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WiSnap User Manual 4.41 10202014-ML
WISNAP WI-FI/SERIAL ADAPTER
802.11 B/G Wireless LAN Module
User Manual and Command Reference
Version 4.41
February 3, 2014
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WiSnap User Manual 4.41 10202014-ML
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2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
3
3.1
3.2
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4.1
4.2
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5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
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10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
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11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
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12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
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13.1
13.2
Overview
Hardware Interface
Power
Reset
UART
Status Indicators
WiSnap M1 External Antenna
Additional WiSnap AAA Dongle Notes
Configuration
Entering Command Mode
Common Configurations
WiSnap Command Reference
Command Syntax
Command Organization
SET Commands
AD HOC Parameters
BROADCAST Parameters
COMM Parameters
DNS Parameters
FTP Parameters
IP Parameters
OPTIONAL Parameters
SYSTEM Parameters
TIME Server Parameters
UART Parameters
WLAN Parameters
GET Commands
STATUS Commands
ACTION Commands
FILE IO Commands
Advanced Features and Settings
System Timers and Auto Connect Timers
Wake on Sensor Input
Wake on UART
UART Receiver, RTS/CTS Hardware Flow Control
Setting GPIO direction, Alternate Functions and Disabling LEDs
Setting Debug Print levels
Scan Output Format
Firmware Version 2.36 & 2.45
Firmware Version 2.22 through 2.30
UART Heartbeat Messages
Using the Real Time Clock Function
Time Stamping Packets
Sending data using UDP
Overview
UDP Auto Pairing
UDP Retry
Using the UDP Broadcast Function
Joining Networks and Making Connections
Associate with a Network Access Point
Making Connections
Setting up Automatic Connections
Controlling Connections using PIO5 and PIO6
Using DNS Settings
Utilizing the Backup IP Address/Connect Function
Using HTML Client Feature
Built-in HTML Client Modes
Automatically Periodically Connect to Web Server
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13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
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14.1
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15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
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16.1
16.2
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19.1
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23.1
23.2
Automatically Connect to Web Server on UART Data
Posting Binary Data
Auto Posting Sensor Data
Examples Using the HTML Client
Firmware Upgrade over FTP
FTP Upload and Upgrade
Ad Hoc Networking Mode
Infrastructure and Ad Hoc Comparison
Configuring Ad Hoc Mode
Enable Ad Hoc Mode in Software
Scanning for Access Points in Ad Hoc Mode
Enable Ad Hoc Mode in Hardware
Access Point Networking Mode
Enabling AP Mode
Using Access Point Mode
Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS)
Analog Sensor Capability
Automatic sampling of sensor pins
Using the Built-In Sensor Power
Default Configuration Settings
Restoring Default Configuration Settings
Boot-up Timing Values
rd
Supported 3 Party Access Points
Command List
Release Notes
Known Problems
Current Firmware Features and Fixes
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WiSnap User Manual 4.41 10202014-ML
1 Overview
The “WiSnap” radio module is a complete, standalone embedded wireless LAN access device. The device has an on-board
TCP/IP stack and requires only 4 pins (POWER, TX, RX, GND) to design in. The RS-232 interface can transfer data to remote
applications, such as an iPhone app, data logger, or PC control console. Once initial configuration is set, the radio can
automatically access the Wi-Fi network and send/receive serial data over UART.
Features
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Fully Qualified and Wi-Fi Certified 2.4GHz IEEE 802.11b/g transceiver
High throughput, up to 4Mbps sustained data rate with TCP/IP and WPA2
Ultra-low power (4uA sleep, 40mA Rx, 210mA max Tx)
Small, compact surface mount module
On board ceramic chip antenna and U.FL connector for external antenna
UART and SPI (future) data/control interfaces
10 general purpose digital I/O
8 analog inputs
Real-time clock for wakeup and time stamping/data logging, auto-sleep and auto-wakeup modes
Accepts 3.3V regulated or 2-3V battery with on board boost regulators
Supports Ad-hoc and Infrastructure mode connections
On board ECOS-OS, TCP/IP stacks
Wi-Fi Alliance certified for WPA2-PSK
FCC / CE/ ICS certified and RoHS compliant
Host Data Rate Up to 2.7 Mbps for UART
Memory 128 KB RAM, 2MB ROM, 2 KB battery-backed memory, 8 Mbit Flash
Intelligent, built-in power management with programmable wakeup
Can be powered from regulated 3.3-3.7V source or 2.0-3.0V batteries
Configuration over UART or wireless interfaces using simple ASCII commands
Over the air firmware upgrade (FTP), and data file upload
Secure Wi-Fi authentication WEP-128, WPA-PSK (TKIP), WPA2-PSK (AES)
Built in networking applications DHCP client, UDP, DNS client, ARP, ICMP ping, FTP, TELNET, HTTP
802.11 power save and roaming functions
One of the main applications for this device is the iPhone, since it requires buying additional authorization hardware to use
Bluetooth SPP; the WiSnap in ad-hoc mode is a simple and cost effective way to connect to iPhone apps. The WiSnap Serial
Adapter is more than a cable replacement solution. By allowing multiple TCP/IP sockets, applications can control and monitor
hundreds of Wi-Fi Serial adapters remotely distributed across a building LAN or campus WAN.
2 Hardware Interface
Please see the specific data sheet on the SerialIO.com website for hardware specifications and layout information, located
here: http://serialio.com/support/wifi/Serialio_WiSnap_GSX_Super_Module_Specs_2.0.pdf
2.1
Power
2.1.1 WiSnap M1 SuRFBoard
There are two options for powering the WiSnap module directly.
DC SUPPLY:
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Apply 3.3 VDC power to VBATT (pin 20), and V3.3IN (pin 21).
Tie 3.3VREG-IN (pin 18) to GROUND.
Leave 3.3V-REG-OUT (Pin 17) floating/no connect.
BATTERY:
Apply battery = 2.0 to 3.3VDC to VBATT (pin 20). Leave V3.3IN pin 21 floating/no connect.
Tie pin 17 to pin 18. (This enables the on board battery boost 3.3V switcher).
There is a built in voltage brownout monitor which will shut down the chip when the voltage drops below 2.0 VDC.


Warning: Do NOT exceed these voltage ratings or damage to the module will occur!
NOTES:
1) The Sensor inputs SENS0-7 are extremely sensitive to over voltage. Under no conditions should these pins
be driven above 1.2VDC. Placing any voltage above this will permanently damage the radio module and
render it useless.
2) Placing 5VDC or any voltage above 3.3VDC into the VDD pins of the module will permanently damage the
radio module.
3) Placing 3.3VDC into the PIO’s while they are set as outputs will permanently damage the module. The failure
mode is a short across GND and VCC.
2.1.2 WiSnap AAA Dongle
The WiSnap AAA Dongle is powered by two AAA batteries, an external AC to 5VDC power cable, or
5VDC (only) on pin 9 of the DB9 connector. Rechargeable NiMH batteries will be trickle charged when used with an external
5VDC (only) power source.
The power cable is center pin positive, outer cylinder GND. Input MUST be 5 VDC for proper battery charging. Higher
voltages can permanently damage the charger and battery.

NOTE: Although external power is possible, batteries MUST BE CONNECTED in order to complete the circuit. Without
batteries, permanent damage to the unit may result.

WARNING: Do NOT use alkaline batteries while connecting any external power source. Doing so will cause
permanent damage. If you desire to run off AC or external DC power, this can be accomplished by inserting NiMH
re-chargeable batteries.
Charging is a trickle charge; it typically takes 10 hours to charge batteries fully from low battery. The charge rate of the charger
is low enough (< 100ma) such that the batteries can be charged indefinitely with no harm to them.
In configuration mode the show bat command will return the current battery voltage. Note that with rechargeable NiMh
batteries, the voltage will remain relatively unchanged until they go dead.
2.2
Reset

NOTE: The following only applies to the WiSnap M1 module.
Reset is active LOW and is optional/does not need to be connected. The reset pin is 3.3V tolerant and has an internal pull up of
100K to the VBATT.
2.3
UART
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
NOTE: The following only applies to the WiSnap M1 module.
Connect a common ground when using the external TX, RX inputs. For a 3 wire DB-9 interface, connect TX, RX, and GND only.
Factory default is hardware flow control disabled; CTS and RTS are not required.
PIO’s are not 5.0 VDC tolerant. If using a 5.0 VDC circuit, input, PIO and UART input pins require a resistor divider. A
suggestion is to use a 10K resistor in series with 20k resistor to ground.
2.4
Status Indicators
2.4.1 WiSnap M1 SuRFBoard
PIO 4, 5 and 6 are active high and can be connected to external LEDs to provide network, connection and data status.
State
ON solid
Fast blink
Slow blink
OFF
Red LED (PIO6)
Amber LED (PIO5)
Not Associated
Rx/Tx data transfer
Green LED (PIO4)
Connected over TCP
No IP address or Config Mode
IP address OK
Associated
2.4.2 WiSnap AAA Dongle
LEDs found on the WiSnap AAA are slightly different than on the M1.
State
ON solid
Fast blink
Slow blink
OFF
Green LED
Connected over TCP
No IP address or Config Mode
IP address OK
Yellow LED
Red LED
Not Associated
Associated, No Internet
Associated, Internet OK
Blue LED
Full charge
Rx/Tx data transfer
Low power
The blue LED blinks when data is sent or received on the serial interface. This does not indicate that the data was sent over the
Wi-Fi connection. If the blue LED is not flashing and your device is sending data to the serial port, you likely have a connection,
incorrect baud rate, or HW flow control (RTS/CTS) problem.
The blue LED also indicates battery status and will blink slowly when the batteries are low except when charging. When
charging the blue LED remains off. If the device is on while the batteries are charging the blue LED will come solid when the
batteries are fully charged.
There is an additional red LED near the power connector that indicates external power is present at either the power plug of
DB9 connector.
2.5
WiSnap M1 External Antenna
An external antenna with UF.L connection can be mounted onto the WiSnap M1 module. This is most useful when the device
will be embedded inside of another metal casing.
The FCC certified antenna has the following specifications:
Center Freq.
2.45 GHz
Bandwidth
120MHz
Wavelength
½-wave
VSWR
<1.9 typ. At center
Impedance
50 ohms
Gain
2.20dBi
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Other antennas can be used, such as a higher gain antenna, but would not be FCC certified.
2.6
Additional WiSnap AAA Dongle Notes
2.6.1 Power Switch and Sleep
The red button on the top of the WiSnap AAA Dongle is a soft ON/OFF switch.
To turn ON the WiSnap AAA Dongle, press down the red button for 1 second, and then release it. You will see the green,
yellow, red and blue LEDs flash in succession. After a moment the blue and yellow LEDs will go OFF, leaving the red and green
LED flashing.
To turn OFF the WiSnap AAA Dongle, press down on the red button for 1 second, and then release it. The green, yellow, red
and blue LEDs flash in succession several times. Then all the LEDs will turn off and the device will be in sleep mode.
By default, the WiSnap AAA Dongle automatically shuts itself off if not connected for more than 3 minutes = 180 seconds. The
sleep timer duration is controlled by using the set sys sleep <seconds> command. Use the get sys command to display the
current settings of the sleep timer.
2.6.2 Dipswitches
There are four small configuration switches on the top of the WiSnap AAA Dongle. You will need a paper clip or flat
screwdriver to change them. Holding the device with the DB9 connector facing to the right, the switches are numbered one to
four from bottom to top. The off position is towards the DB9 connector.
Switch 1 – Ad-hoc override and restoring factory defaults
There are two ways to enable ad-hoc mode from the WiSnap: hardware, and software. See section 3.1 for more information
about ad-hoc networking.
Software ad-hoc is recommended and is enabled by default.
If dipswitch 1 is ON when powering the WiSnap, the device will boot in hardware ad-hoc override mode. This is only useful if
the boot-up configuration is bad and you can’t access the device otherwise.
The SSID (network name) and other Wi-Fi settings are hardcoded and cannot be changed while in hardware ad-hoc mode. The
SSID of the ad hoc network will be WiSnap-GSX-NN where NN is the last two digits of the devices MAC address.
To restore factory defaults, power on the device with this switch ON, and then toggle the switch five (5) times. If there is a
config file named "user" on the WiSnap AAA Dongle file system, it is read in as the factory defaults instead of using the
hardcoded defaults. If no "user" config file is present, the hardcoded factory defaults are used.
The "user" config file is created using the save user command, which saves the current configuration settings.
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Even if there is a “user” config file arming and toggling this switch nine (9) times will override the “user” settings and restore
the WiSnap module to the factory hardcoded defaults. This is a bypass mechanism in case a bad configuration is saved into
the “user” file.
Switches 2, 3, and 4 are currently not used.
2.6.3 Serial Connector Specification
DB9 connector Pin Out
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

WiSnap AAA Male
DB9
NC
RXD
TXD
DTR (=PIO7)
GND
DSR (=PIO8)
RTS
CTS
5V DC Only
WiSnap AAA Female
DB9
NC
TXD
RXD
DON’T USE
GND
5V DC (input)
CTS
RTS
5V DC Only
NOTE: The RS232 interface uses the SIPEX SP3232ECA chip with capacitor switch to generate the + and – signals and
thus is not driving the full RS232 voltages. Devices stealing power from the RS232 pins may not have enough voltage.
2.6.4 Null-modem and Flow Control Jumpers
The WiSnap AAA Dongle serial interface can be configured to enable flow control and null modem signaling. The jumper block
can be accessed by removing the battery cover from the WiSnap AAA Dongle.

WARNING: Flow control signals are NOT RS-232 signaling tolerant. If these are enabled with the jumper, do not
exceed 3.3 VDC or permanent damage can occur.
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3
3.1
Configuration
Entering Command Mode
Upon power up, the device will be in data mode. To enter command mode, send the three characters $$$ and the device will
respond with CMD.
While in command mode, the device will accept ASCII bytes as commands.
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To exit command mode, send exit<cr>. The device will respond with “EXIT”.
Parameters, such as the SSID, channel, IP address, Serial Port settings, and all other settings can be viewed and configured in
command mode.
ASCII characters can be sent through a terminal emulator connected to the UART or via Telnet. When using the UART
communications settings should match the settings used when RN-131g connects, for example: the default is 9600 baud rate, 8
bits, No Parity, 1 stop bit, and hardware flow control disabled.
Use TeraTerm, PuTTY, or SerialIO’s JavaTerm as your terminal emulator. Please DO NOT use HyperTerminal as it is known to
have issues with our products.
Type $$$ on in the terminal emulator. You should see “CMD” returned to you. This will verify that your cable and comm.
settings are correct. Most valid commands will return an “AOK” response, and invalid ones will return an “ERR” description.

NOTE: You can enter command mode locally over the UART interface at any time when not connected and
also when connected if the appropriate settings are enabled.
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NOTE: When the WiSnap module is powered up, it tries to auto associate to the Access Point stored in the
config settings. If for some reason the module cannot find the Access Point, it goes into auto association
mode and gets busy scanning and trying to join a network. This may cause the UART to become unresponsive
for a brief amount of time and you may lose the data sent to the module while the module is in this “not
associated” state making it difficult to get into command mode and configure the module
Version 2.21 of the firmware fixes this issue. The auto-join feature is disabled when in command mode. This makes it easy to
configure the module. Auto-join will re-enable when you exit out of command mode.
The auto join feature can be disabled by setting the set wlan join 0. This will prevent the WiSnap module to attempt to
associate to a network that does not exist.
Another alternative is to boot the module in ad-hoc mode by using the PIO9 ad-hoc/factory reset jumper. If this is high on
power up, the module will not associate to any network; it will use the temporary ad-hoc mode. When in ad-hoc mode, you
can configure the network settings.
3.2
Common Configurations
Two common modes of operation for the WiSnap module are A) initiating a connection to a server and B) listening for a remote
host connection. This section will go through the configuration for each setup. The setups are shown using infrastructure
network. I.e. with an access point, however the same can be done with ad-hoc networking.
Initiating a connection from the WiSnap
Step 1: Set up the WLAN properties so the device will connect to the network automatically upon power up. In this
example we want to connect to the wireless network my_network.
1
2
3
4
Command
set wlan join 1
set wlan chan 0
set wlan ssid my_network
set wlan phrase my_secret_code
Result
Auto join upon power up
Scan all channels
Network name
Pass phrase
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The join 1 setting ensures that when the module wakes up, it tries to join the access point that matches the stored SSID,
passkey and channel. Channel =0 (the default) will force auto-scanning. Setting the channel will reduce the time it takes the
WiSnap to find and associate.
Step 2: Set up the IP address and port number of the remote server, so the WiSnap can connect when it wakes up.
1
2
3
4

Command
set ip host 10.20.20.75
set ip remote 3000
set sys autoconn 2
save
Result
Set the host IP address
Set the remote port
Try to connect to the host every 2 seconds
Save configuration
NOTE: If autoconn = 1, the WiSnap will only make one attempt to auto connect.
Step 3: Set the wake up and sleep conditions. By default the adapter will wake whenever there is data written to the serial
interface. You can also configure the device to wake up on CTS, on a PIO or timer. See the command reference for details. We
are going to set this up to wake on a timer then sleep after 2 minutes if there is no connection or if connected and no data has
been transferred for 30 seconds.
1
2
3
4
5
Command
set sys sleep 120
set sys trigger 2
set conn idle 30
save
reboot
Result
Sleep after 2 minutes if no connection
Wake on CTS
Disconnect after 30 seconds of no data
Save all the settings to the config file
Use the new settings
This setup can be tested using TCP server application that opens a socket on port 3000. Port Peeker is a free application that
you can download off the web. It is available at http://www.linklogger.com/portpeeker.htm
Waiting for the remote host to connect to the serial adapter (listen mode)
In this example we are using a static IP so that the remote host knows where the WiSnap Serial adapter is on the network.
Alternatively you can write your application software to listen for the broadcast UDP packet (automatically sent by
WiSnap by default) to identify the WiSnap Serial adapter and get the IP address and TCP port number that the WiSnap is
listening on.
Step 1: Set up the wlan properties so the device will connect to the network automatically upon power up. In this example we
want to connect to the wireless network my_network.
1
2
3
4
Command
set wlan join 1
set wlan chan 1
set wlan ssid my_network
set wlan phrase my_secret_code
Result
Auto join upon power up
Only look on channel 1
Network name
Pass phrase
Step 2: Configure the WiSnap static IP address so the remote application can connect, turn off DHCP and set the IP address
and netmask.
1
2
3
4
5
Command
set ip address 10.20.20.63
set ip localport 5030
set ip netmask 255.255.255.0
set ip gateway 10.20.20.1
set ip dhcp 0
Result
Set the IP address
Set the local port to listen on
Set the IP netmask
Set the network gateway
Turn of DHCP
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Step 3: Set the wake up and sleep conditions. In this mode the sleep and wake timers are used to conserve battery. Since
we don’t know when the remote host will connect, the module should to occasionally wake up and listen for the remote
host. The trade off with these timers is that the longer you sleep, the better your battery life will be but the longer it will take
the remote host to connect.

