ARMY MODEL UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 15 FEBRUARY 1988

ARMY MODEL UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 15 FEBRUARY 1988
TM 55-1520-210-10
OPERATOR’S MANUAL
ARMY MODEL
UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS
This manual supersedes TM 55-1520-210-10 dated 1 December 1986, including all
changes.
HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
15 FEBRUARY 1988
TM 55-1520-210-10
C19
CHANGE
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 31 December 2002
NO. 19
OPERATOR’S MANUAL
ARMY MODEL
UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TM 55-1520-210-10, dated 15 February 1988, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar in
the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
A and B
2-7 and 2-8
2-9 and 2-10
2-21 and 2-22
2-35 and 2-36
3-41 and 3-42
3-69 and 3-70
4-7 (blank)/through 4-10
4-13 and 4-14
5-1 through 5-6
7-4.1/(7-4.2 blank)
7-47 and 7-48
7.1-4.1/(7.1-4.2 blank)
8-7 through 8-10
9-1 through 9-4
---9-8.1/(9-8.2 blank)
Index 3 and Index 4
A and B
2-7 and 2-8
2-9 and 2-10
2-21 and 2-22
2-35 and 2-36
3-41 and 3-42
3-69 and 3-70
4-7 (blank)/through 4-10
4-13 and 4-14
5-1 through 5-6
7-4.1/(7-4.2 blank)
7-47 and 7-48
7.1-4.1/(7.1-4.2 blank)
8-7 through 8-10
9-1 through 9-4
9-4.1/(9-4.2 blank)
9-8.1/(9-8.2 blank)
Index 3 and Index 4
2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
TM 55-1520-210-10
C19
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
Official:
ERIC K. SHINSEKI
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
JOEL B. HUDSON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
0230808
TM 58-1520-210-10
C18
CHANGE
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 8 October 1999
No.18
OPERATOR’S MANUAL
ARMY MODEL
UH-1 H/V HELICOPTER
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand. An illustration revision is indicated by a change
bar.
Remove pages
----------i through ii
iii through iv
1-1 and 1-2
2-23 and 2-24
2-29 and 2-30
2-33 and 2-34
3-21 and 3-22
----------3-31 and 3-32
----------index 1 through index 4
Insert pages
A and B
i through ii
iii through iv
1-1 and 1-2
2-23 and 2-24
2-29 and 2-30
2-33 and 2-34
3-21 and 3-22
3-22.1 through 3-22.28
3-31 and 3-32
3-32.1 through 3-32.24
index 1 through Index 4
2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
Official:
ERIC K. SHINSEKI
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
JOEL B. HUDSON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
9927804
DISTRIBUTION:
TO be distributed in accordance with initial Distribution Number (IDN) 310275, requirements for TM 55-1520210-10
TM 55-1520-210-10
C17
CHANGE
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTION, D.C., 13 February 1997
NO 17
Operator’s Manual
ARMY MODEL
UH- IH/V HELICOPTERS
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar in the margin.
An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
2. Pages 2-23 and 2-24 may have been omitted in some copies of Urgent Change 16. Therefore, these pages have been
included as part of this Change 17. Note, however, that these pages will retain their Change 16 designation.
Remove pages
Insert pages
i and ii
2-1 through 24
24.1/(2.4.2 blank)
2-5 through 2-8
.----.-.-.-2-9 through 2-12
.-.-.-.-.-2-13 through 2-16
.-.-.-.-.-2-17 through 2-24
2-35 and 2-36
3-11 and 3-12
3-12.1 and 3-12.2
3-27 through 3-32
3-37 and 3-38
3-41 and 3-42
4-5/(4-6 blank)
(4-7 blank)/4-8
4-9 and 4-10
5-1 through 5-4
6-1 through 6-4
7-3 and 74
--------7-5 and 76
7-47 and 748
7.1-3 and 7.14
-----------7.1-5 and 7.1-6
i and ii
2-1 through 2-4
2-4.1/(24.2 blank)
2-5 through 2-8
2-8.1/(2-8.2 blank)
2-9 through 2-12
2-12.1/(2-12.2 blank)
2-13 through 2-16
2-16.1/(2-16.2 blank)
2-17 through 2-24
2-35 and 2-36
3-11 and 3-12
3-12.1 and 3-12.2
3-27 through 3-32
3-37 and 3-38
3-41 and 3-42
4-5/(4-6 blank)
(4-7 blank)/4-8
4-9 and 4-10
5-1 through 5-4
6-1 through 64
7-3 and 74
7-4.1/(74.2 blank)
7-5 and 7-6
747 and 748
7.1-3 and 7.14
7.1-4.1/(7.14.2 blank)
7.1-5 and 7.16
URGENT
TM 55-1520-210-10
C16
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 13 August 1996
CHANGE
NO 16
Operator’s Manual
ARMY MODEL
UH-1HN HELICOPTERS
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988, Is changed as follows.
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar in the margin.
An illustration change Is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
iii through v/(vi blank)
2-23 and 2-24
2-29 and 2-30
3-67 and 3-68
-------------8-3 and 8-4
9-3 and 9-4
Index 1 and Index 2
iii through v/(vi blank)
2-23 and 2-24
2-29 and 2-30
3-67 and 3-68
3-68.1 through 3-68.3/(3-68.4 blank)
8-3 and 8-4
9-3 and 9-4
Index 1 and Index 2
2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
DENNIS J. REIMER
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
02158
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block no. 0275, requirements for
TM 55-1520-210-10.
TM 55-1520-210-10
C15
URGENT
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 14 February 1996
CHANGE
NO. 15
Operator's Manual
ARMY MODEL
UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar in
the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
2-4.1/(2-4.2 blank)
2-5 and 2-6
2-9 and 2-10
2-19 and 2-20
5-3 through 5-6
9-1 through 9-4
Index 3 and Index 4
2-4.1/(2-4.2 blank)
2-5 and 2-6
2-9 and 2-10
2-19 and 2-20
5-3 through 5-6
9-1 through 9-4
Index 3 and Index 4
2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
DENNIS J. REIMER
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
01309
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block no. 0275, requirements for
TM 55-1520-210-10.
URGENT
NOTICE:
THIS CHANGE HAS BEEN PRINTED AND DISTRIBUTED OUT OF SEQUENCE. IT SHOULD
BE INSERTED IN THE MANUAL AND USED. UPON RECEIPT OF THE EARLIER SEQUENCED
CHANGE ENSURE A MORE CURRENT CHANGE PAGE IS NOT REPLACED WITH A LESS CURRENT PAGE.
TM 55-1520-210-10
C 14
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 9 MARCH 1994
CHANGE
NO. 14
Operator’s Manual
ARMY MODEL
UH-lH/V HELICOPTERS
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A:
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988, is changed as follows:
1.
2.
Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is
indicated by a vertical bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated
by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
4-5 and 4-6
4-6.1/(4-6.2 blank)
4-7 through 4-10
4-15 and 4-16
6-11 through 6-14
4-5/(4-6 blank)
---4-8 through 4-10
4-15 and 4-16
6-11 through 6-14
Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
GORDON R. SULLIVAN
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
MILTON H. HAMILTON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
06202
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block no. 0275, requirements for TM 55-1520-210-10.
URGENT
NOTICE:
IT SHOULD
THIS CHANGE HAS BEEN PRINTED AND DISTRIBUTED OUT OF SEQUENCE.
BE INSERTED IN THE MANUAL AND USED. UPON RECEIPT OF THE EARLIER SEQUENCED
CHANGE ENSURE A MORE CURRENT CHANGE PAGE IS NOT REPLACED WITH A LESS CURRENT PAGE.
TM 55-1520-210-10
C 13
CHANGE
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 30 NOVEMBER 1993
NO. 13
Operator’s Manual
ARMY MODEL
UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A:
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988, is changed as follows:
1.
2.
Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is
indicated by a vertical bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated
by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
9-3 through 9-8
9-3 through 9-8
Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
GORDON R. SULLIVAN
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
MILTON H. HAMILTON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
05801
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block no. 0275, requirements for TM 55-1520-210-10.
URGENT
THIS CHANGE HAS BEEN PRINTED AND DISTRIBUTED OUT OF SEQUENCE. IT
SHOULD BE INSERTED IN THE MANUAL AND USED. UPON RECEIPT OF THE
EARLIER SEQUENCED CHANGE, ENSURE A MORE CURRENT CHANGE PAGE IS NOT
REPLACED WITH A LESS CURRENT PAGE.
NOTICE:
TM 55-1520-210-10
C 12
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 23 July 1993
CHANGE
NO. 12
Operator's Manual
ARMY MODEL
UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A:
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988, is changed as follows:
1.
Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is
indicated by a vertical bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated
by a miniature pointing hand.
Insert pages
i and ii
1-1 and 1-2
2-7 and 2-8
6-11 and 6-12
Remove pages
i and ii
1-1 and 1-2
2-7 and 2-8
6-11 and 6-12
2.
Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
GORDON R. SULLIVAN
GeneraI, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
MILTON H. HAMILTON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
03923
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block no. 0275,
requirements for TM 55-1520-210-10.
TM 55-1520-210-10
C11
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 1 July 1993
CHANGE
NO. 11
OPERATOR’S MANUAL
FOR
ARMY MODEL
UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988, is changed as follows:
1.
Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar
in the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
7.1-3 and 7.1-4
7.1-7 and 7.1-8
9-1 thru 9-4
7.1-3 and 7.1-4
7.1-7 and 7.1-8
9-1 thru 9-4
2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
GORDON R. SULLIVAN
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
MILTON H. HAMILTON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
07502
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block no. 0275, requirements for
TM 55-1520-210-10.
URGENT
TM 55-1520-210-10
C 10
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 18 April 1991
CHANGE
NO. 10
Operator’s Manual
ARMY MODEL
UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988, is changed as follows:
1.
Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material
is indicated by a vertical bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated
by a miniature pointing hand.
2.
Remove pages
Insert pages
9-1 and 9-2
9-1 and 9-2
Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
CARL E. VUONO
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
THOMAS F. SIKORA
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block no. 0275, -10 & CL
maintenance requirements for TM 55-1520-210-10.
URGENT
URGENT
TM 55--1520-210-10
C 9
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 5 March 1991
CHANGE
NO. 9
Operator's Manual
ARMY MODEL
UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988, is changed as follows:
Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material
is indicated by a vertical bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated
by a miniature pointing hand.
1.
2.
Remove pages
Insert pages
9-1 and 9-2
9-1 and 9-2
Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
CARL E. VUONO
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
THOMAS F. SIKORA
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block no. 0275, -10 & CL
maintenance requirements for TM 55-1520-210-10.
URGENT
URGENT
TM 55-1520-210-10
C 8
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 27 December 1990
CHANGE
NO. 8
Operator's Manual
ARMY MODEL
UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988, is changed as follows:
Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material
1.
is indicated by a vertical bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated
by a miniature pointing hand.
2.
Remove pages
Insert pages
i and ii
- - - iii and iv
- - - 1-1 and 1-2
2-7 through 2-10
5-1 through 5-4
5-7/5-8
7-1 and 7-2
- - - 8-10.1/8-10.2
9-1 through 9-4
9-7 and 9-8
9-8.1/9-8.2
9-9 through 9-12
- - - Index 1 through Index 4
i and ii
ii.1/ii/2
iii and iv
v/vi blank
1-1 and 1-2
2-7 through 2-10
5-1 through 5-4
5-7 and 5-8
7-1 and 7-2
7.1-1 through 7.1-53/7.1-54
8-10.1/8-10.2
9-1 through 9-4
9-7 and 9-8
9-8.1/9-8.2
9-9 through 9-12
9 -13 and 9-14
Index 1 through Index 4
Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
CARL E. VUONO
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
THOMAS F. SIKORA
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31, -10 & CL Maintenance
requirements for UH–1H and UH-1V Helicopter, Utility.
URGENT
URGENT
TM 55-1520-210-10
C 7
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 17 December 1990
CHANGE
NO. 7
Operator's Manual
Army Model
UH-1H/V Helicopters
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material
is indicated by a vertical bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated
by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove Pages
Insert pages
iii and iv
2-23 and 2-24
iii and iv
2-23 and 2-24
2-26.1/2-26.2
2-27 through 2-30
3-1 through 2-12
3-12.1 and 3-12.2
3-13 and 3-14
- - - 3-15 through 3-46
3-47 through 3-90
A-1/A-2
Index 1 through Index 4
- - - 2-27 through 2-30
3-1 through 3-12
and 3-14
3-14.1/3-14.2
3-15 through 3-46
3-13
- - - -
A-1/A-2
Index 1 through Index 4
2.
Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
CARL E. VUONO
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
THOMAS F. SIKORA
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31, -10 & CL Maintenance
requirements for UH-1H and UH-1V Helicopter, Utility.
URGENT
URGENT
TM 55-1520-210-10
C 6
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 2 April 1990
CHANGE
NO. 6
Operator’s Manual
ARMY MODEL
UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988, is changed as follows:
1. Pages 4-17 and 4-18 were erroneously depicted as pages being inserted
in change 5, please disregard.
2. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material
is indicated by a vertical bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated
by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
2-33 and 2-34
——-—
9-1 through 9-6
—-——
9-9 and 9-10
3.
2-33 and 2-34
8-10.1/8-10.2
9-1 through 9-6
9-8.1/9-8.2
9-9 and 9-10
Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
CARL E. VUONO
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
WILLIAM J. MEEHAN II
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31, –10 & CL Maintenance
requirements for UH-1H and UH–1V Helicopter, Utility.
URGENT
TM 55-1520-210-10
C 5
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 11 December 1990
CHANGE
NO. 5
Operator's Manual
ARMY MODEL
UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material
is indicated by a vertical bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated
by a miniature pointing hand.
2.
Remove pages
Insert pages
i through iv
2-13 through 2-20
2-23 and 2-24
2-27 and 2-28
2-33 and 2-34
2-37/2-38
3-5 and 3-6
3-9 through 3-14
----3-15 and 3-16
3-25 and 3-26
3-43 and 3-44
----4-5 and 4-6
----4-7 through 4-12
----5-1 through 5-7/5-8
6-1 through 6-6
6-11 and 6-12
7-1 through 7-4
7-13 through 7-16
8-1 through 8-12
9-1 through 9-10
C-1 and C-2
----Index 1 and Index 2
2028’s and Envelopes
i through iv
2-13 through 2-20
2-23 and 2-24
2-27 and 2-28
2-33 and 2-34
2-37/2-38
3-5 and 3-6
3-9 through 3-14
3-14.1/3-14.2
3-15 and 3-16
3-25 and 3-26
3-43 and 3-44
3-45 and 3-46
4-5 and 4-6
4-6.1/4-6.2
4-7 through 4-12
4-17 and 4-18
5-1 through 5-7/5-8
6-1 through 6-6
6-11 and 6-12
7-1 through 7-4
7-13 through 7-16
8-1 through 8-12
9-1 through 9-10
C-1 and C-2
C-3 and C-4
Index 1 and Index 2
2028’s and Envelopes
Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
TM 55-1520-210-10
C 5
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
CARL E. VUONO
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
WILLIAM J. MEEHAN II
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31, -10 & CL Maintenance requirements for UH-1H and UH-1V Helicopter, Utility.
URGENT
TM 55-1520-210-10
C 4
CHANGE
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 15 March 1989
NO. 4
ARMY MODEL
UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material
is indicated by a vertical bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated
by a miniature pointing hand.
2.
Remove pages
Insert pages
9-3 and 9-4
9-3 and 9-4
Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
CARL E. VUONO
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
WILLIAM J. MEEHAN II
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31, -10 & CL Maintenance requirements for UH-1H and UH-1V Helicopter, Utility.
URGENT
URGENT
CHANGE
NO. 3
TM 55-1520-210-10
C 3
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 15 May 1989
OPERATOR’S MANUAL
ARMY MODEL
UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988 is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material
is indicated by a vertical bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated
by a miniature pointing hand.
2.
Remove pages
Insert pages
2-9 and 2-10
8-9 and 8-10
2-9 and 2-10
8-9 and 8-10
8-10.1/8-10.2
Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
CARL E. VUONO
General, United States Army
Chief of staff
Official:
WILLIAM J. MEEHAN II
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31, -10 & CL Maintenance requirements for UH-1H and UH-1V Helicopter, Utility.
URGENT
URGENT
TM 55-1520-210-10
C 2
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 17 October 1988
CHANGE
No. 2
ARMY MODEL
UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988, is changed as follows:
1. Pages listed below which are preceded by an asterisk (*) are being provided
for reprint only.
2. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material
is indicated by a vertical bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated
by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
2-3 and 2-4
2-9 and 2-10
*6-19 and 6-20
7-7 and 7-8
* 7-15 through 7-18
* 7-29 through 7–48
7-51 and 7-52
9-11 and 9-12
3.
Insert pages
2-3 through 2-4.1/2-4.2
2-9 and 2-10
* 6-19 and 6-20
7-7 and 7-8
* 7-15 through 7-18
* 7-29 through 7-48
7-51/7-52
9-11 and 9-12
Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
CARL E. VUONO
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
R. L. DILWORTH
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31, -10 & CL Maintenance
requirements for UH-lH and UH-lV Helicopter, Utility.
URGENT
URGENT
TM 55-1520-210-10
C1
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 28 July 1988
CHANGE
NO.1
ARMY MODEL
UH-1H/V HELICOPTERS
TM 55-1520-210-10, 15 February 1988 is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material
is indicated by a vertical bar in the margin. A n i l l u s t r a t i o n c h a n g e i s i n d i c a t e d
by a miniature pointing hand.
2.
Remove pages
Insert pages
2-9 and 2-10
9-7 and 9-8
- - 9-9 and 9-10
2-9 and 2-10
9-7 and 9-8
9-8.1/9-8.2
9-9 and 9-10
Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
CARL E. VUONO,
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
R. L. DILWORTH
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31, -10 & CL Maintenance
requirements for UH-lH Helicopter, Utility and UH-lV Helicopter, Utility.
URGENT
TM 55-1520-210-10
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES
Insert latest changed pages. Dispose of superseded pages in accordance with regulations.
NOTE: On a changed page, the portion of the text affected by the latest change is indicated by a vertical line in
the outer margin of the page. Changes to illustrations are indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Dates of issue for original and changed pages are:
Original ............. 0 ................. 15 February 1988
Change ............. 1 ................. 28 July 1988
Change ............. 2 ................. 17 October 1988
Change ............. 3 ................. 9 December 1988
Change ............. 4 ................. 15 March 1989
Change ............. 5 ................. 11 December 1989
Change ............. 6 ................. 02 April 1990
Change ............. 7 ................. 17 December 1990
Change ............. 8 ................. 27 December 1990
Change ............. 9 ................. 05 March 1991
Page
No.
*Change
No.
Cover ............................................. 0
A and B......................................... 19
i.................................................... 18
ii and ii.1 ......................................... 8
ii.2 blank ......................................... 8
iii and iv........................................ 18
v................................................... 16
vi blank ......................................... 16
1-1................................................ 18
1-2.................................................. 8
2-1.................................................. 0
2-2 thru 2-4.1 ................................ 17
2-4.2 blank .................................... 17
2-5 and 2-6 ................................... 17
2-7................................................ 19
2-8 and 2-8.1................................. 17
2-8.2 blank .................................... 17
2-9................................................ 19
2-10 thru 2-12.1............................. 17
2-12.2 blank .................................. 17
2-13 thru 2-16.1............................. 17
2-16.2 blank .................................. 17
2-17 thru 2-21 ............................... 17
2-22.............................................. 19
2-23 and 2-24................................ 18
2-25 and 2-26.................................. 0
2-26.1 ............................................. 7
2-26.2 blank .................................... 7
2-27................................................ 7
Change ............. 10 ............... 18 April 1991
Change ............. 11 ............... 01 July 1993
Change ............. 12 ............... 23 July 1993
Change ............. 13 ............... 30 November 1993
Change ............. 14 ............... 09 March 1994
Change ............. 15 ............... 14 February 1996
Change ............. 16 ............... 13 August 1996
Change ............. 17 ............... 13 February 1997
Change ............. 18 ............... 08 October 1999
Change ............. 19 ............... 31 December 2002
Page
No.
*Change
No.
2-28.......................................... 0
2-29........................................ 18
2-30 thru 2-33 ........................... 0
2-34........................................ 18
2-35........................................ 19
2-36.......................................... 0
2-37.......................................... 5
2-38 blank ................................. 5
3-1............................................ 0
3-2 thru 3-11 ............................. 7
3-12 thru 3-12.2....................... 17
3-13 thru 3-21 ........................... 7
3-22 thru 3-22.28 ..................... 18
3-23 thru 3-27 ........................... 7
3-28 thru 3-30 ......................... 17
3-31.......................................... 7
3-32 thru 3-32.24 ..................... 18
3-33 thru 3-36 ........................... 7
3-37 and 3-38.......................... 17
3-39 and 3-40............................ 7
3-41........................................ 17
3-42........................................ 19
3-43 thru 3-67 ........................... 7
3-68 thru 3-68.3....................... 16
3-68.4 blank ............................ 16
3-69.......................................... 7
3-70........................................ 19
3-71 thru 3-90 ........................... 7
Change 19
A
TM 55-1520-210-10
Page
No.
*Change
No.
4-1 thru 4-4 ..................................... 0
4-5................................................ 17
4-6 blank ....................................... 17
4-7 blank ....................................... 17
4-8................................................ 19
4-9................................................ 17
4-10.............................................. 19
4-11 and 4-12.................................. 5
4-13................................................ 0
4-14.............................................. 19
4-15.............................................. 14
4-16................................................ 0
5-1 thru 5-3 ................................... 19
5-4.................................................. 0
5-5................................................ 15
5-6................................................ 19
5-7 and 5-8 ..................................... 8
6-1 thru 6-4 ................................... 17
6-5.................................................. 0
6-6.................................................. 5
6-7 thru 6-10 ................................... 0
6-11 thru 6-14 ............................... 14
6-15 thru 6-20 ................................. 0
7-1.................................................. 8
7-2.................................................. 5
7-3 and 7-4 ................................... 17
7-4.1 ............................................. 19
7-4.2 blank .................................... 17
7-5 and 7-6 ................................... 17
7-7.................................................. 2
7-8 thru 7-13 ................................... 0
7-14 and 7-15.................................. 5
7-16 thru 7-47 ................................. 0
7-48.............................................. 19
7-49 and 7-50.................................. 0
7-51................................................ 2
7-52 blank ....................................... 2
7.1-1 and 7.1-2 ................................ 8
7.1-3 and 7.1-4 .............................. 17
7.1-4.1.......................................... 19
*Zero in this column indicates an original page.
B
Change 19
Page
No.
*Change
No.
7.1-4.2 blank ........................... 17
7.1-5 and 7.1-6 ........................ 17
7.1-7 ....................................... 11
7.1-8 thru 7.1-45........................ 8
7.1-46 ..................................... 17
7.1-47 thru7.1-53 ....................... 8
7.1-54 blank .............................. 8
8-1 and 8-2 ............................. 17
8-3 and 8-4 ............................. 16
8-5............................................ 0
8-6 and 8-7 ............................. 17
8-8 thru 8-10 ........................... 19
8-10.1 ..................................... 17
8-10.2 blank ............................ 17
8-11 thru8-15 .......................... 17
8-16.......................................... 0
9-1.......................................... 15
9-2.......................................... 19
9-3............................................ 5
9-4.......................................... 19
9-4.1 ....................................... 19
9-4.2 blank .............................. 19
9-5 thru 9-8 ............................. 17
9-9............................................ 8
9-10.......................................... 0
9-11 thru 9-14 ........................... 8
A-1 ......................................... 17
A-2 blank ................................ 17
B-1 and B-2............................... 0
B-3 and B-4............................. 17
C-1 thru C-5 ............................ 17
C-6 blank ................................ 17
Index 1 thru Index 3................. 18
TM 55-1520-210-10
TECHNICAL MANUAL
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON D.C., 15 February 1988
OPERATOR'S MANUAL
ARMY MODEL
UH-1 H/V HELICOPTER
REPORTING ERRORS AND RECOMMENDING IMPROVEMENTS
You can help improve this publication. if you find any mistakes, or if you know of a way to improve the procedures,
please let us know. Mail your letter, DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms),
or DA Form 2028-2 located in the back of this manual direct to: Commander, U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Command, ATTN: AMSAM-MMC-LS-LP, Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898-5239. A reply will be furnished to you. You may
[email protected] or fax
also send in your comments electronically to our e-mail address:
256-642-6546/DSN 788-6546. Instructions for sending an electronic 2028 may be found at the back of this manual
immediately preceding the hard copy 2026.
Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 2
Section I
ii
ill
IV
V
VI
VII
VllI
IX
X
Xi
XII
xiii
xiv
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HELICOPTER AND SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Helicopter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emergency Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine and Related Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Helicopter Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flight Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Train System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rotors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utility Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heating and Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical Power Supply and Distribution System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flight instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Servicing Parking and Mooring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-1
2-1
2-1
2-3
2-3
2-6
2-7
2-6
2-9
2-10
2-10
2-11
2-12
2-13
2-17
2-19
CHAPTER 3
Section I
II
Ill
IV
AVIONICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transponder and Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-1
3-1
3-1
3-22
3-32.24
CHAPTER 4
Section I
MISSION EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Armament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mission Avionics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cargo Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1
4-1
4-5
4-5
II
Ill
Change 18
TM 55-1520-210-10
TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT)
Page
OPERATING LIMITS AND RESTRICTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
CHAPTER 5
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Section I
II
System Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
III
Power Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
IV
Loading Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
V
Airspeed Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
VI
Maneuvering Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
VII
Environmental Restrictions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
VIII Height Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
XI
Internal Rescue Hoist (Breeze Only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
5-3
X
Other Limitations
CHAPTER 6
Section I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
WEIGHT/BALANCE AND LOADING
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Weight and Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Fuel/Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Mission Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Cargo Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Center of Gravity Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
CHAPTER 7
Section I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
PERFORMANCE DATA
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Torque Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Hover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Cruise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 7-5
Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Climb-Descent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Fuel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
CHAPTER 7.1
Section I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
PERFORMANCE DATA
introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Torque Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cruise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Climb-Descent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 8
Section I
II
III
IV
V
VI
NORMAL PROCEDURES
Mission Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Crew Duties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Operating Procedures and Maneuvers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Instrument Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
Flight Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
8-11
Adverse Environmental Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 9
Section I
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
Helicopter Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
ii
Change 8
7.1-1
7.1-3
7.1-4
7.1-4
7.1-5
7.1-6
7.1-6
7.1-7
TM 55-1520-210-10
TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT)
APPENDIX A
B
C
REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
TABULAR PERFORMANCE DATA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
INDEX
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index 1
Change 8
ii.1/(ii.2 blank)
TM 55-1520-210-10
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FIGURE
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-10
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-6
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-14
3-14.1
3-14.2
3-14.3
3-15
3-16
3-17
3-18
3-19
3-20
3-21
3-22
3-22.1
3-22.2
3-23
3-24
3-25
3-26
3-27
3-28
3-29
3-29.1
3-29.2
3-29.3
3-29.4
3-29.5
3-29.6
3-29.7
3-29.8
3-29.9
3-29.10
3-29.11
3-29.12
TITLE
General Arrangement Diagram ...............................................................................
Principal Dimensions Diagram - Typical .................................................................
Pilot/Copilot Seats - Typical ....................................................................................
instrument Panel - Typical ......................................................................................
Crew Compartment - Typical ..................................................................................
Engine/Miscellaneous Control Panel Typical ..........................................................
Heating and Defrosting System.. .............................................................................
Electrical System Typical .........................................................................................
Caution Panel - Typical ...........................................................................................
Servicing Diagram - Typical ....................................................................................
Signal Distribution Panel SB-329/AR ......................................................................
Signal Distribution Panel C-1611/A/C ......................................................................
Signal Distribution Panel C6533/ARC ....................................................................
UHF Control Panel C6287/ARC-51BX ...................................................................
UHF Control Panel C-4677/ARC-51X .....................................................................
UHF Control Panel C-1827/ARC-55B .....................................................................
Control Panel AN/ARC-115 .....................................................................................
VHF Control Panel C-7197/ARC-134 ......................................................................
VHF Control Panel 614U-6/ARC-73 ........................................................................
Control Panel AN/ARC-114 and AN/ARC-114A ......................................................
FM Radio Set Control Panel AN/ARC-131 ..............................................................
FM Radio Set Control Panel C-3835/ARC-54 .........................................................
FM Control Panel and Switch Assembly AN/ARC-44 ..............................................
Voice Security Equipment .......................................................................................
HF Radio Set AN/ARC-220 Control Panel C12436/URC ........................................
Remote Control Unit (TSEC/KY-100) ......................................................................
Processor (TSEC/KY-100) ......................................................................................
HF Radio Control Panel ...........................................................................................
Direction Finder Control Panel ARN-83 ...................................................................
ADF Control Panel ARN-59 .....................................................................................
Navigation Control Panel ARN-82 ...........................................................................
VHF Navigation Receiver Control Panel ARN-30E .................................................
Course Deviation Indicator ID-43/ARN-30 and ID-1347/ARN-82 ............................
Gyromagnetic Compass Indicator (RMI) ................................................................
Marker Beacon Controls ..........................................................................................
Receiver/Display Unit ..............................................................................................
Instrument Panel - AN/ASN-175 System Components ..........................................
DME indicator ID-2192/ARN-124 ............................................................................
Transponder Set AN/APX-72 ..................................................................................
Transponder Set (AN/APX-100) Control Panel .......................................................
AAU-32/A Altitude Encode/Pneumatic Altimeter .....................................................
AN/APN-209 Radar Altimeter .................................................................................
Proximity Warning Panel .........................................................................................
Radar Warning System ...........................................................................................
Receive r-Transmitter Radio RT-1167/ARC-164(V) ...............................................
Control-Display Panel Layout ..................................................................................
HF Volume Control ..................................................................................................
Channel Selection ...................................................................................................
Channel Stewing ......................................................................................................
Numbered Keys .......................................................................................................
Frequency Select .....................................................................................................
Frequency Slewing (RX only) .................................................................................
Power Level Select ..................................................................................................
Modulation Mode Source .........................................................................................
Modulation Mode .....................................................................................................
Store .......................................................................................................................
PAGE
2-23
2-25
2-26
2-26.1
2-28
2-31
2-32
2-34
2-35
2-36
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-10
3-11
3-13
3-14
3-15
3-16
3-17
3-18
3-22.2
3-22.17
3-22.21
3-23
3-24
3-26
3-27
3-27
3-28
3-30
3-31
3-32.2
3-32.7
3-33
3-34
3-35
3-39
3-39
3-40
3-43
3-44
3-52
3-55
3-56
3-57
3-57
3-57
3-58
3-59
3-59
3-60
3-60
Change 18
iii
TM 55-1520-210-10
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (CONT)
FIGURE
3-29.13
3-29.14
3-29.15
3-29.16
3-29.17
3-29.18
3-29.19
3-29.20
3-29.21
3-29.22
3-29.23
3-29.24
3-29.24.1
3-29.25
3-29.26
3-29.27
3-29.28
3-29.29
3-29.30
3-30
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
5-1
5-2
5-2.1
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
6-7
6-8
6-9
6-10
6-11
6-12
iv
TITLE
Selective Receive Address .......................................................................
Selective Transmit Address .....................................................................
Seladr ON/OFF ......................................................................................
Test Mode Display .................................................................................
Failed Test Display .................................................................................
Passed Test Display ...............................................................................
Tune Mode Single Channel ......................................................................
Tune Mode - All Channels .......................................................................
Scan Mode ............................................................................................
Executing Scan ......................................................................................
HF Volume Control .................................................................................
LF/ADF Control Panel C-7932/ARN-89 ......................................................
ADF Control Panel C-12192/ARN-149(V) ..................................................
Radio Receiving Set AN/ARN-123(V) ........................................................
Doppler Navigation Set AN/ASN-128 ........................................................
Doppler Lamp Test Mode Display .............................................................
Horizontal Situation Indicator Control (C-11740/A) ......................................
Horizontal Situation Indicator (ID-2103/A) ..................................................
Voice Security System Equipment ............................................................
AN/ASC-15A(V) 1,2,3 and 4 Equipment Configuration ................................
Mine Dispenser Control Panel - Typical .....................................................
Hoist Installation - Typical ......................................................................
Pendant Control - Rescue Hoist ...............................................................
Hoist Cable Cutter Switch . Pilot - Typical ................................................
Hoist Cable Cut Switch - Hoist Operator - Typical ......................................
Control Pendant Assembly .......................................................................
AN/ASC-11 5A(V) 1, 2, 3 and 4 Equipment Configuration ...........................
Instrument Markings ...............................................................................
m Airspeed Operating Limits Chart .....................................................
m Airspeed Operating Limits Chart .....................................................
Helicopter Station Diagram ......................................................................
Fuel Loading ..........................................................................................
Personnel Loading ..................................................................................
Hoist Loading Limitations (Lateral CG) .......................................................
Hoist Loading Limitations (Longitudinal CG) ................................................
System Weight and Balance Data Sheet ....................................................
Hoist Installation Positions .......................................................................
Cargo Compartment ...............................................................................
Cargo Tiedown Fitting Data ....................................................................
Internal Cargo Weight and Moment ..........................................................
External Cargo Weight and Moment .........................................................
Center of Gravity Limits .........................................................................
Change 18
PAGE
3-60
3-61
3-61
3-62
3-62
3-63
3-63
3-63
3-63
3-64
3-65
3-66
3-68.1
3-69
3-72
3-75
3-84
3-85
3-87
3-88
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-15
4-15
4-16
4-17
5-4
5-7
5-8
6-5
6-6
6-8
6-9
6-10
6-11
6-14
6-15
6-16
6-17
6-18
6-19
TM 55-1520-210-10
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (CONT)
FIGURE
TITLE
PAGE
7-1
MB
Temperature Conversion Chart .................................................................................
7-12
7-2
MB
Maximum Torque Available (30 Minute Operation) Chart .........................................
7-13
7-3
MB
Hover (Power Required) Chart ..................................................................................
7-14
7-4
MB
Control Margin ...........................................................................................................
7-16
7-5
MB
Takeoff Chart .............................................................................................................
7-18
7-6
MB
Cruise Chart...............................................................................................................
7-21
7-7
MB
Drag Chart .................................................................................................................
7-48
7-8
MB
Climb-Descent Chart .................................................................................................
7-50
7-9
MB
Idle Fuel Flow Chart...................................................................................................
7-51
7-1.1
CB
Temperature Conversion Chart .................................................................................
7.1-8
7-1.2
CB
Maximum Torque Available (30 Minute Operation) Chart .........................................
7.1-9
7-1.3
CB
HoverChart.................................................................................................................
7.1-11
7-1.4
CB
Control Margin Chart..................................................................................................
7.1-15
7-1.5
CB
Takeoff Chart .............................................................................................................
7.1-17
7-1.6
CB
Cruise Chart...............................................................................................................
7.1-20
7-1.7
CB
Drag Chart .................................................................................................................
7.1-46
7-1.8
CB
Climb Chart ................................................................................................................
7.1-50
7-1.9
CB
Fuel Flow Chart..........................................................................................................
1-52
8-1
Danger Area .............................................................................................................................
8-15
8-2
Extenor Check Diagram ...........................................................................................................
8-16
9-1
Emergency Exits and Equipment .............................................................................................
9-10
9-2
MB
Autorotational Glide Charactenstr-s Chart.................................................................
9-11
9-2.1
CB
Autorotational Glide Characteristics Chart.................................................................
9-12
9-3
MB
Height Velocity Diagram ............................................................................................
9-13
9-3.1
CB
Height Velocity Diagram ............................................................................................
9-14
Change 16
v/(vi blank)
TM 55-1520-210-10
Operator’s Manual for
UH-1H/V Helicopters
Placement of tables, figures, and appendixes. Full
page tables, figures, and appendixes (in that order) included in this UPDATE printing are located following the
chapters in which they were referenced.
User Information. The proponent agency of this manual is the US Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM). Submit changes for improving this publication on
DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) to: Commander, U.S. Army AviATTN:
Missile
ation
and
Command
AMSAM-MMC-LS-LP, Redstone Arsenal, AL
35898-5230.
Types of comments that should be avoided on DA Form
2028 are those that: (1) Ask a question instead of giving
an answer; (2) Are based on minor differences of opinion or wording; (3) Point out obvious editorial errors,
mispellings, or errors in punctuation, unless the errors
change the intended meaning. (Reference AR 25-30,
Chapter 2).
Distribution. Special distribution of this issue has been
made in accordance with DA Form 12-31-R Requirements For Technical Manuals. The number of copies requested in Block 275 and 668 of the subscribers DA
Form 12-31-R.
Resupply. Limited copies of this publication are available from the St. Louis Publications Center for emergency requirements. Users should take action to insure
they are receiving the correct number by updating their
DA 12-Series Forms.
Explanation of Change Symbols. Changes in text
material and tables will be shown by a bar in the left margin. Correction of minor inaccuracies such as spelling,
punctuations, relocation of material, etc. will not be
shown unless such corrections changes the meaning of
instructive information and procedures.
Change 18 1-1
TM 55-1520-210-10
Chapter 1
Introduction
1-1. General These instructions are for use by the
operator(s). They apply to UH-1H/V helicopter.
1-2. Warnings, Cautions, and Notes Warnings,
Cautions, a n d N o t e s a r e u s e d t o e m p h a s i z e
important and critical instructions and are used for
the following conditions.
WARNING
An operating procedure, practice, etc.,
which if not correctly followed, could result in personal injury or loss of life.
Caution
An operating procedure, practice, etc.,
which if not strictly observed, could result in
damage to or destruction of equipment.
NOTE
An operating procedure, condition, etc.,
which it is essential to highlight.
1-3. Description This manual contains the best
operating instructions and procedures for the
UH-1H/V helicopter under most circumstances. The
observance of limitations, performance and weight
balance
data provided is mandatory. The
observance of procedure is mandatory except when
modification is required because of multiple
emergencies, adverse weather, terrain, etc. Your
flying experience is recognized, and therefore, basic
flight principles are not included. THIS MANUAL
SHALL BE CARRIED IN THE HELlCOPTER AT ALL
TIMES.
1-4. Appendix A, References Appendix A is a
listing of official publications cited within this manual
applicable to and available for flight crews.
1-2
Change 8
1-5.
Appendix B, Abbreviations and Terms
Definitions of all abbreviations and terms used
throughout the manual are included in appendix B.
1-6. Index The index lists every titled paragraph
contained in this manual. Chapter 7 performance
data has an additional index within the chapter.
1-7.
Army Aviation Safety Program
Reports
necessary to comply with the safety program are
prescribed in AR 385-40.
1-8.
Destruction of Army Materiel to Prevent
Enemy Use For information concerning destruction
of Army materiel to prevent enemy use, refer to TM
750-244-1-5.
1-9.
Forms and Records
Army aviators flight
records and helicopter maintenance records which
are to be used by the operators and crew members
are prescribed in DA PAM 738-751 and TM
55-1500-342-23
1-10. Designator Symbols Designator Symbols H
UH-1H and V UH-1V are used in conjunction with text
contents, text headings and illustration titles to show
limited effectivity of the material. One or more designator
symbols may follow a text heading or illustration title to indicate proper effectivity, unless the material applies to all
models and configurations within the manual. If the
material applies to all models and configurations, no
designator symbols will be used. The Designator Symbols used for the Composite Main Rotor Blade is
and the Metal Main Rotor Blade is
1-11. Use of Words Shall, Should, and May Within
this technical manual, the word “shall” is used to indicate
a mandatory requirement. The word “should” is used to
indicate a non-mandatory but preferred method of accomplishment. The word “may” is used to indicate an acceptable method of accomplishment.
TM 55-1520-210=10
Chapter 2
Helicopter and Systems Description and Operation
Section 1.
2-1. General Description The UH-1H/N helicopters
are thirteen-place single engine helicopters. The
maximum gross weight is 9500 pounds.
2-2. General Arrangement Figure 2-1 depicts the
general arrangement. Indexed items include access
openings and most of the items referred to in the
exterior check paragraph in section Ill of chapter 8.
2-3. Principal Dimensions Figure 2-2 depicts the
principal dimensions.
2-4. Turning Radius Turning radius is about 35
feet when pivoted around the mast.
2-5. Fuselage The fuselage is the forward section
of the airframe extending from the nose to the
forward end of the tailboom. The fuselage consists
primarily of two longitudinal beams with transverse
bulkheads and metal covering. The main beams are
the supporting structure for the cabin, landing gear,
fuel tanks, transmission, engine, and tailboom. The
external cargo suspension unit is attached to the
main beams near the center of gravity of the
helicopter.
2-6. Tailboom The tailboom section is bolted to
the aft end of the fuselage and extends to the aft
It is a tapered,
helicopter.
the
end
of
semi-monocoque structure comprised of skins,
Iongerons, and stringers. The tailboom supports the
tail rotor, vertical fin, and synchronized elevator. It
houses the tail rotor driveshaft and some electronic
equipment.
2-7. Landing Gear System
a. Main Landing Gear. The main landing gear consists of two aluminum arched crosstubes mounted
laterally on the fuselage with two longitudinal skid
tubes attached to the crosstubes. The skid tubes
are made of aluminum and have steel skid shoes
attached to the bottom to minimize skid wear.
HELlCOPTER
b. Tail Skid. A tubular steel tail skid is installed on
the aft end of the tailboom. It acts as a warning to
the pilot upon an inadvertent tail-low landing and
aids in protecting the tail rotor from damage.
2-8.
Crew Compartment Diagram
compartment is depicted in figure 2-5.
The crew
2-9. Cockpit and Cabin Doors
a. Cockpit Doors. The cockpit doors are formed
aluminum frames with transparent plastic windows in
the upper section (fig 2-1). Ventilation is supplied by
the sliding panels in the windows. Cam-type door
latches are used and doors are equipped with jettisonable door releases.
b. Cabin Doors. The two cabin doors are formed
aluminum frames with transparent plastic windows in
the upper section (fig 2-1). These doors are on rollers and slide aft to the open position allowing full
access to the cargo area. Hinged doorpost panels
are forward of the cabin doors. They provide a
larger entrance to the cargo area. An open door
lock is provided to hold the door in the aft position to
prevent door separation in flight.
Pilot/Copilot Seats The pilot and copilot
2-10.
seats may be conventional seats or armored seats
(fig 2-3). The armored seats have a release to
recline the seats to aid in removal of injured
personnel. The conventional seats do not have the
reclining feature.
a. Pilot and Copilot Seats (Conventional). The pilot
and copilot seats are vertical and fore-aft adjustable
and the nonreclining type. The vertical height adjustment handle is under the right side of the seat. The
fore and aft adjustment is under the left side of the
seat. Webbing on the back of the seat can be removed to accept use of a back-pack parachute.
The seats are equipped with lap safety belts and inertia reel shoulder harness.
2-1
TM 55-1520-210-10
b. Plot and Copilot Seats (Armored). Armored
seats can be installed m the helicopter for the pilot and
copilot. They are equipped with lap safety belt and
inertia-reel shoulder harness They are adjustable fore
and aft and vertically. The vertical adjustment handle Is
under the right side of the seat and the fore and aft
handle on the left. The seats are equipped with a quick
release, on each side at the back of the seat, for
reclining the seat. The seat back, bottom, and sides are
protected by ceramic and aluminum armor plate. Hip
and shoulder areas are protected by ceramic type armor.
c. Inertia Reel Shoulder Harness. An inertia reel
and shoulder harness is incorporated in the pilot and
copilot seats with manual lock-unlock handle (fig 2-3).
On the conventional seat, the control handles are located
on the left front of the seat. On the armored seat, the
control handles are located on the night front of the seat.
With the control in the unlocked position (aft) and the
shoulder straps properly adjusted, the reel strap will
extend to allow the occupant to lean forward; however,
the reel automatically locks when the helicopter
encounters an impact force of 2 to 3 ’G’ deceleration.
The reel can be locked (handle forward) from any
position and will take up slack in the harness. To release
the lock, it is necessary to lean back slightly to release
tension on the lock and move the control handle to the
unlock position. It is possible to have pressure against
the seat back whereby no additional movement is
possible and the lock cannot be released. If this
condition occurs. It will be necessary to loosen the
harness. The reel should be manually locked for
emergency landing. Straps must be adjusted to fully
retract within the inertia reels to prevent rebound
overshoot in the event of impact. Seat belt must be
securely fastened and firmly tightened prior to
adjustment of shoulder harness to prevent submanning
in event of Impact.
2-11. Personnel Seats. Various arrangements of
personnel seats can be installed to accommodate from
one to eleven personnel besides the pilot and copilot.
The seats are constructed of tubular steel and reinforced
canvas. Each seat is equipped with a lap safety belt.
For additional information on the personnel seats, refer
to chapter 6. Patients will be secured to litters utilizing
2-2
Change 17
the approved patient securing straps when the helicopter
is used for medical evacuation missions. Instruments
and Controls.
2-12 Instruments and Controls
a. Instrument Panel.
The location of all the
controls, indicators, instruments, and data placards
installed on the instrument panel is depicted m figure 24
V Some instruments may be relocated.
b. Pedestal Panel.
The panels and controls
installed in the pedestal are depicted in figure 2-5.
c. Overhead Console. The location of the controls
and circuit breakers installed in the overhead console is
depicted in figure 2-5.
d. External Stores Jettison Handle. The external
stores Jettison handle Is located to the left of the pilot
collective when installed. Pulling up on the handle will
Jettison external stores through mechanical linkage.
e. Other Instruments and Controls. Instruments,
controls, or indicators not shown in figure 2-5 or figure 26 are shown in the chapter/section which describes their
related systems.
2-12.1 Wire Strike Protection System (WSPS).
The WSPS provides protection for 90 % of the frontal
area against impacts with horizontally strung mechanical
and power transmission cables. The basic system
consists of an upper cutter/deflector, a windshield
protector/deflector/cutter, a lower cutter/deflector and a
pair of windshield wiper deflectors (fig 2-1). The lower
cutter assembly features a ’Breakaway Tip’ designed to
shear when relatively large ground contact forces are
experienced and before helicopter structural damage is
incurred. However, the tip shear rivets are designed to
withstand the smaller forces experienced during wire
strikes and the tip will still effectively deflect wires/cables
into the cutter blades.
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section II. EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT
2-13.
Emergency Equipment.
The emergency
equipment location, illustration, and emergency
procedures are covered in chapter 9.
2-14. Portable Fire Extinguisher. A portable handoperated fire extinguisher is carried in a bracket located
aft of the pedestal, or to the right of the pilot seat.
2-15. First Aid Kits. Four general purpose type first aid
kits have been provided in the cabin area (fig 9-1) Two
kits are secured to the night center doorpost. The other
two kits are secured to the left doorpost. First aid kits
can be easily removed for immediate use.
Section III. ENGINE AND RELATED SYSTEMS
2-16. Engine. The UH-IH/ are equipped with a T53-L13 engine.
2-17. Engine Compartment Cooling. The engine
compartment is cooled by natural convection through
engine compartment screens.
2-18. Air Induction System. Three different air
induction systems are used on these helicopters. They
are discussed m the following paragraphs:
a Non-Self Purging Particle Separator. The
non-self-purging particle separator is an inertial type. A
lip extending into the airstream deflects the particle-laden
air into a large chamber. Large particles in the air settle
in the chamber; fine particles are removed as the air is
drawn through a filter assembly. Removed particles are
held m porous foam box assembles.
The box
assemblies can be removed and cleaned.
Other
components used with the particle separator are: ENG
AIR FILTER CONT circuit breaker on the overhead
console, an engine air differential pressure switch on the
firewall, and an cateye type on the instrument panel or of
the segment type on the caution panel.
b. Self-Purging Particle Separator.
Helicopters
serial No. 68-15779 and subsequent are equipped with
a self-purging particle separator. This is an inertial-type
separator. Particle-laden air is directed through a large
annular chamber and through an air cleaner. A constant
supply of bleed air from the engine flows through the
venture-type ejector and carries particles overboard
through airframe plumbing. Some self-purging particle
separator systems have operational ENGINE INLET AIR
caution panel segment lights.
NOTE
The ice detector system is not applicable
on helicopters equipped with the selfpurging particle separator.
d. DE-ICE. Engine de-ice is a bleed air system
activated by the DE-ICE switch on the ENGINE panel (fig
2-6). In the ON position bleed air is directed through the
engine inlet to provide the protection. Power losses
caused when the system is on are shown m chapter 7.
In the event of dc electrical failure or when the DE-ICE
ENG circuit breaker is out de-ice is automatically on.
System power is provided by the dc essential bus and
protected by the ANTI-ICE ENG circuit breaker.
e. Improved Particle Separator Some UH.-l’s may
be equipped with an improved particle separator. This
unit has a number of vortex tubes which ar-highly
effective in removing sand and dust from the engine inlet
air. The sand and dust are dumped overboard through
outlets on each side of the Separator.
2-19. Engine Fuel Control System.
a Engine Mounted Components. The fuel control
assembly is mounted on the engine. It consists of a
metering section a computer section and an overspeed
governor.
(1) The metering section is driven at a speed
proportional to N1 speed. It pumps fuel to the engine
through the main metering valve or if the main system
falls through the emergency metering valve which is
positioned directly by the twist grip throttle.
c Foreign Object Damage Screen Foreign Object
Damage (FOD) screen prevents large particles from
entering the engine inlet.
Change 17
2-3
TM 55-1520-210-10
(2) The computer section determines the rate
of main fuel delivery by biasing main metering valve
opening for N I speed, inlet air temperature and
pressure, and throttle position. It also controls the
operation of the compressor air bleed and operation of
the variable inlet guide vanes.
compressor stall, overspeed, over-temperature, or
engine failure. The governor circuit receives power from
the 28 Vdc essential bus and is protected by the GOV
CONT circuit breaker.
(3) The overspeed governor is driven at a
speed proportional to N2 speed. It biases the main
metering valve opening to maintain a constant selected
N2 rpm.
a. Description. The dry sump pressure type oil
system is entirely automatic in its operation. The system
consists of an engine oil tank with de-aeration provisions.
thermostatically controlled oil cooler with by-pass valve,
pressure transmitter and pressure indicator, low
pressure warning switch and indicator, sight gages, and
oil supply return vent, and breather lines. Drain valves
have been provided for draining the oil tank and cooler.
Pressure for engine lubrication and scavenging of return
oil are provided by the engine-mounted and enginedriver oil pump. On helicopters equipped with Oil Debris
Detection System (ODDS), and external oil separator,
with integral chip detector, and a 3-micron filter are
installed down stream of the sump. Oil specification and
grade are specified in the Servicing Table 2-1
b. Starting Fuel Flow. During engine start.
energizing the start fuel switch opens the fuel solenoid
valve, allowing fuel from the fuel regulator to flow through
the starting fuel manifold and into the combustion
chamber. When N1 reaches sufficient speed, the start
switch is de-energized, causing the solenoid valve to
close and stop-starting fuel flow. Starting fuel nozzles
are purged by air from the combustion chamber through
a check filter valve. Engine starting fuel solenoid valve is
controlled by the engine starter switch on helicopters
which do not have a starting fuel switch. The engine
solenoid valve (engine starting fuel solenoid valve)
cannot be individually controlled during engine starts.
c. Power Controls (Throttles). Rotating the pilot or
copilot twist grip-type throttle (fig 2-5) to the full open
position allows the overspeed governor to maintain a
constant rpm. Rotating the throttle toward the closed
position will cause the rpm to be manually selected
instead of automatically selected by the overspeed
governor. Rotating the throttle to the fully closed position
shuts off the fuel. An idle stop Is incorporated in the
throttle to prevent inadvertent throttle closure. To bypass
the idle detent press the IDLE REL switch and close the
throttle. The IDLE REL switch is a momentary on,
solenoid-operated switch. The IDLE REL switch is
located on the pilot collective stick switch box. IDLE REL
switch receives power from the 28 Vdc bus and is
protected by a circuit breaker marked IDLE STOP REL.
Friction can be induced in both throttles by rotating the
pilot throttle function ring counterclockwise (fig 2-5). The
ring is located on the upper end of the pilot throttle.
d. Governor switch. The GOV switch is located on
the ENGINE control panel (fig 2-6). AUTO position
permits the overspeed governor to automatically control
the engine rpm with the throttle in the full open position.
The EMER position permits the pilot or copilot to
manually control the rpm.
Because automatic
acceleration, deceleration, and overspeed control are not
provided with the GOV switch in the EMER position,
control movements must be smooth to prevent
2-4
Change 17
2-20. Engine Oil Supply System.
b. Oil Cooler. Engine oil cooling Is accomplished
by an oil cooler. The cooler is housed within the
fuselage area under the engine deck (fig 2-1). Air
circulation for oil cooling is supplied by a turbine fan
which operates from turbine bleed air. The fan is
powered at all times when the engine is operating and no
control is required except the bleed air limiting office.
2-21. Ignition Starter System. The starter ignition
switch is mounted on the underside of the pilot collective
pitch control lever switch box. An additional switch may
be installed on the copilot stick. The switch is a trigger
switch, spring-loaded to the off position (fig 2-5). The
starter and ignition unit circuits are both connected to the
trigger switches. The circuits receive power from the 28
Vdc essential bus and are protected by circuit breakers
marked STARTER RELAY and IGNITION SYSTEM
IGNITER SOL. The starter circuit is energized when the
STARTERJGEN switch is in the START position and the
trigger switch is pulled (fig 2-5).
The ignition circuit is energized when the FUEL MAIN
ON/OFF switch on the engine control panel is m the ON
position and the trigger switch is pulled. The ignition
keylock is located by the AC circuit breaker panel. The
OFF position deactivates the igniters and start fuel to
prevent engine starting. The ON position allows engine
starting.
TM 55-1520-21I
2-21.1. Infrared (IR) Scoup Suppressor. Aircraft
equipped with the IR Scoup Suppressor System
will have an upturned insulated exhaust duct
assembly, an exhaust extension, and a forward
duct assembly mounted at the tailpipe. The IR
Scoup Suppressor System reduces the IR
signature of the aircraft by directing engine
exhaust into the rotor blades for dispersion.
Change 17
2-4.11/(2-4.2 bi
TM 55-1520-210-10
2-22. Governor RPM Switch. The pilot and copilot
GOV RPM INCR/DECR switches are mounted on a
switch box attached to the end of the collective pitch
control lever (fig 2-5). The switches are a three-position
momentary type and are held in INCR (up) position to
increase the power turbine (N2) speed or DECR (down)
position to decrease the power turbine (N2) speed.
Electrical power for the circuit is supplied from the 28
Vdc essential bus and is protected by a circuit breaker
marked GOV CONT.
2-23. Droop Compensator. A droop compensator
maintains engine rpm (N2) as power demand is
increased by the pilot. The compensator is a direct
mechanical linkage between the collective stick and the
speed selector lever on the N2 governor. No crew
controls are provided or required. The compensator will
hold N2 rpm to j40 rpm when properly rigged. Droop is
defined as the speed change in engine rpm (N2) as
power is increased from a no-load condition. It is an
inherent characteristic designed into the governor
system. Without this characteristic instability would
develop as engine output is increased resulting in N I
speed overshooting or hunting the value necessary to
satisfy the new power condition. If N2 power were
allowed droop other than momentarily the reduction in
rotor speed could become critical.
2-24. Engine Instrument and Indicators. All engine
instruments and indicators are mounted in the instrument
panel and the pedestal (figs 24 and 2-5).
a. Torquemeter Indicator.
The torquemeter
indicator is located in the center area of the instrument
panel and is marked TORQUE PRESS (fig 24). The
indicator is connected to a transmitter which is part of the
engine oil system. The torquemeter indicates torque in
pounds per square inch (psi) of torque imposed upon the
engine output shaft. The torquemeter receives power
from the 28 Vac bus and is protected by a circuit breaker
marked TORQUE in the ac circuit breaker panel b.
Exhaust Gas Temperature Indicator. The exhaust gas
temperature indicator is located in the center area of the
instrument panel and is marked EXH TEMP (fig 24).
The indicator receives temperature indications from the
thermocouple probes mounted in the engine exhaust
diffuser section. The temperature indications are in
degrees celsius.
The system is electrically selfgenerating.
c. Dual Tachometer.
The dual tachometer is
located in the center area of the instrument panel and
indicates both the engine and main rotor rpm (fig 2 4).
The tachometer inner scale is marked ROTOR and the
outer scale is marked ENGINE. Synchronization of the
ENGINE and ROTOR needles indicates normal
operation of helicopter. The indicator receives power
from the tachometer generators mounted on the engine
and transmission. Connection to the helicopter electrical
system is not required.
d. Gas Producer Tachometer. The gas producer
indicator is located in the right center area of the
instrument panel and is marked PERCENT (fig 2-4). The
indicator displays the rpm of the gas producer turbine
speed in percent. This system receives power from a
tachometer generator which is geared to the engine
compressor. A connection to the helicopter electrical
system is not required.
e. Oil Temperature Indicator. The engine oil
temperature indicator is located in the center area of the
instrument panel and is marked OIL ’C (fig 2-4). The
indicator is connected to an electrical resistance-type
thermocouple. The temperature of the engine oil at the
engine oil inlet is indicated in degrees celsius. Power to
operate the circuit is supplied from the 28 Vdc essential
bus. Circuit protection is provided by the TEMP IND
ENG & XMSN circuit breaker.
f. Oil Pressure Indicator The engine oil pressure
indicator is located in the center area of the instrument
panel and is marked OIL PRESS (fig 2-4). The indicator
receives pressure indications from the engine oil
pressure transmitter and provides readings in pounds
per square inch (psi). The circuit receives electrical
power from the 28 VAC bus and circuit protection Is
provided by the ENG circuit breaker in the ac circuit
breaker panel.
g. Oil Pressure Caution Light The ENGINE OIL
PRESS caution light Is located in the pedestal mounted
CAUTION panel. The light is connected to a low
pressure switch.
When pressure drops below
approximately 25 psi the switch closes an electrical
circuit causing the caution light to illuminate. The circuit
receives power from the 28 Vdc essential bus and is
protected by the circuit breaker marked CAUTION
LIGHTS.
h. Engine Chip Detector Caution Light. A magnetic
plug is installed in the engine. When sufficient metal
particles accumulate on the magnetic plug to complete
the circuit the ENGINE CHIP DET segment illuminates.
The circuit receives power from the 28 Vdc essential bus
and is protected by the circuit breaker marked CAUTION
LIGHTS. On Helicopters equipped with ODDS, the chip
detector which is connected to the caution light is part of
the external oil separator.
Change 17
2-5
TM 55-1520-210-10
i. Engine Ice Detector. The ice detector system
(ENGINE ICE DET caution light) is not connected.
j. Engine Icing Caution Light The ENGINE ICING
segment of the caution panel is not connected.
NOTE
Engine inlet air filter clogged/caution
lights are not utilized for aircraft with the
improved particle separator. However,
some self-purging particle separators
have operational ENGINE INLET AIR
segment lights.
k Engine Inlet Air Filter Clogged Warning Light On
helicopters pnor to Serial No.
68-16066 the ENGINE
INLET FILTER CLOGGED warning light is mounted on
the upper area of the instrument panel (fig 2-4). When
the inlet air filter becomes clogged, a differential
pressure switch senses the
condition and closes
contacts to energize the filter caution light. Power is
supplied from the 28 Vdc bus and circuit protection is
provided by the CAUTION LIGHTS circuit breaker.
i Engine Inlet Air Caution Light The ENGINE INLET AIR
segment of the caution panel will illuminate when the
inlet air filter becomes clogged. Power is supplied from
the 28 Vdc bus and protection is provided by the
CAUTION LIGHT circuit breaker.
m. Failure of either fuel pump element will close an
electrical circuit illuminating the caution light. The system
receives power from the 28 Vdc essential bus and is
protected by a circuit breaker marked CAUTION
LIGHTS. One type of switch used on some aircraft will
illuminate the caution light until normal operating
pressure is reached. This momentary lighting does not
indicate a pump element failure.
n. Emergency Fuel Control Caution Light The
emergency fuel control caution light is located m the
pedestal-mounted caution panel. The Illumination of the
worded segment GOV EMER Is a remainder to the pilot
that the GOV switch is in the EMER position. Electrical
power for the circuit is supplied from the 28 Vdc bus and
is protected by a circuit breaker marked CAUTION
LIGHTS.
o. Fuel Filter Caution Light The FUEL FILTER
caution light Is located in the pedestal-mounted caution
panel or a press to test light is located on the instrument
panel. A differential pressure switch is mounted m the
fuel line across the filter. When the filter becomes
clogged, the pressure switch senses this and closes
contacts to energize the caution light circuit. If clogging
continues, the fuel bypass opens to allow fuel to flow
around the filter. The circuit receives power from the 28
Vdc essential bus and Is protected by a circuit breaker
marked CAUTION LIGHTS.
Section IV. HELICOPTER FUEL SYSTEM
2-25. Fuel Supply System.
a. Fuel System The fuel system consists of five
interconnected cells all filled from a single fitting on the
right side of the helicopter. The two forward cells each
contain a submerged boost pump. The boost pumps
provide fuel pressure to prime the fuel line to the engine
driven fuel pump. Each forward fuel cell is divided into
two compartments by a lateral baffle fitted with a flapper
valve to allow fuel flow from front to rear.
The
submerged boost pump is mounted on a sump assembly
near the aft end of each forward cell and is connected by
a hose to the pressure line outlet to the engine. Part of
the pump output is diverted forward through a flow switch
and hose to an ejector pump at front of cell. Induced flow
of the ejector pump sends fuel through a hose over the
baffle into the rear part of the cell, so that no slgnmficant
quantity of fuel will be unusable in any flight attitude. The
crashworthy system is designed to contain fuel during a
2-6
Change 17
severe, but survivable, crash Impact to reduce the
possibility of fire. Frangible fittings used to secure the
fuel cells m the airframe are designed to fuel and permit
relative movement of the cells, without rupture, in event
of a crash; self-sealing break-away valves are installed in
the fuel lines at the fuel cell outlets and certain other
locations. The break-away valves are designed to permit
complete separation of components without loss of fuel.
Rollover vent valves are installed on the aft fuel cells to
provide protection m the event of a helicopter rollover
during a crash. The system has 50 caliber ballistic
protection in the lower two-thirds of the cell.
b. Closed Circuit Refueling System Helicopter
serial number 69-15292 and subsequent and modified
helicopters provide a closed circuit refueling system
when used with the mating nozzle. This system is
capable of automatic shut-off of fuel flow when full.
TM 55-1520-210-10
c Gravity Refueling.
If helicopter is equipped with
closed circuit refueling system and fuel servicing vehicle
is not equipped with related nozzle for closed circuit
refueling, a gravity system may be used.
2-26. Controls and Indicators.
a Fuel Switches.
The fuel system switches
consist of a main fuel switch, start fuel switch, and fuel
transfer switches (fig 2-6). The FUEL START switch is
not applicable on helicopters Serial No. 66-8574 through
66-8577, 66-16034 and subsequent, and earlier models
so modified.
(1) Main Fuel Switch The FUEL MAIN
ON/OFF switch is located on the pedestal-mounted
ENGINE panel (fig 2-6). The switch is protected from
accidental operation by a spring-loaded toggle head that
must be pulled up before switch movement can be
accomplished. When the switch is in the ON position,
the fuel valve opens, the electric boost pump(s) are
energized and fuel flows to the engine. When the switch
is in the OFF position the fuel valve closes and the
electric boost pump(s) are de-energized. Electrical
power for circuit operation is supplied by the 28 Vdc
essential bus and is protected by circuit breakers FUEL
VALVES, LH BOOST PUMP and RH ROOST PUMP.
(2) Fuel Start Switch. The FUEL START ON/OFF
switch is located on the ENGINE panel. In the ON
position the starting fuel solenoid valve is energized
when the starter-ignition switch is pulled. When the
START FUEL switch is in the OFF position the igniter
solenoid valve is de-energized. Electrical power for the
circuit is supplied by the 28 Vdc essential bus and is
protected by circuit breaker IGNMTION SYSTEM
IGNITER SOL.
(3) Fuel Control.
Fuel flow and mode of operation
is controlled by switches on the pedestal-mounted
engine control panel (fig 26). The panel contains the
MAIN FUEL ON/OFF or FUEL ON/OFF switch, START
FUEL ON/OFF switch, two INT FUEL TRANS PUMP or
INT AUX FUEL switches, and GOV AUTO/EMER switch.
The switch over to emergency mode is accomplished by
retarding the throttle to idle or off position and positioning
the GOV AUTO/EMER switch to the EMER position. In
the EMER position fuel is manually metered to the
engine, with no automatic control features, by rotating
the throttle twist grip.
b. Fuel Quantity Indicator.
The fuel quantity
indicator is located in the upper center area of the
instrument panel (fig 2-4). This instrument is a
transistorized electrical receiver
which
continuously indicates the quantity of fuel m pounds.
The indicator is connected to three fuel transmitters
mounted m the fuel cells. Two are mounted in the night
forward cell and one in the center aft cell. Indicator
readings shall be multiplied by 100 to obtain fuel quantity
m pounds. Electrical power for operation is supplied
from the 115 Vac system and is protected by circuit
breaker FUEL QTY in the ac circuit breaker panel.
c Fuel Gage Test Switch The FUEL GAGE TEST switch
is used to test the fuel quantity indicator operation (fig 24).Pressing the switch will cause the indicator pointer to
move from the actual reading to a lesser reading.
Releasing the switch will cause the pointer to return to
the actual reading. The circuit receives power from the
115 Vac system and is protected by a circuit breaker
marked FUEL QTY m the ac circuit breaker panel.
d Fuel Pressure Indicator The fuel pressure
indicator displays the psi pressure of the fuel being
delivered by the boost pumps from the fuel cells to the
engine (fig 2-4). The circuit receives power from the 28
Vac bus and is protected by the FUEL PRESSURE
circuit breaker in the ac circuit breaker panel.
e. Fuel Quantity Low Caution Light The 20
MINUTE FUEL caution light will illuminate when there is
approximately 185 (130 to 240) pounds remaining. The
illumination of this light does not mean a fixed time
period remains before fuel exhaustion, but is an
indication that a low fuel condition exists. Electrical
power is supplied from the 28 Vdc ESSETIAL BUS.
The caution lights circuit breaker protects the circuit.
NOTE
Low fuel caution systems alert the pilot
that the fuel level in the tank has
reached a specified level (capacity).
Differences in fuel densities due to
temperature and fuel type will vary the
weight of the fuel remaining and the
actual time the aircraft engine may
operate.
Differences
in
fuel
consumption rates, aircraft attitude and
operational condition of the fuel
subsystem will also affect actual time the
aircraft engine may operate.
f Fuel Boost Pump Caution Lights. The LEFT
FUEL BOOST and RIGHT FUEL BOOST caution Lights
will illuminate when the left/right fuel boost pumps fail to
pump fuel.
The circuits receive power from the 28
Vdc
Change 19
2-7
TM 55-1520-210-10
essential bus. Circuit protection is provided by the
CAUTION LIGHTS, RH FUEL BOOST PUMP and LH
FUEL BOOST PUMP circuit breakers. On helicopters
prior to Serial No. 69-15292 a FUEL TANK SUMP
PUMP circuit breaker is used instead of RH and LH
BOOST PUMP circuit breakers.
2-27. Auxiliary Fuel System.
a. Internal Fuel Transfer Switches. Two switches
marked INT AUX FUEL LEFT/RIGHT are mounted in the
ENGINE control panel (fig 2-6). Placing the switches to
the forward position energizes the auxiliary fuel system.
Fuel is transferred to the main fuel cells. An overfill limity
switch Is installed in the main fuel tank to prevent the
auxiliary fuel pumps from overfilling the main fuel cells.
Power is supplied by the dc essential bus and protected
by the FUEL TRANS PUMP circuit breaker.
Complete provisions have been made for installing an
auxiliary fuel equipment kit in the helicopter cargo
passenger compartment. Two crashworthy bladder type
tanks can be installed on the aft bulkhead and
transmission support structure.
This allows the
helicopter to be serviced with an additional 300 U.S.
gallons of fuel (table 2-1).
b. Auxiliary Fuel Low Caution Light. An AUX FUEL
LOW caution light Is provided to indicate when the
auxiliary fuel tanks are empty. The light will Illuminate
only when the fuel transfer switches are in the forward
position, and the auxiliary tanks are empty. The circuit
receives power from the 28 Vdc essential bus and is
protected by the CAUTION LIGHTS circuit breaker.
Section V. FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
2-28. Description. The flight control system is a
hydraulic assisted positive mechanical type, actuated by
conventional helicopter controls. Complete controls are
provided for both pilot and copilot. The system includes
a cyclic system, collective control system, tail rotor
system, force the system, synchronized elevator, and a
stabilizer bar.
2-29. Cyclic Control System. The system is operated
by the cyclic stick movement (fig 2-5). Moving the stick
in any direction will produce a corresponding movement
of the helicopter which Is a result of a change in the
plane of rotation of the main rotor. The pilot cyclic
contains the cargo release switch, radio ICS switch,
armament fire control switch, hoist switch and force the
switch. Desired operating friction can be induced into the
control stick by hand tightening the friction adjuster.
a. Synchronized Elevator.
The synchronized
elevator (fig 2-1) is located on the tailbroom. It is
connected by control tubes and mechanical linkage to
the fore and-aft cyclic system. Fore and aft movement of
the cyclic control stick will produce a change in the
synchronized elevator attitude.
This improves
controllability within the cg range.
b. Stabilizer Bar. The stabilizer bar is mounted on
the main rotor hub trunnion assembly in a parallel plane,
above and at 90 degrees to the main rotor blades. The
gyroscopic and inertial effect of the stabilizer bar will
produce a damping force in the rotor rotating control
system and thus the rotor.
When an angular
displacement of the helicopter/mast occurs the bar tends
to remain in its trim plane. The rate at which the bar
rotational plane tends to return to a position
2-8
Change 17
perpendicular to the mast Is controlled by the hydraulic
dampers. By adjusting the dampers, positive dynamic
stability can be achieved, and still allow the pilot
complete responsive control of the helicopter.
2-30. Collective Control System. The collective pitch
control lever controls vertical flight (fig 2-5). When the
lever is in full down position, the main rotor is at
minimum pitch. When the lever is in the full up position,
the main rotor Is at maximum pitch. The amount of lever
movement determines the angle of attack and lift
developed by the main rotor, and results in ascent or
descent of the helicopter. Desired operating friction tan
be induced into the control lever by hand-tightening the
friction adjuster (fig 2-5). A grip-type throttle and a switch
box assembly are located on the upper end of the
collective pitch control lever. The pilot switch box
contains the starter switch, governor rpm switch, engine
idle stop release switch, and landing light/searchlight
switches. A collective lever down lock is located on the
floor below the collective lever. The copilot collective
lever contains only the grip-type throttle, governor rpm
switch, and starter switch when installed. The collective
pitch control system has built-in breakaway (friction)
force to move the stick up from the neutral (center of
travel) position of eight to ten pounds with hydraulic
boost ON.
2-31. Tail Rotor Control System. The system is
operated by pilot/copilot anti-torque pedals (fig 2-5).
Pushing a pedal will change the pitch of the tail rotor
blades resulting in directional control. Pedal adjusters
are provided to adjust the pedal distance for individual
comfort. A force the system is connected to the
directional controls.
TM 55-1520-210-10
2-32. Force Trim System. Force centering devices are
incorporated in the cyclic controls and directional pedal
controls. These devices are installed between the cyclic
stick and the hydraulic servo cylinders, and between the
anti-torque pedals and the hydraulic servo cylinder. The
devices furnish a force gradient or "feel’ to the cyclic
control stick and anti-torque pedals. A FORCE TRIM
ON/OFF switch is installed on the miscellaneous control
panel to turn the system on or off (Fig 2-6). These
forces can be reduced to zero by pressing and holding
the force trim push-button switch on the cyclic stick grip
or moving the force trim switch to OFF.
Section VL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
2-33. Description. The hydraulic system is used to
minimize the force required by the pilot to move the
cyclic, collective and pedal controls. A hydraulic pump,
mounted on and driven by the transmission supplies
pressure to the hydraulic servos. The hydraulic servos
are connected into the mechanical linkage of the
helicopter flight control system.
Movement of the
controls in any direction causes a valve, in the
appropriate system, to open and admit hydraulic
pressure which actuates the cylinder, thereby reducing
the force-load required for control movement.
Irreversible valves are installed on the cyclic and
collective hydraulic servo cylinders to prevent main rotor
feedback to the cyclic and collective in the event of
hydraulic system malfunction.
2-34. Control Switch. The hydraulic control switch is
located on the miscellaneous panel (Fig 2-6). The switch
is a two-position toggle type labeled HYD CONTROL
ON/OFF. When the switch is in the ON position,
pressure is supplied to the servo system. When switch
is in the OFF position the solenoid valve is closed and no
pressure is supplied to the system. The switch is a failsafe type. Electrical power is required to turn the switch
off.
Change 17
2-8.1/(2-8.2 blank)
TM 55-1520-210-10
2-35. Reservoir and Sight Glass. The hydraulic
reservoir is a gravity feed type and is located at the right
aft edge of the cabin roof (fig 2-10). The reservoir and
sight gage are visible for inspection through a plastic
window in the transmission fairing.
2-36. Hydraulic Filter. A line filter is installed on
helicopters prior to Serial No. 68-16050. Thus filter has
no indicator.
Helicopters Serial No 68-16050 and
subsequent, or those modified by MWO have an
improved filter system. When the filter is clogged it will
give a visual warning by raising a red indicator button.
The red button pops out when a set differential pressure
across the element is exceeded. Once actuated, the
indicator will remain extended until reset manually When
the indicator TM 55-1520-210-10 is in reset position, it
will be hidden from view. An inspection window may be
provided to permit ready visual access to the filter
indicator. The transparent window is located on forward
face of the transmission bulkhead.
2-37.
Hydraulic Pressure Caution Light.
Low
hydraulic system pressure will be indicated by the
illumination of
HYD PRESSURE
segment on
the
CAUTION
panel. Moderate feedback forces will be noticed in the
controls when moved.
2-38. Electrical Circuit Electrical power for hydraulic
system control is supplied by the 28 Vdc essential bus.
The circuit Is protected by the HYD CONT circuit
breaker.
Section VII. POWER TRAIN SYSTEM
2-39. Transmission. The transmission is mounted
forward of the engine and coupled to the power turbine
shaft at the cool end of the engine by the main
dnveshaft. The transmission is basically a reduction
gearbox, used to transmit engine power at a reduced
rpm to the rotor system.
A freewheeling unit is
incorporated m the transmission to provide a quickdisconnect from the engine if a power failure occurs.
This permits the main rotor and tail rotor to rotate m
order to accomplish a safe auto-rotational landing. The
tail rotor drive is on the lower aft section of the
transmission. Power is transmitted to the tail rotor
through a series of driveshafts and gearboxes. The rotor
tachometer generator, hydraulic pump, and main dc
generator are mounted on and driven by the
transmission. A self-contained pressure oil system is
incorporated in the transmission. The oil is cooled by an
oil cooler and turbine fan. The engine and transmission
oil coolers use the same fan. The oil system has a
thermal bypass capability An oil level sight glass, filler
cap. and magnetic chip detector are provided. A
transmission oil filter is mounted in a pocket in the upper
right aft corner of sump case, with inlet and outlet ports
through internal passages. The filter incorporates a
bypass valve for continued oil flow if screens become
clogged. The transmission external oil filter is located in
the cargo-sling compartment on right side wall, and is
connected into the external oil line. On Helicopters
equipped with ODDS, a full flow debris monitor with
integral chip detector replaces the integral oil filter. A
bypass valve is incorporated, set to open at a set
differential pressure to assure oil flow if filter element
should become clogged.
A bypass condition will be indicated by extension of a red
indicator on the filter head. On Helicopters equipped
with ODDS, the external oil filter is rated to 3 microns.
2-40. Gearboxes.
a Intermediate Gearbox 42 Degree.
The 42
degree gearbox is located at the base of the vertical fin.
It provides 42 degree change of direction of the tail rotor
dnveshaft The gearbox has a self-contained wet sump oil
system. An oil level sight glass, filler cap, vent (fig 2-10)
and magnetic chip detector are provided.
b. Tail Rotor Gearbox 90 Degree. The 90 degree
gearbox is located at the top of the vertical fin. It
provides a 90 degree change of direction and gear
reduction of the tail rotor driveshaft. The gearbox has a
self-contained wet sump oil system. An oil level sight
glass, vented filler cap (fig 2-10) and magnetic chip
detector are provided.
2-41. Driveshafts.
A Main Dnveshaft The main dnveshaft connects
the engine output shaft to the transmission input drive
quill.
b. Tall Rotor Driveshaft The tail rotor dnveshaft
consists of six dnveshaft and four hanger bearing
assemblies. The assemblies and the 42 degree and 90
degree gearboxes connect the transmission tail rotor
drive quill to the tail rotor.
Change 19
2-9
TM 55-1520-210-10
2-42. Indicators and Caution Lights.
a. Transmission Oil Pressure Indicator.
The
TRANS OIL pressure indicator is located in the center
area of the instrument panel (fig 24). It displays the
transmission oil pressure in psi. Electrical power for the
circuit is supplied from the 28 Vac bus and is protected
by the XMSN circuit breaker in the ac circuit breaker
panel.
b. Transmission Oil Pressure Low Caution Light.
The XMSN OIL PRESS segment in the CAUTION panel
will illuminate when the transmission oil pressure drops
below about 30 psi.
The circuit receives power from
the essential bus. Circuit protection is supplied by the
CAUTION LIGHTS circuit breaker.
c. Transmission Oil Temperature Indicator. The
transmission oil temperature indicator is located in the
center area of the instrument panel (Fig 24). The
indicator displays the temperature of the transmission oil
in degrees Celsius. The electrical circuit receives power
from the essential bus and is protected by the TEMP IND
ENG XMSN circuit breaker in the dc breaker panel. This
is a wet bulb system dependent on fluid for valid
indication.
d. Transmission Oil Hot Caution Light. The XMSN
OIL HOT segment in the CAUTION panel will illuminate
when the transmission oil temperature is above IIO’C
(230’F). The circuit receives power from the essential
bus and is protected by the CAUTION LIGHTS circuit
breaker. This is a wet bulb system dependent on fluid
for valid indication.
e. Transmission and Gearbox Chip Detector
(I) Chip Detector Caution Light. Magnetic
inserts are installed in the drain plugs of the transmission
sump, 42 degree gearbox and the 90 degree gearbox.
