CDA | CI340 | Technical information | CDA CI340 Technical information

CDA CI340 Technical information
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 1-1
Technical Information ............................................................................................................................... 2-1
General Operation Instructions.................................................................................................................. 3-1
Using the Keypad................................................................................................................................ 3-2
Key Function....................................................................................................................................... 3-3
File Menu............................................................................................................................................ 3-3
Installation of the Battery.................................................................................................................... 3-4
Interpretation of Parameters ...................................................................................................................... 4-1
System Setup / Calibration ........................................................................................................................ 5-1
Calendar and Time Setup.................................................................................................................... 5-3
Leaf / Air Temperature Sensor ........................................................................................................... 5-3
Atmospheric Pressure ......................................................................................................................... 5-4
Flow Rate............................................................................................................................................ 5-4
CO2 and H2O ....................................................................................................................................... 5-5
Data Transfer............................................................................................................................................. 6-1
Downloading Data .............................................................................................................................. 6-1
Selecting Files to Download ............................................................................................................... 6-2
Updating Software .............................................................................................................................. 6-2
A Sample Data File............................................................................................................................. 6-3
Photosynthesis, Transpiration and Stomatal Conductance........................................................................ 7-1
Absolute .............................................................................................................................................. 7-1
Taking Measurements......................................................................................................................... 7-1
Closed and Open Systems................................................................................................................... 7-4
Data Display Screens .......................................................................................................................... 7-6
Graph Mode ........................................................................................................................................ 7-7
Care of the CI-340..................................................................................................................................... 8-1
Leaf Chamber – Care and Use................................................................................................................... 9-1
Recharging............................................................................................................................................... 10-1
To Power your CI-340 From a Lab Power Socket ........................................................................... 10-1
To Disconnect the Charger/Adapter ................................................................................................ 10-2
To Charge the Li-ion Battery ........................................................................................................... 10-2
Battery Charger Specifications ........................................................................................................ 10-3
Equations ................................................................................................................................................. 11-1
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Trouble Shooting..................................................................................................................................... 12-1
System Specifications ............................................................................................................................. 13-1
Power Pack / Accessory Bag................................................................................................................... 14-1
Accessory Control Port and Cable .................................................................................................... 14-2
Appendix A Temperature Control............................................................................................................ A-1
CI-510CS Temperature Control Module ........................................................................................... A-1
Filling the Reservoir .......................................................................................................................... A-2
Emptying the Reservoir ..................................................................................................................... A-3
Operating Temperature Control Module............................................................................................ A-4
Appendix B CI-301LA Light Attachment Module ...................................................................................B-1
Appendix C CI-301AD Adjustable H2O and CO2 Control Module ..........................................................C-1
General Description ............................................................................................................................C-1
Operating Instructions.........................................................................................................................C-1
Adding Consumables ..........................................................................................................................C-1
Connection to Power and the Analyzer...............................................................................................C-2
Operation ............................................................................................................................................C-3
Replacing The Consumables...............................................................................................................C-3
Soda Lime.............................................................................................................................C-3
Silica Gel ..............................................................................................................................C-4
Water ....................................................................................................................................C-4
CO2 Cartridge .......................................................................................................................C-4
Filters....................................................................................................................................C-4
Appendix D Soil Respiration Chamber .................................................................................................... D-1
Setup Procedures................................................................................................................................ D-1
Appendix E Canopy Chamber – Assembly Instructions ........................................................................... E-1
Appendix F CI-510CF Chlorophyll Fluorescence Module ....................................................................... F-1
Connecting the CI-510CF Chlorophyll Fluorescence Module to the CI-340 Main Unit................... F-1
CI-340 Fluorescence Saturation Pulse Measurement ......................................................................... F-1
Specifications...................................................................................................................................... F-3
Warranty
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INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
The CI-340 Ultra-Light Portable Photosynthesis System is an improved version of the first
lightweight, hand-held photosynthesis system in the world. Featuring a new design concept and
compact solid-state structure, the entire system – display, keypad, computer, data memory, CO2/H2O
gas analyzer, flow control system and battery – is contained in a single, hand-held case. It has
everything to measure photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and internal CO2. Because
the chamber is connected directly to the CO2/H2O differential gas analyzer, there is virtually no time
delay when measuring CO2/H2O in the chamber. These features make the CI-340 the fastest,
smallest, and most accurate photosynthesis system available for field and laboratory operations.
The unit is designed to perform the following functions: Absolute, Calibrations, Data Transfer, and
Photosynthesis, Transpiration, & Stomatal Conductance. A brief overview for each function is
described in Table 1-1, and covered in detail throughout the manual.
Table 1-1. Description of CI-340 functions:
Absolute
CO2 concentration measurement (in ppm) for a
single source
Calibrations
Permits the user to calibrate the instrument with
various parameters or settings
Data Transfer
Transfers data from the CI-340 to a computer
Photosynthesis, Transpiration, & Stomatal
Conductance
Measurements obtained by using Leaf Chamber
attachments(s) in conjunction with the CI-340
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
If you have a question about the CI-340 features and functions, first look in the CI-340 Instruction
Manual. If you cannot find the answer, you can contact a Technical Support Representative located
in your country.
CID, Inc. is committed to provide customers with high quality, timely technical support. Technical
support representatives are available on a 1-800 line to answer your technical questions.
CID, Inc.’s Address:
CID, Inc.
4901 NW Camas Meadows Drive
Camas, WA 98607 USA
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INTRODUCTION
Phone:
800-767-0119 (U.S. and Canada)
360-833-8835
Fax:
360-833-1914
Internet:
http://www.cid-inc.com
E-mail:
support@cid-inc.com
sales@cid-inc.com
CUSTOMER SERVICE:
Customer Service Representatives answer questions about specifications and pricing, and sell all of
the CID, Inc. products.
Customers sometimes find that they need CID, Inc. to make a change to upgrade their system, or
repair their system. In order for CID, Inc. to do these services, the customer must first contact us and
obtain a Return Merchandise Authorization (RMA) number. Please contact a customer service
representative for specific instructions when returning a product.
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TECHNICAL INFORMATION
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
The CI-340 is a highly technologically advanced photosynthesis system. It contains a pump along
with a mass airflow sensor. A built-in microprocessor regulates the airflow rate, which is set by the
user. A technical diagram (Figure 2-1) illustrates a flow chart for this instrument. An illustration of
the CI-340 is on the following page (Figure 2-2).
The measurement process begins with an air/gas sample passing a solid-state CO2 analyzer. The
output of the analyzer is amplified, sampled by an analog-to-digital (A-D) converter, and sent to the
microprocessor. The processor averages these readings and corrects them for any non-linearity
present in the analyzer.
A relative value of CO2 concentration is continually updated by the microprocessor. Each reading
reflects sampling taken every second during a specified time period. This can be determined by
setting the time interval. The rate at which samples are saved in memory is determined by the
“sampling rate” or the time interval input at the beginning of each measurement session.
CAUTION: When attaching a pressurized gas source to the external inlet, use a three-way fitting
(which is provided with each instrument) to allow excess gas to escape. Excess pressure may blow
out internal fittings and tubing, or damage the pump. Do not use a three-way fitting for nonpressurized gas sources.
Figure 2-1. Flow chart diagram.
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TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Figure 2-2. Parts of the CI-340
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GENERAL OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
GENERAL OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
This section will familiarize you with start-up procedures and guide you on how to move from one
function to another. Specific instructions for each separate function will be found under their
individual heading in the main body of the manual.
For greatest accuracy, the instrument should be turned on 30 minutes prior to any calibrations to
allow it to be fully warmed up. Measurements can be made about 3 minutes after the displayed CO2
value starts to drop from its maximum.
1. The instrument needs to warm up awhile before it is used to measure. The warm up is measured
from the time the instrument is powered on (it does not matter if it is measuring or not). A warm up of
about 4 minutes would be the minimum time to get measurements and about 20 minutes for more
precise measurements.
It is best to put the leaf into the chamber before you start the measurement so the leaf has time to
acclimate to the leaf chamber conditions and the instrument has time to react to the changes the leaf
causes. The "Working" display is a period that the instrument uses to stabilize itself. The actual
measurement starts when the display changes from "Working".
2. Variations in the CO2 readings or Pn readings can often be caused by changes in the air stream
going into the instrument. The CO2 content of the stream must be very stable. Some researchers use
a long tube to get the intake away from human activity. Some use compressed air (with a pressure
regulator and a T in the hose). Some use a volume buffer (a 2 liter bottle or larger with the hose from
the instrument drawing air from inside that is vented to allow outside air in) that will average out CO2
changes over time. If the experiments are done near a road with vehicles, it is difficult to get stable
CO2 readings. If you do not have a source of compressed air, you may try putting several volume
buffers in series (the instrument draws from the first bottle that draws from the second which then
draws from the third which is vented) The instrument is sensitive enough to detect fires that are
hundreds of meters away if they are upwind.
3. The flow rate can be reduced when the photosynthesis is minimal. Try 0.3 lpm for most situations
and 0.25 lpm if the readings are low.
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GENERAL OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
USING THE KEYPAD
The keypad for the CI-340 consists of 20 keys to enter commands and data. Figure 3-1 illustrates the
keypad.
Figure 3-1. CI-340 Keypad
Pressing a key makes a “beeping” sound. A key should be pressed individually each time a command
or letter is asked for. Refer to the TROUBLESHOOTING chapter if problems occur.