WARNING: Do not set the sleep timer below 5 seconds or it will be impossible to get into command mode to
reprogram this mode without it going back to sleep!
1
2
3
4
Command
set sys wake 20
set sys sleep 10
save
reboot
Result
Wake after 20 seconds
Go to sleep after 10 seconds
Save configuration
Restart using the new configuration
At this point you could test this configuration using telnet on a computer sharing the same network to connect to the WiSnap
module.
Enabling Access Point Mode (Requires firmware to 2.42 and higher)
Devices using firmware versions 2.42 and higher are able to put the device into Access Point mode. Access point mode allows
for an alternative for connecting android devices. The device can be put into access point mode by issuing the following
commands:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Command
set wlan ssid WiSnap
set wlan join 7
set ip dhcp 4
set wlan chan 1
set ip address 1.2.3.4
set ip net 255.255.255.0
set ip gateway 1.2.3.4
save
reboot
Result
Set the Access Point SSID
Create an access point on power up
Turn on the DHCP server
Only broadcast on channel 1
Set the IP address for the WiSnap device
Set the subnet mask
Set the Access Point gateway
Save configuration
Restart using the new configuration
When the device reboots, it should be in access point mode.
4
WiSnap Command Reference
4.1
Command Syntax
Commands begin with a keyword, and have optional additional parameters, generally space delimited. Commands and options
are case sensitive. Hex input data can be upper or lower case. String text data, such as SSID is also case sensitive.
The first command is fully decoded and must be complete. Other command parameters can be shorted by using only the first
character.
For example,
set uart baud 115200 is valid
set uart b 115200 is also valid
set u b 115200
is also valid
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however,
s uart baud 115200
is NOT valid.
Numbers can be entered as either decimal, (like 115200 above) or hex. To enter hex, use “0x” before the value: 0x<value>.
For example, the hex value FF would be entered as 0xFF.
4.2
Command Organization
Commands fall into 5 general categories:
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SET COMMANDS - Changes settings immediately and permanently (save command issued).

NOTE: You must save any changes made or the module will load the previous settings upon reboot or power up.
GET COMMANDS - Retrieve the permanently stored information for display to user.
STATUS COMMANDS - See what is going on with the interface, IP status, etc.
ACTION COMMANDS - Perform action such as scan, connect, disconnect, etc.
FILE IO COMMANDS - Upgrade, load and save configuration, delete files, etc.
When the system boots, all configuration data is loaded into RAM variables from the file called “config”. The set commands
actually only modify the RAM copy of variables in the system. In general, the IP, WLAN and UART settings need a save and
reboot to take effect, since they operate at boot up time. For example: At power up, you will only associate, set the channel
and get your IP address once.
Most of the other commands take effect immediately like the COMM settings and timers. This allows temporary change of
parameters “on the fly” to test features, minimize power usage and save on flash re-write cycles.
Once all configuration is complete, the user must save the settings using the save command to store the configuration data,
otherwise it will not take effect upon reboot or reset. Multiple configurations can be stored by using the save <filename>
command, and these configurations can be loaded using the load <filename> command.
5
SET Commands
These commands begin with set. There are 11 major categories.
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5.1
AD-HOC - controls the ad-hoc parameters
BROADCAST - controls the broadcast hello/heartbeat UDP message
COMM - communication and data transfer, timers, matching characters
DNS - DNS host and domain
FTP - FTP host address and login information
IP - IP settings
OPTION - optional and not frequently used parameters
SYS - system settings such as sleep and wake timers
TIME - timer server settings
UART - serial port settings such as baud rate and parity
WLAN - wireless interface settings, such as SSID, channel, and security options
AD-HOC Parameters
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set ad-hoc beacon <ms> - sets the ad-hoc beacon interval in milliseconds where <ms> is a decimal number from 0 to 65,436.
Default is 100.
set ad-hoc probe <num> - sets the ad-hoc probe retry count. Default is 5. This is the number of consecutive probe responses
that can be lost before declaring “AD- HOC is lost” and disabling the network interface.
5.2
BROADCAST Parameters
set broadcast address <addr> - sets the address to which the UDP hello/heartbeat message is sent. The default address is
255.255.255.255.
set broadcast interval <value> - sets the interval at which the hello/heartbeat UDP message is sent. Interval is specified in
seconds. The value is a mask that is ANDed (compared) to a free running seconds counter. For example:
-
If the interval is 0x1, the module sends one packet every 2 seconds.
-
If the interval is 0x2. The module sends two packets every 4 seconds.
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If the interval is 0x3, the module sends one packet every 4 seconds.
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If the interval is 0x6, the module sends two packets every 8 seconds.
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If the interval is 0x7, the module sends one packet every 8 seconds.
The minimum interval value is 1 (every 2 seconds) and max value is 0xff (every 256 seconds). Setting the interval value to zero
disables sending UDP broadcast messages. The default interval is 7.
set broadcast port <port> - sets the port number to which the UDP hello/heartbeat message is sent. The default port is 55555.
5.3
COMM Parameters
set comm $ <char> - sets character used to enter command mode. Typically used when “$$$” is a possible data string. Default
is “$”. Care should be taken when setting this to note the new character as once this setting is saved every subsequent reboot
will ignore “$$$” and look for “<char><char><char>”.
set comm close <string> - sets the ASCI string that is sent to the local UART when the TCP port is closed. If no string is desired,
use 0 as the <string> parameter. Max string length is 32 characters. Default is *CLOS*
set comm open <string> - sets the string that is sent to the local UART when the TCP port is opened. If no string is desired, use
0 as the <string> parameter. Max string length is 32 characters. Default is *OPEN*
set comm remote <string> - sets the string that is sent to the remote TCP client when the TCP port is opened. If no string is
desired, use 0 as the <string> parameter. Max string length is 32 characters. Default is *HELLO*
set comm idle <secs> - sets the Idle Timer Value. This is the number of seconds with no transmit or receive data before the
connection is closed automatically. Default is 0, never disconnect on idle.
set comm match <value> | <hex> - sets the match character, where <value> is a decimal number from 0 to 127 or a hex
number from 0 to 7F. When this configuration option is set, the module sends an IP packet each time the match character
appears in the data. You enter <value> either as the decimal (e.g., 13) or hex (e.g., 0xd) equivalent of the of the ASCII
character. Setting the match character to 0 disables matching.
Flush timer is one of three ways to control TCP/IP packet forwarding. The others are match character and size. For more
information see section 10.4.
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set comm size <value> - sets the flush size. An IP packet will be sent each time <value> bytes are received. Default is 64 bytes.
You should set this value to the largest possible setting to maximize TCP/IP performance. Maximum value = 1420 (at 9600)
bytes.

NOTE: This value is set automatically when the baud rate is set, in an attempt to optimize the link. It is assumed that
higher baud rates equate to more data and hence the flush size is increased.
Flush size is one of three ways to control TCP/IP packet forwarding. The others are match character and timer. For more
information see section 10.4.
set comm time <num> - sets the flush timer. An IP packet will be sent if no additional bytes are received for <num>
milliseconds. <num> is one milliseconds intervals. 1 is the minimum value. Default is 10 (10 milliseconds). Setting this value to 0
will disable forwarding based on the flush timer.
Flush timer is one of three ways to control TCP/IP packet forwarding. The others are match character and size. For more
information see section 10.4.
5.4
DNS Parameters
set dns address <addr> - sets the IP address of the DNS sever, where <address> is an IP address in the form
<octet>.<octet>.<octet>.<octet> with <octet> being a number between 0 and 255. This address is automatically set when using
DHCP; you must set the DNS IP address for static IP or automatic IP modes.
set dns name <string> - sets the name of the host for TCP/IP connections to <string>, where <string> is up to 32 characters (32
bytes).
set dns backup <string> - sets the name of the backup host for TCP/IP connections to <string>, where <string> is up to 32
characters (32 bytes). The FTP client uses the backup string to download the firmware via the ftp update command. Default:
rn.microchip.com
5.5
FTP Parameters
set ftp dir <string> - sets the starting directory on the FTP server, where <string> is up to 32 characters. To read/write to
subfolders, use the \ character. To indicate the root directory, use a period.
set ftp filename <file> - sets the name of the file transferred when issuing the ftp u or ftp g commands, where <filename> is
the firmware image. If you specify any file other than the firmware image, the WiSnap module downloads the file and issues
the UPDATE FAIL=3 error.
set ftp addr <addr> - sets the ftp server IP address. Default 0.0.0.0.
set ftp remote <port> - sets the ftp server remote port number (default is 21).
set ftp user <name> - sets the ftp user name for accessing the FTP server.
set ftp pass <pass> - sets the ftp password for accessing the FTP server.
set ftp time <value> - sets the FTP timeout value, where <value> is a decimal number that is five times the number of seconds
required. The module uses this timer to close the FTP connection automatically after the specified time.
5.6
IP Parameters
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set ip address <addr> - sets the IP address of the WiSnap module, where <address> is an IP address in the form
<octet>.<octet>.<octet>.<octet> with <octet> being a number between 0 and 255. If DHCP is turned on, the IP address is
assigned and overwritten during association with the access point.

Example: set ip a 10.20.20.1
set ip backup <addr> - sets a secondary host IP address. If the primary host IP is not reachable the module will try the
secondary IP address if set.
set ip dchp <value> - enable/disable DHCP mode. If enabled, the IP address, gateway, netmask, and DNS server are requested
and set upon association with access point. Any current IP values are overwritten.
DHCP Cache mode can reduce the time it takes the module to wake from deep sleep thus saving power. In cache mode, the
lease time is checked and if not expired, the module uses the previous IP settings. If the lease has expired the module will
attempt to associated and use DHCP to get the IP settings. DHCP cached IP address does not survive a power cycle or reset.
Mode
0
1
2
3
4
Protocol
DHCP OFF, use stored static IP address
DHCP ON, get IP address and gateway from AP
Auto-IP, generally used with Ad hoc networks
DHCP cache mode, uses previous IP address if lease is not expired
(leave survives reboot)
Enables DHCP server in soft AP mode
set ip flags <value> - sets TCP/IP advanced functions. Value is a bit mapped flag register. Default = 0x7.
Bit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Protocol
TCP connection status - see note below
Bypass Nagle algorithm and use TCP_NODELAY
TCP retry enabled (42 total)
UDP retry (attempts retry if no ACK from UDP)
DNS host address caching enabled
ARP table caching enabled
UDP auto pairing enabled
Add 8 byte timestamp to UDP or TCP packets

NOTE: When the link to an associated to an access point is lost while a TCP connection is active, the TCP connection
can be left in a hung/inconsistent state. In some cases, the TCP connection will not recover. In version 2.20 and later,
if the link to the access point is regained within 60 seconds, the TCP connection will survive.

With version 2.20 we have changed the operation of bit0 in the “ip flags” register. Previously this bit specified the TCP
copy function, but controls the TCP socket function while associated on a network.
 If bit 0 is set (default) TCP connections are kept open when the connection to the access point is lost.
 If bit 0 is cleared (by setting “set ip flags 0x6” for example) then when the connection to the access point is
lost and TCP is connected, the connection will be closed.
set ip gateway <addr> - sets the gateway IP address, If DHCP is turned on, the gateway IP address is assign and overwritten
during association with the access point.
set ip host <addr> - sets the remote host IP address. This command is used for making connections from the WiSnap module
to a TCP/IP server at the IP address <addr>.
set ip localport <num> - sets the local port number to listen for incoming connections, where <num> is an integer number
representing the port.
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set ip netmask <value> - sets the network mask. If DHCP is turned on, the net mask is assign and overwritten during
association with the access point.
set ip protocol <value> - sets the IP protocol. Value is a bit mapped setting. To connect to the WiSnap module over TCP/IP
such as Telnet the device must have the use the TCP Server protocol / bit 2 set. To accept both TCP and UDP use value = 3 (bit
1 and bit 2 set).
Bit Position
0
1
2
3
4
Protocol
UDP
TCP Server & Client (Default)
Secure (only receive packets when IP address matches the store
host IP)
TCP Client only
HTTP client mode
set ip remote <value> - sets the remote host port number for outgoing connections.
set ip tcp-mode <mask> - controls the TCP connect timers, DNS preferences, and remote configuration options. <mask> is a
hex number referring to a bit-mapped register as shown below.
Bit Position
0
1
2
3
4

5.7
Protocol
Shorten the TCP connect timer (use with bit 1)
Shorten the TCP connect timer (use with bit 0)
Forces the module to use DNS first to resolve the IP address,
even if the host IP is set
Reserved
Disables remote configuration security purposes
Example:
-
set ip tcp-mode 0x4 – Forces the module to use DNS
-
set ip tcp-mode 0x10 – Disables remote configuration
OPTIONAL Parameters
set opt jointmr <msecs> - join timer is the time in milliseconds (default=1000) the join function will wait for an access point to
complete the association process. This timer is also the timeout for the WPA handshaking process.
set opt sensor <mask> - deprecated in firmware versions 2.23 and later. Use set q sensor. Bitmask value that determines
which sensor pins to sample when sending data using the UDP broadcast packet and the HTTP auto sample function.
set q sensor <mask> - specifies which sensor pins to sample when sending data using the UDP broadcast packet or the HTTP
auto sample function, where <mask> is a bit-mapped register.
 Example: set q sensor 0xff.

NOTE: In versions of firmware prior to 2.23, this command is named set option sensor
set opt replace <char> - replacement character for spaces. The replacement character is used when entering SSID and pass
phrases that include space. This is used by the WiSnap command parser only. Each occurrence of the replacement character
is changed into a space. The default is “$” (0x24).
set opt format <mask> - settings for HTTP client/web server value is a bitmapped register. See Section 13, web server modes.
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Bit
0
1
2
3
4
Function
Automatically send HTML data header based on broadcast
interval
Send users BINARY data (converted to ASCII hex)
Sample the TPIO and AtoD pins format to ASCII hex
Appends &id= <the value of the deviceid string set with “set opt
device <string>”>
Appends &rtc= <real time clock value in message as 32 bit HEX
value in format aabbccddeeff>
set opt deviceid <string> - Configurable Device ID - can be used for storing serial numbers, product name or other device
information. This information is sent as part of the broadcast hello packet that is sent as a UDP. The current value can be
shown with the get option or show deviceid commands. Max string size is 32 bytes. The default is “WiSnap<DEVICEID>M1”.
set opt password <string> - TCP connection password. Provides minimal authentication by requiring any remote device that
connects to send and match a challenge <string>. When set, all newly opened connections must first send the exact characters
that match the stored password otherwise the WiSnap module will close the connection. When the password is set, the
WiSnap module sends the string “PASS?” to the remote host. All characters in the string must be sent in one TCP packet. Max
string size is 32 bytes. To disable the password feature use string=0 which is the default.
5.8
SYSTEM Parameters
set sys autoconn <secs> - TCP mode: sets the auto connect timer. This command causes the module periodically connect to
the host. The timer <secs> determines how often to connect to the stored remote host. If set to 1, the module will only make
one attempt to auto connect upon power up. If set to 2 or greater, auto connect will re-open the connection after the
connection is closed. Default=0 disables.
set sys autosleep <num> - sets the auto-sleep timer. 0 disables. If the protocol is set to UDP ONLY, this timer is used as a
quick sleep function. Device will sleep <num> ms after transmission of the first UDP packet.
set sys iofunc <value> - sets the IO port alternate functions. Bit-mapped value. For more details see section 10.5
set sys mask <mask> - sets the IO port direction mask. Bit-mapped value. For more information see section 10.5
set sys printlvl <value> - sets the debug print messages printed by the WiSnap module on the UART, where <value> is one of
the values shown on the table below. Default is 1.
Value
0
1
2
4
0x4000
0x10
Description
Quiet mode. Messages are not printed when the module wakes
up or powers up.
Print all status messages.
Print only critical network access point connection level status,
e.g., Associated! or Disconnect from <SSID>.
Print the DHCP and IP address status information. After you
have verified the module’s configuration, you can turn off this
option so that the messages do not interfere with the data.
Change the scan format output to an MCU friendly format.
Enables the UART heartbeat message.
set sys output <value> <mask> - sets output PIO pins to HIGH or LOW. Bit-mapped value. Optional mask only sets a subset of
pins.
 Example: To toggle GPIO8, use the following commands:
-
set sys mask 0x21f0 - Set GPIO8 as output
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-
set sys output 0x0100 0x0100 - Drives GPIO8 high
-
set sys output 0x0000 0x0100 - Drives GPIO8 low
set sys sleep <secs> - sets the sleep timer, where <value> is a decimal number. The sleep timer is the time (in seconds) after
which the module goes to sleep. This timer is disabled during an open TCP connection. When the TCP connection is closed, the
module counts down and puts the module to sleep after <value> seconds. Setting the value to 0 disables the sleep timer, and
the module will not go to sleep based on this counter. 0 disables.

NOTE: If not using Sensor pins to wake the module, be sure to set the wake timer before issuing the sleep timer or the
module will not wake up.
See section 10.1 for more details on using system timers
set sys trigger <flag>| <mask> - sets the sensor input(s) to wake on (0-3). With this parameter setting, the module wakes from
sleep state using the sensor input 0, 1, 2, and 3, where <flag> is a decimal number referring to a bit-mapped register as shown
in the table below and <mask> is a hex number. You use either <flag> or <mask> with this parameter setting. This command
sets the sensor input(s) to wake on (0 to 3). Setting <flag> to 0 disables wake on sensor inputs. Bit-mapped value.
Bit Position
0
1
2
3
4
5
Description
Trigger sensor input 0
Trigger sensor input 1
Trigger sensor input 2
Trigger sensor input 3
Enable WPS function
Enable sleep on GPIO8
The following table describes how you can wake the module using sensor input.
Wake on Sensor Input
0
1
2
3

Value
1
2
4
8
Command
set sys trigger 1
set sys trigger 2
set sys trigger 4
set sys trigger 8
NOTE: Setting the system trigger value to 0x10 enables WPS functionality. WPS is disabled by default.
Setting the trigger value to 0x20 (i.e., using <mask>) puts the module to sleep when GPIO8 is pulled high. To enable this
feature, use the set sys trigger 0x20 command. This command makes GPIO8 an interrupt pin and puts the module to sleep as
soon as it is pulled high, regardless of the module’s state; the module goes to sleep even if it is associating with a network or
has an open, active TCP connection.
This command is useful for when the module is failing to associate with network because it is out of range (or for any other
reason), or if the module must be put to sleep quickly.

NOTE: GPIO8 must be low on power up and stay low until you want to put the module to sleep.
set sys wake <secs> - sets the auto wake timer. 0 disables. See section 10.1 for more details on using system timers.
set q power <value> - register automatically turns on the sensor power, where <value> is shown in the table below. This
parameter sets an 8-bit register with two 4-bit nibbles. If the top nibble is set, power is applied upon power up and removed
upon power down or sleep. If the bottom nibble is set, power is applied when a sampling event occurs such as:
 UDP broadcast
 Automatic web posting of sensor data
 Power is removed immediately after sampling is complete
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Value
0
1
2
3
4

5.9
Sensor pin voltage
Turn off the sensor power
Ground the sensor pin
1.2-V internal regulated reference
VBATT input pin
3.3-V output of on-board regulator
Example:
-
set q power 0x20 - Sets power to 1.2 V automatically upon power up
-
set q power 0x02 - Sets power to 1.2 V when a sampling event occurs
-
set q power 0x40 - Sets power to 3.3 V automatically upon power up
-
set q power 0x04 - Sets power to 3.3 V when a sampling event occurs
TIME Server Parameters
set time address <addr> - sets the time server address. (sNTP servers)
set time port <num> - sets the time server port number. Defaults to 123 which is almost always the sNTP server port.
set time enable <value> - enable or disable fetching time from the specified sNTP time server. Default=0= disabled. A value or
1 gets time only once on power up. Any value > 1 gets time continuously every <value> minutes.
set time raw <value> - setting parameter allows you to set the RTC raw value from the console, where <value> is a decimal
number in seconds. The RTC ticks at 32,768 Hz.
5.10
UART Parameters
set uart baud <rate> - sets the UART baud rate. Valid settings are {2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200, 230400}.
 Example: set u b 9600 sets the baud rate to 9600 baud.