On helicopters equipped with ODDS, the transmission
chip gap is integral to a full-flow debris monitor. When
sufficient metal particles collect on the plugs to close the
electrical circuit the CHIP DETECTOR segment In the
CAUTION panel will illuminate. A self-closing, springloaded valve in chip detectors permits the magnetic
probes to be removed without the loss of oil The circuit is
powered by essential bus and protected by the
CAUTION LIGHTS circuit breaker.
(2) Chip Detector Switch. A CHIP DET switch
(fig 2-6) is installed on a pedestal mounted panel. The
switch is labeled BOTH, XMSN, and TAIL ROTOR and is
spring-loaded to the BOTH position. When the CHIP
DETECTOR segment in the CAUTION panel lights up
position the switch to XMSN, then TAIL ROTOR to
determine the trouble area. CHIP DET caution light will
remain on when a contaminated component is selected.
The light will go out if the noncontaminated component is
selected.
Section VIII. ROTORS
243. Main Rotor.
a. Description. The main rotor is a two bladed
senm-rigid, seesaw type. The two types of rotor blades
are metal and composite material and must not be
intermixed. The two blades are connected to a common
yoke by blade grips and pitch change bearing with
tension straps to carry centrifugal forces. The rotor
assembly is connected to the mast with a nut. The nut
has provisions for hoisting the helicopter. A stabilizer bar
is mounted on the trunnion 90 degrees to the main rotor.
Blade pitch change is accomplished by movements of
the collective and cyclic controls. The main rotor is
driven by the transmission through the mast. The mast
is tilted 5 degrees forward.
al. Hub Spring. As an aid in controlling rotor
flapping a hub spring kit has been installed in the rotor
system for those helicopters modified by MWO 55-1520242-50-1.
Two nonlinear elastometric springs are
2-10 Change 17
attached to a support affixed to the mast. The hub
springs 2-10
Change 17 provide an additional margin
of safety in the event of on inadvertent excursion of the
helicopter beyond the approved flight envelope.
b. RPM Indictor. The rpm indicator is part of the
dual tachometer (fig 24). The tachometer inner scale
displays the rotor rpm. The inner scale pointers is
marked with an ’R’.
2-44. Tail Rotor. The tall rotor is a two-bladed semirigid delta-hinge type. Each blade is connected to a
common yoke by a grip and pitch change bearings. The
hub and blade assembly is mounted on the tail rotor
shaft with a delta-hinge trunnion and a static stop to
minimize rotor flapping.
Blade pitch change is
accomplished by movement of the anti-torque pedals
which are connected to a pitch control system through
the tail rotor (90 degree) gearbox. Blade pitch change
servos to offset torque and provide heading control.
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section DC UTILITY SYSTEMS
2-45. Pilot Heater. The piton tube is equipped with an
electrical heater (Figure 2-1). The PITOT HTR switch is
on the overhead console panel (Figure 2-5). ON position
activates the heater in the tube and prevents ice from
forming m the pilot tube. OFF position de-activates the
heater. The electrical circuit for the system receives
power from the essential bus and is protected by the
PITOT TUBE HTR circuit breaker.
2-46. Heated Blanket Receptacles. Two or six
electrical receptacles are provided to supply 28 Vdc for
heated blankets. They are mounted on the inside cabin
roof structure aligned with the forward edge of the
transmission support structure. The electrical circuit for
the receptacles receive power from the nonessential bus.
Circuit protection is provided by the HEATED BLANKET
circuit breakers.
2-47. Data Case. A data case for maps, flight reports,
etc., has been provided and is located at the aft end of
the pedestal (Figure 2-5).
2-48. Blackout Curtains. Provisions have been made
for Installing blackout curtains behind pilot and copilot
seats and between forward and aft cabin sections. Other
blackout curtains may be installed over both cabin door
windows and window in removable doorpost.
2-49. Blood Bottle Hangers. Provisions have been
made for six blood bottle hangers on the inside of the
cabin roof structure within easy reach of the medical
attendant station, for administration of blood to litter
patients in flight.
2-50. External Cargo Rear View Mirror. A mirror may
be installed under the right lower nose window to give the
pilot clear visibility of the external cargo. This mirror may
be removed and stowed in the heater compartment when
provisions are installed.
2-51. Windshield Wiper.
Do not operate the wiper on a dry or
dirty windshield.
a Two windshield wipers are provided, one for the
right section of the windshield and one for the left section
of the windshield.
b. The wipers are driven by electric motors with
electric power supplied by the dc electrical system.
Circuit protection is provided by WINDSHIELD WIPER
PILOT and WINDSHIELD WIPER COPILOT circuit
breakers on the dc circuit breaker panel.
c The windshield wiper switches on the overhead
console mounted MISC panel (Figure 2-5) have five
positions: HIGH, MED, LOW, OFF, and PARK.
d The panel also has a selector which permits the
operation of windshield wiper for pilot, copilot or both as
desire.
Section X. HEATING AND VENTILATION
2-52. Ventilating System.
a Description The ventilating system consists of
four independently controlled exterior air scoop
ventilators.
Two single orifice air scoops are located
on * top of the cabin section, and two double orifice air
scoops are on top of cabin. The amount of air entering
the cabin through the ventilators is regulated by the
butterfly valve control.
b. Operation Rotate butterfly valve control
desired position to provide outside air for flight.
to
these helicopters.
They are the bleed air heater,
combustion heater, and the auxiliary exhaust heat
exchanger. Each system is described separately in the
following paragraphs.
a Bleed Air Heating and Defrosting System There
are some differences in the bleed air heating systems in
use.These differences are shown in Figure 2-7 with the
following exception: helicopters prior to Serial No. 59565 have under-seat heater outlets; subsequent
helicopters have aft pedestal outlets instead of the
under-seat outlets. Heat is supplied to all bleed air
heaters
2-53. Heating and Defrosting System. Three different
types of heating and defrosting systems may be used on
Change 17
2-11
TM 55-1520-210-10
by the compressor bleed air system. Electric power for
operation of the controls Is supplied from the essential
bus and is protected by the CABIN HEATER CONT
circuit breaker. On helicopters Serial No. 66-16868
through 70-16518, temperature is controlled by a
thermostat located on the right doorpost. Helicopters
Serial No. 71-20000 and subsequent are protected by
two circuit breakers marked CABIN HEATER OUTLET
VALVE and CABIN HEATER AIR VALVE. Refer to
Figure 2-7 for controls and their function.
operating after shutdown to prevent residual heat
buildup. If blower air pressure drops too low, the
combustion heater will stop automatically. An overheat
switch also automatically turns the heater off in the event
of malfunction. The starting cycle has to be repeated to
start the combustion heater. Electric power to operate
the heater controls is supplied from the essential bus and
is protected by the CABIN HEATER CONT circuit
breaker. Refer to Figure 2-7 for controls and their
function.
b Combustion Heating and Defrosting System
With the combustion heater installed, a combination of
bleed air heat and combustion heat is available for
heating, Bleed air may be used for defrosting and
combustion heat for heating, or combustion heat may be
used for defrosting only with bleed air heat off. The
MAIN FUEL switch must be ON, actuating the right boost
pump, before fuel is available for combustion heater
operation (Figure 2-6). A purge switch keeps the blowers
c Auxiilary Exhaust Heater System The auxiliary
exhaust heater system consists of an exhaust gas
exchanger, and a bleed air driven fan for circulating
ambient air through the heat exchanger. A mixing valve
controls air to maintain the desired outlet temperature.
The exhaust heater system controls consist of the cabin
heating panel (Figure 2-7), a thermostat dial on the right
door post and the air directing lever on the pedestal.
Section XI. ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
2-54. DC and AC Power Distribution. Figure 2-8
depicts the general schematic of the dc and ac power
distribution system. The dc power is supplied by the
battery, main generator, standby starter-generator, or the
external power receptacle. The 115 Vac power is
supplied by the main or spare inverters. The 28 Vac
power Is supplied by a transformer which is powered by
the inverter.
2-55. DC Power Supply System. The dc power supply
system is a single conductor system with the negative
leads of the generator grounded in the helicopter
fuselage structure. The main generator voltage will vary
from 27 to 28.5 depending on the average ambient
temperature. In the event of a generator failure-the
nonessential bus is automatically de-energized. The
pilot may override the automatic action by positioning the
NON-ESS BUS switch on the DC POWER control panel
to MANUAL ON.
2-56. External Power Receptacle. The external power
receptacle (Figure 2-1) transmits the ground power unit
28 Vdc power to the power distribution system. A 7.5
KW GPU is recommended for external starts.
the event of main generator failure.
2-12
Change 17
2-57. Battery.
If battery overheats, do not open
battery compartment. Battery fluid
will cause burns.
An overheated
battery may cause thermal burns and
may explode.
The battery supplies approximately 2-4Vdc power to the
power distribution system when the generators and
external power receptacle are not in operation (Figure 21).
2-58. Main and Standby Starter-Generator. The 30
volt 300 ampere main generator is mounted on and
driven by the transmission. A standby starter-generator,
rated at 300 amperes is mounted on the engine
accessory drive section.
The standby furnishes
generator power in
TM 55-1520-210-10
2-59. DC Power Indicators and Controls.
a. Main Generator Switch The MAIN GEN switch
(fig 2-5) is on the overhead console DC POWER panel.
In the ON position the main generator supplies power to
the distribution system. The RESET position is springloaded to the OFF position. Momentarily holding the
switch to RESET position will reset the main generator.
The OFF position isolates the generator from the
system. The circuit is protected by the GEN & BUS
RESET in the dc circuit breaker panel.
bus to receive dc power from the main generator. The
TM 55-1520-210-10 MANUAL ON position permits the
nonessential bus to receive power from the standby
generator when the main generator is off line.
b. Battery Switch The BAT switch is located on the
DC POWER control panel (fig 2-5). ON position permits
the battery to supply power. ON position also permits
the battery to be charged by the generator. The OFF
position isolates the battery from the system.
f. DC Voltmeter. The dc voltmeter is located in
the center area of the instrument panel and is labeled
VOLT DC (fig 2-4). Direct current voltage is indicated on
the voltmeter as selected by the VM switch in the
overhead console.
c. Starter-Generator Switch The STARTER GEN
switch is located on the DC POWER control panel (fig 25).The START position permits the starter-generator to
function as a starter. The STBY GEN position permits
the starter-generator to function as a generator.
g. DC Loadmeters-Main and Standby. Two direct
current loadmeters are mounted in the lower center area
of the instrument panel (fig 24). The MAIN GEN
loadmeter indicates the percentage of main generator
rated capacity being used. The STBY GEN loadmeter
indicates the percentage of standby generator rated
capacity being used. The loadmeters will not indicate
percentage when the generators are not operating.
d. Nonessential Bus Switch. The NON-ESS BUS
switch is located on the DC POWER control panel (fig 25). The NORMAL ON position permits the nonessential
e. DC Voltmeter Selector Switch The VM switch is
located on the DC POWER control panel (fig 2-5).
The switch permits monitoring of voltage being delivered
from any of the following; BAT, MAIN GEN, STBY GEN,
ESS BUS, and NON-ESS BUS.
Change 17
2-12.1/(2-12.2 blank)
TM 55-1520-210-10
2-60. DC Circuit Breaker Panel. The dc circuit breaker
panel Is located in the overhead console (fig 2-5). In the
"pushed in" position the circuit breakers provide circuit
protection for dc equipment. In the "pulled out’ position
the circuit breakers deenergize the circuit. In the event
of an overload the circuit breaker protecting that circuit
will "pop out". Each breaker is labeled for the particular
circuit it protects. Each applicable breaker is listed m
the paragraph descanting the equipment it protects.
2-61. AC Power Supply System. Alternating current is
supplied by two inverters (fig 2-8). They receive power
from the essential bus and are controlled from the AC
POWER control panel (fig 2-5).
24-62. Inverters. Either the main or spare inverter (at
the pilots option) will supply the necessary 115 Vac to the
distribution system. The inverters also supply 115 Vac to
I the 28 volt ac transformer which in turn supplies 28 Vac
to the necessary equipment. Circuit protection for the
inverters is provided by the MAIN [NVTR PWR and
SPARE NVTR PWR circuit breakers.
2-63. AC Power Indicators and Controls.
a Inverter Switch. The INVTR switch is located on
the AC POWER control panel in the overhead console
(fig 2-5). The switch is normally in the MAIN ON
position, to energize the main inverter. In the event of a
main inverter failure the switch can be positioned to
SPARE ON to energize the spare inverter. Electrical
power to the INVTR switch is supplied from the essential
TM 55-1520-210-10 bus. Circuit protection is provided
by the INVTR CONT circuit breaker.
b. AC Failure Caution Light. The INST INVERTER
caution light will illuminate when the inverter m use fails
or when the INVTR switch is m the OFF position.
c AC Voltmeter Selector Switch. The
AC
PHASE VM switch is located on the AC POWER control
panel (fig 2-5). The switch is used to select any one of
the three phases of the 115 Vac three-phase current for
monitoring on the ac voltmeter. The three positions on
the switch are: AB, AC, and BC. Each position indicates
that respective phase of the 115 Vac on the ac voltmeter
d. AC Voltmeter. The ac voltmeter Is mounted on
center area of the instrument panel (fig 24). The ac
voltage output from the inverter (main or spare) is
indicated on this instrument. The voltage indicated on
any of the three selected positions should be 1 12 to 1 18
Vac 2-64. AC Circuit Breaker Panel. The ac circuit
breaker panel is located on the right side of the pedestal
panel (fig 2-5). The circuit breakers in the "pushed m"
position provide circuit protection for the equipment. The
breakers m the "pulled out" position de-energize the
circuit. The breakers will pop out automatically m the
event of a circuit overload. Each breaker is labeled for
the particular circuit it protects. Each applicable breaker
Is listed in the paragraph describing the equipment it
protects.
Section XII. LIGHTING
NOTE
Visible light means the light is visible to
the unaided eye. NVG light means the
light is visible only with the aid of the
Night Vision Goggles.
2-65. Position Lights. The position lights consist of
eight visible lights and five NVG lights (fig 2-1).
(1) Configurations.
Two red lights are
mounted on the left side of the fuselage, one above and
one below the cabin door. Two green lights are mounted
on the right side of the fuselage, one above and one
below the cabin door. Two white lights are mounted on
top of the fuselage just inboard of the red and green
lights. One white light is mounted on the bottom center
of the fuselage, and one white light is mounted on the
a Visible Position Light Lights.
Change 17
2-13
TM 55-1520-210-10
tailboom vertical fin. Electric power to operate the lights
is supplied from the essential bus. Circuit protection is
provided by the NAV LIGHTS circuit breaker in the dc
circuit breaker panel. Some position lights may be
protected by the FUS LIGHTS circuit breakers.
(2) Operation of Visible Position Lights. The
position lights are controlled by the POSITION switches
on the EXT LTS panel on the overhead console (fig 2-5).
A three-position switch permits selection of STEADY,
OFF, or FLASH. Another two-position switch control
brilliance and is marked DIM and BRIGHT. When the
three-position switch is in STEADY position, all eight
navigation lights are llumunated. In FLASH position, on
helicopters prior to Serial No. 64-13901, the colored
lights illuminate alternately with the white lights. On later
models only the colored lights and the aft white light
flash.
b. NVG Poisson Lights
b. Operation The ON position of the ANTI COLL
light switch illuminates the anti-collision light and starts
rotation of the light (fig 2-5). OFF position de-energizes
the light.
NOTE
The IR Band-Pass Filter (I.R. COVER)
is authorized to be installed on either the
landing light or the searchlight or may be
removed from the aircraft for unaided
(NON-NVG) flights
dependent
on
operational
considerations
or
requirements. Both the landing light and
searchlight operation with the band-pass
filter installed is the same as normal
landing
light
and
searchlight
operation, except that NVGS must be
worn to use it. The band-pass filter (P/N
EGD-0931 1) shall not be used with
lamps exceeding 250 watts.
(I) Configuration. These lights are invisible to
the unaided eye They are designed to provide observed
aircraft position, attitude, and distance during covert
formation NVG flight and other covert multi-aircraft NVG
operations. Lights are located on the top left and right
side above the jump door of each side and one each
under the pilot and copilot doors. The rear NVG position
light is located on a mount under the visible position light.
2-67. Landing Light.
(2) Operation of the NYG Position Lights. The
control panel for the lights is located in the frontmost
panel of the left overhead console (fig 2-5). Five
intensity positions are provided on the control panel;
OFF, 1, 2, 3, 4, and BRT (BRIGHT). The lights are
invisible to the unaided eye and should be checked or
otherwise viewed with AN/PVS-5 AN/AVS-6 or AN/PVS-7
NVG. The visible position EXT LTS must be in the off
position when the NVG lights are used. The NVG lights
should be in the off position when not being used with
NVG. The NVG lights do not flash. Circuit protection is
provided by the NAV lights circuit breaker.
b. Operation Landing light switches are on the pilot
collective lever switch box (fig 2-5). The ON position of
the LDG LT switch causes the landing light to illuminate;
OFF turns the light off. The EXT position of the LDG LT
EXT OFF RETR extend the landing light to the desired
position; RETR position retracts the light. The OFF
position stops the light during extension or retraction.
The light automatically stops at the full extend/retract
position.
2-66. Anti-Collision Light.
a General. The anti-collision light is located on
the top aft fuselage area (fig 2-I). Electric power to
operate the light is supplied from the essential bus.
Circuit protection is provided by the ANTI COLL LIGHT
circuit
breaker.
2-14
Change 17
a General The landing light is flush-mounted to the
underside of the fuselage (fig 2-1). It may be extended or
retracted to improve forward illumination. Electric power
to operate the system is supplied from the essential bus.
Circuit protection is provided by the LDG LIGHT PWR
and LDG SEARCH LIGHT CONT circuit breakers.
TM 55-1520-210-10
2-68. Searchlight.
a. General The searchlight is flush-mounted to the
underside of the fuselage (fig 2-1). The light can be
extended and retracted for search illumination. At any
desired position in the extend or retract arc, the light may
be stopped and rotated to the left or right. Electric power
to operate the light is supplied from the essential bus.
Circuit protection is provided by the SEARCHLIGHT
PWR and LDG & SEARCHLIGHT CONT circuit
breakers.
b Operation.
The pilot SL switch ON position
illuminates the light (fig 2-5). The OFF position
deactivates the light. The STOW position retracts the
light into the fuselage well.
2-69. Dome Lights.
NOTE
Aircraft modified by MWO 55-1520-210-5012 the
dome light switch, if installed, is not connected.
a General The dome lights provide overhead
lighting for the cabin area The forward light is controlled
by the FWD switch on the DOME LT panel when
installed on the overhead console.
When
the
DOME LT panel is not installed the FWD and AFT
DOME LT are controlled by the aft switch in the roof.
The aft dome lights are controlled by the switch on the
AFT DOME LTS panel on the roof. Electric power to
operate the dome light is supplied from the 28 Vdc
essential bus. Circuit protection is provided by the
DOME LIGHTS circuit breaker.
b. Operation To operate the FWD dome light
position the FWD switch to WHITE for white light NVG
for green light and OFF to turn light off. The aft dome
lights panel has two switches. The WHITEIOFF NVG
switch functions are the same as the FWD Switch.
Rotation of the rheostat marked OFF/MED/BRT
increases or decreases the brightness of the aft dome
lights.
2-70. Cockpit Map Lights.
a General. Two cockpit lights (NVG Green) are
provided, one above the pilot and one above the copilot
(fig 2-5). Each light is controlled individually The lights
receive power from the essential bus and are protected
by the COCKPIT LIGHTS circuit breaker.
b. Operation Rheostat switches are part of each
light assembly. Brightness is increased by turning the
rheostat
clockwise
or
dimmed
by
turning
counterclockwise. These lights are for NVG or unaided
eye use.
2-71. Instrument Lights. The instrument lights control
panel is located in the overhead console (fig 2-5). The
panel contains six switch/rheostats for activating and
controlling the brightness of the various instrument lights.
Each switch/rheostat functions the same. The OFF
position de-energizes the circuit, clockwise rotation
increases brightness of the lights and counterclockwise
rotation decreases brightness.
The lights of all
instruments receive electric power from the 28 Vdc
essential bus, except the pilot attitude indicator, the pilot
RMI, and the turn and slip indicators which receives 5
Vdc from the essential bus through resistor R24. On
UH-IH helicopters equipped I with radar altimeters, the
pilot attitude indicator, lot’s RMI, and the turn and slip
indicators receive the 5 Vdc from the pilot solid state
device for providing 5 Vdc from the 28 Vdc essential bus.
On UHI H helicopters equipped with radar altimeters,
instruments are illuminated by 28 Vdc from the 28 Vdc
essential bus. On UHI H aircraft the instrument lighting
is protected by CONSOLE PEDLIGHTS, INST PANEL
LIGHTS, and INST SEC LIGHTS circuit breakers. On
UHI H helicopters equipped I with radar altimeters, the
measurements lights are protected by the same circuit
breakers as the UHI H aircraft, except the PILOT 5
VOLT LIGHTS circuit breaker is included in the
protection. On UH-IH helicopters equipped with radar
altimeters, the "HI" and "LO" indicators and the digital
readout illumination levels on the radar altimeter are
controlled by the pilot’s and co-pilot’s lighting rheostats.
Change 17
2-15
TM 55-1520-210-10
a. Pilot Instrument Lights The pilot instrument lights
furnish illumination for the following instruments; gas
producer tachometer, torquemeter, exhaust temperature
indicator, dual tachometer, airspeed indicator, clock,
vertical velocity indicator, turn
and slip
indicator,
altimeter, attitude indicator, radio magnetic indicator,
standby compass, pilot collective switch box and radar
altimeter (if installed). These lights are all on one circuit
and are controlled by the switch/rheostat marked PILOT
on the INST LTG control panel. DIM switch controls 23,
page 3-33. Circuit protection is provided by the INST
PANEL LIGHTS and PILOT 5 VOLT LIGHT (UH-IV)
circuit breakers.
b. On UH-IV aircraft when the radar altimeter,
AN/APNV-209 is installed, turning the pilot rheostat to
OFF I provides full illumination to the digital readout and
HI-LO warning lights on the pilot and copilot height
indicators. This feature enables the pilot and copilot to
read the displays during daytime operations.
c Copilot Instrument Lights.
The
copilot
instrument lights furnish illumination for the instruments
on the copilot section of the instrument panel. These
instruments consist of an airspeed indicator, attitude
indicator, radar altimeter (if installed on UH-1V),
altimeter, vertical velocity indicator and radio magnetic
indicator. The copilot instrument lights are all on one
circuit, and are controlled by the switch/rheostat marked
COPILOT on the INST LTG control panel. Circuit
protection is provided by INST PANEL LIGHTS circuit
breaker. Circuit protection is provided by INST PANEL
LIGHTS and COPILOTS 5 VOLT LIGHTS circuit
breaker.
d. Engine Instrument Lights.
The engine
instrument lights furnish illumination for the following
instruments: transmission oil temperature, fuel quantity,
transmission oil pressure, engine oil pressure,
loadmeters, ac voltmeter, fuel pressure indicator, engine
oil temperature gage, and dc voltmeter Each instruments
is individually illuminated and control is accomplished by
the switch/rheostat marked ENGINE on the INST LTG
control panel. Circuit protection is provided by the INST
PANEL LIGHTS circuit breaker
e Secondary Instrument Lights.
pre-flight check to meet the operators needs.
2-16
Change 17
(1) The four secondary instrument lights are (
spaced across the top of the instrument panel shield (fig
2-4). These lights furnish secondary illumination for the
instrument panel face. The lights are activated and
controlled by the switch/rheostat marked SEC on the
INST LTG control panel. Circuit protection is provided by
the INST SEC LIGHTS circuit breaker.
(2) Pedestal Utility Light. The pedestal utility
light is provided for general use but also provides
illumination for radios which are not illuminated. The
light is operated by an OFF and ON switch on the panel
on which it is mounted. The intensity of the Light is
controllable from full bright to dim by a rheostat on the
some panel. The light Is protected by the COCKPIT LTS
circuit breaker.
f Emergency Llghning. Master Caution Fire
Warning and Low RPM Indicators. The Master Caution,
Fire, and Low RPM Warning Indicators are equipped
with flip filters for use during NVG operations. The
indicators must be uncovered for unaided operations
during daylight and night.
2-72.
Overhead Console Panel Lights. The
overhead console panel lights furnish illumination for all
overhead panels (fig 2-5). Each panel Is individually
illuminated and control is accomplished by the
switch/rheostat, marked CONSOLE on the INST LTG
control panel. Circuit protection is provided by the
CONSOLE PED LIGHTS circuit breaker.
NOTE
All "press-to-test" and cateye indicators
are dimming type NVG green.
Differentiation as to which indicator is
illuminated must be determined by
location since color coding is not used.
In addition, the operator must return all
indicators to the full bright position to
assure visibility.
On applicable
indicators,
dimming
may
be
accomplished during
TM 55-1520-210-10
2-73. Pedestal Lights. The pedestal lights provide
illumination for the control panels on the pedestal (fig 25). Most panels are individually illuminated and intensity
control is accomplished by the switch/rheostat marked
PED on the INST LTG control panel overhead. On some
panels, the internal lighting has been discontinued.
These panels are illuminated by the goosenecked utility
light mounted to the rear of the pedestal.
The
illumination can be placed on any area of the pedestal by
adjusting the gooseneck position. The intensity and ONOFF function is controlled by the switch/rheostat
mounted on the panel with the utility light. Circuit
protection for the pedestal lighting is provided by the
CONSOLE PED LIGHTS circuit breaker.
2-74. Transmission Oil Level Light. A transmission oil
level light is installed to provide illumination to check the
transmission oil sight gage. The circuit is activated by
TM 55-1520-210-10 a button-type switch marked XMSN
OIL LEVEL LT SWITCH and is located on the right side
of the transmission forward bulkhead. Electric power for
the transmission oil level light circuit is supplied by the
battery. Circuit protection is provided by the battery
voltmeter circuit breaker located in the oil cooler
compartment or forward radio compartment.
2-75. Spare Lamp Kit. The spare lamp kit is located on
the left side of the overhead console. The kit contains
spare light bulb for the segment panel lights, the
instrument lights, pedestal and overhead console lights,
master caution and segment caution lights, all press-totest lights, the rpm and fire warning lights, and the dome
lights. All bulbs except the dome light bulbs may be
replaced without the use of tools.
Change 17
2-16.1/(2-16.2 blank)
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section XIIL FLIGHT INSTRUCTIONS
2-76.
Airspeed Indicators. The pilot and copilot
b. Copilot Attitude Indicator The copilot attitude
airspeed indicators display the helicopter indicated
indicator is located in the copilot section of the
airspeed (IAS) in knots (fig 2-4). The IAS is obtained by
instrument panel (fig 2-4). It is operated by 115 Vac
measuring the difference between impact air pressure
power supplied by the inverter. Circuit protection is
from the pitot tube and the static air pressure from the
provided by the COPILOT ATITD circuit breakers in the
static ports (fig 2-1).
ac circuit breaker panel. In a climb or dive exceeding 27
degrees of pitch the horizontal bar will stop at the top or
NOTE
bottom of the case and the sphere then becomes the
Indicated airspeeds are unreliable below 20
reference. The copilot attitude indicator may be caged
knots due to rotor downwash.
manually by pulling the PULL TO CAGE knob smoothly
away from the face of the instrument to the limit of Its
2-77.
Turn and Slip Indicator. The turn and slip
travel and then releasing quickly.
indicator displays the helicopter slip condition, direction
of turn and rate of turn (fig 2-4). The ball displays the
2-81.
Free-Air Temperature Indicator (FAT).The
slip condition. The pointer displays the direction and rate
free-air temperature indicator is located at the top center
of the turn. The circuit receives power from the essential
area of the windshield (fig 2-5). The indicator displays
bus and is protected by the TURN & SLIP IND circuit
the free air temperature m degrees Celsius.
breaker.
2-78.
Vertical Velocity Indicator.
The vertical
velocity indicator displays the helicopter ascent and
descenated by the rate of atmospheric pressure change.
2-79.
Pressure Altimeter. The pressure altimeter
(ALT) furnishes direct readings of height above sea level
and is actuated by the pitot static system (fig 24). Two
altimeters are provided, one for the pilot and one for the
copilot. (Refer to chapter 3 for operation.)
2-80.
Attitude Indicators.
a. Pilot Attitude Indicator. The pilot attitude indicator
is located on the pilot section of the instrument panel (fig
24). The indicator displays the pitch and roll attitude of
the helicopter. An OFF warning flag in the indicator is
exposed when electrical power to the system is
removed. However, the OFF flag will not indicate
internal system failure. The attitude indicator has an
electrical trim in the roll axis m addition to the standard
pitch trim. The attitude indicator is operated by 115 Vac
power, supplied by the inverter. Circuit protection is
provided by the PILOT ATTD circuit breakers in the ac
circuit breaker panel.
The copilot attitude indicator shall be caged only in a
straight and level attitude. The caging knob shall
never be pulled violently.
2-82.
Standby Compass. The standby (magnetic)
compass is mounted in a bracket at the center right edge
of the instrument panel (fig 2-4). A deviation m magnetic
compass indications will occur when the landing light,
searchlights, or pitot heat are turned on.
2-83.
Fire Detector Warning System.
A FIRE
WARNING light is located in the upper nght section of
the instrument panel (fig 2-4). The press to test (FIRE
DETECTOR TEST) test switch is located to the left of
the fire warning light. Excessive heat m the engine
compartment causes the FIRE light to illuminate.
Pressing the press-to-test switch also causes the light to
Illuminate. Electric power for the circuit is supplied from
the 28 Vdc essential bus and is protected by the FIRE
DET circuit breaker.
2-84. Master Caution System.
NOTE
Aircraft are equipped with NVG compatibility
devices, flip-filters for the "Master Caution,"
"Low RPM," and "Fire Warning" indicators.
These filters must be flipped over away from
the indicators during visual flight conditions. A
slide drawer filter is also provided for the
caution panel. This filter must be stowed in the
pedestal stowing position when not being used
for NVG flight. To stow, lift the front end of the
filter to the vertical position and allow the filter to
gently slide into the vertical cavity in the
pedestal above the caution panel.
Change 17
2-17
TM 55-1520-210-10
a NVG Flight Conditions.
(1) Follow all procedures used for visual flight
conditions, except the "Master Caution," ’Low RPM," and
’Fire Warning flip-filters and "Caution Panel" slide drawer
filter must be placed over the indicators.
(2) Flip instrument panel indicator filters over
indicators and press lightly in place to avoid light leakage
around edges.
(3) Gently pull the slide drawer filter up from
stowed position until it is at the top vertical position and
place it over the caution panel.
b. Master Caution Indicator The master caution
indicator light on the instrument panel will Illuminate
when fault conditions occur (figure 2-4). This illumination
alerts the pilot and copilot to check the caution panel for
the specific fault condition.
c. Caution Panel. The CAUTION panel is located
on the pilot side of the pedestal (figure 2-9). Worded
segments illuminate to identify specific fault conditions.
The worded segments are readable only when the light
illuminates. When a light illuminates, flickers or full
illumination, it indicates a fault condition. Refer to figure
2-9 for explanation of the fault conditions.
(1) Bright-Dim Switch The BRIGHT-DIM switch
on the CAUTION panel permits the pilot to manually
select a bright or dimmed condition for all the individual
worded segments and the master caution indicator. The
dimming switch position will work only when the pilot
instrument lights are on. The master caution system
lights will be in bright illumination after each initial
application of electrical power, when the pilot instrument
lights are turned OFF, or a loss of power from the dc
essential bus occurs.
(2) Reset-Test Switch The RESET-TEST
switch on the CAUTION panel enables the pilot to
manually reset and test the master caution system.
Momentarily placing the switch in the RESET position,
extinguishes and resets the master caution indicator light
so it will again illuminate should another fault condition
occur. Momentarily placing the switch in TEST position
will
cause the illumination of all the individually worded
segments and the master caution indicator. Only the
lamp circuitry is tested; the condition circuitry is not.
Testing of the system will not change any particular
combination of fault indications which might exist prior to
testing. The worded segments will remain illuminated as
long as fault condition or conditions exist, unless the
segment is rotated.
d. Electrical Power. Electric power for the master
caution system is supplied from the essential bus.
Circuit protection is provided by the CAUTION LIGHTS
circuit breakers.
2-85. RPM High-Low Limit Warning System. The
rpm high-low limit warning system provides the pilot with
an immediate warning of high and low rotor or engine
rpm. Main components of the system are a detector
unit, warning light and audio signal circuit, low RPM
AUDIO/OFF switch, and electrical wiring and connectors.
The warning light and audio warning signal systems are
activated when any one of the following rpm conditions
exist:
a
Warning light only:
(1) For rotor rpm of 329-339 (High Warning).
(2) For rotor rpm of 300-310 (Low Warning).
(3) For
Warning).
engine
rpm
of
6100-6300
(Low
(4) Loss of signal (circuit failure) from either
rotor tachometer generator or power turbine tachometer
generator.
b. Warning light and audio warning signal
combination:
(1) For rotor rpm of 300-310 and engine rpm of
6100-6300 (Low Warning).
(2) Loss of signal (circuit failure) from both
rotor tachometer generator and power turbine
tachometer generator.
2-18
Change 17
TM 55-1520-210-10
c
Rotor Tachometer Generator and Power
a.
Powerplant ODDS Components.
Turbine Tachometer Generator. The rotor tachometer
(1) Oil separator (Lubriclone) located in engine
generator and power turbine tachometer generator both
service compartment.
send signals to the high-low rpm warning light and audio
warning circuits.
When the warning light only is
(2) Oil Filter, equipped with 3-micron filter
energized determine
the cause
of indication by
element, located in engine service compartment.
checking the torquemeter and cross referencing other
engine instruments. A normal indication signifies that the
(3) Chip detector located at bottom of oil
engine is functioning properly and that there is a
separator. Detector is wired to Engine Chip Detector
tachometer generator failure or an open circuit to the
Caution Capsule.
warning system rather than an actual engine failure.
Electrical power for system operation is supplied by the
b. Drive System ODDS Components.
28 Vdc essential bus.
d. Light - High Low Limit RPM Warning. The high
(1) Full-Flow Debris Monitor in transmission
low warning light (fig 24) is located on the instrument
sump replaces wafer disc filter.
panel. This light illuminates to provide a visual warning of
low rotor rpm low engine rpm or high rotor rpm.
e. Switch - LOW RPM A UDIO/OFF. The LOW
(2) External Filter with 3-micron element
located in Cargo Sling Compartment (hell hole). Filter
RPM AUDIO/OFF switch is on the engine control panel
replaces existing 25 micron external filter.
(fig 2-6). When in OFF position the switch prevents the
audio warning signal from functioning during engine
(3) Three chip detectors, one in debris monitor,
starting. Current production helicopters use a springand one each in 42 and 90 degree gearboxes. Detectors
loaded switch. When the switch has been manually
are wired to the Chip Detector Caution Capsule.
turned off for engine starting It will automatically return to
the AUDIO position when normal operating range is
c. Electrical System Component. Power module
reached.
located in overhead in cabin provides electrical power to
2-85.1. Oil Debris Detection System (ODDS).
pulse (burn) away ferrous (iron, steel) debris less than
ODDS improves oil filtration and reduces nuisance chip
0.005 inch in cross section. Larger debris will not pulse
indications caused by normal wear particles on detector
away, but bridges chip gap and closes the circuit to
gaps. When a chip gap is bridged by conductive
caution capsule.
particles, a power module provides an electrical pulse
which burns away normal wear particles.
Section XIV. SERVICUNG PARKING AND MOORING
2-86. Servicing
a. Servicing Diagram Refer to figure 2-10.
b. Approved Military Fuels, Oils and Fluids. Refer
to table 2 -1.
c. Fuel Sample. Settling time for AVGAS is 15
minutes per foot of tank depth and one hour per foot
depth for Jet (JP) fuels. Allow the fuel to settle for the
prescribed period before any fuel samples are taken.
Tank depth is about 29 inches.
c
The helicopter is serviced as follows:
(1) Refer to figure 2-10 for fuel filler location.
(2) Assure that fire guard is in position with fire
extinguisher
(3) Ground servicing unit to ground stake.
(4) Ground servicing unit to helicopter.
(5) Ground fuel nozzle to ground receptacle
located adjacent to fuel receptacle on helicopter.
2-87. Fuel System Servicing
Ensure that servicing unit pressure is not above 125
psi while refueling.
Servicing personnel shall comply with all
safety
precautions
and
procedures
specified in FM 1068 Aircraft Refueling
Field Manual.
a. Refer to table 2-1 for fuel tank capacities.
b. Refer to table 2-1 for approved fuel.
(6) Closed circuit.
(a) Remove fuel filler cap and assure that
refueling module is in locked position. Refer to figure 210.
Change 17
TM 55-1520-210-10
2-19
(b) Remove nozzle cap and insert nozzle into
fuel receptacle and lock into position.
(c) Activate flow control handle to ON or FLOW
position. Fuel flow will automatically shut off when fuel
cell is full. Just prior to normal shut off fuel flow may
cycle several times as maximum fuel level is reached.
(d) Assure that flow control handle is in OFF or
NO FLOW position and remove nozzle.
(7) Gravity or open port:
(a) Remove fuel filler cap.
(b) Using latch tool attached to filler cap cable
open refueling module
(c) Remove nozzle cap and insert nozzle into
fuel receptacle.
(d) Fill for specified level.
(e) Remove nozzle
(f) Close refueling module by pulling cable until
latch Is in locked position. Refer to figure 2-10.
(8) Replace fuel nozzle cap.
(9) Replace fuel filler cap.
(10)Disconnect fuel nozzle ground.
(11)Disconnect ground from helicopter to servicing
unit
(12)Disconnect servicing unit ground from ground
stake.
(13)Return fire extinguisher to designated location.
d. Rapid (Hot) Refueling.
(1) Before rapid refueling.
(a) Throttle - idle.
(b) FORCE TRIM ON or controls
frictioned.
(c) Refuel as described in paragraph c. above.
(2) During rapid refueling. A crewmember should
observe the refueling operation (performed by authorized
refueling personnel) and stand fire guard as required.
One crewmember shall remain in the helicopter to
monitor controls. Only emergency radio transmission
should be made during RAPID refueling.
(3) After rapid refueling, the pilot shall be advised
by the refueling crew that fuel cap is secure and
grounding cables have been removed.
2-88. Approved Commercial Fuel, Oils, and Fluids.
a. Fuels. Refer to table 2-1.
b. Oils. Refer to table 2-1.
c Fluids. Refer to table 2-1
2-89.
Use of Fuels.
a There are no special limitations on the use of
Army standard or alternate fuels but certain limitations
are imposed when emergency fuels used. A fuel
mixture which contains over 10 percent leaded gasoline
shall be recorded as all leaded gasoline. The use of
emergency fuels shall be recorded m
the
FAULT/REMARKS column of DA Form 2408- 13, Aircraft
Maintenance and Inspection Record noting the type of
fuel, additives, and duration of operation.
b. When mixing of fuel in helicopter tanks or
changing from one type of authorized fuel to another, for
example, JP-4 to JP-5, it is not necessary to drain the
helicopter fuel system before adding the new fuel
Table 2-1
Servicing Table of Approved Fuels, Oils, and Fluids.
System
Specification
Fuel MIL- ............................................................T-5624 (JP4)a
Crashworthy SystemTotal: 208 5 U.S Gallons (789 2 liter).
Usable: 206.5 U S gallons (781 6 liters)
Internal Auxiliary TanksUsable 300 U S gallons (1135.5 liters)
Oil:
Engine ...........................................................MIL-L-2369934
*MIL-L-780824
Transmission......................................................MIL-L-2369934
DOD-L-8573434
*MIL-L-7808 24
42’ Gearbox........................................................MIL-L-2369934
DOD-L-8513424
*MIL-L-780824
90’ Gearbox........................................................MIL-L-2369934
DOD-L-8573424
*MIL-L-780824
Hydraulic System ............................................... MIL-H- 560667
*MIL-H-8328267
Main Rotor Grip...................................................MILL-4615267
MIL-L-2369934
*MIL-L,780824
MIL,L-210489
MIL-L-461789
Pillow Block Oil ...................................................MIL-L2369934
MIL-L7808 248
*MIL-L,-210489
MIL-L-4615289
MIL-L-4616789
FOOTNOTES
Army Standard fuel is MIL-T-5624 (IP-4) NATO code is F-40
Alternate fuels are MILT-5624 (IP-5) (NATO F-44) and MIL-T-83133
(P-8) (NATO F-34). Emergency fuel is MIL-G-5572 (any AV gas)
(NATO F-12, F-18, F-22). Refer to TM 55-9150-200-24.
The helicopter shall not be flown when emergency fuel has been used
for a total cumulative time of 50 hours The engine manual also limits
operation to 25 hours when TCP s m the fuel.
2-20
Change 17
TM 55-1520-210-10
* Lubrication oil made to MIL-L-7808 by
Shell Oil Company under their part number
307, qualification number 7D-1 shall not be
used in the engine or aircraft systems. It
contains additives which are harmful to
seals in the system.
2*MIL-L-7808 NATO code is 0-148. For use in ambient
temperatures below minus 32’C/25’F. May be I used
when MIL-L-23699 or DOD-L-85734 oil is not available.
Not for use m main rotor hub P/N 204-012-101-31
Under no circumstances shall MIL-L-23699
or DOD-L-85734 oil be used in ambient
temperatures below minus 32°C/25’F.
3
MIL-L-23699 NATO code Is O-156 For use in
ambient temperatures above minus 32’ C/25’F. Not for
use in main rotor hub P/N 204-012-101-31.
4
Do not mix MI-LL-2104, MI-L-46152, MI L46167, MIL-L-23699, DOD-L-85734, and or MILL7808 oils, except during an emergency. If the oils are
mixed the system shall be flushed within six hours and
filled with the proper oil. An entry on DA Form 2408-13
is required when the oils are mixed.
5
MILH-5606 NATO code is H-515. For use in
ambient temperatures below minus 35’C/30’F (Refer to
TB 55-1500-344-25)
6
For use In ambient temperatures above minus
35°C/30°F.
Prolonged contact with hydraulic fluid or
its mist can irritate eyes and skin. After
any
prolonged
contact
with
skin,
immediately wash contacted area with
soap and water. If liquid contacts eyes,
flush immediately with clear water. If liquid
is swallowed, do not induce vomiting; get
immediate medical attention. When fluid is
decomposed by heating, toxic gases are
released.
7
It is not advisable to mix MIL-H-5606 and MIL83282 fluids, except during an emergency. An entry on
DA Form 2408-13 is required when the fluids are mixed.
When changing from MIL-H-5606 to MILH-83282,
not more than two percent of MIL-H-5606 may be
present in the system.
8
Refer to stencil on grip assembly to determine
proper lubrication requirements.
9
MIL-2104, MIL-L-46152, and MILL-46167, must
be used in hub P/N 204-012-101-31 as follows:
Average Temp Range
Specifications
+5°C and above ........................... MILL-2104, Grade 40,
NATO Code 0-230
-18°C to + 5°C................................. MIL2104, Grade 30,
NATO Code 0-230 or
MIL-L6152, Grade 30
-29°C to -18°C.............................. MILL-2104, Grade 10,
NATO Code 0-230 or
MIL-L46152, Grade
10W30
-54’C to -20°C ..........................MILL-46167, DEXRON II
Aut6matlc transmission
fluid.
Approved domestic commercial fuels (spec. ASTM- D1655-70: Manufacturer’s designation-
Jet B-JP4 Type
American JP4
AeroJet B
Jet A-JP5 Type
American Type A
AeroJet A
B.P.A.T.G.
Caltex let B
Conoco IJP-4
Gulf let B
Jet AEXXON Turbo Fuel
B
Mobil Jet B
Philjet JP-4
Aeroshell JP4
Chevron B
Texaco Avjet B
Union IP4
CITGO A
Conoco Jet-50
Jet A-1-JP8 Type
AeroJet A-i
Richfield A
B.PA.T K
Caltex Jet A-1
Conoco Jet-60
Gulf let A Gulf
EXXON A
EXXON A-I
Mobil Jet A
PhilJet A-50
Aeroshell 640
SuperJet A
Jet A Kerosine
Chevron A-50
Avjet A
76 Turbine Fuel
Mobil Jet A-I
Aeroshell 650
Superjet A-1
Jet A 1Kerosime
Chevron A-1
AvJet A-I
Change 17
2-21
TM 55-1520-210-10
Approved foreign commercial fuels:
Country
F40
F-44
Belgium
BA-PF-2B
Canada
3GP-22F
3-6P-24e
Denmark
JP-4 MIL-T-5624
France
Air 3407A
Germany (West) VTL-9130-006
UTL 9130-007/
UTL 9130-010
Greece
JP4 MIL-T-5624
Italy
AA-M-C-1421
AMC-143
Netherlands
JP-4 MIL-T-5624 D. Eng Rd 2493
Norway
JP4 MIL-T-5624
Portugal
JP-4 MILT-5624
Turkey
YP4 MIL-T-5624
Untied Kingdom
D. Eng Rd 2454
E. Eng Rd 2498
(Britain)
NOTE: Anti-icing and Biocidal Additive for Commercial
Turbine Engine Fuel - The fuel system icing inhibitor
shall conform to MIL-I-27686. The additive provides antiicing protection and also functions as a biocide to kill
microbial growths in helicopter fuel systems. Icing
microbial conforming to MIL-I-27686 shall be added to
commercial fuel, not containing an Icing inhibitor, during
refueling
operations
regardless
of
ambient
temperatures.
Refueling
operations
shall
be
accomplished in accordance with accepted commercial
procedures. Commercial product ’PRIST’ conforms to
MIL-I-27686.
Approved domestic commercial oils for Mil-L-7808:
Manufacturers designation-PQ Turbine Oil 8365
ESSO/ENCO Turbo Oil 2389 RM- 184A/RM-201A151
Do not use Shell Oil Co, part No. 307,
qualification No. 7D-1 oil (MIL-L-7808). It
can be harmful to seals made of silicone.
Approved domestic commercial oils for MIL-L-23699:
Manufacturers designation-PQ
Turbine
Lubricant
5247/6423/6700/7731/8878/9595
2-22
Change 19
Brayco 899/899-G/899-S
Castrol 205
Jet Engine Oil 5
STO-21919/STO-21919A/STD-6530
HATCOL 3211/3611
Turbo Oil 2380 (WS-6000)/2395 (W-6459)2392/2393
Mobil Jet II RM-139A/Mobil Jet II RM-147A/Avrex S
Turbo260/Avrex S
Turbo 265
Royco 899 (C-915)/899SC/Stauffer Jet II
Aeroshell Turbine Oil 500
Aeroshell Turbine Oil 550
Chevron Jet Engine Oil 5
Stauffer 6924/Jet I
SATO 7377n730,TL-8090
Approved domestic commercial fluids for MIL-H-5606:
Manufacturers designation"PO" 4226
Brayco 757B
Brayco 756C
Brayco 7561D
Hyspin A
Univis J41
Aero HFB
Petrofluid 5606B
Petrofluid 4607
Royco 756
Royco 756C/D
Royce 782
XSL 7828
PED 3565
PED 3337
TL-5874
Aero Hydroil 500
YT-283
FP-221
Approved domestic commercial fluids for MIL-H-83282:
Brayco Micronic 882
Hanover R-2
HF 832
ROYCO 782
XRM 230A
XRM 231A
TM 55-1520-210-10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
VHF navigation (Omni) antenna
Synchronized elevator
Anti-collision light
FM homing antenna No.1
Loop (ADF) antenna (Removed W/MWO 1-1620-210-50-30)
Position light (White)
Position light (Red)
FM communications antenna No.2
VHF/UHF antenna
Pitot tube
WSPA Windshield Wiper Deflector
Radio compartment and fwd battery location assess door
Pilot door
Position fights (Green upper and lower)
Heater compartment access door
Oil cook fan access door
FM communications antenna No. 1
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
29A
30
31
32
33
Aft position light (White)
42 degree gearbox
HF long wire antenna
Electrical compartment access door
Aft radio compartment access doors
Cabin door
Position Light (Red)
Copilot door
Static port
Pitot tube
WSPS Windshield Deflector
WSPS Upper Cutter
AN/ASN-175 antenna
90 degree gearbox
Position Light (NVG)
Aft position light (NVG)
KY - 100 Processor
Figure 2-1. General Arrangement Diagram - Typical (Sheet 1 of 2)
Change 18
2-23
TM 56-1520-210-10
Figure 2-1. General Arrangement Diagram Typical (Sheet 2 of 2)
2-24
Change 18
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 2-2. Principal Dimensions Diagram–Typical
2-25
TM 55-1520-210-10
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
6.
7.
8.
Shoulder harness lock - unlock control
Armor plate adjustment lock
Shoulder harness adjuster
Seat bolt latch
Quick release
Seat bolt adjuster
Seat adjustment fore and aft
Seat adjustment vertical
Figure 2-3. Pilot/Copilot Seat–Typical
2-26
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 2-4. Instrument Panel (Typical) (Sheet 1 of 2)
Change 7
2-26.1/(2-26.2
Blank)
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 2-4. Instrument Panel (Typical) (Sheet 2 of 2)
Change 7
2-27
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 2-5. Crew Compartment-Typical (Sheet 1 of 3)
2-28
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 2-5. Crew Compartment - Typical (Sheet 2 of 3)
Change 18 2-29
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 2-5. Overhead Console–Typical (Sheet 3 of 3)
2-30
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 2-6. Engine and Miscellaneous Control Panel–Typical
2-31
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 2-7. Heating and Defrosting System–Typical (Sheet 1 of 2)
2-32
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 2-7. Heating and Defrosting System–Typical (Sheet 2 of 2)
2-33
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 2-8 Electrical System (Typical)
2-34 Change 18
TM 55-1520-210-10
CAUTION PANEL
WORDING
ENGINE OIL PRESS
*ENGINE ICING
*ENGINE ICE DET
ENGINE CHIP DET
LEFT FUEL BOOST
RIGHT FUEL BOOST
ENG FUEL PUMP
20 MINUTE
FUEL FILTER
*GOV EMER
AUX FUEL LOW
XMSN OIL PRESS
XMSN OIL HOT
HYD PRESSURE
*ENGINE INLET AIR
INST INVERTER
DC GENERATOR
EXTERNAL POWER
CHIP DETECTOR
*IFF
FAULT
CONDITION
Engine oil pressure below 25 psi
Engine Icing detected
Not connected
Metal particle in engine oil
Left fuel boost pump inoperative
Right fuel boot pump inoperative
Engine fuel pump inoperative
Fuel quantity bout 170 Ibs
Fuel filter Impending bypass
Governor switch in emergency position
Auxiliary fuel tank empty
Transmission oil pressure below 30 psi
Transmission oil temperature above 110°C
Hydraulic pressure Low
Engine air filter clogged
Failure of inverter
DC Generator failure
External power access door open
Metal particles present in 42’ or 90’ gearbox
or main- transmission
IFF System inoperative
*May not be installed on all configurations
Figure 2-9. Caution Panel - Typical
Change 19
2-35
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 2-10. Servicing Diagram–Typical (Sheet 1 of 2)
2-36
TM
55-1520-210-10
Figure 2-10. Servicing Diagram–Typical (Sheet 2 of 2)
Change 5 2-37/(2-38 blank)
TM 55-1520-210-10
Chapter 3
Avionics
Section I.
General This chapter covers the avionics
3-1.
It includes a brief
equipment configuration.
description of the avionics equipment, its technical
capabilities, and location. The
characteristics,
also
operating
contains
complete
chapter
instructions for all avionics equipment installed. For
mission avionics equipment, refer to chapter 4,
Mission Equipment.
Avionics Equipment Configuration
3-2.
configuration consists of the following:
The
a. Headset Cordage. The pilot and copilot cordage
connectors are located at their respective sides
near the aft portion of the overhead console. The
crew cordage connectors are located near the overhead mounted signal distribution panel (figs 3-1,
3-2, and 3-3) at each crew station.
b. Keying Switches. A trigger type keying switch is
located on each (pilot and copilot) cyclic control
stick grip. The half depressed (first detent) position
GENERAL
of the trigger switch is used for keying the interphone. The fully depressed (second detent) position
of the trigger switch keys the radio selected with the
transmit-interphone selector switch on the signal
distribution panel. A foot-operated type keying
switch (pilot and copilot) is located at each side of
the center console, between the center console and
cyclic control stick, and on the cabin floor at each
crew station. The depressed position of the foot-operated switch keys the radio or interphone selected
with the rotary selector switch at the appropriate signal distribution panel.
c. Power Supply and Circuit Breakers. Refer to figure 2-8.
d. Operation. The operation of the avionics equipment in this helicopter is dependent on the operation
of the interphone system (figs 3-1, 3-2, and 3-3).
Do not turn interphone system off until the end of
flight day.
Section Il. COMMUNICATIONS
3-3. Signal Distribution Panel-SB-329/AR
(2) RECEIVERS switches–As desired.
a. Description. The Signal Distribution Panel, located at each crewmember station, amplifies and
controls the distribution of audio signals between
each headset-microphone, to and from radio transmitters and receivers, and from navigation receivers. The system is used for intercommunications between crewmembers and for monitoring communication and navigation receivers singly or in combination.
(3) TRANS selector switch–As desired.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-1.
C.
Operation.
(1) FM Switch panel AN/ARC-44 number 31CS
switch-up.
(4) VOL control–Adjust.
3-4.
Signal Distribution Panel C-1611/AIC
a. Description. The Signal Distribution Panel amplifies and controls the distribution of audio signals applied to or from each headset-microphone, to or
from communication receivers and transmitters,
from navigation receivers, intercommunication between crewmembers, and for monitoring the communication and navigation receivers singly or in
combination. In addition the C-1611/AIC panel permits the operator to control four receiver-transmitters. A private interphone line is also provided.
3-1
TM 55-1520-210-10
CONTROL/lNDICATOR
FUNCTION
Receive switches
The switches marked 1, 2, 3 MB and NAV are for connecting or
disconnecting receiver audio signals to the associated headset. The up
position is on and connects the receiver. The down position is off and
disconnects the receiver. The number 1 switch is for the FM receiver,
number 2 switch is for the UHF receiver and switch number 3 is for the
VHF receiver when installed. The switch marked MB connects audio
from the marker beacon receiver, and the switch marked NAV
connects audio from the ADF or VHF navigation receivers.
TRANS selector switch
This is a rotary type switch with indicator window at the top. The
switch has four positions, INT, 1 (FM), 2 (UHF), and 3 (VHF). Positions
1, 2, and 3 select the receiver-transmitter to be used to receive or
transmit regardless of the position of the RECEIVERS 1, 2, 3 switches.
The INT position connects signal distribution panels for interphone
operation. The operator will hear side tone when transmitting. The
other crewmember will hear the interphone message regardless of the
position of their TRANS selector switch.
VOL control
Adjusts the volume level of the audio applied to the headset associated
with the INT signal distribution panel.
Figure 3-1. Signal Distribution Panel SB-329/AR
3-2
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
CONTROL
I
FUNCTION
RECEIVERS
switches 1 (FM),
2 (UHF), 3 (VHF),
and 4 (#2 FM/
HF)
INT switch
Turns audio from associated
receiver ON or OFF.
NAV switch
ON position enables operator
to monitor audio from the
navigation receiver.
VOL control
Adjusts audio on receivers
except NAV receivers.
Transmitinterphone
selector switch
Positions 1 (FM), 2 (UHF), 3
(VHF), 4 (#2 FM/HF) and INT
permits INT or selected
receiver-transmitter to
transmit and receive. The cyclic
stick switch or foot switch
must be used to transmit. PVT
position keys interphone for
transmission.
ON position enables operator to
how audio from the interphone.
Figure 3-2. Signal Distribution Panel C-1611/AIC
Change 7
3-3
TM 55-1520-210-10
CONTROL/lNDICATOR
1. Receiver Switches
FUNCTION
Connect (ON) or disconnect OFF)
communications receivers from the headsets.
1 – FM No. 1 ARC-54 or ARC-131
2 – UHF ARC-51BX
3 – VHF ARC-115
4 – HF ARC-102
6 – FM No. 2 ARC-114
2. AUX Receiver Switch
Connects (ON) or disconnects (OFF) VOR omni
receiver ARN-82 from the headset.
3. NAV Receiver Switch
Connects (ON) or disconnects (OFF) ADF
navigation receiver ARN-83 from the headset.
4. HOT MIKE Switch
Permits hand-free intercommunications with
transmit-interphone selector in any position.
6. VOL Control
Adjusts volume from receivers.
Adjusts intercommunications volume.
6. Transmit- Interphone Selector
Selects transmitter to be keyed and connects
microphone to transmitters.
1 – FM No. 1 ARC-54 or ARC-131
2 – UHF ARC-51BX
3 – VHF ARC-115
4 – HF ARC-102
6 – FM No. 2 ARC-114
ICS
Connects the microphone to the
intercommunications system only, disconnecting
microphone from transmitters.
Figure 3-3. Signal Distribution Control Panel (C-6533/ARC)
3-4
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
When the selector switch is in the PVT position it
provides a hot line (no external switch is used) to
any station in the helicopter which also has PVT selected. A HOT MIC switch is also provide on the
C-1611/AIC control panel at the medical attendants
station. Four C-1611/AIC units may be installed in
serial no. 63-8739 and subsequent. One each of the
units are installed for the pilot and copilot, and two
are installed in the crew/passenger compartment of
the crew. All four of the C-1611/AIC units are wired
to provide interphone operations for the crew, and
full transmit and receive facilities for all communication and navigation equipment.
tal, tunes in 0.05 MHz increments and provides 3500
channels. The set also permits 20 preset channels
and monitoring of the guard channel. Transmission
and reception are conducted on the same frequency.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-4.
c. Operation.
(1) UHF function select switch–T/R (T/R+G as desired)
(2) UHF mode selector switch–PRESET CHAN.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-2.
(3) RECEIVERS switch No. 2–ON
c. Operation.
(4) Channel–Select.
(1) Transmit interphone selector switch–As desired.
(2) RECEIVERS switches–As desired.
NOTE
An 800-cps audio tone should be heard
during channel changing cycle.
(3) Microphone switches–As desired.
(5) SQ DISABLE switch–OFF.
(4) VOL control–Adjust.
(6) VOL–Adjust.
3-5.
Signal Distribution Panel C-6533/ARC
a. Description. Two panels are installed in the
pedestal for the pilot and copilot and two panels are
installed in the cabin roof aft of the overhead console for the right and left crewmembers. The system
is used for intercommunications and radio control.
The system has three modes of operation; two way
radio communications, radio monitoring, and interphone.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-3.
c. Operation.
(1) NAV receiver switch–As desired.
(2) AUX receiver switch–As desired.
(3) Transmit-interphone selector switch–As desired.
(7) Transmit-interphone selector switch–No. 2
position.
d. Emergency Operation.
(1) UHF mode switch–GD XMIT.
(2) UHF function switch–T/R+G.
3-7. UHF Radio Set AN/ARC-51X
a. Description. The radio set provides two way
communications in the UHF (225.0 to 399.9 MHz)
band. The set located at the left side of the pedestal, tunes in 0.1 MHz increments and provides 1750
channels. The set also permits monitoring of the
guard channel. Transmission and reception are conducted on the same frequency.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-5.
c. Operation.
(4) Receiver switches–As desired.
(5) HOT MIKE switch–As desired.
(6) VOL control–Adjust.
3-6.
UHF Radio Set AN/ARC-51BX
a. Description. The Radio Set provides two way
communications in the UHF (225.0 to 399.9 MHz)
band. The set located at the left side of the pedes-
(1) UHF function selector switch–T/R (T/R+G as
desired). Allow five minute warmup.
(2) Frequency–Select.
(3) RECEIVERS switch No. 2–ON.
(4) SENS and VOL controls–Adjust.
Change 7
3-5
TM 55-1520-210-10
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Mode selector
Preset channel control
Function select switch
0.05 megahertz control
1 megahertz control
10 megahertz control
CONTROL/lNDICATOR
FUNCTION
Function select switch
Applies power to radio set and selects type of operation as follows:
OFF position — Removes operating power from the set.
T/R position – Transmitter and main receiver ON.
T/R +
G
p o s i t i o n – Transmitter, main receiver and guard receiver ON.
ADF position – Energizes, UHF-DF system when installed.
VOL control
Controls the receiver audio volume.
SQ DISABLE switch
In the ON position squelch is disabled. In the OFF position, the squelch
is operative.
Mode Selector
Determines the manner in which the frequencies are selected as
follows:
PRESET CHAN position – Permits selection of one of 20 preset
channels by means of preset channel control.
MAN position – Permits frequency selection by means of megacycle
controls.
(GD XMIT position – Receiver-transmitter automatically tunes to
guard channel frequency (243.00 MHz).
PRESET CHANnel
Permits selection of any one of 20 preset channels.
Preset channel indicator
Indicates the preset channel selected by the preset channel control.
Ten megahertz control
Selects the first two digits (or ten-megahertz number).
One megahertz control
Selects the third digit (or one-megahertz number).
Five-hundredths
megahertz control
Selects the fourth and fifth digits (or 0.05 megahertz number).
Figure 3-4. UHF Control Panel C-6287/ARC-51BX
3-6
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
1.
2.
3.
4.
Frequency selector (first two digits)
Frequency selector (third digit)
Frequency selector (fourth digit)
Function selector switch
CONTROL/lNDICATOR
FUNCTION
Function select
switch
Applies power to the radio and selects type of operation as follows:
OFF position – Removes operating power from radio set.
T/R position — Applies power to the set and permits transmission and
reception; guard receiver is not operative.
T/R + G position — Permits transmission and reception; guard
receiver is operative.
ADF position — Not used.
VOL control
Controls the receiver audio volume.
SENS control
Adjusts main receiver sensitivity. When rotated fully clockwise the
control disables the squelch.
Ten-megahertz
control
Selects the first two digits (or ten-megahertz number}.
One-megahertz
control
selects the third digit (or one-megahertz number).
One-tenth
megahertz control
Selects the fourth digit (or tenth-megahertz number).
Figure 3-5. UHF Control Panel C-4677/ARC-51X
Change 7
3-7
TM 55-1520-210-10
1.
2.
3.
4.
Function selector switch
Frequency selector (first two digits)
Frequency selector (third digit)
Frequency selector (fourth digit)
CONTROL/lNDICATOR
FUNCTION
Selector switch
Applies power to the radio set and selects the mode of operation
OFF position – turns off primary power.
T/R position – transmitter and main receiver are on.
T/R + G REC position — transmitter, main receiver and guard
receiver are on.
ADF position — not used.
Volume
control
This is a dual purpose rotary control. The larger or outer knob is
marked SENS, and controls receiver sensitivity. The smaller or inner
knob is marked VOL, and controls receiver volume.
sensitivity
Tuning controls
The tuning controls consist of two large control knobs, an inner control
knob, and an indicator window. The large knob on the left side selects
the first two digits (or ten megahertz number). The large knob on the
right side selects the third digit (or one megahertz number). The inner
knob selects the fractional (or tenth megahertz number).
Figure 3-6. UHF Control Panel C-1827/ARC-55B
3-8 Change 7
TM
55-1520-210-10
(5) Transmit-interphone selector switch—No. 2
position.
d. Emergency Operation. Select guard frequency
121.50 MHz.
d. Emergency Operation. Select guard frequency
243.0 MHz.
3-10. VHF Radio Set-AN/ARC-134
3-8. UHF Radio Set AN/ARC-55B
a. Description. The UHF command set provides
two way, amplitude-modulated communications on
any of 1750 channels within 225.0 to 399.9 MHz.
Channel selection is manual and the guard channel
may be monitored.
a. Description. The set transmits and receives the
same frequency. The panel (VHF COMM) is located
on the left side of the pedestal. The set provides
voice communications in the VHF range of 116.000
through 149.975 MHz on 1360 channels spaced 25
kHz apart.
b. Controls and Functions Refer to figure 3-8.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-6.
c. Operation.
c. Operation.
(1) OFF/PWR switch–PWR. Allow set to warm up.
(1) UHF function selector switch–As desired.
(2) Frequency–Select.
(2) Frequency–Select.
(3) RECEIVERS switch No. 3–ON.
(3) RECEIVERS switch No. 2–ON.
(4) UHF VOL-SENS controls–Adjust.
(5) Transmit-interphone selector switch–No. 2
position.
d. Emergency Operation. Select guard frequency
243.0 MHz.
3-9. VHF Radio Set AN/ARC-115
a. Description. The VHF Radio Set provides amplitude-modulated, narrow band voice communications within the frequency range of 116.000 to
149.975 MHz on 1360 channels for a distance of approximately 50 miles line of sight. A guard receiver
is incorporated and fixed tuned to 121.50 MHz. The
panel is Iabeled VHF AM COMM and mounted on the
left side of the pedestal.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-7.
c. Operation.
(1) Function selector–As desired.
(4) Volume–Adjust. If signal is not audible with
VOL control fully clockwise, press COMM TEST
switch to unsquelch circuits.
(5) Transmit-interphone selector switch–No. 3
position.
(6) OFF/PWR switch–OFF.
d. Emergency Operation. Select guard frequency
121.500 MHz.
3-11. VHF Radio Set-AN/ARC-73
a. Description. The VHF Command Set is an alternate set for the UHF radio. The set provides transmission and reception of AM radio signals in the VHF
range. The receiver may be tuned within its frequency range of 116.00 to 151.95 MHz in 50 kHz
increments to any of the 720 available channels. The
transmitter may be tuned within its frequency range
of 116.00 to 149.95 MHz in 50 kHz increments to any
one of its 680 available channels. The distance
range is limited to line of sight or a distance of approximately 50 miles.
(2) Frequency–Select.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-9.
(3) RCVR TEST–Press to test.
c. Operation.
(4) AUDIO–Adjust.
(1) POWER switch–ON.
(5) Transmit-interphone selector switch–No. 3
position.
(2) Frequency–Select.
(3) RECEIVERS switch No. 3–ON.
(6) RADIO transmit switch–Press.
Change 7
3-9
TM 55-1520-210-10
CONTROL/INDICATOR
FUNCTION
1. Function Selector
OFF
Power off.
T/R
Receiver — On; Transmitter — Standby.
T/R GUARD
Receiver — On; Transmittal – Standby; Guard Receiver – On.
NOTE
Reception on guard frequency is unaffected by
frequencies selected for normal communications.
D/F
Not used.
RETRAN
Not used.
2. Frequency Selectors
Left
Selects first three digits of desired frequency.
Right
Selects fourth, fifth and sixth digits of desired frequency.
3. RCVR TEST switch
When pressed, audible signal indicates proper receiver performance.
4. AUDIO control
Adjusts receiver volume.
5. SQUELCH control
Squelch control adjusted by maintenance personnel only.
Figure 3-7. Control Panel AN/ARC-115
3-10 Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Frequency indicator
Communication test switch
Volume control
Kilohertz selector
Off/power switch
Megahertz selector
FUNCTION
CONTROL/lNDICATOR
OFF-PWR switch
Turns power to the set ON-OFF.
VOL control
Controls the receiver audio volume.
COMM-TEST switch
Turns squelch on or off.
Megahertz control
Selects whole number part of operating frequency.
Kilohertz control
Selects the decimal number part of the operating frequency
Figure 3-8. VHF Control Panel C-7197/ARC-134
Change 7
3-11
TM 55-1520-210-10
(4) SQ and VOL controls - Adjust.
(5) Transmit interphone selector switch - No.
3position.
d. Emergency
Operation
Select
guard
frequency121.500 MHz.
3-12.
FM Radio Set - AN/ARC-114 and -114A.
a Description The FM Radio Set provides two
way frequency modulated (FM) narrow band voice
communications and homing capability within the
frequency range of 30.00 to 75.95 MHz on 920 channels
for a distance range limited to line of sight. A guard
receiver is incorporated in the set and is fixed tuned to
40.50 MHz.
It has the additional capability -for
retransmission of voice, or X-mode communications in
conjunction with radio set AN/ARC-131. The radio set is
marked VHF FM COMM and is mounted on the center
console, on helicopter serial Nos. 71-20000 and
subsequent.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-10.
c. Operation.
(1) Two Way Voice Communication.
(a) Function selector - As desired.
(b) Frequency - Select.
(c) RCVR TEST - Press to test.
(d) AUDIO - Adjust.
(e) Transmit interphone selector - No.
5
position.
(2) Retransmission.
NOTE
For transmission both FM circuit breakers must be in.
(a) Frequencies - Select (both FM sets). (b) Communications - Establish with each
facility by selecting number I position and then number 5
position on the transmit-interphone selector.
(c) Function selectors - RETRAN (both FM
sets).
(d) Receivers switches - Number I and number
5 positions as desired for monitoring.
d. Emergency Operation. Select guard frequency
40.50 MHz.
3-13.
FM Radio Set - AN/ARC-131.
a. Description The FM Radio Set consists of a
receiver-transmitter, remote control panel unit;
communication antenna and a homing antenna The
radio set provides 920 channels spaced 50 kHz apart
within the frequency range of 30.00 to 75.95 MHz.
Circuits are included to provide transmission sidetone
monitoring. The control panel is located on the pedestal.
Homing data is displayed by the course indicator (fig 320) on the instrument panel. A channel changing tone
should be heard in the headset while radio set is tuning.
When the tone stops, the radio set is tuned. Operation in
DIS position is possible; however flags on course
deviation indicator will be inoperative. When the first FM
radio set is m the homing mode, the homing indicator
may deflect left or right of on course indication while the
second FM radio set Is keyed.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-1 1.
c. Operation Depending on the settings of the
control panel controls, the radio set can be used for the
following types of operation: Two way voice
communication and homing (fig 3-12).
(1) Two Way Voice Communication.
(a) Mode control switch - T/R (allow two minute
warm up).
(b) Frequency - Select.
(c) RECEIVERS No. I switch - ON.
(d) VOL control - Adjust.
(e) SQUELCH control - Set for desired
squelch mode.
(f) TRANS selector switch - No. I.
(2) Homing Operation.
(a) Mode control switch - HOME.
(b) Frequency - Adjust to frequency of selected
homing station
(c) SQUELCH control may be set to CARR or
TONE, however, the carrier squelch is automatically
selected by an internal contact arrangement on HOME
position.
(d) Fly helicopter toward the homing station by
heading in direction that causes homing course deviation
indicator right-left vertical pointer to position itself m the
center of indicator scale. To ensure that helicopter is not
heading away from the homing station, change the
heading slightly and note that the course deviation
indicator vertical pointer deflects in direction opposite
that of the turn.
3-12
Change 17
(3) Retransmit Operation. Start the equipment and
proceed as follows for retransmit operation:
(a) Mode controls (both control units) RETRAN.
(b) SQUELCH controls (both control units) Set as required. Do not attempt retransmit operation
with SQUELCH controls set to DIS. Both controls must
be set to CARR or TONE. To operate satisfactorily the
two radio sets must be tuned to frequencies at least 3
MHz apart.
(c) Frequency adjust (both control units) for the
desired operation.
(4) Stopping Procedure. Mode control switch OFF.
3-14. FM Radio Set AN/ARC-54.
a. Description The FM Radio Set provides twoway communications within the frequency range of 30.00
to 69.95 MHz. Voice communication permits selective
calling (TONE) and when used with the homing antenna
and course indicator the pilot is provided with a homing
facility. A channel changing tone should be heard in the
headset while radio set is tuning. When the tone stops
the radio set is tuned. Voice reception is possible m
HOME position. With two or more FM radio sets
installed and the first FM radio set is in the homing
mode, the homing indicator may deflect left or right of oncourse indication while the second FM radio set is keyed.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-12.
C Operation.
(1) Two Way Voice.
(a) FM mode selector switch - PTT (allow three
minute warm-up).
(b) Frequency - Select.
(c) FM VOL control - Adjust.
(d) FM SQUELCH control - CARR (or as
desired).
(e) RECEIVERS switch No. 1 -- ON.
(f) TRANS selector switch - No. 1.
(g) Microphone switch - Press.
(2) Homing Operation. FM mode selector switch HOME.
(3) Retransmit Operation. Start the equipment and
perform the following for retransmit operation.
(a) Mode controls (both control units) RETRAN.
(b) SQUELCH controls (both control units) Set as desired.
NOTE
Do not attempt retransmit operation with the
SQUELCH controls set to DIS. Both controls
must be set to CARR or TONE.
(c) Adjust frequency (both control units)
desired operation. To operate satisfactorily the two radio
sets must be tuned to frequencies at least 5 MHz apart.
(4) Stopping Procedure. FM mode selector switch
-OFF.
3-15.
FM Radio Set AN/ARC-44
a. Description. The FM Radio Set provides two
way communications within the frequency range of 24.0
to 51.9 MHz on 280 preset channels. Signal distribution
panel SB-329 and control panel assembly 204-075-219
(FM switch assembly), to provide squelch control and
power to the antenna group are used in conjunction with
the FM Liaison Radio Set (fig 3-2 and fig 3-14). The set
provides a homing facility on signals between 24.0 and
49.0 MHz. Cycling may take place in the receiver
transmitter. This will be indicated by a 400-cycle-persecond signal heard in the headset
b. Controls end Functions. Refer to figure 3-13.
c. Operation
(1) Preliminary Setup.
(a) FM power switch - ON.
(b) FM home switch - Down.
(c) TRANS selector switch - No. 1 position.
(d) REM-LOCAL switch LOCAL.
(e) Frequency - Select.
(2) Standing Procedures.
(a) BAT switch - ON (OFF for APU).
(b) INT and FM circuit breakers - In.
Change 17
3-12.1
TM 55-1520-210-10
(c) ICS switch - Up (allow three minute warm
up).
(3) Interphone Operation.
(a) Microphone switch - Press.
(b) Speak into the microphone - Adjust
interphone volume.
(4) FM Receive-Transmit Operation.
(a) ICS switch - Up.
(b) FM ON-OFF power switch - ON.
(c) FM VOL control - As desired.
(d) TRANS selector switch - No. I position.
(e) Microphone switch - Press to transmit.
(5) FM Home Operation. FM HOME switch - Up.
(6 Stopping Procedures.
(a) FM HOME switch - Down.
(b) FM POWER switch - OFF.
(c) ICS Switch - Down.
3-16.
Voice Security Equipment - TSEC/ KY-28.
a. Description. The Voice Security Equipment is
used with the FM Command Radio to provide secure two
way communication (figs 3-11 through 3-14). The
equipment is controlled by the control-indicator mounted
in the pilot
right console. The POWER switch must be in the ON
position regardless of the mode of operation whenever
the equipment is installed.
b. Control and Functions. Refer to figure 3-14.
c. Operation. Normal operation will exist without
its
encoder/decoder and control indication being installed in
the helicopter. However two operation modes are
available when they are installed. PLAIN mode for
enciphered radio transmission or reception and CIPHER
mode for ciphered radio transmission or reception. Both
modes may be operated with or without retransmission
nits.
Change 17 3-12.2
(1) Preliminary
(a) Set the control indicator POWER switch to
ON.
(b) Apply power to FM radio set.
(c) When power is initially applied an automatic
alarm procedure is initiated.
1. A constant tone is heard in the headset and
after approximately two seconds the constant tone will
change to an interrupted tone.
2. To clear the interrupted tone press and
release the press to talk switch the interrupted tone will
no
longer be heard and the circuit will be in a standby
condition ready for either transmission or reception. No
traffic will be passed if the interrupted tone is still heard
after pressing and releasing the press to talk switch. (d)
Set control unit function switch for desired type of
operation (2 and 3 below).
(2) Plain Mode.
(a) Set the control indicator POWER switch to
ON.
(b) Set the PLAIN-CIPHER switch to PLAIN
(indicated by red light).
(c) Set the RE-X-REG switch to REG; except
when operating with retransmission units, at which timeswitch will be placed in the RE-X position.
(d) Press the press to talk switch and speak
into the microphone to transmit. Release the press to
talk switch for reception.
(3) Cipher Mode.
(a) Set the PLAIN-CIPHER switch to CIPHER
(indicated by a green light).
(b) Place the RE-X-REG switch to REG except
when operating with retransmission units at which time
the switch will be placed in RE-X position. (c) To transmit
press the press to talk switch. DO NOT TALK; in
approximately one-half second a be
will be heard. This indicates the receiving station is now
capable of receiving your message. Transmission can
now
commence. Only one voice security system can transmit
on a given frequency. Always listen before attempting to
transmit to assure that no one else is transmitting.
TM 55-1520-210-10
1. Megahertz control knob
2. Kilohertz control knob
FUNCTION
CONTROL/lNDICATOR
POWER switch
Turns primary power to the radio set ON or OFF
VOL control knob
Controls the receiver audio volume.
SQ control knob
Adjusts the squelch threshold level of the receiver output.
Megahertz control knob
Selects receiver and transmitter frequency in 1 - mhz steps.
Kilohertz control knob
Selects receiver and transmitter frequency in 50-khz steps
FREQ MC indicator window
Indicates receiver and transmitter frequency selected.
SCS-DCS/DCD
Not used.
switch
Figure 3-9. VHF Control Panel 614U-6/ARC-73
Change 7
3-13
TM 55-1520-210-10
FUNCTION
CONTROL/lNDICATOR
1.
Function
Selector
OFF
Power Off
T/R
Receiver – On; Transmitter — Standby.
T/R GUARD
Receiver — On; Transmitter — Standby; Guard Receiver — On.
NOTE
Reception on guard frequency is unaffected by
frequencies selected for normal communications.
HOMING
RETRAN
Not Used.
Activates the Retransmission Mode in Conjunction with Radio
Set ARC-54 or ARC-131.
2. Frequency selectors
Left Selector
Selects first two digits of desired frequency
Right Selector
Selects third and fourth digits of desired frequency.
