Документация cyc_c5v1_eng_man

Документация cyc_c5v1_eng_man
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Preliminary Information
101 Innovation Drive
San Jose, CA 95134
www.altera.com
C5V1-2.4
Copyright © 2008 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. Altera, The Programmable Solutions Company, the stylized Altera logo, specific device designations, and all other words and logos that are identified as trademarks and/or service marks are, unless noted otherwise, the trademarks and
service marks of Altera Corporation in the U.S. and other countries. All other product or service names are the property of their respective holders. Altera products are protected under numerous U.S. and foreign patents and pending applications, maskwork rights, and copyrights. Altera warrants
performance of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make
changes to any products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera
Corporation. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
ii
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
Contents
Chapter Revision Dates ........................................................................... xi
About this Handbook ............................................................................. xiii
How to Find Information ..................................................................................................................... xiii
How to Contact Altera .......................................................................................................................... xiii
Typographic Conventions .................................................................................................................... xiv
Section I. Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet
Revision History .................................................................................................................................... 2–1
Chapter 1. Introduction
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 1–1
Features ................................................................................................................................................... 1–1
Document Revision History ................................................................................................................. 1–3
Chapter 2. Cyclone Architecture
Functional Description .......................................................................................................................... 2–1
Logic Array Blocks ................................................................................................................................ 2–3
LAB Interconnects ............................................................................................................................ 2–3
LAB Control Signals ......................................................................................................................... 2–4
Logic Elements ....................................................................................................................................... 2–5
LUT Chain and Register Chain ...................................................................................................... 2–7
addnsub Signal ................................................................................................................................. 2–7
LE Operating Modes ........................................................................................................................ 2–7
MultiTrack Interconnect ..................................................................................................................... 2–12
Embedded Memory ............................................................................................................................. 2–18
Memory Modes ............................................................................................................................... 2–18
Parity Bit Support ........................................................................................................................... 2–20
Shift Register Support .................................................................................................................... 2–20
Memory Configuration Sizes ........................................................................................................ 2–21
Byte Enables .................................................................................................................................... 2–23
Control Signals and M4K Interface .............................................................................................. 2–23
Independent Clock Mode .............................................................................................................. 2–25
Input/Output Clock Mode ........................................................................................................... 2–25
Read/Write Clock Mode ............................................................................................................... 2–28
Single-Port Mode ............................................................................................................................ 2–29
Global Clock Network and Phase-Locked Loops ........................................................................... 2–29
Global Clock Network ................................................................................................................... 2–29
Altera Corporation
iii
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Dual-Purpose Clock Pins .............................................................................................................. 2–31
Combined Resources ..................................................................................................................... 2–31
PLLs .................................................................................................................................................. 2–32
Clock Multiplication and Division .............................................................................................. 2–35
External Clock Inputs .................................................................................................................... 2–36
External Clock Outputs ................................................................................................................. 2–36
Clock Feedback ............................................................................................................................... 2–37
Phase Shifting ................................................................................................................................. 2–37
Lock Detect Signal .......................................................................................................................... 2–37
Programmable Duty Cycle ........................................................................................................... 2–38
Control Signals ................................................................................................................................ 2–38
I/O Structure ........................................................................................................................................ 2–39
External RAM Interfacing ............................................................................................................. 2–46
DDR SDRAM and FCRAM ........................................................................................................... 2–46
Programmable Drive Strength ..................................................................................................... 2–49
Open-Drain Output ........................................................................................................................ 2–50
Slew-Rate Control .......................................................................................................................... 2–51
Bus Hold .......................................................................................................................................... 2–51
Programmable Pull-Up Resistor .................................................................................................. 2–51
Advanced I/O Standard Support ................................................................................................ 2–52
LVDS I/O Pins ................................................................................................................................ 2–54
MultiVolt I/O Interface ................................................................................................................. 2–54
Power Sequencing and Hot Socketing ............................................................................................. 2–55
Referenced Documents ....................................................................................................................... 2–56
Document Revision History ............................................................................................................... 2–56
Chapter 3. Configuration and Testing
IEEE Std. 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary Scan Support .............................................................................
SignalTap II Embedded Logic Analyzer ............................................................................................
Configuration .........................................................................................................................................
Operating Modes ..............................................................................................................................
Configuration Schemes ...................................................................................................................
Referenced Documents .........................................................................................................................
Document Revision History .................................................................................................................
3–1
3–5
3–5
3–6
3–6
3–7
3–7
Chapter 4. DC and Switching Characteristics
Operating Conditions ........................................................................................................................... 4–1
Power Consumption ............................................................................................................................. 4–8
Timing Model ......................................................................................................................................... 4–9
Preliminary and Final Timing ........................................................................................................ 4–9
Performance .................................................................................................................................... 4–10
Internal Timing Parameters .......................................................................................................... 4–11
External Timing Parameters ......................................................................................................... 4–15
External I/O Delay Parameters .................................................................................................... 4–21
Maximum Input and Output Clock Rates .................................................................................. 4–27
PLL Timing ...................................................................................................................................... 4–29
Referenced Document ......................................................................................................................... 4–31
iv
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
Contents
Document Revision History ............................................................................................................... 4–31
Chapter 5. Reference and Ordering Information
Software ..................................................................................................................................................
Device Pin-Outs .....................................................................................................................................
Ordering Information ...........................................................................................................................
Referenced Documents .........................................................................................................................
Document Revision History .................................................................................................................
5–1
5–1
5–1
5–2
5–2
Section II. Clock Management
Revision History .................................................................................................................................... 5–1
Chapter 6. Using PLLs in Cyclone Devices
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 6–1
Hardware Overview ........................................................................................................................ 6–1
Software Overview .......................................................................................................................... 6–4
Pins and Clock Network Connections .......................................................................................... 6–6
Hardware Features ................................................................................................................................ 6–8
Clock Multiplication and Division ................................................................................................ 6–8
Phase Shifting ................................................................................................................................... 6–9
Programmable Duty Cycle ........................................................................................................... 6–10
External Clock Output ................................................................................................................... 6–11
Control Signals ................................................................................................................................ 6–12
Clock Feedback Modes ....................................................................................................................... 6–13
Normal Mode .................................................................................................................................. 6–14
Zero Delay Buffer Mode ................................................................................................................ 6–15
No Compensation .......................................................................................................................... 6–15
Pins ......................................................................................................................................................... 6–16
Board Layout ........................................................................................................................................ 6–17
VCCA and GNDA .......................................................................................................................... 6–17
Jitter Considerations ...................................................................................................................... 6–19
Specifications ........................................................................................................................................ 6–20
Software Support ................................................................................................................................. 6–20
Quartus II altpll Megafunction ..................................................................................................... 6–20
altpll Input Ports ............................................................................................................................. 6–22
altpll Output Ports ......................................................................................................................... 6–23
MegaWizard Customization ......................................................................................................... 6–23
MegaWizard Page Description ..................................................................................................... 6–25
Compilation Report ....................................................................................................................... 6–31
Timing Analysis .............................................................................................................................. 6–33
Simulation ....................................................................................................................................... 6–37
Global Clock Network ........................................................................................................................ 6–38
Dedicated Clock Input Pins .......................................................................................................... 6–40
Dual-Purpose Clock I/O Pins ...................................................................................................... 6–40
Combined Sources .......................................................................................................................... 6–41
Altera Corporation
v
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................ 6–43
Referenced Documents ....................................................................................................................... 6–44
Document Revision History ............................................................................................................... 6–44
Section III. Memory
Revision History .................................................................................................................................... 7–1
Chapter 7. On-Chip Memory Implementations Using Cyclone Memory Blocks
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 7–1
M4K Memory Features ......................................................................................................................... 7–1
Parity Bit Support ............................................................................................................................. 7–2
Byte-Enable Support ........................................................................................................................ 7–3
Power-up Conditions and Memory Initialization ....................................................................... 7–4
Using M4K Memory .............................................................................................................................. 7–4
Implementing Single-Port Mode .................................................................................................... 7–5
Implementing Simple Dual-Port Mode ......................................................................................... 7–6
Implementing True Dual-Port Mode ............................................................................................ 7–8
Implementing Shift-Register Mode ............................................................................................. 7–11
Implementing ROM Mode ............................................................................................................ 7–12
Implementing FIFO Buffers .......................................................................................................... 7–12
Clock Modes ......................................................................................................................................... 7–13
Independent Clock Mode .............................................................................................................. 7–13
Input/Output Clock Mode ........................................................................................................... 7–15
Read/Write Clock Mode ............................................................................................................... 7–17
Single-Port Mode ............................................................................................................................ 7–18
Synchronous and Pseudo-Asynchronous Modes ........................................................................... 7–19
Read-during-Write Operation at the Same Address ...................................................................... 7–20
Same-Port Read-during-Write Mode .......................................................................................... 7–20
Mixed-Port Read-during-Write Mode ........................................................................................ 7–21
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................ 7–22
Referenced Documents ....................................................................................................................... 7–23
Document Revision History ............................................................................................................... 7–23
Section IV. I/O Standards
Revision History .................................................................................................................................... 8–1
Chapter 8. Using Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone Devices
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................
Supported I/O Standards .....................................................................................................................
3.3-V LVTTL (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-B) ............................................................................
3.3-V LVCMOS (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-B) .......................................................................
2.5-V LVTTL Normal and Wide Voltage Ranges (EIA/JEDEC Standard EIA/JESD8-5) .....
2.5-V LVCMOS Normal and Wide Voltage Ranges (EIA/JEDEC Standard EIA/JESD8-5) .
vi
Preliminary
8–1
8–2
8–3
8–3
8–3
8–4
Altera Corporation
Contents
1.8-V LVTTL Normal and Wide Voltage Ranges (EIA/JEDEC Standard EIA/JESD8-7) ..... 8–4
1.8-V LVCMOS Normal and Wide Voltage Ranges (EIA/JEDEC Standard EIA/JESD8-7) . 8–4
1.5-V LVCMOS Normal and Wide Voltage Ranges (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-11) ........ 8–5
3.3-V (PCI Special Interest Group (SIG) PCI Local Bus Specification Revision 2.2) ............... 8–5
SSTL-3 Class I and II (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-8) ............................................................... 8–7
SSTL-2 Class I and II (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-9A) ........................................................... 8–7
LVDS (ANSI/TIA/EIA Standard ANSI/TIA/EIA-644) ............................................................ 8–8
Differential SSTL-2 - EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-9A ............................................................... 8–9
Cyclone I/O Banks ................................................................................................................................ 8–9
Programmable Current Drive Strength ............................................................................................ 8–12
Hot Socketing ....................................................................................................................................... 8–13
I/O Termination .................................................................................................................................. 8–13
Voltage-Referenced I/O Standard Termination ........................................................................ 8–14
Differential I/O Standard Termination ...................................................................................... 8–14
Pad Placement and DC Guidelines ................................................................................................... 8–14
Differential Pad Placement Guidelines ....................................................................................... 8–14
VREF Pad Placement Guidelines ................................................................................................... 8–15
DC Guidelines ................................................................................................................................. 8–18
Quartus II Software Support .............................................................................................................. 8–18
Settings ............................................................................................................................................. 8–18
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................ 8–22
More Information ................................................................................................................................ 8–22
References ............................................................................................................................................. 8–22
Referenced Documents ....................................................................................................................... 8–23
Document Revision History ............................................................................................................... 8–23
Chapter 9. High-Speed Differential Signaling in Cyclone Devices
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 9–1
Cyclone High-Speed I/O Banks .......................................................................................................... 9–2
Cyclone High-Speed I/O Interface ..................................................................................................... 9–3
Clock Domains .................................................................................................................................. 9–3
LVDS Receiver and Transmitter .......................................................................................................... 9–4
RSDS I/O Standard Support in Cyclone Devices ............................................................................. 9–7
Designing with RSDS ....................................................................................................................... 9–9
RSDS Software Support ................................................................................................................. 9–10
High-Speed I/O Timing in Cyclone Devices .................................................................................. 9–11
LVDS Receiver and Transmitter Termination ................................................................................. 9–15
Implementing Cyclone LVDS and RSDS I/O Pins in the Quartus II Software .......................... 9–16
Design Guidelines ............................................................................................................................... 9–18
Differential Pad Placement Guidelines ....................................................................................... 9–18
Board Design Considerations ....................................................................................................... 9–18
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................ 9–19
Referenced Documents ....................................................................................................................... 9–19
Document Revision History ............................................................................................................... 9–20
Altera Corporation
vii
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Section V. Design Considerations
Revision History .................................................................................................................................. 10–1
Chapter 10. Implementing Double Data Rate I/O Signaling in Cyclone Devices
Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................
Double Data Rate Input ......................................................................................................................
Double Data Rate Output ...................................................................................................................
Bidirectional Double Data Rate .........................................................................................................
DDR Memory Support ........................................................................................................................
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................
Referenced Documents .......................................................................................................................
Document Revision History ...............................................................................................................
10–1
10–1
10–2
10–3
10–4
10–4
10–4
10–5
Chapter 11. Using Cyclone Devices in Multiple-Voltage Systems
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 11–1
I/O Standards ...................................................................................................................................... 11–1
MultiVolt I/O Operation .................................................................................................................... 11–2
5.0-V Device Compatibility ................................................................................................................ 11–3
Hot-Socketing ....................................................................................................................................... 11–6
Devices Can Be Driven before Power-Up ................................................................................... 11–6
I/O Pins Remain Tri-Stated during Power-Up .......................................................................... 11–6
Signal Pins Do Not Drive the VCCIO or VCCINT Power Supplies .............................................. 11–6
Power-Up Sequence ............................................................................................................................ 11–7
Power-On Reset ................................................................................................................................... 11–7
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................ 11–8
Document Revision History ............................................................................................................... 11–8
Chapter 12. Designing with 1.5-V Devices
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 12–1
Power Sequencing and Hot Socketing ............................................................................................. 12–1
Using MultiVolt I/O Pins ................................................................................................................... 12–2
Voltage Regulators .............................................................................................................................. 12–3
Linear Voltage Regulators ............................................................................................................. 12–4
Switching Voltage Regulators ...................................................................................................... 12–6
Maximum Output Current ........................................................................................................... 12–8
Selecting Voltage Regulators ........................................................................................................ 12–8
Voltage Divider Network ............................................................................................................ 12–10
1.5-V Regulator Circuits .............................................................................................................. 12–10
1.5-V Regulator Application Examples .......................................................................................... 12–19
Synchronous Switching Regulator Example ............................................................................ 12–20
Board Layout ...................................................................................................................................... 12–21
Split-Plane Method ....................................................................................................................... 12–23
Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................... 12–24
References ........................................................................................................................................... 12–24
Referenced Documents ..................................................................................................................... 12–25
Document Revision History ............................................................................................................. 12–25
viii
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
Contents
Section VI. Configuration
Revision History .................................................................................................................................. 13–1
Chapter 13. Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 13–1
Device Configuration Overview ....................................................................................................... 13–1
Data Compression ............................................................................................................................... 13–3
Configuration Schemes ....................................................................................................................... 13–8
Active Serial Configuration (Serial Configuration Devices) .................................................... 13–8
Passive Serial Configuration ....................................................................................................... 13–18
JTAG-Based Configuration ......................................................................................................... 13–31
Combining Configuration Schemes ................................................................................................ 13–45
Active Serial and JTAG ................................................................................................................ 13–45
Device Configuration Pins ............................................................................................................... 13–46
Referenced Documents ..................................................................................................................... 13–50
Document Revision History ............................................................................................................. 13–51
Chapter 14. Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and
EPCS128) Data Sheet
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 14–1
Functional Description ........................................................................................................................ 14–2
Accessing Memory in Serial Configuration Devices ................................................................. 14–7
Active Serial FPGA Configuration .................................................................................................... 14–8
Serial Configuration Device Memory Access ................................................................................ 14–12
Memory Array Organization ...................................................................................................... 14–12
Operation Codes ........................................................................................................................... 14–20
Power and Operation ........................................................................................................................ 14–33
Power Mode .................................................................................................................................. 14–33
Power-On Reset ............................................................................................................................ 14–34
Error Detection ............................................................................................................................. 14–34
Timing Information ........................................................................................................................... 14–35
Programming and Configuration File Support ............................................................................. 14–38
Operating Conditions ....................................................................................................................... 14–39
Pin Information .................................................................................................................................. 14–41
Package ................................................................................................................................................ 14–43
Ordering Code ................................................................................................................................... 14–44
Referenced Documents ..................................................................................................................... 14–44
Document Revision History ............................................................................................................. 14–44
Section VII. Cyclone Device Package Information
Revision History .................................................................................................................................. 15–1
Chapter 15. Package Information for Cyclone Devices
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 15–1
Altera Corporation
ix
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Device and Package Cross Reference ...............................................................................................
Thermal Resistance ..............................................................................................................................
Package Outlines .................................................................................................................................
Document Revision History ...............................................................................................................
x
Preliminary
15–1
15–2
15–2
15–3
Altera Corporation
Chapter Revision Dates
The chapters in this book, Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1, were revised on the following dates.
Where chapters or groups of chapters are available separately, part numbers are listed.
Chapter 1. Introduction
Revised:
Part number:
May 2008
C51001-1.5
Chapter 2. Cyclone Architecture
Revised:
May 2008
Part number: C51002-1.6
Chapter 3. Configuration and Testing
Revised:
May 2008
Part number: C51003-1.4
Chapter 4. DC and Switching Characteristics
Revised:
May 2008
Part number: C51004-1.7
Chapter 5. Reference and Ordering Information
Revised:
May 2008
Part number: C51005-1.4
Chapter 6. Using PLLs in Cyclone Devices
Revised:
May 2008
Part number: C51006-1.5
Chapter 7. On-Chip Memory Implementations Using Cyclone Memory Blocks
Revised:
May 2008
Part number: C51007-1.4
Chapter 8. Using Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone Devices
Revised:
May 2008
Part number: C51008-1.6
Chapter 9. High-Speed Differential Signaling in Cyclone Devices
Revised:
May 2008
Part number: C51009-1.6
Altera Corporation
xi
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Chapter 10. Implementing Double Data Rate I/O Signaling in Cyclone Devices
Revised:
May 2008
Part number: C51010-1.2
Chapter 11. Using Cyclone Devices in Multiple-Voltage Systems
Revised:
May 2008
Part number: C51011-1.2
Chapter 12. Designing with 1.5-V Devices
Revised:
May 2008
Part number: C51012-1.4
Chapter 13. Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Revised:
May 2008
Part number: C51013-1.8
Chapter 14. Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data
Sheet
Revised:
May 2008
Part number: C51014-3.1
Chapter 15. Package Information for Cyclone Devices
Revised:
May 2008
Part number: C52006-1.3
xii
Altera Corporation
About this Handbook
This handbook provides comprehensive information about the Altera®
Cyclone® family of devices.
How to Find
Information
How to Contact
Altera
You can find more information in the following ways:
■
The Adobe Acrobat Find feature, which searches the text of a PDF
document. Click the binoculars toolbar icon to open the Find dialog
box.
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Acrobat bookmarks, which serve as an additional table of contents in
PDF documents.
■
Thumbnail icons, which provide miniature previews of each page,
provide a link to the pages.
■
Numerous links, shown in green text, which allow you to jump to
related information.
For the most up-to-date information about Altera products, refer to the
following table.
Contact (1)
Contact Method
Address
Technical support
Website
www.altera.com/support
Technical training
Website
www.altera.com/training
Email
[email protected]
Website
www.altera.com/literature
Altera literature services
Email
[email protected]
Non-technical support (General)
Email
[email protected]
Product literature
(Software Licensing) Email
[email protected]
Note to table:
(1)
You can also contact your local Altera sales office or sales representative.
Altera Corporation
xiii
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Typographic
Conventions
Visual Cue
This document uses the typographic conventions shown below.
Meaning
Bold Type with Initial
Capital Letters
Command names, dialog box titles, checkbox options, and dialog box options are
shown in bold, initial capital letters. Example: Save As dialog box.
bold type
External timing parameters, directory names, project names, disk drive names,
filenames, filename extensions, and software utility names are shown in bold
type. Examples: fMAX, \qdesigns directory, d: drive, chiptrip.gdf file.
Italic Type with Initial Capital
Letters
Document titles are shown in italic type with initial capital letters. Example: AN
75: High-Speed Board Design.
Italic type
Internal timing parameters and variables are shown in italic type.
Examples: tPIA, n + 1.
Variable names are enclosed in angle brackets (< >) and shown in italic type.
Example: <file name>, <project name>.pof file.
Initial Capital Letters
Keyboard keys and menu names are shown with initial capital letters. Examples:
Delete key, the Options menu.
“Subheading Title”
References to sections within a document and titles of on-line help topics are
shown in quotation marks. Example: “Typographic Conventions.”
Courier type
Signal and port names are shown in lowercase Courier type. Examples: data1,
tdi, input. Active-low signals are denoted by suffix n, e.g., resetn.
Anything that must be typed exactly as it appears is shown in Courier type. For
example: c:\qdesigns\tutorial\chiptrip.gdf. Also, sections of an
actual file, such as a Report File, references to parts of files (e.g., the AHDL
keyword SUBDESIGN), as well as logic function names (e.g., TRI) are shown in
Courier.
1., 2., 3., and
a., b., c., etc.
■
●
•
Numbered steps are used in a list of items when the sequence of the items is
important, such as the steps listed in a procedure.
Bullets are used in a list of items when the sequence of the items is not important.
v
The checkmark indicates a procedure that consists of one step only.
1
The hand points to information that requires special attention.
r
The angled arrow indicates you should press the Enter key.
f
The feet direct you to more information on a particular topic.
xiv
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
Section I. Cyclone FPGA
Family Data Sheet
This section provides designers with the data sheet specifications for
Cyclone® devices. The chapters contain feature definitions of the internal
architecture, configuration and JTAG boundary-scan testing information,
DC operating conditions, AC timing parameters, a reference to power
consumption, and ordering information for Cyclone devices.
This section contains the following chapters:
Revision History
Altera Corporation
■
Chapter 1. Introduction
■
Chapter 2. Cyclone Architecture
■
Chapter 3. Configuration and Testing
■
Chapter 4. DC and Switching Characteristics
■
Chapter 5. Reference and Ordering Information
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information
on when each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates
section, which appears in the complete handbook.
Section I–1
Preliminary
Revision History
Section I–2
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
1. Introduction
C51001-1.5
Introduction
The Cyclone® field programmable gate array family is based on a 1.5-V,
0.13-μm, all-layer copper SRAM process, with densities up to
20,060 logic elements (LEs) and up to 288 Kbits of RAM. With features like
phase-locked loops (PLLs) for clocking and a dedicated double data rate
(DDR) interface to meet DDR SDRAM and fast cycle RAM (FCRAM)
memory requirements, Cyclone devices are a cost-effective solution for
data-path applications. Cyclone devices support various I/O standards,
including LVDS at data rates up to 640 megabits per second (Mbps), and
66- and 33-MHz, 64- and 32-bit peripheral component interconnect (PCI),
for interfacing with and supporting ASSP and ASIC devices. Altera also
offers new low-cost serial configuration devices to configure Cyclone
devices.
Features
The Cyclone device family offers the following features:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
2,910 to 20,060 LEs, see Table 1–1
Up to 294,912 RAM bits (36,864 bytes)
Supports configuration through low-cost serial configuration device
Support for LVTTL, LVCMOS, SSTL-2, and SSTL-3 I/O standards
Support for 66- and 33-MHz, 64- and 32-bit PCI standard
High-speed (640 Mbps) LVDS I/O support
Low-speed (311 Mbps) LVDS I/O support
311-Mbps RSDS I/O support
Up to two PLLs per device provide clock multiplication and phase
shifting
Up to eight global clock lines with six clock resources available per
logic array block (LAB) row
Support for external memory, including DDR SDRAM (133 MHz),
FCRAM, and single data rate (SDR) SDRAM
Support for multiple intellectual property (IP) cores, including
Altera® MegaCore® functions and Altera Megafunctions Partners
Program (AMPPSM) megafunctions.
Table 1–1. Cyclone Device Features (Part 1 of 2)
Feature
LEs
M4K RAM blocks (128 × 36 bits)
Altera Corporation
May 2008
EP1C3
EP1C4
EP1C6
EP1C12
EP1C20
2,910
4,000
5,980
12,060
20,060
13
17
20
52
64
1–1
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 1–1. Cyclone Device Features (Part 2 of 2)
Feature
Total RAM bits
EP1C3
EP1C4
EP1C6
EP1C12
EP1C20
59,904
78,336
92,160
239,616
294,912
PLLs
Maximum user I/O pins (1)
1
2
2
2
2
104
301
185
249
301
Note to Table 1–1:
(1)
This parameter includes global clock pins.
Cyclone devices are available in quad flat pack (QFP) and space-saving
FineLine® BGA packages (see Tables 1–2 through 1–3).
Table 1–2. Cyclone Package Options and I/O Pin Counts
Device
100-Pin TQFP 144-Pin TQFP 240-Pin PQFP
256-Pin
324-Pin
400-Pin
(1)
(1), (2)
(1)
FineLine BGA FineLine BGA FineLine BGA
EP1C3
65
104
—
—
—
—
EP1C4
—
—
—
—
249
301
EP1C6
—
98
185
185
—
—
EP1C12
—
—
173
185
249
—
EP1C20
—
—
—
—
233
301
Notes to Table 1–2:
(1)
(2)
TQFP: thin quad flat pack.
PQFP: plastic quad flat pack.
Cyclone devices support vertical migration within the same package (i.e., designers can migrate between the
EP1C3 device in the 144-pin TQFP package and the EP1C6 device in the same package).
Vertical migration means you can migrate a design from one device to
another that has the same dedicated pins, JTAG pins, and power pins, and
are subsets or supersets for a given package across device densities. The
largest density in any package has the highest number of power pins; you
must use the layout for the largest planned density in a package to
provide the necessary power pins for migration.
For I/O pin migration across densities, cross-reference the available I/O
pins using the device pin-outs for all planned densities of a given package
type to identify which I/O pins can be migrated. The Quartus® II
software can automatically cross-reference and place all pins for you
when given a device migration list. If one device has power or ground
pins, but these same pins are user I/O on a different device that is in the
migration path,the Quartus II software ensures the pins are not used as
user I/O in the Quartus II software. Ensure that these pins are connected
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Document Revision History
to the appropriate plane on the board. The Quartus II software reserves
I/O pins as power pins as necessary for layout with the larger densities
in the same package having more power pins.
Table 1–3. Cyclone QFP and FineLine BGA Package Sizes
100-Pin
TQFP
Dimension
144-Pin
TQFP
240-Pin
PQFP
256-Pin
FineLine
BGA
324-Pin
FineLine
BGA
400-Pin
FineLine
BGA
Pitch (mm)
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
Area (mm2)
256
484
1,024
289
361
441
16×16
22×22
34.6×34.6
17×17
19×19
21×21
Length × width
(mm × mm)
Document
Revision History
Table 1–4 shows the revision history for this document.
