# Testing to 100A by Combining Keithley Model 2651A High Power SourceMeter Instruments (Application Note)

```Number 3115
Combining Keithley Model 2651A
High Power SourceMeter® Instruments
for 100A Operation
Application Note
Se­ries
Introduction
node. In Figure 2, two current sources representing SMUs and a
device under test (DUT) are connected in parallel.
Source-measure units (SMUs), such as the Keithley Model 2651A
High Power System SourceMeter instrument, are the most
flexible and most precise equipment for sourcing and measuring
current and voltage. Because of this, they are widely used to test
semiconductor devices such as MOSFETs, IGBTs, diodes, high
brightness LEDs, and more.
IDUT
Node A
I2
I1
With today’s focus on green technology, the amount of
research and development being done to create semiconductor
devices for power management has increased significantly. These
devices, with their high current/high power operating levels, as
well as their low On resistances, require a unique combination
of power and precision to be tested properly. A single Keithley
Model 2651A is capable of sourcing up to 50A pulsed and 20A
DC. For applications requiring even higher currents, Model
2651As can be combined to extend their operating range to
100A pulsed.
DUT
SMU #2
SMU #1
Node B
Figure 2: The sum of the currents entering the node equals the sum of the
currents leaving the node.
In Figure 2, we can see that two currents, I1 and I2, are
entering Node A and a single current, IDUT, is leaving Node A.
Based on Kirchhoff’s Current Law we know that:
This application note demonstrates how to collect Rds (on)
measurement data from a power MOSFET device by using a
pulsed current sweep to test up to 100A (see Figure 1); however,
it can be easily modified for use in other applications. The
document is divided into three sections: theory, implementation,
and example.
IDUT = I1 + I2
This means that the current delivered to the DUT is equal to
the sum of the currents flowing from each SMU. With two
SMUs connected in parallel, we can deliver to the DUT twice
the amount of current that can be delivered by a single SMU.
Using this method with two Model 2651As, we can deliver up to
100A pulsed.
Theory
Kirchhoff’s Current Law says that the sum of the currents
entering a node is equal to the sum of the currents leaving the
0.020
0.020
0.018
Id = 20A
Id = 40A
Id = 60A
Id = 80A
Id = 100A
Rds (ohms)
0.014
0.012
Vgs = 10V
Vgs = 6V
0.018
Rds (ohms)
0.016
0.010
0.008
0.016
0.014
0.006
0.004
0.012
0.002
0.000
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
Vgs (V)
5.0
5.5
6.0
0.010
6.5
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Ids (Amps)
Figure 1: Example results after performing a pulsed Rds(on) current sweep (500μs pulse width and 0.01 NPLC) to test up to 100A on a power MOSFET device
using two Model 2651A SourceMeter instruments connected in parallel.
1
Implementation
Region of Power Envelope
In order to create a current source capable of delivering more
current than a single SMU can provide, we put two SMUs, both
configured as current sources, in parallel. Below is a quick
overview of what needs to be done to successfully combine
two Model 2651As so that together they can source up to 100A
pulsed. The following sections explain each item in detail.
Both SMUs should be configured to operate in the same region
of the power envelope (see Figure 3). In order for one SMU to
sink all the current of the other SMU, the sinking SMU must be
operating in an equivalent region of the power envelope as the
sourcing SMU.
When configured as a current source, the region of the
power envelope in which the SMU is operating is determined
by the source current range and the voltage limit value. When
combining SMUs in parallel, each SMU should be set to the same
source current range so the final determining factor for the
region is the voltage limit. As can be seen in Figure 3, the Model
2651A has three ranges of voltage limit values that determine
the operating region: >0V to ≤10V, >10V to ≤20V, and >20V to
≤40V. For example, if one SMU’s voltage limit is set to 20V, then
the other SMU’s voltage limit should be set to a value that is less
than 20V and greater than 10V in order to keep both SMUs in the
same operating region.
1.Use two Model 2651As, running the same version
of firmware.
2.Use the same current range for both SMUs.
3.Use the same regions of the power envelope (Figure 3) for
both SMUs.
4.Use 4-wire mode on both SMUs with Kelvin connections
placed as close to the DUT as possible.
5.Use the Keithley supplied cables. If this is not possible,
ensure your cabling matches the specifications of the
Keithley-supplied cable.
6.Set the voltage limit of both SMUs. (When the output of an
SMU reaches its voltage limit, it goes into compliance.) The
voltage limit of one SMU should be set 10% lower than the
other SMU.
+50A
+30A
7.Select the output off-mode of each SMU. This determines
whether an SMU will function as a voltage source set to
0V or as a current source set to 0A when the output is
turned off. When two SMUs are functioning in parallel as
current sources:
+20A
+10A
+5A
0A
–5A
–10A
• The SMU with the lower voltage limit should have its
output off-mode set to NORMAL with the off function set
to voltage, and
DC
Pulse
–20A
–30A
• The SMU with the higher voltage limit should have its
output off-mode set to NORMAL with the off function set
to current.
–50A
–40V
–20V
–10V
0V
+10V
+20V
+40V
Figure 3: Power envelope for a single Model 2651A.
Identical Model
Connections
Both SMUs MUST be the same model, the Model 2651A. This
ensures that if the SMUs are forced into a condition in which
one SMU must sink all of the current from the other SMU, the
SMU that is sinking is capable of sinking all the current. For this
reason, combining different model SourceMeter instruments in
parallel is NOT recommended. In addition, both SMUs should be
running the same version of firmware to ensure that both SMUs
perform the same.
A simple connection diagram for combining two SMUs in parallel
for higher current can be seen in Figure 4.
Because the Model 2651A can produce such high currents,
test leads (even those with very little resistance) can produce
significant voltage drops and create errors in the voltage
measurements. To eliminate these errors, use 4-wire mode on
both SMUs with Kelvin connections placed as close to the DUT
as possible.