3. RCVR TEST
When pressed audible signal indicates proper receiver
performance.
4. AUDIO
Adjusts receiver volume.
5. SQUELCH (ARC 114)
Squelch control adjusted by maintenance personnel only.
6. SQUELCH (ARC 114A)
OFF
Disables squelch.
NOISE
Enables noise squelch.
TONE X
Enables tone squelch and Secure Voice operation.
Figure 3-10. Control Panel AN/ARC-114 and AN/ARC-114A
3-14
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
1. Tens megahertz digit
frequency selector
2. Frequency indicators
3. Units megahertz digit
frequency selector
4. Tenths magahertz digit
frequency selector
5. Frequency indicators
6. Hundredths megahertz digit
frequency selector
7. Mode control switch
FUNCTION
CONTROL/lNDICATOR
Mode control switch
(four-position switch)
OFF
Turns off primary power.
T/R
(transmit/receive)
Radio set operates in normal communication mode (reception).
(Aircraft transmit switch must be depressed to transmit.)
RETRAN
(retransmit)
Radio set operates as a two-way relay station.
(Two radio sets are required set at least 3 MHz apart.)
HOME
Radio set operates as a homing facility.
(Requires a homing antenna and indicator.)
Adjusts the audio output level of the radio set.
VOL control
SQUELCH switch
(three-position
rotary switch)
DIS (disable)
Squelch circuits are disabled.
CARR (carrier)
Squelch circuits operate normally in presence of any carrier.
TONE
Squelch opens (unsquelches) only on selected signals
(signals containing a 150-cps tone modulation).
Frequency indicator
Tens megahertz
frequency selector
Selects the tens megahertz digit of the operating frequency.
Units megahertz
frequency selector
Selects the units megahertz digit of the operating frequency.
Tenths megahertz
frequency selector
Selects the tenths megahertz digit of the operating frequency.
Hundredths megahertz
frequency selector
Selects the hundredths megahertz digit of the operating
frequency.
Frequency indicator
Displays the operating frequency of the radio set.
Figure 3-11.
FM Radio Set Control Panel AN/ARC-131
Change 7
3-15
TM 55-1520-210-10
1. Frequency control whole – megahertz
2. Mode selector switch
3. Frequency control decimal – megahertz
CONTROL/lNDICATOR
FUNCTION
Applies power to the set and selects the mode of operation.
OFF position — Turns off primary power. PTT (push-to-talk) applies
power. Radio set operates in normal communication mode. (Radio
cyclic stick switch or foot switch must be pressed to transmit.)
RETRAN (retransmit) — Applies power. Radio set operates as a
two-way relay station. (Two radio sets are required set at least
5 MHz apart)
HOME position — Applies power and radio set operates with 637A-2.
Homing Antenna and Course indicator as a homing facility.
Voice capability is provided in all three operating positions.
Controls the receiver audio volume.
Mode selector
switch
VOL control
SQUELCH control
Selects one of three squelch modes as follows:
DIS (disable) position — Squelch circuits are disabled.
CAR (carrier) position — Squelch circuits operate normally.
TONE position — Squelch opens (unsquelches) only on signals
containing a 150-cps tone modulation.
Frequency control
whole-megahertz digit
Selects the whole megahertz digits
Frequency control
decimal-megahertz
Selects the decimal-megahertz digits.
Megahertz display
window
digit
Displays the selected operating frequency.
Figure 3-12. FM Radio Set Control Panel C-3835/ARC-54
3-16
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-13. FM Control Panel and Switch Assembly AN/ARC-44
Change 7 3-17
TM 55-1520-210-10
TSEC/KY-28
Figure 3-14.
3-18
Change 7
Voice Security Equipment (Sheet 1 of 2)
TM 55-1520-210-10
T/SEC KY-58
Figure 3-14 Voice Security Equipment (Sheet 2 of 2)
Change 7
3-19
TM 55-1520-210-10
(d) When transmission is completed, release the
press to talk switch. This will return equipment to the
standby condition.
(e) To receive, it is necessary for another station
to send you a signal first. Upon receipt of a signal
the cipher equipment will be switched automatically
to the receive condition, which will be indicated by a
short beep heard in the headset. Reception will then
be possible. Upon loss of the signal, the cipher
equipment will be automatically returned to the
standby condition.
3-16.1 Voice Security Equipment TSEC/KY-58
a. Description. The voice security equipment is
used with the FM Command Radio to provide secure
two way communication. The equipment is controlled by the control-indicator (Z-AHP) mounted in
the right pedestal panel. The POWER switch must be
in the ON position, regardless of the mode of operation, whenever the equipment is installed.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to Figure 3-14.
NOTE
When operating in either secure or clear
(plain) voice operations the VOLUME must
be adjusted on the aircraft radio and
intercom equipment to a comfortable
operating level.
(2) Clear Voice Procedures:
(a) To operate in clear voice (plain text) simply:
1 Set the Z-AHP(RCU) PLAIN-C/RAD switch to
PLAIN.
2 Operate the equipment
(3) Zeroing Procedures
NOTE
Instructions should originate from the Net
Controller or Commander as to when to
zeroize the equipment
c. Operating Procedures.
(a) To zeroize the KY-58: (Power must be on).
(1) Operating procedures for secure voice.
1 Lift the red ZEROIZE switch cover on the RCU.
To talk in secure voice, the KY-58 must be
“Loading” with any number of desired
variables.
(a) Set to MODE switch to OP.
(b) Set the FILL switch to the storage register
which contains the crypto-net variable (CNV) you
desire.
(c) Set the POWER switch to ON.
(d) Set the PLAIN C/RAD switch to C/RAD.
(e) If the signal is to be retransmitted, set the DELAY switch to (ON).
(f) At this time a crypto alarm, and background
noise, in the aircraft audio intercom system should
be heard. To clear this alarm, press and release PTT
in the aircraft audio/intercom system. Secure voice
communication is now possible.
3-20
Change 7
2 Lift the spring-loaded ZEROIZE switch. This will
zeroize positions 1-6.
3 Close the red cover.
The equipment is now zeroized and secure voice
communications are no longer possible.
(4) Automatic Remote Keying Procedures
NOTE
Automatic Remote Keying (AK) causes an
"old" crypto-net variable (CNV) to be
replaced by a “new” CNV. Net Controller
simply transmits the “new” CNV to your
KY-58.
(a) The Net Controller will use a secure voice
channel, with directions to stand by for an AK transmission. Calls should not be made during this
standby action.
TM 55-1520-210-10
(b) Several beeps should now be heard in your
headset. This means that the "old" CNV is being
replaced by a "new" CNV.
(c) Using this “new” CNV, the Net Controller will
ask you for a “radio check.”
(d) After the “radio check” is completed, the Net
Controller instructions will be to resume normal
communications. No action should be taken until the
net controller requests a “radio check.”
(5) Manual Remote Keying Procedures.
(a) The Net Controller will make contact on a secure voice channel with instructions to stand by for a
new crypto-net variable (CNV) by a Manual Remote
Keying (MK) action. Upon instructions from the Net
Controller:
1 Set the Z-AHP FILL switch to position 6. Notify
the Net Controller by radio, and stand by.
2 When notified by the Net Controller, set the ZAHP MODE switch to RV (receive variable). Notify
the Net Controller, and stand by.
3 When notified by the Net Controller, set the ZAHP FILL switch to any storage position selected to
receive the new CNV (May be unused or may contain the variable being replaced). Notify the Net Controller, and stand by.
NOTE
When performing Step 3, the storage
position (1 through 6) selected to receive
the new CNV may be unused, or it may
contain the variable which is being
replaced.
(b) Upon instructions from the Net Controller:
1
Listen for a beep on your headset.
2 Wait two seconds
3 Set the the RCU MDOE switch to OP
4 Confirm
(c) If the MK operation was successful, the Net
Controller will now contact you via the new CNV.
(d) If the MK operation was not successful, the
Net Controller will contact you via clear voice (plain)
transmission; with instructions to set your Z-AHP
FILL selector switch to position 6, and stand by while
the MK operation is repeated.
(6)
audio
while
tones
It is important to be familiar with certain KY-58
tones. Some tones indicate normal operation,
other indicate equipment malfunction. These
are:
(a) Continuous beeping, with background noise,
is cryptoalarm. This occurs when power is first applied to the KY-58, or when the KY-58 is zeroized.
This beeping is part of normal KY-58 operation. To
clear this tone, press and release the PTT button on
the Z-AHQ (after the Z-AHQ LOCAL switch has
been pressed. Also the PTT can be pressed in the
cockpit.
(b) Background noise indicates that the KY-58 is
working properly. This noise should occur at TURN
ON of the KY-58, and also when the KY-58 is generating a cryptovariable. If the background noise is not
heard at TURN ON, the equipment must be checked
out by maintenance personnel,
(c) Continuous tone, could indicate a “parity
alarm.” This will occur whenever an empty storage
register is selected while holding the PTT button in.
This tone can mean any of three conditions:
1 Selection of any empty storage register.
2 A “bad” cryptovariable is present.
3 Equipment failure has occurred. To clear this
tone, follow the “Loading Procedures” in TM
11-5810-262-OP. If this tone continues, have the
equipment checked out by maintenance personnel.
(d) Continuous tone could also indicate a cryptoalarm. If this tone occurs at any time other than in
(c) above, equipment failure may have occurred. To
clear this tone, repeat the “Loading Procedures” in
TM 11-5810-262-OP. If this tone continues, have
the equipment checked out by maintenance personnel.
(e) Single beep, when RCU is not in TD (Time Delay), can indicate any of three normal conditions:
1 Each time the PTT button is pressed when the
KY-58 is in C (cipher) and a filled storage register is
selected, this tone will be heard. Normal use
(speaking) of the KY-58 is possible.
2 When the KY-58 has successfully received a
cryptovariable, this tone indicates that a “good”
cryptovariable is present in the selected register.
3 When you begin to receive a ciphered message, this tone indicates that the cryptovariable has
Change 7
3-21
TM 55-1520-210-10
passed the “parity” check, and that it is a
good variable.
(f) A single beep, when the RCU is in TD
(Time Delay) occurring after the “preamble” is
sent, indicates that you may begin speaking.
(g) A single beep, followed by a burst of
noise after which exists a seemingly “dead”
condition indicates that your receiver is on a
different variable than the distant transmitter.
if this tone occurs when in cipher text mode:
Turn RCU FILL switch to the CNV and contact the transmitter in PLAIN text and agree
to meet on a particular variable.
3-17. HF Radio Set AN/ARC-102
a. Description. HF AM/SSB Radio Set
AN/ARC-102 is a long range, high frequency
(hf), single side band (ssb), transceiver that
transmits and receives in the 2.0 to 30.0
MHz range. The control panel is located on
the right side of the pedestal and tunes in one
kHz stops to any of 28,000 manually selected frequencies. The primary mode of operation is ssb. However, it can also transmit
end receive compatible amplitude modulated
(am) signals.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure
3-15.
c. Operation.
When ground testing ARC-102
equipment, be sure that personnel
are clear of antenna. Serious bums
can result if body contact is made
with the antenna during ground
testing.
3-22
Change 18
(1) Function selector switch - As desired.
(2) Frequency controls - Desired frequency.
if the function selector is moved from the OFF position to an operating mode and the desired operating frequency is already sat up on the control
panel, rotate the first selector knob one digit off
frequency and then back to the operating frequency. This will allow the system to return to the
frequency.
(3) RF-SENS-Adjust.
(4) intercommunications HF switch-As desired.
d. Emergency Operation. The AN/ARC-102 HF
radio has two built-in protective devices that could
cause the set to stop operating. The condition and
corrective steps are as follows:
(1) A protective circuit is designed to turn
the receiver-transmitter off, when a short exists in
the output circuit. To restore the receivertransmitter to operation, move the function selector to OFF position and then back to the desired
operating mode:
(2) When the associated antenna coupler is
required to complete several consecutive tuning
cycles it may become overheated. In this event a
thermal relay in the coupler unit is designed to turn
off the receiver-transmitter. If the receivertransmitter stops operating after a series of tuning
cycles, position the function selector switch to
OFF position, allow the thermal relay to cool for
two minutes and return the function selector to
the desired operating mode.
(3) if the above procedure does not return
the HF radio set to normal operation, place the
frequency selector to 29.000 MHz and function
selector in the “OFF” position. Report the failure to
the maintenance personnel.
TM 55-1520-210-10
3-17.1 HF Radio Set AN/ARC-220 (MWO 1-1520210-50-33)
WARNING
Make sure that no personnel are
within 3 feet of the HF antenna when
transmitting, performing radio checks
or when in ALE mode. Do not touch
the RF output terminal on the antenna
coupler, the antenna lead-in wire, the
lnsulated feed trough, or the antenna
itself while the microphone is keyed
(after the tuning cycle is complete) or
while the system is in transmit selftest. Serious RF burns can result from
direct contact with the above criteria.
WARNING
Tow aircraft outside of hanger or
metal-covered building before performing power-on checks.
a. Description. The AN/ARC-220 is a high frequency, single-side band radio set. It receives and
280,000 manuallytransmits on any one of
selected frequency channels spaced at 100-Hz
increments in the HF band (2.0 to 29.9999 MHz).
Preset channels can be manually programmed by
an operator or preprogrammed as part of the
communications mission load information. The
AN/ARC-220 provides secure and nonsecure voice
and data communications. Voice communications
are possible using either simplex or half-duplex
operation in the upper sideband (USB), lower
sideband (LSB), amplitude modulation equivalent
(AME), and continuous wave (CW) modes. Data
may be transmitted or received in USB or LSB
modes. In addition to conventional HF communication, the AN/ARC-220 provides automatic link
establishment (ALE) and two types of electronic
counter countermeasures (ECCM) communications. The ALE simplifies HF radio operation by
automatically establishing a 2-way link on the
best available frequency.
The two types of ECCM communications (MILSTD-188-141A ECCM and Army enhanced ECCM)
provide a frequency hopping technique that combats the effects of communications jammer and
direction finding attempts. Although two different
types of ECCM are available, system operation is
the same regardless of the type used.
The AN/ARC-220 also supports both standard and
advanced narrow-band digital voice terminal
(ANDVT). Digital data interfaces compatible with
MIL-STD-188-114A allow transmission and reception of data from improved data modem (IDM) and
data secured by the AIRTERM (TSEC/KY-100). In
addition, the AN/ARC-220 includes a MIL-STD110A data modem which may, in noisy environments, allow data to be received when voice
communications cannot. Power to operate the
AN/ARC-220 is supplied from the 28 vdc essential
bus through the HF ARC-220 circuit breaker on
the pilot overhead circuit breaker panel. A shorted
loop antenna is located on the rear left side of the
aircraft (figure 2-1. The length of the antenna is
approximately 12.6 feet in length.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 314.1 and the following table.
Change 18
3-22.1
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-14.1. HF Radio Set AN/ARC-220 Control Panel C-12436/URC
Controls and Functions of Control Panel C-124361URC
CONTROL /INDICATOR
FUNCTION
1.
Cursor switches
Four pushbutton switches that position cursor vertically or horizontally on display (2).
2.
Display
Liquid crystal display (LCD), consisting of six display
lines, for displaying advisory information. Depending
on operation, information that may be displayed on
each line is as follows:
Line 1
Line 2
ALE Address
Noise Reduction
3-22.2 Change 18
Alpha-numeric display of 15 characters maximum
containing channel title (call sign). Default value is
Mode: channel #.
Alpha-numeric display of 15 characters maximum
containing Call To (ADRS: xxx) or Self (SELF:
xxx)Address. (ADRS:) and (SELF:) labels are removed for addresses greater than 10 characters in
length.
Character display (ON, OFF) having display format of
NOISE REDUCE: xxx. Default value is ON.
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions of Control Panel C-12436/URC (Cont)
CONTROL /INDICATOR
FUNCTION
Fill Type
Character display (KEY, DATA) having display format of
TYPE: xxxx x. Default is DATA.
Contention Control
Character display (ON, OFF) having display format of
LBC: xxx. Default is OFF.
Line 3
Receive Frequency
ECCM Station Type
Lines 3,4
Line 4
Transmit Frequency
Time
Line 5
Link Protection
Numeric display (2.0 to 29-9999 MHz) with display format of RCV: xx.xxxxxxxx.
Character display (MEMBER, ALTERNATE, MASTER, NET
ENTRY, ALT NET ENT). Default is MEMBER.
Character display of emission mode (USB, LSB, AME,CW)
one space to right of frequency. Default is USB.
Numeric display (2.0 to 29.9999 MHz) with display format of XMT: xx.xxxxxxxx.
Numeric display (00:00:00 to 23:59:59) with display
format of Hour:Minute:Second.
Character display (OFF, ON) with display format of LINK
PROT: xxx, Default is ON (OFF if no link protection datafill).
Date
Alphanumeric display (01 JAN 00 to 31 DEC 99) with
display format of dd MM yy.
Antenna Type
Character display (T/R, RCV) with display format of ANT:
xxx. Default is T/R.
Line 8
Power Level
Character display (LOW, MED, HIGH) with display format
of PWR: xxxx. Default is HIGH.
Squelch
Alpha-numeric display (TONE, 0 to 5) with display format
of - SQ: xxx.
Volume
Numeric display (1 to 8) with display format of VOL:x.
Listen Before Talk
Character display (ON, OFF) with display format of
LBT: xxx.. Default value is OFF.
Change 18
3-22.3
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions of Control Panel C-12436/URC (Cont)
CONTROL/INDICATOR
FUNCTION
3.
Line-select switches
Three pushbutton switches that select options displayed to left of each switch.
4.
Brightness switches
Two pushbutton switches that varies display screen
brightness.
5.
Channel/Net selector switch
Seven-position rotary switch that selects programmed
operating channels or nets, depending on operating
mode. The + position of switch allows additional
channel/net selections using VALUE switches (12).
6.
Data connector
Interfaces AN/ARC-220 system to data transfer device
for datafill.
7.
Key connector
Interfaces AN/ARC-220 system to data transfer device
for keyfill.
8.
Mode switch
Five-position rotary switch that selects following
modes of operation:
MAN
Permits single channel selection of operating frequency and emission mode for conventional HF communications.
PRE
Permits preprogrammed preset channel operation for
conventional HF communications.
ALE
Selects automatic link establishment mode of operation.
ECCM
Selects electronic counter-countermeasure mode of
operation.
EMER
Used during emergency situations to place a distress
call. The mode (manual, preset, ALE, or ECCM), frequency, net, etc., is determined by the datafill.
9.
-SQL + switches
Two pushbutton switches (left arrow) and (right arrow) that control radio squelch and audio muting.
10.
VOL switch
Eight position rotary switch that varies receive audio
output level.
3-22.4
Change 18
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions of Control Panel C-12436/URC (Cont)
CONTROL /INDICATOR
11.
12.
Function switch
FUNCTION
Five-position rotary switch that selects system operation
as follows:
OFF
Turns AN/ARC-220 system off.
STBY
Turns AN/ARC-220 system on and places system instandby. In standby, built-in-test (BIT), setup, or fill operations can be performed to ready system for operation.
SILENT
Used in ALE or ALE-ECCM mode to preventAN/ARC-220
system from automatically responding to incoming calls,
T/R
Allows AN/ARC-220 system to transmit and receive in
selected mode of operation.
ZERO
(PULL)
Erases ail data (including datafill and keyfill) that has been
loaded into system. Switch must be pulled before setting
it to this position.
Value
Two pushbutton switches that increment field value or
single character value, depending on cursor position.
Change 18
3-22.5
TM 55-1520-210-10
c. Operating Modes/Functions.
(1) Power ON/OFF. On Function Switch.
(2) System Turn-On. Turning Function
Switch clockwise from OFF to STBY turns system
on and selects standby function. SYSTEM
TESTING is displayed while power-up BIT (P-BIT)
is in process. SYSTEM-GO will be displayed if all
tests pass or SYSTEM-NO-GO if not.
(3) CRT Brightness.
Two pushbutton
switches used to vary brightness. The T (up arrow) increases intensity while the J (down arrow)
decreases intensity.
(4) Audio Volume. Eight-position rotary
switch used to vary audio output level. Setting is
displayed on line 6 (bottom) of display for 5 seconds when system is first turned on or when VOL
setting is changed. Display levels are 1 through 8.
(5) Channel Selection. Channel number may
be changed using seven-position rotary channel/net selector switch. The + position of switch
allows channels 7 or greater to be selected using
VALUE switches.
(6) Modulation Mode. Four modes are available: USB, LSB, AME, and CW. The modulation
mode is determined by the data fill except for the
manual mode. Modulation mode can be changed
on manual channels
(7) Receive/Transmit Frequency. 2.0 to
29.9999 MHz, programmable in 100 Hz steps. To
change frequencies, depress EDIT line select
switch. While in Edit screen, use CURSOR to position cursor under appropriate frequency. Use
VALUE switches to change frequency. (Note:
XMT frequency will automatically change with
RCV frequency, but the reverse is not true).
(8) Squelch Level/Audio Muting (-SQL + ).
Two pushbutton switches t (left arrow) and +
(right arrow), when pressed, displays squelch
status on line 6 of display for 5 seconds. Settings
are TONE and 0 through 5. TONE provides no
muting and no squelch. Position 0 provides muting but no squelch. Positions 1 through 5 provide
muting and increasing levels of squelch. Muting is
normally enabled during ALE operation.
3-22.6 Change 18
(9) Output Power Level. Three output levels are selectable for display screen by using EDIT
line-select switch, which brings up edit mode,
moving cursor under power character field and
using VALUE switches to change field. Depress
RTN line-select switch which stores the change
and returns to normal operating mode.
(10) Test. There are two Built-in-Test (BIT)
features which concerns the operator, P-BIT and
C-BIT. The Power-Up Bit (P-Bit) tests the ARC220 when initially turned on. P-Bit exercises basic radio control functions which must be operational prior to entering system operational mode.
A GO/NO-GO status appears on display and defaults to stand-by mode upon completion. When
NO-GO status appears, depressing INOP lineselect switch displays INOP MODES so an operator can see if limited capability exists. Continuous
Bit (C-BIT) is automatically performed during system operation without any operator intervention.
Critical system functions are monitored. Any failures cause a NO-GO advisory, accompanied by
portion of system which failed, to appear on line 5
of display. C-Bit failures are stored in nonvolatile
memory.
(11) Store. RTN line-select key, used to
terminate edit mode, automatically stores any
change(s) made.
(12) Data Fill. Contains preset frequencies,
scan lists, addresses, data messages and ALE
and/or ECCM parameters. With system in STBY,
press FILL line-select switch. From the FILL
screen, use the line select switch to select DATA.
Connect data transfer device (DTD) of DATA connector on radio set control front panel and initiate
fill from DTD. LOADING is displayed during datafill From the DATAFILL screen, use the line select
switch to select LOAD. FILL ENABLED is displayed during datafill. The AN/CYZ-10 DTD will
indicate when the datafiil is completed. Use the
line-select switch to select RTN after the DTD
indicated datafill completed. The display will return to the screen showing DATAFILL VERSION.
The approporated Datafill Version is displayed for
a successful fill. A copy of loaded datafill can be
sent to DTD by pressing COPY line-select switch.
COPYING is displayed during operation, COPY
COMPLETE is displayed if successful, COPY FAIL
if
cannot
be
completed.
copy
TM 55-1520-210-10
NOTE
Press RTN line-select switch to return to STBY
Disconnect
screen when datafill is complete.
DTD.
(13) Key Fill. Loads secure keys. From the
FILL screen, use the line-select switch to select
KEY. Connect DTD to KEY connector on radio set
control front panel. From the KEYFILL screen, use
the line-select switch to select LOAD. Fill enabled
IS DISPLAYED DURING KEYFILL. Initiate keyfill
from DTD. The AN/CYZ-10 DTD will indicate
when the keyfill is completed. Use the line-select
switch to select RTN after the DTD indicates keyfill is completed. The display will return to the
screen showing ECCM KEY and LP KEY. The appropriate keys are displayed for a successful fill.
To erase selected loaded keys, press ZERO lineselect switch. A ZEROIZE screen appears. Press
YES or NO line-select switch. If YES is pressed, a
ZEROIZED advisory is displayed, then fill screen
reappears. If NO is pressed, fill screen reappears.
Press RTN line select switch to return to STBY
screen when all keys are loaded.
d. Operation.
Pressing RTN line select key on
DATA FILL page stops the fill process.
(c) On the DATA FILL page, FILL line select
key - Press. FILL ENABLED screen will appear.
see
(d) Start data fill on DTD. Monitor DTD to
when data transfer is complete.
(3) Load Secure Keys. Key fill contains secure
information needed for ALE link protection and
ECCM operation.
(a) Initialize the DTD. Connect the DTD to
the KEY connector.
(b) With the FILL page selected, KEY line
select key - Press.
NOTE
Pressing RTN line select key on
KEY FILL page stops the fill process.
(1) Starting Procedure.
(a) Function switch - STBY. SYSTEM
TESTING is displayed while power up built in test
(PBIT is in process. SYSTEM - GO will be displayed upon successful completion of PBIT.
(b) FILL line select key - Press. Status of
PRE, ALE, ECCM, and EMER modes will be displayed.
(2) Load Presets. Datafill contains preset frequencies, scan lists, addresses, data messages,
and non secure information needed for ALE/ECCM
operation. If the DTD is configured to receive
data, it may be copied from the radio to the DID
by pressing COPY line select key on the DATA
FILL page.
(a) Initialize the data transfer device
(DTD). Connect the DTD to the DATA connector.
(b) With the FILL page selected, DATA line
select key - Press.
(c) On the KEY FILL page, LOAD line select key - Press. FILL ENABLED message will appear.
(d) Start keyfill on DTD. Monitor DTD to
see when data transfer is complete.
(4) Zero Secure Keys.
(a) Access KEY FILL page. From FILL
screen, KEY fixed function key - Press. Select key
to zero with VALUE keys.
(b) ZERO line select key - Press.
NOTE
If you do not want to zero the
key, press NO. The FILL screen
will then appear.
(c) Confirm zero by pressing YES line select key. ZEROIZE advisory message will appear,
followed by the FILL screen.
Change 18
3-22.7
TM 55-1520-210-10
(5) Emergency (EMER) Operation. The
mode, frequency, and net to be used in the EMER
position is determined by the datafill. To use the
emergency mode, do the following:
(a) Function switch - T/R.
(b) Mode switch - EMER
(c) ICS Transmitter selector - Position 4.
(d) Radio push-to-talk switch - Press to
talk; release to listen.
(6) Shut Down
(a) Function switch - OFF.
(b) To erase all preprogrammed information, Function switch - Pull and turn to ZERO
(PULL).
(7) Messages. The following table lists display advisory messages that may appear during
operation of the radio:
3-22.8
Change 18
TM 55-1520-210-10
AN/ARC-220 Messages
ACTION
ADVISORY
ALE - NO DATA
ALE mission data not loaded.
Load mission data.
ALE - NO KEYS
ALE link protection keys not
loaded.
Load keys.
CALL FAIL
Radio failed to complete an outgoing call.
CALLING
Radio is placing an ALE - call to
another address.
CHANNEL BUSY
ALE or ECCM net is in use.
CHANNEL INOP
ALE or ECCM keys are not
loaded, or not correct.
CHECK MSG
A data message has been received.
COPY COMPLETE
Copying process finished successfully.
COPY FAIL
Copying process was unsuccessful.
COPYING DATA
The radio is copying datafill contents from DTS.
ECCM - NO DATA
ECCM data not installed.
Load mission data.
ECCM - NO KEYS
ECCM keys not Installed.
Load keys.
EMER
Mode or net selected for emergency communication Is inoperative.
EMERG - NO KEYS
No keys available for net selected
for emergency communication.
EOM
End of message.
EXT FAIL
Radio failed due to external device, such as antenna.
Walt or try another net
Load keys.
Change 18
3-22.9
TM 55-1520-210-10
AN/ARC-220 Messages (Cont)
ADVISORY
MEANING
GO DATA
Link quality analysis values too
low for reliable voice communication; data transmissions recommended.
HELD
ALE call being held in specific
frequency by operator.
INCOMING CALL
Another radio is establishing an
ALE link.
INOP MODES EXIST
Warning to expect inoperative
modes.
LINKED
An ALE link is established.
LOAD COMPLETE
Keys and data successfully
loaded into radio.
LOAD FAIL
Keys and data not successfully
loaded into radio.
LOADING DATA
Radio currently loading data.
LOADING KEYS
Radio currently loading keys.
MSG ABORT
Radio discontinuing sending of
current message.
NET INOP
Selected net contains no data,
corrupted data,or hardware cannot support the selected mode of
operation.
NO AUTO XMT
Radio has been instructed not to
make any automatic transmissions.
NO DATA
Database is not filled with necessary data to perform requested
operations.
NO KEYS LOADED
Keys are not loaded for current
selected mode or net.
3-22.10
Change 18
ACTION
TM 55-1520-210-10
ADVISORY
AN/ARC-220 Messages (Cont)
MEANING
NO RCVD MSGS
No messages have been received.
PAC FAIL
Failure of radio in PA coupler.
PRE - NO DATA
Preset data not loaded.
PTT FOR XMlT BlT
Instruction to press microphone
PTT switch to enable transmission BIT.
RCV BIT - GO
Receiver BIT functions completed
without failure.
RCV READY
Ready to receive ECCM transmissions.
RCVG PREAMBLE
ECCM preamble being received.
RCVG DATA
Radio currently receiving data.
RT FAIL
Receiver Transmitter inoperative.
RX - TX DEGRADED
Receive and transmit capabilities
are degraded.
RX - TX FAIL
Radio cannot receive or transmit.
SENDING DATA
Radio currently sending data.
SOUND
Radio sending an ALE sound.
SYNCING
Time synchronization being performed.
TESTING
BIT in progress.
TIME SYNC FAIL
Radio failed in attempt to synchronize.
TRANSEC FAIL
BIT detected a failure that will
not allow ECCM operation.
ACTION
Change 18
3-22.11
TM 55-1520-210-10
ADVISORY
AN/ARC-220 Messages (Cont)
MEANING
TUNE XX %
Indicates percentage of ECCM
frequencies tuned for current net.
TUNING
Radio is currently tuning itself.
TX DEGRADED
BIT detected a failure that is
causing transmission capability to
be degraded.
TX FAIL
Radio cannot transmit.
UNSYNC
ECCM is not synchronized.
UNTUNED
An ECCM hop set is not tuned.
XMT READY
Radio is ready to transmit in
ECCM mode.
ZEROIZED
All mission datafill and keys have
been erased.
3-22.12
Change 18
ACTION
TM 55-1520-210-10
e. Modes of Operation.
(1) Manual (MAN) Mode. Use manual mode
to change transmit and receive frequencies, sidebands and transmit power, and operate the radio
manually.
(a) To change radio settings:
1. Mode switch - MAN.
2. Function switch - T/R.
2. Select the desired net (I through 20),
net selector switch - 1 through +. Use VALUE
keys to select 7 through 20.
2. EDIT line select key - Press.
NOTE
Changing the receive frequency and
mode will also change the transmission frequency and mode the same
values. Changing the transmission
frequency and mode will not change
the receive frequency and mode.
5. Edit frequency, emission mode and
transmit power by placing the cursor under field
to be edited with CURSOR key, and change field
value with VALUE keys.
6. To end edit and store changed data,
RTN line select key - Press.
(b) To operate in manual mode:
1. Function switch - T/R.
2. Mode switch - MAN
3. -SQL+ switch - Set squelch to 0.
4. VOL switch - Adjust for comfortable
listening level.
NOTE
If the radio breaks in and out of
squelch, Increase setting as required.
5. -SQL+ switch - Set squelch to 1.
6. Select the desired net (1 through 20),
net selector switch -1 through +. Use VALUE
keys to select 7 through 20.
7. ICS Transmitter selector - Position 4.
8. Radio push-to-talk switch - Press to
talk; release to listen.
(2) Preset (PRE) Mode. Preset mode stores
preprogrammed frequencies and emission modes
that cannot be changed by the operator. To use
the radio in preset mode, do the following:
(a) Function switch - T/R
(b) Mode switch - PRE.
(c) -SQL+ switch - Set squelch to 0.
(d) VOL switch - Adjust for comfortable
listening level.
NOTE
If the radio breaks in and out of
squelch, increase setting as required.
(e) -SQL+ switch - Set squelch to 1.
(f) Select the desired net (1 through 20),
net selector switch - 1 through +. Use VALUE
keys to select 7 through 20.
(g) ICS Transmitter selector - Position 4.
NOTE
If tune tone is heard, wait until it
stops before talking. When radio
push-to-talk switch is pressed,
XMT frequency is displayed. Display returns to preset display
when switch is released.
Change 18
3-22.13
TM 55-1520-210-10
(h) Radio push-to-talk switch - Press to
talk; release to listen.
6. SQL+ switch - Set squelch to 0.
7. To synchronize time in a link protected channel, SYNC soft key - Press.
(3) Automatic Link Establishment (ALE)
8. To broadcast AN/ARC-220 system
time as net control, EDIT, then TXTIM soft keys Press. Time will be transmitted, and radio will return to scan mode.
Mode.
WARNING
When In ALE mode, the radio
signals
transmits
Interrogating
(sounds) and replies to ALE calls
automaticalty without operator action. To avoid personnel Injury,
ensure the function switch Is not
set to ALE when personnel are
working near the helicopter, during
refueling or loading ordinance.
Self address must be selected before using, ALE.
ALE mode may be used for communications,
either normal or link protected, or position reporting.
(a) To set up the radio for ALE communications, do the following:
1. Function switch - T/R.
2. Mode switch - ALE.
3. Select the desired net (1 through 20),
net selector switch - 1 through +. Use VALUE
keys to select 7 through 20.
4. -SQL+ switch - Set squelch to
TONE.
5. VOL switch - Adjust for comfortable
listening level.
NOTE
3-22.14
Change 18
1. INCOMNG CALL is displayed, followed by the caller’s ALE address. A short tone
sounds, and LINKED is displayed.
2. Transmitter selector - Position 4.
NOTE
Wait for the calling station to make
the first transmission.
NOTE
Earphone audio is muted
link is established. If the
noisy, set squelch to 1.
squelch settings are not
mended in this mode.
(b) To receive a ALE call:
until a
link is
Higher
recom-
3. Radio push-to-talk switch - Press to
talk; release to listen.
(c) To place a ALE call:
1. Select ALE address:
a. Select the desired net (1 through
20), net selector switch - 1 through +. Use
VALUE keys to select 7 through 20. Net name
and address will be displayed.
b. VALUE switch - Press, to scroll
through address list.
c. EDIT soft key - Press. Enter address
one character at a time with CURSOR and VALUE
switches. To accept the edit and return to ALE
screen, RTN soft key - Press.
2. ICS Transmitter selector - Position 4.
NOTE
Press ABORT to stop the calling
process.
3. Radio push-to-talk switch - Press.
CALLING, then LINKED is displayed with a short
gong tone in headphone.
TM 55-1520-210-10
NOTE
ALE will cancel the link, and return
to scan mode if there is no activity
on a link for 60 seconds. To maintain a link, press HOLD soft key.
When communications are complete, or to return to scan mode,
press SCAN soft key.
(b) To communicate in ECCM only mode,
do the following:
1 . -,SQL+ switch - Set squelch to
TONE.
2. VOL switch - Adjust for comfortable
listening level.
(d) Radio push-to-talk switch - Press to
talk; release to listen.
NOTE
If the frequency is noisy, set squelch
to 1. Higher squelch settings are not
recommended in this mode.
(e) When communication is complete, to
return to scanning mode, HOLD, then SCAN soft
key - Press.
(4) Electronic Counter Countermeasures
(ECCM) Mode. The radio changes frequency in a
sequence determined by the ECCM key. Datafill
and keyfill must be loaded prior to using ECCM
mode, and system time must be synchronized between stations. Frequencies used in hop sets are
pretuned in the radio, as ECCM requires frequencies to be changed many times per second. Frequency hopping is performed in both standard
ECCM and ALE modes of operation. To use this
mode, do the following:
3. -SQL + switch - Set squelch to 0.
4. Press and hold the push-to-talk
switch until XMT READY is displayed. Walt for
preamble tones to stop.
5. Talk. Release switch to listen.
(c)To communicate in ALE ECCM mode,
do the following:
1 . -SQL+ switch
(a) Initialize the net
1. Function switch - T/R.
-
Set
squelch
to
TONE.
2. VOL switch - Adjust for comfortable
listening level.
2. Mode switch - ECCM.
NOTE
If the selected net Is an ALE ECCM,
the address of the station being
called is also displayed.
2. Select the desired net (1 through 12),
net selector switch - 1 through +. Use VALUE
keys to select 7 through 12.
3. To change values on screen, EDIT
soft key - Press. Use CURSOR to position cursor
under area to change, and VALUE to change the
field to desired value.
5. To save changes and return to top
level screen, RTN soft key - Press.
3. Select the ALE address, as required
with VALUE switches, or use EDIT soft key, then
CURSOR and VALUE switches to manually select
an address.
4. When an incoming call is being received, INCOMING CALL, then LINKED is displayed. RCV READY is displayed while the ECCM
information is being received, and disappears
when receive sequence Is completed.
5. To place a call, press the push-to-talk
switch. CALLING, then LINKED is displayed. Press
and hold the push-to-talk switch, and wait for the
ECCM preamble tone to stop. When XMT READY
is displayed, begin talking. When the transmission
is completed, release the switch. XMT READY
disappears when the ECCM postamble is sent.
6. Push-to-talk switch - Press, to tune
and time synchronize the radio.
Change 18
3-22.15
TM 55-1520-210-10
(5) Message Mode. The radio can store up
to 10 transmit data and 10 received data messages. Each message may be 500 characters
long. Messages are numbered from 1 to 10. Message 10 is the oldest, and will be deleted if a new
message is received. Messages may be composed
using the AN/ARC-220 CDU dictionary or with a
custom dictionary listing locally generated words,
which may be loaded with datafill.
(a) To view a received message:
1. MSG soft key - Press.
2. Use CURSOR keys to scroll left or
right, or up and down in a message.
3. Use VALUE keys to page up and
down in a message.
4. To view additional messages, position
cursor under message number with CURSOR
keys. Use VALUE keys to scroll to the next message number.
5. To retain received messages, RTN
soft key - Press.
6. To delete received messages, position
the cursor under the message number and DEL
soft key - Press, until messages are deleted. To
return to top screen, RTN soft key -Press.
(b) To edit or compose a message:
1. MSG soft key - Press.
2. To insert a word from the dictionary
in a message do the following:
a. Position cursor where the word is to
be inserted.
b. WORD soft key - Press.
c. Select the word with VALUE keys,
d. To insert word with blank in message, SELECT soft key - Press. If desired, return
to message without inserting a word by pressing
CANCL.
6. To load edited message in R/T memory and return to top level screen, RTN soft key Press.
(c). To send a message:
1. Access PRGM MSG screen by pressing MSG, then PRGM soft keys.
2. Select message to send as desired by
placing cursor under message number, and pressing VALUE keys until desired message is displayed.
NOTE
Message will be sent to currently
selected address (ALE modes) or
transmitted on the currently selected frequency and mode (MAN,
PRE, or ECCM).
3. SEND soft key - Press.
2. From MESSAGE screen, PGRM soft
key - Press.
3-17.2. Voice Security Equipment TSEC/KY100.
3. Select message to be edited by placing cursor under the message number with
CURSOR keys, and change number with VALUE
keys.
a. Description. The Voice security equipment
TSEC/KY-100 provides two-way clear or secure
half-duplex voice or data communication for HF
Radio Set AN/ARC-220. Power to operate the
TSEC/KY-100 is supplied from the dc essential
bus through the KY-100 VOICE SCTY circuit
breaker located on the pilot overhead circuit
breaker panel.
4. Edit message by placing cursor under
area to be changed. Use VALUE keys to change
one character at a time. Press DEL to delete one
character at a time.
b. Controls and Functions for Remote Control
Unit (RCU). Refer to figure 3-14.2.
3-22.16
Change 18
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-14.2. Remote Control Unit (TSEC/KY- 100)
Change 18
3-22.17
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions of Remote Control Unit TSEC/KY-100
CONTROL /INDICATOR
FUNCTION
1. CIK Receptacle
Interfaces with ‘C” Ignition ‘K” which enables all
secure voice and data communications. This function
is currently disabled.
2. Display
Liquid crystal display (LCD) that displays operational
status, operator prompts and messages as follows:
A. TX Annunciator
Displayed when KY-100 is transmitting.
B. RX Annunciator
Displayed when KY-100 is receiving.
C. WB Annunciator
Displayed when KY-100 is in wideband (VINSON)
configuration.
D. NB Annunciator
Displayed when KY-100 is in narrowband (ANDVT)
configuration.
E. EB Annunciator
Displayed when MODE switch is in emergency
backup (EB) position.
F. Alphanumeric Display
Displays prompts, messages, and operating modes.
G. PT Annunciator
Displayed when KY-100 is processing plain text
voice.
H. Key Symbol
Displayed when menu system is locked.
I. D Annunciator
Displayed when in data mode.
J. V annunciator
Displayed when in voice mode.
K. Bate Display
Displays voice or data rate.
3. FILL Connector
3-22.18
Change 18
Used to load cryptographic keys through use of
common fill device such as KYK-13/TSEC Electronic
Transfer Device, KYX-15/TSEC Net Control Device,
AN/CYZ-10 Data Transfer Device (DTD), or KOI18/TSEC General Purpose Tape Reader.
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions of Remote Control Unit TSEC/KY-100 (Cont)
CONTROL /INDICATOR
4. PRESET Switch
FUNCTION
Eight position rotary switch that controls unit operating power and settings stored in memory as follows:.
OFF
Removes power from KY 100.
MAN
Manual position which allows operating modes to be
selected using both OFFLINE and on-line menu system.
1 thru 6
Six separate preset modes which can only be set up
in OFFLINE mode.
5. PNL/OFF BRT Control
Two-function rotary switch that controls on/off
status and backlight intensity of LCD display.
6. Three Button Keypad Switches
Three momentary pushbutton switches that are active in both OFFLINE and on-line modes. They are
used to enter and exit submenus, activate selected
mode, select fields, and to scroll through menus and
options as follows:
INIT Switch
In OFFLINE mode, activates displayed menu mode
and provides entry into submenus. In on-line modes
(CT, RK, EB, PT), selects display field to be changed.
Up Arrow (?) Switch
In OFFLINE mode, scrolls through menus from top to
bottom. In online modes (CT, RK, EB, PT), scrolls
through available options for display field being
changed. When used simultaneously with right arrow (4 switch, exits submenu.
Right Arrow (4 Switch
In OFFLINE mode, scrolls through menus from bottom to top. In on-line modes (CT, RK, EB, PT), selects display field to be changed. When used simultaneously with up arrow (t) switch, exits submenu.
7. DSPL/OFF BRT Control
Two-function rotary switch that controls on/off
status and backlight intensity for front panel.
Change 18
3-22.19
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions of Remote Control Unit TSEC/KY-100 (Cont)
CONTROL /INDICATOR
8. Mode switch
3-22.20
FUNCTION
Six-position rotary switch that selects the following:
modes of operation:
PT
Plaintext mode to allow reception or transmission of
unencrypted analog voice.
EB
Emergency Back-up mode to use emergency back-up
key to encrypt voice for transmission or reception.
CT
Ciphertext mode to allows transmission of encrypted
voice or data and reception of encrypted or unencrypted voice or data, and non-cooperative terminal
re-keying.
RK
Remote keying mode to allow KY-100 to perform
automatic and manual rekey operations.
OFFLINE
Disables communications and accesses system
menus to allow mode selection, self-test operation,
and data fills with cryptovariables.
Z ALL
(PULL)
Zeroize mode to erase all cryptographic data stored
in KY-100 except emergency back-up key. Switch
must be pulled before setting it to this position,
Change 18
TM 55-1520-210-10
c. Controls and Functions for Processor.
Refer to figure 3-14.3 and the following table:
Figure 3-14.3 Processor (TSEC/KY - 100)
Controls and Functions of Processor TSEC/KY-100
CONTROL/INDICATOR
FUNCTION
Audio
Speaker for audio tones.
CIK
Cryptographic ignition key. Not used in this installation.
FILL connector
Used to connect external fill device to KY-100.
INT. + and I’
Function keys used to access and ‘navigate in software menus.
DSPL OFF
Varies light intensity of display. Display turned off in
OFF position.
Change 18
3-22.21
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions of Processor TSEC/KY-100 (cont)
CONTROL/INDICATOR
FUNCTION
PNL OFF
Varies light intensity of backlit display panel. Display
turned off in OFF position.
PRESET switch
Controls power to set, and which key is active.
PWR OFF
Removes power from set.
MAN
Manual rekeying enabled.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Selects preset settings for use.
REM
Allows control of KY-100 from a remote control unit
(RCU).
MODE switch
3-22.22
PT
Sets KY-100 to plaintext mode.
CT
Sets KY-100 to ciphertext mode.
RK
Allows cooperative terminal rekeying in receive
mode.
OFL
Sets KY-100 to off line mode. Disables communications and accesses screens to select mode settings,
test and fill screens.
EB
Select emergency back up key.
Z ALL + (PULL)
Erases all cryptographic data (keys) except the
emergency back up key.
Change 18
TM 55-1520-210-10
c. Operation.
1. Set MODE switch to OFL position.
NOTE
During all operation procedures the
KY-100 processor MODE switch is
set to CT and PRESET switch to
REM.
(1) Turn-On Procedures.
2 . Rotate DSPL and PNL switches
clockwise, out of OFF detent positions and adjust
display and panel lighting for comfortable viewing.
3. Set PRESET switch to MAN (manual)
position to apply power to KY-100. Power-on
tests will automatically be run when primary
power is applied.
NOTE
When KY-100 is turned on, tests are
automatically performed to determine equipment’s operating status.
The results of these tests will be
Also, CLd
presented on display.
START message will be displayed.
(a) Cold start turn-on.
successful
completion of
4. Upon
power-on tests, test results should appear on display. If PASS is displayed, continue with turn-on
procedures. However, if FAIL message appears
on display, notify next level of maintenance. If
PUSH INIT is displayed, perform cold start procedures as described above in paragraph (a).
(2) Key Loading Procedure.
NOTE
1. Turn on KY-100 by setting PRESET
switch to MAN position.
2. The KY-100 will initiate self-test.
The display reads CLd STRT and then PSH INT.
3. Connect fill device to KY-100 fill
connector using fill cable. Select fill position containing valid key and turn it on.
4. Press INIT pushbutton switch.
Key loading may be accomplished
using AN/CYZ-10, KYK-15, KYK-13
or KOI-18. One Key Encryption Key
(KEK), up to six Traffic Encryption
Keys (TEKs), and one Emergency
Backup (EB) key can be loaded in
KY-100. A Fill Cable (ON190191) is
required when using one of these
devices. Proceed with the following
generic Key Loading procedures:
5. The KY-100 displays KEY 1 O1,
(a) Set MODE switch to OFFLINE position.
PASS.
NOTE
If fill device is not connected to KY100 when INIT pushbutton is
pressed, dEV ERR (Device Error)
message will be displayed and an error tone will be heard in the headset.
When this occurs, the only available
communication mode will be PT
(Plaintext).
6. If FAIL message is displayed,
notify the next level of maintenance.
7. To load additional keys (up to a total
of 6), proceed to Key Loading Section.
(b) If KY-100 is not on, turn PRESET
switch to MAN position.
(c) Connect fill device to KY-100 fill connector
(d) Press up arrow or right arrow pushbutton switch until KEY OPS is displayed.
(e) Press INIT pushbutton switch. LOAD
KEY will be displayed.
(f) Press INIT pushbutton switch. LOAD
n with flashing n will be displayed. The flashing n indicates currently selected key location.
(b) Normal Turn-On.
Change 18
3-22.23
TM 55-1520-210-10
(g) Press up arrow or right arrow push-button
switch until required location (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or U) is
#splayed.
2. If KY-100 is on when this procedure
is performed, ZEROED will be displayed, and tone
will be heard.
(h) Press INIT pushbutton switch. The
entire LOAD n message will now be flashing.
3. If KY-100 power is on when MODE
switch is rotated out of Z ALL position, PUSH.
INIT will be displayed
(i) Turn on fill device and select key to be
loaded.
(b) Zeroize Specific Key Locations.
NOTE
1. Set MODE switch to OFFLINE position.
Do not press INIT pushbutton switch
(or pull tape through tape reader) on
fill device.
(j) Press INIT pushbutton switch. (When
using KOI-18 pull tape through tape reader at
steady rate after terminal INIT pushbutton switch
is pressed). Upon completion of successful load,
pass tone will be heard and display will momentarily indicate KEY n, where n is key location
loaded.
(k) The display will again show LOAD n
with n flashing. To load additional keys, repeat
steps (g) through (j) until all desired key locations
have been loaded.
(I) Turn off and disconnect fill device from
KY-100.
(m) Rotate MODE switch out of OFFLINE
to exit Key Load.
(3) Zeroize Procedures.
(a) Zeroize All Keys.
NOTE
This procedure is active even if primary power is removed from KY100. All key locations within KY100 will be zeroized. Once zeroized,
only PT voice communications are
possible until new Traffic Encryption
Key (TEK) is loaded.
1. Pull MODE switch and rotate it to Z
ALL position. All keys stored in locations 1-6 and
U will be erased.
3-22.24
Change 18
2. If KY-100 is not on, set PRESET
switch to MAN position.
3. Press up arrow or right arrow pushbutton switch until KEY OPS is displayed.
4. Press INIT pushbutton switch. LOAD
KEY will be displayed.
5. Press up arrow or right arrow pushbutton switch until ZERO is displayed.
6. Press INIT pushbutton switch. ZERO
n with flashing n will be displayed. The flashing n
indicates currently selected key location to be zeroized.
7. Press up arrow or right arrow pushbutton switch until required location (1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 6, or U) is displayed.
8. Press INIT pushbutton switch. The
entire ZERO n message will now be flashing.
9. Press INIT pushbutton switch. The
display will go blank while key zeroize process is
being performed. Upon completion of successful
key zeroizing, pass tone will be heard and display
will briefly indicate ZEROED n, where n is key location.
10. To zeroize additional keys, wait until
display indicates ZERO n (with n flashing), then
repeat steps 7 through 9.
11. Rotate MODE switch
OFFLINE position to exit key load.
out
of
TM 55-1520-210-10
NOTE
(m) After all fields have been set properly,
press INIT pushbutton switch to save settings and
return to standard operation procedures.
This procedure is used to modify
Online Mode configuration.
(5) Cipher/Plain Text Volume Level Modification Procedure.
(4) Online Mode Selection Menu Procedure
(a) Set MODE switch to CT position.
NOTE
(b) Set PRESET switch to MAN position.
If PRESET switch is in position 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6,
mode selections cannot be modified. Refer to
section on changing preset settings to modify preset configuration.
The following procedure are used to
modify Receive Cipher Text Volume
Level, Receive Plain Text Volume
Level, and CT/PT or Cipher Text
Only menus.
(c) Press INIT pushbutton switch. The WB
(wideband) or NB (narrowband) enunciator, as
applicable, will begin flashing.
(a) Set MODE switch to CT position.
(b) Set PRESET switch to MAN
position.
NOTE
NOTE
The KY-100 will be operated in narrowband mode only with ARC-220
Radio Set.
(d) Press up arrow pushbutton switch until
desired enunciator (WB or NB) is flashing.
(e) Press right arrow pushbutton switch.
The mode field will be flashing.
(f) Press up arrow pushbutton switch until
desired mode setting (NT or PP) is flashing.
(g) Press right arrow pushbutton switch.
The modem field will be flashing.
To modify Receive Ciphertext Volume, proceed to step (c). To modify
CT/PT or Ciphertext Only setting,
proceed to step (h). To modify Receive Plaintext Volume, proceed to
step (m).
(c) Press up arrow or right arrow pushbutton switch until RXCTV n (where n represents
current receive level) is displayed.
(d) Press INIT pushbutton switch. The n in
RXCTV n will begin to flash.
(h) Press up arrow pushbutton switch until
desired modem setting (HF, LS, or BD) is flashing.
(e) Press up arrow or right arrow pushbutton switch until desired receive level is displayed.
(i) Press right arrow pushbutton switch.
The key field will be flashing.
(f) Press INIT pushbutton switch. The n in
RXCTV n will stop flashing.
(j) Press up arrow pushbutton switch until
desired key location (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6) is flashing.
(g) Press up arrow or right arrow pushbutton switch until operating mode is displayed. This
completes Receive Ciphertext Volume adjustment.
(k) Press right arrow pushbutton switch.
The data rate field will be flashing.
(h) Press up arrow or right arrow pushbutton switch until CT or CT ONLY is displayed.
(I) Press up arrow pushbutton switch until
desired data rate (300, 600, 1.2K, or 2.4K) is
flashing.
(i) Press INIT pushbutton switch. The
CT or CT ONLY will begin to flash.
Change 18
3-22.25
TM 55-1520-210-10
(j) Press up arrow or right arrow pushbutton switch until CT (Ciphertext and Plaintext
operation) or CT ONLY (Ciphertext only operation)
is displayed.
(k) Press INIT pushbutton switch. The CT
or CT ONLY will stop flashing.
(c) For plaintext operation, set MODE
switch to PT position. The CT, CT ONLY menu
must be set for CT to be able to transmit or receive plaintext messages. When transmitting in
plaintext, TX enunciator will be lit. When receiving plaintext message, RX and PT enunciators will
be lit. Refer to the following for Setting Summaries:
(I) Press up arrow or right arrow pushbutton switch until operating mode is displayed.
This completes CT/PT or CT ONLY setting.
TESC/KY-100 Setting Summary
PRESETS
Narrow Band,
HF
VC
NT,
TEK I,
Rate 24,
BD.
(m) Press up arrow or right arrow pushbutton switch until RXPTV n (where n represents
current receive level) is displayed.
(n) Press INIT pushbutton switch. The n in
RXPTV n will begin to flash.
(o) Press up arrow or right arrow pushbutton switch until desired receive level is displayed.
(p) Press INIT pushbutton switch The n in
RXPTV n will stop flashing.
(q) Press up arrow or right arrow pushbutton switch until operating mode is displayed.
This completes Receive Plaintext Volume adjustment.
AUDIO-DATA INTERFACE
Menu Item
Setting
Default
GUARD
MIC
BALANCE
IMPED
DAT SENS
RX COUP
TX COUP
TX CLK
GRD OFF
MIC UNBAL
RX UNBAL
150 OHMS
MARK +
RX AC
TX AC
J2-V
YES
YES
YES
NO
YES
YES
YES
YES
RADIO INTERFACE
(6) Normal Operating Procedures.
NOTE
These procedures describe normal
transmit/receive operation for ciphertext and plaintext voice messages.
(a) Set PRESET switch to MAN (for manual selection) or desired preset position,
(b) For ciphertext operation, set MODE
switch to CT position. Ciphertext messages can
now be transmitted or received. If CT, CT ONLY
menu is set for CT, plaintext messages can also
be received. When transmitting in ciphertext, TX
and V enunciators will be lit. When receiving ciphertext message, RX and V enunciators will be
lit. When receiving plaintext message, PT enunciator will be lit.
3-22.26
Change 18
NOTE
You must go through the Narrow Bend
selection to get to the following menus.
Menu Item
Setting
Default
TX CLKS
TRN SEQ
TX DELAY
PREAM
DAT SENS
CTS-BD/BDL
CTS-HF/PT
CTS-LOS
MILSTAR
TX LVL
IMPED
RTS/PTT-BD/BDL
RTS/PTT-HF
RTS/PTT-LOS
RTS/PTT-PT
EXT CLK
6
135 ms
ENHAN
MARK 188
188
188
OFF
0
150 OHMS
RTS
PTT
PTT
PTT
NO
YES
YES
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
TM 55-1520-210-10
(7) Operating Tests
c. Press INIT pushbutton switch to
access TEST submenus.
(a) Fail Message Test
NOTE
Follow these procedures if KY-100
displays FAIL message during
equipment configuration or normal
operation.
d. Press up arrow or right arrow pushbutton switch until desired sub-menu option
(AUTO or USER) is displayed.
e. Proceed to paragraph 2, 3, or 4, as
applicable.
2. Automatic (AUTO) Tests.
1. Set PRESET switch to PWR OFF posia. With AUTO displayed, press INIT
pushbutton switch to start automatic tests.
2. Set MODE switch to OFL position.
3. Set PRESET switch to MAN.
b. At conclusion of automatic tests,
test results will be displayed.
5. If KY-100 does display FAIL message
after self test, set PRESET switch to PWR OFF
position.
c. If automatic tests are successful,
PASS will be displayed end pass tone will be
heard. Next, display will indicate USER which is
next sub-menu. To perform USER tests, proceed
to paragraph 3. To exit, rotate MODE switch out
of OFFLINE position.
6. Pull MODE switch and rotate it to Z
ALL position.
d. If failure is detected during automatic
tests, FAIL message will be displayed.
4. If KY-100 does not display FAIL message after self test, return to normal operation.
7. Perform Cold Start procedures.
3. User Test.
8. If KY-100 does not display FAIL message after self test, return to normal operation.
a. With USER displayed, press INIT
pushbutton switch to start user tests.
9. If KY-100 does display FAIL message
after self test, notify next level of maintenance.
b. PT LOOP will be momentarily displayed to indicate that plaintext loopback test will
be performed. Next, PTT prompt is displayed.
(b) Off-Line Test.
NOTE
The off line TEST menu consists of
automatic (AUTO) tests, userselectable (USER) tests and software version (VERSION) checking
procedures.
1. Preliminary.
c. Depress and hold PTT switch and,
with TALK prompt displayed, speak into microphone. Looped back plaintext voice will be heard
in handset receiver.
d. Release PTT switch.
e. CT LOOP will be momentarily displayed indicating that KY-100 is In cipher text
loopback mode. Next, PTT operator prompt is
displayed.
a. Set MODE switch to OFL position.
b . The display will indicate TEST
which is the first OFFLINE menu.
f. Press end hold PTT switch and,
with TALK prompt displayed, speak into microphone until TALK prompt disappears (approximately 15 seconds).
Change 18
3-22.27
TM 55-1520-210-10
g. Release PTT switch. The LISTEN
prompt is displayed. Listen to synthesized speech
at receiver. Upon completion of speech loopback,
observe that PANEL is displayed.
n. Set MODE switch to RK. OFL is
displayed.
o. Set MODE switch to OFFLINE. Eb
is displayed.
NOTE
To exit end skip remaining USER
tests, press up arrow or right arrow
pushbutton switch within 5 seconds.
h. Within 5 seconds after completion
of CT loopback test, observe that all LCD segments are on. At completion of display test, momentary MT operator prompt is displayed indicating start of front panel switch test.
p. Set MODE switch to EB. PRESET
will be momentarily displayed, followed by MAN.
q. Set PRESET switch to MAN. A ‘1’
is displayed.
r. Set PRESET switch to 1. A ‘2’ is
displayed.
s. Set PRESET switch to 2. A ‘3’ is
displayed.
NOTE
Failure to perform any of the front
panel pushbutton and switch prompts
within 30 seconds will result in fail
tone and FAIL FP (Front Panel) display.
t. Set PRESET switch to 3. A ‘4’ is
displayed.
u. Set PRESET switch to 4. A ‘5’ is
displayed.
i. Press INIT pushbutton switch. A
right arrow is displayed.
v. Set PRESET switch to 5. A ‘6’ is
displayed.
j. Press right arrow pushbutton switch.
An up arrow is displayed.
k. Press up arrow pushbutton switch.
PT is displayed.
l. Set MODE switch to PT. CT is displayed.
m. Set MODE switch to CT. RK is dis-
w. Set PRESET switch to 6. A pass
tone will be heard indicating that front panel test
was completed successfully.
x. Upon completion of USER tests,
menu will sequence to VERSION. Exit user test
mode at this time by rotating MODE switch out of
OFFLINE position.
played.
Section III NAVIGATION
3-18. ADF Set AN/ARN-83
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3a. Description. The Automatic Direction Finder
set provides radio aid to navigation, on helicopter
serial Nos. 66-746 and subsequent, within 190 to
1750 kHZ frequency range. In automatic operation, the set presents continuous bearing information to any selected radio station end simultaneously provides aural reception of the stations
transmission. In manual operation, the operator
determines the bearing to any selected radio station by controlling the aural null of the directional
antenna. The set may also be operated as a receiver.
3-22.28
Change 18
16
c. Operation.
(1) Automatic Operation.
(a) RECEIVERS NAV switch - ON
(b) Mode selector switch - ADF
(c) Frequency - Select
(d) Volume - Adjust
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-15. HF Radio Control Panel
Change 7
3-23
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-16. Direction Finder Control Panel ARN-83
3-24
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
(2) Manual Operation.
frequency is selected by tuning an associated
Iocalizer frequency on the control panel.
(a) Mode selector switch–LOOP.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-18.
(b) BFO switch-ON.
c. Operation.
(c) LOOP L/R switch–Press right or left and rotate
loop for null.
(1) Function switch–PWR.
3-19. ADF Set AN/ARN-59
(2) RECEIVERS NAV switch–ON.
a. Description. The Direction Finder Set is a radio
compass system to provide continuous automatic
visual indication of the direction from which an incoming selected radio signal is received. It may also
be used for homing and position fixing, or as a
manually operated direction finder. The control
panel, located in the pedestal, provides control for
aural reception of AM signals in the 190 to 1750 kHz
range.
(3) Frequency–Select.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-17.
c. Operation.
(1) Automatic Operation.
(4) VOL–Adjust.
3-21.
VHF Navigation Set-AN/ARN-30E
a. Description. The VHF Navigation Receiver Set
provides reception of 190 channels at 0.1 MHz intervals between 108.0 and 126.95 MHz. The VOR ILS
control panel is located on the pedestal and permits
reception and interpretation of VHF omnidirectional
range and Iocalizer signals broadcast by ground stations. Line of sight operation varies from 12 nautical
miles at 100 feet altitude to 160 nautical miles at
20,000 feet altitude.
(a) ADF VOL control–ON.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-19.
(b) RECEIVERS NAV switch–ON.
c. Operation.
(c) Frequency-Select.
(1) VOL-OFF switch–On and adjust.
(d) Function switch-COMP.
(2) SQUELCH control–Counterclockwise.
(2) Manual Operation.
(3) Frequency selectors–Select.
(a) Function switch–LOOP.
(b) BFO switch-ON.
(c) LOOP switch-Press right or left and rotate
loop for null.
3-20. VHF Navigation Set AN/ARN-82
a. Description. The Navigation Receiver set provides reception on 200 channels, with 50 kHz spacing between 108.0 and 126.95 MHz. This permits reception of the VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) between 108.0 and 117.95 MHz. The Vocalizers are received on odd-tenth MHz, between 108.0 and 112.0
MHz and energized as selected. Both VOR and
Iocalizer are received aurally through the interphone
system. The VOR is presented visually by the course
indicator and the number 2 pointer on the bearing
indicator and the Iocalizer is presented visually by
the vertical needle on the course deviation indicator
(CDI) (fig 3-20). When the R-1963/ARN Glideslope/
Marker Beacon Receiver is installed, the glideslope
The warning flag for the vertical pointer is an indication of signal strength and reliability. Under no circumstances should navigation be attempted if the
flag is visible. If the TO-FROM indicator remains
blank, do not attempt VOR navigation.
(4) Vertical pointer and TO-FROM indicators (fig
3-20)–Masked.
(5) SQUELCH control–Adjust.
3-22.
Course Deviation Indicators ID-453 and
ID-1347/
a. Description. The Course Deviation Indicator,
used with the VHF Navigation Receiver system, is
installed in the instrument panel (figs 3-18 and
3-19). The purpose of the indicator is to depict
bearing and deviation of the helicopter from the selected station. Also, information is presented from
the FM Receiver when the mode selector switch is in
HOME position (figs 3-10, 3-11, 3-12, and 3-13).
When the R-1963/ARN Marker Beacon/Glideslope
Change 7
3-25
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-17. ADF Control Panel ARN-59
3-26
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure
3-18.
Navigation
Control
Panel
ARN-82
Figure 3-19. VHF Navigation Receiver Control Panel ARN-30E
Change 7
3-27
TM 55-1520-210-10
INDICATOR
OFF
OFF
flag
pointer
Vertical
(reciprocal)
pointer
FUNCTION
Disappears when FM homing circuits are functioning properly.
vertical Remains in view when FM homing circuits are not functioning
properly.
Disappear when homing circuits are functioning properly.
horizontal Remains in view when FM homing circuits are not functioning
properly
NOTE: Do not use if either OFF flag is in view.
HorizontalIndicates strength of FM homing signal being received.
Deflects downward as signal strength decreases.
Indicates when pointer is centered that helicopter is flying directly
toward or away from the station. Deflection of the pointer indicates
the direction (right or left) to turn to fly to the station.
I
Figure 3-20. Course Deviation Indicators ID-453/ARN-30 and ID-1347/ARN-82
3-28
Change 17
TM 55-1520-210-10
Receiver is installed, data is presented by the horizontal
pointer and GS warning flag.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-20.
c. Operation.
Refer to the applicable VHF
Navigation Receiver and/or FM Radio set operating
procedures.
3-23. Gyromagnetic Compass Set.
a. Description.
(1) The Gyromagnetlc Compass Set is a
direction sensing system which provides a visual
indication of the magnetic heading (MAG) of the
helicopter. The information which the system supplies
may be used for navigation and to control flight path of
the helicopter.
(2) A radio magnetic indicator is installed in the
pilot instrument panel.
A second radio magnetic
indicator (not shown) is installed in the copilots
instrument panel. The copilot indicator is a repeater type
instrument similar to the pilot indicator except that it has
no control knobs. The moving compass card on both
indicators displays the gyromagnetic compass heading.
The number I pointer on the indicators indicate the
bearing to the NDB or course to the VOR station. The
number 2 pointer indicates the VOR course to station.
(3) The system does not have a fast-slewing’
feature. If the compass is 180° off the correct helicopter
heading when the system is energized it will take
approximately I hour and 30 minutes (2’ per minute) for
the compass to slave to the correct headings.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-21.
c. Operation.
(1) INV switch - MAIN or STBY.
(2) Radio magnetic indicator (pilot only) Check power failure indicator is not in view.
(a) Slaved gyro mode.
1. COMPASS switch - MAG or IN.
2. Synchronizing knob - Center (Null) annunciatior.
3. Magnetic heading - Check.
(b) Free gyro mode.
1. COMPASS switch - DG or OUT
2. Synchronizing knob - Set heading.
3. Annunciator - Center position and then
does not change (Annunciator is de-energized in the free
gyro (DG) mode).
(c) Inflight operation.
1. Set the COMPASS switch to DG, OUT,
MAG or IN as desired for magnetically slaved or free
gyro mode of operation. Free gyro (DG or OUT) mode is
recommended when flying in latitudes higher than 70
degrees.
2. When operated m the slaved (MAG or IN)
mode, the system will remain synchronized during
normal flight maneuvers. During violent maneuvers the
system may become unsynchronized, as indicated by the
annunciator moving off center. The system will slowly
remove all errors in synchronization however, if fast
synchronization is desired turn the synchronizing knob in
the direction indicated by the annunciator until the
annunciator is centered again.
3. When operating in the free gyro (DG or OUT)
mode, periodically update the heading to a known
reference by rotating the synchronizing knob.
3-24. Marker Beacon Receiver.
a. Description. The Marker Beacon Receiver set Is
a radio aid to navigation. It receives 75 MHz marker
beacon signals from a ground transmitter to provide the
pilot with aural and visual information. The marker
beacon controls and indicator are located on the
instrument panel to aid in determining helicopter position
for navigation or instrument approach.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-22.
c. Operation.
(1) VOLUME OFF/INCR control-ON.
(2) Receiver NAV switch (MB switch if SB329/AR panel is used) - On.
(3) Volume - adjust.
(4) SENSING HIGH/LOW switch-As desired.
d. Stopping Procedures. VOLUME OFF/INCR
control - OFF.
Change 17
3-29
TM 55-1520-210-10
CONTROL/INDICATOR
Pointer No. I
Pointer No. 2
Synchronizing
control
SET HDG control
Heading select
cursor
ADF/VOR control
Fixed index
Rotating compass
card
Annunciator
Power failure indicator
(OFF) (flag)
Compass switch
(located on pilots
instrument panel)
FUNCTION
Indicates course to ADF or VOR radio station.
Indicates course to VOR station.
Is manually rotated to null annunciator and synchronize
compass system.
Moves the heading select cursor to desired heading.
Indicates desired heading.
Selects ADF or VOR for pointer No. 1
Provides reference mark for rotating compass card.
Rotates under fixed index to indicate helicopter magnetic
heading.
Show dot (0) or cross (+) to indicate misalignment
(nonsynchronization) of compass system.
Shows to indications loss of power to compass system.
MAG or IN position slaved gyro mode DG or OUT position
free gyro mode.
Figure 3-21. Gyromagnetic Compass Indicator (RMI)
3-30
Change 17
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-22. Marker Beacon Controls
Change 7
3-31
TM 55-1520-210-10
3-24.1 Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)
AN/ARN-124.
a. Description.
The AN/ARN-124 DME consists of a receivertransmitter (interrogator), antenna, indicator and
hold light.
The interrogator is installed in the aft left radioelectronics compartment. The indicator and hold
light are Installed on the pilot’s instrument panel.
The Indicator displays distance In nautical miles
from the helicopter to the DME ground station and
c o n t r o l s p o w e r t o t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r . The
interrogator contains 200 channels covering a
frequency range of 962 MHz through 1213 MHz.
Signals from the interrogator are responded to by
a DME ground station, resulting in a readout on
the indicator. DME frequency selection is
the
panel,
VOR
control
controlled by
C-6873B/ARN-82. VOR-DME frequencies are
automatically paired. The hold light is controlled
by the indicator. Illumination of the hold light
indicates a DME frequency is in the hold mode.
ILS glideslope indications are not possible with the
switch in the hold position. Use of the hold mode
permits a change of VOR frequency without
changing the DME frequency. DME station
identification is accomplished by a continuous
1350 Hz tone In the ICS. Power to operate the
DME is from the dc essential bus, through the
DME ARN-124 circuit breaker.
b. Controls end Functions. Refer to figure 3-23.
3-24.2 Satellite Signals Navigation Set AN/ASN175.
a. Description. The AN/ASN-175 is a navigation
management system that uses data from the
Global Positioning System (GPS) to calculate
position, velocity, and time (PVT). It calculates
position in three dimensions (3-D): latitude,
longitude, and altitude. The AN/ASN-175 utilizes
a six channel protective code (P(Y)) continuous
tracking, dual frequency (L1/L2) compatible
receiver, an omnidirectional flat L1/L2 antenna
with an integral preamplifier, and a 3-channel
synchro amplifier. The AN/ASN-175 meets the
performance standards for instrument flight rules
3-32 Change 18
(IFR) for enroute, terminal, and non-precision
approach phases of flight.
GPS signals are received by the AN/ASN-175
antenna (hereinafter referred to as the GPS
antenna) where it is amplified and sent to the
AN/ASN-175 receiver (hereinafter referred to as
receiver/display unit) for processing. The receiver/
display unit also receives aircraft signals for
magnetic compass heading, barometric altitude,
and a 26 volt ac reference. Upon processing the
input signals, the receiver/display unit provides
bearing, course, and distance data which are
displayed on existing aircraft navigation equipment
when selected. The required amplification for the
bearing data from the receiver/display unit is
provided by the AN/ASN-175 servo amplifier
(hereinafter referred to as the servo amplifier). The
receiver/display unit also provides outputs that
activate instrument panel mounted annunciators
for displaying the operational status of the
AN/ASN-175
system. In
addition,
the
receiver/display unit provides a Have-Quick timing
signal to any system requiring an accurate time
base. For the GPS installation, the Have-Quick
is
timing
signal
used
by
the
UHF
Receiver/Transmitter in Radio Set AN/ARC164(V). When operating in the P(Y) mode, the
AN/ASN-175 calculates the aircraft’s position to
within 16 meters. It also provides destination,
ground speed, ground track, estimated-time-ofarrival (ETA), and other relevant data to the
operator.
The AN/ASN-175 uses receiver
autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) to
determine if a set of received GPS signals is
sufficient to maintain the required accuracy and
alerts the operator if the available GPS signals can
not support a 3-D solution. It also can predict
RAIM conditions for approach arrival times. When
access time to the GPS is less than optimum, the
AN/ASN-175 uses the magnetic compass heading
and barometric altitude data inputs from the
aircraft to validate its calculations and to
supplement this data from the GPS. In addition,
the AN/ASN-175 protects against deception and
denial of the PVT service from the GPS. It does so
by providing an anti-jamming capability and by
implementing anti-spoofing Y-code functions.
Finally,
AN/ASN-175
the
includes
a
comprehensive built-in-test (BIT) function that
runs when power is applied to the system. BIT
monitors the internal operation of the system and
TM 55-1520-210-10
reports detected faults to the operator. Diagnostic
routines are also available to the
maintainer. Power to operate the AN/ASN-175 is
supplied from the 28 vdc essential bus through
he GPS ASN-175 circuit breaker on the pilot’s
overhead circuit breaker panel.
testing
Other components of the GPS installation include
a Remote Switch Assembly, a NO. 2 Bearing
Pointer switch, a GPS ZEROIZE switch, two Nav
select switch-indicator assemblies, two dual
display GPS annunciators, and two GPS FILL ports
(KYK and DATA). On aircraft equipped with the
AN/ARN-124 Distance Measuring Equipment
(DME) system, a DME indicator switch is also
included to allow the pilot to assign the DME
readout to either the GPS or VORTAC navigation
system. With the exception of the Remote Switch
and Servo Amplifier Assembly, these GPS
components are all located on the instrument
panel. The operation of all controls and indicators
on the receiver/display unit and the GPS controls
and indicators on the instrument panel is provided
in the controls and functions section that follows:
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figures
3-22.1 and 3-22.2 and associated tables.
Change 18 3-32.1
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-22.1. Receiver/Display Unit
3-32.2
Change 18
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions of Receiver/Display Unit
CONTROL/INDICATOR
1.
FUNCTION
Display/Annunciators
Depending on operation, used to display advisory and
status information as follows:
A. Display Field
Provides two lines of high intensity light emitting diode
(LED) characters with 20 characters per line for displaying information. The information displayed depends
on the operational mode and function selection.
B. Waypoint (WPT) Alert
Annunciator
Indicates that active waypoint is being approached.
The time between illumination of annunciator and
arrival at active waypoint may be selected by the
operator. The same WPT status information is
displayed on the external WPT annunciator.
C. Parallel Track (PTK)
Annunciator
Indicates that a track parallel to the direct course has
been selected. To display the selected offset, press the
MSG key.
D. Hold (HLD) Annunciator
Indicates that active flight plan has been suspended at
current active waypoint. The same HLD status information is displayed on the external HLD annunciator.
E. Approach (APR) Annunciator
Indicates that aircraft is at or within two nautical miles
of final approach fix and that all approach requirements have been met. The same APR status information is displayed on the external APR annunciator.
F. Receiver Autonomous Integrity
Monitoring (RAIM)
Annunciator
Indicates that AN/ASN-175 is unable to compute
RAIM. When RAIM annunciator is illuminated, the
AN/ASN-175 can not enable the approach mode.
G. Sensor Status (GPS)
Annunciator
Indicates that AN/ASN-175 is not providing a 3-D
solution.
H. Message (MSG) Annunciator
Indicates that one or more of the messages in the
queue is unread. When indication is steady, indicates
presence of one or more messages in the queue
requiring operator action. When indication is not
present, indicates that there are no messages in the
queue other than CDI scaling message. The same MSG
status information is displayed on the external MSG
annunciator.
2. Power Switch
Turns power to unit on or off. Power is turned on when
switch is rotated to ON (full clockwise) position.
Change 18 3-32.3
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions of Receiver/Display Unit (Cont)
FUNCTION
CONTROL/INDlCATOR
3. ENT (Enter) Key
Used in conjunction with MENU controls (inner and
outer selector knobs), this key enters, selects, or changes!
the information displayed. In general, the first press of
key opens an editable field on displayed page and the
second press accepts entered data.
4. MENU Control (Outer Selector
Knob)
Scrolls through flight plan legs, secondary pages, and
bottom lines of displayed mode and moves flashing
cursor between editable fields on displayed page.
5. MENU Control (Inner Selector Knob)
Scrolls through primary pages and top lines of displayed
mode and changes alphanumeric or available
option/function of any editable field.
6. D (Direct To) Key
Changes flight path. Used to fly direct-to any waypoint
in database and to activate a procedure or a flight plan.
In general, the first press of the pushbutton selects the
waypoint, procedure, or flight plan and the second
press activates course steering as selected (escape
provided by any other key).
7. MSG (Message) Key
Views system messages and displays current course
direction indicator (CDI) scaling. The MSG key will
flash until all massages have been viewed.
8. AUX (Auxiliary) Key
Accesses a variety of functions to include system
information and system status. Also used by maintainer
for testing and configuring the AN/ASN-175. Key
selection for all displayed functions is as follows:
l
9. Navigation Database Card Slot
3-32.4
Change 18
Key Selection
1st Press
2nd Press
3rd Press
4th Press
5th Press
6th Press
Displayed Function
System Status
Sensor Status
Configure
User Setup
Install Setup
Checklist
Accepts Navigation Database Card which contains the
database for use with the AN/ASN-175.
