Apricus installation manual
Apricus Solar Hot Water Systems
Technical Manual
Version 2.0 - March 2014
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
www.apricus.com.au
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
Apricus Technical Manual Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION
4
5. INSTALLATION
2. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
15
5.1 Mounting Frame System.......................................... 15
1.1 Foreword................................................................... 4
1.2 Scope........................................................................ 4
1.3 Terminology.............................................................. 4
1.4 Certification.............................................................. 5
1.5 Conversions............................................................... 5
5.1.1 Installation Notes..........................................................15
5.1.2 Installation – Assembly Guide.......................................15
5.1.3 Installation - Roof Fixing Guide.....................................16
5.1.4 Tin Roof Installation Example:......................................16
5.1.5 Tiled Roof Installation Example:....................................16
5.1.6 Adjusting Tilt Mount Angle:..........................................17
5
5.2 Collector Manifold Connection................................. 17
2.3.1 Pressure Temperature Relief...........................................5
2.3.2 Mains Pressure Control...................................................5
5.3 Pump Station........................................................... 17
2.1 Installer Requirements .............................................. 5
2.2 Occupational Health and Safety................................ 5
2.3 Over Pressure and Temperature Protection............... 5
5.2.1 Silver Soldering/Brazing................................................17
5.2.2 Compression Fittings.....................................................17
5.2.3 Press Tools....................................................................17
5.3.1 Installation Guide..........................................................17
5.3.2 Flow Meter Settings......................................................17
2.4 Water Quality............................................................ 6
2.5 Legionella Control..................................................... 6
2.6 Weather Related Issues and Acts of God.................... 6
5.4 Solar Differential Controller..................................... 17
5.4.1 Controller Settings........................................................17
5.4.2 Temperature Sensors....................................................18
2.6.1 Freeze Protection............................................................6
2.6.2 Lightning Protection.......................................................6
2.6.3 Hail Resistance ..............................................................6
5.5 Insulation................................................................ 18
5.6 System Filling and Air Purge.................................... 18
5.7 Evacuated Tubes and Heat Pipes............................. 18
2.7 Stagnation and No-Load Conditions.......................... 6
5.7.1 Installation Notes..........................................................18
5.7.2 Installation Guide..........................................................18
2.7.1 Information on Stagnation.............................................6
2.7.2 Hydrogen Build Up..........................................................7
2.7.3 Water Boiling Temperatures ..........................................7
3. INFORMATION FOR END-USER
5.8 Auxiliary Boosting Components............................... 19
5.8.1 Electric Booster, Thermostat and Element Setup..........19
5.8.2 Gas Booster Setup.........................................................19
8
3.1 How Solar Heating Works.......................................... 8
3.1.1 Introduction....................................................................8
3.1.2 Summer and Winter Solar Heating.................................8
3.1.3 How the Apricus System Works.......................................8
6. POST INSTALLATION 3.2 How Boosting Works................................................. 8
3.2.1 Boosting Explained.........................................................8
3.2.2 Legionella Bacteria - Importance of Boosting.................8
3.2.3 Electric Boosted Systems.................................................8
3.2.4 Gas Boosted Systems......................................................8
3.3 System Maintenance & Precautions........................... 9
3.3.1 System Maintenance.......................................................9
3.3.2 Glass Lined Tank Precautions..........................................9
19
6.1 Commissioning........................................................ 19
6.1.1 System Operation Check...............................................19
6.1.2 Photo Records...............................................................19
6.1.3 Installation Record Form...............................................19
6.1.4 Rebate Forms................................................................19
6.2 Maintenance........................................................... 19
6.2.1 Damaged Tubes............................................................20
6.2.3 Draining the System......................................................20
6.2.4 Over Pressure Protection Maintenance........................20
6.2.5 Magnesium Anode Replacement..................................20
3.4 End-User Troubleshooting Guide............................. 10
4. PRE-INSTALLATION
11
4.1 System Selection...................................................... 11
4.2 Site Inspection......................................................... 11
4.2.1 Collector Location.........................................................11
4.2.2 Mounting Frame Location.............................................11
4.2.3 Storage Tank Location...................................................12
4.3 Transport and Unpacking ....................................... 12
4.3.1 Transport of Components.............................................12
4.3.2 Unpacking of Components............................................12
4.4 Component Inspection............................................. 12
4.4.1 Evacuated Tubes & Heat Pipes......................................12
4.4.2 Pump Station Inspection...............................................12
4.4.3 Mounting Frame System...............................................12
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AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
7. CUSTOM SYSTEM DESIGN GUIDELINES
21
7.1 Introduction............................................................ 21
7.1.1 Associated Work...........................................................21
7.2 Calculating Load...................................................... 21
7.2.1 Calculating Water Usage..............................................21
7.2.2 Calculating Energy Requirements.................................21
7.3 System Sizing........................................................... 22
7.3.1 Collector Size Requirement...........................................22
7.3.2 Roof Space and Collector Shading................................22
7.3.3 Storage Tank Sizing.......................................................22
7.3.4 Pipe Material ...............................................................22
7.4 System Type............................................................ 23
7.4.1 Closed loop...................................................................23
7.4.2 Open Loop or Direct Flow.............................................23
7.4.3 Drainback......................................................................23
7.4.4 Constant Use, 7 Days a Week.......................................23
7.4.5 Constant Use, 5 Days a Week.......................................23
7.4.6 Daily Peaks, 7 Days a Week..........................................23
7.4.7 Constant Use, with Extended Periods of Non-Use.........24
7.5 System Design and Configuration............................ 24
7.5.1 Multiple Collector Connection.......................................24
7.5.2 Balanced Flow...............................................................24
7.5.3 Multiple Tank Piping.....................................................25
7.6 Design Considerations............................................. 25
7.6.1 Stagnation....................................................................25
7.6.2 Excessive System Pressure and Temperature Control...26
7.6.3 Freeze Protection..........................................................26
7.7 Additional Components........................................... 27
7.7.1 Thermostatic Mixing Valve...........................................27
7.7.2 Expansion Tank.............................................................27
7.7.4 Adjustable Pressure Reducing Valve.............................28
8. APPENDIX
29
8.1 Apricus System Schematics...................................... 29
8.1.1 Apricus Electric Boosted Solar Hot Water System.........29
8.1.2 Apricus Gas Boosted Solar Hot Water System..............30
8.2 Conditional Requirements....................................... 31
8.2.1 Wind Loading Conditions..............................................31
8.2.2 Installation Conditions..................................................32
8.3 Mounting Frame Certification.................................. 34
8.4 Section 40 - Certificate of Compliance...................... 35
8.5 Mounting Frame Configurations.............................. 37
8.5.1 10 Tube Flush Mount....................................................37
8.5.2 10 Tube Tilt Mount........................................................38
8.5.3 20/22 Tube Flush Mount...............................................39
8.5.4 20/22 Tube Tilt Mount..................................................40
8.5.5 30 Tube Flush Mount....................................................41
8.5.6 30 Tube Tilt Mount........................................................42
8.6 Apricus Component Information.............................. 43
8.6.1 Glass Lined Storage Tank Specifications.......................43
8.6.2 Stainless Steel Storage Tank Specifications...................44
8.6.3 Apricus Pump Station Dimensions................................45
8.6.4 Apricus Gas Booster Dimensions...................................45
8.6.5 Collector Technical Specifications:................................45
8.7 Apricus Warranty Information................................. 48
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AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
1. Introduction
1.1 Foreword
Congratulations on taking a major step towards reducing
your total home energy usage and making a positive
difference to the environment we live in.
Apricus Australia is a provider of premium solar hot water
systems. These systems use high efficiency evacuated
tube collectors to provide free hot water generated purely
by the sun’s energy.
1.2 Scope
This manual has been designed to cater for the needs of
the end-user, installer and service agent.
Refer to section ‘8.1 Apricus System Schematics’ for AS/
NZS2712:2007 approved system designs. Any deviation
from these system designs will NOT be eligible for
government or state rebates.
Customised system designs and larger commercial
systems should be validated and approved by a qualified
hydraulic engineer prior to installation in collaboration
with Apricus.
1.3 Terminology
»»
»»
»»
»»
»»
The terminology used from region to region differs and so
to avoid confusion please note the following terminology.
»» AP-30: Standard Size solar thermal collector for
commercial projects consisting of 30 Apricus evacuated
tubes.
»» Bank (of collectors): Two to five Apricus collectors in
series.
»» Boost - The process where a heating component (such
as an electric element or gas heater) is used to provide
additional heating when solar-heated water is not of
an adequate temperature.
»» Clean Energy Regulator (CER) - A statutory authority
established to oversee the implementation of the
Large-scale Renewable Energy Target (LRET) and the
Small-scale Renewable Energy Scheme (SRES).
»» Closed loop: In a closed loop system the heat transfer
fluid is pumped through the collectors and a heat
exchanger is used to transfer heat from the collector
loop to the water in the tank. Closed loop systems are
used in areas where freezing conditions are common
and the transfer fluid in the manifold is generally
glycol or an antifreeze fluid. These systems are
more expensive to construct and install, and require
maintenance.
»» Collector - The Apricus solar collector is the manifold
with heat pipes and evacuated tubes inserted.
»» Drainback: Drainback systems use water as the heat
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»»
»»
»»
»»
»»
»»
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
transfer fluid in the collector loop. The water drains
by gravity back to the storage tank or an auxiliary
(header) tank when the circulation pump stops, thus
preventing overheating and freezing. This system
provides a high level of protection as it does not rely
on valves or controllers that could fail under adverse
freezing conditions. The disadvantage of the system is
that it requires a pump with a high static lift to fill the
collector when the system starts up, it is also important
that all piping is sloped, ensuring that the collector is
at the top and the tank at the bottom. U-bends are
strictly not allowed.
Expansion control valve (ECV) - Installed on the cold
mains line to relieve excess pressure.
Flow Line - indicates the plumbing line running
from the tank (or heat exchanger) to the inlet of the
collector. This line incorporates the circulation pump.
Header - is the copper “heat exchanger” pipes in the
solar collector through which the water flows.
Heat Pipe: A copper pipe that sits inside the evacuated
tube and is inserted into the collector manifold. A
small volume of liquid acts as a heat transfer fluid. It
absorbs heat via evaporation, and transfers heat to the
system fluid via condensation.
Insolation - solar radiation level, expressed in kWh/
m2/day
Manifold - Refers to the solar collector which contains
the header through which potable water flows.
Open Loop or Direct Flow: Open loop active systems
circulate water directly from the tank, through the
collectors. This design is efficient and lowers operating
costs, but is not appropriate if the water supply is
hard because calcium deposits quickly build up in the
bottom header of the collector. Open loop systems
have limited freeze protection, usually achieved
through controller functions; by running the pump
and forcing warm water from the tank to the collector,
when the collector temperature approaches zero.
Pressure Limiting Valve (PLV): A valve installed on the
cold water mains line designed to limit system pressure
to a set design pressure. A typical value is 500 kPa.
Pressure temperature relief valve (PTRV) - installed
on the hot water storage tank to relieve pressure, and
excessive temperatures.
Return Line - indicates the plumbing line running from
the outlet of the collector back to the tank.
Stratification - the passive separation of water into
distinct layers of different temperatures; where the
temperature at the top of the tank can be significantly
higher than the temperature at the bottom.
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
1.4 Certification
AS/NZS2712 - The Australian Standard for solar collectors.
Testing to meet this includes resistance to glass breakage
and impact resistance under certain conditions including
hail, stagnation conditions, protection against water
ingress and structural strength.
‘Apricus Australia has obtained AS/NZS 2712:2002 certification
through Global Mark. The certification number is 100633.’
SRCC - The Solar Rating and Certification Corporation
(SRCC) is a not for profit organization that assesses solar
collectors. This allows solar collectors to be compared to
one another on an independent platform. There is also a
similar program for solar water heating systems.
‘Solar Collector – SRCC OG-100 North America
Apricus has obtained SRCC OG-100 for the AP-10, 18, 20, 22 &
30 tube evacuated tube solar collectors. Certification numbers:
100-2004003A/B/C/D. Apricus North America has obtained
SRCC OG-300 for a full range of systems.’
ITW - Solar Keymark is the most widely recognised
European standard for solar collectors. The testing done
through this standard ensures that the collectors are
reliable in both performance and quality.
‘Apricus has obtained Solar Keymark certification for its AP-10,
20, 22 & 30 tube evacuated tube solar collectors.’
AS/NZS3498 - Applies to the hot water system. By
meeting this standard, the tank, and the entire system
meets requirements. Most importantly is the Watermark
certificate meaning that all the products that Apricus
provides in a given system from collector through to valves
will meet Australian standard in relation to potable water.
‘Apricus Australia has obtained AS/NZS3498 for all the systems
available in the CER register through Global Mark. The
certification number is 40107.‘
1.5 Conversions
•
•
•
•
2. Warnings and Precautions
2.1 Installer Requirements
Installation must be completed by a licensed plumber in
accordance with the requirements listed below, as well as
any relevant local standards and regulations.
»» AS/NZS 3500 – National Plumbing and Drainage Code.