NOTE: the RS-232 interface on the WiSnap does not work below 2400 or above 230400 baud.
set uart instant <rate> - this immediately changes the baud rate, where <value> is 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600,
115200, 230400, 460800, or 921600. This is useful when testing baud rate settings, or switching baud rate “on the fly”
remotely while connected over TCP. This setting does not affect configuration. Returns the AOK response, but will not exit
command mode.

NOTE: In firmware version 2.22 and lower, the module does NOT return an AOK over telnet before exiting command
mode.
If used in local mode, the baud rate changes and the module sends AOK using the new baud rate. If the host switches to the
new baud rate immediately, the host may see the AOK string at the new baud rate. Depending on the baud rate, it takes at
least ten times the bit rate for the module to issue the first character.
set uart raw <value> - sets a RAW UART value, where <value> is a decimal number representing the baud rate. Used to set
non-standard rates. The lowest possible baud rate is 2400.
Using non-standard raw baud rates with hardware flow control can be more useful at speeds as the microcontroller interfaced
to the module may be able to better match the UART speed and get better results. The table below shows the supported raw
baud rates:
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Raw Baud Rate
458333
500000
550000
611111
687599
785714
916667
1100000

Comment
This is 460800
Raw baud rate
Raw baud rate
Raw baud rate
Raw baud rate
Raw baud rate
This is 921600
Raw baud rate
Example: set u r 7200 sets the baud rate to 7200 baud.
set uart flow <value> - sets the flow control mode and parity, where <value> is a hex number. The setting is in the upper
nibble of the hardware flow control setting. The default is flow control disabled with parity set to none/no parity.
Default=0=off, 1=hardware RTS/CTS.

NOTE: once flow control is enabled, it is important to properly drive the CTS pin (active LOW enabled). If CTS is
HIGH, data will NOT be sent out the UART, and further configuration in command mode will be problematic as no
response will be received.

Example:
-
set uart flow 0x21 – Even parity with flow control
-
set uart flow 0x20 – Even parity without flow control
-
set uart flow 0x31 – Odd parity with flow control
-
set uart flow 0x30 – Odd parity without flow control
set uart mode <mask> - sets the UART mode register, where <mask> is a hex number masking a bit-mapped value as shown
below.
Bit Position
0
1
2
3
4
5

Function
NOECHO – disables echo of RX data while in command mode
DATA TRIGGER makes connection on RX data
Reserved
Enable Sleep on RX BREAK signal
UART RX data buffer. See note below
The version string <x.xx> \r\n is replaced with the replace
character in the command prompt ($ by default)
NOTE: With firmware version 2.27 and higher, bit 4’s functionality has changed. When a TCP connection is closed, if
there is RX data in the UART receiver, it is flushed by default.
When a TCP connection is closed, currently if there is RX data in the UART receiver, it is held until:
1) more chars come in, in which case it will get flushed, or
2) no chars come in and a new connection is made, then the chars will get forwarded.

Example: set uart mode 0x10 - Enable the UART data buffer
set uart tx <0, 1> - disables or enables the UART’s TX pin (GPIO10), where <value> is 1 or 0. Disabling the pin (<value> = 0) sets
GPIO10 as an input with a weak pull down.

NOTE: Firmware version 2.36/2.45 and higher supports parity with the set uart flow command.
5.11 WLAN Parameters
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set wlan auth <value> - sets the authentication mode. Not needed unless using auto join mode 2. i.e. set wlan join 2

NOTE: During association the WiSnap module interrogates the Access Point and automatically selects the
authentication mode.
The current release of WiSnap firmware supports these security modes:
 WEP-128 (open mode only, NOT shared mode)

WPA2-PSK (AES only)

WPA1-PSK (TKIP only)

WPA-PSK mixed mode (some APs, not all are supported)
Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
8

Authentication Mode
Open (Default)
WEP-128
WPA1
Mixed WPA1 & WPA2-PSK
WPS2-PSK
Not Used
Ad hoc, Join any Ad hoc network
WPE-64
NOTE: Currently, WPA2-Enterprise security networks requiring a username are not currently supported.
set wlan channel <value> <flag> - sets the wlan channel, where <value> is a decimal number from 1 to 13 representing the
valid range for a fixed channel. If 0 is set, then a scan is performed, using the SSID, for all the channels set in the channel
mask. The <flag> is the optional character i (meaning immediate). The i flag allows you to create a temporary AP mode setup
without having to reboot or save the settings. See example 2 below:

Example 1:

- set wlan channel 2 – sets the WLAN channel to 2
Example 2:
-
set wlan channel 1 i
-
set wlan join 7
-
set ip address 1.2.3.4
-
set ip gateway 1.2.3.4
-
set ip netmask 255.255.255.0
-
set ip dhcp 4 – Use DHCP server
-
join <SSID> - Module goes into AP mode
set wlan ext_antenna <0, 1> - determines which antenna is active, use 0 for chip antenna, 1 for UF.L connector. Default = 0.
Only one antenna is active at a time and the module must be power cycled after switching the antenna.
set wlan join <value> - sets the policy for automatically joining/associating with network access points. This policy is used
when the module powers up, including wake up from the sleep timer.
Value
0
1
2
Policy
Manual, do not try to join automatically.
Try to join the access point that matches the stored SSID,
passkey, and channel. Channel can be set to 0 for scanning
(Default).
Join ANY access point with security matching the stored
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3
4
7
authentication mode. This ignores the stored SSID and searches
for the access point with the strongest signal. The channels
searched can be limited by setting the channel mask.
Reserved – Not used.
Create an Ad hoc network, using stored SSID, IP address, and
netmask. Channel MUST be set. DHCP should be 0 (static IP) or
set to Auto-IP with this policy (unless another Ad hoc device can
act as DHCP server). This policy is often used instead of the
hardware jumper to create a custom Ad hoc network.
Create a soft AP network using stored SSID, IP address, netmask,
channel, etc. This mode applies only to firmware version
supporting soft AP mode and not ad hoc mode.
set wlan hide <0, 1> - hides the WEP key and WPA passphrase. When set, displaying the wlan settings shows ****** for
these fields. To unhide the passphrase or passkey, re-enter the key or passphrase using the set wlan key or set wlan
passphrase command. Default = 0, don’t hide.
set wlan key <value> - sets the 128 bit WEP key. If you are using WPA or WPA2 you should enter a pass phrase with the set
wlan passphrase command. Key must be EXACTLY 13 bytes (26 ASCII chars). Data is expected in HEX format, leading “0x”
should NOT be used here.

Example : set w k 112233445566778899AABBCCDD
Hex digits > 9 can be either upper or lower case.
The WiSnap only supports “open” key mode, 128 bit keys for WEP. WEP-128, shared mode is not supported as it is known to be
easily compromised and has been deprecated from the Wi-Fi standards.
set wlan linkmon <value> - sets the link monitor timeout threshold. If set to 1 or more, WiSnap will scan once per second for
the AP it is associated with. The value is the threshold of failed scans before the WiSnap declares “AP is Lost”, deauthenticates. The WiSnap will retry the association based on the join policy variable. A value of 5 is recommended, as some
APs will not always respond to probes. Default is 0 (disabled). Without enabling this feature, there is no way to detect if an AP
is no longer present until it becomes available again (if ever).
set wlan mask <value> - sets the wlan channel mask used for scanning channels with the auto-join policy 1 or 2, used when
the channel is set to 0. Value is a bit- map where bit 0 = channel 1. Input for this command can be entered in decimal or hex if
prefixed with 0x. Default value is 0x1FFF (all channels).
set wlan num <value> - sets the default WEP key to use. 1-4 is the valid range.

Example: “set w n 2” sets the default key to 2.
set wlan phrase <string> - sets the passphrase for WPA and WPA2 security modes. 1-64 chars. The passphrase can be alpha
and numeric, and is used along with the SSID to generate a unique 32 byte Pre-shared key (PSK), which is then hashed into a
256 bit number. Changing either the SSID or this value re-calculates and stores the PSK.
If exactly 64 chars are entered, it is assumed that this entry is already an ASCII HEX representation of the 32 byte PSK and the
value is simply stored.
For passphrases that contain spaces use the replacement character $ instead of spaces. For example “my pass word” would be
entered “my$pass$word”. The replacement character can be changed using the optional command set opt replace <char>.

Example: set w p password - sets the phrase to ‘password’.
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set wlan rate <value> - sets the wireless data rate. Lowering the rate increases the effective range of the WiSnap module. The
value entered is mapped according to the following table:
Value
0
1
2
3
4–7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Wireless Data Rate
1 Mbit/sec
2 Mbit/sec
5.5 Mbit/sec
11 Mbit/sec
Invalid
6 Mbit/sec
9 Mbit/sec
12 Mbit/sec
18 Mbit/sec
24 Mbit/sec (default)
36 Mbit/sec
48 Mbit/sec
54 Mbit/sec
set wlan ssid <string> - sets the WLAN SSID to associate with. 1-32 chars.

NOTE: If the passphrase or SSID contain SPACE (‘ ‘) characters, these can be entered using substitution via the “$”
character.
For example, if the SSID of the AP is “yellow brick road” You would enter “yellow$brick$road”
Using the get w command will properly display the value: SSID=yellow brick road.
set wlan window <value> - sets the IP maximum buffer window size. Default is 1460 bytes.
set wlan tx <value> - sets the Wi-Fi transmit power, where <value> is a decimal number from 1 to 12 that corresponds to 1 to
12 dBm. The default, 0, corresponds to 12 dB, which is the maximum TX power. Setting the value to 0 or 12 sets the TX power
to 12dBm.

6
NOTE: This command applies only to the RN-171 module; it is not applicable to the RN-131. The transmit power on
the RN-131 is fixed to 18 dBm. If you send this parameter to the RN-131, it issues an error message ERR: Bad Args.
GET Commands
These commands begin with get. They display the current values.
get ad-hoc - displays all ad-hoc settings.
get broadcast - displays the broadcast UPD address, port, and interval
get com - displays comm settings.
get dns - displays DNS settings.
get everything - displays all configuration settings, useful for debug.
get ftp - displays FTP settings.
get ip <a> - displays IP address and port number settings. If the “a” parameter is added on, only the current IP address value
will be shown.
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get mac - displays the device MAC address.
get optional - displays the optional settings like device ID.
get q - displays the sensor settings (sensor mask and sensor power settings).
get sys - displays system settings, sleep, wake timers, etc.
get time - displays the time server UDP address and port number.
get wlan - displays the SSID, channel, and other WLAN settings.
get UART - displays the UART settings.
ver - returns the software release version.
7
STATUS Commands
These commands begin with show, and they return the current values of variables in the system. In some cases, for example IP
addresses, the current values are received from the network, and may not match the stored values. Except where noted, the
show commands do not have any parameters.
show bat - displays current battery voltage, (only valid for SerialIO.com battery powered products like the WiSnapAAA)
show connection - displays connection status in this HEX format: 8XYZ
Bit Location
0-3
Function
TCP status
4
5
6
7
9-12
13-16
Associate
Authenticate
DNS server
DNS found
channel
fixed
Value
0 = Idle
1 = Connected
3 = NOIP
4 = Connecting
1 = OK
1 = OK
1 = contacted
1 = resolved
1-13
8
show io - displays IO pin levels status in this HEX format: 8<ABC>. For example: show i returns 8103 - indicates pins 0, 1 and
9 high level.
show net <char> - displays the current network status, association, authentication, etc., where <char> is the optional
parameter n. Using the n parameter displays only the MAC address of the access point with which the module is currently
associated.
show rssi - displays current last received signal strength.
show stats - displays current statistics, packet rx/tx counters, etc.
show time - displays number of seconds since last powerup or reboot.
show q <0-7> - displays the value of the analog interface pin, where <value> is 0 to 7. The A/D reading is 14 bits with a range of
0 to 400 mV (therefore, the resolution is 24 uV). The output is in uV (1,000 millivolts). The module returns a value in the format
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8xxxxx, where xxxxx is the voltage in microvolts sampled on the channel you requested.

NOTE: If a web post or UDP broadcast samples the data, the data is shifted as described in the “UDP Broadcast”
section.
show q 0x1 <mask> - displays multiple analog interface values at once. The channels displayed is controlled by a bit mask
which is preceded by a 0x1xx where xx mask is the bit mask of the channels. For example, to read channels 0, 1, and 7, send:
show q 0x183 which returns 8<chan0>, 8<chan1>, 8<chan7>, \r\n
8 ACTION Commands
The action commands allow you to enter and exit command mode, join networks, etc. Except where noted, these commands
do not have any parameters.
$$$ - enter command mode. Characters are PASSED until this exact sequence is seen. If any bytes are seen before these chars,
or after these chars, in a 250ms window, command mode will not be entered and these bytes will be passed on to other side.
close - disconnect a TCP connection.
exit - exit command mode. “EXIT” will be displayed.
factory RESET - loads factory defaults into the RAM configuration. Note that the RESET must be capitalized. This command
also writes the settings out to the standard config file. After this command the module then needs to be rebooted for settings
to take effect.
join <ssid> - joins the network <ssid>. If network is security enabled you must set the pass phrase with the set wlan phrase
command prior to issuing the join command.

NOTE: The <ssid> must not contain spaces. If the SSID contains spaces, use a $ instead of the space, e.g.,
MY$NETWORK to represent MY NETWORK.
join # <num> - join a network from the scan list. <num> is the entry number in the scan list that is returned from the scan
command. If network is security enabled you must set the pass phrase with the set wlan phrase command prior to issuing the
join command.

Example: join # 1
leave - disconnects from currently associated Access Point.
lites - causes the LEDs lights to start blinking. Issuing the command a second time stops the blinking.
lookup <string> - causes the module to perform a DNS query, where <string> is the host name for which to search.

Example: lookup serialio - Searches for the host serialio.
open <addr> <port> - opens a TCP connection to the given IP port and address. If no arguments are provided, the device will
attempt to connect to the stored remote host IP address and remote port number. <addr> can also be a DNS hostname and
will be resolved if entered.
ping <g | h | i | addr> <num> - ping remote host. Default sends 1 packet. Optional <num> sends <num> pings at 10 per
second.
1) ping 10.20.20.12 10 - pings IP address 10 times
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2) ping g - pings the gateway, the gateway IP address is loaded if DHCP is turned on, otherwise it should be set with the
set ip gateway <addr> command
3) ping h - pings the stored host IP address, the host IP address can be set with the set ip host <addr> command
4) ping i - pings a known Internet server at www.neelum.com by first resolving the URL (proves that DNS is working and
proves the device has internet connectivity)
5) ping 0 - terminates a ping command
reboot - forces a reboot of the device (similar to power cycle).
scan <time> <P> - performs an active probe scan of access points on all 13 channels. Returns MAC address, signal strength,
SSID name, security mode. Default scan time is 200ms / channel = about 3 seconds. time is an optional parameter; this is the
time in ms per channel. For example, scan 30 reduces the total scan time down to about 1 second. This command also works in
ad-hoc mode. If the optional P parameter is entered, the module will perform a passive scan, and list all APs that are seen in
passive mode.
sleep - puts the module to sleep mode. The module can come out of sleep mode by either sending characters over the UART or
by using the wake timer.
time - sets the Real time clock by synchronizing with the time server specified with the time server parameters. This
command sends a UDP time server request packet.
9 FILE IO Commands
del <name> <num> - deletes a file. Optional <num> will override the name and use the sector number shown in the ls
command.
load <name> - reads in a new config file.
ls - displays the files in the system.
save - saves the configuration to “config” (the default file).
save <name> - saves the configuration data to a new file name.
boot image <num> - makes file <num> the new boot image.
ftp get <name> - retrieves a file from the remote FTP server. If <name> not specified, the stored ftp filename is used.
ftp update <name> - deletes the backup image, retrieves new image and updates the boot image.
10 Advanced Features and Settings
This chapter describes the advanced features of the WiSnap module. It describes the techniques to put the module in sleep,
wake up from sleep and methods to open a TCP connection when awake. We also discuss the UART flow control, alternative
GPIO functions and Real Time Clock.
The table below describes the possible methods of putting the module to sleep:
Method
“sleep” command
Interface
UART
Sleep Timer
Internal RTC
Description
Get into command mode using $$$ and issue the sleep
command.
Puts the module to sleep based on the set sys sleep
<secs> command.
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Drive GPIO9 High
GPIO8
The module sleeps as soon as GPIO8 is held high (4 µs
latency). To enable this feature, use the set sys trigger
0x20 command setting.
To wake up the module from sleep, following options are available:
Method
Sensor Input (1.2VDC ONLY)
Type
Sensor Pins
Rx Pin (1.2VDC ONLY)
Rx pin via Sensor 0
CTS Pin (3.3VDC ONLY)
CTS pin via Sensor 1
Wake Timer
Internal RTC
FORCE AWAKE
FORCE AWAKE pin
Description
You can wake up the module on sensor pins 0-3 (1.2V
ONLY). Use the set sys trigger <value> command to
enable. Refer to section 10.2 for details.
The RX pin on the RN-134 is tied to Sensor Pin 0. Use the
set sys trigger 1 command to wake up on RX data. NOTE:
You may drop the first byte of UART data. A better way
to wake up the module on CTS pin. Refer to section 10.3
for details.
The CTS pin on the RN-134 is tied to Sensor pin 1. Use
the set sys trigger 2 command to wake up on CTS. Refer
to section 10.3 for details.
Wakes up the module from sleep based on the set sys
wake <secs> command.
Input pulse of at least 31 µsecs duration (3.3V ONLY) will
wake up the module.
When the module wakes up from sleep, it takes a certain amount of time (in milliseconds) to initialize the internal hardware.
During this time, any data that is sent to the WiSnap module over the UART will not be processed. You can monitor certain
signals that indicate that the module is ready to accept data. These are described in the table below:
Method
RTS transition
Interface
RTS pin
Monitor GPIO4
Alternative GPIO functions
Sensor power
Sensor power pin
Description
Once the WiSnap module wakes up, the RTS line goes
HIGH. Once the system is ready, the RTS is driven LOW.
This can be monitored by the micro controller.
Set the alternative functions for GPIO 4, 5, and 6 (refer
to section 10.5.1). Once the module wakes up and
connects to an AP, GPIO 4 goes high. This indicates the
module is ready to receive data over UART. Your micro
controller can monitor GPIO 4.
You can configure the module to output Vbat, 3.3 V, or
1.2 V on the sensor power pin when it wakes from sleep,
indicating it is ready to accept data.
Once the module is awake, you can open a TCP connection to a remote host in a number of ways described below. The remote
host can be set using the following commands:
1) set ip host <IP address> or set dns name <string> - sets up the IP address OR URL of host
2) set ip remote <port number> - sets up the port number on which the host is listening
3) save - save settings in config file
4) reboot - reboots the module so that the settings take effect
Method
Auto connect
Type
Internal RTC Timer
Open
Connect UART data
UART
UART mode 2
GPIO 5
Alternative GPIO functions
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Description
Connect out to the host at specific time intervals based
upon the set sys autoconn <secs> command.
In command mode, you can issue the open command.
This mode is designed for the HTML client feature. Use
the set uart mode 2 command to automatically connect
out to host on UART data.
Set the alternative functions for GPIO 4, 5, and 6 (refer
to section 10.5.1). Set GPIO 5 HIGH to trigger TCP
connection, LOW to disconnect.
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10.1
System Timers and Auto Connect Timers
The WiSnap module uses the Real Time clock (RTC) to generate timers. The RTC is active even when the WiSnap module is
asleep. This makes it possible to put the module to sleep and wake up from sleep based on timer intervals using timers.
The WiSnap module has the following timers available:
 Sleep Timer: Used to put the WiSnap module to sleep
 Wake Timer: Used to wake the WiSnap module from sleep
 Auto-connect Timer: Used to automatically open a TCP connection
 Idle Timer: Used to automatically close a TCP connection
There are 2 timers that can be used to put the module to sleep, and perform a wake up. If the sleep timer is enabled, the
module will automatically go into deep sleep low power mode once the timer counts down to 0. The sleep timer is disabled if
the module has an IP connection, or the module is in COMMAND mode.
The sleep timer (which is the time the WiSnap is awake) is a 32 bit number of seconds so it can be as high as 1.19 million hours.
The wake timer (which is the time the WiSnap is asleep) is a 22 bit number of seconds so the maximum sleeping time is 1165
hours.
The sleep timer is set with: set sys sleep <time> - time = decimal in seconds. The wake timer will bring the module out of deep
sleep.
The wake timer is set with: set sys wake <time> - time = decimal in seconds.
For example, if you wanted the module to wake up, join a network and be available to accept TCP connections for 30 seconds
every two minutes you would set the timers as such:
1) set wlan ssid my_net
2) set wlan passphrase my_pass set sys sleep 30
3) set sys wake 90 save
4) reboot
The above diagram shows the transitions between the Sleep state and Awake state based on the sleep and wake timers.
10.1.1 UDP Sleep and Connection Timers
In UDP-only protocol mode (set ip proto 1), the autoconn timer is used as an auto-sleep timer.
Upon the start of transmission of the first UDP data packet this timer will count down, after which the module will go to sleep.
set sys autosleep <value> - UDP Only mode: sets the auto-sleep timer. Setting value=0 disables autosleep timer.
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The UDP auto-sleep timer is set using two variables. The timer interval is a product of the autosleep value and the comm flush
timer (in milliseconds). The timer is decremented every “product” milliseconds.
For example, if you need a UDP sleep timer of 40 milliseconds, you need to set the following variables:
set sys autosleep 4 - sets the autosleep value to 4
set comm timer 10 - sets the comm timer to 10 ms (default value)
The resulting UDP sleep timer will be 4*10 ms = 40 ms. You can also use a combination of autosleep =
2 and comm timer = 20 ms to achieve the same effect.
Using a minimum value of 2 (when the default flushtime=10 ms) is recommended to ensure that the
UDP packet gets transmitted. For larger packets the value should be increased.
10.1.2 TCP Connection Timers
Opening a TCP Connection
In TCP-Client mode, the auto-conn timer controls the establishment of a socket connection. When set, the device automatically
and periodically attempts to establish a connection each time the timer expires.
set sys autoconn <secs> - causes the module to periodically connect to the host. The timer <secs> determines how often to
connect to the stored remote host. If set to 1, the module will only make one attempt to auto connect upon power up. If set to
2 or greater auto connect will re-open the connection after the connection is closed. Default=0 disables.
For auto connect timer to work, the remote host’s IP address and port number needs to be configured in the WiSnap module.
Closing the TCP connection
In TCP-Client AND TCP-Server mode (default mode), there is also a disconnect timer. This timer can be used to automatically
close a TCP connection after a specified number of seconds with no transmit or receive data.
set comm idle <secs>
For example, to close the TCP connection after 5 seconds of inactivity, use the set comm idle 5 command.
The default value of the comm idle timer is 0, never disconnect on idle.
10.2
Wake on Sensor Input
SENSE 0 to 3 inputs are available to wake the module from sleep. SENSE 0 to 3 pins have a small current source that is
activated in sleep mode. This source is approximately 100nA, and will cause the input to float up to about 1.2VDC. If SENSE1,
for example, is enabled, pulling the SENSE1 pin to GROUND will wake the device.
To enable these inputs to wake the module, use the command set sys trigger <value>. The value is a bit-mapped setting. To
wake on sensor pin 2, use set sys trig 4, for example. Setting the value to 0 disables all sensors pins.
The table below describes the values to wake the module using individual sensor inputs.
Sensor Input Values
Wake on Sensor Input
0
Value
1
Command
set sys trigger 1
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1
2