TM 55-1520-218-10
Connects and Functions of Reciever/Display Unit (Cont)
CONTROL/INDICATOR
FUNCTION
10. CALC (Calculator) Key
Accesses the capability to perform various computations. Key selection for the displayed
computations is as follows:
Displayed Computation
*Key Selection
Vertical Navigation Profile
1st Press
flight Plan/Fuel
2nd Press
Air Data
3rd Press
11. FPL (Flight Plan) Key
Accesses four modes of flight planning available in the
AN/ASN-175. Key selection for the displayed modes is
as follows:
Displayed Mode
* Key Selection
st
Active
Flight Plan
1 Press
nd
Active
Leg, Bearing,
2 Press
Distance, and Estimated
Time Enroute
Stored Flight Plans
3rd Press
Stored Leg, Bearing
4th Press
Distance, and Estimated
Time Enroute
12. NAV (Navigation) Key
Views navigation and position information along
selected route. Key selection for the displayed
information is as follows:
Displayed Information
*Key Selection
Primary Navigation
1st Press
Waypoint Information
2nd Press
13. WPT (Waypoint) Key
Views and accesses information such as bearing and
distance, runway, name, frequencies, and position for
waypoints in the database. Key selection for the
displayed information is as follows:
Displayed Information
*Key Selection
Mark Present Position
1st Press
User
2nd Press
Airport
3rd Press
th
Approach
4 Press
SID
5th Press
th
STAR
6 Press
th
VOR
7 Press
th
NDB
8 Press
Intersection
9th Press
Change 18 3-32.5
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions of Receiver/Display Unit (Cont)
CONTROL/INDICATOR
14. NRST (Nearest) Key
FUNCTION
Views information about the 20 nearest airports,
approaches, VHF omnidirectional receivers (VOR)
agencies, nondirectional beacons (NDB) intersections,
or user waypoints. Key selection for the displayed
information is as follows:
*Key Selection
1st Press
2nd Press
3rd Press
4th Press
5th Press
6th Press
7th Press
Displayed Information
Nearest Airport
Nearest Approach
Nearest VOR
Nearest Agency
Nearest NDB
Nearest Intersection
Nearest User WPT
* Order of display for indicated key selection is based upon when unit is first turned on.
3-32.6
Change 18
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-22.2. Instrument Panel - AN/ASN-175 System Components
Change 18 3-32.7
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions of Instrument Panel AN/ASN-175 System Components
CONTROL/INDICATOR
1. GPS FILL Ports
FUNCTION
Two independent ports that are used to load data into the
AN/ASN-175 system as follows:
DATA Receptacle
Provides connection for Precision Lightweight GPS
Receiver (PLGR) AN/PSN-11 to load GPS time and
Space Vehicle (SV) data into the AN/ASN-175 system.
KYK Connector
Provides connection for Electronic Transfer Device KYK13/TSEC to load classified variables (cryptokeys) into the
AN/ASN-175 system.
2. GPS ZEROIZE Switch
Enables pilot or copilot to zeroize (erase) all data that has
been loaded into the AN/ASN-175 system via the GPS
FILL ports (DATA and KYK). Also resets preprogrammed aircraft requirement settings to factory
default. It is used only in an emergency situation to
prevent potential enemy compromise of classified
information. The switch is protected with a guard to
prevent inadvertent actuation.
*3. DME IND (Indicator) Switch
Two position toggle switch that selects distance data
from either the AN/ARN-124 DME system (VORTAC
position) or the AN/ASN-175 system (GPS position) for
display on the DME indicator.
4. CDI SEL (Select) VOR/GPS
Switches/DME IND Indicators
3-32.8
Two switch-indicator assemblies that provide both
DME indications and remote switching control for Course
Deviation Indicator (CDI) display as follows:
VOR/DME
When pressed, activates Remote Switch Assembly to
select VOR navigation (course deviation) signal for
display on the CDI. Also provides DME cue to alert pilot
that distance data is supplied from the AN/ARN-124
(VORTAC) Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) system
(if installed), as selected by DME IND switch.
GPS/DME
When pressed, activates Remote Switch Assembly to
select GPS navigation (course deviation) signal for
display on the CDI. Also provides DME cue to alert pilot
that distance data is supplied from the AN/ASN-175
(GPS) system, as selected by DME IND switch.
Change 18
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions of Instrument Panel AN/ASN-175 System Components (Cont)
CONTROL/INDICATOR
5. GPS Annunciators
FUNCTION
Two dual annunciator assemblies that display the operational status of the AN/ASN-175 system as follows:
WPT (Waypoint)
Indicates that active waypoint is being approached.
The time between illumination of indicator and arrival at
active waypoint may be selected by the operator. The
same WPT status information is displayed on the WPT
annunciator on the receiver/display unit
HLD (Hold)
Indicates that active flight plan has been suspended at
current active waypoint. The same HLD status information is displayed on the HLD annunciator on the
receiver/display unit.
MSG (Message)
Indicates that one or more of the messages in the
queue is unread. When indication is steady, indicates
presence of one or more messages in the queue
requiring operator action. When indication is not
present, indicates that there are no messages in the
queue other than CDI scaling message. The same MSG
status information is displayed on the MSG annunciator
on the receiver/display unit.
APR (Approach)
Indicates that aircraft is at or within two nautical miles
of final approach fix and that all approach requirements
have been met. The same APR status information is displayed on the APR annunciator on the receiver/display
unit.
6. NO. 2 BRG PTR (Bearing
Pointer) Switch
Two position toggle switch that selects either GPS
bearing (GPS position) or VOR bearing (VOR position) for
display by pointer No. 2 on both the pilot’s and
copilot’s Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI).
* Applicable to aircraft with AN/ARN-124 DME system installed only.
Change 18 3-32.9
TM 55-1520-210-10
c. Operation - Satellite Signets Navigation Set
AN/ASN-175.
(c) Check CDI SEL GPS switch/DME
indicator assembly lighting operation with PILOT
lighting rheostat on the INST LTS panel located on
the overhead console as follows:
CAUTION
•
The AN/ASN-175 shall not be used as
a substitute for the VOR or ADF.
When AN/ASN-175 is used for IMC
flight, either the VOR or ADF shall be
onboard and operational.
• During navigation with the AN/ASN175 system, avoid operation of the
(VHF)
Radio
on
the
following
frequencies: 121.150 MHz, 121.175
MHZ, 121.200 MHz, 131.250 MHz,
131.275 MHz, and 131.300MHz
• During navigation with the AN/ASN1 7 5 s y s t e m , avoid operating the
AN/ARC-164 radio at 225.100 MHz.
1. PILOT lighting rheostat - OFF,
Observe that GPS and DME indicator lights are at
full brightness level and that pilot’s instrument
lights are off.
2. PILOT lighting rheostat - Turn
clockwise from OFF to on position at minimum
setting. Observe that GPS and DME indicator
lights and the pilot’s instrument lights are at low
brightness level.
3. PILOT lighting rheostat Slowly turn clockwise from minimum to maximum
Observe that GPS and DME indicator
setting.
lights and the pilot’s instrument lights change
incrementally from low to full brightness.
(d) Adjust instrument lights for best
viewing or, if desired, turn them off.
NOTE
The operational procedures that follow
in steps (2) through (7) ensure that the
AN/ASN-175 system is functional and
has the current cryptokeys, valid GPS
time and Space Vehicle (SV) data,
defined mission duration, and the antispoof safety enable required to operate
using the P(Y) code. These procedures
are t h e n f o l l o w e d b y o p e r a t i o n a l
procedures
RAIM/GPS Status
and Preparation for
Determination
AN/ASN-175 Departure in steps (8) and
respectively.
Finally,
Special
(9),
Operating Functions and AN/ASN-175
System Shutdown are provided in steps
(10) and (11), respectively.
NOTE
The second VOR system (ARN-82)
shall not be operated in an aircraft
with the AN/ASN-175 installed.
AN/ASN-175
and
(1) Preoperational
System Instrument Panel Lighting Checks.
(a) GPS ASN-175 circuit breaker Engaged.
(b) On. .pilot’s side of instrument
panel, set GPS/DME, controls as follows:
(2) AN/ASN-175 System Power - ON.
1. NO. 2 BRG PTR switch - GPS.
2. CDI SEL GPS switch/DME
indicator assembly - Press. Observe that GPS
indicator light in CDI SEL GPS switch/DME
indicator assembly comes on.
NOTE
Perform step 3 on aircraft with
Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)
AN/ARN-124 system installed only.
3. DME IND switch - GPS.
Observe that DME indicator light in CDI SEL GPS
switch/DME indicator assembly comes on.
3-32.10
Change 18
NOTE
• Ensure a current Navigation Database
Card is installed in GPS Navigation Set
Receiver/Display Unit (RDU). Although
the following operations can be
performed with an expired card, this
condition will be reported by the RDU
during test.
•
When the RDU is turned on, a BIT check
is a u t o m a t i c a l l y p e r f o r m e d i n t h e
AN/ASN-175 system. During this time,
do not press any of the keys on the RDU
until the power on sequence
is
completed. If any key is pressed during
power on sequence, the RDU disregards
the key press.
TM 55-1520-210-10
(a) Power switch - Turn clockwise to
ON position. Several introductory system displays
will appear briefly on the RDU and then BIT cycles
to a five second lamp self-test.
(b) Observe the five second lamp selftest. All lamps for the annunciators and keys on
the RDU and for the GPS annunciators (WPT/HLD
indicators and MSG/APR indicators) on the pilot’s
side
of
instrument
panel
come
on
for
approximately five seconds.
(c) Following the lamp self-test,
observe BlT result lines that scroll up on display.
The following display appears one line at a time
on RDU when BIT passes:
NAV Computer
AUX IO Computer
GPS Computer
GPS Antenna
Servo Amp
Memory Battery
Database
OK
-OK
-OK
-OK
-OK
-OK
NOTE
If BIT fails, the applicable test result
line(s) displays a FAIL. If a current
Navigation Database Card is not
installed or a card is missing, the
Database result line displays EXPIRED
or N/A, respectively. When a FAIL,
EXPIRED, or N/A is displayed, the
MSG annunciator on the RDU will
flash. This cues the user to press the
MSG key on the RDU to display an
error message that relates to the
failure mode of the AN/ASN-175
system. If more than one failure
occurs, as indicated by the flashing
MSG annunciator, press MSG key for
each error message. Read each error
message in turn and take the
appropriate action.
(3) Anti-Spoof/Cryptokey Status
Determination.
(a) Observe RDU display until ANTISPOOF/ CRYPTOKEY status screen appears.
NOTE
In the following display, the second
line will scroll across continuously.
The full line is NO KEYS NEED
INITIALIZE:
A-S SAFETY OK
NO KEYS
NEED INITIALIZE
NOTE
If display is as shown and GPS
vehicle
data
and
time/space
cryptokeys are to be loaded into
AN/ASN-175 system, proceed to step
(4). If display is not as shown and
GPS time/space vehicle data and
cryptokeys are to be loaded into
AN/ASN-175 system, proceed to step
(5). If GPS time/space vehicle data
and cryptokeys are not going to be
loaded into AN/ASN-175 system,
proceed as follows:
(b) Observe that ENT key on RDU is
flashing.
(c) ENT key - Press. Turn outer
selector knob of MENU control counterclockwise
until DISABLE
(d) Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn counterclockwise until DISABLE is
displayed and the D in DISABLE is flashing.
(e) ENT
ENABLED setting.
key
-
Press
to
accept
(f) Proceed to step (7).
(4)
Cryptokey Loading Initialization For No
Keys Display.
(a) Observe that ENT key on RDU is
flashing.
(b) ENT key - Press. Observe that A-S
SAFETY: ENABLED is displayed and the E in
ENABLED is flashing.
Change 18
3-32.11
TM 55-1520-210-10
(7) Setting Mission Duration.
(a) Outer selector knob of MENU
control : Turn until the following display appears:
SET MISSION?
(ENT)
(b) ENT key - Press. Observe that the
following START DATE display appears with the
first character of date field selected:
(c) inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until desired character is displayed
in that character of date field.
(d) Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select the next character of date
field.
(e) Repeat steps (c) and (d) until
entire start date has been entered.
(f) Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until first digit of mission duration
field is selected.
(g) Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until desired digit is displayed in
that digit of duration field.
(h) Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select next digit of duration field.
(i) Repeat steps (g) and (h) until
duration has been completely entered.
(8) RAIM/GPS Status Determination.
(a) Observe RAIM annunciator, If
RAIM annunciator is illuminated, indicates that
AN/ASN-175 cannot provide required integrity for
flight and that problem should be referred to
AVUM. In the event that this problem occurs
during flight, any navigation using the AN/ASN175 must be crossed checked for position using
other approved sources.
(b) Observe GPS annunciator. If GPS
annunciator is illuminated, proceed to step (c). if
not, proceed to step (d).
(c) The AN/ASN-175 is not providing
a 3-D position solution and is not ready for the
mission. Wait two minutes and observe GPS
If GPS annunciator
annunciator.
remains
illuminated after two minutes, repeat procedures
starting from step (5) if operating in a suspected
spoofed environment.
If GPS annunciator still
remains illuminated after repeating procedures,
refer problem to AVUM. If operating in a known
spoof free environment and GPS annunciator still
remains illuminated, refer problem to AVUM for
resetting the RDU. When reset, the RDU must be
reprogrammed to the required aircraft settings.
(d) The AN/ASN-175 is providing a 3D position solution and is ready for the mission.
To determine the accuracy and Figure of Merit
(FOM) of solution, proceed as follows:
NOTE
The AN/ASN-175 is now calculating
position and the display will now show
the present position.
1. AUX key - Press and hold for
one second until SYSTEM STATUS mode is
selected and PRESENT POSITION display appears:
(j) ENT key - Press to set mission
duration.
(k) After mission duration is set,
SETTING MISSION STANDBY will be displayed.
wait u n t i l d i s p l a y c h a n g e s t o C O M M A N D
COMPLETE and then proceed to step (8).
3-32.14
Change 18
POSITION EPE:
XXm
LL XX°XX .xxx XXXX° xx .xxx x
TM 55-1520-210-10
2. AUX key - Press until SENSOR
STATUS mode is selected and the GPS STATUS
display appears:
RAIM
1.6
GPS: 3D/PRS
MODE: TERM
NOTE
FOM is an integer between 1 and g
and is determined from the RDU
position error.
3. The FOM values and its
meaning as determined from the RDU position
error are as follows:
FOM Value
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Meaning
<25m
>25m, <50m
>50m, <75m
>75m, <100m
>100m, <200m
>200m,
<500m
>500m,
<1000m
>1000m, <5000m
>5000m
4. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until the flowing display appears:
Preparation
For
7. If flight plan includes a
Standard Instrument Departure (SID) when ready
to depart, depart in accordance with the
applicable procedures in step (b) below and then
fly the flight plan following the prompts from the
If flight plan does not include a
AN/ASN-175.
SID, depart in accordance with published
procedures and then fly the flight plan following
the prompts from the AN/ASN-175.
(b) Fly Standard Instrument Departure
(SID) Using GPS.
NOTE
Proceed to step 1 to fly direct to the
first waypoint in SID and fly the entire
procedure, step 6 to join any specific
leg in SID and fly the rest of
procedure, or step 11 to fly direct to
any waypoint In SID and fly the rest of
procedure.
1. Select desired SID.
2. -D key- Press
3 . Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to change course to/from waypoint,
if desired.
ESTIMATED ACCURACY:
GPS:
9m FOM: 1
(9)
Departure.
6 . -D+ key - Press a second
time to join leg and activate flight plan.
AN/ASN-175
(a) Flight Plan Loading and Activation.
4. -D+ key - Press a second
time to make first waypoint active waypoint and
to activate SID.
1. FPL key - Press to select
STORED FLIGHT PLANS display.
5. Fly SID following prompts
from AN/ASN-175.
2. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select desired flight plan.
3. FPL key - Press. The FPL key
will now be flashing.
6. Select desired SID.
7. Turn outer selector knob of
MENU control to select desired leg of SID.
8. Press -D+ key.
4. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select desired leg of flight plan.
9. Press -D+ key a second time
to join leg and to activate SID.
5 . -D+ key - Press and note
leg’s course.
Change 18
3-32.15
TM 55-1520-210-10
10. Fly SID following prompts
from AN/ASN-175.
11. Select desired SID.
12. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select desired leg of SID.
13. -D+ key - Press.
14. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turncounterclockwise to select first
waypoint of leg. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn clockwise to select second
waypoint of leg.
15. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - T u r n t o c h a n g e c o u r s e t o / f r o m
waypoint, if desired.
16. -D+ - Press key a second
time to fly direct to waypoint and to activate SID.
17. Fly SID following prompts
from AN/ASN-175.
(c) Fly Direct To A Waypoint.
NOTE
You may fly direct to any waypoint in
the database. Select the waypoint
from the WPT, NRST, NAV or FPL
mode. Flying direct to a waypoint
selected from the FPL mode will
activate the flight plan starting at the
selected waypoint.
1. Select desired waypoint.
2. -D+ key - Press. Observe
the following display:
4. -D+ k e y - Press a second
time to make waypoint the active waypoint.
5. The
AN/ASN-175
automatically switches to NAV mode and displays
the PRIMARY NAVIGATION page as follows:
T
O LAX
A
120° 143: 0:34
6 . F o r r e f e r e n c e , s e t Course
Deviation (CDI) or Horizontal Situation Indicator
(HSI) to displayed course.
ready,
7. When
depart
in
accordance with published procedures and follow
prompts from AN/ASN-175 to fly to waypoint.
(10) Special Operating Functions.
(a) Zeroizing the Cryptokeys.
NOTE
The procedures that follow provide
instructions to zeroize the cryptokeys,
if previously loaded, in the RDU.
Normally, the cryptokeys should be
zeroized after every mission. If the
cryptokeys are not zeroized after
completion of a mission, it will not be
possible to set a new mission
duration. The cryptokeys, however,
will automatically zeroize when the
mission duration expires.
1. AUX key - Press until USER
SETUP mode appears on display.
2. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until SECURITY MODULE page
appears as follows:
A-S SAFETY OK
VALID KEYS
3. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to change course to/from
waypoint, if desired.
3-32.16
Change 18
TM 55-1520-210-10
3. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until the following display appears:
(b) Zeroizing All Variables.
NOTE
4. ENT key - Press to initiate the
keys zeroizing function. Observe that AUX key is
flashing and that the following display appears:
The procedures that follow provide
instructions to zeroize all mission
variables. These variables should be
zeroized whenever the RDU is
removed for maintenance or for any
other purpose.
1. AUX key - Press until USER
SETUP mode appears on display.
2. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until SECURITY MODULE page
appears as follows:
NOTE
Press any key other than the AUX
key to abort the zeroize keys
function.
3. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until the following display appears:
5. AUX key - Press to complete
the zeroize keys function. Observe that display
changes to the STANDBY mode as follows:
ZEROIZING KEYS
STANDBY
4. ENT key - Press to initiate the
zeroize all function. Observe that AUX key is
flashing and that the following display appears:
6. After a few seconds, observe
that the following display appears:
NOTE
Press any key other than the AUX key
to abort the zeroize all function.
5 . A U X k e y - Press to complete
the zeroize keys function. Observe that the
following display appears briefly and then the
AN/ASN-175 will reset itself.
Change 10
3-32.17
TM 55-1520-210-10
(c) Programming
Input/Output Ports.
RDU
NOTE
Actuation of the GPS ZEROIZE switch
on the instrument panel will erase all
variables stored in the RDU and will
reset the auxiliary input/output (I/O)
ports of the RDU to factory default. As
a result, the GPS ZEROIZE switch
should be normally used when it is
absolutely necessary to verify that it is
functional or for emergency situations.
In the event that the GPS ZEROIZE
switch is actuated, the RDU will have
to be reprogrammed to satisfy the
aircraft requirements. Instructions for
actuating the GPS ZEROIZE switch and
reprogramming the RDU are as follows:
1. Locate GPS ZEROIZE switch
on center section of instrument panel.
2. GPS ZEROIZE switch - Raise
cover and toggle switch to the up position to
initiate the zeroize. Observe that RDU resets,
displays a ZEROIZE IS SUCCESSFUL message,
and then cycles through the power on/BIT checks
until the ANTI-SPOOF/CRYPTOKEY status screen
appears as follows:
3-32.18
Change 18
3. ENT key - Observe that it
Auxiliary
is flashing.
4. ENT key - Press.
5. Outer selector knob of
MENU control - Turn counterclockwise until
DISABLE is displayed and the D in DISABLE is
flashing.
6. ENT key - Press to accept
the DISABLE setting.
7. AUX key - Press until
INSTALL SETUP mode appears on display.
8. Inner selector knob of
MENU control - Turn until AUX l/O SETUP
display appears as follows:
TM 55-1520-210-10
Table 3-1. RDU Auxiliary Input/Output Port Settings.
CHOICE SETTlNGS
* None
XYZ Magnetic-Synchro
XYZ TRUE-Synchro
AIRCRAFT SETTINGS
XYZ Magnetic-Synchro
PRESSURE ALTITUDE
INPUT
Serial-RS-422/RS-232
* Parallel
Parallel
OLEO INPUT
* None
Air
Ground
None
SYNCHRO OUTPUT #1
* Off
HDG
---T
HDG
---DTK
---TDTK
---BRG
----TBRG
---TKE
---DA
--TKE-DA -----DA-TKE ----BRG-HDG -------------------- +0.00
+180
-----------------------
** BRG-HDG + 180°
SYNCHRO
----m------------
------------SYNCHRO
SIN/COS
SYNCHRO OUTPUT #2
Same as SYNCHRO OUTPUT #1
SYNCHRO OUTPUT #3
Same as SYNCHRO OUTPUT #1
DIGlTAL OUTPUT X3
ARINC 561
*ARlNC 568
* * BRG-HDG + 180° SYNCHRO
Off
ARINC 561
*Indicates factory default setting.
**To select BRG-HDG + 180° SYNCHRO setting after obtaining the BRG-HDG +000° SYNCHRO display,
proceed as follows:
1. Outer selector knob of MENU control - Turn clockwise one detent position and observe that + sign in
BRG-HDG +000° SYNCHRO display flashes.
2. Inner selector knob of MENU control - Turn clockwise one detent position to obtain BRG-HDG + 180°
SYNCHRO setting display.
Change 18 3-32.19
TM 55-1520-210-10
NOTE
There are seven auxiliary I/O port
categories (HEADING INPUT, PRESSURE
INPUT,
ALTITUDE
INPUT,
OLEO
SYNCHRO OUTPUT #1, SYNCHRO
OUTPUT # 2, SYNCHRO OUTPUT # 3,
and DIGITAL OUTPUT # 3) that must be
selected and programmed internally to
satisfy the aircraft requirements.
9. Outer selector knob of
MENU control - Turn until the first I/O port
category (HEADING INPUT) display appears.
(Refer to table 3-1.)
10. ENT key - Press to allow
configuration of the port.
11. Inner selector knob of
MENU control - T u r n t o s e l e c t t h e c h o i c e
setting (XYZ Magnetic-Synchro) for aircraft.
12. ENT key - Press to save
the selection. 13. Repeat steps 9 through 12
until all I/O port settings are programmed into
the aircraft as specified in table 3-1.
(d) Verifying and Programming
User Units/Parameters.
NOTE
provide
following
procedures
The
instructions for verifying the user
unit/parameter settings of the aircraft
and, if necessary, reprogramming the
RDU to obtain the desired setting(s).
T h e u s e r unit/ parameter settings
include: A u d i o L e v e l , A u d i o T o n e
Frequency, CDI Sensitivity, Estimated
Time
of Arrival (ETA), Position
Coordinate System, Position Datum,
Distance Units, Speed Units, Elevation
Units,
Barometric
Setting
Units,
Temperature Units, Fuel Consumption
Units, Track Error Graphic, Display Light
Intensity for night vision goggles (NVG)
and Magnetic Variation (MAGVAR).
Unless otherwise specified, all control
settings are performed on the RDU.
3-32.20
Change 18
1. AUX key - Press until INSTALL
SETUP mode is selected.
2. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until SELECT USER UNIT, TURN
OUTER KNOB is displayed.
3. Outer selector knob of MENU
Turn
until desired unit/parameter is
control
displayed as follows:.
User Unit/Parameter
ETA
Distance Units
Speed Units
Barometric Units
Temperature Units
Fuel Computation
Units
Display
ETA TIME DISPLAY
DISTANCE DISPLAY
SPEED DISPLAY
SELECT BARO UNITS
TEMP DISPLAY
FUEL COMPUTATION
4. ENT key - Press to change
setting if displayed setting is incorrect.
5. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select desired display setting
for applicable unit/parameter as follows:
User Unit/Parameter
ETA
Distance Units
Speed Units
Barometric Units
Temperature Units
Fuel Computation
Units
Display Selection
LOCAL or ZULU time
Nautical miles, kilometers, or statue
miles
Knots, kilometers per
hour, or miles per
hour
Inches or millibars
Centigrade or
Fahrenheit
Gallons, imperial
gallons, kilograms
(avgas, jet-A or
JP-4), liters, or
pounds (avgas,
jet-A or JP-4)
6. ENT key
selected settings.
control displayed.
-
Press
to
save
7. Inner selector knob of MENU
Turn until SET AUDIO LEVEL is
TM 55-1620-210-10
8. Connect headset to pilot’s or
copilot’s ICS connector.
21. ENT key - Press to change
setting if display setting is incorrect,.
9. AUX switch on ICS - Set to
22. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select 5.0, 2.5, 1.0, 0.3, or 0.1
nautical miles.
1 0 . NAV VOL switch on VOR
control unit (AN/ARN-123 system) - Deselect
from OFF position.
11. ENT key - Press and observe
that the following display appears:
23. ENT key - Press to save the
display selection,
24. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until SELECT USER UNITS, TURN
LARGE KNOB is displayed.
25. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until POSITION DISPLAY 1 display
appears.
12. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to set comfortable audio level.
26. If display setting is correct,
proceed to step 30.
13. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to set desired audio tone frequency.
27. ENT key - Press to change
coordinate system setting if display setting is
incorrect.
14. ENT key - Press to save
setting(s).
NOTE
15. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until the following display appears:
16. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until INTERNAL CDI ADJUST
display appears.
17. ENT key - Press to change
setting if display setting is incorrect.
18. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select 5.0, 2.5, 1.0, 0.3, or 0.1
nautical miles.
19. ENT key - Press to save the
display selection.
Coordinate systems available for
selection are: latitude/longitude (L/L
(DDDMM.MMM)), latitude/ longitude
(L/L (DDMMSS.SW, Military Grid
Reference System (MGRS), Universal
Transverse Mercator/Universal Polar
Stereographic (UTM/UPS), British
National Grid (BNG), Irish Transverse
Mercator (ITM), and User Definable
Coordinate (UDC).
28. inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select desired coordinate system.
29. ENT key - Press to save
position display 1 coordinate system selection.
30. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until POSITION DISPLAY 2 display
appears.
20. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn-until EXTERNAL CDI ADJUST
display appears.
Change 18
3-32.21
TM 55-1520-210-10
NOTE
The POSITION DISPLAY 2 selects a
secondary coordinate system that may
be displayed. If NONE is selected for
POSITION DISPLAY 2, then there will
be no secondary coordinate system
available for display.
31. ENT key - Press to change
setting if display setting Is incorrect.
41. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until ELEVATION display appears as
follows:
42. ENT key - Press to change
setting if display setting is incorrect.
43. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select ELEVATION field.
32. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select NONE or the desired
coordinate system.
44. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select feet or meters.
33. ENT key - Press to save
position display 2 coordinate system selection.
45. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select REFERENCE field.
34. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until SELECT USER UNITS, TURN
LARGE KNOB is displayed.
46. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select MN SEA LV (mean sea
level) or GEOD HT (geodetic height).
35. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until POSITION DATUM display
appears.
47. ENT key - Press to save
elevation units selection.
NOTE
48. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until TRACK ERROR GRAPHIC
display appears:
Default datum is world datum WGS84. If another datum Is selected,
POSITION DATUM message appears
for approximately 5 seconds during
system power on sequence.
36. ENT key - Press to change
setting if display setting is Incorrect.
37. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select datum symbol field or the
datum name field.
49. ENT key - Press to change
selection if incorrect.
50. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select YES or NO.
5 1 . ENT key - Press to save
selection.
38. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select desired datum.
39. ENT key - Press to save
position datum selection.
52. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until SET DISPLAY INTENSITY
LEVEL display appears.
NOTE
40. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until SELECT USER UNITS, TURN
LARGE KNOB is displayed.
3-32.22
Change 18
Pressing ENT key will cause display to
go to previously stored or lowest
intensity settings for NVG ENABLED
intensity settings.
TM 55-1620-210-10
53. ENT key - Press and observe
that display changes as follows:
59. ENT key - Press to change
selection if display is incorrect.
60. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn to select AUTO, DEGREES, or
DEG + MIN.
NOTE
54. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn counterclockwise until intensity of
key back-lighting is at a minimum.
55. Outer selector knob of MENU
control - Turn counterclockwise until intensity of
display is at a minimum.
56. Inner and outer selector knobs
of MENU control Turn to adjust key backlighting
and display Intensity for optimum NVG levels.
57. ENT key - Press to save
selection.
58. Inner selector knob of MENU
control - Turn until MAGVAR display appears.
When the AN/ASN-175 is set to
MAGVAR: AUTO, it will automatically enter the estimated magnetic
variation.
61. Outer and inner selector knobs
of MENU control - Turn to enter desired values if
DEGREES or DEG + MIN is selected.
62. ELT key
-
Press
to
save
selection.
(11) AN/ASN-175 System Shutdown.
NOTE
The AN/ASN-175 system may be
shutdown at any time without any risk
of damage.
(12) RDU power switch - Turn full counterclockwise to off position.
Change 18 3-32.23
TM 55-1529-210-10
Section IV. TRANSPONDER AND RADAR
3-25. Transponder Set AN/APX-72.
a. Description. The AN/APX-72 provides radar
identification capability. Five independent coding
modes are available. The first three modes may
be used independently or in combination. Mode 1
provides 32 possible code combinations, any one
of which may be selected in flight. Mode 2
provides 4,096 possible code combinations but
only one is available since the selection dial is not
available in flight and must be preset before flight.
Mode 3/A provides 4,096 possible codes, any of
which may be selected In flight. Mode C is used
with the AAU-32/A Encoding Altimeter (AIMS).
Mode 4, which 6 connected to an external
computer, can be programmed prior to flight to
display any one of many classified operational
codes for security identification. The effective
range depends on the capability of interrogation
radar and line of sight. The transponder control
set is mounted on the center pedestal. The IFF
CODE HOLD switch on the instrument panel
interfaces with MODE 4 (fig 2-4). This allows the
crew to hold the classified operational code that
has been programmed.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-24.
(4) MASTER control - NORM or LOW as
required.
(5) IDENT - As required.
(6) STOPPING procedure. MASTER control
- OFF.
d. Emergency Operation. MASTER control EMER.
3-26. Transponder Set AN/APX-100.
a. Description.
The
transponder
set
AN/APX-100 enables the helicopter to identify itself
automatically when properly challenged by friendly
surface and airborne radar equipment. The control
panel enables the set to operate in modes 1, 2, 3A,
4 and test. Mode 4 is operational when computer
KIT 1A (-1C)/ TSEC (classified) is installed, properly
coded, keyed, and IFF caution advisory light is not
on. The range of the receiver-transmitter is limited
to line of sight transmission since its frequency of
operation is in the UHF band making range dependent
on altitude.
b. Controls and functions - Transponder Set.
Refer to figure 3-25.
c. Operation.
c.
(1) MASTER control - STBY. Allow
approximately 2 minutes for warmup.
(2)
MODE and CODE - Select as required.
(3)
TEST M-1, 2, 3/A and C as required.
3-32.24
Change 18
Operation - Transponder Set.
(1) MASTER control - STBY. Allow
approximately 2 minutes for warmup.
(2)
MODE and CODE - As required.
(3)
MASTER control - NORM.
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-23. DME Indicator ID-2192/ARN-124
Change 7
3-33
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-24. Transponder Set AN/APX-72
3-34
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-25. Transponder Set (AN/APX-100) Control Panel (Sheet 1 of 2)
Change 7
3-35
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-25. Transponder Set (AN/APX-100) Control Panel (Sheet 2 of 2)
3-36 Change 7
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
TEST - As required.
ANT - As desired.
IDENT - As required.
Stopping procedure.
OFF.
d. Emergency Operation
MASTER control - EMERG.
-
MASTER control Transponder
Set
3-27.
Mode 4 Operation (APX-72 and APX-100).
a. Before Exterior Check
(1) IFF CODE HOLD switch (on the instrument
panel) - HOLD and check that the IFF CODE HOLD
indicator lamp is on.
NOTE
If the IFF CODE HOLD switch is OFF and the MASTER
switch is in any position other than OFF, MODE 4 codes
will zeroize when the battery switch is turned off during
the BEFORE EXTERIOR check.
*b. Aircraft Runup - Test: (APX-100 only)
(1) MASTER switch - STBY FOR 2 minutes.
(2) CODE switch - A.
(3) Mode 4 or MODE 4 TEST switch ON.
(4) MODE 4 AUDIO/LIGHT/OUT switch AUDIO.
(5) MODE 4 TEST/ON/OUT switch (APX- 100)
TEST momentarily.
c. AP,Y-72 --Test Response.
(1) REPLY light should go on.
(2) Audio tone should be heard.
(3) If the above indications do not occur, select
the opposite code (A or B) and repeat the check.
d. APX-100 - Test response
(1) REPLY light should go on.
(2) If the REPLY light does not Illuminate
and/or the audio tone is heard, select the opposite code
(A or B) and repeat check.
NOTE
Further testing to check for correct coding
responses is done with ground test
equipment by moving the MASTER switch to
NORMAL. either transponder does not
respond to ground test interrogation the IFF
caution light should illuminate.
e. Zeroizing MODE 4 codes may be accomplished
in any one of the following methods:
(1) CODE switch - ZERO.
(2) MASTER switch - OFF.
NOTE
If the switch is returned to NORMAL within 5
seconds, zeroizing may not occur.
(3) Aircraft electrical power - OFF.
NOTE
If the IFF CODE HOLD switch (on the
instrument panel) is at HOLD and the CODE
switch has been moved to HOLD prior to
removing electrical power, zeroizing will not
occur.
(4) Deleted.
f
MODE 4 codes retained after engine shutdown.
(1) IFF CODE HOLD switch - ON and IFF code
HOLD indicator lamp is on.
(2) CODE switch - HOLD momentarily and
then release.
(3) MASTER switch - OFF.
Change 17 3-37
TM 55-1520-210-10
3-28. Altitude Encoder/Pneumatic Altimeter
AAU-32/A.
a. Description The AAU-32/A pneumatic counterdrum-pointer altimeter is a self-contained unit which
consists of a precision pressure altimeter combined with
an altitude encoder (fig 3-26). The display indicates and
the encoder transmits. simultaneously, pressure altitude
reporting Altitude is displayed on the altimeter by a
10.000 foot counter, a 1,000 foot counter and a 100 foot
drum. A single pointer indicates hundreds of feet on a
circular scale, with 50 foot center markings. Below an
altitude of 10,000 foot a diagonal warning system will
appear on the 10.000 foot counter. A barometric
pressure setting knob Is provided to insert the desired
altimeter setting In inches of Hg. A dc powered vibrator
operates inside the altimeter whenever the aircraft power
is on. If dc power to the altitude encoder is lost, a
warning flag placarded CODE OFF will appear in the
upper left portion of the instrument face indicating that
the altitude encoder is inoperative and that the system is
not reporting altitude to ground stations. The CODE
OFF flag monitors only the encoder function of the
altimeter. It does not indicate transponder condition.
The AIMS altitude reporting function may be inoperative
without the AAU-32/A CODE OFF flag showing, In
case of transponder failure or improper control settings
It is also possible to get a ’good’ MODE C test on the
transponder control with the CODE OFF flag showing.
Display of the CODE OFF flag only indicates an encoder
power failure or a CODE OFF flag failure. In this event.
check that dc power Is available and that the circuit
breakers are in. If the flag is still visible, radio contact
should be made with a ground radar site to determine
whether the AIMS altitude reporting function is operative,
and the remainder of the flight should be conducted
accordingly.
b. Operation.
(1) Normal Operation. The AIMS altimeter circuit
breaker should be closed prior to flight, the Mode C
switch (M-C) on the transponder control should be
switched to ON for altitude reporting during flight. The
AAU-32.’A altimeter indicates pneumatic altitude
reference to the barometric pressure level as selected by
the pilot. At ambient pressure, altimeters should agree
with ±70 feet of the field elevation when the proper
barometric pressure setting is set in the altimeter. A red
flag marked CODE OFF is located in the upper left
portion of the altimeters face In order to supply Mode C
information to the IFF transponder, the CODE OFF flag
must not be visible. A vibrator, powered by the dc
essential bus, is contained In the altimeter and requires a
minimum of one minute warmup prior to checking or
setting the altimeter
3-38 Change 17
(2) Abnormal Operation.
(a) If the altimeters internal vibrator becomes
inoperative due to internal failure or dc power failure, the
pointer and drum may momentarily hang up when
passing from 9 through 0 (climbing) or from 0 thorough
9 (descending).
This hang-up will cause lag, the
magnitude of which will depend on the vertical velocity of
the aircraft and the friction in the altimeter. Pilots should
be especially watchful for this type failure when the
minimum approach altitude lies within the 8-1 part of the
scale (800 to 1100, 1800 to 2100, etc).
(b) If the CODE OFF flag is visible, the dc power is
not available, the circuit breaker is not in, or there is an
internal altimeter encoder failure.
(c) It the altimeter indicator does not correspond
within 70 feet of the field elevation (with proper local
barometric setting) the altimeter needs rezeroing or there
has been an internal failure.
(d) If the baroset knob binds or sticks. abnormal
force should not be used to make the setting as this may
cause internal gear failure resulting in altitude errors.
Settings can sometimes be made by backing off and
turning at a slower rate.
3-29.
Proximity Warning System YG-1054.
a. Description The proximity warning transponder,
control panel located at the forward left side of the
pedestal, operates at frequency 5.08 GHz. The system
provides audio and visual intruder indications of similarly
equipped aircraft within 5,000 feet laterally and 300 feet
vertically. Vertical operation is influenced by barometric
pressure from the helicopters pitot static tube.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to figure 3-28.
c. Operation.
(1) POWER switch - ON
(2) Test - CONFIDENCE TEST.
(3) RANGE SELECT - As desired.
(4) LIGHT INTENSITY - As desired.
(5) AUDIO Adjust.
(6) POWER - OFF
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-26. AAU-32/A Altitude Encode/Pneumatic Altimeter
Figure 3-27. AN/APN-209 Radar Altimeter (V)
Change 7
3-39
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-28. Proximity Warning Panel
3-40
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
3-30. Radar Warning Set.
a Description The radar warning set AN/APR-39
provides the pilot with visual and audible warning when a
hostile fire-control threat is encountered. The equipment
responds to hostile fire-control radars but nonthreat
radars are generally excluded. The equipment also
receives missile guidance radar signals and, when the
signals are time-coincident with a radar tracking signal,
the equipment identifies the combination as an activated
hostile surface to air (SAM) radar system. The visual
and aural displays warn the pilot of potential threat so
that evasive maneuvers can be initiated.
To prevent damage to the receiver detector crystals,
assure that the AN/APR-39V-1 antennas are at least 60
meters from active ground radar antennas or 6 meters
from active airborne radar antennas. Allow an extra
margin for new, unusual or high power emitters.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
PWR switch - ON, allow I-minute for warmup.
BRIL and filter controls - Adjust as desired.
AUDIO control - Adjust volume as desired.
DSCRM switch - Set for mission requirement.
Stopping Procedure - PWR switch - OFF.
Change 17 3-41
TM 55-1520-210-10
3-31. V Radar Altimeter - AN/APN-209.
a. Description. The radar altimeter set is a high
resolution pulse radar that provides an medication of
absolute clearance over all types of terrain. The set
consists of the following:
a panel mounted height
indicator receiver transmitter (located on copilot
instrument panel); a panel mounted remote height
indicator (located on pilot instrument panel), and two
flush mounted antennas on the underside of the
helicopter. The controls and displays of the height
indicator receive-transmitter (IRT) and the remote height
indicator (RI) are identical (see Figure 3-27). Absolute
altitude is displayed by a pointer and a digital readout.
The pointer operates against a fixed dial and indicates
tens of feet between 0 to 200 feet, and hundreds of feet
between 200 to 1500 feet. Above 1500 feet the pointer is
driven behind a mask. The digital display has a four digit
readout. The readout is displayed in one foot increments
up to 255 feet. At 256 feet the display is rounded up to
260 feet. Between 260 and 1500 feet the readout is
displayed in tens of feet. The LO SET control knob
functions as the on-off switch and is the low altitude trip
point adjustment. Clockwise rotation turns the set on.
Continuing a clockwise rotation provides for the setting of
the low altitude bug. The HI SET control knob provides
for the setting of the high altitude bug. Depressing the HI
SET control knob places the altimeter set m the self-test
mode. The IRT sends a simulated signal of 1000 feet to
both mediators. The indicators display the information
via the pointer and digital readout. Whenever the
indicated altitude drops below the low altitude bug setting
the LO altitude warning lamp is activated. Whenever the
indicated altitude goes above the high altitude bug
setting, the HI altitude warning lamp is activated. When
the LO SET control knob is turned to OFF, or during
periods of unreliable operation, the OFF flag comes into
view.
b. Operation The following procedures apply to
both indicators (IRT on copilot instrument panel, and RI
on pilot instrument panel). Accomplish procedures using
controls on each indicator.
(1) Initial Operation Turn the IRT and RI on by
Turing the LO SET control knob clockwise. Set the low
3-42 Change 17
altitude warning bug to 80 feet by turning LO SET control
knob clockwise. Set the high altitude warning bug to 800
feet by turning the HI SET control knob clockwise. The
indicators should display a track condition within two
minutes from the time indicator was turned on. The OFF
flag should disappear from view; the pointer read 0 to 3
feet; the digital display -0 to +3 feet; and the LO warning
lamp illuminate. Press and hold the HI SET control knob
(push to test operation). The indicator pointer and digital
display should read 1000 plus or minus 100 feet; the LO
warning lamps should be OFF and the HI warning lamp
ON.
NOTE
When using an unmodified indicator
during NVG flight, turn the HI/LO and
DIGITAL switch to OFF. Use the height
needle lite by the eyebrow light The
modified indicator will work as advertised.
(2) Normal Operation Adjust LO SET control
knob to desired setting for low altitude warning bug. The
LO warming lamp will illuminate when indicated altitude
drops below this setting. Adjust HI SET control knob to
desired setting for high altitude warning bug. The HI
warning lamp will illuminate when indicated altitude goes
above the high altitude warning bug setting. For daylight
operations, set the pilot instrument lighting control
(overhead console) to OFF.
This setting provides
lighting at full brightness to the warning lamps and digital
displays on both indicators. Turning the instrument
lighting controls (pilot and copilot) controls clockwise
dims the indicator lighting. In the event of loss of track
due to helicopter attitude (30 degrees pitch or 45 roll) or
to operation beyond the range of the altimeter, the
altitude pointer swings behind the no-track mask and the
digital readout is totally blanked. In addition, the OFF
flag comes into view.
(3) Stopping Procedure Turn LO SET control
knob (on each indicator) fully counterclockwise.
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-29. Radar Warning System
Change 7
3-43
TM 55-1520-210-10
3-32. Receiver-Transmitter Radio, RT-1167/ARC164(V).
Receiver-Transmitter Radio RT-1167/ARC-164(V)
(figure 3-3.1) is an airborne, ultra-high frequency
(UHF), amplitude-modulated (AM), radio transmittingreceiving (transceiver) set. It contains a multichannel,
electronically-tunable transceiver and a fixed-tuned
guard receiver. The transceiver operates on any one
of 7,000 channels spaced in 0.025 MHz units in the
225.000 to 399.750 MHz UHF military band. The
guard receiver is tunable in the 238.000 to 248.000
MHz frequency range with crystal replacement and
realignment (usually 243.000 MHz). The radio set
primarily is used for voice communication. An additional radio set capability, although not functional is ADF.
Power to operate the ARC-164(V) radio is from the 28
vdc emergency bus through a circuit breaker marked
UHF-AM on the pilot overhead circuit breaker panel.
3-33. Receiver-Transmitter
ARC-164(V).
Radio,
RT-1167C/
Receiver-Transmitter Radio RT-1167C/ARC-164(V)
has the same functions and capabilities as the RT1167/ARC-164(V) plus a HAVE QUICK mode of
operation. HAVE QUICK is an antijamming mode
which uses a frequency hopping scheme to change
channels many times per second. Because the HAVE
QUICK mode depends on a precise time of day, both
HAVE QUICK radios must have synchronized clocks.
A-3-2-T Knob (HAVE QUICK ONLY)
*
*
*
*
A- Selects AJ mode.
3- Allows manual selection of frequencies.
2- Allows manual selection of frequencies.
T - Momentary position which enables the radio
to accept a new TOD for up to 60 seconds after selection. Also used in conjunction with the emergency
startup of the TOD clock when TOD is not available
from a external source.
TONE Button (Have Quick) - Depressing the TONE
button in normal or AJ modes interrupts reception and
transmits a tone signal and TOD on the selected frequency. Simultaneously pressing the TONE button in
conjunction with the A-3-2-T knob in the T position
starts the emergency startup of the TOD clock.
HAVE QUICK System - The HAVE QUICK (HQ)
system provides a jam resistant capability through a
frequency hopping technique. Frequency hopping is a
technique in which the frequency being used for a
given channel is automatically changed at some rate
common to the transmitter and receiver. The jam
resistance of the system is due to the automatic frequency changing and the pseudorandom pattern of
frequencies used. In order to defeat this communications system, the jammer must find the frequency
being used, jam it and then predictor find the next frequency. The HAVE QUICK modification adds the frequency hopping capability, yet it does not remove any
of the previous capabilities of the radio. The HAVE
QUICK modified radios retain the standard, single frequency UHF voice mode of operations. This is
referred to as the normal mode, while frequency hopping operation is called the anti-jam (AJ) mode.
Several ingredients are necessary for successful system operations. These are:
Figure 3-29.1. Receiver-Transmitter
RT-1167/ARC-164(V)
3-44
Change 7
Radio,
1.
2.
3.
4.
Common frequency
Time synchronization.
Common hopping pattern and rate.
Common net number.
TM 55-1520-210-10
The common frequencies have been programmed into
all HAVE QUICK radios. Time synchronization is
provided via UHF radio and/or hardware by external
time distribution system. A time-of-day (TOD) signal
must be received from the time distribution system for
each time the radio is turned on. The hopping pattern
and hopping rate are determined by the operator inserted word-ofday (WOD). The WOD is a multi-digit
code, common worldwide to all HAVE QUICK users.
In the AJ mode, a communications channel is defined
by a net number instead of a signal frequency as in
the normal mode. Before operating in the AJ mode,
the radio must be primed. This consists of setting the
WOD, TOD, and net number. The AJ mode is then
selected by placing the A-3-2-T knob to A.
WORD OF DAY (WOD) – The WOD entry is normally entered before flight, but it is possible to enter it
in flight. WOD is entered by using one or more of the
six preset channels which are 20-15. For a new WOD
entry, start at channel 20 use the same method as in
entering preset frequencies in the normal mode with
the frequency knobs and the PRESENT button. After
each entry, a single beep is heard until channel 15
entry; a double bee is heard indicating that the radio
has accepted all six WOD entries.
WOD TRANSFER – Select the preset mode and,
starting with present channel 20, rotate the preset
knob CCW. At channel 20, a single beep is heard. A
single beep indicates that channel 20 data has been
transferred and accepted. After the single beep is
heard, select remaining channels (19-15) in the same
manner until a double beep is heard indicating the
WOD transfer is complete.
back to the A position. A TOD update (time tick) can
be received on the selected AJ net.
Net Numbers – After WOD and TOD are entered,
any valid AJ net number can be selected by using the
manual frequency knob.
Anti-Jamming Mode Operation - A tone is heard in
the headset if an invalid AJ net is selected, it TOD was
not initially received, or if WOD was not entered. If the
function knob is set to both and the AJ mode is
selected, any transmission on the guard channel takes
precedence over the AJ mode.
Operational Procedures - Radio Set AN/ARC-164(V)
1. Transfer WOD IAW “WOD TRANSFER” paragraph.
2. Setup RT to receive TOD:
a. With external TOD equipment:
(1) Select manual mode on MODE switch.
(2) Set TOD frequency in manual frequency windows.
(3) Set A-3-2-T to A, after TOD beep is
heard. If tone is heard with the A-3-2-T
in the A position, reinitialize radio IAW
steps in “TOD TRANSMISSION” paragraph.
b. Without external TOD equipment:
Emergency start-up of TOD clock:
(1) Set and hold A-3-2-T switch to T.
(2) Press the TONE button.
NOTE
TIME-OF-DAY (TOD) – Transmission - The TOD
entry is normally entered before flight, but it is possible
to enter it in flight. It is possible to transmit timing information in both normal and AJ modes by momentarily
pressing the TONE button. In the normal mode, a
complete TOD message is transmitted, while in the AJ
mode, only an abbreviated time update is transmitted.
A mode time transmission allows a time update if one
radio has drifted out of synchronization.
TIME-OF-DAY Reception – Reception is possible in
both normal and AJ modes. The radio automatically
accepts the first TOD message after the radio is
turned on and WOD transferred. Subsequent messages are ignored unless the T position is selected
with the A-3-2-T knob. The radio then accepts the next
TOD update in either normal or AJ mode, provided the
TOD update arrives within 60 seconds of the time the
T position has been selected. To receive time in the
normal mode, rotate the A-3-2-T knob to the T position
and return to a normal channel in either the manual or
preset mode. To receive a time update in AJ mode,
rotate the A-3-2-T knob to the T position and then
When using this method, the flight commander or lead aircraft should emergencystart his TOD clock. Lead aircraft would
then transfer TOD to other aircraft in flight.
Aircraft using this method will not be able to
communicate with valid TOD signal in the
AF mode. A valid TOD signal must be
transferred to all aircraft that have invalid
TOD time before effective AJ communications can be achieved.
HAVE QUICK Checklist ARC-164. Loading Wordof-Day (WOD).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
“T, 2,3, A'' switch – Not in A position.
Functional selector switch - Both.
Manual, preset, guard switch – Preset.
Manual frequency display - Set WOD 15.
Preset channel select- Set to 15.
Preset button (under frequency cover) - Press
Manual frequency display – Set WOD 16.
Change
7
3-45
TM 55-1520-210-10
8. Preset channel select-Set to 16.
9. Preset button - Press.
10. Repeat steps 7 thru 9 to store WOD 17, 18,
19.
11. Manual frequency display - Set 300.050.
12. Preset channel select - Set to 20.
13. Preset button - Press.
14. Rotate preset select down 19, 18, 17, 16, 15,
(hear 1 beep 20-16, 2 beeps on 15).
Receiving Time from Net Control Aircraft.
1. Manual, preset, guard switch - Manual.
2. Set to internal frequency to receive the time.
3. Hear net control aircraft state: “Standby for
time.”
4. Rotate “T, 2,3, A“ switch to ”T'' and return to
established manual frequency, hear.
5. Hear net control aircraft state: “Go active 0
point one.”
6. Set A00.100 in manual window and complete
commo check; if loud tone is heard, repeat
timing.
Sending Time (Net Control Aircraft)
1. Manual, preset, guard switch - Manual.
2. Set to internal frequency.
3. Rotate “T, 2,3, A“ switch to “T’' and hold.
4. Press tone button and hold (hear no tone).
5. “T, 2,3, A'' to internal frequency (.25 second
beep, then tone).
6. Call other aircraft to send time.
7. Press tone button to send time.
CONTROL
FUNCTION
Frequency selector
switch 2
Selects 10’s digit of
frequency (0 through 9) in
MHz.
Frequency selector
switch 3
Selects units digit of
frequency (0 through 9) in
MHz.
Frequency selector
switch 4
Selects tenths digit of
frequency (0 through 9) in
MHz.
Frequency selector
switch 5
Select hundredths and
thousandths digits of frequency (00,25,50, or 75) in
MHz.
Preset channel
selector switch
Selects one of 20 preset
channels.
MANUAL-PRESETGUARD selector
Selects method of frequency
selection.
MANUAL
Any of 7,000 frequencies is
manually selected using the
five frequency selector
switches.
PRESET
A frequency is selected
using the preset channel
selector switch for selecting
any one of 20 preset
channels as indicated on the
CHAN indicator.
GUARD
The main receiver and
transmitter are
automatically tuned to the
guard frequency. Blocks
out any frequency set either
manually or preset.
NOTE
Recall today’s WOD by reselecting presets
20 down thru 15, and hear beeps.
3-34. Antenna.
The UHF-AM antenna (figure 3-1) is located on the
bottom center fuselage area and is mounted directly
aft of the doppler fairing.
SQUELCH ON-OFF
switch
Turns squelch of main
receiver on or off.
VOL control
Adjusts volume.
TONE switch
Enables transmission and
headset monitoring of a
1.020-Hz tone on selected
frequency for maintenance
check only.
3-35. Controls and Functions (RT-1167).
Controls for the ARC-164(V) are on the front panel
of the unit (figure 3-29.1). The function of each control
is as follows:
CONTROL
FUNCTION
Frequency selector
switch 1
Selects 100’s digit of frequency (either 2 or 3) in
MHz.
3-46
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
CONTROL
FUNCTION
Mode selector switch
Selects operating mode:
OFF
Turns power off.
MAIN
Enables the transceiver.
BOTH
Enables transceiver and
guard receiver.
ADF
MANUAL-PRESET-GUARD selector
(2) Set
switch to MANUAL for manual frequency selection or
to PRESET for preset channel selection.
(3) To manually select a frequency, rotate the five
MHz selector switches until desired frequency is displayed in indicator window.
NOTE
Clockwise rotation of the MHz selector
switches increases frequency.
Not operational.
3-36. Controls and Functions (RT-1167C).
The controls and functions of the RT-1167C/ARC164(V) are identical to the RT-1167/ARC-164(V) with
the exception of the following:
Frequency selector
switch 1 (T-2-3-A)
NOTE
Clockwise rotation of preset channel selector switch will increase the desired channel
number (1 to 20).
FUNCTION
CONTROL
(4) To select a preset channel, rotate preset channel selector switch until desired channel is displayed
in preset CHAN indicator window.
Selects 100’s digit of frequency (either 2 or 3) in
MHz. The A position selects
the HAVE QUICK mode.
The T position (springIoaded) allows the radio to
receive a new time of day.
c. Transmit/Receive/Guard
Mode.
Monitor (BOTH)
(1) Set OFF-MAIN-BOTH-ADF selector switch to
BOTH.
NOTE
3-37. Modes of Operation.
Depending on the settings of the operating controls,
the radio set can be used for these modes of operation:
The BOTH position turns on the transceiver
and the guard receiver. The guard receiver
will remain turned to 243 MHz regardless of
manual or preset frequencies selected.
a. Control (Mode) Settings.
(2) Select desired manual frequency or preset
channel (paragraph 3-37b (3) and (4)).
(1) MAN mode: two-way voice communications.
(2) BOTH mode: utilizing the transceiver constant
monitoring of guard receiver without losing the use of
the transceiver.
(3) Transmission of 1,020 Hz TONE signal.
b. Transmit/Receive (MAIN) mode.
NOTE
If reception on the selected frequency interferes with guard reception; detune the set
by selecting an open frequency or place
MANUAL-PRESET-GUARD selector switch
to GUARD.
.
( 1 ) S e t OFF-MAIN-BOTH-ADF selector switch to
MAIN.
d. 1020 Hz TONE Signal Transmission (MAIN)
mode.
(1) Set OFF-MAIN-BOTH-ADF selector switch to
MAIN.
Change 7
3-47
TM 55-1520-210-10
(2) Select a desired frequency for TONE transmission. Refer to steps 3-37b (3) and (4).
(5) Press and release PRESET switch. Preset frequency is now loaded into memory.
(3) Push the TONE switch to transmit the 1020 Hz
signal.
3-39. VOICE SECURITY SYSTEM TSEC/KY-58.
NOTE
Tone-modulated signal may be used to
check out the radio set and isolate faulty
microphone circuitry.
e. HAVE QUICK mode (RT-1167C only).
The HAVE QUICK mode can be activated in one of
two ways:
The TSEC KY-58 provides secure voice (ciphony)
on the pilot’s VHF FM radio. The pilot uses the KY-58
remote control unit (RCU) located in his right-hand
console to operate the TSEC/KY-58, which in turn
controls the AN/ARC-186(V) (FM No.1) radio set (also
located in the right-hand console). Power to operate
the TSEC/KY-58 comes from the 28-vdc emergency
bus through a circuit breaker labeled KY-58 on the
pilot overhead circuit breaker panel. Two operating
modes are available: PLAIN mode for in-the-clear
voice transmission or reception, and C/RAD 1 (cipher
mode for secure radio transmission or reception.
(1) Set MANUAL-PRESET-GUARD switch to
MANUAL and set frequency selector switch 1 to A.
(2) Set MANUAL-PRESET-GUARD switch to
PRESET and set preset channel selector switch to
channel 20.
3-38. Operational Procedures Radio Set AN/ARC164.
a. Guard (Emergency) Operation.
(1) Set
MANUAL-PRESET-GUARD selector
switch to GUARD.
NOTE
Transmission on guard frequency will also
occur with transceiver manual frequency or
preset channel tuned to the guard frequency.
NOTE
The TSEC/KY-58 POWER switch must be
set to ON and the KY-58 circuit breaker
must be closed before VHF No. 1 radio
communication (plain or ciphered) is possible.
3-40. Controls and Functions.
Voice security system controls that require adjustment by the pilot include those on Z-AHQ Power Interface Adapter (located in the aft avionics bay), the
Z-AHP KY-58 Remote Control Unit (located in the
pilot’s right-hand console), and the TSEC/KY-58 (also
located in the pilot’s right-hand console). Each of
these devices is shown in figure 3-14. The function of
each control and indicator is as follows:
Z-AHQ POWER INTERFACE ADAPTER
CONTROL OR INDICATOR
b.
Loading Preset Channels.
(1) Use the manual frequency selector switches
to select the frequency to be placed into memory.
MANUAL-PRESET-GUARD selector
(2) Set
switch to PRESET.
(3) Turn preset channel selector switch to the
desired channel number.
(4) Raise switching unit cover.
3-48
FUNCTION
Change 7
BBV, DPV, BBN, DPN
4-position
switch
Set according to type of
radio being secured. Set
to BBV for pilot’s VHF
FM radio.
PTT button
(push-to-talk)
Clears crypto alarm that
occurs upon power up.
Alarm can also be
cleared by pressing any
push-to-talk switch in
the pilot compartment.
TM 55-1520-210-10
Z-AHQ POWER INTERFACE ADAPTER (cont)
CONTROL OR INDICATOR
FILTER lN/OUT
Selector
FUNCTION
Prevents adjacent
channel interference
when using radios with
channel spacing of 25
kHz. Must be set to IN
for pilot’s AN/ARC186(V) VHF-FM radio.
Z-AHP REMOTE CONTROL UNIT
MODE Switch
Set to OP (operate) to
use pilot’s VHF radio in
either the Ciphered or
Plain mode. Set to LD
(load) when installing
crypto-net variables
(CNV) in the TSEC/
KY-58 (TM 11-5810-26212&P). Set to RV
(receive variable)
during manual remote
keying (TM 11-5810-26212&P).
POWER
Turns KY-58 on and off.
Switch must be on (up) for
operation in either plain
or cipher mode.
FILL switch
Selects desired crypto-net
variable (CNV).
Z-AHP REMOTE CONTROL UNIT
CONTROL OR INDICATOR
REM/LOC Switch
ZEROIZE switch (twoposition toggle switch
housed under a springIoaded cover)
DELAY Switch
FUNCTION
Sets the Z-AHQ to the
local mode. Switch
returns to REM (remote)
position upon release,
but equipment remains
in local mode until any
PTT is keyed.
Use in an emergency to
delete all crypto-net
variables (CNVs) from
KY-58 registers. Renders KY-58 unusable
until new variables are
loaded.
Introduces time delay
that is necessary when
secure signal from
pilot’s VHF-FM radio is
to be retransmitted by
receiving station.
Switch is normally in
the down (off) position.
C/RAD 1/PLAIN switch
Set switch to C/RAD 1
(cipher radio 1) to use
secure voice. Set switch
to PLAIN when
operating radio in the
clear.
Switch guard
Rotate to the left to
prevent C/RAD 1/
PLAIN switch from
accidentally being set to
PLAIN.
FUNCTION
CONTROL OR INDICATOR
TSEC/KY-58
CONTROL OR INDICATOR
FUNCTION
VOLUME control
Sets audio level of pilot’s
VHF-FM radio.
MODE switch
Set to P (Plain) to operate
pilot’s VHF-FM radio in
the clear. Set to C
(Cipher) to operate pilot’s
VHF-FM radio in the
ciphered (secure speech)
mode. Set to LD (load)
when installing cryptonet variables (CNV) in
the TSEC/KY-58 (TM 115810-262-12&P). Set to
RV (receive variable)
during manual remote
keying (TM 11-5810-26212&P).
FILL connector
Used to load crypto-net
variables (CNV’S) into the
TSEC/KY-58 registers
(TM 11-5810-262-12&P).
Change
7
3-49
TM 55-1520-210-10
TSEC/KY-58 (cont)
CONTROL OR INDICATOR
FILL switch
FUNCTION
Pull knob and set to Z1-5
to zeroize (delete) cryptonet variables (CNV’s) in
TSEC/KY-58 registers 15.Set to 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 to
select desired CNV. Pull
knob and set to Z-ALL to
zeroize (delete) crypto-net
variables (CNV’s) in all
TSEC/KY-58 registers.
Zeroizing all registers
renders TSEC/KY-58
unusable.
Power switch
Set to OFF to turn off both
the TSEC/KY-58 and the
pilot’s VHF-FM radio.
Set to ON to operate the
TSEC/KY-58 and pilot’s
VHF-FM radio. Set to TD
(time delay) when secure
voice from pilot’s VHF-FM
radio is to be retransmitted.
3-41. Operation.
a.
(6) Set the Z-AHQ Power Interface Adapter FILTER selector to IN.
(7) Place the DELAY switch on the Z-AHP
Remote Control Unit (RCU) in the down (off) position.
(8) Set the C/RAD 1 -PLAIN switch on the Z-AHP
Remote Control Unit (RCU) to the C/RAD 1 position.
(9) Set the MODE switch on the Z-AHP Remote
Control Unit (RCU) to the OP position.
(10) Set the FILL switch on the Z-AHP Remote
Control Unit (RCU) to the proper crypto-net variable
(CNV).
(11) Set the POWER switch on the Z-AHP
Remote Control Unit (RCU) to the ON position.
NOTE
At this time you should hear and intermittent tone and background noise. The background noise is normal. The tone is a
crypto alarm that must be cleared before
the radio can be used. If step 12 does not
clear the intermittent tone, double check
steps 1 through 11. If necessary, refer to
TM 11-5810-262-OP.
Preliminary Operation.
NOTE
Before the pilot’s VHF-FM radio may be
operated in ciphered (secured voice) mode,
it must be loaded with one or more cryptonet variables (CNV’s). Refer to TM 115810-262-12&P for complete details on
loading these variables.
(1) Set the TSEC/KY-58 Power switch to ON.
(2) Set the TSEC/KY-58 MODE switch to C
(cipher).
(3) Set the TSEC/KY-58 VOLUME control to a
comfortable listening level.
(4) Set the TSEC/KY-58 FILL switch to any one of
the numbered storage register positions (1-6).
(5) Set the Z-AHQ Power Interface Adapter 4position switch to BBV.
3-50
Change 7
(12) Press and release the ICS switch on the pilot
cyclic stick or the pilot’s push-to-talk floor switch. This
should clear the crypto alarm.
b. Cipher Mode.
(1) After steps 1 through 12 (above) are complete,
the radio is ready to transmit and receive secure
speech in ciphered mode.
(2) To transmit, press any push-to-talk switch. You
may begin speaking following the beep.
c. Plain Mode.
(1) To transmit and receive in the clear, set the
C/RAD 1/PLAIN switch on the Z-AHP Remote Control
Unit to PLAIN.
(2) To transmit, press any push-to-talk switch. You
may begin speaking immediately.
TM 55-1520-210-10
d. Automatic Remote Keying (AK).
you to set your RCU FILL switch to position 6, and
stand by while the MK operation is repeated.
NOTE
3-42. Voice security System TSEC/KY-28.
Automatic Remote Keying (AK) causes an
old crypto-net variable in one of the
TSEC/KY-58 registers to be replaced by a
new one, or an empty register to be filled.
Your net controller simply transmits the new
CNV to your TSEC/KY-58
Not installed.
(1) Your net controller will contact you by using a
secure voice channel, and tell you to wait for an AK
transmission. You must not transmit during this peroid.
(2) You will hear one or two beeps in your headset
when the AK occurs.
e. Manual Remote Keying (MK).
NOTE
Manual Remote Keying (MK) requires you
to use the Z-AHP Remote Control Unit to
change crypto-net variables (CNV’s).
(1) The net controller will contact you by using a
secure voice channel. He will tell you to stand by for a
new or replacement CNV and that you will use an MK
action.
(2) Set the Z-AHP RCU FILL switch to position 6.
Notify the net controller by radio when you have done
this and stand by.
(3) The net controller will tell you to set the Z-AHP
RCU MODE switch by RV (receive variable). Notify
the net controller when you have done this and stand
by.
(4) When notified by the net controller, set the ZAHP RCU FILL switch to the storage position selected
to receive the CNV. Notify the net controller when you
have done this, and stand by.
(5) The net controller will ask you to listen for a
beep, wait two seconds, and set the Z-AHP RCU
MODE switch to OP (operate).
(6) If the MK operation was successful, the
controller will contact you via the new CNV. If the
operation was not successful, the net controller
contact you by a clear voice (plain) transmission,
net
MK
will
tell
Change 7
3-51
TM 55-1520-210-10
3-43. #2 VHF-FM-COMM AN/ARC-201.
a. Description. The #2 VHF-FM Comm AN/ARC201 provides VHF-FM radio communications of voice
data, secure or plain text, in single channel (25 KHz)
and the SINOGARS ECCM mode of operation. The
frequency range is 30 to 87.975 MHz channelized in
tuning increments of 25 KHz.
(1) In addition, a frequency offset tuning capability
of -10 KHz, -5 KHz +5 KHz and +10 KHz is provided
in both receive and transmit mode. This capability is
not used in the ECCM mode. Ninety-nine percent of
the emitted spectrum of analog and digitized voice (16
Kbs;) and data is contained within a 25 Khz channel.
(3) The #2 VHF-FM Comm AN/ARC-201 consists
of a Receiver-Transmitter Radio, Panel Mounted (RT1476).
3-44. HF-SSB RADIO SET AN/ARC-199.
a. Description. The AN/ARC-199 is a high frequency, single-side band radio set. It operates in 2.0
to 29.999 MHz frequency range using 280,000 channels separated by 100 Hz steps. The AN/ARC-199 is
capable of for retransmission of data or voice. The
system is capable of scanning any or all channels
once they have been programmed on the scanned list.
b. Display Fields, Control Knobs and Functions.
Refer to Figure 3-29.2.
(2) The #2 VHF-FM Comm AN/ARC-201 will provide independent FM Communications only. It will be
interfaced with #1 VHF-FM Comm/Homing AN/ARC201 for operation in the retransmit mode.
Figure 3-29.2
3-52
Change 7
Control-Display Panel Layout
TM 55-1520-210-10
Field/Functioning of Control-Display Panel
CONTROL/
INDICATOR
FUNCTION
1.
Channel - This field appears in inverse video to indicate that current channel
information has not been stored.
2.
Active channel number: 0-20.
3.
Modulation Mode: USB, LSB, AM, CW. CW represents MCW and may be used
in conjunction with the mic key to transmit code.
4.
Receive frequency in kilohertz.
5.
Transmit frequency in kilohertz.
6.
Squelch Level - Display MIN, 1,2,3 . . . . 13, 14, MAX in conjunction with squelch
knob in control panel.
7.
Receive Selective Address.
8.
Transmit Selective Address. In the sample display shown above, ON indicates
that SELADR mode is operational for RX. If SELADR is operational for TX, ON
is annunciated on the line with TX.
9.
Transmitter Output Power – LOW, MED, or HI.
10.
Modulation Source: The displays are:
Indicates 600 ohm data input.
DATA
CIPHER Indicates input form KY 75 input.
CLR-VC Indicates non-encrypted KY 75 input.
11.
Fault Field: Display fault messages, NOT TUNED, DATA NOT SAVED, and AUDIO
VOLUME LEVEL: VOL MIN 1,2,3....14, MAX.
12.
S: Indicates that the currently displayed channel is on the scan list.
13.
Indicates are: XMIT, TEST, SCAN, TUNE.
XMIT - transmitter is keyed & channel is tuned.
TEST - Built-in-test mode is active.
SCAN – Scan mode is active.
TUNE - Tuning for one or all channels - blank if not one of the above.
Change 7
3-53
TM 55-1520-210-10
Field/Functioning of Control-Display Panel (Cont)
CONTROL/
INDICATOR
14.
FUNCTION
K- Indicates KEY has been pressed, and the functions above the keys are active.
M - Indicates MODE has been pressed, and USB, LSB, AM, or CW should be
selected next. Indicates slewing may be used, or scan flag may be set or
cleared.
CONTROL PANEL KNOBS
15.
Function Select – Power ON/OFF, CRT brightness, audio volume and channel
number selection.
16.
Function – Control - Single-step, detent-type switch, with continuous rotation in
either direction. Clockwise rotation increases, and counterclockwise rotation
decreases the CRT brightness, audio volume, or channel number. In cases of
CRT brightness and audio volume, knob has no effect once limit of that particular
function has been reached. In channel select mode, function control knob is
continuously active. That is, channel 20 is always one position counterclockwise
from channel 0.
17.
Squelch Control - Continuous rotation in either direction; squelch level is
annunciated in field #6. Once upper or lower limit of squelch has been reached,
further rotation of knob in same direction has no effort.
c. Operating Modes/Functions.
(1) Power ON/OFF. On function Select Knob .(Reference no. 15 on control panel layout).
.
.
(2) Ready indication. When the radio is initially
powered on, a system ready message will be displayed for a few seconds. The channel 0 information
will then be displayed.
(3) CRT brightness. Set Function Select Knob to
BRT. Rotate the Function Control Knob in the desired
direction to increase or decrease brightness.
3-54
Change 7
(4) Audio Volume. Set Function Select Knob to
VOL, rotate the function Control Knob in the desired
direction to increase or decrease audio volume. Audio
volume is not a stored parameter. Audio volume level
is annunciated briefly in the fault area of the display
when the level is being changed. The display levels
are: MIN, 1, 2, 3 . . ...14. MAX. A secondary HF audio
volume control is located in the lower left console. See
figure 3-11.2. This is provided for audio level compatibility with the KY-75. Preset the CDU VOL level to
the max. position and adjust the secondary volume
control for the desired level.
TM 55-1520-210-10
(5) Channel Number. Channel number may be
changed using the Function Select and Function Control Knobs or by using a combination of keystrokes.
(6) Modulation Mode. Four modes are available:
USB, LSB, AM (AME), and CW (MCW). To change
from one mode to another, press MODE + desed
mode key + ENT.
(7) Receive Frequency. 2.0 - 29.9999 MHz,
programmable in 100 Hz steps. To change frequencies press KEY + FRQ RX+ desired frequency + ENT.
(8) Transmit Frequency. 2.0 - 29.9999 MHz,
programmable in 100 Hz steps. To change frequencies press KEY + FRQ TX + desired frequency + ENT.
(10) Transmit Selective Address. A 4-letter code
programmed by pressing .HE KEY + SEL TX + a 4-letter code + ENT. Transmit selective address mode is
activated with key sequence, KEY + SEL RX + ON +
ENT, or by activating SELADR RX and keying the mic.
(11) Receiver Selective Address. A 4-letter code
programmed by pressing KEY + SEL RX + 4-letter
code + ENT. Receive selective address mode is activated by using key sequence: KEY+ SEL RX + ON +
ENT.
(12) Output Power Level. Three output power
levels are selectable from the keyboard; LO, MED, or
HI. The key sequence used in KEY+ LO, MED, or HI
+ ENT.
(9) Squelch Level. Single step, detent-type control; squelch level is annunciated on the display and
varies from MIN, 1, 2, 3 . . . . 14, MAX. The squelch
level is not a stored parameter.
Figure 3-29.3 HF Volume Control
Change
7
3-55
TM 55-1520-210-10
(13) Modulation Source. Audio sources available
are CLR-VC (clear voice), DATA, or encrypted audio
when used with voice security equipment. CIPHER is
displayed when the KY 75 is in the secure voice
mode. DATA and CLR-VC modes are selectable from
control panel, when KY 75 is in non-secure mode,
using key sequence: KEY + (SV-DATA or CLR-VC) +
ENT. The modulation source is not a stored
parameter.
(14) Tune. By using appropriate key sequence,
either currently displayed channel or all 20 channels
may be turned to the antenna. The tuning information
is stored for future use with no tuning necessary. Current channel may be tuned by pressing KEY + TUNE
+ ENT. All 20 channels may be tuned by pressing KEY
+ TUNE + SCAN + ENT.
(18) CW Keying. To utilize the CW keying function, first place the radio in CW mode. This is accomplished by pressing the following key sequence:
MODE + CW + ENT. Now either the KEY key on the
control panel, or any external key switch (a mic key)
may be used to transmit CW.
d. Detailed operation.
(1) Channel Selection. Any one of 3 procedures
may be used to select a channel.
(a) Using Function Control Knob.
(15) TEST. Built-in-Test (BITE) feature allows
operator to test both receiving and transmitting
capabilities at several frequencies. Any failure to meet
predetermined performance levels results in a failure
message being displayed. This identifies the faulty
unit and provides a maintenance code. The test is initiated by pressing KEY + TEST + ENT.
(16) STORE. ENT key, used to terminate mode
changes, does not automatically store channel information; therefore, a store sequence is provided. The
key sequence is: KEY + STO + ENT.
Figure 3-29.4 Channel Selection
(17) SCAN. Displayed channels may be placed
on scan list by pressing SCAN + ON + ENT. It can be
removed from scan list by pressing SCAN + OFF +
ENT. To automatically scan those channels which
have been placed on scan list, press the SCAN key,
the ENT key.
(18) CW Keying. To utilize the CW keying function, first place the radio in CW mode. This is accomplished by pressing the following key sequence:
MODE + CW + ENT. Now either the KEY key on the
control panel, or any external key switch (a mic key)
may be used to transmit CW.
3-56
Change 7
1. Set Function Select Knob to CHAN; rotate
Function Control Knob to increment channel number,
or CCW to decrement channel number. If channels
are changed quickly, (approximately 2 channels per
second or faster), only word CHANNEL, and an inverse video channel number will be displayed on
screen until desired channel is reached.
TM 55-1520-210-10
(b) Channel Slewing.
(c) Using Numbered Keys.
1. Begin by pressing CH, but rather than using
arrow keys, use the numbered keys to directly enter
desired channel number. After first digit is pressed,
display will be blanked except for the word CHANNEL,
and inverse video channel number. Press ENT to display the information associated with the newly
selected channel.
NOTE
In procedures (b) and (c), if CLR is pressed
before ENT, the information displayed will
be that which was displayed prior to initiation of channel charge.
NOTE
Figure 3-29.5. Channel Slewing
1. Begin by pressing CH key, and note that up
and down arrows appear in the lower right corner,
(field 14). The up-arrow key increments the channel
number by one for each keystroke. The down-arrow
key decrements the channel number by one for each
keystroke. When the first keystroke using an arrow is
made, display will be blanked except for arrows, inverse video channel number, and the work CHANNEL.
Once desired channel has been selected, press ENT,
and desired channel information will be displayed
(See the following Notes).
Procedures (b) and (c) provide a convenient method of selecting channels,
should the function control knob be
damaged or otherwise become inoperable.
(2) Frequency Select.
(a) Frequency Select (RX or TX).
Figure 3-29.7.
Frequency Select
Figure 3-29.6. Numbered Keys
Change 7
3-57
TM 55-1520-210-10
1. To initially program, or change, the receive frequency for displayed channel, begin by pressing first
KEY and FRQ RX keys. Next, enter desired operating
frequency with the decimal point; for example,
12345.0. When new frequency has been correctly
entered, press ENT key, and new receive frequency
becomes operational.
2. Several changes occur on the display during
frequency change and these are as follows. A “K'' is
annunciated in lower right corner when KEY is
pressed (see Notes). The “K” is replaced by arrows
when FRQ RX is pressed, and receive frequency
digits field goes to inverse video mode. When the first
new frequency digit is entered, the previous receive
frequency is cleared. After the complete new frequency has been entered and ENT key is pressed, the display returns to normal.
3. When entering the frequency, a minimum of 4
digits must be entered before the decimal point is
entered. Otherwise an entry error will result and an
ENTRY ERROR message will be annunciated in the
fault field. The operator must then press the CLR key
and reenter an allowed frequency.
4. The transmit frequency is changed in the same
manner, but with the FRQ RX key replaced by FRQ
TX. The transmit frequency field (#5) will go to inverse
video.
Figure 3-29.8. Frequency Slewing (RX only)
1. Frequency slewing is in 100 Hz increments and
is accomplished using the up or down arrow keys.
Each keystroke of an arrow key changes the frequency by 100 Hz in the direction indicated by the arrow.
To use the frequency slewing feature, first KEY, then
FRQ RX is pressed. Then either the up or down arrows, and finally ENT when the desired frequency has
been reached. After FRQ RX is pressed, arrows will
be annunciated in the lower right corner, (field #14).
This cues the operator that slewing mode is available,
and the frequency digits field will be in inverse video.
When ENT is pressed the display will return to normal.
(b) Frequency Slewing (RX only).
2. Slewing of the transmit frequency is not allowed. Any attempt to do so will result in an error message being annunciated in the fault field.
3-58
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
(3) Power Level Select.
(4) Modulation Source Selection.
Figure 3-29.9. Power Level Select
Figure 3-29.10 Modulation Mode Source
(a) If high power lock is in effect, and HI is
selected, MED will be displayed.
(b) Display field 9 goes to inverse video when X is
pressed and until ENT is pressed. “K” is cleared once
“ENT’ is pressed.
NOTE
There is a switch on the front of the AM7201/U which can inhibit the high output
power mode.