Table 1–4. Document Revision History
Date and
Document
Version
Changes Made
Summary of Changes
May 2008
v1.5
Minor textual and style changes.
—
January 2007
v1.4
Added document revision history.
—
August 2005
v1.3
Minor updates.
—
October 2003
v1.2
Added 64-bit PCI support information.
—
September
2003 v1.1
●
May 2003 v1.0
Added document to Cyclone Device Handbook.
●
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Updated LVDS data rates to 640 Mbps from 311 Mbps.
Updated RSDS feature information.
—
—
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
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2. Cyclone Architecture
C51002-1.6
Functional
Description
Cyclone® devices contain a two-dimensional row- and column-based
architecture to implement custom logic. Column and row interconnects
of varying speeds provide signal interconnects between LABs and
embedded memory blocks.
The logic array consists of LABs, with 10 LEs in each LAB. An LE is a
small unit of logic providing efficient implementation of user logic
functions. LABs are grouped into rows and columns across the device.
Cyclone devices range between 2,910 to 20,060 LEs.
M4K RAM blocks are true dual-port memory blocks with 4K bits of
memory plus parity (4,608 bits). These blocks provide dedicated true
dual-port, simple dual-port, or single-port memory up to 36-bits wide at
up to 250 MHz. These blocks are grouped into columns across the device
in between certain LABs. Cyclone devices offer between 60 to 288 Kbits of
embedded RAM.
Each Cyclone device I/O pin is fed by an I/O element (IOE) located at the
ends of LAB rows and columns around the periphery of the device. I/O
pins support various single-ended and differential I/O standards, such as
the 66- and 33-MHz, 64- and 32-bit PCI standard and the LVDS I/O
standard at up to 640 Mbps. Each IOE contains a bidirectional I/O buffer
and three registers for registering input, output, and output-enable
signals. Dual-purpose DQS, DQ, and DM pins along with delay chains
(used to phase-align DDR signals) provide interface support with
external memory devices such as DDR SDRAM, and FCRAM devices at
up to 133 MHz (266 Mbps).
Cyclone devices provide a global clock network and up to two PLLs. The
global clock network consists of eight global clock lines that drive
throughout the entire device. The global clock network can provide
clocks for all resources within the device, such as IOEs, LEs, and memory
blocks. The global clock lines can also be used for control signals. Cyclone
PLLs provide general-purpose clocking with clock multiplication and
phase shifting as well as external outputs for high-speed differential I/O
support.
Figure 2–1 shows a diagram of the Cyclone EP1C12 device.
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May 2008
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Figure 2–1. Cyclone EP1C12 Device Block Diagram
IOEs
Logic Array
EP1C12 Device
PLL
M4K Blocks
The number of M4K RAM blocks, PLLs, rows, and columns vary per
device. Table 2–1 lists the resources available in each Cyclone device.
Table 2–1. Cyclone Device Resources
M4K RAM
Device
PLLs
LAB Columns
LAB Rows
13
1
24
13
17
2
26
17
Columns
Blocks
EP1C3
1
EP1C4
1
EP1C6
1
20
2
32
20
EP1C12
2
52
2
48
26
EP1C20
2
64
2
64
32
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Logic Array Blocks
Logic Array
Blocks
Each LAB consists of 10 LEs, LE carry chains, LAB control signals, a local
interconnect, look-up table (LUT) chain, and register chain connection
lines. The local interconnect transfers signals between LEs in the same
LAB. LUT chain connections transfer the output of one LE's LUT to the
adjacent LE for fast sequential LUT connections within the same LAB.
Register chain connections transfer the output of one LE's register to the
adjacent LE's register within a LAB. The Quartus® II Compiler places
associated logic within a LAB or adjacent LABs, allowing the use of local,
LUT chain, and register chain connections for performance and area
efficiency. Figure 2–2 details the Cyclone LAB.
Figure 2–2. Cyclone LAB Structure
Row Interconnect
Column Interconnect
Direct link
interconnect from
adjacent block
Direct link
interconnect from
adjacent block
Direct link
interconnect to
adjacent block
Direct link
interconnect to
adjacent block
LAB
Local Interconnect
LAB Interconnects
The LAB local interconnect can drive LEs within the same LAB. The LAB
local interconnect is driven by column and row interconnects and LE
outputs within the same LAB. Neighboring LABs, PLLs, and M4K RAM
blocks from the left and right can also drive a LAB's local interconnect
through the direct link connection. The direct link connection feature
minimizes the use of row and column interconnects, providing higher
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performance and flexibility. Each LE can drive 30 other LEs through fast
local and direct link interconnects. Figure 2–3 shows the direct link
connection.
Figure 2–3. Direct Link Connection
Direct link interconnect from
left LAB, M4K memory
block, PLL, or IOE output
Direct link interconnect from
right LAB, M4K memory
block, PLL, or IOE output
Direct link
interconnect
to right
Direct link
interconnect
to left
Local
Interconnect
LAB
LAB Control Signals
Each LAB contains dedicated logic for driving control signals to its LEs.
The control signals include two clocks, two clock enables, two
asynchronous clears, synchronous clear, asynchronous preset/load,
synchronous load, and add/subtract control signals. This gives a
maximum of 10 control signals at a time. Although synchronous load and
clear signals are generally used when implementing counters, they can
also be used with other functions.
Each LAB can use two clocks and two clock enable signals. Each LAB's
clock and clock enable signals are linked. For example, any LE in a
particular LAB using the labclk1 signal will also use labclkena1. If
the LAB uses both the rising and falling edges of a clock, it also uses both
LAB-wide clock signals. Deasserting the clock enable signal will turn off
the LAB-wide clock.
Each LAB can use two asynchronous clear signals and an asynchronous
load/preset signal. The asynchronous load acts as a preset when the
asynchronous load data input is tied high.
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Logic Elements
With the LAB-wide addnsub control signal, a single LE can implement a
one-bit adder and subtractor. This saves LE resources and improves
performance for logic functions such as DSP correlators and signed
multipliers that alternate between addition and subtraction depending
on data.
The LAB row clocks [5..0] and LAB local interconnect generate the
LAB-wide control signals. The MultiTrackTM interconnect's inherent low
skew allows clock and control signal distribution in addition to data.
Figure 2–4 shows the LAB control signal generation circuit.
Figure 2–4. LAB-Wide Control Signals
Dedicated
LAB Row
Clocks
6
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Logic Elements
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May 2008
labclkena2
labclkena1
labclk1
labclk2
labclr2
syncload
asyncload
or labpre
labclr1
addnsub
synclr
The smallest unit of logic in the Cyclone architecture, the LE, is compact
and provides advanced features with efficient logic utilization. Each LE
contains a four-input LUT, which is a function generator that can
implement any function of four variables. In addition, each LE contains a
programmable register and carry chain with carry select capability. A
single LE also supports dynamic single bit addition or subtraction mode
selectable by a LAB-wide control signal. Each LE drives all types of
interconnects: local, row, column, LUT chain, register chain, and direct
link interconnects. See Figure 2–5.
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Figure 2–5. Cyclone LE
Register chain
routing from
previous LE
LAB-wide
Register Bypass
Synchronous
Load
LAB-wide
Packed
Synchronous
Register Select
Clear
LAB Carry-In
addnsub
Carry-In1
Carry-In0
Programmable
Register
LUT chain
routing to next LE
data1
data2
data3
Look-Up
Table
(LUT)
Carry
Chain
Synchronous
Load and
Clear Logic
PRN/ALD
D
Q
ADATA
Row, column,
and direct link
routing
data4
ENA
CLRN
labclr1
labclr2
labpre/aload
Chip-Wide
Reset
Asynchronous
Clear/Preset/
Load Logic
Row, column,
and direct link
routing
Local Routing
Clock &
Clock Enable
Select
Register
Feedback
Register chain
output
labclk1
labclk2
labclkena1
labclkena2
Carry-Out0
Carry-Out1
LAB Carry-Out
Each LE's programmable register can be configured for D, T, JK, or SR
operation. Each register has data, true asynchronous load data, clock,
clock enable, clear, and asynchronous load/preset inputs. Global signals,
general-purpose I/O pins, or any internal logic can drive the register's
clock and clear control signals. Either general-purpose I/O pins or
internal logic can drive the clock enable, preset, asynchronous load, and
asynchronous data. The asynchronous load data input comes from the
data3 input of the LE. For combinatorial functions, the LUT output
bypasses the register and drives directly to the LE outputs.
Each LE has three outputs that drive the local, row, and column routing
resources. The LUT or register output can drive these three outputs
independently. Two LE outputs drive column or row and direct link
routing connections and one drives local interconnect resources. This
allows the LUT to drive one output while the register drives another
output. This feature, called register packing, improves device utilization
because the device can use the register and the LUT for unrelated
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Logic Elements
functions. Another special packing mode allows the register output to
feed back into the LUT of the same LE so that the register is packed with
its own fan-out LUT. This provides another mechanism for improved
fitting. The LE can also drive out registered and unregistered versions of
the LUT output.
LUT Chain and Register Chain
In addition to the three general routing outputs, the LEs within a LAB
have LUT chain and register chain outputs. LUT chain connections allow
LUTs within the same LAB to cascade together for wide input functions.
Register chain outputs allow registers within the same LAB to cascade
together. The register chain output allows a LAB to use LUTs for a single
combinatorial function and the registers to be used for an unrelated shift
register implementation. These resources speed up connections between
LABs while saving local interconnect resources. “MultiTrack
Interconnect” on page 2–12 for more information on LUT chain and
register chain connections.
addnsub Signal
The LE's dynamic adder/subtractor feature saves logic resources by
using one set of LEs to implement both an adder and a subtractor. This
feature is controlled by the LAB-wide control signal addnsub. The
addnsub signal sets the LAB to perform either A + B or A −B. The LUT
computes addition; subtraction is computed by adding the two's
complement of the intended subtractor. The LAB-wide signal converts to
two's complement by inverting the B bits within the LAB and setting
carry-in = 1 to add one to the least significant bit (LSB). The LSB of an
adder/subtractor must be placed in the first LE of the LAB, where the
LAB-wide addnsub signal automatically sets the carry-in to 1. The
Quartus II Compiler automatically places and uses the adder/subtractor
feature when using adder/subtractor parameterized functions.
LE Operating Modes
The Cyclone LE can operate in one of the following modes:
■
■
Normal mode
Dynamic arithmetic mode
Each mode uses LE resources differently. In each mode, eight available
inputs to the LE⎯the four data inputs from the LAB local interconnect,
carry-in0 and carry-in1 from the previous LE, the LAB carry-in
from the previous carry-chain LAB, and the register chain connection⎯are
directed to different destinations to implement the desired logic function.
LAB-wide signals provide clock, asynchronous clear, asynchronous
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preset/load, synchronous clear, synchronous load, and clock enable
control for the register. These LAB-wide signals are available in all LE
modes. The addnsub control signal is allowed in arithmetic mode.
The Quartus II software, in conjunction with parameterized functions
such as library of parameterized modules (LPM) functions, automatically
chooses the appropriate mode for common functions such as counters,
adders, subtractors, and arithmetic functions. If required, you can also
create special-purpose functions that specify which LE operating mode to
use for optimal performance.
Normal Mode
The normal mode is suitable for general logic applications and
combinatorial functions. In normal mode, four data inputs from the LAB
local interconnect are inputs to a four-input LUT (see Figure 2–6). The
Quartus II Compiler automatically selects the carry-in or the data3
signal as one of the inputs to the LUT. Each LE can use LUT chain
connections to drive its combinatorial output directly to the next LE in the
LAB. Asynchronous load data for the register comes from the data3
input of the LE. LEs in normal mode support packed registers.
Figure 2–6. LE in Normal Mode
sload
sclear
(LAB Wide) (LAB Wide)
aload
(LAB Wide)
Register chain
connection
addnsub (LAB Wide)
(1)
data1
data2
data3
cin (from cout
of previous LE)
4-Input
LUT
ALD/PRE
ADATA Q
D
Row, column, and
direct link routing
ENA
CLRN
Row, column, and
direct link routing
clock (LAB Wide)
ena (LAB Wide)
data4
Local routing
aclr (LAB Wide)
LUT chain
connection
Register
chain output
Register Feedback
Note to Figure 2–6:
(1)
This signal is only allowed in normal mode if the LE is at the end of an adder/subtractor chain.
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Logic Elements
Dynamic Arithmetic Mode
The dynamic arithmetic mode is ideal for implementing adders, counters,
accumulators, wide parity functions, and comparators. An LE in dynamic
arithmetic mode uses four 2-input LUTs configurable as a dynamic
adder/subtractor. The first two 2-input LUTs compute two summations
based on a possible carry-in of 1 or 0; the other two LUTs generate carry
outputs for the two chains of the carry select circuitry. As shown in
Figure 2–7, the LAB carry-in signal selects either the carry-in0 or
carry-in1 chain. The selected chain's logic level in turn determines
which parallel sum is generated as a combinatorial or registered output.
For example, when implementing an adder, the sum output is the
selection of two possible calculated sums:
data1 + data2 + carry-in0
or
data1 + data2 + carry-in1
The other two LUTs use the data1 and data2 signals to generate two
possible carry-out signals⎯one for a carry of 1 and the other for a carry of
0. The carry-in0 signal acts as the carry select for the carry-out0
output and carry-in1 acts as the carry select for the carry-out1
output. LEs in arithmetic mode can drive out registered and unregistered
versions of the LUT output.
The dynamic arithmetic mode also offers clock enable, counter enable,
synchronous up/down control, synchronous clear, synchronous load,
and dynamic adder/subtractor options. The LAB local interconnect data
inputs generate the counter enable and synchronous up/down control
signals. The synchronous clear and synchronous load options are
LAB-wide signals that affect all registers in the LAB. The Quartus II
software automatically places any registers that are not used by the
counter into other LABs. The addnsub LAB-wide signal controls
whether the LE acts as an adder or subtractor.
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May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 2–7. LE in Dynamic Arithmetic Mode
LAB Carry-In
sload
sclear
(LAB Wide) (LAB Wide)
Register chain
connection
Carry-In0
Carry-In1
addnsub
(LAB Wide)
(1)
data1
data2
data3
LUT
LUT
LUT
aload
(LAB Wide)
ALD/PRE
ADATA Q
D
Row, column, and
direct link routing
ENA
CLRN
Row, column, and
direct link routing
clock (LAB Wide)
ena (LAB Wide)
Local routing
aclr (LAB Wide)
LUT chain
connection
LUT
Register
chain output
Register Feedback
Carry-Out0 Carry-Out1
Note to Figure 2–7:
(1)
The addnsub signal is tied to the carry input for the first LE of a carry chain only.
Carry-Select Chain
The carry-select chain provides a very fast carry-select function between
LEs in dynamic arithmetic mode. The carry-select chain uses the
redundant carry calculation to increase the speed of carry functions. The
LE is configured to calculate outputs for a possible carry-in of 0 and
carry-in of 1 in parallel. The carry-in0 and carry-in1 signals from a
lower-order bit feed forward into the higher-order bit via the parallel
carry chain and feed into both the LUT and the next portion of the carry
chain. Carry-select chains can begin in any LE within a LAB.
The speed advantage of the carry-select chain is in the parallel
pre-computation of carry chains. Since the LAB carry-in selects the
precomputed carry chain, not every LE is in the critical path. Only the
propagation delays between LAB carry-in generation (LE 5 and LE 10) are
now part of the critical path. This feature allows the Cyclone architecture
to implement high-speed counters, adders, multipliers, parity functions,
and comparators of arbitrary width.
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Logic Elements
Figure 2–8 shows the carry-select circuitry in a LAB for a 10-bit full adder.
One portion of the LUT generates the sum of two bits using the input
signals and the appropriate carry-in bit; the sum is routed to the output
of the LE. The register can be bypassed for simple adders or used for
accumulator functions. Another portion of the LUT generates carry-out
bits. A LAB-wide carry-in bit selects which chain is used for the addition
of given inputs. The carry-in signal for each chain, carry-in0 or
carry-in1, selects the carry-out to carry forward to the carry-in signal
of the next-higher-order bit. The final carry-out signal is routed to an LE,
where it is fed to local, row, or column interconnects.
Figure 2–8. Carry Select Chain
LAB Carry-In
0
1
A1
B1
LE1
A2
B2
LE2
Sum1
LAB Carry-In
Carry-In0
Carry-In1
A3
B3
LE3
A4
B4
LE4
A5
B5
LE5
0
Sum2
Sum3
LUT
data1
data2
Sum
LUT
Sum4
LUT
Sum5
LUT
1
A6
B6
LE6
A7
B7
LE7
A8
B8
LE8
A9
B9
LE9
A10
B10
LE10
Sum6
Carry-Out0
Carry-Out1
Sum7
Sum8
Sum9
Sum10
LAB Carry-Out
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The Quartus II Compiler automatically creates carry chain logic during
design processing, or you can create it manually during design entry.
Parameterized functions such as LPM functions automatically take
advantage of carry chains for the appropriate functions.
The Quartus II Compiler creates carry chains longer than 10 LEs by
linking LABs together automatically. For enhanced fitting, a long carry
chain runs vertically allowing fast horizontal connections to M4K
memory blocks. A carry chain can continue as far as a full column.
Clear and Preset Logic Control
LAB-wide signals control the logic for the register's clear and preset
signals. The LE directly supports an asynchronous clear and preset
function. The register preset is achieved through the asynchronous load
of a logic high. The direct asynchronous preset does not require a
NOT-gate push-back technique. Cyclone devices support simultaneous
preset/ asynchronous load and clear signals. An asynchronous clear
signal takes precedence if both signals are asserted simultaneously. Each
LAB supports up to two clears and one preset signal.
In addition to the clear and preset ports, Cyclone devices provide a
chip-wide reset pin (DEV_CLRn) that resets all registers in the device. An
option set before compilation in the Quartus II software controls this pin.
This chip-wide reset overrides all other control signals.
MultiTrack
Interconnect
In the Cyclone architecture, connections between LEs, M4K memory
blocks, and device I/O pins are provided by the MultiTrack interconnect
structure with DirectDriveTM technology. The MultiTrack interconnect
consists of continuous, performance-optimized routing lines of different
speeds used for inter- and intra-design block connectivity. The Quartus II
Compiler automatically places critical design paths on faster
interconnects to improve design performance.
DirectDrive technology is a deterministic routing technology that ensures
identical routing resource usage for any function regardless of placement
within the device. The MultiTrack interconnect and DirectDrive
technology simplify the integration stage of block-based designing by
eliminating the re-optimization cycles that typically follow design
changes and additions.
The MultiTrack interconnect consists of row and column interconnects
that span fixed distances. A routing structure with fixed length resources
for all devices allows predictable and repeatable performance when
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MultiTrack Interconnect
migrating through different device densities. Dedicated row
interconnects route signals to and from LABs, PLLs, and M4K memory
blocks within the same row. These row resources include:
■
■
Direct link interconnects between LABs and adjacent blocks
R4 interconnects traversing four blocks to the right or left
The direct link interconnect allows a LAB or M4K memory block to drive
into the local interconnect of its left and right neighbors. Only one side of
a PLL block interfaces with direct link and row interconnects. The direct
link interconnect provides fast communication between adjacent LABs
and/or blocks without using row interconnect resources.
The R4 interconnects span four LABs, or two LABs and one M4K RAM
block. These resources are used for fast row connections in a four-LAB
region. Every LAB has its own set of R4 interconnects to drive either left
or right. Figure 2–9 shows R4 interconnect connections from a LAB. R4
interconnects can drive and be driven by M4K memory blocks, PLLs, and
row IOEs. For LAB interfacing, a primary LAB or LAB neighbor can drive
a given R4 interconnect. For R4 interconnects that drive to the right, the
primary LAB and right neighbor can drive on to the interconnect. For R4
interconnects that drive to the left, the primary LAB and its left neighbor
can drive on to the interconnect. R4 interconnects can drive other R4
interconnects to extend the range of LABs they can drive. R4
interconnects can also drive C4 interconnects for connections from one
row to another.
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May 2008
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Figure 2–9. R4 Interconnect Connections
Adjacent LAB can
Drive onto Another
LAB's R4 Interconnect
C4 Column Interconnects (1)
R4 Interconnect
Driving Right
R4 Interconnect
Driving Left
LAB
Neighbor
Primary
LAB (2)
LAB
Neighbor
Notes to Figure 2–9:
(1)
(2)
C4 interconnects can drive R4 interconnects.
This pattern is repeated for every LAB in the LAB row.
The column interconnect operates similarly to the row interconnect. Each
column of LABs is served by a dedicated column interconnect, which
vertically routes signals to and from LABs, M4K memory blocks, and row
and column IOEs. These column resources include:
■
■
■
LUT chain interconnects within a LAB
Register chain interconnects within a LAB
C4 interconnects traversing a distance of four blocks in an up and
down direction
Cyclone devices include an enhanced interconnect structure within LABs
for routing LE output to LE input connections faster using LUT chain
connections and register chain connections. The LUT chain connection
allows the combinatorial output of an LE to directly drive the fast input
of the LE right below it, bypassing the local interconnect. These resources
can be used as a high-speed connection for wide fan-in functions from
LE 1 to LE 10 in the same LAB. The register chain connection allows the
register output of one LE to connect directly to the register input of the
next LE in the LAB for fast shift registers. The Quartus II Compiler
automatically takes advantage of these resources to improve utilization
and performance. Figure 2–10 shows the LUT chain and register chain
interconnects.
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MultiTrack Interconnect
Figure 2–10. LUT Chain and Register Chain Interconnects
Local Interconnect
Routing Among LEs
in the LAB
LUT Chain
Routing to
Adjacent LE
LE 1
Register Chain
Routing to Adjacent
LE's Register Input
LE 2
Local
Interconnect
LE 3
LE 4
LE 5
LE 6
LE 7
LE 8
LE 9
LE 10
The C4 interconnects span four LABs or M4K blocks up or down from a
source LAB. Every LAB has its own set of C4 interconnects to drive either
up or down. Figure 2–11 shows the C4 interconnect connections from a
LAB in a column. The C4 interconnects can drive and be driven by all
types of architecture blocks, including PLLs, M4K memory blocks, and
column and row IOEs. For LAB interconnection, a primary LAB or its
LAB neighbor can drive a given C4 interconnect. C4 interconnects can
drive each other to extend their range as well as drive row interconnects
for column-to-column connections.
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Figure 2–11. C4 Interconnect Connections
Note (1)
C4 Interconnect
Drives Local and R4
Interconnects
Up to Four Rows
C4 Interconnect
Driving Up
LAB
Row
Interconnect
Adjacent LAB can
drive onto neighboring
LAB's C4 interconnect
Local
Interconnect
C4 Interconnect
Driving Down
Note to Figure 2–11:
(1)
Each C4 interconnect can drive either up or down four rows.
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MultiTrack Interconnect
All embedded blocks communicate with the logic array similar to
LAB-to-LAB interfaces. Each block (i.e., M4K memory or PLL) connects
to row and column interconnects and has local interconnect regions
driven by row and column interconnects. These blocks also have direct
link interconnects for fast connections to and from a neighboring LAB.
Table 2–2 shows the Cyclone device's routing scheme.
Table 2–2. Cyclone Device Routing Scheme
LUT Chain
Register Chain
Local Interconnect
Direct Link Interconnect
R4 Interconnect
C4 Interconnect
LE
M4K RAM Block
PLL
Column IOE
Row IOE
Destination
LUT Chain
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
Register Chain
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
Local Interconnect
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
v
v
v
Direct Link
Interconnect
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
R4 Interconnect
—
—
v
—
v
v
—
—
—
—
—
C4 Interconnect
—
—
v
—
v
v
—
—
—
—
—
LE
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
—
—
M4K RAM Block
—
—
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
—
—
PLL
—
—
—
v
v
v
—
—
—
—
—
Column IOE
—
—
—
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
—
Row IOE
—
—
—
v
v
v
—
—
—
—
—
Source
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–17
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Embedded
Memory
The Cyclone embedded memory consists of columns of M4K memory
blocks. EP1C3 and EP1C6 devices have one column of M4K blocks, while
EP1C12 and EP1C20 devices have two columns (refer to Table 1–1 on
page 1–1 for total RAM bits per density). Each M4K block can implement
various types of memory with or without parity, including true dual-port,
simple dual-port, and single-port RAM, ROM, and FIFO buffers. The
M4K blocks support the following features:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
1
4,608 RAM bits
250 MHz performance
True dual-port memory
Simple dual-port memory
Single-port memory
Byte enable
Parity bits
Shift register
FIFO buffer
ROM
Mixed clock mode
Violating the setup or hold time on the address registers could
corrupt the memory contents. This applies to both read and
write operations.
Memory Modes
The M4K memory blocks include input registers that synchronize writes
and output registers to pipeline designs and improve system
performance. M4K blocks offer a true dual-port mode to support any
combination of two-port operations: two reads, two writes, or one read
and one write at two different clock frequencies. Figure 2–12 shows true
dual-port memory.
Figure 2–12. True Dual-Port Memory Configuration
A
dataA[ ]
addressA[ ]
wrenA
clockA
clockenA
qA[ ]
aclrA
2–18
Preliminary
B
dataB[ ]
addressB[ ]
wrenB
clockB
clockenB
qB[ ]
aclrB
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Embedded Memory
In addition to true dual-port memory, the M4K memory blocks support
simple dual-port and single-port RAM. Simple dual-port memory
supports a simultaneous read and write. Single-port memory supports
non-simultaneous reads and writes. Figure 2–13 shows these different
M4K RAM memory port configurations.
Figure 2–13. Simple Dual-Port and Single-Port Memory Configurations
Simple Dual-Port Memory
data[ ]
wraddress[ ]
wren
inclock
inclocken
inaclr
rdaddress[ ]
rden
q[ ]
outclock
outclocken
outaclr
Single-Port Memory (1)
data[ ]
address[ ]
wren
inclock
inclocken
inaclr
q[ ]
outclock
outclocken
outaclr
Note to Figure 2–13:
(1)
Two single-port memory blocks can be implemented in a single M4K block as long
as each of the two independent block sizes is equal to or less than half of the M4K
block size.
The memory blocks also enable mixed-width data ports for reading and
writing to the RAM ports in dual-port RAM configuration. For example,
the memory block can be written in ×1 mode at port A and read out in ×16
mode from port B.
The Cyclone memory architecture can implement fully synchronous
RAM by registering both the input and output signals to the M4K RAM
block. All M4K memory block inputs are registered, providing
synchronous write cycles. In synchronous operation, the memory block
generates its own self-timed strobe write enable (wren) signal derived
from a global clock. In contrast, a circuit using asynchronous RAM must
generate the RAM wren signal while ensuring its data and address
signals meet setup and hold time specifications relative to the wren
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–19
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
signal. The output registers can be bypassed. Pseudo-asynchronous
reading is possible in the simple dual-port mode of M4K blocks by
clocking the read enable and read address registers on the negative clock
edge and bypassing the output registers.