»» AS/NZS 2712.2007 – Solar and Heat Pump Water
Heaters: Design and Construction.
»» AS/NZS 4234.2008 – Heated Water Systems –
Calculation of Energy Consumption.
»» AS/NZS 5601.2004 – Gas Installations
2.2 Occupational Health and Safety
The installer must adhere to occupational health and
safety guidelines and other relevant industry associations.
Under no circumstances should any installer attempt to
install an Apricus solar hot water system without reading
and understanding this installation manual. For any
queries Apricus staff may be contacted on 1300 277 428.
2.3 Over Pressure and Temperature Protection
2.3.1 Pressure Temperature Relief
Any system design must allow a means of pressure
release at no more than 850kPa, using a PTRV. The PTRV
must have a downward direction copper pipe connected
that is open to the atmosphere, running the expelled hot
water or air to a safe, frost free and appropriate drainage
location. From time to time the PTRV may discharge small
amounts of water under normal operations, this can be
up to 10% of tank capacity. If the tank is installed indoors,
a safe-tray must be installed beneath the hot water tank
to safely collect any water expelled from the PTRV.
2.3.2 Mains Pressure Control
1kWh = 3600kJ = 860kcal
1 kcal will heat 1 litre of water by 1°C
1 J/s = 1W = 0.860421kcal/hr
1kWh/m2/day = 3.6MJ/m2/day
Where the mains pressure supply can exceed or fluctuate
beyond the pressure of 500kPa, a pressure-limiting
valve must be fitted to the cold mains line. The device is
installed after the isolation valve (duo valve) and should
have a pressure limit of 500kPa.
In some states it is a mandatory requirement that an
expansion control valve be fitted on the cold mains line
to provide a form of pressure relief. A separate drain line
must be run for this relief valve (as per AS/NZS 3500). If
unsure please check with the local authority.
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AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
2.4 Water Quality
Water quality is an important aspect of system lifetime.
For the system to be warranted, the water used in the
system must meet the requirements outlined in Table 1.
Table 1. Water Quality Threshold Values
Total Dissolved Solids
Total Hardness
Electrical Conductivity
Chloride
pH Level
Magnesium
Sodium
< 600 mg/L or ppm
< 200 mg/L or ppm
850 µS/cm
< 250 mg/L or ppm
Min 6.5 to Max. 8.5
< 10 mg/L or ppm
< 150 mg/L or ppm
If in doubt contact your local water authority or have a
water test completed. In areas of poor water quality all
major components will have a reduced life due to the
harshness of the water.
In areas with “hard water” (>200 mg/L or ppm), it is
advised to install a water softening device to ensure the
long term efficient operation of the system is met. It is
also advisable that a glass-lined tank is used as opposed
to a stainless steel tank, since the glass-lined tank has a
sacrificial anode to protect from corrosion.
2.5 Legionella Control
Legionella bacteria can be found naturally in the
environment and thrives in warm water and damp places.
It can weaken the body’s immune system, which can
increase the chances of developing Legionnaires’ disease.
To ensure legionella growth is inhibited, the boosting
regime must meet the guidelines as shown in section
3.2.2 Table 3. This is in accordance with ‘AS3498.2009
Authorisation requirements for plumbing products water heater and hot-water storage tanks’
It is therefore, very important that the auxiliary boosting
system remains on. It will only activate if the temperature
falls below the temperatures outlined in section 3.2.2
Table 3.
2.6 Weather Related Issues and Acts of God
2.6.1 Freeze Protection
All Apricus systems have freeze protection built in. This
is provided by the controller which will circulate water
through the collector once the temperature falls below
4°C. This freeze protection method has passed Frost
Level 2 protection (down to -15°C) in line with AS/NZS
2712:2007.
Page 6 of 49
WARNING
Freeze protection will not operate if there is no power
supply to the controller or pump.
2.6.2 Lightning Protection
At installation locations that are prone to lightning
strikes, it is advisable to earth/ground the copper
circulation loop of the collector to avoid lightning related
damage, or electrical safety issues. Refer also to local
building codes regarding lightning safety and grounding.
The inclusion of a residual-current device (RCD) is highly
recommended for these lightning prone areas.
2.6.3 Hail Resistance
The borosilicate glass evacuated tubes have been tested
under the Australian Standards requirement (AS/NZS
2712:2007 – Solar and heat pump water heater – design
and construction). The impact resistance test results
indicate that the evacuated tubes are able to withstand
impact from hailstones up to 25mm/1” in diameter at 25
m/s.
In the unlikely circumstance that an evacuated tube
should become broken it can be easily replaced. The
solar collector can still function properly with one or
more broken tubes, however it will result in a reduced
heat output from the collector. A broken evacuated tube
should be replaced by professional installers or service
agents only.
2.7 Stagnation and No-Load Conditions
2.7.1 Information on Stagnation
Stagnation refers to the condition that occurs when the
pump stops running, due to pump failure, power blackout,
or as a result of the high tank temperature protection
feature built into the controller, which turns the pump off.
The system is designed to allow stagnation to prevent the
tank from overheating. This means that the collector and
plumbing in close proximity may reach temperatures of
up to 170°C; therefore components that may be exposed
to the high temperatures such as valves, plumbing or
insulation, should be suitably rated.
The system designs listed in the ‘CER’ Register meet
the No-load system requirements detailed in AS/NZS
2712:2007. This means that they will not dump large
volumes of water from the PTRV and do not require an
auto air-vent.
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
During periods of extended stagnation, condensation
pressure shocks can occur in the tank. When the tank is
topped out and suddenly a hot water load is drawn from
the tank this can lead to rapid mixing of cold water and
superheated steam in the return line mixing. This can
produce a “gurgling” noise, as the steam is hypothesized
to collapse on itself upon rapidly cooling and condensing.
This is a normal occurrence in any hot water storage
system and does not affect the system’s operation
2.7.2 Hydrogen Build Up
Glass lined (vitreous enamel) tanks are fitted with a
Magnesium anode to provide corrosion protection for the
tank from the storage water. Small quantities of hydrogen
gas can be released by the anode, which generally remains
dissolved in the water and flushed away as hot water is
used from the tank. Depending on the water quality there
may be a degree of hydrogen build-up in the tank if the
water heater hasn’t been used for two or more weeks.
2.7.4 Delayed Installation or Use
The manifold and tubes should not be installed and
sitting dry (no fluid) for more than 14 days. Prolonged dry
stagnation may void the warranty as it could affect heat
pipes or tube longevity.
The manifold MUST NOT be left without tubes and
installed on the roof for any period of time, particularly
during periods of rainfall or snowfall. There is a high
probability of water entering the manifold and causing
damage to the glass wool insulation.
If the installation cannot be completed fully and the
system must be left dry for a period longer than 14
days, the collector must be covered. The collector can
be covered with a durable, waterproof cover to prevent
water ingress, or access to insects or birds.
To resolve the build-up of hydrogen within the tank
“purge” the tank for approximately 30 seconds from the
lever on the PTRV.
2.7.3 Water Boiling Temperatures
The boiling point of water varies based on the pressure
within the hot water system. Under stagnation and no
load conditions, the solar collector has the potential
to reach temperatures well above 100°C. As the water
temperature rises and water expands this creates pressure
within the system. As the temperature rises, so too does
the boiling point of water. This is why the solar hot water
system (despite being at temperatures in excess of 100°C)
will not boil and produce steam. Table 2 Illustrates how
the boiling point increases with pressure.
Table 2. The Relationship Between Pressure and Boiling Point
Pressure (kPa)
101
203
304
405
507
608
709
811
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Boiling point (oC)
100
120
133
143
151
158
164
170
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
3. Information for End-User
3.1 How Solar Heating Works
3.1.1 Introduction
Apricus strongly believe in informing the homeowner
about the basic operation of the solar water heating
system. By gaining a basic understanding you can develop
realistic expectations about the operation of the system,
develop habits which maximise energy savings and most
importantly, ensure safe and reliable operation.
3.1.2 Summer and Winter Solar Heating
Solar radiation is only half or one third as strong in the
winter months compared to summer, and therefore
not able to provide the same amount of hot water as in
summer. For optimal performance of the solar system it
is recommended that the collectors be angled (pitched)
at no less than 20 degrees. For increased performance
during winter it is recommended that collectors are
pitched at latitude plus 10-20 degrees, Correct tilting of
the system will provide increased year round performance
and reduce energy costs further.
3.1.3 How the Apricus System Works
The Apricus solar collector converts the sun’s energy into
heat, quite different to photovoltaic (PV) solar panels,
which convert the sun’s energy into electricity.
How the Apricus system works:
1. The evacuated tubes absorb the sun’s energy and
convert it to usable heat.
2. The heat inside the evacuated tube, is carried via
copper heat pipes to the insulated manifold, this
contains a copper heat exchanger.
3. An electronic controller measures the temperature of
water in the manifold and compares it to the water
in the bottom of the storage tank. If the manifold
temperature is higher, the controller switches on a
circulation pump which brings the solar heated water
back down to the storage tank.
4. Throughout the day, the controller switches the pump
on and off to continuously heat water in the storage
tank.
5. When the maximum temperature in the tank is
reached (85°C), the pump is turned off and no more
water is circulated until the temperature drops below
this value.
Page 8 of 49
3.2 How Boosting Works
3.2.1 Boosting Explained
If the solar contribution during the day is not enough
to raise the water to a suitable temperature, an electric
or gas booster can provide additional heating. During
sufficient sunny weather, the solar collector will normally
be able to provide enough hot water, but during winter
months and overcast days boosting may be required.
As a regulatory requirement, all solar hot water
installations must include a tempering valve which mixes
the hot water coming out of the storage tank with cold
water to limit the temperature to 50°C.
3.2.2 Legionella Bacteria - Importance of Boosting
It is a legal requirement that water be heated on a
regular basis to kill Legionella bacteria that can lead to
Legionnaires disease. The frequency this temperature
must be reached varies, and is explained in Table 3:
Table 3. Minimum Heat Requirements
Type of Apricus System
Installed
Minimum heat
requirements
Bottom element electric
boosted system
Once per week to 60°C for 32
minutes
Mid element electric boosted
Once per day to 60°C
system
Gas boosted systems
Minimum 70°C each time
water is used
3.2.3 Electric Boosted Systems
If the system is electric boosted, when the electric element
is activated it will heat up all the water above the element
to 60°C (or the thermostat setting). This heating can take
as long as 3-4 hours if the tank is cold.
Note: Apricus recommends that the electric booster is left
on, or controlled by a suitable timer.
3.2.4 Gas Boosted Systems
Depending on the gas booster used, the start-up
temperatures vary. For an Apricus gas booster, if the
incoming water temperature is less than 55°C, the booster
will activate and heat water to 70°C. If the incoming water
is greater than 55°C the booster will not start and water
will flow directly to the outlets.
Non Apricus boosters are typically configured to heat any
water below 70°C to 70°C. Refer to the individual booster
manual for more detailed information on these settings.
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
3.3 System Maintenance & Precautions
3.3.1 System Maintenance
• Cleaning - The Apricus tubes do not usually need
cleaning, regular rain and wind should keep the tubes
clean.
• Pressure & Temperature Relief Valve (PTRV) - The
PTRV is located near the top of the hot water storage
tank. It is designed to release pressure in the tank as
water expands and contracts during normal heating.
The lever on the PTRV should be carefully lifted for a few
seconds then placed down, once every 6 months. This
will help prevent any debris or scale build up in the valve.
WARNING
When the PTRV is lifted hot water will be discharged.
Ensure the drain pipe from PTRV is clear.
• Visual Check - Apricus recommend periodic visual
checks of your system:
a. Check for leaks around the storage tank and pipe work
b. Ensure the pump station is dry and free from moisture
c. If the tubes are safely visible from ground
height, ensure all tubes are still dark in colour.
(Note: if the tubes are a milky/white colour
the vacuum has escaped and the tube will
not be working as efficiently as it should be)
WARNING
Pipe work can be extremely hot, do not touch any
exposed copper piping.
3.3.2 Glass Lined Tank Precautions
Glass lined (Vitreous enamel) tanks are fitted with a
magnesium anode to provide corrosion protection for
the tank from the stored water. Apricus recommend the
anode be inspected at least every three (3) years, and
serviced as required.
Small quantities of hydrogen gas can be released by the
anode which generally remains dissolved in the water.
This is then flushed away during normal use.
Depending on the water quality there may be a degree of
hydrogen build up in the tank if the water heater hasn’t
been used for two or more weeks. To resolve the buildup of hydrogen within the tank “purge” the tank for
approximately 30 seconds from the lever on the PTRV.
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Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
3.4 End-User Troubleshooting Guide
Table 4. Basic Troubleshooting Guide
Problem
Pump Continuously Running
Cause
Solution
Air lock in manifold
Contact Apricus Australia
Insufficient flow rate
Increase pump speed
Maximum temperature This is normal operation, controller switches pump off once
Pump is not circulating even reached in the tank
maximum temperature is reached to prevent over-heating.
during sunny weather
Possible sensor issue
Contact Apricus Australia
Freeze
protection This is normal, but if the pump is running more than once an hour,
additional insulation on the collector line should be installed.
