PRESONUS FireStudio User`s manual

PRESONUS FireStudio User`s manual
FIRESTUDIO
TUBE
24-bit/96k Recording Interface
w/ Two Class A Vacuum Tube “SuperChannels”
User’s Manual
Version 1.0
© 2008, PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
PRESONUS LIMITED WARRANTY
PreSonus Audio Electronics Inc. warrants this product to be free of defects in material and workmanship for a
period of one year from the date of original retail purchase. This warranty is enforceable only by the original
retail purchaser. To be protected by this warranty, the purchaser must complete and return the enclosed
warranty card within 14 days of purchase. During the warranty period PreSonus shall, at its sole and absolute
option, either repair or replace, free of charge, any product that proves to be defective on inspection by
PreSonus or its authorized service representative. To obtain warranty service, the purchaser must first call or
write PreSonus at the address and telephone number printed below to obtain a Return Authorization Number
and instructions of where to return the unit for service. All inquiries must be accompanied by a description of
the problem. All authorized returns must be sent to the PreSonus repair facility postage prepaid, insured and
properly packaged. PreSonus reserves the right to update any unit returned for repair. PreSonus reserves the
right to change or improve the design of the product at any time without prior notice. This warranty does not
cover claims for damage due to abuse, neglect, alteration or attempted repair by unauthorized personnel, and is
limited to failures arising during normal use that are due to defects in material or workmanship in the product.
Any implied warranties, including implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, are
limited in duration to the length of this limited warranty. Some states do not allow limitations on how long an
implied warranty lasts, so the above limitation may not apply to you. In no event will PreSonus be liable for
incidental, consequential or other damages resulting from the breach of any express or implied warranty,
including, among other things, damage to property, damage based on inconvenience or on loss of use of the
product, and, to the extent permitted by law, damages for personal injury. Some states do not allow the
exclusion of limitation of incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation or exclusion may not
apply to you. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights, which vary from
state to state. This warranty only applies to products sold and used in the United States of America. For
warranty information in all other countries please refer to your local distributor.
PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc.
7257 Florida Blvd.
Baton Rouge, LA 70806
www.PreSonus.com
© 2008, PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 OVERVIEW
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................
Features ................................................................................................................................................
What is in the Box .................................................................................................................................
System Requirements .............................................................................................................................
3
4
5
6
2 OPERATION
2.1 Quick Start Up ....................................................................................................................................... 7
2.1.1 Installation in Microsoft Windows .................................................................................................. 7
2.1.2 Installation in Mac OS X ................................................................................................................ 9
2.1.3 Cubase LE – Device Setup ............................................................................................................ 12
2.1.4 Cubase LE – Creating a Project .................................................................................................... 14
2.2 Sample Hookup Diagram ..................................................................................................................... 16
2.3 Microphones ........................................................................................................................................ 17
2.3.1 Condenser .................................................................................................................................... 17
2.3.2 Dynamic ...................................................................................................................................... 17
2.3.3 USB and other types .................................................................................................................... 17
2.4 A Brief Tutorial on Dynamics Processing .............................................................................................. 18
2.4.1 Common Questions Regarding Dynamics ......................................................................................... 18
2.4.2 Types of Dynamics Processing ........................................................................................................ 19
2.4.3 The Vocabulary of Dynamics Processors ......................................................................................... 21
3 CONTROLS & CONNECTIONS
3.1 PreSonus FireControl Software ............................................................................................................
3.1.1 FireControl Application Icon ........................................................................................................
3.1.2 FireControl Master Section ..........................................................................................................
3.1.3 FireControl Mixer ........................................................................................................................
3.1.4 FireControl Menus .......................................................................................................................
3.2 Front Panel Layout ..............................................................................................................................
3.3 Back Panel Layout ...............................................................................................................................
23
23
24
25
27
28
31
4 TECHNICAL INFORMATION
4.1 Troubleshooting ................................................................................................................................... 33
4.2 Specifications ...................................................................................................................................... 34
OVERVIEW
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Thank you for purchasing the PreSonus FireStudio Tube. PreSonus Audio Electronics has designed the
FireStudio Tube utilizing high-grade components to ensure optimum performance that will last a lifetime.
Loaded with 24-bit 96kHz converters, two tube microphone preamplifiers with built-in limiter, eight PreSonus
X-MAX microphone preamplifiers, six line level inputs and Cubase LE 48-track music production software, the
FireStudio Tube is ready to go out of the box for professional quality computer recording. All you need is a
computer with FireWire connection, a few microphones and cables along with your instruments and you are
ready to record!
We encourage you to contact us at 225-216-7887 with any questions or comments you may have regarding your
PreSonus FireStudio Tube. PreSonus Audio Electronics is committed to constant product improvement, and we
value your suggestions highly. We believe the best way to achieve our goal of constant product improvement is
by listening to the real experts, our valued customers. We appreciate the support you have shown us through the
purchase of this product.
We suggest you use this manual to familiarize yourself with the features, applications and correct connection
procedure for your FireStudio Tube before trying to connect it to your computer. This will hopefully alleviate
any unforeseen issues that you may encounter during installation and set up.
Thank you, once again, for buying our product, and we hope you enjoy your FireStudio Tube!
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OVERVIEW
1.2 FEATURES
The FireStudio Tube is a powerful and affordable computer recording system complete with everything needed
for real-world recording applications. The FireStudio Tube comes complete with two “SuperChannels”
featuring class A Vacuum tube microphone and instrument preamps with built-in analog limiter, eight highquality PreSonus X-MAX microphone preamps, MIDI I/O, and rock solid drivers, as well as a plethora of music
recording and production software.
The FireStudio Tube includes PreSonus ProPak Software Suite with Cubase LE 4 and over 2 GB of plug-ins,
drum loops and samples – giving you everything you need for professional music recording and production.
Summary of features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
High-speed FireWire (IEEE 1394)
24-bit / 96 kHz sampling rate
16 inputs/6 outputs simultaneous record/playback channels
2 SuperChannels (tube microphone/instrument preamplifier with analog limiter)
8 XMAX microphone preamplifiers
6 balanced TRS outputs
MIDI I/O
16x10 FireControl DSP mixer
JetPLL jitter control for improved imaging and clarity
High performance A/D D/A converters
Cubase LE 4 Music Production Software included
PreSonus ProPak Software Suite (over 2 GB of plug-ins, loops and samples)
OS X and Windows compatible
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OVERVIEW
1.3 WHAT IS IN THE BOX
Your FireStudio Tube package contains the following:
•
FireStudio Tube Recording Interface
•
6’ 6-pin to 6-pin FireWire cable
•
6’ Standard IEC Power Cable
•
MIDI Breakout Cable
•
Software installation discs:
o PreSonus FireStudio Tube
Installation Drivers
o Cubase LE 4
o ProPak Software Suite
•
PreSonus Warranty Card
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OVERVIEW
1.4 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
Below are the minimum computer system requirements for your FireStudio Tube.