When configured as RAM or ROM, you can use an initialization file to
pre-load the memory contents.
Two single-port memory blocks can be implemented in a single M4K
block as long as each of the two independent block sizes is equal to or less
than half of the M4K block size.
The Quartus II software automatically implements larger memory by
combining multiple M4K memory blocks. For example, two 256×16-bit
RAM blocks can be combined to form a 256×32-bit RAM block. Memory
performance does not degrade for memory blocks using the maximum
number of words allowed. Logical memory blocks using less than the
maximum number of words use physical blocks in parallel, eliminating
any external control logic that would increase delays. To create a larger
high-speed memory block, the Quartus II software automatically
combines memory blocks with LE control logic.
Parity Bit Support
The M4K blocks support a parity bit for each byte. The parity bit, along
with internal LE logic, can implement parity checking for error detection
to ensure data integrity. You can also use parity-size data words to store
user-specified control bits. Byte enables are also available for data input
masking during write operations.
Shift Register Support
You can configure M4K memory blocks to implement shift registers for
DSP applications such as pseudo-random number generators,
multi-channel filtering, auto-correlation, and cross-correlation functions.
These and other DSP applications require local data storage, traditionally
implemented with standard flip-flops, which can quickly consume many
logic cells and routing resources for large shift registers. A more efficient
alternative is to use embedded memory as a shift register block, which
saves logic cell and routing resources and provides a more efficient
implementation with the dedicated circuitry.
The size of a w × m × n shift register is determined by the input data width
(w), the length of the taps (m), and the number of taps (n). The size of a
w × m × n shift register must be less than or equal to the maximum number
of memory bits in the M4K block (4,608 bits). The total number of shift
2–20
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Embedded Memory
register outputs (number of taps n × width w) must be less than the
maximum data width of the M4K RAM block (×36). To create larger shift
registers, multiple memory blocks are cascaded together.
Data is written into each address location at the falling edge of the clock
and read from the address at the rising edge of the clock. The shift register
mode logic automatically controls the positive and negative edge
clocking to shift the data in one clock cycle. Figure 2–14 shows the M4K
memory block in the shift register mode.
Figure 2–14. Shift Register Memory Configuration
w × m × n Shift Register
m-Bit Shift Register
w
w
m-Bit Shift Register
w
w
n Number
of Taps
m-Bit Shift Register
w
w
m-Bit Shift Register
w
w
Memory Configuration Sizes
The memory address depths and output widths can be configured as
4,096 × 1, 2,048 × 2, 1,024 × 4, 512 × 8 (or 512 × 9 bits), 256 × 16 (or 256 × 18
bits), and 128 × 32 (or 128 × 36 bits). The 128 × 32- or 36-bit configuration
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–21
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
is not available in the true dual-port mode. Mixed-width configurations
are also possible, allowing different read and write widths. Tables 2–3
and 2–4 summarize the possible M4K RAM block configurations.
Table 2–3. M4K RAM Block Configurations (Simple Dual-Port)
Write Port
Read Port
4K × 1
2K × 2
1K × 4 512 × 8
256 × 16
128 × 32
4K × 1
v
v
v
2K × 2
v
v
1K × 4
v
512 × 8
512 × 9 256 × 18 128 × 36
v
v
v
—
—
—
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
256 × 16
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
128 × 32
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
512 × 9
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
v
256 × 18
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
v
128 × 36
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
v
Table 2–4. M4K RAM Block Configurations (True Dual-Port)
Port B
Port A
4K × 1
2K × 2
1K × 4
512 × 8
256 × 16
512 × 9
256 × 18
4K × 1
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
2K × 2
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
1K × 4
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
512 × 8
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
256 × 16
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
512 × 9
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
256 × 18
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
When the M4K RAM block is configured as a shift register block, you can
create a shift register up to 4,608 bits (w × m × n).
2–22
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Embedded Memory
Byte Enables
M4K blocks support byte writes when the write port has a data width of
16, 18, 32, or 36 bits. The byte enables allow the input data to be masked
so the device can write to specific bytes. The unwritten bytes retain the
previous written value. Table 2–5 summarizes the byte selection.
Table 2–5. Byte Enable for M4K Blocks
byteena[3..0]
Notes (1), (2)
datain ×18
datain ×36
[0] = 1
[8..0]
[8..0]
[1] = 1
[17..9]
[17..9]
[2] = 1
—
[26..18]
[3] = 1
—
[35..27]
Notes to Table 2–5:
(1)
(2)
Any combination of byte enables is possible.
Byte enables can be used in the same manner with 8-bit words, i.e., in ×16 and ×32
modes.
Control Signals and M4K Interface
The M4K blocks allow for different clocks on their inputs and outputs.
Either of the two clocks feeding the block can clock M4K block registers
(renwe, address, byte enable, datain, and output registers). Only the
output register can be bypassed. The six labclk signals or local
interconnects can drive the control signals for the A and B ports of the
M4K block. LEs can also control the clock_a, clock_b, renwe_a,
renwe_b, clr_a, clr_b, clocken_a, and clocken_b signals, as
shown in Figure 2–15.
The R4, C4, and direct link interconnects from adjacent LABs drive the
M4K block local interconnect. The M4K blocks can communicate with
LABs on either the left or right side through these row resources or with
LAB columns on either the right or left with the column resources. Up to
10 direct link input connections to the M4K block are possible from the
left adjacent LABs and another 10 possible from the right adjacent LAB.
M4K block outputs can also connect to left and right LABs through 10
direct link interconnects each. Figure 2–16 shows the M4K block to logic
array interface.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–23
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 2–15. M4K RAM Block Control Signals
Dedicated
LAB Row
Clocks
6
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
alcr_a
clocken_a
clock_b
renwe_b
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
clock_a
renwe_a
alcr_b
clocken_b
Figure 2–16. M4K RAM Block LAB Row Interface
C4 Interconnects
Direct link
interconnect
to adjacent LAB
R4 Interconnects
10
Direct link
interconnect
to adjacent LAB
dataout
Direct link
interconnect
from adjacent LAB
M4K RAM
Block
Direct link
interconnect
from adjacent LAB
Byte enable
Control
Signals
Clocks
address
datain
6
M4K RAM Block Local
Interconnect Region
2–24
Preliminary
LAB Row Clocks
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Embedded Memory
Independent Clock Mode
The M4K memory blocks implement independent clock mode for true
dual-port memory. In this mode, a separate clock is available for each port
(ports A and B). Clock A controls all registers on the port A side, while
clock B controls all registers on the port B side. Each port, A and B, also
supports independent clock enables and asynchronous clear signals for
port A and B registers. Figure 2–17 shows an M4K memory block in
independent clock mode.
Figure 2–17. Independent Clock Mode
Notes (1), (2)
6 LAB Row Clocks
A
6
dataA[ ]
D
Data In
Q
ENA
byteenaA[ ]
D
Memory Block
256 ´ 16 (2)
512 ´ 8
1,024 ´ 4
2,048 ´ 2
4,096 ´ 1
Byte Enable A
Q
B
6
Data In
Q
Byte Enable B
Q
D
dataB[ ]
D
byteenaB[ ]
ENA
ENA
addressA[ ]
D
ENA
Address A
Q
Address B
Q
D
addressB[ ]
ENA
ENA
wrenA
wrenB
D
clkenA
ENA
clockA
Q
Write/Read
Enable
Write/Read
Enable
Write
Pulse
Generator
Data Out
D
Write
Pulse
Generator
Q
D
ENA
clkenB
clockB
Data Out
Q
Q
D
ENA
ENA
qA[ ]
qB[ ]
Notes to Figure 2–17:
(1)
(2)
All registers shown have asynchronous clear ports.
Violating the setup or hold time on the address registers could corrupt the memory contents. This applies to both
read and write operations.
Input/Output Clock Mode
Input/output clock mode can be implemented for both the true and
simple dual-port memory modes. On each of the two ports, A or B, one
clock controls all registers for inputs into the memory block: data input,
wren, and address. The other clock controls the block's data output
registers. Each memory block port, A or B, also supports independent
clock enables and asynchronous clear signals for input and output
registers. Figures 2–18 and 2–19 show the memory block in input/output
clock mode.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–25
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 2–18. Input/Output Clock Mode in True Dual-Port Mode
Notes (1), (2)
6 LAB Row Clocks
6
dataA[ ]
A
D
Data In
Q
ENA
byteenaA[ ]
D
Memory Block
256 × 16 (2)
512 × 8
1,024 × 4
2,048 × 2
4,096 × 1
Byte Enable A
Q
6
B
Data In
Q
Byte Enable B
Q
D
dataB[ ]
D
byteenaB[ ]
ENA
ENA
addressA[ ]
D
ENA
Address A
Q
Address B
Q
D
addressB[ ]
ENA
ENA
wrenA
wrenB
D
clkenA
ENA
clockA
Q
Write/Read
Enable
Write
Pulse
Generator
Write/Read
Enable
Data Out
Write
Pulse
Generator
Q
D
ENA
Data Out
clkenB
D
Q
Q
D
ENA
ENA
q A[ ]
clockB
q B[ ]
Notes to Figure 2–18:
(1)
(2)
All registers shown have asynchronous clear ports.
Violating the setup or hold time on the address registers could corrupt the memory contents. This applies to both
read and write operations.
2–26
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Embedded Memory
Figure 2–19. Input/Output Clock Mode in Simple Dual-Port Mode
Notes (1), (2)
6 LAB Row
Clocks
Memory Block
256 ´ 16
Data In
512 ´ 8
1,024 ´ 4
2,048 ´ 2
4,096 ´ 1
6
data[ ]
D
Q
ENA
address[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Read Address
Data Out
byteena[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Byte Enable
wraddress[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Write Address
D
Q
ENA
Read Enable
D
Q
ENA
To MultiTrack
Interconnect
rden
wren
outclken
inclken
inclock
D
Q
ENA
Write
Pulse
Generator
Write Enable
outclock
Notes to Figure 2–19:
(1)
(2)
All registers shown except the rden register have asynchronous clear ports.
Violating the setup or hold time on the address registers could corrupt the memory contents. This applies to both
read and write operations.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–27
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Read/Write Clock Mode
The M4K memory blocks implement read/write clock mode for simple
dual-port memory. You can use up to two clocks in this mode. The write
clock controls the block's data inputs, wraddress, and wren. The read
clock controls the data output, rdaddress, and rden. The memory
blocks support independent clock enables for each clock and
asynchronous clear signals for the read- and write-side registers.
Figure 2–20 shows a memory block in read/write clock mode.
Figure 2–20. Read/Write Clock Mode in Simple Dual-Port Mode
6 LAB Row
Clocks
Memory Block
256 × 16
512 × 8
1,024 × 4
Data In
2,048 × 2
4,096 × 1
6
data[ ]
Notes (1), (2)
D
Q
ENA
Data Out
address[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Read Address
wraddress[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Write Address
byteena[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Byte Enable
D
Q
ENA
Read Enable
D
Q
ENA
To MultiTrack
Interconnect
rden
wren
rdclken
wrclken
wrclock
D
Q
ENA
Write
Pulse
Generator
Write Enable
rdclock
Notes to Figure 2–20:
(1)
(2)
All registers shown except the rden register have asynchronous clear ports.
Violating the setup or hold time on the address registers could corrupt the memory contents. This applies to both
read and write operations.
2–28
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Global Clock Network and Phase-Locked Loops
Single-Port Mode
The M4K memory blocks also support single-port mode, used when
simultaneous reads and writes are not required. See Figure 2–21. A single
M4K memory block can support up to two single-port mode RAM blocks
if each RAM block is less than or equal to 2K bits in size.
Figure 2–21. Single-Port Mode
Note (1)
6 LAB Row
Clocks
RAM/ROM
256 × 16
512 × 8
1,024 × 4
Data In
2,048 × 2
4,096 × 1
6
data[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Data Out
address[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Address
D
Q
ENA
To MultiTrack
Interconnect
wren
Write Enable
outclken
inclken
inclock
D
Q
ENA
Write
Pulse
Generator
outclock
Note to Figure 2–21:
(1)
Violating the setup or hold time on the address registers could corrupt the memory contents. This applies to both
read and write operations.
Global Clock
Network and
Phase-Locked
Loops
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Cyclone devices provide a global clock network and up to two PLLs for a
complete clock management solution.
Global Clock Network
There are four dedicated clock pins (CLK[3..0], two pins on the left side
and two pins on the right side) that drive the global clock network, as
shown in Figure 2–22. PLL outputs, logic array, and dual-purpose clock
(DPCLK[7..0]) pins can also drive the global clock network.
2–29
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
The eight global clock lines in the global clock network drive throughout
the entire device. The global clock network can provide clocks for all
resources within the device—IOEs, LEs, and memory blocks. The global
clock lines can also be used for control signals, such as clock enables and
synchronous or asynchronous clears fed from the external pin, or DQS
signals for DDR SDRAM or FCRAM interfaces. Internal logic can also
drive the global clock network for internally generated global clocks and
asynchronous clears, clock enables, or other control signals with large
fanout. Figure 2–22 shows the various sources that drive the global clock
network.
Figure 2–22. Global Clock Generation
Note (1)
DPCLK2
DPCLK3
Cyclone Device
Global Clock
Network
8
DPCLK1
DPCLK4
From logic
array
From logic
array
4
CLK0
CLK1 (3)
4
PLL1
4
2
4
2
DPCLK0
PLL2
(2)
CLK2
CLK3 (3)
DPCLK5
DPCLK7
DPCLK6
Notes to Figure 2–22:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package has five DPCLK pins (DPCLK2, DPCLK3, DPCLK4, DPCLK6, and
DPCLK7).
EP1C3 devices only contain one PLL (PLL 1).
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package does not have dedicated clock pins CLK1 and CLK3.
2–30
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Global Clock Network and Phase-Locked Loops
Dual-Purpose Clock Pins
Each Cyclone device except the EP1C3 device has eight dual-purpose
clock pins, DPCLK[7..0] (two on each I/O bank). EP1C3 devices have
five DPCLK pins in the 100-pin TQFP package. These dual-purpose pins
can connect to the global clock network (see Figure 2–22) for high-fanout
control signals such as clocks, asynchronous clears, presets, and clock
enables, or protocol control signals such as TRDY and IRDY for PCI, or
DQS signals for external memory interfaces.
Combined Resources
Each Cyclone device contains eight distinct dedicated clocking resources.
The device uses multiplexers with these clocks to form six-bit buses to
drive LAB row clocks, column IOE clocks, or row IOE clocks. See
Figure 2–23. Another multiplexer at the LAB level selects two of the six
LAB row clocks to feed the LE registers within the LAB.
Figure 2–23. Global Clock Network Multiplexers
Global Clock
Network
Global Clocks [3..0]
Dual-Purpose Clocks [7..0]
Clock [7..0]
Column I/O Region
IO_CLK]5..0]
LAB Row Clock [5..0]
PLL Outputs [3..0]
Core Logic [7..0]
Row I/O Region
IO_CLK[5..0]
IOE clocks have row and column block regions. Six of the eight global
clock resources feed to these row and column regions. Figure 2–24 shows
the I/O clock regions.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–31
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 2–24. I/O Clock Regions
Column I/O Clock Region
IO_CLK[5..0]
6
I/O Clock Regions
Cyclone Logic Array
LAB Row Clocks
labclk[5..0]
LAB Row Clocks
labclk[5..0]
LAB Row Clocks
labclk[5..0]
LAB Row Clocks
labclk[5..0]
6
6
Global Clock
Network
6
6
8
Row
I/O Regions
LAB Row Clocks
labclk[5..0]
LAB Row Clocks
labclk[5..0]
6
6
I/O Clock Regions
6
Column I/O Clock Region
IO_CLK[5..0]
PLLs
Cyclone PLLs provide general-purpose clocking with clock
multiplication and phase shifting as well as outputs for differential I/O
support. Cyclone devices contain two PLLs, except for the EP1C3 device,
which contains one PLL.
2–32
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Global Clock Network and Phase-Locked Loops
Table 2–6 shows the PLL features in Cyclone devices. Figure 2–25 shows
a Cyclone PLL.
Table 2–6. Cyclone PLL Features
Feature
PLL Support
Clock multiplication and division
m/(n × post-scale counter) (1)
Phase shift
Down to 125-ps increments (2), (3)
Programmable duty cycle
Yes
Number of internal clock outputs
2
Number of external clock outputs
One differential or one single-ended (4)
Notes to Table 2–6:
(1)
The m counter ranges from 2 to 32. The n counter and the post-scale counters
range from 1 to 32.
The smallest phase shift is determined by the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO)
period divided by 8.
For degree increments, Cyclone devices can shift all output frequencies in
increments of 45°. Smaller degree increments are possible depending on the
frequency and divide parameters.
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package does not support external clock
output. The EP1C6 device in the 144-pin TQFP package does not support external
clock output from PLL2.
(2)
(3)
(4)
Figure 2–25. Cyclone PLL
Note (1)
VCO Phase Selection
Selectable at Each PLL
Output Port
Post-Scale
Counters
CLK0 or
LVDSCLK1p (2)
÷n
Δt
PFD (3)
Charge
Pump
CLK1 or
LVDSCLK1n (2)
Δt
Loop
Filter
VCO
÷g0
Global clock
÷g1
Global clock
÷e
I/O buffer
÷m
Notes to Figure 2–25:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package does not support external outputs or LVDS inputs. The EP1C6
device in the 144-pin TQFP package does not support external output from PLL2.
LVDS input is supported via the secondary function of the dedicated clock pins. For PLL 1, the CLK0 pin’s secondary
function is LVDSCLK1p and the CLK1 pin’s secondary function is LVDSCLK1n. For PLL 2, the CLK2 pin’s secondary
function is LVDSCLK2p and the CLK3 pin’s secondary function is LVDSCLK2n.
PFD: phase frequency detector.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–33
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 2–26 shows the PLL global clock connections.
Figure 2–26. Cyclone PLL Global Clock Connections
G1
G0
G3
G5
G2
G4
G7
G6
g0
CLK0
g0
PLL1 g1
CLK1 (1)
CLK2
g1 PLL2
e
CLK3 (2)
e
PLL1_OUT (3), (4)
PLL2_OUT (3), (4)
Notes to Figure 2–26:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
PLL 1 supports one single-ended or LVDS input via pins CLK0 and CLK1.
PLL2 supports one single-ended or LVDS input via pins CLK2 and CLK3.
PLL1_OUT and PLL2_OUT support single-ended or LVDS output. If external output is not required, these pins are
available as regular user I/O pins.
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package does not support external clock output. The EP1C6 device in the
144-pin TQFP package does not support external clock output from PLL2.
Table 2–7 shows the global clock network sources available in Cyclone
devices.
Table 2–7. Global Clock Network Sources (Part 1 of 2)
Source
PLL Counter
Output
Dedicated
Clock Input
Pins
2–34
Preliminary
GCLK0
GCLK1
GCLK2
GCLK3
GCLK4
GCLK5
GCLK6
GCLK7
PLL1 G0
—
v
v
—
—
—
—
—
PLL1 G1
v
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
PLL2 G0 (1)
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
—
PLL2 G1 (1)
—
—
—
—
v
—
—
v
CLK0
v
—
v
—
—
—
—
—
CLK1 (2)
—
v
—
v
—
—
—
—
CLK2
—
—
—
—
v
—
v
—
CLK3 (2)
—
—
—
—
—
v
—
v
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Global Clock Network and Phase-Locked Loops
Table 2–7. Global Clock Network Sources (Part 2 of 2)
Source
Dual-Purpose
Clock Pins
GCLK0
GCLK1
GCLK2
GCLK3
GCLK4
GCLK5
GCLK6
GCLK7
DPCLK0 (3)
—
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
DPCLK1 (3)
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
—
DPCLK2
v
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
DPCLK3
—
—
—
—
v
—
—
—
DPCLK4
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
—
DPCLK5 (3)
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
DPCLK6
—
—
—
—
—
v
—
—
DPCLK7
—
v
—
—
—
—
—
—
Notes to Table 2–7:
(1)
(2)
(3)
EP1C3 devices only have one PLL (PLL 1).
EP1C3 devices in the 100-pin TQFP package do not have dedicated clock pins CLK1 and CLK3.
EP1C3 devices in the 100-pin TQFP package do not have the DPCLK0, DPCLK1, or DPCLK5 pins.
Clock Multiplication and Division
Cyclone PLLs provide clock synthesis for PLL output ports using
m/(n × post scale counter) scaling factors. The input clock is divided by
a pre-scale divider, n, and is then multiplied by the m feedback factor. The
control loop drives the VCO to match fIN × (m/n). Each output port has
a unique post-scale counter to divide down the high-frequency VCO. For
multiple PLL outputs with different frequencies, the VCO is set to the
least-common multiple of the output frequencies that meets its frequency
specifications. Then, the post-scale dividers scale down the output
frequency for each output port. For example, if the output frequencies
required from one PLL are 33 and 66 MHz, the VCO is set to 330 MHz (the
least-common multiple in the VCO's range).
Each PLL has one pre-scale divider, n, that can range in value from 1 to
32. Each PLL also has one multiply divider, m, that can range in value
from 2 to 32. Global clock outputs have two post scale G dividers for
global clock outputs, and external clock outputs have an E divider for
external clock output, both ranging from 1 to 32. The Quartus II software
automatically chooses the appropriate scaling factors according to the
input frequency, multiplication, and division values entered.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–35
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
External Clock Inputs
Each PLL supports single-ended or differential inputs for sourcesynchronous receivers or for general-purpose use. The dedicated clock
pins (CLK[3..0]) feed the PLL inputs. These dual-purpose pins can also
act as LVDS input pins. See Figure 2–25.
Table 2–8 shows the I/O standards supported by PLL input and output
pins.
Table 2–8. PLL I/O Standards
I/O Standard
CLK Input
EXTCLK Output
3.3-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
v
v
2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
v
v
1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
v
v
1.5-V LVCMOS
v
v
3.3-V PCI
v
v
LVDS
v
v
SSTL-2 class I
v
v
SSTL-2 class II
v
v
SSTL-3 class I
v
v
SSTL-3 class II
v
v
Differential SSTL-2
—
v
For more information on LVDS I/O support, refer to “LVDS I/O Pins” on
page 2–54.
External Clock Outputs
Each PLL supports one differential or one single-ended output for
source-synchronous transmitters or for general-purpose external clocks.
If the PLL does not use these PLL_OUT pins, the pins are available for use
as general-purpose I/O pins. The PLL_OUT pins support all I/O
standards shown in Table 2–8.
The external clock outputs do not have their own VCC and ground voltage
supplies. Therefore, to minimize jitter, do not place switching I/O pins
next to these output pins. The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package
2–36
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Global Clock Network and Phase-Locked Loops
does not have dedicated clock output pins. The EP1C6 device in the
144-pin TQFP package only supports dedicated clock outputs from
PLL 1.
Clock Feedback
Cyclone PLLs have three modes for multiplication and/or phase shifting:
■
Zero delay buffer mode⎯The external clock output pin is phasealigned with the clock input pin for zero delay.
■
Normal mode⎯If the design uses an internal PLL clock output, the
normal mode compensates for the internal clock delay from the input
clock pin to the IOE registers. The external clock output pin is phase
shifted with respect to the clock input pin if connected in this mode.
You defines which internal clock output from the PLL should be
phase-aligned to compensate for internal clock delay.
■
No compensation mode⎯In this mode, the PLL will not compensate
for any clock networks.
Phase Shifting
Cyclone PLLs have an advanced clock shift capability that enables
programmable phase shifts. You can enter a phase shift (in degrees or
time units) for each PLL clock output port or for all outputs together in
one shift. You can perform phase shifting in time units with a resolution
range of 125 to 250 ps. The finest resolution equals one eighth of the VCO
period. The VCO period is a function of the frequency input and the
multiplication and division factors. Each clock output counter can choose
a different phase of the VCO period from up to eight taps. You can use this
clock output counter along with an initial setting on the post-scale
counter to achieve a phase-shift range for the entire period of the output
clock. The phase tap feedback to the m counter can shift all outputs to a
single phase. The Quartus II software automatically sets the phase taps
and counter settings according to the phase shift entered.
Lock Detect Signal
The lock output indicates that there is a stable clock output signal in
phase with the reference clock. Without any additional circuitry, the lock
signal may toggle as the PLL begins tracking the reference clock.
Therefore, you may need to gate the lock signal for use as a
system-control signal. For correct operation of the lock circuit below
–20 C, fIN/N > 200 MHz.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–37
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Programmable Duty Cycle
The programmable duty cycle allows PLLs to generate clock outputs with
a variable duty cycle. This feature is supported on each PLL post-scale
counter (g0, g1, e). The duty cycle setting is achieved by a low- and
high-time count setting for the post-scale dividers. The Quartus II
software uses the frequency input and the required multiply or divide
rate to determine the duty cycle choices.
Control Signals
There are three control signals for clearing and enabling PLLs and their
outputs. You can use these signals to control PLL resynchronization and
the ability to gate PLL output clocks for low-power applications.
The pllenable signal enables and disables PLLs. When the pllenable
signal is low, the clock output ports are driven by ground and all the PLLs
go out of lock. When the pllenable signal goes high again, the PLLs
relock and resynchronize to the input clocks. An input pin or LE output
can drive the pllenable signal.
The areset signals are reset/resynchronization inputs for each PLL.
Cyclone devices can drive these input signals from input pins or from
LEs. When areset is driven high, the PLL counters will reset, clearing
the PLL output and placing the PLL out of lock. When driven low again,
the PLL will resynchronize to its input as it relocks.
The pfdena signals control the phase frequency detector (PFD) output
with a programmable gate. If you disable the PFD, the VCO will operate
at its last set value of control voltage and frequency with some drift, and
the system will continue running when the PLL goes out of lock or the
input clock disables. By maintaining the last locked frequency, the system
has time to store its current settings before shutting down. You can either
use their own control signal or gated locked status signals to trigger the
pfdena signal.
f
2–38
Preliminary
For more information about Cyclone PLLs, refer to Using PLLs in Cyclone
Devices chapter in the Cyclone Device Handbook.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
I/O Structure
I/O Structure
IOEs support many features, including:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Differential and single-ended I/O standards
3.3-V, 64- and 32-bit, 66- and 33-MHz PCI compliance
Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) boundary-scan test (BST) support
Output drive strength control
Weak pull-up resistors during configuration
Slew-rate control
Tri-state buffers
Bus-hold circuitry
Programmable pull-up resistors in user mode
Programmable input and output delays
Open-drain outputs
DQ and DQS I/O pins
Cyclone device IOEs contain a bidirectional I/O buffer and three registers
for complete embedded bidirectional single data rate transfer.