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GENERAL OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
These characters are not usable: [ +,-,(,*,/,) ]
FILE MENU
The CI-340 has a file system that allows a great range of data to be stored internally. It has been
designed to emulate the familiar DOS of personal computers. Note that this menu will not be
accessible when there are no files stored in memory; the message “no files” on the top display line
will be briefly displayed when this situation occurs.
To use the File Menu or check if any files are stored, press the
menu” is displayed. Press the
on.
key to access the “file menu” when the instrument is first turned
Enter → File menu
Use the
and
key when “ENTER → file
13:05:49
keys to view all stored files. Pressing the
key will exit this menu.
Files are stored in chronological order, with the names and data affiliated accordingly. Up to 1200
files or 4 MB of data are allowed for storage. Press the
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+
key (for the letter “D”) to
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GENERAL OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
delete the last file saved, or
+
key (for the letter “Y”) to delete all files saved. The shift
and
keys will have to be pressed again to confirm erasure of all files. Deleting a file removes it
permanently! Be sure to transfer important data before deleting it from the CI-340. Refer to the DATA
TRANSFER section for related information.
INSTALLATION OF THE BATTERY
The CI-340 is dependent upon a properly charged power source for efficient and reliable
measurements and calculations. The included battery/battery eliminator is designed to provide the
necessary power. The system is designed to operate from 7.2V rechargeable Li-Ion batteries. Check
with the nearest representative or manufacturer if the included system does not include one or more of
the above items.
If the rechargeable battery should ever fail to charge properly, please recycle it. Many waste
processing systems do not allow Li-Ion batteries to be simply thrown in the trash.
Proper installation of the battery is as follows:
•
Align the contacts of the battery with the contacts of the CI-340 (Figure 3-2).
•
Line up the battery so that it is about 7 mm “off” its final position within the battery mounts in the
direction shown in Figure 3-2.
•
Press the battery toward the contacts and slide in the direction shown (Figure 3-2) until firmly in
place. By pressing the battery toward the contacts, the CI-340 will make necessary connections
with the battery and the battery will be in the correct position.
•
To remove the battery, slide it in the opposite direction that is shown in Figure 3-2.
Refer to the RECHARGING chapter for further information on how to take care of the battery and for
how to power the CI-340 in the lab without using the Li-ion battery.
Note: The CI-340 should only be used in low RF ambient areas. Do not use near radio/TV
transmitting antennas or near electrical arc welders.
Figure 3-2. Battery installation: Press the battery toward the contacts.
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INTERPRETATION OF PARAMETERS
INTERPRETATION OF PARAMETERS
CO2 (in)
The amount of CO2 (in ppm) at the inlet of the analyzer
CO2 (out)
The amount of CO2 (in ppm) at the outlet of the leaf chamber
CO2 (dif)
The difference between the CO2 in and CO2 out values.
H2O (in)
The amount of H2O (in kPa) at the inlet of the analyzer
H2O (out)
The amount of H2O (in kPa) at the outlet of the leaf chamber
H2O (dif)
The difference between the H2O in and H2O out values.
PAR
Photosynthesis Active Radiation in terms of цmol/m2/s
FLOW
The set flow rate of the analyzer (in lpm)
W
Mass flow rate in terms of mol/m2/s
T (air)
Temperature of the ambient air (in °C) in the leaf chamber. This
requires the temperature sensor to be installed for meaningful results.
ATM
Atmospheric pressure (in kPa)
Pn
Net photosynthesis rate in terms of цmol/m2/s
InTCO2
Internal CO2 цmol/mol
T (leaf)
Temperature of the leaf as measured by infrared temperature sensor
(in °C)
C
Leaf Stomatal conductance mmol/m2/s
Internal T
Temperature of the analyzer environment (in °C)
E
Transpiration Rate mmol/m2/s
“EXIT to quit”
Aborts current operating function to the default menu
“ENTER → file menu”
Allows the user to enter the file menu system:
“SHIFT 2 (D) = del”
“EXIT file menu”
“Y = delete ALL”
Command to delete an existing file; press
Returns to the default menu
Command to delete all existing files; press
+
. This must
be confirmed before the instrument will erase all the files.
“Date”
Current running date
“Time”
Current running time
“START/ENTER to go”
“ENTER to select”
+
Reminds the user that pressing
process.
Notifies the user to press
will start the measurement
to perform the listed functions:
“Change clock”
Allows the user to change the time and date settings
“Calibrate CO2”
Allows the user to calibrate the zero and span for CO2 measurements.
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INTERPRETATION OF PARAMETERS
“Calibrate H2O”
Allows the user to calibrate the zero and span for H2O measurements
using external sources
“Calibrate Temp”
Allows the user to set the TSCAL1 and TSCAL2 parameters of the
temperature sensor.
“Calibrate Flow”
Allows the user to calibrate the flow meter to external standards.
“Calibrate ATM Pr”
Precisely adjusts atmospheric pressure (in kPa)
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SYSTEM SETUP / CALIBRATION
SYSTEM SETUP / CALIBRATION
The system is shipped from the factory calibrated for immediate use. The user can perform most
system calibrations if necessary.
To start the CI-340, press
display as follows:
. After a brief warm-up time, the instrument will display the basic
Fri 12 Mar 2004 16:06:38
CI-340 version 5.004
©Copyright CID Inc., 1997 - 2004
All rights reserved.
The following screens are accessed in order by pressing the arrow keys,
to move down:
ENTER to select
Calibrate Temp.
ENTER to select
Calibrate Flow
to move up and
ENTER to select Calibrate ATM Pr
ENTER->file menu
Starting Screen:
Fri 12 Mar 2004
START/ENTER to go
ENTER to select
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16:06:38
Change clock
5-1
SYSTEM SETUP / CALIBRATION
ENTER to select
Calibrate CO2
Calibrate H2O
ENTER to select
CALENDAR AND TIME SETUP
The purpose of these functions is to provide the user current information of local date and time. This
method can be extremely useful to further establish when measurement data are collected or saved, or
simply another form of time keeping. The factory-calibrated date and time are the default values.
ENTER to select
Change clock
To change the date and time, scroll to choose “Change clock” under the “ENTER to select” function
(press the
key twice from the initial display). The time function will be the first selection. Begin
by using the
or
keys followed by the
or
keys to adjust and move to the hour,
minute and second of choice. With the time function set, the date function will follow. Once again,
use the
or
keys followed by the
keys to adjust and move to the month, day
key to save your selection and continue. Note that at any point of
and year of choice. Press the
this setup, pressing the
above.
or
key will suspend any further actions and return to the screen display
LEAF/AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR
Suggested Calibration Schedule: None.
This function sets the calibration values for a given leaf/air temperature sensor. The included
temperature sensor has been initially tested and calibrated by the manufacturer.
ENTER to select
Calibrate Temp
No further calibration is allowed.
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
The CI-340 pressure sensor is capable of measuring absolute atmospheric pressure. This value is used
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SYSTEM SETUP / CALIBRATION
in calibrations for Photosynthesis, Transpiration and Stomatal Conductance values. The sensor is
calibrated at the factory, and normally does not need to be recalibrated.
ENTER to select
Calibrate ATM Pr
To change the atmospheric pressure (ATM) value, scroll to choose the “Calibrate ATM Pr” under the
“ENTER to select” function. Enter the desired ATM value in K Pa. Press
value or
to accept the entered
to abort the process, and continue to another step.
FLOW RATE
Figure 5-0
The CI-340 is capable of maintaining a steady airflow once the unit begins taking measurements.
After the initial warm-up time (one minute), the instrument will generate the entered flow rate to
regulate the accuracy of the measurements. The instrument is capable of automatically controlling the
flow rate from 0.2 ~ 0.999 lpm. Flow rates of 0.3 lpm give increased accuracy to photosynthesis
measurements unless very active leaves are being measured.
The flow meter is calibrated by the manufacturer but can be calibrated again by the user. Suggested
calibration schedule is once every six months. Scroll to choose the “Calibrate flow rate” under the
“ENTER to select” function.
ENTER to select
Calibrate flow rate
The instrument will briefly run through stabilizing steps and then ask the user to adjust the flow,
keys for major changes or the
keys for minor changes, over steps
using the
from .2 to 1 lpm. For calibration, the flow MUST be measured by the calibrated external flow meter
at the port on the end of the instrument where the leaf chamber plugs in (upper left part as you read
the keypad). For this calibration, the flow rate is measured at the input to the leaf chamber (see figure
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5-3
SYSTEM SETUP / CALIBRATION
5-0). A well-calibrated flow meter with little backpressure should be used as the standard. If for any
reason an error was made during the calibration procedure pressing the
key will also return
back to the beginning of the flow calibration procedure without saving any changes made. Once the
calibration procedure is competed, in a few moments the instrument will reset and return back to the
above screen display.
CO2 AND H2O
NOTE: For greater changes in ambient temperatures between sample measurements, it may be
necessary to recalibrate to CO2 “zero setting” at each temperature (i.e. O°C sample and 40°C sample).
Suggested calibration schedule: ZERO setting once a week for CO2 and H2O; SPAN setting once a
week for CO2. Check H2O once every six months.
This instrument allows calibration with a range of CO2 from 100 to 1000 ppm, and H2O from 1 to 7.5
kPa.
ENTER to select
Calibrate CO2
To change the calibration of CO2, scroll to choose the “Calibrate CO2” under the “ENTER to select”
function. While the instrument stabilizes to the setup state, it will first ask if you want to calibrate
zero.