Macintosh
•
•
•
•
OS: Mac OS X 10.4.x or later
Computer: Apple Macintosh series with FireWire 400 port
CPU/Clock: PowerPC G4/1 GHz or higher (Intel/Dual 1 GHz recommended)
Memory (RAM): 512 MB (1 GB or more recommended)
Windows
•
•
•
•
OS: 32-bit Microsoft Windows Vista or XP (with at least SP1)
Computer: Windows compatible computer with FireWire 400 port.
CPU/Clock: Pentium or AMD with 1 GHz or higher (Dual 1 GHz recommended)
Memory (RAM): 512 MB (1 GB or more recommended)
NOTE: The speed of your processor, amount of RAM and size & speed of your hard drives will greatly affect the
overall performance of your recording system. A more powerful system (faster processor with more RAM)
allows for lower latency (signal delay) and better overall performance.
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2.1 QUICK START UP
2.1.1 Installation in Microsoft Windows
After inserting the Installation CD into your CD-ROM drive, the FireStudio Tube installer will take you
through each step of the installation process. Please read each message carefully – ensuring especially you
do not connect your FireStudio Tube early.
1) The FireStudio Tube Installer was written to be
as simple and easy-to-follow as possible. Please
read each message carefully to ensure the
FireStudio Tube is properly installed.
Before continuing the FireStudio Tube
Installation Setup, please close all multimedia
applications and disconnect your FireStudio Tube
from your computer.
2) If you see any Windows Security alerts, click
“Install this driver software anyway” (Vista) or
“Continue anyway” (XP).
3) This installer can be used for the entire
FireStudio family of interface products. Select
“FireStudio Tube” from the menu on the left of
the installer window
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4) The installer will now display the directory path
into which the FireControl application will be
installed. Click “Next”
5) The installer is now ready to begin. Click
“Install” to copy the correct components to your
computer.
6) The installer will now prompt you to reboot your
computer to complete the installation. Click
“Finish” to automaticall restart your PC. Once
your computer has rebooted, connect the
FireStudio Tube. If a Found New Hardware
wizard appears, follow the recommended steps.
When the sync light remains solid blue, your
FireStudio Tube is synced to your computer and
ready to use!
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2.1.2 Installation in Mac OS X
After inserting the Installation CD into your disc drive, browse the disc and run the FireStudio Tube installer,
which will take you through each step of the installation process.
1) To begin installing the FireStudio Tube driver on
your Mac, double click on the FireControl logo.
2) You will be directed to the welcome screen.
Click “Continue”
3) Take a moment to review the license agreement
and click “Continue”.
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4) Click “Agree” to continue installation.
5) You will be directed to choose the hard drive
onto which you want to install the drivers and
FireControl Software. You must choose your
system drive. Storage drives and partitions
cannot be used as hosts for the driver.
6) The FireStudio Tube installer contains the
installations for the entire FireStudio family of
interfaces. Select “FireStudio Tube” from the
list. A “ – “ will appear in the box to the left.
Click “Install” or “Upgrade”.
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7) The FireStudio Tube installer requires that your
user password be entered as a security measure.
Enter your password and click “OK”
8) You will be notified that the FireStudio Tube
installation requires that your Mac be restarted
to finish the installation process.
Click “Continue Installation”
9) Click “Restart” to reboot your Mac
automatically.
After rebooting your computer, connect your
FireStudio Tube to your computer via the
included FireWire cable. When the sync light
remains solid blue, your FireStudio Tube is
synced to your computer and ready to use!
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2.1.3 Cubase LE 4 – Device Setup
Once you have installed the FireStudio Tube drivers and connected your FireStudio Tube, you can use the
Cubase LE 4 Music Creation and Production System software included with your FireStudio Tube to begin
recording, mixing and producing your music. Insert the Cubase LE 4 installation CD into your computer and
run the installer.
Then, launch Cubase LE 4 and follow these steps to begin recording with your FireStudio Tube:
1) Select ‘Device Setup…’ from the Devices menu.
2) Select ‘VST Audio System’ from the Devices
column in Device Setup.
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3) Select “PreSonus FireStudio” from the ASIO
Driver dropdown list. A pop-up window will
appear asking if you’d like to switch the ASIO
driver.
Click ‘Switch’ to begin using the
FireStudio Tube Driver.
For more help on using Cubase LE 4, please read
the Getting Started and Operation Manual help
documents located in Help > Documentation.
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2.1.4 Cubase LE 4 – Creating a Project
To begin recording in Cubase LE, you first need to create a project. Once you have the project environment,
you can begin adding audio and MIDI tracks to record and edit on. Follow these simple steps to begin
recording your first audio in Cubase LE:
1) Plug an XLR microphone or instrument into FireStudio Tube channel one and turn on 48V phantom
power if needed for your microphone (typically only for condenser microphones.)
2) Enter the File menu and select ‘New Project’.
You can also use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+N.
3) Select ‘Empty’ when prompted for a Template.
Click ‘OK’.
4) Right-click in the track space within the new
project and select ‘Add Audio Track’ from the
dropdown menu which appears.
You can also add a track by entering the Project
menu and selecting ‘Add Track’.
5) When the Add Audio Track dialogue appears,
choose the number of Audio Tracks you wish to
add, whether they will be Mono or Stereo and then
click ‘OK’.
If you have two audio signals making up a stereo
pair (i.e. keyboard, FX processor, cd player, etc.),
you should use a Stereo Configuration.
Otherwise, if you have a single, mono audio source
(i.e. microphone or instrument), you will want to
choose a Mono Configuration.
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6) Click the Record Enable button to arm the new
track for recording.
7) Click the Monitor button to hear the input through
the FireStudio Tube’s 1/2 and Main CR outputs.
8) Select FireStudio Tube input ‘Stereo In > Left’.
When choosing a mono from a stereo pair, the
“left” channel is typically the odd-numbered
channel, and the “right” channel is typically the
even-numbered channel (i.e. Left is 1; Right is 2).
Press <F4> on your keyboard to enter the VST
Connections menu for more details on your
specific input and output routing.
9) Turn up the gain control knob on the front panel of the FireStudio Tube for channel 1 while
speaking/singing into the microphone or playing your instrument. You should see the input meter in
Cubase LE react to the input. Adjust the gain so the input level is near its maximum without clipping.
10) Connect a set of headphones to the FireStudio Tube headphone output. You may also wish to connect
monitors to the FireStudio Tube’s Main Outs.