(a) The key sequence shown above can select
the 600 ohm data input to the radio using the SVDATA key. Or it can select 150 ohm compressed audio
input, using the CLR-VC key. Display field #10 appears in inverse video when CLR-VC and SV-DATA is
pressed. It returns to normal when ENT is pressed.
(b) If voice security equipment indicates that its
output is encrypted, CIPHER will be annunciated on
the display. Otherwise, pressing CLR-VC displays
CLR-VC, and pressing SV-DATA displays DATA.
Change 7
3-59
TM 55-1520-210-10
(5) Modulation Mode.
(a) If new channel data is entered and not subsequently saved, “DATA NOT SAVED” will be annunciated in the fault field. The word CHANNEL will
appear in inverse video. Fault messages would have
priority over the message. The key sequence above
may be used to save new channel information. The
“K'' will be cleared from field 14 once ENT is pressed.
(7) Selective Address
(a) Selective Receive Address.
Figure 3-29.11.
Modulation Mode
(a) Field 3 appears in inverse video after X is
pressed and until ENT is pressed. “M'' appears in field
14 to indicate mode is being changed. “M” is cleared
once ENT is pressed.
(6) Store.
Figure 3-29.13. Selective Receive Address
1. Selective receive address is entered by pressing KEY, SEL RX, then the 4 different letters of the address, and finally ENT.
2. When SEL RX is pressed, the receive address
field (#7) goes to inverse video. After the address has
been entered and ENT has been pressed, the display
returns to normal.
Figure 3-29.12. Store
3-60
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
(b) Selective Transmit Address.
(8) SELADR ON/OFF.
Figure 3-29.14. Selective Transmit Address
1. Selective transmit address is entered by pressing KEY, the SEL TX, then 4-letter address, and finally
ENT.
2. When SEL TX is pressed, the transmit address
field (#8) goes to inverse video. After the address has
been entered and ENT has been pressed, the display
returns to normal.
NOTE
Four different letters must be used in the
code, and the arrangement of letters is irrelevant. The code ABCD is identical to the
code BADC, and the letters will be displayed in alphabetical order.
Figure 3-29.15. Seladr On/Off
(a) Seladr RX. To enable Seladr RX, use the key
sequence KEY + SEL RX + ON + ENT. With Seladr
enabled, receiver is fully squelched until correct
Seladr tones are received, and Seladr squelch overrides squelch control. To receive Seladr tones, radio
must be tuned to frequency on which Seladr tones,
radio must be turned to frequency on which Seladr
tones are to be transmitted, or be scanning for that
frequency. Reception of a matching, 4 tone Seladr
code causes the following events to occur. Seladr RX
will be deactivated. An audio tone will alert the
operator that he is being called. If the unit was previously scanning, scanning will cease. Squelch will
automatically be set to minimum.
NOTE
The operator can take the radio out of the
Seladr RX mode either by using the key sequence shown above, or by keying the mic.
Change 7
3-61
TM
55-1520-210-10
(b) Seldar TX. Seladr TX may be activated with
either the key sequence shown above, or, when
Seladr RX is active, with the mic key. When the keyboard is used, ON is annunciated in the Seladr TX
field. XMIT appears in display field 13, and the 4-letter
code is automatically transmitted for a predetermined
length of time. When mic keying is used, code will be
transmitted for predetermined time period. Or it can be
as long as mic is keyed, which ever is longer. Seladr
TX is deactivated by any keystroke, however, it is
recommended that the CLR key be used.
1. Upon initiation of Built-In-Test (BITE) sequence
using keystrokes shown, CRT will first display a
checkerboard pattern for a few seconds. Then, an inverse checkerboard pattern to test the individual character spaces on the CRT. TEST will be displayed in
field 13 with the rest of CRT blank for remainder of
test.
2. If BITE must be haulted prior to completion,
any keystroke will abort the test. However, for consistency, it is recommended that CLR be used as the terminating keystroke.
(9) Test Mode Display.
3. Once BITE is completed and failed/passed display is annunciated, CLR must be used to return to
normal operating conditions.
(a) Test Mode.
(b) Failed Test Display.
Figure 3-29.17. Failed Test Display
Figure 3-29.16.
Test Mode Display
1. First Row: Test Fail Message.
2. Third, fourth & fifth Rows: Unit(s) which failed
and failure code(s) for maintenance.
3. Seventh & eighth Rows: Test exit instruction.
3-62
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
(c) Passed Test Display.
Figure 3-29.18. Passed Test Display
(10) Tune Mode.
(a) Single Channel.
(b) All Channels.
Figure 3-29.20. Tune Mode-All Channels
1. This sequence will tune all channels which
have been programmed with frequency information.
Any keystroke will be capable of ending either of the
tune operations. It is recommended that CLR be used.
The “K'' cleared once ENT is pressed. TUNE indicator appears in field 13 when the TUNE key is
pressed and until tuning is complete.
2. If the mic is keyed, and a channel needs
tuning, “NOT TUNED” will be displayed in the fault
field.
(11) Scan Mode.
(a) Programming Scan.
Figure 3-29.19. Tune Mode-Single Channel
1. This sequence will tune only the channel currently displayed. Tune indicator appears in field 13
when TUNE is pressed and until tuning is complete.
The “K''s cleared once ENT is pressed.
Figure 3-29.21. Scan Mode
Change 7
3-63
TM 55-1520-210-10
1. To place a channel on, or remove a channel
from scan list, begin by pressing SCAN key. At this
point SCAN will be annunciated in field 13. Arrows will
be annunciated in field 14. The up-arrow key sets the
scan flag for the displayed channel. The down-arrow
key clears the scan flag for the displayed channel.
1. To scan channels which have been stored onto
scan list, press SCAN key and ENT key. When ENT is
pressed, the display, except for the channel number,
the word CHANNEL, and SCAN in field 13, will be
blanked. The channel number will change as scanning
takes place.
2. Once the flag has been set or cleared, press
ENT The arrows and SCAN will be cleared from the
display. If the scan flag was set, and “S will be annunciated in the lower left comer of the display. This indicates that the dislayed channel is on the scan list.
2. To terminate scanning, it is recommended that
the CLR key be used, although any keystroke is
capable of ending scanning. Normal radio operation
will be restored for that channel which was being
scanned when scanning was terminated.
NOTE
e. Example Programming One or More Channels.
The following procedure may be used to initially program a single channel with all the necessary operating
parameters. To program additional channels, simply
change the active channel number and duplicate the
procedure. Insert the operating information for the
channel.
The scan flag must be stored after being
entered in order for the channel to be
placed on the scan list.
(b) Executing Scan.
( 1 ) P o w e r on. Turn the Function Select Knob
clockwise one position to BRT. When the radio has
warmed up, a “system ready” message will be displayed for a few seconds. The channel 0 information
previously stored will be displayed.
(2) Set CRT Brightness. Adjust the Function Control Knob until the display has the desired brightness.
(3) Set Audio Volume. Set the function select
knob to the VOL position. Set the CDU VOL knob to
the max. position. Adjust the HF volume control to the
desired volume.
Figure 3-29.22. Executing Scan
3-64
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
(4) Set Squelch. With no reception of RF, use the
Squelch Knob to adjust the audio to the point where
background noise is muted.
(5) Channel Select. Turn Function Select Knob to
CHAN and adjust the Function Control Knob to the
desired channel.
(6) Operating Parameters. Use procedures in
Detailed Operation to select modulation mode, receive
and transmit frequencies, receive and transmit selective address, power level and modulation source.
Place the channel on the scan list if desired. Place in
retransmission mode if desired.
(7) Store. The information that has just been
programmed is now operational but is not yet permanently stored. If desired to permanently Store this
information for the displayed channel, use the store
procedure.
NOTE
The store function stores only the currently
displayed channel information. Therefore,
the store function must be implemented for
each individual channel before selecting a
new channel.
(8) Tune. After all the desired channels have been
programmed, initiate the tune sequence for all channels.
(9) Test. If a test of the AN/ARC-199 system is
desired, initiate the test sequence. The system may
be performed at any time after the system is powered
on. The radio is now ready to receive or transmit on
frequencies being displayed.
Figure 3-29.23. HF Volume Control
Change 7
3-65
TM 55-1520-210-10
3-45. DIRECTION FINDER SET AN/ARN-89.
a. Description. This low frequency automatic
direction finder radio (ADF) set provides either automatic or manual compass bearing on any radio signal
between 100 and 3,000 KHz. The ADF can identify
keyed or continuous wave (CW) stations. If there is no
HSI control installed, the ADF displays the bearing of
the helicopter relative to a selected radio transmission
on the horizontal situation indicator No. 2 bearing
pointer (Figure 3-29.29).
(1) If there is an HSI control installed the ADF can
display the bearing on either the No. 1 or No. 2
pointer. This is dependent upon the position of the HSI
control Mode Select Switch. This unit will also function
as AM or CW communication receiver.
b. Controls and Functions. Refer to Figure
3-29.24.
Figure 3-29.24 LF/ADF Control Panel C-7932/ARN-89
3-66
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions of LF/ADF Control Panel C-7932/ARN-89
FUNCTION
CONTROL
Mode selector switch
OFF
Audible tone for tuning to CW station, SS
Turns power off.
COMP
Provides operation as an ADF.
ATN
Provides for operation as an AM
receiver using sense antenna
LOOP
Provides for receiver operation as a
manual direction finder using loop only.
LOOP L-R control
Provides manual left and right control
of loop when operating mode selector in
LOOP position. It is spring loaded to
return to center.
AUDIO
Adjusts volume.
100 Kilohertz
coarse-tune
control knob
Tunes receiver in 100-KHz steps as
indicated by first two digits of KILOCYCLES indicator.
CW (COMP mode)
Enables tone oscillator to provide
audible tone for tuning to CW station,
when mode function switch is at COMP,.
CW (ANT or LOOP
mode)
Enables beat frequency oscillator to
permit tuning to CW station, when mode
function switch is at ANT or LOOP.
VOICE
Permits low frequency receiver to
operate as a receiver with mode switch
in any position.
TEST (COMP mode)
Provides slewing of loop through 180°
to check operation of receiver in COMP
mode. (Switch position is inoperative
in LOOP and ANT modes.)
TUNE Meter
Indicates relative signal strength
while tuning receiver to a specific
radio signal.
KILOCYCLES
Indicates operating frequency to which
receiver is tuned.
Change 7
3-67
TM 55-1520-210-10
c.
Operation
(b)
(1)
Starting Procedure.
(a)
ICS NAV receiver selector - ON.
(b)
Mode selector - COMP, ANT, or LOOP.
(c) The horizontal situation indicator No. 1 bearing
pointer displays the magnetic bearing to the ground
station from the helicopter. It is read against the
compass card when ADF is selected on the MODE SEL
BRG I switch.
(c)
Frequency - Select.
(d)
ICS NAV switch - ON
(d) CW, VOICE, TEST switch - CW or VOICE as al
propiate.
(e)
To test the ADF, when required.
(e)
1.
CW, VOICE, TEST switch - Test to see that No
ICS NAV switch - ON.
(f) Fine tune control - adjust for maximum upward ir
diction on TUNE meter.
HSVVSI MODE SEL BRG 2 switch - ADF.
1 bearing pointer changes about.
2. CW, VOICE, TEST switch - release.
(g)
AUDIO control - adjust as desired.
(2)
ANT Mode Operation.
(a)
Mode selector - ANT.
(a) Mode selector switch - LOOP
(b) ICS NAV switch - ON.
(b) ICS NAV switch - ON.
(c) Monitor receiver by listening.
(3) COMP Mode Operation.
(a) Mode selector - COMP.
(4) LOOP Mode Operation Manual direction finding
uses the LOOP mode.
(c) Turn LOOP L-R switch to L (left) (right) to
obtain an audio null and a tune In null. Watch HSI No. 1
bearing pointer for a display of magnetic bearing to or
from ground station against the compass card. In this
mode of operation two null positions 1800 apart as
possible
d.
3-68 Change16
Stopping Procedure. Mode selector - OFF.
TM 55-1520-210-10
3-45.1. DIRECTION FINDER SET AN/ARN-149 (MWO
1-1520-210-50-30 Installed).
a. Description. This low frequency automatic
direction finder (AD F) radio set provides either
automatic or manual compass bearing on any radio
signal between 100 and 2199.5 kHz. This frequency
range includes both commercial broadcast stations and
nondirectional beacons (NDB). If there is no Horizontal
Situation Indicator (HSI) control installed, the ADF
dismays the helicopter relative bearing to a selected
radio transmission on the horizontal situation indicator
NO. 2 bearing pointer (Figure 3-29.29 if HSI) (Ref Fig 321 if RMI).
(1) If there is a HSI control installed, the ADF can
display the bearing on either NO. 1 or NO. 2 pointer.
This is dependent upon the position of the HSI control
Mode Select Switch.
(2) If there is a RMI installed, the ADF will display
on NO 1 pointer when ADF is selected
b Controls and Functions. Ref to Figure 329.24.1.
Figure 3-29.24.1 ADF Control Panel C-12192/ARN-149(V)
Change 16
3-68.1
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions of ADF Control Panel C-12192/ARN-149(V)
CONTROL
FUNCTION
Mode Select Switch
OFF
Turns system power off.
ANT
System functions as an aural receiver providing only aural
output of the received signal
ADF
Provides operation as an ADF using the AN/ARN-149 antenna as a signal source, and the aural functions are enabled.
TEST
Test mode causing the RMI pointer to shift 90 degrees as a
self test.
TONE
Test mode causing the normal audio to be replaced by a
1000 hertz tone for continuous wave (CW) operation.
TAKE CMD
This switch Is used In a dual control system. Placing the
switch In the TAKE CMD position allows control of the receiver. (Not applicable for the UH-1 aircraft.)
VOL control
Controls the volume In 12 discrete steps.
MAN
Enables the frequency controls and indicators.
2182
Selects 2182 kHz as the operating frequency.
500
Selects 500 kHz as the operating frequency.
Frequency switches and indicators
3-68.2 Change 16
Allows frequency (kHz) selection in manual mode.
TM 55-1520-210-10
c.
Operation.
(1)
Normal ADF Operation
(a)
ICS NAV receiver selector - ON.
(b)
Mode selector switch - ADF.
(c)
Frequency - Select.
(d)
MAN/2182/500 switch - MAN.
(e)
HS/VSI MODE SEL BRG 2 switch - ADF.
(f)
VOL control - as desired.
(g) TEST/TONE control - TEST. Verify the RMI pointer
No. 2 rotates 90 degrees from present bearing Release
test switch.
(2)
ANT Mode Operation (Optional).
(a) Mode selector switch - ANT. Monitor receiver by
listening.
(b)
ICS NAV switch - ON.
d.
Stopping Procedures. Mode selector switch OFF.
3-46.
RADIO
(VOR/ILS/MB).
RECEIVING
SET
AN/ARN-123(V)
a. Description.
Radio set AN/ARN-123 (V)
(Figure3-29.5) Is a very high frequency receiver that
operates from 108 00 to 117 95 MHz.
Course
information is presented by the HSI course deviation
pointer and the selectable No. 2 bearing pointer on the
horizontal situation indicator. The combination of the
glide slope capability and the localizer capability makes
up the instrument landing system (ILS).
(1) The marker beacon portion of the receiver
visually indicates to the right of either the ID-2103 or ID988 a MB advisory light. A Tone can be heard In the
head-phones of passage of the helicopter over a marker
beacon transmitter
Change 16 3-68.3/(3-68.4 blank)
TM 55-1520-210-10
(2) The receiving set may be used as a VCR
receiver, or ILS receive. The desired type of operation
is selected by tuning the receiving set to the frequency
corresponding to that operation. ILS operation is
selected by tuning to the odd tenth MHz frequencies
between 108.0 and 112.0 MHz. VOR operation is
selected by tuning in .050 MHz units to the frequencies between 108.0 and 117.95 MHz. However, the
odd tenth MHz between 108.0 and 112.0 MHz are
reserved for ILS operation.
(3) The three receiver sections do the intended
functions independent of each other. Performance
degradation within any one of the major sections will
not affect the performance of the others. Power for the
AN/ARN-123 is provided from the dc essential bus
through a circuit breaker, marked VOR/lLS.
NOTE
Tuning to a Iocalizer frequency will automatically tune to a glide slope frequency,
when available.
b. Controls and Functions.
3-29.25.
Figure 3-29.25
Refer to Figure
Radio Receiving Set AN/ARN-123 (V).
Change 7
3-69
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions for VOR/lLS/MB Receivers
CONTROL
FUNCTION
NAV VOL-OFF control
Turns VOR/lLS receiver on and off,
adjusts volume.
MB VOL-OFF control
Turns marker beacon receiver on and
off; adjusts volume.
Megahertz tune
control
Tunes VOR/ILS receiver in MHz as
indicated on frequency indicator.
Hundredths megahertz
tune control
Tunes VOR/ILS receiver in hundredths
MHz as indicated on frequency indicator.
VOR/MB TEST control
Activates VOR test circuit and MB
receiver lamp self-test circuits.
MB SENS HI-LO control
For controlling MB sensitivity.
LO
Decreases receiver sensitivity: Results
in shortening time transmitted signal
will be received.
HI
Increases receiver sensitivity: Results
in lengthening time transmitted signal
will be received.
c. Operation.
(2) VOR/Marker Beacon Test.
(1) Starting Procedure.
(a) HSI CRS set -315 on COURSE set display.
(a) ICS AUX selector - ON.
(b) VOR/MB TEST switch - down and hold. The
MB light on the VSI should go on.
(b) NAV VOL OFF control - ON.
(c) HSI VOR/LOC course bar - centered ±1 dot.
(c) Frequency - Select.
(d) MODE SEL BRG 2 switch - VOR.
(d) No. 2 bearing pointer - Should go between
310 degree to 320 degree position.
(e) VOR/MB TEST switch - Release.
(e) MODE SEL VOR/lLS switch - ON.
3-70
Change 19
TM 55-1520-210-10
(3) Communications Test.
3-47. DOPPLER NAVIGATION SET AN/ASN-128.
(a) ICS AUX receiver selector- ON.
a. Description. T h e d o p p l e r n a v i g a t i o n s e t ,
AN/ASN-l28, in conjunction with the helicopter’s
heading and vertical reference systems, provides
helicopter velocity position. It also provides steering
information from ground level to 10,000 feet. The doppler navigation system is a completely self-contained
navigation system and does not require any groundbased aids.
(b) NAV VOL control - Adjust to midrange.
(c) VOR/MB TEST switch - Down and hold. Noise
should be heard in headphones.
(d) VOR/MB TEST switch - Release. Noise
should not be heard in headphones, indicating that
squelch is operation properly.
(4) VOR Operation.
Course - Set.
(5) ILS (LOC/GS) operation.
ILS operation frequency - Set.
(6) Marker Beacon (MB) Operation.
(a) MB VOL OFF switch - ON.
(b) MB SENS switch -as desired.
(7) VOR communications. Receiving Operation.
Frequency - Set.
(1) The system provides world-wide navigation,
with position readout available in both Universal
Transverse Mercator (UTM), and Latitude and Longitude (LAT/LONG). Navigation and steering is done
using LAT/LONG coordinates, and a bilateral UTMLAT/LONG conversion routine is provided for UTM
operation. Up to ten destinations may be entered in
either format and not necessarily the same format.
Preset position data entry format is also optional and
independent of destination format.
(2) The AN/ASN-l28 operates in conjunction with
the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) and a Horizontal Situation Indicator Control (HSI Control). A Compass Control C-8021/ASN-75 is also included to
synchronize Gyromagnetic Compass Set AN/ASN-43
to correct magnetic heading. This is accomplished
when in the SLAVED mode of operation.
b. Controls, Displays, and Function. The controls
and displays for the doppler are on the front panel
(Figure 3-29.26).
(8) Stopping Procedure.
NAV VOL OFF switch - OFF.
Change 7
3-71
TM
55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-29.26. Doppler Navigation Set AN/ASN-128.
Controls and Functions of Doppler Navigation Set.
CONTROL/INDICATOR
FUNCTION
Mode Selector
Selects Doppler Navigation of operation.
OFF
Turns navigation set off.
LAMP TEST
Checks operation of all lamps.
TEST
Initiates built-in-test exercises for navigation set.
UTM
Selects Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
navigational mode of operation
LAT/LONG
Select latitude/longitude navigational mode of operation.
BACKUP
Places navigation set in estimated mode of operation or
estimated velocity mode of operation.
DISPLAY Selector
Selects navigation data for display.
WIND SP/DIR
Not applicable.
XTK-TKE
(Left Display)
(Right Display)
Distance crosstrack (XTK) of initial course to destination
in km and tenths of a km. Track angle error (TKE) in
degrees displayed as right or left of bearing to destination.
GS-TK (Left Display)
Ground speed (GS) in (Left Display) km/hr.
3-72
Change 7
Controls and Functions of Doppler Nav. Set ASN-128 - CONT.
CONTROL/INDICATOR
FUNCTION
(Right Display)
Track angle (TK) in degrees
PP with switch set
to UTM (Center
Display)
Present position UTM zone.
(Left Display)
Present position UTM area square
designator and casting in km to nearest
ten meters.
(Right Display)
Present position UTM area northing in km
to nearest ten meters.
PP with MODE switch
set to LAT/LONG
(Left Display)
(Right Display)
Present position latitude in degrees,
minutes and tenths of minutes.
DIST/BRG-TIME
(Center Display)
(Left Display)
Time to destination selected by FLY TO
DEST (in minutes and tenth of minutes).
Distance to destination selected by FLY TO
DEST (in KM and tenths of a km).
Bearing to destination selected by FLY TO
DEST (in degrees).
(Right Display)
DEST-TGT (Mode
switch set to UTM)
(Center Display)
(Left Display)
(Right Display)
Present position longitude in degrees,
minutes and tenths of minutes.
UTM zone of destination selected by DEST
DISP thumbwheel.
UTM area and casting of destination set on
DEST DISP thumbwheel.
Northing of destination set on DEST DISP
thumbwheel.
DEST-TGT (Mode
switch set to LAT/
LONG (Left Display)
(Right Display)
Longitude of destination set on DEST DISP
thumbwheel.
SPH-VAR
(Left Display)
Spheriod code of destination set on DES
DISP thumbwheel.
(Right Display)
Magnetic variation (in degrees and tenths
of degrees) of destination set on DEST
DISP thumbwheel.
Latitude (N 84° or S 80° max.) of destination set on DEST DISP thumbwheel.
Change 7
3-73
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions of Doppler Navigation Set - CONT.
CONTROL/INDICATOR
MEM
Indicator
MAL
Indicator
DIM
Control
Lamp
Lamp
FUNCTION
Lights when radar portion of navigation
set is in non-track condition.
Lights when navigation set malfunction
is detected by built in self-test.
Controls light intensity of display
characters.
Left, Right, and
Center Display
Lamps
Lights to provide data in alphanumeric
and numeric characters, as determined by
setting of DISPLAY switch, MODE switch,
and operation of keyboard.
Target Storage
indicator
Displays destination number (memory location)
in which present position will be stored when TGT
STR pushbutton is pressed.
TGT STR Pushbutton
KYBD Pushbutton
Stores present position data when pressed.
Used in conjunction with the keyboard to
allow data to be displayed and subsequently entered into the computer when the ENT
key is pressed.
DEST DISP
Thumbwheel
Destination display thumbwheel switch is
used along with DEST-TGT and SPH-VAR position of DISPLAY switch. Used to select
destination whose coordinates or magnetic
variation are to be displayed, or to be
entered. Destinations are 0 through 9, P
(Present Position) and H (Home).
Keyboard
3-74
Change 7
switch
Used to setup data for entry into memory.
When the DISPLAY switch is turned to the
position in which new data is required, the
KYBD pushbutton is pressed. Data maybe
displayed on the appropriate left, right
and center display. To display a number,
press corresponding key or keys (1 through
0). To display a letter, first depress key
corresponding to desired letter. Then
depress a key in left, middle, or right
column, corresponding to position of the
letter on the key. Example: To enter an L,
first depress L, then 3,6, or 9 in the
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls and Functions of Doppler Navigation Set - CONT.
CONTROL/INDICATOR
FUNCTION
FLY-TO-DEST
Thumbwheel switch
Selects the destination for XTK/TKE and
DIST/BRG/TlME. They are displayed when
DISPLAY switch is turned to either of
these positions which steering information
is desired. Destinations are 0 through 9,
P (Present Position) and H (Home).
ENT Key
Enters data set upon keyboard into memory
when pressed.
CLR Key
Clears last entered character when pressed
once. When pressed twice, clears entire
display panel under keyboard control.
Figure 3-29.27 Doppler Lamp Test Mode Display
Change 7
3-75
TM 55-1520-210-10
c. Modes of Operation. The three basic modes of
operation are: Navigate, test, and backup.
(1) Test Mode. The TEST mode contains two
functions: LAMP TEST mode, in which all display segments are lit, and TEST mode, in which system operation is verified. In LAMP TEST mode, system
operation is identical to that of navigate mode. With
exception that all lamp segments and MEM and MAL
indicator lamps are lighted to verify their operation
(see Figure 3-27.2).
(a) The TEST mode, the system antenna no
longer transmits or receives electromagnetic energy.
Instead, self generated test signals are inserted into
the electronics to verify operation. System operation
automatically reverts into the backup mode during test
mode. Self-test of the doppler set is done using builtin-test equipment (BITE), and all units connected and
energized for normal operation.
(b) Self-test isolates failures to one of the three
units. The computer-display unit (except for the keyboard and display) is on a continuous basis. Any
failure is displayed by turn-on of the MAL indicator
lamp on computer-display unit. The signal data converter and receiver-transmitter-antenna are tested by
turning MODE switch to TEST. Failure of those components is displayed on computer-display unit by turnon of the MAL indicator lamp. Identification of the
failed unit is indicated by a code on the display panel
of the computer-display unit.
(c) Continuous monitoring of the signal data converter and receiver-transmitter-antenna is provided by
the MEM indicator lamp. The MEM indicator lamp will
light in normal operation when flying over smooth
water. However, if lamp remains on for over 10
minutes, over land or rough water, there is a malfunction in the doppler set. Then the operator should turn
the MODE switch to TEST, to determine the nature of
the malfunction. Keyboard operation is verified by observing the alphanumeric readout as the keyboard is
used.
(2) Navigate Mode. In navigate mode (UTM or
LAT/LONG position of the MODE selector), power is
applied to all system components. All required outputs
and functions are provided. Changes in present position are computed and added to initial position to
determine the instantaneous Iatitude/longitude of the
helicopter. Destination and present position coordinates can be entered and displayed in UTM and
latitude/longitude. At the same time, distance, bearing
and time-to-go to any one of ten preset destinations
are computed. They are displayed as selected by the
FLY-TO-DEST thumbwheel.
(3) Backup Mode. In this mode, remembered
velocity data are used for navigation. The operator
can insert ground speed and track angle with the keyboard and the display in GS-TK position. This remembered velocity data can be manually updated through
use of the keyboard and CDU DISPLAY switch in the
GS-TK position. When GS-TK values are inserted
under these conditions, navigation continues using
only these values.
d. Operation.
3 - 7 6
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
(1) Window Display and Keyboard Operation. In
all data display except UTM coordinates, the two fields
are the left and right display windows. In UTM coordinates displays, the first field of control is the center
window. The second field is the combination of the left
and right displays. When pressing the KYBD pushbutton, one or other of the fields described above is
under control.
(a) If it is not desired to change display under control, the pilot can advance to next field of display
panel. This is done by pressing the KYBD pushbutton
again. The last character entered may be cleared by
pressing the CLR key. That character may be a symbol or an alphanumeric character. However, if CLR
key is pressed twice in succession, all characters in
the field under control will be cleared. That field will
still remain under control.
(2) Data Entry. To enter a number, press the corresponding key. To enter a letter, press the key corresponding to the desired letter. Then press a key in
left, middle, or right column corresponding to position
of letter on pushbutton. Example: To enter an L, first
press L, then either 3, 6, or 9 in the right column. The
computer program is designed to reject unacceptable
data (for example, a UTM area of WI does not exist,
and will be rejected). If the operator attempts to insert
unacceptable data, the display will be blank after ENT
is pressed.
(a) MODE selector - L A M P T E S T . A l l l i g h t s
should be lit.
1. Left, right, Center and Target storage indicator Lit (Figure 3-29..27). All other lights should be on.
2. Turn DIM control fully clockwise, then fully
counterclockwise, and return to full clockwise. All segments of the display should alternately glow brightly,
go off, and then glow brightly.
(b) MODE selector - TEST. After about 15
seconds left display should display GO. Ignore the
random display of alpha and numeric characters
which occurs during the first 15 seconds. Also ignore
test velocity and angle data displayed after the display
has frozen. After about 15 seconds, one of the following five displays will be observed in the first two character positions in the left display.
NOTE
If the MAL lamp lights during any mode except LAMP TEST, the computer-display unit
MODE switch turn to OFF. The turn to
TEST, to verify the failure. If the MAL LAMP
remains on after recycling to TEST, notify
organizational maintenance personnel.
(3) Start Procedure.
Change 7
3-77
TM 55-1520-210-10
Test Mode Display and Remarks
DISPLAY
REMARKS
LEFT
RIGHT
GO
No display
Display Blanks (normal).
If right display is blank, system is operating satisfactorily.
GO
P
If right display is P, then pitch or roll data is missing, or
pitch exceeds 90°. In this case, pitch and roll in the computer are both set to zero and navigation continues in a
degraded operation. Problem may be in the vertical gyroscope or helicopter cabling.
NOTE
If TEST mode display is BU, MN or NG, MODE switch
should be recycled through OFF. This verifies that failure
is not a momentary one. If the TEST mode display is BU
or MN, the data entry may be made in the UTM or
LAT/LONG mode. However, any navigation must be carried on with the system in the BACKUP mode.
BU
C, R, S, or H
followed by a
numeric code
A failure has occurred and the system has automatically
switched to a BACKUP mode of operation as follows:
1. The operator has the option of turning the MODE
switch to BACKUP and entering the best estimate of
ground speed and track angle.
2. The operator has the option of turning the MODE
switch to BACKUP. He enters his best estimate of wind
speed, direction, ground speed and track angle. Update
present position as soon as possible, because the significant navigation errors may have accumulated.
3-78
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
Test Mode Display and Remarks - CONT.
REMARKS
DISPLAY
LEFT
RIGHT
MN
C, R, S, or H
followed by a
numeric code
A failure has occurred and the BACKUP mode used for
manual navigation (MN), is the only means of valid
navigation. The operator may use the computer as a
dead reckoning device by entering ground speed and
track data. The operator should update present position
as soon as possible, because it is possible significant
navigation errors may have accumulated.
NG
C, R, S, or H
followed by a
numeric code
A failure has occurred in the system and the operator
should not use the system.
EN
The 9V battery has failed. All stored data must be
reentered.
NOTE
If the TEST mode display is BU, MN or NG, the MODE
switch should be recycled through OFF. This verifies that
the failure is not a momentary one. If the TEST mode display is BU or MN, the data entry may be made in the
UTM or LAT/LONG mode. However, any navigation must
be carried on with the system in the BACKUP mode.
(4) Entering UTM Data. This initial data is inserted
before navigating with the doppler.
(a) Spheroid of operation, when using UTM coordinates.
(b) UTM coordinates of present position - zone,
area, casting (four significant digits) and northing (four
significant digits; latitude/longitude coordinates may
be used).
(c) Variation of present position to the nearest
one-tenth of a degree.
(d) Coordinates of desired destination -0 through
5 and H; (6 through 9 are normally used for target
store locations but may also be used for destinations).
It is not necessary to enter all destinations in the same
coordinate system.
NOTE
It is not necessary to enter destinations.
Unless steering information, updating
present position, or a present position
variation computation is desired. If a
present position variation running update is
desired, destination must be entered. The
operator may enter one or more destinations to effect the variation update. If is not
necessary for all destinations to have associated variations entered.
Change 7
3-79
TM 55-1520-210-10
(e) Variations of destinations to be to nearest onetenth of a degree.
(5) Entering Spheroid and/or Variation.
(a) MODE selector - UTM, LAT/LONG or BACKUP.
(b) DISPLAY selector - SPH-VAR.
(c) DEST DISP thumbwheel - P, numeral, or H as
desired.
(d) KYBD pushbutton - Press. Observe display
freezes and TGT STR indicator blanks. Press KYBD
pushbutton again and observe left display blinks. If no
spheroid data is to be entered, KYBD pushbutton Press again, go to Step g.
(e) Spheroid data - Entry. (Example: INO). Press
keys 3 (left window blanks), 3, 5, 5 and 0. Left display
should indicate INO.
(f) ENT pushbutton - Press if no variation data is
to be entered.
(6) Entering Present Position or Destination in
UTM.
(a) MODE selector - UTM.
(b) DISPLAY selector - DEST-TGT.
(c) DEST DISP thumbwheel - P, numerical, or H
as desired.
(d) Present position and destination - Enter. (Example: Entry of zone 31 T, area CF, casting 0958 and
northing 3849.)
1. KYBD pushbutton - Press. Observe that display freezes and TGT STR indicator blanks.
2. KYBD button - Press. Observe that center display blanks.
3. Key 3, 1,7 and 8- Press.
4. KYBD button - Press. Observe left and right
displays blank.
5. Key 1, 0, 9, 5, 8, 3, 8, 4, 9- Press.
(g) KYBD pushbutton - Press, if variation data is
to be entered, and note right display blanks. (If no
variation data is to be entered, ENT key - Press.)
(h) Variation data - Enter. (Example: E001.2,
press keyboard keys 2 (right window blanks), 2, 0, 0, 1
and 2. Press ENT key, the entire display will blank and
TGT STR number will reappear, display should indicate INO E001 .2).
3-80
Change 7
6. ENT pushbutton - Press. Left, right, and center
displays will momentarily blank and TGT STR number
will appear. D i s p l a y s s h o u l d i n d i c a t e 3 1 T C F
09583849.
TM 55-1520-210-10
(8) Ground Speed and Track.
(7) Entering Present Position or Destination Variation in LAT/LONG. The variation of a destination must
be entered after the associated destination coordinates are entered. As each time a destination is
entered its associated variation is deleted. The order
of entry for present position is irrelevant.
NOTE
IF operation is to occur in a region with
relatively constant variation, the operator
enters variation only for present position.
The computer will use this value throughout
the flight.
(a) MODE selector - LAT/LONG.
(a) MODE selector - BACKUP.
(b) DISPLAY selector - GS-TK.
(c) Ground speed and track - Enter. (Example:
Enter 131 km/h and 024°. Press KYBD pushbutton,
observe that left display freezes and TGT STR indicator blanks. Press keys 3 and 1. Left display indicates 131. Press KYBD pushbutton, control shifts to
right display, and right display blanks. Press keys 0, 2
and 4.
(d) ENT pushbutton - Press. The entire display
will blank, and TGT STR number will reappear. Display should indicate 131 024°.
(b) DISPLAY selector - DEST-TGT.
(c) DEST DISP thumbwheel - P, numerical or H as
desired.
(d) Present position of destination - Enter. (Example: Entry of N 41° 10.1 minutes and E 035° 50.2
minutes.) Press KYBD pushbutton. Observe that display freezes and TGT STR indicator blanks. Press
KYBD pushbutton again and observe left display
blanks. Press keys 5, 5, 4, 1, 1, 0 and 1. Press KYBD
pushbutton (right display should clear), and keys 2, 2,
0, 3, 5, 5, 0 and 2.
(e) ENT pushbutton - Press. Entire display will
blank and TGT STR number will reappear. Display
should indicate N41° 10.1 E 035° 50.2
(9) Initial Data Entry. Initial data entry variation
coordinates are normally done prior to takeoff. To
make the initial data entry, do the following:
(a) Present position - variation - Enter Paragraph
5.
(b) DISPLAY selector - DEST-TGT.
(c) DEST DISP thumbwheel - P. Do not press
ENT key now.
(d) ENT pushbutton - Press as helicopter is sitting
over or overflies initial fix position.
(e) FLY-TO DEST thumbwheel - Desired destination location.
Change 7
3-81
TM 55-1520-210-10
(10) Update of Present. Position From Stored
Destination. The helicopter is flying to a destination
set by the FLY-TO DEST thumbwheel. When the
helicopter is over the destination, the computer updates the present position when the KYBD pushbutton
is pressed. Use stored destination coordinates for
destination number shown in FLY-TO DEST window.
Add the distance traveled between the time KYBD
pushbutton was pressed and ENT key was pressed.
(a) DISPLAY selector - DIST/BRG TIME.
3. Compare landmark coordinates with those on
display.
4. Landmark coordinates - Enter. If difference
warrants an update.
5. ENT key - Press is update is required.
6. DISPLAY selector - Set to some other position
to abort update.
(b) Method 2.
(b) KYBD pushbutton - Press, when helicopter is
over the destination. Display freezes.
NOTE
If a present position update is not desired,
set the DISPLAY selector to some other
position. This aborts the update mode.
(c) ENT key - Press.
(11) Update of Present Position from Landmark.
There are two methods for updating present position
from a landmark. Method 1 is useful if the landmark
comes up unexpectedly and the operator needs time
to determine the coordinates. Method 2 is used when
a landmark update is anticipated.
(a)
1.
Method 1.
DISPLAY selector - PP.
2. KYBD pushbutton - Press as landmark is overflown. Present position display will freeze.
1. DISPLAY selector - DEST/TGT.
2. DEST DISP thumbwheel - P. Present position
coordinates should be displayed.
3. KYBD pushbutton - Press, observe that display
freezes.
4. Landmark coordinates - Manually enter via keyboard.
5. ENT key - Press when overflying landmark.
6. DISPLAY selector - Set to some other position
to abort update.
(12) Left-Right Steering Signals. Flying shortest
distance to destination from present position.
(a) DISPLAY selector - XTK-TKE.
(b) MODE SEL - DPLR.
(c) Fly helicopter in direction of lateral deviation
pointer or vertical situation indicator. Center the
pointer or course deviation baron HSI.
3-82
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
(13) Target Store (TGT STR) operation. Two
methods may be used for target store operation.
Method 1 is normally used when time is not available
for preplanning a target store operation. Method 2 is
used when it is desired to store a target in a specific
DEST DISP position.
(a) Method 1.
1. TGT STR pushbutton - Press when flying over
target.
6. If, it is not desired to store the target, place
DISPLAY selector momentarily to another position.
(14) Transferring Stored Target Coordinates From
One Location to Another. The following procedure allows the operator to transfer stored target coordinates
from one thumbwheel location to another. For example, it is assumed that the pilot wants to put the
coordinates of stored target 7 into location of destination.
NOTE
2. Present position is automatically stored. The
destination location is that which was displayed in target store indicator (position 6, 7, 8 or 9) immediately
before pressing TGT STR pushbutton.
Range, time-to-go, bearing and left/right
steering data are computed and displayed
for destination selected via FLY-TO DEST
thumbwheel.
(b) Method 2.
(a)
DISPLAY selector -DEST-TGT.
(b)
DEST DISP thumbwheel -7.
2. DISPLAY selector - DEST-TGT.
(c)
KYBD pushbutton - Press.
3. DEST DISP thumbwheel - P.
(d)
DEST DISP thumbwheel -2.
(e)
ENT key - Press.
1. MODE selector - UTM or LAT/LONG, depending on coordinate format desired.
4. KYBD pushbutton - Press when over flying
potential target. Display should freeze.
NOTE
Do not press ENT key while DEST DISP
thumbwheel is at P.
(14) Transferring Variation From One Location to
Another. To transfer variation data to same location
where associated stored target coordinates has been
transferred is the same as in Stored Target Coordinates From One Location To Another, except that
the DISPLAY selector is placed at SPH-VAR.
5. If it is not desired to store the target, turn DEST
DISP thumbwheel to destination location desired and
press ENT key.
Change 7
3-83
TM 55-1520-210-10
(15) Dead Reckoning Navigation. As an alternate
BACKUP mode, dead reckoning navigation can be
done using ground speed and track angle estimates.
(a) MODE selector - BACKUP.
(b) If battery does not stored destination data, the
display will indicate on EN when power returns. This
indicates to the pilot that previously stored data has
been lost. Present position, spheroid/variation, and
destinations must be entered.
(c) Best estimate of ground speed and track angle
- Enter via keyboard.
(c) The computer, upon return of power, resets
presents position variation to E OOO.OO. Resets destination and associated variations to a non-entered
state, remembers wind to zero and spheroid to CL6.
(d) Set MODE selector to any other position to
abort procedure.
(d) The following data must be entered following
battery failure:
(b) DISPLAY selector - GS-TK.
(16) Operation During and After Power Interruption. During a dc power interruption or when power is
removed, random access memory (RAM) (stored destination and present position) data is retained.
1. Enter spheroid.
2. Enter present position variation.
3. Enter present position.
(a) It is retained by power from an 8.4 volt dc dry
cell battery. This makes it unnecessary to reenter any
navigational data when power returns or before each
flight.
Figure 3-29.28. Horizontal Situation indicator Control (C-11740/A)
3 - 8 4
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
4. Enter each destination and its associated variation.
e. Stopping Procedure.
(2) The CRS DEVN Control Switch (Course
Deviation) selects DPLR, FM, HOME or VOR functions to be displayed on the HSI vertical needle. The
ID - 250 RM indicator only displays ADF on the No. 1
pointer and VOR on the No. 2 pointer.
Mode selector - OFF.
g. Horizontal Situation lndicator.
f. HSI Control.
Controls and Indicators. Refer to Figure 3-29.29.
(1) BEARING POINTER NO. I & II Control Switch
(Figure 3-29.28) selects either ADF/VOR, DPLR/ADF
or DPLR/ADF bearing information to be displayed on
the No. I & II BEARING POINTERS on the horizontal
situation indicator (HSI).
Figure 3-29.29 Horizontal Situation Indicator (lD-2103/A)
Change 7
3 - 8 5
TM 55-1520-210-10
Controls/Functions of Horizontal Situation Indicator
CONTROL
FUNCTION
Compass card
The compass is a 360° scale that turns to display heading
data obtained from the compass control. The helicopter
headings are read at the upper lubber line.
Bearing pointer
No. 1
The pointer operates in conjuction with Doppler. Indicates
relative bearing to doppler destination set on FLY-TO-DEST
thumbwheel.
Bearing pointer
No. 2
The pointer operates in conjunction with selected VOR or
ADF receiver. The pointer is read against the compass card
and indicates the magnetic bearing of the VOR or ADF
station.
Course deviation
bar
This bar indicates lateral deviation from a selected course.
When the helicopter is flying the selected course, the course
bar will be aligned with the course set pointer. It will be
centered on the fixed aircraft symbol.
CRS knob
Course set (CRS) knob and the course set counter operate
in conjunction with the course pointer. Allows the pilot to
select any of 360° courses. Once set, the course pointer
will turn with the compass card. It will be centered on the
upper lubber line when the helicopter is flying the selected
course.
KM indicator
Digital distance display in kilometers (KM) to destination set
on doppler DEST DISP.
HDG knob
Heading set (HDG) knob operates in conjunction with the
heading select marker. Allows the pilot to select any one of
360° headings. Seven full turns to the knob produces a
360° turn to the marker.
TO-FROM arrow
To-from arrow indicates that the helicopter is flying to or
away from a selected VOR.
NAV flag
The NAV flag at the top of the to indicator, turns with the
compass card. The flag will retract from view when a reliable
navigation signal is being applied to the instrument.
3-86
Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 3-29.30. Voice Security System Equipment
Change 7
3-87
TM 55-1520-210-10
Nomenclature
Common Name
Use
Range
V1
V2
V3
V4
Control Intercommunications
Set C-1611/AlC
ICS Box
Integrate Interphone
and all communications
equipment
Stations within
helicopter
X
X
X
X
Receiver-Transmitter, Radio
RT-823/ARC-131
FM Radio
Two-way voice
communications
Line of sight
X
X
X
X
TSEC/KY-28
Voice Security
Equipment
Secure two-way voice
communications
X
X
Receiver-Transmitter, Radio
RT-742/ARC-51BX
UHF Radio
set
Two-way voice
communications
Line of Sight
X
X
Receiver-Transmitter, Radio
RT-1167/ARC-164
UHF Radio
set
Two-way voice
communications
Line of Sight
X
X
TSEC/KY-58, Z-AHP Control
Indicator and Z-AHQ Adapter
Voice Security
Equipment
Secure two-way voice
communications
N/A
HYL-3/TSEC
Regenerative Repeater
HYL-3/TSEC
Used to increase
link reliability
N/A
MX-9331A/URC
Regenerative Repeater
Repeater
Used to increase
link reliability
Receiver-Transmitter
RT-1343/TSQ-129
Basic User Unit (BUU)
PLRS
Position Locating
Reporting System
Message Processor
N/A
X
X
N/A
X
X
N/A
X
X
X
X
Figure 3-30. AN/ASC-15A(V) 1,2,3, and 4 Equipment Configuration (Sheet 1 of 3)
3-88 Change 7
TM 55-1520-210-10
Nomenclature
Common Name
Use
Range
V1
V2
V3
V4
C-10830-/PSQ-4 ControlReadout Unit
URO
Enter and display
message
N/A
X
X
CN-1547/ASQ-177,
SM-D-911821 Power Adapter
Voltage
Regulator
Provide power for
the BUU
N/A
X
X
MX-9545/VR
Vehicle Adapter
Voltage
Regulator
Provide power for
the Repeater
N/A
X
X
C-8157/ARC
Control Indicator
Control
Control for the
ARC-131
N/A
X
X
VHF-AM Comm
ARC/186
VHF-FM
Command
Set
Two-way voice
Communications
Line of Sight
#1 VHF-FM Comm/Homing
ARC/201
VHF-FM
Comm/Homing
Two-way voice
Communications
Line of Sight
#2 VHF-FM Comm
ARC/201
VHF-FM
Comm Set
Two-way voice
Communications
Line of Sight
HF-AM Communications System
ARC/199
HF Radio Set
Two-way voice
Communications
Long Range
HF Comm Sec.
TSEC/KY-75
COMSEC
Secure Voice
HF ARC-199
X
X
N/A
Figure 3-30. AN/ASC-15A(V) 1,2,3, and 4 Equipment Configuration (Sheet 2 of 3)
3-89 Change 7
TM
55-1520-210-10
Nomenclature
Common Name
Use
Range
Direction Finder Set
ARN/89
Direction
Finder Set
Radio Range
Navigation
150 to 200 Mi
Radio Navigation System
ARN/123
VHF Navigation Set
VHF Navigational
and VHF Audio
Line of Sight
Doppler Navigation Set
ASN/128
Doppler Navigation Set
Navigational system
Long Range
Gyromagnetic Compass Set
ASN/43
Gyromagnetic
Compass
Navigational Aid
N/A
IFF Transponder
AN/APX-100
Transponder
Set
Navigational Aid
Line of Sight
VI
V2
V3
Figure 3-30. AN/ASC-15A(V) 1,2,3, and 4 Equipment Configuration (Sheet 3 of 3)
3 - 9 0
Change
7
V4
TM 55-1520-210-10
Chapter 4
Mission
Equipment
Section 1.
ARMAMENT
4-1. Armament Subsystem M23 The armament
subsystem M23 is attached to external stores hard
point fittings on both sides of the helicopter. The two
flexible 7.62 millimeter machine guns M60D are free
pointing but limited in traverse, elevation, and depression by cam surfaces and stops on pointless
and pintle post assemblies of the two mount assemblies on which the M60D machine guns are
mounted. An ejection control bag is latched to the
right side of each M60D machine gun to hold the
spent cases, unfired rounds and links. Cartridges
travel from ammunition box and cover assemblies to
M60D machine gun through flexible chute and brace
assemblies. The following paragraphs describe machine gun M60D components.
WARNING
Pressing the trigger to release the bolt
assembly also accomplishes feeding and
releases the firing mechanism, Weapon
shall be cleared of cartridges before
pressing trigger assembly, unless firing is
intended.
e. Grip and Trigger Assembly. The grip and trigger
assembly includes the spade grips and is located at
rear of receiver. The U-shaped design permits firing
of weapon by index finger of either hand.
Caution
a. Cover Latch. The cover latch is located at the
right rear of the cover assembly. In the vertical position it secures cover assembly in closed position.
Turning to horizontal position unlocks cover assembly.
When ammunition is not present in machine
gun M60D, retard forward force of released
bolt assembly by manually restraining forward movement of cocking handle assembly to prevent damage to cartridge tray.
b. Barrel Lock Lever. The barrel lock lever, located
at right front of receiver, is secured to barrel locking
shaft and rotates shaft to lock or unlock barrel assembly.
f. Magazine Release Latch. The magazine release
latch, located on left side of receiver, locks adapter
of the ammunition chute when it is seated in magazine bracket.
WARNING
g, Ammunition Chute Adapter, The ammunition
chute adapter is required for flexible chute installation.
Cocking handle assembly shall be returned to the forward or locked position
before firing to prevent injury to personnel.
4-2.
Preflight Procedures–Machine Gun M60D
1. Gun—Secure—Stowed position.
c. Cocking Handle Assemb/y. The cocking handle
assembly, at right f rent of receiver, is used for
manually charging the weapon.
d. Safety. The safety, located at lower front of
receiver, consists of a cylindrical pin with a sear
clearance cut which slides across receiver to block
the sear and prevent accidental firing. Ends of pin
are marked for pushing to “S” safe and “F” firing
positions.
2.
Barrel–Free of obstruction.
3. Gas cylinder—Plug tight, safety-wired.
4. Cover—Free movement, latch secure.
5. Ejection control bag–Latched.
6. Ammunition box—Latches and cover—Secure.
Check cartridges for proper position in links.
4-1
TM 55-1520-210-10
7. Chute and brace–Secure.
8.
Safety–Safe.
9. Mount–Check free pintle movement.
10. Ammunition boxes–Stowed.
4-3. Before Takeoff/Before Landing Procedure–
Machine Gun M60D
1. Bolt–Retract, push handle forward,
2. Safety–Check safe.
3. Cover–Open.
4. Ammunition–Load.
5. Cover–Close, latch secure.
WARNING
Safety harness shall be worn by gunner
and attached to helicopter during flight
operations.
4-4. Before Leaving Helicopter Procedures–MaRemove gun. Refer to TM
chine Gun M60D
9-1005-224-10.
4-5, Emergency Procedures-Machine Gun M60D
WARNING
If a stoppage occurs, never retract bolt
assembly and allow it to go forward again
without inspecting chamber to see it is
clear. Such an action strips another cartridge from the belt. if an unfired cartridge remains in the chamber, a second
cartridge can fire the first and cause injury to personnel and/or weapon damage.
One hundred fifty cartridges fired in a 2
minute period will make a barrel hot
enough to produce a cookoff.
a. Misfire. A misfire is a complete failure to fire. It
must be treated as a hangfire until possibility of a
hangfire is eliminated.
b. Hangfire. A hangfire is a delay in functioning of
the propelling charge. If a stoppage occurs, wait five
seconds. Pull handle assembly to rear, ensuring operating rod assembly is held back.
c. Double Feeding. When a stoppage occurs with
bolt assembly in forward position, assume there is
4-2
an unfired cartridge in the chamber. Treat this as a
hangfire.
d. Runaway Gun. if gun continues to fire after trigger has been released, open cover and permit bolt
to go underneath cartridge and stop in the forward
position.
e. Cookoff. A cookoff is a functioning of any or all
of the explosive components of a cartridge chambered in a very hot machine gun. If the primer or
propelling charge should cookoff, the projectile may
be propelled from the machine gun with normal velocity, even though no attempt was made to fire the
primer, by actuating firing mechanism. In such a
case, although there may be uncertainty as to
whether or when the cartridge will fire, the precautions to be observed are the same as those prescribed for a “hangfire”. To prevent a cookoff, a
cartridge, which has been loaded into a very hot machine gun, should be fired immediately or removed
within 5 seconds to 10 seconds.
4-6, Armament Subsystem M56 and M132 Mine
Dispersing
a, The M56 mine dispersing subsystem is attached to external stores hardpoint fittings on both
sides of the helicopter and is electrically or manually
jettisonable in an emergency. The mine dispenser is
designed to provide release of mines from the 40
canisters with application of current through the intervalometer, which is part of the disperser electrical
circuit. Total release of mines in all canisters is accomplished within a variable time span between
each canister release, which is set by the pilot. A
quick-release safe pin with an attached REMOVE
BEFORE FLIGHT red flag is installed in the intervalometer to prevent accidental activation of the intervalometer before flight. A quick-release safe pin
with an attached REMOVE BEFORE FLIGHT red flag is
also installed in the pylon ejector rack to prevent the
accidental dropping of the mines from the pylon.
The subsystem consists of a bomb (mine) dispenser
SUU-13D/A loaded with 40 mine canisters, each of
which contains two anti-tank/anti-vehicle (AT/AV)
mines and one mine ejection charge Ml 98. The subsystem is used in conjunction with a dispenser control panel and a helicopter cable (harness) assembly
(fig 4-1 ). A pallet, which is used for safety and handling purposes, attaches to the underside of the
subsystem. The dispenser control panel allows the
pilot to initiate mine dispersing, stop mine dispersing, control quantity of mines dispersed, set the
time interval between the ejection of mines, and
TM 55-1520-210-10
electrically jettison the subsystems in an emergency. The dispenser is fired by pressing the FIRE
button of the DISP control. The firing sequence will
continue until the quantity of mines selected have
been ejected from the dispenser. Anytime after FIRE
button is pressed, the firing sequence may be terminated by resetting the SAFE-ARM switch to the center STBY (standby) position. When the switch is
again set in the ARM position and the FIRE button is
again pressed, a new firing sequence is initiated.
The helicopter cable (harness) assembly provides
connection of the dispenser control panel to the
heated blanket receptacle and to the subsystem firing and jettison circuitry.
b, The subsystem M132 is used by helicopter
crews for gaining experience in dispersing mines
which simulate those in the M56 subsystem. The
M132 consists of a dispenser SUU-13D/A containing
three practice mine canisters. Dispenser loading for
a practice mining mission consists of three practice
mine canisters loaded into each dispenser in firing
locations 1, 20, and 40. The remaining 37 positions
will be left empty. With the dispenser control panel
mode selector switch set to PAIRS and the QUANTITY selector switch set to ALL, the dummy mines
will be dispersed to land at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the target area.
9. Press to test lights–Check.
10. HEATED BLANKET circuit breakers–Out.
4-8. Before Takeoff Procedures–M56 and M132
Mine Dispersing Subsystem
1. SAFE/STBY/ARM
switch–SAFE.
2. Safety pallets–Remove.
3. Intervalometer safety pins-Remove.
4, Pylon safety pins–Remove,
4-9. Inflight Procedures–M56 and M132 Mine Dispersing Subsystem
1. HEATED BLANKET circuit breakers–in.
2. SAFE-STBY-ARM switch–STBY.
3. Mode selector switch–As desired.
4. QUANTITY selector switch--As desired.
5. INTERVAL selector switch–As desired. Switch
shall be position 1 through 10.
6. SAFE-STBY-ARM switch–ARM.
7. FIRE button–Press.
4-7. Preflight Procedures–M56 and M132 Mine
Dispersing Subsystem
1. Pylons and supports–Secure.
2. Sway braces–Secure to disperser pads.
3. Electrical
connectors–Secure.
4. Wiring harness–Taped to pylon support.
5. Pallet–In place.
Caution
Connector marked with a plus (+) sign must
be placed in the heater blanket receptacle
properly.
6. Wiring harness–Connected to heater blanket
receptacle.
4-10. Before Landing Procedures–M56 and M132
Mine Dispersing Subsystem
1. SAFE-STBY-ARM switch–SAFE.
2. HEATED BLANKET circuit breakers–Out.
4-11. Before Leaving Helicopter Procedures–M56
and M132 Mine Dispersing Subsystem
1. Subsystem–Check for unfired canisters.
2,
Maintenance
9-1345-201-12.
checks—Refer to TM
4-12.
Emergency
Procedures–Electrical–M56
and M132 Mine Dispersing Subsystem
1. HEATED BLANKET circuit breakers–Check in.
7. HEATED BLANKET circuit breakers–in.
2. NON-ESS BUS switch–MANUAL ON.
8. Wiring harness–Secure to cabin deck.
3. FIRE button–Press.
4-3
TM 55-1520-210-10
4-13.
Emergency Procedures–Fire-M56 and
M132 Mine Dispersing Subsystem
1. JETTISON switch cover–Up.
2, JETTISON switch–Up,
4-14.
Safety–M56 and M132 Mine Dispersing
Subsystem
breaker is located in the overhead panel. The circuit
breaker protects the pump and motor assembly. An
oil level gage is mounted on the center post in the
cockpit. The gage is marked from E (empty) to F
(full) in \1/4\ tank increments, to indicate the quantity of oil remaining in the oil tank. The prescribed
fog oil is type SFG2 (Military Specification
MlL-F-12070).
WARNING
Unfired canisters and mines accidentally
released from subsystem will not be handled or moved.
1. Failure to fire–After completion of mission and
a check of the subsystem reveals unfired canisters,
install safety pallets and notify explosive ordnance
disposal or other authorized personnel.
2. If dangerous explosive item is encountered, all
operation in the immediate vicinity will be shut down,
personnel evacuated to a safe location (800 foot radius) and explosive ordnance disposal or other
authorized personnel notified to render assistance in
elimination of the hazard.
3. Refer to TM 9-1345-201-12 for minimum
safety standards and requirements.
WARNING
Alternate fluids shall not be used in the
oil tank.
Caution
Do not operate the smoke generating subsystem when there is no fog oil in the oil
tank.
4-16. Preflight Procedures–M52 Smoke Generator Subsystem
1. Fluid–Check.
2. Pump and motor—Secure.
3. Hoses and connections–Leaks–Security.
4-15. M52 Smoke Generator Subsystem
WARNING
4, Exhaust ring–Secure.
5. Electrical
Never operate the smoke generating subsystem when the helicopter is on the
ground and engine is operating,
The smoke generating subsystem basically consists
of the oil tank assembly, pump and motor assembly,
nozzle ring assembly, operating switch and fog oil
level gage. The smoke generating subsystem discharges atomized fog oil into the hot exhaust gases
of a helicopter jet engine. A dense white smoke is
formed which settles rapidly to the ground when fog
oil is released at altitudes less than 50 feet and
airspeeds less than 90 knots. The tank capacity is 50
gallons (approximately) and provide approximately
three minutes of smoke generator operation. The
length of time the smoke screen will obscure enemy
vision depends on wind conditions and the altitude at
which the smoke is released. The operating switch is
a hand-held push button switch, attached to the end
of a six foot cable, suspended from the cabin roof
and held by a clip near the center line of the roof
structure. Its location is accessible to the pilot, copilot, or crewmembers. The tank level fog oil circuit
4-4
connections–Secure.
4-17.
Before Takeoff—M52 Smoke Generator
Subsystem
1. SMOKE GENERATOR circuit breaker–OUT.
2. The circuit breaker must be in to provide operating power to the pump and motor when the operating switch is activated.
4-18. Inflight Procedures–M52 Smoke Generator
Subsystem
1. SMOKE GENERATOR circuit breaker–in.
2. Operating switch–Push–As desired. Smoke
can be generated either continuously or in short
bursts. Smoke generation will stop when the operating switch push button is released,
4-19.
Before Landing–M52 Smoke Generator
Subsystem SMOKE GENERATOR circuit breaker–
out.
TM 55-1520-210-10
4-20. Before Leaving Helicopter-M52 Smoke Generator Subsystem.
1. System - check for leaks.
2. Ring - Condition and security.
Section II MISSION AVIONICS
4-20.1.
Communications Command
AN/ASC-15A(V) 1, 2, 3, 4 (if installed).
Console
a The
communications
command
console
provides tactical commands with air-to-ground command
and control communications in a battlefield environment.
The console provides ground-air ground automatic
secure transmission from an airborne platform and a
Position Locating Reporting System (PLRS).
b. Use:
(1) When installed in the UH-IH helicopter,
AN/ASC-15A(V)3, 4, configured m the command post
mode, can be used as a forward area airborne command
and observation post. This mode provides six separate
intercommunication stations. Three of the six stations
have control of three separate very high frequency,
frequency-modulated (VHF-FM) radio communicator
links (V3) or two VHF-FM links (V4), and one ultra high
frequency, amplitude-modulated (UHF-AM) link.
(2) The PLRS system provides timely and
accurate positioning information in support of tactical
commander.
(3) The VHF-FM links have voice encryption
capabilities if the TSEC/KY-28 or TSEC/KY-58 security
equipment Is employed. The UHF-AM link cannot be
voice encrypted.
(4) The intercommunicatlon control set
provides intercommunication
circuit
for
two-way
voice communications between the operator; pilot,
copilot, communications officer or observer.
(5) The regenerative repeater is used with two
FM receiver-transmitter units to automatically retransmit
plain or secure voice message from two other receivertransmitter units which are too far apart to communicate
with each other using normal communications.
c. AN/ASC-15A(V) 1, 2, 3, and 4 equipment
configuration. Refer to Figure 3-30.
Section III. CARGO HANDLING
Paragraphs 4-21. through 4-26. and table 4-1 have
been deleted. This Includes all data from pages 4-5
through 4-8.
Change 17 4-5/(4-6 blank)
TM 55-1520-210-10
NOTE
During hoist operation overtravel of
the cable assembly may occur in the
extended mode of operation after
stopping hoist operation in MIDTRAVEL. Cable over-travel should
not exceed 10 feet. If cable overtravel
is
observed,
refer
hoist
to
maintenance for repair.
4-27. High Performance Hoist. Provisions have been
made for the installation of an internal rescue hoist
(Figure 4-2). The hoist may be installed in any one of
our positions in the helicopter cabin.
The hoist
installation consists of a vertical column extending from
the floor structure to the cabin roof, a boom with an
electrically powered traction sheave, and an electrically
operated winch. Two electrical control stations for the
operation of the rescue hoist are provided, one for the
pilot, and one for the hoist operator. A control switch is
located on the cyclic control stick and provides up and
down operation of the hoist as well as positioning the
boom (Figure 2-5). A pendant control is provided for the
hoist operator and contains a boom positioning switch
and a toggle switch for hoist operation (Figure 4-6). The
pilot control will override the hoist operators control. A
pressure cartridge cable cutter is provided with two
guarded cable cutter switches. The pilot cable cutter
switch is mounted on the pedestal and the hoist
(4-7 blank)/4-8
Change 19
operators cable cutter switch is mounted on the back of
the hoist control box (Figure 4-4 and Figure 4-5). The
high performance hoist is an electronically speed
controlled unit. Speed varies from 125 fpm at 600
pounds to 250 fpm at 300 pounds. The winch has four
positive action switches. Number One is an all-stop
switch that opens when three wraps of cable remain on
drum. Number Two is a deceleration switch that opens
when five wraps of cable remain on drum. Number
Three switch has two functions, operates caution
indicator light on control pendant (when caution light is
on, a cable deceleration should occur) and limits cable
speed when hook is 8 to 10 feet from up-stow position.
Number Four switch further limits cable speed when
hook is 12 to 18 inches from the up-stow position. The
first and last 20 feet of the cable are painted red. An
elapsed time meter and power-on indicator are located
on the control panel. A pistol grip control (Figure 4-6) is
provided for the hoist operator and contains a boom
in/out switch, a variable speed control, cable limit and
overtemperature indicator (when hoist operating
temperature limit has been exceeded the over temp light
will come on). (Secure hoist as soon as operations
permit), and an intercommunication switch. The hoist
has 250 feet of usable cable. Power is provided by the
NONESSENTIAL BUS (controlled by the ESSENTIAL BUS).
Circuit protection is provided by the RESCUE HOIST
POWER, RESCUE HOIST CONT, and RESCUE
HOIST CABLE CUTTER circuit breakers. RESCUE
HOIST CABLE CUTTER circuit breaker controls
only the pilot's cable cutter switch.
TM 55-1520-210-10
11. SPEED MODE switch High.
4-28. Preflight Procedures.
12. HOIST switch (pilot) Down. Reel cable out until
caution light is out on pendant (approximately 10 feet).
WARNING
If hoist is installed check
installation of safety clip.
for
1. Check that vertical shaft for ceiling attaching
point is raised vertically to prevent the ceiling attaching
device from disconnecting.
2. Oil level Check in hoist and boom head.
3. RESCUE HOIST CONT, RESCUE HOIST
POWER AND RESCUE HOIST CABLE CUTTER circuit
breakers Check out.
4. CABLE CUT switches (pilot and hoist operator)
guard Down and safetied.
5. Deleted.
6. Boom sheave Check that no foreign matter is
entrapped at sheave.
7. GPU Connect to helicopter.
8. RESCUE HOIST CONT and RESCUE HOIST
POWER circuit breakers In. Blue POWER ON light and
yellow CAUTION
light should be on and fan should be operating.
9. BOOM switch (Pendant) Rotate boom out and
in, check hoist switch (pilot) override during operation.
10. HOIST switch (pilot) Rotate boom out.
WARNING
The cable should be reeled out and in
within 30 degrees of vertical during
these checks. Care should be taken
to avoid twisting the cable which will
cause it to kink.
NOTE
Observe the condition of the hoisting
cable to assure that there are no
broken wires or kinks.
13. HOIST control switch (pilot) Reel m cable and
observe that cable speed slows when caution light
comes ON (approximately 10 feet).
14. Boom up limit switch actuator arm-Push up on
arm during reeling in to check that hoist stops running
when up limit switches are actuated. Observe that cable
speed slows when hook is 12 to 18 inches from the full
up position when cable is reeled in with no load on hook.
15. Repeat steps 12 through 14 using the boom
switch (pendant). Check that cable speed can be
regulated by the control from 0 to 250 foot per minute
when cable is reeled out beyond the 10 feet caution light.
(Caution light is out). Check pilots override during
reeling out and in.
16. SPEED MODE switch LOW SPEED and repeat
steps 12 through 15.
17. Hoist switch (pilots) Rotate boom in the stowed
position.
18. RESCUE HOIST CONT, RESCUE HOIST
POWER and RESCUE HOIST CABLE CUTTER circuit
breakers Out upon completion of preflight check.
4-29. Operating Procedures.
1. RESCUE HOIST CONT, RESCUE
POWER and CABLE CUTTER breakers In.
HOIST
2. Blue POWER ON and yellow CAUTION indicator
lights should be on.
WARNING
Hands must be kept off hoist boom
during operation to prevent hand
entrapment and injury.
3. BOOM switch Rotate boom out.
4. SPEED MODE switch As required.
Change 17 4-9
TM 55-1520-210-10
5. HOIST switch DOWN. Adjust cable reel-out
speed as required. CAUTION light should be out when 8
to 10 feet of cable is reeled out
6. HOIST control switch UP and adjust cable
reeling speed as required. CAUTION light should be ON
when rescue hook is 8 to 10 feet from up stow position.
Reel cable completely up.
CAUTION
When hoist is installed in positions 1
or 4, the boom head assembly and
hook assembly could bump the
pilot/copilot helmets if stowed behind
seat back.
NOTE
When an internal auxillary fuel tank
is installed, it shall be on the
opposite side of the helicopter from
the hoist. If a pair of auxillary
fuel tanks are installed, the fuel shall
be used evenly from both tanks or
used first from one tank that is on the
same side as the hoist.
7.
BOOM OUT/IN switch - Rotate boom in.
8. RESCUE HOIST POWER, RESCUE CONT and
CABLE CUTTER circuit breakers - Out.
4-30.
Before Takeoff. RESCUE HOIST CABLE
CUTTER, RESCUE HOIST CONT and RESCUE HOIST
POWER circuit breakers - Out.
4-31.
Inflight Procedures.
WARNING
Operations during gusty or turbulent
wind conditions may result in
contracting the lateral cyclic control
stops. During hoisting operations
the helicopter should be positioned
to maximize the control margins.
1.
Hover over pick-up location.
2. Use operating procedures as required. Pilot
should lift load off ground by increasing collective to
ensure helicopter control with the load.
4-10
Change 19
WARNING
When a load is attached on the hoist
hook (and if conditions permit), it is
advisable not to make abrupt
changes in helicopter attitude until
load is aboard or raised as dose as
possible. G-forces on hoist could
become excessive if hoist load is
being
raised
during
abrupt
movements of helicopter. These Gforces could result in the yield or
failure of the hoist cable.
4-32. Inflight Procedures Hoist Operator.
Refer to FM 8-10-6 for litter missions.
WARNING
When any crewmember is not in his
seat and is in the vicinity of open
cargo door, he shall be secured with
a gunner harness.
All hoist
operations will be coordinated with
the pilot. Continuous status reports
required.
1. Doors Open as required.
2. Hoist operator ICS panel HOT MIC/PRIVATE.
WARNING
Attempt to discharge electrostatic
charge on hook before letting it touch
person to be hoisted. With personnel
suspended on the hoist cable, adjust
cable sway and speed as needed in
order to avoid catching personnel
under the aircraft or bumping
personnel against the aircraft.
TM 55-1520-210-10
3. When helicopter is hovered over pickup location use operational procedures as required.
(a) Condition and installation.
(b) Freedom of movement: fore, aft, and lateral.
4, Pull out RESCUE HOIST CONT, RESCUE HOIST
POWER and RESCUE HOIST CABLE CUTTER circuit
breakers upon completion of hoist operations.
4-33. Engine Shutdown Procedures
(c) Centering springs (3)–Check for centering of
the hook.
(d) Shear pin installation–The hook should not rotate.
1. RESCUE HOIST CONT circuit breaker–in.
(e) Electrical wiring–Condition and installation.
2. Hoist–Stowed position.
3. RESCUE HOIST CONT circuit breaker–Out.
4. Enter the length of cable and number of lifts
used in the remarks section of DA Form 2408-13.
(f) Manual release cable–Condition and installation.
(g) Cargo
hook–Closed.
2. Hook operation–Check as follows:
4-34. Cargo Hook
Caution
Helicopters equipped with a nonrotating
cargo suspension unit, which maintains the
hook in a fixed position (facing forward),
should be used only with a cargo sling having a swivel attachment ring. A device
which may be used for this application is:
Sling, Endless, Nylon Webbing, Type 1, 10
inch, NSN 3940-00-675-5001.
a. Description. External cargo can be carried by
means of a short single cable suspension unit, secured to the primary structure and located at the
approximate center of gravity. This method of attachment and location has proved to be the most
satisfactory for carrying external cargo. Pitching and
rolling due to cargo swinging is minimized, and good
stability and control characteristics are maintained
under -load. A MANUAL CARGO RELEASE PUSH
pedal is located between the pilot tail rotor control
pedals, and an electrical release pushbutton switch
is on the cyclic control stick, Before the electrical
release switch on the cyclic control stick can be actuated, the CARGO RELEASE switch on the overhead
panel must be positioned to ARM MISC. When not in
use, the cargo suspension unit need not be removed, nor does it require stowing. Three cable and
spring attachments keep the unit centralized, and
the hook protrudes only slightly below the lower surface of the helicopter. A rear view mirror enables
the pilot to visually check operation of the external
cargo suspension hook.
b. Prefiight Procedure.
1. Hook assembly—Check as follows:
(a) BAT switch–ON.
(b) CARGO RELEASE switch–ARM. The CARGO
RELEASE light should illuminate.
(c) Pilot electrical release switch–Press and hold.
The cargo hook should open with slight pressure applied to the hook.
(d) Cargo hook–Close. Release the pilot electrical release switch.
(e) Copilot electrical release switch–Press and
hold. The cargo hook should open with slight pressure applied to the hook.
(f) Cargo hook–Close. Release the copilot electrical release switch.
(g) Manual release–Press. The cargo hook
should open with 20 to 30 pounds pressure applied
to the hook.
(h) Cargo hook–Close.
(i) CARGO RELEASE switch–OFF The CARGO RELEASE light should go off.
(j) Apply approximately 20 to 30 pounds pressure
to the hook—The cargo hook should not open.
(k) Pilot and copilot electrical release switches–
Press. The cargo hook should not open. Release the
switches.
(l) BAT switch–OFF.
c. Deleted.
d. Deleted.
Change 5
4-11
TM 55-1520-210-10
4-35. Parachute Operations
a. Crewmembers must become familiar with procedures outlines in TM 57-220 prior to parachute operations.
Caution
At no time during flight will the static line,
snap hook or safety pins be disconnected
from the aircraft static /ine anchor cable.
4-12
Change 5
b. After the last chutist has exited the aircraft, the
crew chief will pull in the static lines and will hold
them secured until the aircraft has landed.
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 4-1. Mine Dispenser Control Panel–Typical
4-13
TM 55-1520-210-10
55-1520-210-10
TMTM
55-1520-210-10
Figure 4-2. Hoist Installation-Typical
4-14
Change 19
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 4-3, 4-4 and 4-5 has been deleted.
Change 14
4-15
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 4-6. Control Pendant Assembly, High Performance Hoist
4 - 1 6
TM 55-1520-210-10
Chapter 5
Operating Limits and Restrictions
Section I. GENERAL
5-1. Purpose. This chapter identifies or refers to all
important operating limits and restrictions that shall be
observed during ground and flight operations.
and any additional data that would aid maintenance
personnel in the maintenance action that may be
required.
5-2. General. The operating limitations set forth in this
chapter are the direct results of design analysis, tests,
and operating experiences. Compliance with these limits
will allow the pilot to safely perform the assigned
missions and to derive maximum utility from the
helicopter.
5-4. Minimum Crew Requirements. The minimum
crew required to fly the helicopter is one pilot whose
station is in the right seat. Additional crewmembers as
required will be added at the discretion of the
commander, in accordance with pertinent Department of
the Army regulations.
5-3. Exceeding Operational Limits. Anytime an
operational limit is exceeded an appropriate entry shall
be made on DA Form 2408-13-1. Entry shall state what
limit or limits were exceeded, range, time beyond Limits,
Section II. SYSTEM LIMITS
5-5. Instrument Markings (Figure 5-1).
a Instrument Marking Color Codes.. Operating
limits and ranges color markings which appear on the
dial faces of engine, flight, and utility system instruments
are illustrated with the following symbols:
R-Red, G-Green, Y-Yellow
RED markings on the dial faces of these instruments
indicate the limit above or below which continued
operation is likely to cause damage or shorten life. The
GREEN markings on instruments indicate the safe or
normal range of operation. The YELLOW markings on
instruments indicate the range when special attention
should be given to the operation covered by the
instrument.
b. Instrument Glass Alignment Mark. Limitation
markings consist of strips of semitransparent color tape
which adhere to the glass outside of an indicator dial.
Each tape strip aligns to increment marks on the dial
face so correct operating limits are portrayed. The pilot
should occasionally verify alignment of the glass to the
dial face. For this purpose, all instruments that have
range markings have short, vertical white alignment
marks extending from the dial glass onto the fixed base
of the indicator. These slippage marks appear as a
single vertical line when limitation markings on the glass
properly align with reading increments on the dial face.
However, the slippage marks appear as separate radial
lines when a dial glass has rotated.
5-6. Rotor Limitations.
a. Refer to Figure 5-1.
b. When metal main rotor blades are installed,
restrict rotor speed to 319 to 324 RPM (6500 to 6600
Engine RPM) during cruise flight This restriction does not
apply when composite main rotor blades (CB) are
installed.
Section II. POWER LIMITS
5-7. Engine Limitations.
a. Refer to Figure 5-1.
b. Maximum starter energize time is 40 seconds
with a three-minute cooling time between start attempts
with three attempts in any one hour.
c. Health Indicator Test When a difference
between a recorded EGT and the baseline EGT is plus
or minus 20° C or greater, make an entry on DA Form
2408-13-1; if +/-30° C or greater, make an entry on DA
Form 240813-1 and do not fly the aircraft.
Change 19
5-1
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section IV. LOADING LIMITS
b. Maximum Gross Weight for Towing.
maximum gross weight for towing is 9500 pounds.
5-8. Center of Gravity Limitations.
a. Center of gravity limits for the helicopter to which
this manual applies and instructions for computation of
the center of gravity are contained in Chapter 6.
b. Do not carry external loads if the cg is aft of
station 142 prior to lifting external load.
c. When flying at an aft cg (station 140 to 144)
terminate an approach at a minimum of five-foot hover
prior to landing to prevent striking the tail on the ground.
Practice touchdown autorotations shall not be attempted
with the cg aft of 140 because termination at 5 feet is not
possible.
The
c. Cargo Hook Weight Limitations.
Maximum
allowable weight for the cargo hook is 4000 pounds.
d. Weight Distribution Limitations.
Cargo
distribution over the cargo floor area shall not exceed
100 pounds per square foot. For information pertaining
to weight distribution, refer to Chapter 6.
5-10. Turbulence Limitations.
Deleted.
5-9. Weight Limitations.
a. Maximum Gross Weight. The maximum gross
weight for the helicopter is 9500 pounds. The maximum
gross weights for varying conditions of temperature,
altitude, wind velocity, and skid height are shown in
Chapter 7 or Chapter 7.1.
Section V. AIRSPEED LIMITS
5-11. Airspeed Limitations.
a. Refer to Figure 5-2 MB or Figure 5-2.1 CB for
forward airspeed limits.
the fully open position, speed should be reduced to 50
KIAS or below until the door is secured. Crewmembers
should ensure that they are fastened to the helicopter by
seat belts or other safety devices while securing the
cabin doors inflight.
b. Sideward flight limits are 30 knots.
c. Rearward flight limit is 30 knots.
d. The helicopter can be flown up to VNE with the
cabin doors locked in either the closed position or the
fully open position. Flight above 50 KIAS with the cabin
doors in the unlocked position is prohibited
e. The helicopter can be flown up to an IAS of 50
knots with one door open and one door closed. This will
allow for missions such as rappelling, paradrop, and use
of rescue hoist If a door comes open or unlocked from
f. Flight above 60 KIAS with roof mounted pilot
tube or 50 KIAS with nose mounted pilot tube with one
M56 mine disperser installed and the other disperser
subsystem removed is prohibited.
g. Mine Disperser Jettisoning Limits. Except in an
emergency, the mine dispersing subsystem M56 shall
not be jettisoned above 60 KIAS with roof mounted pilot
tube or 50 KIAS with nose mounted pilot tube.
