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Billion BiPAC 645 User`s manual
BIPAC-645
DSL/Cable Router Plus ISDN Router
With 4-Port 10/100M LAN Switch
User’s Manual
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 ............................................................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 An overview of the Router device ....................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Package contents.................................................................................................................................. 1
1.3 This Router Features............................................................................................................................ 1
1.4 This Router Device Application .......................................................................................................... 2
CHAPTER 2 ............................................................................................................................................... 3
USING THE ROUTER ............................................................................................................................ 3
2.1 Cautions for using the Router .............................................................................................................. 3
2.2 The front LEDs .................................................................................................................................... 3
2.3 The rear ports....................................................................................................................................... 4
2.4 Cabling................................................................................................................................................. 4
CHAPTER 3 ............................................................................................................................................... 6
CONFIGURATION ................................................................................................................................. 6
3.1 Before Configuration ........................................................................................................................... 6
3.2 Configuring with GUI program ......................................................................................................... 10
CHAPTER 4 ............................................................................................................................................. 26
REMOTE CONFIGURATION ............................................................................................................... 26
4.1 Remote Office Access by ISDN ........................................................................................................ 26
4.2 Advanced Options for Remote Office Access Profiles...................................................................... 28
4.3 Deleting Remote Office Access Profile............................................................................................. 29
CHAPTER 5 ............................................................................................................................................. 31
DIAL-IN USER ACCESS CONFIGURATION ......................................................................................... 31
5.1 Configuring a Dial-in User Profile .................................................................................................... 31
5.2 Deleting Dial-in User Profiles ........................................................................................................... 32
5.3 Packet Filtering.................................................................................................................................. 32
CHAPTER 6 ............................................................................................................................................. 35
MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................................. 35
6.1 How to View the Connection Log ..................................................................................................... 35
6.2 How to Upgrade the Firmware .......................................................................................................... 35
6.3 How to Reset...................................................................................................................................... 36
6.4 How to Change the Router Manager Password ................................................................................. 36
6.5 What if I Forget the Password?.......................................................................................................... 37
CHAPTER 7 ............................................................................................................................................. 38
TROUBLESHOOTING .......................................................................................................................... 38
APPENDIX A ........................................................................................................................................... 42
CONSOLE COMMANDS ...................................................................................................................... 42
General Guidelines .................................................................................................................................. 42
“Express Mode” vs. “Advanced Mode” .................................................................................................. 43
Conventions ............................................................................................................................................. 43
Command Categories............................................................................................................................... 44
Command List ......................................................................................................................................... 45
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 An overview of BIPAC-645
BIPAC-645 provides fast Ethernet port for connecting to ADSL modem or Cable modem. It allows all
users in a local network to be quickly and easily connected to high-speed Internet (via DSL or Cable service)
using PPPoE. The ISDN Router is built-in and acts as a backup when the DSL/Cable service fails or if the
service is not available. In addition, BIPAC-645 supports remote ISDN dial-in and remote access.
BIPAC-645 is a small desktop router that sits between your local Ethernet network and a remote network
(For example, the Internet or a remote office). It contains an ISDN S/T interface, a 10 Mbps WAN port, four
10/100 Base-T LAN ports, and an auxiliary port for a directly connected management console.
With BIPAC-645, users don’t need to worry about a shortage of IP address resources. Dozens of network
users can surf on the Internet simultaneously by using one ISP account and a single IP address.
Sitting between your computer and remote network, the device acts as a firewall and protects your
computer from unwanted intruders.
BIPAC-645 supports Bandwidth-on-Demand and Dial-on-Demand. Depending on the data flow through an
open B channel, the device will establish another B channel connection to allow greater data throughput. This
extra line will then be dropped again, once the demand decreases, saving money on phone calls.
1.2 Package contents
1. BIPAC-645
2. AC Power Adapter (9V, 1Amp)
3. RS-232 cable (Null modem type)
4. RJ-45 ISDN cable
5. RJ-45 LAN cable
6. CD containing the on-line manual
7. Quick Start Guide
1.3 BIPAC-645 Features
BIPAC-645 provides the following features
z The 10 Mbps broadband router, equipped with a single ISDN Basic Rate Interface (2B+D) that supports
S/T interface specification, will also support European ISDN requirements.
z Supports remote access functions among branch offices and allows remote users to dial-in to your
network.
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z Supports IP sharing function, allowing multiple users share one internet account.
z Supports industry standard Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), Multilink PPP, and PPPoE.
z Supports Dial-on-Demand and Bandwidth on Demand function.
z User-friendly management through web-based configurator, telnet management, console port management,
and remote upgrades.
z PAP/CHAP/MS-CHAP, Call Back, IP Packet Filtering, and Caller ID Authentication for firewall security.
z Supports operating systems such as Windows 95/98/NT/2000/ME, Mac, Unix and Linux
1.4 This Router Device Application
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Chapter 2
Using BIPAC-645
2.1 Cautions for using BIPAC-645
Do not place BIPAC-645 under high humidity and high temperature.
Do not use the same power source for BIPAC-645 with other equipment.
Do not open or repair the case yourself. If BIPAC-645 is too hot, turn off the power
immediately and have a qualified serviceman repair it.
Place BIPAC-645 on the stable surface.
Only use the power adapter that comes with the package.
2.2 The front LEDs
LED
1 Power
2 LAN 1-4 /
ACT/COL
3 WAN/
ACT / COL
4 PPP
5 ISDN / SYNC
6 ISDN / B1/B2
Meaning
Lit when AC power is connected
Lit Green when connected to a LAN device
Flashes Green when sending/receiving data
Flashes Yellow when collisions happen
Lit Green when connected to a WAN device
Flashes Green when sending/receiving data
Flashes Yellow when collisions happen
Lit when PPPoE connection is activated
Lit when ISDN Layer 1 is activated
Lit Green when B1 channel is activated
Lit Yellow when B2 channel is activated
Lit Green +Yellow when B1 and B2 channels are activated
3
2.3 The rear ports
Power
(jack)
Console
(port)
Connect the supplied power adapter to this jack
Connect the supplied RS-232 cable to this port when connecting to a
PC’s RS-232 port (9-pin serial port).
ISDN So
(RJ-45 connector)
Connect an RJ-45 cable to this port when connecting to the ISDN.
LAN 1-4
(RJ-45 connector)
Connect an UTP Ethernet cable to this port when connecting to a
LAN such as an office or home network.
WAN
(RJ-45 connector)
Connect an UTP Ethernet cable to this port when connecting to
the Internet or making other WAN connections
2.4 Cabling
Now you should be ready to connect your BIPAC-645 on your LAN and WAN or ISDN jacks. Follow
these steps to install:
•
Connect the router from EWAN port to an ADSL/cable modem, or attach the ISDN line to the ISDN
connector (S/T interface).
•
Connect the PC to the RJ-45 LAN connector. Two or more PCs can connect to a multi-port Hub first
and then uplink (cascade) port on the hub must be connected to LAN port.
•
Plug the power adapter into a wall outlet and into the AC connector on the back of BIPAC-645.
4
•
The Auxiliary connector is only used to connect a terminal to run the Command Line Interface using
the null modem cable. (This is an optional connection.)
•
There is a DIPswitch located on the rear panel for setting the terminating resistor.
You only need to adjust this switch if there are two or more external ISDN equipments attached to the local
telephone line.
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Chapter 3
Configuration
3.1 Before Configuration
This section describes the configuration required by LAN-attached PCs that communicate with BIPAC-645,
either to configure the BIPAC-645, or for network access. These PCs must have an Ethernet interface installed
properly, be connected to the BIPAC-645 either directly or through an external repeater hub, and have TCP/IP
installed and configured to obtain an IP address through a DHCP server.
Directly connect a Windows OS to the BIPAC-645. If TCP/IP is not already installed, follow the steps
below for its installation.
Any TCP/IP capable workstation can be used to communicate with or through
BIPAC-645. To configure other types of workstations, please consult the
manufacturer’s documentation
Configuring PC in Windows 95/98/ME
1. Go to Start/Settings/Control
Panel. In the Control Panel
double-click on Network and
choose the Configuration tab.
2. Select TCP/IP -> NE2000
Compatible, or any Network
Interface Card (NIC) in your
PC.
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3. Select the Obtain an IP
address automatically radio
button.
4. Then
select
the
Configuration tab.
DNS
5. Select the Disable DNS radio
button and click OK to finish
the configuration.
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Configuring PC in Windows NT4.0
1. Go to Start/Settings/ Control
Panel. In the Control Panel
double-click on Network and
choose the Protocols tab.
2. Select TCP/IP Protocol and
click Properties.
3. Select the Obtain an IP
address from a DHCP server
radio button and click OK.
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Configuring PC in Windows 2000
1. Go to Start/Settings/Control
Panel. In the Control Panel
double-click on Network and
Dial-up Connections.
2. Double-click
Connection.
Local
Area
3. In the Local Area Connection
Status
window
click
Properties.
4. Select
Internet
Protocol
(TCP/IP) and click Properties.
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5. Select the Obtain an IP
address automatically and the
Obtain DNS server address
automatically radio buttons.
6. Click OK to
configuration.
finish
the
3.2 Configuring with GUI program
3.2.1 Using Different Browsers for BIPAC-645
To configure your BIPAC-645, you can use a popular browser, such as Netscape 4.x and Internet Explorer
5.x. The following describes how to use it to start “Local Router Manager” through IE or Navigator.
Netscape Navigator 4.x:
In the Location box (where you normally enter the URL address), enter the default private IP address
of this BIPAC-645 followed by hitting the return key:
http://192.168.168.230
Internet Explorer 5.x:
In the Address box (where you normally enter the URL address), enter the default private IP address
of this BIPAC-645 followed by hitting the return key:
http://192.168.168.230
3.2.2 Password
A password screen will ask you to log on after you enter the default IP address described above. If you are
logging on for the first time, you should accept the factory default password (which is “password”). The
password is always displayed as a string of asterisks (“*”). Clicking the Log On button will begin the
Configurations for BIPAC-645.
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The next time you log in, even if you have modified the password, the default password (“password”) will
still be used as the default. You need to change it to the correct password before you will be let in. No matter
what password you use, each character will always be displayed as a “*”. If you forget the password, you need
to follow the steps described in the later chapter to be able to log on.
After you clicking Log On, the following screen will display, and you must select either ISDN or EWAN
as interface for Internet Access. Click Next to proceed the configuration. Please see the following context for
details.
3.2.3 Customize User Interface
When you enter into the main configuration window, click “Customize User Interface” in the SYSTEM
TOOLS Menu on the left side of the screen, allowing you to customize Local Router Manager to suit your
own specific needs: The selections you make determine what configuration menus and buttons will appear in
the screen. For example, if you select Basic Internet Access only, the interface will only display buttons that
you need for basic Internet access.
If you subsequently use Local Router Manager to configure BIPAC-645 for other applications, you can
return to this screen to “re-customize” your interface by selecting Customize User Interface from the
SYSTEM TOOLS Menu.
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Basic Internet Access
Select this option if you need basic Internet access. This will enable you to configure Internet Access for all
of your LAN users. There are two Internet access interface selections provided by BIPAC-645: through ISDN or
through EWAN.
Internet Access with Advanced Configuration
Select this option if you want to configure advanced options, such as changing the private IP address (for
example, when you intend to create your own private WAN between multiple routers), or adding a public IP
address (for example, when you want to install servers on the LAN which are accessible from the Internet).
Access to/from Remote Site (e.g., Branch Office)
Select this option if you want to create connections to other LAN sites, that is, users at each site can share
resources. If you use Windows PCs, for example, then from Network Neighborhood facility, you can access
files from remote PCs directly. This feature is valid only when you select ISDN as interface for Internet access.
Dial-in Access for Off-Site Users
Select this option if you want to allow users on a stand-alone computer to dial in and access resources on
your network. This feature is valid only you select ISDN as interface for Internet access.
Click Next when you have selected the options you want. The quantity of selections is not limited but
step-by-step configuration is recommend.
3.2.4 Basic Internet Access Configuration via EWAN
EWAN is Ethernet WAN port that you can use xDSL/Cable modem via internet
access.
This section describes the steps to set configuration for Basic Internet Access via EWAN.
You will find that BIPAC-645 is optimized for Basic Internet Access. You don’t need to understand, to
apply for or to assign any IP addresses in your entire network. BIPAC-645 does these things for you
automatically. You need to configure each device on your LAN in a uniform way described in Chapter 2.
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What is Basic Internet Access? It means accessing the Internet, surfing the web, accessing a remote FTP
server (to send or receive files), and sending and receiving e-mail. These are the tasks that users perform most.
When you apply for an account with your Internet Service Provider (ISP), you will be given the username,
password, and other necessary information. Follow the steps below.