11) You are now ready to record.
Cubase LE help is available by pressing <F1> on your keyboard or online by visiting www.steinberg.net.
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2.2 SAMPLE HOOK UP DIAGRAM
With the FireStudio Tube, you can simultaneously record and play back up to 16 channels. Since it is loaded
with ten preamplifiers, you can plug in ten microphones to the FireStudio Tube along with six line level devices
to record a full band. This makes recording extremely easy. All you need are a few microphones, some cables to
connect them, a musician (or two or three or more) and the creative energy to bring it all together.
This is a typical rock band setup. Your needs may vary depending upon the number and variety of sources you
are recording. Feel free to adapt the sample setup below to your precise needs.
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2.3 MICROPHONES
The FireStudio Tube works with many microphones including dynamic, ribbon and condenser microphones.
2.3.1 Condenser
Condenser microphones tend to generate a high-quality audio signal and are one of the most popular mic
choices for today’s studio recording applications. Because of their design technology, condenser microphones
require a power source, which can be provided from a small battery, external power supply or from
microphone inputs as phantom power. The FireStudio Tube sends phantom power over XLR inputs only.
2.3.2 Dynamic
Dynamic microphones are possibly the most widely used microphone type – especially in live shows. They are
relatively inexpensive, resistant to physical damage and typically handle high sound pressure levels (SPL)
very well. Unlike condenser microphones, dynamic microphones do not require a power source and, in most
cases, has no effect on a dynamic microphone’s audio quality or sensitivity.
Dynamic microphones, especially ribbon microphones, tend to generate low output voltages, so they typically
need more preamp gain than a condenser microphone.
Ribbon
Ribbon microphones are a special type of dynamic microphone and get their name from the thin metal ribbon
used in their design. Ribbon microphones have very high quality sound reproduction qualities – especially
higher frequencies sounds. However, they are very fragile and typically cannot handle high SPL’s.
The most important thing to note about Ribbon microphones is that nearly all Ribbon Microphones do NOT
require phantom power. In fact, unless a Ribbon microphone specifically calls for phantom power, sending
phantom power to a ribbon microphone will destroy it – usually beyond repair.
2.3.3 USB and other types
There are a vast number of microphone types available, and as technology increases, it is very likely more will
surface. One type of microphone to emerge recently is the USB microphone. Most USB microphones have
their own built-in preamp and use drivers separate from the FireStudio Tube drivers.
If you are using a new or non-standard type of microphone (i.e., USB, headset, laser, MEMS, etc.), please
consult your microphone’s user’s manual for power requirement or compatibility information.
Regardless of the microphone type you are using, we recommend reading your microphone’s user’s manual
thoroughly before engaging phantom power or if any other usage questions may arise.
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2.4 A BRIEF TUTORIAL ON DYANAMICS PROCESSING
The SuperChannels on the front panel of the FireStudio Tube feature a hard limiter. This section is an excerpt
from brief tutorial on dynamics processing written by PreSonus President and Chief Technical Officer, Jim
Odom. It is included to help you get the most out of your FireStudio Tube. This tutorial will take you through
the basics of dynamics processing as well as explain the various types of dynamics processors, including a hard
limiter.
2.4.1 Common Questions Regarding Dynamics
What is dynamic range?
Dynamic range can be defined as the distance between the loudest possible level to the lowest possible level.
For example, if a processor states that the maximum input level before distortion is +24dBu and the output
noise floor is -92dBu, then the processor has a total dynamic range of 24 + 92 = 116 dB. The average
dynamic range of an orchestral performance can range from -50dBu to +10dBu on average. This equates to
a 60 dB dynamic range. 60 dB may not appear to be a large dynamic range but do the math and you’ll
discover that +10dBu is 1000 times louder than -50dBu! Rock music on the other hand has a much smaller
dynamic range, typically -10dBu to +10dBu, or 20 dB. This makes mixing the various signals of a rock
performance together a much more tedious task.
Why do we need compression?
Consider the previous discussion: You are mixing a rock performance with an average dynamic range of
20 dB. You wish to add an un-compressed vocal to the mix. The average dynamic range of an uncompressed
vocal is around 40 dB. In other words a vocal performance can go from -30dBu to +10dBu. The passages
that are +10dBu and higher will be heard over the mix, no problem. However, the passages that are at
-30dBu and below will never be heard over the roar of the rest of the mix. A compressor can be used in this
situation to reduce (compress) the dynamic range of the vocal to around 10 dB. The vocal can now be placed
at around +5dBu. At this level, the dynamic range of the vocal is from 0dBu to +10dBu. The lower level
phrases will now be well above the lower level of the mix and louder phrases will not overpower the mix,
allowing the vocal to ‘sit in the track’.
The same discussion can be made about any instrument in the mix. Each instrument has its place and a good
compressor can assist the engineer in the overall blend of each instrument.
Does every instrument need compression?
This question may lead many folks to say ‘absolutely not, overcompression is horrible’. That statement can be
qualified by defining ‘overcompression’. The term itself, ‘overcompression’ must have been derived from the
fact that you can hear the compressor working. A well designed and properly adjusted compressor should not
be audible! Therefore, the overcompressed sound is likely to be an improper adjustment on a particular
instrument.
Why do the best consoles in the world put compressors on every channel? The answer is simply that most
instruments need some form of compression, oftentimes very subtle, to be properly heard in a mix.
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Why do you need noise gates?
Consider the compressed vocal example above and you now have a 20dB dynamic range for the vocal
channel. Problems arise when there is noise or instruments in the background of the vocal mic that became
more audible after the lower end of the dynamic range was raised. (air conditioner, loud drummer, etc.) You
might attempt to mute the vocal between phrases in an attempt to remove the unwanted signals; however this
would probably end disastrous. A better method is to use a noise gate. The noise gate threshold could be set
at the bottom of the dynamic range of the vocal, say -10dBu, such that the gate would ‘close’ out the
unwanted signals between the phrases.
If you have ever mixed live you know well the problem cymbals can add to your job by bleeding through your
tom mics. As soon as you add some highs to get some snap out of the tom the cymbals come crashing
through, placing the horn drivers into a small orbit. Gating those toms so that the cymbals no longer ring
through the tom mics will give you an enormous boost in cleaning up the overall mix.
2.4.2 Types of Dynamics Processing
Dynamics processing is the process of altering the dynamic range or levels of a signal thereby enhancing the
ability of a live sound system or recording device to handle the signal without distortion or noise, and aiding
in placing the signal in the overall mix.
