16DE -660RT STEAM TF new.050..

16DE -660RT STEAM TF new.050..
Product
Data
16DE
Double Effect, Hermetic Absorption
Liquid Chiller
150 to660 Nominal Tons (528 to 2321kW)
Carrier’s 16DE double effect,
hermetic absorption liquid chiller
provides an alternative means of
efficient, cost effective water chilling.
By utilizing high-pressure steam,
16DE chillers avoid high-cost
electricity and quality for utility
rebates and incentives as a gas
cooling product.
• no CFCs; environmentally friendly
• two-stage high efficiency design
reduces energy costs
• quiet. vibration-free operation
• few moving parts equates to high
reliability
16DE SERIE
Features/Benefits
High-pressure
steam-fired
absorption reduces energy
costs, providing economical
water chilling and/or process
cooling.
Cost-effective cooling
Alternative-energy chiller
– The 16DE offers an alternative to
chillers
driven
by
increasingly
expensive electrical energy. The use of
steam-powered absorption not only
eliminates demand charges and high
cost electrical usage, but also allows the
owner to take advantage of gas cooling
rebates and incentive programs offered
by many utility companies. The 16DE is
therefore economical to own and
operate compared to other types of
chillers.
Double-effect absorption cycle
increases efficiency – The 16DE
design incorporates a high-temperature
generator and a low-temperature
generator (double effect) that provide 2
stages of solution re-concentration. As a
result of this double-effect cycle, the
Copyright 2006.01 Carrier Operations
16DE has lower operating costs than
single-effect machines. The 16DE
chiller offers typical full load steam
rates of less than 10 lb/hr-ton at
standard ARI (Air Conditioning and
Refrigeration
Institute)
operating
conditions.
Superior part-load performance –
The 16DE’s standard concentration
control system allows stable, part-load
operation at cooling water temperatures
as low as 59 F (15 C) without the need
for a cooling tower bypass. For
maximum efficiency, a variable
frequency drive pump automatically
maintains optimum solution flow to the
high- and low-stage generators at all
operating conditions. This will result in
improved part-load efficiency and
eliminate the need for manual setup
adjustments of the solution flow.
High-efficiency condensate drain
heat exchanger saves energy –
Every 16DE incorporates a condensate
drain heat exchanger which reduces steam
consumption, resulting in further energy
savings. Valuable energy (in the form of
heat) in the condensate leaving the
generator is transferred to the weak
lithium bromide solution as it is pumped
to the generator. This reduces the amount
of energy required to operate the chiller at
both full and part-load
Carrier’s computerized performance
ratings assist in the selection of the
correct size machine to meet exact job
requirements. Dependable operation, as
well as low sound and vibration levels,
ensures occupant comfort, even when
the machine is installed on upper floors.
Combined use of absorption and
electric-driven chillers – Utilizing
both absorption and electric chillers in a
central plant offers the flexibility to base
load one chiller, while using the other to
handle peak load requirements. Hybrid
chiller systems have proven to be an
economical solution for many comfort
cooling
installations.
In
many
geographical areas, operating the
electric chiller as the base loaded
machine, while using the absorption
chiller during peak load conditions,
reduces or avoids electric demand
charges.
Depending on utility rate
structures, the 16DE absorption chiller
used in conjunction with an electricdriven chiller may be the most efficient
and cost-effective combination available.
Table of contents
Page
Features/Benefits ………………………………………………………………..…1-8
Model Number Nomenclature………………………………………………………..2
Options and Accessories………………………………………………………… …..9
Machine Components……………………………………………………………….10
Physical Data…………………………………………………………………… 11-12
Dimensions……………………………………………………………………….…13
Performance Data………………………………………………………………..14-15
Application Data………………………………...……………………………….16-17
Controls……………….…………………………………………………………18-20
Guide Specifications…………………………………………………….……… 21-26
Application versatility
Ideal for new or retrofit applications – From comfort cooling to
providing chilled water for process
applications, the 16DE double-effect
absorption chiller offers versatility for
almost any job where high-pressure steam
is available as the heat source. The 12
model sizes, spanning a capacity range
of 150 to 660 tons, make the 16DE
double effect, absorption chiller the
ideal choice for comfort cooling and /or
light industrial applications.
2
Model number nomenclature
16
Absorption Chiller
DE
033
Unit Size
Double Effect
Features/Benefits (cont)
Location and installation
from approaching the cycle crystallization line.
Ease of installation – All 16DE units are completely
Absorption cycle state points – Absorption cycle status
fabricated, assembled, and wired in the factory as single-piece
units. Standard shipping configuration is 1 piece. Refer to the
16DE Standard Shipping Configuration table below.
points provide the operator with precise and dynamic cycle
operating conditions at any time during chiller operation. They
save time by eliminating the cumbersome task of taking
solution samples and calculating state points and assist in both
chiller operation and diagnostics.
Refrigerant low temperature override – The capacity
control valve position is inhibited to prevent freeze-up and
ensure continuous chiller operation.
Extensive service menu – Unauthorized access to the
service menu can be password-protected. Built-in, enhanced,
diagnostic capabilities assist in troubleshooting and
recommend proper corrective action for pre-set alarms,
resulting in more up time.
Alarm history – The last 25 alarms and/or alerts are retained
in memory with date and time stamps. Alarm histories reduce
troubleshooting time and cost.
16DE STANDARD SHIPPING CONFIGURATION
UNIT
SIZE
1-PIECE
ASSEMBLY
015-066
X
2-PIECE
ASSEMBLY
The 16DE015-0 6 6 machines are shipped completely
assembled as a standard feature Job-site reassembly and
alignment of machines shipped in multiple sections is
simplified by preerecting the machine in the factory and by
incorporating weld-type assembly flanges on all
interconnecting piping.
Flanged water box nozzles – To simplify chiller
installation and field piping, all water box nozzles on the
evaporator, absorber, and condenser are factory-supplied raised
face (RF) flanges.
Microprocessor control features/benefits
Direct Digital Product Integrated Control (PIC) –
Carrier’s PIC provides unmatched flexibility and functionality.
Each unit integrates directly with Carrier Comfort Network
(CCN), providing a system solution to controls applications.
PIC is pre-programmed to meet precise control requirements.
PID
(Proportional/Integral/Derivative)
control
algorithms – PID algorithms provide tight chilled water
control to optimize chiller operation.
International Chiller Visual Controller (ICVC) – The
ICVC has a wide display screen, which can be configured to
display in English or Metric units, provides unparallel ease of
operation. A 16-line by 40-character backlit, liquid crystal
display (LCD) features 4 menu-specific softkeys. A default
display offers a one-glance review of key chiller operation data,
simplifying the interaction between machine and user. Also all
text strings for display and all alarm messages are provided in
several languages.
Chilled water reset – Reset can be accomplished manually
or automatically from the building management system.
Chilled water reset saves energy when warmer chilled water
can be used.
Ramp loading – Ramp loading ensures a smooth pulldown
of water loop temperature and prevents a rapid increase in
steam consumption.
Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) – PIC provides VFD
for solution pump control.
Advanced crystallization protection – Protects against
crystallization by automatically sensing impending
abnormalities in the absorption operating cycle and taking a
series of actions to either self-correct and/or limit the chiller
3
Features/Benefits (cont)
Low maintenance
Standard features allow simple maintenance
procedures – Every 16DE machine has numerous standard
design features that are provided for convenient and simple
maintenance. Hinged waterbox cover on the absorber, and
condenser facilitate tube and waterbox inspection. A flange
type refractory door on the high-stage generator simplifies
inspection and cleaning of the combustion chamber and fire
tubes. In addition, epoxy coating of the waterboxes and
covers, standard on all machines, protects against corrosion
and extends machine life. All moving parts are easily
accessible for inspection or replacement, as required.
Factory-trained service organization – Carrier’s
extensive service organization offers trained and experienced
service technicians in every major city. In addition to routine
maintenance and repair services, Carrier also offers a wide
array of preventative maintenance, full maintenance, and/or
extended service contracts that can be custom tailored to any
level of service.