Step 1: When you logon, select Customize User Interface in the SYSTEM TOOLS Menu. Accept the
Basic Internet Access selection and click Next. The following window will be displayed , and select “ I
use Internet access over EWAN “. Click Next.
Step 2: Click EWAN in the CONFIGURATION Menu.
First you need to make a decision about Obtain IP Address Automatically. Available options are via
PPP over Ethernet, via DHCP, or No. If you choose No go to step 3. If you choose via DHCP go to step
4, and if you choose via PPP over Ethernet go to step 5. If you choose via PPTP, go to step 6.
Step 3: If you choose No for the selection of Obtain IP Address Automatically. The following screen
will be displayed. Enter the following information and then Click Apply.
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Profile Name: the name that you will use to identify this Internet access profile.
EWAN IP Address: the IP address of your EWAN.
EWAN IP Netmask: the IP Netmask of your EWAN.
ISP Gateway IP Address: the IP Address of your ISP Gateway
Primary DNS IP Address: the IP Address of your Primary DNS.
Secondary DNS IP Address: the IP Address of your Secondary DNS
Step 4: If you choose via DHCP for the selection of Obtain IP Address Automatically. The following
screen will be displayed. Enter the following information and then Click Apply.
Profile Name: the name that you will use to identify this Internet access profile.
(Optional) Host Name (System Name): the Host Name provided by your system.
Step 5: If you choose via PPP over Ethernet for the selection of Obtain IP Address Automatically. The
following screen will be displayed. Enter the following information and then Click Apply and Test.
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Profile Name: the name that you will use to identify this Internet access profile
Obtain IP Addresses Automatically: get the IP Address via PPP over Ethernet. Some DSL-based ISPs
use PPPoE to establish communications with an end-user. If you are connected to the Internet through a
DSL line, check with your ISP to see if they use PPPoE
ISP Account Name: the username of your ISP account
ISP Account Password: the password of your ISP account
(Optional) Service Name: Enter the Service Name provided by your ISP if it is required.
(Optional) Access Concentrator Name: Enter the Access Concentrator Name provided by your ISP if it
is required.
Idle Timeout (0-3600 seconds): The default value of the idle timeout is 120 seconds. It represents the
number of seconds of inactivity over the connection: when this value is reached, BIPAC-645 will
disconnect the connection. You can change the idle timeout value to anything between 0 to 3600 seconds.
But if you select 0, the connection never times out.
Step 6: If you choose via PPTP for the selection of Obtain IP Address Automatically. The following
screen will be displayed. Enter the following information and then click Apply and Test.
When you click Apply or Apply and Test, BIPAC-645 connects to your Internet Service
Provider. Watch the Message Window for any messages. When the test is successful,
your users will be ready to access the Internet.
3.2.5 Basic Internet Access Configuration via ISDN
This section describes the steps to set configurations for Basic Internet Access via ISDN. When you apply
for an account with your Internet Service Provider (ISP), you will be given the necessary information, including
your account name, account password, and the ISP’s local access ISDN telephone number. Have these available
and then follow the steps below.
Step 1: When you logon, select Customize User Interface in the SYSTEM TOOLS Menu. Accept the
Basic Internet Access selection and click Next. The configuration window will be displayed,
15
Step 2: Select I use Internet Access over ISDN and then click Next.
Step 3: Select ISDN in the Configuration Menu and the following screen will appear.
Step 4: Select the ISDN switch type that your ISP will tell you.
Step 5: Select the number of the directory phone numbers and enter the directory phone numbers in the
corresponding blanks.
Step 6: Enter the following information:
Remote Phone Number: the ISDN telephone number of your ISP.
ISP Account Name: the username of your ISP account.
ISP Account Password: the password of your ISP account.
Step 7: Click Apply and Test.
After the successful Apply and Test, any users in the LAN should restart their PC. Now you can surf in the
Web, receive E-mails, or transmit files. For more advanced configurations, refer to the following context.
3.2.6 Internet Access with Advanced Configuration
16
After completing basic Internet access configurations via ISDN, now you can set advanced ISDN
Configuration if you back to the Local Router Manager screen and select Internet Access with Advanced
Configuration.
Step 1: After entering the following parameters as the way described in the previous section. Click
Advanced.
Step 2: The following configuration window will appear.
Step 3: Set Multilink Usage parameters. This determines how the device utilizes the two B channels for
your Internet connection. Available options are:
One B Channel Only:
Two B Channels Only When Needed:
Always two B Channels:
Step 4: Select Data Service. Available options are Data Over Voice Channel, 64K , 56K , and Auto.
Recommended selection is Auto.
17
Step 5: Enter Remote Sub Address Number if necessary.
Step 6: Select STAC compression option.
Step 7: Set Idle Timeout number. The range is from 0 to 3600 seconds.
Step 8: Select Advice of Charge Support option and enter the Unit Price and Currency in the
corresponding blanks if the selection is Yes.
Step 9: Click OK to return to the main configuration screen and skip to next step. Otherwise click
Alternative Number if there is one or more alternative remote phone numbers. Enter the alternative
remote phone number in the corresponding blanks. Then press OK to return to the previous screen. Again
press OK to back to main configuration screen.
Step 10: Click Apply and Test
After the test is successful, BIPAC-645 will disconnect from your ISP. If it is not
successful, make any necessary changes based on progress messages that appear in the
message window, and try again.
3.2.7 IP Configuration for Internet Access
Using IP options in the Menu Window, you can assign a public IP address to the BIPAC-645, modify the
private IP address, DNS addresses, and enable or disable DHCP.
Step 1: Select Internet Access with Advanced Configuration from Local Router Manager. Then click IP
from the Menu Window.
Step 2: The Advanced Internet Access Setup screen appears:
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To install public servers on your network (For Example, Web or ftp servers), you need
to apply for an IP address for each server plus one for the LAN port of this
BIPAC-645. All these public IP addresses have to belong to the same IP network.
Set the following parameters:
Public IP Address: the public IP address for the LAN interface on the BIPAC-645.
Public IP Netmask: the network mask for the public network address on LAN.
Private IP Address: the private IP address for the LAN interface on the BIPAC-645. The default private
IP address is 192.168.168.230.
Private IP Netmask: the network mask for your private network. Its value is 255.255.255.0, and cannot
be changed.
Primary DNS IP Address: the IP address of the primary Domain Name Server (DNS). If properly
configured, when a device reboots and acquires the IP address from the BIPAC-645, the IP addresses of
both the primary and the secondary DNS server will be provided for client workstations or PCs.
Secondary DNS IP Address: the IP address of the secondary domain name server.
DHCP: If you want to act, as a DHCP server and assigns private IP addresses to any requesting DHCP
client, make sure DHCP is enabled. When enabled, it will provide an IP address, network mask, gateway
address (The BIPAC-645’s private IP address), and DNS addresses to any workstations on the local area
network that are configured as a DHCP client. Devices on your network that are configured with public
IP addresses are not DHCP clients. Therefore, you need to assign their IP addresses, network mask, and
default gateway’s IP address, primary and secondary DNS IP addresses manually.
IP Address Assignment-High & Low: the setting about the maximum and minimum of private IP
address for each client PC or workstation in the LAN. The range is from 1 to 254.
Step 3: Click Routing, Address Translation or Static DHCP if it is necessary to set these
configurations. Otherwise click Apply to confirm the configuration and return to the main configuration
screen.
3.2.8 The IP Routing Table
The IP Routing Table contains all the information that the BIPAC-645 needs to route an IP data packet.
You can view the IP Routing Table by clicking on the Routing button at the bottom of the Advanced Internet
Access Setup screen (described in the previous section). From this screen, you can also add new routing entries
to the table. The following screen shows an example of the IP Routing Table.
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An entry for a specific host or network may be added manually. An “S” in the Flags field indicates this
“static route”. Other flag field entries are “H” for host, and “G” for gateway.
Follow the steps to add or to change the default route or add a static route:
Step 1: Click the Add button in the IP Routing Table screen to display the following screen:
Step 2: Enter the following information:
Default Route: select if you want to specify a new default route. Note that the Remote IP Address and
Remote IP netmask fields do not appear if you select this option. CAUTION: Mis-configuring the default
route may result in abnormal system behavior and/or unnecessary telephone charges.
Static Route: select if you want to add a static route.
Remote IP Address: the remote IP address of the new route.
Remote IP Netmask: the IP netmask of the new route.
Gateway: identifies if the gateway is an IP address or interface.
Hop Count: the maximum number of hops for this route.
Step 3 Click APPLY.
3.2.9 IP Address Translation Configuration
For security and economic purposes, BIPAC-645 supports Single User Account feature (SUA). Multiple
users in the LAN can share a public IP address from ISP and Internet users will view the whole LAN as a big
“device”. However, severs in the LAN are allowed to provide services to the Internet users if you properly
configure the server’s private IP address “translated” to the corresponding service port number. For example,
you can set the FTP server’s private IP address mapped to port 21. Follow the steps; it will automatically
complete the mapping procedure.
Remember to set a fixed private IP address for each server providing services to the
Internet users, i.e., these servers can’t be DHCP clients.
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3.2.10 Add or Edit IP Address Translation
Step 1: Click Address Translation button in the Advanced Internet Access Setup screen. The following
IP Address Translation Configuration screen will appear.
Step 2: Click Add for adding a set of IP address translation, or click Edit for editing an existing set of IP
address translation after selecting the set of IP address translation that you want to edit. The Following
screen will appear.
Step 3: Enter the following parameters.
Add Address Translation: Available options are Default Enter and Static Entry.
Public Port Number: The public port number corresponding to the service that the specific server
provides.
Private IP Address: The private IP address that you want to assign to the server.
Private Port Number: The private port number corresponding to the service that the specific server
provides. Public Port Number and Private Port Number should be the same.
Step 4: Click Apply.
Delete a Set of IP Address Translation
Step 1: Select the set of IP address translation that you want to delete from the IP Address Translation
Configuration screen.
Step 2: Click Edit.
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3.2.11 Static DHCP Configuration
By built-in DHCP feature, the device can automatically assign a private IP address to each PC or
workstation in the LAN. But under some situations, you need to set a static private IP address for certain PCs or
workstations. Follow the steps to assign a static private IP address to a PC or a workstation.
Add or Edit a Set of static private IP address
Step 1: Click Static DHCP from Advanced Internet Access Setup Screen. The following screen will
appear.
Step 2: Click Add for adding a set of static private IP address, or click Edit for editing a existing set of
static private IP address after selecting the set of static private IP address. The following screen will
appear.
Name: A name is assigned for router manager identification purpose.
IP Address: The static private IP address that you want to assign.
MAC Address: The MAC address of the physical interface between the device and the PC or
workstation.
Step 3: Click Apply.
Delete a Set of static private IP address
Step 1: Select the Set of static private IP address that you want to delete form the DHCP Configuration
window.
Step 2: Click Delete.
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Chapter 4
Remote Configuration
The remote site does not have to have a router, and may not be configurable by the
local administrator. Make sure the configuration matches the requirements of the
remote site.
4.1 Remote Office Access by ISDN
To configuring the ISDN interface for Remote Office connectivity, follow these steps:
Step 1: Select Access to/from Remote Site in the Local Router Manager screen and click Next:
Step 2: If you have already configured your ISDN interface, skip to Step 3. Otherwise, configure your
ISDN interface in the way described in the chapter 3.
Step 3: Click Connection Profiles in the Menu Window. The Connection Profile Summary window will
appear if there is already any connection profile configured previously.
Step 4: Select New and Click Next, the Connection Profile Configuration window should appear as
follows,
26
Step 5: Enter the following information:
Profile Name: a name associated with this profile.
Call Direction: if the remote site will be dialing in, select Incoming. If the BIPAC-645 will dial out to
the remote site, select Outgoing. Select Both if either side can initiate the connection. The default setting
is Both.
Call Back: if Call Back is enabled (Yes is selected), it checks the Remote System Name and Remote
Password. If a call is received and authentication succeeds, it disconnects the incoming call, and calls the
number in the Call Back field. If Call Back is not enabled (No), the Call Back Number field will not
display. If the Call Direction is Outgoing only, Call Back options will not display.
Remote Phone Number:
My Account Name:
My Account Password:
Make sure the remote site is configured with the same values you specify in My
Account Name and My Account Password.
Remote Account Name:
Remote Account Password:
Step 6: If you selected Outgoing or Both as your Call Direction, click APPLY and TEST, or select
ADVANCED for more options. You must still click Apply and Test even if the other end of the
connection has not been configured. In this case the test will fail, but that can be considered normal.
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4.2 Advanced Options for Remote Office Access Profiles
If you press the Advanced button from the above Connection Profile Configuration, the following
screen appears.
Step 1: Set any of the following parameters:
Data Service: choose 64K, 56K, or Auto. Select Auto unless you know the speed required by the other
end of the connection requiring either 64K or 56K.