Compression / Limiting
Punch, apparent loudness, presence…just three of many terms used to describe the effects of
compression/limiting. Compression and limiting are forms of dynamic range (volume) control. Audio signals
have very wide peak to average signal level ratios (sometimes referred to as dynamic range which is the
difference between the loudest level and the softest level). The peak signal can cause overload in the audio
recording or reproduction chain resulting in signal distortion.
A compressor/limiter is a type of amplifier in which gain is dependent on the signal level passing through it.
You can set the maximum level a compressor/limiter allows to pass through, thereby causing automatic gain
reduction above some predetermined signal level or threshold. Compression refers, basically, to the ability to
reduce the output level of an audio signal by a fixed ratio relative to the input. It is useful for lowering the
dynamic range of an instrument or vocal, making it easier to record without distorting the recorder. It also
assists in the mixing process by reducing the amount of level changes needed for a particular instrument.
Take, for example, a vocalist who moves around in front of the microphone while performing, making the
output level vary up and down unnaturally. A compressor can be applied to the signal to help correct this
recording problem by reducing the ‘louder’ passages enough to be compatible with the overall performance.
How severely the compressor reduces the signal is determined by the compression ratio and compression
threshold. A ratio of 2:1 or less is considered mild compression, reducing the output by two for signals
greater than the compression threshold. Ratios above 10:1 are considered hard limiting.
Limiting refers to the point at which the signal is restrained from going any louder at the output. The level of
input signal at which the output is reduced is determined by the compression threshold. As the compression
threshold is lowered, more and more of the input signal is compressed (assuming a nominal input signal
level). Care must be taken not to ‘over compress’ a signal. Too much compression destroys the acoustic
dynamic response of a performance. (‘Over compression’, however, is used by some engineers as an effect,
and with killer results!)
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Compressor / Limiters are commonly used for many audio applications. For example:
•
A kick drum can get lost in a wall of electric guitars. No matter how much level is increased, the
kick drum stays ‘lost in the mud’. Add a touch of compression and tighten up that kick drum sound
allowing it to ‘punch’ through without having to crank the level way up.
•
A vocal performance usually has a wide dynamic range. Transients (the very loudest portion of the
signal) can be far outside the average level of the vocal signal. It is extremely difficult to ride the
level with a console fader. A compressor/limiter automatically controls gain without altering the
subtleties of the performance.
•
A solo guitar can seem to be masked by the rhythm guitars. Compression can make your ‘lead’ soar
above the track without shoving the fader through the roof .
•
Bass guitar can be difficult to record. A consistent level with good attack can be achieved with
proper compression. Your bass doesn’t have to be washed out in the low end of the mix. Let the
compressor/limiter give your bass the punch it needs to drive the bottom of the mix.
Expansion
There are two basic types of expansion: dynamic and downward. Expansion increases the dynamic range or
level of a signal after the signal crosses the expansion threshold. Dynamic expansion is basically the opposite
of compression. In fact, broadcasters use dynamic expansion to ‘undue’ compression before transmitting the
audio signal. This is commonly referred to as ‘companding’ or COMPression followed by expANDING.
By far the most common use of expansion is downward expansion. In contrast to compression, which
decreases the level of a signal after rising above the compression threshold, expansion decreases the level of a
signal after the signal goes below the expansion threshold. The amount of level reduction is determined by the
expansion ratio. For example, a 2:1 expansion ratio reduces the level of a signal by a factor of two. (e.g. if a
level drops 5dB below the expansion threshold, the expander will reduce it to 10dB below the threshold.)
Commonly used as noise reduction, expansion is very effective as a simple noise gate. The major difference
between expansion and noise gating is the fact that expansion is dependent on the signal level after crossing
the threshold, whereas a noise gate works independent of a signal’s level after crossing the threshold.
Noise Gating
Noise gating is the process of removing unwanted sounds from a signal by attenuating all signals below a set
threshold. As described above, the ‘gate’ works independent of the audio signal after being ‘triggered’ by the
signal crossing the gate threshold. The gate will remain open as long as the signal is above the threshold.
How fast the gate opens to let the ‘good’ signal through is determined by the attack time. How long the gate
stays open after the signal has gone below the threshold is determined by the hold time. How fast the gate
closes is determined by the release. How much the gate attenuates the unwanted signal while closed is
determined by the range.
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2.4.3 Vocabulary of Dynamics Processors
In scientific research, it is widely accepted that if one needs to master a subject quickly, learn the associated
vocabulary and industry terms. The same is true with audio recording and production. Most manuals and
text books assume a prior level of knowledge. We hope this section will help you to get the most benefit from
your independent study in the world of music production.
Compressors
•
Threshold. The Compressor threshold sets the level at which compression begins. When the signal is
above the threshold setting, it becomes ‘eligible’ for compression. Basically, as you turn the
threshold knob counterclockwise, more of the input signal becomes compressed. (If you have a ratio
setting of greater than 1:1.)
•
Ratio. Ratio sets the compression slope. This is defined as the output level versus the input level.
For example, if you have the ratio set to 2:1, any signal levels above the threshold setting will be
compressed at a compression ratio of 2:1. This simply means that for every 1 dB of level increase
into the compressor, the output will only increase ½ dB, thus producing a compression gain
reduction of 0.5 dB per 1 dB. As you increase the ratio, the compressor gradually becomes a limiter.
A limiter is defined as a processor that limits the level of a signal to the setting of the threshold. For
example, if you have the threshold knob set at 0dB, and the ratio turned fully clockwise, the
compressor becomes a limiter at 0dB. This means that the signal will be limited to an output of 0dB
regardless of the level of the input signal.
•
Attack. Attack sets the speed at which the compressor ‘acts’ on the input signal. A slow attack time
(fully clockwise) allows the beginning envelope of a signal (commonly referred to as the initial
transient) to pass through the compressor uncompressed, whereas a fast attack time (fully counterclockwise) immediately subjects the signal to the ratio and threshold settings of the compressor.
•
Release. Release sets the length of time the compressor takes to return the gain reduction back to
zero (no gain reduction) after crossing below the compression threshold. Very short release times
can produce a very choppy or ‘jittery’ sound, especially in low frequency instruments such as a bass
guitar. Very long release times can result in an over compressed sound, sometimes referred to as
‘squashing’ the sound. All ranges of release can be useful at different times however and you should
experiment to become familiar with the different sound possibilities.
•
Hard/Soft Knee. With hard knee compression, the gain reduction applied to the signal occurs as
soon as the signal exceeds the level set by the threshold. With soft knee compression, the onset of
gain reduction occurs gradually after the signal has exceeded the threshold, producing a more
musical response (to some folks).
•
Auto. Places a compressor in automatic attack and release mode. The attack and release knobs
become inoperative and a pre-programmed attack and release curve is used.