2
4
set sys trigger 2
set sys trigger 4
WARNING: Under no conditions should the voltage on any sensor input exceed 1.2VDC. Permanent damage to the
module will result.
Sensor inputs are rated 1.2VDC maximum. You must use a resistor divider when driving a sensor pin from the other 3V pins
such as RX. A resistor divider network with a minimum of 24K in series and 10K to ground from the UART RX or CTS pin should
be used.
An open drain FET is a good device to tie to the SENSE pin. The threshold is about 500mV. Additional pullup to 1.2VDC may be
used if the circuit has an impedance (due to leakage current) of less than 5Mohms (500mv / 100nA). SENSE 0 to 3 pins that are
not used should be left unconnected.
10.3
Wake on UART
When the module is in sleep mode, the UART itself is disabled. However, wake on UART can be accomplished by connecting
the SENSE pins to the RX data or CTS pin (using the appropriate divider resistors mentioned above).
The WiSnap SuRFBoard has a built in resistor divider connecting SENSE 0 and SENSE 1 to RXD and CTS respectively. This allows
wake on RX and CTS using a 3.3V signal.

WARNING: Do not apply 3.3V directly to SENSE 0 and SENSE 1. Under no conditions should the voltage on any
sensor input exceed 1.2VDC. Permanent damage to the module will result.

NOTE: On WiSnap SuRFBoard rev 2 the resistor pack connecting RX and CTS signals is not correctly connected to the
sensors. To wake on UART RX place a jumper from pin 3 on the Evaluation board header to pin 2 on the sensor
header. To wake on UART CTS place a jumper from pin 10 on the Evaluation board header to pin 3 on the sensor
header.
To enable wake on RXD, use set sys trig 1.
It should be noted that the first (or possibly multiple) byte sent into the module will likely be lost, so the designer should take
care to send a preamble byte to wake up the module before sending valid data bytes. A better way to do this is to use the CTS
input to wake the module, and wait until it is ready to accept data. To enable this, use set sys trig 2.
10.4
UART Receiver, RTS/CTS Hardware Flow Control
The UART receive buffer is approx. 1500 bytes, and at lower baud rates (less than 115K) the system can send data over TCP/IP
without the need for flow control.
Depending on the frequency and quantity of data begin sent, the set comm parameters will optimize Wi-Fi performance by
specifying when the system sends IP packets. To minimize latency and TCP/IP overhead use the flush size or match character
to send data in a single IP packet. In most cases you will want to set the flush timer to a large number to avoid fragmentation.
For high throughput cases increase the UART baud rate, set the flush size to 1460 and flush timer to a large value so full IP
packets are sent.
You can control the packet forwarding 3 ways:
 set comm match <value> | <hex> - This command sets the match character, where <value> is a decimal number from
0 to 127 or a hex number from 0 to 7F. When this configuration option is set, the module sends an IP packet each time
the match character appears in the data. You enter <value> either as the decimal (e.g., 13) or hex (e.g., 0xd)
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

equivalent of the ASCII character. Setting the match character to 0 disables matching. Each time the match character
is seen an IP packet will be sent. For example, set comm match 0xd forwards once a 0xd hex character is seen.
set comm size <value> - This command sets the flush size in bytes, where <value> is a decimal number from 0 to
1,420 (at 9600 baudrate). When this configuration option is set, the module sends an IP packet each time <value>
bytes are received. It is recommended that you set this value as large as possible to maximize TCP/IP performance.
This sets the flush size, the size is the number of bytes received before forwarding. Maximum value = 1460 bytes
which is the size of a single Ethernet frame.
 NOTE: To optimize the link, this value is set automatically when the baud rate is set. It is assumed that higher
baud rates equate to more data, hence the flush size is increased.
set comm time <value> - This command sets the flush timer, where <value> is a decimal number representing
milliseconds. When this configuration option is set, the module sends and IP packet if no additional bytes are received
for <value> ms. Setting this value to 0 disables forwarding based on the flush timer. This is used to make sure that any
partial data sitting the RX buffer if no additional data is seen for “value” milliseconds. For example set comm time
1000 would wait for 1 second after no data was sent.
If the module will be sending more than a few hundred thousand bytes in a single transaction, you should enable hardware
flow control. Your hardware must actively monitor the CTS pin. Flow control is not enabled by default; you set it with the set
uart flow 1 command.
It is possible to operate higher baud rates (greater than 115K) without flow control if packets are uniform and an application
protocol is used to ensure that each packet data is delivered on the remote side before the next packet is sent.
However, given the uncertainty of packet delays in a TCP/IP network and the effects of interference and retries inherent in
wireless networks, flow control is usually required whenever large, contiguous quantities of data are being written to the UART
to guarantee no data is lost.
10.5
Setting GPIO direction, Alternate Functions and Disabling LEDs
The direction of the GPIO can be controlled with the GPIO mask using the set sys mask <value> command to set the GPIO pin
direction. Value is entered as a hex number. If you need to set only one bit in the mask you need to read, mask and set the
value. Otherwise you will over write any previous GPIO settings.
The hex value represents a bit mask that controls each pin where 1 = output and 0 = input. For example, set sys mask 0x0 sets
all pins to input.
To set only GPIO 6 and 7, for example, you would enter set sys mask 0xc0.
The default mask for WiSnap = 0x20f0, which has GPIO 13, 8, 7,6,5,4 as Outputs. GPIO 0-3 are used internally on the module.
GPIO 4, 5, 6 are LEDs. GPIO 9 is reserved as the ARM factory reset/ad-hoc mode, (read at power up) and otherwise general
purpose input detect pin. GPIO 10, 11 are the UART RX, TX pins and TX does not need to be masked as an output. GPIO12 is
CTS (input) if used. GPIO13 is RTS (output) if used.
The LEDs on the WiSnap SuRFBoard (M1) are connected to GPIO 4, 5 and 6. To disable the LEDs, enter set sys mask 0x20d0.

NOTE: The Yellow, Red and Green LEDs can be turned off. The Blue LED on the Surf board is the power LED and cannot
be turned OFF.
The get sys command will show the setting of the GPIO mask.
<2.20> get sys
SleepTmr=0
WakeTmr=0
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Trigger=0x1
Autoconn=0
IoFunc=0x0
IoMask=0x21f0
PrintLvl=0x1
The table below shows the usage of the GPIO pins with their default state and functionality:
Bit
Signal Name
GPIO0
GPIO1
GPIO2
GPIO3
GPIO4
GPIO5
GPIO6
GPIO7
GPIO8
GPIO9
GPIO10
GPIO11
GPIO12
RN-131
Default State
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Output
Output
Output
Output
Input
Input
Output
Input
Input
RN-171
Default State
N/A
Input
Input
Input
Output
Output
Output
Output
Output
Input
Output
Input
Input
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
GPIO13
Output
Output
14
GPIO14
N/A
Input

Default Function
Unused
Unused
Unused
Green LED
Yellow LED
Red LED
Blue LED
Unused
Ad hoc mode and factory reset
UART TX
UART RX
Throttles the transmitter if hardware flow control is enabled.
Driving this pin low enables transmitter; driving this pin high
disables it.
This pin goes high on power up and goes low when the system
is ready. If hardware flow control is enabled, this pin toggles
high to indicate the RX buffer is full
-
NOTE: The Blue LED is connected to GPIO7 on the WiSnap AAA. The Blue LED is not connected to GPIO7 on the
WiSnap SuRFBoard (M1). It is not possible to power off the Blue LED on the SuRFBoard because it is connected directly
to power.
10.5.1 Setting the alternate GPIO functions
The defaults for GPIO 4, 5, 6 are to control the LED functionality. This default functionality can be overridden to allow user
programmable IO or alternate IO functionality by using the set sys iofunc <value> command. Value is entered as a hex
number.
The hex value represents a bit mask that controls each bit in the <value> represents a particular GPIO pin. If a bit is 0, then
that GPIO is driven/read by the firmware per the default function.
The IO function <value> is encoded as such:
Bit
0
1
2
3
4
Signal Name
GPIO4
GPIO5
GPIO6
Unused
GPIO4
Direction
Output
Output
Output
Output
5
6
GPIO5
GPIO6
Output
Output
Function
Disable the LED function so the I/O can be used as a GPIO pin.
Disable the LED function so the I/O can be used as a GPIO pin.
Disable the LED function so the I/O can be used as a GPIO pin.
This pin goes high after the module has associated/authenticated and has an IP
address.
Set this pin high to trigger a TCP connection and low to disconnect.
This pin goes high when the module is connected over TCP and low when
disconnected.
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
NOTE: Bits 0-3 are mutually exclusive with the bits 4-6. i.e. 0x77 is an illegal value.
If the LEDs are disabled using bits 0, 1, 2 above, you can then use the show i command to read these GPIO. For example show i
will return Port=30.
For example, to use the alternate functions of the LEDs, the sequence of commands would be:
1) set sys iofunc 0x70 - enable alternate function for GPIO 6, 5 and 4
2) save - store configuration
3) reboot - reboot the module
Another example uses GPIO7 to drive the DTR line on the WiSnap AAA Male (see section 2.6.4 for necessary jumper
configuration):
1) set sys iofunc 8 - sets PIO7 to be an alternate IO function
2) save - store configuration
3) reboot - reboot the module


set sys output 0x80 0x80 - drives PIO7 (DTR) HIGH
set sys output 0 0x80 - drives PIO7 (DTR) LOW

NOTE: Currently, the alternative GPIO functions are not available in ad-hoc mode.
10.5.2 Controlling connections with GPIO.
In embedded applications it is useful to monitor and control the status of the TCP/IP connection. This can be done by using the
alternate function for GPIO-5 and GPIO-6.
With the alternate function for these GPIO set, the module will connect to the stored remote host IP address and port when
GPIO-5 is driven high and disconnect when driven low.
The TCP/IP connection status can be monitored by reading GPIO-6, high = connected, low = not connected.
Here is how to set the WiSnap module to connect using GPIO-5 and GPIO-6:
1) set ip host <addr> - set the IP address of the remote host
2) set ip remote <port> - set the IP port of the remote host
3) set sys iofunc 0x60 - set alternate function for GPIO-5 and GPIO-6
4) save - store configuration
5) reboot - the module must be rebooted for the alternate settings to take effect
On the remote host run your application or other software that opens and listens on the <port>. Connect GPIO-5 to your
embedded processor or other control signal. When GPIO-5 is driven high a connection will be attempted. When drive low the
connection will be closed.
Warning: Be sure to not to drive the GPIO with more than 3.3 VDC or permanent damage to the module will occur.
If the connection to the remote host is successful GPIO-6 will go high. If the COMM OPEN and REMOTE strings are set you
should see the *OPEN* messages on the UART and the *HELLO* at the remote host.
10.6
Setting Debug Print levels
There are a number of print functions that can be enabled to assist in debugging the operation and status of the module. The
following command is used to control these printouts:
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
set sys printlvl <value> - sets additional print functions. Value is a bit-mapped register that controls which printout
messages are sent to the UART. See Section 5.8, set sys parameters for more information.
10.7
Scan Output Format
You enable the scan output using the set sys printlvl 0x4000 command. The scan output format differs, depending on the
firmware you are running.
Firmware Version 2.36 & 2.45
Firmware version 2.36 and 2.45 support a comma-delimited scan output format, which a microprocessor can use to parse the
RSSI information. The scan command output format is:
Index
Channel
RSSI
Security
Mode
Capabilities
WPA
Configuration
WPS Mode
MAC
address
Where:
Field
Index
Channel
RSSI
Security mode
Capabilities
WPA Configuration
WPS Mode
MAC address
SSID

Value
2 character, decimal
2 character, decimal
2 character, decimal (negative number)
2 bytes (see Table Security Modes below)
Bit-mapped 4 hex bytes (see Table Capabilities Bit Mask Values below)
Bit-mapped 2 hex bytes (see Table WPA Bit Mask Values below)
Bit-mapped 2 hex bytes (see Table WPS Bit Mask Values)
Address
Up to 32 chars
NOTE: The string END is added at the end of the scan data.
The following example shows the output format:
Scan:Found 3
01,01,-59,04,1104,28,c0,20:4e:7f:08:df:85,sdef
02,03,-64,02,1104,28,00,00:30:bd:9b:49:22,basement
03,10,-71,04,3100,28,00,90:27:e4:5d:fc:a7,UMONEY
END:
Table: Security Modes
Number
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Description
OPEN
WEP (64 or 128)
WPA1
MIXED
WPA2
Enterprise WEP
Enterprise WPA1
Enterprise WPA mixed
Enterprise WPA2
Enterprise NO security
Table: Capabilities Bit Mask Values
Bit Mask Value
0004
0100
Description
Short slot time
ESS (infrastructure mode)
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0200
1000
2000
IBSS (ad hoc mode)
Privacy (secure with WEP or WAP)
Short preamble
Table: WPA Bit Mask Values
Bit Mask Value
04
08
10
20
Description
WPA_UNICAST_TKIP
WPA_UNITCAST_AES_CCMP
WPA_BROADCAST_TKIP
WPA_BROADCAST_AES_CCMP
Table: WPS Bit Mask Values
Bit Mask Value
02
40
80
Description
WPS_PushButton_ACTIVE
WPS_SUPPORTED
WPS_PushButton_SUPPORTED
Firmware Version 2.22 through 2.30
Firmware version 2.22 through 2.30 supports a comma-delimited scan output format, which a microprocessor can use to
parse the RSSI information. The scan command output format is:
Row Count
Channel
RSSI Value
(dBm)
Security
Mode
Capabilities
Access Point
MAC Address
SSID
Example output from the scan command output is shown below:
SCAN:Found 5
01,01,-53,00,0200,1a:fc:90:e5:a5:37,QTDFW
02,01,-59,04,3104,00:15:f9:38:bd:b0,SensorNet
03,11,-72,04,3104,00:16:b6:45:63:98,CoolBox
04,11,-50,02,3100,00:18:02:70:7e:e8,airlink-11
05,11,-69,04,3100,00:14:6c:1f:f7:5e,ap-ssid-change-me
The security mode field for this scan format is described below:
Security
Mode
Code
10.8
Open
WEP
WPA-PSK
WPS2-PSK
WAP-Enterprise
WPA2-Enterprise
0
1
2
4
6
8
UART Heartbeat Messages
In firmware version 2.22 and higher, the module can output UART heartbeat messages. The bit-mapped message is output
periodically while the module is in data mode and not connected to a remote host. Messages are not output while in
command mode. The heartbeat message encodes the module’s state for the embedded microprocessor. Based on the
heartbeat message, the microprocessor can choose to change the configuration by going into command mode.
To enable the UART heartbeat messages, use the set sys printlvl 0x10 command. The output of this mode is:
*8b30*8b30*8b30….
Table: Output Bit Format
Bit
Function
Value
15..14
Fixed
2 = Access point
13..12
RESERVED
Unused
11..8
Channel
0-13
7..6
RESERVED
Unused
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5
Authentication
1 = OK
4
Association
1 = OK
3..0
TCP Status
0 = Idle
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mode
3 = Ad hoc mode
10.9
1 = Connected
3 = No IP
4 = Connecting
5 = Challenge
for password
Using the Real Time Clock Function
The module’s real-time clock keeps track of the number of seconds since the module was powered on and the actual time
when the module synchronized with the sNTP time server. By default, the module keeps track of up time but does not
synchronize with the time server because this synchronization requires the module to be associated with a network that can
access the sNTP server. The real-time clock reads the time in seconds since 1970, which corresponds to the UNIX time.
In firmware version 2.23 and higher, you can set the RTC value in seconds using the set time rtc <value> command.
The default sNTP server is:
ADDR=129.6.15.28:123
ZONE=7
(GMT -7)
Use the show time command to see the current time and uptime as shown below:
<2.23> show t
Time=08:43:10
UpTime= 10 s
To set the time, use the time command:
<2.23> show t
Time NOT SET
UpTime= 8 s
<2.23> time
<2.23> show t
Time=08:51:31
UpTime= 15 s
 NOTE: The module must be associated with a network for the module to contact the sNTP server.
The module can also be configured to get the time whenever it powers up using the set time enable 1 command. If you set
the time enable to a value greater than 1, the module pulls the time continuously every <value> minutes.
For example, to configure the module to get time upon power up, see the following example:
<2.23> set time enable 1
AOK
<2.23> get time
ENA=1
ADDR=129.6.15.28:123
ZONE=7
To view a complete listing of the time variable, use the following command:
<2.23> show t t
Time=09:02:10
UpTime=653 s
RTC=1293567548
Restarts=1
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Wake=6
RAW=2345ab