Why is the pump running at operating
night?
Possible faulty non-return
Contact Apricus Australia
valve
Why is the controller L.E.D.
Possible sensor issue
light flashing red?
Contact Apricus Australia
Ensure gas booster is operational.
Electric or gas booster is
Electric booster should have the thermostat temperature set to at
not configured correctly
least 60°C. Booster must be left on off-peak, or controlled by timer.
Why is the water not hot Household hot
usage too high
enough?
water Contact Apricus Australia for advice. Remember an efficient shower
head uses 9 litres/minute. (10 minute shower = 90ltrs water)
Tempering valve installed
A tempering valve must be installed on every solar hot water
system. Tempering valves will mix water down to 50°C
Tempering valve may need replacing or servicing.
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4. Pre-Installation
4.2 Site Inspection
4.2.1 Collector Location
4.1 System Selection
Proper system selection is crucial to ensure that all the
hot water needs for the home are being met. The system
should be designed to meet 90-100% of the household
needs in summer and 50-60% in winter.
A number of considerations need to be made including:
the number of residents in the house, the time of day
when most hot water will be used, the location of the
customer within Australia and the resources available on
site.
Apricus Australia has designed its systems to meet the
optimal demand required in most residential homes for
domestic hot water requirements. Figures 1 & 2. Show
a sizing guide which can be used as a “Rule of Thumb”
for choosing a system that best meets the needs of the
household.
Warm Regions
STC Zone 1 & 2
Warm Regions
STC Zone 1 & 2
Cold Regions
STC Zone 3 & 4
Cold Regions
STC Zone 3 & 4
Figure 1. Collector sizing guide
160 litres
up to
160 litres
up to
250 litres
up to
250 litres
up to
315 litres
up to
315 litres
up to
400 litres
up to
400 litres
up to
The location of the solar collector is crucial to achieving
optimal system performance. A number of factors need
to be considered when determining the placement of the
collectors on the roof of a building. These are detailed
below:
• Solar collector vicinity to tank: The collector should be
positioned as close as possible to the storage tank to
avoid long pipe runs and minimise heat loss.
• Collector Orientation with respect to the sun: To
ensure optimal heat output the collector should face
the equator, which in Australia and New Zealand
(Southern hemisphere) is due North. A deviation of
up to 15° east or west off due north is acceptable, and
will have minimal affect on heat output.
• Collector Plane: Both sides of the manifold can be used
interchangeably as the inlet and outlet ports. However,
if the manifold is not level horizontally, the higher side
must be used as the outlet since hot water rises.
• Collector Angle: So that the collector achieves
maximum solar exposure, collectors are to be installed
at an angle of the location’s latitude +/- 10°. E.g. Sydney
is at 34° S latitude, therefore the optimal angle for
the collector on the roof would be 24-44° S. In some
installations it may desirable to achieve an install angle
of +10° latitude as this will optimise winter output
since the sun is lower in the sky during Winter. This
can also reduce stagnation effects in summer from
over sizing.
• Shading: Collectors should be located so that shading
does not occur for at least 3 hours either side of 12pm
noon local time. Partial shading due to small objects
such as antennas and small flues are not of great
concern.
4.2.2 Mounting Frame Location
Prior to installation of the mounting frame it is
essential to carry out a site inspection and ensure
that the site is compliant with the conditions
stipulated in section ‘8.2 - Conditional Requirements’.
In the case where conditional requirements are not met,
a certified structural engineer may also be consulted
prior to install to provide professional design work that
will allow for the site to accommodate Apricus certified
mounting frame systems.
Figure 2. Tank sizing guide
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4.2.3 Storage Tank Location
• The storage tank should be located as close as possible
to the most frequent draw off points in the building
such as the bathroom or kitchen. If the storage tank is
located a long way from hot water draw points a hot
water circulation loop on a timer may be considered to
reduce the time-lag for water to heat up and resultant
water wastage.
• The tank should not obstruct any windows, doors
or exits and should cause minimal intrusion to the
existing site.
• For glass-lined tanks, consider the requirement of
anode removal and replacement maintenance.
4.3 Transport and Unpacking
4.3.1 Transport of Components
• When transporting boxes, note the orientation of the
“THIS WAY UP” arrows.
• Ensure all boxes are strapped and secured to prevent
movement during transit.
• All tanks must be transported upright. Stacking is not
recommended for any tanks.
• Products should always be handled with care. Damage
occurred during the transportation is not covered
under product warranty.
4.3.2 Unpacking of Components
• When unpacking, take care to ensure that the
components are not damaged in the process.
• Avoid using sharp blades or knives as this can scratch
the surfaces of the products particularly the evacuated
tubes and tanks.
• For evacuated tubes and heat pipes, tear open both
ends of the box(es) to allow inspection of the vacuum
at the bottom and for the heat pipes to be exposed for
the application of heat transfer paste.
• Do not remove and/or expose the tubes to sunlight
until ready to install, otherwise the heat pipe tip will
become very hot, sufficient to cause serious skin burns.
Note: The outer glass surface will not become hot.
WARNING
NEVER touch the inside of the evacuated tube or heat
pipe tip after exposure to sunlight.
WEAR thick leather gloves if handling the heat pipe.
WEAR safety glasses at ALL times when handling the
glass tubes.
4.4.2 Pump Station Inspection
Every domestic solar hot water system supplied by Apricus
comes with an Apricus Pump Station Kit. The Apricus Pump
Station Kit comes bundled with the essential components
required for installation of a solar hot water system. The
kit comes pre-packaged and can easily be connected to
plumbing.
Pump station components include:
• Check valve
• Pump unions
• Flow meter
• Tempering valve (solar rated)
• Circulation pump
• Controller
• Pump station lid & base
4.4.3 Mounting Frame System
Ensure that all necessary components required for
installation have been received in the packaging. Figure 3
& 4 are diagrammatic guides showing what is included in
a typical mounting frame system. Refer to 8.2.2. Appendix
Table 11, 12a & 12b for number of frame components
required.
4.4 Component Inspection
4.4.1 Evacuated Tubes & Heat Pipes
• Ensure that the evacuated tubes are all intact, the
bottom of each tube should be silver. If a tube has
a white or clear bottom, it has lost its vacuum and
should be replaced. In this case, the heat pipe should
be removed and inserted into the replacement tube.
• The evacuated tubes have rubber tube caps on the
end, these are to protect the bottom tip of the glass
tube from being broken.
• Heat pipes are bright and shiny when newly
manufactured, but will dull and may form dark-grey
surface discoloration over time. This is due to mild
surface oxidation (when exposed to air) and does not
affect the heat pipe’s operation.
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Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
Apricus Flush Mount
This diagram shows our standard AP-30 flush mounted frame suitable for use in all wind regions with: 5 x Tracks and 5
x L-Bracket packs.
4
2
3
1
1
Bottom Track
2
Track
3
Roof Rail
4
L-Bracket Pack
Figure 3. Flush-Mount Frame at 1800 mm spacing with 5 tracks.
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Apricus Tilt Mount
This diagram shows a typical cyclonic wind region C frame with: 5 x Tracks, 5 x L-Bracket packs and 5 x Rear Legs. Most
regions across Australia only require 3 x Rear Legs.
5
6
2
1
4
3
1
Bottom Track
2
Track
3
Roof Rail
4
L-Bracket Pack
5
X-Brace pack
6
Rear Leg
Figure 4. Tilt-Mount Frame at 1800 mm spacing with 5 tracks.
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Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
5. Installation
5.1 Mounting Frame System
Apricus Australia’s solar evacuated tube mounting frame
systems are made of high-grade extruded anodized
aluminium frame 6005-T5.
There are four easy to install mounting options: flush
mounted with roof rail, flush mounted with roof straps,
low angle tilt 30 degrees and high angle tilt 45 degrees.
Our frames are suitable to use in wind regions A, B, C
and D, however these are subject to a set of conditional
requirements. Under this set of conditional requirements
(see section 8.2 Conditional Requirements) these systems
are certified to Australian Standard AS/NZS 1170.2:2011
Structural Design Actions Part 2: Wind Actions. See
section 8.3 Mounting Frame Certification.
Figure 5. Flush mount 1500mm Figure 6. Flush mount 1800mm
Figure 7. Tilt mount 1500mm or 1800mm
3. Slide the bottom track into the bottom attachment
plates and finger tighten all nuts and bolts.
At time of publication, Apricus has applied for Northern
Territory Deemed to Comply status. We have done
extensive physical load testing for this purpose and have
already obtained a Section 40 - Certificate of Compliance
for our flush-mounted frames. See section 8.4 Section 40
- Certificate of Compliance.
Check with local building authority to confirm whether or
not this standard is a regulatory requirement.
Figure 8. Bottom track and attachment plates
5.1.1 Installation Notes
FLUSH MOUNT ONLY
The installer is to provide the fixings for the frame to the
roof, ensure the fixings are applied in accordance with
section 8.2 Conditional Requirements and section 5.1.3
Installation – Roof Fixing Guide. Holes can be easily drilled
into the extruded aluminium components. They are to be
no larger than ø10 mm and not closer than 30mm centre
to centre. Tighten frame bolts with spanners or short
shafted socket wrenches only. DO NOT use power tools
or long shafted tools that may over-torque the bolts (as
stainless steel bolts are susceptible to galling/locking).
Bolt assemblies come with spring washers to maintain
long-term tension.
4. For flush-mount frames attach the second roof rail.
Continue onto Step 8.
Figure 9. Flush mount 1500mm
5.1.2 Installation – Assembly Guide
Apricus Australia’s mounting frame systems come prepackaged to ensure the most streamlined and simple
assembly process. Use the following steps as a guide to
assembly.
1. Lay the first roof rail down horizontally (add L-brackets
if using a 5 track system).
2. Attach all tracks to the L-brackets, finger tighten all
nuts and bolts. Ensure that the track is placed in the
right location based on batten/purlin spacing.
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Figure 10. Flush mount 1800mm
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Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
TILT MOUNT ONLY
5.1.3 Installation - Roof Fixing Guide
5. For tilt-mount frames, lay down the second bottom
track, but attach the L-brackets to the rear legs. Fingertighten nuts and bolts.
To proceed with attaching the mounting frame to the
roof, follow all fixing rules as per section 8.2.2 Installation
Conditions (for certification to apply). All fixings should
be made equidistant from the front track and rear
leg. This will ensure that the wind loads are equally
distributed across the roof rail. Line up the roof rails with
battens accordingly. For tilt-mount systems the batten/
purlin spacing can be increased where the angle of the
tilt decreases.
Figure 11. Rear leg connection
1800.0mm
6. Attach X-braces to the rear legs.
900.0mm
900.0mm
Figure 16. Roof fixing locations 1800mm
Ensure all roof penetrations are water tight. Use the
following examples as a guide for installation for different
roof types:
Figure 12. X-brace connection
7. Attach tri-attachment plates to the track
5.1.4 Tin Roof Installation Example:
For corrugated/tin roofs, place fixings on the peak of the
roofing sheet material to minimize risk of leaks. Fixings
are to be screwed into the batten with minimum 35mm
embedment (for more details see section 8.2.2 Installation
Conditions).
Figure 13. Tilt mount 1500mm Figure 14. Tilt mount 1800mm
8. Slide the manifold into the top attachment plates
35mm
35mm
Figure 17. 35mm embedment into the batten/purlin [rear view]
5.1.5 Tiled Roof Installation Example:
For tiled roofs (where drilling is undesirable) use Apricus
roof straps to attach the frame to the battens/purlins.
Note: systems installed on tiled roofs are not certified
under AS/NZS 1170.2. Roof straps can also be attached to
roof rails by drilling through them.
Figure 15. Manifold connection to frame
9. Using a spanner, tighten all nuts and bolts used for
attachment.
Figure 18. Roof attachment strap example
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5.1.6 Adjusting Tilt Mount Angle:
When installing tilt-mount systems, the mounting frame
can be modified to achieve a reduced tilt angle. This
would be preferable where the optimum tilt angle is not
achievable for the given roof pitch and tilt leg.
To reduce the installation angle of the collectors, the
aluminium legs should be cut to a desired reduced length
and a new hole should be drilled to allow for securing. By
reducing the length of the aluminium tilt leg, the frame
is brought closer to the roof and the tilt angle is reduced.
Note that decreasing the tilt angle will consequently
decrease the wind loading on the system and as such will
not impact the structural integrity of the system.
5.3.2 Flow Meter Settings
AS 4234.2008 Heated Water Systems – Calculation of
energy consumption, Clause 3.7.2 – Low Flow Criteria
stipulates that the maximum flow rate is 0.75 L/min/m2
of collector aperture area. Table 5 shows the maximum
flow rate settings for the various Apricus collectors.
Table 5. Maximum flow rate requirements
Collector Size
Maximum Flow Rate (L/min)
10 Tubes
0.7
20 Tubes
1
22 Tubes
1.5
30 Tubes
2
40 Tubes
2.5
44 Tubes
2.5
5.2 Collector Manifold Connection
Note: Each tube is 0.094 m2 of aperture area
5.2.1 Silver Soldering/Brazing
5.4 Solar Differential Controller
Soldering may be used to connect piping to the collector
header pipe. Only use potable water grade brazing
material. Care should be taken to avoid overheating the
copper pipe and exposing the manifold casing to an open
flame.