Figure 2–27 shows the Cyclone IOE structure. The IOE contains one input
register, one output register, and one output enable register. You can use
the input registers for fast setup times and output registers for fast
clock-to-output times. Additionally, you can use the output enable (OE)
register for fast clock-to-output enable timing. The Quartus II software
automatically duplicates a single OE register that controls multiple
output or bidirectional pins. IOEs can be used as input, output, or
bidirectional pins.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–39
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 2–27. Cyclone IOE Structure
Logic Array
OE Register
OE
D
Q
Output Register
Output
D
Q
Combinatorial
input (1)
Input
Input Register
D
Q
Note to Figure 2–27:
(1)
There are two paths available for combinatorial inputs to the logic array. Each path
contains a unique programmable delay chain.
The IOEs are located in I/O blocks around the periphery of the Cyclone
device. There are up to three IOEs per row I/O block and up to three IOEs
per column I/O block (column I/O blocks span two columns). The row
I/O blocks drive row, column, or direct link interconnects. The column
I/O blocks drive column interconnects. Figure 2–28 shows how a row
I/O block connects to the logic array. Figure 2–29 shows how a column
I/O block connects to the logic array.
2–40
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
I/O Structure
Figure 2–28. Row I/O Block Connection to the Interconnect
R4 Interconnects
C4 Interconnects
I/O Block Local
Interconnect
21 Data and
Control Signals
from Logic Array (1)
21
LAB
Row
I/O Block
io_datain[2..0] and
comb_io_datain[2..0] (2)
Direct Link
Interconnect
to Adjacent LAB
Direct Link
Interconnect
from Adjacent LAB
io_clk[5:0]
LAB Local
Interconnect
Row I/O Block
Contains up to
Three IOEs
Notes to Figure 2–28:
(1)
(2)
The 21 data and control signals consist of three data out lines, io_dataout[2..0], three output enables,
io_coe[2..0], three input clock enables, io_cce_in[2..0], three output clock enables, io_cce_out[2..0],
three clocks, io_cclk[2..0], three asynchronous clear signals, io_caclr[2..0], and three synchronous clear
signals, io_csclr[2..0].
Each of the three IOEs in the row I/O block can have one io_datain input (combinatorial or registered) and one
comb_io_datain (combinatorial) input.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–41
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 2–29. Column I/O Block Connection to the Interconnect
Column I/O
Block Contains
up to Three IOEs
Column I/O Block
21 Data &
Control Signals
from Logic Array (1)
21
IO_datain[2:0] &
comb_io_datain[2..0]
(2)
io_clk[5..0]
I/O Block
Local Interconnect
R4 Interconnects
LAB
LAB Local
Interconnect
LAB
LAB
C4 Interconnects
Notes to Figure 2–29:
(1)
(2)
The 21 data and control signals consist of three data out lines, io_dataout[2..0], three output enables,
io_coe[2..0], three input clock enables, io_cce_in[2..0], three output clock enables, io_cce_out[2..0],
three clocks, io_cclk[2..0], three asynchronous clear signals, io_caclr[2..0], and three synchronous clear
signals, io_csclr[2..0].
Each of the three IOEs in the column I/O block can have one io_datain input (combinatorial or registered) and
one comb_io_datain (combinatorial) input.
2–42
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
I/O Structure
The pin's datain signals can drive the logic array. The logic array drives
the control and data signals, providing a flexible routing resource. The
row or column IOE clocks, io_clk[5..0], provide a dedicated routing
resource for low-skew, high-speed clocks. The global clock network
generates the IOE clocks that feed the row or column I/O regions (see
“Global Clock Network and Phase-Locked Loops” on page 2–29).
Figure 2–30 illustrates the signal paths through the I/O block.
Figure 2–30. Signal Path through the I/O Block
Row or Column
io_clk[5..0]
To Logic
Array
To Other
IOEs
io_datain
comb_io_datain
oe
ce_in
io_csclr
ce_out
io_coe
io_cce_in
From Logic
Array
io_cce_out
Data and
Control
Signal
Selection
aclr/preset
IOE
sclr
clk_in
io_caclr
clk_out
io_cclk
io_dataout
dataout
Each IOE contains its own control signal selection for the following
control signals: oe, ce_in, ce_out, aclr/preset, sclr/preset,
clk_in, and clk_out. Figure 2–31 illustrates the control signal
selection.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–43
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 2–31. Control Signal Selection per IOE
Dedicated I/O
Clock [5..0]
Local
Interconnect
io_coe
Local
Interconnect
io_csclr
Local
Interconnect
io_caclr
Local
Interconnect
io_cce_out
Local
Interconnect
io_cce_in
Local
Interconnect
io_cclk
ce_out
clk_out
clk_in
ce_in
sclr/preset
aclr/preset
oe
In normal bidirectional operation, you can use the input register for input
data requiring fast setup times. The input register can have its own clock
input and clock enable separate from the OE and output registers. The
output register can be used for data requiring fast clock-to-output
performance. The OE register is available for fast clock-to-output enable
timing. The OE and output register share the same clock source and the
same clock enable source from the local interconnect in the associated
LAB, dedicated I/O clocks, or the column and row interconnects.
Figure 2–32 shows the IOE in bidirectional configuration.
2–44
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
I/O Structure
Figure 2–32. Cyclone IOE in Bidirectional I/O Configuration
ioe_clk[5..0]
Column or Row
Interconect
OE
OE Register
clkout
D
PRN
Q
VCCIO
ENA
Optional
PCI Clamp
CLRN
ce_out
VCCIO
Programmable
Pull-Up
Resistor
aclr/prn
Chip-Wide Reset
Output Register
D
PRN
Q
ENA
sclr/preset
CLRN
comb_datain
Output
Pin Delay
Drive Strength Control
Open-Drain Output
Slew Control
Input Pin to
Logic Array Delay
data_in
Bus Hold
Input Register
PRN
D
Q
clkin
ce_in
Input Pin to
Input Register Delay
or Input Pin to
Logic Array Delay
ENA
CLRN
The Cyclone device IOE includes programmable delays to ensure zero
hold times, minimize setup times, or increase clock to output times.
A path in which a pin directly drives a register may require a
programmable delay to ensure zero hold time, whereas a path in which a
pin drives a register through combinatorial logic may not require the
delay. Programmable delays decrease input-pin-to-logic-array and IOE
input register delays. The Quartus II Compiler can program these delays
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–45
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
to automatically minimize setup time while providing a zero hold time.
Programmable delays can increase the register-to-pin delays for output
registers. Table 2–9 shows the programmable delays for Cyclone devices.
Table 2–9. Cyclone Programmable Delay Chain
Programmable Delays
Input pin to logic array delay
Quartus II Logic Option
Decrease input delay to internal cells
Input pin to input register delay
Decrease input delay to input registers
Output pin delay
Increase delay to output pin
There are two paths in the IOE for a combinatorial input to reach the logic
array. Each of the two paths can have a different delay. This allows you
adjust delays from the pin to internal LE registers that reside in two
different areas of the device. The designer sets the two combinatorial
input delays by selecting different delays for two different paths under
the Decrease input delay to internal cells logic option in the Quartus II
software. When the input signal requires two different delays for the
combinatorial input, the input register in the IOE is no longer available.
The IOE registers in Cyclone devices share the same source for clear or
preset. The designer can program preset or clear for each individual IOE.
The designer can also program the registers to power up high or low after
configuration is complete. If programmed to power up low, an
asynchronous clear can control the registers. If programmed to power up
high, an asynchronous preset can control the registers. This feature
prevents the inadvertent activation of another device's active-low input
upon power up. If one register in an IOE uses a preset or clear signal then
all registers in the IOE must use that same signal if they require preset or
clear. Additionally a synchronous reset signal is available to the designer
for the IOE registers.
External RAM Interfacing
Cyclone devices support DDR SDRAM and FCRAM interfaces at up to
133 MHz through dedicated circuitry.
DDR SDRAM and FCRAM
Cyclone devices have dedicated circuitry for interfacing with DDR
SDRAM. All I/O banks support DDR SDRAM and FCRAM I/O pins.
However, the configuration input pins in bank 1 must operate at 2.5 V
because the SSTL-2 VCCIO level is 2.5 V. Additionally, the configuration
2–46
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
I/O Structure
output pins (nSTATUS and CONF_DONE) and all the JTAG pins in I/O
bank 3 must operate at 2.5 V because the VCCIO level of SSTL-2 is 2.5 V.
I/O banks 1, 2, 3, and 4 support DQS signals with DQ bus modes of × 8.
For × 8 mode, there are up to eight groups of programmable DQS and DQ
pins, I/O banks 1, 2, 3, and 4 each have two groups in the 324-pin and
400-pin FineLine BGA packages. Each group consists of one DQS pin, a
set of eight DQ pins, and one DM pin (see Figure 2–33). Each DQS pin
drives the set of eight DQ pins within that group.
Figure 2–33. Cyclone Device DQ and DQS Groups in ×8 Mode Note (1)
Top, Bottom, Left, or Right I/O Bank
DQ Pins
DQS Pin
DM Pin
Note to Figure 2–33:
(1)
Each DQ group consists of one DQS pin, eight DQ pins, and one DM pin.
Table 2–10 shows the number of DQ pin groups per device.
Table 2–10. DQ Pin Groups (Part 1 of 2)
Device
EP1C3
EP1C4
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Number of × 8 DQ
Pin Groups
Total DQ Pin
Count
100-pin TQFP (1)
3
24
144-pin TQFP
4
32
324-pin FineLine BGA
8
64
400-pin FineLine BGA
8
64
Package
2–47
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 2–10. DQ Pin Groups (Part 2 of 2)
Number of × 8 DQ
Pin Groups
Total DQ Pin
Count
144-pin TQFP
4
32
240-pin PQFP
4
32
256-pin FineLine BGA
4
32
240-pin PQFP
4
32
256-pin FineLine BGA
4
32
Device
EP1C6
EP1C12
EP1C20
Package
324-pin FineLine BGA
8
64
324-pin FineLine BGA
8
64
400-pin FineLine BGA
8
64
Note to Table 2–10:
(1)
EP1C3 devices in the 100-pin TQFP package do not have any DQ pin groups in
I/O bank 1.
A programmable delay chain on each DQS pin allows for either a 90°
phase shift (for DDR SDRAM), or a 72° phase shift (for FCRAM) which
automatically center-aligns input DQS synchronization signals within the
data window of their corresponding DQ data signals. The phase-shifted
DQS signals drive the global clock network. This global DQS signal clocks
DQ signals on internal LE registers.
These DQS delay elements combine with the PLL’s clocking and phase
shift ability to provide a complete hardware solution for interfacing to
high-speed memory.
The clock phase shift allows the PLL to clock the DQ output enable and
output paths. The designer should use the following guidelines to meet
133 MHz performance for DDR SDRAM and FCRAM interfaces:
■
■
■
The DQS signal must be in the middle of the DQ group it clocks
Resynchronize the incoming data to the logic array clock using
successive LE registers or FIFO buffers
LE registers must be placed in the LAB adjacent to the DQ I/O pin
column it is fed by
Figure 2–34 illustrates DDR SDRAM and FCRAM interfacing from the
I/O through the dedicated circuitry to the logic array.
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Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
I/O Structure
Figure 2–34. DDR SDRAM and FCRAM Interfacing
DQS
OE
OE LE
Register
DQ
OE
OE LE
Register
Output LE
Register
OE LE
Register
VCC
Output LE
Registers
Δt
clk
OE LE
Register
Input LE
Registers
DataA
Output LE
Register
Adjacent
LAB LEs
-90˚ clk
GND
Output LE
Registers
DataB
Input LE
Registers
Programmable
Delay Chain
PLL
Global Clock
Phase Shifted -90˚
LE
Register
LE
Register
Adjacent LAB LEs
Resynchronizing
Global Clock
Programmable Drive Strength
The output buffer for each Cyclone device I/O pin has a programmable
drive strength control for certain I/O standards. The LVTTL and
LVCMOS standards have several levels of drive strength that the designer
can control. SSTL-3 class I and II, and SSTL-2 class I and II support a
minimum setting, the lowest drive strength that guarantees the IOH/IOL
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–49
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
of the standard. Using minimum settings provides signal slew rate
control to reduce system noise and signal overshoot. Table 2–11 shows the
possible settings for the I/O standards with drive strength control.
Table 2–11. Programmable Drive Strength Note (1)
I/O Standard
LVTTL (3.3 V)
IOH/IOL Current Strength Setting (mA)
4
8
12
16
24(2)
LVCMOS (3.3 V)
2
4
8
12(2)
LVTTL (2.5 V)
2
8
12
16(2)
LVTTL (1.8 V)
2
8
12(2)
LVCMOS (1.5 V)
2
4
8(2)
Notes to Table 2–11:
(1)
(2)
SSTL-3 class I and II, SSTL-2 class I and II, and 3.3-V PCI I/O Standards do not
support programmable drive strength.
This is the default current strength setting in the Quartus II software.
Open-Drain Output
Cyclone devices provide an optional open-drain (equivalent to an
open-collector) output for each I/O pin. This open-drain output enables
the device to provide system-level control signals (e.g., interrupt and
write-enable signals) that can be asserted by any of several devices.
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Preliminary
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May 2008
I/O Structure
Slew-Rate Control
The output buffer for each Cyclone device I/O pin has a programmable
output slew-rate control that can be configured for low noise or
high-speed performance. A faster slew rate provides high-speed
transitions for high-performance systems. However, these fast transitions
may introduce noise transients into the system. A slow slew rate reduces
system noise, but adds a nominal delay to rising and falling edges. Each
I/O pin has an individual slew-rate control, allowing the designer to
specify the slew rate on a pin-by-pin basis. The slew-rate control affects
both the rising and falling edges.
Bus Hold
Each Cyclone device I/O pin provides an optional bus-hold feature. The
bus-hold circuitry can hold the signal on an I/O pin at its last-driven
state. Since the bus-hold feature holds the last-driven state of the pin until
the next input signal is present, an external pull-up or pull-down resistor
is not necessary to hold a signal level when the bus is tri-stated.
The bus-hold circuitry also pulls undriven pins away from the input
threshold voltage where noise can cause unintended high-frequency
switching. The designer can select this feature individually for each I/O
pin. The bus-hold output will drive no higher than VCCIO to prevent
overdriving signals. If the bus-hold feature is enabled, the device cannot
use the programmable pull-up option. Disable the bus-hold feature when
the I/O pin is configured for differential signals.
The bus-hold circuitry uses a resistor with a nominal resistance (RBH) of
approximately 7 kΩ to pull the signal level to the last-driven state.
Table 4–15 on page 4–6 gives the specific sustaining current for each
VCCIO voltage level driven through this resistor and overdrive current
used to identify the next-driven input level.
The bus-hold circuitry is only active after configuration. When going into
user mode, the bus-hold circuit captures the value on the pin present at
the end of configuration.
Programmable Pull-Up Resistor
Each Cyclone device I/O pin provides an optional programmable
pull-up resistor during user mode. If the designer enables this feature for
an I/O pin, the pull-up resistor (typically 25 kΩ) holds the output to the
VCCIO level of the output pin's bank. Dedicated clock pins do not have the
optional programmable pull-up resistor.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–51
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Advanced I/O Standard Support
Cyclone device IOEs support the following I/O standards:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
3.3-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
1.5-V LVCMOS
3.3-V PCI
LVDS
RSDS
SSTL-2 class I and II
SSTL-3 class I and II
Differential SSTL-2 class II (on output clocks only)
Table 2–12 describes the I/O standards supported by Cyclone devices.
Table 2–12. Cyclone I/O Standards
I/O Standard
Type
Output Supply
Input Reference
Voltage (VREF) (V) Voltage (VCCIO) (V)
Board
Termination
Voltage (VTT) (V)
3.3-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
Single-ended
N/A
3.3
N/A
2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
Single-ended
N/A
2.5
N/A
1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
Single-ended
N/A
1.8
N/A
1.5-V LVCMOS
Single-ended
N/A
1.5
N/A
3.3-V PCI (1)
Single-ended
N/A
3.3
N/A
LVDS (2)
Differential
N/A
2.5
N/A
RSDS (2)
Differential
N/A
2.5
N/A
SSTL-2 class I and II
Voltage-referenced
1.25
2.5
1.25
SSTL-3 class I and II
Voltage-referenced
1.5
3.3
1.5
Differential SSTL-2 (3)
Differential
1.25
2.5
1.25
Notes to Table 2–12:
(1)
(2)
(3)
There is no megafunction support for EP1C3 devices for the PCI compiler. However, EP1C3 devices support PCI
by using the LVTTL 16-mA I/O standard and drive strength assignments in the Quartus II software. The device
requires an external diode for PCI compliance.
EP1C3 devices in the 100-pin TQFP package do not support the LVDS and RSDS I/O standards.
This I/O standard is only available on output clock pins (PLL_OUT pins). EP1C3 devices in the 100-pin package
do not support this I/O standard as it does not have PLL_OUT pins.
Cyclone devices contain four I/O banks, as shown in Figure 2–35. I/O
banks 1 and 3 support all the I/O standards listed in Table 2–12. I/O
banks 2 and 4 support all the I/O standards listed in Table 2–12 except the
3.3-V PCI standard. I/O banks 2 and 4 contain dual-purpose DQS, DQ,
2–52
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
I/O Structure
and DM pins to support a DDR SDRAM or FCRAM interface. I/O bank 1
can also support a DDR SDRAM or FCRAM interface, however, the
configuration input pins in I/O bank 1 must operate at 2.5 V. I/O bank 3
can also support a DDR SDRAM or FCRAM interface, however, all the
JTAG pins in I/O bank 3 must operate at 2.5 V.
Figure 2–35. Cyclone I/O Banks
Notes (1), (2)
I/O Bank 2
I/O Bank 1
Also Supports
the 3.3-V PCI
I/O Standard
I/O Bank 1
I/O Bank 3
Also Supports
the 3.3-V PCI
I/O Standard
All I/O Banks Support
■ 3.3-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 1.5-V LVCMOS
■ LVDS
■ RSDS
■ SSTL-2 Class I and II
■ SSTL-3 Class I and II
I/O Bank 3
Individual
Power Bus
I/O Bank 4
Notes to Figure 2–35:
(1)
(2)
Figure 2–35 is a top view of the silicon die.
Figure 2–35 is a graphic representation only. Refer to the pin list and the Quartus II software for exact pin locations.
Each I/O bank has its own VCCIO pins. A single device can support 1.5-V,
1.8-V, 2.5-V, and 3.3-V interfaces; each individual bank can support a
different standard with different I/O voltages. Each bank also has
dual-purpose VREF pins to support any one of the voltage-referenced
standards (e.g., SSTL-3) independently. If an I/O bank does not use
voltage-referenced standards, the VREF pins are available as user I/O pins.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–53
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Each I/O bank can support multiple standards with the same VCCIO for
input and output pins. For example, when VCCIO is 3.3-V, a bank can
support LVTTL, LVCMOS, 3.3-V PCI, and SSTL-3 for inputs and outputs.
LVDS I/O Pins
A subset of pins in all four I/O banks supports LVDS interfacing. These
dual-purpose LVDS pins require an external-resistor network at the
transmitter channels in addition to 100-Ω termination resistors on
receiver channels. These pins do not contain dedicated serialization or
deserialization circuitry; therefore, internal logic performs serialization
and deserialization functions.
Table 2–13 shows the total number of supported LVDS channels per
device density.
Table 2–13. Cyclone Device LVDS Channels
Device
Pin Count
Number of LVDS Channels
EP1C3
100
(1)
144
34
EP1C4
324
103
400
129
EP1C6
144
29
240
72
256
72
240
66
256
72
EP1C12
EP1C20
324
103
324
95
400
129
Note to Table 2–13:
(1)
EP1C3 devices in the 100-pin TQFP package do not support the LVDS I/O
standard.
MultiVolt I/O Interface
The Cyclone architecture supports the MultiVolt I/O interface feature,
which allows Cyclone devices in all packages to interface with systems of
different supply voltages. The devices have one set of VCC pins for
internal operation and input buffers (VCCINT), and four sets for I/O
output drivers (VCCIO).
2–54
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Power Sequencing and Hot Socketing
The Cyclone VCCINT pins must always be connected to a 1.5-V power
supply. If the VCCINT level is 1.5 V, then input pins are 1.5-V, 1.8-V, 2.5-V,
and 3.3-V tolerant. The VCCIO pins can be connected to either a 1.5-V, 1.8-V,
2.5-V, or 3.3-V power supply, depending on the output requirements. The
output levels are compatible with systems of the same voltage as the
power supply (i.e., when VCCIO pins are connected to a 1.5-V power
supply, the output levels are compatible with 1.5-V systems). When VCCIO
pins are connected to a 3.3-V power supply, the output high is 3.3-V and
is compatible with 3.3-V or 5.0-V systems. Table 2–14 summarizes
Cyclone MultiVolt I/O support.
Table 2–14. Cyclone MultiVolt I/O Support
Note (1)
Input Signal
VCCIO (V)
Output Signal
1.5 V
1.8 V
2.5 V
3.3 V
5.0 V
1.5 V
1.8 V
2.5 V
3.3 V
5.0 V
1.5
v
v
v (2)
v (2)
—
v
—
—
—
—
1.8
v
v
v (2)
v (2)
—
v (3)
v
—
—
—
2.5
—
—
v
v
—
v (5)
v (5)
v
—
—
3.3
—
—
v (4)
v
v (6)
v (7)
v (7)
v (7)
v
v (8)
Notes to Table 2–14:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
The PCI clamping diode must be disabled to drive an input with voltages higher than VCCIO.
When VCCIO = 1.5-V or 1.8-V and a 2.5-V or 3.3-V input signal feeds an input pin, higher pin leakage current is
expected. Turn on Allow voltage overdrive for LVTTL / LVCMOS input pins in the Assignments > Device >
Device and Pin Options > Pin Placement tab when a device has this I/O combinations.
When VCCIO = 1.8-V, a Cyclone device can drive a 1.5-V device with 1.8-V tolerant inputs.
When VCCIO = 3.3-V and a 2.5-V input signal feeds an input pin, the VCCIO supply current will be slightly larger
than expected.
When VCCIO = 2.5-V, a Cyclone device can drive a 1.5-V or 1.8-V device with 2.5-V tolerant inputs.
Cyclone devices can be 5.0-V tolerant with the use of an external resistor and the internal PCI clamp diode.
When VCCIO = 3.3-V, a Cyclone device can drive a 1.5-V, 1.8-V, or 2.5-V device with 3.3-V tolerant inputs.
When VCCIO = 3.3-V, a Cyclone device can drive a device with 5.0-V LVTTL inputs but not 5.0-V LVCMOS inputs.
Power
Sequencing and
Hot Socketing
Because Cyclone devices can be used in a mixed-voltage environment,
they have been designed specifically to tolerate any possible power-up
sequence. Therefore, the VCCIO and VCCINT power supplies may be
powered in any order.
Signals can be driven into Cyclone devices before and during power up
without damaging the device. In addition, Cyclone devices do not drive
out during power up. Once operating conditions are reached and the
device is configured, Cyclone devices operate as specified by the user.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
2–55
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Referenced
Documents
This chapter references the following document:
Document
Revision History
Table 2–15 shows the revision history for this chapter.
■
Using PLLs in Cyclone Devices chapter in the Cyclone Device Handbook
Table 2–15. Document Revision History
Date and
Document
Version
Changes Made
May 2008
v1.6
Minor textual and style changes. Added “Referenced
Documents” section.
January 2007
v1.5
●
August 2005
v1.4
Minor updates.
February 2005
v1.3
●
●
●
●
Added document revision history.
Updated Figures 2–17, 2–18, 2–19, 2–20, 2–21, and 2–32.
Summary of Changes
—
—
—
Updated JTAG chain limits. Added test vector information.
Corrected Figure 2-12.
Added a note to Tables 2-17 through 2-21 regarding violating
the setup or hold time.
—
Updated phase shift information.
Added 64-bit PCI support information.
—
October 2003
v1.2
●
September
2003 v1.1
Updated LVDS data rates to 640 Mbps from 311 Mbps.
—
May 2003 v1.0
Added document to Cyclone Device Handbook.
—
2–56
Preliminary
●
Altera Corporation
May 2008
3. Configuration and Testing
C51003-1.4
IEEE Std. 1149.1
(JTAG) Boundary
Scan Support
All Cyclone® devices provide JTAG BST circuitry that complies with the
IEEE Std. 1149.1a-1990 specification. JTAG boundary-scan testing can be
performed either before or after, but not during configuration. Cyclone
devices can also use the JTAG port for configuration together with either
the Quartus® II software or hardware using either Jam Files (.jam) or Jam
Byte-Code Files (.jbc).
Cyclone devices support reconfiguring the I/O standard settings on the
IOE through the JTAG BST chain. The JTAG chain can update the I/O
standard for all input and output pins any time before or during user
mode. Designers can use this ability for JTAG testing before configuration
when some of the Cyclone pins drive or receive from other devices on the
board using voltage-referenced standards. Since the Cyclone device
might not be configured before JTAG testing, the I/O pins might not be
configured for appropriate electrical standards for chip-to-chip
communication. Programming those I/O standards via JTAG allows
designers to fully test I/O connection to other devices.
The JTAG pins support 1.5-V/1.8-V or 2.5-V/3.3-V I/O standards. The
TDO pin voltage is determined by the VCCIO of the bank where it resides.
The bank VCCIO selects whether the JTAG inputs are 1.5-V, 1.8-V, 2.5-V, or
3.3-V compatible.
Cyclone devices also use the JTAG port to monitor the operation of the
device with the SignalTap® II embedded logic analyzer. Cyclone devices
support the JTAG instructions shown in Table 3–1.
Table 3–1. Cyclone JTAG Instructions (Part 1 of 2)
JTAG Instruction
Instruction Code
Description
SAMPLE/PRELOAD
00 0000 0101
Allows a snapshot of signals at the device pins to be captured and
examined during normal device operation, and permits an initial
data pattern to be output at the device pins. Also used by the
SignalTap II embedded logic analyzer.
EXTEST (1)
00 0000 0000
Allows the external circuitry and board-level interconnects to be
tested by forcing a test pattern at the output pins and capturing test
results at the input pins.
BYPASS
11 1111 1111
Places the 1-bit bypass register between the TDI and TDO pins,
which allows the BST data to pass synchronously through selected
devices to adjacent devices during normal device operation.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
3–1
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 3–1. Cyclone JTAG Instructions (Part 2 of 2)
JTAG Instruction
Instruction Code
Description
USERCODE
00 0000 0111
Selects the 32-bit USERCODE register and places it between the
TDI and TDO pins, allowing the USERCODE to be serially shifted
out of TDO.
IDCODE
00 0000 0110
Selects the IDCODE register and places it between TDI and TDO,
allowing the IDCODE to be serially shifted out of TDO.
HIGHZ (1)
00 0000 1011
Places the 1-bit bypass register between the TDI and TDO pins,
which allows the BST data to pass synchronously through selected
devices to adjacent devices during normal device operation, while
tri-stating all of the I/O pins.