NOTE: The RAW value is the 64-bit hex RAW value of the RTC, which ticks at 32,768 Hz.
10.10 Time Stamping Packets
This feature can be used to automatically append 8 bytes to a TCP or UDP packet.
set ip flags 0x87 - enables timestamp and keeps other default settings
TIME STAMP (MSB to LSB)
User’s TCP or UDP
63-56
packet Data
55-48
47-40
39-32
31-24
23-16
15-8
7-0
The 8 bytes represents the 64-bit raw value of the real-time clock register. The data is appended before calculating the TCP
checksum so that the data passes through the TCP stack correctly. This register counts at
32,768 Hz. If the timeserver function is enabled, the RTC should accurately reflect the real time. This register also counts when
the module is in sleep mode.
11
Sending data using UDP
11.1 Overview
UDP is a connectionless protocol: there is no initial handshaking between the hosts to set up the UDP connection and the
receiver does not send an acknowledgement when it receives UDP packets. Therefore, UDP is an unreliable protocol because
there is no guarantee that the data will be delivered correctly. However, because it is connectionless, UDP is suited for
applications that cannot tolerate too much latency but can tolerate some errors in the data, e.g., video transmission.
To use UDP with the module, you must enable the UDP protocol using the set ip proto 1 command. You must also specify the
remote host’s IP address and the local and remote port number that you will use for UDP communications. The following
example shows the commands you use to enable UDP data transfer.
Associate to a network:
 set wlan ssid <string> - set the network name
 set wlan phrase <string> - set the passphrase for WPA and WPA2 modes
Set up the protocol and port number:
1) set ip proto 1 - enable UDP as the protocol
2) set ip host <ip address> - set the IP address of remote host
3) set ip remote <port> - set the remote port number on which the host is listening
4) set ip local <port> - set the port number on which the WiSnap module will listen
5) save - saves the settings in config file
6) reboot - reboots the module so that the above settings take effect

NOTE: If you attempt to send data by physically typing characters on the keyboard or if your microcontroller is not
sending data fast enough, the WiSnap module will send out packets with less data bytes. To avoid this, set the flush
timer to a higher value. By default, it is set to 10 milliseconds. You can choose to either disable forwarding based on
flush timer (use “set comm. time 0”) or set it to a higher value (e.g. set comm. time 2000).
Since UDP is a connectionless protocol, data will start flowing as soon as the module is rebooted. Unlike TCP, it is not required
to do an “OPEN” for the connection to be established. The WiSnap module acts like a data-pipe, so the UART data will be sent
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over the Wi-Fi link via the UDP protocol (in this case) and the data coming over the Wi-Fi link (via UDP protocol in this case) will
be sent to the UART.
11.2
UDP Auto Pairing
UDP auto pairing feature temporarily stores the Host IP address of the first remote device that send a UDP packet into the
module. This host IP address is stored in the RAM, which will not survive a sleep or power cycle.
This feature allows the WiSnap module to echo back to any client that sends a UDP packet. To use this feature, the host IP
addresses and set the ip flags.
 set ip host 0.0.0.0
 set ip flags 0x80
11.3
UDP Retry
This feature adds a level of reliability to the UDP protocol without adding the complete overhead of TCP protocol. When
enabled, the module waits for a response on every UDP packet sent, (any UDP packet coming back in). If the response packet is
not received by approximately 250 ms, the same UDP packet is sent out.
This continues until either:
o A UDP response is seen, or
o A new UDP packet is sent from the module and is acknowledged
To enable this feature, use set ip flags <value>.
11.4
Using the UDP Broadcast function
The WiSnap module can be setup to automatically generate UDP broadcast packets. This is useful for a number of reasons:
1. Some Access Points will disconnect devices that sit idle and don’t send any packets after a time. Using the UDP
broadcast informs the AP that WiSnap is alive and wants to stay associated.
2. This feature can be used by application programs to auto-discover and auto configure the WiSnap module. If an
application is listening for the UDP broadcast, a number of useful parameters are present in the package that can be
used for auto-discovery. For example, the IP address and port number of the WiSnap are both apart of the packet, and
thus the WiSnap can be connected to and configured remotely with this information.
3. The MAC address of the associated AP, channel, and RSSI value are available in this packet, thus enabling a simple
location and tracking based function.
By default the WiSnap module now sends out a UDP broadcast to 255.255.255.255 on port 55555 at a programmable interval.
The broadcast address, port and interval are set using the set broadcast commands.

NOTE: You can send the module’s sensor data out via UDP broadcast. The analog-to-digital convertor is 14 bits on a
400 mV signal, which translates to about 24 microvolts (0x61A80 in hex). When you use the show q command in
command mode, the module displays the raw readings. However, for HTTP web posting and UDP broadcast packets,
the module shifts the reading by 4 bits (which is a divide by 16) resulting in a 16-bit number. Therefore, if you want
the actual voltage sampled, you must take the 16-bit number and shift it left by 4 bits to get the number of
microvolts. If you must have the value in millivolts (and do not need high accuracy), right shift by another 6 bits,
which is the same as dividing by about 1000.
The format of the packet is: 110 bytes of data:
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AP MAC
address
Chan
Bytes
0-5
6
7
8-9
10-13
14-15
16-17
18-31
32-59
60-91
92-93
94-110
Size
6
1
1
2
4
2
2
13
26
32
2
16

12
RSSI
Local
TCP port
Real
Time
Clock
Battery
Voltage
GPIO
pins
Time
of day
Version
and
datecode
User
DEVICEID
Boot
time
Sensor
pins
MAC address of AP that we are Associated with (for location)
Channel we are on
RSSI
local TCP port# (for connecting into the WiSnap device)
RTC value (MSB first to LSB last)
Battery Voltage on Pin 20 in millivolts (2755 for example)
Value of the GPIO pins
ASCII time
Version string with date code
Programmable Device ID string (set option deviceid <string>)
Boot time in milliseconds
Voltage readings of Sensors 0 through 7 (enabled with set opt format <mask>)
NOTE: To add sensor data to the UDP broadcast message, the sensors have to be enabled using the sensor mask. set q
sensor 0xff enables all sensors.
Joining Networks and Making Connections
Configuring the module to make connections is a two set process. First you need to associate with an access point (AP) and
second you need to open a connection.
To configure the module over the Wi-Fi link is a chicken and egg problem. The module must be associated to a network to
connect to it and program the network settings. This problem can be solved by configuring the module from the UART or over
the air using ad-hoc mode.
If configuring the module using ad-hoc mode, see section 15. Once in ad-hoc mode open up a telnet window on IP address
169.254.1.1 port 2000.
If configuring the module using the UART mode either using the RS232 or development board, open a terminal emulator on the
COM port associated with that device. The default baud rate is 9600, 8 bits no parity.
12.1
Associate with a network access point
From within the terminal window, put the WiSnap module into command mode by typing $$$ in the terminal window. You
should get CMD back confirming you are in command mode.
Type show net to display the current network settings.
CMD
show net
SSid=TheLoft
Chan=6
Assoc=OK
DHCP=OK
Time=Fail
Links=1
<2.03>
Now finding all available networks with the scan command
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CMD
scan
<2.03>
Found 6
Num
1
2
3
4
5
6
SSID
roving1
NETGEAR
07FX12018434
TheLoft
airlink-11
sensor
Ch
01
01
06
06
11
11
RSSI
-64
-58
-73
-51
-53
-52
Sec
Open
Open
WEP
WPA2PSK
WPAv1
Open
MAC Address
00:1c:df:4f:45:9e
00:22:3f:6b:95:42
00:18:3a:7e:71:d7
00:0c:41:82:54:19
00:18:02:70:7e:e8
00:1c:df:cc:aa:d8
Suites
104
104
1104
AESM-AES 1100
TKIPM-TKIP 3100
100
4
0
0
0
ac
1
If the network you’re connecting to is open, you can simply use the join command to associate with the access point. From the
scan list above you can see that roving1 is an open network access point. Type join roving1 to associate with an access point.
CMD
<2.03> join roving1
Auto-Assoc roving1 chan=1 mode=OPEN SCAN OK
<2.03> Associated!
DHCP in 1ms: Renew: 86400 s
IF is UP
DHCP=ON
IP=10.20.20.62:2000
NM=255.255.255.0
GW=10.20.20.20
HOST=0.0.0.0:2000
PROTO=2
MTU=1460
bind=10
listen FAIL
You could also have specified the roving1 access point by using the command join # 1
If the access point is security enabled you will need to set the pass phrase prior to issuing the join command. The RN-131G
module will attempt to inquire and determine the security protocol of the access point so you do not have to set the
authentication mode. To set the pass phrase for WPA use the command set wlan phrase <string>. For WEP set the key using
the set wlan key <num> command.
Once you have successfully associated to the network the access point SSID is stored. This along with the pass phrase can be
saved to the config file so the module can associate with the network each time it is booted up.
12.2
Making Connections
To make a connection into the module simply open an IP socket and connect to the IP address of the module. Telnet is a
simple way to test this connection. From in Telnet type open <addr> <port>. In the example above the telnet command you
look like open 10.20.20.62 2000. Once open you can type characters into the UART window and see them on the Telnet
window or vice versa.
To make a connection from the module you will need IP address and port number of your server application. A simple
program to test this functionality is a COM port redirector. This software opens an IP port and transfers all data it receives to a
specified COM port on your machine. A free com port redirector program is available from Pira at
http://www.pira.cz/eng/piracom.htm
After installing and starting this program, note the IP address of the machine it is running on. This can be found by running
ipconfig in the Microsoft command window.
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With the WiSnap module in command mode, type open <addr> <port>. The server will report the connection is open and you
can type characters into the UART window and see them on the server window or vice versa.
12.3
Setting up Automatic Connections
Some applications require the module to connect to a remote server, send data, and then disconnect automatically upon
power up (or wakeup). You can configure the module to perform this functionality automatically.
Set the network SSID and security, and set autojoin to 1. When the module wakes up or is powered on, the auto-connect timer
causes the module to attempt a connection to the stored remote IP address and port. The sleep timer does not decrement
while this connection is open and the idle timer does not decrement while data is flowing. When data stops for 5 seconds the
connection is closed; the sleep timer puts the module in deep sleep. The wake timer begins the cycle again one minute later.


12.4
NOTE: You can also use ad hoc mode (autojoin 4); however, there will be a delay connecting to the ad hoc network
from the remote computer. Therefore, make the sleep timer large enough to allow the network to get set up and the
auto-connect to establish a TCP connection.
Example: Automatic Connection
-
set ip host <address> - set up the remote machine’s IP address
-
set ip remote_port <value> - set up the remote machine’s IP port
-
set sys autoconn 1 - automatically connect when ready
-
set com idle 5 - disconnect after 5 seconds with no data activity
-
set sys sleep 2 - sleep 2 seconds after connection is closed
-
set sys wake 60 - wake up after 1 minute of sleep
-
set uart mode 2 - use UART data trigger mode, which causes the module to make a TCP/HTTP connection
upon incoming UART data (supported in firmware version 2.19 and higher)
Controlling Connections using PIO5 and PIO6
You can use GPIO5 to control the TCP connection. After you configure the pin with the set sys iofunc command, the module
attempts to connect to the stored IP address and port when GPIO5 goes high and disconnects when GPIO5 goes low.
Similarly, you can monitor the connection status by reading GPIO6. When it goes high, the connection is open; when it goes
low, the connection is closed. Use the command set sys iofunc command to enable GPIO6.

12.5
Example: Use GPIO6 & GPIO6 to Control Connections
-
set sys iofunc 0x20 - enable GPIO5
-
set sys iofunc 0x40 – enable GPIO6
Using DNS settings
The module contains a built-in DNS client. If you do not specify the host’s IP address, (i.e., it is set to 0.0.0.0), the module uses
DNS protocol. When you set the host name using the set dns name <string> command, the module automatically attempts to
resolve the host address. When the address is resolved, the module connects automatically.

Example: Use DNS
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-

set dns name myserver - sets the DNS host name of the TCP/IP connection to “myserver”. Once the address
is resolved an automatic connection will be made.
To manually lookup the IP address of a host, use this command:
-
12.6
lookup <string> - string is the hostname.
Utilizing the Backup IP address/connect function
The module contains a feature for auto-retry and redundancy. If the host’s first IP address connection fails, the module uses
the backup IP (if set). If this fails (or is not set), the module uses the first DNS name. If this fails (or is not set), the module uses
the backup DNS name (if set).
To set the backup IP address, use: set ip backup <address>
To set the backup DNS name, use: set dns backup <string>
13
Using HTML Client Feature
The WiSnap module has a built in HTML client. When enabled, the WiSnap module is capable of getting or posting data to a
web server. Using the HTML client, it is now possible to post serial and/or sensor data to the host web server. This feature
make is possible to provide Wi-Fi capabilities to applications such as GPS units, remote sensors, weather station, etc.

Example: User wants to retrieve data from web server with this format:

- http://www.webserver.com/ob.php?obvar=WEATHER
Settings:
-
set ip proto 18 - enable html client
-
set dns name www.webserver.com - name of your web server
-
set ip address 0 - so WiSnap will use DNS
-
set ip remote 80 - standard web server port
-
set com remote 0 - turn off the REMOTE string so it does not interfere with the post
To make the connection the command would be open or inline you can send open www.webserver.com 80.
The user’s microprocessor should write to the UART:
GET /ob.php?obvar=WEATHER \n\n where the \n is the LINEFEED character decimal 10 or hex 0xa.Two linefeeds are
required so the web server knows the page is complete.

13.1
NOTE: Some web servers require a carriage return and linefeed to indicate that the page is complete. In this case, use
\r\n at the end of the string instead of \n\n.
Built-in HTML Client Modes
WiSnap can be setup to automatically post data to and get data from a web server without any external HOST CPU. The
advanced web features are enabled using the set option format <flag> command. This is a bit mapped register. The functions
of the bits are described in the table below:
set option format <flag> Bitmapped value.
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Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

13.2
Wake Reason
Undefined
Power on or hardware reset (battery install or power up)
Sleep (wake when the sleep timer is expired)
Sensor
Undefined
Button (WiSnap-AAA serial adapter only)
Software reboot
Watchdog
Example:
-
set option format 1 - automatically send an HTML data header
-
set option format 7 - append sensor data in ASCII hex format
-
set option format 11 - append all key value pairs to the sensor data
Automatically periodically connect to web server
The WiSnap module can be setup to automatically post data to a web server using the set sys auto <value> command, where
<value> is a decimal number representing seconds. For example, the WiSnap module can be configured to connect to the web
server every 10 seconds by using the set sys auto 10.
The example below illustrates the commands to configure WiSnap for connecting to the web server every 30 seconds.
1)
2)
3)
4)
set com remote GET$/ob.php?obvar=WEATHER - setup the string


Note (1): when HTTP mode is set, the WiSnap automatically appends the \n\n to the end of the packet.
Note (2): if the html header contains spaces, the $ is required when entering the string. Space is the command
delimiter. When WiSnap command parser sees $ it will convert this to a SPACE character.
13.3
set sys auto 30 - auto connect every 30 seconds
set option format 1 - auto send header once connection is opened
set ip proto 18 - turn on HTTP mode=0x10 + TCP mode = 0x2
Automatically connect to web server on UART data
WiSnap supports a mode in which it can connect to the web server when it receives UART data. In this mode, connection to the
web server will be triggered on UART data.

Example:
-
set ip proto 18 - turn on HTTP mode=0x10 + TCP mode = 0x2
-
set dns name www.webserver.com - name of your web server
-
set ip address 0 - so WiSnap will use DNS
-
set ip remote 80 - standard web server port
-
set com remote GET$/userprog.php?DATA= - sample server application
-
set uart mode 2 - automatically connect using data TRIGGER mode
Then when the serial UART data comes in, WiSnap auto connects to the web server, and will automatically send
GET /userprog.php?DATA=<users serial data> \n\n
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
13.4
NOTE: If you attempt to send data by physically typing characters on the keyboard or if your microcontroller is not
sending data fast enough, the WiSnap module will send out small packets of data (It will send out many packets of
small MTU size). To avoid this, set the flush timer to a higher value. By default, it is set to 10 milliseconds. You can
extend the flush to a higher value (e.g. set comm. time 5000).
Posting binary data:
Web servers expect ASCII data, so if the User data is binary, WiSnap can convert binary data to ASCII format before sending it
to the web server.

Example:
-
set ip proto 18 - turn on HTTP mode=0x10 + TCP mode = 0x2
-
set dns name www.webserver.com - name of your web server
-
set ip address 0 - so WiSnap will use DNS
-
set ip remote 80 - standard web server port
-
set com remote GET$/userprog.php?DATA= - sample server application
-
set option format 1 - converts user binary data in ASCII hex format
If incoming UART data = 6 bytes of binary data with hex values 0x01 0xAB 0x03 0xFF 0x05 0x06 WiSnap will send this string to
the web server: GET /userprog.php?DATA=01AB03FF0506 \n\n
13.5
Auto posting sensor data:
WiSnap module can send the value of the GPIO and sensor pins:
The data will come as 18 bytes of ASCII HEX: <2 bytes GPIO><channel 0 thru 7 sensor data>








set ip proto 18 - turn on HTTP mode=0x10 + TCP mode = 0x2
set dns name www.webserver.com - name of your web server
set ip address 0 - so WiSnap will use DNS
set ip remote 80 - standard web server port
set com remote GET$/userprog.php?DATA= - sample server application
set q sensor 0xff - sets WiSnap to sample all 8 sensor channels
set sys auto 30 - auto make the connection every 30 seconds
set option format 7 - send the header plus the sampled binary data converted to ASCII format
The Resulting string sent to the server will be GET /userprog.php?DATA=0F3000001111222233334444555566667777\n\n
For the above example, the data format is listed in the table below:
2 Bytes
GPIO
0F30
13.6

Channel
0
0000
Channel
1
1111
Channel
2
2222
Channel
3
3333
Examples using the HTML client
Example #1: Auto posting sensor data:
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Channel
4
4444
Channel
5
5555
Channel
6
6666
Channel
7
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In this example, we will connect to the web server at www.rovingnetworks.com/mike.php?ID and send data “ID=1234” every
60 seconds. We will also append the sensor data to the “ID=1234”.
Set the network connections as described above. The other parameters that we need to set are described below:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
set dns name www.rovingnetworks.com - set up the URL of the server
set ip host 0 - instructs RN-370 to use DNS address of host server
set ip remote 80 - standard web server port
set ip proto 18 - enable HTTP and TCP protocols
set com remote GET$/mike.php?ID=1234 - set up the string
set sys auto 10 - auto connect every 10 seconds
set option format 7 - send header and sampled binary data converted to ASCII
set option sensor 0xFF - sets sensor mask to sample all channels
save - save the configurations in config file
reboot - reboot so that the settings take effect
Result:
You will receive a 200 OK returned from the web server as seen in the screenshot below:

Example #2: Posting UART data to web server
The WiSnap module is capable of auto posting serial UART data in ASCII or Binary format. In this example we will configure the
WiSnap module such that when the serial UART data comes in, the WiSnap will connect and automatically send data to the
web server in the following format: GET /mike.php?ID=<user serial data> \n\n
The other parameters that need to be set are described below:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
set dns name www.rovingnetworks.com - set up the URL of the server
set ip host 0 - instructs WiSnap to use DNS address of host server
set ip remote 80 - standard web server port
set ip proto 18 - enable HTTP mode = 0x10 and TCP = 0x20
set com remote GET$/mike.php?ID= - set up the string
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6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
set sys auto 10 - auto connect every 10 seconds
set option format 1 - send an HTML header
set uart mode 2 - automatically connect using data Trigger mode
save - save the configurations in config file
reboot - reboot so that the settings take effect
With the above settings enabled, the WiSnap module will connect out to the web server every time it receives data on the RX
line. Serial data is sent to the host web server according to the flush timer and the flush size.