Leak-proof hermetic pumps/motors cut maintenance
costs – Carrier’s proven solution and refrigerant pumps/
motors are leak-proof, completely self-contained, and
hermetically sealed. The hermetic design eliminates the need
for a separate, complicated, and possibly leak-prone seal water
system while providing leak tightness and longer machine life.
Specially designed bearings absorb both radial and axial
thrusts to ensure correct fit at all times. There is no possibility
of external contamination since the fluid being pumped
lubricates and cools the pump and motor assemblies. In
addition, both the rotor and the stator are separated by a
stainless steel liner that protects the windings from the fluid
being pumped. As an additional safety feature, thermal overload switches are embedded in the stator to protect against
high winding temperatures. The pumps are field serviceable.
4
VIEW OF TYPICAL HERMETIC
PUMP/MOTOR ASSEMBLIES
Reliable operation
16DE PIC control system features automatic micropr
ocessor control center continuously monitors machine
operation, ensuring precise control
Each Carrier 16DE absorption chiller includes a factory mount
ed and wired microprocessor control center that is functionally
tested prior to shipment. Continuous monitoring and control o
f machine operation are performed automatically. A multilanguage display on the front of the control center identifies op
erational status and fault indication. All control center compon
ents and the assembly will meet local code o f G B
and include a microprocessor CPU (central processing unit) bo
ard, molded case circuit breaker, pump contactors, ambient
compensated 3-phase pump overload protection, multitap control power transformer, and all other necessary safeties
and controls.
As part of the start-up sequence, the chiller microprocessor
control center initiate a self-diagnostic system check to verify
that all sensors are in range. Other standard features include a
remote start/stop switch and a key-locked control center door
that protects against unauthorized access.
16DE CONTROL CENTER
Superior corrosion protection – Absorption chillers must
be protected from the possibility of internal corrosion that is
always present when lithium bromide solution is in contact
with internal machine surfaces. The Carrier 16DE absorption
chiller incorporates a highly effective corrosion inhibitor to
provide an extra margin of protection against internal
corrosion. Other inhibitors may require the use of exotic tube
materials in certain heat exchangers since they are less
effective and require frequent maintenance and analysis. The
superior corrosion protection of the Carrier inhibitor allows for
the use of standard copper tubes throughout the machine
(except for the high-stage generator tubes and the high
temperature solution heat exchanger tubes that are made of
90-10 cupro-nickel). This results in long machine life and
dependable operation.
Rugged machine construction – Every Carrier 16DE
5
chiller offers numerous standard features designed to provide
reliable, trouble-free operation. The machine is fabricated to
meet stringent manufacturing and design requirements and is
Carrier-listed to ensure product safety and machine integrity.
Non-clogging, corrosion proof spray nozzles protect the 16DE
from corrosion and blockage for continuous, reliable operation.
Horizontally-positioned, 90-10 cupronickel tubes in the high
temperature generator with steam on the inside and lithium
bromide on the outside to allow the tube bundle to expand and
adjust freely when subjected to rapid temperature changes. A
heated palladium cell is provided as an optional feature. As
part of the purge system, the heated palladium cell assists in
the removal of hydrogen gas from inside the 16DE. This action
minimizes the need for manual evacuation of the purge storage
chamber. The above standard features are evidence of Carrier’s
commitment to building a double effect chiller able to
withstand the most rigorous comfort cooling or light industrial
applications.
Condensate drain heat exchanger is factory installed
– This energy-saving feature, consisting of a shell-and-tube
heat exchanger and a float/trap assembly, is completely factory
mounted and piped. There is no need for an additional trap in
the condensate piping, thus reducing job site piping costs.
Single-point box electrical connection – Installation costs
are further reduced by eliminating field wiring between
machine components. On units shipped as a single assembly,
all unit-mounted electrical items are factory-wired to the
chiller microprocessor control center. Only a single-point
electrical connection to the machine from the building’s
electrical service is required. A multi-tap transformer, mounted
in the chiller control center, provides secondary, single-phase
power for the 16DE controls.
Low noise and vibration allows location flexibility –
Low sound and vibration levels are characteristic of absorption
chillers, primarily due to the fact that the only rotating parts
are the refrigerant and solution pumps. The overall sound level
of a Carrier 16DE is typically 80 dbA. This allows the
machines to be installed near occupied spaces or in areas with
strict sound requirements. Low vibration levels also make it
possible to install the chiller on upper floors without special
consideration for vibration dampening systems.
Automatic, motorless purge system extends machine
life and ensures optimum efficiency and performance
– The purge system of an absorption chiller is critical to
ensuring efficient operation and long machine life. Even when
machines are vacuum tight or properly inhibited, all absorption
chillers generate hydrogen and other noncondensable gases in
small quantities. Since these gases are present in sufficient
volume to interfere with proper machine operation, they must
be removed to protect the unit from internal corrosion, lithium
bromide solution crystallization, and/or a reduction in chiller
capacity. Carrier’s motorless purge system protects 16DE
machines from these potential hazards by working continuously during machine operation.
Motorless purge system operation – During operation,
non-condensables tend to accumulate in the absorber section,
which operates at the lowest internal pressure. A slip-stream of
lithium bromide solution from the solution pump discharge
flows through an eductor, creating a suction that draws
noncondensables from the absorber. The noncondensables are
then entrained by the solution flowing through the eductor.
The eductor discharges the solution and noncondensables into
a separator in a purge chamber, where the noncondensables are
separated from the solution. The noncondensables flow to a
storage tank, while the solution returns to the absorber sump.
Typically, most of the noncondensable gas is composed of
hydrogen, which is automatically dissipated to the atmosphere
through a heated palladium cell.
As noncondensables accumulate in the external storage tank,
they are isolated from the chiller and cannot reenter the
machine (even during shutdown). These gases must
periodically be exhausted (as required) from the storage tank
by a simple procedure performed while the machine is running.
Evacuation is performed by a unit-mounted vacuum pump that
is connected to the purge evacuation valve.
Evacuation through the vacuum pump is necessary because the
palladium cell will be damaged if wetted by the lithium
bromide solution. Therefore, pressurizing the purge tank above
atmospheric pressure with lithium bromide solution is not
permitted. The unit-mounted vacuum pump can also be used
during chiller maintenance or service to remove
noncondensables directly from the machine.
TYPICAL MOTORLESS PURGE OPERATION SCHEMATIC
6
Anti-crystallization controls maintain proper solution
concentration – The 16DE automatically limits solution
concentration in several ways to avoid both crystallization and
overdilution to provide dependable, trouble-free operation.
Crystallization of the lithium bromide solution depends on the
combination of temperature and concentration. Carrier’s
concentration control system automatically monitors the
refrigerant water level in the evaporator in conjunction with
the solution temperature returning to the absorber. Because
concentration varies with the amount of water in the lithium
bromide solution, a rising evaporator level indicates less water
in the solution and thus a higher solution concentration. When
the refrigerant in the evaporator rises to a weir level, water is
transferred from the evaporator to the absorber thus preventing
overconcentration to ensure continuous, reliable operation
even at cooling water temperature as low as 59 F (15 C).
Overdilution (and possible refrigerant pump cavitation) shall
be controlled by transferring an additional amount of
refrigerant from the condenser to the evaporator.
The 16DE also incorporates a simple, passive method of
control to correct any crystallization that would typically start
to occur on the shell-side of the low temperature solution heat
exchanger under abnormal conditions. As the hot solution
begins to back up in the generator, as a result of any shell-side
blockage, it rises above the overflow pipe and returns directly
to the absorber. It is subsequently pumped through the tubeside (heating the shell-side) to restore proper operation.
In addition, the 16DE automatic dilution cycle ensures
proper concentration after unit shutdown so that the unit will
not crystallize when the machine cools to ambient or machine
room temperature. The dilution cycle controls operation of the
pumps for a set period of time after shutdown to dilute the
solution to prevent an overconcentration condition.
16DE double effect absorption cooling cycle – The
16DE double effect absorption chiller consists of an evaporator,
absorber, condenser, high- and low-stage generators, solution
heat exchangers, steam condensate drain heat exchanger,
refrigerant/solution pumps, purge, controls and auxiliaries.