Remote Sub-Address:
Caller ID Authentication: select Yes if you want to check the caller ID before accepting the call. This
service may require a special agreement with your ISDN service provider.
Caller ID Number:
STAC Compression: allows outgoing data to be compressed to achieve higher throughput, and
compressed incoming data to be recognized. The ability to use compression depends on the capabilities of
the ISP.
Idle Timeout: the number of seconds of inactivity over the connection. When this value is reached, it
will disconnect the call. You can set the idle timeout from 0 to 3600 seconds. The default setting is 120
seconds. If you select 0, the connection never times out.
Enable IP:
IP RIP:
Remote IP Address:
Remote IP Netmask:
Enable Bridging:
Step 2: If advanced configuration is required for the operation on the ISDN, and its load sharing
capabilities, then click Multilink. Alternatively skip to step 4.
28
Step 3: Click OK after completing the parameters in the following windows.
Step 4: Skip to step 6 or click Alternative Numbers if it is required to set more than one choice of remote
phone numbers. The screen will appears as follows,
Step 5: Select the Number of Alternative Remote Phone Numbers and then enter the remote phone
numbers in the corresponding blanks. Click OK to back to the previous screen.
Step 6: Click OK to back to main configuration screen and click Apply and Test.
4.3 Deleting Remote Office Access Profile
Follow the steps to delete a Connection Profile:
Step 1: Select Connection Profiles in the Menu Window.
Step 2: Highlight the entry in the list you want to delete, and click Delete.
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Chapter 5
Dial-in User Access Configuration
5.1 Configuring a Dial-in User Profile
Step 1: Select Dial-in Access for Off-Site Users in the Local Router Manager screen.
Step 2: Select Connection Profiles from the Menu Window. Information about each dial-in user who is
allowed to access is stored in a “connection profile.” When you select Connection Profiles, the
Connection Profile Summary screen appears only if there is any existing Connection Profile. Select New
from the pull-down menu.
Step 3: Click Next to continue and display the Connection Profile Configuration screen. The following
screen will appear.
Step 4: Enter the information of screen:
Step 5: Select APPLY to add the connection profile to it’s database, or select ADVANCED for more
options and proceed to following steps.
31
Step 6: Enter the information:
Step 7: Click OK to return to the previous screen and click APPLY to add the connection profile to its
database. Otherwise click Multilink if advanced configuration is required for the operation on the ISDN,
and its load sharing capabilities. Then enter the following parameters.
Step 8: Click OK to back to the previous screen and click OK again to back to Connection Profile
Configuration screen.
5.2 Deleting Dial-in User Profiles
Follow the steps to delete a Dial-in User Connection Profile.
Step 1: Select Connection Profiles from the Menu Window.
Step 2: Highlight the entry in the list you want to delete, and click Delete.
5.3 Packet Filtering
To add a new packet rule or to edit an existing one, select IP Filter from the Configuration Menu. Then IP
Filtering Configuration window will appear.
32
Step 1: From the IP Filtering Configuration screen, select the WAN profile of interest from the pull
down menu. For example, if your only need is to access the Internet, you should only select the Internet
access profile.
Step 2: Select send or discarded as desired, which is equivalent to allow and disallow, respectively.
Step 3: If you are just starting, click Add to add a new selection rule. If you have previously defined rules,
you will see those rules shown as entries in the rule table, and you can edit the rule by first highlighting the
desired entry in the rule table followed by clicking the Edit button.
Step 4: In case of adding a new selection rule, the following screen shows.
If you highlighted an existing entry in the IP Filtering Configuration window and clicked Edit instead, a
similar screen will display, with all fields already filled out previously. Then you can make changes if necessary.
If you highlighted an existing entry and clicked Delete instead, the corresponding entry in the rule table will be
removed.
33
Chapter 6
Management
6.1 How to View the Connection Log
BIPAC-645 provides a connection log that you can use to track the telephone connections in and out of
your BIPAC-645. Connect and disconnect messages can be useful in determining your telephone costs, and
trigger messages are useful in determining which applications and tasks trigger a connection. These messages
contain the IP address of the PC, which caused the connection to be established, as well as the port number or
application name.
To view the Connection Log, select Connection Log from the Monitoring Menu. The Connection Log
Window will appear.
There are three types of messages that appear in the Connection Log:
Connect and Disconnect messages: Shows the date, time, and port (channel) when a connection is
completed or disconnected.
Trigger messages: Shows the date, time, channel, duration, and details of an event that triggers a
connection.
6.2 How to Upgrade the Firmware
Step 1: Select System Upgrade from the Menu Window. The following screen is displayed:
35
Step 2: To update BIPAC-645 firmware, download the firmware from Billion’s web site and install the
firmware in your local environment first, then from the above screen enter a path or filename, or click
Browse to select a path to the firmware. Next, Click the Upgrade button below the file name and follow
the onscreen instructions. The new firmware will begin loading across the network. After the operation is
complete, be sure to reset the system to have the new firmware take effect.
6.3 How to Reset
You can reset the system from the System Tools Menu or by unplugging and plugging back in the power
connector to the BIPAC-645. Follow the steps to reset the system:
Step 1: Select Reset System from the System Tools Menu. The following screen displays.
Step 2: Click YES to reset BIPAC-645.
6.4 How to Change the BIPAC-645 Manager Password
After you start using the BIPAC-645, you should change the factory default password. Follow the steps to
change the password.
Step 1: Select Change Password from the System Tools Menu: The following screen displays:
Step 2: Enter the following information:
Current Password:
New Password:
Confirm Password:
Step 3 Click Submit.
36
6.5 What if I Forget the Password?
If you forget the BIPAC-645 Manager password, the only way to recover is clear the entire configuration
and return the unit to its original state as shipped from the factory. Unfortunately, this means that you have to
re-enter all of your configuration data.
To clear the configuration and restore the password to the default, follow these steps:
Step 1: Using the supplied Null Modem Cable, connect a console (or a PC running a terminal emulation
program such as HyperTerminal) to Router Console port. The default port settings are 19200, N, 8, 1, no
flow control.
Step 2: Turn off the BIPAC-645, and then turn it on again. In the console window, you’ll see the message
“Loading firmware...”.
Step 3: When you see the message "Ready", immediately (within one second) press Ctrl+C.
Step 4: When this is complete, BIPAC-645 will return all settings to the factory default. The password will
once again be “password”.
37
Chapter 7
Troubleshooting
z What is NAT?
Answer. NAT is Network Address Translation. It is proposed and described in RFC-1631 and is originally for
solving the IP address depletion problem. Basically, "each NAT box has a table consisting of pairs of
locally private IP addresses and globally unique public IP addresses," by which the box can "translate"
the private IP addresses to public IP address and vice versa. BIPAC-645 supports the feature of NAT.
With proper configuration, multiple users can access the Internet using a single account via the NAT
device.
z How many rules can be used in IP Filtering function?
Answer. There are totally 8 filtering rules can be applied in the LAN and WAN ports.
z How do I change the CLI mode form Advanced Prompt Mode into Express Prompt Mode? And vice
versa?
Answer. Press Ctrl +E key under CLI mode, it will show Advanced Prompt Mode, then press Ctrl +E key again,
it will back to Express Prompt Mode.
z Why should I need to assign static private IP Address to certain workstations or PCs?
Answer. With built-in DHCP feature, each workstation or PC will be assigned by BIPAC-645 a different private
IP address whenever power is on. For specific-purpose workstations, such as Mail server, FTP server,
or Mail Server, we need to set up the static private IP address to prevent from losing connection.
z How do I set up the Idle Time?
Answer. The default setting for Idle Time is 120 seconds; meaning that BIPAC-645 will shut down ISDN
connection automatically once it have no traffic on the connection over 120 seconds. To keep ISDN on
without interruption, reset the Idle Time to 0.
z Is there any effect if I add another DHCP server into the local network in which connected with an
existing DHCP server?
Answer. When it hooks up with power and network, it will detect whether there is any DHCP Server existed
automatically. If it does, BIPAC-645 will shut down DHCP feature automatically, and will close this
detective function as well.
Meanwhile, it will also detect the DHCP once Private IP changed.
38
z Do I be able to pick up more than one configuration-selection at once while I set up Customize User
Interface function?
Answer. Yes, you do, but we would like to recommend that users should configure BIPAC-645 step by manual.
z Why does the configuration lost from previous usage?
Answer. Please keep in mind to save all configurations while you complete setting process.
Please choice Configuration Data Options\Save Button.
z Why do I spend longer time to update firmware in GUI screen?
Answer. Because the GUI of BIPAC-645 was written by JAVA program, we would like to suggest user to use
Netscape Navigator, and please enable JAVA function under Internet Explorer environment. Please
also keep in mind to close other application programs while updating firmware.
z What’s Data over Voice Channel?
Answer. In Europe, there is some Tele-company have higher charging in data calls than voice calls. Using the
Data over Voice Channel can save you more money.
z Why can’t I use ICQ software under the device?
Answer. With built- in NAT (network address translation), it can’t transfer ICQ packets via default TCP port to
ICQ server. It means ICQ can’t work well under such circumstances.
Solution. In order to solve this problem, we can use ISQ software with the function of automatically searching
TCP port, or we can set up the TCP port to port 21(FTP port). For other games over the Internet, we
must add a set of static network address translation to ensure TCP ports are used by the game.
z If I have several legal IP addresses, how do I use it on WAN to LAN communication?
Answer. The public IP address is used in PC connected with BIPAC-645 as a FTP/Mail/Web server, the others
PC connected with BIPAC-645 will get the private IP address from the DHCP server of Router
automatically.
Solution. First of all, to ensure it’s under off-line condition, and complete the profile set up process, then add
another Routing Table entry.
(1) Under GUI Mode:
Key in correct Public IP address for Gateway / Netmask
(2) Under CLI Mode:
Add a PAT Entry
Set IP LAN “Public Gateway Address” “Netmask”,
39
For example, set IP LAN to 202.39.52.190 255.255.255.0
z What can I do if PCs or workstations in the LAN can’t be connected to Internet after setting public
IP address?
Solution. First, Please make sure that the public IP address you set is a legal public IP address, and then check
that the public IP address has not occupied by other users. Second, make sure the IP address of each
server is static and the IP Address/ Netmask/ Gateway information is completed.
And to make sure all PC is connects router with correct ISP.
z Why can’t I set up IP Filter function in GUI?
Answer. Due to the consideration of security, you only can set up Profile in GUI Mode, and for the LAN; it
only can be revised under the CLI Mode.
Solution. Connect the PC to BIPAC-645 with a null modem type cable and enter CLI mode to start IP Filtering
by Telnet or Hyper-terminal.
z What should I do if the Firmware upgraded fail in the device, and it affects me have trouble to get
into CLI & GUI screen?
Answer. It will go through the process of Vector->Boot Code->App Code once its power on, the CLI can be
used to update Firmware as long as the Boot Code doesn’t expired.
Solution.
1. Open Hyper terminal
2. Make sure baud rate is 19200,n, 8,1,none
3. Connect the cable with both Com Port and Console Port
4. Turn on BIPAC-645
5. Choice the connection speed, then you can update the Firmware by delivery the chosen Firmware file.
z How can I get into Router what if I forgot the password?
Answer. If you forget the password, you can clean the password first, but all configuration will be disappeared
once the password cleaned.
Solution.
1. To get into Hyper Terminal first.
2. Make sure baud rate is 19200,n, 8,1,none
3. Turn off BIPAC-645, and connect the Console Port Cable.
40
4. Turn on BIPAC-645.
5. Press Ctrl +C while the message “Loading Firmware” shows up.
6. Then it will show “Clearing System Configuration” once the system is ready.
7. Therefore, it will recover the default password while the router reboot automatically.
z Why does BIPAC-645 connect with ISP sometimes automatically?
Answer. BIPAC-645 will build up connected function once LAN’s PC has any packet need to send. This
function calls Dial on Demand.
z Why didn’t BIPAC-645 offline automatically even my Idle Time exceeded?
Answer. There are several reasons for in-completed offline:
1. The setting Idle time is greater than the confirmed connection packet from ISP.
2. If there is any packet flow into the LAN, Idle Time will always recalculated.
3. LAN’s PC is running Program for the Network, And Program send the packet to the Internet.
You could use the window in Show Profile Status to monitor the packet quantity in Network.
z Why can’t I connect successfully while I use Remote Dial-in?
Answer. Please be sure both Remote User’s Username and password are correct, and keep the setting
information identically at two sides of Router. The best way is setting the BIPAC-645 in
MultiPPP.
41
Appendix A
Console Commands
General Guidelines
When the router is powered up, the user can connect a terminal (or the PC running terminal emulation
software) to the auxiliary (console) port to perform configuration and management functions.