14
NOTE: You cannot append the sampled sensor data to the UART data. Enabling “option format 7” along with set uart
mode 2 will result in erroneous data being sent.
Firmware Upgrade over FTP
The WiSnap module has a file system for storing firmware, web pages and config files. Use the ls command to view files. File
size is displayed in sectors and the active boot image is identified in the final message.
FL#
11
29
SIZ
18
1
FLAGS
3
10
WiSnap_GSX-2.21
config
190 Free, Boot=11, Backup=0
Multiple firmware images and config files can be stored on the module file system.

NOTE: The Flash File system is used only to store firmware and configuration files. Currently the file system cannot be
used to store data files.
14.1 FTP Upload and Upgrade
WiSnap contains a built in FTP client for getting files and updating the firmware. The client uses passive mode FTP, which
allows operation through firewalls and the Internet.
To download the latest firmware release, the following settings are required (but set by default):




FTP username = roving

NOTE: To use FTP to upgrade the firmware, WiSnap module has to be associated to an Access Point with internet
connectivity.
FTP password = Pass123
FTP filename = wifly-GSX.img (VARIES BY DEVICE - DO NOT CHANGE THIS SETTING)
FTP directory = ./public (this parameter cannot be modified)
To update the firmware, issue the following command: ftp upload <string> (<string> is an optional filename, use to bypass the
default firmware filename).
The ftp upload command will retrieve the file and switch the boot image to the new version.
<2.10> ftp update
<2.10> FTP connecting to 198.175.253.161
FTP file=30
.......................................................................
FTP OK.
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
NOTE: FTP IP Address may vary. Check with SerialIO for most up-to-date credentials.
The previous firmware will become the backup image. Here is an example of what you should see after a successful update:
FL#
SIZ
FLAGS
11
18
3
29
1
10
30
18
3
208 Free, Boot=30, Backup=11
WiSnap_GSX-2.20
config
WiSnap_GSX-2.21
Note the module must be rebooted or power cycled to use the new firmware. To boot a different firmware use the following
command: boot image <num> - sets the current boot image <num>. For example, to boot the previous image from above use
<2.20> boot image 11
Set Boot Image 11, =OK
To upload your own firmware or config file to the module, change the stored FTP settings: See section 5.5 for more details on
the FTP commands.
To upload your file, use following command:
 ftp get <string> - retrieves remote file with name <string>.
15
Ad Hoc Networking Mode
15.1
Infrastructure and Ad Hoc Comparison
There are two types of networks; infrastructure and ad hoc. Infrastructure networks, in which an access point links all Wi-Fi
devices, are the most common. The access point keeps track of devices on the local network and directs IP packets. In many
cases, the access point is also a router and forwards packets from the local network to the other networks and the internet. It
is also very common for the access point to run a DHCP server, which tracks and assigns IP addresses.
Ad hoc networks are point-to-point networks in that each Wi-Fi device is linked directly to every other Wi-Fi device on the ad
hoc network. There is no access point. All Wi-Fi devices on the ad hoc network participate in keeping the network alive and
each keeps track of the other active devices on the network by sending and receiving beacon and probe packets. In most
cases, IP addresses are assigned through automatic IP, although one of the Wi-Fi devices can be configured as a DHCP server.

NOTE: The units support ad hoc networking, however, ad hoc mode has been replaced with soft AP mode. Ad hoc
mode and soft AP mode are mutually exclusive and cannot operate at the same time. The support for these modes
resides in separate firmware images loaded on the module. By default, the units are shipped with the ad hoc mode
image to maintain backwards compatibility with existing applications.
15.2 Configuring Ad Hoc Mode
You can configure the module to setup an ad hoc network. This mode is useful for point-to-point communications. When in ad
hoc mode the device appears like an access point with which other Wi-Fi devices can associate.

NOTE: The module currently only supports the OPEN mode for creating ad hoc networks.
You can enable ad hoc mode via hardware or software commands.
15.3 Enable Ad Hoc Mode in Software
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To enable ad hoc mode in software, you use the set wlan command with the join, ssid, and chan parameters.
For example, type the following commands in command mode:
-
set wlan join 4
-
set wlan ssid my_adhoc_network
-
set wlan chan 1
Turn off DHCP so that the module does not attempt to obtain an IP address from another device, and set the module’s IP
address and netmask. Because an automatic IP assignment fixes the first two bytes of the IP address, use 255.255.0.0 as the
netmask so that other devices connecting to the module can be reached. You can also set the netmask to a smaller subnet if
the other device’s IP addresses begin statically at the same subnet as the ad hoc device.
-
set ip address 169.254.1.1
-
set ip netmask 255.255.0.0
-
set ip dhcp 0
Save your configuration and reboot. The module will be in ad hoc mode.
The module can associate with an ad hoc network created by another device. Type the following commands:
1) set wlan ssid my_adhoc_network
2) save
3) reboot
To associate with an ad hoc network without saving the changes to the module’s flash memory, use the join command, e.g.,
join my_adhoc_network<cr>. If the module was already associated with another network, you must first disassociate with it
using the leave command.
If DHCP is enabled, the WiSnap device obtains IP address automatically when it associates with the ad hoc network. By
definition, auto IP sets the first two bytes of the subnet to 169.254.xxx.xxx. The WiSnap device requires 2 to 3 seconds to
resolve the IP address.
To set the IP address statically, disable DHCP and explicitly assign the IP address:
-
set ip dhcp 0
-
set ip address 169.254.1.2
You can confirm that the device has properly associated with the ad hoc network using the ping command:
-
ping 168.254.1.1 10
You can associate with the ad hoc network from a computer by specifying the network name (and password, if required) in the
operating system. For example, choose Control Panel > Networking and Sharing > Networking and Sharing Center. You can
then view available networks and select the name of the WiSnap ad hoc network.

NOTE: Once associated with the ad hoc network, Windows may require a few minutes to allocate an IP address. To
work around this, assign a static IP address under Network Settings > TCP/IP > Properties.
Once your computer is associated with the ad hoc network, you can use the module’s IP address to open a connection or
connect using telnet as you would with an enterprise connection.
15.4 Scanning for Access Points in Ad Hoc Mode
The module supports ad hoc infrastructure network modes, but not simultaneously. Scanning for wireless networks is a
function of infrastructure mode. Therefore, the module disables ad hoc mode before scanning.
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With firmware version 2.22 and higher, the module can scan for networks while in ad hoc mode. Issuing the scan command
temporarily disables ad hoc mode while the module is scanning. Ad hoc mode is restored automatically when the scan
completes. If you are connected to the module over telnet, the scan result is sent over telnet and ad hoc mode is restored.
15.5 Enable Ad Hoc Mode in Hardware
To enable ad hoc mode using hardware, set GPIO0 high (3.3V) at power up. For the RN134 board, GPIO9 is on pin 1 on the
jumper block (J2). For the RN174 board, GPIO9 is on the J6 connector. Upon power up with GPIO9 high, the WiSnap module
creates an ad hoc network with the following settings:
SSID:
Channel:
DHCP:
IP address:
Netmask:
WiFly-GSX-XX, where XX is the final two bytes of the device’s MAC address
1
OFF
169.254.1.1
255.255.0.0
With the ad hoc jumper in place, these settings override any current saved configuration settings.
16
Access Point Networking Mode
SerialIO WiSnap modules support several methods for configuring Wi-Fi networks. In addition to infrastructure mode, hot spot
mode, and Ad-Hoc mode (2.36 firmware or earlier), modules with firmware version 2.45 can support access point (AP) mode.
Currently, Access Point mode acts as a replacement to Ad-Hoc mode.
Access Point Mode provides many advantages over ad-hoc mode. In Access Point mode:
 The module creates a soft AP network to which Android devices (smartphones and tablets) can join. At the time this
document was authored, android devices do not fully support ad-hoc networking.
 The module runs a DHCP server and issues IP addresses to up to seven clients, which is much faster than automatic IP
in Ad-Hoc mode.
 iOS devices prioritize Access Points over Ad-Hoc networks.
 The module supports routing between clients
Before enabling AP mode, you must load firmware that supports it. You can get your version by typing ver while in CMD mode.
You must change the version to 2.45 to use AP mode. You change the module’s firmware image using the boot image <value>
command. After you change the boot image, you MUST reset the module back to the factory defaults using the factory RESET
and reboot commands. You can obtain the firmware images from the update FTP site. See “Upgrading Firmware via FTP” for
instructions on how to download and install the firmware. Please note that initiating a factory RESET will result in “breaking”
the embedded genuine WiSnap license and may cause compatibility issues with other SerialIO products.
The following sections describe how to use AP mode with WiSnap products, including configuring the module to act as an
Access Point, enabling Access Point mode in hardware and software, and sending data to the module from a remote host.
16.1 Enabling AP Mode
There are two methods for enabling AP mode, hardware and software, as described in the following sections.
16.1.1 Enable in Hardware
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To enable Access Point mode in hardware, hold GPIO9 high at 3.3 V and then reboot (or power cycle) the module. The module
boots up in Access Point mode with the DHCP server enabled.
The table below displays the default Access Point Mode Settings:
Setting
SSID
Channel
DHCP Server
IP Address
Netmask
Gateway
AP Mode Default
WiSnapAP-XX, where XX is the last two bytes of the module’s MAC address
1
Enabled
1.2.3.4
255.255.255.0
1.2.3.4
When the module boots, other Wi-Fi enabled devices (PCs, iPhones, iPads, Android Tablets, Android Phones, etc.) should be
able to see the module when they scan for access points.

NOTE: SerialIO recommends setting the WiSnap module as the gateway when creating a point- to-point network
between devices. (Wi-Fi network only).
If devices such as smartphones and tablets (iPads, Android tablets, etc.) with a WAN connection associate to the soft AP
network, SerialIO recommends setting the gateway to 0. This setting lets these smartphones route the data from Wi-Fi to the
3G or 4G WAN network.
16.1.2 Enable in Software
You enable Access Point mode in software using the set wlan join 7 command. You can customize network settings such as the
SSID, channel, and IP address in software to create a custom AP mode. For example, the following commands create a custom
AP mode in software:
1) set wlan join 7 - enable AP mode
2) set wlan channel <value> - specify the channel to create network
3) set wlan ssid <string> - set network ssid
4) set ip dhcp 4 - enable DHCP server
5) set ip address <address> - specify the IP address
6) set ip net <address> - specify the subnet mask
7) set ip gateway <address> - specify the gateway IP
8) save - save settings
9) reboot - reboot the module in AP mode
After rebooting, the module is in Access Point mode.
16.2 Using Access Point Mode
The following sections describe how to use Access Point mode, including connecting to the module, checking for the last device
connected over TCP, viewing associated devices, enabling the link monitor, and routing data between clients.
16.2.1 Connect to the Module
Once the module boots up in Access Point mode, any client device can associate with the network being broadcasted by the
module. Once associated, the module’s DHCP server assigns an IP address to the client device.
The default lease time is 1 day, i.e., 86,400 seconds. You can configure the lease time using the set dhcp lease <value>
command, where <value> is the time in seconds. To view a list of devices associated with the module, use the show lease
command. The command output is in the following format with commas delimiting the fields:
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IP address assigned
Client MAC address
Remaining lease time (in seconds)
Host name
show lease command example output:
<2.45> show lease
1.2.0.10.1a:2b:3c:4d:5e:6f,86392,mydevice-12345678f
1.2.0.11,f6,e5,d4,c3,b2,a1,80153,*
1.2.0.12,00:00:00:00:00:00,0,
1.2.0.13,00:00:00:00:00:00,0,
1.2.0.14,00:00:00:00:00:00,0,
1.2.0.15,00:00:00:00:00:00,0,

NOTE: In AP mode, the module can assign a DHCP lease to 7 clients. However, not all clients report the host name. In
this case, the module reports that name as an asterisk (*).
Once a client is associated to the network, it can open a TCP connection to the module. After successfully opening a TCP
connection, the client receives a *HELLO* message. The module prints *OPEN* on the UART, indicating an open TCP
connection.
Check for the Last Connected Device over TCP
In some cases, it is beneficial to know the IP address of the last device that connected to the module over TCP or the last device
to which the module connected over TCP. To find this address, use the show z command. This command does not survive a
power cycle or reboot.
Upon power up, if no device is connected over TCP, the show z command returns 0.0.0.0.
View Associated Devices
To see a list of devices associated with the module, use the show associated command. The command output is in the
following format with commas delimiting the fields:
Connection
number
Host MAC
address
Received
byte count
Transmitted
byte count
Seconds since last packet
received
show associated command example output:
<2.45> show associated
1,f0:cb:a1:2b:63:59, 36868,0,7
2.00:24:8c:31:e5:27:76168,0,2
3,98:4b:6b:e0:0f,1992,0,0
<2.45>
You can use the Seconds since last packet received output to check for stale connections.
Enable the Link Monitor
AP mode supports a link monitor feature. The Link monitor is a timer (in seconds) that checks to see if any packets are received
from an associated device. When the timer expires, the AP module de- authenticates the client(s).
You enable the link monitor using the set wlan link <value>, where <value> is the link monitor timer in seconds.
 NOTE: It is recommended that you set the link monitor timer value to at least 300 seconds to avoid de-authenticating
clients frequently.
Route Data between Clients
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AP mode supports routing between clients. Clients can ping each other via the AP module and can also send data to each other
over TCP and UDP.
 set sys iofunc 0x70 - enables alternative functions
 set wlan linkmon 60 - enables link monitor feature required for alternative functions
The link monitor feature must be enabled to turn on the alternative functions in soft AP mode only. The table below shows the
GPIO alternative functions.
GPIO
GPIO
GPIO4
GPIO5
GPIO6
17
Description
Role in alternative function
High when the first client associates; low when all clients leave the network
WiSnap module can drive it high to open a TCP connection to a stored host. When the
module drives GPIO5 low, it closes the TCP connection
WiSnap module drives it high when a TCP connection is open; low when TCP connection
is closed
WI-FI Protected Setup (WPS)
Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) is a standard for easy and secure establishment of a wireless home network. This standard was
created by the Wi-Fi Alliance launched on January 8, 2007.
The goal of WPS protocol is to simplify the process of configuring security on wireless networks. The protocol is meant to allow
home users who know little of wireless security and may be intimidated by the available security options to configure Wi-Fi
Protected Access, which is support by all newer Wi-Fi certified devices (but not older Wi-Fi devices).
The most common mode of WPS is the Push Button Mode (PBC) in which the user simply pushes a button on both the access
point and the wireless client (e.g., the WiSnap module).
The module supports the WPS feature in firmware version 2.28 and higher. To upgrade to the current firmware version and
download the WPS application, refer to the WPS application note on the manufacturer’s support page at
http://www.rovingnetworks.com/Support_Overview.

NOTE: Modules that ship with firmware version 2.28 or higher already have the WPS application. You can confirm
whether your module has the application using the ls command.
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Launching a WPS Application
There are two ways to invoke a WPS function:


Using the wps command in the console.
Using the ad hoc/factory reset pin (GPIO9).
To invoke a WPS function using the ad hoc/factory reset mode:
1. Enable the WPS function on GPIO9 using the set system trigger 0x10 command. WPS on GPIO9 is disabled by default
to avoid accidentally invoking the WPS function.
2. The WPS application is invoked when GPIO9 goes from low to high. You can enable this mode on the RN-134 and RN174 boards by installing and removing the ad hoc/factory reset jumper.
When the WPS application exists, it reboots the module to associate with the WPS-enabled access point. If GPIO9 is high, the
module boots in ad hoc mode. Care must be taken to drive GPIO9 low before the module reboots. A good indicator is the red
LED on the RN-134 and RN-174 boards. When the LED flashes, indicating the module is scanning for a WPS-enabled access
point, you should drive GPIO9 low.
By default, the WPS code prints messages on the UART as it scans channels, detects access points, and tries to complete WPS.
You can disable these messages using the set sys print 0 command.
Status LEDs during WPS Process
In WPS mode, the LEDs indicate activity:


The red LED flashes while the module is scanning for WPS-enabled access points.

If the module is set to use the standard GPIO functions (i.e., not the alternate GPIO4 functions), the green LED blinks
once per second. If the alternate GPIO4 function is enabled, the green LED goes high.
The yellow LED goes on solid while negotiation is in progress with a WPS-enabled access point. If the process is
successful, the WPS application quits and the module reboots.
Scan Output Format Showing WPS-Enabled Access Point
The scan output shows access points that support the WPS feature. As shown below, access points that support WPS are listed
with WPSPB in the security suites.
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If you press the WPS button on the access point and then perform a scan, the scan returns a –A to indicate the access point is
in WPS active mode.
Scan Showing Access Points in WPS Active Mode
18
Analog Sensor Capability
The WiSnap module has 8 analog sensor inputs that can be driven between 0 to 1.2-V DC. You can sample the analog inputs
and read digital value using the show q <value> command, where <value> is a decimal number representing the channel.