Water is used as the refrigerant in vessels maintained under
low absolute pressure (vacuum). In the cooling mode, the
chiller operates on the principle that under vacuum, water boils
at a low temperature. In this case water boils at approximately
40 F (4.4 C), thereby cooling the chilled water circulating
through the evaporator tubes. A refrigerant pump is used to
circulate the refrigerant water over the evaporator tubes to
improve heat transfer.
To make the cooling process continuous, the refrigerant
vapor must be removed as it is produced. To accomplish this,
a lithium bromide solution (which has a high affinity for
water) is used to absorb the water vapor. As this process
continues, the lithium bromide becomes diluted, reducing its
absorption capacity. A solution pump then transfers this
weak (diluted) solution to the generators where it is reconcentrated in 2 stages to boil off the previously absorbed water.
A variable frequency drive pump automatically maintains
optimum solution flow to the generators at all operating
conditions for maximum efficiency. The diluted solution is
pumped to the high-stage generator where it is heated and
reconcentrated to a medium concentration solution by the heat
from high pressure steam. The medium concentration solution
from the high-stage generator flows to the low-stage generator
where it is heated and reconcentrated to a strong solution by
the high temperature water vapor released from the solution in
the high-stage generator.
Since the low-stage generator acts as the condenser acts as the
condenser for the high-stage generator, the heat energy first
16DE ABSORPTION COOLING CYCLE
7
Features/Benefits (cont)
applied in the high-stage generator is used again in the lowstage generator thus reducing the heat input by approximately
45% as compared to an absorption chiller with a single stage
of reconcentration. The water vapor released in the shell-side
of the low-stage generator, in addition to the now condensed
water vapor from the tube-side of the low-stage generator,
enters the condenser to be cooled and returned to a liquid state.
The refrigerant water then returns to the evaporator to begin a
new cycle.
To remove heat from the machine, relatively cool water
from a cooling tower or other source is first circulated through
the tubes of the absorber to remove the heat of vaporization.
The water is then circulated through the tubes of the condenser.
8
The strong (reconcentrated) solution from the low-stage
generator flows back to the absorber to begin a new cycle. For
efficiency reasons, the medium concentration solution from the
high-stage generator is passed through the high-temperature
solution heat exchanger to pre-heat the weak solution, while
pre-cooling the medium concentration solution. The strong
solution from the low-stage generator is passed through the
low-temperature solution heat exchanger to preheat/precool the
solution before being returned to the absorber. The efficiency
is further improved by use of a condensate drain heat
exchanger which transfers additional heat from the steam
condensate to the weak solution.
Options and accessories
IEM
250 psig (1724 kPa)/300 psig (2068 kPa)
Waterboxes
Special Tubing
OPTION*
ACCESSORY+
OPTION*
X
X
X
X
Unit Voltage (208, 230, 400, 460, or 575-3-60/50)
X
Condenser Water Flow Switch
X
X
9
X
LEGEND
FM
– Factory Mutual
IRI
– Industrial Risk Insurers
*Factory installed.
*Factory installed.
+Field installed.
Machine components
16DE MACHINE ASSEMBLY (FRONT VIEW)
LCD BOX
CONTROL CENTER
STEAM TRAP
PURGE STORAGE
DRAIN HEAT EXCHANGER
CHAMBER
16DE MACHINE ASSEMBLY (SIDE VIEW)
LOW-TEMPERATURE
HIGH-TEMPERATURE
GENERATOR
GENERATOR
ABSORBER
CONDENSER
EVAPORATOR
LOW-TEMPERATURE
SOLUTION HEAT EXCHANGER
SOLUTION PUMP
REFRIGERANT PUMP
HIGH-TEMPERATURE
SOLUTION HEAT EXCHANGER
10
Physical data
ENGLISH
Unit 16DE
NOMINAL COOLING CAPACITY (ton)
RIGGING WEIGHT* (lb)
Absorber/Evaporator/G2/Condenser
G1
Total
OPERATING WEIGHT (lb)
CHILLED/HOT WATER
Pipe Connection Size (in.)
No. Passes
COOLING WATER
Pipe Connection Size (in.)
No. Passes
Absorber
Condenser
STEAM
Pipe Connection Size (in.)
Inlet
Outlet
Unit 16DE
NOMINAL COOLING CAPACITY (ton)
RIGGING WEIGHT* (lb)
Absorber/Evaporator/G2/Condenser
G1 (Includes Burner)
Total
OPERATING WEIGHT (lb)
CHILLED/HOT WATER
Pipe Connection Size (in.)
No. Passes
COOLING WATER
Pipe Connection Size (in.)
No. Passes
Absorber
Condenser
STEAM
Pipe Connection Size (in.)
Inlet
Outlet
*standard shipping configuration is 1-piece for sizes 015-066.
11
015
150
018
180
021
210
024
240
028
280
033
330
8737
2072
10809
14160
9033
2123
11156
14833
10695
2495
13190
17820
11412
2558
13970
18820
13595
2975
16570
23404
14130
3081
17211
24266
4
3
4
3
5
3
5
3
6
2
6
2
5
5
6
6
8
8
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2.5
1
2.5
1
2.5
1
2.5
1
036
360
040
400
045
450
050
500
060
600
066
660
15204
3472
18676
26575
16938
3595
20533
30006
19709
3838
23547
32777
20023
3947
23970
33558
30811
5514
36325
51334
32408
5861
38269
55170
6
2
6
2
8
2
8
2
8
2
8
2
8
8
10
10
12
12
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
2
3
2
Physical data (cont)
SI
Unit 16DE
NOMINAL COOLING CAPACITY (kW)
RIGGING WEIGHT* (kg)
Absorber/Evaporator/G2/Condenser
G1
Total
OPERATING WEIGHT (kg)
CHILLED/HOT WATER
Pipe Connection Size (mm)
No. Passes
COOLING WATER
Pipe Connection Size (mm)
No. Passes
Absorber
Condenser
STEAM
Pipe Connection Size (mm)
Inlet
Outlet
Unit 16DE
NOMINAL COOLING CAPACITY (kW)
RIGGING WEIGHT* (kg)
Absorber/Evaporator/G2/Condenser
G1
Total
OPERATING WEIGHT (kg)
CHILLED/HOT WATER
Pipe Connection Size (mm)
No. Passes
COOLING WATER
Pipe Connection Size (mm)
No. Passes
Absorber
Condenser
STEAM
Pipe Connection Size (mm)
Inlet
Outlet
*Standard shipping configuration is 1-piece for sizes 015-066.
12
015
528
018
633
021
739
024
844
028
985
033
1,161
3963
940
4903
6423
4097
963
5060
6728
4851
1132
5983
8083
5177
1160
6337
8537
6167
1349
7516
10616
6409
1398
7807
11007
100
3
100
3
125
3
125
3
150
2
150
2
125
125
150
150
200
200
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
50
25
50
25
65
25
65
25
65
25
65
25
036
1,266
040
1,407
045
1,583
050
1,758
060
2110
066
2321
6896
1575
8471
12054
7683
1631
9314
13611
8940
1741
10681
14868
9083
1790
10873
15222
13976
2501
16477
23285
14700
2659
17359
25025
150
2
150
2
200
2
200
2
200
2
200
2
200
200
250
250
300
300
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
80
25
80
25
80
25
80
25
100
25
100
25
Dimensions
C
D
16DE SIZES 015-066
B
UNIT 16DE
Overall Length A
Overall Width B
Overall Height C
Width D*
UNIT 16DE
Overall Length A
Overall Width B
Overall Height C
Width D*
A
018
021
024
11-11
5-1
6-9
4-0
11-11
5-1
6-9
4-0
12-0
5-7
7-7
4-4
12-0
5-7
7-7
4-4
015
018
021
024
3,631
1,556
2,056
1,209
3,631
1,556
2,056
1,209
3,668
1,700
2,309
1,328
3,668
1,700
2,309
1,328
*Standard shipping configuration is 1-piece for sizes 015-066.