CLAMP (1)
00 0000 1010
Places the 1-bit bypass register between the TDI and TDO pins,
which allows the BST data to pass synchronously through selected
devices to adjacent devices during normal device operation while
holding I/O pins to a state defined by the data in the boundary-scan
register.
ICR instructions
—
Used when configuring a Cyclone device via the JTAG port with a
MasterBlasterTM or ByteBlasterMVTM download cable, or when
using a Jam File or Jam Byte-Code File via an embedded
processor.
PULSE_NCONFIG
00 0000 0001
Emulates pulsing the nCONFIG pin low to trigger reconfiguration
even though the physical pin is unaffected.
CONFIG_IO
00 0000 1101
Allows configuration of I/O standards through the JTAG chain for
JTAG testing. Can be executed before, after, or during
configuration. Stops configuration if executed during configuration.
Once issued, the CONFIG_IO instruction will hold nSTATUS low
to reset the configuration device. nSTATUS is held low until the
device is reconfigured.
SignalTap II
instructions
—
Monitors internal device operation with the SignalTap II embedded
logic analyzer.
Note to Table 3–1:
(1)
Bus hold and weak pull-up resistor features override the high-impedance state of HIGHZ, CLAMP, and EXTEST.
In the Quartus II software, there is an Auto Usercode feature where you
can choose to use the checksum value of a programming file as the JTAG
user code. If selected, the checksum is automatically loaded to the
USERCODE register. Choose Assignments > Device > Device and Pin
Options > General. Turn on Auto Usercode.
3–2
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
IEEE Std. 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary Scan Support
The Cyclone device instruction register length is 10 bits and the
USERCODE register length is 32 bits. Tables 3–2 and 3–3 show the
boundary-scan register length and device IDCODE information for
Cyclone devices.
Table 3–2. Cyclone Boundary-Scan Register Length
Device
Boundary-Scan Register Length
EP1C3
339
EP1C4
930
EP1C6
582
EP1C12
774
EP1C20
930
Table 3–3. 32-Bit Cyclone Device IDCODE
IDCODE (32 bits) (1)
Device
Version (4 Bits)
Part Number (16 Bits)
Manufacturer Identity
(11 Bits)
LSB (1 Bit) (2)
EP1C3
0000
0010 0000 1000 0001
000 0110 1110
1
EP1C4
0000
0010 0000 1000 0101
000 0110 1110
1
EP1C6
0000
0010 0000 1000 0010
000 0110 1110
1
EP1C12
0000
0010 0000 1000 0011
000 0110 1110
1
EP1C20
0000
0010 0000 1000 0100
000 0110 1110
1
Notes to Table 3–3:
(1)
(2)
The most significant bit (MSB) is on the left.
The IDCODE’s least significant bit (LSB) is always 1.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
3–3
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 3–1 shows the timing requirements for the JTAG signals.
Figure 3–1. Cyclone JTAG Waveforms
TMS
TDI
t JCP
t JCH
t JCL
t JPSU
t JPH
TCK
tJPZX
t JPXZ
t JPCO
TDO
tJSH
tJSSU
Signal
to Be
Captured
Signal
to Be
Driven
tJSCO
tJSZX
tJSXZ
Table 3–4 shows the JTAG timing parameters and values for Cyclone
devices.
Table 3–4. Cyclone JTAG Timing Parameters and Values
Symbol
3–4
Preliminary
Min
Max
Unit
TCK clock period
100
—
ns
tJ C H
TCK clock high time
50
—
ns
tJ C L
TCK clock low time
50
—
ns
tJ C P
Parameter
tJ P S U
JTAG port setup time
20
—
ns
tJ P H
JTAG port hold time
45
—
ns
tJ P C O
JTAG port clock to output
—
25
ns
tJ P Z X
JTAG port high impedance to valid output
—
25
ns
tJ P X Z
JTAG port valid output to high impedance
—
25
ns
tJ S S U
Capture register setup time
20
—
ns
tJ S H
Capture register hold time
45
—
ns
tJ S C O
Update register clock to output
—
35
ns
tJ S Z X
Update register high impedance to valid output
—
35
ns
tJ S X Z
Update register valid output to high impedance
—
35
ns
Altera Corporation
May 2008
SignalTap II Embedded Logic Analyzer
1
f
Cyclone devices must be within the first 8 devices in a JTAG
chain. All of these devices have the same JTAG controller. If any
of the Cyclone devices are in the 9th or after they will fail
configuration. This does not affect the SignalTap® II logic
analyzer.
For more information on JTAG, refer to the following documents:
■
■
AN 39: IEEE Std. 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing in Altera Devices
Jam Programming & Test Language Specification
SignalTap II
Embedded Logic
Analyzer
Cyclone devices feature the SignalTap II embedded logic analyzer, which
monitors design operation over a period of time through the IEEE
Std. 1149.1 (JTAG) circuitry. A designer can analyze internal logic at speed
without bringing internal signals to the I/O pins. This feature is
particularly important for advanced packages, such as FineLine BGA
packages, because it can be difficult to add a connection to a pin during
the debugging process after a board is designed and manufactured.
Configuration
The logic, circuitry, and interconnects in the Cyclone architecture are
configured with CMOS SRAM elements. Altera FPGAs are
reconfigurable and every device is tested with a high coverage
production test program so the designer does not have to perform fault
testing and can instead focus on simulation and design verification.
Cyclone devices are configured at system power-up with data stored in
an Altera configuration device or provided by a system controller. The
Cyclone device's optimized interface allows the device to act as controller
in an active serial configuration scheme with the new low-cost serial
configuration device. Cyclone devices can be configured in under 120 ms
using serial data at 20 MHz. The serial configuration device can be
programmed via the ByteBlaster II download cable, the Altera
Programming Unit (APU), or third-party programmers.
In addition to the new low-cost serial configuration device, Altera offers
in-system programmability (ISP)-capable configuration devices that can
configure Cyclone devices via a serial data stream. The interface also
enables microprocessors to treat Cyclone devices as memory and
configure them by writing to a virtual memory location, making
reconfiguration easy. After a Cyclone device has been configured, it can
be reconfigured in-circuit by resetting the device and loading new data.
Real-time changes can be made during system operation, enabling
innovative reconfigurable computing applications.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
3–5
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Operating Modes
The Cyclone architecture uses SRAM configuration elements that require
configuration data to be loaded each time the circuit powers up. The
process of physically loading the SRAM data into the device is called
configuration. During initialization, which occurs immediately after
configuration, the device resets registers, enables I/O pins, and begins to
operate as a logic device. Together, the configuration and initialization
processes are called command mode. Normal device operation is called
user mode.
SRAM configuration elements allow Cyclone devices to be reconfigured
in-circuit by loading new configuration data into the device. With realtime reconfiguration, the device is forced into command mode with a
device pin. The configuration process loads different configuration data,
reinitializes the device, and resumes user-mode operation. Designers can
perform in-field upgrades by distributing new configuration files either
within the system or remotely.
A built-in weak pull-up resistor pulls all user I/O pins to VCCIO before
and during device configuration.
The configuration pins support 1.5-V/1.8-V or 2.5-V/3.3-V I/O
standards. The voltage level of the configuration output pins is
determined by the VCCIO of the bank where the pins reside. The bank
VCCIO selects whether the configuration inputs are 1.5-V, 1.8-V, 2.5-V, or
3.3-V compatible.
Configuration Schemes
Designers can load the configuration data for a Cyclone device with one
of three configuration schemes (see Table 3–5), chosen on the basis of the
target application. Designers can use a configuration device, intelligent
controller, or the JTAG port to configure a Cyclone device. A low-cost
configuration device can automatically configure a Cyclone device at
system power-up.
3–6
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Referenced Documents
Multiple Cyclone devices can be configured in any of the three
configuration schemes by connecting the configuration enable (nCE) and
configuration enable output (nCEO) pins on each device.
Table 3–5. Data Sources for Configuration
Configuration Scheme
Data Source
Active serial
Low-cost serial configuration device
Passive serial (PS)
Enhanced or EPC2 configuration device,
MasterBlaster or ByteBlasterMV download cable,
or serial data source
JTAG
MasterBlaster or ByteBlasterMV download cable
or a microprocessor with a Jam or JBC file
Referenced
Documents
This chapter references the following documents:
Document
Revision History
Table 3–6 shows the revision history for this chapter.
■
■
AN 39: IEEE Std. 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing in Altera Devices
Jam Programming & Test Language Specification
Table 3–6. Document Revision History
Date and
Document
Version
Changes Made
Summary of Changes
May 2008
v1.4
Minor textual and style changes. Added “Referenced
Documents” section.
January 2007
v1.3
●
August 2005
V1.2
Minor updates.
—
February 2005
V1.1
Updated JTAG chain limits. Added information concerning test
vectors.
—
May 2003 v1.0
Added document to Cyclone Device Handbook.
—
●
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Added document revision history.
Updated handpara note below Table 3–4.
—
—
3–7
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
3–8
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
4. DC and Switching
Characteristics
C51004-1.7
Operating
Conditions
Cyclone® devices are offered in both commercial, industrial, and
extended temperature grades. However, industrial-grade and extendedtemperature-grade devices may have limited speed-grade availability.
Tables 4–1 through 4–16 provide information on absolute maximum
ratings, recommended operating conditions, DC operating conditions,
and capacitance for Cyclone devices.
Table 4–1. Cyclone Device Absolute Maximum Ratings
Symbol
VCCINT
Parameter
Notes (1), (2)
Conditions
With respect to ground (3)
Supply voltage
VCCIO
With respect to ground (3)
Minimum
Maximum
Unit
–0.5
2.4
V
–0.5
4.6
V
VCCA
Supply voltage
–0.5
2.4
V
VI
DC input voltage
–0.5
4.6
V
IOUT
DC output current, per pin
–25
25
mA
TSTG
Storage temperature
No bias
–65
150
°C
TAMB
Ambient temperature
Under bias
–65
135
°C
TJ
Junction temperature
BGA packages under bias
—
135
°C
Table 4–2. Cyclone Device Recommended Operating Conditions (Part 1 of 2)
Conditions
Minimum
Maximum
Unit
VCCINT
Symbol
Supply voltage for internal logic
and input buffers
(4)
1.425
1.575
V
VCCIO
Supply voltage for output buffers,
3.3-V operation
(4)
3.00
3.60
V
Supply voltage for output buffers,
2.5-V operation
(4)
2.375
2.625
V
Supply voltage for output buffers,
1.8-V operation
(4)
1.71
1.89
V
Supply voltage for output buffers,
1.5-V operation
(4)
1.4
1.6
V
(3), (5)
–0.5
4.1
V
VI
Parameter
Input voltage
Altera Corporation
May 2008
4–1
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 4–2. Cyclone Device Recommended Operating Conditions (Part 2 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
VO
Output voltage
TJ
Operating junction temperature
Minimum
Maximum
Unit
0
VCCIO
V
0
85
° C
For industrial use
–40
100
° C
For extendedtemperature use
–40
125
° C
For commercial
use
Table 4–3. Cyclone Device DC Operating Conditions
Symbol
Parameter
Note (6)
Conditions
Minimum Typical Maximum Unit
II
Input pin leakage current
VI = VC C I O m a x to 0 V (8)
–10
—
10
μA
IOZ
Tri-stated I/O pin leakage
current
VO = VC C I O m a x to 0 V (8)
–10
—
10
μA
ICC0
VCC supply current (standby)
(All M4K blocks in power-down
mode) (7)
EP1C3
—
4
—
mA
EP1C4
—
6
—
mA
EP1C6
—
6
—
mA
EP1C12
—
8
—
mA
EP1C20
—
12
—
mA
RCONF (9) Value of I/O pin pull-up resistor VI = 0 V; VCCI0 = 3.3 V
before and during configuration
VI = 0 V; VCCI0 = 2.5 V
15
25
50
kΩ
20
45
70
kΩ
VI = 0 V; VCCI0 = 1.8 V
30
65
100
kΩ
VI = 0 V; VCCI0 = 1.5 V
50
100
150
kΩ
—
1
2
kΩ
Recommended value of I/O pin
external pull-down resistor
before and during configuration
—
Table 4–4. LVTTL Specifications
Conditions
Minimum
Maximum
Unit
VCCIO
Symbol
Output supply voltage
—
3.0
3.6
V
VIH
High-level input voltage
—
1.7
4.1
V
VIL
Low-level input voltage
—
–0.5
0.7
V
VOH
High-level output voltage
IOH = –4 to –24 mA (11)
2.4
—
V
VOL
Low-level output voltage
IOL = 4 to 24 mA (11)
—
0.45
V
4–2
Preliminary
Parameter
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Operating Conditions
Table 4–5. LVCMOS Specifications
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Minimum
Maximum
Unit
VCCIO
Output supply voltage
—
3.0
3.6
V
VIH
High-level input voltage
—
1.7
4.1
V
VIL
Low-level input voltage
VOH
High-level output voltage
VCCIO = 3.0,
IOH = –0.1 mA
VOL
Low-level output voltage
VCCIO = 3.0,
IOL = 0.1 mA
—
–0.5
0.7
V
VCCIO – 0.2
—
V
—
0.2
V
Conditions
Minimum
Maximum
Unit
Table 4–6. 2.5-V I/O Specifications
Symbol
Parameter
VCCIO
Output supply voltage
—
2.375
2.625
V
VIH
High-level input voltage
—
1.7
4.1
V
VIL
Low-level input voltage
—
–0.5
0.7
V
VOH
High-level output voltage
IOH = –0.1 mA
2.1
—
V
IOH = –1 mA
2.0
—
V
IOH = –2 to –16 mA (11)
1.7
—
V
IOL = 0.1 mA
—
0.2
V
IOH = 1 mA
—
0.4
V
IOH = 2 to 16 mA (11)
—
0.7
V
Minimum
Maximum
Unit
VOL
Low-level output voltage
Table 4–7. 1.8-V I/O Specifications
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
VCCIO
Output supply voltage
—
1.65
1.95
V
VI H
High-level input voltage
—
0.65 ×
VCCIO
2.25 (12)
V
VIL
Low-level input voltage
—
–0.3
0.35 ×
VCCIO
V
VOH
High-level output voltage
IOH = –2 to –8 mA (11)
VCCIO – 0.45
—
V
VOL
Low-level output voltage
IOL = 2 to 8 mA (11)
—
0.45
V
Altera Corporation
May 2008
4–3
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 4–8. 1.5-V I/O Specifications
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Minimum
Maximum
Unit
VCCIO
Output supply voltage
—
1.4
1.6
V
VI H
High-level input voltage
—
0.65 ×
VCCIO
VCCIO + 0.3
(12)
V
VIL
Low-level input voltage
—
–0.3
0.35 ×
VCCIO
V
VOH
High-level output voltage
IOH = –2 mA (11)
0.75 ×
VCCIO
—
V
VOL
Low-level output voltage
IOL = 2 mA (11)
—
0.25 ×
VCCIO
V
Table 4–9. 2.5-V LVDS I/O Specifications
Symbol
Parameter
Note (13)
Conditions
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Unit
—
2.375
2.5
2.625
V
VCCIO
I/O supply voltage
VOD
Differential output voltage
RL = 100 Ω
250
—
550
mV
Δ VOD
Change in VOD between
high and low
RL = 100 Ω
—
—
50
mV
VOS
Output offset voltage
RL = 100 Ω
1.125
1.25
1.375
V
Δ VOS
Change in VOS between
high and low
RL = 100 Ω
—
—
50
mV
VTH
Differential input threshold
VCM = 1.2 V
–100
—
100
mV
VIN
Receiver input voltage
range
—
0.0
—
2.4
V
RL
Receiver differential input
resistor
—
90
100
110
Ω
Conditions
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Unit
Table 4–10. 3.3-V PCI Specifications (Part 1 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
VCCIO
Output supply voltage
—
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
VIH
High-level input voltage
—
0.5 ×
VCCIO
—
VCCIO +
0.5
V
VIL
Low-level input voltage
—
–0.5
—
0.3 ×
VCCIO
V
4–4
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Operating Conditions
Table 4–10. 3.3-V PCI Specifications (Part 2 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Unit
VOH
High-level output voltage
IOUT = –500 μA
0.9 ×
VCCIO
—
—
V
VOL
Low-level output voltage
IOUT = 1,500 μA
—
—
0.1 ×
VCCIO
V
Table 4–11. SSTL-2 Class I Specifications
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Unit
VCCIO
Output supply voltage
—
2.375
2.5
2.625
V
VTT
Termination voltage
—
VR E F – 0.04
VR E F
VR E F + 0.04
V
VREF
Reference voltage
—
1.15
1.25
1.35
V
VIH
High-level input voltage
—
VR E F + 0.18
—
3.0
V
VIL
Low-level input voltage
—
–0.3
—
VR E F – 0.18
V
VOH
High-level output voltage
IOH = –8.1 mA
(11)
VTT + 0.57
—
—
V
VOL
Low-level output voltage
IOL = 8.1 mA (11)
—
—
VT T – 0.57
V
Conditions
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Unit
Table 4–12. SSTL-2 Class II Specifications
Symbol
Parameter
VCCIO
Output supply voltage
—
2.3
2.5
2.7
V
VTT
Termination voltage
—
VR E F – 0.04
VR E F
VR E F + 0.04
V
VREF
Reference voltage
—
1.15
1.25
1.35
V
VIH
High-level input voltage
—
VR E F + 0.18
—
VCCIO + 0.3
V
VIL
Low-level input voltage
—
–0.3
—
VR E F – 0.18
V
VOH
High-level output voltage
IOH = –16.4 mA
(11)
VTT + 0.76
—
—
V
VOL
Low-level output voltage
IOL = 16.4 mA
(11)
—
—
VT T – 0.76
V
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Unit
Table 4–13. SSTL-3 Class I Specifications (Part 1 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
VCCIO
Output supply voltage
—
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
VTT
Termination voltage
—
VR E F – 0.05
VR E F
VR E F + 0.05
V
Altera Corporation
May 2008
4–5
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 4–13. SSTL-3 Class I Specifications (Part 2 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Unit
VREF
Reference voltage
—
1.3
1.5
1.7
V
VIH
High-level input voltage
—
VR E F + 0.2
—
VCCIO + 0.3
V
VIL
Low-level input voltage
—
–0.3
—
VR E F – 0.2
V
VOH
High-level output voltage
IOH = –8 mA (11)
VTT + 0.6
—
—
V
VOL
Low-level output voltage
IOL = 8 mA (11)
—
—
VT T – 0.6
V
Conditions
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Unit
Table 4–14. SSTL-3 Class II Specifications
Symbol
Parameter
VCCIO
Output supply voltage
—
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
VTT
Termination voltage
—
VR E F – 0.05
VR E F
VR E F + 0.05
V
VREF
Reference voltage
—
1.3
1.5
1.7
V
VIH
High-level input voltage
—
VR E F + 0.2
—
VCCIO + 0.3
V
VIL
Low-level input voltage
—
–0.3
—
VR E F – 0.2
V
VOH
High-level output voltage
IOH = –16 mA
(11)
VT T + 0.8
—
—
V
VOL
Low-level output voltage
IOL = 16 mA (11)
—
—
VTT – 0.8
V
Table 4–15. Bus Hold Parameters
VC C I O Level
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Low sustaining
current
VIN > VIL
(maximum)
—
—
30
—
50
—
70
—
μA
High sustaining VIN < VIH
current
(minimum)
—
—
–30
—
–50
—
–70
—
μA
Low overdrive
current
0 V < VIN <
VCCIO
—
—
—
200
—
300
—
500
μA
High overdrive
current
0 V < VIN <
VCCIO
—
—
—
–200
—
–300
—
–500
μA
4–6
Preliminary
1.5 V
1.8 V
2.5 V
Unit
3.3 V
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Operating Conditions
Table 4–16. Cyclone Device Capacitance
Symbol
Note (14)
Parameter
Typical
Unit
CIO
Input capacitance for user I/O pin
4.0
pF
CLVDS
Input capacitance for dual-purpose LVDS/user I/O pin
4.7
pF
CVREF
Input capacitance for dual-purpose VR E F /user I/O pin.
12.0
pF
CDPCLK
Input capacitance for dual-purpose DPCLK/user I/O pin.
4.4
pF
CCLK
Input capacitance for CLK pin.
4.7
pF
Notes to Tables 4–1 through 4–16:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
Refer to the Operating Requirements for Altera Devices Data Sheet.
Conditions beyond those listed in Table 4–1 may cause permanent damage to a device. Additionally, device
operation at the absolute maximum ratings for extended periods of time may have adverse affects on the device.
Minimum DC input is –0.5 V. During transitions, the inputs may undershoot to –2.0 V or overshoot to 4.6 V for
input currents less than 100 mA and periods shorter than 20 ns.
Maximum VCC rise time is 100 ms, and VCC must rise monotonically.
All pins, including dedicated inputs, clock, I/O, and JTAG pins, may be driven before VCCINT and VCCIO are
powered.
Typical values are for TA = 25° C, VCCINT = 1.5 V, and VCCIO = 1.5 V, 1.8 V, 2.5 V, and 3.3 V.
VI = ground, no load, no toggling inputs.
This value is specified for normal device operation. The value may vary during power-up. This applies for all
VCCIO settings (3.3, 2.5, 1.8, and 1.5 V).
RCONF is the measured value of internal pull-up resistance when the I/O pin is tied directly to GND. RCONF value
will be lower if an external source drives the pin higher than VC C I O .
Pin pull-up resistance values will lower if an external source drives the pin higher than VCCIO.
Drive strength is programmable according to values in Cyclone Architecture chapter in the Cyclone Device Handbook.
Overdrive is possible when a 1.5 V or 1.8 V and a 2.5 V or 3.3 V input signal feeds an input pin. Turn on “Allow
voltage overdrive” for LVTTL/LVCMOS input pins in the Assignments > Device > Device and Pin Options > Pin
Placement tab when a device has this I/O combination. However, higher leakage current is expected.
The Cyclone LVDS interface requires a resistor network outside of the transmitter channels.
Capacitance is sample-tested only. Capacitance is measured using time-domain reflections (TDR). Measurement
accuracy is within ±0.5 pF.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
4–7
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Power
Consumption
Designers can use the Altera web Early Power Estimator to estimate the
device power.
Cyclone devices require a certain amount of power-up current to
successfully power up because of the nature of the leading-edge process
on which they are fabricated. Table 4–17 shows the maximum power-up
current required to power up a Cyclone device.
Table 4–17. Cyclone Maximum Power-Up Current (ICCINT) Requirements (In-Rush Current)
Device
Commercial Specification
Industrial Specification
Unit
EP1C3
150
180
mA
EP1C4
150
180
mA
EP1C6
175
210
mA
EP1C12
300
360
mA
EP1C20
500
600
mA
Notes to Table 4–17:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The Cyclone devices (except for the EP1C20 device) meet the power up specification for Mini PCI.
The lot codes 9G0082 to 9G2999, or 9G3109 and later comply to the specifications in Table 4–17 and meet the Mini
PCI specification. Lot codes appear at the top of the device.
The lot codes 9H0004 to 9H29999, or 9H3014 and later comply to the specifications in this table and meet the Mini
PCI specification. Lot codes appear at the top of the device.
Designers should select power supplies and regulators that can supply
this amount of current when designing with Cyclone devices. This
specification is for commercial operating conditions. Measurements were
performed with an isolated Cyclone device on the board. Decoupling
capacitors were not used in this measurement. To factor in the current for
decoupling capacitors, sum up the current for each capacitor using the
following equation:
I = C (dV/dt)
The exact amount of current that is consumed varies according to the
process, temperature, and power ramp rate. If the power supply or
regulator can supply more current than required, the Cyclone device may
consume more current than the maximum current specified in Table 4–17.
However, the device does not require any more current to successfully
power up than what is listed in Table 4–17.
The duration of the ICCINT power-up requirement depends on the VCCINT
voltage supply rise time. The power-up current consumption drops when
the VCCINT supply reaches approximately 0.75 V. For example, if the
VCCINT rise time has a linear rise of 15 ms, the current consumption spike
drops by 7.5 ms.
4–8
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Timing Model
Typically, the user-mode current during device operation is lower than
the power-up current in Table 4–17. Altera recommends using the
Cyclone Power Calculator, available on the Altera web site, to estimate
the user-mode ICCINT consumption and then select power supplies or
regulators based on the higher value.
Timing Model
The DirectDrive technology and MultiTrack interconnect ensure
predictable performance, accurate simulation, and accurate timing
analysis across all Cyclone device densities and speed grades. This
section describes and specifies the performance, internal, external, and
PLL timing specifications.
All specifications are representative of worst-case supply voltage and
junction temperature conditions.
Preliminary and Final Timing
Timing models can have either preliminary or final status. The
Quartus® II software issues an informational message during the design
compilation if the timing models are preliminary. Table 4–18 shows the
status of the Cyclone device timing models.
Preliminary status means the timing model is subject to change. Initially,
timing numbers are created using simulation results, process data, and
other known parameters. These tests are used to make the preliminary
numbers as close to the actual timing parameters as possible.
Final timing numbers are based on actual device operation and testing.
These numbers reflect the actual performance of the device under
worst-case voltage and junction temperature conditions.
Table 4–18. Cyclone Device Timing Model Status
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Device
Preliminary
Final
EP1C3
—
v
EP1C4
—
v
EP1C6
—
v
EP1C12
—
v
EP1C20
—
v
4–9
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Performance
The maximum internal logic array clock tree frequency is limited to the
specifications shown in Table 4–19.
Table 4–19. Clock Tree Maximum Performance Specification
-6 Speed Grade
Parameter
Clock tree
fM A X
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Definition
Units
Maximum frequency
that the clock tree
can support for
clocking registered
logic
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
—
—
405
—
—
320
—
—
275
MHz
Table 4–20 shows the Cyclone device performance for some common
designs. All performance values were obtained with the Quartus II
software compilation of library of parameterized modules (LPM)
functions or megafunctions. These performance values are based on
EP1C6 devices in 144-pin TQFP packages.
Table 4–20. Cyclone Device Performance
Resources Used
Resource
Used
LE
4–10
Preliminary
Design Size and
Function
LEs
M4K
Memory
Bits
Mode
Performance
M4K
-6 Speed -7 Speed -8 Speed
Memory
Grade
Grade
Grade
Blocks
(MHz)
(MHz)
(MHz)
16-to-1
multiplexer
—
21
—
—
405.00
320.00
275.00
32-to-1
multiplexer
—
44
—
—
317.36
284.98
260.15
16-bit counter
—
16
—
—
405.00
320.00
275.00
64-bit counter (1)
—
66
—
—
208.99
181.98
160.75
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Timing Model
Table 4–20. Cyclone Device Performance
Resources Used
Resource
Used
M4K
memory
block
Design Size and
Function
Mode
RAM 128 × 36 bit
Performance
LEs
M4K
Memory
Bits
Single port
—
4,608
1
256.00
222.67
197.01
RAM 128 × 36 bit
Simple
dual-port
mode
—
4,608
1
255.95
222.67
196.97
RAM 256 × 18 bit
True dualport mode
—
4,608
1
255.95
222.67
196.97
FIFO 128 × 36 bit
—
40
4,608
1
256.02
222.67
197.01
11
4,536
1
255.95
222.67
196.97
Shift register
9 × 4 × 128
Shift
register
M4K
-6 Speed -7 Speed -8 Speed
Memory
Grade
Grade
Grade
Blocks
(MHz)
(MHz)
(MHz)
Note to Table 4–20:
(1)
The performance numbers for this function are from an EP1C6 device in a 240-pin PQFP package.