Section VI. MANEUVERING LIMITS
5-12. Prohibited Maneuvers.
a. Abrupt inputs of flight controls cause excessive
main rotor flapping, which may result in mast bumping
and must be avoided.
b. Intentional maneuvers beyond attitudes of +/- 30
degrees in pitch or +/- 60 degrees m roll are prohibited.
5-2
Change 19
c. Intentional flight below +0.5 G is prohibited.
Refer to low G maneuvers, paragraph 8-53.
d. The speed for any and all maneuvers shall not
exceed the level flight velocities as stated on the
airspeed operating limits chart (Figure 5-2).
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section VII ENVIRONMENTAL RESTRICTIONS
5-13. Environmental Restrictions.
e.
a This helicopter is qualified for flight under
instrument meteorological conditions.
b. Intentional flight into known icing conditions with
the rotor blade erosion protection coating and
polyurethane
tape installed is prohibited. Icing
conditions include 7RACE’, ’LIGHT, ’MODERATE’ and
’HEAVY’. This helicopter may be flown in light or trace
icing conditions when the rotor blade erosion protection
coating and polyurethane tape are no installed.
Turbulence Limitations.
(1) Intentional flight into service or extreme
turbulence is prohibited.
(2) Intentional flight into moderate turbulence
is not recommended when the report or forecast is
based on aircraft above 12,500 pounds gross weight.
(3) Intentional flight into thunderstorm is prohibited.
c. Wind Limitation.
(1) Maximum cross wind for hover is 30 knots
(2) Maximum tail wind for hover Is 30 knots.
d. Wind Limitation for Starting. Helicopter can be
started in a maximum wind velocity of 30 knots or a
maximum gust spread of 15 knots. Gust spreads are not
normally reported. To obtain spread, compare minimum
and maximum wind velocity.
f. Temperature Limitation (Hub Spring Aircraft
Only). Remove elastomeric springs prior to operating
aircraft when OAT is below -20 degrees C (-5 degrees F)
or If this temperature is anticipated to occur during flight.
If, however, sub -20 degree C temperatures are encountered
during flight change altitude in an attempt to find warmer
air Elastomeric springs shall be reinstalled when the
OAT is expected to stay above -20 degrees C or the threat
of sub 20 degree temperatures no longer exists.
Section III HEIGHT VELOCITY
5-14. Height Velocity. The Height Velocity diagram (fig
9-3) Is based on an extrapolation of test data. The chart
is applicable for all gross weights up to and including
9500 pounds.
Section IX INTERNAL RESCUE HOIST (BREEZE ONLY)
WARNING
Use of a Breeze BL 8300 series Internal Rescue Hoist is prohibited.
5-15. Deleted.
Section X OTHER LIMITATIONS
5-16. Towing. The helicopter should not be towed for
25 minutes after the battery and inverter switches have
been turned off to prevent damage to attitude and
directional gyros. If the helicopter must be towed prior to
the 25 minute limit, the battery and inverter switches
shall be turned on. Wait five minutes after the switches
are on before moving the helicopter.
5-17. Slope Landing Limitations.
Analysis
indicates the following maximum slope landing capability
under nominal conditions.
Caution is to be exercised for slopes
greater than 5 degrees, since rigging,
loading, and wind conditions may result in
contacting the control stops.
1.
Cross slope or nose-up slope 10 degrees.
2.
Nose down slope 7 degrees.
Change 19
5-3
TM 55-1520-210-10
Refer to Figure 6-2, Airspeed Operating
Limits for Additional Limitations.
Refer to Figure 5-2, Airspeed Operating
Limits for Additional Limitations.
Figure 5-1. Instrument Markings (Sheet 1 of 3)
5-4
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 5-1. Instrumental Markings (Sheet 2 of 3)
Change 15
5-5
TM 55-1520-210-10
NOTE
Aircraft with one electric pump and
one pneumatic pump pressure gage
range should be 5 psi to 35 psi and
aircraft with two electric pumps pressure
gage range should be 8 psi to 25 psi.
Figure 5-1. Instrument Marking (Sheet 3 of 3)
5-6
Change 19
TM 55-1520-210-10
AIRSPEED OPERATING LIMITS
EXAMPLE
WANTED
INDICATED AIRSPEED
AND DENSITY ALTITUDE
KNOWN
GROSS WEIGHT = 8500 LB
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 7500 FEET
FAT = -20°C
ROOF MOUNTED SYSTEM
METHOD
ENTER PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE RIGHT TO F A T
MOVE DOWN TO GROSS WEIGHT
MOVE LEFT, READ INDICATED
AIRSPEED = 110 KNOTS
REENTER PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE RIGHT TO FAT
MOVE DOWN, READ DENSITY
ALTITUDE = 5000 FEET
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM FLIGHT TEST
Figure 5-2.
Airspeed operating limits chart
Change 8
5-7
TM
55-1520-210-10
AIRSPEED OPERATING LIMITS
EXAMPLE
WANTED
INDICATED AIRSPEED
DENSITY ALTITUDE
KNOWN
GROSS WEIGHT = 8500 POUNDS
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 7500 FEET
FAT = -20°C
ROOF MOUNTED PITOT TUBE SYSTEM
METHOD
ENTER PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE RIGHT TO FAT
MOVE DOWN TO GROSS WEIGHT
MlOVE LEFT, READ INDICATED AIRSPEED =
106.5 KNOTS
REENTER PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE RIGHT TO FAT
MOVE DOWN, READ DENSITY ALTITUDE =
5000 FEET
DATA BASIS AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33 (ROOF MOUNTED PITOT STATIC TUBE SYSTEM WITH WIRE CUTTERS), JUNE 1988
AND AFFTC FLIGHT TEST FTC-TDR-64027 (NOSE MOUNTED PITOT STATIC TUBE SYSTEM)
Figure 5-2.1 Airspeed operating limits chart
5-8
Change 8
TM 55-1520-210-10
Chapter 6
Weight/Balance and Loading
Section I GENERAL
6-1. General. Chapter 6 contains sufficient instructions
and data so that an aviator knowing the basic weight and
moment of the helicopter can compute any combination
of weight and balance.
6-3. Helicopter Station Diagram. Figure 6-1 show the
helicopter reference datum lines, fuselage stations, butt
lines, water lines and jack pad locations. The primary
purposes of the figure is to aid personnel m the
computation of helicopter weight/balance and loading.
6-2. Classification of Helicopter. Army UH-IH/V
helicopters are in class 2.
Additional directives
governing weight and balance of class 2 aircraft forms
and records are contained in AR 95-1, TM 55-1500-34223, and DA PAM 738-751.
Section II WEIGHT AND BALANCE
64. Loading Charts.
a Information The loading data contained in this
chapter is intended to provide information necessary to
work a loading problem for the helicopters to which this
manual is applicable.
b. Use. From the figures contained in this chapter
weight and moment are obtained for all variable load
items and are added to the current basic weight and
moment (DD Form 365-4) to obtain the gross weight and
moment.
(1) The gross weight
checked on DD Form 365-3
approximate center of gravity (cg).
and moment are
to determine the
(2) The effect on cg by the expenditures in
flight of such items as fuel, ammunition etc., may be
checked by subtracting the weights and moments of
such items from the takeoff weight and moments and
checking the new weight and moment on the CG limits
Chart.
6-5. DD Form 365-1-Basic Weight Checklist The form
is initially prepared by the manufacturer before the
helicopter is delivered. The form is a tabulation of
equipment that is, or may be, installed and for which
provision for fixed stowage has been made in a definite
location.
The form gives the weight, arm and
moment/100 of individual Items for use in correcting the
basic weight and moment on DD Form 365-3 as
changes are made m this equipment.
6-6. DD Form 365-3-Basic Weight and Balance
Records.
The form is initially prepared by the
manufacturer at time of delivery of the helicopter. The
form is a continuous history of the basic weight and
moment resulting from structural and equipment
changes. At all times the last entry is considered current
weight and balance status of the basic helicopter.
6-7. DD Form 365Weight and Balance Clearance
Form F.
a General.
The form is a summary of
actual disposition of the load in the helicopter It records
the balance status of the helicopter, step-by-step. It
serves as a worksheet on which to record weight and
balance calculations, and any corrections that must be
made to ensure that the helicopter will be within weight
and cg limits.
b. Form Preparation. Specific instructions for filling
out the form are given in TM 55-1500-342-23
NOTE
Allowable gross weight for take off
and landing is 9500 pounds.
Change 17 6-1
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section IIL FUEL/OIL
6-8. Fuel. Refer to Figure 6-2.
a. For a given weight of fuel n the crashworthy
system tanks, there is a very small variation m fuel
moment with change in fuel specific weight. Fuel
moments should be determined from Figure 6-2 (Sheet 1
of 2) which is based on a specific weight of 6 5 lb/gal.
Additional correction for fuel specific weight is not
required. For the auxiliary fuel tank the fuel arms are
constant. Thus, for a given weight of fuel there is no
variation m fuel moment with change in fuel specific
weight.
c. The following information is provided to show the
general range of fuel specific weights to be expected.
Specific weight of fuel will vary depending on fuel
temperature. Specific weight will decrease as fuel
temperature increases and increase as fuel temperature
decreases at the rate of approximately 0.1 Ib/gal for each
15° C change. Specific weight may also vary between
lots of the same type fuel at the same temperature by as
much as 0.5 lb/gal. The following approximate fuel
specific weights at 15° C may be used for most mission
planning.
FUEL TYPE
SPECIFIC WEIGHT
b The fuel tank usable fuel weight will vary
JP-4
6 5 lb/gal
depending upon fuel specific weight. The aircraft fuel
JP-5
6.8 Ib/gal
gage system was designed for use with JP-4, but does
JP-8
6 7 lb/gal
tend to compensate for other fuels and provide
acceptable readings. When possible the weight of fuel
onboard should be determined by direct reference to the
6-9. Oil. For weight and balance purposes, engine oil is
aircraft fuel gages. The following information is provided
a part of basic weight.
to show the general range of fuel specific weights to be
expected.
Section IV. PERSONNEL
6-10. Personnel Compartment and Litter Provisions.
a The personnel compartment provides seating for
eleven combat equipped troops (Figure 6-3 ). Seat belts
are provided for restraint.
b. Provisions and hardware are provided for up to
six patients. Refer to Figure 6-3.
6-11. Personnel Loading and Unloading. When
helicopter is operated at critical gross weights, the exact
weight of each individual occupant plus equipment
should be used. If weighing facilities are not available, or
if the tactical situation dictates otherwise loads shall be
computed as follows:
a. Combat equipped soldiers:
individual.
240 pounds per
b. Combat equipped paratroopers: 260 pounds per
individual.
c. Crew and passengers with no equipment
compute weight according to each individual's estimate.
d. Litter Weight and Balance Data Refer to Figure
6-3. Litter loads shall be computed at 265 pounds (litter
and patient's weight combined).
6-12. Personnel Moments. Refer to Figure 6-3.
Section V. MISSION EQUIPMENT
6-13.
Weight and Balance Loading Data
a. System Weight and Balance Data.
Figure 6-6.
Refer to
b. Hoist-Loading Data.
Use Hoist Loading
Limitations charts for hoist in forward right or forward left
positions only (Figures 6-4 and 6-5).
WARNING
Longitudinal or lateral cg limits may
not permit maximum hoist loading
capability. The lesser of the two
loads derived from lateral and
longitudinal charts shall be used.
Change 17 6-2
NOTE
If additional internal load is carried
during hoisting operations this load
should be positioned on opposite
side from hoist.
c. Positions Hoist May Occupy in Cabin. Refer to
Figure 6-7.
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section VI. CARGO LOADING
6-14. Cargo Loading. The large cargo doors, open
loading area and low floor level preclude the need for
special loading aids.
Through loading may be
accomplished by securing cargo doors m the fully open
position. Cargo tiedown fittings (Figures 6-8 and 6-9) are
located on cabin floor for securing cargo to prevent cargo
shift during flight.
6-15. Preparation of General Cargo.
a. The loading crew shall assemble the cargo and
baggage to be transported. At time of assembly and
prior to loading, the loading crew shall compile data
covering weight, dimensions, center of gravity (c.g.)
location and contact areas for each item.
b. Heavier packages to be loaded shall be loaded
first and placed in the aft section against the bulkhead for
c.g. range purposes.
c. Calculation of the allowable load and loading
distribution shall be accomplished by determining the
final c. . location and remain within the allowable limits
for safe operating conditions.
6-16.
Cargo Center of Gravity (cg.) Planning.
a. Planning.
The items to be transported
should be assembled for loading after the weight and
dimensions have been recorded.
(1) Loading tune will be gained if the
packages are positioned as they are to be located in the
helicopter.
(2) To assist m determining the locations of
the various items, the individual weights and total weight
must be known.
(3) When these factors are known the cargo
loading charts (Figures 6-10 and 6-11) can be used as a
guide to determine the helicopter station at which the
package c.g. shall be located and the moment for each
item.
(4) Aircraft c.g. will be affected by fuel
quantity. Variation in fuel loadings from that on board at
takeoff to empty must be
considered during data
computation.
(5) Final analysis of helicopter c.g. location
for loading shall be computed from the data presented in
this chapter.
b. Computation of Cargo Center of Gravity.
(1) The loading data in this chapter will
provide information to work a loading problem. From the
loading Charts, weight and moment/100 are obtained for
all variable load items and are added mathematically to
the current basic weight and moment/100 obtained from
chart C to arrive at the gross weight and moment.
(2) The c.g. of the loaded helicopter can be
determined from the gross weight and moment using the
c.g. limits chart (Figure 6-12). This figure may also be
used to determine if the helicopter is loaded within the
gross weight and c.g. limits
(3) The effect on c.g. of the expenditure
inflight of such items as fuel and cargo should be
checked by subtracting the weight and moment of such
items from the takeoff gross weight and moment and
checking the resulting weight and moment with the c.g
limits chart (Figure 6-12).
(4) This check will be made to determine
whether the c.g. will remain within limits during the entire
flight.
6-17. Loading Procedures. The helicopter requires no
special loading preparation.
a. The loading procedure consists of locating the
load items in a manner which will maintain the c.g. within
limits. In general, the heaviest items should be placed in
the aft section near or against the aft bulkhead. Such
placement locates the cargo near the helicopter c g. and
allows maximum cargo load to be transported, as well as
maintaining the helicopter within safe operating c g. limits
for flight.
b. The mission to be performed should be known to
determine the weight and moment of cargo, troop
transport, or litter patients to be carried on the return trip
c. If troops or litter patients are to be carried, troop
seats and litter racks shall be loaded aboard and stowed.
d. Deleted.
6-18. Loading and Unloading of Other Than General
Cargo.
WARNING
Before transporting nuclear weapons,
the pilot shall be familiar with AR 9527, AR 504 and AR 50-5.
The helicopter is capable of transporting nuclear
weapons, if required.
6-19. Tiedown Devices. Refer to Figures 6-8 and 6-9.
Change 17 6-3
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section VII. CENTER OF GRAVITY LIMITS
6-20. Center of Gravity Limits. Refer to figure 6-12 for
longitudinal limits. The lateral c.g. limits are 5 inches (5
inches to the right and left of the helicopter centerline).
The lateral c.g. limits will not be exceeded if external
store loadings, are symmetrical, the hoist loading limits
(fig 6-4 and fig 6-5) are observed, and a reasonable
effort is made to evenly distribute internal loads from left
to right.
6-21. Restraint Criteria The amount of restraint that
must be used to keep the cargo from moving in any
direction is called the "Restraint Criteria’ and is 64
Change 17 usually expressed in units of the force of
Change 17 6-4
gravity, of G’s. Following are the units of the force of
gravity or G’s needed to restrain cargo in four directions:
DIRECTION
Forward
Aft
Lateral
Vertical
RESTRAINT CRITERIA
8.0 G’s
4.0 G’s
8.0 G’s
4.0 G’s (UP)
TM 55-1520-210-10
HELICOPTER DIAGRAM
Figure 6-1. Helicopter Station Diagram
6-5
TM 55-1520-210-10
FUEL LOADING
CRASHWORTHY SYSTEM TANKS
EXAMPLE
WANTED
WEIGHT AND MOMENT FOR A GIVEN
QUANTITY OF USABLE FUEL IN
CRASHWORTHY FUEL SYSTEM.
KNOWN
U.S. GALLONS OF JP-4 FUEL.
METHOD
ENTER AT GALLONS ON JP-4 SCALE.
MOVE RIGHT TO READ WEIGHT
CONTINUE RIGHT TO INTERSECT DIAGONAL
LINE, THEN PROJECT DOWN TO READ
MOMENT/100 SCALE.
NOTE
THIS CHART PRESENTS FUEL MOMENT AS A
FUNCTION OF WEIGHT, UTILIZING A SINGLE CURVE
FOR ALL FUEL TYPES. GALLON EQUIVALENT
SCALES ARE BASED ON NOMINAL DENSITIES AT
15°C
Figure 6-2. Fuel Loading (Sheet 1 of 2 )
6-6
Change 5
TM 55-1520-210-10
FUEL LOADING
EXAMPLE
AUXILIARY FUEL
300 GALLONS INTERNAL
(F.S. 151.0)
WANTED
WEIGHT AND MOMENT FOR A
GIVEN QUANTITY OF FUEL IN
AUXILIARY FUEL TANKS.
KNOWN
300 U.S. GALLONS OF JP-4 FUEL
(IN AUXILIARY TANKS ONLY).
METHOD
ENTER AT GALLONS ON JP-4 SCALE.
MOVE RIGHT TO READ WEIGHT.
CONTINUE RIGHT TO INTERSECT DIAGONAL LINE,
THEN PROJECT DOWN TO READ
MOMENT/100 SCALE.
Figure 6-2. Fuel Loading (Sheet 2 of 2)
6-7
TM 55-1520-210-10
PERSONNEL LOADING CHART
MOMENT FOR PERSONNEL
EXAMPLE
WANTED
PERSONNEL MOMENT FOR A
GIVEN WEIGHT AND LOCATION
KNOWN
PERSONNEL WEIGHT OF 200
POUNDS AT F.S. 117.0 (Row 4)
METHOD
MOVE RIGHT FROM 200 LBS
TO THE LINE CONNECTING
WITH SEAT ROW 4.
Figure 6-3. Personnel Loading
6-8
TM 55-1520-210-10
HOIST LOADING LIMITATIONS
DUE TO LATERAL C.G. LIMITS
HOIST IN FORWARD RIGHT POSITION
EXAMPLE
WANTED
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE
HOIST LOAD
KNOWN
GROSS WEIGHT 8600 LBS
LONGITUDINAL C. G. 133.5,
CREW – PILOT & HOIST OPERATOR.
METHOD
ENTER GROSS WEIGHT
MOVE RIGHT TO INTERSECT
PILOT & HOIST OPERATOR CURVE.
MOVE DOWN TO READ
ALLOWABLE HOIST LOAD 550 LBS
NOTE
THE LESSER OF THE TWO WEIGHTS DERIVED
FROM LATERAL AND LONGITUDINAL CHARTS
SHALL BE USED (EXAMPLE 335 POUNDS).
GROSS WEIGHT TO BE THE LIGHTEST
WEIGHT OF THE HELlCOPTER DURING
HOISTING OPERATIONS, BUT NOT INCLUDING
THE WEIGHT OF THE HOIST LOAD. FUEL
BURNED PRIOR TO HOISTING OPERATION MUST
BE DEDUCTED FROM TAKEOFF GROSS WEIGHT
BEFORE COMPUTING ALLOWABLE HOIST LOAD.
Figure 6-4. Hoist Loading Limitations (Lateral CG)
6-9
TM 55-1520-210-10
HOIST LOADING LIMITATIONS
DUE TO LONGITUDINAL C.G. LIMITS
HOIST IN FORWARD RIGHT OR FORWARD LEFT POSITION
EXAMPLE
WANTED
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE
HOIST LOAD
GROSS WEIGHT 8600 LBS
LONGITUDINAL C.G. 133.5
PRIOR TO HOISTING.
METHOD
ENTER GROSS WT.
MOVE RIGHT TO C.G.
MOVE DOWN TO READ
ALLOWABLE HOIST LOAD 335 LBS
*GROSS WEIGHT AND C.G.
DO NOT INCLUDE HOIST LOAD
Figure 6-5. Hoist Loading Limitations (Longitudinal C G )
6-10
TM 55-1520-210-10
100,000 BTU HEATER
WINTERIZATION KIT
ITEM
WEIGHT
ARM
Complete Heater Instl. (205-706-001)
73.2
197.0
144.2
Winterization Kit (Muff Heater)
61.0
212.0
129.3
MOMENT/100
AFT BATTERY INSTALLATION
WEIGHT
ITEM
Battery (Fwd)
Battery (Aft)
Aft Battery Provisions (205-1682-1 )
80.0
80.0
15.0
ARM
MOMENT/100
4.0
186.4
33.8
5.0
233.0
224.8
300 GALLON INTERNAL AUXILIARY FUEL TANK
WEIGHT
ITEM
Deleted
Deleted
Tank, LH, Crashworthy
Tank, RH, Crashworthy
MOMENT/100
ARM
151.3
151.3
(*)
(*)
(**)
(**)
* Tank weight varies; use weight stamped on tank (use fuel loading chart for fuel weight).
**Depends on tank weight.
GLASS WINDSHIELD INSTALLATION
ITEM
Glass Windshield-Pilot Copilot (Both)
Glass Windshield-Pilot Only or Copilot Only
WEIGHT
ARM
30.0
15.0
27.0
27.0
MOMENT/
100
8.1
4.1
Figure 6-6. System Weight and Balance Data Sheet (Sheet 1 of 3)
Change 14
6-11
TM 55-1520-210-10
RESCUE HOIST (HIGH PERFORMANCE)
ITEM
Hoist-Forward
Hoist-Forward
Hoist-Forward
Hoist-Forward
I
RH Position (Arm Stowed Forward)
RH Position (Arm Stowed Aft)
LH Position (Arm Stowed Forward)
LH Position (Arm Stowed Aft)
WEIGHT
ARM
180 I
180 I
180 I
180 I
80.0
84.0
82.0
84.0
MOMENT/
100
144.0
151.2
147.6
151.2
Weight after servicing with cable installed
M-23 DOOR MOUNTED M-60
WEIGHT
ITEM
Armament Subsystem W/O Ammunition
Ammunition 7.62 MM (1200 Rounds)
Total Armament Subsystem W/Ammunition (1200 Rounds)
Ammunition Box (2 each) W/Cover Assembly
Machine Guns W/Ejection Control Bags (2 each) and Chute
Assembly (2 each)
Mount Assembly (2 each) W/Hardware
ARM
MOMENT/
100
128.0
78.0
206.0
8.5
142.6
142.6
142.6
142.6
182.5
111.2
293.8
12.1
66.5
53.0
142.0
142.6
94.4
75.6
EXTERNAL STORES SUPPORT
ITEM
Stores Rack
Cross Beam Assys.
Fwd. Beam Assys.
Aft Beam Assys.
Fwd. Sway Brace Assys.
Aft Sway Brace Assys.
Hardware
Total Aft Stores Instl.
WEIGHT
ARM
29.5
11.5
11.9
1.1
1.2
3.1
142.5
129.0
155.1
135.3
149.7
142.9
42.1
14.8
18.4
1.5
1.9
4.4
142.5
83.1
58.3
MOMENT/
100
Stores Rack (205-707-013-11 )
Cross Beam Assys.
Fwd. Beam Assys.
Aft Beam Assys.
Fwd. Sway Brace Assys.
Aft Sway Brace Assys.
Hardware
13.1
11.7
13.6
1.9
1.5
3.2
23.0
73.9
63.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5
84.5
1.3
68.4
1.2
79.7
2.4
74.0
Total Fwd. Stores Instl.
63.0
74.2
Figure 6-6. System Weight and Balance Data Sheet (Sheet 2 of 3)
6-12
Change 14
46.8
TM 55-1520-210-10
M52 SMOKE GENERATOR SUBSYSTEM
WEIGHT
ITEM
A Kit
B Kit
16.7
39.64
-20.62
117.5
492.5
C Kit Without Oil in Tank
C Kit With Oil in Tank (50 Gal)
ARM
MOMENT/
100
161.67
120.08
122.21
127.57
121.81
27.0
47.6
-25.2
149.9
599.9
MULTIARMAMENT STRUCTURAL SUPPORT KIT
ITEM
WEIGHT
A Kit (Roof Hardpoints)
B Kit
5.83
205.87
ARM
MOMENT/
100
146.71
141.87
8.6
292.1
M56 MINE DISPENSER (SUN-13D/A)
ITEM
Each Dispenser Empty, Without Pallet
Each Dispenser with Canisters Only
Each Dispenser–Loaded as Flown
WEIGHT
117
188
640
ARM
MOMENT/
100
145.83
145.83
143.79
170.6
274.2
920.3
AUXILIARY SUPPRESSOR KIT, EXHAUST SUPPRESSOR
ITEM
A Kit
B Kit
WEIGHT
ARM
4.0
47
228.0
230.2
MOMENT/
100
9.1
108.2
Figure 6-6. System Weight and Balance Data Sheet (Sheet 3 of 3)
Change 14
6-13
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 6-7.
6-14
Change 14
Hoist Installation Positions
TM 55-1520-210-10
CODE
NOTES:
Tie-down
Fittings
Stanchion Fittings
Cargo Area,
Maximum Loading
Dimensions
Optional Loading
Area, Left Seat
Removed
Interior Clearance
Above Maximum
Package at Centerline of Cabin
1. Floor tie-down fittings, strength 1250 pounds vertical, 500
pounds horizontal load per fitting. Each aft bulkhead tiedown
fitting is capable of thefolIowing loads: 1250 Ibs, parallel to
the bulkhead, 2195 Ibs at a 45° angle.
2. Bulkhead tie-down fittings are good for 2500 pounds
ultimate per fitting perpendicular to the bulkhead.
3. Tie-down fittings on the side of the beams are good for 1250
pounds ultimate per fitting perpendicular to the beams.
4. Two fittings at station 129.0 are good for 1250 pounds
ultimate per fitting perpendicular to bulkhead.
Figure 6-8. Cargo Compartment
6-15
TM 55-1520-210-10
CARGO TIE DOWN FITTING DATA
Figure 6-9. Cargo Tiedown Fitting Data
6-16
TM 55-1520-210-10
INTERNAL CARGO WEIGHT AND MOMENT
EXAMPLE
WANTED
CARGO MOMENT FOR A
GIVEN CARGO WEIGHT
AND FUSELAGE STATION
KNOWN
CARGO WEIGHT 1000 LBS
LOCATION FS105
METHOD
ENTER INTERNAL CARGO
WEIGHT
MOVE RIGHT
TO FS105
MOVE DOWN TO BASELINE AND READ
1050 INCH POUNDS/100
Figure 6-10. Internal Cargo Weight and Moment
6-17
TM 55-1520-210-10
EXTERNAL CARGO WEIGHT AND MOMENT
F.S. 137.55
EXAMPLE
WANTED
CARGO MOMENT/100 FOR A
GIVEN CARGO WEIGHT.
KNOWN
CARGO WEIGHT 3000 LBS
ENTER EXTERNAL CARGO WEIGHT
MOVE RIGHT TO DIAGONAL LINE
MOVE DOWN TO BASELINE AND
READ 4127 ON MOMENT/100
SCALE.
FlGURE 6-11. External Cargo Weight and Moment
6-18
TM 55-1520-210-10
CENTER OF GRAVITY LIMITS
EXAMPLE
WANTED
DETERMINE CENTER OF GRAVITY
FOR KNOWN WEIGHT AND
MOMENT.
KNOWN
GROSS WEIGHT EQUALS 8460
POUNDS, MOMENT/100 EQUALS
11,900 INCH-POUNDS
METHOD
MOVE RIGHT FROM 8460 POUNDS
TO A POINT APPROXIMATELY 1/2
OF THE DISTANCE BETWEEN
11,800 AND 12,000 INCH-POUND
DIAGONAL LINES. FROM THIS
POINT PROJECT DOWN TO READ
140.6 ON THE CENTER OF GRAVITY
SCALE (FUSELAGE STATION IN
INCHES).
NOTE
WHEN CG IS WITHIN SHADED AREA
AFT OF STATION 140.0,
APPROACHES SHOULD BE
TERMINATED TO A 5-FOOT HOVER
FOR ADEQUATE TAIL ROTOR
CLEARANCE
Figure 6-12. Center of Gravity Limits (Sheet 1 of 2)
6-19
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 6-12.
6-20
Center of Gravity Limits (Sheet 2 of 2)
TM 55-1520-210=10
Chapter 7
Performance
Data
Section I. INTRODUCTION
7-1. Purpose The purpose of this chapter is to
provide performance data. Regular use of this information will enable you to receive maximum safe utilization from the helicopter. Although maximum performance is not always required, regular use of this
chapter is recommended for the following reasons:
a. Knowledge of your performance margin will allow you to make better decisions when unexpected
conditions or alternate missions are encountered.
b. Situations requiring maximum performance will
be more readily recognized.
c. Familiarity with the data will allow performance
to be computed more easily and quickly.
d. Experience will be gained in accurately estimating the effects of variables for which data are not
presented.
NOTE
Chapter 7 provides information for the UH-1H
equipped with metal main rotor blades and
chapter 7.1 provides data for the UH-1H
equipped with CMRB. The information
provided in this chapter is primarily intended
for mission planning and is most useful when
planning operations in unfamiliar areas or at
extreme conditions. The data may also be
used to revise mission planning in flight, to
establish unit or area standing operating procedures, and to inform ground commanders
of performance/risk tradeoffs.
7-2. Chapter 7 Index D e l e t e d .
NOTE
Tabular hover performance and power available data is presented in Appendix C. The data in Appendix C may be used in lieu of Figures 7-2 and 7-3
or Figure 7.1-2 and 7.1-3
obtain maximum hover weight, torque required to hover, and maximum calibrated torque available. The data for operation with CMRB presented in chapter 7.1 reflects an update in torque
available and airspeed calibration. That update is based on more recent test data than the basis
used in this chapter for operation with metal rotor blades. Thus some of the difference between
the performance values shown in these two chapters is due to the difference in data basis. Update
of the data for metal rotor blades to the more recent test data basis will be provided in an upcoming change.
Change 8 7-1
TM 55-1520-210-10
7-3. General The data presented covers the maximum range of conditions and performance that can
reasonably be expected. In each area of performance, the effects of altitude, temperature, gross
weight, and other parameters relating to that phase
of flight are presented. In addition to the presented
data, your judgment and experience will be necessary to accurately obtain performance under a given
set of circumstances. The conditions for the data
are listed under the title of each chart. The effects of
different conditions are discussed in the text. Where
practical, data are presented at conservative conditions, However NO GENERAL CONSERVATISM HAS
BEEN APPLIED. All performance data presented are
within the applicable limits of the helicopter,
7-4. Limits Applicable limits are shown on the
charts. Performance generally deteriorates rapidly
beyond limits. If limits are exceeded, minimize the
amount and time. Enter the maximum value and
time above limits on DA Form 2408-13 so proper
maintenance action can be taken.
7-5. Use of Charts
a. Chart Explanation. The first page of each section describes the chart (s) and explains its uses.
b. Shading. Shaded areas on charts indicate precautionarry or time limited operation.
c. Reading the Charts. The primary use of each
chart is given in an example to help you follow the
route through the chart. The use of a straight edge
(ruler or page edge) and a hard fine point pencil is
recommended to avoid cumulative errors. The majority of the charts provide a standard pattern for use
as follows: enter first variable on top left scale,
move right to the second variable, reflect down at
right angles to the third variable, reflects left at right
angles to the fourth variable, reflect down, etc. until
the final variable is read out at the final scale.
7-2
Change 5
NOTE
An example of an auxiliary use of the
charts referenced above is as follows: Although the hover chart is primarily arranged to find torque required to hover, by
entering torque available as required,
maximum skid height for hover can also be
found, In general, any single variable can
be found if all others are known. Also, the
tradeoffs between two variables can be
found. For example, at a given pressure
altitude, you can find the maximum gross
weight capability as free air temperature
changes.
d. Dashed Line Data. Data beyond conditions for
which tests were conducted are shown as dashed
lines.
7-6 Data Basis The type of data used is indicated
at the bottom of each performance chart under
DATA BASIS. The applicable report and date are
also given. The data provided generally is based on
one of four categories:
a. Flight Test Data. Data obtained by flight test of
the aircraft by experienced flight test personnel at
precise conditions using sensitive calibrated instruments.
b. Derived From Flight Test. Flight test data obtained on a similar rather than the same aircraft and
series. Generally small corrections will have been
made.
c. Calculated Data. Data based on tests, but not
on flight test of the complete aircraft.
d. Estimated Data. Data based on estimates using
aerodynamic theory or other means but not verified
by flight test.
7-7. Specific Conditions The data presented are
accurate only for specific conditions listed under the
title of each chart. Variables for which data are not
presented, but which may affect that phase of performance, are discussed in the text. Where data are
available or reasonable estimates can be made, the
amount that each variable affects performance will
be given.
TM 55-1520-210-10
Chapter 7.1
Performance Data
Section I. INTRODUCTION
7.1-1. Purpose The purpose of this chapter is to provide
performance data for those helicopters equipped with
composite main rotor blades. Regular use of this information
will enable you to receive maximum safe utilization from the
helicopter. Although maximum performance is not always
required, regular use of this chapter is recommended for the
following reasons:
a. Knowledge of your performance margin will allow you
to make better decisions when unexpected conditions or
alternate missions are encountered.
b. Situations requiring maximum performance will be
more readily recognized.
c. Familiarity with the data will allow performance to be
computed more easily and quickly.
NOTE
Chapter 7 provides information for the UH-1H
equipped with metal main rotor blades and chapter
7.1 provides data for the UH-1H equipped with
CMRB. The information provided in this chapter is
primarily intended for mission planning and is
most useful when planning operations in unfamiliar
areas or at extreme conditions. The data may also
be used to revise mission planning in flight, to
establish unit or area standing operating
procedures, and to inform ground commanders of
performance/risk tradeoffs.
7.1-2. Chapter 7.1 Index Deleted.
d. Experience will be gained in accurately estimating the
effects of variables for which data are not presented.
Change 8
7.1-1
TM 55-1520-210-10
7.1-3. General The data presented covers the maximum range
of conditions and performance that can reasonably be
expected. In each area of performance, the effects of altitude,
temperature, gross weight, and other parameters relating to
that phase of flight are presented. In addition to the presented
data, your judgment and experience will be necessary to
accurately obtain performance under a given set of
circumstances. The conditions for the data are listed under the
title of each chart. The effects of different conditions are
discussed in the text. Where practical, data are presented at
conservative conditions. However, NO GENERAL
CONSERVATISM HAS BEEN APPLIED. All performance
data presented are within the applicable limits of the
helicopter.
7.1-4. Limits
Applicable limits are shown on the charts.
Performance generally deteriorates rapidly beyond limits. If
limits are exceeded, minimize the amount and time. Enter the
maximum value and time above limits on DA Form 2408-13
so proper maintenance action can be taken.
7.1-5. Use of Charts
a. Chart Explanation An explanation for the usage of
each chart is provided.
b. Shading. Shaded areas on charts indicate precautionary
or time-limited operation.
c. Reading the Charts. The primary use of each chart is
given in an example to help you follow the route through the
chart. The use of a straight edge (ruler or page edge) and a
hard, fine point pencil is recommended to avoid cumulative
errors. The majority of the charts provide a standard pattern
for use as follows: enter first variable on top left scale, move
right to the second variable, reflect down at right angles to the
third variable, reflect left at right angles to the fourth variable,
reflect down, etc. until the final variable is read out at the final
scale.
N O T E
An example of an auxiliary use of the charts
referenced above is as follow Although the hover
chart is primarily arranged to find torque required
to hover, by entering torque available as required,
maximum skid height for hover can also be found.
In general, any single variable can be found if all
others are known. Also, the tradeoffs between
two variables can be found. For example, at a
altitude, you can find the
given pressure
capability as free air
maximum gross weight
temperature changes.
—
d. Dashed Line Data Data beyond conditions for which
tests were conducted are shown as dashed lines.
7.1-2
Change 8
7.1-6. Data Basis The type of data used is indicated at the
bottom of each performance chart under DATA BASIS. The
applicable report and date are also given. The data provided
generally is based on one of four categories:
a. Flight Test Data. Data obtained by flight test of the
aircraft by experienced flight test personnel at precise
conditions using sensitive calibrated instruments.
b. Derived From Flight Test. Flight test data obtained on
a similar rather than the same aircraft and series. Generally
small corrections will have been made.
c. Calculated Data
Data based on tests, but not on
flight test of the complete aircraft.
d. Estimated Data Data based on estimates using
aerodynamic theory or other means but not verified by flight
test.
7.1-7. Specific Conditions
The data presented are accurate
only for specific conditions listed under the title of each chart.
Variables for which data are not presented, but which may
affect that phase of performance, are discussed in the text.
Where data are variable or reasonable estimates can be made,
the amount that each variable affects performance will be
given.
7.1-8. General Conditions
In addition to the specific
conditions, the following general conditions are applicable to
the performance data.
a. Rigging. All airframe and engine controls are assumed
to be rigged within allowable tolerances.
b. Pilot Technique.
Normal pilot technique is assumed.
Control movements should be smooth and continuous.
TM 55-1520-210-10
c. Helicopter Variations. Variations in performance
between individual helicopters are known to exist;
however, they are considered to be small and cannot be
individually accounted for.
d. Instrument Variation. The data shown in the
performance charts do not account for instrument
inaccuracies or malfunctions.
e. Types of Fuel . All flight performance data is
based on JP-4 fuel. The change in fuel flow and
torque available, when using IP-5, IP-8, aviation gasoline
or any other approved fuels, is insignificant
7.1-9. Performance Discrepancies. Regular use of
this chapter will allow you to monitor instruments and
other helicopter systems for malfunction, by comparing
actual performance with planned performance.
Knowledge will also be gained concerning the effects of
variables for which data are not provided, thereby
increasing the accuracy of performance predictions.
7.1-10. Definitions of Abbreviations.
a. Unless otherwise indicated, abbreviations
and symbols used in this manual conform to those
established in Military Standard MILSTD-12, which is
periodically revised to reflect current changes in
abbreviations usage.
b. Capitalization and punctuation of abbreviations
varies depending upon the content In which they are
used. In general, lower case abbreviations are used in
text material, whereas abbreviations used in charts and
illustrations appears in full capital letters. Periods do not
usually follow abbreviations; however, periods are used
with abbreviations that could be mistaken for whole
words if the period were omitted.
7.1-11. Temperature Conversion. The temperature
conversion chart (Figure 7.1-1) is arranged so that
degrees Celsius can be converted quickly and easily by
reading Celsius and looking directly across the charts for
the Fahrenheit equivalent and vice versa.
Section II. TORQUE AVAILABLE
7.1-12. Description.
The torque available charts
(Figure 7.1-2) show the effects of altitude and
temperature on engine torque
7.1-13. Chart Differences. Both pressure altitude and
FAT affect engine power production. Figure 7.1-2 shows
power available data at 30-mmnunute power ratings in
terms of calibrated and indicated torque. Note that the
power output capability of the T53-L-13 engine can
exceed the transmission structural limit (50 psi calibrated
torque under certain conditions.
a. Figure 7.1-2 (sheet 1) is applicable for maximum
power, 30-minute operation at 324 rotor/6600 engine
rpm with particle separator installed.
b. Figure 7.1-2 (sheet 2) is applicable for maximum
power, 30-minute operation at 314 rotor/6600 engine
rpm with particle separator installed.
c. Prolonged IGE hover may increase engine inlet
temperature as much as 10° C, therefore a 10° higher
FAT must be used to correct for this condition
d. If the IR Scoup Suppressor is installed on the
aircraft, subtract one psi for the torque values obtained
from Figure 7.1-2, sheets 1 and 2.
to determine the maximum power available, it is
necessary to know the
pressure altitude and
temperature. The calibration factor (Data Plate Torque),
obtained from the engine data plate or from the engine
acceptance records, is the indicated torque pressure at
1125 ft-lbs actual output shaft torque, and is used to
correct the error of individual engine torque indicating
system.
NOTE
Torque available values determined
are not limits. Any torque which can
be achieved, without
exceeding
engine, transmission, or other limits,
may be used.
7.1-15. Conditions. The torque available charts (Figure
7.1-2) are based upon speeds of 324 rotor/6600 engine
rpm, 314 rotor/6400 engine rpm and grade JP-4 fuel The
use of aviation gasoline will not influence engine power.
Fuel grade of JP-5 will yield the same nautical miles per
pound of fuel and, being 6.8 pounds per gallon, will only
result in increased fuel weight. All torque available data
are presented for bleed air heater and device off.
Decrease torque available 1.4 psi for heater on and 2.1
for device on; decrease torque available 3.5 psi if both
bleed air heater and device are operating.
7.1-14. Use of Charts. The primary use of the torque
available charts is illustrated by the examples m general,
Change 17 7.1-3
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section I. HOVER
7.1-16. Description. The hover charts (Figure 7.1-3,
Sheets 1 and 2) show the hover ceiling and the torque
required to hover at various pressure altitudes, ambient
temperatures, gross weights, and skid heights.
Maximum skid height for hover can also be obtained by
using the torque available from Figure 7.1-2. The hover
capabilities (Table 7.1-1, Sheets 1 and 2) present OGE
gross weight in pounds, OGE and IGE (5 ft. skid height)
hover torque required in calibrated PSI, for temperature
of 40°C to +45° C in 5°C increments and pressure
altitudes from-sea level to 16,000 feet in 500 foot
increments.
7.1-17. Use of Charts. The primary use of the hover
charts is Illustrated by examples.
In general, to
determine the hover ceiling or the torque required to
hover, it is necessary to know the pressure altitude,
temperature, gross weight and the desired skid height.
In addition to the primary use, the hover charts can also
be used to determine the predicted maximum hover
height, which is needed for use of the takeoff chart
(Figure 7.1-5). The hover capability table (Table 7.1-1,
Sheets 1 and 2) is limited by either maximum OGE gross
weight or maximum torque available.
7.1-18. Control Margin Charts.
a. Sheet I of the control margin chart (Figure 7.1-4)
shows the maximum right crosswind in which directional
control can be maintained as a function of pressure
altitude, temperature, and gross weight. Sheet 2 of the
control margin chart, (Figure 7.1-4) shows the
combinations of relative wind velocity and azimuth which
may result in marginal directional or longitudinal control.
b. Use of the control margin chart is illustrated by
the I example on Sheet 1. Ten percent pedal margin (full
right to full left) is considered adequate for directional
control when hovering. The shaded area on Sheet I
indicates conditions where the directional control margin
may be less than ten percent m zero wind hover. The
shaded area on Sheet 2 labeled DRECTIONAL,
indicates conditions where the directional control margin
may be less than ten percent for crosswind components
in excess of those determined from Sheet 1. The
shaded area on Sheet 2 labeled LONGITUDINAL
indicates wind conditions where longitudinal cyclic control
margin may be less than 10 percent. These charts are
based on control margins only.
Change 17 7.1-4
1-19. Conditions.
a. The hover charts are based upon calm wind
conditions, a level ground surface, and the use of 324
rotor rpm.
b. Use of control margin charts is to determine if
adequate control margin will be available for IGE and
OGE hover m winds or low speed translation.
c. The hover charts do not account for the effect of
an IR suppressor device. The hover ceiling chart (Figure
7.1-3, Sheet 2) is not usable if a suppressor device is
installed. The IR Scoup Suppressor creates a download
of approximately 140 pounds.
d. For the IR Scoup Suppressor
(1) To determine hover torque required,-enter
the hover power required chart (Figure 7.1-3, Sheet 1) at
a gross weight of 140 pounds heavier than the actual
gross weight.
(2) To determine predicted maximum hover
height, first subtract one psi from power available (Figure
7.1-2); then increase the hover gross weight by 140
pounds. Use this power available and gross weight m
the hover power required chart (Figure 7.1-3, Sheet 1).
(3) To determine maximum gross weight, first
subtract one psi from power available (Figure 7.1-2);
then decrease the hover gross weight determined from
the hover power required chart (Figure 7.1-3, Sheet 1) by
140 pounds.
e. With the rotor blade erosion protection coating
and polyurethane tape installed, it will be necessary to
make the following corrections. Add I psi to the hover
torque required, for OGE and IGE, as determined from
Figure 7-3 (Sheet 2). In Figure 7-3 (Sheet 1), subtract
100 pounds from the maximum gross weight to hover.
When determining maximum hover wheel height, enter
the chart at the gross weight plus 100 pounds.
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section IV. TAKEOFF
7.1-20. Description. The takeoff charts (Figure 7.1-5)
show the distances to clear various obstacle heights
based upon several hover height capabilities. The upper
chart grid presents data for climbout at a constant
INDICATED airspeed. The two lower grids present data
for climbouts at various TRUE airspeeds. Figure 7.1-5,
Sheet I is based upon level acceleration technique;
Sheet 2 is based upon a climb and acceleration from a 3foot skid height; and Sheet 3 is based upon a level
acceleration from a 15-foot skid height.
NOTE
The hover heights shown on the
charts are only a measure of the
aircraft’s climb capability and do not
imply that a higher than normal hover
height should be used during the
actual takeoff.
7.1-22. Conditions.
a. Wind. The takeoff charts are based upon calm
wind conditions.
Since surface wind velocity and
direction cannot be accurately predicted, all takeoff
planning should be based upon calm wind conditions.
Takeoff into any prevailing wind will improve the takeoff
performance.
b. Power Settings. All takeoff performance data
are based upon the torque used in determining the hover
capabilities in Figure 7.1-3.
7.1-21. Use of Charts. The primary use of takeoff
charts is illustrated by examples.
The main
consideration for takeoff performance is the hover skid
height capability, which includes the effects of pressure
altitude, free air temperature, gross weight, and torque.
Hover height capability is determined by use of the hover
charts (Figure 7.1-3). A hover check can be made to
verify the hover capability. If winds are present, the
hover check may disclose that the helicopter can actually
hover at a greater skid height than the calculated value,
since the hover charts are based upon calm wind
conditions.
Change 19
7.1-4.1/(7.1-4.2 blank)
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section V. CRUISE
7.1-23. Description. The cruise charts (Figure 7.1-6,
sheets I through 24) are based upon operation with a
clean configuration. They show the torque pressure and
engine rpm required for level flight at various pressure
altitudes, airspeeds, gross weights, and fuel flows.
b. Torque Pressure (PSI). Since pressure altitude
and temperature are fixed for each chart, torque
pressures vary according to gross weight, airspeed and
bleed air operation. See paragraph 7.1-15. for effect of
bleed air heater and device.
NOTE
Each chart has a dashed line that
represents
a
10
square-foot
equivalent flat plate drag area This
allows quick determination of delta
PSI for other than clean configurations.
NOTE
Torque available values determined
are not limits. Any torque which can
be achieved, without exceeding
engine, transmission, or other limits,
may be used.
7.1-24. Use of Charts. The primary use of the cruise
charts is illustrated by the examples provided in Figure
7.1-6. The first step for chart use is to select the proper
chart, based upon the pressure altitude and anticipated
free air temperature. (Refer to Chapter 7.1 index,
paragraph 7.1-2. Normally sufficient accuracy can be
obtained by selecting the chart nearest to the planed
cruising altitude and FAT, or the next higher altitude and
FAT.
If greater accuracy is required, interpolation
between altitudes and/or temperatures will be required.
You may enter the charts on any side (TAS, IAS, torque
pressure, or fuel flow) then move vertically or horizontally
to the gross weight, and then to the other three
parameters.
Determine maximum performance
conditions by entering the chart where the maximum
range or maximum endurance and rate of climb lines
intersect the appropriate gross weight, then read
airspeed, fuel flow and PSI torque pressure For
conservatism, use the gross weight at the beginning of
cruise flight. For greater accuracy on long flights it is
preferable to determine cruise information for several
flight segments m order to allow for decreasing fuel
weights reduced gross weight). Estimated performance
data is presented for hover (KTAS= 0) in Figure 7.1-6;
however, the hover performance data presented in
Figure 7.1-3 is more accurate and should be used in
planning critical hover performance.
The following
parameters contained in each chart are further explained
as follows:
a. Airspeed. True and indicated airspeeds are
presented at opposite sides of each chart. On any chart,
indicated airspeed can be converted to true airspeed (or
vice versa) by reading directly across the chart without
regard for other chart information. Maximum permissible
airspeed (VNE) limits appear on some charts. If no line
appears, VNE, is above the limits of the chart.
c. Fuel Flow.
Fuel flow scales are provided
opposite the torque pressure scales. On any chart,
torque pressure may be converted directly to fuel flow
without regard for other chart information. All fuel flows
are presented for bleed air heater and device off. Add 2
percent fuel flow (about 14 lbs) for heater on and
increase fuel flow 3 percent (approximately 21 Ib/hr) for
device on. If both are operating, add 5 percent fuel flow
(about 35 lb/hr) to chart values.
d. Maximum Range. The maximum range lines
indicate the combinations of weight and airspeed that will
produce the greatest flight range per gallon of fuel under
zero wind conditions. When a maximum range condition
does not appear on a chart it is because the maximum
range speed is beyond the maximum permissible VNE In
such cases, use VNE cruising speed to obtain-maximum
range.
e. Maximum Endurance and Rate of Climb. The
maximum endurance and rate of climb lines indicate the
airspeed for minimum torque pressure required to
maintain level flight for each gross weight, FAT and
pressure altitude. Since minimum torque pressure will
provide minimum fuel flow, maximum flight endurance
will be obtained at the airspeeds indicated.
7.1-25. Conditions. The cruise charts are based upon
operations at 324 rotor/6600 engine rpm below 40 KTAS
and 314 rotor/6400 engine rpm for true airspeeds above
40 knots. With the rotor blade erosion protection coating
and polyurethane tape installed, add I psi to the torque
required obtained from Figure 7.1-6 for true airspeeds
less than 100 KTAS.
Change 17 7.1-5
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section VI. DRAG
7.1-26. Description. The drag chart (Figure 7.1-7,
sheet 1 of 2) shows the equivalent flat plate drag area
changes for additional authorized configurations. There
is no increase in drag with cargo doors fully open. The
upper left portion of Figure 7.1-7, sheet 2 of 2, presents
drag areas of typical external loads as a function of the
load frontal area. The balance of the chart shows the
additional torque required m level flight due to the
increase in drag caused by external loads or aircraft
modifications. The IR Scoop Suppressor has a drag of
two square feet.
7.1-27. Use of Chart. The primary use of the drag chart
is Illustrated by the example. To determine the change
in torque, it is necessary to know the drag area change,
the true airspeed, the pressure altitude and the free air
temperature. Enter at the known drag area change,
move right to TAS, move down to pressure altitude,
move left to FAT, then move down and read change in
torque. In addition, by entering the chart in the opposite
direction,
C drag area change may be found from 2
known torque change. This chart is used to adjust cruise
chart torque and fuel flow due to equivalent flat plate
drag area change (^F). For frontal areas exceeding
values shown on Figure 7.1-7 (sheet 2 of 2) use a
smaller value and multiply, e.g. 36 sq. ft. 12 sq. ft. X 3.
7.1-28. Conditions. The drag chart is based upon 314
rotor/6400 engine rpm.
Section VII. CLIMB
7.1-29. Description.
The climb performance chart
(Figure 7.1-8, sheet 1) represents a synthesis of the
cruise charts to ease estimation of the climb portion of
the flight plan. The chart shows the time, distance, and
fuel required to climb from an initial altitude to a final
altitude. The chart provides for variation in gross weight
and ambient temperature and may be used for minor
configuration deviations.
7.1-30. Use of Chart. Enter at the known gross weight,
move up to the initial altitude and standard day free air
temperature. Calculate delta FAT between the actual
FAT and the standard day FAT. Move right from the
initial altitude and interpolate for the delta FAT point;
drop down and read the time and distance scale.
Continue down to the appropriate delta FAT curve, move
left to the fuel scale, and read fuel in pounds. Repeat
above procedure for final altitude values. Use the
previous delta FAT and the final altitude to determine the
new values. Subtract initial altitude values from the final
altitude values to obtain the actual time, distance and
fuel.
7.1-31. Conditions.
The climb-performance chart
represents climb at optimum conditions, that is, at best
rate-of-climb airspeed and at maximum power available
0-minute operation). Climb is assumed to be at 55
indicated airspeed as this is near the airspeed for rate of
climb at most atmospheric conditions.
d taxi fuel are not included in fuel calculations. Climb
performance is calculated for 314 rotor/ 6400 engine
Change 17 7.1-6
rpm. The charts are based upon a no-wind condition;
therefore, distance traveled will not be valid when winds
are present.
7.1-32. Description. The climb-descent chart (Figure
C 7.1-8, sheet 2), shows the change in torque (above or
below torque required for level flight under the same
gross weight and atmospheric conditions) to obtain a
given rate of climb or descent.
7.1-33. Use of Chart The primary uses of the climbdescent chart are Illustrated by the chart examples
a. The torque change obtained from the grid scale
must be added to (for climb) or subtracted from (for
descent) the torque required for level flight to obtain a
total climb or descent torque. (Torque required for level
flight is obtained from the appropriate cruise chart.)
b. By entering the bottom of the grid with a known
torque change, moving upward to the gross weight, then
left, the corresponding rate of climb or descent may also
be obtained.
7.1-34. Conditions. The climb-descent chart is based
on the use of constant rotor or engine rpm. A decrease
in rpm could decrease the rate of climb or increase the
rate of descent shown.
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section VIII. FUEL FLOW
7.1-35. Description.
a. The flat pitch fuel flow chart (Fig. 7.1-9, sheet 1)
shows the fuel flow at engine flat pitch.
b. The fuel flow vs torque chart (Fig. 7.1-9, sheet 2)
shows fuel flow at 314 rotor/6,400 engine RPM in poundsper-hour versus torquemeter psi for pressure altitudes
from sea level to 14,000feet and for 0° C free air temperature.
7.1-36. Use of Chart.
a. The primary use of the flat pitch fuel flow chart is
illustrated by the example. To determine the flat pitch fuel
flow, it is necessary to know the pressure altitude and free
air temperature. Enter the pressure altitude, move right
to FAT in appropriate grid, then move down and read fuel
flow on the bottom scale.
b. The primary use of the fuel flow vs torque chart is
illustrated by the example. To determine fuel flow, it is
necessary to know the torquemeter pressure (psi) and the
FAT as well as the pressure altitude. Fuel flow will increase
about 2 percent with the bleed air heater on and 3 percent
with deice on. When both systems are on, fuel flow will increase 5 percent. Also, a range or endurance penalty
should be accounted for when working cruise chart data.
A fairly accurate rule of thumb to correct fuel flow for
temperatures other than 0° C FAT is to increase/decrease
fuel flow 1 percent for each 10° C increase/decrease in
FAT.
7.1-37. Conditions. The fuel flow charts are based upon
the use of JP-4 fuel. The change in fuel flow when using
other jet fuels is insignificant.
Change 11
7.1-7
TM 55-1520-210-10
TEMPERATURE CONVERSION CHART
Figure 7.1-1. Temperature conversion chart
7.1-8
Change 8
TM 55-1520-210-10
EXAMPLE
WANTED
INDICATED TORQUE
CALIBRATED TORQUE
KNOWN
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 10,000 FEET
FAT = 15°C
CALIBRATION FACTOR = 66
METHOD
ENTER FAT
MOVE RIGHT TO PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE DOWN TO CALIBRATION FACTOR
MOVE LEFT, READ INDICATED TORQUE =
39.8 PSI
FOR
CALIBRATED
TORQUE
CONTINUE
DOWN THRU CALIBRATION FACTOR
READ CALIBRATED TORQUE = 36.8 PSI
DATA BASIS:
CALCULATED FROM AVCO LYCOMING SPEC 19.28.25.03, JULY 1982, CORRECTED FOR
INSTALLATION LOSSES BASED ON USAAEFA PROJECT NO. 81-01 LR, SEPT 1982.
Figure 7.1-2. Maximum torque (30 minute operation) chart (Sheet 1 of 2)
Change 8 7.1-9
TM 55-1520-210-10
EXAMPLE
WANTED
INDICATED TORQUE
CALIBRATED TORQUE
KNOWN
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 10,000 FEET
FAT = 15°C
CALIBRATION FACTOR = 66
METHOD
ENTER FAT
MOVE RIGHT TO PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE DOWN TO CALIBRATION FACTOR
MOVE LEFT, READ INDICATED TORQUE =
41.2 PSI
FOR
CALIBRATED
TORQUE
CONTINUE
DOWN THRU CALIBRATION FACTOR
READ CALIBRATED TORQUE = 38.3 PSI
Figure 7.1-2. Maximum torque (30 minute operation) chart (Sheet 2 of 2)
7.1-10
Change 8
TM 55-1520-210-10
HOVER CEILING
MAXIMUM TORQUE AVAILABLE (30 MINUTE OPERATION)
324 ROTOR/6600 ENGINE RPM
EXAMPLE
WANTED
GROSS WEIGHT TO HOVER
KNOWN
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 12000 FEET
FAT = 10°C
SKID HEIGHT = 2 FEET
METHOD
ENTER PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE RIGHT TO FAT
MOVE DOWN TO SKID HEIGHT
MOVE LEFT, READ GROSS WEIGHT TO HOVER
= 8900 POUNDS
DATA BASIS: AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-3. Hover chart (Sheet 2 of 2)
7.1-12
Change 8
HOVER CEILING
UH-1H
T53-L-13B
TM 55-1520-210-10
Table 7.1-1
Hover Capability (Sheet 1 of 2)
Multiply all Gross Weights by 10
Change 8
7.1-13
TM 55-1520-210-10
Table 7.1-1
7.1-14
Change 8
Hover Capability (Sheet 2 of 2)
TM 55-1520-210-10
CONTROL MARGIN
TRANSLATIONAL FLIGHT
324 ROTOR/6600 ENGINE RPM
EXAMPLE
WANTED
MAXIMUM RIGHT CROSSWIND COMPONENT
WITH 10% SAFE PEDAL MARGIN
KNOWN
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 5000 FEET
FAT = 0°C
GROSS WEIGHT = 8500 POUNDS
METHOD
ENTER PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE RIGHT TO FAT
MOVE DOWN TO KNOWN GROSS WEIGHT
MOVE LEFT, READ 18.8 RIGHT CROSSWIND
COMPONENT
REFER TO CONTROL MARGIN CHART SHEET 2,
SAFE PEDAL MARGIN MAY BE LESS THAN 10%
FOR CROSSWIND COMPONENTS GREATER THAN
18.8 KNOTS IN THE SHADED AREA LABELED
DIRECTIONAL.
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED
FROM
FLIGHT
TEST
DATA
Figure 7.1-4. Control margin chart (Sheet 1 of 2)
Change 8
7.1-15
TM 55-1520-210-10
CONTROL MARGIN
TRANSITIONAL FLIGHT
324 ROTOR/6600 ENGINE RPM
CONDITIONS WHERE THE CONTROL
MARGIN MAYBE LESS THAN 10%
ARE SHOWN IN SHADED AREA
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM FLIGHT TEST USA ASTA 68-37, JUNE 1969
Figure 7.1-4. Control margin chart (Sheet 2 of 2)
7.1-16
Change 8
TM 55-1520-210-10
TAKEOFF
LEVEL ACCELERATION, 3 FT SKID HEIGHT
324 ROTOR/6600 ENGINE RPM
MAXIMUM TORQUE AVAILABLE
CALM WIND LEVEL SURFACE ALL CONFIGURATIONS
EXAMPLE A
WANTED
DISTANCE TO CLEAR OBSTACLE
KNOWN
MAXIMUM HOVER HEIGHT = 10 FEET
OBSTACLE HEIGHT = 50 FEET
METHOD
ENTER MAXIMUM HOVER HEIGHT
MOVE RIGHT TO OBSTACLE HEIGHT
MOVE DOWN, READ DlSTANCE TO CLEAR 50 FOOT
OBSTACLE = 700 FEE i_
EXAMPLE B
WANTED
DISTANCE TO CLEAR OBSTACLE
KNOWN
MAXIMUM HOVER HEIGHT = 8 FEET
OBSTACLE HEIGHT = 50 FEET
CLIMBOUT AIRSPEED = 40 KNOTS
METHOD
ENTER MAXIMUM HOVER HEIGHT
MOVE RIGHT TO CLIMB0UT TRUE AIRSPEED
MOVE DOWN TO OBSTACLE HEIGHT
MOVE LEFT, READ DISTANCE TO CLEAR 50 FOOT
OBSTACLE = 630 FEET
Figure 7.1-5. Takeoff chart (Sheet 1 of 3)
Change 8
7.1-17
TM 55-1520-210-10
TAKEOFF
CLIMB AND ACCELERATION, 3 FT SKID HEIGHT
324 ROTOR/6600 ENGINE RPM
MAXIMUM TORQUE AVAILABLE
EXAMPLE A
WANTED
DISTANCE TO CLEAR OBSTACLE
KNOWN
MAXIMUM HOVER HEIGHT = 17 FEET
OBSTACLE HEIGHT = 120 FEE-T
METHOD
ENTER MAXIMUM HOVER HEIGHT
MOVE RIGHT TO OBSTACLE HEIGHT
MOVE DOWN, READ DISTANCE TO CLEAR 120
FOOT OBSTACLE = 1420 FEET
EXAMPLE B
WANTED
DlSTANCE TO CLEAR OBSTACLE
MAXIMUM HOVER HEIGHT = 17 FEET
OBSTACLE HEIGHT = 120 FEET
CLIMBOUT AIRSPEED = 50 KNOTS
METHOD
ENTER MAXIMUM HOVER HEIGHT
MOVE RIGHT TO CLIMBOUT AIRSPEED
MOVE DOWN TO OBSTACLE HEIGHT
MOVE LEFT, READ DISTANCE TO CLEAR 120 FOOT
OBSTACLE = 1610 FEET
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM FLIGHT TEST DATA OF SIMILAR AIRCRAFT, DECEMBER 1984.
Figure 7.1-5. Takeoff chart (Sheet 2 of 3)
7.1-18
Change 8
TM 55-1520-210-10
TAKEOFF
LEVEL ACCELERATION, 15 FT SKID HEIGHT
MAXIMUM TORQUE AVAILABLE
324 ROTOR/6600 ENGINE RPM
CALM WIND LEVEL SURFACE ALL CONFIGURATIONS
EXAMPLE A
WANTED
DISTANCE TO CLEAR OBSTACLE
KNOWN
MAXIMUM HOVER HEIGHT 17 FEET
OBSTACLE HEIGHT = 120 FEET
METHOD
ENTER MAXIMUM HOVER HEIGHT
MOVE RIGHT TO OBSTACLE HEIGHT
MOVE DOWN, READ DISTANCE TO CLEAR 120
FOOT OBSTACLE = 1125 FEET
EXAMPLE B
WANTED
DISTANCE TO CLEAR OBSTACLE
KNOWN
MAXIMUM HOVER HEIGHT = 17 FEET
OBSTACLE HEIGHT = 120 FEET
CLIMBOUT AIRSPEED = 40 KNOTS
METHOD
ENTER MAXIMUM HOVER HEIGHT
MOVE RIGHT TO CLIMBOUT TRUE AIRSPEED
MOVE DOWN TO OBSTACLE HEIGHT
MOVE LEFT, READ DISTANCE TO CLEAR 120 FOOT
OBSTACLE = 1000 FEET
DATA BASIS: DERlVED FROM FLIGHT TEST DATA OF SIMILAR AIRCRAFT, DECEMBER 1984.
Figure 7.1-5. Takeoff chart (Sheet 3 of 3)
Change 8
7.1-19
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 7.1-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 1 of 23)
7.1-20
Change 8
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 7.1-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 2 of 23)
Change 8
7.1-21
TM 55-1520-210-10
EXAMPLE
WANTED
CALIBRATED TORQUE REQUIRED FOR LEVEL FLIGHT, FUEL FLOW,
INDICATED AIRSPEED
KNOWN
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
GROSS WEIGHT = 9500 POUNDS
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 5000 FEET
FAT = - 30°C
DESIRED TRUE AIRSPEED = 100 KNOTS
ROOF MOUNTED PITOT TUBE SYSTEM
METHOD
LOCATE CHARTS FOR ALTITUDE AND/OR FREE AIR TEMPERATURES
ABOVE AND BELOW KNOWN CONDITIONS. ENTER EACH CHART AT 100
KNOTS TRUE AIRSPEED AND READ INDICATED AIRSPEED. MOVE
LATERALLY BACK TO INTERSECT 9500 POUNDS GROSS WEIGHT
CURVE, THEN PROJECT VERTICALLY TO READ CALIBRATED TORQUE
AND FUEL FLOW ON EACH CHART. INTERPOLATE BETWEEN RESULTS
DERIVED FROM CHARTS TO OBTAIN VALUES FOR KNOWN CONDITIONS
AS FOLLOWS:
7.1-22
Change 8
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 7.1-6. Cruise
chart (Sheet 3 of 23)
Change 8
7.1-23
TM 55-1520-210-10
EXAMPLE
WANTED
SPEED FOR MAXIMUM RANGE, CALIBRATED TORQUE REQUIRED AND
FUEL FLOW AT MAXIMUM RANGE SPEED, AND SPEED FOR MAXIMUM
ENDURANCE
KNOWN
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
FAT = -30°C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 8000 FEET
GROSS WEIGHT = 7500 POUNDS
ROOF MOUNTED PITOT TUBE SYSTEM
METHOD
LOCATE APPROPRIATE CHART
FIND INTERSECTION OF 7500 POUND GROSS WEIGHT LINE WITH THE
MAXIMUM RANGE LINE (DETERMINE THAT MAXIMUM RANGE IS
LIMITED BY V NE ). FROM THIS INTERSECTION DETERMINE THE
FOLLOWING:
TO READ SPEED FOR MAXIMUM RANGE:
MOVE RIGHT, READ TRUE AIRSPEED = 120.8 KNOTS
MOVE LEFT, READ INDICATED AIRSPEED = 114.0 KNOTS
TO READ FUEL FLOW REQUIRED FOR MAXIMUM RANGE:
MOVE UP, READ FUEL FLOW = 475 POUNDS PER HOUR
TO READ CALIBRATED TORQUE REQUIRED FOR MAXIMUM RANGE:
MOVE DOWN, READ CALIBRATED TORQUE REQUIRED = 32,0 PSI
FIND THE INTERSECTION OF 7500 POUNDS GROSS WEIGHT LINE WITH
THE MAXIMUM ENDURANCE LINE FROM THIS INTERSECTION
DETERMINE THE FOLLOWING:
TO READ SPEED FOR MAXIMUM ENDURANCE:
MOVE RIGHT, READ TRUE AIRSPEED = 61.8 KNOTS
MOVE LEFT, READ INDICATED AIRSPEED = 54.2 KNOTS
.
7.1-24
Change 8
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 7.1-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 4 of 23)
Change 8
7.1-25
TM 55-1520-210-10
EXAMPLE
WANTED
ADDITIONAL CALIBRATED TORQUE REQUIRED AND FUEL FLOW FOR
EXTERNAL CONFIGURATION
KNOWN
∆ F FOR EXTERNAL DRAG CONFIGURATION = 4 SQUARE FEET
GROSS WEIGHT = 8500 POUNDS
FAT = - 30°C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 12000 FEET
TRUE AIRSPEED = 105 KNOTS
METHOD
ENTER TRUE AIRSPEED AT 105 KNOTS
MOVE LEFT TO 8500 POUNDS GROSS WEIGHT LINE AND FROM THIS
INTERSECTION:
MOVE UP TO FUEL FLOW SCALE AND READ 420 POUNDS PER HOUR
MOVE DOWN, READ CALIBRATED TORQUE = 28.8 PSI
MOVE LEFT TO 10 SQ. FT. ∆ F LINE
MOVE UP, READ 4.0 ∆ PSI
DIVIDE 4 SQ. FT. BY 10 SQ. FT. TO OBTAIN A PERCENTAGE = 40%.
MULTIPLY 4 SQ. FT. BY 40% TO OBTAIN 1.6 ∆ PSl
ADD 1.6 ∆ PSI TO 28.8 PSI TO OBTAIN A TOTAL OF 30.4 PSI FOR
E X T E R NAL DRAG C O N F I G URATION
FROM THIS POINT ON THE TORQUE SCALE, MOVE VERTICALLY TO THE
FUEL FLOW SCALE AND READ 432 POUNDS PER HOUR.
7.1-26
Change 8
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 7.1-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 5 of 23)
Change 8
7.1-27
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 7.1-6.
7.1-28
Change
8
Cruise chart (Sheet 6 of 23)
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 7.1-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 7 of 23)
Change 8 7.1-29
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM UH-1H FLIGHT TEST, AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 8 of 23)
7.1-30
Change 8
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM UH-1H FLIGHT TEST, AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-6.
Cruise chart (Sheet 9 of 23)
Change 8
7.1-31
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM UH-1H FLIGHT TEST, AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-6.
7.1-32
Change 8
Cruise chart (Sheet 10 of 23)
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM UH-1H FLIGHT TEST, AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-6.
Cruise chart (Sheet 11 of 23)
Change 8
7.1-33
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM UH-1H FLIGHT TEST, AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-6.
7.1-34
Change 8
Cruise chart (Sheet 12 of 23)
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM UH-1H FLIGHT TEST, AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-6.
Cruise chart (Sheet 13 of 23)
Change 8 7.1-35
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM UH-1H FLIGHT TEST, AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-6.
7.1-36
Change 8
Cruise chart (Sheet 14 of 23)
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM UH-1H FLIGHT TEST, AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-6.
Cruise chart (Sheet 15 of 23)
Change 8
7.1-37
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM UH-1H FLIGHT TEST, AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-6.
7.1-38
Change 8
Cruise chart (Sheet 16 of 23)
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM UH-1H FLIGHT TEST, AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-6.
Cruise chart (Sheet 17 of 23)
Change 8
7.1-39
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM UH-1H FLIGHT TEST, AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-6.
7.1-40
Change 8
Cruise chart (Sheet 18 of 23)
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM UH-1H FLIGHT TEST, AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-6.
Cruise chart (Sheet 19 of 23)
Change 8
7.1-41
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM UH-1H FLIGHT TEST, AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-6.
7.1-42
Change 8
Cruise chart (Sheet 20 of 23)
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM UH-1H FLIGHT TEST, AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-6.
Cruise chart (Sheet 21 of 23)
Change 8
7.1-43
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM UH-1H FLIGHT TEST, AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-6.
7.1-44
Change 8
Cruise chart (Sheet 22 of 23)
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROMUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, AEFA PROJECT NO. 84-33, JUNE 1988
Figure 7.1-6.
Cruise chart (Sheet 23 of 23)
Change 8
7.1-45
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 7.1-7. Drag Chart (Sheet 1 of 2)
Change 17 7.1-46
TM 55-1520-210-10
EXAMPLE A
W A N T E D
CHANGE IN TORQUE REQUIRED DUE TO EQUIVALENT FLAT PLATE DRAG
AREA CHANGE (∆ F) FROM CLEAN (BASELINE) CONFIGURATION TO AN
M-56 SUBSYSTEM CONFIGURATION
K N O W N
∆ F DRAG AREA CHANGE
TRUE AIRSPEED = 120 KNOTS
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = SEA LEVEL
FAT = 00C
M E T H O D
ENTER DRAG AREA CHANGE
MOVE RIGHT TO TRUE AIRSPEED
MOVE DOWN TO PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE LEFT TO FREE AIR TEMPERATURE
MOVE DOWN, READ CHANGE IN TORQUE = 12.3 PSI
EXAMPLE B
W A N T E D
INCREASE IN DRAG AREA DUE TO EXTERNAL CARGO
K N O W N
SHAPE OF EXTERNAL LOAD IS A CYLINDER WITH A FRONTAL AREA OF
6.8 SQ. FT. ∆F
METHOD
ENTER CHART AT SYMBOL FOR CYLINDER
MOVE DOWN TO 6.8 SQ. FT.
MOVE RIGHT, READ INCREASED DRAG AREA = 4 SQ. FT.
Change 8
7.1-47
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
CALCULATED DATA
Figure 7.1-7.
7.1-48
Change 8
Drag Chart (Sheet 2 of 2)
TM 55-1520-210-10
EXAMPLE
WANTED
TIME DISTANCE AND FUEL
KNOWN
GROSS WEIGHT = 9000 POUNDS
INITIAL PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 4000 FEET
FINAL PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 10000 FEET
FAT = 17°C
METHOD
ENTER GROSS WEIGHT
MOVE UP TO INITIAL PRESSURE ALTITUDE
DETERMINE INITIAL FAT = 7 ° C
CALCULATE ∆ FAT FROM STANDARD DAY FREE AIR TEMPERATURE
(ACTUAL FAT MINUS STANDARD DAY FAT) = ∆ F A T
( 1 7 ° C - 7 ° C ) = 1 0 ° C
MOVE RIGHT TO ISA + 10 ° C LINE
DROP VERTICALLY, READ
DISTANCE = 2.0 NAUTICAL MILES
TIME = 2.0 MINUTES
CONTINUE DOWN TO ISA + 10 ° C FUEL LINE
MOVE LEFT, READ FUEL = 23 POUNDS
REENTER GROSS WEIGHT
MOVE UP TO FINAL PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE RIGHT TO ISA + 10 ° C LINE
DROP VERTICALLY, READ
DISTANCE = 5.5 NAUTICAL MILES
TIME = 5.5 MINUTES
CONTINUE DOWN TO ISA + 10 ° C FUEL LINE
MOVE LEFT, READ FUEL = 63 POUNDS
FINAL TIME = (5.5 - 2.0) = 3.5 MINUTES
FINAL DISTANCE = (5.5 - 2.0) = 3.5 NAUTICAL MILES
FINAL FUEL = (63 - 23) = 40 POUNDS
Change 8
7.1-49
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 7.1-8. Climb chart (Sheet 1 of 2)
7.1-50
Change 8
TM 55-1520-210-10
CLIMB – DESCENT
314 ROTOR/6400 ENGINE RPM
EXAMPLE
WANTED
CALIBRATED TORQUE CHANGE FOR DESIRED RATE OF
CLIMB OR DESCENT
KNOWN
GROSS WEIGHT = 6000 POUNDS
DESIRED RATE OF CLIMB = 1200 FEET PER MINUTE
METHOD
ENTER RATE OF CLIMB
MOVE RIGHT TO GROSS WEIGHT
MOVE DOWN, READ CALIBRATED TORQUE CHANGE
= 12.5 PSI
DATA BASIS: CALCULATED DATA, DECEMBER 1989
Figure 7.1-8.
Climb chart (Sheet 2 of 2)
Change 8
7.1-51
TM 55-1520-210-10
FLAT PITCH FUEL FLOW
JP-4 FUEL
EXAMPLE
WANTED
FUEL FLOW AT FLAT PITCH
KNOWN
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 11000 FEET
FAT=0°C
METHOD
ENTER PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE RIGHT FAT
MOVE DOWN, READ FUEL FLOW = 254
POUNDS PER HOUR
DATA BASIS:
CALCULATED FROM AVCO LYCOMING SPEC 19.28.25.03, JULY 1982, CORRECTED FOR
INSTALLATION LOSSES BASED ON USAAEFA PROJECT NO. 81-01 LR, SEPT 1982.
Figure 7.1-9. Fuel flow chart (Sheet 1 of 2)
7.1-52 Change 8
TM 55-1520-210-10
FUEL FLOW VS TORQUE
314 ROTOR/6400 ENGINE RPM
FAT = 0°C JP4 FUEL
EXAMPLE
WANTED
FUEL FLOW AT 314 ROTOR RPM (6400 ENGINE
RPM) WITH FLAT PITCH
KNOWN
TORQUE = 25 PSI
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 10000 FEET
FAT = 0°C
METHOD
ENTER TORQUE
MOVE RIGHT TO PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE DOWN, READ FUEL FLOW = 414 POUNDS
PER HOUR
DATA BASIS:
CALCULATED FROM AVCO LYCOMING SPEC 19.28.25.03, JULY 1982, CORRECTED FOR
INSTALLATION LOSSES BASED ON USAAEFA PROJECT NO. 81-01 LR, SEPT 1982.
Figure 7.1-9. Fuel flow chart (Sheet 2 of 2)
Change 8
7.1-53/(7.1-54 blank)
TM 55-1520-210-10
7-8. General Conditions. In addition to the specific
conditions, the following general conditions are
applicable to the performance data.
which data are not provided, thereby increasing the
accuracy of performance predictions.
7-10. Definitions of Abbreviations.
a. Rigging. All airframe and engine controls are
assumed to be rigged within allowable tolerances.
b. Pilot Technique.
Normal pilot technique is
assumed. Control movements should be smooth and
continuous.
c. Helicopter Variation. Variation in performance
between individual helicopters are known to exist;
however, they are considered to be small and cannot be
individually accounted for.
d. Instrument Variation. The data shown in the
performance charts do not account for instrument
inaccuracies or malfunctions.
e. Types of Fuel. All flight performance data is
based on IP4 fuel. The change in fuel flow and torque
available, when using JP-5, JP-8, aviation gasoline or
any other approved fuels, is insignificant.
7-9. Performance Discrepancies. Regular use of this
chapter will allow you to monitor instruments and other
helicopter systems for malfunction, by comparing actual
performance with planned performance. Knowledge will
also be gained concerning the effects of variable for
a Unless otherwise indicated abbreviations and
symbols used in this manual conform to those
established in Military Standard MIL-ST12, which is
periodically revised to reflect current changes in
abbreviations usage.
b. Capitalization and punctuation of abbreviations
varies, depending upon the context m which they are
used. In general, lower case abbreviations are used in
text material, whereas abbreviations used in charts and
illustrations appears in full capital letters. Periods do not
usually follow abbreviations; however, periods are used
with abbreviations that could be mistaken for whole
words if the period were omitted.
7-11. Temperature Conversion. The temperature
conversion chart Figure 7-1 is arranged so that degrees
Celsius can be converted quickly and easily by reading
Celsius and looking directly across the charts for
Fahrenheit equivalence and vice versa.
Section II TORQUE AVAILABLE
7-12. Description. The torque available charts show
the effects of altitude and temperature on engine torque.