13
DIMENSIONS (ft-in)
028
033
036
015
15-8
6-2
7-10
4-8
15-8
6-2
710
4-8
15-9
6-6
8-8
4-9
DIMENSIONS (mm)
028
033
036
4,774
1,866
2,381
1,413
4,774
1,866
2,381
1,413
4,800
1,980
2,630
1,456
-*-*
040
045
050
060
066
15-9
6-6
8-8
4-9
16-0
6-10
9-3
5-4
15-9
6-10
9-3
5-4
18-1
7-10
10-2
5-4
20-1
7-10
10-2
5-4
040
045
050
060
066
4,800
1,980
2,630
1,456
4,867
2,079
2,820
1,614
4,867
2,079
2,820
1,614
5,510
2,400
3,102
1,623
6,122
2,400
3,102
1,623
NOTES:
1. All dimensions in mm are accurate and take into account absorbercondenser crossover piping.
2. For routine maintenance, allow 3 ft (1 m) clearance on all sides and 6 in.
(150 mm) above chiller.
3. For service access, allow clearance as follows:
a. For tube removal, allow space equal to “A” dimension (length) at either
end of the chiller.
b. To open waterbox cover, allow clearance space equal to half of “D”
dimension (width) on the waterbox end of the chiller.
Performance data
UNIT 16DE
COOLING CAPACITY (ton)
CHILLED WATER
Flow Rate (gpm)
Pressure Drop (ft)
COOLING WATER
Flow Rate (gpm)
Pressure Drop (ft)
STEAM (lb/hr-ton)
(lb/hr)
015
UNIT 16DE
COOLING CAPACITY (ton)
CHILLED WATER
Flow Rate (gpm)
Pressure Drop (ft)
COOLING WATER
Flow Rate (gpm)
Pressure Drop (ft)
STEAM (lb/hr-ton)
(lb/hr)
ENGLISH
018
021
024
028
033
150
180
210
240
280
330
360
25.1
432
27.2
504
26.1
576
26.7
672
17.5
792
18.4
600
21.3
720
24.4
840
17.2
960
19.1
1,120
26.0
1,320
27.8
9.7
1,461
9.7
1,753
9.7
2,045
9.7
2,338
9.7
2,716
9.7
3,214
036
040
045
050
060
066
360
400
450
500
600
660
864
18.1
960
18.6
1,080
18.1
1,200
18.2
1,598
33.4
1,758
33.7
1,440
30.4
1,600
31.9
1,800
28.1
2,000
29.0
2,456
36.8
2,699
36.8
9.7
3,506
9.7
3,896
9.7
4,383
9.7
4,870
9.7
5,859
9.7
6,443
LEGEND
ARI – Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute
Note: Ratings are based on ARI 560, latest edition, 54/44 F (2.4 gpm/ton) chilled water; 85 F (4.0 gpm/ton) cooling water; fouling factor .00025 ft2-hro
F/Btu for absorber and condenser, .0001 ft2-hr-oF/Btu for evaporator.
UNIT 16DE
COOLING CAPACITY (kW)
CHILLED WATER
Flow Rate (L/s)
Pressure Drop (kPa)
COOLING WATER
Flow Rate (L/s)
Pressure Drop (kPa)
STEAM (kg/hr-kW)
(kg/hr)
UNIT 16DE
COOLING CAPACITY (kW)
CHILLED WATER
Flow Rate (L/s)
Pressure Drop (kPa)
COOLING WATER
Flow Rate (L/s)
Pressure Drop (kPa)
STEAM (kg/hr-kW)
(kg/hr)
015
SI
018
021
024
028
033
528
633
739
844
985
1,161
22.7
75.0
27.3
81.2
31.8
77.9
36.3
79.7
42.4
52.4
50.0
54.9
37.9
63.6
45.4
72.9
53.0
51.3
60.6
57.0
70.7
77.8
83.3
83.0
1.26
663
1.26
796
1.26
928
1.26
1,061
1.26
1,238
1.26
1,459
036
040
045
050
060
066
1,266
1,407
1,583
1,758
2110
2321
54.5
54.2
60.6
55.7
68.1
54.1
75.7
54.5
100.8
100
110.9
101
90.8
90.9
100.9
95.2
113.6
83.9
126.2
86.8
155
110
170.3
110
1.26
1,591
1.26
1,768
1.26
1,989
1.26
2,210
1.26
2,659
1.26
2,924
LEGEND
ARI – Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute
Note: Ratings are based on ARI 560, latest edition, 12.2/6.7 C (.043 L/s-kW) chilled water; 29.4 C (.072 L/s-kW) cooling water ; fouling factor .000044
m2-hr-oC/W for absorber and condenser, .0000176 m2-hr-oC/W for evaporator.
14
Part-load performance
ARI 560, latest version, defines Integrated Part Load Value
(IPLV) as a measure of part-load efficiency representing the
weighted average of overall chiller performance calculated by
the following equation:
IPLV = .01A + .42B + .45C + .12D
Where A = COP at 100%
B = COP at 75%
C = COP at 50%
D = COP at 25% or minimum load
NOTE: COP is the Coefficient of Performance
Therefore,
IPLV = .01 (1.20) + .42 (1.35) + .45 (1.45) + .12 (1.32)
= 1.39
To determine part-load performance, refer to the 16DE PartLoad Performance curve shown below. This curve depicts
Steam Consumption Ratio (SCR) versus Percent Capacity at
several cooling water temperatures and in accordance with the
ARI load line which is based on a 10 F (5.6 C) reduction in
cooling water temperature for every 25% reduction in load.
Steam requirements at part-load can be calculated with one
of the following equations:
Steam Flow (lb/hr) = Full Load Steam (lb/hr) x SCR x
% Capacity
or
Steam Flow (lb/hr) = Full Load Steam (lb/hr-ton) x SCR
x Part-Load Capacity (tons)
As shown on the part-load performance curve, the continuous
operating range for the 16DE is approximately 25 to 100% of
full load when operated on steam, based on minimum fire
requirements of the burner. Below 25% the burner will cycle
on and off to meet the required load and water temperature.
.
16DE PART-LOAD PERFORMANCE
STEAM CONSUMPTION RATIO
1.1
ARI
1
80 F (26.7 C)
70 F (23.9 C)
0.9
60 F (15.6 C)
0.8
0.7
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
PERCENT CAPACITY
15
70
80
90
100
Application data
Vent and drain connections
All vents and drain connections are found on the waterbox
covers. Connection size is 3/4-in. PT.
Provide high points of the machine piping system with vents
and the low points with drains. If shut off valves are
provided in the main water pipes near the unit, a minimum
amount of the system water is lost when the heat exchangers
are drained.
It is recommended that pressure gages be provided at points
of entering and leaving water to measure pressure drop
through the heat exchanger. Gages may be installed as shown
in the table below. Pressure gages installed at the vent and
drain connections do not include nozzle pressure losses.
Use a reliable manometer to measure pressure differential
when determining water flow. Regular gages are insensitive
and do not provide accurate measurement of flow conditions.
NUMBER OF PASSES
GAGE LOCATION
1, 3
One gage in each waterbox
2, 4
Two gages in waterbox with nozzles
Range of application
The 16DE absorption chiller is designed for standard water
chilling applications of 150 to 660 tons (528 to2321 kW) at
standard ARI rating conditions.
Rupture disk piping
The 16DE is equipped with a rupture disk or a fusible plug
on the high-temperature generator. It is recommended that
piping from these devices be routed to appropriate areas away
from the machine in accordance with Carrier’s written
installation instructions , and any local jurisdictional
requirements that may apply. One side of Rupture disk’s
connective tube is connected with protected recipient and
another side is leaded to safe place such as atmosphere
or where there is no person. Piping should be adequately
supported and the proper fittings should be provided to allow
periodic inspection of the disk.