Source Current Range
Both SMUs should be set to the same source current range. How
an SMU responds to a change in current level can vary with
the current range on which it is being sourced. By configuring
both SMUs to source on the same current range, both SMUs will
respond similarly to changes in current levels. This reduces the
chances for overshoots, ringing, and other undesired SMU-toSMU interactions.
Cabling Considerations
Cables capable of supporting the high levels of current that the
Model 2651A can produce should be used to obtain the desired
performance. The cable provided by Keithley with the Model
2651A is designed for both low resistance and low inductance.
We recommend using this cable from the Model 2651A to as
2
performance. In the Keithley Model 2651A, this limit is 3V per
source lead, which is imposed by the Kelvin connections.
HI
SHI
HI
SMU #1
LO
DUT
A single Model 2651A is capable of sourcing up to 50A
pulsed and up to 20A DC. Using Ohm’s Law we can calculate the
maximum resistance allowed in our test leads so as not to exceed
the 3V limit under these maximum conditions. Ohm’s Law states:
SHI
SMU #2
SLO
LO
SLO
V = I · R
where: V is voltage, I is current, and R is resistance. If we rewrite
this equation, solving for R we get:
R = V/I
Figure 4: Wiring diagram for connecting two SMUs in parallel using
4-wire mode.
R1
To find the maximum resistance values allowed in our test
leads, we can substitute our limits for V and I.
R2
DUT
R1
R3
3V
____________
= 0.06W
50A Pulse
Based on these calculations, the resistance of each source
lead should not exceed 150mW when only DC testing is used and
should not exceed 60mW when pulse testing is used.
R3
SMU #1
3V
_________
= 0.15W
20A DC
For example, in Figure 5 the length of the test lead
represented by R3 should be as short as possible in order to
minimize its resistance value (and thus the voltage drop across
R3). In this configuration, the current that flows through R 3 is
the sum of the current flowing through R1 and R 2. If we assume
R1 = R 2 = R3 and that both SMU #1 and SMU #2 are delivering
the same amount of current to the circuit, then the voltage drop
across R3 is twice as large as the voltage drop across R1 or R 2
because twice as much current is flowing through R 3 as there
is through R1 or R 2. The voltage drop that each SMU sees is the
sum of the voltage drop across R3 and the voltage drop across its
own lead resistance, R1 or R 2.
SMU #2
R2
Figure 5: Model for test lead resistances.
close to the DUT as possible. If the Keithley cable cannot be
used, use wiring with as low a resistance and inductance as
possible. We recommend that wire of 12 AWG or thicker be used
with a single Model 2651A. When combining SMUs for greater
current, 10 AWG or thicker wire should be used. Guidelines for
cabling should be taken seriously since wiring not rated for the
current being sourced can affect the performance of the SMU
and could also create a potential fire hazard.
Inductance
The Model 2651A also has the ability to compensate for errors
caused by voltage drops due to inductance in the force leads.
As mentioned in the discussion about resistance, this allows the
Model 2651A to deliver or measure the proper voltage at the
DUT rather than at the output of the instrument. Inductance in
connections resists changes in current and tries to hold back the
current by creating a voltage drop. This is similar to resistance
in the leads. However, inductance only plays a role while the
current is changing, whereas resistance plays a role even when
The following sections discussing resistance and inductance
are provided to help you verify that the cables you are using will
allow your system to function properly.
Resistance
The Model 2651A has the ability to compensate for errors caused
by voltage drops due to resistance in the force leads when large
currents are flowing. This allows the Model 2651A to deliver or
measure the proper voltage at the DUT rather than at the output
of the instrument. This is done by using Kelvin connections.
The inductance of connections between the SMUs’ outputs
and the DUT should be kept as low as possible to minimize
impacting SMU performance. To drive fast rising pulses, the
Model 2651A must have enough voltage overhead to compensate
for the voltage drop created by the inductance. If the supply does
not have enough overhead, the inductance can slow the rise time
of the pulse.
The resistance of any cabling and connections between the
SMUs’ output and the DUT should be kept as low as possible
to avoid excessive voltage drops across the force leads. This is
because there is a limit to how large a voltage drop an SMU
is capable of compensating for without adversely affecting
Another reason why the inductance of connections between
the SMUs’ outputs and the DUT should be kept as low as
3
possible is that if the inductance causes a voltage drop large
enough to exceed the 3V source-sense lead drop limit of the
Kelvin connections, readings could be affected. If the 3V limit
is exceeded, readings taken during the rising or falling edge of
the pulse could be invalid. However, readings taken during the
stable part of the pulse will not be affected.
the lower voltage limit goes into compliance, it becomes a voltage
source with low impedance and begins to sink the current from
the other SMU. With the SMU in compliance sinking current, the
other SMU can now source its programmed current level and
thus never go into compliance.
On the Model 2651A, the amount of overhead in the
power supply varies depending on the operating region
in the power envelope (see Model 2651A datasheet at
www.keithley.com/data?asset=55786 for more detail); but, in
general, the amount of voltage drop caused by inductance
should be kept under the 3V source-sense lead drop limit of the
Kelvin connections. We can calculate the maximum amount of
inductance allowed in our connections by using the equation:
In a parallel SMU configuration, setting voltage limits properly
is important. If both SMUs were to go into compliance and
become voltage sources, then we would have two voltage sources
in parallel. If this condition occurs, an uncontrolled amount
of current could flow between the SMUs, possibly causing
unexpected results and/or damage to the DUT. This condition
can also occur if the DUT becomes disconnected from the
test circuit. Fortunately, this condition can easily be avoided
by setting the compliance for one of the SMUs lower than the
compliance of the other SMU.