Start to set zero, else Exit
Press the
key to calibrate the zero or press the
Use 0 ppm CO2 gas
key to skip the calibrate zero function.
Press START/ENTER
Connect dry nitrogen or soda lime and allow the zero ppm CO2 gas (dry nitrogen or soda lime) to
flow for approximately one minute (three minutes for soda lime) prior to pressing the
key to
flush the system completely. Always use a “T” connector. A small amount of flow out of the onemeter tube ensures a sufficient quantity of gas is flowing to the system (see Figure 5-1) in the gas line
when supplying gas from a low-pressure regulator in order to avoid excessive flow through the
system. Alternately, use soda lime connected between the intake and exhaust with the small plastic
tube where the chamber usually goes to form a closed loop. (See Figure 5-2)
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SYSTEM SETUP / CALIBRATION
Figure 5-1. Configuration using compressed gas.
After the system zero is established, use a gas with known concentration of CO2 to calibrate span.
Use the
key to skip the “calibrate the span” setting.
Use known CO2
Press the
key to proceed.
Enter the concentration of CO2 in ppm at the following display:
Concentration ?
__ ppm
The known concentration should flow for approximately one minute.
Press
reset:
to save your selection. The system will then return to the following screen display and
ENTER to select
Calibrate CO2
H2O calibration follows similar procedures. Dry nitrogen gas or silicon gel can be used for the H2O
zero, and a known partial pressure of H2O is used for the known H2O. A “DOS” program is provided
to convert relative humidity and temperature to kPa partial pressure. Run RH2KPA.EXE under DOS
or in a DOS window on a PC. Windows XP will automatically launch a DOS window if you double
click on the file name in Windows Explorer.
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SYSTEM SETUP / CALIBRATION
NOTE:
H2O span setting should not be calibrated except once every six months. However, it is
suggested that it be checked often by conducting a photosynthesis test with the “loop back” tube in
place of a leaf chamber and sampling a known humidity of the atmosphere.
Figure 5-2. Configuration using Soda Lime for CO2 zero calibration.
Figure 5-3. Configuration using Silica Gel for H2O calibration.
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5-6
DATA TRANSFER
DATA TRANSFER
DOWNLOADING DATA
One of the conveniences of this reliable data-collecting instrument is its portability. The CI-340 is
almost a small user-friendly computer that can be operated almost anywhere in the field. However,
data analysis and presentation can best be done on an external (desktop or laptop) computer.
To download data to an external computer, attach the CI-340 USAB Cable to both the CI-340 and the
computer’s USB port.
Downloading files from the CI-340 to the personal computer is accomplished with a Windows
program, C340DF.exe. It would be recommended that a separate directory exist for any of the CI-340
program files or data to be stored. Create a directory that can be recognizable or remembered for
continuous usage; for instance, the path C:\CI-340\. could be named to store and locate all related CI340 files and data. Refer to the computer manual(s) regarding setting up directory/paths for the
current operating system (such as in Windows). To install the software on your computer, run
setup.exe on the disk. You can use Windows Explorer to send a shortcut to your desktop, if desired.
Run the C340DF.EXE program
Turn on the CI-340
Select File, then Open to transfer a file to the computer
A longer file will take longer to start displaying data. You can select File then Save to save the data.
The default extension is .dat.
UPDATING SOFTWARE
The operation of the CI-340 is controlled by internal software code. The CI-340 is capable of
updating its software code without removing the cover. When updating becomes necessary, the
manufacturer will provide the software code (under warranty) to best operate the instrument. The
web address is www.cid-inc.com/software/CI-340. The file DL.exe automatically downloads code
programs. Be sure that these files are in the same directory as other CI-340 program files.
It is the best to copy all the software files provided on the disk to their own directory on the hard drive
before executing DL.exe. Connect the CI-340 USB cable. Run the DL.exe. program to download code
from the computer. Make certain that the the power is on to the CI-340. If the power does not stay
key on the CI-340 (a constant ‘beep’ sound may or may not be
on, then press and hold the
heard). Select File, Open and highlight the code file (CI_340.S19), and press ENTER on the
computer to start the update. After approximately 10 ~ 15 seconds, the instrument will display DLC,
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DATA TRANSFER
you can stop pressing the
key. The download of new code will take about 2 minutes. The
computer screen will confirm that the procedure has been completed and the CI-340 will turn itself
off.
Press the
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key and the new software code is active.
Rev. 4.3
6-2
DATA TRANSFER
A SAMPLE DATA FILE
W
Flow
Pressure
PAR
Tair
Tleaf
CO2in
CO2out
H2Oin
H2Oout
27.5
0.3
100.09
2175
31.1
32.8
344.9
333.0
1.09
1.10
3.12
27.5
0.3
100.09
2011
31.2
32.9
339.9
328.2
1.23
1.25
2.78
27.5
0.3
100.09
2230
31.2
33.1
365.7
337.9
1.20
1.23
2.66
Internal T
Pn
E
C
RHin
RHout
intCO2
Year
Month
Date
H
Min
S
12.5
3.12
3.27
35.1
37.2
325.0
03
8
3
6
59
38
13.1
2.78
2.16
35.4
36.9
310.5
03
8
3
6
59
48
21.6
2.66
1.54
35.3
37
310.0
03
8
3
6
59
58
Where:
Internal T:
Internal temperature for
the instrument
Flow:
Flow rate
Pressure:
Atmospheric pressure
PAR:
Photosynthesis Active
Radiation
Tair:
Air temp.
Tleaf:
Leaf temp.
CO2in:
Inlet CO2
CO2out:
Outlet CO2
H2Oin:
Inlet water pressure
H2Oout
Outlet water pressure
W:
Mass flow rate
Pn:
Net photosynthesis rate
E:
Transpiration rate
C:
Stomatal conductance
rate
RHin:
inlet relative humidity
RHout:
Outlet relative humidity
int CO2
Internal CO2
concentration
Year:
Current year
Month:
Current month
Date
Current date
H, min and s:
Time experiments
conducted
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PHOTOSYNTHESIS, TRANSPIRATION AND STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE
PHOTOSYNTHESIS, TRANSPIRATION AND
STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE
Photosynthesis is the formation of carbohydrates from CO2 and a source of hydrogen (as water) in the
chlorophyll-containing tissues of plants exposed to light. The rate at which photosynthesis occurs is
determined by measuring the rate at which a known leaf area assimilates the CO2 concentration in a
given time.
It is known that transpiration is the primary determinant of leaf energy balance and plant water status.
The rate of transpiration is determined by the accumulation of water vapor flux per one-sided leaf
area in a given time
Stomatal conductance is the water loss of a leaf. Conductance can be considered in parallel or series.
It can be obtained by measuring the transpiration and leaf surface temperature (°C), and applying the
calculation for Equation 4 found in the EQUATIONS chapter.
The CI-340 is designed so that measurements can incorporate both absolute and differential readings
simultaneously. This instrument can also be configured to operate both open and closed systems. It is
important that the CI-340 uses the manufacturer’s current software.
ABSOLUTE
Absolute mode measures CO2 gas concentration from a single source.
Referring to Figure 2-1 (Flow chart diagram), this instrument acquires absolute measurements both
from the chamber environment and the inlet to the instrument. This concept adapts to both the open
and closed system chambers.
TAKING MEASUREMENTS
Now, with all the necessary setup/calibrations completed, the CI-340 is ready to begin its
measurements. With any experiment, coding or naming a set of data points/values would help
characterize that particular group for computational requirements. This instrument is designed to do
such by allowing for a file name and time intervals prior to any measurements or data collected.
With the system powered on and at rest, press the
key. The instrument will display:
File name: ?
This filename would be similar to a DOS-format and limited to 12 characters (including the decimal
point). For example, to save a data set as “group 1”, the filename “GROUP1” could be used. Use any
recognizable filename including any necessary extension (i.e., “GROUP1.C50”) format other than
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PHOTOSYNTHESIS, TRANSPIRATION AND STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE
using DOS executable extension (such as .EXE, .BAT, .COM, etc.). Note that pressing the
and
keys will not ask for a file name to be entered, and measured data will not be saved.
Sequential measurements using identical operating parameters can be performed if the base name
ends in a number (i.e. group1) and the default file name is selected for subsequent measurements
(group2, group3,...). Do not type in the default name, just press ENTER when the default name is
displayed. The instrument will then utilize all the same operating parameters as the last measurement.
The CI-340 utilizes a shift key feature to accommodate many functions it has to offer. To register
alpha-characters (such as A, H, R, etc.), use a sequence of the
key to obtain the letter. Pressing the
key followed by the respective
key once accesses the first letter of the keys, twice does
key pressed in this sequence accesses the number
the second, and three times, the third. No
values. Note that the symbols (+, -, etc.) in the keys are not recognized if naming a file, and in turn
will show up as the respective number key. Press the
key to continue to the time interval setup.
The
key can be used as a backspace key and the
the key was accidentally pushed.
can be used to clear the SHIFT count if
For example, the filename “GROUP1.C50” can be entered as follows:
Press
key after a file name is entered.
The time interval entry follows the entry of the filename step:
Time interval ?
___ (sec)
The analyzer’s sampling rate is then averaged by the interval input. The instrument’s sampling rate is
approximately once a second. The CI-340 will only recognize integer divisions (1 ~ 32768 seconds).
key saves the resulting
The instrument will not register letters of symbols. Pressing the
filename and time interval, respectively. Note that entering a file name twice will display “duplicate
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PHOTOSYNTHESIS, TRANSPIRATION AND STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE
name” on the screen, and a different file name should be entered. Using 0 for the interval will require
the user to press the
key each time a measurement is to be saved.