5.2.2 Compression Fittings
Apricus collectors come supplied with 20mm flare x
12mm Male Iron (MI) 90° Elbows.
5.2.3 Press Tools
Seek manufacturers advice before using all press tools.
Press tools are not suitable for direct manifold connection,
or connecting multiple collectors together.
5.3 Pump Station
5.3.1 Installation Guide
Use the following steps as a guideline for the installation
of the pump station and connection to piping:
1. Remove the contents from the box.
2. Remove the Pump Station Cover from the base plate.
3. Position base plate on the wall making sure there is a
clearance height of 1 to 1.5 metres on the vertical wall,
either side of the pump.
4. With a spirit level and pen mark screw holes on the
wall for base plate.
5. Drill holes for green plugs.
6. Insert Green plugs into the drilled holes.
7. Fix base plate to wall with the 4 screws and rubber
isolators.
8. Plumb in flow lines to the circulation pump (with a
flow meter and check valve above the pump).
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5.4.1 Controller Settings
The Apricus controller comes with temperature sensors
and power leads already connected. For most installations
there is no need to alter any of the settings.
The controller has 3 sensor cables. The longest cable is for
the roof sensor for the solar collector.
The controller comes pre-set with suitable settings for
most domestic applications:
• Pump On = 8°C (Temperature differential between
tank and roof sensors)
• Pump Off = 1°C (Temperature differential between
tank and roof sensors)
• Top out = 85°C (Maximum tank temperature)
• Frost Protection = 4°C (temperature for when pump is
forced to cycle)
The controller provides a digital display providing the 3
sensor temperatures and also signs when faults occur
within the controller readings. To cycle through the
temperature display readings press the NEXT button, the
current displayed sensor is indicated on the display board
through a flashing icon. Refer to controller manual for
detailed information.
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Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
5.4.2 Temperature Sensors
Apricus solar rated tanks come with two temperature
sensor ports. The bottom port connects to the Sensor 2
(S2), the middle port connects to the Sensor 3 (S3) sensor.
The third temperature sensor port is located on both
sides of the manifold. Sensor 1 (S1) must be connected to
the outlet (the higher side).
Use a thin layer of thermal paste when inserting all sensors.
Ensure insulation covers the opening of the collector
sensor port to prevent water ingress. High temperature
outdoor silicon sealant can be used to prevent water
ingress to the manifold sensor port.
It is highly recommended that conduit be used to
encapsulate the roof sensor and act as another protective
layer as it is prone to physical damage by local fauna and
extreme weather conditions. The sensor cable should
run along the outside of the insulation and secured every
20cm with UV resistant nylon cable ties.
5.5 Insulation
• All insulation needs to be solar-rated. Any insulation
exposed to sunlight must be UV stabilised.
• Insulate all pipe running to and from the manifold with
insulation of at least 15mm thickness, or 25mm in cold
climates.
• Ensure the insulation is tight against the manifold
casing, thus minimising loss of heat from the inlet and
outlet.
• All internal piping as well as external should be
insulated. This includes at least 1m from the hot
water outlet of the tank, as this copper pipe can be a
significant point of passive heat losses.
5.6 System Filling and Air Purge
After all the plumbing connections to the solar collector
have been made, the solar hot water system needs to
be filled with water and the collector loop purged of air.
This should be completed prior to insertion of evacuated
tubes and connection of the tank to the hot water load.
5.7 Evacuated Tubes and Heat Pipes
The Apricus evacuated tube solar collector is a simple
“plug and play” system. See section 4.3.2 Unpacking of
Components for details regarding the unpacking of the
evacuated tubes. Use the following section as a guide to
installing evacuated tubes.
5.7.1 Installation Notes
• The powder content of the heat paste may have settled
during freight and storage. To ensure optimal thermal
conductivity of the paste, place the heat paste tube in
a glass of warm water for several minutes.
• If weather conditions are dusty, take care to ensure
heat paste is not contaminated with impurities, as this
may reduce thermal conductivity and efficiency of the
heat paste.
• If weather conditions are wet, take care to ensure
water does not enter the inside of the evacuated tube.
5.7.2 Installation Guide
1. Open the evacuated tube box on the side with the
heat pipes.
2. Pull the heat pipe out ~10cm and ensure to keep the
rest of the tube shaded.
3. Coat each heat pipe bulb with heat transfer paste, this
can be applied using a piece of foam insulation.
4. Take out the evacuated tube and turn it upside-down
(heat pipe down) before turning it back upright (heat
pipe up). Repeat this several times to disperse the
copper powder within the heat pipes.
5. Guide the heat pipe into the inside of the header port.
Push the heat pipe in full depth.
6. Use a damp cloth, to lubricate the outer surface of the
evacuated tube and the rubber ring in the manifold to
minimize friction during insertion.
7. Insert the evacuated tube using a slight twist and
pushing action.
8. Repeat steps 3-7 for the remainder of the tubes.
9. Using provided tube clips, secure the evacuated tubes
into the bottom track.
10.Wipe down each evacuated tube with a damp cloth to
ensure a polished and clean installation.
To fill the system:
1. Open the cold mains line and fill up the tank.
2. Turn the pump dial to speed 3 and connect it directly
to the electricity mains rather than the controller.
3. Open up a drain on the solar return line.
4. Where an air-relief valve has been installed, air will be
automatically released from the collector loop. This
should be shut once the line is filled.
5. Filling is completed once there is a constant stream of
water exiting from the solar return line drain.
6. Reconnect the pump to the controller.
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5.8 Auxiliary Boosting Components
6. Post Installation
5.8.1 Electric Booster, Thermostat and Element Setup
6.1 Commissioning
WARNING
WARNING: All electrical connections must be completed
by a qualified electrician.
To ensure optimal operation and to maintain the integrity
of Apricus solar hot water systems, commissioning is
an essential process. Ensure that each of the following
processes is carried out prior to leaving the site.
6.1.1 System Operation Check
• The thermostat should be set to 60°C or above as per
AS/NZS 3498.
• To adjust the temperature setting:
»» Disconnect the electrical power supply to the tank
»» Remove the element cover
»» Using a screw driver, rotate the thermostat dial to
the desired temperature.
• Where off-peak periods are unavailable it is advisable
that a timer be installed to heat the system up to 60°C
at least: i) once per week (bottom element tanks), or;
ii) once per day (middle element tanks) to prevent
legionella formation. See section 2.5 Legionella
Control.
Given good sunlight, the evacuated tubes will begin to
produce heat after a 5-10 minute “warm up” period. There
should be an observable increase in the temperature
reading at the roof sensor on the controller.
When there is an 8°C temperature differential between
ROOF and TANK sensors the circulation pump should turn
on.
5.8.2 Gas Booster Setup
Take several photos of the installed product including:
plumbing lines to/from the tank and collector and sensor
port connections. These will serve as an important record
for future servicing or warranty issues.
• All gas boosters come pre-set to heat up to 70°C as per
AS/NZS 3500, see section 2.5 Legionella Control for
more information.
• Installations must be compliant with AS/NZS 5601.
• Larger gas systems require adequate flueing and
ventilation, this should also be done in accordance
with AS/NZS 5601.
• To customize settings please refer to relevant
manufacturer’s installation manual.
After initial completed installation of collector, watch the
operation of the pump and controller for at least 5 ON/
OFF cycles or 15 minutes as the system stabilises. This
process may take longer on overcast or cold conditions.
6.1.2 Photo Records
6.1.3 Installation Record Form
Complete the installation record form that is supplied, This
will ensure that the customer is registered on the Apricus
database and increase the speed with which warranty and
service issues can be dealt with. The installation record
forms can be returned via:
a) Fax a copy to: 02 9475 0092;
b) E-mail a copy to: [email protected];
c) Mail a copy to: Apricus Warranty, PO Box 6109,
Silverwater, NSW, 1811; OR,
d) Installation/record forms can also be submitted
electronically online at: http://www.apricus.com.au/
6.1.4 Rebate Forms
Complete any applicable rebate forms that require an
installers signature prior to leaving the site.
6.2 Maintenance
Under normal conditions the solar collector is maintenance
free. Please refer to the documentation provided by the
manufacturer of other components for maintenance
guidelines.
Maintenance and servicing should only be completed by
a certified plumber, with experience in solar hot water
systems.
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6.2.1 Damaged Tubes
WARNING
WARNING: When replacing damaged tubes follow all
relevant OH&S policies. Protective clothing is to be
worn at all time.
WEAR thick leather gloves if handling the heat pipe.
WEAR safety glasses at ALL times when handling the
glass tubes.
• If a tube is broken it should be replaced as soon as
possible to maintain maximum collector performance.
However, the system will continue to operate safely
even with a damaged tube.
• Any broken glass should be cleared away to prevent
injury.
• To replace a tube:
1. Remove the tube clip, slide broken tube out and
carefully pick up any glass pieces and dispose of
appropriately.
2. Avoid touching the glass wool insulation inside the
manifold with bare hands, as it can cause mild skin
irritation.
3. If the heat pipe is not damaged, it can be left in
place and a new evacuated tube inserted, guiding
the heat pipe down the groove between the
evacuated tube inner wall and heat transfer fin.
6.2.3 Draining the System
Draining of the collector may be required when servicing
or performing maintenance on the system. Periodic
flushing of the system is not required unless in areas with
hard water resulting in scale formation in the bottom of
the tank.
WARNING
WARNING: Allowing the collector to sit pressured with
the isolation valves closed may lead to dangerously high
pressure.
b) Open an air vent or drain cock, on the manifold
outlet to allow air to enter the system.
c) Allow the manifold to sit in a vented state for
5-10min to allow the manifold to boil dry (may
need longer in poor weather).
d) Close the air vent or drain cock.
4. Re-fill the system by following the same procedure
outlined in section 5.6 System Filling and Air Purge.
6.2.4 Over Pressure Protection Maintenance
The lever on the PTRV should be carefully lifted and
placed down once every 6 months, this will help prevent
any debris or scale build up in the valve. Ensure the drain
pipe from the PTRV is clear.
This should be similarly done for the expansion control
valve on the cold mains line (if there is one installed).
6.2.5 Magnesium Anode Replacement
Glass-lined storage tanks have a magnesium anode
inserted into the tank. This anode prevents internal
corrosion that will otherwise drastically shorten storage
tank life. Apricus recommend the anode be inspected at
least every three (3) years, and serviced as required.
Follow the steps below to drain the collector:
1. Turn off the mains water supply to the solar storage
tank.
2. If the storage tank is being drained,
a) Disconnect all power supply to water heater (for
electric boosted tanks).
b) Release pressure in the tank by carefully operating
the PTRV release lever.
c) Undo the cold inlet and attach a drain hose.
d) Operate the PTRV release lever allowing air into the
heater and water to drain via the hose.
3. If the storage tank is not being drained,
a) Isolate piping to and from the solar collector and
immediately undo fittings to open drain lines.
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Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
7. Custom System Design Guidelines
7.1 Introduction
This chapter is intended as a guide to assist in designing
commercial or custom-sized solar thermal systems using
Apricus collectors. In conjunction with this guide, Apricus
Australia offers a free service, whereby the system can
be sized and designed by a group of trained engineers to
ensure that the system best meets the application. If you
are interested in taking up this free service please contact
your local Apricus agent or email [email protected]
com.au.
7.1.1 Associated Work
All designs and installations created using this guide or
by Apricus Australia, must be verified by a professional
installer or hydraulic consultant, prior to installation. All
installations must be within accordance to AS/NZS 3500
– National Plumbing and Drainage Code and any local
authorities. A licensed plumber must be contracted to
install and commission the system. An electrician may be
required for the installation of the GPO box for electrical
components of the system (e.g. circulation pump and
differential temperature controller).
Apricus Australia advises that all assumptions are correct
at date of release. Derived values are conservative
approximations based on a combination of provided
data and field experience. Information presented in this
manual shall not be misused or misconstrued in any way.
7.2 Calculating Load
7.2.1 Calculating Water Usage
In most cases the hot water requirements for a building are
given in fixture counts or peak demand. These numbers
are not always the most accurate for sizing solar thermal
systems. In order to properly size a system, an analysis of
the actual or estimated hot water usage is required.
Method A (Metering): If the building already exists
and is occupied, it is recommended that the system be
metered during normal operation to accurately gauge the
hot water usage of the building. Data obtained through
metering should include daily volume usage and peak
flow rate or energy demand.
efficiency. When estimating the efficiency, take into
account any losses from recirculation and subtract from
the usage. The resulting number can be divided by the
number of days in the month to achieve a daily energy
requirement.
Method C (Estimation): If methods A or B are not
applicable, or feasible, an estimation of the amount of hot
water consumption will need to be made. There are many
published water heating standards or guidelines that can
be used to estimate consumption values, such as ASHRAE
(American Society of Heating and Air-Conditioning
Engineers). Table 6 shows field data of water usage values
for a range of applications.