Setting Correct Voltage Limits
di
V = L · ___
dt
For example, in Figure 6 we have two Model 2651As configured
as 20A current sources that are connected in parallel to create a
40A current source. The voltage limit of SMU #1 is configured to
10V and the voltage limit of SMU #2 is configured to 9V and they
are sourcing into a 10mW load. If one of the leads disconnects
from the DUT during the test, each SMU would ramp up its
output voltage trying to force 20A until SMU #2 reaches its
voltage limit of 9V and goes into compliance. SMU #1 continues
to raise its output voltage until 20A are flowing from it into SMU
#2. This condition can be seen in Figure 7. Because the SMUs
are the same model, SMU #2 can sink the 20A current SMU #1
where: V is the voltage in volts, L is the inductance in henries,
and di/dt is the change in current over the change in time. If we
rewrite the equation solving for L we get:
di
L = V / ___
dt
As an example, let’s assume that with zero inductance the
Model 2651A produces a 50A pulse through our DUT with a
rise time of 35µs. In order to not exceed the 3V limit while
maintaining this rise time, the max amount of inductance per
50A
3V / ______= 2.1µH
35µs
40A
In this example (35µs rise time for a 50A pulse), to not exceed
the 3V limit we must ensure that our test leads have less than
20A
20A
+
10mΩ
NOTE: The Model 2651A specifications indicate a maximum
inductive load of 3μH, thus the total inductance for both HI
and LO leads must be less than 3μH under all conditions.
Set the Compliance
SMU #1
SMU #2
Limit: 10V
Limit: 9V
400mV
–
Figure 6: Example of two current source SMUs connected in parallel and
functioning under normal operation.
In parallel configurations, like the one shown in Figure 5, the
voltage limit of one SMU should be set 10% lower than the
voltage limit of the other SMU. This allows only one SMU to go
into compliance and become a voltage source.
0A
20A
Definition
20A
+
–
An SMU, or any real current source for that matter, has a limit as
to how much voltage it can output in order to deliver the desired
current. When the voltage limit in an SMU is reached, the SMU
goes into compliance and becomes a voltage source set to that
voltage limit. When the compliance on one SMU is set lower than
the compliance on the other SMU, the voltage limit can only be
reached by one of the SMUs. In other words, when the SMU with
SMU #1
9V
10mΩ
SMU #2
Limit: 10V
Figure 7: Example of two current source SMUs connected in parallel and
functioning under compliance operation (for example, if a lead disconnects).
4
is delivering to it. Note that operating in this condition will cause
SMU #2 to heat up quickly and will cause it to shut off if it heats
up too much. This over-temperature protection is a safety feature
built into the Model 2651A to help prevent accidental damage
to the unit.
smua.source.offlimitv = 10
-- Sets the off state voltage limit to 10V
Correctly Setting the Output Off-Mode
If you configure an SMU as a current source and do not change
the off-mode, then when you turn the output off, the SMU will
switch its source function from current to voltage and begin
sourcing 0V. If you did not anticipate this switch, you could
have a problem as the SMU essentially becomes a short to
whatever is connected to it. If you had two SMUs in parallel
and the SMU whose output was still on was operating as a
voltage source when the other SMU’s output was turned off, you
would have two voltage sources in parallel, which could result
in excessive current flow and could potentially damage the SMU.
Set the Output Off-Mode
Introduced with the Model 2651A are new features to the
NORMAL output off-mode of Series 2600A instruments.
Previously, under the NORMAL output off-mode, when the
output was turned off, the SMU was reconfigured as a voltage
source set to 0V. This would happen whether the SMU’s on
state was configured as a current source or a voltage source.
This is still the default configuration for the NORMAL output
off-mode; however, the NORMAL output off-mode can now have
its off function configured as a current source. With the off
function set to current, when the output is turned off the SMU is
reconfigured as a 0A current source. This happens whether the
SMU’s on state was configured as a current or voltage source.
Figure 7 shows what would happen if a connection to the
DUT were severed. SMU #2, whose voltage limit is lower, would
go into compliance and SMU #1, with a higher voltage limit,
would deliver all of its current to SMU #2. If SMU #1’s output
were to be shut off unexpectedly and its output mode turned
it into a 0V voltage source, then we would have a 0V voltage
source in parallel with a 9V voltage source. In this case, SMU
#2 would come out of compliance and switch back to a current
source. However, uncontrolled current may flow before this
switch occurs.
When putting two SMUs configured as current sources in
parallel, the SMU whose On State voltage limit is set lower
should be configured using an output off-mode of NORMAL
with an off function of voltage and its Off State current limit
should be set to 1mA. The other SMU, whose On State voltage
limit is higher, should be configured using an output off-mode
of NORMAL with an off function of current and its Off State
voltage limit should be set to 40V. To illustrate this, let’s use
Figure 6 as an example. For this configuration, both SMU’s
output off-mode should be set to NORMAL. Also, SMU #1
should have its off function set to current with an off limit of
40V and SMU #2 should have its off function set to voltage with
an off limit of 1mA. (The 40V and 1mA off limits are provided
in the configuration guidelines in the reference manual of the
Model 2651A.)
If SMU #1 had its output off function configured as a current
source, the unexpected shut off of SMU #1’s output would not
have resulted in two voltage sources in parallel. Instead, SMU #1
would have simply dropped to a 0A current source. Because SMU
#1’s voltage limit was set higher than SMU #2’s voltage limit,
SMU #2 would remain in compliance but now no current would
flow in the system since SMU #1 is still in control and forcing 0A.
If the opposite situation were to occur and SMU #2’s output
turned off unexpectedly, the situation would still be safe. SMU
#2, whose off function was configured as a voltage source,
would simply drop down from the 9V state to 0V. This is not
a problem as SMU #1 is still a current source and holds the
current to the 20A it was sourcing. The system is still not settled,
however, since SMU #2 is configured with an off limit of 1mA.