Warning: Driving these inputs above 1.2 V can permanently damage the module.
Input voltage range: 0 - 1.2 V, however the A2D saturates at 400mV. Resolution:
Sampling frequency: 35us
Accuracy:
5% un-calibrated
14 bits = 12uV
The accuracy of each analog sensor reading can be offset by up to 5% due to variation from chip to chip. To improve accuracy it
is recommend using a precision reference voltage on one of the analog inputs to calculate the offset. The offset will be the
same for all analog inputs.
 For example:
-
drive precision 200mV reference on analog input 4.
-
read analog input 4 and compute the offset.
If you read 210mv you would know that the offset is +10mv. When you read input 5 you would subtract 10mv from the result.
To read a sensor pin, send the following command:
show q <channel>
Channel is the analog sensor input from 0 to 7. The value for the analog sensor input is measured in microvolts and is returned
as 8xxxxx. The 8 in front is a start marker.
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You can also sample multiple channels by using a bit mask: show q 0x1<mask> where mask is a bit mask of the channels.
 For example, to read channels 0, 1, and 7, send the show q 0x183 command.
The return values are the format: 8<chan0>, 8<chan1>, 8<chan7>\r\n
Automatic sampling of sensor pins:
The sensor pins can be automatically sampled and data forwarded in two modes:
1) The UDP broadcast packet will contain the value of the samples.
2) In HTTP mode, the pin sampled data can be forwarded to a remote server
To enable the above modes, use the set q sensor <mask> command.
 For example, to sample all sensors inputs, use the set q sensor 0xff command.
Using the Built-In Sensor Power
WiSnap modules contain an onboard Sensor power pin, which is controlled by the set q sensor <mask> command. <mask> is a
bit mask value that determines which sensor pins to sample when sending data using the UDP broadcast packet or the HTTP
auto-sample function.
NOTE: In versions of firmware prior to 2.23, this command is named set option sensor. Firmware versions 2.23 and higher
support the set q power <value> command. This command sets an 8-bit register with two 4 bit nibbles that automatically turns
on the sensor power.
ON BOARD TEMPERATURE OPTION (RN-121-TEMP ONLY)
show q t
The return values are the format: T=207\r\n - this would be 20.7° C.
show q t 1 - enables automatic sampling and output once per second.
show q t 0 - turns off automatic sampling and output of temperature.
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19
Default Configuration Settings
AD-HOC PARAMETERS
Parameter
Beacon
Probe
Reboot
Default
102 (milliseconds) for ad hoc mode only
5 (seconds to look for beacons before declaring ad hoc is lost) for ad hoc mode only
0, for ad hoc mode only
BROADCAST PARAMETERS
Parameter
IP address
Port
Interval
Backup address
Backup port
Default
255.255.255.255
55555
7 (seconds)
0.0.0.0
0
COMM PARAMETERS
Parameter
Close string
Open string
Remote string
Flush size
Match character
Flush timer
Idle timer
Cmd char
Default
*OPEN*
*CLOS*
*HELLO*
1420
0
10 (milliseconds)
0
$
DNS PARAMETERS
Parameter
IP address
Name
Backup
Lease
Default
0.0.0.0 dns1
rn.microchip.com
86400 for soft AP mode only
FTP PARAMETERS
Parameter
Server address
File
User
Password
Dir
Timeout
FTP mode
Default
0.0.0.0
Firmware only:
wifly-GSX-<version>.img (RN131)
wifly-EZX-<version>.img (RN171)
Firmware and applications:
wifly3-<version>.mif (RN131)
wifly7-<version>.mif (RN171)
roving
Pass123
public
200
0x0
IP PARAMETERS
Parameter
DHCP
IP address
Net mask
Local port
Default
ON (1 = enabled)
0.0.0.0
255.255.255.0
2000
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Gateway
Host
Remote port
Protocol
MTU
Flags
TCP mode
Backup
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
2000
2 (TCP server and client)
1524
0x7
0x0
0.0.0.0
OPTIONAL PARAMETERS
Parameter
Device ID
Join timer/WPA timer
Replacement char
Format
Password
Signal
Average
Default
WiFly-GSX
1000
$ (0x24)
0x00
“” (no password enforced)
0
5
SYSTEM PARAMETERS
Parameter
Sleep timer
Wake timer
Trigger
Auto connect
IOfunc
IOmask
IOvalue
Print level
Debug Register
LaunchString
Default
0
0
0x1 (SENS0 pin wakes up the device)
0
0x0 (No alternate functions)
0x2F0 (for RN131) / 0x21F0 (for RN171)
0x0
0x1 (Print enabled)
0x0 (Unused parameter for future development. Leave at default value)
web_app
TIME SERVER PARAMETERS
Parameter
Enable
Server address
Zone
Default
0 (disabled)
64.90.182.55 (fixed to port 123 – SNTP protocol)
7 (Pacific time, USA)
UART PARAMETERS
Parameter
Baudrate
Flow
Mode
Cmd GPIO
Default
9600
0 (disabled)
0
0
WLAN PARAMETERS
Parameter
SSID
Channel
External Antenna
Join mode
Authentication mode
Mask
Rate
Linkmon
Default
roving1
0 (Automatic scan)
0 (Off – use on-board chip antenna for RN131 only)
1 (Automatically scan and join based on SSID) for firmware version 2.36 (ad hoc mode)
and lower
0 for firmware version 2.45 (soft AP mode) and higher
OPEN
0x1FFF (All channels)
12 (24Mbit)
0
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Passphrase
TX Power
rubygirl
0 (which implies 12 dBm. Applicable to RN171 module only)
String Variable Sizes
The tables below provide the string variable sizes for the listed parameters:
FTP PARAMETERS
Parameter
file
user
pass
dir
Value (Bytes)
32
16
16
32
WLAN PARAMETERS
Parameter
ssid
phrase
Value (Bytes)
32
64
DNS PARAMETERS
Parameter
DNS host name
DNS backup host name
Value (Bytes)
64
64
COMM PARAMETERS
Parameter
open
close
remote
deviceid
19.1
Value (Bytes)
32
32
64
32
Restoring Default configuration settings:
You can restore the default factory configuration settings in software and hardware.

Software—In command mode, use the factory RESET command to restore the defaults. This command automatically
loads the default settings and executes a save command. Next, send the reboot command so that the module reboots
with the default configuration.

Hardware—Set GPIO9 high on power up to arm the factory reset function. Then toggle GPIO9 five (5) times, which
restores the configuration to the factory reset. GPIO9 is sampled at about 1 Hz; therefore, if you are using a CPU to
generate the signal, make sure that GPIO9 transitions (high to low or low to high) are at least 1 second long.
You can specify a user configuration file as the factory reset settings. Prior to this firmware version only the hardcoded factory
defaults would be restored. If you have stored a configuration file named user, the module reads it as the factory default
instead of using the factory hardcoded defaults. If no user configuration file is present, the module uses the hardcoded factory
defaults.
You create the user configuration file using the save user command, which saves the current configuration settings into a file
named user.
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Even if a user configuration file exists, arming and toggling GPIO9 7 times overrides the user settings and restores the module
to the factory hardcoded defaults. This bypass mechanism allows you to restore the factory defaults in case a bad
configuration is saved into the user file.
Issuing the factory RESET command while in command mode restores the module to a factory default state.

20
NOTE:
You must reboot the module or reset it for the new settings to take effect.
Boot-up Timing Values
The table below shows the boot-up timing values:
Function
Power up
Initialization
Ready
Join
Authentication
Acquire IP
Description
Power up the time from reset high or power good to boot code loaded.
Initialize ECOS
Load configuration and initialize application.
Associate using channel = 0 (full channel scan, mask = 0x1FFF).
Associate using channel = 0 (primary channel scan, mask = 0x421).
Associate using channel = X (fixed channel).
Authenticate using WPA1 or WPA2 (highly dependent on access point response).
DHCP obtain IP address (highly dependent on DHCP server response time).
Time (ms)
70
50
30
80
15
5 – 20
50 – 250
AP dependent
Supported 3rd Party Access Points
21
For information regarding putting your WiSnap device in Access Point mode, please see the section on Access Point
Networking Mode.

NOTE: Access points that are set to MIXED mode (WPA1 and WPA2) may cause problems during association because
some of these incorrectly report their security mode.
The WiSnap module does not currently support WPA2-Enterprise (radius server authentication, EAP- TLS)
The WiSnap should work with any standard Access Point. We have tested the WiSnap with the following access points:









Cisco Aeronet series
Linksys (both standard and openWRT Linux)
Netgear WGR614 v8
Netgear WGN54
D-Link DIR-615
Airlink 101
Apple Airport Express
Buffalo Networks
AD-HOC MODE (Apple iPhone, Microsoft Windows PC with XP, Vista, Ubuntu Linux)
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22
Command List
The tables below provide a listing of all available commands and their defaults. For more detailed information, refer to the
“Command Reference.”
Set commands
Command
Default
Description
set adhoc beacon <value>
set adhoc probe <value>
set adhoc reboot <value>
set broadcast address <address>
set broadcast backup <address>
set broadcast interval <mask>
102
5
0
255.255.255.255
0.0.0.0
7
set broadcast port <value>
set broadcast remote <port>
set comm $ <char>
set comm close <string>
55555
0
$
*CLOS*
set comm idle <value>
set comm match <value> | <hex>
set comm open <string>
0
0
*OPEN*
set comm remote <string>
*HELLO*
set comm size <value>
set comm time <value>
set dhcp lease <value>
set dns address <address>
set dns backup <string>
set dns name <string>
set ftp addr <address>
set ftp dir <string>
set ftp filename <filename>
64
5
86400
0.0.0.0
rn.michrochip.com
server1
0.0.0.0
public
See description
set ftp pass <string>
set ftp mode <mask>
Pass123
0x0
set ftp remote <value>
set ftp time <value>
21
200
set ftp user <string>
set ip address <address>
set ip backup <address>
set ip dhcp <value>
set ip flags <mask>
set ip gateway <address>
set ip host <address>
set ip localport <value>
set ip netmask <address>
set ip protocol <flag>
roving
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
1
0x7
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
2000
255.255.255.0
2
Sets the ad hoc beacon interval in milliseconds.
Sets the ad hoc probe timeout in seconds (ad hoc mode only).
Sets the reboot timer.
Sets the address to which the UDP hello/heartbeat message is sent.
Sets the secondary broadcast backup address.
Sets the interval (in seconds) at which the hell0/heartbeat UDP message
is sent.
Sets the port to which the UDP hello/heartbeat message is sent.
Sets the secondary broadcast port.
Sets character used to enter command mode to <char>.
Sets the ASCII string that is sent to the local UART when the TCP port is
closed.
Sets the idle timer value in seconds.
Sets the match character in hex or decimal.
Sets the ASCII string that is sent to the local UART when the TCP port is
opened.
Sets the ASCII string that is sent to the remote TCP client when the TCP
port is opened.
Sets the flush size in bytes.
Sets the flush timer.
Sets the soft AP mode DHCP lease time in seconds.
Sets the IP address of the DNC server.
Sets the name of the backup host for TCP/IP connections to <string>.
Sets the name of the host for TCP/IP connections to <string>.
Sets the FTP server’s IP address of the FTP server.
Sets the starting directory on the FTP server.
Sets the name of the file that is transferred when issuing the ftp u
command, where <filename> is the firmware image.
Default firmware is:
wifly-GSX.img (RN131
wifly-EZX.img (RN171)
Sets the password for accessing the FTP server.
Sets the ftp mode, where <mask> indicates active or passive mode.
Default is passive.
Sets the FTP server’s remote port number.
Sets the FTP timeout value, where <value> is a decimal number that is
five times the number of seconds required.
Sets the user name for accessing the FTP server.
Sets the WiSnap module’s IP address.
Sets a secondary host IP address.
Enables/disables DHCP mode.
Sets the TCP/IP functions.
Sets the gateway IP address.
Sets the remote host’s IP address.
Sets the local port number.
Sets the network mask.
Sets the IP protocol.
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set ip remote <value>
set ip tcp-mode <mask>
2000
0x0
set opt average <value>
5
set opt deviceid <string>
WiFly-XXX
set opt format <flag>
set opt jointmr <value>
0x00
1000
set opt replace <char>
$ (0x24)
set opt password <string>
“” (no password
required)
0
0
0
set opt signal <value>
set q power <value>
set q sensor <mask>
set sys autoconn <value>
set sys autosleep <value>
set sys iofunc <mask>
set sys launch_string <string>
set sys mask <mask>
set sys printlvl <value>
0
0
0x0
web_app
0x20F0 (RN131)
0x21F0 (RN171)
0x1
set sys output <mask> <mask>
None
set sys sleep <value>
set sys trigger <flag> or <mask>
0
0x1
set sys value <mask>
set sys wake <value>
set time address <address>
set time enable <value>
0x0
0
64.90.182.55
0
set time port <value>
set time raw <value>
set uart baud <value>
123
None
9600
set uart flow <value>
set uart instant <value>
0
Not applicable
set uart mode <mask>
set uart raw <value>
set uart tx <value>
set wlan auth <value>
set wlan channel <value> <flag>
0
Not applicable
Not applicable
0
0
set wlan ext_antenna <value>
0
set wlan fmon <value>
3600
set wlan id <string>
set wlan hide <value>
set wlan join <value>
set wlan key <value>
0
1|0
Not applicable
Sets the remote host port number.
Controls the TCP connect timers, DNS preferences, and remote
configuration options.
Sets the number of RSSI samples used to calculate the running RSSI
average.
Sets the configurable device ID, where XXX is GSX for the RN131 and EZX
for the RN171.
Sets the HTTP client/web server information.
Sets the join timer, which is the length of time (in ms) the join function
waits for the access point to complete the association process.
Sets the replacement character you use to indicate spaces in the SSID
and pass phrases, where <char> is a single character.
Sets the TCP connection password.
Configures the threshold level for the RSSI value in infrastructure mode.
Automatically turns on the sensor power.
Specifies which sensor pins to sample when sending data using the UDP
broadcast packet or the HTTP auto sample function.
Sets the auto-connect timer in TCP mode.
Sets the auto-sleep timer in UDP mode.
Sets the I/O port alternate functions.
Sets the application to launch when GPIO9 is high after power up.
Sets the I/O port direction.
Controls the debug print messages printed by the WiSnap module on the
UART.
Sets the output GPIO pins high or low. The optional <mask> sets a subset
of the pins.
Sets the sleep timer.
With this parameter setting, the module wakes from sleep state using
the sensor input 0, 1, 2, and 3.
Sets the default value of the CPIO pins’ outputs upon power-up.
Sets the automatic wake timer in seconds.
Sets the time server address.
Tells the module how often to fetch the time from the specified SNTP
time server in minutes.
Sets the time server port number.
Allows you to set the RTC raw value from the console in seconds.
Sets the UART baud rate, where <value> is 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200,
38400, 57600, 115200, 230400, 460800, or 921600.
Sets the flow control mode and parity.
Immediately changes the baud rate, where <value> is 2400, 4800, 9600,
19200, 38400, 57600, 115200, 230400, 460800, or 921600.
Sets the UART mode register.
Sets a raw UART value.
Disables or enables the UART’s TX pin (GPIO10), where <value> is 1 or 0.
Sets the authentication mode.
Sets the WLAN channel, where <value> is a decimal number from 1 to 13
representing a fixed channel and <flag> is the optional character i
(meaning immediate).
Determines which antenna is active, where <value> is 0 (use the chip
antenna) or 1 (us the U.FL connector).
Sets the soft AP mode link monitor timeout threshold for the associated
client device.
Reserved for future use.
Hides the WEP key and WPA passphrase, where <value> is 0 or 1.
Sets the policy for automatically associating with network access points.
Sets the 128-bit WEP key, where <value> is EXACTLY 26 ASCII chars (13
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set wlan linkmon <value>
0 (disabled)
set wlan mask <mask>
set wlan phrase <string>
set wlan number <value>
set wlan rate <value>
set wlan ssid <string>
set wlan tx <value>
0x1FFF (all
channels)
rubygirl
0
12
roving1
0
set wlan user <string>
-
bytes) in hex without the preceding 0x.
Sets the link monitor timeout threshold, where <value> is a decimal
number representing the number of failed scans before the module
declares AP is Lost and de-authenticates.
Sets the WLAN channel mask, which is used for scanning channels with
auto-join policy 1 or 2.
Sets the passphrase for WPA and WPA2 security modes.
Sets the WEP key number.
Sets the wireless data rate.
Sets the SSID with which the module associates.
Sets the Wi-Fi transmit power, where <value> is a decimal number from
1 to 12 that corresponds to 1 to 12 dBm.
Reserved for future use.
Get Commands
Command
get adhoc
get broadcast
get com
get dns
get everything
get ftp
get ip <char>
get mac
get option
get sys
get time
get wlan
get uart
ver
Description
Displays the ad hoc settings.
Displays the broadcast UDP address, port, and interval.
Displays the communication settings.
Displays the DNS settings.
Displays all of the configuration settings, which is useful for debugging.
Displays the FTP settings.
Displays the IP address and port number settings, where <char> is the optional parameter a. Using
<char> returns the current IP address.
Displays the device’s MAC address.
Displays the optional settings such as the device ID.
Displays the system settings, sleep and wake timers, etc.
Displays the time server UDP address and port number.
Displays the SSID, channel, and other WLAN settings.
Displays the UART settings.
Displays the firmware version.
Status Commands
Command
show battery
show connection
show io
show net <char>
show q <value>
Show q 0x1 <mask>
show rssi
show stats
show time
Description
Displays the current battery voltage, and is only applicable to Roving Network’s battery-powered
products, such as the RN370 and temperature sensors (ISENSOR-CB).
Displays the connection status in the hex format 8<XYZ>.
Displays the GPIO pins’ level status in the hex format 8<ABC>.
Displays the current networks status, association, authentication, etc., where <char> is the optional
parameter n. Using the n parameter displays only the MAC address of the access point with which the
module is currently associated.
Displays the value of the analog interface pin, where <value> is 0 to 7.
Displays multiple analog interface values simultaneously.
Displays the last received signal strength.
Displays the current statistics, packet RX/TX counters, etc.
Displays the number of seconds since the module was last powered up or rebooted.
Action Commands
Command
$$$
apmode <bssid> <channel>
close
exit
factory RESET
Description
Use this command to enter command mode.
Creates a soft AP network.
Disconnects a CTP connection.
Exits command mode.
Loads the factory defaults into the module’s RAM and writes the settings to the standard configuration
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file. You must type the word RESET in capital letters.
Instructs the WiSnap module to join the network indicated by <string>.
Use this command to join a network that is shown in the scan list, where <value> is the entry number
listed for the network in the scan list.
Disconnects the module from the access point to which it is currently associated.
Causes the module to perform a DNS query for host name <string>.
Opens a TCP connection to <address>, where <value> is the port number.
Pings a remote host, where <string> is a parameter setting and <value> is the number of pings. The
default is 1 packet.
Forces the module to reboot (similar to a power cycle).
Runs an application using ASCII commands.
Performs an active probe scan of access points on all 13 channels. The default is 200ms/channel.
Puts the module to sleep.
Sets the real-time clock by synchronizing with the time server specified with the time server (set time)
parameters.
join <string>
join # <value>
leave
lookup <string>
open <address> <value>
ping <string> <value>
reboot
run
scan <value> <char>
sleep
time
File I/O Commands
Command
Description
del <string> <value>
load <string>
ls
save <string>
boot image <value>
ftp update <string>
Deletes a file.
Reads in a new configuration file.
Displays the files in the system.
Saves your configuration settings to a file.
Makes a file represented by <value> the new boot image.
Deletes the backup image file, retrieves a new image file, and updates the boot pointer to the new
image.
<option> is:
r = download the firmware only and do not set as boot image.
u = download the firmware and set as boot image.
c = clean the file system before performing firmware update.
ftp <option> <filename>
23 Release Notes
23.1 Known problems
 Flow control—RTS may fail to de-assert quickly enough for some high-speed CPUs to stop sending data bytes correctly. For
high-speed transfers at baud rates greater than 460,800, Roving Networks recommends limiting the RX data to the maximum
Ethernet frame (1,460 bytes) and using a protocol to acknowledge that the remote host receives the data.
 The UART does not support odd or even parity; only no parity is supported.
23.2 Current Firmware features and fixes
As of version 4.41 11/25/2013
 Firmware update over UART using XMODEM 1K protocol.
 Added new optional parameters in FTP update and XMODEM:
o
o
ftp <option> <filename>
xmodem <option> <filename>, where <option> is

r = download the firmware only. Do not set as boot image (if firmware integrity checks pass).

u = download the firmware and set as booth image (if firmware integrity check pass).

c = clean the file system before performing firmware update over FTP or XMODEM 1K protocol. This will delete
all the files on the Flash file system (including user defined configuration files) except the current boot image and
the factory default boot image.
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 Added WPA2-PSK personal security to soft AP mode. The soft AP commands are organized as follows:
o
o
o
set ap ssid <string>
set ap passphrase <string>
set ap link_monitor <time in seconds>
 Added a new command to invoke a temporary soft AP network (does not survive sleep or power cycle
o
Apmode <ssid> <channel> <passphrase> where:

<channel> optional parameter. Sets the channel to create the soft AP network. Defaults to channel 1.