Internal Timing Parameters
Internal timing parameters are specified on a speed grade basis
independent of device density. Tables 4–21 through 4–24 describe the
Cyclone device internal timing microparameters for LEs, IOEs, M4K
memory structures, and MultiTrack interconnects.
Table 4–21. LE Internal Timing Microparameter Descriptions
Symbol
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Parameter
tSU
LE register setup time before clock
tH
LE register hold time after clock
tCO
LE register clock-to-output delay
tLUT
LE combinatorial LUT delay for data-in to data-out
tCLR
Minimum clear pulse width
tPRE
Minimum preset pulse width
tCLKHL
Minimum clock high or low time
4–11
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 4–22. IOE Internal Timing Microparameter Descriptions
Symbol
Parameter
tSU
IOE input and output register setup time before clock
tH
IOE input and output register hold time after clock
tCO
IOE input and output register clock-to-output delay
tPIN2COMBOUT_R
Row input pin to IOE combinatorial output
tPIN2COMBOUT_C
Column input pin to IOE combinatorial output
tCOMBIN2PIN_R
Row IOE data input to combinatorial output pin
tCOMBIN2PIN_C
Column IOE data input to combinatorial output pin
tCLR
Minimum clear pulse width
tPRE
Minimum preset pulse width
tCLKHL
Minimum clock high or low time
Table 4–23. M4K Block Internal Timing Microparameter Descriptions
Symbol
4–12
Preliminary
Parameter
tM4KRC
Synchronous read cycle time
tM4KWC
Synchronous write cycle time
tM4KWERESU
Write or read enable setup time before clock
tM4KWEREH
Write or read enable hold time after clock
tM4KBESU
Byte enable setup time before clock
tM4KBEH
Byte enable hold time after clock
tM4KDATAASU
A port data setup time before clock
tM4KDATAAH
A port data hold time after clock
tM4KADDRASU
A port address setup time before clock
tM4KADDRAH
A port address hold time after clock
tM4KDATABSU
B port data setup time before clock
tM4KDATABH
B port data hold time after clock
tM4KADDRBSU
B port address setup time before clock
tM4KADDRBH
B port address hold time after clock
tM4KDATACO1
Clock-to-output delay when using output registers
tM4KDATACO2
Clock-to-output delay without output registers
tM4KCLKHL
Minimum clock high or low time
tM4KCLR
Minimum clear pulse width
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Timing Model
Table 4–24. Routing Delay Internal Timing Microparameter Descriptions
Symbol
Parameter
tR4
Delay for an R4 line with average loading; covers a distance
of four LAB columns
tC4
Delay for an C4 line with average loading; covers a distance
of four LAB rows
tLOCAL
Local interconnect delay
Figure 4–1 shows the memory waveforms for the M4K timing parameters
shown in Table 4–23.
Figure 4–1. Dual-Port RAM Timing Microparameter Waveform
wrclock
tWEREH
tWERESU
wren
tWADDRH
tWADDRSU
wraddress
an-1
an
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
din4
din5
din6
tDATAH
data-in
din-1
din
tDATASU
rdclock
tWEREH
tWERESU
rden
tRC
bn
rdaddress
b1
b0
b2
b3
tDATACO1
reg_data-out
doutn-2
doutn-1
doutn
dout0
tDATACO2
unreg_data-out
Altera Corporation
May 2008
doutn-1
doutn
dout0
4–13
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Internal timing parameters are specified on a speed grade basis
independent of device density. Tables 4–25 through 4–28 show the
internal timing microparameters for LEs, IOEs, TriMatrix memory
structures, DSP blocks, and MultiTrack interconnects.
Table 4–25. LE Internal Timing Microparameters
-6
-7
-8
Symbol
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
tSU
29
—
33
—
37
—
ps
tH
12
—
13
—
15
—
ps
tCO
—
173
—
198
—
224
ps
tLUT
—
454
—
522
—
590
ps
tCLR
129
—
148
—
167
—
ps
tPRE
129
—
148
—
167
—
ps
1,234
—
1,562
—
1,818
—
ps
tCLKHL
Table 4–26. IOE Internal Timing Microparameters
-6
-7
-8
Symbol
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
tSU
348
—
400
—
452
—
ps
tH
0
—
0
—
0
—
ps
tCO
—
511
—
587
—
664
ps
tPIN2COMBOUT_R
—
1,130
—
1,299
—
1,469
ps
tPIN2COMBOUT_C
—
1,135
—
1,305
—
1,475
ps
tCOMBIN2PIN_R
—
2,627
—
3,021
—
3,415
ps
tCOMBIN2PIN_C
—
2,615
—
3,007
—
3,399
ps
tCLR
280
—
322
—
364
—
ps
tPRE
280
—
322
—
364
—
ps
1,234
—
1,562
—
1,818
—
ps
tCLKHL
4–14
Preliminary
Unit
Min
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Timing Model
Table 4–27. M4K Block Internal Timing Microparameters
-6
-7
-8
Symbol
Unit
Min
Max
—
4,379
tM4KWC
—
2,910
3,783
ps
tM4KWERESU
72
—
82
—
93
—
ps
tM4KWEREH
43
—
49
—
55
—
ps
tM4KBESU
72
—
82
—
93
—
ps
tM4KBEH
43
—
49
—
55
—
ps
tM4KDATAASU
72
—
82
—
93
—
ps
tM4KDATAAH
43
—
49
—
55
—
ps
tM4KADDRASU
72
—
82
—
93
—
ps
tM4KADDRAH
43
—
49
—
55
—
ps
tM4KDATABSU
72
—
82
—
93
—
ps
tM4KDATABH
43
—
49
—
55
—
ps
tM4KADDRBSU
72
—
82
—
93
—
ps
tM4KADDRBH
43
—
49
—
55
—
ps
tM4KDATACO1
—
621
—
714
—
807
ps
tM4KDATACO2
—
4,351
—
5,003
—
5,656
ps
1,234
—
1,562
—
1,818
—
ps
286
—
328
—
371
—
ps
tM4KRC
tM4KCLKHL
tM4KCLR
Min
Max
Min
Max
5,035
5,691
3,346
ps
Table 4–28. Routing Delay Internal Timing Microparameters
-6
-7
-8
Symbol
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
tR4
—
261
—
300
—
339
ps
tC4
—
338
—
388
—
439
ps
tLOCAL
—
244
—
281
—
318
ps
External Timing Parameters
External timing parameters are specified by device density and speed
grade. Figure 4–2 shows the timing model for bidirectional IOE pin
timing. All registers are within the IOE.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
4–15
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 4–2. External Timing in Cyclone Devices
OE Register
Dedicated
Clock
D
PRN
Q
tXZ
tZX
tINSU
tINH
tOUTCO
CLRN
Output Register
D
PRN
Q
Bidirectional
Pin
CLRN
Input Register
PRN
D
Q
CLRN
All external I/O timing parameters shown are for 3.3-V LVTTL I/O
standard with the maximum current strength and fast slew rate. For
external I/O timing using standards other than LVTTL or for different
current strengths, use the I/O standard input and output delay adders in
Tables 4–40 through 4–44.
Table 4–29 shows the external I/O timing parameters when using global
clock networks.
Table 4–29. Cyclone Global Clock External I/O Timing Parameters
Symbol
Notes (1), (2) (Part 1 of 2)
Parameter
Conditions
tI N S U
Setup time for input or bidirectional pin using IOE input
register with global clock fed by CLK pin
—
tI N H
Hold time for input or bidirectional pin using IOE input
register with global clock fed by CLK pin
—
tO U T C O
Clock-to-output delay output or bidirectional pin using IOE
output register with global clock fed by CLK pin
tI N S U P L L
Setup time for input or bidirectional pin using IOE input
register with global clock fed by Enhanced PLL with default
phase setting
—
tI N H P L L
Hold time for input or bidirectional pin using IOE input
register with global clock fed by enhanced PLL with default
phase setting
—
4–16
Preliminary
CLOAD = 10 pF
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Timing Model
Table 4–29. Cyclone Global Clock External I/O Timing Parameters
Symbol
tO U T C O P L L
Notes (1), (2) (Part 2 of 2)
Parameter
Conditions
Clock-to-output delay output or bidirectional pin using IOE
output register with global clock enhanced PLL with default
phase setting
CLOAD = 10 pF
Notes to Table 4–29:
(1)
(2)
These timing parameters are sample-tested only.
These timing parameters are for IOE pins using a 3.3-V LVTTL, 24-mA setting. Designers should use the Quartus II
software to verify the external timing for any pin.
Tables 4–30 through 4–31 show the external timing parameters on column
and row pins for EP1C3 devices.
Table 4–30. EP1C3 Column Pin Global Clock External I/O Timing
Parameters
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Symbol
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
tI N S U
3.085
—
3.547
—
4.009
—
ns
tI N H
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O
2.000
4.073
2.000
4.682
2.000
5.295
ns
tI N S U P L L
1.795
—
2.063
—
2.332
—
ns
tI N H P L L
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O P L L
0.500
2.306
0.500
2.651
0.500
2.998
ns
Table 4–31. EP1C3 Row Pin Global Clock External I/O Timing Parameters
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Symbol
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
tI N S U
3.157
—
3.630
—
4.103
—
ns
tI N H
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O
2.000
3.984
2.000
4.580
2.000
5.180
ns
tI N S U P L L
1.867
—
2.146
—
2.426
—
ns
tI N H P L L
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O P L L
0.500
2.217
0.500
2.549
0.500
2.883
ns
4–17
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Tables 4–32 through 4–33 show the external timing parameters on column
and row pins for EP1C4 devices.
Table 4–32. EP1C4 Column Pin Global Clock External I/O Timing
Parameters Note (1)
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Symbol
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
tI N S U
2.471
—
2.841
—
3.210
—
ns
tI N H
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O
2.000
3.937
2.000
4.526
2.000
5.119
ns
tI N S U P L L
1.471
—
1.690
—
1.910
—
ns
tI N H P L L
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O P L L
0.500
2.080
0.500
2.392
0.500
2.705
ns
Table 4–33. EP1C4 Row Pin Global Clock External I/O Timing
Parameters Note (1)
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Symbol
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
tI N S U
2.600
—
2.990
—
3.379
—
ns
tI N H
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O
2.000
3.991
2.000
4.388
2.000
5.189
ns
tI N S U P L L
1.300
—
1.494
—
1.689
—
ns
tI N H P L L
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O P L L
0.500
2.234
0.500
2.569
0.500
2.905
ns
Note to Tables 4–32 and 4–33:
(1)
4–18
Preliminary
Contact Altera Applications for EP1C4 device timing parameters.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Timing Model
Tables 4–34 through 4–35 show the external timing parameters on column
and row pins for EP1C6 devices.
Table 4–34. EP1C6 Column Pin Global Clock External I/O Timing Parameters
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Symbol
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
tI N S U
2.691
—
3.094
—
3.496
—
tI N H
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O
2.000
3.917
2.000
4.503
2.000
5.093
ns
tI N S U P L L
1.513
—
1.739
—
1.964
—
ns
tI N H P L L
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O P L L
0.500
2.038
0.500
2.343
0.500
2.651
ns
ns
Table 4–35. EP1C6 Row Pin Global Clock External I/O Timing Parameters
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Symbol
Unit
Min
Max
—
Min
3.190
Max
—
Min
3.605
Max
tI N S U
2.774
—
ns
tI N H
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O
2.000
3.817
2.000
4.388
2.000
4.963
ns
tI N S U P L L
1.596
—
1.835
—
2.073
—
ns
tI N H P L L
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O P L L
0.500
1.938
0.500
2.228
0.500
2.521
ns
Tables 4–36 through 4–37 show the external timing parameters on column
and row pins for EP1C12 devices.
Table 4–36. EP1C12 Column Pin Global Clock External I/O Timing
Parameters (Part 1 of 2)
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Symbol
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
tI N S U
2.510
—
2.885
—
3.259
—
ns
tI N H
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tOU T C O
2.000
3.798
2.000
4.367
2.000
4.940
ns
tI N S U P L L
1.588
—
1.824
—
2.061
—
ns
4–19
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 4–36. EP1C12 Column Pin Global Clock External I/O Timing
Parameters (Part 2 of 2)
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Symbol
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
tI N H P L L
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O P L L
0.500
1.663
0.500
1.913
0.500
2.164
ns
Table 4–37. EP1C12 Row Pin Global Clock External I/O Timing Parameters
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Symbol
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
tI N S U
2.620
—
3.012
—
3.404
—
tI N H
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O
2.000
3.671
2.000
4.221
2.000
4.774
ns
tI N S U P L L
1.698
—
1.951
—
2.206
—
ns
tI N H P L L
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O P L L
0.500
1.536
0.500
1.767
0.500
1.998
ns
ns
Tables 4–38 through 4–39 show the external timing parameters on column
and row pins for EP1C20 devices.
Table 4–38. EP1C20 Column Pin Global Clock External I/O Timing
Parameters
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Symbol
4–20
Preliminary
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
tI N S U
2.417
—
2.779
—
3.140
—
tI N H
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O
2.000
3.724
2.000
4.282
2.000
4.843
ns
tI N S U P L L
1.417
—
1.629
—
1.840
—
ns
tI N H P L L
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O P L L
0.500
1.667
0.500
1.917
0.500
2.169
ns
ns
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Timing Model
Table 4–39. EP1C20 Row Pin Global Clock External I/O Timing Parameters
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Symbol
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
tI N S U
2.417
—
2.779
—
3.140
—
tI N H
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O
2.000
3.724
2.000
4.282
2.000
4.843
ns
—
3.645
—
4.191
—
4.740
ns
tX Z
tZ X
ns
—
3.645
—
4.191
—
4.740
ns
tI N S U P L L
1.417
—
1.629
—
1.840
—
ns
tI N H P L L
0.000
—
0.000
—
0.000
—
ns
tO U T C O P L L
0.500
1.667
0.500
1.917
0.500
2.169
ns
tX Z P L L
—
1.588
—
1.826
—
2.066
ns
tZ X P L L
—
1.588
—
1.826
—
2.066
ns
External I/O Delay Parameters
External I/O delay timing parameters for I/O standard input and output
adders and programmable input and output delays are specified by
speed grade independent of device density.
Tables 4–40 through 4–45 show the adder delays associated with column
and row I/O pins for all packages. If an I/O standard is selected other
than LVTTL 4 mA with a fast slew rate, add the selected delay to the
external tCO and tSU I/O parameters shown in Tables 4–25 through
4–28.
Table 4–40. Cyclone I/O Standard Column Pin Input Delay Adders (Part 1 of 2)
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
LVCMOS
—
0
—
0
—
0
ps
3.3-V LVTTL
—
0
—
0
—
0
ps
2.5-V LVTTL
—
27
—
31
—
35
ps
1.8-V LVTTL
—
182
—
209
—
236
ps
1.5-V LVTTL
—
278
—
319
—
361
ps
SSTL-3 class I
—
–250
—
–288
—
–325
ps
SSTL-3 class II
—
–250
—
–288
—
–325
ps
SSTL-2 class I
—
–278
—
–320
—
–362
ps
I/O Standard
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Unit
4–21
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 4–40. Cyclone I/O Standard Column Pin Input Delay Adders (Part 2 of 2)
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
SSTL-2 class II
–278
—
–320
—
–362
ps
LVDS
–261
—
–301
—
–340
ps
I/O Standard
Unit
Table 4–41. Cyclone I/O Standard Row Pin Input Delay Adders
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
LVCMOS
—
0
—
0
—
0
ps
3.3-V LVTTL
—
0
—
0
—
0
ps
2.5-V LVTTL
—
27
—
31
—
35
ps
1.8-V LVTTL
—
182
—
209
—
236
ps
1.5-V LVTTL
—
278
—
319
—
361
ps
3.3-V PCI (1)
—
0
—
0
—
0
ps
SSTL-3 class I
—
–250
—
–288
—
–325
ps
SSTL-3 class II
—
–250
—
–288
—
–325
ps
SSTL-2 class I
—
–278
—
–320
—
–362
ps
SSTL-2 class II
—
–278
—
–320
—
–362
ps
LVDS
—
–261
—
–301
—
–340
ps
I/O Standard
Unit
Table 4–42. Cyclone I/O Standard Output Delay Adders for Fast Slew Rate on Column Pins (Part 1 of 2)
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
2 mA
—
0
—
0
—
0
4 mA
—
–489
—
–563
—
–636
ps
8 mA
—
–855
—
–984
—
–1,112
ps
12 mA
—
–993
—
–1,142
—
–1,291
ps
4 mA
—
0
—
0
—
0
ps
Standard
LVCMOS
3.3-V LVTTL
4–22
Preliminary
Unit
ps
8 mA
—
–347
—
–400
—
–452
ps
12 mA
—
–858
—
–987
—
–1,116
ps
16 mA
—
–819
—
–942
—
–1,065
ps
24 mA
—
–993
—
–1,142
—
–1,291
ps
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Timing Model
Table 4–42. Cyclone I/O Standard Output Delay Adders for Fast Slew Rate on Column Pins (Part 2 of 2)
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Min
Min
Max
Min
Standard
2.5-V LVTTL
Unit
Max
Max
2 mA
—
329
—
378
—
427
ps
8 mA
—
–661
—
–761
—
–860
ps
12 mA
—
–655
—
–754
—
–852
ps
16 mA
—
–795
—
–915
—
–1034
ps
2 mA
—
4
—
4
—
5
ps
8 mA
—
–208
—
–240
—
–271
ps
12 mA
—
–208
—
–240
—
–271
ps
2 mA
—
2,288
—
2,631
—
2,974
ps
4 mA
—
608
—
699
—
790
ps
8 mA
—
292
—
335
—
379
ps
SSTL-3 class I
—
–410
—
–472
—
–533
ps
SSTL-3 class II
—
–811
—
–933
—
–1,055
ps
SSTL-2 class I
—
–485
—
–558
—
–631
ps
SSTL-2 class II
—
–758
—
–872
—
–986
ps
LVDS
—
–998
—
–1,148
—
–1,298
ps
1.8-V LVTTL
1.5-V LVTTL
Table 4–43. Cyclone I/O Standard Output Delay Adders for Fast Slew Rate on Row Pins (Part 1 of 2)
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
2 mA
—
0
—
0
—
0
4 mA
—
–489
—
–563
—
–636
ps
8 mA
—
–855
—
–984
—
–1,112
ps
12 mA
—
–993
—
–1,142
—
–1,291
ps
4 mA
—
0
—
0
—
0
ps
Standard
LVCMOS
3.3-V LVTTL
2.5-V LVTTL
Unit
ps
8 mA
—
–347
—
–400
—
–452
ps
12 mA
—
–858
—
–987
—
–1,116
ps
16 mA
—
–819
—
–942
—
–1,065
ps
24 mA
—
–993
—
–1,142
—
–1,291
ps
2 mA
—
329
—
378
—
427
ps
8 mA
—
–661
—
–761
—
–860
ps
12 mA
—
–655
—
–754
—
–852
ps
16 mA
—
–795
—
–915
—
–1,034
ps
Altera Corporation
May 2008
4–23
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 4–43. Cyclone I/O Standard Output Delay Adders for Fast Slew Rate on Row Pins (Part 2 of 2)
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Standard
1.8-V LVTTL
1.5-V LVTTL
Unit
2 mA
—
1,290
—
1,483
—
1,677
ps
8 mA
—
4
—
4
—
5
ps
12 mA
—
–208
—
–240
—
–271
ps
2 mA
—
2,288
—
2,631
—
2,974
ps
4 mA
—
608
—
699
—
790
ps
8 mA
—
292
—
335
—
379
ps
3.3-V PCI (1)
—
–877
—
–1,009
—
–1,141
ps
SSTL-3 class I
—
–410
—
–472
—
–533
ps
SSTL-3 class II
—
–811
—
–933
—
–1,055
ps
SSTL-2 class I
—
–485
—
–558
—
–631
ps
SSTL-2 class II
—
–758
—
–872
—
–986
ps
LVDS
—
–998
—
–1,148
—
–1,298
ps
Table 4–44. Cyclone I/O Standard Output Delay Adders for Slow Slew Rate on Column Pins (Part 1 of 2)
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
2 mA
—
1,800
—
2,070
—
2,340
ps
4 mA
—
1,311
—
1,507
—
1,704
ps
I/O Standard
LVCMOS
3.3-V LVTTL
2.5-V LVTTL
1.8-V LVTTL
4–24
Preliminary
Unit
8 mA
—
945
—
1,086
—
1,228
ps
12 mA
—
807
—
928
—
1,049
ps
4 mA
—
1,831
—
2,105
—
2,380
ps
8 mA
—
1,484
—
1,705
—
1,928
ps
12 mA
—
973
—
1,118
—
1,264
ps
16 mA
—
1,012
—
1,163
—
1,315
ps
24 mA
—
838
—
963
—
1,089
ps
2 mA
—
2,747
—
3,158
—
3,570
ps
8 mA
—
1,757
—
2,019
—
2,283
ps
12 mA
—
1,763
—
2,026
—
2,291
ps
16 mA
—
1,623
—
1,865
—
2,109
ps
2 mA
—
5,506
—
6,331
—
7,157
ps
8 mA
—
4,220
—
4,852
—
5,485
ps
12 mA
—
4,008
—
4,608
—
5,209
ps
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Timing Model
Table 4–44. Cyclone I/O Standard Output Delay Adders for Slow Slew Rate on Column Pins (Part 2 of 2)
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Min
Min
Min
Max
I/O Standard
1.5-V LVTTL
Unit
Max
Max
2 mA
—
6,789
—
7,807
—
8,825
ps
4 mA
—
5,109
—
5,875
—
6,641
ps
8 mA
SSTL-3 class I
—
4,793
—
5,511
—
6,230
ps
—
1,390
—
1,598
—
1,807
ps
SSTL-3 class II
—
989
—
1,137
—
1,285
ps
SSTL-2 class I
—
1,965
—
2,259
—
2,554
ps
SSTL-2 class II
—
1,692
—
1,945
—
2,199
ps
LVDS
—
802
—
922
—
1,042
ps
Table 4–45. Cyclone I/O Standard Output Delay Adders for Slow Slew Rate on Row Pins (Part 1 of 2)
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
2 mA
—
1,800
—
2,070
—
2,340
ps
4 mA
—
1,311
—
1,507
—
1,704
ps
I/O Standard
LVCMOS
3.3-V LVTTL
2.5-V LVTTL
1.8-V LVTTL
1.5-V LVTTL
Unit
8 mA
—
945
—
1,086
—
1,228
ps
12 mA
—
807
—
928
—
1,049
ps
4 mA
—
1,831
—
2,105
—
2,380
ps
8 mA
—
1,484
—
1,705
—
1,928
ps
12 mA
—
973
—
1,118
—
1,264
ps
16 mA
—
1,012
—
1,163
—
1,315
ps
24 mA
—
838
—
963
—
1,089
ps
2 mA
—
2,747
—
3,158
—
3,570
ps
8 mA
—
1,757
—
2,019
—
2,283
ps
12 mA
—
1,763
—
2,026
—
2,291
ps
16 mA
—
1,623
—
1,865
—
2,109
ps
2 mA
—
5,506
—
6,331
—
7,157
ps
8 mA
—
4,220
—
4,852
—
5,485
ps
12 mA
—
4,008
—
4,608
—
5,209
ps
2 mA
—
6,789
—
7,807
—
8,825
ps
4 mA
—
5,109
—
5,875
—
6,641
ps
—
4,793
—
5,511
—
6,230
ps
—
923
—
1,061
—
1,199
ps
8 mA
3.3-V PCI
Altera Corporation
May 2008
4–25
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 4–45. Cyclone I/O Standard Output Delay Adders for Slow Slew Rate on Row Pins (Part 2 of 2)
-6 Speed Grade
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
SSTL-3 class I
—
1,390
—
1,598
—
1,807
ps
SSTL-3 class II
—
989
—
1,137
—
1,285
ps
I/O Standard
Unit
SSTL-2 class I
—
1,965
—
2,259
—
2,554
ps
SSTL-2 class II
—
1,692
—
1,945
—
2,199
ps
LVDS
—
802
—
922
—
1,042
ps
Note to Tables 4–40 through 4–45:
(1)
EP1C3 devices do not support the PCI I/O standard.
Tables 4–46 through 4–47 show the adder delays for the IOE
programmable delays. These delays are controlled with the Quartus II
software options listed in the Parameter column.
Table 4–46. Cyclone IOE Programmable Delays on Column Pins
-6 Speed Grade
Parameter
-8 Speed Grade
Unit
Min
Decrease input delay to
internal cells
-7 Speed Grade
Setting
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Off
—
155
—
178
—
201
ps
Small
—
2,122
—
2,543
—
2,875
ps
Medium
—
2,639
—
3,034
—
3,430
ps
Large
—
3,057
—
3,515
—
3,974
ps
On
—
155
—
178
—
201
ps
Decrease input delay to
input register
Off
—
0
—
0
—
0
ps
On
—
3,057
—
3,515
—
3,974
ps
Increase delay to output
pin
Off
—
0
—
0
—
0
ps
On
—
552
—
634
—
717
ps
4–26
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Timing Model
Table 4–47. Cyclone IOE Programmable Delays on Row Pins
-6 Speed Grade
Parameter
-8 Speed Grade
Unit
Min
Decrease input delay to
internal cells
-7 Speed Grade
Setting
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Off
—
154
—
177
—
200
ps
Small
—
2,212
—
2,543
—
2,875
ps
Medium
—
2,639
—
3,034
—
3,430
ps
Large
—
3,057
—
3,515
—
3,974
ps
On
—
154
—
177
—
200
ps
Decrease input delay to input Off
register
On
—
0
—
0
—
0
ps
—
3,057
—
3,515
—
3,974
ps
Increase delay to output pin
Off
—
0
—
0
—
0
ps
On
—
556
—
639
—
722
ps
Note to Table 4–47:
(1)
EPC1C3 devices do not support the PCI I/O standard.
Maximum Input and Output Clock Rates
Tables 4–48 and 4–49 show the maximum input clock rate for column and
row pins in Cyclone devices.