Alternatively, the Command Line Interface may be accessed via a standard telnet application. When
properly connected, setting the console speed to a baud rate of 19200 bits per second, eight data bits, no
parity, one stop bit, and pressing a carriage return key, the user will see a system sign-on message
followed by a password prompt as follows.
Local Router Manager Console Version1: rev_no
Please enter your password: ********
A default password “password” has been pre-configured with the system. The user should use it to log
into the system until the password is explicitly changed using the change password command. Note that
the entered password is case-sensitive. This password may also be changed using the browser-based GUI
configuration utility.
The password entered will be echoed as asterisks (*). After the Carriage Return is entered, if the password
string is validated, the command prompt Router> will be displayed, and the user can then issue other
commands. Otherwise, the password prompt will be redisplayed.
Many commands are single-line commands, and commands are not context sensitive: each command is
independent of other commands before or after it. Exceptions to the single line mode are indicated in this
manual by the prefix “⊕”. These commands invoke an interactive user dialog.
The command syntax is straightforward.
The following briefly summarizes the guideline for the interface.
•
At any time, the user can type a “ ?” (preceded by a space) to request context-sensitive help on
what the user can enter next.
•
At any time, the user can type control-p (^p, by pressing both the Ctrl key and the p key at the
same time) to repeat the previous command, or control n to return to the following (next)
command. At startup, typing ^p or ^n will not cause anything to happen - since previous
commands do not yet exist. In normal operation typing ^p will cause the previous command to
show, and the cursor will sit at the end of the command. At this point, the user can either type a
carriage return to accept the command, or type backspaces to edit the command from the end, or
^p to get to its previous command, or ^n to get to its following command (if applicable). Up to 15
previously entered commands can be invoked through ^p’s and ^n’s.
42
•
If a keyword is expected when the user types “ ?”, all valid keywords will be displayed, then the
command typed so far will be re-displayed, with the cursor sitting at the end (waiting for the user
to continue).
•
If the user had previously typed part of the keyword but did not finish it, and if the characters
typed so far uniquely identify the keyword, if the user types a tab (or a space) character, and the
system will complete the keyword automatically. If the characters typed so far do not uniquely
identify a keyword, nothing will happen.
If the user is not sure what to type next, he can type “ ?”, which will cause those keywords that match the
characters typed so far to be displayed.
If an interactive mode is entered, the system will prompt for each parameter required, such as:
…
enter Link management protocol (none, none/Annex-D):
enter polling interval in seconds (10, 5 - 30):
…
The first prompt means there are two choices (none and Annex-D), with none being the default. The
second prompt means a number between 5 and 30 is expected, with 10 being the default.
If it is the first time a particular parameter is configured, typing a carriage return will cause the default
value to be selected. Otherwise, typing a carriage return means no change to the existing value.
Some interactive commands will query the user for the type of parameter to be entered. For example,
…
enter Day-of-the-week (all, (a)ll/(d)ay-range): d
enter dd1-dd2 (Unspecified): mon-sat
…
“Express Mode” vs. “Advanced Mode”
The Command Line Interface operates in one of two modes: Express Mode or Advanced Mode. In
Express Mode, not all parameters may be displayed. Default values are set for parameters not displayed in
multi-line commands. In Advanced Mode, users have the option to modify all possible values appropriate
to each operation.
The user can toggle between Express Mode and Advanced Mode by typing ^E (Control-E) at any time. Normally,
the system prompt will be changed by appending “>>” to the configured prompt when in Advanced Mode.
Conventions
Note that the meaning of “port n” may differ depending upon the model being managed. Examples using
the terminology are model-specific.
43
The following notations will be used:
1.
lan means the LAN port;
2.
<> specifies the arguments of the command, <1-4> means a number between 1 to 4;
3.
[ ] indicates a required or optional parameter, or choice of parameters;
•
Interface Name or ifName represents a profile interface, which can be the LAN port (lan), a
PPP profile, a PPPoE profile, an ISDN connection profile, or a modem profile.
Profile Name means a WAN profile, such as a PPP profile, LAN-to-LAN profile, Internet
profile, or Single User Dial-in profile, not the LAN port.
4.
5.
xxx/yyy means xxx, or yyy;
6.
num means any integer number (such as 19200, 9600, ...);
7.
MacAddr, or nn-nn-nn-nn-nn-nn means any MAC address in hexadecimal format, where
each nn can be 00, 01, ... 09, 0A, 0B, 0C, 0D, 0E, 0F, 10, 11,… FF;
8.
ipAddr, netMask, or xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx means any ip address or network mask, where xxx is
a decimal integer between 0 and 255
9.
the term string means a string of characters up to the specified length, which may be
enclosed in double quotes (“) (required if the string contains embedded blanks
Command Categories
From a functional point of view, commands can be grouped into the following functional categories:
(1) Bridging
(2) Compression
(3) Diagnostics
(4) Filtering
(5) IP
(6) Port
(7) Profile
(8) Security
(9) SNMP
(10) Statistics
(11) System
This list may vary depending upon the router model and the installed features.
For convenience, the section Command List summarizes all commands using the following categories:
ƒ
Bridging
ƒ
Compression
ƒ
Diagnostics
ƒ
DHCP
ƒ
Dial-In
Users
ƒ
IP
ƒ
Port
Commands
ƒ
Profile
Commands
ƒ
Security Command
ƒ
SNMP
ƒ
Statistics
ƒ
System
This summary is followed by examples in subsequent sections. Examples will be given in the following format:
Command Syntax
Description: the description of the command is given here.
44
Example:
Router> command (with parameters)
Output …
Command List
Note that commands may apply either to a specific router model or with a particular Feature Key enabled.
Each command below which is affected, is identified by a symbol which is associated with either a router
model or a Feature Key as follows:
In addition, those commands which involve an interactive user dialog are prefixed with the symbol, “⊕”.
Bridging Commands
Disable bridging <Interface Name>
Disable learning
Enable bridging <Interface Name>
Enable learning
Show bridging
Show learning
Show learning <Interface Name>
Compression Commands
clear compression statistics <Profile Name>
disable compression <Profile Name>
enable compression <Profile Name>
show compression statistics <Profile Name>
DHCP Commands
⊕add dhcp entry <entry name>
add dns <primary/secondary> <IP_addr>
delete dhcp entry <entry name>
45
delete dns <primary/secondary>
disable dhcp
enable dhcp
⊕set dhcp
⊕set range
show dhcp
show dhcp table
show range
Diagnostic Commands
connect profile <Profile Name>
disable trace
disconnect profile <Profile Name>
enable trace
ping <ip_addr> [integer greater than 0][packet length, greater than or equal to 56]
set log level <1-10>
test isdn <dial name> <64k/56k>
Dial-in User Commands
⊕add user <profile name>
delete user <profile name>
show user [profile name]
Filtering Commands
⊕add filter <1-8>
delete filter <1-8>
⊕set filter default
46
show filter
show filter <1-8>
IP Commands
add ip route <ip_addr> <Network Mask> <ip_addr> <hop count, 1-15>
add ip route <ip_addr> <Network Mask> <Profile Name> <hop count, 1-15>
⊕add pat entry <public port #>
⊕add pat entry default
delete ip default route
delete ip route <ip_addr> <network mask>
delete ip <Interface Name>
delete pat entry <public port #>
delete pat entry default
disable spoofing <Interface Name> <iprip>
enable spoofing <Interface Name> <iprip>
ping <ip_addr> [integer >=1] [packet length, >=56]
set ip default route <ip_addr>
set ip default route <Profile Name>
set ip lan <ip_addr> <network mask>
set ip private <ip_addr> <network mask>
set ip rip <disabled / passive / active> <rip1/rip2>
set ip rip [Interface Name] <disabled / passive / active> <RIP1/RIP2>
set ip <Profile Name>
set ip <Profile Name> <ip_addr> <network mask> <ip_addr>
show arp table
47
show icmp statistics
show ip
show ip <interface name>
show ip routing table
show ip statistics
show pat
show tcp statistics
show udp statistics
Port Commands
clear port statistics [port name]
disable port <port name>
enable port <port name>
⊕set port <port name>
show port
show port <port name>
show port statistics <port name>
Profile Commands
⊕add profile <Profile Name>
clear profile statistics [Profile Name]
connect profile <Profile Name>
delete profile <Profile Name>
disable profile <Profile Name>
disconnect profile <Profile Name>
enable profile <Profile Name>
48
show profile
show profile <Profile Name>
show profile statistics
show profile statistics <Profile Name>
Security Command
set ip private <ip_Addr><netMask>
SNMP Commands
clear trap manager <1-5>
disable trap
enable trap
set community string read <string up to 30 characters, inclusive>
set trap manager <1-5> <ip_addr>
show snmp statistics
show trap manager [1-5]
Statistics Commands
clear compression statistics [Interface Name]
clear port statistics [port name]
clear profile statistics [Profile Name]
show compression statistics <Profile Name>
show icmp statistics
show ip statistics
show port statistics <port name>
show profile statistics [Profile Name]
show snmp statistics
49
show tcp statistics
show udp statistics
show <Interface Name> statistics
System Commands
change password
clear config
disable remote-mgt
enable remote-mgt
disconnect telnet session <1-5>
download config <file_name> from <ip_addr>
download firmware
help
logout
reset system
save config
set console baud <baudrate>
set console timeout <timeout value, 1- 60>
set date <mm-dd-yy>
set daylight time <on/off>
⊕set internet access time
set log level <1-10>
set prompt <string up to 15 characters, inclusive>
set system contact <string up to 60 characters, inclusive>
set system location <string up to 60 characters, inclusive>
50
set system name <string up to 30 characters, inclusive>
set time <hh:mm:ss>
set timezone <-12:00 - +12:00>
show config
show connection log
show interface list
show internet access time
show system
show system log
show telnet session
show time
upload config <string up to 60 characters, inclusive> to <ip_addr>
51
Command Detail
Bridging Commands
Although routing is preferred over bridging for transmitting data across wide area connections,
occasionally bridging is required. For example, when the data packets to be transmitted are neither IP nor
IPX (such as NetBEUI, SNA or AppleTalk), or when the other end of the WAN connection only supports
bridging.
Bridging uses an intelligent learning algorithm to build up a MAC-address-to-interface mapping, which it
then uses to make forwarding or filtering decisions for each packet it receives, whether the packet is from
the LAN side or from one of the WAN connections.
disable bridging <Interface Name>
Description: This command disables bridging over the specified interface. If the interface already has
IP/IPX routing enabled, then routing will take precedence. For example, if both bridging and IP routing
are enabled over interface profile1, IP data will be routed, and all non-IP data will be bridged.
Example:
Router> disable bridging profile1
disable learning
Description: This command enables or disables address learning for all bridging ports. The default mode
is enabled.
When learning is enabled, MAC addresses will be learned and maintained in the address table. However,
an entry will be “aged out” (removed) if the same address is not re-learned within a fixed time period,
When learning is disabled, all addresses learned so far will no longer be aged out.
enable bridging <Interface Name>
Description: This command enables bridging over the specified interface.
enable learning
Description: This command enables or disables address learning for all bridging ports.
show bridging
Description: This command displays the bridging configuration over all interfaces.
Example:
IfName
IP
Other
-----------------------------------------------------------ppp2
disabled
enabled
isp1
enabled
disabled
lan
enabled
enabled
52
show learning
Description: This command displays MAC addresses learned from all bridging-enabled interfaces.
Example:
Router> show learning
lan:
MAC Address
-----------------------------------------------12-22-33-3D-D5-00
00-60-54-16-67-01
00-96-33-58-BD-DE
Total MAC addresses: 3
newyork:
MAC Address
-----------------------------------------------00-40-33-3D-D5-DB
00-60-20-16-00-01
00-40-33-58-07-DE
Total MAC addresses: 3
show learning <Interface Name>
Description: This command displays MAC addresses learned from a specified interface.
Example:
Router> show learning lan
MAC Address
--------------------------00-40-33-3D-D5-DB
00-60-20-16-00-01
00-40-33-58-07-DE
Total MAC addresses: 3
Compression Commands
Compression can be enabled over serial interfaces running the PPP protocol in order to allow more
efficient use of the WAN bandwidth. Currently, STAC based compression is supported. In units
containing hardware-assisted compression, these commands will automatically utilize this resource.
Note that these commands cannot manage the operation of modem-based compression (MNP5/V.42).
Modem initialization strings manage this type of compression.
clear compression statistics <Profile Name>
Description: The statistics counters associated with compression over the specified interface are reset.
53
disable compression <Profile Name>
Description: This command disables compression over the specified interface.
enable compression <Profile Name>
Description: This command enables compression over the specified interface.
show
compression statistics <Profile Name>
Description: This command displays compression related statistics for the specified interface.