Control CS, AD, or LA?
CS=1, AD=2, LA=4, CS+AD+LA=7...
_____
If the CI-301CS is used, enter number “1”. If the CI-301AD is used, enter number “2”. If the CI301LA is used, enter number “4”. If both the CI-301CS and the CI-301AD are used, enter number
“3”. If both the CI-301CS and the CI-301LA are used, enter number “5”. If the CI-301AD and the CI301LA are used, enter number “6”. If all the three accessories are used, enter number “7”. To operate
key. If one or more
the CI-340 without any accessories, enter number “0”, or just press
accessories are to be used, you will be asked to enter one or all of following parameters:
Desired Temperature? (Deg C)
___
Desired CO2 Concentration? (ppm)
___
Desired Relative Humidity? (%)
___
Desired PAR? (mmol/m2/s)
___
For each question, enter a number and press
information.
key. Refer to the appendixes for detailed
At this point, an area of the leaf sample will be asked for. Enter the area (in cm2). It has been designed
so that areas too large or small will severely affect necessary calculations for photosynthesis,
transmission or stomatal conductance rates. The allotted range is .001 ~ 10,000 cm2. If the leaf you
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PHOTOSYNTHESIS, TRANSPIRATION AND STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE
are using fully covers the leaf chamber window, enter the area of the window. Table 7-1 and 7-2 at
the end of this chapter list the window sizes of all the leaf chambers CID, Inc. manufactures.
Flow rate? (lpm)
___
Enter the intended flow rate (in lpm). The pump and flow sensor have been designed to operate under
controlled specifications. Use a flow rate between 0.1 and 1 lpm. But if the CI-301AD is used, the
flow rate should be < 0.5 lpm.
Finally, the CI-340 will ask whether an open or closed system measurement will be conducted. The
default entry is for the open system (press
to use the default). Press “C” to select the closed
system measurement or “O” for open system. The closed system function will ask for the chamber
volume (in liters). Refer to Table 7-2 for closed system chamber information. Closed system
measurements can be terminated when a certain change in time (ΔT) or change in CO2 (ΔCO2) has
been measured, or the
key can be pressed. Press “T” for ΔT or press “C” for ΔCO2. The
system will then ask for the length of time or the change in CO2 required for the measurement. Also,
refer to the CLOSED AND OPEN SYSTEMS section for further elaboration of measuring
procedures.
The instrument will be stabilizing for several seconds. Then data output will be displayed. Use the
arrow keys on the keypad to scroll up and down to view all the data.
CLOSED AND OPEN SYSTEMS
The CI-340 promotes a portable solution to the concept behind open and closed systems. A closed
system environment can measure the CO2 concentration in the chamber over a given period of time.
An open system environment can measure CO2 concentration in the chamber by a steady air stream
flow. At any rate (0.2 to 1.0 lpm), this instrument provides another practical method to determine
photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance.
The physical distinction between the two systems is with the accessory tubing attachment (Figure 71). The open system utilizes a steady stream of fresh air; the closed system recirculates the air within
the analyzer environment. Figures 7-2 and 7-3 illustrate further the CI-340’s closed and open system
flow chart, respectively.
Figure 7-1. The CI-340 accessory tubing attachment.
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PHOTOSYNTHESIS, TRANSPIRATION AND STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE
Note: The tubing accessory should not be kinked or restricted during operation. A replacement
tube can be used; it should be of vinyl or polyurethane material and approximately 5” long. Tygon
B-44-3 is normally used because it does not absorb much moisture.
Figure 7-2 (top). Tubing schematic for a closed system. Figure 7-3 (bottom). Tubing schematic for
an open system. A supplied filter should be connected between the inlet and the tubing.
The closed system recirculates the air in the system; the open system sends a constant flow of external
air into the system. There are five available sizes of leaf chambers to conduct experiments for the
open system method (Table 7-1). Generally, the manufacturer recommends choosing a chamber large
enough to contain the leaf environment (i.e., using a leaf larger than the chamber area would produce
inaccurate results).
Determine the best size chamber (Table 7-1) for the measurements to be taken. Proceed to insert and
attach the leaf chamber to the CI-340. Refer to the LEAF CHAMBER — CARE AND USE chapter
for proper applications of the leaf chamber(s). Then press the
begin the measurement process.
or
and
key(s) to
Table 7-1. Open system chamber sizes:
3/31/2008
Chamber Types
Window Size (W x L mm)
Window Area (cm2)
Square
25 x 25
6.25
Narrow Rectangular
65 x 10
6.5
Wide Rectangular
55 x 20
11
Small Cylindrical
25 x 90
22.5
Rev. 4.3
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PHOTOSYNTHESIS, TRANSPIRATION AND STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE
Large Cylindrical
50 x 70
35
The closed system environment deals with chambers of variable volume. Each individual chamber is
designed to interchange with the CI-340; however, they serve different sizes of the plant element.
There are four available sizes of leaf chambers to conduct experiments for the closed system method
(Table 7-2). Generally, the manufacturer recommends choosing a chamber large enough to contain
the leaf environment (i.e., using a leaf larger than the chamber area would produce inaccurate results).
When using the closed system, refer to Table 7-2 for such related values. Also, refer to the LEAF
CHAMBER —CARE AND USE chapter for proper applications of the leaf chamber. Press the
and
key(s) to begin the measurement process. The duration of collecting
or
measurements is dependent upon the needs of the user.
Table 7-2. Closed system chamber sizes:
3/31/2008
Chamber Types
Size (W x L x H mm)
Volume (liter)
1/4 Liter
104 x 33 x 73
0.2505
1/2 Liter
89 x 66 x 86
0.5052
1 Liter
112 x 91 x 99
1.0090
4 Liter
180 x 130 x 170
3.9780
Rev. 4.3
7-6
PHOTOSYNTHESIS, TRANSPIRATION AND STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE
DATA DISPLAY SCREENS
Numeric data is displayed during the measurements. The different screens can be accessed by
pressing the arrow keys,
to move up and
to move down:
Starting Screen:
CO2 in
CO2 dif
PAR
Flow
Tair
Flourescence
CO2 out
Pn
ATM
W
Tleaf
Count
H2O in
H2O dif
RHin
Tair
IntCO2
Exit to quit
H2O out
E
RHout
Tleaf
C
InternalT
Screen 2:
GRAPH MODE
The data display can be switched between graphic mode and alpha/numeric mode by pressing “G”
(shift, 3). The upper 1/8th of the graph will be erased when switching between modes (a memory
limitation with the current hardware). It is best used for large sample data.
With the use of the CI-510LA (CI-301LA), the response curve of photosynthesis vs. light can be seen
by pressing “L” when measuring photosynthesis (that is shift, shift, shift 4). The CI-340 will ask for
the number of steps for light response and then will direct the CI-510LA to increase the light intensity
from very low to very high in that number of steps. Make sure the intensity knob on the CI-510LA is
turned all the way counterclockwise (see Appendix B). Only the CI-510LA ordered with CI-340 can
be automatically controlled by the CI-340 to generate the light response curve.
The response curve of photosynthesis vs. CO2 can be seen by pressing “C” (shift, shift, shift, 1) when
measuring photosynthesis. The CI-340 will then ask what step size to make the CO2 adjustments, and
then it will direct the CI-510AD (CI-301AD) to slowly step from the lower limit to the upper limit,
using approximately the specified step size. Make sure the CO2 knob is turned all the way counter-
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PHOTOSYNTHESIS, TRANSPIRATION AND STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE
clockwise. Only the CI-510AD ordered with the CI-340 can be automatically controlled by the CI340 to generate the CO2 response curve.
The response curve of photosynthesis vs. air temperature can be seen by pressing “T” (shift, shift, 7)
when measuring photosynthesis. The instrument will ask for the number of steps for the temperature
response curve, and then will direct the CI-510CS (CI-301CS) Temperature Controller to start at a
low temperature and increase the air temperature in the leaf chamber to a high temperature in that
number of steps. Make sure the temperature control knob is turned all the way counterclockwise.
Only the CI-510CS ordered with the CI-340 can be automatically controlled by the CI-340 to
generate the temperature response curve.
Pressing “EXIT” while in the graph mode can stop the response curve. This will return the display to
the alpha/numeric mode and stop any further changes to the controlled parameters. It will also erase
the graph.
The tick marks at the left of the screen while in graph mode represent 5 µmolm-2s-1.
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7-8
CARE OF THE CI-340
CARE OF THE CI-340
This instrument is designed for portable or stationary use. Whether it is used in the field or on a
tripod, the CI-340 is versatile and lightweight, as well as accurate and user-friendly. The
manufacturer would like to give you a few suggestions to help you take care of your instrument.
•
Although the instrument can operate while in motion, avoid any unnecessary movement, and
avoid subjecting the instrument to drastic shock. Due to the lightweight design, the CI-340
represents features that are sensitive to the given precautions.
•
Do not allow water or excessive moisture to get into the instrument. The CI-340 can measure air
with high humidity, but it is highly recommended to avoid such circumstances. In addition, if
used in the field environment, please avoid extremely dusty conditions. Always use the external
filter provided.