Table 6. Field data for water usage for various applications
Building Use
Water Usage*
Apartment Block
130-160 L/Unit
Nursing Home
70 L/Bed
Hotel
57 L/unit
Dormitory
49 L/Student
Restaurants
6 L/Meal
Note: Figures normalised for 60°C outlet temperature, data
obtained from ASHRAE.
7.2.2 Calculating Energy Requirements
The equations below detail how to calculate the energy
requirement using Method C Estimation as discussed in
section 7.2.1
In order to calculate the energy required, calculate the
differential temperature in the summer:
Differential Temperature (°C)
= Desired Temperature (°C)
- Minimum summer temperature (°C)
The daily energy requirement can then be calculated:
Daily Energy Requirement (kJ)
= Volume of water used daily (kg) × 4.18 (kJ/kg°C)
× differential temperature (°C)
This calculation will change if water is not the chosen
medium for the system design.
Method B (Utility Bill): It may be possible to use past
utility bills to estimate the usage. If the hot water is on
its own meter, multiply the summer energy consumption
required to heat the water by the estimated system
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7.3 System Sizing
specific factors. For more detail please refer to section 8
- Appendix.
7.3.1 Collector Size Requirement
Using summer time values of daily energy requirement
as determined in Section 7.2.2, the number of collectors
required can be determined. Summer time values have
been selected to ensure that the size of the solar thermal
system will meet the majority of the hot water demands
during the summer period (this is approximately 90-95%
solar contribution), and ensure that overheating will not
be a problem.
7.3.3 Storage Tank Sizing
Number of AP30 collectors
=Daily Energy Requirement (kJ)×3600(kWh/kJ)/11kWh
To calculate the storage tank energy capacity, follow the
equation below:
7.3.2 Roof Space and Collector Shading
Tank Volume (kg)
=(Energy Capacity (kJ)
⁄ [(Max Storage Temperature
- Summer Water Temperature) (°C)
× 4.18 (kJ/kg°C)]
When designing commercial solar thermal systems,
it is very common for the roof space to be the limiting
factor that determines the number of collectors that can
be placed on the roof. If this is the case, it is necessary
to determine the available area for the solar thermal
collectors and calculate the number of collectors that can
fit within the design envelope.
The roof space and dimensions required for a single AP-30
at common install angles are listed below in Table 7.
Table 7. Roof Coverage of a single AP-30 Collector
Pitch (°)
Roof
Batten
Spacing
1500mm 0
30
45
1800mm 0
28
43
Width
(mm)
2240
2240
Depth
(mm)
2025
1753
1431
2025
1787
1480
Total roof
Coverage
(m2)
4.54
3.92
3.2
4.54
4
3.31
Shading is another factor that needs to be taken into
account for tilted collectors, as it is possible that banks of
collectors can shade each other. Shading can add 41.8m2
to the roof surface area that the collector occupies.
As a result, spacing between banks of collectors needs
to be considered, especially when installing frames at
tilts. This can result in significant shading during winter
and performance loss if not assessed properly. Contact
[email protected] for advice on complex array
installations.
The storage tank sizing is directly related to the load
profile of the building. Section 7.2.1 details methods of
determining the load profile for a site.
The storage tank acts as a thermal battery and should be
sized to provide, as a minimum enough energy capacity to
match the summer time production of the system.
Storage tank sizing can only be lowered if there is extreme
confidence in the load profile and a careful analysis has
been undertaken.
The storage tanks should be sized to hold the energy
from the solar array without any load. For example,
buildings that are not used during the weekend require a
storage tank size that is two to three times larger than an
equivalent building using hot water seven days a week.
7.3.4 Pipe Material
collector loop can get very hot and therefore the
recommended material choice for pipes are copper (hard
or soft coiled) or corrugated, flexible stainless steel pipe.
7.3.5 Pipe Size
a) Pipe Selection: When selecting the size of the pipe
for the solar loop or any plumbing, there are two main
concerns; flow rate and pressure drop.
These two factors are closely related; a higher pressure
drop will reduce the flow rate. Pressure drop is increased
with a smaller diameter pipe, as well as the presence of
bends, elbows and other components that will restrict
the flow. Corrugated pipes will also increase the pressure
drop.
b) Pipe Diameter: See Table 8 for basic pipe sizing (based
on type L copper):
Systems that require certification to cyclonic standards
should also take into account edge zones and other site
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Table 8. Recommended Pipe Sizing for Number of Tubes
Number of Tubes
10-20
30-90
90-240
240-750
750-1700
Pipe Size (inches)
½”
¾”
1”
1.5”
2”
Pipe Size (mm)
12.7
19.05
25.4
38.1
50.8
c) Temperature Rise: Table 9 provides estimated
temperature rise at various flow rates:
Table 9. Approximate Temperature rise given flow rate and
Solar irradiation
Flow Rate per 30 Temp Rise (◦C)
Tubes (L/min)
@ 0.47 kWh/m2
(Clear Winter’s
Day)
0.75
16.4
1.5
8.2
2.3
5.5
3
4.1
3.8
3.3
Temp Rise @ 1.0
kWh/m2 (Clear
Summer’s Day)
35
17.5
11.7
8.7
7
7.4 System Type
The system type (direct, closed, drainback) is directly
related to the building function and usage. Typical
usage patterns are listed below along with design
considerations. When all types of systems are acceptable
for the application, freeze protection methods must still
be taken into consideration.
7.4.1 Closed loop
In a closed loop system, the heat transfer fluid is pumped
through the collectors and a heat exchanger is used to
transfer heat from the collector loop to the water in the
tank. Closed loop systems are used in areas where freezing
conditions are common and the transfer fluid in the
manifold is generally glycol or an antifreeze fluid. These
systems are more expensive to construct and install, and
require maintenance.
7.4.2 Open Loop or Direct Flow
Open loop active systems circulate water directly from
the tank, through the collectors. This design is efficient
and lowers operating costs, but is not appropriate if the
water supply is hard, as deposits of calcium will quickly
build up in the bottom header of the collector. Open loop
systems have limited freeze protection usually achieved
through controller functions; by running the pump and
forcing warm water from the tank to the collector, when
the collector temperature approaches zero.
Page 23 of 49
7.4.3 Drainback
Drainback systems use water as the heat transfer fluid
in the collector loop. The water drains by gravity back to
the storage tank or an auxiliary (header) tank when the
circulation pump stops, thus preventing overheating and
freezing. This system provides a high level of protection
as it does not rely on valves or controllers that could fail
under adverse freezing conditions. The disadvantage of
the system is that it requires a pump with a high static
lift to fill the collector when the system starts up, it is
also important that all plumbing slopes, ensuring that the
collector is at the top and the tank at the bottom, u-bends
are strictly not allowed.
7.4.4 Constant Use, 7 Days a Week
Example: Industrial applications
In applications where the usage is constant throughout
the day any of the three system types can be utilized.
Since the load is constant and usually known, minimal
storage is required as all the energy will be used as soon
as it enters the system. The booster will need to be sized
to be able to maintain this constant draw off.
7.4.5 Constant Use, 5 Days a Week
Example: Manufacturing facility
In this type of application there is a large constant load
during the week, however the weekend load may be
minimal. Hence although all the energy produced by
solar is used during the week, it is advisable to install the
largest amount of storage possible. The ideal scenario is
to size the tanks such, that stagnation, and thus energy
waste is minimized. Where sufficient storage is available
any of the three configurations are suitable.
If enough storage isn’t installed it is advisable to use either
a drainback system to minimize the impact of stagnation,
or a closed loop system with a heat dump mechanism or
separate energy application. Alternatively, the number
of collectors can be scaled down to meet the amount of
storage feasible.
7.4.6 Daily Peaks, 7 Days a Week
Example: Apartment Building, Brewery, Dairy Farm
Applications where water usage peaks at points during
the day require standard storage capacity. Ideally
enough energy can be stored to offset the daily energy
requirement. If the system is sized to contribute a small
amount (<50%) the amount of storage can be reduced to
150-200 litres per AP-30 and any type of system can be
used.
If a high solar contribution is required it is recommended
that larger storage be used or that a drainback design is
employed.
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7.4.7 Constant Use, with Extended Periods of NonUse
Example: School, Colleges
Since many learning facilities have extended holiday
periods a drainback system is the best choice. Storage can
be minimized since the collectors will not be in operation
during the summer months. During this period, collectors
should be covered to prevent extended periods of dry
stagnation as this may damage the collectors. Collector
fields for schools are often oversized to provide more
contribution in the shoulder months.
If the facilities are opened year round, follow Section
7.3.1. If the facilities are opened year round and a pool
exists, it can be used as a form of heat dump over the
weekend.
7.5 System Design and Configuration
7.5.1 Multiple Collector Connection
a) Connecting Collectors in Series: It is highly recommended
that the flow rate through any Apricus collector should
not exceed 18L/min. If the ideal flow rate is designed
using this value in mind it results in a maximum of 150
tubes in series. This is for four main reasons:
• Excessive high flow rates can scrub the walls of the
copper header wearing it away.
• High flow rates greatly increase the pressure drop,
requiring a much larger circulation pump, and
consuming more power.
• The peak 30 tube collector output is about 1.9kW,
therefore the maximum temperature rise per pass
through the collectors will be 8.6°C at the ideal flow
rate specified above. A faster flow rate provides no
major benefit and may result in the pump dropping
below the pump cycling on and off due to controller
settings.
• Thermal expansion of more collectors in series could
cause buckling of the copper header during periods of
stagnation.
WARNING
WARNING: If any solar collectors are isolated, a drain
valve located between the two points of isolation must
immediately be opened, otherwise a rapid pressure
build up may occur potentially resulting in component
rupture releasing superheated water or steam.
7.5.2 Balanced Flow
When connecting multiple banks of collectors in parallel,
the flow rate through each bank must be equal. Failure to
ensure equal flow will result in some collectors running
“cold” due to higher flow rate while others will run hot,
due to the lower flow rates. This will mean that the cold
collectors will cool the hot collectors down when the
water returns to the same pipe, reducing the overall
effectiveness of the solar heating. This is not an issue for
a single bank of 150 tubes connected in series (5 x AP-30).
There are two main methods of achieving balanced flow;
reverse return and flow setters.
a) Reverse Return: To ensure balanced flow through the
collectors, piping configuration can be used following a
method of “first in - last out” as illustrated in Figure 19.
This method is less precise flow balancing, as well as
increased cost and heat loss due to extra piping.
Figure 19. Collector Piping Arrangement - Reverse Return
b) Isolation and drain valves: Each bank of collectors (up
to five in series) should have an isolation valve at each
end and a drain valve. If the collector bank needs to be
isolated for maintenance work, the drain valve must
immediately be opened to avoid dangerous pressure and
temperature build up.
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b) Flow Setters: This is a more precise method of balancing
flow. Each bank is measured and directly adjusted, see
Figure 20. It is generally more cost effective than reverse
return as it eliminates pipe run length and associated
increased cost and heat loss. Although involves extra
componentry.
Figure 22. Parallel tank piping - in reverse setup
Please contact [email protected] for advice
on complex tank priority control.
Figure 20. Collector Piping Arrangement - Reverse Return
7.5.3 Multiple Tank Piping
a) Parallel Tank Piping: To allow balanced flow through
multiple parallel tanks, the reverse return, or “first in - last
out” theory can also be used for tank piping, as evident in
Figure 21. The design allows the multiple tanks to act as
a single large tank. It means the stratification will be the
same through all tanks.
7.6 Design Considerations
7.6.1 Stagnation
Stagnation is a term used to describe the scenario where
the collectors are producing energy while the circulation
pump is turned off. This can occur in a number of
circumstances:
• During a power outage when the electricity is out.
• During servicing when the controller and pump are
shut down.
• When the water store has reached maximum
temperature and the controller does not allow the
pump to turn on.
In both direct and closed loop systems, stagnation results in
excessive heat energy being transferred to the fluid inside
the collectors. When this occurs, the temperature and
pressure of the system will increase. In a flooded system,
the collectors and plumbing in close proximity may reach
temperatures of up to 170°C. Therefore components
which are exposed to such high temperatures, such as
valves, piping or insulation, should be suitably rated.
Figure 21. Parallel tank piping - in reverse setup
b) Prioritisation Tank Piping: Prioritisaton pipe design has
an ordering system that forces the first tank in the line to
be heated fully before the next tank in the line, through
controller logic, see Figure 22. This process keeps working
down the chain of tanks until all are full of the set point
temperature. This method would be used in constant
load applications where it is more important to reduce
inefficient auxiliary heating/high energy costs rather than
consider solar efficiency. Tanks in this setup will run hotter
and have a potential for increased heat loss. All tanks and
piping must be well insulated to minimise heat loss.
Page 25 of 49
The system designs listed in the ‘CER’ Register must
meet the No-Load system requirements detailed in AS/
NZS 2712:2007. This means that they will not dump large
volumes of water from the PTRV and do not require an
auto air-vent.
Under stagnation conditions, when water is turned on,
condensation pressure shocks may occur in the tank.