Because of this, SMU #2 goes into compliance, becomes a 1mA
current source, and begins to raise its output voltage to try to
limit current to 1mA. At this state, we have two current sources
in parallel. As SMU #2 continues to ramp its output voltage,
SMU #1 goes into compliance at 10V and becomes a 10V voltage
source. In this state, SMU #2, a current source at this time, is in
control and only 1mA of current is flowing.
Setup of this new output off mode configuration is done
through two new ICL commands:
• smua.source.offfunc
• smua.source.offlimitv
smua.source.offfunc is used to select the off function,
for example:
smua.source.offfunc = smua.OUTPUT_DCVOLTS
-- Sets the off function to voltage
smua.source.offfunc = smua.OUTPUT_DCAMPS
-- Sets the off function to current
Example
smua.source.offlimitv is used to set the voltage limit of the
Off State configuration when the off function is current. It is
similar to the command smua.source.offlimiti, which sets
the current limit for the off state when the off function is voltage.
Example usage follows:
This example is designed to collect Rds(on) measurement data
from a power MOSFET device by using a pulsed current sweep
to test up to 100A, however, it can be easily modified for use in
other applications.
5
To set the TSP-Link node number using the front panel
interface of either instrument:
0.020
Rds (ohms)
Vgs = 10V
Vgs = 6V
0.018
3.Select NODE.
0.016
5.Press ENTER to save the TSP-Link node number.
0.014
2651A #1 to the presence of Model 2651A #2 and Model 26xxA:
0.012
0.010
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
NOTE: You can also perform a TSP-Link reset from the remote
command interface by sending tsplink.reset() to Model
2651A #1.
100
Ids (Amps)
Figure 8: Example results.
Required Equipment
3.Select RESET.
This example requires the following equipment:
NOTE: If error 1205 is generated during the TSP-Link reset,
ensure that Model 2651A #2 and Model 26xxA have unique
• Two Model 2651A High Power System SourceMeter
Instruments that will be connected in parallel to source up
to 100A pulsed through the drain of the DUT
Device Connections
• One Model 26xxA System SourceMeter Instrument to control
the gate of the DUT
Connections from the SourceMeter instruments to the DUT can
be seen in Figure 10. Proper care should be taken to ensure
good contact through all connections.
• Two TSP-Link® cables for communications and precision
timing between instruments
• One GPIB cable or one Ethernet cable to connect the
instruments to a computer
NOTE: For best results, all connections should be left floating
and no connections should be tied to ground. Also, all
connections should be made as close to the device as possible
to minimize errors caused by voltage drops between the DUT
and the points in which the test leads are connected.
Communications Setup
The communication setup is illustrated in Figure 9. GPIB is
being used to communicate with the PC, but this application can
be run using any of the supported communication interfaces.
The TSP-Link connection enables communication between the
instruments, precision timing, and tight channel synchronization.
Gate Resistor
(if required)
To configure the TSP-Link communication interface, each
instrument must have a unique TSP-Link node number.
Configure the node number of Model 2651A #1 to 1, Model
2651A #2 to 2, and Model 26xxA to 3.
GPIB
G
HI
SHI
Model
26xxA
SMU
Model 2651A SMU #1
S
HI
SHI
HI
SHI
Model
2651A
SMU #1
Model
2651A
SMU #2
SLO
LO
SLO
LO
SLO
LO
Model 2651A SMU #2
Controller
D
Figure 10: Connections for dual SMU Rds(on) sweep.
Series 2600A SMU
Figure 9: Communications setup for examples.
6
7.Timer 2’s countdown expires and Timer 2 outputs an event
trigger to the SMU’s End Pulse Event.
NOTE: During high current pulsing, the gate of your DUT may
begin to oscillate, creating an unstable voltage on the gate and
thus unstable current through the drain. To dampen these
oscillations and stabilize the gate, a resistor can be inserted
between the gate of the device and the Force and Sense Hi
leads of the Model 26xxA. If the gate remains unstable after
inserting a dampening resistor, enable High-C mode on the
Model 26xxA (leaving the dampening resistor in place).
8.The SMU’s End Pulse Event receives the event trigger from
Timer 2, outputs the falling edge of the pulse, then lets the
SMU’s trigger model continue.
9.The SMU’s trigger model then compares the current Trigger
Layer loop iteration with the trigger count.
a. If the current iteration is less than the trigger count, then
the trigger layer repeats and the SMU’s trigger model
reaches Source Event where it waits for another trigger
from Timer 1. Because Timer 1 had its count set to the
trigger count minus one, Timer 1 will continue to output
a trigger for each iteration of the Trigger Layer loop. The
trigger model then repeats from Step 3.
Configuring the Trigger Model
In order to achieve tight timing and 100A pulses with two Model
2651As, the advanced trigger model must be used. Using the
trigger model, we can keep the 50A pulses of the two Model
2651As synchronized to within 500ns to provide a single 100A
pulse. Figure 11 illustrates the complete trigger model used in
this example.
b.If the current iteration is equal to the trigger count, then
the SMU’s trigger model exits the Trigger Layer, passes
through the Arm Layer, and returns to the Idle state.
In this example, Model 2651A #1 is configured to control the
overall timing of the sweep while Model 2651A #2 is configured
to wait for signals from Model 2651A #1 before it can generate a
pulse. The Model 26xxA is controlled by script in this example,
so its trigger model is not used.
Model 2651A #2 Trigger Model Operation
In Model 2651A #2’s trigger model (Figure 13), Timer 1 is
used to control the pulse width and is programmed with the
same delay as Model 2651A #1’s Timer 2. The pulse period is
from Model 2651A #1’s Timer 1, thus the pulse period for Model
2651A #2 is controlled by the same timer as the Model 2651A #1.