•
Operate the instrument using ideal temperature settings. Manufacturer testing shows that
operating the CI-340 under extreme temperatures (below 5°C or above 45°C) will affect its
performance.
•
When not in use, store the instrument in a cool and dry location. Preferably, place the CI-340
back in the carrying case in an ambient or reasonably cool room.
•
Do not open or break the seal on the instrument. Under any conditions that require attention
internally, immediately contact the nearest representative or manufacturer to assist you.
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8-1
LEAF CHAMBER - CARE AND USE
LEAF CHAMBER — CARE AND USE
The leaf chambers are designed to be interchangeable with the CI-340. Any of the closed or open
system chambers can be used with ease and reliability. The leaf chambers should receive the same
care and attention as is recommended for the CI-340.
When attaching a chamber (see Figure 9-1) to the instrument, check that the O-rings (black, rubbery
rings) are in place on the connecting tubes of the chamber. Although the O-rings are not permanently
fixed on the tubes, they play an important part of assuring a better seal to the interconnecting CI-340.
A chamber without O-rings on the tubes may demonstrate leakage at the CI-340 connection.
To attach the chamber to the CI-340, carefully slide the tubes on the chamber into the “head” end of
the instrument, aligning the locking screw (from the CI-340) with the mating hole in the chamber.
Turn the locking screw to fasten the chamber to the CI-340, without over-tightening. This assures a
good lock and maximizes contact area for electrical connection between the chamber and the
instrument. The instrument may be kept on; however, do not start measurements without first
attaching a chamber.
Furthermore, the IR Temperature sensor and PAR sensor should be inserted into their respective
locations on the chamber (see Figure 9-2). Check that the IR Temperature sensor is plugged securely
(without bending the tiny wire by the sensor lens) and the PAR sensor is firmly slid in to acquire ideal
measurement conditions. Connect the IR Temperature sensor and PAR sensor plugs into their
respective locations on the “head” end of the CI-340. The IR Temperature sensor should be handled
with great care.
With the chamber attached to the CI-340, and the IR Temperature sensor and PAR sensor inserted,
the leaf chamber is ready for use. Place the sample between the seals of the chamber. Now, gently
close the chamber; it will lock into place on the sample. Once sampling is completed, push the release
head forward to open the chamber. For LC-4, 5, 7-10, the release head is located on the latch piece of
the chamber. For LC-1-3, the release head is located on the topside. To disassemble, simply reverse
the steps followed to assemble the unit
Figure 9-1.llustration of a leaf chamber: CI-301LC-2, Wide Rectangular Chamber for an open
system.
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9-1
LEAF CHAMBER - CARE AND USE
We recommend working in temperature ranges between 5 and 45 ºC for greatest precision. Be sure
both sensors are connected to the leaf chamber prior to using. The PAR sensor is extremely sensitive
to even subtle changes in the light environment.
Figure 9-2. Connecting a leaf chamber to the CI-340.
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9-2
RECHARGING
RECHARGING
The CI-340 includes a 7.2V, 3.7Ah Li-ion battery. This battery pack is common among equipment
that utilizes portability (primarily video camcorders). When the battery is fully charged, it will last
for approximately five hours of continuous use. Optional batteries can be used with more operational
time available.
Any one of the following conditions will affect the power supply and the operation of the instrument:
•
Batteries are tested and fully charged when they leave the manufacturer, but they discharge
during shipping and transport.
•
When the battery voltage is below 5.6V, the message “Low Battery” will appear on the screen.
This indication signals an approximate five minutes of use remaining before the instrument shuts
down.
•
When operating the instrument at colder temperatures (below 5oC), the battery will diminish in
performance.
Batteries should be fully recharged as soon as possible after use. Storing in a discharged state can
ruin the battery. The batteries should be stored in a cool and dry place, fully charged. Check with the
warranty, manufacturer, or the nearest representative for support if the battery has been damaged or
tampered with.
Rechargeable batteries should be recycled after their useful life. Visit www.rbrc.org for more
information on recycling.
TO POWER YOUR CI-340 FROM A LAB POWER SOCKET
Figure 10-1. Charger/adapter, power cable and DC
coupler connections.
1. Connect the DC coupler to the CI-340. Align the front end of the DC coupler with the guides on
the back of the CI-340, then press and slide the DC coupler into the CI-340 to set it in place.
2. Connect the power cable to the charger/adapter.
3. Plug the power cable into a lab power socket.
4. Connect the DC coupler to the charger/adapter’s DC terminal.
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Rev. 4.3
10-1
RECHARGING
TO DISCONNECT THE CHARGER/ADAPTER
1. Turn the CI-340 off and detach the DC coupler.
2. Disconnect the DC coupler from the charger/adapter.
3. Unplug the charger/adapter and disconnect the power cable from the charger/adapter.
TO CHARGE THE Li-ion BATTERY
Figure 10-2. Attach the Li-ion Battery to the charger/adapter.
Note: Make sure that the DC coupler is not connected to the charger/adapter. The Li-ion Battery will
not charge if the DC coupler is connected to the charger/adapter.
1. Connect the power cable to the charger/adapter. (See Figure 10-2.)
2. Plug the power cable into a lab power socket.
3. Attach the Li-ion Battery to the charger/adapter.
•
Align the front end of the Li-ion Battery with the guides on the charger/adapter, then press and
slide the Li-ion Battery into the charger/adapter to set it in place.
•
The red charge indicator will flash while the Li-ion Battery is charging. Single flashes indicate
that the Li-ion Battery is charged less that 50%. Double flashes indicate that it is 50-75% charged.
Triple flashes indicate that it is more than 75% charged. The indicator shines steady when the
Li-ion Battery is fully charged.
4. Remove the Li-ion Battery.
5. Unplug the charger/adapter and disconnect the power cable from the charger/adapter.
NOTES
•
If the charger/adapter does not seem to be working, this may be because its safety circuit has been
activated. Unplug the charger/adapter, wait a few minutes, and plug it in again.
•
The charge indicator does not light up when the DC coupler is connected.
•
If the adapter is used next to a TV, it may cause the TV to emit noise – move the charger/adapter
away from the TV or the aerial cable.
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
10-2
RECHARGING
•
Never unplug the charger/adapter during use or disconnect the DC coupler from the
charger/adapter when the DC coupler is being used.
•
Be sure to unplug the charger/adapter when you have finished using it.
•
Battery charging will stop if you connect the DC coupler to the charger/adapter, but it will resume
as soon as you disconnect it.
•
The charger/adapter can be used with a power supply between 100 and 240 V AC. Contact your
Canon Service Center for information about plug adapters for overseas use.
•
To prevent equipment breakdowns and excessive heating, do not connect this charger/adapter to
voltage converters used by travelers, or special power sources such as on aircraft, ships or DC to
AC inverters, etc.
•
Use only specified CI-340 products with this charger/adapter.
•
Do not disassemble the charger/adapter (or DC coupler), and do not expose it to water, shock or
vibration, or to direct sunlight. Avoid exposure to high temperatures, such as a closed car in hot
weather, and do not leave it near heat-radiating equipment, such as a stove or heater.
BATTERY CHARGER SPECIFICATIONS
Power supply:
100 to 240 V AC, 50/60Hz
Power consumption:
24 W
Rated output:
Adapter mode: 7.2 V, 2.0 A DC
(Nominal)
Charge mode: 8.4 V, 1.5 A DC
Operating temperature range:
0 – 40oC (32 – 104 oF)
Dimensions:
75 x 51 x 99 mm (3 x 2 x 37/8 in.)
Weight:
215g (75/8oz.)
Weight: Weight and dimensions are approximate. Errors and omissions excepted. Subject to change
without notice.
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Rev. 4.3
10-3
EQUATIONS
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Rev. 4.3
11-1
EQUATIONS
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Rev. 4.3
11-2
EQUATIONS
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Rev. 4.3
11-3
TROUBLESHOOTING
TROUBLESHOOTING
If for some reason the instrument is not performing as you expect, please follow these troubleshooting
procedures. If these procedures do not solve the problem, contact the manufacturer or nearest
representative.
Display does not come on . . .
•
•
•
•
Check the battery connection. Make sure the battery is properly inserted.
Dead battery. Battery needs to be replaced or recharged.
Too much direct light on the display. Pivot or ‘shadow’ the display area such that direct
light does not “blank” out the screen. Excessive glare may be the obvious problem
Make sure the accessory cable (if plugged into the CI-340) is in the “OFF” position,
towards the instrument, or simply unplug the cable connector. The switch should only be
in the “ON” position, away from the instrument, when downloading codes from a
computer.
Display does not come on after continuous operation...
•
•
•
•
Check the battery connection. Make sure the battery is properly inserted.
Press the EXIT or STOP key to stop any on-going function, or...
Press the OFF key to automatically shut off the power, or...
Remove the battery, then re-insert.
Display flickers, then goes out . . .
•
•
Low battery. Battery needs to be replaced or recharged.
Check the battery connection. The battery may not be completely installed.
Keys on the keypad do not respond effectively . . .
•
•
Apply firm pressure to and hold the key(s) until the beep is heard. Multiple keys pressed
(simultaneously) may result in unintentional signal(s) to the microprocessor.
Be sure to press the requested key(s) necessary for information to be processed. Any key,
when the unit is powered on, will produce a “beep” sound.
Keypad sound (“beep”) does not respond effectively . . .
•
•
Make sure to press the key(s) firmly and hold until the “beep” sounds. When the
instrument is busy performing a task, it may not respond immediately to a pressed key.