This is often associated with a loud, rumbling noise in the
tank. This occurs, when high pressure, high temperature
steam in the solar return, experiences a rapid pressure
and temperature decrease as it enters the tank meeting
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mains pressure water. This results in rapid condensation,
where the surrounding fluid collapses on itself or tank
chamber walls.
Although the tank will not be damaged by the such pressure
shocks, if the noise becomes an issue an expansion tank
can be fitted on the mains line after the non-return check
valve to prevent the high pressures being met. See section
7.7.2 Expansion Tank for more information.
7.6.2 Excessive System Pressure and Temperature
Control
Many solar thermal applications face a fundamental
supply and demand mismatch. I.e. when it is hottest in
the year, solar produces the most, but required load is
smaller. By contrast, when it is the coldest in the year,
solar produces the least but the load is often greater. This
means that in some applications such as pool heating
and under-floor hydronic heating, the system needs to
be oversized for summer. This can result in prolonged
periods of stagnation.
Steamback is a passive method of controlling system
stagnation. The mechanism of steamback is described in
four parts:
• Part 1 – Expansion of fluid. The fluid expands as it is
heated.
• Part 2 – Pushing liquid out of the collector. As the
boiling point is approached, fluid begins to turn to
steam (evaporates). Because steam occupies a much
larger volume then liquid, it pushes liquid out of the
collector.
• Part 3 – Emptying of the collector by boiling. The
residual fluid from part 2, continues to evaporate and
form steam. Eventually there is little to no liquid and
the collector reaches a state similar to dry stagnation.
• Part 4 – Refilling of the collector, when solar irradiation
falls, the collector temperature drops causing steam to
condensate. This acts as a vacuum and leads to passive
refilling of the collector.
To enable effective steamback design:
1. System pressure should be set at 1.5-2.5 bar (lower
boiling point of water).
2. Oversize expansion tank to include volume for
expansion of water and also all the volume in the
collectors.
3. Check valve must be placed before the expansion tank
so as not to prevent emptying of the collector from the
flow side, see figure 23.
Page 26 of 49
Figure 23. Check valve location in steam back system
7.6.3 Freeze Protection
In areas that experience freezing conditions at any time
of the year, a method of freeze protection must be
considered.
a. For areas with temperature that does not fall below
-5°C, simple low temperature controller based freeze
protection may be used. That is, the pump circulates
if the manifold temperature approaches freezing.
If possible, backup protection in the form of an
uninterrupted power supply (UPS) or a power outage
drain valve should also be installed. A power outage
drain valve installed on the return line (back from the
collector to tank) opens to allow water to slowly run
through the collector if the power supply is cut. A
check valve between the tank and drain valve must
be installed, to ensure flow is through the collector.
b. For areas with temperatures below -5°C, a closed loop
filled with freeze resistant heat transfer fluid should be
used. The installer would need to refer to the specific
heat transfer manufacturer’s specifications about the
temperature ranges that the fluid can withstand. The
pH and freeze fluid level of the fluid should be tested
every year before cold weather occurs. Always follow
the manufacturer’s guidelines when testing the
pH and freeze protection of the heat transfer fluid.
c. Drainback systems are permissible in all climates, but
recommended as an option for freeze prone areas.
Refer to Section 7.4.3 Drainback for more details.
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7.7 Additional Components
Figure 24. Expansion tank operation
7.7.1 Thermostatic Mixing Valve
As temperature increases, the fluid expands and pressure
increases. Since a gas can be compressed and a fluid can
not, the bladder pushes into the gas chamber (see figure
25).
Thermostatic Mixing Valve (TMV): The TMV is similar to
a tempering valve, as it blends hot and cold water to a
set temperature required at the outlet. TMVs continually
maintain the outlet water temperature to a preset value,
further preventing scalding. It allows water to be stored at
a higher temperature, and further not inhibit the growth
of legionella bacteria.
7.7.2 Expansion Tank
Expansion tanks allow the system to breath and control
pressure fluctuations. The tank is designed to absorb
any extra pressure within a system caused by water
expansion from stagnation and water hammer. The tank
itself contains air, which is somewhat compressible; it is
this characteristic that will absorb the shock from water
pressure.
When heat energy is added to a fluid it’s molecules
will vibrate with greater energy. This results in the fluid
expanding. In a closed environment the volume is fixed,
hence as expansion increases, this leads to the pressure of
the system and boiling point of water rising. In domestic
systems an expansion control valve fitted on the cold
mains line (fitted in between the non-return valve and
tank) may be enough to mitigate the effects of expansion
and pressure increase.
Figure 25. Pressure tank working as water is heated
By pushing on the bladder, the volume of the fluid
increases, and thus pressure in the hydraulic system is
decreased. Conversely, the gas chamber decreases in
volume and thus pressure is increased (see figure 26).
For larger direct flow systems and closed loop systems, an
expansion tank needs to be used to absorb the pressure
caused by the expansion of water.
An expansion tank contains a bladder, this separates the
gas chamber from the fluid (see figure 24). When the
system is commissioned the fill pressure of the expansion
tank is set to the desired system pressure. Proper sizing of
the expansion tank is important to take the full expanded
volume of the fluid in the hydraulic system.
Figure 26. Pressure tank working as water is heated
If the expansion tank is undersized, when the tank’s
maximum pressure intake capacity is met, the hydraulic
system will continue to increase in pressure which will
eventually lead to the PTRV opening.
Table 10 shows how the expansion is greater at higher
temperatures
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Table 10. Expansion coefficient of water at various temperatures
Temperature of Water
(°C)
4
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Expansion Coefficient
(10-6 K-1)
0
88
207
303
385
457
522
582
640
695
7.7.4 Adjustable Pressure Reducing Valve
Pressure reducing valves (PRV) should be used connected
on the mains-line after the ball valve and before a nonreturn duo valve. They will automatically fill the closed
solar loop back to the set pressure if air is released from
the expansion control valve.
A pressure gauge should be installed on the PRV to provide
a clear indication of line pressure upstream of the valve.
During commissioning, a flat head screw can be used to
adjust the pressure setting on the PRV.
Figure 27. Pressure tank working as water is heated
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8. Appendix
8.1 Apricus System Schematics
8.1.1 Apricus Electric Boosted Solar Hot Water System
Apricus Australia - Solar Hot Water System with Electric Boost
1
Key
Cold Mains Inlet
Hot Outlet
Tempered Hot Water
Solar Return Line
Solar Flow Line
Drain Line
Sensor Cables
5
4
3
7
6
IMPORTANT
This schematic is designed as a guide only.
Images shown are not to scale.
No
COMPONENT NAME
1
Apricus Solar Evacuated Tube Collector (10/20/22/30 Tubes)
2
3
4
Apricus Storage Tank (Stainless Steel or Glass-Lined)
5
Pressure Temperature Relief Valve
6
Electric Element and Thermostat (Bot or Mid Element)
7
Page 29 of 49
Apricus Pump Station Kit
(includes tempering valve, flow meter, check valve, circulation pump, controller)
Apricus Valve Kit (Optional Extra)
(includes duo valve, pressure limiting valve, 4-way cross, expansion control valve)
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8.1.2 Apricus Gas Boosted Solar Hot Water System
Apricus Australia - Solar Hot Water System with Gas Boost
1
Key
Cold Mains Inlet
Hot Outlet
Tempered Hot Water
Solar Return Line
Solar Flow Line
Drain Line
Sensor Cables
Gas Mains Inlet
6
5
4
3
7
IMPORTANT
This schematic is designed as a guide only.
Images shown are not to scale.
No
COMPONENT NAME
1
Apricus Solar Evacuated Tube Collector (10/20/22/30 Tubes)
2
(includes tempering valve, flow meter, check valve, circulation pump, controller)
4
Apricus Storage Tank (Stainless Steel or Glass-Lined)
5
Pressure Temperature Relief Valve
6
In-Line Gas Booster (NG/LPG)
7
Page 30 of 49
Apricus Pump Station Kit
3
Apricus Valve Kit (Optional Extra)
(includes duo valve, pressure limiting valve, 4-way cross, expansion control valve)
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8.2 Conditional Requirements
8.2.1 Wind Loading Conditions
The localised wind loading conditions can differ depending on a number of factors. These factors can vary greatly
depending on location. What may be correct in one street or suburb, may be different in the next. The Wind loading
parameters include: wind region, topography and terrain category. Figure 28 illustrates how Australia has been
categorized. For more information on how to classify wind-loading parameters see AS/NZS 1170.2 – Wind Actions or
consult a local structural engineer.
location classification
Non-cyclonic
C lassification
C yclonic C lassification
Figure 28. Wind Region Map of Australia
Source: STEGBAR Architectural Design Manual Section 3, Version 2 (Issued March 2009)
Wind Gust Speed: The Apricus mounting frame is certified to different wind speeds and this is determined by
the region it is located in. The regional wind speeds are shown below:
• Region A (Non-Cyclonic): 162 km/h.
• Region B (Non-Cyclonic): 205 km/h.
• Region C (Cyclonic): 249km/h.
• Region D (Cyclonic): 316km/h.
Terrain Category: 2, 3 and 4. Terrain Category 2 (TC2) is characterized as an open terrain with only a few
scattered obstructions to wind. Calculations of wind load have assumed TC2.
Topography: Flat topography. This means that the intended install site can not be located on a hill or escarpment unless subjected to prior additional engineering approval.
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8.2.2 Installation Conditions
For mounting frame certification to apply, the following installation conditions must be met.
Batten/Purlin1 Spacing: 600, 900, 1500 or 1800mm.
Batten/Purlin Screws:
• Timber Battens/Purlins: 14G Ø6.3mm timber screw, with minimum 35 mm embedment into battens. Minimum
joint group J4.
• Steel Battens/Purlins: 14G Ø6.3mm tek screw. Minimum steel thickness 0.75 mm, Grade G550.
• There is an even number of screws per roof rail, so fixing points should be equidistant from the roof rail. E.g. A tiltmounted AP-30 system in Region C will require, 20 screws for the rear roof rail. Since there are 5 rear legs, this is
4 screws per rear leg. The screws should installed at 60 mm at 120 mm away from the rear leg and on each side.
• Table 11, 12a and 12b show the number of screws required per track for a flush-mounted and a tilt-mounted system
respectively.
Maximum height of install: 10 m above ground.
Flush Mount: roof pitch needs to be 20-45° to the horizontal.
• Existing Roof Check: the structural adequacy of supporting roof members must be confirmed by a practicing
structural engineer prior to installation, unless a roof rail is used for every batten location.
Tilt Mount: roof pitch needs to be 0-10° to the horizontal.
• Region A and B: Maximum tilt angle 45° to the horizontal.
• Region C: Maximum tilt angle 30° to the horizontal.
• Existing Roof Check: a practicing structural engineer prior to all installations must confirm the structural adequacy
of supporting roof members.
Edge Exclusion Zones – As per AS/NZS 1170.2:2011, the flush mounted and tilt-mounted frame systems need
to be installed within the internal roof zone. The edge exclusion zones is calculated from the minimum of
0.2x’D’ (width of the building), 0.2x’B’ (length of the building) and ‘H’ (average height of the building).
Figure 29. Edge exclusion zone
1
Battens and purlins are the same components and are usually located horizontal, or perpendicular to the roof pitch. This differs from rafters which
are situated parallel to the roof pitch.
Page 32 of 49
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
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Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
Table 11. Screw Fixing and Frame Configurations for Flush Mounted Systems
Number of Screw Fixings Required for the Front and Rear Roof Rail
Wind Region
Wind Region A
Wind Region B
Wind Region C
Wind Region D
Number
of Front
Track
Number
of Front
Track
Number
of Front
Track
Number
of Front
Track
No of Fixings per Roof
Rail
Timber S t e e l
Batten
Batten
Total Fixings per Roof
Rail
Timber S t e e l
Batten
Batten
No of Fixings per Roof
Rail
Timber S t e e l
Batten
Batten
No of Fixings per Roof
Rail
Timber S t e e l
Batten
Batten
30 Tubes
3
6
6
3
6
6
5
10
20
5
10
20
22 Tubes
3
6
6
3
6
6
3
6
20
5
10
20
20 Tubes
3
6
6
3
6
6
3
6
20
5
10
20
10 Tubes
2
4
4
2
4
4
2
4
4
3
10
12
Table 12a. Screw Fixing and Frame Configurations for Front Roof Rail on Tilt Mounted Systems
Number of Screw Fixings Required for the Front Roof Rail
Wind Region
Wind Region A
Wind Region B
Wind Region C
Wind Region D
N u m b e r No of Fixings for Front
of Front Roof Rail
Track
Timber S t e e l
Batten
Batten
N u m b e r No of Fixings for Front
of Front Roof Rail
Track
Timber S t e e l
Batten
Batten
N u m b e r No of Fixings for Front
of Front Roof Rail
Track
Timber S t e e l
Batten
Batten
30 Tubes
3
6
6
5
10
10
5
10
10
22 Tubes
3
6
6
3
6
6
5
10
10
20 Tubes
3
6
6
3
6
6
5
10
10
10 Tubes
2
4
4
2
4
4
3
6
6
Tilt mount frames cannot be
installed in wind region D.