Table 4–48. Cyclone Maximum Input Clock Rate for Column Pins
-6 Speed
Grade
-7 Speed
Grade
-8 Speed
Grade
Unit
LVTTL
464
428
387
MHz
2.5 V
392
302
207
MHz
1.8 V
387
311
252
MHz
I/O Standard
Altera Corporation
May 2008
1.5 V
387
320
243
MHz
LVCMOS
405
374
333
MHz
SSTL-3 class I
405
356
293
MHz
SSTL-3 class II
414
365
302
MHz
SSTL-2 class I
464
428
396
MHz
SSTL-2 class II
473
432
396
MHz
LVDS
567
549
531
MHz
4–27
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 4–49. Cyclone Maximum Input Clock Rate for Row Pins
-6 Speed
Grade
-7 Speed
Grade
-8 Speed
Grade
Unit
LVTTL
464
428
387
MHz
2.5 V
392
302
207
MHz
1.8 V
387
311
252
MHz
I/O Standard
1.5 V
387
320
243
MHz
LVCMOS
405
374
333
MHz
SSTL-3 class I
405
356
293
MHz
SSTL-3 class II
414
365
302
MHz
SSTL-2 class I
464
428
396
MHz
SSTL-2 class II
473
432
396
MHz
3.3-V PCI (1)
464
428
387
MHz
LVDS
567
549
531
MHz
Note to Tables 4–48 through 4–49:
(1)
EP1C3 devices do not support the PCI I/O standard. These parameters are only
available on row I/O pins.
Tables 4–50 and 4–51 show the maximum output clock rate for column
and row pins in Cyclone devices.
Table 4–50. Cyclone Maximum Output Clock Rate for Column Pins
-6 Speed
Grade
-7 Speed
Grade
-8 Speed
Grade
Unit
LVTTL
304
304
304
MHz
2.5 V
220
220
220
MHz
1.8 V
213
213
213
MHz
1.5 V
166
166
166
MHz
I/O Standard
LVCMOS
304
304
304
MHz
SSTL-3 class I
100
100
100
MHz
SSTL-3 class II
100
100
100
MHz
SSTL-2 class I
134
134
134
MHz
SSTL-2 class II
134
134
134
MHz
LVDS
320
320
275
MHz
Note to Table 4–50:
(1)
4–28
Preliminary
EP1C3 devices do not support the PCI I/O standard.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Timing Model
Table 4–51. Cyclone Maximum Output Clock Rate for Row Pins
-6 Speed
Grade
-7 Speed
Grade
-8 Speed
Grade
Unit
LVTTL
296
285
273
MHz
2.5 V
381
366
349
MHz
1.8 V
286
277
267
MHz
I/O Standard
1.5 V
219
208
195
MHz
LVCMOS
367
356
343
MHz
SSTL-3 class I
169
166
162
MHz
SSTL-3 class II
160
151
146
MHz
SSTL-2 class I
160
151
142
MHz
SSTL-2 class II
131
123
115
MHz
3.3-V PCI (1)
66
66
66
MHz
LVDS
320
303
275
MHz
Note to Tables 4–50 through 4–51:
(1)
EP1C3 devices do not support the PCI I/O standard. These parameters are only
available on row I/O pins.
PLL Timing
Table 4–52 describes the Cyclone FPGA PLL specifications.
Table 4–52. Cyclone PLL Specifications (Part 1 of 2)
Symbol
Min
Max
Unit
Input frequency (-6 speed
grade)
15.625
464
MHz
Input frequency (-7 speed
grade)
15.625
428
MHz
Input frequency (-8 speed
grade)
15.625
387
MHz
fIN DUTY
Input clock duty cycle
40.00
60
%
tIN JITTER
Input clock period jitter
—
± 200
ps
fOUT_EXT (external PLL
clock output)
PLL output frequency
(-6 speed grade)
15.625
320
MHz
PLL output frequency
(-7 speed grade)
15.625
320
MHz
PLL output frequency
(-8 speed grade)
15.625
275
MHz
fIN
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Parameter
4–29
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 4–52. Cyclone PLL Specifications (Part 2 of 2)
Symbol
Min
Max
Unit
PLL output frequency
(-6 speed grade)
15.625
405
MHz
PLL output frequency
(-7 speed grade)
15.625
320
MHz
PLL output frequency
(-8 speed grade)
15.625
275
MHz
tOUT DUTY
Duty cycle for external clock
output (when set to 50%)
45.00
55
%
tJITTER (1)
Period jitter for external clock
output
—
±300 (2)
ps
tLOCK (3)
Time required to lock from end
of device configuration
10.00
100
μs
fVCO
PLL internal VCO operating
range
500.00
1,000
MHz
-
Minimum areset time
10
—
ns
N, G0, G1, E
Counter values
1
32
integer
fOUT (to global clock)
Parameter
Notes to Table 4–52:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The tJITTER specification for the PLL[2..1]_OUT pins are dependent on the I/O pins in its VCCIO bank, how many
of them are switching outputs, how much they toggle, and whether or not they use programmable current strength
or slow slew rate.
fOUT ≥ 100 MHz. When the PLL external clock output frequency (fOUT) is smaller than 100 MHz, the jitter
specification is 60 mUI.
fIN/N must be greater than 200 MHz to ensure correct lock detect circuit operation below –20 C. Otherwise, the PLL
operates with the specified parameters under the specified conditions.
4–30
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Referenced Document
Referenced
Document
This chapter references the following documents:
Document
Revision History
Table 4–53 shows the revision history for this chapter.
■
■
Cyclone Architecture chapter in the Cyclone Device Handbook
Operating Requirements for Altera Devices Data Sheet
Table 4–53. Document Revision History
Date and
Document
Version
Changes Made
Summary of Changes
May 2008
v1.7
Minor textual and style changes. Added “Referenced Document”
section.
—
January 2007
v1.6
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Added document revision history.
Added new row for VCCA details in Table 4–1.
—
Updated RCONF information in Table 4–3.
Added new Note (12) on voltage overdrive information to
Table 4–7 and Table 4–8.
Updated Note (9) on RCONF information to Table 4–3.
Updated information in “External I/O Delay Parameters”
section.
Updated speed grade information in Table 4–46 and
Table 4–47.
●
Updated LVDS information in Table 4–51.
August 2005
v1.5
Minor updates.
February 2005
v1.4
●
●
●
●
January 2004
v.1.3
●
●
October 2003
v.1.2
●
●
●
Altera Corporation
May 2008
—
Updated information on Undershoot voltage. Updated Table
4-2.
Updated Table 4-3.
Updated the undershoot voltage from 0.5 V to 2.0 V in Note 3
of Table 4-16.
Updated Table 4-17.
—
Added extended-temperature grade device information.
Updated Table 4-2.
Updated IC C 0 information in Table 4-3.
—
Added clock tree information in Table 4-19.
Finalized timing information for EP1C3 and EP1C12 devices.
Updated timing information in Tables 4-25 through 4-26 and
Tables 4-30 through 4-51.
Updated PLL specifications in Table 4-52.
—
4–31
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
July 2003
v1.1
Updated timing information. Timing finalized for EP1C6 and
EP1C20 devices. Updated performance information. Added PLL
Timing section.
—
May 2003
v1.0
Added document to Cyclone Device Handbook.
—
4–32
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
5. Reference and Ordering
Information
C51005-1.4
Software
Cyclone® devices are supported by the Altera® Quartus® II design
software, which provides a comprehensive environment for system-on-aprogrammable-chip (SOPC) design. The Quartus II software includes
HDL and schematic design entry, compilation and logic synthesis, full
simulation and advanced timing analysis, SignalTap® II logic analysis,
and device configuration.
f
For more information about the Quartus II software features, refer to the
Quartus II Handbook.
The Quartus II software supports the Windows 2000/NT/98, Sun Solaris,
Linux Red Hat v7.1 and HP-UX operating systems. It also supports
seamless integration with industry-leading EDA tools through the
NativeLink® interface.
Device Pin-Outs
Device pin-outs for Cyclone devices are available on the Altera website
(www.altera.com) and in the Cyclone Device Handbook.
Ordering
Information
Figure 5–1 describes the ordering codes for Cyclone devices. For more
information about a specific package, refer to the Package Information for
Cyclone Devices chapter in the Cyclone Device Handbook.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
5–1
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 5–1. Cyclone Device Packaging Ordering Information
EP1C
20
F
400
C
7
ES
Family Signature
Optional Suffix
EP1C: Cyclone
Indicates specific device options or
shipment method.
ES: Engineering sample
Device Type
3
4
6
12
20
Speed Grade
6, 7, or 8 , with 6 being the fastest
Operating Temperature
C: Commercial temperature (tJ = 0˚ C to 85˚ C)
I: Industrial temperature (tJ = -40˚ C to 100˚ C)
Package Type
T: Thin quad flat pack (TQFP)
Q: Plastic quad flat pack (PQFP)
F: FineLine BGA
Referenced
Documents
Pin Count
Number of pins for a particular package
This chapter references the following documents:
■
■
Document
Revision History
Package Information for Cyclone Devices chapter in the Cyclone Device
Handbook
Quartus II Handbook
Table 5–1 shows the revision history for this chapter.
Table 5–1. Document Revision History
Date and
Document
Version
Changes Made
Summary of Changes
May 2008
v1.4
Minor textual and style changes. Added “Referenced
Documents” section.
—
January 2007
v1.3
Added document revision history.
—
August 2005
v1.2
Minor updates.
—
5–2
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Document Revision History
February 2005
v1.1
Updated Figure 5-1.
—
May 2003
v1.0
Added document to Cyclone Device Handbook.
—
Altera Corporation
May 2008
5–3
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
5–4
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Section II. Clock
Management
This section provides information on the Cyclone phase-lock loops
(PLLs). The PLLs assist designers in managing clocks internally and also
have the ability to drive off chip to control system-level clock networks.
This chapter contains detailed information on the features, the
interconnections to the logic array and off chip, and the specifications for
Cyclone PLLs.
This section contains the following chapter:
■
Revision History
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6. Using PLLs in Cyclone Devices
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information
on when each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates
section, which appears in the complete handbook.
Section II–1
Preliminary
Revision History
Section II–2
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
6. Using PLLs in
Cyclone Devices
C51006-1.5
Introduction
Cyclone® FPGAs offer phase locked loops (PLLs) and a global clock
network for clock management solutions. Cyclone PLLs offer clock
multiplication and division, phase shifting, programmable duty cycle,
and external clock outputs, allowing system-level clock management and
skew control. The Altera® Quartus® II software enables Cyclone PLLs and
their features without using any external devices. This chapter explains
how to design and enable Cyclone PLL features.
PLLs are commonly used to synchronize internal device clocks with an
external clock, run internal clocks at higher frequencies than an external
clock, minimize clock delay and clock skew, and reduce or adjust
clock-to-out (tCO) and set-up (tSU) times.
Hardware Overview
Cyclone FPGAs contain up to two PLLs per device. Table 6–1 shows
which PLLs are available for each Cyclone FPGA.
Table 6–1. Cyclone FPGA PLL Availability
Device
PLL1 (1)
PLL2 (2)
EP1C3
v
—
EP1C4
v
v
EP1C6
v
v
EP1C12
v
v
EP1C20
v
v
Notes to Table 6–1:
(1)
(2)
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Located on the center left side of the device.
Located on the center right side of the device.
6–1
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 6–2 provides an overview of available Cyclone PLL features.
Table 6–2. Cyclone PLL Features
Feature
Description
Clock multiplication and division
M/(N × post-scale counter) (1)
Phase shift
Down to 125-ps increments (2), (3)
v
Programmable duty cycle
Number of internal clock outputs
Two per PLL
Number of external clock outputs (4)
One per PLL
Locked port can feed logic array
v
PLL clock outputs can feed logic array
v
Notes to Table 6–2:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
M, N, and post-scale counter values range from 1 to 32.
The smallest phase shift is determined by the Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO)
period divided by 8.
For degree increments, Cyclone FPGAs can shift output frequencies in increments
of at least 45°. Smaller degree increments are possible depending on the
multiplication/division ratio needed on the PLL clock output.
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin thin quad flat pack (TQFP) package does not
have support for a PLL LVDS input or an external clock output. The EP1C6 PLL2
in the 144-pin TQFP package does not support an external clock output.
Cyclone PLL Blocks
The main goal of a PLL is to synchronize the phase and frequency of an
internal/external clock to an input reference clock. There are a number of
components that comprise a PLL to achieve this phase alignment.
Cyclone PLLs align the rising edge of the reference input clock to a
feedback clock using a phase-frequency detector (PFD). The falling edges
are determined by the duty cycle specifications. The PFD produces an up
or down signal that determines whether the VCO needs to operate at a
higher or lower frequency. The PFD output is applied to the charge pump
and loop filter, which produces a control voltage for setting the frequency
of the VCO. If the PFD produces an up signal, then the VCO frequency
increases, while a down signal causes the VCO frequency to decrease.
The PFD outputs these up and down signals to a charge pump. If the
charge pump receives an up signal, current is driven into the loop filter.
Conversely, if it receives a down signal, current is drawn from the loop
filter. The loop filter converts these up and down signals to a voltage that
6–2
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Introduction
is used to bias the VCO. The loop filter also removes glitches from the
charge pump and prevents voltage over-shoot, which minimizes the jitter
on the VCO.
The voltage from the loop filter determines how fast the VCO operates.
The VCO is implemented as a four-stage differential ring oscillator. A
divide counter (M) is inserted in the feedback loop to increase the VCO
frequency above the input reference frequency, making the VCO
frequency (fVCO) equal to M times the input reference clock (fREF). The
input reference clock (fREF) to the PFD is equal to the input clock (fIN)
divided by the pre-scale counter (N). Therefore, the feedback clock (fFB)
that is applied to one input of the PFD is locked to the fREF that is applied
to the other input of the PFD.
The VCO output can feed up to three post-scale counters (G0, G1, and E).
These post-scale counters allow a number of harmonically-related
frequencies to be produced within the PLL.
Additionally, the PLL has internal delay elements to compensate for
routing on the global clock networks and I/O buffers of the external clock
output pins. These internal delays are fixed and not accessible to the user.
Figure 6–1 shows a block diagram of the major components of a Cyclone
PLL.
Figure 6–1. Cyclone PLL
VCO Phase Selection
Selectable at each PLL
Output Port
Post-Scale Counters
Phase Frequency Detector
fVCO
fREF
fIN
CLK(n)
÷n
LVDSCLK1n (1), (2)
PFD
Charge
Pump
Loop
Filter
8
VCO
÷ g0
Global Clock
÷ g1
Global Clock
÷e
I/O Buffer (3)
CLK(n+1)
fFB
÷m
Notes to Figure 6–1:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package does not have support for a PLL LVDS input.
If you are using the LVDS standard, then both CLK pins of that PLL are used. LVDS input is supported via the
secondary function of the dedicated CLK pins. For PLL1, the CLK0 pin’s secondary function is LVDSCLK1p and the
CLK1 pin’s secondary function is LVDSCLK1n. For PLL2, the CLK2 pin’s secondary function is LVDSCLK2p and the
CLK3 pin’s secondary function is LVDSCLK2n.
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package, and the EP1C6 PLL2 in the 144-pin TQFP package do not support
an external clock output.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
6–3
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Software Overview
Cyclone PLLs are enabled in the Quartus II software by using the altpll
megafunction. Figure 6–2 shows the available ports (as they are named in
the Quartus II altpll megafunction) of Cyclone PLLs and their sources
and destinations. It is important to note that the c[1..0] and e0 clock
output ports from altpll are driven by the post-scale counters G0, G1,
and E (not necessarily in that order). The G0 and G1 counters feed the
internal global clock network on the c0 and c1 PLL outputs, and the E
counter feeds the PLL external clock output pin on the e0 PLL output.
Figure 6–2. Cyclone PLL Signals
(1)
inclk0 (2)
c[1..0]
pllena
(3) e0
areset
locked
Physical pins
(1)
Signal driven by internal logic
Signal driven to internal logic
pfdena
Internal clock signal
Notes to Figure 6–2:
(1)
(2)
(3)
You can assign these signals to either a single-ended I/O standard or LVDS.
Inclk0 must be driven by the dedicated clock input pin(s).
e0 drives the dual-purpose PLL[2..1]_OUT pins.
6–4
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Introduction
Tables 6–3 and 6–4 describe the Cyclone PLL input and output ports.
Table 6–3. PLL Input Signals
Port
inclk0
Description
Clock input to PLL.
Source
Destination
Dedicated clock input pin (1) ÷n counter
pllena (2) pllena is an active-high signal that acts as a Logic array (3)
PLL control signal
combined enable and reset signal for the PLL.
You can use It for enabling or disabling one or
two PLLs. When this signal is driven low, the
PLL clock output ports are driven to GND and
the PLL loses lock. Once this signal is driven
high again, the lock process begins and the
PLL re-synchronizes to its input reference
clock. You can drive the pllena port from
internal logic or any general-purpose I/O pin.
areset
areset is an active-high signal that resets all Logic array (3)
PLL control signal
PLL counters to their initial values. When this
signal is driven high, the PLL resets its
counters, clears the PLL outputs, and loses
lock. Once this signal is driven low again, the
lock process begins and the PLL resynchronizes to its input reference clock. You
can drive the areset port from internal logic
or any general-purpose I/O pin.
pfdena
pfdena is an active-high signal that enables
Logic array (3)
PFD
or disables the up/down output signals from the
PFD. When pfdena is driven low, the PFD is
disabled, while the VCO continues to operate.
The PLL clock outputs continue to toggle
regardless of the input clock, but can
experience some long-term drift. Because the
output clock frequency does not change for
some time, you can use the pfdena port as a
shutdown or cleanup function when a reliable
input clock is no longer available. You can drive
the pfdena port from internal logic or any
general-purpose I/O pin.
Notes to Table 6–3:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The inclk0 port to the PLL must be driven by the dedicated clock input pin(s).
There is no dedicated pllena pin for all PLLs, allowing you to choose either one pllena pin for both PLLs or each
PLL can have its own pllena pin.
Logic array source means that you can drive the port from internal logic or any general-purpose I/O pin.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
6–5
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 6–4. PLL Output Signals
Description
Source
c[1..0]
Port
PLL clock outputs driving the
internal global clock network.
PLL post-scale counter G0 or G1
e0 (2)
PLL clock output driving the
PLL post-scale counter E
single-ended or LVDS external
clock output pin(s).
PLL[2..1]_OUT pin(s)
Gives the status of the PLL
PLL lock detect
lock. When the PLL is locked,
this port drives logic high.
When the PLL is out of lock,
this port drives logic low. The
locked port can pulse high and
low during the PLL lock
process.
Logic array (4)
locked
Destination
Global clock network (1)
(3)
Notes to Table 6–4:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
C[1..0] can also drive to any general-purpose I/O pin through the global clock network.
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package, and the EP1C6 PLL2 in the 144-pin TQFP package do not have
support for the external clock output PLL[2..1]_OUT.
The PLL[2..1]_OUT pins are dual-purpose pins. If these pins are not required, they are available for use as
general-purpose I/O pins.
Logic array destination means that you can drive the port to internal logic or any general-purpose I/O pin.
In the Quartus II software, you define which internal clock output from
the PLL (c0 or c1) should be compensated. This PLL clock output is
phase-aligned with respect to the PLL input clock. For example, if c0 is
specified as the compensation clock in normal mode, the compensation is
based on the c0 routing on the global clock network.
Pins and Clock Network Connections
You must drive Cyclone PLLs by the dedicated clock input pins
CLK[3..0]. Inverted clocks and internally generated clocks cannot
drive the PLL. Table 6–5 shows which dedicated clock pin drives which
PLL input clock port.
6–6
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Introduction
1
A single clock input pin cannot drive both PLLs, but a single
clock input pin can feed both registers in the logic array, as well
as the PLL inclk port.
Table 6–5. PLL Input Clock Sources
Clock Input Pins (1)
PLL1
PLL2 (2)
CLK0
v
—
CLK1
v
—
CLK2
—
v
CLK3
—
v
Notes to Table 6–5:
(1)
(2)
If you are using the LVDS standard, then both CLK pins driving that PLL are used.
The EP1C3 device only supports PLL1.
The c[1..0] and e0 clock output ports from altpll are driven by the
PLL post-scale counters G0, G1, and E (not necessarily in that order). The
G0 and G1 counters feed the internal global clock network on the c0 and
c1 PLL outputs, and the E counter feeds the PLL external clock output
pin on the e0 PLL output. Table 6–6 shows which global clock network
can be driven by which PLL post-scale counter output.
Table 6–6. PLL Output Clock Destinations onto the Global Clock Network
PLL
Counter
Output
GCLK0
GCLK1
GCLK2
GCLK3
GCLK4
GCLK5
GCLK6
GCLK7
PLL 1
G0
—
v
v
—
—
—
—
—
G1
v
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
G0
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
—
G1
—
—
—
—
v
—
—
v
PLL2
Figure 6–3 summarizes Tables 6–5 and 6–6 by showing the PLL input and
output clock connections.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
6–7
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 6–3. Cyclone PLL Clock Connections
GCLK1 GCLK3
GCLK0 GCLK2
CLK0
GCLK5 GCLK7
GCLK4 GCLK6
CLK2
G0
G0
G1
G1
(1) CLK1
PLL 1
E
E
CLK3 (2)
PLL 2
PLL2_OUT (3)
(3) PLL1_OUT
Global Clocks
Notes to Figure 6–3:
(1)
(2)
(3)
PLL1 supports one single-ended or LVDS input via the CLK0 and CLK1 pins.
PLL2 supports one single-ended or LVDS input via the CLK2 and CLK3 pins.
PLL1_OUT and PLL2_OUT support single-ended or LVDS outputs. If the external clock output is not required, these
pins are available as general-purpose I/O pins.
You can invert the clock outputs of the PLL at the logic array block (LAB)
and at the input/output element (IOE) level.
Hardware
Features
Cyclone PLLs have a number of advanced features available, including
clock multiplication and division, phase shifting, programmable duty
cycles, external clock outputs, and control signals.
Clock Multiplication and Division
Cyclone PLLs provide clock synthesis for PLL output ports using
M/(N × post-scale) scaling factors. There is one pre-scale divider (N) and
one multiply counter (M) per PLL. N and post-scale counter values range
from 1 to 32. The M counter ranges from 2 to 32. The input clock (fIN) is
divided by a pre-scale counter (N) to produce the input reference clock
(fREF) to the PFD. fREF is then multiplied by the M feedback factor. The
control loop drives the VCO frequency to match fIN × (M/N). See the
following equations:
fREF = fIN/N
fVCO = fREF × M = fIN × (M/N)
6–8
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Hardware Features
Each output port has a unique post-scale counter to divide down the
high-frequency VCO. There are three post-scale counters (G0, G1, and E)
that range from 1 to 32. See the following equations:
fC0 = fVCO/G0 = fIN × (M/(N × G0))
fC1 = fVCO/G1 = fIN × (M/(N × G1))
fE = fVCO/E = fIN × (M/(N × E))
1
c0 and c1 can use either post-scale counter, G0 or G1.
For multiple PLL outputs with different frequencies, the VCO is set to the
least common multiple of the output frequencies that meets the VCO
frequency specifications. Then, the post-scale counters scale down the
output frequency for each PLL clock output port. For example, if clock
output frequencies required from one PLL are 33 and 66 MHz, the VCO
is set to 330 MHz (the least common multiple in the VCO’s range).
Phase Shifting
Cyclone PLLs have advanced clock shift capability to provide
programmable phase shifting. You can enter the desired phase shift in the
altpll MegaWizard® Plug-In Manager and the Quartus II software
automatically sets and displays the closest phase shift achievable. You can
enter the phase shift in degrees, or units of time, for each PLL clock output
port. This feature is supported on all three PLL post-scale counters, G0,
G1, and E and is supported for all available clock feedback modes.
Phase shifting is performed with respect to the PLL clock output that is
compensated. For example, you have a 100 MHz input clock and request
a × 1 multiplication with a +90° phase shift on c0 and a × 1 multiplication
with a +45° phase shift on c1. If you choose to compensate for the c0
clock output, the PLL uses a zero phase-shifted c0 clock as a reference
point to produce the +90° phase shift on c0. Since c0 is the compensated
clock, it is phase-shifted +90° from the input clock. The c1 clock also uses
the zero phase-shifted c0 reference to produce the +45° phase shift on c1.
For fine phase adjustment, each PLL clock output counter can choose a
different phase of the VCO from up to eight phase taps. In addition, each
clock output counter can use a unique initial count setting to achieve
individual coarse phase shift selection, in steps of one VCO period. The
Quartus II software can use this clock output counter, along with an
initial setting on the post-scale counter, to achieve a phase shift range for
the entire period of the output clock. You can phase shift the PLL clock
output up to ±180°. The Quartus II software automatically sets the phase
taps and counter settings according to the phase shift requested.
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May 2008
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Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
The resolution of the fine phase adjustment is dependent on the input
frequency and the multiplication/division factors (i.e., it is a function of
the VCO period), with the finest step being equal to an eighth ( × 0.125) of
the VCO period. The minimum phase shift is 1/(8 × fVCO) or
N/(8 × M × fIN). In Cyclone FPGAs, the VCO ranges from 500 to
1,000 MHz. Therefore, phase shifting can be performed with a resolution
range of 1/(8 × 1,000 MHz) to 1/(8 × 500 MHz), which is 125 to 250 ps in
time units.
Because there are eight VCO phase taps, the maximum step size is 45°.
Smaller steps are possible, depending on the multiplication and division
ratio necessary on the output clock port. The equation to determine the
precision of the phase shifting in degrees is 45° divided by the post-scale
counter value. For example, if you have an input clock of 125 MHz with
× 1, the post-scale counter G0 is 3. Therefore, the smallest phase shift step
is (45°/3 = 15°) and possible phase-shift values would be multiples of 15°.
This type of phase shift provides the highest precision since it is the least
sensitive to process, voltage and temperature variation.
Programmable Duty Cycle
The programmable duty cycle feature allows you to set the duty cycle of
the PLL clock outputs. The duty cycle is the ratio of the clock output
high/low time to the total clock cycle time, which is expressed as a
percentage of high time. This feature is supported on all three PLL
post-scale counters (G0, G1, and E).
The duty cycle is set by using a low- and high-time count setting for the
post-scale counters. The Quartus II software uses the input frequency and
target multiply/divide ratio to select the post-scale counter. The precision
of the duty cycle is determined by the post-scale counter value chosen on
a PLL clock output and is defined as 50% divided by the post-scale
counter value. For example, if the post-scale counter value is 3, the
allowed duty cycle precision would be 50% divided by 3 equaling 16.67%.
Because the altpll megafunction does not accept non-integer values for
the duty cycle values, the allowed duty cycles are 17, 33, 50, and 67%.
Due to hard limitations, you cannot achieve a duty cycle of 84% because
you cannot achieve the closest value to 100% for a given counter value.
However, you can achieve a duty cycle of 84% by choosing a 17% duty
cycle and inverting the PLL clock output. For example, if the G0 counter
is 10, increments of 5% are possible for duty cycle choices between 5 and
90%.