UNIT SIZE
RUPTURE DISK
CONNECTION SIZE
All
2 in. RF flange
LEGEND
RF – Raised Face
MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
ITEM
SHELL:
Evaporator
Absorber
Condenser
G1
G2
TUBESHEET:
Evaporator
Absorber
Condenser
G1
G2
WATERBOX:
Evaporator
Absorber
Condenser
G1
G2
TUBES:
Evaporator
Absorber
Condenser
G1
G2
PIPING
G1
G2
MATERIAL
SPECIFICATIONS
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Q235A
Q235A
Q235A
Q235A
Q235A
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Q235A
Q235A
Q235A
20g
Q235A
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Q235A
Q235A
Q235A
20g
Q235A
Copper
Copper
Copper
90-10 CuNi
Copper
Steel
C1220T-1/2H
C1220T-1/2H
C1220T-1/2H
C7060T-0L
C1220T-0L
20#
LEGEND
-- High-Temperature Generator
-- Low-Temperature Generator
Thermal insulation
Application of cold/hot surface thermal insulation should be
done after final installation at jobsite and machine leak
integrity has been verified.
Refer to Carrier certified
drawings for material specifications and recommended chiller
insulation requirements.
THERMAL INSULATION SURFACE AREA REQUIREMENTS – ENGLISH (FT2)
UNIT SIZE
COLD SURFACE
HOT SURFACE
015, 018
021, 024
028, 033
036, 040
045, 050
060, 066
67.8
125.9
75.3
144.2
94.7
187.2
100.1
212.0
117.3
226.0
169.0
357.3
THERMAL INSULATION SURFACE AREA REQUIREMENTS – SI (m2)
UNIT SIZE
COLD SURFACE
HOT SURFACE
16
015, 018
021, 024
028, 033
036, 040
045, 050
060, 066
6.3
11.7
7.0
13.4
8.8
17.4
9.3
19.7
10.9
21.0
15.7
33.2
HEAT EXCHANGER STANDARD PASS AND
NOZZLE ARRANGEMENT
STANDARD WATERBOX AND CROSSOVER PIPE
CONFIGURATION
16DE
UNIT
015066
16DE
UNIT
Outlet
CROSSOVER
PIPE
015-024
M
Included
028-066
EVAPORATOR
ABSORBER
CONDENSER
Inlet
Outlet
Inlet
Outlet
Inlet
N
N
M
M
M
LEGEND
M -N --
Marine Waterbox
Nozzle-In-Head Waterbox
EVAPORATOR
Pass
Inlet
3
L or R
2
L or R
ABSORBER
Pass
Inlet
2
L
2
L
CONDENSER
Pass
Inlet
1
L
1
L
LEGEND
L -R --
Left End Inlet
Right End Inlet
HEAT EXCHANGER MINIMUM/MAXIMUM
FLOW RATES* -- ENGLISH (gpm)
HEAT EXCHANGER MINIMUM/MAXIMUM
FLOW RATES* -- SI (L/s)
EVAPORATOR
1-Pass
2-Pass
3-Pass
4-Pass
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
015
–
–
218
868
145
578
110
434
018
–
–
260
1043
175
694
130
521
021
–
–
316
1264
211
844
159
632
024
–
–
348
1393
232
929
175
697
028
619
2472
310
1242
207
827
–
–
033
722
2888
362
1447
161
965
–
–
036
779
3132
390
1553
260
1043
–
–
040
861
3463
432
1731
287
1154
–
–
045
969
3894
486
1946
333
1298
–
–
050
1075 4326
538
2162
359
1440
–
–
060
1290 5160
645
2580
430
1720
–
–
066
1419 5676
709
2838
473
1892
–
–
*Flow rates based on standard tubes. Minimum flow based on tube
velocity of 3 ft/sec; maximum flow based on 12 ft/sec.
EVAPORATOR
1-Pass
2-Pass
3-Pass
4-Pass
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
015
–
–
14
54
9
36
7
27
018
–
–
17
65
11
43
9
32
021
–
–
20
79
14
53
10
39
024
–
–
22
87
15
59
11
44
028
39
156
20
78
13
52
–
–
033
46
182
23
91
10
60
–
–
036
50
197
25
98
17
65
–
–
040
55
218
28
109
19
72
–
–
045
62
245
31
122
21
81
–
–
050
68
272
34
136
23
90
–
–
060
82
327
41
164
27
109
–
–
066
90
360
45
180
30
120
–
–
*Flow rates based on standard tubes. Minimum flow based on tube
velocity of .9 m/sec; maximum flow based on 3.6 m/sec.
16DE
SIZE
16DE
SIZE
015
018
021
024
028
033
036
040
045
050
060
066
ABSORBER-CONDENSER
2-Pass/1-Pass
3-Pass/1-Pass
Min
Max
Min
Max
362
1169
–
–
409
1401
–
–
536
2073
–
–
611
2373
–
–
576
2044
–
–
674
2387
–
–
666
2631
–
–
746
2931
–
–
830
3301
–
–
922
3660
–
–
1106
4426
–
–
1217
4869
–
–
*Flow rates based on standard tubes. Minimum flow based on tube
velocity of 3 ft/sec; maximum flow based on 12 ft/sec.
17
16DE
SIZE
16DE
SIZE
015
018
021
024
028
033
036
040
045
050
060
066
ABSORBER-CONDENSER
2-Pass/1-Pass
3-Pass/1-Pass
Min
Max
Min
Max
23
73
–
–
26
88
–
–
34
130
–
–
38
149
–
–
37
129
–
–
43
150
–
–
42
166
–
–
47
184
–
–
53
208
–
–
59
230
–
–
71
284
–
–
78
311
–
–
*Flow rates based on standard tubes. Minimum flow based on tube
velocity of .9 m/sec; maximum flow based on 3.6 m/sec.
Controls
Control System
Control Sequence
The Product Integrated Controls (PIC) is the control system on
the machine. The PIC controls the operation of the machine by
monitoring all operating conditions. The PIC can diagnose a
problem and let the operator know what the problem is and
what to check. It promptly positions the steam control valve to
maintain leaving chilled water temperature. It can interface
with auxiliary equipment such as pumps and cooling tower
fans. It continually checks all safeties to prevent any unsafe
operating condition. The PIC can be interface with the Carrier
Comfort Network (CCN). It can communicate with other PICequipped chiller and CCN device.
To start: Local start-up (manual start-up) is initiated by
pressing the LOCAL menu softkey which is indicated on the
default local interface device (LID) screen. All pre-start
safeties are checked to verify that all pre-start alerts and
safeties are within limits. If one is not, an indication of the
fault will be displayed and the start is aborted. The signal is
sent to start the chilled water pump. If flow is not confirmed,
the controls continue to monitor flows for a maximum of 5
minutes. If flow is confirmed, the controls check the chilled
water temperature against the control point. If the temperature
is less than or equal to control point, the controls go into a
recycle mode. If the water temperature is high enough, the
start-up sequence continues and starts the cooling water pump.
Once the cooling water flow is verified, the cooling tower fan
algorithm shall be enabled. The controls start the solution
pump and warm-up routine. The refrigerant pump shall be
energized 2.5 minutes after the start of warmup. The steam
control valve is initially held at warmup start position at the
beginning of warmup. For each additional 5 minutes of
warmup, the capacity valve shall be stepped by 1/3 of the
warmup travel limit until it is at the warmup travel limit for the
last 5 minutes of warmup. Once the full 20 minutes of warmup
is complete, the ramp loading routine shall be initiated.