Table 12b. Screw Fixing and Frame Configurations for Rear Roof Rail on Tilt Mounted Systems
Number of Screw Fixings Required for the Rear Roof Rail
Wind Region
Wind Region A
Wind Region B
Wind Region C
N u m b e r No of Fixings for Rear N u m b e r
of Front Roof Rail
of Front
Track
Track
Timber S t e e l
Batten
Batten
No of Fixings for Rear
Roof Rail
Timber
Batten
S t e e l
Batten
30 Tubes
3
12
12
5
20
22 Tubes
3
6
12
3
12
20 Tubes
3
6
12
3
10 Tubes
2
4
4
2
Max. Pitch
45 degrees
Page 33 of 49
Wind Region D
Number
of Front
Track
No of Fixings for Rear
Roof Rail
Timber
Batten
S t e e l
Batten
20
5
20
40
12
5
20
40
12
12
5
20
30
4
4
3
6
18
45 degrees
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
Tilt mount frames cannot be
installed in wind region D.
30 degrees
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
8.3 Mounting Frame Certification

November 18th 2011
Apricus Australia
PO Box 6109
Silverwater NSW 1811
Attention: Mr Christopher Nheu
STRUCTURAL DESIGN CERTIFICATE
Project Description: Certification of Aluminium Mounting Frames and
Fixing Requirements for Apricus Australia for
30/22/20/10 Tube Manifolds
We, Partridge Partners Pty Limited, being professional Structural Engineers within the meaning of
the Building Code of Australia, hereby certify that we have reviewed the structural design of the
aluminium framing and fixing specifications for the Apricus Aluminium Mounting Frames for
30/22/20/10 evacuated tube manifolds as detailed in the Apricus Australia document
“Aluminium Frame Certification Requirements” and that the design is in accordance with the
relevant provisions of the Standard Building Codes, in particular AS/NZS1170.2:2011, and in
accordance with accepted engineering practice and principles.
Certified Document:
AA-8.3.8.1-Al Frame Cert.-v1.2 Issue 1.1
“Aluminium Frame Certification Requirements” dated 12.11.12
by Apricus Australia
This certification is subject to the limitations imposed on the system by the manufacturer and as
detailed in the Certification Requirements. This document does not constitute structural
certification of the existing roof structure to which the mounting system is to be fixed.
This certificate shall not be construed as relieving the system manufacturer or installer of their
responsibilities, liabilities or contractual obligations

Rob O’Reilly
BE(Hons) MIEAust CPEng NPER(Structural) RPEQ
For and on behalf of:
Partridge Structural Pty Ltd
J2011-0222.007
Page 34 of 49
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
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8.4 Section 40 - Certificate of Compliance
Page 35 of 49
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
E-mail: [email protected] for associated data sheets.
Page 36 of 49
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
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Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
8.5 Mounting Frame Configurations
8.5.1 10 Tube Flush Mount
A
1800
1500
2025
B
595
945
B
A
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Page 37 of 49
Table 13. 10 Tube Flush Mount Components
Qty(10 Tube,2 leg)
Name
Qty (10 Tube - 2 Track)
10 Roof Rail
2
10 RoofAL-L-Bracket
Rail
2 8
Top
Attachment Plate
AL-L
Bracket
8 4
AL-Front Track
2
Top Attachment
Plate
4 10
Clip Fastener
AL-Front Track
2 10
Tube Clip
AL-Bottom
Track
Clip Fastener
10 1
4
Bottom Attachment Plate
Frame Component
Tube Clip
10
AL-Bottom Track
1
Bottom Attachment Plate
4
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
8.5.2 10 Tube Tilt Mount
HI LEG POSITION
B
LO LEG POSITION
θ
REAR LEG (LO = 844mm, HI = 1344mm)
20
25
A
SPACING (1500mm or 1800mm)
A
B
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Page 38 of 49
�=30°
Table 14. 10 Tube Tilt Mount Components
Name
10Component
Roof Rail
Frame
AL-L-Bracket
10 Roof
Rail Leg
30°Rear
45°Rear Leg
AL-L Bracket
AL-Rear X Brace
Topor
Attachment
Plate
30°
45° Rear Leg
AL-Tri-Plate
AL-Rear
X Brace
AL-Front
Track
AL-Bottom Track
Top Attachment
Clip FastenerPlate
Tube Clip
AL Tri-Plate
Bottom Attachment Plate
AL-Front Track
�=45°
Qty (10 Tube,2 leg)
Qty(10 Tube,2 leg)
2 Tube - 2 Track)
2
Qty (10
8
8
2
2
2
8
2
2
4
4
2
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
4
10
10
10
10
4
4
4
2
AL-Bottom Track
1
Clip Fastener
10
Tube Clip
10
Bottom Attachment Plate
4
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
8.5.3 20/22 Tube Flush Mount
297.5
A
1800
1500
2025
B
297.5
595
595
1540
B
A
Table 15. 20/22 Tube Flush Mount Components
Frame Component
No.
20/22 Roof Rail
AL-L Bracket
Top Attachment Plate
AL-Front Track
Clip Fastener
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
QTY(20 Tube,3
QTY(22 -Tube,3
Leg)
Name
Qty (20
Tube - 3 Track)
QtyLeg)
(22 Tube
3 Track)
20/22 Roof Rail
AL-L Bracket
Top Attachment Plate
AL-Front Track
Clip Fastener
Tube Clip
AL-Bottom Track
AL-Bottom Track
Bottom Attachment Plate
2
12
6
3
20
2
12
6
3
20
20
1
/
6
2
12
6
3
22
2
12
6
3
22
22
/
1
6
Tube,5 Leg)
Qty (20 Tube -QTY(22
5 Track)
Qty (22 Tube - 5 Track)
QTY(20 Tube,5 Leg)
2
20
10
5
20
20
1
/
10
2
20
10
5
20
2
20
10
5
22
22
/
1
10
2
20
10
5
22
Tube Clip
20
22
20
22
AL-Bottom Track
1
1
1
1
Bottom Attachment Plate
6
6
10
10
Page 39 of 49
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
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Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
8.5.4 20/22 Tube Tilt Mount
HI LEG POSITION
B
LO LEG POSITION
θ
REAR LEG (LO = 844mm, HI = 1344mm)
20
25
A
SPACING (1500mm or 1800mm)
A
B
Table 16. 20/22 Tube Tilt Mount Components
Frame Component
No.
20/22 Roof Rail 1
AL-L Bracket
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
30° or 45° Rear Leg
AL-Rear X Brace
Name
AL Tri-Plate
Qty θ=30°
(22
Tube - θ=30°
3QTYTrack)
QTY
θ=45°
θ=45°
Qty (20 Tube
- 5 Track)
QTY
QTY
θ=45°
Qty (22
Tube - 5 Track)
QTY
2
2
2
2
20/22 Roof Rail
AL-L Bracket
30° Rear Leg
45° Rear Leg
AL-Rear X Brace
Top Attachment Plate
AL-Tri-Plate
AL-Front Track
AL-Bottom Track
AL-Bottom Track
Clip Fastener
Tube Clip
Bottom Attachment Plate
Top Attachment9Plate
10
11
θ=30°
θ=30°
Qty (20 Tube
- 3 Track)
QTY
QTY
(20 Tube,3 Leg)
2
12
3
/
4
6
6
3
1
/
20
20
6
12
3
4
6
6
(22 Tube,3 Leg)
2
12
3
/
4
6
6
3
/
1
22
22
6
(20 Tube,5 Leg)
2
20
5
/
4
10
10
5
1
/
20
20
10
(22 Tube,5 Leg)
2
20
5
/
4
10
10
5
/
1
22
22
10
12
3
4
6
6
θ=45°
QTY
(20 Tube,3 Leg)
2
12
/
3
4
6
6
3
1
/
20
20
6
(22 Tube,3 Leg)
2
12
/
3
4
6
6
3
/
1
22
22
6
20
5
4
10
10
(20 Tube,5 Leg)
2
20
/
5
4
10
10
5
1
/
20
20
10
(22 Tube,5 Leg)
2
20
/
5
4
10
10
5
/
1
22
22
10
20
5
4
10
10
AL-Front Track
3
3
5
5
AL-Bottom Track
1
1
1
1
Clip Fastener
20
22
20
22
Tube Clip
20
22
20
22
Bottom Attachment Plate
6
6
10
10
Page 40 of 49
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
8.5.5 30 Tube Flush Mount
1800
1500
2025
B
A
472.5
945
945
1890
2240
B
A
Table 17. 30 Tube Flush Mount Components
Qty(30 Tube,3Tracks)
Qty(30 Tube,5Tracks)
No.
Name
Qty (30 Tube - 3 Track) Qty (30 Tube - 5 Track)
1
2
2
30 Roof Rail
30 2Roof Rail AL-L-Bracket
2
2 20
12
AL-L3 BracketTop Attachment Plate
12 6
20 10
4
3
5
AL-Front Track
Top5AttachmentClip
Plate
6
10 30
Fastener
30
6
30
AL-Front
Track Tube Clip
3
5 30
Frame Component
Clip7 Fastener AL-Bottom Track
30
Tube Clip
30
8
Page 41 of 49
Bottom Attachment Plate
1
6
30
30
AL-Bottom Track
1
1
Bottom Attachment Plate
6
10
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
1
10
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
8.5.6 30 Tube Tilt Mount
HI LEG POSITION
B
LO LEG POSITION
θ
REAR LEG (LO = 844mm, HI = 1344mm)
20
25
A
SPACING (1500mm or 1800mm)
A
B
�=30°
Table 18. 30 Tube Tilt Mount Components
�=30°
Qty(30 Tube,3 leg) Qty (30 Tube,5 leg)
No.
Name
1
30 Roof Rail
2
Frame
Component
Qty2 (30 Tube - 3 Track)
2
AL-L-Bracket
12
20
30°Rear
Leg
5
3
3
30 Roof Rail
2
45°Rear Leg
4
4
AL-L4 BracketAL-Rear X Brace
12
Top Attachment Plate
5
6
10
6
10
AL-Tri-Plate
30° 6or 45° Rear
Leg
3
7
3
5
AL-Front Track
8
1
1
AL-Bottom Track
AL-Rear
X Brace
4
Clip Fastener
9
30
30
Tube
Clip
30
30
Top10Attachment
Plate
6
11
Bottom Attachment Plate
6
10
Page 42 of 49
�=45°
�=45°
Qty(30 Tube,3 leg) Qty(30 Tube,5 leg)
Qty (302 Tube - 5 Track)2
12
20
3
4
6
6
3
1
30
30
6
2
20
5
4
10
AL Tri-Plate
6
AL-Front Track
3
5
AL-Bottom Track
1
1
Clip Fastener
30
30
Tube Clip
30
30
Bottom Attachment Plate
6
10
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
10
5
4
10
10
5
1
30
30
10
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
8.6 Apricus Component Information
Table 20. Glass lined electric tank dimensions
Measurements
(mm)
8.6.1 Glass Lined Storage Tank Specifications
32° 32°
250L 250L 315L 315L 400L 400L
BOT MID BOT MID BOT MID
Diameter
648
648
648
648
731
731
Height
1388 1388 1682 1682 1731 1731
HW outlet
1167 1167 1470 1470 1474 1474
PTRV port
1167 1167 1470 1470 1474 1474
Top sensor
759
759
841
841
841
841
Solar return
564
432
564
509
564
564
Bottom sensor
369
303
369
342
369
369
Solar Flow
174
174
174
174
174
174
Cold Water Inlet
74
74
74
74
74
74
Element Height
170
454
170
553
190
691
Table 21. Glass lined gas tank dimensions
Measurements
(mm)
Figure 30. Glass lined tank layout
Table 19. Glass lined tank specifications
Model
250 L
315 L
400 L
Rated Capacity (L)
250
315
400
Physical Volume (L)
274
343
445
Dry weight
84
102
150
Port Size
3/4”
Max. Thermostat
Setting
75°C
Dead Band
8°C
Element Rating
3.6 kW
Cylinder Warranty
10 Years
Safety Valve Setting
850 kPa
Max. Supply pressure
600 kPa
Anode Material
Construction Material
Page 43 of 49
250L 315L 400L
GAS GAS GAS
Diameter
648
648
731
Height
1388 1682 1731
HW outlet
1167 1470 1474
PTRV port
1167 1470 1474
Top sensor
759
841
841
Solar return
564
564
564
Bottom sensor
369
369
369
Solar Flow
174
174
174
Cold Water Inlet
74
74
74
Magnesium
Vitreous Enamel
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
8.6.2 Stainless Steel Storage Tank Specifications
Table 23. Stainless steel electric tank dimensions
Measurements
(mm)
N2
N5
N4
0°
N2, N1 270°
N7
N7,
N6
.5°
247
N4
,N
3,
22
5°
N5,
90°
N1
N6
180°
N8
250L 250L 315L 315L 400L 400L
BOT MID BOT MID BOT MID
Diameter
700
Height
1232 1232 1551 1551 1832 1832
HW outlet
972
972
1291 1291 1543 1543
PTRV port
972
972
1291 1291 1543 1543
Top sensor
972
972
1291 1291 1543 1543
Solar return
399
449
519
656
629
629
Bottom sensor
172
172
172
172
163
163
Solar Flow
172
172
172
172
163
163
Cold Water Inlet
172
172
172
172
163
163
Element Height
412
642
535
752
649
786
N3
700
700
700
700
700
Table 24. Stainless steel gas tank dimensions
Measurements (mm) 250L 315L 400L
GAS GAS GAS
Figure 31. Stainless steel tank layout
Table 22. Stainless steel tank specifications
Model
250 L
315 L
400 L
Rated Capacity (L)
250
315
400
Physical Volume (L)
275
358
420
Dry weight
60
75
87
Port Size
3/4”
Max. Thermostat
Setting
80°C
Dead Band
8°C
Element Rating
3.6 kW
Cylinder Warranty
15 Years
Safety Valve Setting
850 kPa
Max. Supply pressure
550 kPa
Anode Material
Construction Material
Page 44 of 49
Diameter
700
700
700
Height
1232 1551 1832
HW outlet
972
1291 1543
PTRV port
972
1291 1543
Top sensor port
972
1291 1543
Solar return port
449
656
629
Bottom sensor
172
172
163
Solar flow
172
172
163
Cold water inlet
172
172
163
N/A
Stainless 316 (2mm)
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
8.6.3 Apricus Pump Station Dimensions
8.6.5 Collector Technical Specifications:
Technical data on Apricus solar collector construction,
performance and physical specifications.
