Change; see “Received Controller

Messages” table following

1100 nnnn 0ppppppp Program change, 0-127 for Programs 1-128 within current Bank

1101 nnnn 0vvvvvvv Channel Pressure

1110 nnnn 0vvvvvvv 0vvvvvvv Pitch Bend LS Byte then MS Byte

Notes: 0kkkkkkk nnnn

Note number 0 — 127

Channel number 0 to 15 (MIDI channel 1-16). Ignored if MIDI channel set to ALL

Received Controller Messages

Status

1011 nnnn

1011 nnnn

Second

1

2

Third Description

0vvvvvvv Mod Wheel — directly assignable controller

0vvvvvvv Breath Controller — directly assignable controller

1011 nnnn

1011 nnnn

1011 nnnn

1011 nnnn

1011 nnnn

1011 nnnn

4

7

74

11

32

64

0vvvvvvv Foot Controller — directly assignable controller

0vvvvvvv Volume — Combined with Master Volume and

Voice Volume

0vvvvvvv Brightness — Added to low-pass filter cutoff frequency

0vvvvvvv Expression Controller — directly assignable controller

0vvvvvvv Bank Select — 0 - 2 select banks 1 - 3; others ignored

0vvvvvvv Damper pedal — holds envelopes in Sustain if

0100 0000 or higher

0vvvvvvv All Notes Off — clear all MIDI notes 1011 nnnn 123

1011 nnnn 121 0vvvvvvv Reset All Controllers — clears all MIDI controllers to 0, MIDI volume to maximum

See sections below for additional Continuous Controller (CC) and Nonregistered Parameter Number (NRPN) messages received.

44

Transmitted Channel Messages

Status Second Third Description

1000 nnnn 0kkkkkkk 0000000 Note Off.

1001 nnnn 0kkkkkkk 0vvvvvvv Note On.

1011 nnnn 0vvvvvvv 0vvvvvvv Control Change; see “Transmitted Controller

Messages” table following

1100 nnnn 0ppppppp Program change, 0 – 127 for Programs 1 – 128 within current Bank

1101 nnnn 0vvvvvvv Channel Pressure

1110 nnnn 0vvvvvvv 0vvvvvvv Pitch Bend LS Byte then MS Byte

Notes: 0kkkkkkk Note number 0 - 127 nnnn Channel number 0 to 15 (MIDI channel 1-16). Ignored if MIDI

0vvvvvvv channel set to ALL

Value

Transmitted Controller Messages

Status Second Third Description

1011 nnnn 0000 0001 0vvvvvvv Mod Wheel

1011 nnnn 0000 0010 0vvvvvvv Breath Controller – when assigned to Pedal/CV

1011 nnnn 0000 0100 0vvvvvvv Foot Controller – when assigned to Pedal/CV

1011 nnnn 0000 0111 0vvvvvvv Volume – when assigned to Pedal/CV

1011 nnnn 0100 1010 0vvvvvvv Brightness – when assigned to Pedal/CV

1011 nnnn 0000 1101 0vvvvvvv Expression – when assigned to Pedal/CV

1011 nnnn 0010 0000 0vvvvvvv Bank Select – 0 to 2

1011 nnnn 0100 0000 0vvvvvvv Damper pedal – sends 0 if off, 0100 0000 when on

1011 nnnn 0000 0111 0vvvvvvv Volume knob

See sections below for additional Continuous Controller (CC) and Nonregistered Parameter Number (NRPN) messages transmitted.

45

Parameter

Osc 1 Frequency

Osc 1 Freq Fine

Osc 1 Shape

Glide 1

Osc 2 Frequency

Osc 2 Freq Fine

Osc 2 Shape

Glide 2

Osc Mix

Noise Level

Sub Oscillator 1

Sub Oscillator 2

Filter Frequency

Resonance

Filter Key Amt

Filter Audio Mod

Filter Env Amt

Filter Env Vel Amt

Filter Delay

Filter Attack

Filter Decay

Filter Sustain

Filter Release

VCA Level

Amp Env Amt

Amp Velocity Amt

Amp Delay

Amp Attack

Amp Decay

Amp Sustain

Amp Release

Additional Continuous Controllers

(CCs) Transmitted/Received

The following table details how CCs are mapped onto Mopho’s controls. They are transmitted when MIDI Parameter Send is set to CC in Global, and recognized when received when MIDI Parameter Receive is set to either CC or

All in Global.