Check to see that the key sequence(s) are valid. Randomness does not guarantee a proper
operational instrument.
CO2, H2O readings dramatically fluctuate or deteriorate during measurements . .
•
•
3/31/2008
Check for proper tube, chamber connections. A good secure fit obtains and promotes
more accurate measurements and results.
Make sure the chamber head is closed properly. The measuring environment should be
appropriately sealed by the chamber head so that the intended sample is analyzed
accurately.
Rev. 4.3
12-1
TROUBLESHOOTING
•
•
The sample(s) may not be a good source.
Ambient, internal operating temperatures may be too extreme. Check with the instrument
accessory specifications for ideal operating conditions.
Analyzer displays zero values for CO2, H2O concentrations . . .
•
Check for proper calibration(s). Using a Di-nitrogen (N2) source for both the CO2 and
H2O concentration is highly recommended for the 0-ppm source. Using a 300- or 600ppm source is highly recommended for the known source of CO2; a known source
between 1 ~ 7.5 kPa of water vapor pressure is required.
• The sample(s) may not be a good source.
If at the end of setting photosynthesis parameters, the “Exit to Quit” screen remains on longer
than 30 seconds, it is possible that the flow calibration is not calibrated properly.
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12-2
SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS
SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS
CO2 Analyzer:
Type: Stable analyzer for accurate CO2 and H2O measurements
Sensor: Low power infrared detector. No sensitivity to motion
Chopping frequency: 1 Hz
Source life: 5000 hours
Sensor response time: 40 seconds
Repeatability: ± 0.1ppm (short term)
Sample cell: 100 L × 10.2 Dia mm (3.94”L × 0.40” Dia)
Warm-up time: Approximately 3 minutes
Accuracy: Better than ± 2% anytime.
Resolution: 0.1 ppm.
Power supply: 7.2 Volts rechargeable battery providing 4 hours of continuous use, or AC power
Power consumption: 2.5 watts (sample pump in operation)
Pump flow rate: 100 ~ 1000 cm3min-1 (1 lpm)
Mass flow meter Accuracy: 2%
Display: LCD 40 × 6 characters or 320 × 60 dots graphic
Data output: PC link cable, RS232 or USB (with adapter)
Data storage: 2 MB internal FLASH RAM
Operation temperature: 0 to 50ºC, 5 ~ 95% RH
Dimensions: 452 L × 53 W × 48 D mm (17.8” × 2.1” × 1.9”)
Weight: 1.5 Kg., (3 lb.) (with battery)
Response Time: ≅250mL/min; to 95% of final value: ≅40 sec
Standard range: 0-2000 ppm
H2O Analyzer
Type: Highly stable analyzer for accurate H2O measurements.
Range: H2O range: 0 to 100% RH
Sensor: The CI-340 uses a humidity sensitive capacitor to measure the relative humidity. Its range is 0-100% with
an accuracy of +/-2% at 10% RH and +/-3.5% at 90% RH. The response time of the sensor is about 15 seconds.
Typical Signal: The sensor electronics typically puts out a 0.5V signal for 50% RH, which is
amplified to 2.34V and measured with a 16bit ADC.
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13-1
SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS
PAR Sensor
Type: Filtered GaAsP photodiode
Range: 0 ~ 2500 µmol m-2 s-1.
Accuracy: 5 µmol m-2 s-1.
Response: 400 ~ 700 nm
AIR Temperature Sensor
Type: Thermocouple.
Range: -15 ~ 50°C
Accuracy: ± 0.1°C
Leaf Temperature Sensor
Type: Infrared.
Range: -10 ~ 50°C
Accuracy: ± 0.3°C
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
13-2
POWER PACK / ACCESSORY BAG
POWER PACK
The CI-340 Battery Pack is necessary to operate the modules to control light, temperature, CO2
concentration, humidity level and chlorophyll fluorescence measurement. CI-340 Battery Pack (Figure 14-1)
includes two rechargeable batteries, AC power supply charger (Figure 14-2), carrying bag, and cable
connections for optional modules.
If you have all four modules, the power cable should be plugged in during operation (Figure 14-3). If you do
not have all four modules, there will be foam spacers in the unfilled spaces in the bag.
Two hours are needed to charge the battery. You do not need to discharge the battery before recharging.
IMPORTANT: Be sure to charge the battery every day when you are using it. Never let the battery power
run completely out. Doing so may damage the battery.
Figure 14-1. Plug in power cables to run the
modules after connecting the batteries.
Figure 14-2. 230V/115V AC Power Supply
Charger
Figure 14-3. Modular bag with four modules.
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Rev. 4.3
14-1
POWER PACK / ACCESSORY BAG
ACCESSORY CONTROL PORT AND CABLE
Figure 14-4. CI-340 Accessory Control Port.
The colored jacks on the accessory control cable (Figure 14Last printed 3/31/2008 9:13:00 AM-5)
indicate the accessory / module to plug into. The red plug goes to the CI-510CS, the blue to the CI301LA, green to the CI-510CF, and the yellow plug to the CI-301AD.
Figure 14-5. Accessory Control Cable with color indicating jacks.
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
14-2
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX A
CI-510CS TEMPERATURE CONTROL MODULE
The CI-510CS Temperature Control Module consists of two components (see Figure A-1 and A-2): A
controller and Temperature Control Attachment. The CI-510CS allows you to increase or decrease
the temperature ±25°C from ambient temperature.
CAUTION: Avoid any obstruction or contact with the fan guards, especially small objects and
fingers.
Figure A-1: The front panel of the CI-510CS Temperature Control Module Controller
Figure A-2. Temperature Control Attachment, Electrical connector and Hoses.
Figure A-3. Water connection tubing / hose
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
A-1
APPENDIX A
FILLING RESERVOIR
Attach one of the hoses from the Temperature Control Attachment to the “OUT” fitting (Figure A-4).
There is no polarity; it does not matter which hose is used. A water connection kit is provided in a
plastic bag. The water connection hose (Figure A-3) is connected to the “IN” fitting. This connection
hose can be used to prime the assembled unit with water (distilled water should be used) by inserting
it into a water bath (a large bowl, bucket, sink, etc.). The remaining water connection hose (Figure A3) attaches to the other hose connection on the Temperature Control Attachment (Figure A-4).
Turn the power on and observe the flow of water so that water steadily exits the other hose
connection (from the Temperature Control Attachment). Once a steady flow of water has been
established (air bubbles should not be noticed within the hoses), turn the power off momentarily,
detach the water connection hose and connect the free-end hose from the Temperature Control
Attachment into the “IN” fitting on the controller. Make sure the hoses are not bent or twisted. It is
advisable to remove all moisture on the Controller panel (especially around the electrical connector).
The Temperature Control Attachment is connected to the Controller marked “COOLING UNIT” with
an electrical five-pin connector (Figure A-5).
CAUTION: Do not run the Controller without connecting the supply hose to a filled water
reservoir. Otherwise, this could result in overheating and a possible malfunction of the pump.
Figure A-4 Tube configuration for filling the CI-510CS reservoir.
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
A-2
APPENDIX A
Figure A-5
EMPTYING RESERVOIR
Care for the CI-510CS Temperature Control System as you would any other sensitive instrument. The
water in the hose needs to be completely drained after your experiment is finished. Empty the
reservoir, by leaving the “IN” port on the controller panel open to air. Connect one hose from the
Temperature Control Attachment to the “OUT” port on the controller module. Connect the water
connection tube to the other hose from the Temperature Control Attachment and insert it in a
container (Figure A-6). Turn on the controller module and allow it to empty. It may be necessary to
rotate the unit from side to side to get all excess water out of the reservoir. Store the components so
that the hoses are not crushed or twisted. This permits the water to flow freely throughout the hoses
for future usage.
Figure A-6 Configuration for emptying reservoir.
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
A-3
APPENDIX A
OPERATING TEMPERATURE CONTROL MODULE
The CI-510CS Temperature Control Module is to be used with an Open System leaf chamber. Before
connecting the Temperature Control Attachment to your chamber, moisten the two surfaces
(improving thermal contact), which will be touching. You may do this by applying a few drops of
water to each surface. Align the two small screws on the Temperature Control Attachment with the
threaded holes on the chamber bottom and tighten, using the Allen wrench provided. (see Figure A7). The Infrared Leaf Temperature sensor should be inserted into the respective hole on the chamber
bottom.
Figure A-7. Illustration of Leaf Chamber, Allen wrench and Temperature Control Attachment.
A 12V battery supply outlet is provided for the CI-510CS. Remove all moisture on the Controller
panel. Plug the power connector to the jack marked 12V DC on the panel (Figure A-7).
WARNING: Only the provided power source can be used for the CI-510CS. Using other power
sources or power adapters may damage the CI-340 and the module. This will void the warranty.
Figure A-8. Configuration for the CI-510CS Temperature Control Module.
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
A-4
APPENDIX A
To operate the CI-510CS, turn the power on. Temperature can be adjusted to a cooler or warmer state
with the “Temperature” knob. You can vary the setting according to the readout of your CI-340
Photosynthesis System.
There is a “Remote Input” socket on the Controller panel. This can be used by remote control for the
purpose of automatically adjusting the system. The temperature control knob will set the minimum
temperature for remote control, so set the knob on the controller panel counterclockwise (all the way
cold) for remote control.