B
W
C
A
D
L
E
Figure 32. Pump station cover layout
Table 25. Pump station dimensions
Measurements
Figure 34. Collector layout
Label
mm
Lid Height
A
398
Lid Width
B
178
Lid
C
96
Collector
Width
Length
WO/Tubes
W/Tubes
Base Plate Height
D
350
10 Tube
945 mm
2025 mm
11 kg
40 kg
Base Plate Width
E
160
20 Tube
1540 mm
2025 mm
18 kg
77 kg
22 Tube
1636 mm
2025 mm
20 kg
85 kg
Table 27. Collector dimensions
Measurements
8.6.4 Apricus Gas Booster Dimensions
A
C
Dry Weight
30 Tube
2240 mm 2025 mm
24 kg
112 kg
Note: Dry weights based on 3 track flush mount frame.
B
D
Figure 33. Gas booster layout
Table 26. Gas booster dimensions
Measurements (mm)
Label 20L/min 26L/min 32L/min
Width
A
350
350
470
Depth
B
194
180
244
Height - Inc. Brackets
C
571
623
644
Height - Unit
D
530
575
600
Page 45 of 49
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
Table 28. Apricus AP-10 Collector Specifications
Table 29. Apricus AP-20 Collector Specifications
Collector Model: AP-10
Collector Model: AP-20
Technical Information
ical Information
-20 Solar Collector
A2-07.10.2 - January 2012
Absorber:
AI-N on AI on glass
Heat
pipes:
High purity copper
Applications
The
Apricus APSE-20
designed to be used in a wide
Heat
transfer
fins: collector is Aluminium
variety of solar thermal (heat) applications in almost any climate.
Rubber
components:
Silicone
rubber
The evacuated
tube and heat pipeHTV
technology
provides
very
efficient
and
reliable
solar
thermal
production
in
a
simple
Stainless mounting frame:
439 Stainless steel to install,
low maintenance design.
Aluminium mounting frame: 6005-T5 Anodised AL
Features
Manifold
casing:
5005-H16 Anodised AL
• Twin glass evacuated tube (passive solar tracking)
Data:
heat pipes
• Freeze protectedPerformance
NSF
61
certified
copper
header
•
Ideal flow rate:
<1 L/min
• 22mm OD copper inlet/outlet connections
Max• Recycled
flow rate:
15 L/min
glass wool manifold insulation
10 year warranty on tubes and heat pipes
•
Peak
power
output:
648W *
year warranty on copper header and SS frame
• 15
• Efficient performance at high differential
Eta0:
0.687 *temperatures
2
a1 (W/m
K): of Construction1.505 *
Materials
2
Evacuated
!
Borosilicate
a2 (W/m K): Tubes: !
0.0111
* 3.3 Glass
Materials of Construction
1.8mm Borosilicate 3.3 glass
Evacuated tubes:
Absorber:
AI-N on AI on glass
Heat pipes:
High purity copper
Heat transfer fins:
Aluminium
Rubber components:
HTV Silicone rubber
Stainless mounting frame:
439 Stainless steel
Aluminium mounting frame: 6005-T5 Anodised AL
Manifold casing:
5005-H16 Anodised AL
Performance Data:
Ideal flow rate:
<1.5 L/min
Max flow rate:
15 L/min
Peak power output:
1296W *
Eta0:
0.687 *
2
a1 (W/m K):
1.505 *
2
a2 (W/m K):
0.0111 *
*Data
from
ITW report
Calculated
midday.
Heat
Pipes:!
! 09COL805.
!
High purityat
copper
* Data from ITW report 09COL805. Calculated at midday
Gross area:
1.57m
Performance
Data
Gross dry weight:
34.8kg
Ideal Flow Rate:
!!
1-3 L/mim
Fluid
capacity:
500ml
Max
Flow Rate:!
!!
15L/min
Power Output:
!!
1296kW *
MaxPeak
pressure:
800kPa
Eta0: ! !
!
!
0.687 *
a1 (W/m2K):!
!
!
1.505 *
Stagnation
temperature:
220°C
a2 (W/m2Performance
K):!
!
!
0.0111 *
Collector
AP-10
Performance
* Data from ITW
reportCollector
09COL805. Calculated
at midday.
Physical Specifications
Aperture area:
1.88m2
Gross area:
3m2
Gross dry weight:
63.5kg
Fluid capacity:
500ml
Max pressure:
800kPa
Stagnation temperature:
220°C
Collector Performance
AP-20 Collector Performance
APSE-20 Solar Collector Complete is comprised of:
1.8mm
3.3 glass
Evacuated
tubes:
!
1
x APSE-20-KIT (Manifold
and Borosilicate
standard frame)
!
3 x BOX-ET/HP-10/10 (Tubes and heat pipes)
2
Absorber: !
!
Heat Transfer Fins:!
Physical
Rubber Components:!
Mounting
Frame: !!
Aperture
area:
Manifold Casing: ! !
!
!
Aluminum
Specifications
!
HTV Silicone Rubber
2
!
439 Stainless
Steel
0.94m
!
5005-H16
Anodized AL
2
0.8
Physical
Specifications
Aperture Area: ! !
0.7
Gross Area:!
!
Gross
0.6 Dry Weight:!
Fluid Capacity:! !
0.5 Pressure: ! !
Max
Stagnation Temperature:!
0.4
Al-N on Al on Glass
!
!
!
!
!
!
1.88m2
3m2
63.5kg
500ml
800kPa
220oC
Certifications
0.3
Solar Radiation = 800W/m2
OG-100:!!
0.2
FSEC:!
!
IAPMO
USEC:
!
0.1
Solarkeymark:!
0
AS2712:2007:
!
0 Tested:!
10 20
NSF-61
CSA: !
!
!
!
100-2007033B! !
!
!
00442N!
!
!
S-5995
!
!
011-7S161 R
!
!
100633
70 80 90 100 110 120
! 30 40 ! 50 60 17248
!
!
2375921
Delta-T (tm-ta) oC
0.8
0.7
Conversion Efficiency
nstall,
Part CodesMaterials of Construction
Conversion Efficiency
wide
ate.
APSE-20 Solar Collector
A2-07.10.2 - January 2012
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
Solar Radiation = 800W/m2
0.2
0.1
0
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Delta-T (tm-ta) oC
Sustainable HOT WATER Solutions, Delivered by APRICUS
ER Solutions, Delivered by APRICUS
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Apricus Solar Co., Ltd
pricus Solar
Co.,
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46Ltd
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Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
19210061
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New & HighFax:
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Zone, Nanjing, China, 210061 Ph: +86 25 58649133 Fax: +86 25 58648103
one, Nanjing, China,
Ph: +86
25 58649133
25 58648103
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
Table 30. Apricus AP-22 Collector Specifications
Table 31. Apricus AP-30 Collector Specifications
Collector Model: AP-22
Collector Model: AP-30
ical Information
-20 Solar Collector
wide
mate.
nstall,
ER
A2-07.10.2 - January 2012
Materials of Construction
1.8mm Borosilicate 3.3 glass
Evacuated tubes:
Absorber:
AI-N on AI on glass
Heat pipes:
High purity copper
Heat transfer fins:
Aluminium
Rubber components:
HTV Silicone rubber
Stainless mounting frame:
439 Stainless steel
Aluminium mounting frame: 6005-T5 Anodised AL
Manifold casing:
5005-H16 Anodised AL
Performance Data:
Ideal flow rate:
<1.5 L/min
Max flow rate:
15 L/min APSE-30
Peak power output:
1422W *
Eta0:
0.687 *
Part Codes
APSE-30
2 Solar Collector Complete is comprised of:
a1 (W/m
K):
1.505 *
!
1 x APSE-30-KIT (Manifold and standard frame)
2
!
3 x BOX-ET/HP-10/10 (Tubes
and* heat pipes)
a2 (W/m
K):
0.0111
Materials of Construction
1.8mm Borosilicate 3.3 glass
Evacuated tubes:
Absorber:
AI-N on AI on glass
Heat pipes:
High purity copper
Heat transfer fins:
Aluminium
Rubber components:
HTV Silicone rubber
Stainless mounting frame:
439 Stainless steel
Aluminium mounting frame: 6005-T5 Anodised AL
Manifold casing:
5005-H16 Anodised AL
Performance Data:
Ideal flow rate:
2 L/min
Solar
Collector
Max flow rate:
15 L/min
A2-07.10.1 - January 2012
Peak power output:
1944W *
Eta0:
0.687 *
2
a1 (W/m K):
1.505 *
2
a2 (W/m K):
0.0111 *
Technical Information
* Data from ITW report 09COL805. Calculated at midday
Applications
Physical
Specifications
The Apricus APSE-30
collector
is designed to be used in a wide
variety
of
solar
thermal
(heat)
applications
Aperture area:
2.07m2 in almost any climate.
The evacuated tube and heat pipe technology provides very
2
Gross
area:and reliable solar thermal3.28m
efficient
production
in a simple to install,
low maintenance design.
Physical Specifications
Aperture area:
2.83m2
Gross area:
4.4m2
Gross dry weight:
95kg
Fluid capacity:
710ml
Max pressure:
800kPa
Stagnation temperature:
220°C
Collector Performance
AP-30 Collector Performance
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.6
Materials
of Construction
0.6
Evacuated Tubes: !
!
Borosilicate 3.3 Glass
0.5
Absorber: !
!
!
Al-N on Al on Glass
Heat
!
!
High purity copper
0.4 Pipes:!
Heat Transfer Fins:!
!
Aluminum
2
0.3
Solar Radiation != 800W/m
Rubber
Components:!
HTV Silicone Rubber
Mounting Frame: !!
!
439 Stainless Steel
0.2
Manifold Casing: ! !
!
5005-H16 Anodized AL
Conversion Efficiency
Conversion Efficiency
Gross dry weight:
71.3kg
Features
Fluid
capacity:
550ml
• Twin glass evacuated tube (passive solar tracking)
Max• pressure:
Freeze protected heat pipes 800kPa
certified copper header220°C
• NSF 61temperature:
Stagnation
22mm OD copper inlet/outlet connections
•
Collector Performance
glass wool
manifold Performance
insulation
Collector
• Recycled AP-22
• 10 year warranty on tubes and heat pipes
15 year warranty on copper header and SS frame
•0.8
• Efficient performance at high differential temperatures
* Data from ITW report 09COL805. Calculated at midday
0.1
* Data from ITW report 09COL805
0.4
0.3
Solar Radiation = 800W/m2
0.2
0.1
Performance Data
0 Flow Rate:
Ideal
!!
1-3 L/mim
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Max Flow Rate:!
!!
15L/min
oC
Peak Power Output: Delta-T
! ! (tm-ta)
1944kW
*
Eta0: ! !
!
!
0.687 *
a1 (W/m2K):!
!
!
1.505 *
2K):!
a2 (W/m
! APRICUS
!
0.0111 *
Solutions,
Delivered
by
0.5
0
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Delta-T (tm-ta) oC
Pressure Drop
AA8.2.1.7.1-Apricus-Technical-Manual-V2.0
pricus Solar
Co.,
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47 Ltd
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Ph: +86 25 58649133 Fax: +86 25 58648103
Physical
Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
10
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
8.7 Apricus Warranty Information
Visit www.apricus.com.au for the most up-to-date version
of the Apricus Warranty Policy.
For all warranty service requests or issues, please call
Apricus Australia on 1300 277 428 or email [email protected]
apricus.com.au
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Copyright © 2014 Apricus Australia Pty Ltd
Apricus Solar Hot Water System - Technical Manual
Thank You For Choosing Apricus Australia
Apricus Australia Pty Ltd | ABN: 12 111 285 271 | PO Box 6109 Silverwater NSW 1811
Ph: 1300 277 428 | Fax: 02 9475 0092 | [email protected]
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