DHCP Commands
The Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP) is a client/server protocol2 that defines an efficient and
convenient means of dynamically assigning IP addresses and other networking parameters for a period of
time upon request. In a router environment, this means either the dynamic assignment of “private” IP
addresses to PCs co-residing on the LAN segment with the router or a static assignment of these
addresses according to the station identification (the MAC address) of the requesting client.
Since the routers are, by default, configured with a private IP address for its LAN connection, the DHCP
server is automatically enabled. (The DHCP function is disabled if the router discovers another DHCP
server at initialization time, or if the user has explicitly disabled this function.) DHCP clients residing in
LAN-resident machines, such as those running Windows 95/98, may then request a lease on an IP address
from a DHCP server. As the term implies, the assignment of the address is temporary. The default lease
period in a router’s DHCP server is ten hours. The DHCP client is responsible for the renewal of the
lease.
Both static and dynamic DHCP assignments are supported. The range of IP addresses in the dynamic pool
from which the server selects an address to satisfy a request depends upon the currently configured
private address and network mask of the router. The router’s defaultIP private address is 192.168.168.230
with a network mask of 255.255.255.0. This private address may be changed to any private address and
network mask as specified in the following table:
Class
Network Address
Network
Prefix
Default
Network Mask
Maximum
Number of
Host
Addresses
A
10.0.0.0
8 bits
255.0.0.0
16,777,214
10.0.0.1/10.255.255.254
B
172.xx.0.0
12 bits
255.255.0.0
65534
172.xx.0.1/172.xx.255.254
31 ≥ xx ≥ 16
C
192.168.xx.0
Lowest/Highest Address
31 ≥ xx ≥ 16
16 bits
255.255.255.0
255 ≥ xx ≥ 0
254
192.168.xx.1/192.168.xx.254
255 ≥ xx ≥ 0
2
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) defines DHCP in RFC-2131 and RFC-2132.
54
Once configured, the DHCP server will assign private addresses from within the defined private address
range with the highest available address being assigned first. This address range may be modified using
the “set range” command. Statically assigned addresses must be within this range as well. Up to 20 static
DHCP assignments may be configured and saved.
If the Default Network Mask is modified, the DHCP address range is likewise modified, with the highest
configurable address being assigned first, by default (also modifiable via the “set range” command).
⊕add dhcp entry <entry name>
Description: This command adds or edits a static DHCP assignment entry. An entry added to the Static
DHCP Assignment Table causes a DHCP client to be assigned the same IP address whenever a DHCP
client request is received from a machine with the specified MAC address.
Example:
Router> add dhcp entry daniel
enter IP address (Unspecified): 192.168.168.134
enter MAC address (Unspecified): 00-40-05-35-db-4f
Note that the format of the MAC address uses embedded dashes
add dns <primary/secondary> <IP_addr>
Description: This command allows the specific assignment of Domain Name Server (DNS) IP addresses
that will be subsequently assigned to requesting DHCP clients. Note that these addresses also can be
automatically obtained via protocol negotiation when connecting to a remote IP network, e.g., a
connection to an ISP. Both a primary DNS server address and a secondary DNS server address may be
assigned using separate commands.
delete dhcp entry <entry name>
Description: This command deletes the specified entry from the Static DHCP Assignment Table.
delete dns <primary/secondary>
Description: The specified Domain Name Server IP address will no longer be assigned by the DHCP
server to requesting clients. Note that a subsequent connection to an ISP may once again cause these
values to be assigned to requesting clients.
disable dhcp
Description: This command disables the Dynamic Host Control Protocol server functions within the
router. The router will no longer respond to lease requests. Existing leaseholders will not be able to renew
their leases after the lease term expires, unless another DHCP server resides within the network.
enable dhcp
Description: This command enables the Dynamic Host Control Protocol server functionality within the
router. When enabled, the router will service a client request for IP address and net mask assignment, as
well as assignments of default gateway, DNS server addresses, WINS server addresses and NetBIOS
Node Type. The pool of addresses from which the router selects is defined in the table above.. The default
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is 192.168.168.230, unless re-configured with the “set ip private…” command (or its HTTP equivalent).
The term of the lease is 10 hours. The factory default is enabled.
⊕set dhcp
Description: This command configures the global parameters to be supplied to all requesting DHCP
clients. Note that the DHCP service can also be enabled or disabled from this command.
Example:
Router> set dhcp
enable DHCP (Yes, Yes/No): yes
configure WINS server (No, Yes/No): yes
enter primary WINS server address (Unspecified): 63.221.98.5
enter secondary WINS server address (Unspecified): 63.221.98.7
enter NetBIOS node type (none, none/b/p/m/h): h
Router>
⊕set range
Description: This command sets the bounds for dynamic assignment of IP addresses to both DHCP
clients and dial in users. A dialog ensues wherein the user is asked first to enter the upper bound address,
and then the lower bound address. The default upper bound is the highest address in the configured
private IP subnet. For example, if the configured private IP subnet is 192.168.168.0/255.255.255.0, then
the default upper bound for dynamic assignment is 192.168.168.254. The default lower bound is the high
address less 253, which, in our example, is 192.168.168.1. Any address lower than the lower bound is not
assigned automatically by the router to requesting DHCP clients or dial-in users and may be used for
manual configuration of a LAN device (unless used by another router elsewhere on the LAN).
The administrator may alter these addresses to any address that is valid within the configured private IP
subnet. The upper bound address must be greater than the lower bound address.
Note that dial in users will be assigned addresses in pairs.
The router will check before assignment of any dynamic address to ensure that it is not in use elsewhere
in the network.
If the router’s private IP network is modified, the range values that are in conflict with the new IP
network settings will revert to the above mentioned defaults until manually altered by the administrator.
Example:
Router> set range
enter upper bound address (192.168.168.254):
enter lower bound address (192.168.168.1):
show dhcp
Description: This command displays the current status of the Dynamic Host Control Protocol server.
Example:
56
Router> show dhcp
Admin Status:
Enable
Default Lease:10 hours
Network address: 192.168.168.0
Netmask:
255.255.255.0
Secondary DNS:
199.191.144.75
Default gateway: 192.168.168.230
Primary DNS:
199.191.129.139
Primary WINS:
63.221.98.5
Node Type
h-node
IP-Address
Mac-Addr
Secondary WINS:63.221.98.7
Lease-Expires
Entry Type
----------------------------------------------------------------192.168.168.134
00400535db4f 06-15-99 14:24:5
192.168.168.254
222222222222
Static
06-15-99 16:43:7
Dynamic
show dhcp table
Description: This command displays the entries currently configured in the Static DHCP Assignment
Table
Example:
Router> show dhcp table
Static DHCP Assignments
Name
IP-Address
Mac-Address
---------------------------------------------------------------daniel
192.168.168.134
00-40-05-35-DB-4F
show range
Description: This command displays the upper and lower bound addresses currently being used for the
dynamic assignment of private IP addresses to DHCP clients and dial in users. (See “set range”, above)
Example:
Router> show range
IP address assignment range: 192.168.168.1 – 192.168.168.254
Diagnostic Commands
connect profile <Profile Name>
Description: For switched profiles, this command activates the profile as if a trigger occurred. This
command has no effect on leased line profiles.
disable trace
Description: This command disables the debug trace messages.
disconnect profile <Profile Name>
Description: For active switched profiles, this command terminates the connection as if an idle timeout
occurred. This command has no effect on leased line profiles.
57
enable trace
Description: This command enables the debug trace messages. When enabled, all log messages entered
into the system log will appear in the console session from which this command is issued.
ping ipAddr [<n_times> < n_size>]
Description: This command allows the user to ping an IP device (send a diagnostic message to be echoed
by the receiving device). If n_times and n_size are optionally specified, the ping will be performed
n_times times, and each time with size equal to n_size. Otherwise, ping will only be executed once with
the packet size equal to 56 bytes. The maximum value of n_times is 100: any value larger than this will be
set to 100. The maximum value of n_size is 1932: any value larger than this will be set to 1932.
Example:
Router> ping 10.0.0.2 100 1000
repeating times = 100, data length = 1000
Ping packets -- total: 100
sent: 100
received: 100
Router> ping 10.0.0.2
repeating times = 1, data length = 56
Ping packets -- total: 1
sent: 1
received: 1
set log level <1-10>
Description: For a description of this command, see “set log level <1-10>” under System Commands.
test isdn <dial name> <64k/56k>
Description: This command causes a modem call to the specified telephone number. The call is cleared
immediately after a connection is established. This command is only valid when the ISDN port has been
configured and enabled. Please refer to “Set Port” and “Enable Port” commands for details.
Dial-in User Commands
Dial-in user profiles are used by stand-alone remote workstations connecting via a switched connection
through an ISDN line. A user workstation effectively becomes a LAN node for the duration of its
connection. Its ARP information is proxied by the router.
When a switched call is answered, the local profile database is searched for a match with the received
name. If an appropriate profile is not found, the call is rejected. If a profile is found, the information in
the entry is used to authenticate and configure the connection.
⊕add user <profile name>
(where “profile name” is a string <= 30 chars)
Description: This command configures an entry in the local profile database. The users added with this
command might be single workstations dialing in through the ISDN line. The following examples
illustrate the dialog that ensues and the items of information that the router needs for these profiles:
58
Example 1:
Add the following Single Workstation dialing into a router using the CLI Express Mode (you can toggle
between Express Mode and Advanced Mode by using the Ctrl-E key combination)
Router> add user u1
Add new user profile "u1" ...
user name (Unspecified): user1
user password (Unspecified): ***
password confirm (***): ***
The Express method of configuring a dial-in user will use the following defaults:
10. PPP Authentication: Either CHAP or PAP
11. Multilink: No
12. Callback: No
13. Caller ID Authentication: No
14. IP Enabled
15. IP RIP Disabled
16. No Compression
17. Default Idle Timeout (model-dependent)
Example 2:
Add the following Single Workstation dialing into the router using the CLI Advanced Mode
Router>>> add user u2
Add new user profile "u2" ...
user name (Unspecified): user2
user password (Unspecified): ***
password confirm (***): ***
enable call back (No, yes/no): y
call back number (Unspecified): 5554444
enable caller ID authenticatication (N0, yes/no): yes
caller ID (Unspecified): 5556666
multilink option (No, no/loadsharing/overflow): over
second caller ID (Unspecified): 5557777
second call back number (Unspecified): 5557777
compression (No, no/stac):
idle timeout (120, 0[none]-3600):
enable IP (Yes, yes/no):
use dynamic IP address assignment? (Yes, yes/no): yes
bridging (No, yes/no):
delete user <profile name>
Description: Deletes a dial-in user entry from the local user database.
59
show user [profile name]
Description: Displays the current local profile database.
Example 1: Without the user name parameter the output appears as follows.
Router> show user
profile name: u2
user name:
user2
enable IP:
Yes
dial in from:
Workstation
IP RIP:
Disable
profile name: u1
user name:
user1
enable IP:
Yes
dial in from:
Workstation
IP RIP:
Disable
Example 2: When a specific user is named, the output appears as follows:
Router> show user u1
Profile name: u1
User Name:
user1
Dial In From:
Workstation
Port Type:
ISDN
Multilink:
No
Caller ID:
None
Callback #:
None
Auth Method: Either
Encryption:
Enable IP:
IP Address:
Bridging:
Compression:
No
No
Idle Timeout:
Yes
300
IP RIP:
Disable
Dynamic
No
Filtering Commands
⊕add filter <1-8>
Description: This command adds or modifies the nth IP filter rule in the system
Packet Filtering allows each IP packet exiting a router interface to be examined for a match with a
configured set of rules. If all of the conditions in any rule do not match the contents of the packet, then
the packet is either forwarded or discarded, depending upon the filter default for that interface. Otherwise,
the exception action is taken, i.e., the packet is discarded or forwarded, the opposite of the default action.
The default action for an interface is set by the set filter default command described below.
The total number of rules system-wide in this version of the firmware is limited to eight. Each of these
rules may be assigned to one specific interface.
The conditions that may be specified are:
Conditions
IP Protocol
Values
1.
Any Protocol
2.
TCP
3.
UDP
4.
ICMP
5.
IGMP
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Source IP Address
1.
Any value (wildcard)
2.
Individual IP Address (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx)
3.
Range of consecutive IP Addresses
4.
A Network of IP Addresses (and its associated subnet mask).
(xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx-yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy)
(xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/mmm.mmm.mmm.mmm)
Destination IP Address
1.
Any value (wildcard)
2.
Individual IP Address (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx)
3.
Range of consecutive IP Addresses
(xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx-yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy)
4.
A Network of IP Addresses (and its associated subnet mask).
(xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/mmm.mmm.mmm.mmm)
Source TCP/UDP Port
Destination TCP/UDP Port
1.
Any value (wildcard)
2.
A TCP or UDP Port Number
3.
A consecutive range of TCP/UDP Port Numbers
1.
Any value (wildcard)
2.