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

CC#

20

21

22

30

31

Parameter

Env 3 Destination

Env 3 Amt

Env 3 Velocity Amt

Env 3 Delay

Env 3 Attack

Env 3 Decay

Env 3 Sustain

Env 3 Release

BPM

Clock Divide

88

89

90

77

78

CC#

85

86

87

14

15

107

108

109

110

111

112

113

102

103

104

105

106

115

116

117

118

119

75

76

46

NRPN Messages

The Non-Registered Parameter Number (NRPN) MIDI messages are used to transmit and receive both global and program parameters. They are transmitted when MIDI Parameter Send is set to NRPN in Global, and received when MIDI

Parameter Receive is set to either NRPN or All in Global.

The messages are handled in standard MIDI format using the NRPN CC commands in running status byte format. Below is the format used for transmitting a NRPN parameter:

Transmitted NRPN Messages

Status

1011 nnnn

0110 0011

0vvv vvvv

0110 0010

0vvv vvvv

0000 0110

0vvv vvvv

0010 0110

0vvv vvvv

Description

Control Change

NRPN parameter number MSB CC

Parameter Number MSB

NRPN parameter number LSB CC

Parameter Number LSB

NRPN parameter value MSB CC

Parameter value MSB

NRPN parameter value LSB CC

Parameter value LSB

The parameter number can be found in the two tables below, one for Global parameters, and the other for Program parameters. The parameter numbers and the parameter values are broken into two 7-bit bytes for MIDI transmission; the

LSB has the seven least-significant bits, and the MSB has the seven mostsignificant bits, though in most cases the MSB will be zero or one, and never more than two.

When receiving an NRPN, all messages do not necessarily need to be transmitted, since the synth will track the most recent NRPN number, though it is usually good practice to send the entire message above.

Once an NRPN is selected, the synth will also respond to NRPN Data Increment and Decrement commands, which some controllers utilize. Finally, it responds to one RPN (Registered Parameter Number) command, the RPN/NRPN Reset command, which can be handy for resetting the currently selected parameter to a known state.

47

Received NRPN Messages

Status Second Third Description

1011 nnnn 0110 0011 0vvvvvvv NRPN parameter number MSB CC

1011 nnnn 0110 0010 0vvvvvvv NRPN parameter number LSB CC

1011 nnnn 0000 0110 0vvvvvvv NRPN parameter value MSB CC

1011 nnnn 0010 0110 0vvvvvvv NRPN parameter value LSB CC

1011 nnnn 0110 0000 0xxxxxxx NRPN parameter value Increment

1011 nnnn 0110 0001 0xxxxxxx NRPN parameter value Decrement

1011 nnnn 0010 0101 0111111 RPN parameter number MSB CC - Reset NRPN parameter number (when both MSB and LSB received)

1011 nnnn 0010 0100 0111111 RPN parameter number LSB CC - Reset NRPN parameter number (when both MSB and LSB received)

Global Parameter Data

The following table shows the Global data that is sent and received on global parameter dumps, and the corresponding NRPN number when sent/received individually.

Param NRPN Range Description

0 384 0 - 24 Master Transpose; 0 = -12 semitones (1 octave), 12

= 0 (no transpose), and 24 = +12 semitones.

1

2

385 0 - 100 Master Fine Tune; 0 = -50 cents, 50 = 0 (centered),

100 = + 50 cents

386 0 - 16 MIDI Channel; if = 0, data received on all MIDI channels. Otherwise = channel number 1 - 16.

3 388 0 - 3

4

5

6

7

390

391

394

395

0 - 2

0 - 3

0 - 1

0 - 1

MIDI clock select*

0 Use Internal clock, don’t send MIDI clock

1 Use Internal clock, send MIDI clock

2 Use MIDI clock In

3 Use MIDI clock In, and retransmit MIDI clock out

Parameter Send*:

0 NRPN

1 CC

2 Off

Parameter Receive † :

0 All

1 NRPN only

2 CC only

3 Off

MIDI Controller Send/Receive Off/On

MIDI Sysex Send/Receive Off/On

Param NRPN Range Description

8 406 0 - 1 MIDI Out Select*:

0 MIDI Out

1 MIDI Thru

9 387 0 - 6 Poly Chain*:

0 Off

1 Out 1

2 Out 4

3 Out 5

4 Out 8

5 Out 12

6 Out 16

10

11

389 0 – 1

400 0 - 1

12

13

14

15

16

404

397

396

393

399

0 - 2

0 - 3

0 - 5

0 – 1

0 – 3

Local Control* Off/On

Audio Outputs:

0 Stereo

1 Mono

Pot Mode:

0 Relative

1 PassThru

2 Jump

Damper Polarity:

0 Sustain, normally open

1 Sustain, normally closed

2 Arpeggiator latch, normally open

3 Arpeggiator latch, normally closed

Pedal Destination:

0 Foot Control

1 Breath Control

2 Expression

3 Volume

4 Filter Frequency

5 Filter Frequency/2

MIDI Pressure Send/Receive Off/On

Pressure Curve

17

18

398 0 - 3

19

20 403 0 - 28

*Received, but not sent.

†Sent, but ignored when received.

Velocity Curve

Basic Patch

Reset Globals

Balance Tweak*

49

Program Parameter Data

The following table lists Mopho’s voice parameters. The parameter number in the program and edit buffer dumps are different than the NRPN numbers as seen; this was to maintain NRPN compatibility with the Prophet ’08 as much as possible.

7

8

3

4

5

6

Param

0

1

2

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

NRPN

0

1

2

3

4

114

5

6

7

8

9

115

10

11

12

93

Range Description

0 - 120 Oscillator 1 Frequency, 0 - 120 in semitones (10 octave range)

0 - 100 Oscillator 1 Fine Tune; 0 = -50 cents, 50 = 0

(centered), 100 = + 50 cents

0-103 Oscillator 1 Shape

Off

1 Sawtooth

2 Triangle

4 - 103 Pulse Wave, Pulse width 0 - 99

0 - 127 Oscillator 1 Glide

0 - 1 Oscillator 1 Keyboard Off/On

0 - 127 Sub Oscillator 1 Level

0 - 120 Oscillator 2 Frequency, 0 - 120 in semitones (10 octave range)

0 - 100 Oscillator 2 Fine Tune; 0 = -50 cents, 50 = 0

(centered), 100 = + 50 cents

0 - 103 Oscillator 2 Shape

0Oscillator Off

1 Sawtooth

2 Triangle

3 Sawtooth/triangle mix

4 - 103 Pulse Wave, Pulse width 0 - 99

0 - 127 Oscillator 2 Glide

0 - 1 Oscillator 2 Keyboard Off/On

0 - 127 Sub Oscillator 2 Level

0 - 1 Sync off/on

0 - 3 Glide Mode:

0 fixed rate time

3 fixed time auto

0 - 5 Oscillator Slop

0 - 12 Pitch Bend Range

16

17

18

19

20

21

13

14

116

110

15

16

0 - 127 Oscillator 1 - 2 Mix

0 - 127 Noise Level

0 - 127 Feedback/External Audio Volume

0 - 127 Feedback/External Audio Gain

0 - 164 Filter Frequency, steps in semitones

0 - 127 Resonance

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

41

27

28

29

30

31

22

23

24

25

26

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

27

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

29

22

23

24

25

26

17

18

19

20

21

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

0 - 127 Filter Keyboard Amount

0 - 127 Filter Audio Modulation

0 - 1 Filter Poles 0: 2-pole; 1: 4-pole

0 - 254 Filter Envelope Amount; -127 to +127

0 - 127 Filter Envelope Velocity Amount

0 - 127 Filter Envelope Delay

0 - 127 Filter Envelope Attack

0 - 127 Filter Envelope Decay

0 - 127 Filter Envelope Sustain

0 - 127 Filter Envelope Release

0 - 127 VCA Initial Level

0 - 127 VCA Envelope Amount

0 - 127 VCA Envelope Velocity Amount

0 - 127 VCA Envelope Delay

0 - 127 VCA Envelope Attack

0 - 127 VCA Envelope Decay

0 - 127 VCA Envelope Sustain

0 - 127 VCA Envelope Release

0 - 127 Voice Volume

0 - 166 LFO 1 Frequency; 0 - 150 un-synced frequencies

151 Sequence speed divided by 32

152 Sequence speed divided by 16

153 Sequence speed divided by 8

154 Sequence speed divided by 6

155 Sequence speed divided by 4

156 Sequence speed divided by 3

157 Sequence speed divided by 2

158 Sequence speed divided by 1.5

159 One cycle per step

160 Two cycles per three steps

161 Two cycles per step

162 Three cycles per step

163 Four cycles per step

164 Six cycles per step

165 Eight cycles per step

166 Sixteen cycles per step

0 - 4 LFO 1 Shape

0 Triangle

2 Sawtooth

(square)