Model 2651A #1 Trigger Model Operation
In Model 2651A #1’s trigger model (Figure 12), Timer 1 is used
to control the period of the pulse while Timer 2 is used to
control the pulse width. TSP-Link Trigger 1 is used to tell Model
2651A #2 to output its pulse.
When the trigger model of Model 2651A #2 is initialized, the
following occurs:
When the trigger model of Model 2651A #1 is initialized, the
following occurs:
1.The SMU’s trigger model leaves the Idle state, flows through
the Arm Layer, enters the Trigger Layer, and then reaches the
Source Event where it waits for an event trigger.
1.The SMU’s trigger model leaves the Idle state, flows through
the Arm Layer, enters the Trigger Layer, outputs the ARMED
event trigger, and then reaches the Source Event where it
waits for an event trigger.
outputs an event trigger to the SMU’s Source Event.
3.The SMU’s Source Event receives the event trigger from
TSP-Link Trigger 1, begins to output the pulse, waits for
a programmed source delay, if any, outputs the SOURCE_
COMPLETE event to Timer 1, and then lets the SMU’s trigger
model continue.
2.The ARMED event trigger is received by Timer 1, which
begins its countdown and passes the trigger through to be
and sends a trigger through the TSP-Link to Model 2651A #2
to instruct it to output the pulse.
4.Timer 1 receives the SOURCE_COMPLETE event trigger from
TSP-Link Trigger 1 and begins its countdown.
4.The SMU’s Source Event receives the event trigger from Timer
1, begins to output the pulse, waits the programmed source
delay, if any, outputs the SOURCE_COMPLETE event to Timer
2, and then lets the SMU’s trigger model continue.
5.The SMU’s trigger model continues until it reaches the
Measure Event where it waits for a programmed measure
delay, if any, takes a measurement, and then continues until
it hits the End Pulse Event where it stops and waits for an
event trigger.
5.Timer 2 receives the SOURCE_COMPLETE event trigger from
Timer 1 and begins to count down.
6.Timer 1’s countdown expires and Timer 1 outputs an event
trigger to the SMU’s End Pulse Event.
6.The SMU’s trigger model continues to the Measure Event
where it waits a programmed measure delay, if any, takes a
measurement, and then continues until it hits the End Pulse
Event where it waits for an event trigger.
7.The SMU’s End Pulse Event receives the event trigger from
Timer 1, outputs the falling edge of the pulse, then lets the
SMU’s trigger model continue.
7
Model 2651A (master)
node[1].
smua.trigger.
Idle
Arm layer
IDLE_EVENT_ID
SWEEPING_EVENT_ID
arm.count = 1
arm.stimulus
trigger.timer[1].
stimulus
50e-3 s
passthrough = true
EVENT_ID
Trigger layer
count = 99
stimulus
500e-6 s
passthrough = false
ARMED_EVENT_ID
count = 100
source.stimulus
trigger.timer[2].
SWEEP_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
measure.stimulus
EVENT_ID
endpulse.stimulus
SOURCE_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
MEASURE_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
PULSE_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
count = 1
EVENT_ID
stimulus
Model 2651A (subordinate)
node[2].
smua.trigger.
Idle
Arm layer
IDLE_EVENT_ID
SWEEPING_EVENT_ID
arm.count = 1
EVENT_ID
arm.stimulus
Trigger layer
stimulus
SWEEP_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
ARMED_EVENT_ID
count = 100
source.stimulus
trigger.timer[1].
stimulus
500e-6 s
passthrough = false
measure.stimulus
EVENT_ID
endpulse.stimulus
count = 1
Figure 11: Example of a complete trigger model for Rds(on) sweep up to 100A.
8
SOURCE_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
MEASURE_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
PULSE_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
node[1] (Model 2651A)
node[1].
smua.trigger.
Idle
Arm layer
IDLE_EVENT_ID
SWEEPING_EVENT_ID
arm.count = 1
arm.stimulus
trigger.timer[1].
stimulus
50e-3 s
passthrough = true
EVENT_ID
Trigger layer
count = 99
stimulus
500e-6 s
passthrough = false
EVENT_ID
ARMED_EVENT_ID
count = 100
source.stimulus
trigger.timer[2].
SWEEP_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
measure.stimulus
endpulse.stimulus
SOURCE_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
MEASURE_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
PULSE_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
count = 1
EVENT_ID
stimulus
Figure 12: Example of a trigger model for 2651A #1 for Rds(on) sweep up to 100A.
node[2] (Model 2651A)
node[2].
smua.trigger.
Idle
Arm layer
EVENT_ID
IDLE_EVENT_ID
SWEEPING_EVENT_ID
arm.count = 1
arm.stimulus
Trigger layer
stimulus
SWEEP_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
ARMED_EVENT_ID
count = 100
source.stimulus
trigger.timer[1].
stimulus
500e-6 s
passthrough = false
EVENT_ID
measure.stimulus
endpulse.stimulus
count = 1
Figure 13: Example of a trigger model for 2651A #2 for Rds(on) sweep up to 100A.
9
SOURCE_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
MEASURE_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
PULSE_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
8.The SMU’s trigger model compares the current Trigger Layer
loop iteration with the trigger count.
Within the script, you will find several comments describing
what is being performed by the lines of code as well as
documentation for the functions contained in the script. Lines
starting with
a. If the current iteration is less than the trigger count, then
the trigger layer repeats and the SMU’s trigger model
reaches Source Event where it waits for another trigger
from TSP-Link Trigger 1. The trigger model then repeats
from Step 2.
node[2].
are commands that are being sent to Model 2651A #2 through
the TSP-Link interface. Lines starting with
b.If the current iteration is equal to the trigger count, then
the SMU’s trigger model exits the Trigger Layer, passes
through the Arm Layer, and returns to the Idle state.
node[3].
are commands that are being sent to the Model 26xxA through
the TSP-Link interface. All other commands are executed on the
Model 2651A #1.