•
Gain Makeup. When compressing a signal, gain reduction usually results in an overall reduction of
level. The gain control allows you to restore the loss in level due to compression. (Like readjusting
the volume.)
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•
Compressor Sidechain. The sidechain jack interrupts the signal that the compressor is using to
determine the amount of gain reduction to apply. When no connector is inserted into this jack, the
input signal goes directly to the compressor’s control circuitry. When a connector is inserted into this
jack, the signal path is broken. This signal can then be processed by an equalizer for example to
reduce sibilance (de-essing) in a vocal track. The signal is then returned to the unit via the
connector. The signal returned to the sidechain could be that of a narrator or vocalist. In this
application, the audio that is passing through the compressor will automatically ‘duck’ when the
narrator speaks or vocalist sings.
Expanders
•
Downward Expansion. Downward expansion is the most common expansion used in pro audio and
recording. This type of expansion applies noise reduction to all signals below a set threshold level.
•
Ratio. The expansion ratio sets the amount of noise reduction applied to a signal once the signal has
dropped below the expansion threshold. For example, a 2:1 expansion ratio attenuates a signal 2dB
for every 1dB it drops below the threshold. Ratio’s 4:1 and higher act much like a noise gate without
the ability to tailor the attack, hold and release times.
Noise Gates
•
Threshold. The gate threshold sets the level at which the gate opens. Essentially, all signals above
the threshold setting are passed through unaffected, whereas signals below the threshold setting are
reduced in level by the amount set by the range control. If the threshold is set fully counterclockwise, the gate is turned off (always open), allowing all signals to pass through unaffected.
•
Attack. The gate attack time sets the rate at which the gate opens. A fast attack rate is crucial for
percussive instruments, whereas signals such as vocals and bass guitar require a slower attack. Too
fast of an attack can, on these slow rising signals, cause an artifact in the signal producing an
audible ‘click’. All gates have the ability to ‘click’ when opening, however a properly set gate will
never click. Below is an example of a gate opening very fast on a pure sine wave. Notice the almost
vertical edge of the waveform when the gate opens. This is what produces the high frequency artifact
known as ‘click’.
•
Hold. Hold time is used to keep the gate open for a fixed period of time following the signal going
below the gate threshold. This can be really useful for effects such as ‘gated snare’ where the gate
remains open after the snare hit for the duration of the hold time then abruptly closes.
•
Release. The gate release time determines the rate at which the gate closes. Release times should
typically be set so that the natural decay of the instrument or vocal being gated is not affected.
Shorter release times help to clean up the noise in a signal but my cause ‘chattering’ in percussive
instruments. Longer release times usually eliminate ‘chattering’ and should be set by listening
carefully for the most natural release of the signal.
•
Range. The gate range is the amount of gain reduction that the gate closes down to. Therefore, if the
range is set at 0dB, there will be no change in the signal as it crosses the threshold. If the range is
set to -60dB, the signal will be gated (reduced) by 60 dB, etc.
22 | PreSonus 2008
CON
NTRO
OLS & CON
NNEC
CTION
NS
3.1 PR
RESONUS
S FIRECONTROL SOFTWAR
S
RE
The FireControl is a pow
werful, flexiblee and easy to use
u solution foor creating muultiple mixes frrom your inputs and
DAW playyback streams with zero lateency. It allowss you to createe a zero-latenccy mix with upp to 18 of yourr input
and outputt signals for ea
ach of your FireStudio Tubee’s output pairss.
The FireCoontrol also actts as the FireS
Studio Tube’s control
c
panel with
w the ability to change vaarious hardware and
software settings of the FireStudio Tuube hardware and
a drivers.
The Mixerr section of th
he FireControol was designeed to look andd ‘feel’ like a hardware mixxer, so most of the
features may
m already be familiar to yoou. The follow
wing section deescribes in detail the FireControl layout and the
functions of
o the various buttons found in the FireControl.
3.1.1 FireContro
ol Applicatiion Icon
Once yoou have successsfully installed your FireStuudio Tube, thee FireControl will
w be
availabble from the Nootification Areea of your taskkbar (typicallyy at the bottom
m right
corner of your screenn near the clock).
The FireControl icon
n is red when your FireStuddio Tube is diisconnected orr not installedd and blue wheen the
FireStuudio Tube is co
onnected and properly
p
installled.
Open thhe FireControl by double-cliicking the bluee FireControl icon or by rigght-clicking the icon and selecting
“Open PreSonus FireeControl”.
Right-cclick the FireC
Control icon and
a select “Quit” to completely exit thee FireControl
applicaation and remo
ove it from youur Taskbar.
S X users will find the FireC
Control applicaation in the Appplications foldder.
Mac OS
23 | PreSonus 2008
CONTROLS & CONNECTIONS
3.1.2 FireControl Master Section
The Master Section is always visible and gives you control over the FireStudio Tube’s outputs’ source and
level as well as the Sample Rate and Buffer Size of the FireStudio drivers.
Output Select Section
•
Output Select Buttons
Changes the Output Mixer displayed
The FireControl has five output mixes – one for each of the
FireStudio Tube’s five outputs.
•
Mixer Toggle Buttons
Enables or disables the associated Output’s mixer
When set to ‘PlayBack’, the output pair’s DAW playback
outputs are routed directly to it.
•
Post Fader Output Meters
Displays the output level of each stereo pair
These meter post fader levels, which means they represent
the actual audio output levels of your FireStudio Tube.
Hardware Settings Section
•
Sample Rate Selector
Changes FireStudio Tube Sample Rate
A Higher Sample Rate increases frequency range and sonic
accuracy but also increases recorded audio file sizes.
•
Buffer Size Selector
Changes the FireStudio Tube Buffer Size
This selector is not present in Mac OS X.
A large buffer increases latency but is more stable.
•
Resizing Corner
Resizes the width of the FireControl
Click and drag the bottom right corner of the
FireControl to resize its width on your screen and
increase / decrease the number of channels visible
in the Mixer.
24 | PreSonus 2008
CONTROLS & CONNECTIONS
Master Output Section
•
Master Output Fader
Changes the selected output’s audio level
Move the Master Fader up and down to increase and
decrease the level of the selected output’s audio.
The dB value of boost or attenuation is displayed below the
Channel Fader from –infinity to 0.0 dB.
Two virtual LED meters to the right of the Master Fader
display the pre fader levels of the audio signal.
The peak value in dBFS of the channel’s audio is displayed
directly above the Master Output’s virtual LED meter.
NOTE: If the peak values display “CLIP”, then your
Mixer channels and/or your DAW playback levels
should be reduced. The clip indicators clear when
the mouse pointer hovers over them.
•
Master Mute and Solo Clear
Clears all active channel Mutes or Solos
The Master Mute and Solo clear buttons are only active
when a channel’s mute or solo button is active.