7-13. Chart Differences. Both pressure altitude and
FAT affect engine power production. Figure 7-2 shows
power available data at 30 minute power ratings in terms
of the allowable torque as recorded by the torquemeter
(psi). Note that the power output capability of the T53-L13 engine can exceed the transmission structural limit
(50 psi calibrated) under certain conditions.
a. Figure 7-2 is applicable for maximum power, 30
minute operation at 324 rotor/6600 engine rpm.
b. If the IR Scoup Suppressor is installed, subtract
one psi from the torque values obtained from Figure 7-2.
7-14. Use of Chart The primary use of the chart is
illustrated by the examples. In general, to determine the
maximum power available, it is necessary to know the
pressure altitude and temperature. The calibration factor
(Data Plate Torque), obtained from the engine data plate
or from the engine acceptance records, is the indicated
torque pressure at 1125 ft-lbs actual output shaft torque,
and is used to correct the error of individual engine
torque indicating system.
NOTE
Torque available values determined
are not limits. Any torque which can
be achieved, without exceeding
engine, transmission, or other limits,
may be used
7-15. Conditions. Chart (Figure 7-2) is based upon
speeds of 324 rotor/6600 engine rpm grade J-4 fuel.
The use of aviation gasoline will not influence engine
power. All torque available are presented for bleed air
heater and device off. Decrease power available 1.4 psi
for heater on and 2.1 psi for device on; decrease torque
available 3.5 psi if both bleed air heater and device are
operating.
Change 17 7-3
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section III HOVER
7-16. Description. The hover charts (Figure 7-3,
Sheets I and 2) shows the hover ceiling and the torque
required to hover respectively at various pressure
altitudes, ambient temperatures, gross weights, and skid
heights. Maximum skid height for hover can also be
obtained by using the torque available from Figure 7-2.
7-17. Use of Chart. The primary use of the hover
charts is illustrated by the charts examples. In general,
to determine the hover ceiling or the torque required to
hover, it is necessary to know the pressure altitude,
temperature, gross weight and the desired skid height.
In addition to Its primary use, the hover chart (Sheet 2)
can also be used to determine the predicted maximum
hover height, which is needed for use of the takeoff chart
(Figure 7-5).
7-19. Conditions
a. The hover charts are based upon calm wind
conditions, a level ground surface, and the use of 324
rotor rpm.
b. Use of control margin charts Is to determine If
adequate control margin will be available for IGE and
OGE hover in winds or low speed translation.
c. The hover charts do not account for the effect of
an IR suppressor device. The hover ceiling chart (Figure
7-3, Sheet 1) is not usable if a suppressor device is
installed. The IR Scoup Suppressor creates a download
of approximately 140 pounds.
d. For the IR Scoup Suppressor
7-18. Control Margin.
a. Sheet 1 of the control margin charts (Figure 7-4)
shows the maximum right crosswind which one can
achieve and still maintain directional control as a function
of pressure altitude, temperature, and gross weight.
Sheet 2 of the control margin chart (Figure 7-4) shows
the combinations of relative wind velocity and azimuth
which may result in marginal directional or longitudinal
control.
b. Use of the control margin charts is Illustrated by
example on Sheet 1. Ten percent of total control travel
(full right to full left) is considered adequate margin when
hovering. The shaded area on Sheet 1 indicates
conditions where the directional control margin may be
less than ten percent m zero wind hover. The shaded
area on sheet 2 labeled DIRECTIONAL indicates
conditions where the directional control margin may be
less than ten percent for crosswind components in
excess of those determined from Sheet 1. The shaded
area on sheet 2 labeled LONGITUDINAL indicates wind
conditions where longitudinal control may be less than 10
percent. These charts are based on control margin only.
Change 17 7-4
(1) To determine hover torque required, enter
the hover power required chart (Figure 7-3, Sheet 2) at a
gross weight of 140 pounds heavier than the actual
gross weight.
(2) To determine predicted maximum hover
height, first subtract one psi from power available (Figure
7-2); then increase the hover gross weight by 140
pounds. Use this power available and gross weight m
the hover power required chart (Figure 7-3, Sheet 2).
(3) To determine maximum gross weight, first
subtract one psi from power available (Figure 7-2), then
decrease the hover gross weight determined from the
hover power required chart (Figure 7-3, Sheet 2) by 140
pounds.
e. With the rotor blade erosion protection coating
and polyurethane tape installed, it will be necessary to
make the following corrections. Add 1 psi to the hover
torque required, for OGE and IGE, as determined from
Figure 7-3 (Sheet 2). In Figure 7-3 (Sheet 1). subtract
100 pounds from the maximum gross weight to hover
When determining maximum hover wheel height, enter
the chart at the gross weight plus 100 pounds.
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section IV. TAKEOFF
7-20. Description. The takeoff chart (Figure 7-5)
shows the distances to clear various obstacle heights,
based upon several hover height capabilities. The upper
chart grid presents data for climbout at a constant
INDICATED airspeed. The two lower grids present data
for climbouts at various TRUE airspeeds. Figure 7-5,
sheet 1, is based upon level acceleration technique,
sheet 2 is based upon a climb and acceleration from a 3
foot skid height and sheet 3 is based upon a level
acceleration from-a 15 foot skid height.
NOTE
The hover heights shown on the
chart are only a measure of the
aircraft’s climb capability and do not
imply that a higher than normal hover
height should be used during the
actual takeoff
7-22. Conditions.
a. Wind. The takeoff charts are based upon calm
wind conditions.
Since surface wind velocity and
direction cannot be accurately predicted, all takeoff
planning should be based upon calm wind conditions.
Takeoff into any prevailing wind will improve the takeoff
performance.
b. Power Settings. All takeoff performance data
are based upon the torque used in determining the hover
capabilities in Figure 7-3.
7-21. Use of Charts. The primary use of takeoff
charts is illustrated by examples. The main
consideration for takeoff performance is the hover skid
height capability, which includes the effects of pressure
altitude, free air temperature, gross weight, and torque.
Hover height capability is determined by use of the hover
charts (Figure 7-3). A hover check can be made to
verify the hover capability. If winds are present, the
hover check may disclose that the helicopter can actually
hover at a greater skid height than the calculated value.
since the hover charts are based upon calm wind
conditions.
Change 19
7-4.1/(7-4.2 blank)
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section V. CRUISE
7-23.
Description. The cruise charts (Figure 7-6
sheets 1 through 24) show the torque pressure and
engine rpm required for level flight at various pressure
altitudes airspeeds gross weights and fuel flows.
NOTE
The cruise charts are basically
arranged by FAT groupings. Figure
7-6, sheets 1 through 24 are based
upon
operation
with
clean
configuration.
Each chart has a
dashed line that represents a ten
square foot equivalent flat plate
drag
area
This
allows
quick
determination of Delta PSI for other
than clean configurations.
7-24. Use of Charts.
Cruise flight is restricted to 319 to
324 Cruise flight is restricted to 319
to 324 Rotor RPM (6500 to 6600
Engine RPM.).
Cruise at 324
Rotor/6600
Engine
RPM
is
recommended. The cruise chart data
for true airspeeds above 40 KTAS is
based on 314 Rotor/6400 Engine
RPM. Until the cruise charts are
revised performance planning shall
be
accomplished
using
the
procedures and torque corrections
from Table 7-1. These restrictions do
not apply when composite main rotor
blades (CB) are installed.
The primary use of the charts is illustrated by the
examples provided in Figure 7-6. The first step for chart
use is to select the proper chart, based upon the planned
drags configuration, pressure altitude and anticipated
free air temperature; refer to Chapter 7 index (paragraph
7-2). Normally, sufficient accuracy can be obtained by
selecting the chart nearest to the planned cruising
altitude and FAT, or the next higher altitude and FAT. If
greater accuracy is required, interpolation between
altitudes and/or temperatures will be required. You may
enter the charts on any side: TAS, IAS, torque pressure,
or fuel flow, and then move vertically or horizontally to
the gross weight, then to the other three parameters.
Maximum performance conditions are determined by
entering the chart where the maximum range or
maximum endurance and rate of climb lines intersect the
appropriate gross weight; then read airspeed, fuel flow
and PSI torque pressure. For conservatism, use the
gross weight at the beginning of cruise flight. For greater
accuracy on long flights It is preferable to determine
cruise information for several flight segments in order to
allow for decreasing fuel weights (reduced gross weight).
Estimated performance data is presented for hover
(KTAS-O) in Figure 7-6, however, the hover performance
data presented in figure 7-3 is more accurate and should
be used in planning critical hover performance. The
following parameters contained in each chart are further
explained as follows:
a. Airspeed. True and indicated airspeeds are
presented at opposite sides of each chart. On any chart,
indicated airspeed can be directly converted to true
airspeed (or vice versa) by reading directly across the
chart without regard for other chart information.
Maximum permissible airspeed (VNE) limits appear on
some charts. If no line appears VNE is above the limits
of the chart.
b. Torque Pressure (PSI). Since pressure altitude
and temperature are fixed for each chart torque
pressures vary according to gross weight, airspeed and
bleed air on or off. See paragraph 7-15 for effect of
bleed air heater and device.
NOTE
Torque available values determined are
not limits. Any torque which can be
achieved without exceeding engine
transmission or other limits may be
used.
c. Fuel Flow. Fuel flow scales are provided opposite the
torque pressure scales. On any chart, torque pressure
may be converted directly to fuel flow without regard for
other chart information. All fuel flows are presented for
bleed air heater and device off. Add two percent fuel
flow (about 14 lb/hr) for heater on and increase fuel flow
three percent (approximately 21 lb/hr) for device on. If
both are operating, add five percent fuel flow (about 35
lb/hr) to chart values.
d. Maximum Range. The maximum range lines indicate
the combinations of weight and airspeed that will
produce the greatest flight range per gallon of fuel under
zero wind conditions. When a maximum range condition
does not appear on a chart it is because the maximum
range speed is beyond the maximum permissible speed
(VNE); m such cases, use VNE cruising speed to obtain
maximum range.
Change 17 7-5
TM 55-1520-210-10
e. Maximum Endurance and Rate of Climb. The
maximum endurance and rate of climb lines indicate the
airspeed for minimum torque pressure required to
maintain level flight for each gross weight FAT and
pressure altitude. Since minimum torque pressure will
provide minimum fuel flow maximum flight endurance will
be obtained at the airspeeds indicated.
7-25. Conditions. The cruise charts are based upon
operations at 324 rotor / 6600 engine rpm below 40
KTAS and 314 rotor/6400 engine rpm for true airspeeds
above 40 knots. With the rotor blade erosion protection
coating and polyurethane tape installed, add 2 psi to the
torque required obtained from Figure 7-6.
Section VI. DRAG
7-26. Description. The drag chart (Figure 7-7, Sheet 1
of 2) shows the authorized configuration or the
equivalent flat plate drag area changes for additional
aircraft modifications. There is no increase in drag with
cargo doors fully open. The upper left portion of Figure
7-7 (Sheet 2 of 2) presents drag areas of typical external
loads as a function of the load frontal area. The balance
of the charts shows the additional torque required in level
flight due to the increase in drag caused by external
loads, aircraft modifications or authorized configurations.
The IR Scoup Suppressor has a drag of two square feet.
temperature. Enter at the known drag area change,
move right to TAS move down to pressure altitude move
left to FAT then move down and read change in torque.
In addition, by entering the chart in the opposite direction,
drag area change may be found from a known torque
change. This chart is used to adjust cruise charts for
appropriate torque and fuel flow due to equivalent flat
plate drag area change (AF).
For frontal areas
exceeding values shown on Figure 7-7 (Sheet 2 of 2)
use a smaller value and multiply (e.g 36 sq. ft. 9 sq ft. x
4).
7-27. Use of Chart. The primary use of the chart is
illustrated by the example. To determine the change in
torque it is necessary to know the drag area change the
true airspeed the pressure altitude and the free air
7-28. Conditions. The drag chart is based upon 314
rotor/6400 engine rpm.
Section VII. CL MB-DESCENT
7-29. Description.
The climb descent chart (Figure 7-8) shows the
change in torque (above or below torque required for
level flight under the same gross weight and atmospheric
conditions) to obtain a given rate of climb or descent.
7-30. Use of Chart.
Climb-Descent The primary uses of the chart are
illustrated by the chart examples.
a. The torque change obtained from the grid scale
must be added to the torque required for level flight (for
climb) or subtracted from the torque required for level
flight (for descent)-obtained from the appropriate cruise
chart in order to obtain a total climb or descent torque.
Change 17 7-6
b. By entering the bottom of the grid with a known_
torque change, moving upward to the gross weight, and
left to the corresponding rate of climb or descent may
also be obtained.
7-31. Conditions.
Climb-Descent The climb-descent chart is based
on the use of constant rotor or engine rpm. The rate of
climb (descent) presented is for steady state conditions
and rpm bleed could increase (decrease) the rate of
climb (descent) shown.
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section VIII.
7-32.
Description
a. The fuel flow chart (fig 7-9) shows the fuel flow
at engine idle and 324 rotor/6600 engine rpm with
flat pitch.
b. Fuel flow vs torque, shows fuel flow in poundper-hour versus torquemeter psi for pressure
altitudes from sea level to 14000 feet and for 0°C
free air temperature.
FUEL FLOW
b. Fuel flow will increase about two percent with
the bleed air heater on and three percent with deice
on. When both systems are on, increase fuel flow
five percent. Also a range or endurance penalty
should be accounted for when working cruise chart
data. A fairly accurate rule-of-thumb to correct fuel
flow for temperatures other than 0oC FAT is to increase (decrease) fuel flow 1 percent for each 10oC
increase (decrease) in FAT.
7-33. Use of Chart
7-34. Conditions
a. The primary use of the idle fuel flow chart is illustrated by the example. To determine the idle fuel
flow, it is necessary to know the idle condition,
pressure altitude, and free air temperature. Enter at
the pressure altitude, move right to FAT in appropriate grid, then move down and read fuel flow
on the scale corresponding to the condition. Refer to
the cruise charts to obtain fuel flow for cruise power
conditions.
These charts are based upon the use of JP-4 fuel. The
change in fuel flow when using other jet fuels is insignificant.
Change 2
7-7
TM 55-1520-210-10
Table 7-1 Torque Correction (Sheet 1 of 4 )
To determine cruise performance data for 324 Rotor/6600 Engine
RPM at speeds above 40 KTAS, follow the instructions in paragraph
7-24 except:
a. Add appropriate torque correction from this table to the
calibrated torque required values determined from the intersection
of the airspeed and gross weight lines on the upper (6400 Engine
RPM) portion of the cruise chart.
b. Determine fuel flow corresponding to the corrected torque
required from the lower (6600 Engine RPM) portion of the cruise
chart.
c. Determine continuous torque available (CONT TRQ AVAIL) and
30 minute torque available (30 MIN TRQ AVAIL) from the lower
(6600 Engine RPM) portion of the cruise chart.
EXAMPLE
WANTED
Speed for Maximum Range
Calibrate Torque Required and Fuel Flow at Maximum Range
KNOWN
324 Rotor/6600 Engine RPM
Clean Configuration
FAT = -30°C
Pressure Altitude = 8000 feet
Gross Weight = 8500 pounds
Roof Mounted System
METHOD
Locate (-30°C FAT, 8000 Feet) Chart (figure 7-6 Sheet 3 of 24)
Find Intersection of 8500 LB Gr Wt Line With the Max Range Line
To Read Speed for Maximum Range:
Move Right, Read TAS = 105.3 Knot
Move Left, Read IAS = 102.3
To Read Calibrated Torque Required @ 314 Rotor/6400 Engine RPM
Move Down, Read Torque = 41.2 PSI
To Correct Torque Required for 6600 Engine RPM
From Table for Sheet 3 (8000 Ft -30°C) @ 8500 Lb Gross Weight
For 90 KTAS, Torque Correction = 3.5 PSI
For 110 KTAS, Torque Correction = 5.7 PSI
Torque Correction = 5.2 PSI
Interpolate for 105.3 KTAS
Corrected Torque Required = 41.2 PSI + 5.2 PSI = 46.4 PSI
To Determine Fuel Flow
Enter Figure 7-6, Sheet 3 of 24 At 46.4 PSI Torque:
Move Down Read Fuel Flow = 614 Lb/Hr
7-8
TM 55-1520-210-10
TABLE 7-1 TORQUE CORRECTION
(Sheet 2 of 4)
TORQUE CORRECTION - PSI
SHEET 2
SHEET 3
SHEET 4
4000
6000
8000
12000
10000
14000
NA
2.4
1.8
2.2
2.1
1.9
NA
2.2
2.2
2.6
2.4
2.8
NA
2.9
3.4
3.5
3.0
3.2
NA
4.9
4.5
5.5
5.2
5.9
(-30°C FAT)
KTAS
GW-LB
5500
50
70
90
110
SHEET 1
SL
2000
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
6500
50
70
90
110
3.0
3.3
4.3
7.3
2.8
3.2
4.1
6.9
2.6
3.1
3.9
6.4
2.4
2.9
3.7
6.1
2.2
2.6
3.5
5.6
2.2
2.5
3.4
5.3
2.1
2.4
2.9
4.5
1.9
2.3
2.9
4.6
7500
50
70
90
110
3.1
3.5
4.5
7.4
2.9
3.3
4.3
7.0
2.6
3.0
4.1
6.5
2.5
3.0
3.9
6.2
2.3
2.8
3.4
5.3
2.3
2.7
3.3
5.3
1.7
2.2
2.9
4.7
1.4
2.2
2.7
4.7
8500
50
70
90
110
3.0
3.5
4.6
7.5
2.9
3.4
4.4
7.1
2.7
3.3
4.0
6.4
2.6
3.1
3.7
6.0
2.3
2.8
3.5
5.7
1.8
2.6
3.2
5.5
1.1
1.8
1.9
2.6
0.8
1.1
0.8
0.6
1.7
1.1
2.8
1.9
2.0
3.5
2.5
5.9
SHEET 7
10000
8000
1.1
1.0
1.5
1.7
2.3
2.2
2.4
2.6
-1.8
0.1
-0.6
-2.3
-1.5
-2.4
-4.8
1.4
SHEET 8
12000
14000
1.0
1.0
1.3
1.5
1.9
2.1
2.0
2.3
50
70
90
110
[-15°C FAT]
KTAS
GW-LB
50
5500
70
90
110
3.1
3.0
3.5
3.8
4.9
4.2
6.6
7.7
SHEET 5
SL
2000
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
2.9
2.1
3.4
2.8
4.2
3.5
6.7
6.0
SHEET 6
4000
6000
1.2
1.3
1.7
1.9
2.5
2.6
2.9
3.0
6500
50
70
90
110
1.5
2.2
3.0
3.5
1.4
2.1
2.9
3.3
1.3
1.9
2.7
3.1
1.2
1.7
2.5
2.8
1.1
1.7
2.4
2.7
1.1
1.6
2.2
2.3
1.0
1.5
2.1
2.2
0.5
1.3
1.8
1.8
7500
50
70
90
110
1.6
2.2
3.2
3.6
1.4
2.0
2.9
3.3
1.3
2.0
2.8
3.2
1.3
1.9
2.6
2.7
1.2
1.8
2.4
2.5
0.7
1.6
2.1
2.2
0.7
1.6
2.0
2.1
0.3
0.6
0.9
-0.5
8500
50
70
90
110
1.6
2.3
3.3
3.6
1.5
2.2
3.1
3.3
1.4
2.1
2.8
2.8
1.1
1.9
2.6
2.7
0.7
1.7
2.2
2.3
0.5
1.2
1.6
0.8
0.5
0.8
1.3
-0.2
-0.9
-1.4
-3.2
-7.5
9500
50
70
90
110
1.6
2.3
3.2
3.2
1.4
2.3
3.1
3.1
0.8
2.0
2.6
2.7
0.9
2.0
2.6
2.7
0.4
0.8
1.2
-0.7
-0.1
-0.2
-0.8
-3.8
-0.8
-1.2
-2.9
-7.2
-7.5
-6.6
-6.8
-6.9
9500
7-9
TM 55-1520-210-10
TABLE 7-1 TORQUE CORRECTION
[O°C FAT]
GW-LB
KTAS
5500
50
70
90
(Sheet 3 of 4)
TORQUE CORRECTION - PSI
SHEET 10
SHEET 11
SHEET 12
4000
6000
8000
12000
10000
14000
1.1
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.8
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.1
0.9
0.8
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.1
2.5
2.3
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.6
110
SHEET 9
SL
2000
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
6500
50
70
90
110
1.4
1.4
1.6
2.9
1.3
1.3
1.5
2.7
1.1
1.2
1.4
2.5
1.2
1.2
1.4
2.4
1.1
1.1
1.2
2.1
0.9
0.9
1.2
2.0
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.8
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.6
7500
50
70
90
110
1.3
1.4
1.6
3.0
1.3
1.4
1.6
2.7
1.2
1.3
1.4
2.5
1.1
1.1
1.3
2.3
0.9
1.0
1.2
2.1
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.9
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.0
0.0
-0.1
8500
50
70
90
1.4
1.5
1.7
3.0
1.3
1.3
1.5
2.5
1.1
1.2
1.5
2.5
0.7
0.9
1.0
2.1
0.7
0.8
0.8
1.8
0.4
0.1
0.1
0.0
-0.5
-1.5
-3.8
-4.9
-3.0
-3.8
-5.9
-8.8
110
50
70
90
110
(15°C FAT)
KTAS
GW-LB
5500
50
70
90
110
1.3
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.3
2.6
2.8
SHEET 13
SL
2000
NA
0.7
NA
0.9
NA
1.0
NA
0.9
6500
50
70
90
110
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.1
0.7
1.0
1.1
1.0
0.7
0.9
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.7
0.6
0.9
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.8
0.8
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.6
0.2
0.1
0.3
-0.3
7500
50
70
90
110
0.9
1.1
1.2
1.1
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.0
0.8
0.7
1.0
0.9
0.7
0.7
1.0
1.1
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.4
0.2
0.5
0.1
0.1
-0.2
-0.1
-1.2
-1.0
-1.7
-4.2
-6.7
8500
50
70
90
110
0.9
0.9
1.1
1.0
0.8
0.8
1.2
1.1
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.8
0.8
0.0
-0.3
-0.1
-1.5
-0.5
-0.9
-2.0
-4.0
-1.3
-2.0
-5.0
-8.2
-7.3
-7.1
-7.9
-19.6
9500
50
70
90
110
0.8
0.7
1.2
1.2
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.9
0.4
0.2
0.4
-0.2
0.0
-0.2
0.0
-1.5
-1.4
-2.2
-5.4
-8.7
-4.9
-5.2
-7.3
-15.2
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
9500
7-10
0.5
0.8
0.3
1.1
0.3
1.2
0.4
2.4
SHEET 14
4000
6000
0.7
0.6
0.8
0.9
0.9
1.1
0.9
0.9
0.4
-0.8
0.0
-2.0
-0.3
-5.3
-0.4
-6.3
SHEET 15
8000
10000
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.8
-6.9
NA
-7.3
NA
-8.5
NA
-15.4
NA
SHEET 16
12000
14000
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.8
0.7
0.8
0.8
TM 55-1520-210-10
TABLE 7-1 TORQUE CORRECTION
(Sheet 4 of 4)
TORQUE CORRECTION - PSI
SHEET 20
SHEET 18
SHEET 19
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.7
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.6
[30°CFAT]
GW-LB
KTAS
5500
50
70
90
110
SHEET 17
SL
2000
0.5
0.5
0.8
0.7
0.5
0.5
0.8
0.8
6500
50
70
90
110
0.6
0.7
0.6
1.0
0.6
0.7
0.4
0.9
0.7
0.6
0.3
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.4
1.0
0.3
0.4
0.1
0.6
0.4
0.3
0.1
0.5
0.0
-0.2
-0.6
-0.9
7500
50
70
90
110
0.9
0.8
0.3
0.9
0.7
0.5
0.3
1.0
0.6
0.5
0.4
1.0
0.5
0.4
0.1
0.8
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.7
-0.1
-0.3
-0.7
-1.1
-0.6
-0.9
-2.7
-2.8
-1.6
-2.0
-5.1
-7.4
8500
50
70
90
110
0.7
0.5
0.4
1.2
0.6
0.4
0.3
1.0
0.5
0.4
0.2
0.7
0.1
0.0
-0.4
-0.6
0.0
-0.1
-0.7
-1.1
-1.6
-2.1
-5.7
-8.0
-6.3
-6.0
-7.9
-16.3
NA
NA
NA
NA
-0.1
-1.0
-0.3
-1.3
-0.8
-3.9
-1.3
-5.4
SHEET 22
4000
6000
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
50
70
90
110
[45°C FAT]
KTAS
GW-LB
5500
50
70
90
110
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.8
0.8
SHEET 21
SL
2000
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.3
6500
50
70
90
110
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.0
-0.1
-0.3
-0.4
-1.1
-0.3
-0.6
-1.3
-2.5
7500
50
70
90
110
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.9
-0.1
-0.2
-0.6
-1.5
-1.5
-2.1
-5.0
-7.9
-5.9
-5.7
-6.9
-14.7
8500
50
70
90
110
0.5
0.3
0.5
0.6
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
-0.3
-0.2
-0.3
-0.8
-1.8
-1.4
-1.9
-4.4
-7.2
-3.6
-3.9
-6.4
-11.7
7.2
8.0
11.0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
9500
50
70
90
110
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.1
-0.1
-0.4
-0.7
-1.6
-0.4
-0.6
-1.4
-2.8
-1.9
-2.6
-6.3
-10.0
-7.7
-7.5
-8.8
-18.8
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
9500
-8.3
-2.2
-2.7
-7.7
-6.6
-9.3
-9.7 -21.5
SHEET 23
8000
10000
0.4
0.5
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.4
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
SHEET 24
14000
12000
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.3
0.0
7-11
TM 55-1520-210-10
TEMPERATURE CONVERSION CHART
Figure 7-1. Temperature Conversion Chart
7-12
TM 55-1520-210-10
MAXIMUM TORQUE AVAILABLE (30 MINUTE OPERATION)
BLEED AIR HEATER OFF
ANTI-ICE OFF
324 ROTOR/66OO ENGINE RPM
EXAMPLE
WANTED
INDICATED
TORQUE
CALIBRATED TORQUE
K N O W N
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 10,000 FT.
OAT=15°C
CALIBRATION FACTOR =66.0
M E T H O D
ENTER FAT
MOVE RIGHT TO PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
MOVE DOWN TO CALIBRATION
FACTOR
MOVE LEFT, READ INDICATED
TORQUE =39 PSI
FOR CALIBRATED TORQUE CONTINUE
DOWN THRU CALIBRATION FACTOR,
READ CALIBRATED TORQUE = 36.0 PSI
CALIBRATED TORQUE - PSI
DATA BASIS:
CALCULATED FROM T53-L-13B ENGINE PROGRAM 19.28.25.03 CORRECTED FOR INSTALLATION
LOSSES BASED ON FLIGHT TEST, ASTA 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970. AND LOSS DUE TO
PARTICLE SEPARATOR
Figure
7-2.
Maximum
Torque
Available
(30
Minute
Operation)
Chart
7-13
TM 55-1520-210-10
HOVER CEILING
MAXIMUM TORQUE AVAILABLE (30 MINUTE OPERATION)
324 ROTOR/6600 ENGINE RPM
EXAMPLE
WANTED
GROSS WEIGHT TO HOVER
KNOWN
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 10600 FEET
FAT = 10°C
SKID HEIGHT = 2 FEET
METHOD
ENTER PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE RIGHT TO FAT
MOVE DOWN TO SKID HEIGHT
MOVE LEFT, READ GROSS WEIGHT
TO HOVER = 8500 POUNDS
CORRECTION TABLE
TORQUE CORRECTION PSI *
CALIBRATED TORQUE-PSI
20
30
40
50
0°C
.2
.3
.4
.5
-20°C
.4
.6
.8
1.0
-40°C
1.4
2.1
2.8
3.5
-50°C
2.4
3.6
4.8
6.0
-60°C
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
FAT
*When operating at or below 0°C increase the
calibrated torque determined from sheet 2 by the
amount shown in the table to determine torque
required. See example on sheet 2.
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT
TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04 NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-3.
7-14 Change 5
Hover (Ceiling) Chart (Sheet 1 of 2)
TM 55-1520-210-10
HOVER POWER REQUIRED
LEVEL SURFACE CALM WIND
324 ROTOR/6600 ENGINE RPM
EXAMPLE
WANTED
TORQUE REQUIRED TO HOVER
KNOWN
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 2000 FEET
FAT = -40°C
GROSS WEIGHT = 8500 LB
DESIRED SKID HEIGHT = 2 FEET
METHOD
ENTER PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE RIGHT TO FAT
MOVE DOWN TO GROSS WEIGHT
MOVE LEFT TO SKID HEIGHT
MOVE DOWN, READ CALIBRATED
TORQUE = 31.5 PSI
FROM THE TABLE FOR FAT
= -40°C AND 31.5 PSI TORQUE
DETERMINE TORQUE CORRECTION OF
2.2 PSI
TORQUE REQUIRED TO HOVER IS
31.5 +2.2 = 33.7 PSI
Figure 7–3. Hover (Power Required) Chart (Sheet 2 of 2)
Change 5 7-15
TM 55-1520-210-10
CONTROL MARGIN
TRANSITIONAL FLIGHT 324 ROTOR/6600 ENGINE RPM
20000
15000
EXAMPLE
10000
WANTED
MAXIMUM RIGHT CROSSWIND
COMPONENT WITH 10%
SAFE PEDAL MARGIN
5000
KNOWN
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 5000 FEET
FAT = 0°C
GROSS WEIGHT = 8500 POUNDS
0
METHOD
ENTER PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE RIGHT TO FAT
MOVE DOWN TO KNOWN GROSS WEIGHT
MOVE LEFT AND READ 18.8
RIGHT CROSSWIND COMPONENT
REFER TO SHEET 2. SAFE PEDAL MARGIN
MAY BE LESS THAN 10% FOR CROSSWIND
COMPONENTS GREATER THAN 18.8 KNOTS
IN THE SHADED AREA LABELED DIRECTIONAL
-5000
30
20
10
0
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM FLIGHT TEST
Figure 7-4. Control margin (Sheet 1 of 2)
7-16
TM 55-1520-210-10
CONTROL MARGIN
TRANSLATIONAL FLIGHT 324 ROTOR/6600 ENGINE RPM
CONDITIONS WHERE THE CONTROL
MARGIN MAY BE LESS THAN 10%
ARE SHOWN IN SHADED AREA
TM 55-1520-210-10
TAKEOFF
LEVEL ACCELERATION, 3 FT SKID HEIGHT
MAXIMUM TORQUE AVAILABLE
324 ROTOR/6600 ENGINE RPM
CALM WIND LEVEL SURFACE ALL CONFIGURATIONS
EXAMPLE A
WANTED
DISTANCE TO CLEAR OBSTACLE
KNOWN
MAXIMUM HOVER HEIGHT = 10 FEET
OBSTACLE HEIGHT = 50 FEET
METHOD
ENTER MAX HOVER HEIGHT
MOVE RIGHT TO OBSTACLE HEIGHT
MOVE DOWN, READ DISTANCE
TO CLEAR OBSTACLE = 700 FEET
EXAMPLE B
WANTED
DISTANCE TO CLEAR OBSTACLE
KNOWN
MAX HOVER HEIGHT = 8 FEET
OBSTACLE HEIGHT = 50 FEET
CLIMBOUT AIRSPEED = 40 KNOTS
METHOD
ENTER MAX HOVER HEIGHT
MOVE RIGHT TO CLIMBOUT TRUE AIRSPEED
MOVE DOWN TO OBSTACLE HEIGHT
MOVE LEFT READ DISTANCE
TO CLEAR OBSTACLE = 630 FEET
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM FLIGHT TEST FTC–TDR 64-27, NOVEMBER 1964
Figure 7-5.
7-18
Takeoff chart (Sheet 1 of 3)
TM 55-1520-210-10
TAKEOFF
CLIMB AND ACCELERATION, 3 FT SKID HEIGHT
324 ROTOR/6600 ENGINE RPM MAXIMUM TORQUE AVAILABLE
CALM WIND LEVEL SURFACE ALL CONFIGURATIONS
EXAMPLE A
WANTED
DISTANCE TO CLEAR OBSTACLE
KNOWN
MAX HOVER HEIGHT = 17 FEET
OBSTACLE HEIGHT = 120 FEET
METHOD
ENTER MAX HOVER HEIGHT
MOVE RIGHT TO OBSTACLE HEIGHT
MOVE DOWN, READ DISTANCE
TO CLEAR OBSTACLE = 1420 FEET
EXAMPLE B
WANTED
DISTANCE TO CLEAR OBSTACLE
KNOWN
MAX HOVER HEIGHT = 17 FEET
OBSTACLE HEIGHT = 120 FEET
CLIMBOUT AIRSPEED = 50 KTAS
METHOD
ENTER MAX HOVER HEIGHT
MORE RIGHT TO AIRSPEED
MOVE DOWN TO OBSTACLE HEIGHT
MOVE LEFT, READ DISTANCE
TO CLEAR OBSTACLE = 1610 FEET
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA–TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-5. Takeoff Chart (Sheet 2 of 3)
7-19
TM 55-1520-210-10
TAKEOFF
LEVEL ACCELERATION, 15 FT SKID HEIGHT
324 ROTOR/6600 ENGINE RPM MAXIMUM TORQUE AVAILABLE
CALM WIND LEVEL SURFACE ALL CONFIGURATIONS
EXAMPLE A
WANTED
DISTANCE TO CLEAR OBSTACLE
KNOWN
MAX HOVER HEIGHT = 17 FEET
OBSTACLE HEIGHT = 120 FEET
METHOD
ENTER MAX HOVER HEIGHT
MOVE RIGHT TO OBSTACLE HEIGHT
MOVE DOWN, READ DISTANCE
TO CLEAR OBSTACLE
EXAMPLE B
WANTED
DISTANCE TO
CLEAR OBSTACLE
KNOWN
MAX HOVER HEIGHT = 17 FEET
OBSTACLE HEIGHT = 120 FEET
CLIMBOUT AIRSPEED = 40 KTAS
METHOD
ENTER MAX HOVER HEIGHT
MOVE RIGHT TO CLIMBOUT
TRUE AIRSPEED
MOVE DOWN TO OBSTACLE HEIGHT
MOVE LEFT, READ DISTANCE
TO CLEAR OBSTACLE = 1000 FEET
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA–TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-5. Takeoff Chart (Sheet 3 of 3)
7-20
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6.
Cruise Chart (Sheet 1 of 24)
7-21
TM 55-1520-210-10
EXAMPLE
WANTED
CALIBRATED TORQUE REQUIRED FOR LEVEL FLIGHT, FUEL
FLOW, INDICATED AIRSPEED
KNOWN
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
GROSS WEIGHT = 9000 LB
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 5000 FEET
FAT = -30°C
DESIRED TRUE AIRSPEED = 100 KNOTS ROOF MOUNTED
SYSTEM
METHOD (INTERPOLATE)
ENTER TRUE AIRSPEED
READ CALIBRATED TORQUE, FUEL FLOW, AND IAS ON EACH
ADJACENT ALTITUDE AND/OR FAT, THEN INTERPOLATE
BETWEEN ALTITUDE AND/OR FAT.
ALTITUDE,
7-22
FEET
4000 FT
6000 FEET
FAT, C
-30
-30
-30
CALIBRATED
TORQUE, PSI
41.2
40,2
40.7
FUEL FLOW,
LB/HR
582
558
570
IAS, KNOTS
104.5
100.7
102.6
5000 FEET
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise Chart (2 of 24)
7-23
TM 55-1520-210-10
EXAMPLE
WANTED
SPEED FOR MAXIMUM RANGE
CALIBRATE TORQUE REQUIRED AND FUEL FLOW AT MAXIMUM RANGE
SPEED FOR MAXIMUM ENDURANCE
KNOWN
CLEAN CONFIGURATION, FAT = -30°C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 8000 FEET,
AND GROSS WEIGHT = 8500 POUNDS
ROOF MOUNTED SYSTEM
METHOD
LOCATE (-30°C FAT, 8000 FEET) CHART
FIND INTERSECTION OF 8500 GROSS WEIGHT LINE
WITH THE MAXIMUM RANGE LINE
TO READ SPEED FOR MAXIMUM RANGE:
MOVE RIGHT, READ TAS = 105.3 KNOT AND MOVE LEFT,
READ IAS = 102.3
TO READ FUEL FLOW REQUIRED:
MOVE UP, READ FUEL FLOW = 554 LB/HR
TO READ CALIBRATED TORQUE REQUIRED:
MOVE DOWN, READ TORQUE = 41.2 PSI
FIND INTERSECTION OF 8500 LB GROSS WEIGHT LINE
WITH THE MAXIMUM ENDURANCE LINE
TO READ SPEED FOR MAXIMUM ENDURANCE
MOVE RIGHT, READ TAS = 53.9 KNOTS AND MOVE LEFT,
READ IAS = 50.5 KNOTS
7-24
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6.
Cruise Chart (Sheet 3 of 24)
7-25
TM 55-1520-210-10
EXAMPLE
WANTED
ADDITIONAL CALIBRATED TORQUE REQUIRED AND FUEL FLOW
FOR EXTERNAL DRAG CONFIGURATION
KNOWN
DF FOR EXTERNAL DRAG CONFIGURATION
EXAMPLE B) = 4 SQUARE FEET
GROSS WEIGHT = 8000 POUNDS
FAT = -30°C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 12000 FEET
TRUE AIRSPEED = 105 KNOTS
(FROM
FIGURE
METHOD
ENTER TRUE AIRSPEED AT 105 KNOTS AND MOVE LEFT TO
8000 POUND GROSS WEIGHT LINE. MOVE UP TO FUEL FLOW
SCALE AND READ 510 LB/HR. MOVE DOWN TO CALIBRATED
TORQUE SCALE AND READ 39.0 PSI. MOVE LEFT (AT 105
KNOTS) TO 10 SQ FEET OF LINE, MOVE UP AND READ 4.0
DPSI. DIVIDE 4 SQ FEET BY 10 SQ FEET = 40%. 40% OF 4.0
DPSI = 1.6 DPSI. ADD 1.6 AND 39.0 = 40.6 PSI. MOVE UP
FROM TORQUE SCALE AT THIS POINT TO FUEL FLOW SCALE
AND READ 537 LB/HR.
7-26
7-7,
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise Chart (Sheet 4 of 24)
7-27
TM 55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7–6.
7-28
Cruise Chart (Sheet 5 of 24)
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise Chart (Sheet 6 of 24)
7-29
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 7 of 24)
7-30
TM55-1520-210-10
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 8 of 24)
7-31
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise Chart (Sheet 9 of 24)
7-32
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1 FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 10 of 24)
7-33
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 11 of 24)
7-34
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 12 of 24)
7-35
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1 FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise Chart (Sheet 13 of 24)
7-36
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA.TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise Chart (Sheet 14 of 24)
7-37
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise Chart (Sheet 15 of 24)
7-38
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 16 of 24)
7-39
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 17 of 24)
7-40
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH1-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise Chart (Sheet 18 of 24)
7-41
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 19 of 24)
7-42
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
.
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 20 of 24)
7-43
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1 FLIGHT TEST, ASTS-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise Chart (Sheet 21 of 24)
7-44
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise Chart (Sheet 22 of 24)
7-45
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 23 of 24)
7-46
TM 55-1520-210-10
CRUISE
CLEAN CONFIGURATION
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM YUH-1H FLIGHT TEST, ASTA-TDR 66-04, NOVEMBER 1970
Figure 7-6. Cruise chart (Sheet 24 of 24)
7-47
TM 55-1520-210-10
DRAG
EXAMPLE A
WANTED
CHANGE IN TORQUE REQUIRED DUE TO
EQUIVALENT FLAT PLATE DRAG AREA
CHANGE (AF) FROM CLEAN (BASELINE)
CONFIGURATION TO AN M-56 SUBSYSTEM
CONFIGURATION
KNOWN
AF DRAG AREA CHANGE - 15 SQ. FT.
TRUE AIRSPEED - 120 KNOTS
PRESSURE ALITITUDE - SEA LEVEL
FAT - O ° C
METHOD
ENTER DRAG AREA CHANGE
MOVE RIGHT TO TRUE AIRSPEED
MOVE DOWN TO PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE LEFT TO FREE AIR TEMPERATURE
MOVE DOWN. READ CHANGE IN
TORQUE - 122 PSI
EXAMPLE B
WANTED
NOTE
The IR Scoup Suppressor has a drag
of two square feet
INCREASE IN DRAG AREA DUE TO
EXTERNAL CARGO
KNOWN
SHAPE OF EXTERNAL LOAD - CYLINDER
FRONTAL AREA OF EXTERNAL LOAD - 6.8
SQ. FT.
METHOD
ENTER CHART AT SYMBOL FOR CYLINDER
MOVE DOWN TO 6.8 SQ. FT.
MOVE RIGHT AND READ INCREASED DRAG
AREA - 4.0 SQ. FT.
Figure 7-7. Drag Chart (Sheet 1 of 2)
7-48
Change 19
TM 55-1520-210-10
TORQUE CHANGE – PSI
DATA BASIS: CALCULATED DATA
Figure 7-7. Drag Chart (Sheet 2 of 2)
7-49
TM 55-1520-210-10
C L I M B – D E S C E N T
314 ROTOR/6400 ENGINE RPM
3200
3000
2800
2600
2400
2200
EXAMPLE
2000
WANTED
1800
CALIBRATED TORQUE CHANGE
FOR DESIRED R/C OR R/D
KNOWN
GROSS WEIGHT = 6000 LB
DESIRED R/C = 1200 FT/MIN
1600
1400
METHOD
ENTER R/C
MOVE RIGHT TO GROSS WEIGHT
MOVE DOWN, READ CALIBRATED
TORQUE CHANGE = 12.5 PSI
1200
1000’
800
600
400<
0
5
10
1-5
20
25
CALIBRATED TORQUE CHANGE - PSI
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM FLIGHT TEST FTC-TDR 62-21,
DECEMBER 1962, AND CALCULATED DATA.
Figure 7-8 Climb-Descent Chart
7-50
30
35
TM 55-1520-210-10
FUEL FLOW
JP-4 FUEL
EXAMPLE B
WANTED
FUEL FLOW AT ENGINE IDLE AND
AT 324 ROTOR/6600 ENGINE RPM
WITH FLAT PITCH
KNOWN
PRESSURE ALTITUDE = 11000 FEET,
FAT = 0°
METHOD
ENTER PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE RIGHT TO (ENGINE IDLE) FAT
MOVE DOWN, READ ENGINE IDLE
FUEL FLOW= 223 LB/HR
REENTER PRESSURE ALTITUDE
MOVE RIGHT TO (FLAT PITCH) FAT
MOVE DOWN, READ FLAT PITCH
FUEL FLOW = 265 LB/HR
DATA BASIS: CALCULATED FROM MODEL SPEC 104.33, SEPTEMBER 1964;
BASED ON FLIGHT TEST FTC-TDR 64-27, NOVEMBER 1964
Figure 7-9.
CORRECTED FOR INSTALLATION LOSSES
Idle Fuel Flow Chart
ALL DATA ON PAGE 7-52 INCLUDING FIGURE 7-9 (SHEET 2) DELETED.
Change 2
7-51/(7-52 blank)
TM 55-1520-210-10
Chapter 8
Normal Procedures
Section 1. MISSION PLANNING
8-1. Mission Planning. Mission planning begins when
the mission is assigned and extends to the preflight
check of the helicopter. It includes but is not limited to
checks of operating limits and restrictions; weight
balance and loading; performance; publication; flight plan
and crew and passenger briefings.
The pilot in
command shall ensure compliance with the contents of
this manual that are applicable to the mission.
8-2.
Operating Limits and Restrictions.
The
minimum maximum normal and cautionary operational
ranges represent careful aerodynamic and structural
calculation substantiated by flight test data.
These
limitations shall be adhered to during all phases of the
mission. Refer to chapter 5 OPERATING LIMITS AND
RESTRICTIONS for detailed information.
8-3. Weight Balance and Loading. The helicopter
shall be loaded cargo and passengers secured and
weight and balance verified in accordance with
chapter 6 WEIGHT BALANCE AND LOADING. This
helicopter requires a weight and balance clearance in
accordance with AR 95-1. The helicopter weight and
center-of-gravity conditions shall be within the limits
prescribed in Chapter 5 OPERATING LIMITS AND
RESTRICTIONS.
8-4.
Performance.
Refer to chapter 7 or 7.1
PERFORMANCE DATA to determine the capability of
the helicopter for the entire mission. Consideration shall
be given to changes in performance resulting from
variation in loads temperatures and pressure altitudes.
Record the data on the Performance Planning Card for
use in completing the flight plan and for reference
throughout the mission.
8-5. Crew and Passenger Briefings.
A crew
briefing shall be conducted to ensure a thorough
understanding of individual and team responsibilities.
The briefing should include but not be limited to copilot
crew chief mission equipment operator, and ground crew
responsibilities and the coordination necessary to
complete the mission In the most efficient manner. A
review of visual signals Is desirable when ground guides
do not have direct voice communications link with the
crew.
Section 11. CREW DUTIES
86. Crew Duties.
a. Responsibilities. The minimum crew required to
fly the helicopter is a pilot. Additional crewmembers as
required may be added at the discretion of the
commander. The manner in which each crewmember
performs his related duties is the responsibility of the
pilot in command.
b. Pilot. The pilot in command is responsible for all
aspects of mission planning preflight and operation of the
helicopter. He will assign duties and functions to all
other crewmembers as required. Prior to or during
preflight the pilot will brief the crew on the mission
performance data procedures taxi and load operations.
c. Copilot (when assigned). The copilot must be
familiar with the pilots duties and the duties of the other
crew positions.
The copilot will assist the pilot as
directed.
e. Passenger Briefing. The following is an outline
that should be used in accomplishing required passenger
briefings. Items that do not pertain to a specific mission
may be omitted.
(1) Crew Introduction.
(2) Equipment.
(a) Personal to include ID tags.
(b) Professional.
(c) Survival.
(3) Flight Data.
(a) Route.
d. Crew Chief (when assigned). The crew chief will
perform all duties as assigned by the pilot.
Change 17 8-1
TM 55-1520-210-10
(b) Altitude.
(i)
Refueling.
(c) Time enroute.
(j)
Weapons.
(d) Weather.
(k)
Protective masks.
(4) Normal Procedures.
(l)
Parachutes.
(a) Entry and exit of helicopter.
(m)
Ear protection.
(b) Seating.
(n)
ALSE.
(5) Emergency procedures.
(c)
Seat belts.
(d)
Movement m helicopter.
(a)
Emergency exits.
(e)
Internal communications.
(b)
Emergency equipment.
(f)
Security of equipment.
(c)
Emergency landing/ditching procedures.
(g)
Smoking.
8-7. Danger Areas. Refer to Figure -1.
(h) Oxygen.
Section III. OPERATING PREDURES AND MANEUVERS
8-8. Operating Procedures and Maneuvers. This
section deals with normal procedures and includes all
steps necessary to ensure safe and efficient operating of
the helicopter from the time a preflight begins until the
flight is completed and the helicopter is parked and
secured. Unique feel, characteristics and reaction of the
helicopter during various phases of operation and the
techniques and procedures used for taxiing, takeoff,
climb, etc., are described including precautions to be
observed.
Your flying experience is recognized;
therefore basic flight principles are avoided. Only the
duties of the minimum crew necessary for the actual
operation of the helicopter are included
covered in Section Vl, ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL
CONDITIONS.
8-9. Additional Crew. Additional crew duties are
covered as necessary in Section II, CREW DUTlES.
Mission equipment checks are contained in Chapter 4,
MISSION EQUIPMENT. Procedures specifically related
to instrument flight that are different from normal
procedures are covered in this section following normal
procedures. Descriptions of functions operations and
effects of controls are covered in Section V, FLIGHT
CHARACTERISTICS and a repeated in this section only
when required for emphasis. Checks that must be
performed under adverse environmental conditions such
as desert and cold weather operations supplement
normal procedure checks in this section and are
8-11. Checks. The checklist may include items for day,
night, and instrument flight with annotative indicators
immediately preceding the check to which they are
pertinent; N for night operation only; I for instrument
operations only; and 0 to indicate a requirement if the
equipment is installed When a helicopter is flown on a
mission requiring intermediate stops it is not necessary
to perform all of the normal checks. The steps that are
C essential for safe helicopter operations on intermediate
stops are designated as "thru-flight" checks. An asterisk
(*) indicates that performance of steps is mandatory for
all "thru-flights". The asterisk (-) applies only to checks
performed prior to takeoff..
Change 17 8-2
8-10. Checklist. Normal procedures are given primarily
in checklist form and amplified as necessary in
accompanying paragraph form when a detailed
description of a procedure or maneuver is required. A
condensed version of the amplified checklist omitting all
explanatory text is contained in the Operator’s Checklist
TM 55-1520210-CL.
To provide for easier crossreferencing the procedural steps in CL are numbered to
coincide with the corresponding numbered steps in this
manual.
TM 55-1520-210-10
a. Cabin top - Check windshields, wipers, FAT
probe, WSPS, for condition.
WARNING
Do not preflight
systems are safe.
until
armament
b. Radio compartment - Check security of all
equipment. Check battery, If installed. Secure door.
812. Before Exterior Checks.
c.
*
1. Covers, locking devices, tiedowns, and cables
Removed, except aft main rotor tiedown.
2. Publications PAM 738-751 and
publications.
Check in accordance with DA
locally required forms and
Antennas - Check condition and security.
O
d. Pitot
unobstructed.
tube
-
Check
security
and
e. Cabin lower area - Check condition of
windshield, antennas, WSPS and fuselage. Check for
loose objects inside winch might Jam controls.
3. AC circuit breakers - IN.
4. BAT switch ON. Check battery voltage. A
minimum of 24 volts should be indicated on the DC
voltmeter for a battery start.
O
f.
Cargo suspension mirror - Check security
and cover installed.
Uncover and adjust if cargo
operations are anticipated.
8-15.
5. Lights--ON. Check landing, search, anticollision, position, interior lights and NVG lighting as
required for condition and operation as required; position
landing and search lights as desired; then OFF.
*
6. Fuel - Check quantity. Caps secure.
7. Fuel sample Check for contamination
before first flight of the day. If the fuel sumps, and filter
have not been drained by maintenance personnel, dram
a sample as follows:
O
a.
b.
c.
d.
check
e.
Sumps - Drain sample and check.
MAIN FUEL switch - ON.
Filter - Dram sample and check.
Auxiliary fuel tanks - Drain sample and
MAIN FUEL switch - OFF.
O
8. Cargo hook Check as required, if use is
anticipated, refer to Chapter 4, MISSION EQUIPMENT,
for checks of the system.
9. BAT switch - OFF.
10.Flight Controls - Check freedom of movement of
cyclic and collective; center cyclic, collective down.
O
Exterior Check. (Fig 8-2).
8-14.
Area 1.
*
1. Main rotor blade - Check condition.
2. Fuselage - Check as follows:
1. Fuselage - Check as follows:
a. Static port - Check unobstructed.
b. Copilot seat, seat belt and shoulder harness
- Check condition and security; secure belt and harness
if seat is not used during flight.
c. Copilot door Check condition and
security.
d.
Cabin doors - Check condition and security.
c. Landing gear - Check condition
security; ground handling wheels removed.
and
f.
Radio and electrical compartments - Check
condition, circuit breakers m and components secure.
Secure access doors.
O* g. Armament systems -Check weapon(s) safe.
Check condition and security.Refer
to
Chapter
4,
MISSION EQUIPMENT, for checks of the system.
2. Engine compartment - Check fluid lines and
connections for condition and security. Check general
condition. Cowling secure
816.
8-13.
Area 2.
Area 3.
1. Tailboom - Check as follows:
a
Skin - Check condition.
b. Driveshaft cover - Check secure.
c. Synchronized elevator - Check condition
and security.
d. Antennas - Check condition and security.
e. Tail skid - Check condition and security.
Change 16 8-3
TM 55-1520-210-10
*
2. Tail rotor Check condition and free movement on
flapping axis. The tail rotor blades should be checked as
the main rotor blade is rotated. Visually check all
components for security.
8-19.
Area 6.
*
I.
Man rotor system - Check condition and
security; check level of fluid in dampers, blade grips, and
pillow blocks.
*
3. Main rotor blade - Check condition, rotate in
normal direction 90 degrees to fuselage, tiedown
removed.
2. Transmission area - Check as follows:
a.
8-17.
Area 4.
*
1. Tail rotor gearboxes (90 and 42 degrees) Check general condition, oil levels, filler caps secure.
2. Tailboom - Check as follows;
a. Skin - Check condition.
b. Antennas - Check condition and security.
c. Synchronized elevator - Check condition
and security
b. Main driveshaft - Check condition and
security.
c. Engme air intake - Check unobstructed.
d. Engine and transmission cowling - Check
condition and security.
e. Antennas - Check condition and security.
0
f. Pitot static tube - Check security and unobstructed.
8-2t
3. Engine exhaust/smoke generator - Check
condition. Refer to Chapter 4, MISSION EQUIPMENT,
for systems check.
4. Oil cooling fan and heater compartments Check condition of fan, flight control and cables, tail rotor
servo for leaks and security and battery if installed;
check for installation of structural support; check
tailboom attachment bolts; check heater for condition
and security if installed; check area clear of obstructions;
secure doors.
8-18.
Transmission and hydraulic filler caps -
Secure.
Area 5.
*
1. Engine compartment - Check fluid lines and
connections for condition and security. Check fluid
levels and general condition; cowling secure.
Interior Check - Cabin.
*
1. Transmission oil level - Check.
*
2. Cabin area -
Check as follows:
O
a
Cargo - Check as required for proper
loading and security.
b. Loose equipment - Stow rotor blade
tiedown, pitot tube cover, tailpipe cover and other
equipment.
O
c. Mission equipment - Check condition and
security. Refer to Chapter 4, MISSION EQUIPMENT, for
equipment checks.
d. Passenger
condition and security.
seats
and
belts
-
Check
2. Hydraulic fluid sight gage - Check.
e.
First aid kits - Check secure.
f.
Fire extinguisher - Check secure.
3. Fuselage - Check as follows:
O
O*
a. Armament systems - Check weapon(s)
safe. Check condition and security. Refer to Chapter-4,
MISSION EQUIPMENT, for systems check.
b. Cabin doors - Check condition and security.
c. Landing gear - Check condition and
security; ground handling wheels removed.
O
d. Static port -Check unobstructed.
e. Pilot door -Check condition and security.
f.
Pilot seat, seat belt and shoulder harness Check condition and security.
0
g.
Fire
8-4 Change 16
extinguisher
-
Check
secure.
*
3. Crew and passenger briefing required
8-21.
Complete
as
Before Starting Engine.
1. Overhead switches and circuit breakers - Set as
follows:
0
a. Smoke generator operating switch - Check
condition and security. Refer to Chapter 4, MISSION
EQUIPMENT, for systems check.
TM 55-1520-210-10
b. DC circuit breakers–in, except for armament
and special equipment.
0 c. DISP CONTROL panel-Check ARM/STBY/
SAFE switch is SAFE; check that JETTISON switch is
down and covered.
O c. DOME LT switch–As required.
d. GOV switch–AUTO.
d. PITOT HTR switch–OFF.
e. DE-ICE switch–OFF.
*e. EXT LTS switches—Set as follows:
✩
(1) ANTI COLL switch–ON.
f. FUEL switches–Set as follows:
(1) MAIN FUEL switch–ON.
(2) POSITION lights switches–As required:
STEADY or FLASH for night; OFF for day.
O (2) START FUEL switch–ON.
(3) All other switches–OFF.
f. MISC switches–Set as follows:
g. CAUTION panel lights–TEST and RESET.
(1) CARGO REL switch–OFF.
h. HYD CONT switch–ON.
(2) WIPERS switch–OFF.
i. FORCE TRIM switch–ON.
g. CABIN HEATING switches–OFF.
j. CHIP DET switch–BOTH.
h. INST LTG switches–As required.
I. AC POWER switches–Set as follows:
8. Flight controls–Check freedom of movement
through full travel: center cyclic and pedals; collective pitch full down.
(1) PHASE switch–AC.
(2) INVTR switch–OFF.
9. Altimeters–Set to field elevation.
✩
8-22. Starting Engine
j. DC POWER switches–Set as follows:
1. Fireguard–Posted if avaliable.
(1) MAIN GEN switch–ON and cover down.
2. Rotor blades–Check clear and untied.
(2) VM selector–ESS BUS.
3. Ignition key lock switch–On.
(3) NON-ESS BUS switch–As required.
(4) STARTER GEN switch–START.
✩
(5) BAT switch–ON.
✩
2. Ground power unit–Connect for GPU start.
O 3. Smoke gage–Check.
4. FIRE warning indicator light–Test.
5. Press to test caution/warning lights–Check as
required.
6. Systems instruments–Check engine and transmission systems for static indications, slippage
marks, and ranges.
7. Center pedestal switches–Set as follows:
a. Avionics equipment—Off; set as desired.
b. External stores jettison handle–Check safetied.
4. Throttle–Set for start. Position the throttle as
near as possible (on decrease side) to the engine
idle stop.
5. Engine–Start as follows:
a. Start switch—Press and hold; start time. Note
DC voltmeter indication. Battery starts can be made
when voltages less than 24 volts are indicated, provided the voltage is not below 14 volts when cranking through 10 percent N1 speed.
b. Main rotor–Check that the main rotor is turning
as N1 reaches 15 percent. If the rotor is not turning,
abort the start.
O c. START FUEL switch–OFF at 40 percent N1.
d. Start switch–Release at 40 percent N1 or after
40 seconds, whichever occurs first. Refer to chapter
5 for starter limitations.
e. Throttle—Slowly advance past the engine idle
stop to the engine idle position. Manually check the
engine idle stop by attempting to close the throttle.
8-5
TM 55-1520-210-10
f. N168 to 72 percent.
Hold a very slight
pressure against the engine idle stop during the check. A
slight rise in N1 may be anticipated after releasing pressure on
throttle.
7. Health Indicator Test (HIT) Check Perform as required.
Refer to HIT/EGT Log in helicopter log book. Normal HIT
Check not required if utilizing in-flight HIT checks unless
engine maintenance has taken place since last return flight.
8-24. Deleted.
8-25. Deleted.
The copilot attitude indicator should be
caged and held momentarily as inverter
power is applied.
6. INVTR switch - MAIN ON.
8-26. Deleted.
8-27. Deleted.
7. Engine and transmission oil pressures - Check.
8-28. Hover/Taxi Check. Perform the following checks at a
hover:
8. GPU - Disconnect.
*
1. Engine and transmission instruments - Check.
8-23. Engine Runup.
*
2. Flight Instruments - Check as required.
*
1. Avionics - On.
a.
and descent.
*
2. STARTER GEN switch- STBY GEN.
*
3. Systems - Check as follows:
a.
FUEL.
b.
Engine.
c.
Transmission.
d.
Electrical.
d. Attitude Indicator Check for indication of nose
high and low and banks left and right.
e.
(2) DC - 27 volts at 26°C and above. 28
volts from 0°C to 26°C. 28.5 volts below 0°C.
*
4. RPM--6600. As throttle is increased, the low rpm
audio and warning light should be off at 6100 to 6300 rpm.
5. Deleted.
*
6. Avionics and flight instruments
required.
Check and set as
NOTE
HIT Checks while operating in adverse
conditions (e.g., dust, desert, coastal beach
area, dry riverbeds) may be deferred
(maximum of 5 flight hours) at the discretion
of the pilot in command until a suitable
location is reached.
Change 17 8-6
Slip Indicator Check ball free in race.
c. Turn needle heading indicator and magnetic
compass Check for turn indication left and right.
(1) AC - 112 to 118 volts.
*
b.
VSI and altimeter Check for indication of climb
Airspeed Indictor Check airspeed.
3. Power Check as required. The power check is
performed by comparing the indicated torque required to hover
with the predicted values from performance charts.
8-29. Deleted.
TM 55-1520-210-10
*
8-30. Before Take-off, Immediately prior to takeor the following checks shall be accomplished.
1. RPM - 6600.
2. Systems - Check engine, transmission, electrical
and fuel systems indications.
3. Avionics - As required.
4. Crew passengers and mission equipment -Check
8-31.
Take-off.
During take-off and at any time the
helicopter skids are close to the ground,
negative pitch attitudes (nose low) of 10’
or more can result in ground contact of
the WSPS lower cutter the forward cg.
high gross
weight,
high
density
altitude, transitional lift setting, and a tail
wind increases the probability of ground
contact.
8-32.
Deleted.
8-33. Maximum Performance.A
take-off that
demands maximum performance from the helicopter
necessary because of various combinations of hear
helicopter loads limited power and restricted
performance due to high density altitudes barriers that
must be clean and other terrain features. The decision
to use either of the following take-off techniques must be
based on evaluation of the conditions and helicopter
performance The copilot (when available) can assist the
pilot maintaining proper rpm by calling out rpm and
torque power changes are made thereby allowing the
pilot more attention outside the cockpit.
a. Coordinated Climb. Align the helicopter
with the desired take-off course at a stabilized hover
approximately three feet (skid height). Apply forward
cyclic pressure smoothly and gradually which
simultaneously increasing collective pitch to begin
coordinated acceleration and climb.
Adjust pedal
pressure as necessary to maintain the desired heading.
Maximum torque available should be applied (without
exceeding helicopter limits) as the helicopter attitude is
establish that will permit safe obstacle clearance. The
climb out continued at that attitude and power setting
until t obstacle is cleared. After the obstacle is cleared
adjust
helicopter attitude and collective pitch as required to
establish a climb at the desired rate and airspeed.
Continuous coordinated application of control pressures
is necessary to maintain trim heading flight path airspeed
and rate of climb. This technique is desirable when OGE
hover capability exists. Take-off may be made from the
ground by positioning the cyclic control slightly forward of
neutral prior to increasing collective pitch.
b. Level Acceleration Align the helicopter with
the desired take-off course at a stabilized hover of
approximately three feet (skid height). Apply forward
cyclic pressure smoothly and gradually while
simultaneously increasing collective pitch to begin an
acceleration at approximately 3 to 5 feet skid height.
Adjust pedal pressure as necessary to maintain the
desired heading. Maximum torque available should be
applied (without exceeding helicopter limits) prior to
accelerating through effective transitional lift. Additional
forward cyclic pressure will be necessary to allow for
level acceleration to the desired climb airspeed.
Approximately five knots prior to reaching the desired
climb airspeed gradually release forward cyclic pressure
and allow the helicopter to begin a constant airspeed
climb to clear the obstacle. Care must be taken not to
decrease airspeed during the climb out since this may
result m the helicopter descending. After the obstacle is
cleared adjust helicopter attitude and collective pitch as
required to establish a climb at the desired rate and
airspeed. Continuous coordinated application of control
pressures is necessary to maintain trim heading flight
path airspeed and rate of climb. Take-off may be made
from the ground by positioning the cyclic control slightly
forward of neutral prior to increasing collective pitch.
c Deleted.
d
Comparison of Techniques.
Refer to
Chapter 7, Performance Data for a comparison of takeoff distances. Where the two techniques yield the same
distance over a fifty-foot obstacle the coordinated climb
technique will give a shorter distance over lower
obstacles and the level acceleration technique will give a
shorter distance over obstacles higher than fifty feet.
The two techniques give approximately the same
distance over a fifty-foot obstacle when the helicopter
can barely hover OGE. As hover capability is decreased
the level acceleration technique gives increasingly
shorter distances than the coordinated climb technique.
In addition to the distance comparison the main
advantages of the level acceleration technique are: (1) It
requires less or no time in the avoid area of the height
velocity diagram; (2) performance is more repeatable
since reference to attitude which changes with loading
and airspeed is not required; (3) at the higher climb out
airspeeds (30 knots or greater) reliable indicate
airspeeds are available for accurate airspeed reference
from the beginning of the climb out therefore minimizing
the possibility of descent. The main advantage of the
Change 17 8-7
TM 55-1520-210-10
coordinated climb technique is that the climb angle is
established early in the take-off and more distance and time
are available to abort the take-off if the obstacle cannot be
cleared Additionally large attitude changes are not required to
establish climb airspeed.
8-34.
Slingload.
The slingload take-off requiring the
maximum performance (when OGB hover is not possible) is
similar to the level acceleration technique except the take-off is
begun and the acceleration made above 15 feet. Obstacle
heights include the additional height necessary for a 15-foot
sling load.
8-35. Climb. After take-off select the speed necessary to
clear obstacles. When obstacles are cleared adjust the
airspeed as desired at or above the maximum rate of climb
airspeed. Refer to Chapter 7 for recommended airspeeds.
8-36. Cruise. When the desired cruise altitude is reached
adjust power as necessary to maintain the required airspeed.
Refer to Chapter 7 for recommended airspeeds power settings
and fuel flow.
8-37. Descent. Adjust power and attitude as necessary to
attain and maintain the desired speed and rate during descent.
Refer to Chapter 7 for power requirements at selected
airspeeds and rates of descent All checks of mission
equipment that must be made in preparation for landing
should be accomplished during descent.
8-38. Before landing. Prior to landing the following checks
shall be accomplished:
1.
RPM 6600.
2.
Crew passengers and mission equipment--
Check.
c. Landing from a Hover.
Refer to FM 1-203
Fundamentals of Flight 840. Engine Shutdown.
If throttle is inadvertently rolled to the
OFF position do not attempt to roll it back
on.
1.
Throttle Engine idle for two minutes.
2.
FORCE TRIM switch ON.
NOTE
Steps 3 through 8 are to be completed after
the last flight of the day if the system
operation was not verified during the
mission.
3. PITOT HTR Check. Place the PTOT HTR
switch in the ON position. Note loadmeter increase then OFF.
4. INVTR switch
OFF.
Check for INST
INVERTER caution light illumination. Switch to SPARE check
caution light OFF.
5.
AC voltmeter Check 112 to 118 volts.
6. MAIN GEN switch
OFF.
The DC
GENERATOR caution light should illuminate and the standby
generator loadmeter should indicate a load
7. NON-ESS BUS CHECK as required. If
equipment powered by the nonessential bus is installed,
accomplish the following:
8-39. Landing.
a. VM SWITCH - NON-ESS-BUS.
a. Approach Refer to the Height Velocity Diagram.
Figure 9-3 for avoid area during the approach.
b. Run-on Landing. A run-on landing may be used
during emergency conditions of hydraulic power failure and
some flight control malfunctions, and environmental
conditions. The approach is shallow and flown at-an airspeed
that provides safe helicopter control. Airspeed is maintained
as for normal approach except that touchdown is mode at an
airspeed above effective transitional lift After ground contact is
made, slowly decrease collective pitch to minimize forward
speed. If braking action is necessary, the collective pitch may
be lowered as required for quicker stopping.
8-8
Change 19
b. NON-ESS-BUS switch - Manual ON,
Check DC voltmeter for the same DC volts as in
Step 6 above.
c. VM SWITCH - ESS BUS.
TM 55-1520-210-10
8. MAIN GEN SWITCH ON and guard dosed The DC
GENERATOR caution light should be out and the main
generator loadmeter should indicate a load
g.
BAT.
13. Ignition keylock switch Remove key as required.
8-41. Before Leaving The Helicopter.
9. STARTER GEN switch START.
1. Walk-around-complete, checking for damage, fluid
leaks and levels.
10. Throttle - Off.
11. Center Pedestal switches Off.
2. Mission equipment Secure.
a.
FUEL.
b.
Avionics.
3. Complete DA Forms 2408-12 and -13-1. An
entry in DA Form 2408-13-1 is required is any of the
following conditions were experienced:
12. Overhead switches Off.
a.
Flown in a loose grass environment.
a.
INVTR.
b.
Operated in a salt4aden environment.
b.
PITOT HTR.
c.
Exposed to radioactivity.
c.
LTS.
d.
Operated in rain, ice, or snow.
d.
MISC.
e.
Operated in a volcanic ash environment.
e.
CABIN HEATING.
f.
INST LTG.
4. Secure helicopter.
Section IV. INSTRUMENT FLIGHT
8-42 Instrument Flight - General. The helicopter is qualified
for operation in instrument meteorological conditions. Flight
handling qualities, stability characteristics, and range are the
same
for
instrument
flight as for visual flight Navigation and communication
equipment are adequate for instrument flight Refer to FM
1240, Instrument Flying and Navigation for Army Aviators.
Section V. FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS
8-43. Flight Characteristics.
8-44. Operating Characteristics. The flight characteristics of
this helicopter in general are similar to other single rotor
helicopters.
8-45. Mast Bumping.
flapping becomes more excessive for any given maneuver at
progressively lower load factors.
a. If bumping occurs during a slope landing, reposition
the cyclic to stop the bumping and reestablish a hover.
b. If bumping occurs during startup or shutdown, move
cydic to minimize or eliminate bumping.
WARNING
Abrupt inputs of flight controls cause
excessive main rotor flapping, which may
result in mast bumping and must be
avoided.
c. As collective pitch is reduced after engine failure or
loss of tail rotor thrust cyclic must be position to maintain
positive "G forces during autorotation. Touchdown should be
accomplished prior to excessive rotor rpm decay.
8-45.1. Hub Spring Contact.
Mast bumping (flapping-stop contact) is the main yoke
contacting the mast It may occur during slope landings, rotor
startup/coastdown, or when the flight envelope is exceeded. If
mast bumping is encountered in flight land as soon as
possible.
At moderate to high airspeeds it becomes
increasingly easy to approach less than +0.5G by abrupt
forward cyclic inputs or rapid collective reduction. Variance, in
such things as sideslip, airspeed, gross weight, density
altitude, center of gravity and rotor speed, may increase main
rotor flapping and increase the probability of mast bumping.
Rotor flapping is a normal part of maneuvering and while
excessive flapping can occur during flight of one G or greater,
a. With the addition of the Hub Spring the likelihood that
mast bumping will occur is reduced. A 2 per rev. vibration will
be noticed when the hub spring makes contact with the plate
assembly on the hub. With the hub spring modification,
contact is made at rotor flapping angles greater than 4
degrees and becomes more pronounced as the angle
increases. Without the Hub Spring, contact is made at 11
degrees (contact between yolk and mast i.e., mast bumping).
Change 19
8-9
TM 55-1520-210-10
b. Due to the difference In contact limitations
(4 degrees compared to 11 degrees) it is likely that this
vibration (2 per rev ) will be felt while flying within the
flight envelope Gusting winds, landings with slope
angles, greater than 4 degrees and hoisting operations
are several situations that increase main rotor flapping
angles, thus increasing the possibility of hub spring
contact While the hub spring will not prohibit mast
bumping, it will aid In controlling rotor flapping angles,
and provide an extra margin of safety. Installation of the
hub spring does not change In any way the approved
fight envelope. Should hub spnng contact occur during
normal operations, no special inspections or
maintenance actions are required Anytime operating
limitations or the flight envelope is exceeded and hub
spnng contact is encountered, a mast bump inspection
will be performed
8-46.
Collective Bounce. Collective bounce
is a pilot Induced vertical oscillation of the collective
control system when an absolute friction (either pilot
applied or control rigged) is less than seven pounds It
may be encountered in any flight condition by a rapid
buildup of vertical bounce at approximately three cycles
per second. The seventy of the oscillation is such that
effective control of the helicopter may become difficult to
maintain The pilot should apply and maintain adequate
collective friction In all flight conditions
8-47. Blade Stall. Refer to FM 1-203, Fundamentals
of Flight
8-48. Setting with Power. Refer to FM 1-203,
Fundamentals of Flight
8-49. Maneuvering Flight. Acton and response of
the controls during maneuvering flight are normal at all
times when the helicopter is operated within the
limitations set forth In this manual
8-50. Hovering Capabilities. Refer to Chapter 7
8-51. Flight With External Loads. The airspeed with
external cargo is limited by controllability
8-52. Types of vibration.
a. The source of vibration of various frequencies
are the rotating and moving components on the
helicopter, other components vibrate in response to an
existing vibration.
b. Rotor vibrations felt during in-flight or ground
operations are divided In general frequencies as follows.
(1) Extreme low frequency - Less than one per
revolution (pylon rock).
(2) Low frequency - One or two per revolution
(3) Medium frequency - Generally, four, five, or
six per revolution
(4) High frequency - Tall rotor frequency or
higher
c. Most vibrations are always present at low
magnitudes The main problem is deciding when a
vibration level has reached the point of being excessive.
8-10
Change 19
d. Extreme low, and most medium frequency
vibrations are caused by the rotor or dynamic controls
Various malfunctions In stationary components can
affect the absorption or damping of the existing
vibrations and Increase the overall level
e. A number of vibration are present which are
considered a normal characteristic Two per revolution is
the most prominent of these, with four or six per
revolution the most prominent There Is always a
small amount of high-frequency vibration present that
may be detectable. Expedience Is necessary to learn
the normal vibration levels. Sometimes the mistake is
made of concentrating on feeling one specific vibration
and concluding that the level is higher than normal.
8-53.
Low G Maneuvers.
WARNING
Intentional flight
prohibited.
below
+0.SG
is
WARNING
Abrupt inputs of flight controls cause
excessive main rotor flapping, which
may result in mast bumping and must
be avoided.
a. Because of mission requirements, it may be
necessary to rapidly lower the nose of the helicopter. At
moderate to high airspeeds, It becomes increasingly
easier to approach zero or negative load factors by
abrupt forward cyclic inputs. The helicopter may exhibit
a tendency to roll to the right-simultaneously with the
forward cyclic Input.
b. Such things as sideslip, weight and location of
external stores and airspeed will affect the seventy of the
right roll. Variances In gross weight longitudinal cg, and
rotor rpm may affect the roll characteristics The right roll
occurs throughout the normal operating airspeed range
and becomes more violent at progressively lower load
factors. When it is necessary in rapidly lower the nose of
the helicopter, it is essential that the pilot monitor
changes In roll attitude as the cyclic is moved forward.
c. If the flight envelope is inadvertently exceeded,
causing a low "G" condition and right roll, move cyclic aft
to return rotor to positive thrust condition, then roll level,
continuing flight if mast bumping has not occurred.
S-54. Rollover Characteristics. Refer to FM 1-203,
Fundamentals of Flight
TM 55-1520-210-10
8-54.1 CB
Operation
CB
Composite Main Rotor Blade.
Differences
With
WARNING
Abrupt rolling maneuvers coupled
with aft cyclic inputs which induce a
high pitch rate must not be continued
beyond the point of significantly
increased one per/rev vibration
onset.
If notably increased one
per/rev vibrations occur during
maneuvering flight, the severity of
the maneuver must be reduced or
control feedback and loss of aircraft
control may result.
for
Maneuvering
Flight.
a. Guidance
Increasing bank angle up to the limit will Induce
correspondingly increasing vibration levels of the one
and two per/rev type due to hub spnng contacts. As the
bank angle limit of the aircraft is approached, the two
per/rev vibration increase will be the first and most
notable vibration As the bank angle Is further increased,
a sudden increase In the one per/rev vibration will occur
The one per/rev vibration will have a pounding
characteristic A slight increase in bank angle beyond this
point could result In control feed back and exceeding the
flight envelope Aircraft damage and loss of aircraft
control may result if bank angle is further Increased The
aircraft bank angle limit can be reached, at the lighter
gross weights before encountering the one per/rev
vertical vibration, however, as gross weight Is increased,
the above condition (one per/rev pounding and
feedback) will occur at reduced bank angles.
b. Guidance for Autorotational Flight.
In
aircraft equipped with CMRB, additional collective pitch
application may be required to maintain rpm dunng
autorotatonal maneuvering flight Collective must be
increased simultaneously or slightly before increasing the
bank angle and/or pitch rate Rotor speed will tend to
overspeed more rapidly and with less warning than Is
charactenstc of metal main rotor blades. Additionally,
more collective application is required to control and/or
stop the rotor speed increase
c. Guidance for Cyclic Flares Current advanced
airfoils, as used on the CMRB, can cause a more raid
rotor rpm build up dunng cyclic flare A larger collective
input is necessary to maintain rpm within limits for this
rotor than for the metal blade rotor
d. Run-up and Shutdown Characteristics On
some UH- 1H helicopters with CMRBs, on rotor run-up
and/or shutdown an audible, nonmetallic thump is heard
This Is normal and not a cause for any maintenance
action or inspection. The noise is coming from the main
bolt hole area and is caused by the combination of
tolerance and torque on the joint The CMRB has an antfretting pad protecting the main bolt hole area The antfretting pad acts like a lubricant (like Teflon) and allows
the joint to relieve itself as the centrifugal force is
reduced with rpm, thus the noise The metal blade does
the same thing except It does not have the ant-fretting
pad Therefore, the high function In the joint allows the
joint to relieve Itself very slowly, and no audible noise is
heard This noise has also been heard when the UH-1H
is on ground handling wheels (rotors not turning) and the
helicopter Is subject to an Impact loading when the
aircraft is be towed over a sharp bump or hanger sill This
noise Is also normal
Change 17 8-10.1/(810.2 blank)
TM 55-1520-210-10
Section VI. ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
8-55. General.
This section provides information
relative to operation under adverse environmental
conditions (snow Ice and rain turbulent air extreme cold
and hot weather desert operations mountainous and
altitude operation) at maximum gross weight. Section H
check list provides for operational requirements of this
section.
Extreme care should be exercised
under
adverse
environmental
conditions when using NVG. Such
conditions deflect light and could
significantly decrease or destroy
the effectiveness of NVG
to the
extent of creating unsafe flight
conditions. Use of NVG should be
discontinued under such conditions
and assure that the NVG searchlight
and/or landing light and NVG position
lights may be extinguished.
8-56. Cold Weather Operations. Operation of the
helicopter in cold weather or an arctic environment
presents no unusual problems if the operators are aware
of those changes that do take place and conditions that
may exist because of the lower temperatures and
freezing moisture.
a. Inspection. The pilot must be more thorough
in the preflight check when temperatures have been at or
below O’C (32’F). Water and snow may have entered
many parts during operations or in periods when the
helicopter was parked unsheltered. This moisture often
remains to form ice which will immobilize moving parts or
damage structure by expansion and will occasionally foul
electric circuitry. Protective covers afford protection
against ram, freezing ram., sleet, and snow when
installed on a dry helicopter pnor to the precipitation.