A TCP or UDP Port Number
3.
A consecutive range of TCP/UDP Port Numbers
Filter is specified by a number.
Note: Incorrect or mistyped filtering entries may cause undesired or unpredictable
behavior. It is strongly recommended that this feature be used with the utmost care and
planning. For a more detailed description of Filtering, please refer to the User Guide for
your particular model.
Example:
Router> add filter 1
enter filter name (Unspecified):
enter interface (Unspecified):
enter IP protocol (any, (a)ny/TCP/UDP/ICMP/IGMP):
enter Source IP Address (any, (a)ny/(s)ingle/(r)ange/(n)etwork):
/* if “s” or “single” specified */
enter single ip_addr (Unspecified):
/* endif “single” */
/*if “r” or “range” specified */
enter ip_addr1-ip_addr2 (Unspecified):
/* endif “range” */
/* if “n” or “network” specified */
enter ip_net_addr/netmask (Unspecified):
/* endif “network” */
enter Destination IP Address (any, a)ny/(s)ingle/(r)ange/(n)etwork):
enter Source TCP/UDP Port(any, (a)ny/(s)ingle/(r)ange):
enter Destination TCP/UDP Port(any, (a)ny/(s)ingle/(r)ange):
delete filter <1-8>
Description: This command deletes the specified rule.
Example:
Router> delete filter 1
⊕set filter default
Description: This command sets the default action to be taken when an IP packet does not match any
rule on the specified interface. See the description for the add filter command above.
61
Example:
Router> set filter default
enter interface (Unspecified): isp
enter default action (forward, forward/discard) : forward
show filter
Description: This command displays the entire configured rule set.
Example:
Router> show filter
Interface Name : abc
Default action is forward, and current exception rules are :
Filter 1:
Filter Name:
Rule1
Interface Name:
ppp2
IP Protocol: any
Src. IP:
212.54.104.1
Dest. IP:
any
Src. Port:
136
Dest. Port:
any
show filter <1-8 >
Description: This command displays the definition of the nth rule.
Example:
Router> show filter 1
Filter 1:
Filter Name:
Interface Name:
Rule1
ppp2
Src. IP:
Dest. IP:
IP Protocol: any
212.54.104.1
any
Src. Port:
136
Dest. Port:
any
IP Commands
add ip route <dest-ipAddr><netMask><gateway-ipAddr ><hop count, 1-15>
add ip route <dest-ipAddr><netMask><Profile Name>< hop count, 1-15>
Description: This command adds a static route to the IP routing table. The first example means that to
send a packet to the destination IP address 204.71.220.153, the packet should be forwarded to 204.23.0.1
first, and the target is 4 hops away. The second example means that to send a packet to the destination IP
address 204.71.220.153, the packet should be sent out over the frame relay profile isp2 first, and the
target is 4 hops away.
Example:
Router> add ip route 204.71.220.153 255.255.255.0 204.23.0.1
Router> add ip route 204.71.220.153 255.255.255.0 isp2 4
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4
⊕add pat entry <public port #>
⊕add pat entry default
Description: Each IP packet received from the Internet interface is examined. If the destination address is
the public address of the interface, the Network Address Translation Table is searched for a match. If the
address is found, the destination address is replaced with the associated private address and port number.
The packet is then forwarded to the IP routing process. If no match is found and a Default Private
Receiver is defined, the packet is forwarded to this machine. If no match is found and a Default Private
Receiver is not defined, the packet is discarded.
Static entries may be created in this table by these commands.
Note that static entries are mapped according to port number and therefore multiple protocols using the
same port number will be routed to the mapped entry.
Example 1:
IP packets received with the public IP address of the router and a destination port number of 123 will be
translated to port 234 with a destination private IP address of 10.0.1.120. Here, it is assumed that the
private IP network is 10.0.1.0 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.
Router> add pat entry 123
Enter Private IP Address (unspecified): 10.0.1.120
Enter Private Port Number (unspecified): 234
Example 2:
IP packets received with a destination port number not found in the Address Translation Table will be
translated to a destination private IP address of 192.168.168.121. Here, it is assumed that the private IP
network is 192.168.168.0 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.
Router> add pat entry default
Enter Private IP Address (unspecified): 192.168.168.121
delete ip default route
Description: This command deletes the default route from the IP routing table. Packets normally sent to
the default router will then be discarded.
delete ip route <ipAddr> <net_mask>
Description: This command deletes the static route for 204.71.220.153 from the IP routing table.
Example:
Router> delete ip route 204.71.220.153 255.255.255.0
delete ip <Interface Name>
Description: This command deletes the IP protocol configuration from the specified interface. The
corresponding IP routing table entry for this IP address is also deleted.
63
delete pat entry <public port #>
Description: This command deletes the specified port mapping from the Network Address Translation
Table.
delete pat entry default
Description: This command deletes the default port mapping from the Network Address Translation
Table.
disable spoofing <Interface Name> <iprip>
enable spoofing <Interface Name> <iprip>
Description: These commands enable/disable spoofing over switched connection profiles.
Since dial-up connection (e.g. ISDN calls) charges are based on the connection time, a technique called IP
spoofing is often used to limit or prevent unnecessary connection time. This is done by (1) allowing
control packets to be sent only when the connection is already up transmitting user data, or (2) allowing
control packets to be spoofed (faked) so that they don’t add load to the WAN traffic. IP RIP broadcasts
are sent only when the connection is up.
Example:
Router>
enable spoofing isdn1 iprip
Router>
disable spoofing isp2 iprip
ping <ipAddr> [n_times] [n_size]
Description: See description under Diagnostics.
set ip default route <gateway-ipAddr>
set ip default route <Profile Name>
Description: This command is used to set the IP default route. The default route will be used when an IP
packet’s destination IP address cannot be found in the IP routing table. If the default route is not defined,
such a packet is discarded.
Example:
Router> set ip default route 204.71.220.153
Router> set ip default route isp1
set ip lan <ip_addr> <netMask>
Description: This command assigns a “public” IP address to the LAN port of the router. As a
consequence, the LAN port maps to two IP addresses (one public and one private), and is therefore on
two networks.
64
Example:
Router> set ip lan 204.71.220.153 255.255.255.0
set ip private <ip_addr> <netMask>
Description: This command is used to modify the “private” IP address on the router’s LAN interface.
The IP network corresponding to the “set ip private” command becomes the private network. Private
addresses are not legal for use on the Internet and therefore, devices in this network are no longer
accessible from public devices on the Internet side. All devices within this “private” network are
represented by one single IP address: the IP address received from an Internet Service Provider at connect
time. Note that 192.168.168.230 is the default private address used for routers, and the private network
address is 192.168.168.0, and therefore all private devices (by default) should have IP addresses within
the range of 192.168.168.1 to 192.168.168.254. Private IP addresses may be any Class A, B or C address
as described in the “DHCP” section of this manual.
Note that the router may also communicate with devices in a “public” IP network, as defined in the
command “set ip lan <ip_addr> <netMask>set ip lan <ip_addr> <netMask>”.
When you modify the private IP network, related routes in the IP Routing Table and all entries in the
Static DHCP table and the Network Address Translation table which conflict with the new address space
will be deleted. You will receive a warning message asking if you would like this to be done.
Example:
Router> set ip private 10.0.1.168 255.255.255.0
set ip rip [Interface Name] <disabled/passive/active> <rip1/rip2>
Description: This command sets the IP RIP state to the disabled mode, passive mode or active mode.
When in the passive mode, the router will receive RIP broadcast data from other routers (but not transmit);
when in active mode, it will receive RIP broadcast data from other routers, and also broadcast the routing
table and routing table updates as necessary. When “Interface Name” is omitted, the command applies to
the entire system. The default mode is Active.
One common way of configuring routers for a central site and a remote (relatively small) site network is
as follows: assume the local site is a small branch network, which is connected to a central site, through
which many other networks can be reached. Instead of allowing both routers to turn on RIP, a better way
is to turn on RIP for the branch, but set the central site to be in the passive mode only. Thus, the central
site will not send its routing table to the branch router, but the branch site will send the routing table and
updates to the central site. Additionally, on the branch router, the user should set the default route to the
WAN connection that leads to the central site.
Now, from the central site’s point of view, since it still sees all networks at the branch site, it has no
problem routing any packet to the remote site. On the other hand, from the remote site’s perspective,
whenever a packet is to be routed, the remote site router will apply the standard routing algorithm to the
packet and, if no route can be found, the packet will just be passed on to the central site for resolution.
The idea is that the central site has the complete routing table, and thus “should” know how to route the
packet. With that assumption, the branch router is relieved of the burden of having to receive routing table
updates from the central site (which, in case of a large network, could be a huge routing table containing
hundreds or thousands of routing entries).
RIP, version 1 (or RIP1) transmits its routing table without subnet or next hop information, while RIP,
version 2 (or RIP2) includes this information. These two versions are not compatible and RIP2 should
only be specified when communicating to other RIP2 routers.
65
set ip <Profile Name>
set ip <Profile Name> < local-ipAddr> <netMask> <remote-ipAddr>
Description: This command enables IP routing over the connection specified by Profile Name.
Additionally, a WAN connection that supports IP routing, may, either be assigned zero or two IP
addresses. If none are assigned, the connection is termed unnumbered, a popular feature available in
newer routers (since the connection does not consume IP addresses). Numbered connections are
assigned two addresses, one at each end of the connection (complete with the network mask).
Example 1:
This example assigns IP addresses to the two sides of the PPP connection ppp2 204.71.220.153 is for the
local side of ppp2, while 204.71.220.151 is for the remote side; both use the same network mask,
255.255.255.0.
Router> set ip ppp2 204.71.220.153 255.255.255.0 204.71.220.151
Example 2:
This command activates IP routing over the ISDN connection profile isdnprofile1. When a connection is
set up using profile isdnprofile1, unnumbered IP routing will be turned on. (Refer to the section “Profile
CommandsProfile Commands”)
Router> set ip isdnprofile1
show arp table
Description: This command displays the ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) cache table, which contains
up to 16 most recent MAC-to-IP-address mappings that have not been aged out.
Example:
Router> show arp table
110.0.0.1
at 00:60:20:00:00:15 permanent
110.0.0.2
at 00:40:33:3D:D5:DB
show icmp statistics
Description: This command displays statistical information associated with the Internet Control Message
Protocol (ICMP).
Example:
Router> show icmp statistics
Received
Transmitted
-----------------------------------------------------------Dest Unreachable:
0
0
Time Exceeded:
0
0
IP Header Error:
0
0
66
Source Quench:
0
0
Redirect:
0
0
Echo Request:
0
0
Echo Reply:
0
0
Timestamp Request:
0
0
Timestamp Reply:
0
0
Address Mask Request:
0
0
Address Mask Reply:
0
0
Calls to icmp error:
0
Messages Reflected:
0
show ip
Description: This command displays all interfaces on which IP routing has been enabled.
Example:
Router> show ip
Admin. Oper.
IfName
Destination/
State State IP Address NetmaskBroadcast Addr
------------------------------------------------------------------ppp2
Enabled
lan Enabled
Up
Up
20.0.0.1
110.0.0.1
255.0.0.0 20.0.0.2
255.0.0.0
dlci16
Enabled
Up
10.0.0.1
dlci17
Enabled
Up
(Unnumbered)
110.255.255.255
255.0.0.0 10.0.0.2
show ip <interface name>
Description: This command displays the IP configuration over the specified interface.
Example:
Router> show ip lan
Interface: lan
---------------------------------------------------------------IP Address:
192.168.168.230
Netmask:
255.255.255.0
Dest. IP Address:
192.168.168.255
Opr./Admin. State:
Up
RIP State:
Active Ver.1
IP Multicast:
Disabled
show ip routing table
Description: This command displays the IP routing table. Each entry in the routing table corresponds to a
network or a host, and contains necessary information that is required for routing data packets to that
network or host. For example, entry 8 means that to send a packet to 110.0.0.1, the packet should be sent
to the next hop router (gateway), whose IP address is 40.0.0.5. The destination is, according to the table, 5
hops away (where a “hop” is a traversal of a link from one router to another).
Any entry whose Interface Name is lo means the corresponding destination network is locally attached to
one of the serial interfaces. Also, if the Gateway field is empty, it means either the destination IP network
67
is directly attached to the router (i.e., the destination is on the same LAN the router is connected to), or
the destination is reachable through an unnumbered serial interface.
The meanings of the flags are:
Host
Static Route
Gateway
Cloned Entry
S
G
C
Example:
Router> show ip routing table
Destination
Netmask
Gateway
Hop
IfName Flags
------------------------------------------------------------------40.0.0.0
192.168.168.0
0
255.255.255.0
0
lan
lan
C
10.0.0.1
0
lo
H
20.0.0.1
0
lo
H
20.0.0.2
0
ppp2
H
110.0.0.0
255.0.0.0
40.0.0.5
5
lan
G
S
120.0.0.0
255.0.0.0
40.0.0.5
1
lan
G
S
show ip statistics
Description: This csommand displays IP routing related statistics.