Features
Control system
Component Test and Diagnostic Check
Menu-Driven Keypad Interface for Status Display, Set
Point Control, and System Configuration
CCN Compatible
Primary and Secondary Status Messages
Individual Start/Stop Schedules for Local and CCN
Operation Modes
Recall of Up to 25 Alarm/Alert Messages with Diagnostic
Help
Advanced Crystallization Protection
Overriding of Normal Capacity Valve Position in
response to Cycle Condition and Manual Valve Control
International Chiller Visual Controller Language Support
Safety cutouts
Low Chilled Water Temperature Cutout
High-Temperature Generator Solution Temperature
Cutout
High-Temperature Generator Pressure Cutout
Low Chilled Water Flow
Protective limits
Low Chilled and Cooling Water Flow
Evaporator Refrigerant Temperature
Low Chilled Water Temperature
Weak Solution Leaving Absorber Temperature
Strong Solution Leaving High-Temperature Generator
Temperature
High-Temperature Generator Solution Level
Solution Pump VFD Overload/ High Temperature
Refrigerant Pump Overload/ High Temperature
Transducer Reference Voltage
Overrides
Low Refrigerant Temperature
High-Temperature
Generator
High
Saturation
Temperature
High-Temperature Generator High Solution Temperature
Solution Concentration Control
18
Once started: The controls enter ramp loading mode to slowly
open the steam control valve to prevent a rapid increase in
boiler demand. Once ramp loading is completed, the controls
enter the capacity control mode. Any failure that results in a
safety shutdown immediately activates the dilution cycle,
closes the steam control valve at its maximum rate of travel,
activates the alarm light and relay, displays the fault that
occurred, and updates the alarm history log.
Shutdown sequence: Chiller shutdown can occur if any of the
following events happen:
The Stop button is pressed for at least one second
A recycle shutdown is initiated
Time schedule has gone into Unoccupied mode
Machine protective limit has been reached and chiller is
in alarm
The start/ stop status is overridden to stop from the CCN
network or the LID
Once the controls are placed in shutdown mode, the shutdown
sequence closes the steam control valve. The software the
initiates a 15-minute dilution cycle to lower the concentration
of the solution and equalize chiller temperatures. The
refrigerant pump stops 3 minutes after the start of dilution
cycle. All pumps stops at the end of dilution cycle.
Restart: Restart is permitted after dilution cycle is completed
and there is a need for chilled water. If the shutdown was due
to a safety shutdown, the reset button must be pressed before
restarting the chiller.
19
NORMAL START FLOW CHART
Start
Request
Verify All sensors
in range
Inc Prestart safties
No
Sensor Fault/
Prestart Alerts
A
Yes
Start Chilled Water
Pump
Start Warmup
Routine
Start Water verify
Timer
Start 2.5 min
Solution Pump Delay
Timer
No
Verify Chilled
Water Flow
No
No
Water timer
elapsed
Yes
Chilled Water
Fault
Ref Pump
Timer Elapsed
Yes
Recycle Condition
Yes
Monitor for Recycle
start
Start Refrigerant Pump
No
No
Start Cooling Water
Pump
Warmup Routine
Completed
Start Water verify
Timer
Yes
No
Verify Cooling
Water Flow
No
Start Ramp Loading
Water timer
elapsed
Yes
Cooling Water
Fault
Yes
Start Tower Control
20
Start Solution Pump
A
Controls (cont)
NORMAL STOP FLOW CHART
Stop
Request
Drive Capacity Valve
to 0
Start Ref Pump and
dilution timer
Start Sol Pump and
dilution timer
No
Ref Pump Timer elapsed
Yes
Stop Ref pump
No
Sol Pump Timer elapsed
Yes
Stop Solution Pump
Stop Cooling Water
Pump and Tower
Fan Control
Recycle Shutdown
No
Stop Chilled Water
Pump
Shutdown Complete
Ready to Start
21
Yes
Monitor for Recycle
start
Guide specifications
Hermetic Absorption Liquid Chiller
Size Range: 150 to 660 tons (528 to 2321 kW)
Carrier Model Numbers: 16DE
Part 1 – General
1.01 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Microprocessor controlled, double-effect absorption
liquid chiller utilizing hermetic refrigerant and solution
pumps, lithium bromide solution as the absorbent, and
water as the refrigerant. High pressure steam shall be
supplied to the high-temperature generator as the heat
source.
1.02 QUALITY ASSURANCE
A. Chiller performance shall be rated in accordance with
ARI Standard 560 (latest edition).
B. Chiller shall be manufactured in accordance with GB/T
18431-2001,which is Chinese Industrial Standard as
applicable.
C. Chiller shall be designed and constructed to meet
applicable (GB) requirements .
D. Each chiller shall undergo a series of standard factory tests
to ensure that the unit is leak tight, that all electrical
components operate as intended, and that every aspect of
the unit fabrication meets stringent quality standards in
accordance with good practice and the manufacturer’s
quality assurance requirements.
1. The shellside of each chiller shall be leak tested by
pressurizing to 11 psig (76 kPa) with nitrogen and then
checked by spraying a soap/water mixture on all welds,
tube joints, and/or gasketed joints to identify any major
leaks. Afterward, a mass spectrometer test shall be
performed by evacuating the unit to .0001mmHg
absolute, covering the machine with a vinyl tent, and
introducing helium gas under the tent. Any remaining
leaks will allow the helium to be drawn into the
shellside of the machine. The acceptable leak rate as
measured by the mass spectrometer test shall not
exceed .00001 cc/sec standard air.
2. The tubeside of the evaporator, absorber, and condenser shall be hydrostatically tested at 1.5 times rated
design pressure and held for one hour.
3. The refrigerant and solution pump/motors shall
undergo standard factory tests to ensure proper head
flow, and motor output characteristics.
4. All machine wiring shall undergo an insulation
resistance test. The chiller/heater control center and all
electrical components shall also be functionally tested
to verify continuity and proper electrical operation.
5. Final assembly inspection shall consist of verifying
that all valves, controls, instrumentation, pumps, purge
components, and all other machine components have
been properly installed on the machine.
6. Each unit shall then be checked for overall appearance
and dimensional accuracy.
7. Final inspection shall be performed on each unit to
check that painting of the unit is as specified,
nameplate data is correct, and that all accessories are
22
8. furnished as required.
1.03
DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING
A. Unit shall be stored and handled in accordance with
the manufacturer’s recommendations.
B. Normally, unit shall be charge with lithium bromide
solution at the jobsite in accordance with the
manufacturer’s written instructions But if customer
requires, unit can be factory-charged with lithium
bromide solution and performance tested before
shipping as special requirement.
C. One-piece units shall be shipped under vacuum on the
shellside.
D. Chiller shall be shipped with nameplates indicating
name of manufacturer, model size, serial number, and
all other pertinent machine data.
1.04WARRANTY
Carrier shall guarantee the chiller against defects in
materials or workmanship for a period of one year from
date of initial operation or 18 months from date of
shipment, whichever occurs first. Carrier shall provide
the labor to repair or replace any part found to be
defective in material or workmanship within the
warranty period.
Part 2 – Products
2.01 EQUIPMENT
A. General:
Absorption liquid chiller shall include evaporator,
absorber, condenser, high and low-temperature gen
erators, solution heat exchanger, condensate drain
heat exchanger, float trap, purging system, piping
wiring, refrigerant/solution pumps, controls, and
auxiliaries. Shipment of the machine shall be in
1 piece. Initial charge of lithium can be included
with the chiller for charging at the jobsite.
B. Operating Characteristics:
1. Chiller operation shall be characteristic of a doubleeffect absorption cycle with series solution flow.
The weak solution from the absorber shall be
entering the high-temperature generator via the low
and high-temperature solution heat exchangers. A
variable frequency drive pump shall automatically
regulate the flow of solution to the high-temperature
generator to maintain optimum flow at all operating
conditions. This shall result in improved part-load
efficiency and eliminate the need for manual set-up
adjustments of the solution flow.
2. Unit shall be capable of continuous operation from
100 to 25% capacity, with entering cooling water
temperatures as low as 59 F (15 C), without the
need for a cooling tower bypass valve. Thermostat
ON/OFF control of the cooling tower fan is
recommended when cooling water temperature falls
below 59 F (15 C).
Guide specifications (cont)
C. Heat Exchangers:
1. All heat exchangers shall be of shell and tube
construction with shells, tubesheets, tube support
sheets, and waterboxes fabricated of carbon steel.
All heat exchangers shall incorporate straight tubes.
All tubes shall be rolled into grooveless tubesheets
and expanded into tube support sheets, except for
the high and low-temperature generator tubes. High
and low-temperature tubes shall be rolled into
grooved tubesheets and expanded into tube support
sheets
2. The evaporator, absorber, and condenser waterboxes shall be designed for 150 psig (1034 kPa)
working pressure. Marian type waterboxes shall be
supplied on the evaporator a n d the absorbercondenser All waterboxes shall be provided with
vent and drain connections. RF flanges shall be
furnished on all waterbox nozzle connections.