4

Random

0 - 127 LFO 1 Amount

0 - 47 LFO 1 Mod Destination; See Modulation Destination list below

0 - 1 LFO 1 Key Sync Off/On

0 - 166 LFO 2 Frequency; same as LFO 1

0 - 4 LFO 2 Shape; same as LFO 1

0 - 127 LFO 2 Amount

51

56

57

58

59

60

61

50

51

52

53

54

55

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

83

84

85

77

78

79

80

81

82

71

72

73

74

75

76

71

72

73

74

75

76

65

66

67

68

69

70

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

98

51

52

53

54

55

56

45

46

47

48

49

50

81

82

83

0 - 47 LFO 2 Mod Destination; See Modulation Destination list below

0 - 1 LFO 2 Key Sync Off/On

0 - 166 LFO 3 Frequency; same as LFO 1

0 - 4 LFO 3 Shape; same as LFO 1

0 - 127 LFO 3 Amount

0 - 47 LFO 3 Mod Destination; See Modulation Destination list below

0 - 1 LFO 3 Key Sync Off/On

0 - 166 LFO 4 Frequency; same as LFO 1

0 - 4 LFO 4 Shape; same as LFO 1

0 - 127 LFO 4 Amount

0 - 47 LFO 4 Mod Destination; See Modulation Destination list below

0 - 1 LFO 4 Key Sync Off/On

0 - 47 Envelope 3 Mod Destination; See Mod Destination list below

0 - 254 Envelope 3 Amount; -127 to +127

0 - 127 Envelope 3 Velocity Amount

0 - 127 Envelope 3 Delay

0 - 127 Envelope 3 Attack

0 - 127 Envelope 3 Decay

0 - 127 Envelope 3 Sustain

0 - 127 Envelope 3 Release

0 - 1 Envelope 3 Repeat Off/On

0 - 22 Mod 1 Source; See Modulation Source list below

0 - 254 Mod 1 Amount; -127 to +127

0 - 47 Mod 1 Destination; See Modulation Destination list below

0 - 22 Mod 2 Source; See Modulation Source list below

0 - 254 Mod 2 Amount; -127 to +127

0 - 47

0 - 22

Mod 2 Destination; See Modulation Destination list below

Mod 3 Source; See Modulation Source list below

0 - 254 Mod3 Amount; -127 to +127

0 - 47 Mod 3 Destination; See Modulation Destination list below

0 - 22 Mod 4 Source; See Modulation Source list below

0 - 254 Mod 4 Amount; -127 to +127

0 - 47 Mod 4 Destination; See Modulation Destination list below

0 - 254 Mod Wheel Amount; -127 to +127

0 - 47 Mod Wheel Destination; See Modulation Destination list below

0 - 254 Pressure Amount; -127 to +127

89

90

91

92

86

86

88

93

94

95

96

97

98

101

102

87

88

89

90

84

85

86

96

96

99

111

112

113

91

92

0 - 47 Pressure Destination; See Modulation Destination list below

0 - 254 Breath Amount; -127 to +127

0 - 47 Breath Destination; See Modulation Destination list below

0 - 254 Velocity Amount; -127 to +127

0 - 47 Velocity Destination; See Modulation Destination list below

0 - 254 Foot Control Amount; -127 to +127

0 - 47 Foot Control Destination; See Modulation

Destination list below

0 - 4

0 - 5

Unison Mode:

0 1 voice

1 All voices

2 All voices detune1

3 All voices detune2

4 All voices detune3

Key Assign Mode:

0 Low note priority

1 Low note priority with re-trigger

2 High note priority

3 High note priority with re-trigger

4 Last note hit priority

5 Last note hit priority with re-trigger

0 - 1 Unison; off/on

0 - 120 Push It Switch Note Number

0 - 127 Push It Switch Velocity

0 - 2 Push It Switch Mode:

0 Normal

1 Toggle

2 Audio In

30 - 250 BPM tempo

0 - 12 Clock Divide:

Note

Note

3 Eighth Note half swing

4 Eighth Note full swing

Note

Note

7 Sixteenth Note half swing

8 Sixteenth Note full swing

9 Sixteenth Note triplets

10 Thirty-second Notes

11 Thirty-second Notes triplets

12 Sixty-Fourth note triplets

53

103

104

105

97

100

94

0 - 14 Arpeggiator Mode:

0 Up

1 Down

2 Up/Down

3 Assign

4 Random

5 Up 2 Octaves

6 Down Octaves

7 Up/Down Octaves

8 Assign 2 Octaves

9 Random Octaves

10 Up 3 Octaves

11 Down 3 Octaves

12 Up/Down 3 Octaves

13 Assign 3 Octaves

14 Random 3 Octaves

0 - 1

0 - 5

Arpeggiator; Off/On

Sequencer Trigger:

0 Normal

1 Normal, no reset gate

3 No

106

107

108

109

110

101

77

78

79

80

0 - 1 Gated Sequencer; Off/On

0 - 48 Sequence 1 Destination; See Modulation Destination list below

0 - 48 Sequence 2 Destination; See Modulation Destination list below

0 - 48 Sequence 3 Destination; See Modulation Destination list below

0 - 48 Sequence

4 Destination; See Modulation

Destination list below

120 - 135 120 - 135 0 - 127 Sequence Track1, steps 1-16

0 to 125: Normal sequence step value

126 Reset

127 Rest

136 - 151 136 - 151 0 - 126 Sequence Track 2, steps 1-16

0 to 125: Normal sequence step value

126 Reset

152 - 167 152 - 167 0 - 126 Sequence Track 3, steps 1-16

0 to 125: Normal sequence step value

126 Reset

168 - 183 168 - 183 0 - 126 Sequence Track 4, steps 1-16

0 to 125: Normal sequence step value

126 Reset

184 - 199 184 - 199 32 - 127 Name characters 1-16, in ASCII format

30

31

32

33

26

27

28

29

34

35

36

22

23

24

25

18

19

20

21

14

15

16

17

10

11

12

13

7

8

9

3

4

5

6

Value

0

1

2

37

38

39

The following tables list the values used with the program parameters to specify modulation destinations and sources.

Mod Destinations

Off

Osc 1 Freq

Osc 2 Freq

Osc 1 and 2 Freq

Osc Mix

Noise Level

Osc 1 Pulse Width

Osc 2 Pulse Width

Osc 1 and 2 Pulse Width

Filter Frequency

Resonance

Filter Audio Mod Amt

VCA Level

Pan Spread

LFO 1 Freq

LFO 2 Freq

LFO 3 Freq

LFO 4 Freq

All LFO Freq

LFO 1 Amt

LFO 2 Amt

LFO 3 Amt

LFO 3 Amt

All LFO Amt

Filter Env Amt

Amp Env Amt

Env 3 Amt

All Env Amounts

Env 1 Attack

Env 2 Attack

Env 3 Attack

All Env Attacks

Env 1 Decay

Env 2 Decay

Env 3 Decay

All Env Decays

Env 1 Release

Env 2 Release

Env 3 Release

All Env Releases

55

Mod 1 Amt

Mod 2 Amt

Mod 3 Amt

Mod 4 Amt

External Audio In Level

Sub Osc 1 Level

Sub Osc 2 Level

Feedback Gain

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

Slew* 48

*Appears as a destination in sequences 2 and 4 only.

Mod Sources

Off

Sequence Track 1

Sequence Track 2

Sequence Track 3

Sequence Track 4

LFO 1

LFO 2

LFO 3

LFO 4

Filter Envelope

Amp Envelope

Envelope 3

Pitch Bend

Mod Wheel

Pressure

MIDI Breath

MIDI Foot

MIDI Expression

Velocity

Note Number

Noise

Audio In Envelope Follower

Audio In Peak Hold

Value

4

5

6

7

0

1

2

3

8

9

10

11

12

13

18

19

20

21

22

14

15

16

17

Sysex Messages

Universal System Exclusive Message (Device Inquiry)

Status Description

1111 0000 System Exclusive (SysEx)

0111 1110 Non-realtime message

0vvv vvvv If MIDI channel is set to 1 - 16, 0vvvvvvv must match (unless MIDI Channel

= ALL); always responds if 0vvvvvvv = 0111 1111.