Since it is not practicable to completely cover an
unsheltered helicopter those parts not protected by
covers and those adjacent to cover overlap and joints
require closer attention especially after blowing snow
or freezing rain. Remove accumulation of snow and
ice pnor to flight. Failure to do so can result m
hazardous flight due to aerodynamic and center of
gravity disturbances as well as the introduction of snow
water and ice into internal moving parts and electrical
systems. The pilot should be particularly attentive to the
main and tail rotor systems and their exposed control
linkages.
At temperatures of-35’C (-31’F) and
lower, the grease in the spherical
couplings of the
main transmission driveshaft may congeal to a point that
the couplings cannot operate properly.
b. Transmission. Check for proper operation
by turning the main rotor opposite to the direction of
rotation while observer watches the driveshaft to see
there is no tendency for the transmission to wobble
while the driveshaft is turning. If found frozen apply heat
(do not use open flame, avoid overheating boot) to thaw
the spherical couplings before attempting to start engine.
Prior to starting engine, on aircraft
with Improved particle separators
and parked without covers installed,
the upper half of separator should be
removed
and
inspected
by
maintenance personnel for ice and/or
snow. Any accumulation of these
elements should be removed to
prevent damage to engine.
c. Check.
(1) Before exterior check O’C (32’F) and lower.
Perform check as specified m Section III.
(2) Exterior check O’C (32’F) to -54’C (-65’F).
Perform the following checks. Check that all surfaces
and controls are free of Ice and snow Contraction of the
fluids in the helicopter system at extreme low
temperatures causes indication of low levels. A check
made Just after the previous shutdown and carried
forward to the walk around check is satisfactory If no
leaks are m evidence. Filling when the system is coldsoaked will reveal an over-full condition immediately after
flight with the possibility of forced leaks at seals.
(a) Main rotor - Check free of Ice frost and
snow.
(b) Main driveshaft - Check for freedom of
movement.
(c) Engine air inlet and screens - Remove
all loose snow that could be pulled into and block the
engine intake during starting.
(d) Oil cooling fan compartment - Check
oil cooling fan blades for Ice.
(3) Interior check - All flights O’C (32’F) to 54’C (-65’F). Perform check as specified m Section III.
Change 17
8-11
TM 55-1520-210-10
(4) Engine starting check O’C (32’F) to -54’C (65’F). As the engine cools to an ambient temperature
below 0’C (32’F) after engine shutdown condensed
moisture may freeze engine seals. Ducting hot air from
an external source through the air inlet housing will free a
frozen rotor. If temperature is 44’C (-47’F) or below the
pilot must be particularly careful to monitor engine and
transmission instruments for high oil pressure. During
cold weather starting the engine oil pressure gage will
indicate maximum (100 psi). The engine should be
warmed up at engine idle until the engine oil pressure
indication is below 100 psi. The time required for
warmup is entirely dependent on the starting temperature
of the engine and lubrication system.
(5) Engine runup check - Perform the check as
outlined in section III.
WARNING
Control system checks should be
performed with extreme caution when
helicopter is parked on snow and ice.
There is reduction in ground friction
holding the helicopter * stationary.
Controls are sensitive and response
is immediate.
d. Engine Starting Without External Power
Supply. If a battery start must be attempted when the
helicopter and battery have been cold-soaked, preheat
the engine and battery if equipment is available and time
permits. Preheating will result in a faster starter cranking
speed which tends to reduce the hot start hazard by
assisting the engine to reach a self-sustaining speed (40
percent NI) m the least possible time. Electrical load
may be reduced by leaving inverter lights and other
electrical equipment off during start.
8-57. Before Leaving the Helicopter. Open vents to
permit free circulation of air install protective covers as
required.
8-58.
Snow. Refer to FM 1-202 Environmental Flight.
8-59. Desert and Hot Weather Operations. Refer to
FM 1-202 Environmental Flight.
8-60.
Turbulence and Thunderstorms.
8-61. Turbulence.
a. In turbulence check that all occupants are
seated with seat belts and harnesses tightened.
b. Helicopter
controllability is
the
primary
consideration; therefore if control becomes marginal exit
the turbulence as soon as possible.
8-12 Change 17
c. To minimize the effects of turbulence
encountered in flight the helicopter should be flown at an
airspeed corresponding to maximum endurance
airspeed. There will be a corresponding increase in
control movements at the reduced airspeed
8-62.
Thunderstorms.
a. To minimize the effects of thunderstorms
encountered in flight perform the following:
(1) Adjust torque to maintain maximum
endurance airspeed.
(2) Check that all occupants are seated with
seat belts and harnesses tightened.
(3) PITOT HTR switch - ON.
(4) Avionics - Reduce volume on any
equipment affected by static
(5) Interior lights - Adjust to full bright at night to
minimize blinding effect of lightning.
b. In the Storm.
(1) Maintain a level attitude and constant power
setting. Airspeed fluctuations should be expected and
disregarded
(2) Maintain original heading turning only when
necessary.
(3) The altimeter is unreliable due to differential
barometric pressures within the storm. An indicated gain
or loss of several hundred feet is not uncommon-and
should be allowed for in determining minimum safe
altitude.
8-63.
Lightning Strikes.
a. Although the possibility of a lighting strike is
remote, with increasing use of all-weather capabilities the
helicopter could inadvertently be exposed to lightning
damage. Therefore static tests have been conducted to
determine lightning strike effects on rotors
b. Simulated lightning tests indicate that
lighting strikes may damage helicopter rotors. The
degree of damage will depend on the magnitude of the
charge and the point of contact. Catastrophic structural
failure is not anticipated. However, lightning damage to
hub bearing, blade aft section, trim tabs, and blade
tips
was demonstrated.
Also, adhesive bond
separations occurred between the blade spar and aft
section between the spar and leading edge abrasion
strip. Some portions of blade aft sections deformed to
the extent that partial or complete separation of the
damaged section could be expected. Such damage can
aerodynamically produce severe structural vibration and
serious control problems which, If prolonged, could
endanger the helicopter and crew.
TM 55-1520-210-10
WARNING
Avoid flight in or near thunderstorms
especially in areas of observed or
anticipated lightning discharges.
c. If lightning damage occurs, indications such as
control problems or vibration changes, especially
abnormal noise may or may not be evident.
NOTE
Abnormal operating noises almost
always accompany rotor damage, but
loudness or pitch are not valid
indications of the degree of damage
sustained.
d. If lightning strike occurs or is suspected, the
following precautions are recommended to minimize
further risk.
(I) Reduce airspeed as much as practical to
maintain safe flight.
(2) Avoid abrupt control inputs.
8-64.
Ice and Rain.
a. In heavy rain, a properly adjusted wiper can
be expected to clear the windshield adequately
throughout the entire speed range. However, when poor
visibility is encountered while cruising in rain, it is
recommended that the pilot fly by reference to the flight
instruments and the copilot attempt to maintain visual
reference. Rain has no noticeable effect on handling or
performance of the helicopter. Maintenance personnel
are required to perform a special inspection after the
helicopter has been operated in ram.
NOTE
If the windshield wiper does not start in
LOW or MED position, turn the control
to HIGH. After the wiper starts, the
control may be set at the desired
position.
b. Continuous flight in light icing conditions is
not recommended because the ice shedding induces
rotor blade vibrations, adding greatly to the pilots work
load If icing conditions are encountered during flight
every effort should be made to vacate the icing
environment On aircraft modified with the improved
particle separator, the upper step screen may be
removed prior to flight if icing conditions are probable.
When operating at outside air
temperatures of 40’F (5’C) or below
icing of the engine air inlet screens
can be expected. Ice accumulation
on inlet screens can be detected on
non-purging and some selfpurging
particle
separator
systems
by
illumination of the ENGINE INLET AIR
cateye on the instrument panel or the
ENGINE INLET AIR caution panel
segment
light.
Continued
accumulation of ice will result in
partial or complete power loss. It
should be noted that illumination of
the ENGINE INLET AIR caution light
indicates blockage at the inlet screen
only and does not reveal icing
conditions in the particle separator or
on the FOD screen.
To preclude the possibility of icing on
aircraft equipped with non-purging or
selfpurging particle separators, it
is recommended that the right and
left engine air inlet filters be removed
from the cowling when it is
anticipated that the helicopter will be
flown under atmospheric conditions
conductive to icing. (Do not remove
the top filter.)
NOTE
The use of engine de-ice on aircraft
modified with the improved particle
separator swirl tubes) should be limited
to environmental conditions in which
OAT is 4’C or below.
c. If icing conditions become unavoidable the
pilot should actuate the pitot heat, windshield defroster
and de-ice switches.
d. Flight tests in closely controlled icing conditions
have indicated that the pilot can expect one or all of the
following to occur.
(1) Obscured forward field of view due to ice
accumulation on the windscreens and chin bubbles. If
the windshield defrosters fail to keep the windshield clear
of ice, the side windows may be used for visual
reference during landing.
(2) One-per-rotor-revolution vibrations ranging
from mild to severe caused by asymmetrical ice
shedding from the main rotor system. The seventy of the
vibration will depend upon the temperatures and the
amount of ice
Change 17 8-13
TM 55-1520-210-10
accumulation on the blades when the ice shed occurs.
Flight test experience has shown that the possibility of an
asymmetric ice shed occurring increases as the outside
air temperature decreases.
required above the cruise torque setting used prior to
entering icing conditions it may not be possible to (
maintain autorotational rotor speed within operational
limits, should an engine failure occur.
(3) An increase m torque required to maintain a
constant airspeed and altitude due to ice accumulation
on the rotor system.
H. Ice shed from the rotor blades and/or other
rotating components presents a hazard to personnel
during landing and shutdown. Ground personnel should
remain well clear of the helicopter during landing and
shutdown, and passengers and crewmembers should
not exit the helicopter until the rotor has stopped turning.
(4) Possible degradation of the ability to
maintain auto-rotational rotor speed within operating
limits.
8-65.
e. Severe vibrations may occur as a result of main
rotor asymmetrical ice shedding. If icing conditions are
encountered while in flight, land as soon as practical_ All
ice should be removed from the rotor system before
attempting further flight.
f. Control activity cannot be depended upon to
remove ice from the main rotor system. Vigorous control
move-ments should not be made in an attempt to reduce
low
frequency vibrations caused by asymmetrical
shedding of ice from the main rotor blades. These
movements may induce a more asymmetrical shedding
of Ice, further aggravating helicopter vibration levels.
g. If a 5 psi (or greater) torque pressure
increases is
8-14
Change 17
High or Gusty Wind.
a. High or gusty wind operations require no special
procedures or techniques while m flight however, special
parking precautions are necessary to ensure that the
main rotor blades do not flex downward contacting the
tail rotor driveshaft during rotor coast down.
b. To reduce the possibility of main rotor/tailboom
contact during engine shutdown, land the helicopter on
an upwind heading. During engine shutdown, displace
cyclic into the wind, adding cyclic as necessary as rotor
rpm decreases.
TM 55-1520-210
Figure 8-1. Danger Area
Change 17
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 8-2. Exterior Check Diagram
8-16
TM
55-1520-210-10
Chapter 9
Emergency Procedures
Section l. HELICOPTER SYSTEMS
9-1. Helicopter Systems. This section describes the
helicopter systems emergencies that may reasonably be
expected to occur and presents the procedures to be
followed. Emergency operation of mission equipment is
contained in this chapter insofar as its use affects safety of
flight. Emergency procedures are given in checklist form
when applicable. A condensed version of these procedures
is contained in the condensed checklist TM 55-1520-210
CL.
4. AIRSPEED ADJUST as required.
d. The term EMER SHUTDOWN is defined as engine
stoppage without delay.
1. THROTTLE - OFF.
2. FUEL switches - OFF.
3. BAT switch - OFF.
9-2. Immediate Action Emergency Steps. T h o s e
steps that must be performed immediately in an emergency
situation are underlined. These steps must be performed
without reference to the checklist. When the situation
permits, non-underlined steps will be accomplished with
use of the checklist.
NOTE
The urgency of certain emergencies
requires immediate and instinctive action
by the pilot. The most important single
consideration is aircraft control. All
procedures
are subordinate to this
requirement.
9-3. Definition Of Emergency Terms. For the
purpose of standardization the following definitions shall
apply:
a. The term LAND AS SOON AS POSSIBLE is defined
as executing a landing to the nearest suitable landing area
without delay. The primary consideration is to assure the
survival of occupants.
b. The term LAND AS SOON AS PRACTICABLE is
defined as executing a landing to a suitable airfield,
heliport, or other landing area as the situation dictates.
CAUTION
The maximum engine torque available for
any ambient condition will be reduced by
6 to 8 PSI when the GOV AUTO/EMER
switch is placed in the EMER position.
e. The term EMER GOV OPNS is defined as manual
control of the engine RPM with the GOV AUTO/EMER
switch in the EMER position. Because automatic
acceleration, deceleration, and overspeed control are not
provided with the GOV switch in the EMER position,
throttle and collective coordinated control movements must
be smooth to prevent compressor stall, overspeed,
overtemperature, or engine failure.
1. GOV - switch - EMER.
2. Throttle - adjust as necessary to control RPM.
3. Land as soon as possible.
9-4. Emergency Exits. Emergency exits are shown in
figure 9-1. Emergency exit release handles are yellow and
black striped.
a. Cockpit Doors.
c. The term AUTOROTATE is defined as adjusting the
flight controls as necessary to establish an autorotational
descent. See figure 9-2 and FM 1-203.
(1) Pull handle.
1. COLLECTIVE ADJUST as required to maintain
rotor RPM.
b. Cabin Door Windows.
(2) Push door out.
(1) Pull handle.
2. PEDALS ADJUST as required.
(2) Lift window inward.
3. THROTTLE ADJUST as required.
Change 15
9-1
TM
55-1520-210-10
9-5. Emergency Equipment.
WARNING
Toxic fumes of the extinguishing agent
may cause injury, and liquid agent may
cause frost bite or low-temperature burns.
Refer to figure 9-1 for fire extinguisher and first aid kit
locations.
9-6. Minimum Rate of Descent. See figure 9-2.
9-7. Maximum Glide Distance. See figure 9-2.
9-8. Engine Oil Temperature High. If the engine oil
temperature exceeds operating limits as specified in
Chapter 5, land as soon as possible.
9-9. Engine Malfunction-Partial or Complete
Power Loss.
a. The indications of an engine malfunction, either a
partial or a complete power loss are left yaw, drop in
engine rpm, drop in rotor rpm, low rpm audio alarm,
illumination of the rpm warning light, change in engine
noise.
b. Flight characteristics:
(1) Control response with an engine inoperable is
similar to a descent with power.
(2) Airspeed above the minimum rate of descent
values (figures 9-2) will result in greater rates of descent
and should only be used as necessary to extend glide
distance.
(3) Airspeeds below minimum rate of descent
airspeeds will increase rate of descent and decrease glide
distance.
(4) Should the engine malfunction during a left
bank maneuver, right cyclic input to level the aircraft must
be made simultaneously with collective pitch adjustment. If
the collective pitch is decreased without a corresponding
right cyclic input, the helicopter will pitch down and the roll
rate will increase rapidly, resulting in a significant loss of
altitude.
9-2
Change 19
WARNING
Do not close the throttle. Do
not
respond to the rpm audio and/or warning
light illumination without first confirming
engine malfunction by one or more of the
other indications. Normal indications
signify the engine is functioning properly
and that there is a tachometer generator
failure or an open circuit to the warning
system, rather than an actual engine
malfunction.
c. Partial power condition:
Under partial power conditions, the engine may operate
relatively smoothly at reduced power or it may operate
erratically with intermittent surges of power. In instances
where a power loss is experienced without accompanying
power surging, the helicopter may sometimes be flown at
reduced power to a favorable landing area. Under these
conditions, the pilot should always be prepared for a
complete power loss. In the event a partial power condition
is accompanied by erratic engine operation or power
surging, and flight is to be continued, the GOV switch may
be moved to the EMER position and throttle adjusted in an
attempt to correct the surging condition. If flight is not
possible, close the throttle completely and complete an
autorotational landing.
d. Complete power loss:
(1) Under a complete power loss condition, delay
in recognition of the malfunction, improper technique or
excessive maneuvering to reach a suitable landing area
reduces the probability of a safe autorotational landing.
Flight conducted within the caution area of the heightvelocity chart (fig 9-3) or (fig 9-3.1) exposes the helicopter
to a high probability of damage despite the best efforts of
the pilot.
(2) From conditions of low airspeed and low
altitude, the deceleration capability is limited, and caution
should be used to avoid striking the ground with the tail
rotor. Initial collective reduction will vary after an engine
malfunction dependent upon the altitude and airspeed at
the time of the occurrence. For example, collective pitch
may not need to be decreased when an engine failure
occurs at a hover in ground effect; whereas, during
cruise flight conditions, altitude and airspeed are
sufficient for a significant reduction in collective pitch,
thereby, allowing rotor rpm to be maintained in the safe
operating range during autorotational descent. At high
gross weights, the rotor may tend to overspeed and
require collective pitch application to maintain the rpm
below the upper limit. Collective pitch should never
be applied to reduce rpm below normal limits for
extending glide distance because of the reduction in
rpm available for use during autorotational landing.
TM 55-1520-210-10
NOTE
If time permits, during the autorotative
descent, transmit a "May Day" call, set
transponder to emergency, jettison external stores, and lock shoulder harness.
9-10. Deleted.
9-11. Engine Malfunction — Hover.
Autorotate.
9-12. Engine Malfunction — Low Altitude/Low
Airspeed or Cruise.
The engine will tend to overspeed as collective pitch is
decreased and will underspeed as collective pitch is
increased. If the droop compensator fails, make minimum
collective movements and execute a shallow approach to
the landing area. If unable to maintain the operating rpm
within limits:
EMER GOV OPNS.
9-15. Engine Compressor Stall. Engine compressor
stall (surge) is characterized by a sharp rumble or loud
sharp reports, severe engine vibration and a rapid rise in
exhaust gas temperature (EGT) depending on the severity
of the surge. Maneuvers requiring rapid or maximum power
applications should be avoided. Should this occur.
1. Autorotate.
1. Collective - Reduce.
2.
2. DE-ICE and BLEED AIR switches - OFF.
EMER GOV OPNS.
9-13. Engine Restart — During Flight. After an engine failure in flight, resulting from a malfunction of fuel
control unit, an engine start may be attempted. Because the
exact cause of engine failure cannot be determined in flight,
the decision to attempt the start will depend on the altitude
and time available, rate of descent, potential landing areas,
and crew assistance available. Under ideal conditions
approximately one minute is required to regain powered
flight from time the attempt start is begun. If the decision is
made to attempt an in-night start:
1. Throttle - Off.
2. STARTER GEN switch - START.
3. FUEL switches - ON.
4. GOV switch - EMER.
5. Attempt start
a. Starter switch - Press.
b. Throttle - Open slowly to 6400 to 6600 rpm as
N1 passes through 8 percent Control rate of throttle
application se necessary to prevent exceeding EGT limits.
c. Starter Switch-Release as N1 passes through
40 percent After the engine is started and powered flight is
reestablished, continue with manual control. Turn the
START FUEL switch OFF and return the STARTER GEN
switch to STANDBY.
6. Land as soon as possible.
9-14. Droop Compensator Failure. D r o o p
compensator failure will be indicated when engine rpm
fluctuates excessively during application of collective pitch.
3. Land as soon as possible.
9-16. Inlet Guide Vane Actuator Failure — Closed
or Open.
a. Closed. If the guide vanes fail in the closed position,
a maximum of 20 to 25 psi of torque will be available
although N1 may indicate normal. Power applications above
20 to 25 psi will result in deterioration of N2 and rotor rpm
while increasing N1. Placing the GOV switch in the EMER
position will not provide any increase power capability and
increases the possibility of an N1 overspeed and an engine
over-temperature. Should a failure occur, accomplish an
approach and landing to the ground with torque not
exceeding the maximum available. If possible, a running
landing is recommended.
b. Open. If the inlet guide vanes fail in the open
position during normal flight, it is likely that no indications
wiII be evidenced. In this situation, increased acceleration
times will be experienced. As power applications are made
from increasingly lower N1 settings, acceleration times will
correspondingly increase.
9-17. Engine Overspeed. Engine overspeed will be
indicated by a right yaw, rapid increase in both rotor and
engine rpm, rpm warning light illuminated, and an increase
in engine noise. An engine overspeed may be caused by a
malfunctioning N2 governor or fuel control. Although the
initial indications of high N2 rpm and rotor rpm are the
same in each case, actions that must be taken to control
rpm are distinctly different. If the N2 governor malfunctions,
throttle reduction will result in a corresponding decrease in
N2 rpm. In the event of a fuel control malfunction, throttle
reduction will have no effect on N2 rpm. If an overspeed is
experienced:
Change 5
9-3
TM 55-1520- 210-10
1. ColIective-lncrease to load the rotor in
an attempt to maintain rpm below the maximum
operating limit.
2. Throttle-Reduce until normal operating rpm
is attained. Continue with manual throttle control. If
reduction of throttle does not reduce rpm as required:
WARNING
Land even If manual throttle corrects
the overspeed since there Is a chance
of an_ Impending engine failure due
to the debris generated by the Initial
N2 failure.
3.
9-18.
FMFRGOV OPNS.
Transmissions and Drive Systems.
9-19. Transmission Oil-Hot or Low Pressure. If the
transmission oil temperature XMSN OIL Hot caution light
illuminates, limits on the transmission oil temperature
gage are exceeded; XMSN OIL PRESS caution light illuminates, or limits on the transmission oil pressure gage
are exceeded (low or high)1.
Land as soon as possible.
2.
FMFR SHUTDOWN - After lending.
WARNING
Do not dose throttle during this
emergency procedure. Descent and
landing must be made with normal
engine operating RPM.
Should transmission oil pressure drop to zero psi, a valid
cross reference cannot be made with the oil temperature
indicators. The oil temperature gage and transmission
oil hot warning lights are dependent on fluid for valid
indications.
9-20. Tall Rotor Malfunctions. Because the many
different malfunctions that can occur, it is not possible to
provide a solution for every emergency. The success in
coping with the emergency depends on quick analysis of
the condition.
9-21. Complete Loss of Tall Rotor Thrust This situation involves a break in the drive system, such as a severed driveshaft, wherein the tail rotor stops turning or
tail rotor controls fail with zero thrust a Indications.
(1) In-Flight.
9-4
Change 19
(a) Pedal input has no effect on helicopter
trim.
(b) Nose of the helicopter turns to the right
(left sideslip).
(c) Roll of fuselage along the longitudinal
axis.
(d) Nose down tucking will also be
present.
WARNING
At airspeeds below 30 to 40 knots,
the
sideslip
may
become
uncontrollable, and the helicopter will
begin to revolve on the vertical axis
(right or left depending on power,
gross weight, etc.).
(2) Hover.
Helicopter heading cannot be controlled with pedals.
b. Procedures.
(1) In- Flight.
(a) If aircraft is uncontrollable.
(b) If safe landing area is not immediately
available and powered flight is possible, continue flight to
a suitable landing area at or above minimum rate of
descent airspeed. Degree of roll and sideslip may be
varied by varying throttle and/or collective.
CAUTION
The flare and the abrupt use of
collective will cause the nose to
rotate left, but do not correct with
throttle.
Although application of
throttle will result In rotation to the
right, addition of power Is a very
strong response measure and Is too
sensitive for the pilot to manage
property at this time. DO NOT ADD
POWER ATTHIS TIME. Slight rotation
at time of impact at zero ground
speed should not cause any real
problem.
(c) If landing area is suitable, touchdown
at a ground speed above effective transitional lift utilizing
throttle as necessary to maintain directional control.
(d) If landing area is not suitable for a runon lancing a minimum ground run autorotation must be
performed, enter autorotation descent (throttle off) start
to decelerate at about 75 feet altitude so that forward
ground speed is at a minimum when the helicopter
reaches 10 to 20 feet, execute the touchdown with a
rapid collective pull just prior to touchdown in a level
altitude with minimum ground speed.
TM 55-1520-210-10
ground speed is at a minimum when the helicopter
reaches 10 to 20 feet, execute the touchdown with
a rapid collective pull just prior to touchdown in a
level attitude with minimum ground speed.
Change 19
9-4.1/(9-4.2 blank)
TM 55-1520- 210-10
(2) Hover.
(b) Delete.
AUTOROTATE.
9-22. Fixed Pitch Settings. This is a malfunction
involving a loss of control resulting in a fixed-pitch
setting. Whether the nose of the helicopter yaws left or
right is dependent upon the amount of pedal applied at
the time of the malfunction, a varying amount of tail rotor
thrust will be delivered at all times during flight.
9-23. Loss of Tail Rotor Components. The seventy
of this situation is dependent upon the amount of weight
lost. Any loss of this nature will result m a forward center
of gravity shift, requiring aft cyclic.
a. Indications:
(1) Varying degrees of right yaw depending on
power applied and airspeed at time of failure.
a. Reduced power (low torque).
(2) Forward CG shift.
(1) Indications: The nose of the helicopter will
turn right when power is applied.
(2) Procedure: Reduced power situations:
(3) Abnormal vibrations.
b. Procedures:
(a) If helicopter control can be maintained
in powered flight, the best solution is to maintain control
with power and accomplish a run-on landing as soon as
practicable.
(2) Maintain airspeed above minimum rate of
descent airspeed.
(b) If helicopter control cannot be
maintained, close the throttle immediately and
accomplish an autorotatlonal landing.
(3) If run-on landing is possible, complete
autorotation with a touchdown airspeed as required for
directional control.
b. Increased power (high torque).
(1) Indications: The nose of the helicopter will
turn left when power is reduced.
(2) Procedure.
(a) Maintain control with power and
airspeed between 40 and 70 knots.
(b)
If needed, reduce rpm (not below
6000) to control sideslip.
(c) Continue powered flight to a suitable
landing area where a run-on landing can be
accomplished.
(d) On final, reduce rpm to 6000 and
accomplish a run-on landing.
c. Hover.
(1) Indication.
controlled with pedals.
Helicopter heading cannot be
(2) Procedure.
(a) Fixed Pedal-Land.
(1) Enter authoritative descent (power off).
(4) If run-on landing is not- possible, start to
decelerate from about 75 feet altitude, so that forward
groundspeed is at a minimum when the helicopter
reaches 10 to 20 feet; execute the termination with a
rapid collective pull just prior to touchdown in a level
attitude
with minimum ground speed.
9-24. Loss of Tail Rotor Effectiveness. This is a
situation involving a loss of effective tail rotor thrust
without a break in the drive system. The condition is
most likely to occur at a hover or low airspeed as a result
of one or more of the following.
a.
b.
c.
d.
c.
f.
Out-of-ground effect hover.
High pressure altitude/high temperature.
Adverse wind conditions.
Engine/rotor rpm below 6600/324.
Improperly rigged tail rotor.
High gross weight.
(1) Indications:
The first indication of this
condition will be a slow starting right turn of the nose of
the helicopter which cannot be stopped with full left pedal
application. This turn rate will gradually increase until It
becomes uncontrollable or, depending upon conditions,
the aircraft aligns itself with the wind.
Change 17 9-5
TM 55-1520-210-10
(2) Procedures: Lower collective to regain
control and as recovery is effected adjust controls for
normal flight.
can be taken by the pilot is to land the helicopter.
Consideration must be given to jettison external stores
pnor to landing.
9-25. Main Driveshaft Failure. A failure of the main
driveshaft will be indicated by a left yaw (this is caused
by the drop in torque applied to the main rotor), increase
in engine rpm, decrease m rotor rpm, low rpm audio
alarm (unmodified system), and illumination of the rpm
warning light. This condition will result m complete loss
of power to the rotor and a possible engine overspeed. If
a failure occurs:
9-30. Fire-Engine Start. The following procedure is
applicable during engine start, if EGT limits are
exceeded, or if it becomes apparent that they will be
exceeded. Flames emitting from the tailpipe are
acceptable if the EGT limits are not exceeded.
1.
Autorotate.
2.
EMER SHUTDOWN.
1. Start switch - Press. The starter switch
must be held until EGT is in the normal operating range.
2. Throttle - Off. The throttle must be closed
immediately as the starter switch is pressed.
3.
9-26. Clutch Fails to Disengage. A clutch failing to
disengage in flight will be indicated by the rotor rpm
decaying with engine rpm as the throttle is reduced to the
engine idle position when entering autorotatlonal
descent. This condition
results in total loss of
autorotational capability. If a failure occurs, do the
following:
1.
Throttle - On.
2.
Land as soon as possible.
9-31.
FUEL switches - OFF.
Fire-Ground.
EMER SHUTDOWN
9-32. Fire-Flight. If the fire light illuminates and/or fire
is observed during flight, prevailing circumstances (such
as VFR, IMC, night, altitude, and landing areas
available), must be considered in order to determine
whether to execute a power-on, or a power-off landing.
a. Power-On.
9-27. Clutch Fails to Re-engage. During recovery
from autorotational descent clutch malfunction may
occur and will be indicated by a reverse needle split
(engine rpm higher than rotor rpm):
1.
2.
9-28.
1.
Land as soon as possible.
2.
EMER SHUTDOWN after landing.
b. Power-Off.
Autorotate.
EMER SHUTDOWN.
1.
Autorotate.
2.
EMER SHUTDOWN.
Collective Bounce. If collective bounce occurs.
1. Relax pressure on collective. (Do not ’stiff
arm’ the collective.)
2. Male a significant collective application
either up or down.
3. Increase collective friction.
9-29. Fire. The safety of helicopter occupants is the
primary consideration when a fire occurs; therefore, it is
imperative that every effort be made by the flight crew to
put the fire out. On the ground it is essential that the
engine be shut down, crew and passengers evacuated
and fire fighting begun immediately. If time permits, a
’May Day’ radio call should be made before the electrical
power is OFF to expedite assistance from fire fighting
equipment and personnel. If the helicopter s airborne
when a fire occurs, the most important single action that
9-6 Change 17
9-33. Electrical Fire-Flight. Prior to shutting off all
electrical power, the pilot must consider the equipment
that is essential to a particular flight environment that will
be encountered, e.g., flight instruments, and fuel boost
pumps. In the event of electrical fire or suspected
electrical fire in flight:
1.
BAT, STBY.
and MAIN GEN switches -
2.
Land as soon as possible.
OFF
If landing cannot be made soon as possible and flight
must be continued, the defective circuits may be
identified and isolated as follows:
TM 55-1520-210-10
3. Circuit breakers - Out. As each of the
following steps is accomplished, check for indications of
the source of the fire.
4.
MAIN GEN switch - ON.
5.
STARTER GEN switch - STBY GEN.
6.
BAT switch - ON.
7. Circuit breakers - In. One at a time in the
priority required, GEN BUS RESET first.
When
malfunctioning circuit is identified, pull the applicable
circuit breaker out.
9-34.
Overheated Battery.
WARNING
Do not open battery compartment or
attempt to disconnect or remove
overheated battery. Battery * fluid
will cause burns and overheated
battery may cause thermal burns and
may explode. If an overheated battery
is suspected or detected.
1.
BAT switch - OFF.
2.
Land ac soon as possible.
3.
EMFR SHUTDOWN after landing.
the earth flying, approach and
landing or while the aircraft is not in
level flight.
This prevents
any
possibility of a surge in hydraulic
pressure and the resulting loss of
control.
P37. Hydraulic Power Failure. Hydraulic power failure
will be evident when the force required for control
movement increases; a moderate feedback m the
controls when moved is felt, and/or the HYD PRESSURE
caution light illuminates. Control movements will result
m normal helicopter response. In the event of hydraulic
power failure:
1. Airspeed - Adjust as necessary to attain
the most comfortable level of control movements.
2. HYD CONT circuit breaker Out. If
hydraulic power is not restored:
3. HYD CONT circuit breaker - In.
4. HYD CONT switch - OFF.
5. Land as soon as practicable at an area that
will permit a run-on landing with power.
Maintain
airspeed at or above effective transitional lift until
touchdown.
9-38. Control Stiffness.
A failure within the
irreversible valve may cause extreme stiffness in the
collective or two of the four cyclic control quadrants. If
the failure is in one of the two cyclic irreversible valves,
caution is necessary to avoid over controlling between
the failed and operational quadrants.
1.
9-35. Smoke and Fume Elimination. Smoke and/or
toxic fumes entering the cockpit and cabin can be
exhausted as follows:
Doors. windows. and vents - Open
HYD CONT switch - OFF then ON.
Check for restoration of normal flight control
movements.
Repeat as necessary.
If control response is not restored:
2. HYD CONT switch - OFF.
If normal operation is not restore!
Do not jettison doors in flight
9-36.
Hydraulic.
WARNING
During actual or simulated hydraulic
failure, do not pull or push circuit
breakers or move the HYD CONT
switch during takeoff, map of
3. Land as soon as practicable at an area that
will permit a run-on landing with power.
Maintain
airspeed at or above effective transitional lift until
touchdown.
9-39.
Flight Control Servo Hardover.
a. Cyclic hardover is caused by a sequencing valve
failure within the Irreversible valve on either or both cyclic
servos. Cyclic servo hardover will cause the cyclic to
move full night forward, full left rear, full left forward, or
full right rear.
Change 17 9-7
TM 55-1520-210-10
b. Collective hardover is caused by a sequencing
valve failure within the Irreversible valve on the collective
servo. The collective will move to the full up or full down
position.
9-42.
Fuel System.
9-43.
Fuel Boost Pump Failure.
If both FUEL BOOST caution lights come on:
c. A failure of any flight control servo may render
the helicopter uncontrollable unless the following action
is taken.
1.
Check fuel pressure.
If fuel pressure is zero:
1.
position.
HYD
CONT
select
-
Select
opposite
2. Descend to a pressure altitude of 4600 feet
or less if possible.
2. LAND AS SOON AS POSSIBLE at an area
that will permit a run-on landing with power. Maintain
airspeed at or above effective translational lift at
touchdown.
9-40. Flight
Malfunctions.
Control/Main
Rotor
System
a. Failure of components within the flight control
system may be indicated through varying degrees of
feedback, binding, resistance, or sloppiness. These
malfunctions are normally in isolated controls, i.e. cyclic,
cyclic/collective, or anti-torque. These conditions should
not be mistaken for hydraulic power failure.
b. Imminent failure of main rotor components may
be indicated by a sudden increase in main rotor vibration
and/or unusual noise.
Severe changes in lilt
characteristics and/or balance condition can occur due to
blade strikes, s kin separation, shift or loss of balance
weights or other material. Malfunctions may result in
severe main rotor flapping. In the event of a main rotor
system malfunction, proceed as follows:
3. Land as soon as practicable. No attempt
should be made to troubleshoot the system while in
flight.
9-44.
9-45. Main Generator Malfunction. A malfunction of
the main generator will be indicated by zero indication of
the Main Generator Loadmeter and DC GENERATOR
caution light illumination. An attempt may be made to
put the generator back on line as follows:
1.
9-41.
1.
Land as soon as possible.
2.
EMER SHUTDOWN after landing.
Mast Bumping.
If mast bumping occurs:
1. Reduce severity of maneuver.
2. Land as soon as possible.
9-8 Change 17
GEN and BUS RESET circuit breaker - In.
2. MAIN GEN switch - RESET then ON. Do
not hold the switch in the RESET POSITION. If the main
generator is not restored or If it goes off again:
3.
MAIN GEN switch - OFF.
NOTE
Check that the standby generator
loadmeter is indicating a load Flight may
be continued using the standby
generator.
WARNING
Danger exists that the main rotor
system could collapse or separate
from the aircraft after landing. A
decision must be made whether
occupant egress occurs before or
after the rotor has stopped.
Electrical System
9-46.
Landing and Ditching.
9-47. Landing In Trees. A landing in trees should be
made when no other landing area is available. Select a
landing area containing the least number of trees of
minimum height Decelerate to a zero ground speed at
tree-top level and descend into the trees vertically,
applying collective pitch as necessary for minimum rate
of descent. Prior to the main rotor blades entering the
trees, ensure throttle is OFF and apply all of the
remaining collective pitch.
TM 55-1520-210-10
9-48. Ditching-Power on. If it becomes necessary to
ditch the helicopter, accomplish an approach to an
approximate 3-foot hover above the water and proceed
as follows:
1.
Cockpit doors - Jettison at a hover.
2.
Cabin doors - Open.
3.
Crew (except pilot) and passengers - Exit.
4.
Hover a safe distance away from personnel.
5. Throttle-Off and autorotate. Apply full
collective pitch prior to the main rotor blades entering the
water. Maintain a level attitude as the helicopter sinks
and until it begins to roll, then apply cyclic in direction of
the roll.
6.
Pilot-Exit when the main rotor is stopped.
9-49. Ditching-Power Off. If ditching is imminent,
accomplish engine malfunction emergency procedures.
Decelerate to zero forward speed as the helicopter nears
the water.
Apply all of the collective pitch as the
helicopter enters the water. Maintain a level attitude as
the helicopter sinks and until it begins to roll, then apply
cyclic m the direction of the roll. Exit when the main rotor
is stopped.
I.
Cockpit doors--Jettison prior to entering water.
2.
Cabin Doors - open prior to entering water.
3.
Exit when main rotor has stopped
Change 19
9-8.1/(9-8.2 blank)
TM 55-1520-210-10
Table 9-1 Emergency Procedures for Caution Segments
Light
MASTER CAUTION
AUX FUEL LOW
DC GENERATOR
INST INVERTER
EXTERNAL POWER
XMSM OIL PRESS
XMSM OIL HOT
ENGINE INLET AIR
CHIP DETECTOR
LEFT FUEL BOOST
RIGHT FUEL BOOST
20 MINUTE FUEL
IFF
ENGINE OIL PRESS
ENGINE CHIP DET
GOV EMER
ENGINE ICE DET
ENGINE FUEL PUMP
ENGINE ICING
FUEL FILTER
HYD PRESSURE
SPARE
Corrective Action
Check the CAUTION panel for the condition. If
master caution only (no segment light), land
as soon as possible.
INT AUX FUEL transfer switches-OFF,
Check GEN AND BUS RESET circuit breaker
in MAIN GEN switch RESET then ON. Switch
to STBY GEN.
Switch to other inverter,
Close door.
Land as soon as possible. (Ref to para 9-19)
Land as soon as possible. (Ref to para 9-19)
Land as soon as practicable.
Land as soon as possible.
Land as soon as practicable.
Land as soon as practicable.
Land as soon as practicable.
Information/System Status
Land as soon as possible.
Land as soon as possible.
Information/System Status
Land as soon as possible.
Land as soon as possible.
Land as soon as possible.
Land as soon as practicable.
Land as soon as practicable.
Land as soon as possible.
Change
8
9-9
TM 55-1520-210-10
Figure 9-1. Emergency Exits and Equipment
9-10
TM 55-1520-210-10
AUTOROTATIONAL GLIDE CHARACTERISTICS
POWER OFF
EXAMPLE
WANTED
GLIDE RATlO AND RATE OF DESCENT
KNOWN
AIRSPEED = 80 KIAS ROOF
ROTOR RPM = 314
METHOD
ENTER INDICATED AIRSPEED
MOVE UP TO 314 ROTOR RPM LINE
MOVE LEFT, READ GLIDE RATlO.
CON TINUE UP 80 KIAS TO 314 ROTOR
RPM LINE ON UPPER GRAPH. MOVE
LEFT, READ RATE OF DESCENT.
Figure 9-2. Autorotational Glide Characteristics Chart
Change 8
9-11
TM 55-1520-210-10
AUTOROTATIONAL GLIDE CHARACTERISTICS
POWER OFF
2600
NOTE: AUTOROTATIONAL DESCENT
PERFORMANCE ISA FUNCTION
OF AIRSPEED AND IS
ESSENTIALLY UNAFFECTED BY
DENSITY, ALTITUDE, AND GROSS
WEIGHT.
2400
2200
EXAMPLE
WANTED
2000
GLIDE RATlO AND RATE OF DESCENT
KNOWN
AIRSPEED = 80 KIAS ROOF
ROTOR RPM 314
1800
METHOD
ENTER INDICATED AIRSPEED HERE
MOVE UP TO 314 ROTOR RPM LINE
MOVE LEFT, READ GLIDE RATIO = 4.5
CONTINUE UP 80 KIAS TO 314 ROTOR
RPM LINE ON UPPER GRAPH MOVE
LEFT, READ RATE OF DESCENT = 1725
FPM
1600
1400
6
4
2
Figure 9-2.1. Autorotational glide characteristics chart
9-12
Change 8
TM
55-1520-210-10
HEIGHT VELOCITY DIAGRAM
324 ROTOR RPM
WANTED
INDICATED AIRSPEED
KNOWN
GROSS WEIGHT = 8700 LB
SKID HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND=370 FEET
ROOF MOUNTED SYSTEM
METHOD
ENTER SKID HEIGHT HERE
MOVE RIGHT TO GROSS WEIGHT
MOVE DOWN, READ INDICATED
AIRSPEED = 18 KNOTS
EXAMPLE B
WANTED
MINIMUM INDICATED AIRSPEED
FOR CLIMBOUT TO AVOID
HEIGHT VELOCITY RESTRICTIONS
KNOWN
GROSS WEIGHT = 8700 LB
LOW HOVER POINT = 5 FEET
SKID HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND
ROOF MOUNTED SYSTEM
METHOD
ENTER SKID HEIGHT HERE
(AT LOW HOVER POINT
MOVE RIGHT ALONG THE
GROSS WEIGHT LINE
TO THE FASTEST AIRSPEED
MOVE DOWN, READ INDICATED
AIRSPEED = 56.5 KNOTS
DATA BASIS: DERIVED FROM FLIGHT TEST FTC-TDR 67-27, NOVEMBER 1964
F i g u r e
9 - 3
H e i g h t
V e l o c i t y
D i a g r a m
Change 8
9-13
TM 55-1520-210-10
HEIGHT VELOCITY DIAGRAM
324 ROTOR RPM
EXAMPLE A
WANTED
INDICATED AIRSPEED
KNOWN
GROSS WEIGHT = 8700 LB
SKID HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND =370 FEET
ROOF MOUNTED SYSTEM
METHOD
ENTER SKID HEIGHT HERE
MOVE RIGHT TO GROSS WEIGHT
MOVE DOWN, READ INDICATED
AIRSPEED = 14 KNOTS
EXAMPLE B
WANTED
MINIMUM INDICATED AIRSPEED
FOR CLIMBOUT TO AVOID
HEIGHT VELOCITY RESTRICTIONS
KNOWN
GROSS WEIGHT = 8700 LB
LOW HOVER POINT = 5 FEET
SKID HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND
ROOF MOUNTED SYSTEM
METHOD
ENTER SKID HEIGHT HERE
(AT LOW HOVER POINT)
MOVE RIGHT ALONG THE
GROSS WEIGHT LINE
TO THE FASTEST AIRSPEED
MOVE DOWN, READ INDICATED
AIRSPEED = 52.5 KNOTS
DATA BASIS:
DERIVED FROM FLIGHT TEST FTC-TDR 67-27, NOVEMBER 1964
Figure 9-3.1. Height velocity diagram
9-14
Change 8
TM 55-1520-210-10
Appendix A
References
AR 50-4
Safety Studies and Reviews of
Nuclear Weapon Systems
AR 50-5
Nuclear Surety
AR 70-50
Designating and Naming Military
Aircraft, Rockets, and Guided
Missiles
AR 95-1
Army Aviation: Flight Regulations
Deleted
AR 95-27
Operational Procedures for Aircraft
Carrying Dangerous Materials
AR 385-40
Accident Reporting and Records
TB 55-9150-200-24
Engine and Transmission Oils,
Fuels
and Additives for Army Aircraft
TB MED 501
Noise and Conservation of Hearing
TM 9-1005-224-10
Operators Manual for M60,
7.62-MM Machine Gun (NSN
1005-00-605-7710)
TM 9-1005-224-12
Operator and Organizational
Maintenance Manual Including
Repair Parts and Special Tool List:
Machine Gun 7.62-MM M60, and
Mount, Tripod, Machine Gun M122
TM 9-1345-201-12
Operators and Organizational
Maintenance Manual: Mine Dispersing Subsystem, Aircraft: M56
and M132
TM 11-5810-262-OP
Loading Procedures, TSEC Equip
TM 11-5810-262-12&P
TM 55-1500-342-23
Army Aviation Maintenance
Engineering Manual-Weight and
Balance
TM 55-1500-334-25
Conversion of Aircraft to Fire
Resistant Hydraulic Fluid
TM 55-1520-210-CL
Operators and Crewmembers
Checklist--H-IH/V Helicopters
TM 57-220
Technical Training of Parachutists
TM 750-244-1-5
Procedures for the Destruction of
Aircraft and Associated Equipment
to Prevent Enemy Use
DA Pam 738751
Functional Users Manual for the
Army Maintenance Management
System-Aviation (TAMMS-A)
DOD FLIP
DOD Flight Information Publication
(Enroute)
FM 1-202
Environmental Flight
FM 1-203
Fundamentals of Flight
FM 1-204
Night Flight Techniques and
Procedures
FM 1-240
Instrument Flying and Navigation
for Army Aviators
FM 10-68
Aircraft RefuelingFM 10-1101
Petroleum Handling
and Operation
Equipment
Change 17 A-1/(A-2 blank)
Appendix B
Abbreviations and Terms
TM 55-1520-210-10
AC
Alternating Current
BRIL
Brilliance
DC
Direct Current
ADF
Automatic Direction Finder
BRT
Bright
DCP
Dispenser Control Panel
AGL
Above Ground Level
C
Celsius
DF
Direction Finding
AI
Attack Imminent
CARR
Carrier
DECR
Decrease
ALT
Alternator
CAS
Calibrated Airspeed
DELTA A
Incremental Change
ALT
Altitude/Altimeter
CCW
Counter Clockwise
DET
Detector
ALTM
Altimeter
AM
Amplitude Modulation
AMP
Ampere
ANT
Antenna
ATTD
Attitude
AUTO
Automatic
AUX
Auxiliary
AVGAS
Aviation Gasoline
BAT
Battery
BDHI
Bearing Distance Heading Indicator
BFO
Beat Frequency Oscillator
BL
Butt Line
CDI
Course Deviation Indicator
CG
Center of Gravity
CL
Centerline
CMPS
Compass
CNVTR
Converter
COLL
Collision
COMM
Communication
COMPT
Compartment
CONT
Control
CONT
Continuous
CONV
Converter
CW
Clockwise
DG
Directional Gyro
DIS
Disable
DISP
Dispense
DSCRM
Discriminator
ECM
Electronic Countermeasures
EGT
Exhaust Gas Temperature
ELEC
Electrical
EMER
Emergency
END
Endurance
ENG
Engine
ESS
Essential
EXH
Exhaust
B - 1
TM 55-1520-210-10
EXT
Extend
GEN
Generator
INOP
Inoperative
EXT
Exterior
GND
Ground
INST
Instrument
F
Fahrenheit
GOV
Governor
INT
Internal
FAT
Free Air Temperature
GPU
Ground Power Unit
INT
Interphone
FITG
Fitting
GRWT
Gross Weight
INV
Inverter
GW
Gross Weight
INVTR
Inverter
HDG
Heading
IR
Infrared
HF
High Frequency
IRT
Indicator Receiver Transmitter
HIT
Health Indicator Test
ISA
International Standard Atmosphere
HTR
Heater
KCAS
Knots Calibrated Airspeed
HYD
Hydraulic
kHz
Kilohertz
IAS
Indicated Airspeed
KIAS
Knots Indicated Airspeed
ICS
Interphone Control Station
km
Kilometer
IDENT
Identification
KTAS
Knots True Airspeed
IFF
Identification Friend or Foe
KN
Knots
IGE
In Ground Effect
kva
Kilovolt-Ampere
G
Gravity
IN
Inch
kw
Kilowatt
G
Guard
INCR
Increase
L
Left
GAL
Gallon
IND
Indication/Indicator
LB
Pounds
GD
Guard
INHG
Inches of Mercury
LDG
Landing
FM
Frequency
Modulation
FOD
Foreign Object Damage
FPS
Feet Per Second
FREQ
Frequency
FS
Fuselage Station
FT
Foot
FT/MIN
Feet Per Minute
FUS
Fuselage
FWD
Forward
F
Increment of Equivalent Flat Plate
Drag Area
B-2
TM 55-1520-210-10
LH
Left Hand
NAV
Navigation
QTY
Quantity
LSB
Lower Sideband
NET
Network
%Q
Percent Torque
LT
Lights
NO
Number
R
Right
LTG
Lighting
NM
Nautical Mile
RCVR
Receiver
LTS
Lights
NON-ESS
Non-Essential
R/C
Rate of Climb
MAG
Magnetic
NON-SEC
Non-Secure
R/D
Rate of Descent
MAN
Manual
NORM
Normal
RDR
Radar
MAX
Maximum
NVG
Night Vision Goggles
RDS
Rounds
MED
Medium
NR
Gas Turbine Speed
MHF
Medium-High Frequency
N2
Power Turbine Speed
REL
Release
REM
Remote
MHz
Megahertz
OGE
Out of Ground Effect
MIC
Microphone
PED
Pedestal
MIN
Minimum
PLT
Pilot
MIN
Minute
PRESS
Pressure
MISC
Miscellaneous
PRGM
Program
mm
Millimeter
PSI
Pounds Per Square Inch
MON
Monitor
PVT
Private
MWO
Modification Work Order
PWR
Power
RETR
Retract
RETRAN
Retransmission
RF
Radio Frequency
RH
Right Hand
RI
Remote Height Indicator
RPM
Revolutions Per Minute
SAM
Surface to Air Missile
SEC
Secondary
Change 17 B-3
TM 55-1520-210-10
SEC
Secure
TEMP
Temperature
VHF
Very high Frequency
SEL
Select
TGT
Turbine Gas Temperature
VM
Volt Meter
SENS
Sensitivity
T/R
Transmit-Receive
VOL
Volume
SL
Searchlight
TRANS
Transfer
VOR
VHF Omni Directional Range
SOL
Solenoid
TRANS
Transformer
VNE
Velocity, Never Exceed (Airspeed
Limitation)
SQ
Squelch
TRANS
Transmitter
SSB
Single Sideband
TRQ
Torque
STA
Station
UHF
Ultra-High Frequency
STBY
Standby
USB
Upper Sideband
SQ FT
Square Feet
VAC
Volts, Alternating Current
TAS
True Airspeed
VDC
Volts, Direct Current
B-4 Change 17
WL
Water line
WPN
Weapon
XCVR
Transceiver
XMIT
Transmit
XMTR
Transmitter
XMSN
Transmission
TM 55-1520-210-10
APPENDIX C
TABULAR PERFORMANCE DATA
Use of the TABULAR CHARTS is illustrated by the following examples:
TABULAR PERFORMANCE DATA (Pages C-2 through C-4)
KNOWN:
Pressure Altitude (PA) = 1000 FEET
Free Air Temperature (FAT) = +25
WANTED:
Maximum GW for Hover OGE.
Torque Required for Hover OGE.
Torque Required for Hover IGE (2 FEET).
METHOD:
1.
Enter PA at 1,000 Feet, and Move Right to +25 C.
2.
The Top Number (912) is the Maximum GW to Hover OGE.
(= 9,120 POUNDS.)
3.
The Middle Number (45) is the Torque required to Hover OGE at the Maximum GW to Hover OGE (9,120).
(= 45 PSI.)
4.
The Bottom Number (37) is the Torque required at a 2 Foot Hover at the Maximum
GW to Hover OGE (9,120). (- 37 PSI.)
TABULAR PERFORMANCE DATA (Page C-5)
KNOWN:
Pressure Altitude (PA) = 1000 FEET
Free Air Temperature (FAT) = +25
WANTED:
Maximum Torque available (30 MINUTES).
METHOD:
1.
Enter PA at 1,000 Feet, and Move Right to +20 C and +30 C.
2.
Interpolate between 48.0 and 42.7 PSI, the Maximum Torque available will be between. (45.4)
3.
Torque Values outlined in Tabular Data are Calibrated Values and should be converted to indicated before
use in the cockpit.
Change 17 C-1
TM 55-1520-210-10
C-2 Change 17
TM 55-1520-210-10
Change 17 C-3
TM 55-1520-210-10
Change 17 C-4
TM 55-1520-210-10
Change 17 C-5/(C-6 blank)
TM 55-1520-210-10
Index
This Index is organized alphabetically by paragraph number topics.
AC Circuit Breaker Panel, 2-64
AC Power Indicators and Controls, 2-63
AC Power Supply System, 2-61
Additional Crew, 8-9
ADF Set AN/ARN-59, 3-19
ADF Set AN/ARN-83, 3-18
Air Induction System, 2-18
Airspeed Indicators, 2-76
Airspeed Limitations, 5-11
Altitude Encoder/Pneumatic Altimeter AAU-32/A, 3-28
Anti-Collision Light, 2-66
Appendix A, References, 1-4
Appendix B, Abbreviations and
Terms, 1-5
Approved Commercial Fuel, Oils,
and Fluids, 2-88
Armament Subsystem M23, 4-1
Armament Subsystem M56 and
M132 Mine Dispersing, 4-6
Army Aviation Safety Program,
1-7
Attitude Indicators, 2-80
Auxiliary Fuel System, 2-27
Avionics Equipment Configuration, 3-2
Battery, 2-57
Before–Exterior Checks, 8-12
Before Landing, 838
Before Landing-M52 Smoke Generator Subsystem, 4-19
Before Landing Procedures–M56
and M132 Mine Dispersing Subsystem, 4-10
Before Leaving the Helicopter,
8-41
Before Leaving the Helicopter,
8-57
Before Leaving the Helicopter–
M52 Smoke Generator Subsystem, 4-20
Before Leaving Helicopter Procedures–M56 and M132 Mine Dispersing Subsystem, 4-11
Before Leaving Helicopter Procedures–Machine Gun M60D, 4-4
Before Starting Engine, 8-21
Before Takeoff, 8-30
Before Takeoff/Before Landing
Procedures–Machine Gun M60D,
4-3
Before Takeoff-M52 Smoke Generator Subsystem, 4-17
Before Takeoff Procedures–M56
and M132 Mine Dispersing Subsystem, 4-8
Before Takeoff, 4-30
Before Takeoff–Rescue Hoist,
4-24
Blackout Curtains, 2-48
Blade Stall, 8-47
Blood Bottle Hangars, 2-49
Cargo Center-of-Gravity Limits
6-20
Cargo Hook, 4-34
Cargo Loading, 6-14
Center-of-Gravity Limitations, 5-8
Center-of-Gravity Limits, 6-20
Checklist, 8-10
Checks, 8-11
Chip Detectors, T9-1
Circuit Breaker Panel, 2-60
Classification of Helicopter, 6-2
Climb, 8-35
Climb-Descent, Conditions,
7-31
7.1-31
Climb-Descent, Descriptions,
7-29
7.1-29
Climb-Descent, Use of Chart,
7-30
7.1-33
Clutch Fails to Disengage, 9-26
Clutch Fails to Re-Engage, 9-27
Cockpit and Cabin Doors, 2-9
Cockpit Map Lights, 2-70
Cold-Weather Operations, 8-56
Collective Bounce, 8-46
Collective Bounce, 9-28
Collective Control System, 2-30
Complete Loss of Tail Rotor–
Thrust, 9-21
Controls and Indicators, 2-26
Control Stiffness, 9-38
Control Switch, 2-34
Deviations
Indicators
Course
1D-453 and ID-1347 1, 3-22
Crew and Passenger Briefings,
8-5
Crew Compartment Diagram, 2-8
Crew Duties, 8-6
Cruise, 8-36
Cruise Conditions, 7-25,
7.1-25
Cruise, Description, 7-23
7.1-23
Cruise, Use of Charts,
7-24
7.1-24
Cyclic Control System. 2-29
Cyclic Hardover, 9-39
Danger Areas. 8-7
Data Basis, 7-6
, 7.1-6
Data Case, 2-47
DC and AC Power Distribution,
2-54
DC Power Indicators and Controls, 2-59
DC Power Supply System, 2-55
DD Form 365A–Basic Weight
Checklist, 6-5
DD Form 365 C-Basic Weight and
Balance Records, 6-6
DD Form 365 F-Weight and
Balance Clearance Form F, 6-7
Definitions of Abbreviations,
7.1-10
7-10
Definitions of Emergency Terms,
9-3
Descent, 8-37
Description, Introductory, 1-3
Desert and Hot-Weather Operations, 8-59
Designator Symbols, 1-10
Destruction of Army Materiel to
Prevent Enemy Use } 1-8
Dimensions, 2-3
Change 8
Index 1
TM 55-1520-210-10
Direction Finder Set ARN-89, 3-45
Direction Finder Set ARN-149,
3-45.1
Distance Measuring Equipment
(DME) AN/ARN-124,3-24.1
Ditching-Power Off, 9-49
Ditching-Power On, 9-48
Dome Lights, 2-69
Doppler Navigation Set ASN-128,
3-47
Drag, Conditions, 7-28
7 . 1 - 2 8
Drag, Description, 7-26
7.1-26
Drag, Use of Chart, 7-27
7 . 1 - 2 7
Driveshafts, 2-41
Droop Compensator, 2-23
Droop Compensator Failure, 9-14
Electrical Circuit, 2-38
Electrical Fire Flight, 9-33
Electrical System 9-44
Emergency Equipment 2-13
Emergency Equipment, 9-5
Emergency Exits, 9-4
Emergency Procedures-Electcal-M56 and M 132 Mine Dispersing
Subsystem, 4-12
Emergency Procedures-Fire-M56
and M132 Mine Dispersing Subsystem. 4-13
Emergency Procurers-Machine
Gun M60D, 4-5
Emer Gov Opns, 9-10
Engine, 2-16
Engine, 9-8
Engine Compartment Cooling, 2-17
Engine Compressor Stall. 9-15
Engine Fuel Control System. 2-19
Engine Fuel Pump Malfunction.
T9-1
Engine Inlet Filter Clogged/Engine
Inlet Air Caution Light Illumination,
T9-1
Engine Instruments and Indicators.
2-24
Engine Limitations, 5-7
Engine Malfunction-Hover, 9-11
Engine Malfunction-Low Altitude/
Low Airspeed or Cruse, 9-12
Engine Malfunction-Partial or Complete Power Loss, 9-9
Engine Oil-Hot or Low Pressure
Index 2
Change 18
T9-1
Engine Oil Supply System, 2-20
Engine Overspeed, 9-17
Engine Restart-During Flight, 9-13
Engine Run-Up, 8-23
Engine Shutdown, 8-40
Engine Shutdown Procedures,
4-33
Environmental Restrictions, 5-13
Exceeding Operational Limits, 5-3
Exterior Check, 8-13
Exterior Check (Area 1), 8-14
Exterior Check (Area 2), 8-15
Exterior Check (Area 3), 8-16
Exterior Check (Area 4), 8-17
Exterior Check (Area 5), 8-18
Exterior Check (Area 6), 8-19
External Cargo Rear-View Mirror,
2-50
External Power Receptacle, 2-56
Fire, 9-29
Fire Detector Warning System,
2-83
Fire-Engine start, 9-30
Fire-Flight, 9-32
Fire-Ground, 9-31
First Aid Kits, 2-15
Fixed-Pitch Settings, 9-22
Flight Characteristics, 8-43
Flight Control/Main Rotor System
Malfunctions, 9-40
Flight Control/Main Rotor System
Malfunctions, 9-48
Flight Control System, Description,
2-28
Flight With External Loads, 8-51
FM Radio Set, 3-12
FM Radio Set AN/ARC-44, 3-15
FM Radio Set AN/ARC-54, 3-14
FM Radio Set AN/ARC-1 31, 3-13
Force Trim System, 2-32
Forms and Records, 1-9
Free-Air Temperature Indicator
(FAT), 2-81
Fuel, 6-8
Fuel Boost Pump Failure, 9-43
Fuel Caution Light, 9-43.1
Fuel Filter Contamination, 9-46.
T9-1
Fuel Flow, Conditions, 7-34
7.1-37
Fuel Flow Description, 7-32
7.1-35
Fuel Flow, Use of Chart
7-33
7.1-36
Fuel Supply System, 2-25
Fuel Supply, 9-42
Fuel System Servicing, 2-87
Fuselage, 2-5
Gearboxes, 2-40
General Arrangement, 2-2
General Avionics, 3-1
General Conditions, 7-8
7.1-8
General Description, 2-1
General Introduction, 1-1
Governor RPM Switch, 2-22
Gyromagnetic Compass Set, 3-23
Heated Blanket Receptacles, 2-46
Heating and Defrosting System,
2-53
Height Velocity, 5-14
Helicopter Station Diagram 6-3
Helicopter Systems, 9-1
High- Performance Hoist, 4-27
HF Radio Set AN/ARC-102, 3-17
HF Radio Set AN/ARC-220, 3-17.1
High or Gusty Wind, 8-65
Hoist Restrictions, 5-15
Hoist Systems, 4-21
Hover Conditions, 7-19
Hover, Control Margin, 7-18
7.1-18
Hovering Capabilities, 8-50
Hover/Taxi Check, 8-28
Hover, Use of Chart, 7-17
7.1 -17
Hovering Turns, 8-25
Hydraulic, 9-36
Hydraulic Filter, 2-36
Hydraulic Power Failure, 9-37
Hydraulic Pressure Caution Light,
2-37
Hydraulic System, Description,
2-33
Ice and Rain, 8-64
Ignition Starter System, 2-21
Immediate Action Emergency
Steps, 9-2
TM 55-1520-210-10
Index, 1-6
Indicators and Caution Lights, 2-42
In-Flight Procedures, 4-31
In-Flight Procedures-Hoist
Operator, 4-32
In-Flight Procedures-Hoist
Operator-Rescue Hoist, 4-26
In-Flight Procedures-Pilot-Rescue
Hoist, 4-25
In-Flight Procedures-M52
Smoke Generator Subsystem,
4-18
In-Flight Procedures-M56 and
M132 Mine Dispersing Subsystem,
4-9
Inlet Guide Vane Actuator
Failure-Closed or Open, 9-16
Instruments and Controls, 2-12
Instruments Flight-General, 8-42
Instrument Lights, 2-71
Instrument Markings, 5-5
Interior Check-Cabin, 8-20
Inverters, 2-82
Landing, 8-39
Landing and Ditching, 9-48
Landing from a Hover, 8-29
Landing Gear System, 2-7
Landing in Trees, 9-47
Landing Light, 2-67
Lightning Strikes, 8-63
Limits, 7-4
Loading and Unloading of Other
Than General Cargo, 6-18
Loading Charts, 6-4
Loading Procedures, 6-17
Loss of Tail Rotor Components, 9-23
Loss of Tail Rotor Effectiveness, 9-24
Low G Maneuvers, 8-53
M52 Smoke Generator Subsystem,
4-15
Main and Standby
Starter-Generator, 2-58
Main Driveshaft Failure, 9-25
Main Generator Malfunction, 9-45
Main Rotor, 2-43
Maneuvering Flight, 8-49
Marker Beacon Receiver, 3-24
Mast Bumping, 9-41
Mast Bumping, 8-45
Master Caution System, 2-84
Maximum Glide Distance, 9-7
Maximum Performance, 8-33
Medium-Frequency Vibrations, 8-52
Minimum Crew Requirements, 5-4
Minimum Rate of Descent, 9-6
Mission Planning; 8-1
Mode 4 Operation (APX-72 and
APX-100) 3-27
Normal, 8-32
Oil, 6-9
Oil Debris Detection System
(ODDS), 2-19
Operating Characteristics, 8-44
Operating Limits and Restrictions,
8-2
Operating Limits and Restrictions,
General, 5-2
Operating Limits and Restrictions,
Purpose, 5-1
Operating Procedures, 4-29
Operating Procedures and
Maneuvers, 8-8
Overheated Battery, 9-34
Overhead Console Panel Lights,
2-72
Parachute Operations, 4-35
Pedestal Lights, 2-73
Performance, 8-4
Performance Data General,
7-3, 7.1-3
Performance Data Purpose,
7-1,
7.1-1
Performance Discrepancies,
7-9
7.1-9
Personnel Compartment and
Litter Provision, 6-10
Personnel Loading and Unloading,
6-11
Personnel Moments, 6-12
Personnel Seats, 2-11
Pilot/Copilot Seats, 2-10
Pilot Heater, 2-45
Portable Fire Extinguisher, 2-14
Position Lights, 2-65
Preflight Procedures, 4-28
Preflight Procedures-M56 and
M132 Mine Dispersing Subsystem,
4-7
Preflight Procedures-M52
Smoke Generator Subsystem,
4-16
Preflight Procedures-Machine
Gun M60D, 4-2
Preflight Procedures-Rescue
Hoist, 4-23
Preparation of General Cargo,
6-15
Pressure Altimeter, 2-79
Prohibited Maneuvers, 5-12
Proximity Warning System
YG-1054, 3-29
Radar Altimeter-AN/APN-209,
3-31
Radar Warning Set, 3-30
Radio Receiving Set
ARN-123(V),3-46
RDU Auxiliary Input/Output
Port Settings, Table 3-1
Receiver Transmitter Radio
RT-1167/ARC-164(V), 3-322
Rescue Hoist, 4-22
Reservoir and Sight Glass, 2-35
Rollover Characteristics, 8-54
Rotor Limitations, 5-6
RPM High-Low Limit Warning
System, 2-85
Safety-M56 and M132 Mine
Dispersing Subsystem, 4-14
Satellite Signals Navigation
Set AN/ASN-175, 3-24.2
Searchlight, 2-68
Servicing, 2-86
Settling with Power, 8-48
Sideward and Rearward
Hovering Flight, 8-26
Signal Distribution Panel
C-1611/A/C, 3-4
Signal Distribution Panel
C-6533/ARC, 3-5
Signal Distribution Panel
SB-329/AR, 3-3
Slingload, 8-34
Smoke and Fume Elimination,
9-35
Snow, 8-58
Spare Lamp Kit, 2-75
Specific Conditions, 7-7
7.1-7
Standby Compass, 2-82
Starting Engine, 8-22
Tailboom, 2-6
Tail Rotor, 2-44
Tail Rotor Control System,
2-31
Change 18 Index 3
TM 55-1520-210-10
Tail Rotor Malfunctions, 9-20
Takeoff, 8-31
Takeoff, Conditions, 7-22
7.1-22
Takeoff Descriptions 7-20
7.1-20
Takeoff to Hover, 8-24
Takeoff, Use of Charts.
7-21, m
7.1 -21
Temperature Conversion,
7.1-11
Tiedown . . Devices, -6-19
Thunderstorms, 8-82
Torque Available, Chart
Differences, 7-13
Torque Available, Conditions,
7-15
7.1-15
Torque Available, Description
7-12 7.1-12
l
Torque Available, Use of chart
Towing, 5-15
Transmission, 2-39
Transmission, and Drive
Systems Malfunctions’, 9-18
Index 4
Change 19
Transmission Oil-Hot or Low
Pressure, 9-19
Transmission Oil Level Light,
2-74
Transponder Set AN/APX-72,
3-25
Transponder Set AN/APX-100,
3-28
Turn-and-Slip, Indicator, 2-77
Turbulence, 8-61
Turbulence and Thunderstorms,
8-60
Turbulence Limitations, 5-10
Turning Radius, 2-4
Types of Vibration, 8-52
Ventilating System, 2-52
Vertical Velocity Indicator, 2-78
VHF Navigation Set
AN/ARN-30E, 3-21
VHF Navigation Set
AN/ARN-82, 3-20
VHF Radio Set
AN/ARC-73, 3-11
VHF Radio Set
AN/ARC-116, 3-9
VHF Radio Set
AN/ARC-134, 3-10
Voice Security Equipment
TSEC/KY-58, 3-16.1, 3-39
TSEC/KY-100, 3-17.2
UHF Radio Set AN/ARC-51BX,
3-6
UHF Radio Set AN/ARC-51X,
3-7
UHF Radio Set AN/ARC-55B,
3-8
Use of Charts, 7-5
Use of Fuel, 2-89
Use of Words Shall, Should,
May, 1-11
Warnings, Cautions, and Notes
1-2
Weight/Balance and Loading,
8-3
Weight/Balance and Loading,
Data 6-13
Weight/Balance and Loading,
General, 8-1
Weight Limitations, 5-9
Windshield Wiper, 2-51
Wire Strike Protection System
(WSPS), 2-12.1
TM
55-1520-210-10
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
CARL E. VUONO
General, United States Army
Chief of Stafl
Official:
R. L. DILWORTH
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31,
-10 & CL Maintenance requirements for UH-1H Helicopter,
Utility and UH-1V Helicopter, Utility.
*U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1988 0 - 211-919
These are the instructions for sending an electronic 2028
The following format must be used if submitting an electronic 2028. The subject line must be
exactly the same and all fields must be included; however only the following fields are
mandatory: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, and 27.
From:
To:
“Whomever” <[email protected]>
[email protected]
Subject: DA Form 2028
1. From: Joe Smith
2. Unit: home
3. Address: 4300 Park
4. City: Hometown
5. St: MO
6. Zip: 77777
7. Date Sent: 19--OCT--93
8. Pub no: 55--2840--229--23
9. Pub Title: TM
10. Publication Date: 04--JUL--85
11. Change Number: 7
12. Submitter Rank: MSG
13. Submitter FName: Joe
14. Submitter MName: T
15. Submitter LName: Smith
16. Submitter Phone: 123--123--1234
17. Problem: 1
18. Page: 2
19. Paragraph: 3
20. Line: 4
21. NSN: 5
22. Reference: 6
23. Figure: 7
24. Table: 8
25. Item: 9
26. Total: 123
27. Text:
This is the text for the problem below line 27.
Use Part II (reverse) for Repair Parts and Special Tool Lists (RPSTL) and Supply Catalogs/
Supply Manuals (SC/SM)
RECOMMENDED CHANGES TO PUBLICATIONS AND
BLANK FORMS
DATE
8/30/02
For use of this form, see AR 25--30; the proponent agency is ODISC4.
TO: (Forward to proponent of publication or form)(Include ZIP Code)
FROM: (Activity and location)(Include ZIP Code)
Commander, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command
MSG, Jane Q. Doe
ATTN: AMSAM--MMC--MA--NP
1234 Any Street
Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898
Nowhere Town, AL 34565
PART 1 -- ALL PUBLICATIONS (EXCEPT RPSTL AND SC/SM) AND BLANK FORMS
PUBLICATION/FORM NUMBER
DATE
TM 9--1005--433--24
16 Sep 2002
ITEM
PAGE
PARA--
LINE
FIGURE
TABLE
NO.
NO.
GRAPH
NO. *
NO.
NO.
1
WP0005
2
TITLE Organizational, Direct Support, And General
Support Maintenance Manual for Machine Gun, .50
Caliber M3P and M3P Machine Gun Electrical Test Set
Used On Avenger Air Defense Weapon System
RECOMMENDED CHANGES AND REASON
Test or Corrective Action column should identify a different WP number.
PG 3
* Reference to line numbers within the paragraph or subparagraph.
TYPED NAME, GRADE OR TITLE
MSG, Jane Q. Doe, SFC
DA FORM 2028, FEB 74
TELEPHONE EXCHANGE/
AUTOVON, PLUS EXTENSION
SIGNATURE
788--1234
REPLACES DA FORM 2028, 1 DEC 68, WHICH WILL BE USED.
USAPA V3.01
TO: (Forward direct to addressee listed in publication)
FROM: (Activity and location) (Include ZIP Code)
Commander, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command
MSG, Jane Q. Doe
ATTN: AMSAM--MMC--MA--NP
1234 Any Street
Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898
Nowhere Town, AL 34565
DATE
8/30/02
PART II -- REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOL LISTS AND SUPPLY CATALOGS/SUPPLY MANUALS
PUBLICATION NUMBER
DATE
TITLE
PAGE
COLM
LINE
NATIONAL STOCK
REFERENCE
FIGURE
ITEM
NO.
NO.
NO.
NUMBER
NO.
NO.
NO.
TOTAL NO.
OF MAJOR
ITEMS
SUPPORTED
RECOMMENDED ACTION
PART III -- REMARKS (Any general remarks or recommendations, or suggestions for improvement of publications and
blank forms. Additional blank sheets may be used if more space is needed.)
TYPED NAME, GRADE OR TITLE
MSG, Jane Q. Doe, SFC
TELEPHONE EXCHANGE/AUTOVON,
PLUS EXTENSION
SIGNATURE
788--1234
USAPA V3.01
Use Part II (reverse) for Repair Parts and Special Tool Lists (RPSTL) and Supply Catalogs/
Supply Manuals (SC/SM)
RECOMMENDED CHANGES TO PUBLICATIONS AND
BLANK FORMS
DATE
For use of this form, see AR 25--30; the proponent agency is ODISC4.
TO: (Forward to proponent of publication or form)(Include ZIP Code)
Commander, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command
ATTN: AMSAM-MMC-MA-NP
Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898
FROM: (Activity and location)(Include ZIP Code)
PART 1 -- ALL PUBLICATIONS (EXCEPT RPSTL AND SC/SM) AND BLANK FORMS
PUBLICATION/FORM NUMBER
DATE
ITEM
PAGE
PARA--
LINE
FIGURE
TABLE
NO.
NO.
GRAPH
NO. *
NO.
NO.
TITLE
RECOMMENDED CHANGES AND REASON
* Reference to line numbers within the paragraph or subparagraph.
TYPED NAME, GRADE OR TITLE
DA FORM 2028, FEB 74
TELEPHONE EXCHANGE/
AUTOVON, PLUS EXTENSION
SIGNATURE
REPLACES DA FORM 2028, 1 DEC 68, WHICH WILL BE USED.
USAPA V3.01
TO: (Forward direct to addressee listed in publication)
Commander, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command
ATTN: AMSAM-MMC-MA-NP
Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898
FROM: (Activity and location) (Include ZIP Code)
DATE
PART II -- REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOL LISTS AND SUPPLY CATALOGS/SUPPLY MANUALS
PUBLICATION NUMBER
DATE
TITLE
PAGE
COLM
LINE
NATIONAL STOCK
REFERENCE
FIGURE
ITEM
NO.
NO.
NO.
NUMBER
NO.
NO.
NO.
TOTAL NO.
OF MAJOR
ITEMS
SUPPORTED
RECOMMENDED ACTION
PART III -- REMARKS (Any general remarks or recommendations, or suggestions for improvement of publications and
blank forms. Additional blank sheets may be used if more space is needed.)
TYPED NAME, GRADE OR TITLE
TELEPHONE EXCHANGE/AUTOVON,
PLUS EXTENSION
SIGNATURE
USAPA V3.01
The Metric System and Equivalents
Linear Measure
Liquid Measure
1 centiliter = 10 milliters = .34 fl. ounce
1 deciliter = 10 centiliters = 3.38 fl. ounces
1 liter = 10 deciliters = 33.81 fl. ounces
1 dekaliter = 10 liters = 2.64 gallons
1 hectoliter = 10 dekaliters = 26.42 gallons
1 kiloliter = 10 hectoliters = 264.18 gallons
1 centimeter = 10 millimeters = .39 inch
1 decimeter = 10 centimeters = 3.94 inches
1 meter = 10 decimeters = 39.37 inches
1 dekameter = 10 meters = 32.8 feet
1 hectometer = 10 dekameters = 328.08 feet
1 kilometer = 10 hectometers = 3,280.8 feet
Square Measure
Weights
1 sq. centimeter = 100 sq. millimeters = .155 sq. inch
1 sq. decimeter = 100 sq. centimeters = 15.5 sq. inches
1 sq. meter (centare) = 100 sq. decimeters = 10.76 sq. feet
1 sq. dekameter (are) = 100 sq. meters = 1,076.4 sq. feet
1 sq. hectometer (hectare) = 100 sq. dekameters = 2.47 acres
1 sq. kilometer = 100 sq. hectometers = .386 sq. mile
1 centigram = 10 milligrams = .15 grain
1 decigram = 10 centigrams = 1.54 grains
1 gram = 10 decigram = .035 ounce
1 decagram = 10 grams = .35 ounce
1 hectogram = 10 decagrams = 3.52 ounces
1 kilogram = 10 hectograms = 2.2 pounds
1 quintal = 100 kilograms = 220.46 pounds
1 metric ton = 10 quintals = 1.1 short tons
Cubic Measure
1 cu. centimeter = 1000 cu. millimeters = .06 cu. inch
1 cu. decimeter = 1000 cu. centimeters = 61.02 cu. inches
1 cu. meter = 1000 cu. decimeters = 35.31 cu. feet
Approximate Conversion Factors
To change
To
inches
feet
yards
miles
square inches
square feet
square yards
square miles
acres
cubic feet
cubic yards
fluid ounces
pints
quarts
gallons
ounces
pounds
short tons
pound-feet
pound-inches
centimeters
meters
meters
kilometers
square centimeters
square meters
square meters
square kilometers
square hectometers
cubic meters
cubic meters
milliliters
liters
liters
liters
grams
kilograms
metric tons
Newton-meters
Newton-meters
Multiply by
To change
2.540
.305
.914
1.609
6.451
.093
.836
2.590
.405
.028
.765
29,573
.473
.946
3.785
28.349
.454
.907
1.356
.11296
ounce-inches
centimeters
meters
meters
kilometers
square centimeters
square meters
square meters
square kilometers
square hectometers
cubic meters
cubic meters
milliliters
liters
liters
liters
grams
kilograms
metric tons
To
Newton-meters
inches
feet
yards
miles
square inches
square feet
square yards
square miles
acres
cubic feet
cubic yards
fluid ounces
pints
quarts
gallons
ounces
pounds
short tons
Temperature (Exact)
°F
Fahrenheit
temperature
5/9 (after
subtracting 32)
Celsius
temperature
°C
Multiply by
.007062
.394
3.280
1.094
.621
.155
10.764
1.196
.386
2.471
35.315
1.308
.034
2.113
1.057
.264
.035
2.205
1.102
PIN: 022124-000
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