3. The high-temperature generator shall consist of
straight tubes secured to a number of baffle plate
located between tubesheets. The high-temperature
generator waterbox shall be designed for 150 psig
(1034 kPa) working pressure. The steam inlet shall
be provided with an RF flange connection..
4. A steam condensate drain heat exchanger shall be
factory mounted and piped on the machine to
reduce steam rate by pre-heating the weak solution
while cooling the condensate for easier condensate
return handling. The steam condensate outlet
connection shall be located above grade, in
proximity to the bottom of the generator overflow
chamber, thereby permitting a greater allowable
pressure drop to be considered in the design of the
condensate return system piping before flashing
occurs.
5. A high-temperature and low-temperature solution
heat exchanger shall be an integral part of the
machine to increase efficiency by pre-heating weak
solution on the tubeside with strong solution on the
shellside. Tube material for the high-temperature
heat exchanger shall be cupronickel, and tube
material for the low-temperature heat exchanger
shall be copper.
6. Spray heads for the evaporator and absorber shall
be of a non-clogging design, specifically designed
for the intended duty, and shall be fabricated of a
corrosion-proof material to ensure continuous,
high-efficiency operation.
7. Heat exchanger tube material and minimum wall
thickness shall be contingent on the type of
corrosion inhibitor used in the machine. For lithium
molibdate
systems,
the
following
tube
specifications shall apply to ensure long machine
life and continuous operation:
Evaporator……………….copper, externally-finned
23
Absorber………...…copper, externally- corrugated
Condenser. ……… copper, externally-corrugated
Low-Temperature Generator………………..copper,
externally-finned
High-Temperature Generator………..…cupronickel,
externally-finned
If chiller Carrier requires the use of tube materials
other than as listed above, due to the use of a less
effective inhibitor, the chiller manufacturer shall
guarantee performance of the machine for its
design life and shall replace tubes and/or tube
bundles as necessary during this period at no
additional cost to the owner.
D. Pump/Motors:
Refrigerant and solution pump/motors shall be selfcontained, leakproof, hermetic type, with isolation val
ves, and internal seal water system to minimize air lea
kage into the machine. Lubrication and cooling shall b
e accomplished by the fluid being pumped; auxiliary w
ater piping for cooling and lubrication shall not be acc
eptable.
E. Purge System
An automatic, motorless purge system shall be
furnished to provide a continuous purging action
whenever the chiller is in operation to assure long
machine
life
and
efficient
performance.
Noncondensables shall be removed from the absorber
by a liquid eductor, which shall use flow from the
solution pump to create a suction. Noncondensables
shall be stored external to the unit and shall be
prevented from diffusing back into the machine when
the unit is not operating. A palladium cell is used as a
optional part in unit. A palladium cell shall be
provided to automatically vent hydrogen gas from the
purge tank to the atmosphere to minimize the need for
manual evacuation of the storage tank. Evacuation of
the external storage tank shall be accomplished by the
use of a unit-mounted vacuum pump to ensure that the
palladium cell is not wetted with lithium bromide
solution.
F. Controls, Safeties and Diagnostics:
1. Controls:
a. The 16DE series chiller shall be provided with
a factory installed and wired microprocessor
control system with individually replaceable
modular component construction. The system
shall include a control center, power supply,
temperature (thermistor) and pressure
(transducer) sensors, and all necessary
auxiliary devices required for proper operation.
The chiller operation system shall have the
ability to interface and communicate directly
to the building control system without the use
of additional field-installed hardware or
software. Additional hardware will be
necessary if the building control system is not
b.
c.
24
a Carrier Comfort Network (CCN). The
control center shall include a 16-line by 40character liquid crystal display (LCD) screen,
four function keys, stop button, and alarm
light.
The
microprocessor
shall
be
configurable to display either English or SI
metric units.
The default standard display screen shall
simultaneously indicate the following
minimum information:
- date and time of day
- 24-character primary system status
message
- chiller operating hours
- entering chilled water temperature
- leaving chilled water temperature
- evaporator refrigerant temperature
- entering absorber water temperature
- leaving absorber water temperature
- leaving condenser water temperature
- strong solution temperature leaving hightemperature generator
- weak solution temperature leaving
absorber
- output signal to steam control valve
- The default screen shall be displayed if
there is no manual activity at the control
console for 15 minutes
The 4 function keys shall be software driven
within the Status, Schedule, Setpoint and
Service menu structures (as described below).
1) Status Function
In addition to the default screen, status
screen shall be accessible to view the
status of every point monitored by the
control center including:
2) Schedule Function
The chiller controls shall be configurable
for manual or automatic startup and
shutdown. In automatic operation mode,
the controls shall be capable of
automatically starting and stopping the
chiller according to a stored user
programmable occupancy schedule. The
controls shall include built-in provisions
for accepting a minimum of two 365-day
occupancy schedules. Each schedule
shall allow a minimum of 8 separate
occupied and unoccupied periods, any or
all of which can be scheduled by
individual day for any or all days of the
week, with a separate schedule for
holidays.
Schedules
shall
allow
specification of daylight savings
start/end and up to 18 user-defined
holidays up to one year in advance
d.
e.
(month, day, and duration in days).
Display of the occupancy schedules shall
be viewable on the LCD screen. Each
schedule shall provide a means of
configuring an occupancy timed override
to permit a “one time extension” of an
occupied period on the configured day.
The controls shall also provide for chiller
start-up and shutdown via remote contact
closure from a customer supplied device,
or from a building management system
software command.
3) Setpoint Function
The controls shall provide the capability
to view and change the leaving chilled
water set point, entering chilled water set
point, and demand limit set point at any
time during chiller operating or
shutdown periods. The controls shall
allow for the specification of capacity
control via either leaving chilled water or
entering chilled water.
4) Service Function
The controls shall provide a password
protected service function which allows
authorized individuals to:
- view an alarm history file which shall
contain the last 25 alarm and/or alert
messages with time and date stamp.
These messages shall be displayed in text
form, not codes.
- Execute a chiller controls test function
for quick identification of malfunctioning
components.
- View and/ or modify chiller configuration
- View and/ or modify
Network Window Function:
Each Chiller LID (Local Interface Device)
shall be capable of viewing multiple point
values and statuses from other connected on a
common network, including controller
maintenance data. The operator shall be able
to alter the remote controller’s set points or
time schedule and to force point values or
statuses that are operator forcible. The LID
shall also have access to the alarm history file
of all like controllers connected on the
network.
Capacity control shall be by means of
electronically modulating the steam control
valve actuator to maintain the temperature of
the leaving chilled water. Load modulation
shall be from 100% to 25% of machine full
load under normal ARI conditions. The steam
control valve shall be precisely positioned by
f.
g.
h.
i.
25
a PID (Proportional Integral Derivative)
control algorithm to ensure precise control
(± .5 F [± .3 C]) of desired chilled water
temperature without hunting or overshooting
the set point.
The microprocessor control system shall
include a programmed sequence to ensure
machine readiness prior to machine start-up.
The microprocessor shall automatically
activate and interlock the chilled water pump,
cooling water pump, cooling tower fan upon
chiller activation.
Upon request to start the chiller, the control
system shall start the chilled water pump and
verify chilled water flow. The controller shall
then compare the entering or leaving chilled
water temperature with the chilled water set
point. If the chilled water temperature is less
than the chilled water set point, the control
system shall enter the recycle mode until a
cooling load has been established. Once a
cooling load has been established the control
system shall start the cooling water pump and
verify flow, before starting tower fan, solution
pump and refrigerant pump.
Once
the
refrigerant pump is started the control system
shall then initiate a programmed warm-up
cycle. Once the full 20 minutes of warm-up
cycle is completed, the ramp loading routine
shall be initiated.