3.1.3 FireControl Mixer
The FireControl Mixer allows you to create a customized mix of up to 22 of the FireStudio Tube’s hardware
inputs and software playback outputs and adjust their levels independently for each of the FireStudio Tube’s
stereo output pairs with zero latency. The Mixer section is only visible if the selected output pair’s Mixer
Toggle is on.
NOTE: The Mixer is common to all of the FireStudio Tube’s outputs, so if you add or remove a channel from
the Mixer, every output with the Mixer Toggle on will be affected by the change.
These are the individual elements of the Mixer and their functions:
•
Channel Pan Sliders
Moves the channel’s audio left/right in the stereo field
Double-clicking the slider returns the pan to center.
•
Link Buttons
Links the adjacent channels as a stereo pair
25 | PreSonus 2008
CON
NTRO
OLS & CON
NNEC
CTION
NS
When channeels are linked, changing eithher channel’s level
changes both,, and pan statees are hard lefft/right.
•
Channel Faderss
Changes the channel’s audiio level
Move the Chhannel Fader up and downn to increase and
decrease the channel’s audiio level.
The dB value of boost or atttenuation is displayed
d
below
w the
Channel Fadeer from –infiniity to +6 dB.
A virtual LED
D meter to thee right of eachh fader displayys the
post fader levvel of the channel’s audio.
The peak valuue in dBFS off the channel’s audio is displlayed
directly abovee each channel’s virtual LED
D meter.
•
Channel Mutes and Solos
Adds the channel to the Muute or Solo buus
Muting a chaannel silences the
t channel’s audio.
a
Soloing a chaannel mutes all other non-soloed channels..
•
Channel Scroll Bar
Changes the visible
v
channeels if the FireS
Studio is resizeed
When the FireControl is resized to shhow less thann 18
channels, clicck in the scroll bar area to slide the channnels
left and right and view the hidden channeels.
•
Innput Selectorss
Changes the source
s
of the FireControl Mixer
M
channelss
Choosing “Noo Input” will hide
h the channnel.
“Inputs” are your hardware inputs (Mic//Inst/Line/SPD
DIF).
“PlayBack” are your softw
ware DAW PlaayBack outputss.
26 | PreSonus 2008
CONTROLS & CONNECTIONS
3.1.4 FireControl Menus
•
Session. Allows you to Save and Load the FireControl Mixer and Output settings
o
o
•
Load Session... Loads a saved FireControl session file
Save Session... Saves the FireControl Mixer and Output settings for loading later
Advanced. Gives additional options specific to Windows functionality.
o
Sample Rate Lock Mode. Sets which types of applications can change the Sample Rate.
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
o
Unlock. Any WDM or ASIO application can change the Sample Rate.
Lock WDM/Windows. Only ASIO applications can change the Sample Rate.
Lock WDM and ASIO. Only the FireControl can change the Sample Rate.
Enable WDM Audio. Unchecking this disables WDM audio in Windows. Disabling WDM
Audio is useful when the FireStudio Tube is dedicated for DAW use only.
o
Operation Mode. Changes how the FireStudio drivers output buffer size is set.
ƒ
ƒ
Normal Mode. Input and Output buffers are both identical to the Buffer Size.
Safe Mode 1-3. Increases the output buffer size for added stability.
27 | PreSonus 2008
CONTROLS & CONNECTIONS
3.2 FRONT PANEL LAYOUT
•
SuperChannels. Your FireStudio Tube is equipped with two “SuperChannels”. These channels are
Class A Vacuum Tube microphone and instrument preamplifiers and full-featured analog limiters. Each
channel has its own controls.
o
Neutrik Combo Connectors. Both SuperChannels have a Mic/Line connector using the Neutrik
Combo connector. This revolutionary style connector lets you use either ¼” phone or XLR
connectors in the same female input. Channels 15 and 16 of FireStudio Tube are ¼”
instrument and microphone XLR inputs.
o
48 Volt Phantom Power. Each SuperChannel has 48V Phantom power available individually
via its push button switches on the front panel.
ƒ
XLR connector wiring for Phantom Power
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
o
Pin 1 = GND
Pin 2 = +48V
Pin 3 = +48V
Input Gain/Trim Control. This knob provides the following gain structure:
ƒ
54dB of variable gain (+4dB to +58dB)
o
Drive. This knob controls the amount of signal routed to the 12AX7 vacuum tube. This feature
lets you control the amount of tube saturation. Greater levels of tube saturation give the signal
greater warmth and a richer sound. This works equally well on microphones and instruments.
o
Limiter. This knob sets the threshold of the analog limiter from -18dBfs to 0dBfs (-8dBu to
+10dBu). The threshold is the point at which the limiter will engage. No more of the input
signal will be allowed to pass through once this threshold is reached. Thus reducing the gain.
Turning the knob clockwise increases the threshold -- allowing more of the input signal
through. Turning the knob counter-clockwise decreases the threshold -- allowing less of the
input signal through.
o
Gain Makeup.
This knob adjusts the gain
compensate for gain reduction, raising the gain
threshold. This is especially useful when using
signal. By using the Gain Makeup knob, you
maintain a strong signal to record.
28 | PreSonus 2008
after the limiter threshold. This is used to
of the output signal without raising the limiter
the limiter as an effect to over compress the
can set the threshold extremely low and still
CONTROLS & CONNECTIONS
•
Instrument Inputs (Channels 15 and 16). The ¼” TS connector on channels 15 and 16 are for use with
an instrument (guitar, bass, etc.). When an instrument is plugged into the instrument input, the
microphone preamp is bypassed, and the FireStudio Tube becomes an active instrument preamplifier.
NOTE: Active instruments are those that have an internal preamp or a line level output. Active
instruments should be plugged into a line input rather than into an instrument input. Plugging a line
level source into the instrument inputs on the front of the FireStudio Tube not only risks damage to
these inputs but also results in a very loud and often distorted audio signal.
(In other words, don’t plug a line level source into the combo jacks of channel 15 or 16.)
•
LED Meters. Each SuperChannel features two 6-LED level indicators. The indicator on the left meters
the input signal. The meter on the right meters the amount of gain reduction through the limiter
o
VU indicator. The VU indicator meters the input signal. The first three green LEDs will light
up when your input signal from either the XLR (Mic) or ¼” (Instrument) reaches -40dBfs,
-20dBfs, and -12dBfs respectively. The two yellow LEDs will light up when the channel’s input
signal reaches -6dBfs and -3dBfs respectively. The red clip indicator LED will illuminate when
the channel’s input signal reaches 0dBFS. At this level, your Mic/Instrument trim signal will
exhibit signs of clipping such as distortion. It is highly recommended you do not allow your
converters to clip (the red clip indicators to light up) as the sound quality will not be desirable.
o
Gain Reduction indicator. This meter shows the amount of gain reduction implemented by the
limiter. As you turn the Limiter knob to the right, the amount of input gain being reduced will
lessen.