Example:
Router> show ip statistics
Received
Transmitted
----------------------------------------------------------------Packets received
17418
Datagrams generated Locally
123
Packets Forwarded
15768
Datagrams Delivered to Upper Layer
3241
Raw Packets Sent
1650
Redirects Sent:
0
Packet drops:
IP Header Errors
0
Unknown Protocols
0
Not Forwardable:
0
DONT-FRAGMENT Bit ON:
0
No Buffers:
0
No Route:
0
fragmentation:
Total Fragments
0
Datagrams Reassembled
0
0
Datagrams Fragmented for Output
0
68
Fragments Dropped after Timeout
0
Fragments Dropped (Duplicates/No Space
0
show pat
Description: This command displays the static configuration entries in the Network Address Translation
Table.
Example:
Router> show pat
Public Port
Private IP
Number
Address
Private Port
Number
-------------------------------------------------------Default
192.168.168.121
123
192.168.168.120
234
26
192.168.168.120
26
Router>
show tcp statistics
Example:
Router> show tcp statistics
Received
Sent
----------------------------------------------------Total Packets
0
0
show udp statistics
Example:
Router> show udp statistics
Received
Delivered
---------------------------------------------------------Total datagrams
19368 5424
Datagrams with checksum error
0
Datagrams with incorrect length
0
Datagrams dropped due to buffer full
1133
Datagrams with dest. port unreachable
0
Port Commands
Port related commands allow configuration of a port, the protocol running on the port, and the
corresponding protocol parameters. In addition, commands are available for clearing statistical counters,
enabling/disabling ports, and displaying port configuration and statistics.
There are two modes of operation when setting a port: (1) the advanced mode, which causes detailed
prompts to be displayed, allowing the user to configure all parameters, (2) the express mode, which
assumes default values for most parameters, and therefore causes a minimal number of prompts to show.
The system will come up in the express mode. Typing a Ctrl-E (^E, i.e., pressing both the E and control
key together) will cause the mode to be toggled.
69
clear port statistics [port name]
Description: This command clears port statistics. If a port is not specified, the statistics counters on all
ports are cleared.
disable port <port name>
enable port <port name>
Description: These two commands is used to disable or enable a port.
⊕set port <port name>
The set port command is used to initialize or modify the characteristics of a hardware port on your router.
Hardware ports are identified by port name and are model-specific. The name “ISDN” means the ISDN
BRI interface.
The name “ewan” stands for Ethernet-based WAN port which is connected to
broadband modem.
PORT TYPE: ISDN
Description: This command configures the ISDN port. For European users, select Switch Type as
“Europe (ETSI)” and configure the related parameters.
Example:
Router> set port isdn
enter switch : 1> Japan (INS Net) 2> Europe (ETSI) 3> NT DMS-100
4> NI-1
5> ATT5ESS (MP)
7> Taiwan
8> OCN
6> ATT5ESS (P2P)
9> Permanent 64K
10> IDSL/Perm 128K 0> AutoDetect, [0]: 2
How many directory numbers [DN] are assigned (1, 0-3): 2
enter Directory Number 1 [DN1] [Unspecified]: 5551111
enter Directory Number 2 [DN2] [Unspecified]: 5552222
Port isdn is configured successfully.
Router>
PORT TYPE: EWAN
Description: This command is used to enable the ewan port.
Example:
Router> set port ewan
Port ewan is configured successfully.
Router>
show port
Description: This command displays the configuration information for all ports.
Example:
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Router> show port
Port Name : isdn
Port Type :
Admin Status: Enabled
Op State:
Directory#1: 5551111
Directory#2:
ISDN
Down
5552222
Sub-addr Req:No
Switch Type: Europe (ETSI)
Advice of Charge
Unit price:
Unspecified
Currency:
Unspecified
Port Name : ewan
Port Type :
EWAN
Admin State : Enabled
Data Link Type:
Ethernet
show port <port name>
Description: This command displays the configuration of a WAN interface port.
Example 1:
Router> show port isdn
Port Name : isdn
Port Type :
Admin Status: Enabled
Op State:
Directory#1: 5551111
Directory#2:
ISDN
Down
5552222
Sub-addr Req:No
Switch Type: Europe (ETSI)
Advice of Charge
Unit price:
Unspecified
Currency:
Unspecified
Router>
Example 2:
Router> show port ewan
Port Name:
ewan
Port Type:
EWAN
Admin State: Enabled
Data Link Type:Ethernet
MAC Address:
Speed:
90-00-12-34-56-79
Profile type: EWAN
Encapsulation:
10 Mb
Admin. State: Enabled
Ethernet
Oper. State: Down
MAC Address:90-00-12-34-56-79
Max Receive Unit:
1500
System Name:Local Router
show port statistics <port name>
Example 1:
Router> show port statistics isdn
Received:
Transmitted:
---------------------------------------------------------------D-Channel
Total Octets:
230
347
Total Packets:
14
8
71
Total Error:
0
0
2316
375
B1-Channel
Total Octets:
Total Packets:
46
10
Total Error:
0
0
0
0
B2-Channel
Total Octets:
Total Packets:
0
0
Total Error:
0
0
Example 2:
Router> show port statistics ewan
interface: e1
---------------------------------------------------------------Received
Transmitted
---------------------------------------------------------------Total packets
0
368
Total octets
0
217120
Multicast packets
0
0
Error on interface
0
0
CSMA collisions
0
Packets dropped
0
Packets with unsupported protocol 0
Last update time (sec)
4841
Router>
Profile Commands
This section details the commands used to create and manipulate static profiles. Static profiles are created
for connections communicating with a remote router. Examples of this type are Internet connections and
Remote LAN connections. Unlike user profiles (see “Dial-in User CommandsDial-in User Commands”),
which are created dynamically, static profiles are maintained permanently and created at system
initialization time from configuration information stored in Flash ROM. The creation of a static profile
may cause a static routing entry to be added to one or more of the routing tables, if routing is defined over
that profile.
Up to three alternate phone numbers are configurable within a switched connection profile so that if the
primary telephone number cannot be connected, each alternate phone number is tried, in turn. An
alternate number may be used if the previously tried number failed to connect for any reason. After a
disconnection, subsequent connect attempts use the original phone number list.
All other parameters of the Connection Profile will be used for any connected number. A static route
is associated with the profile, not any particular telephone number.
The System Log messages will identify any alternate numbers being used. The Connection Log will
include the phone number used for a successful connection.
For each alternate phone number, there may be an alternate secondary phone number for multilink
connection.
72
Existing profiles are edited also using the “add profile” command. In this case, the defaults shown are the
existing configured values.
This router only support one profile over EWAN interface. When an ewan profile is configured, the
following new added profile(s) will select ISDN automatically. User can modify the ewan profile by using
“add profile” command or “delete profile”, then “add profile” again.
⊕add profile <Profile Name>
Example 1 – Set up an Internet Access Profile over ISDN
Router> add profile daniel
The system is currently in Advanced Mode, press Ctrl-E to switch to
Express Mode.
Add new connection profile “daniel” ...
Interface type: ISDN3
enter access type:
1> internet access only
2> remote office dial in/out (1): 1
enter remote directory number (Unspecified): 5553333
enter ISP account name (Unspecified): user-name
enter ISP account password (Unspecified): ****
enable compression (No, yes/no):
Profile daniel is configured successfully. Configuring Network
Protocol over daniel ...
enable IP routing (Yes, yes/no):
Set this profile as IP default route (Yes, yes/no):
Router>
Example 2 – Set up a Remote Office Profile over ISDN
Router> add profile julia
The system is currently in Advanced Mode, press Ctrl-E to switch to
Express Mode.
Add new connection profile “julia” ...
Interface type: ISDN
enter access type:
1> internet access only
2> remote office dial in/out (1): 2
enter action mode (Dial only, dial only/answer only/both): d
enter remote directory number (Unspecified): 5556666
enter my account name (Unspecified): user1
enter my account password (Unspecified): ****
enable compression (No, yes/no):
Profile julia is configured successfully. Configuring Network
Protocol over julia ...
enable IP routing (Yes, yes/no):
Set this profile as IP default route (No, yes/no):
3
Assume one ewan profile is already configured.
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enter remote network IP address (Unspecified): 192.168.167.0
enter remote network IP netmask (Unspecified): 255.255.255.0
Router>
Example 3 – Internet Access through EWAN port:
Router> add profile wilson
The system is currently in Advanced Mode, press Ctrl-E to switch to
Express Mode.
Add new connection profile “wilson” ...
enter interface type (ISDN, ISDN/EWAN): ewan
enter access type:
1> internet access only
2> remote office dial in/out (1): 1
enter encapsulation type (Ethernet, Ethernet/PPPoE):
Profile wilson is configured successfully. Configuring Network
Protocol over wilson ..
enable IP routing (Yes, yes/no):
obtain IP addresses automatically (Yes, Yes/No):
enter host name [system name] (Local Router):
clear profile statistics [Profile Name]
The statistics fields in the specified static profile are reset to initial values when the Profile Name
parameter is provided in command line. If no Profile Name is specified, all profile statistics are cleared.
connect profile <Profile Name>
For switched profiles, this command activates the profile as if a trigger occurred. This command has no
effect on leased line profiles.
delete profile <Profile Name>
The specified profile is removed from the system.
disable profile <Profile Name>
The administrative state of the specified profile is set to “disabled”. A profile cannot be used unless it is
enabled.
disconnect profile < Profile Name>
For active switched profiles, this command terminates the connection as if an idle timeout occurred. This
command has no effect on leased line profiles.
enable profile <Profile Name>
The state of the specified profile is set to “enabled”. Only enabled profiles are available for use. A
profile’s state is set by default to enabled when it is created.
74
show profile
This command displays a summary of all configured static profiles.
Example:
Router> show profile
Profile
Name
Type
Admin
Remote
Call
State
Number
Originator
---------------------------------------------------------------wilson
EWAN
Enabled
daniel
ISDN
Enabled
5553333
Local only
julia
ISDN
Enabled
5556666
Local only
show profile <Profile Name>
Description: The details of a configured static profile are displayed.
Example 1:
Router> show profile wilson
Profile type:
ISDN
Admin. State:
Enabled
Call Originator:
Local only
Remote DN:
5553333
Data Service:
Autodetect
Clid Auth:
No
Call Back:
No
PPP Oper. State:
Down
Call Back #:
Max Receive Unit :
1524
My Account Name :
user-name
Remote Account Name:
Send Auth. Type:
Either Recv Auth. Type:
TCP/IP VJ Compression:
Disabled
Multilink Type:
Overflow
Second Caller ID:
None
Inactivity Timeout:
120
Second Dial Number:
Second Callback Number:
Upper Threshold:
85
Lower Threshold:
45
Example 2:
Router> show profile wilson
Profile type: EWAN
Encapsulation:
Oper. State:
Admin. State:
Ethernet
Down
Enabled
MAC Address:
90-00-12-34-56-79
Max Receive Unit: 1500
System Name: Local Router
show profile statistics
Example:
Router> show profile statistics
Prof
Oper.
Name
StateSent
Packets
Packets
Rcv'ed Sent
Errors Errors Q-full
Rcv'ed Discard
-----------------------------------------------------------------
75
wilson
Down 0
0
0
0
0
show profile statistics <Profile Name>
Example:
Router> show profile statistics wilson
wilson
Received
Transmitted
--------------------------------------------------------------Total octets:
0
0
Total packets:
0
0
Total errors:
0
0
Security Command
set ip private <ip_addr> <netMask>
Description: This command is used to modify the “private” IP address on the router’s LAN interface.
Please refer to IP command category for details.
SNMP Commands
Remote SNMP management consoles can access the set of MIBs implemented in the router. MIB
information is transferred from the router’s SNMP Agent to the SNMP Management console via SNMP
Gets and Traps (Set commands are not supported).. Traps are unsolicited status messages sent from the
router to report management events asynchronously. Trap Managers must be configured in order to
receive these messages.
clear trap manager <1-5>
Description: This command clears the IP address for the specified trap manager. When an SNMP trap
condition is met, and if trap generation has been enabled, a trap message will automatically be sent out to
each trap manager whose IP address has been defined. A total of five trap managers can be defined in the
system.
disable trap
enable trap
Description: This command is used to enable or disable trap message generation. When trap generation is
disabled, no SNMP trap messages will be generated. When it is enabled, any SNMP traps will be sent to
each of the trap managers that have been defined.
set community string read <"password">
Description: This command sets the community string used for authenticating SNMP get and getnext
requests.
The default for the read community string is “public”. The community string is case sensitive.