Example Program Code
NOTE: The example code is designed to be run from Test
Script Builder or TSB Embedded. It can be run from other
programming environments such as Microsoft® Visual Studio
or National Instruments LabVIEW®, however, modifications
may be required.
Example Program Usage
The functions in this script are designed such that the sweep
parameters of the test can be adjusted without needing to
rewrite and re-run the script. A test can be executed by calling
the function
The TSP script for this example contains all the code
necessary to perform a pulsed Rds(on) sweep up to 100A using
two Model 2651A High Power System SourceMeter instruments
and a Model 26xxA System SourceMeter instrument. This script
DualSmuRdson()
with the appropriate values passed in its parameters.
Parameters of the function DualSmuRdson()
Parameter
gateLevel
The script performs the following functions:
• Configures all the SMUs
dstart
dstop
dsteps
pulseWidth
• Configures the trigger models of the two Model 2651As
pulsePeriod
pulseLimit
• Initializes the sweep
Units
Description
Voltage level to which the gate will be held
Volts
during the test
Amps
Level of the first step in the drain sweep
Amps
Level of the last step in the drain sweep
N/A
Number of steps in the drain sweep
Seconds Width of the pulse in the drain sweep
Time between the start of consecutive pulses in the
Seconds
drain sweep
Volts
Voltage limit of the pulses in the drain sweep
This is an example call to function DualSmuRdson().
• Processes and returns the collected data in a format that can
be copied and pasted directly into Microsoft Excel®
DualSmuRdson(10, 1, 100, 100, 500e-6, 50e-3, 10)
This call sets the gate SMU output to 10V, then sweeps the drain
of the DUT from 1A to 100A in 100 points. The points of this
sweep will be gathered using pulsed measurements with a pulse
width of 500µs and a pulse period of 50ms for a 1% duty cycle.
These pulses are limited to a maximum voltage of 10V. At the
completion of this sweep, all SMU outputs will be turned off
and the resulting data from this test will be returned in an Excel
compatible format for graphing and analysis.
The script is written using TSP functions rather than a single
block of inline code. TSP functions are similar to functions in
other programming languages such as C or Visual Basic and
must be called before the code contained in them is executed.
Because of this, running the script alone will not execute the
test. To execute the test, run the script to load the functions
into Test Script memory and then call the functions. Refer to
the documentation for Test Script Builder or TSB Embedded for
directions on how to run scripts and enter commands using the
instrument console.
10
Example Test Script Processor (TSP®) Script
--[[
Title:
Combining SMUs for 100A Example
Description:
This script is designed to perform an Rds(on)sweep on a power
MOSFET device. It combines two 2651A SMUs in parallel to perform a current
sweep up to 100A. Data collected from the sweep is then returned in a
Microsoft Excel compatible format for plotting and analysis.
Equipment needed:
2x 2651A
1x 26xxA
----------------------Unit
|
Node #
2651A #1
|
1
2651A #2
|
2
26xxA
|
3
Master Node (PC Interface): Node 1
]]
--[[
Name:
DualSmuRdson(gateLevel, dstart, dstop, dsteps, pulseWidth,
pulsePeriod, pulseLimit)
Description:
This function uses two 2651A SMUs to perform a pulsed Rds(on)
sweep with currents up to 100A.
Parameters:
gateLevel:
The gate level to be used during the sweep
dstart:
The starting current level of the drain sweep
dstop:
The ending current level of the drain sweep
dsteps:
The number of steps in the drain sweep
pulseWidth: The width of the drain pulse in seconds
pulsePeriod: The time from the start of one drain pulse to
the next in seconds
pulseLimit: The voltage limit of the drain pulse in volts
Note: Actual pulse limit will be 10% lower than setting
to protect SMUs in a compliance condition
Example Usage:
DualSmuRdson(10, 1, 100, 100, 500e-6, 50e-3, 10)
]]
function DualSmuRdson(gateLevel, dstart, dstop, dsteps, pulseWidth, pulsePeriod, pulseLimit)
tsplink.reset(3) -- Verify that at least three nodes are present
reset()
-- Configure 2651A #1 (Drain SMU 1)
----------------------------------smua.reset()
smua.source.func
=
smua.sense
=
smua.source.offmode
=
smua.source.offfunc
=
smua.source.offlimiti
=
smua.OUTPUT_DCAMPS
smua.SENSE_REMOTE
smua.OUTPUT_NORMAL
smua.OUTPUT_DCVOLTS
1e-3
-- Set off limit
-- SMU #1 will be a 0V voltage source with 1mA limit when its
-- output is turned off. SMU #2 will be a 0A current source with
-- a 10V limit when the output is turned off. These settings keep
-- the parallel combination safe in case one SMU is turned off.
smua.source.rangei = math.max(math.abs(dstart / 2), math.abs(dstop / 2))
smua.source.leveli
= 0
-- Sets the DC bias level
smua.source.limitv
= 9
-- Sets the DC bias limit
-- SMU #2 will have a voltage limit of 10V. By setting the voltage
-- limit 10% lower than that of SMU #2, we can ensure that only
-- one of the two SMUs will ever go into compliance and become a
-- voltage source. This is desirable, because if both SMUs went
-- into compliance, there would be two voltage sources in parallel,
-- which is an unsafe condition.