0000 0110 Inquiry Message

0000 0001 Inquiry Request

1111 0111 End of Exclusive (EOX)

Mopho keyboard responds with:

Status Description

1111 0000 System Exclusive (SysEx)

0111 1110 Non-realtime message

0vvv vvvv If MIDI Channel = ALL, 0vvvvvvv = 0111 1111. Otherwise 0vvvvvvv =

Channel Number 0 - 15.

0000 0110 Inquiry Message

0000 0010 Inquiry Reply

0000 0001 DSI ID

0010 0111 Mopho Keyboard ID (Family LS)

0000 0001 Family MS

0000 0000 Family Member LS

0000 0000 Family Member MS

0jjj nnnn Main Software version: jjj - Minor rev; nnnn - Major rev

0000 0000 Voice firmware version LS

0000 0000 Voice firmware version MS

1111 0111 End of Exclusive (EOX)

Request Program Dump

Status

1111 0000

0000 0001

0010

0111

Description

System Exclusive (SysEx)

DSI ID

Mopho Keyboard ID

0000 0101

0000 00vv

0vvv vvvv

Request Program Transmit

Bank Number, 0 - 2

Program Number, 0 - 127

1111 0111 End of Exclusive (EOX)

Mopho will respond by sending out the Program Data in the format described below in

Program Data Dump

.

57

Request Program Edit Buffer Dump

Status

1111 0000

0000 0001

0010 0111

0000 0110

Description

System Exclusive (SysEx)

DSI ID

Mopho keyboard ID

Request Program Edit Buffer Transmit

1111 0111 End of Exclusive (EOX)

Mopho will respond by sending out the current Program edit buffer in the format described below in

Program Edit Buffer Data Dump

.

Request Global Parameter Dump

Status Description

1111 0000

0000 0001

0010 0111

0000 1110

System Exclusive (SysEx)

DSI ID

Mopho keyboard ID

Request Global Parameter Transmit

1111 0111 End of Exclusive (EOX)

Mopho will respond by sending out the current values of Global Parameters in the format described below in

Global Parameters Data Dump

.

Program Data Dump

Status

1111 0000

0000 0001

0010 0111

0000 0010

0000 00vv

0vvv vvvv

0vvv vvvv

1111 0111

Description

System Exclusive (SysEx)

DSI ID

Mopho keyboard ID

Program Data

Bank Number, 0 - 2

Program Number, 0 - 127

256 bytes expanded to 293 MIDI bytes in “packed MS bit” format (see

page 59.)

End of Exclusive (EOX)

Program Edit Buffer Data Dump

Status

1111 0000

0000 0001

0010 0111

0000 0011

0vvv vvvv

1111 0111

Description

System Exclusive (SysEx)

DSI ID

Mopho keyboard ID

Edit Buffer Data

256 bytes expanded to 293 MIDI bytes in “packed MS bit” format (see

page 59.)

End of Exclusive (EOX)

Global Parameters Data Dump

Status

1111 0000

0000 0001

0010 0111

0000 1111

0vvv vvvv

1111 0111

Description

System Exclusive (SysEx)

DSI ID

Mopho keyboard ID

Main Parameter Data

42 nibbles (LS then MS) for 21 Global parameters. Global Parameters

are listed starting on page 48.

End of Exclusive (EOX)

Note:

The Global Parameters Data Dump is not recognized when received; it is only transmitted when requested. NRPN messages are used to change Globals.

Packed Data Format

Data is packed in 8 byte “packets”, with the MS bit stripped from 7 parameter bytes, and packed into an eighth byte, which is sent at the start of the 8 byte packet.

Example:

Input Data

1 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0

2 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0

3 C7 C6 C5 C4 C3 C2 C1 C0

4 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

5 E7 E6 E5 E4 E3 E2 E1 E0

6 F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1 F0

7 G7 G6 G5 G4 G3 G2 G1 G0

Packed MIDI data

1 00 G7 F7 E7 D7 C7 B7 A7

2 00 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0

3 00 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0

4 00 C6 C5 C4 C3 C2 C1 C0

5 00 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

6 00 E6 E5 E4 E3 E2 E1 E0

7 00 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1 F0

8 00 G6 G5 G4 G3 G2 G1 G0

This explains why it takes 293 MIDI bytes to transmit 256 Program data bytes.

59

Dave Smith Instruments

1210 Cabrillo Hwy N

Half Moon Bay, CA 94019-1449

USA www.DaveSmithInstruments.com

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