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
A-5
APPENDIX B
APPENDIX B
CI-301LA LIGHT ATTACHMENT
The CI-301LA Light Attachment works with the flat, Open System chambers supplied by the
manufacturer. It can be used indoors or outdoors as an alternative to sunlight and an intensitycontrolled light source. The light emitted covers the photosynthesis wave band.
Figure B-1. Lamp Control Unit and Lamp.
To mount the CI-301LA (see Figure B-2), loosen the securing foot, place the lamp over the chamber,
and screw in the foot against the chamber. The knob on the control unit allows you to manually adjust
the light intensity, which ranges from 0 to 2,000 mmol m-2s-1. Note that the light is equipped with
cooling fans, which have exhaust vents (along the sides), and intake vents (on the bottom). Keep these
vents clear at all times during use to avoid overheating.
Refer to Page A-1 in APPENDIX A to connect the power supply into the 12V connector on the
control unit front panel.
An Accessories cable (one end with an eight pin connector, the other end with four plugs) should be
used in order to have the CI-301LA controlled by the CI-340 instrument. Connect the eight-pin
connector of the Accessory control cable to the Accessory control Port (see Figure 2-2) on the end of
the CI-340. Insert the plug with blue color band into the External Control jack on the CI-301LA
control unit (Page A-4 in APPENDIX A).
Note: Turn the power off to the CI-301LA when attaching cables.
In order to allow the CI-340 instrument to control the CI-301LA, turn the intensity control knob
counter clockwise all the way down. Keep the knob in that position during the operation. The CI301LA lamp illuminates when it is working.
A small cable with a plug connected to the lamp is the PAR sensing output. Make sure that the lamp
covers the chamber window area so the PAR intensity emitted from the lamp or the external PAR
sensor can be utilized. It is recommended that if the cable plugs into the CI-340, the external PAR
sensor should not be plugged in.
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
B-1
APPENDIX B
REMINDER: The CI-301LA Light Attachment intake and exhaust vents must remain unobstructed during use to avoid overheating
and possible damage to the light source. Do not place the lamp exhaust vents face down
Figure B-2. Configuration for the CI-301LA Light Attachment.
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
B-2
APPENDIX C
APPENDIX C
CI-301AD ADJUSTABLE H2O AND CO2 CONTROL MODULE
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The CI-301AD provides a gas source with a CO2 concentration adjustable from approximately 0 to
2000 ppm at flow rates up to 0.5 lpm. The unit also allows adjustment of the gas humidity level from
approximately 5% relative humidity to 20-30% above ambient humidity levels up to 95%. The CI301AD uses a CO2 cartridge and soda lime to regulate CO2 levels, and silica gel and water to control
humidity.
Figure C-1. Illustration of CI-301AD Adjustable H2O and CO2 Control Module.
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
Adding Consumables
Before operating the CI-301AD, the proper consumable materials must be loaded. For full operation
(control of CO2 and humidity), the unit requires a CO2 cartridge, soda lime (CO2 absorbent), silica gel
(desiccant) and water. The soda lime, silica gel and water must be placed in the correct tubes.
NOTE: When it is not desired to use the humidity control feature, it is unnecessary to add silica gel
or water. In this case, the H2O control knob should be in its minimum (fully counterclockwise)
position to conserve power.
To remove a chemical or water tube, gently pull each end off the coupler tubes. Make sure that the
two O-rings on each coupler tube remain in place.
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
C-1
APPENDIX C
The CI-301AD is shipped with fresh soda lime and silica gel in their appropriate tubes. If it should
become necessary to open a tube, hold it in both hands and use the thumbs to push the cap off. The
cotton balls should be replaced each time the tubes are refilled. Refer to the REPLACING
CONSUMABLE section for instructions on replacing the filters. When filling the tubes, gently tap
the bottom against a firm surface several times to help the material settle. Replace the top cap making
sure there is sufficient room in the tube. Press firmly to seal in place, and twist if necessary to seat the
O-rings. Replace the tube in the proper position on the CI-301AD.
To fill the water tube, remove the top cap in the same manner. The caps will come off along with an
internal assembly. This assembly deflects water bubbles from entering the system during operation.
You will notice a scribed line on the center of the tube. Add water to this line. Under no
circumstances should you fill the water tube above this line. Doing so may cause liquid to emerge
from the output under certain operating conditions creating potential damage to the connected gas
analyzer. Replace the top cap firmly, and place the tubes back in the correct position on the CI301AD. The water tube should be emptied if the unit is not used for more than one or two days.
CONNECTION TO POWER AND THE ANYLIZER
The CI-301AD requires 12V DC for operation. Refer to page A-4 and figure A-7 to connect the
power supply to the connector marked “12V DC” on the CI-301AD controller unit front panel.
Remove all moisture on the controller panel. Plug the power connector to the jack marked “12V DC”
on the panel.
Before operation, connect the “OUT” port on the CI-301AD to the “INTAKE” port on the CI-340
(see Figure C-1). Adjust both control knobs to their minimum (fully counterclockwise) positions.
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
C-2
APPENDIX C
Figure C-1: Configuration for the CI-301AD Adjustable Humidity and CO2 Control Module.
OPERATION
NOTE: The CI-301AD does not supply gas under pressure to the output. This is because constant
flow must be established inside the unit to maintain stability; unused gas is exhausted inside the case.
Gas must be drawn from the output by the analyzer or an external pump. When connected to the CI340 CO2 gas analyzer, the pumps inside the Analyzer will draw the gas from the CI-301AD into the
analyzer system. An external pump may be required if using a different analyzer.
Do not attempt to draw more than 0.5 LPM (liter per minute) from the CI-301AD output. Doing so
may result in ambient air being drawn into the system, causing inaccurate results.
The CI-301AD must be fully upright to operate (with the control panel facing upwards). This is
necessary for two reasons. First, the soda lime and silica gel cartridges operate most efficiently in a
fully upright position. Second, if the unit were to tip too far in operation, liquid might enter the
system and be pumped to the analyzer, causing potential damage. If the unit is to be carried while in
operation, care should be taken to avoid tipping or shaking. This may cause power fluctuations, which
could temporarily affect stability.
To begin operation, turn the power on. This should be done 5 to 10 minutes before the system is to be
used, allowing time for the flow to stabilize. It may take about 5 to 10 minutes to purge the system
thoroughly. Set the CO2 fully on during this time. The fastest way to purge the CO2 chamber the first
time it is used after standing for a long period of time is to turn the CO2 fully on, then turn the CO2
fully off several times. This will cause ambient air that is trapped in the chamber to be replaced with
pure CO2.
Turn the H2O knob to adjust the relative humidity. This must be done before adjusting the CO2 level,
since changes will affect the CO2 concentration. The desiccant used to control humidity absorbs CO2
gas.
Turn the CO2 knob to adjust the CO2 level. There is a slight delay before stabilization occurs It will
generally take a minute or so to fully stabilize (assuming the CO2 chamber has been previously filled
with CO2, or 2 to 10 minutes if it has not been filled with CO2).
To enable the CI-340 instrument to control the CO2 / H2O levels remotely, the accessory cable must
be connected to the CI-340 and the yellow color-coded plug must be inserted into the remote control
jack of the CI-301AD. Turn the CO2 knob fully counterclockwise and the H2O knob fully clockwise.
REPLACING THE CONSUMABLES
The CI-301AD requires periodic replacement of the CO2, soda lime, silica gel, water, and filters. All
materials should be available locally through chemical or laboratory supply dealers, or they may be
ordered from CID, Inc.
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
C-3
APPENDIX C
Soda Lime
The soda lime should last for 8 to 24 hours of operation under most circumstances. Actual operating
time will depend upon ambient CO2 levels. The soda lime supplied is an indicating variety: it will
turn slightly blue as it becomes exhausted.
The output of the CI-301AD may become unstable and show an increase in the CO2 level as the soda
lime reaches exhaustion. When this happens, replace the soda lime.
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
C-4
APPENDIX C
Use the same procedure described under Operating Instructions – “Adding Consumable” to refill the
soda lime tube. Replace the filters (see Filters section below). Remember to gently tap the tube to
help settle the material. Keep all containers of fresh soda lime tightly sealed to prevent absorption of
ambient CO2.
Silica Gel
The silica gel should last from four to eight hours of operation under most circumstances. Actual
operating time will depend on ambient humidity levels. The silica gel supplied is a beaded, dustminimizing material of an indicating variety. The fresh material is dark blue and turns yellow as it
nears exhaustion. The relative humidity of the output of the CI-301AD will increase as the silica gel
becomes exhausted. When this happens, replace the silica gel.
Use the same procedure described under Operating Instructions-Adding Consumable to refill the
silica gel tube. Replace the cotton ball filters (see Filters section below). Remember to gently tap the
tube to help settle the material. Keep all containers of fresh silica gel tightly sealed to prevent
absorption of ambient moisture.
The used silica gel may be discarded or dried in an oven. If the material is dried, it should be placed
in a sealed container before cooling. Note that the indicator incorporated into the silica gel may not
function properly after this process, even though the silica gel itself may be dry.
Water
Water should be added if the level falls significantly. Change the water if it becomes cloudy or
contaminated in any way. Empty the water tube if the CI-301AD is not used for more than one or two
days.
CO2 Cartridge
Screw the CO2 cartridge into the regulator. Set the regulator to 6 psi. The cartridge may seem to be
tight before it is punctured, so make sure to tighten until there is pressure indicated on the meter. The
regulator must be set to “LO” to get a reading on the meter.