smua.measure.nplc
smua.measure.rangev
= 0.005
= pulseLimit
11
smua.measure.autozero
= smua.AUTOZERO_ONCE
smua.measure.delay
=
pulseWidth - ((1 / localnode.linefreq) * smua.measure.nplc)) - 20e-6
-- Set the delay so that the measurement is near the end of the pulse
smua.nvbuffer1.clear()
smua.nvbuffer1.collecttimestamps = 1
smua.nvbuffer1.collectsourcevalues = 1
smua.nvbuffer1.fillmode
smua.nvbuffer2.clear()
smua.nvbuffer2.collecttimestamps = 1
smua.nvbuffer2.collectsourcevalues = 1
smua.nvbuffer2.fillmode
= smua.FILL_ONCE
= smua.FILL_ONCE
= trigger.timer[1].EVENT_ID
-- TSP-Link Trigger 1 signals 2651A #2 to pulse
-- Timer 1 controls the pulse period by triggering the pulse to begin
trigger.timer[1].count
= dsteps - 1
trigger.timer[1].delay
= pulsePeriod
trigger.timer[1].passthrough = true
trigger.timer[1].stimulus
= smua.trigger.ARMED_EVENT_ID
trigger.timer[1].clear()
-- Timer 2 controls the pulse width
trigger.timer[2].count
= 1
trigger.timer[2].delay
= pulseWidth - 3e-6
trigger.timer[2].passthrough = false
trigger.timer[2].stimulus
= smua.trigger.SOURCE_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
trigger.timer[2].clear()
-- Configure SMU Trigger Model for Sweep
-- Each unit will source half the current, so divide the start
-- and stop values by 2
smua.trigger.source.lineari(dstart / 2, dstop / 2, dsteps)
smua.trigger.source.limitv = pulseLimit - (pulseLimit * 0.1)
-- Again, keep the limit SMU #1 lower than the limit of SMU #2
-- to prevent parallel V-sources
smua.trigger.measure.iv(smua.nvbuffer1, smua.nvbuffer2)
smua.trigger.measure.action
= smua.ENABLE
-- Return to the bias level at the end of the pulse/sweep
smua.trigger.endpulse.action
= smua.SOURCE_IDLE
smua.trigger.endsweep.action
= smua.SOURCE_IDLE
smua.trigger.count
= dsteps
smua.trigger.arm.stimulus
= 0
smua.trigger.source.stimulus
= trigger.timer[1].EVENT_ID
smua.trigger.measure.stimulus
= 0
smua.trigger.endpulse.stimulus = trigger.timer[2].EVENT_ID
smua.trigger.source.action
= smua.ENABLE
-- Configure 2651A #2 (Drain SMU 2)
----------------------------------node[2].smua.reset()
node[2].smua.source.func
= node[2].smua.OUTPUT_DCAMPS
node[2].smua.sense
= node[2].smua.SENSE_REMOTE
node[2].smua.source.offmode
= node[2].smua.OUTPUT_NORMAL
node[2].smua.source.offfunc
= node[2].smua.OUTPUT_DCAMPS
node[2].smua.source.offlimitv
= 10
-- Set off limit
-- SMU will be a 0A current source with 10V limit when output is turned off
node[2].smua.source.rangei
=
math.max(math.abs(dstart / 2), math.abs(dstop / 2))
node[2].smua.source.leveli
= 0
-- Sets the DC bias level
node[2].smua.source.limitv
= 10
-- Sets the DC bias limit
node[2].smua.measure.nplc
= 0.005
node[2].smua.measure.rangev
= pulseLimit
node[2].smua.measure.autozero
= node[2].smua.AUTOZERO_ONCE
node[2].smua.measure.delay
= (pulseWidth ((1 / node[2].linefreq) * node[2].smua.measure.nplc)) - 20e-6
12
-- Set the delay so that the measurement is near the end of the pulse
node[2].smua.nvbuffer1.clear()
node[2].smua.nvbuffer1.collecttimestamps
node[2].smua.nvbuffer1.collectsourcevalues
node[2].smua.nvbuffer1.fillmode
node[2].smua.nvbuffer2.clear()
node[2].smua.nvbuffer2.collecttimestamps
node[2].smua.nvbuffer2.collectsourcevalues
node[2]. smua.nvbuffer2.fillmode
= 1
= 1
= node[2].smua.FILL_ONCE
= 1
= 1
= node[2].smua.FILL_ONCE
-- Timer 1 controls the pulse width
node[2].trigger.timer[1].count
= 1
node[2].trigger.timer[1].delay
= pulseWidth - 3e-6
node[2].trigger.timer[1].passthrough
= false
node[2].trigger.timer[1].stimulus
=
node[2].smua.trigger.SOURCE_COMPLETE_EVENT_ID
node[2].trigger.timer[1].clear()
-- Configure SMU Trigger Model for Sweep
node[2].smua.trigger.source.lineari(dstart / 2, dstop / 2, dsteps)
node[2].smua.trigger.source.limitv
= pulseLimit
node[2].smua.trigger.measure.iv(node[2].smua.nvbuffer1, node[2].smua.nvbuffer2)
node[2].smua.trigger.measure.action
= node[2].smua.ENABLE
-- Return the output to the bias level at the end of the pulse/sweep
node[2].smua.trigger.endpulse.action
= node[2].smua.SOURCE_IDLE
node[2].smua.trigger.endsweep.action
= node[2].smua.SOURCE_IDLE
node[2].smua.trigger.count
= dsteps
node[2].smua.trigger.arm.stimulus
= 0
node[2].smua.trigger.source.stimulus
node[2].smua.trigger.measure.stimulus = 0
node[2].smua.trigger.endpulse.stimulus = node[2].trigger.timer[1].EVENT_ID
node[2].smua.trigger.source.action = node[2].smua.ENABLE
-- Configure the 26xxA (Gate SMU)
--------------------------------node[3].smua.reset()
node[3].smua.source.func
= node[3].smua.OUTPUT_DCVOLTS
node[3].smua.sense
= node[3].smua.SENSE_REMOTE
node[3].smua.source.levelv
= gateLevel
node[3].smua.source.highc
= node[3].smua.ENABLE
-- If you find your gate oscillating even with a dampening resistor
-- in place, try enabling high-C mode to help stabilize the gate.