76
set trap manager <1-5> <ipAddr>
Description: This command sets the IP address of the nth trap manager (n=1-5).
Example:
Router> set trap manager 1 203.23.12.71
show snmp statistics
Example:
Router> show snmp statistics
Received
Transmitted
------------------------------------------------------------------Total Packets
0
Request Variables
0
SET Variables
0
GET Requests
0
0
GETNEXT Requests
0
GET-RESPONSEs
0
0
Errors:
Bad Versions
0
Bad Community Uses:
0
ASN1 Parse Errors
0
Packet Too Long
0
NO-SUCH-NAME Errors 0
BAD-VALUE Errors
0
READ-ONLY Errors
GENERAL-ERR Errors
0
0
show trap manager [1-5]
Description: This command displays the trap managers that are currently defined. If a trap number is
used, only that trap manager is displayed.
Example:
Router> show trap manager
No
Trap Manager IP-Address
-----------------------------------------1
11.22.33.44
2
55.66.77.88
Statistics Commands
clear compression statistics <Profile Name>
Description: Refer to this command under Compression Commands.
77
clear port statistics [port name]
Description: Refer to this command under Port Commands.
clear profile statistics [Profile Name]
Description: Refer to this command under Profile Commands.
show compression statistics <Profile Name>
Description: Refer to this command under Compression Commands.
show icmp statistics
Description: Refer to this command under IP Commands.
show ip statistics
Description: Refer to this command under IP Commands.
show port statistics <port name>
Description: Refer to this command under Port Commands.
show profile statistics [Profile Name]
Description: Refer to this command under Profile Commands.
show snmp statistics
Description: Refer to this command under SNMP Commands.
show tcp statistics
Description: Refer to this command under IP Commands.
show udp statistics
Description: Refer to this command under IP Commands.
show <Interface Name> statistics
Description: This command displays statistical information associated with the specified profile or the
LAN.
System Commands
change password
Description: This command allows the user to change the password used to log on to the Command Line
78
Interface or the HTTP. A password is a character string that starts with a letter and contains at least 6 and
up to a total of 15 alphanumeric characters. The password is case sensitive. The default factory setting is
“password”.
If you forget the password, the only way to recover is clear the entire configuration and return the unit to
its original state as shipped from the factory. Unfortunately, this means that you have to re-enter all of
your configuration data.
To clear the configuration and restore the password to the default, follow these steps:
Connect a console to the Console port.
Turn off the router, then turn it on again. In the console window, you’ll see the message “Loading
firmware...”
When you see the message "Ready", immediately (within one second) press Control-C.
The router will now reset. When this is complete, the router will return all settings to the factory default.
The password will once again be “password”.
Example:
Router> change password
Please enter the old password:
Please enter the new password:
Please re-enter the new password:
clear config
Description: This command is used to clear the configuration data in the flash memory. After clearing,
the system will reboot. All user-configured data are lost. The configuration will return to the factory
default settings.
disable remote-mgt
enable remote-mgt
Description: This command allows the administrator to lock out or enable both HTTP and telnet
management connections. Only a direct console connection is supported if remote management is
disabled.
disconnect telnet session <1-5>
Description: This command disconnects an existing telnet session. This command is only valid in
Console port.
Example:
Router> disconnect telnet session 1
download config <fileName> from <ipAddr>
Description: This command causes configuration file router.cfg to be downloaded to the system from a
tftp server with the specified IP address.
Example:
79
Router> download config router.cfg from 205.51.23.12
download firmware
Description: This command causes the product firmware to be downloaded to the system from a directly
attached PC running the terminal emulation software (one with file download capability). Note that this
command cannot be used from a telnet session. This is an alternative to downloading the software using
the HTTP browser.
Since the router will reset after this operation is complete, the system will first prompt for the
confirmation. The system will ask the user to select the download speed. The user may then change the
terminal baud rate for a faster download and press enter to continue (some terminal emulators require a
“disconnect” followed by a “connect” in order for the changed parameters to take effect). Select the
Z-modem protocol for use in downloading the firmware. The user then selects (opens) the firmware file
for actual downloading.
help
(This list may differ depending upon the router model):
Router> help
Commands are categorized as follows:
(1) Bridging
(2) Compression
(3) Diagnostics
(4) Filtering
(5) IP
(6) Port
(7) Profile
(8) Security
(9) SNMP
(10) Statistics (11) System
Please enter a selection number [1..11] for more detail information: 1
disable bridging <ifName>
disable learning
enable bridging <ifName>
enable learning
show bridging
show learning
show learning <ifName>
Please enter a selection number [1..11] for more detail information:
logout
Description: This command logs the user out of the system.
reset system
Description: This command allows the user to reset the system. A confirmation will be displayed.
save config
Description: This command saves any configuration changes to the flash memory.
In the background, the system is already periodically checking to see if any configuration changes have been made.
80
If so, the entire configuration will be automatically saved to the flash memory. However, this command can also be
used to execute the save operation immediately after some configuration changes, e.g., when the user intends to
power down the system.
set console baud <baudrate>
Description: This command is used to set the baud rate for the auxiliary (console) port. The default baud
rate is 19200 bits per second. After the baud rate is changed, the console will no longer work properly
until the terminal baud rate is changed accordingly. Other allowed speeds include 115.2K, 57.6K, 38.4K,
28.8K, 19.2K, 14.4K, 9.6K, 4.8K, 2.4K, and 1.2K.
Example:
Router> set console baud 19200
set console timeout <1-60>
Description: This command is used to set the console time-out value (in minutes). The default value is 10
minutes. That means if the user does not type anything on the console for 10 minutes, the console session
will automatically be terminated.
This timeout value also applies to telnet sessions.
Example:
Router> set console timeout 20
set date <mm-dd-yy>
Description: This command sets the current date in the router.
Example:
Router> set date 4-12-01
set daylight time <on/off>
Description: This command sets the setting for Daylight Savings Time. This is only used for display
purposes and has no effect on the System Time. Normally this parameter would be learned from a
managing browser session.
⊕set internet access time
Description: This is the time during which access to the Internet (an ISP switched profile) will be enabled
and triggered. Outside of this time range, this connection profile will not be enabled. For this purpose the
connection to the Internet is defined as the default IP route. The router time is set either manually through
the set time command, or automatically via a connection to an HTTP browser. Of course, this restriction
only makes sense for switched connections. Leased line connections are not affected.
Note that the router may lose its time setting in the event of a reset or a power cycle. If this is the case, until the
system time is once again set, then Internet Access is either enabled or disabled until depending upon the response to
the last question.
Example:
81
Router> set internet access time
enter Day-of-the-week (all, (a)ll/(d)ay-range): d
enter dd1-dd2 (Unspecified): mon-sat
enter Time-of-day (all, (a)ll/(t)ime-range): t
enter hh1:mm1-hh2:mm2 (Unspecified): 07:00-18:00
If the system loses its time setting, allow Internet Access ? (Yes, Yes/No):
set log level <1-10>
Description: This command changes the system log level, causing different events to be logged into the
system log table. It is often used for debugging purposes. The default log level is 2, which means all
events belonging to log level 2 or below will be logged into the system log.
set prompt <”prompt”>
Description: This command defines a new command prompt. A prompt of up to 15 characters may be
entered. The default prompt is “Router>”.
Example:
Router> set prompt "Yes, Master"
Yes, Master>
set system contact <”name”>
Description: This command sets the system contact information. The maximum number of characters
allowed is 60. This information is displayed in the “show system” command, as well as in the “System
Information” screen in the HTTP browser screen.
Example:
Router> set system contact "John Doe, pager: (408) 731-4567"
set system location <”location information”>
Description: This command sets the system location. The maximum number of characters allowed is 60.
This information is displayed in the “show system” command, as well as in the “System Information”
screen in the HTTP browser screen.
Example:
Router> set system location "480 Mercury Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086"
set system name <”system name”>
Description: This command sets the system name. The maximum number of characters allowed is 30.
This information is displayed in the “show system” command, as well as in the “System Information”
screen in the HTTP browser screen.
Example:
Router> set system name "Home Gateway1"
82
set time <hh:mm:ss>
Description: This command sets the time of the day (24-hour clock). Note that the time will normally
be set automatically when an HTTP browser first connects to the router.
Example:
Router> set time 20:33:00
set timezone <-12 - +12>
Description: This command specifies the time zone for the location as an offset from Greenwich Mean
Time (GMT). The time zone is normally set automatically when an HTTP browser first connects to the
router.
Example:
Router> set timezone -8
Time Zone is set to GMT-8 hours.
show config
Description: A concise summary of the router configuration is displayed.
Example:
Router> show config
IP Addr: 192.168.168.230
Port 1: ISDN
PPP
NetMask: 255.255.255.0
ENABLED
Ewan : EWAN
IP RIP: D
Europe (ETSI)
ENABLED
Speed = 10 Mb
show connection log
Description: The connection log is displayed by the system. Up to 128 entries are maintained by the
router in wraparound fashion. For a complete description of these entries, refer the User Guide for your
system.
Example:
Router> show connection log
1 9/14/99 22:15:38 N/A(N/A): Triggered Detail: IP/TCP 192.168.168.240->63.192.
151.44 1905->139
2 9/14/99 22:16:28 Modem 3(Office): Connected Detail: Outgoing Call to 14085553456
show interface list
Description: This command displays the status of all interfaces in the system, including their encryption
status.
83
Router> show interface list
Oper.
IfName
Type
IP
BRG
Comp.
State MTU Status Status Status
------------------------------------------------------------------lo
lan
LOOPBACK
ETHERNET
Up
Up
1536 Enable Disable
n/a
1500 Enable Enable n/a
show internet access time
Description: The current setting of the Internet time restriction is displayed. See set internet access time for details.
Example:
Router> show internet access time
Day-of-the-week
: Mon-Sat
Time-of-day
: 13:30- 5:00
show system
Description: This command displays system and SNMP related configuration. All of them can be
changed through individual commands, except for the S/W and H/W version numbers that are constant
for each version of the product.
Example:
Router> show system
System Name: Router
Up Time:
0 months
1 days 21:21:05
---------------------------------------------------------------------system description:
IP Brouter Over ISDN Line
system contact:
Unknown
system location:
Unknown
community string (read):
public
Trap generation:
Disabled
Total Serial Ports: 1 S/W Version: 1.03
MAC Address:
H/W Version: 1.0
00-60-20-10-00-70
Console Baud Rate : 19200
Console Timeout:
10(min)
Learning State:
Enabled
Remote Management State: Enabled
DHCP State:
Enabled
IP RIP Mode:
Active
IP address:
0.0.0.0
network mask: 0.0.0.0
Private IP address:
192.168.168.230
network mask: 255.255.255.0
Enabled features:
HTTP Compression SNMP Filter NAS CLI L2L Bridging
Ver.1
show system log
Description: The system log contains logs of various events of interest, depending on the log level set at
the time. Common events include login, a PPP connection goes up or down (log level 2), a frame relay
DLCI connection goes up or down (log level 2), … as well as certain protocol progress messages for
84
debugging purposes.
This command shows the next 22 entries of the system log. For example, if there are 60 entries in the log,
the first “show system log” command will show log entries 1 through 23, the next command will show
entries 24 through 46, and the next command will show entries 47 through 60, followed by 1 through 9.
When the system powers up, the log is re-initialized and contains no entries. As time passes, when the
128-entry log table becomes full, new entries will simply replace the oldest entries, thus a first-in, first-out
scheme is used.
Example:
1 Sep-03-99
16:52:48
PPP Network Protocol Event: mdm3.2 IPCP Inactivity
2 Sep-03-99
17:21:59
ISDN: ACTV REQ
3 Sep-03-99
17:22:11
ISDN: T3 Expire State = F4
4 Sep-03-99
17:22:11
ISDN: Line De-activated
5 Sep-03-99
17:27:40
ISDN: ACTV REQ
6 Sep-03-99
17:27:50
ISDN: ACTV REQ
7 Sep-03-99
17:27:52
ISDN: T3 Expire State = F4
8 Sep-03-99
17:27:52
ISDN: Line De-activated
show telnet session
Description: This command is used to display all existing telnet sessions.
Example:
Session Id
Remote IP
Remote Port
----------------------------------------------------1
204.71.212.38 2052
2
204.71.212.39 2564
show time
Description: This command shows the time zone, daylight savings time setting, date and time of the day.
For router systems, the time is only correct after an HTTP session has accessed this system or the time has
been manually set using the “set time” command.
Example:
Time (GMT-8) (Daylight Saving Time) : Thu Apr 22 11:20:24 1999
upload config <fileName> to <ipAddr>
Description: This command causes the system configuration to be uploaded to the specified tftp server
(whose IP address is 205.51.23.12) as a file called router.cfg.
Example:
Router> upload config router.cfg
to 205.51.23.12
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