The control system shall automatically sense
impending abnormalities in the absorption
operating cycle and take one or all of the
following actions to either self-correct and/or
limit the machine from approaching cycle
crystallization line :
- inhibit steam control valve position until
concentration drops below preset
threshold. Message will be displayed :
“run
capacity
limited,
high
concentration.”
- drive steam control valve to closed
position until concentration drops below
preset threshold
- initiate non-recycle shutdown of the
chiller if safety shutdown threshold
exceeded. Message will be displayed:
“dilution cycle shutdown, complete in *.*
min.”
A user-configurable ramp loading rate,
effective during the chilled water temperature
pulldown period, shall control the rate of
steam control valve opening to limit start-up
steam demand. The controls shall allow
configuration of the ramp loading rate in
degrees per minute of chilled water
temperature pulldown. During the ramp
loading period, a message shall be displayed
informing the operator that the chiller is
operating in ramp loading mode.
j. The control system shall automatically cycle
the machine to minimize energy usage
whenever the leaving chilled water
temperature is 3 F (1.7 C) below the desired
chilled water set point. The chilled water
pump shall remain on, and when the leaving
chilled water temperature rises above the set
point by a user-configured amount, the chiller
shall automatically restart. During the
shutdown period, a message shall be displayed
informing the operator a recycle is pending.
k. The control center shall allow reset of the
chilled water temperature set point based on
any one of the following criteria:
- Chilled water reset based on an external 4
to 20 mA signal.
- Chilled water reset based on a remote
temperature (such as outdoor air).
- Chilled water reset based on water
temperature rise across the evaporator.
When reset is active, a message shall be
displayed indicating the type of reset in effect.
l. The control center shall limit the opening of
the steam control valve to 65% (userconfigurable) open at startup until the warmup period has been completed and ramp
loading is enabled.
m. When the stop button is pressed, or remote
contacts open the control center shall
immediately drive the steam control valve to
the closed position and initiate the normal
shutdown sequence including dilution cycle.
The display shall indicate : “ dilution cycle
shutdown, complete in *.* min”
2. Safeties:
a. Unit shall automatically shutdown when any of
the following conditions occur: (Each of these
protective limits shall require manual reset and
cause an alarm message to be displayed on the
LCD screen, informing the operator of the
shutdown cause.)
- solution pump VFD overload/high
temperature
- refrigerant pump motor overload/high
temperature
- low chilled water temperature
- low evaporator refrigerant temperature
- high-temperature generator high solution
temperature
- high-temperature generator high pressure
-
high-temperature generator high solution
level
- high-temperature generator low solution
level
- loss of evaporator water flow
- loss of cooling water flow
The control system shall detect conditions which
approach protective limits and take selfcorrective action prior to an alarm occurring. The
system shall automatically reduce chiller
capacity when any of following parameters are
outside their normal operating range:
- low evaporator refrigerant temperature
- high-temperature
generator
high
saturation temperature
- high-temperature generator high solution
temperature
- high solution concentration
During the capacity override period, a pre-alarm
(alert) message shall be displayed informing the
operator which condition is causing the capacity
override. Once the condition is again within
acceptable limits, the override condition shall
terminate and the chiller shall revert to normal
chilled water control. If during either condition
the protective limit is reached, the chiller shall
shutdown, an alarm shall be generated, and a text
message shall be displayed informing the
operator which condition caused the shutdown
and alarm.
Guide specifications (cont)
b.
3. Diagnostics and Service:
a. The control system shall execute a series of prestart checks whenever a start command is
received to determine if pressures, temperatures,
and timers are within prestart limits, thereby
allowing start-up to proceed. If any of the limits
are exceeded a text alert message will be
displayed informing the operator of the cause of
the pre-start alert.
b. The control system shall provide a manual test
which permits selection and test of individual
control components and inputs. The CCM inputs
test shall allow display on the LCD screen of the
actual reading of each transducer and each
thermistor installed on the chiller.
The CCM outputs test shall automatically
energize the refrigerant pump, solution pump,
tower fan relay, alarm relay, chilled water and
cooling water pumps and chiller run relay, and
the control system shall confirm water flows
have been established and require operator
confirmation prior to proceeding to the next test.
A capacity valve actuator test shall allow the
operator to test the steam control valve position
by manually increasing, decreasing or holding in
26
response to the key pressed. Upon completion of
the steam control valve test the control valve
shall revert to the closed position.
A variable frequency drive test shall allow the
operator to check the VFD speed value by
manually increasing, decreasing or holding in
response to the key pressed. Upon completion of
the VFD test the VFD speed shall revert to 0.0%.
c. All sensors shall have quick disconnects to allow
replacement of the sensor without replacement of
the entire sensor wire.
4. Building Control System Interface:
The chiller control system shall have the ability to
interface and communicate directly to the building
control system without the use of additional field
installed hardware and software. The building control
system and the absorption chiller must be supplied by
the same manufacturer. If different building control
and chiller suppliers are chosen the chiller shall be
supplied with a dataport module which shall translate
the information in the chiller microprocessor to an
ASCII steam of data which can be read by any
manufacturer’s building management control system.
G. Electrical Requirements:
1. Power supply to the unit shall be 3-ph, 50Hz,
380V.. If need , Carrier also can meet owner’s
requirement .
2. Contractor shall supply and install the electrical
power line and all auxiliary electrical protection
devices per local code requirements and as
indicated necessary by the chiller manufacturer.
3. Contractor shall supply and install electrical wiring
and devices required to interface the chiller
controls with the building control system, if
applicable.
H. Piping Requirements:
1. Piping and instrumentation for the chilled water,
cooling water, steam, and condensate piping shall
be supplied and installed by the contractor/owner.
2. Chilled water flow switch shall be factory supplied
and factory installed in the evaporator water nozzle.
Cooling water flow switch shall be field installed or
factory installed if customer requires and supplied
by either the chiller manufacturer or the
contractor/owner.
3. Piping from the rupture disk shall be provided and
installed by the contractor/owner and piped in
accordance with the chiller manufacturer’s written
instructions.
I. Thermal Insulation:
Insulation of cold or hot surfaces shall be field
supplied and field installed on the machine. Chiller
manufacturer shall specify the recommended material
and surface area to be insulated.
J. Sound Level:
The overall sound pressure level of the chiller shall not
exceed 80 dbA when measured at standard of JB/T
4330
K. Start-up:
1. C a r r i e r shall provide a factory-trained service
representative,
employed
by
the
chiller
manufacturer, to perform and/or supervise chiller
pressure test (when required), charge chiller with
refrigerant (water) and lithium bromide solution,
place unit into operation, and calibrate all controls
in accordance with the manufacturer’s written startup, operating, and maintenance instructions.
2. After unit start-up has been performed, the same
Carrier representative shall be available for a period
of instruction (not to exceed 4 hours) to instruct the
owner’s personnel in the proper start-up, operation,
and maintenance procedures.
3. Carrier shall provide the following literature:
a. Installation, Operation and Maintenance
Instructions
b. Field Wiring Diagrams
L. Options and Accessories:
1. High-Pressure Waterboxes:
Waterboxes rated for 250 psig (1724 kPa) or 300
psig (2068 kPa) working pressure shall be furnished
when specified on the equipment schedule
2. Special Tubing:
Tubing of non-standard materials and/or wall
thickness shall be provided when specified on the
equipment schedule.
3. Shipping Configuration:
Chiller shall ship in either 1 or 2 pieces, as specified
on the equipment schedule.
4. Cooling Water Flow Switch:
A cooling water flow switch, rated for either
150 psig (1034 kPa), 250 psig (1724kPa), or 300
psig (2068 kPa) shall be field installed or factory
installed if customer requires and supplied by either
the chiller manufacturer or the contractor/owner.
5. Steam Valve (electric or pneumatic)
A steam valve shall be provided when specified on
the equipment schedule.
6. Unit Voltage
Unit shall be capable of operating on 3 phase, 50 Hz,
when specified on equipment schedule.
7. Isolation Package:
A vibration isolation package consisting of machine
soleplates and neoprene isolation pads shall be
furnished for field installation when specified on the
equipment schedule.
27
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