<passphrase> optional parameter, must be eight characters or more. Enables soft AP secure mode.
 Deprecated set wlan fmon <time in seconds> command
 Added updates to configuration of web server:
o
o
o
Added the ability to configure the module for infrastructure and soft AP mode.
Updated web pages for better display on mobile devices.
Added a timeout message to indicate the web server timed out.
 Removed the ability to handle special characters such as tab, carriage return, new line, and space on command line in web_app
ONLY. All special characters are delimited with a backslash character (\) followed by a single character. The following special
characters are supported:
o \n = New line
o \r = Carriage return
o \s – Space
o \t = Tab
 Added a new command to resolve the DNS name during ping:
o
Ping d<domain> - resolves the domain name and ping.

Example: ping dgoogle.com
 Added the ability to allow for scanning networks on channel 13 and 14.
 In the scenario of multiple access points having the same SSID and passphrase, added the ability to scan and pick the strongest
access point during the association process.





Fixed a bug where the show rssi command would occasionally return 0dBm.








Fixed an issue where the http request GET and POST parameters were being URL decoded too soon, resulting in errors.
Fixed an issue where the scan command would return zero results in the first try.
Fixed an issue that would occasionally cause the module to watchdog reset during the FTP firmware update process.
Fixed an issue that would occasionally cause an “ERR-Malformed” error message during the FTP update process.
Fixed an issue in the show connection command output where the prefix 8 was incremented in infrastructure mode. This has
now been fixed and the output is 8XXX.
Fixed an issue where the leave command would not respond with the Deauth string over the UART.
Fixed an issue where the module would occasionally get watchdog errors when configured in HTTP client mode.
Changed the default IP address of the module from 1.2.3.4 to 192.168.1.1 in soft AP mode.
Fixed an issue where the FTP close string would occasionally leave the module in a hung state.
Fixed an issue where the module would send an invalid Deauth frame to the clients in soft AP mode.
Fixed an issue that could cause the boot image to be invalidated under certain improper power up conditions.
Fixed an issue that could cause the module to be bricked due to corruption in the config file caused during improper pwer supply
during the process of saving the config file to Flash.
As of version 4.00.1 04/19/2013
 Added a new feature to indicate the number of clients associated with the module in soft AP mode in the UART heartbeat
message.
 Fixed an issue in which the GPIO4, 5, and 6 alternate mode was not working.
 Fixed an issue in which the link monitor was not working in infrastructure mode when auto join to a wireless network is disabled
(set wlan join 0).
 Fixed an issue in which a null device ID was not reset to factory defaults when the factory reset command is issued.
 Fixed an issue in the FTP update process in which the module would watchdog when the module flash does not have enough free
sectors.
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 Fixed an issue in which the show rssi command was not working in infrastructure mode when auto join to a wireless network is
disabled (set wlan join 0).
 Fixed an issue in soft AP mode wherein the scan command would not work the first time.
 Added stability to the FTP client mode.
As of version 4.0 03/27/13
 Added support for Multiple Image Format (.mif) files to download multiple images. This new file format contains the firmware
image, applications such as WPS, EAP, web server, and supporting page files.
 The firmware image supports unpacking the files contained in the .mif package.
 Added a secondary UDP broadcast packet to send the UDP discovery message to a secondary server. The size of the secondary
packet is 120 bytes (110 bytes of primary broadcast + 6 byte module’s MAC address + 4 byte module’s IP address).
 Added a new link monitor variable for soft AP mode. It is configurable via the set wlan fmon <seconds> command.
 Added a new configuration web server application onto the module for provisioning/configuring the module to join an
infrastructure network.
 Added a new command to launch soft AP mode network: apmode <bssid> <channel>.
 Added a new command to launch different applications when GPIO9 is driven high, set system launch_string <string>.

Examples:
-
set sys launch_string web_app - launches web server (default)
-
set sys launch_string wps_app - launches WPS app
-
set sys launch_string eap_app - launches EAP app
 Added the command run <string> to launch individual applications.

Example:
-
run wps
 Deprecated the wps command.
 Fixed a bug wherein the UART would occasionally lock up upon performing the factory RESET command while telnet session was
in progress.
 Fixed a bug in soft AP mode wherein the module would close the TCP connection upon another client being deauthorized.
 Fixed an issue with the link monitor in AP mode to correctly age out stale clients.
 Fixed an issue that would cause the module to crash due to a high-speed optimization error.
As of version 2.36/2.45 09/14/2012
 Firmware versions 2.36 and 2.45 are being shipped together. Version 2.36 supports ad hoc mode, while version 2.45 supports
soft AP mode. All modules shipped with these firmware versions will run version 2.36 by default to maintain backward
compatibility with previous firmware versions.
o You can change the firmware image using the boot image <value> command. After you change the boot image,
you MUST reset the module back to the factory defaults using the factory RESET and reboot commands. Please
note that initiating a factory RESET will result in “breaking” the embedded genuine WiSnap license and may
cause compatibility issues with other SerialIO products.

Wifly_EZX-236.img—Ad hoc mode firmware for RN-171

Wifly_GSX-236.img—Ad hoc mode firmware for RN-131

Wifly_EZX-245.img—Soft AP mode for RN-171

Wifly_GSX-245.img—Soft AP mode for RN-131
 In firmware version 2.36 (ad hoc version), the auto join feature is enabled to maintain backwards compatibility. In version 2.45,
auto join is disabled and you must explicitly enable auto join mode using the set wlan join 1 command.
 The firmware now supports parity with the set uart flow command.
 Added the i flag to the set wlan channel command, which changes the channel immediately. You can use this feature to go into
AP mode without having to reboot or save the settings.
 In AP mode, de-authentication with the link monitor closes the TCP connection, flushes the UART buffer, and tries to clear stuck
RTS flow control.
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 In some cases flow control can get “stuck,” e.g., during a tcp_close or de-authentication in which the UART cannot transmit a TCP
packet and is holding it. Added a fix to attempt to clear the buffer.
 In previous firmware, the associated status is always set even if no clients are joined. In version 2.45, the red LED correctly shows
the status if there are no devices joined. If you use ALTERNATE IO for associated, it is high if there are 1 or more clients, and low if
there are no clients.
 In AP mode, the module supports 7 connections (DHCP and AP).
 Fixed an issue with the ping command.
As of version 2.30 10/26/2011




Added support for incorrect WPA modes, namely WAPv1 with AES encryption and WPAv2 with TKIP encryption.
Added support for WEP shared mode.
Increased FTP filename size to 64 bytes.
Added a new reboot register in ad hoc parameters. This register is reserved for future development and should not be used.
Please leave it to default values.
 Added a new debug register in the system parameters. This register is reserved for future development and should not be used.
Please leave it to default values.
As of version 2.27 09/08/2011






Added support for Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) push button mode.
Added support for WEP64 encryption.
Added support for backup IP address.
Added a new TCPMODE register to control TCP connect timers, force DNS and remote configuration.
Added new bit in UART mode register (bit 5) in which replaces the <2.23>\r\n in console with the replace character.
Fixed the FTP file “put” mode so it over rides HTTP mode. In version 2.23 if HTTP protocol is set and/or option format is set, extra
data would be added to FTP put file data. This has been fixed in version 2.28.
 Fixed a bug where if the TCP_CLIENT mode is set, the module would randomly attempt outgoing connections.
 Fixed a bug in FTP data write mode whereby sometimes the *OPEN* status string came back over the UART before the file
transfer was actually ready. This fix also improves the speed of FTP open in write mode, such that the *OPEN* will be faster.
As of version 2.23 04/03/2011
 Created new set of sensor commands: set q sensor <mask> and set q sensor <value>. Also, sensor power can now be configured
and applied either only when sampling of sensor inputs occur or at power up and removed upon power down and sleep.
 Added a new FTP client mode to get and put files to a FTP server. Files retrieved from the server are sent over the UART and files
created from the UART are stored on the FTP server.
 A new scan output format is implemented in addition to the default output format. This new microprocessor friendly format
makes string processing of the scan output very easy.
 A new UART heartbeat feature is implemented to notify the embedded microprocessor of the state of the WiSnap module. The
heartbeat message is sent over the UART when the WiSnap module is in data mode and not connected to any remote host.
 Fixed a bug in the set uart instant <value> command where the WiSnap module would not return an AOK over telnet. Now when
this command is issued, it returns an AOK over telnet and does not exit command mode.
 Enabled scanning for wireless networks remotely when in ad hoc mode. When the scan command is issued, ad hoc is temporarily
disabled and results of the scan are sent over telnet.
 The behavior of the auto connect timer has changed.
 Added the ability to set RTC from console.
 Added a feature wherein the module can be put to sleep using GPIO8.
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As of version 2.21 07/11/2010
 The firmware checksum the image (and compare to the stored values in the file) now before committing it to flash and updating
the boot record after download. If the checksum fails firmware prints “UPDATE FAILED” and deletes the image.
As of Version 2.20 06/14/2010
 Passphrase now accepts up to 64 characters. A bug introduced in 2.19 causes the wlan passphrase to be truncated to 32
characters (making it impossible to enter a 32 byte HEX literal PSK).
 Fixed DHCP status when link to Access Point (AP) is lost. It was still reporting DHCP OK. It is now cleared and new DHCP session
will start once AP link is reestablished.
 Fixed a bug where UDP receive becomes disabled (no packets are received) if AP-LOST and then re-established.
 Improved handling of AP disconnect, and AP link lost due to linkmon timeout or other disconnect
 If TCP connection was active, connection could be in hung/incorrect state, and once AP is regained, in some cases, this would not
recover. This has been fixed in this version. Refer to section set ip flags <value> for more information.
 Added new setting to the UART mode - set uart mode 0x10.
 Disabled the auto-join feature when in command mode. Auto-join causes WiSnap to become unresponsive to $$$ or commands
during the period when auto-joining is failing due to non-existent AP, making it hard to process or interpret commands. Once
command mode is exited, auto-join will re-enable.
 There are new levels of print out diagnostics that can be enabled/disabled with the sys print variable.
 Ability to add prefix to HTML client post, specifically the ability to append &id= and &rtc= in the HTML message.
As of Version 2.19 3/05/2009
 Improved performance of the UART receiver. UART is now reliable at up to 460Kpbs with RTS flow control.
 Created UART data trigger mode, which will automatically make a TCP/HTTP connection based on received UART data. Set uart
mode 2 to enable this mode.
 Added time stamping option to both UDP and TCP packets. 8 byte RTC counter is appended.
 DHCP client now inserts the DEVICEID string into the HOST name when requesting a DHCP lease. This string is displayed by most
routers and DHCP servers in their lease tables.
 show net n command returns the MAC Address of the Access Point currently associated.
 get i a command returns only the IP address of the WiSnap.
 show network added a response “Boot=<time in ms>” which displays the total time in milliseconds that was required to be ready
on the network (associate and get IP address). This time is also added to the UDP broadcast packet at byte location 92.
 Added a number of HTTP commands for posting data to a web server. See Section 12.
As of Version 2.15 10/15/2009
 Fixed a problem where the first UART RX character received on power up is received but does not sent until receipt of 2nd
character.
 Fixed a problem with some APs that violate Wi-Fi specifications by not responding to WPA authentication within 250ms. The set
option jointimer xxxx command, which specifies the timeout in ms for a join now also applies to the WPA timeout. The default is
now 1000ms or 1 second. NOTE: some APs require up to 1500ms to respond.
 When connected over TCP, and the AP disappears or WiSnap loses association, the WiSnap will now close the connection. The
*CLOS* response will now appear when the connection is terminated by the WiSnap. NOTE: This may require the use of the set
comm idle xx setting to monitor the TCP connection, and force a TCP disconnect when no data is flowing due to lost association.
 Link monitor - The command set wlan linkmon x is now used to monitor the state of the association to the AP. The AP is scanned
once per second, and if x consecutive scans fail, the WiSnap declares “AP is lost” sets the interface to down state, and enters the
association process. Previously the WiSnap would not detect that the AP association was lost until the AP became available
again, or the WiSnap was power cycled or rebooted.
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 AD-HOC mode - The command set ad-hoc probe x is now used to set a threshold for the number of consecutive missed probe
responses allowed before declaring “AD-HOC is Lost” and setting the network interface to be down. Default is 5 probes. A setting
of set ad-hoc probe 0 will disable this function. Some Ad-hoc stations do not reliably respond to probes and so this value higher
avoids intermittent loss of connectivity.
 DHCP cache - The set ip dhcp 3 command is now used to enable DHCP address caching. Once caching is turned on, the initial
DHCP settings are stored in NVRAM. This is most useful in battery systems, when using the sleep mode. Upon waking from sleep,
as long as the DHCP lease time is still valid and the WiSnap is associated to the same AP, DHCP caching does not survive a power
cycle or usage of the hardware reset pin.
 ARP table cache - The set ip flags 0x20 command is now used to enable ARP table caching. Once caching is turned on, any ARP
table settings are backed up to NVRAM before sleep. Upon waking from sleep, the ARP cache is loaded. ARP table caching does
not survive a power cycle or usage of the hardware reset pin.
 DNS host address cache - The set ip flags 0x10 command enables DHCP address caching. Once caching is turned on, the initial
DHCP settings are stored in NVRAM. This is most useful in battery systems, when using the sleep mode. Upon waking from sleep,
as long as the DHCP lease time is valid and the WiSnap is associated to the same AP, DNS caching does not survive a power cycle
or usage of the hardware reset pin.
 UART break detect enables sleep - The command set uart mode 8 enables break detection on the UART RX pin. Once Break is
detected (a consistent low value on RX pin), WiSnap waits for the UART RX pin to return to a high value before going to sleep.
 UART NOECHO mode - The command set uart mode 1 is now used to disable echoing of RX chars while in command mode. This
is useful when embedded controllers are used to send commands to the module. NOTE: For consistency, the command prompt
response <2.xx> now also contains \r\n appended string when in this mode.
As of Version 2.12 9/17/2009
 Fixed problem with some newer 802.11n - association attempts cause module to crash/reboot. (Such as Linksys WRT160NL)
 Fixed problem with send on match character i.e. set comm match <char>. Match char is now operational.
 During an open TCP session, a second incoming connection would be accepted. Second connection is now accepted but then
immediately closed.
 Hardware flow control is now supported. To enable, use the set uart flow 1 command.
 DHCP renew and rebind is fully supported. Previously, DHCP renew/rebind would update IP settings, and if a TCP session was
active it would enter a hung state. TCP connections now survive a DHCP renew/rebind.
 TCP connection password - This optional password is enabled with the command set opt pass <string>. Incoming connections will
be challenged and the stored password must be matched or the connection will be closed.
 UART instant baud rate - The set uart instant <rate> command immediately changes the baud rate. This is useful when testing
baud rate settings, or switching baud rate “on the fly” remotely while connected over TCP.
 Analog interface commands - The show q command will now enable and show the digital value of the analog interface pins. See
section 18.
Version 2.11 9/8/2009 – Limited release (please update to 2.12 or later) As of Version 2.10 8/14/2009
 Added a 250ms guard band in parsing of $$$. The module now looks for three $$$, and only three $$$ within a 250ms period
with no additional characters following for 250 ms. Do not send \cr or \lf after the $$$.
 Fixed problem with UART dropping data. In cases with large data transfers (>100KB) the UART would become over whelmed and
drop data.
 We no longer pass serial data received into the UART back over telnet when in remote command mode.
 User specified default configuration - You can now specified a USER configuration as the factory reset settings. The function of
PIO9 has been changed slightly. See section 19.1.
 Configurable Device ID – There is now an additional user programmable device ID that can be used for storing serial numbers,
product name, device type or other information. The device ID is part of the broadcast “hello” UDP message that the module
sends out to identify itself. Use the command show deviceid to display the current setting. For more information on using this
command see the “set optional” section command.
 UDP broadcast packet – By default the WiSnap module now sends out a UDP broadcast to 255.255.255.255 on port 55555 at a
programmable interval. The broadcast address, port and interval are set using the set broadcast commands. See section 11.
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Known Issues
 WiSnap Module has trouble associating with some 802.11.n access points. The module will crash and reboot repeatedly. We
have seen this behavior with Linksys and Dlink router/access points. If you disable the .n capability on the router the module will
associated correctly.
 Flow control is not functional.
Current Firmware Version 2.09 7/10/2009
 Sleep mode was drawing 70uA instead of the expected 4uA due to an oscillator that was not disabled before going to sleep. Refer
to the WISNAP datasheet for the proper low-power hardware configuration.
 Fixed closing of TCP port on TCP RESET. Previously the module was not handling remote TCP reset correctly and would disconnect
which resulted in a printout of ERR= -5, TCP port was not closed properly.
 Fixed clearing and setting of strings in several set commands. In these cases the strings could be erased, but not reset.
-
set comm remote
-
set comm open
-
set comm close
-
set dns name
-
set dns backup
 Removed extra character in UART output. Previously the module would insert an extra "\r" character when '\n' appears in data
stream.
 Added the get everything (get e) command to display all configuration settings.
 Fixed the alternate I/O functions to allow connection based on PIO5. The manual has been updated to include a much better
description of this functionality. See section 10.5.
As of firmware version 2.08 6/08/2009
 Connecting out an IP address does not use the DNS and backup DNS if the connection to the primary IP address fails. Connecting
using DNS if the IP address if 0.
 UART hardware flow control not yet functional.
 TCP_NODELAY added as default. This improves performance as the stack no longer waits for each TCP packet to be ACK’ed, (since
many Microsoft systems only ACK every OTHER packet).
 Set ip proto is now a bitmask. It is possible to have both UDP and TCP bits set. If TCP enabled, UART RX data will be forwarded via
TCP if a connection exists. Otherwise, data will forward over UDP (if UDP bit is set ).
As of firmware version 2.07 6/04/2009






set wlan antenna < 0 or 1 > command has been changed to set wlan extant <0 or 1 >.
set wlan auth <value> command has been added.
set wlan hide will hide the WEP key or WPA passkey. To unhide, you set key or passphrase again.
set ip proto 8 - TCP client mode, (no listen server) only outbound connections can be made.
Ad-hoc mode client associates properly.
You can now enter the WPA passkey after setting the SSID. Previously the pass key had to be entered first for the security hash to
be correctly created.
 Auto join now stops after 3 retries.
 show net now displays the Wi-Fi TX rate, and correctly displays authenticated state and shows authentication mode that was
used.
 ping h will ping the stored host address. If no host address stored, will attempt to use the DNS hostname.
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WiSnap User Manual 4.41 10202014-ML
 ping i command added to ping a known Internet server (www.neelum.com) by first resolving the address, proving that DNS is
working and then pinging the server. This proves the device has internet connectivity.
 UDP secure mode will only forward packets to the UART that match from the host address. TCP secure mode will only allow
connection from and IP that matches host address.
As of firmware version 2.06





Web server interface is not available – Configuration over telnet and the UART.
UART flow control is not functional – The module may drop data at high data rates.
Sensor pins for reading analog signals are not supported.
Wake on UART RXD or CTS is not working on current revision REV2 of the WiSnap SuRFBoard.
The fast- autosleep timer for UDP mode is not implemented.
Fixes since firmware version 2.05
 Configuration over Telnet not functional.
 Error checking the correct number of parameters.
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