•
80Hz Rumble Filter. A rumble filter is available to eliminate low frequency noise. This lets you greatly
reduce background noise from things such as air conditioners or wind noise with the flick of a switch
without affecting the desired frequencies. The button will illuminate when the 80Hz filter is engage.
•
Limiter. This button is used to engage the Limiter. The button will illuminate when the limiter is
engaged.
29 | PreSonus 2008
CONTROLS & CONNECTIONS
•
Input Gain/Trim Control. These knobs control the gain for the microphone preamps located on the rear
of the unit and provide the following gain structure:
o
XLR Microphone Inputs. 54 dB of variable gain (-4dB to +50dB)
o
48 Volt Phantom Power. The FireStudio Tube has 48V Phantom power available in groups of
two via push button switches on the front panel. From left to right, each button activates
Phantom power for channels 1 & 2, 3 & 4, 5 & 6 and 7 & 8.
ƒ
XLR connector wiring for Phantom Power
•
•
•
Pin 1 = GND
Pin 2 = +48V
Pin 3 = +48V
•
Phones. The Phones knob controls the amount of volume going to the headphone output on the front of
the unit. Notice the volume indicator goes to 11 … use this setting with extreme caution.
•
Main. The Main knob controls the output level for the Main Outputs on the back of the FireStudio
Tube with a range of -80db to +10dB.
•
¼” Headphone Jack. This is where you connect your headphones to the FireStudio Tube.
•
Power Button. This button turns your FireStudio Tube on and off.
•
Red-Blue Power/Sync Light. This light is a clock source (sync) indicator. It lets you know if your unit
is receiving word clock correctly. Word clock is the manner by which digital devices sync frame rates.
Proper word clock sync prevents digital devices from having pops, clicks or distortion in the audio
signal due to mismatched digital audio transmission.
o
o
Blue. FireStudio Tube is correctly synced via FireWire
Flashing Red and Blue. Sync invalid or not present
30 | PreSonus 2008
CONTROLS & CONNECTIONS
3.3 BACK PANEL LAYOUT
•
Microphone Pre-Amplifier. Your FireStudio Tube is equipped with eight custom designed PreSonus XMAX microphone preamplifiers for use with all types of microphones including Dynamics, Condensers
and Ribbons as well as instruments and line level signals. The award winning PreSonus preamplifier
design is a Class A input buffer followed by a dual servo gain stage. This arrangement results in ultra
low noise and wide gain control allowing the FireStudio Tube user to boost desirable signal without
increasing unwanted background noise.
o
•
+22dBu Headroom. The FireStudio Tube microphone preamplifier has +22dBu headroom.
This feature gives you wide dynamic range and excellent transient response characteristics.
Line Inputs. Channels 9-14 of your FireStudio Tube are line level inputs. They are designed to accept
up to a maximum input level of +20dBu. Use these inputs to connect your line level devices such as
synthesizers, amp modeling hardware, vocoders, etc. In general, line level devices have their own
volume control. As these inputs are for line level signal only, there is no trim control for them on the
FireStudio Tube. If you need to raise or lower the volume, the adjustment should be made from your
line level device.
A NOTE ABOUT VINTAGE DEVICES: Some older and vintage line level devices may not output at a
hot enough signal. If you find this to be the case, you should connect them to a direct box and plug
them into the microphone inputs instead.
31 | PreSonus 2008
CONTROLS & CONNECTIONS
•
General Purpose Line Outputs (TRS Balanced). These are general purpose line-level outputs. Line
Outputs 1 & 2 are typically your computer’s audio playback. All six Line Outputs can be accessed by
your computer and can be used for separate mixes, surround sound, additional speakers, external effects
processors, etc.
NOTE: By default, the General Purpose Outputs are DAW Playback 1-6 streams from your computer.
However, the FireControl has final control over their audio sources.
o
Main Output (TRS Balanced). Outputs 1 & 2 should be used as your Main Outputs left and
right. Unless otherwise specified, most DAW applications will default configure to use device
outputs 1 & 2 as the main output for the application.
•
Power Adaptor Input. This is where you plug the provided IEC power cable into the FireStudio Tube.
•
FireWire Ports. There are two standard 6-pin FireWire ports on the back of the FireStudio Tube.
Either (and only one) should be used to connect your FireStudio Tube to a vacant FireWire port on your
computer. If your computer has a 4-pin connector (commonly found on laptops), you will need a 4 to 6pin connector to connect your FireStudio Tube to your computer.
Use the ‘extra’ FireWire port to connect additional FireWire devices in such as external Hard Drives.
•
MIDI Breakout Cable connection. This is where you connect your MIDI breakout cable. MIDI stands
for “Musical Instrument Digital Interface”. However, the MIDI standard goes well beyond just
instrumentation and sequencing. The MIDI inputs and outputs on the breakout cable allow connection
and/or communication with external MIDI equipment. One function of this port is MIDI programming.
These can also be used for MMC (MIDI Machine Control) and MTC (MIDI Time Code).
NOTE: MIDI is not audio but is frequently used to trigger or control an audio source (such as a VST
plugin or synthesizer). When using MIDI, ensure your MIDI data is correctly sent and received
by the appropriate hardware or software instruments. You may also need to return those
devices’ audio to the FireStudio Tube. Please consult the User’s Manual of your MIDI devices
for help with MIDI setup and usage.
32 | PreSonus 2008
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
4.1 TROUBLESHOOTING
Please note that many technical issues can arise when converting a standard computer into a DAW (Digital
Audio Workstation). PreSonus will only provide support for issues that directly relate to the FireStudio Tube
interface. It may be necessary to contact the manufacturer of the computer, operating system and/or software to
obtain additional technical support. PreSonus does not provide support for issues in regards to operating
systems, additional hardware or software. Please check our website, www.PreSonus.com regularly for software
information and updates, firmware updates and technical support. Technical assistance may also be received by
calling PreSonus at 225-216-7887 between the hours of 10 am and 5 PM Central Time.
Pops and Clicks
Pops and clicks in either your Input or Playback audio are typically caused by momentary losses of
synchronization between the FireStudio Tube and its clock source. This can be due to a FireWire card not suited
for FireWire audio devices or to a lack of CPU power or available memory. Try closing all unnecessary
programs, increasing the Buffer Size in the FireControl and optimizing your operating system for audio.