node[3].smua.nvbuffer1.clear()
node[3].smua.nvbuffer1.collectsourcevalues
if node[3].smua.nvbuffer1.fillmode
node[3].smua.nvbuffer1.fillmode
end
node[3].smua.nvbuffer2.clear()
node[3].smua.nvbuffer2.collectsourcevalues
if node[3].smua.nvbuffer2.fillmode
node[3].smua.nvbuffer2.fillmode
end
--------------------------- Ready to begin the test
--------------------------- Outputs on
node[3].smua.source.output
node[2].smua.source.output
smua.source.output
= 1
~= nil then
= node[3].smua.FILL_ONCE
= 1
~= nil then
= node[3].smua.FILL_ONCE
= node[3].smua.OUTPUT_ON
= node[2].smua.OUTPUT_ON
= smua.OUTPUT_ON
if errorqueue.count > 0 then
print(“Errors were encountered”)
reset()
return
end
-- Give the gate some time to settle before starting the sweep
13
delay(0.001)
node[3].smua.measure.iv(node[3].smua.nvbuffer1, node[3].smua.nvbuffer2)
-- Start the 2651A #2 trigger model
node[2].smua.trigger.initiate()
-- Start the 2651A #1 trigger model
smua.trigger.initiate()
-- Wait until test is complete
waitcomplete()
-- Outputs off
node[3].smua.source.output
smua.source.output
node[2].smua.source.output
= node[3].smua.OUTPUT_OFF
= smua.OUTPUT_OFF
= node[2].smua.OUTPUT_OFF
-- Print back data
PrintDualSmuRdsonData()
end
--[[
Function:
PrintDualSmuRdsonData()
Description:
This function processes the data stored in the SMU reading buffers by
function DualSmuRdson() and prints back the individual SMU data and the
combined SMU data and Rds(on) readings in a format that is copy and paste
compatible with Microsoft Excel.
]]
function PrintDualSmuRdsonData()
-- Print the gate SMU readings
print(“Gate SMU\r\nSource Value\tVoltage\tCurrent”)
print(string.format(“%0.2f\t%g\t%g\r\n”,
node[3].smua.nvbuffer1.sourcevalues[1],
node[3].smua.nvbuffer2[1],
node[3].smua.nvbuffer1[1]))
print(“Timestamp\tSource Value\tVoltage 1\tCurrent 1\tVoltage
2\tCurrent 2\tVoltage\tCurrent\tRds(on)”)
-- Loop through the reading buffer printing one row at a time
for i = 1,smua.nvbuffer1.n do
-- Combined Source Level = SMU1 source level + SMU2 source level
sourceLevel = smua.nvbuffer1.sourcevalues[i] +
node[2].smua.nvbuffer1.sourcevalues[i]
combinedVoltage = (smua.nvbuffer2[i] + node[2].smua.nvbuffer2[i]) / 2
combinedCurrent = smua.nvbuffer1[i] + node[2].smua.nvbuffer1[i]
-- Rds(on) = Combined Voltage / Combined Current
rdson = combinedVoltage / combinedCurrent
-- Print a row of data
print(string.format(“%g\t%g\t%g\t%g\t%g\t%g\t%g\t%g\t%g”,
smua.nvbuffer1.timestamps[i],
sourceLevel,
smua.nvbuffer2[i],
smua.nvbuffer1[i],
node[2].smua.nvbuffer2[i],
node[2].smua.nvbuffer1[i],
combinedVoltage,
combinedCurrent,
rdson))
end
end
14
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
All Keithley trademarks and trade names are the property of Keithley Instruments, Inc.
All other trademarks and trade names are the property of their respective companies.
A
KEITHLEY INSTRUMENTS, INC .
■
G R E A T E R
28775 AUROR A RD.
■
M E A S U R E
CLEVEL AND, OH 44139-1891 ■
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
440 -248- 0400
■
Fax: 440 -248-6168
■ 1-888-KEITHLEY
■
w w w.keithley.com
BELGIUM
Sint-Pieters-Leeuw
Ph: 02-3630040
Fax: 02-3630064
[email protected]
www.keithley.nl
CHINA
Beijing
Ph: 86-10-8447-5556
Fax: 86-10-8225-5018
[email protected]
www.keithley.com.cn
FRANCE
Saint-Aubin
Ph: 01-64532020
Fax: 01-60117726
[email protected]
www.keithley.fr
GERMANY
Germering
Ph: 089-84930740
Fax: 089-84930734
[email protected]
www.keithley.de
INDIA
Bangalore
Ph: 080-26771071, -72, -73
Fax: 080-26771076
[email protected]
www.keithley.com
ITALY
Peschiera Borromeo (Mi)
Ph: 02-5538421
Fax: 02-55384228
[email protected]
www.keithley.it
JAPAN
Tokyo
Ph: 81-3-5733-7555
Fax: 81-3-5733-7556
[email protected]
www.keithley.jp
KOREA
Seoul
Ph: 82-2-574-7778
Fax: 82-2-574-7838
[email protected]
www.keithley.co.kr
MALAYSIA
Penang
Ph: 60-4-643-9679
Fax: 60-4-643-3794
[email protected]
www.keithley.com
NETHERLANDS
Gorinchem
Ph: 0183-635333
Fax: 0183-630821
[email protected]
www.keithley.nl
SINGAPORE
Singapore
Ph: 65-6747-9077
Fax: 65-6747-2991
[email protected]
www.keithley.com
SWITZERLAND
Zürich
Ph: 044-8219444
Fax: 044-8203081
[email protected]
www.keithley.ch
TAIWAN
Hsinchu
Ph: 886-3-572-9077
Fax: 886-3-572-9031
[email protected]
www.keithley.com.tw
UNITED KINGDOM
Theale
Ph: 0118-9297500
Fax: 0118-9297519
[email protected]
www.keithley.co.uk