Filters
The cotton ball filters located at each end of the soda lime and silica gel tubes become clogged with
fine particles and must be replaced. These filters should be replaced each time the chemicals are
changed.
It is extremely important that the filters be kept clean at all times. The first indication of a clogged
filter will be instability in the output of the CI-301AD. This may be followed by a reduction in the
available flow.
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
C-5
APPENDIX D
APPENDIX D
CI-301SR SOIL RESPIRATION CHAMBER
The CI-301SR Soil Respiration chamber allows easy measurements of soil respiration using the
Closed System mode of the CI-340.
Connect the CI-301SR (see Figure D-1) to the CI-340 in the Closed System configuration (refer to the
CLOSED SYSTEM section if you need further assistance). Insert the PAR sensor firmly into its
respective slot on top of the soil respiration chamber (refer to the LEAF CHAMBER - CARE AND
USE section). The IR Temperature sensor must be used to detect soil temperatures. Plug its cable into
the CI-340, then into the respective hole on top of the chamber.
Now, place the CI-301SR on the area of soil that you wish to measure with the open end of the
cylinder downwards. Rotate the chamber slightly to ensure that the cylinder is seated into the surface
of the soil; a good seal is important to obtain accurate readings. If you need PAR readings, check so
that the PAR sensor is under direct sunlight.
Soil respiration results will be shown as the photosynthesis reading. Note that the readings will be
displayed in negative values.
Clean the CI-301SR after use. A soft, dry cloth will usually suffice, but water and mild detergent may
be used, if necessary. Never immerse the chamber in water or pour water into the cylinder. The
chamber contains electronic components, which can be damaged by liquids.
Setup Procedures
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
3/31/2008
Create file
Time Interval – Sampling Time
Photosynthesis Mode P
Zero for no accessory units
Leaf area = soil area = 73.4 cm²
Recommended flow rate 0.5 lpm
Chamber volume is 0.634 liters with soil at the edge of chamber
Chamber volume is 0.580 liters with edge 1 cm. into soil
Time or CO2 End (Time is the length to run measurement; CO2 is the concentration level to
end measurement). Enter T or C
Enter time value or CO2 concentration value
Measurement begins
Rev. 4.3
D-1
APPENDIX D
Figure D-1. Configuration for the CI-301SR Soil Respiration Chamber
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
D-2
APPENDIX E
APPENDIX E
CANOPY CHAMBER — ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS
The Canopy Chamber Attachment is another feature of Closed System measurements. This
attachment is designed to be used with the canopy chamber enclosures measuring canopy
photosynthesis. The enclosures could be of varying sizes, all of which the user can determine. The
following conditions represent the kinds of enclosures that are acceptable:
•
•
•
Materials that are not light-reflected, gas-permeable, light-impenetrable (such as plastic
bags, acrylic shells, most glass canopies)
Larger than the manufacturer’s LC-10 chamber (4-liter volume)
Larger than the measuring sample environment
For accurate installation of this attachment (see Figure E-1), the chamber enclosure must
accommodate for an (circular) opening (approximately 65 mm (2-1/2”)) on one of the sides. An
additional slot can be made for the PAR sensor on the enclosure for accurate measurements of
ambient light intensity. Canopy Chamber Attachment ‘A’ has a position for the PAR sensor
placement; however, this position will not always provide reliable measurements of ambient light
intensity.
To prepare for measurements, align Attachment ‘A’ and Attachment ‘B’ with the seals facing the
enclosure. With this alignment, the tubes (in Attachment ‘A’) should slide into the respective holes in
Attachment ‘B’. Secure the entire Canopy Chamber Attachment onto the enclosure by tightening the
thumbscrews from Attachment ‘B’.
NOTE: When using the IR Temperature sensor, be sure that the 65mm diameter opening is clear
of any obstruction from within the enclosure. This is to ensure accurate leaf temperature
measurements.
Now, attach the Canopy Chamber Attachment to the CI-340 by gently sliding the exposed tubes into
the holes and tightening the locking screw of the CI-340. Place the IR Temperature sensor firmly into
the opening located on Attachment ‘A’. Plug the IR Temperature sensor connector into its CI-340
port. Finally, insert the PAR sensor into the slot of Attachment ‘A’ or in the enclosure opening. If the
chamber enclosure is made of flexible material, a tripod is suggested for an appropriate support of the
CI-340.
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
E-1
APPENDIX E
Figure E-1. Configuration for the Canopy Chamber Attachment.
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
E-2
APPENDIX F
APPENDIX F
CI-510CF CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE MODULE
The CI-510CF is a host operated modulated chlorophyll fluorescence measurement
module. This module performs two functions: generated chlorophyll fluorescence trace
data, and individual pulse (calculated) data. From this, complex kinetic tests can be
performed and analyzed.
CONNECTING THE CI-510CF CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE
MODULE TO THE CI-340 MAIN UNIT
CI-510CF Chlorophyll Fluorescence Module comes with a ‘Y’ shaped fiber optic cable.
To connect the CI-510CF Chlorophyll Fluorescence Module, screw on the two
connectors on the ‘Y’ end of the cable into the holes on the face of the CI-510CF
Chlorophyll Fluorescence Module. Then insert the other end of the cable to the hole on
the side of the chamber. See the graph on the next page for the details. Insert a power
plug into the 12V DC jack on the CI-510CF module. An Accessory control cable (one
end with an eight-pin connector and another end with four plugs) is used for
communication between the CI-340 instrument and the CI-510CF module. Connect the
eight-pin connector of the Accessory control cable to the Accessory control Port (see
Figure 2-2) on the end of the CI-340. Insert the plug with green color band into the
RS232 jack on the CI-510CF control unit.
Always make sure to plug in the electrical connector before plugging in the RS232
cable plug.
CI-340 FLUORESCENCE SATURATION PULSE MEASUREMENT
With the CI-340 and CI-510CF cabled together and with the fiber optic inserted in the
leaf chamber, activate the CI-340 Fluorescence Saturation Pulse Measurement by typing:
“SHIFT SHIFT SHIFT 2”
on the keypad, which is the letter “F” (for fluorescence). The CI-340 will ask for a
filename to save the data under and a pulse length from 0.8 to 3 seconds. The default
saturation pulse length is 1 second. Then the CI-340 will proceed to take the
measurement.
Use the C340DF.exe utility to down load the file to a PC and view the stored file in an
appropriate spreadsheet.
The Fluorescence numbers are generated at a 16 Hz rate and represent the chlorophyll
fluorescence in A/D (Analog to Digital Converter) counts. The last three entries in the
table are:
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
F-1
APPENDIX F
Low Fluorescence value:
Fo - dark, Fs - ambient
High Fluorescence value:
Fm dark, Fms - ambient
Ratio of DHL:H:
Fv/Fm - dark, Y - ambient
The Ratio is the only value that is not in A/D counts. It should be interpreted as 0.xxx
where xxx is the number displayed in the table. For example: if the number displayed is
99, the ratio is 0.099.
The default saturation pulse length is 1 second.
Figure F-1. CI-510CF CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE MODULE
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
F-2
APPENDIX F
SPECIFICATIONS:
Power:
10 to 30 VDC, 75mA (175mA during
saturation pulse)
Fuse:
0.5A FB 3AG
A/D converter:
2000 counts
Measured parameters:
Chlorophyll fluorescence trace data Fo, Fm,
Fv//Fm
(dark adapted) Fs, Fms, Y (ambient
illumination)
Modulated light intensity:
0.25 uE at 12 mm
Saturation light intensity:
3,000 uE at 12 mm
Modulation frequency:
8 Hz to 80 Hz
Fiber optic probe:
bifurcated light guide
3/31/2008
Rev. 4.3
F-3
CID Hardware Warranty
Important: Please read
Seller’s Warranty and Liability: Seller warrants new equipment of its own
manufacturing against defective workmanship and materials for a period of one
year, of a single shift operation, from date of receipt of equipment - the results of
ordinary wear and tear, neglect, misuse, accident and excessive deterioration
due to corrosion from any cause is not to be considered a defect. Any defect
must be called to the attention of CID, Inc., Camas, Washington, USA, in writing,
within 90 days after receipt of the unit.
Seller’s liability for defective parts is limited to the repair or replacement of any
part of the instrument without charge, if CID, Inc.’s examination discloses that
part to have been defective in material or workmanship, and in no event shall
exceed the furnishing of replacement parts F.O.B. the factory where originally
manufactured. No equipment may be repaired or altered by anyone not authorized
by CID, Inc.
Material and equipment covered hereby, which is not manufactured by Seller, is
to be covered only by the warranty of its manufacturer. Seller shall not be liable to
the Buyer for loss, damage, or injury to persons (including death), or to property
or things, whatsoever, including, but without limitation, products processed by the
use of the equipment; or for damages of any kind or nature (including, but without
limitation, loss of anticipated profits), occasioned by or arising out of installation,
operation, use, misuse, nonuse, repair, or replacement of said material and
equipment, or out of the use of any method or process for which the same may be
employed. The purchaser is to pack, ship, or deliver the instrument to CID, Inc.,
in Camas, Washington, USA, within 30 days after CID, Inc. has received written
notice of the defect at the customer’s expense. No other arrangements may be
made unless otherwise approved in writing by CID, Inc.
The use of this equipment constitutes Buyer’s acceptance of the terms set forth in
this warranty. There are no understandings, representations, or warranties of any
kind, express, implied, statutory, or otherwise (including, but without limitation,
the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose),
not expressly set forth herein.
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