Pops and clicks exclusive to the S/PDIF input or output are typically caused when the FireStudio Tube is not
digitally synced to the external S/PDIF device. If this is the case, ensure your FireStudio Tube and external
S/PDIF device are properly synced. Please consult your S/PDIF device’s User’s Manual for more details on
syncing it to your FireStudio Tube.
Flashing Sync Light
The FireStudio Tube’s Sync light flashes red and blue when it is not synced. Check the FireWire cable to ensure
it hasn’t become disconnected. If you are using an external S/PDIF device and your Clock Source is set to
“S/PDIF”, set the FireControl’s Sample Rate to the same Sample Rate as that of your S/PDIF device. If you
are not using an external S/PDIF device, open the FireControl and set the Clock Source to “Internal”.
Audio Drop Outs
Audio drop outs can occur when the speed of your processor cannot buffer audio fast enough. Increase your
Buffer Size in the FireControl and try the different Operation Modes from the Advanced menu.
Preamplifier
Q: I have a microphone plugged into channel one (or two) but I am not getting any signal.
Possible Solutions:
1) Check your mic cable. This should typically be an XLR connection.
2) Make sure the microphone does not require phantom power. If it does, press the 48V button.
3) Make sure nothing is plugged into the line input on the rear of the FireStudio Tube. The line inputs on
channels 1 and 2 take precedence over the combo input on the front of the unit for channels 1 and 2. If
a cable is plugged into the line input on channel, then the mic/instrument input on channel one will be
inactive until the cable is removed from line input 1.
For help with Cubase LE 4, press F1 while running Cubase LE or visit: www.steinberg.net.
33 | PreSonus 2008
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
4.2 SPECIFICATIONS
Microphone Preamps 1-8
Type ............................................................................................................................. XLR Female Balanced
Frequency Response (±0.5 dB) ............................................................................................... 20 Hz to 50 kHz
Frequency Response (±3.0 dB) ............................................................................................. 20 Hz to 150 kHz
Input Impedance (Balanced) ............................................................................................................... 1600 Ω
THD+N (unwtd, 1 kHz @ +4 dBu Output, Unity Gain) ..................................................................... < 0.003%
EIN (unwtd, 55dB Gain, 150 Ω Input, 20Hz to 22 kHz) .................................................................... -126 dBu
S/N Ratio (Unity Gain, unwtd, Ref. = +4 dBu, 20Hz to 22 kHz) ........................................................ > 101 dB
Common Mode Rejection Ratio (1 kHz, 55 dB Gain) ........................................................................... > 55 dB
Gain Control Range (± 1dB) ................................................................................................ -12 dB to +37 dB
Maximum Input Level (Unity Gain, 1 kHz @ 0.5% THD+N) .............................................................. +14 dBu
Phantom Power (±2 VDC) ................................................................................................................ +48 VDC
Microphone Preamps 15 & 16 “SuperChannels”
Type ............................................................................................. Neutrik Combination XLR Female Balanced
THD+N (unwtd, 1 kHz @ +4 dBu Output, Unity Gain) ......................................................................... < 0.2%
Gain Control Range (± 1dB) ................................................................................................. +4 dB to +58 dB
Limiter Gain Reduction ......................................................................................................... 0 dBu to -18 dBu
Limiter Ratio ............................................................................................................................................ ∞:1
Signal Level LEDs
(1) Red / Clip (±0.5 dBu) ................................................................... +10 dBu (0 dBFS)
(2) Yellow (±0.5 dBu) ......................................................................... +7 dBu (-3 dBFS)
(3) Yellow (±0.5 dBu) ......................................................................... +4 dBu (-6 dBFS)
(4) Green (±0.5 dBu) ......................................................................... -2 dBu (-12 dBFS)
(5) Green (±0.5 dBu) ....................................................................... -10 dBu (-20 dBFS)
(6) Green (±0.5 dBu) ....................................................................... -30 dBu (-40 dBFS)
Gain Reduction LEDs
(1) Green (±0.5 dBu) ............................................................................................ -1 dBu
(2) Green (±0.5 dBu) ............................................................................................ -2 dBu
(3) Green (±0.5 dBu) ............................................................................................ -4 dBu
(4) Green (±0.5 dBu) ............................................................................................ -6 dBu
(5) Green (±0.5 dBu) .......................................................................................... -12 dBu
(6) Green (±0.5 dBu) .......................................................................................... -18 dBu
Phantom Power (±2 VDC) ................................................................................................................ +48 VDC
Instrument Input 15 & 16 “SuperChannels”
Type ................................................................................... Neutrik Combination ¼” TRS Female Unbalanced
Input Impedance .................................................................................................................................... 1 MΩ
34 | PreSonus 2008
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Line Inputs 9-14
Type ....................................................................................................................... ¼” TRS Female Balanced
Frequency Response (±0.5 dB) ............................................................................................... 20 Hz to 50 kHz
Frequency Response (±3.0 dB) ............................................................................................. 20 Hz to 150 kHz
Input Impedance (Balanced) ................................................................................................................. 10 KΩ
THD+N (unwtd, 1 kHz @ +4 dBu Output, Unity Gain) ..................................................................... < 0.003%
S/N Ratio (Unity Gain, unwtd, Ref. = +4 dBu, 20 Hz to 22 kHz) ....................................................... > 101 dB
Maximum Input Level (Unity Gain, 1 kHz @ 0.5% THD+N) .............................................................. +20 dBu
Line Outputs 1-6
Type .................................................................................................................................... ¼” TRS Balanced
Output Impedance ................................................................................................................................... 51 Ω
Headphone Outputs 7-8
Type ............................................................................................................................. ¼” TRS Active Stereo
Maximum Output ..................................................................................................... 150 mW/Ch @ 60 Ω Load
Frequency Response (±1.0 dB) ................................................................................................ 10 Hz – 70 kHz
Digital Audio
ADC Dynamic Range (Awtd, 48 kHz Sample Rate) ............................................................................... 114 dB
DAC Dynamic Range (Awtd, 48 kHz Sample Rate) ............................................................................... 114 dB
Jitter Specification ............................................................................................................................. < 20 pS
Bit Depth .................................................................................................................................................... 24
Reference Level for 0dBFS ................................................................................................................ +10 dBu
Internal Sample Frequency Selections (kHz) ....................................................................... 44.1, 48, 88.2, 96
External Sample Frequency Input ........................................................................................................ S/PDIF
Power
Input Connector Type ................................................................................................................................ IEC
Input Voltage Range ................................................................................................................ 90 to 240 VAC
Power Requirements (Continuous) ............................................................................................................ 24W
As a commitment to constant improvement, PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc. reserves the
right to change any specification stated herein at any time without notification.
35 | PreSonus 2008
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