6–10
Preliminary
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May 2008
Hardware Features
External Clock Output
Each PLL supports one single-ended or LVDS external clock output for
general-purpose external clocks, or for source-synchronous transmitters.
The output of the E counter drives the PLL external clock output (e0),
which can only feed to the PLL[2..1]_OUT pins and not to internal
logic. You can use PLL[2..1]_OUT in all three clock feedback modes.
1
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin package, and the EP1C6 PLL2
in the 144-pin package, do not have support for an external clock
output.
The PLL[2..1]_OUT pins are dual-purpose pins, meaning if the pins are
not required by the PLL, they are available for use as general-purpose I/O
pins. The I/O standards supported by the PLL[2..1]_OUT pins are
listed in Table 6–7.
Table 6–7. Supported I/O Standards for Cyclone PLL Pins
I/O Standard
Inclk
PLL[2..1]_OUT (1)
LVTTL
v
v
LVCMOS
v
v
2.5-V
v
v
1.8-V
v
v
1.5-V
v
v
3.3-V PCI
v
v
LVDS (2)
v
v
SSTL-2 Class I
v
v
SSTL-2 Class II
v
v
SSTL-3 Class I
v
v
SSTL-3 Class II
v
v
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
—
v
Notes to Table 6–7:
(1)
(2)
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package and the EP1C6 PLL2 in the
144-pin TQFP package do not support an external clock output.
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package does not support an LVDS input.
Since the pllena and locked signal can be driven by or driven to
general-purpose I/O pins, respectively, they support all Cyclone I/O
standards.
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May 2008
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Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
The Cyclone external clock output pins (PLL[2..1]_OUT) do not have a
separate VCC and GND bank internal to the device. The PLL[2..1]_OUT
pins share a VCCIO bank with neighboring I/O pins. Only the I/O pins in
the same bank have an effect on the PLL[2..1]_OUT pins. Therefore, to
minimize jitter on the PLL[2..1]_OUT pins, I/O pins directly adjacent
to these pins should be either inputs or they should not be used. For more
information about board design guidelines, see “Jitter Considerations”
on page 6–19.
Control Signals
There are four available control signals, pllena, areset, pfdena, and
locked, in Cyclone PLLs that provide added PLL management.
pllena
The PLL enable signal, pllena, enables or disables the PLL. You can
either enable/disable a single PLL (by connecting pllena port
independently) or multiple PLLs (by connecting pllena ports together).
The pllena signal is an active-high signal. When pllena is low, the PLL
clock output ports are driven to logic low and the PLL loses lock. All PLL
counters, including gated lock counter return to default state. When
pllena goes high again, the PLL relocks and resynchronizes to the input
clock. Therefore, pllena is an active-high signal. In Cyclone FPGAs, you
can feed the pllena port from internal logic or any general-purpose I/O
pin because there is no dedicated pllena pin. This feature offers added
flexibility, since each PLL can have its own pllena control circuitry, or
both PLLs can share the same pllena circuitry. The pllena signal is
optional, and when it is not enabled in the software, the port is internally
tied to VCC.
areset
The PLL areset signal is the reset or resynchronization input for each PLL.
The areset signal should be asserted every time the PLL loses lock to
guarantee correct phase relationship between the PLL input and output
clocks. Users should include the areset signal in designs where phase
relationship between input and output clocks need to be maintained after
a loss of lock condition. The areset signal is an active high signal and,
when driven high, the PLL counters reset, clearing the PLL output and
causing the PLL to lose lock. The clock outputs of the PLL are driven to
ground as long as areset is active. When areset transitions low, the
PLL will resynchronize to its input clock as the PLL relocks. If the target
VCO frequency is below this nominal frequency, the PLL clock output
frequency will start at a higher value than desired during the lock
process. In this case, Altera recommends monitoring the gated locked
signal to ensure the PLL is fully in lock before enabling the clock outputs
6–12
Preliminary
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May 2008
Clock Feedback Modes
from the PLL. Cyclone FPGAs can drive this PLL input signal from LEs
or any general-purpose I/O pin. The areset signal is optional. When it
is not enabled in the Quartus II software, the port is internally tied to
GND.
pfdena
The pfdena signal controls the PFD output in the PLL with a
programmable gate. If you disable the PFD by driving areset low, the
VCO operates at its last set control voltage and frequency value with
some long-term drift to a lower frequency. The VCO frequency can drift
up to +/- 5% over 25 us. Even though the PLL clock outputs continue to
toggle regardless of the input clock, the PLL could lose lock. The system
continues running when the PLL goes out of lock, or if the input clock is
disabled. Because the last locked output frequency does not change for
some time, you can use the pfdena port as a shutdown or cleanup
function when a reliable input clock is no longer available. By
maintaining this frequency, the system has time to store its current
settings before shutting down. If the pfdena signal goes high again, the
PLL relocks and resynchronizes to the input clock. Therefore, the pfdena
pin is an active-high signal. You can drive the pfdena input signal by any
general-purpose I/O pin, or from internal logic. This signal is optional,
and when it is not enabled in the software, the port is internally tied to
VCC.
locked
When the locked output is at a logic-high level, this level indicates a
stable PLL clock output in phase with the PLL reference input clock.
Without any additional circuitry, the locked port may toggle as the PLL
begins tracking the reference clock. The locked port of the PLL can feed
any general-purpose I/O pin and/or internal logic. This locked signal
is optional, but is useful in monitoring the PLL lock process.
Whenever the PLL loses lock for any reason (be it excessive inclk jitter,
power supply noise, etc.), the PLL must be reset with the areset signal
to guarantee correct phase relationship between the PLL output clocks. If
the phase relationship between the input clock versus output clock, and
between different output clocks from the PLL is not important in your
design, the PLL need not be reset.
Clock Feedback
Modes
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Cyclone PLLs support three feedback modes: normal, zero delay buffer,
and no compensation. Unlike other Altera device families, Cyclone PLLs
do not have support for external feedback mode. All three supported
6–13
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
clock feedback modes allow for multiplication/division, phase shifting,
and programmable duty cycle. The following sections give a brief
description of each mode.
1
The phase relationship shown in Figure 6–4 through 6–6 are for
the default phase shift setting of 0°. Changing the phase-shift
setting will change the relationships.
Normal Mode
In normal mode, the PLL phase aligns the input reference clock with the
clock signal at the ports of the registers in the logic array or the IOE to
compensate for the internal global clock network delay. In the altpll
MegaWizard Plug-In Manager, you can define which internal clock
output from the PLL (c0 or c1) should be compensated.
If the external clock output (PLL[2..1]_OUT) is used in this mode, there
will be a phase shift with respect to the clock input pin. Similarly, if you
use the internal PLL clock outputs to drive general-purpose I/O pins,
there will be a phase shift with respect to the clock input pin.
Figure 6–4 shows an example waveform of the PLL clocks’ phase
relationship in normal mode.
Figure 6–4. Phase Relationship Between PLL Clocks in Normal Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL inclk
PLL clock at the
register clock port
External PLL clock outputs (1)
Note to Figure 6–4:
(1)
6–14
Preliminary
The external clock output can lead or lag the PLL clock signals.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Clock Feedback Modes
Zero Delay Buffer Mode
The clock signal on the PLL external clock output pin (PLL[2..1]_OUT)
is phase-aligned with the PLL input clock pin for zero delay. If you use the
c[1..0] ports to drive internal clock ports, there will be a phase shift
with respect to the input clock pin. Figure 6–5 shows an example
waveform of the PLL clocks’ phase relationship in zero delay buffer
mode.
Figure 6–5. Phase Relationship Between PLL Clocks in Zero Delay Buffer Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL inclk
PLL clock at the
register clock port
External PLL clock outputs
at the output pin
No Compensation
In this mode, the PLL does not compensate for any clock networks, which
leads to better jitter performance because the clock feedback into the PFD
does not pass through as much circuitry. Both the PLL internal and
external clock outputs are phase shifted with respect to the PLL clock
input. Figure 6–6 shows an example waveform of the PLL clocks’ phase
relationship in no compensation mode.
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May 2008
6–15
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 6–6. Phase Relationship Between PLL Clocks in No Compensation
Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL inclk
PLL clock at the
Register clock port (1)
External PLL clock outputs
Note to Figure 6–6:
(1)
Pins
Internal clocks fed by the PLL are in phase alignment with each other.
Table 6–8 describes the Cyclone PLL-related physical pins and their
functionality.
Table 6–8. Cyclone PLL Pins (Part 1 of 2)
Pin Name
Description
CLK0
Single-ended or LVDS p-pin that can drive the inclk0 port of PLL1.
CLK1 (1)
Single-ended or LVDS n-pin that can drive the inclk0 port of PLL1.
CLK2
Single-ended or LVDS p-pin that can drive the inclk0 port of PLL2.
CLK3 (1)
Single-ended or LVDS n-pin that can drive the inclk0 port of PLL2.
PLL1_OUTp (2)
PLL1_OUTn (2)
Single-ended or LVDS pins driven by the e0 port from PLL1. If not used by the PLL,
these are available as general-purpose I/O pins.
PLL2_OUTp (2)
PLL2_OUTn (2)
Single-ended or LVDS pins driven by the e0 port from PLL2. If not used by the PLL,
these are available as general-purpose I/O pins.
VCCA_PLL1 (3)
Analog power for PLL1. Even if the PLL is not used, you must connect this pin to 1.5 V.
GNDA_PLL1 (4)
Analog ground for PLL1. You can connect this pin to the GND plane on the board.
VCCA_PLL2 (3)
Analog power for PLL2. Even if the PLL is not used, you must connect this pin to 1.5 V.
6–16
Preliminary
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May 2008
Board Layout
Table 6–8. Cyclone PLL Pins (Part 2 of 2)
Pin Name
Description
GNDA_PLL2 (4)
Analog ground for PLL2. You can connect this pin to the GND plane on the board.
GNDG_PLL1 (5)
Guard ring ground for PLL1. You can connect this pin to the GND plane on the board.
GNDG_PLL2 (5)
Guard ring ground for PLL2. You can connect this pin to the GND plane on the board.
Notes to Table 6–8:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package does not have dedicated clock pins CLK1 and CLK3.
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package, and the EP1C6 PLL2 in the 144-pin TQFP package do not support
an external clock output.
Refer to “Board Layout” on page 6–17 for filtering and other recommendations.
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package, and the EP1C6 PLL2 in the 144-pin TQFP package do not have a
separate GNDA_PLL pin. They are internally tied to GND.
The Guard ring power (VCCG_PLL) is tied internally to VCCINT.
Board Layout
Cyclone PLLs contain analog components that are embedded in a digital
device. These analog components have separate power and ground pins
to provide immunity against noise generated by the digital components.
These separate VCC and GND pins are used to isolate circuitry and
improve noise resistance.
VCCA and GNDA
Each PLL has separate VCC and GND pairs for their analog circuitry. The
analog circuit power and ground pin for each PLL is called VCCA_PLL#
and GNDA_PLL# (# represents the PLL number). Even if the PLL is not
used, the VCCA power must be connected to a 1.5-V supply. The power
connected to VCCA must be isolated from the power to the rest of the
Cyclone FPGA, or any other digital device on the board. The following
sections describe three different methods for isolating VCCA.
Separate VCCA Power Plane
The designer of a mixed-signal system would have already partitioned
the system into analog and digital sections, each with its own power
planes on the board. In this case, you can connect VCCA to the analog 1.5-V
power plane.
Partitioned VCCA Island within VCCINT Plane
Most systems using Altera devices are fully digital, so there is not a
separate analog power plane readily available on the board. Adding new
planes to the board may be expensive. Therefore, you can create islands
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May 2008
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Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
for VCCA_PLL. The dielectric boundary that creates the island is
approximately 25 mils thick. Figure 6–7 shows a partitioned plane within
VCCINT for VCCA.
Figure 6–7. VCCINT Plane Partitioned for VCCA Island
Thick VCCA Traces
Due to board restraints, it may not be possible to partition a VCCA island.
Instead, run a thick trace from the power supply to each of the VCCA pins.
The traces should be at least 20 mils thick.
In all cases, each VCCA pin must be filtered with a decoupling circuit
shown in Figure 6–8. You must place a ferrite bead and a 10-μF tantalum
parallel capacitor where the power enters the board. Choose a ferrite bead
that exhibits high impedance at frequencies of 50 MHz or higher. Each
VCCA pin must be decoupled with a 0.1-μF and a 0.001-μF parallel
6–18
Preliminary
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May 2008
Board Layout
combination of ceramic capacitors located as close as possible to the
Cyclone FPGA. You can connect the GNDA pins directly to the same GND
plane as the digital GND of the device.
Figure 6–8. PLL Power Schematic for Cyclone PLLs
Ferrite Bead
1.5-V Supply
10 μF
GND
PLL<#>_VCCA
-1 μF
.001 μF
PLL<#>_GNDA
GND
GND
PLL<#>_GNDG
GND
Cyclone Device
Repeat for each PLL power
and ground set
f
For more information about board design guidelines, refer to
AN 75: High-Speed Board Designs.
Jitter Considerations
If the input clocks have any low-frequency jitter (below the PLL
bandwidth), the PLL attempts to track it, which increases the jitter seen at
the PLL clock output. To minimize this effect, avoid placing noisy signals
in the same VCCIO bank as those that power the PLL clock input buffer.
This is only important if the PLL input clock is assigned to 3.3-V or 2.5-V
LVTTL or LVCMOS I/O standards. With these I/O standards, VCCIO
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May 2008
6–19
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
powers the input clock buffer. Therefore, any noise on this VCCIO supply
can affect jitter performance. For all other I/O standards the input buffers
are powered by VCCINT.
Because Cyclone external clock output pins (PLL[2..1]_OUT) do not
have a separate VCC and GND bank, you should avoid placing noisy
output signals directly next to these pins. Therefore, Altera recommends
that PLL[2..1]_OUT neighboring I/O pins should be either inputs pins
or not used at all. If noisy outputs are placed next to the PLL[2..1]_OUT
pins, they could inject noise through ground bounce or VCC sag and
mutual pin inductance, which would result in worse jitter performance
on the PLL[2..1]_OUT pins.
Additionally, you should take into consideration the number of
simultaneously switching outputs within the same VCCIO bank as the
PLL[2..1]_OUT pins. Altera recommends that you switch as few
outputs simultaneously in the same direction as possible in these VCCIO
banks. Also, if you have switching outputs in the same VCCIO bank as the
PLL[2..1]_OUT pins, Altera recommends that you use the low current
strength and/or slow slew rate options on those output pins as they will
help to improve the jitter performance.
Specifications
Refer to the DC and Switching Characteristics chapter of the Cyclone Device
Handbook for Cyclone FPGA PLL specifications.
Software
Support
Support for Cyclone PLLs is available in the Quartus II software by using
the altpll megafunction. The following section describes how the
altpll megafunction enables the various Cyclone PLL features and
options. This section includes the megafunction symbol, the input and
output ports, a description of the MegaWizard Plug-In Manager options,
and example MegaWizard screen shots.
Quartus II altpll Megafunction
Figure 6–9 shows the altpll megafunction symbol in the Quartus II
software.
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Preliminary
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May 2008
Software Support
Figure 6–9. altpll Megafunction Symbol Targeted for Cyclone FPGAs
f
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Refer to Quartus II Help for the altpll megafunction AHDL functional
prototypes (applicable to Verilog HDL), VHDL component declaration,
and parameter descriptions.
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
altpll Input Ports
Table 6–9 shows the input ports of the altpll megafunction and
describes their function.
Table 6–9. Input Ports of the altpll Megafunction
Port Name
Required
Description
inclk0 (1)
Yes
The input clock port that drives the PLL.
pllena (2)
No
pllena is an active-high signal, which acts as a combined enable and reset
signal for the PLL. You can use it for enabling or disabling one or both PLLs.
When this signal is driven low, the PLL clock output ports are driven to GND and
the PLL loses lock. Once this signal is driven high again, the lock process begins
and the PLL re-synchronizes to its input reference clock. The pllena port can
be driven from internal logic or any general-purpose I/O pin.
areset (2)
No
areset is an active-high signal, which resets all PLL counters to their initial
values. When this signal is driven high, the PLL resets its counters, clears the
PLL outputs, and loses lock. Once this signal is driven low again, the lock process
begins and the PLL re-synchronizes to its input reference clock. You can drive the
areset port from internal logic or any general-purpose I/O pin.
pfdena (2)
No
pfdena is an active-high signal, which enables or disables the up/down output
signals from the PFD. When pfdena is driven low, the PFD is disabled, while the
VCO continues to operate. PLL clock outputs continue to toggle regardless of the
input clock, but can experience some long-term drift. Because the output clock
frequency does not change for some time, you can use the pfdena port as a
shutdown or cleanup function when a reliable input clock is no longer available.
You can drive the pfdena port from internal logic or any general-purpose I/O
pin.
Notes to Table 6–9:
(1)
(2)
The inclk0 port to the PLL must be driven by the dedicated clock input pin(s).
See “Control Signals” on page 6–12 for further details.
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Software Support
altpll Output Ports
Table 6–10 shows the output ports of the altpll megafunction and
describes their function.
Table 6–10. Output Ports of the altpll Megafunction
Port Name
Required
Description
c[1..0] (1) No
Clock output of the PLL that drives the internal global clock network.
e0 (1)
No
Clock output that feeds the external clock output pins, PLL[2..1]_OUT.
locked (2)
No
Gives the status of the PLL lock. When the PLL is locked, this port drives logic
high. When the PLL is out of lock, this port drives logic low. The locked port can
pulse high and low during the PLL lock process.
Notes to Table 6–10:
(1)
(2)
Either the internal or external clock output of the PLL must be selected.
See “Control Signals” on page 6–12 for further details.
MegaWizard Customization
You can use the MegaWizard Plug-In Manager to set the altpll
megafunction options for each PLL instance in your design.
f
If you instantiate the altpll megafunction without using the
MegaWizard Plug-In Manager, search for “altpll” in the Quartus II Help
for a list of the altpll parameters.
In the MegaWizard Plug-In Manager, select the altpll megafunction in
the I/O directory from the Available Megafunctions dialog box (see
Figure 6–10). The altclklock megafunction is also available from the
Quartus II software for backward compatibility, but instantiates the new
altpll megafunction when targeting Cyclone FPGAs.
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May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 6–10. altpll Megafunction Selection in the MegaWizard Plug-In Manager
The altpll MegaWizard Plug-In Manager has separate pages that apply
to Cyclone PLLs. The MegaWizard will gray-out options that are
unavailable in Cyclone PLLs. During compilation, theQuartus II
Compiler verifies the altpll parameters selected against the available
PLLs, and any PLL or input clock location assignments.
At the top right-hand corner of each page of the altpll MegaWizard
Plug-In Manager, there is a jump to page drop-down list (see
Figure 6–11). This drop-down list allows you to jump to any particular
altpll MegaWizard page and set those options.
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Software Support
Figure 6–11. Jump to Page Drop-Down List in the altpll MegaWizard Plug-In
MegaWizard Page Description
This section describes the options available on the altpll MegaWizard
pages. Each of the MegaWizard pages are shown. Tables 6–11 through
6–13 describe the features or settings on that page that apply to Cyclone
PLLs. Use these tables, along with the hardware descriptions of the PLL
features, to determine appropriate settings for your PLL instance.
You can use the General/Modes (Page 1) of the altpll MegaWizard
Plug-In Manager for selecting the target device family, clock input
frequency, general control signal selection, and clock feedback operation
mode (see Figure 6–12 and Table 6–11).
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May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 6–12. altpll MegaWizard Plug-In Manager (Page 1)
Table 6–11. altpll MegaWizard Plug-In Options Page 1 (Part 1 of 2)
Function
Description
Which device family will you be
using?
This chapter explains all altpll options that apply when Cyclone is the
target device family selected.
What is the frequency of the
inclock0 input
The frequency for the PLL input clock, inclock0.
Create an pllena input to
selectively enable the PLL
Creates a pllena port for this PLL instance. See Table 6–9 for pllena port
description.
Create an areset input to
asynchronously reset the PLL
Creates a areset port for this PLL instance. See Table 6–9 for areset port
description.
Create an pfdena input to
selectively enable the PFD
Creates a pfdena port for this PLL instance. See Table 6–9 for pfdena port
description.
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Table 6–11. altpll MegaWizard Plug-In Options Page 1 (Part 2 of 2)
Function
Description
Use the feedback path inside the This option sets the OPERATION_MODE parameter to either normal, zero
PLL
delay buffer, or no compensation mode.
In normal mode, the PLL feedback path comes from a global clock network,
which minimizes the clock delay to registers for that specific PLL clock output.
You can specify which PLL output is compensated for by using the
COMPENSATE_CLOCK parameter.
In zero delay buffer mode, the PLL feedback path is confined to the dedicated
PLL external output pin. The clock signal driven off-chip on the PLL_OUT pin
is phase aligned with the PLL clock input for a minimized delay between clock
input and external clock output. If the PLL is also used to drive the internal
clock network, a corresponding phase shift of that clock network results.
In no compensation mode, the PLL feedback path is confined to the PLL loop;
it does not come from the global clock network or an external source. There
is no clock network compensation, but this mode minimizes jitter on clocks.
This mode may lead to positive hold times on IOE registers; you can use
manual phase shifting to compensate for positive hold times.
For more information, see “Clock Feedback Modes” on page 6–13.
Which output clock will be
compensated?
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May 2008
Indicates which output port of the PLL is compensated. For normal mode,
you can select c0 or c1.
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
You can use Scan/Lock (Page 2) for selecting the locked output port (see
Figure 6–13 and Table 6–12).
Figure 6–13. altpll MegaWizard Plug-In Manager (Page 2)
Table 6–12. altpll MegaWizard Plug-In Options Page 2
Function
Create "locked" output
Description
Creates a locked output port to indicate PLL lock. See locked port description
in Table 6–10.
The options on the next two pages of the MegaWizard Plug-In Manager,
(Pages 3 to 4, titled Bandwidth/SS and Clock Switchover) are not
supported in Cyclone FPGAs.
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Software Support
Figure 6–14. altpll MegaWizard Plug-In Manager Pages 5 of 8
The last 3 pages of the MegaWizard Plug-In Manager (Pages 5 to 7) allow
you to set the multiplication/division factors, phase shift, and duty cycle
for each PLL output port (see Figure 6–14 and Table 6–13).
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May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Each page represents the settings for one PLL clock output port.
Table 6–13 describes the options for Pages 5 to 8.
Table 6–13. altpll MegaWizard Plug-In Options Pages 5 of 8
Function
Description
Clock multiplication factor
(ratio)
Specifies the clock multiplication for this PLL output. The multiplication factor
cannot be greater than 32.
Clock division factor (ratio)
Specifies the clock division for this PLL output.
Clock phase shift (Ph)
Sets the programmable phase shift for the clock output with respect to the PLL
clock output that is compensated. The equation to determine the precision of the
phase shifting in degrees is (45° divided by the post-scale counter value).
Therefore, the maximum step size is 45°, and smaller steps are possible,
depending on the multiplication/division ratio necessary on the clock output port.
For example, if you have an input clock of 125 MHz with × 1, the post-scale
counter G0 is 3. Therefore, the smallest phase shift step is 15°, and additional
phase shifting is in 15° increments.
The up/down buttons cycle through the possible phase shift settings with the
default M and post-scale dividers that the MegaWizard Pug-In Manager has
chosen for your target frequency and multiplication/division ratio. It is possible to
get other granularities of phase shifts if you manually enter a number into the
phase shift field. For example, you can override the MegaWizard-chosen values
and manually enter 7.5°. The MegaWizard Plug-In Manager verifies this is
possible by using M = 6 and G0 = 6. The MegaWizard Plug-In Manager tries to
achieve the closest phase shift possible. For example, if you enter 10°, the
MegaWizard Plug-In Manager verifies that 9° is possible by using M = 5 and
G0 = 5.
For more information, see “Phase Shifting” on page 6–9.
Clock duty cycle (DC)
Specifies the clock duty cycle of the PLL clock output.
The equation to determine the precision of the duty cycle is (50% divided by the
post-scale counter value). For example, if post-scale counter G0 is 3, the allowed
duty cycles are 50% divided by 3, equaling 16.67%. Because the altpll
megafunction does not accept non-integer values for the duty cycle values, the
allowed duty cycles are 17, 33, 50, and 67%. Due to hard limitations, a duty cycle
of 84% cannot be achieved because the closest value to 100% cannot be
achieved for a given counter value. However, you can achieve a duty cycle of 84%
by choosing a 17% duty cycle and inverting the PLL clock output. Use the
up/down buttons to cycle through all possible settings.
For more information, see “Programmable Duty Cycle” on page 6–10.
Page 8 is the summary page and tells you what files the MegaWizard
Plug-In Manager will create (see Figure 6–15).
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1
You can click Finish at anytime while in the MegaWizard PlugIn Manager to update the files.
Figure 6–15. altpll MegaWizard Plug-In Manager Page 8
Compilation Report
During compilation, an information message displays whether the
requested multiplication/division factors, and/or phase shift, and/or
duty cycle were achieved. If you enter an invalid multiplication/division
ratio, compilation fails, and the Quartus II software displays an error
message. If you enter an invalid phase shift or duty cycle value, the
compilation proceeds, and you will receive an information message
displaying the best alternative values chosen by the Quartus II software.
The Resource Section of the compilation report provides two PLL
reports: the PLL Summary and the PLL Usage reports. The PLL
Summary provides information on each PLL’s parameters (see
Figure 6–16). The PLL Summary is column-based in the report file, where
each column represents a different PLL instance. Table 6–14 lists and
explains the parameters shown in the PLL Summary report. PLL
properties not listed in Table 6–14 do not apply to Cyclone PLLs.
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May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 6–16. PLL Summary Report
Table 6–14. PLL Summary in Compilation Report File (Part 1 of 2)
PLL Property
Description
PLL mode
Clock feedback mode
Compensate clock
Indicates which PLL clock output (clock0, clock1, or extclock0) port is
compensated
Input frequency 0
Clock input frequency for inclk0
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Table 6–14. PLL Summary in Compilation Report File (Part 2 of 2)
PLL Property
Description
Nominal VCO frequency
Shows the VCO frequency; fVCO = fIN × M/N
Freq min lock
Shows the minimum PLL input clock frequency for which the current combination
of M/N still provides a valid VCO lock
Freq max lock
Shows the maximum PLL input clock frequency for which the current combination
of M/N still provides a valid VCO lock
M value
M counter value
N value
N counter value
The PLL Usage report shows the breakdown information for each PLL
clock output (see Figure 6–17). This report is categorized by PLL clock
output ports, such that each row represents a different PLL clock output
used in your design. Table 6–15 lists and explains the parameters shown
in the PLL Usage report file in a row format. PLL parameters not listed in
Table 6–15 do not apply to Cyclone PLLs.
Figure 6–17. PLL Usage Report
Timing Analysis
Table 6–15 shows the usage in the compilation report file.
Table 6–15. PLL Usage in Compilation Report File (Part 1 of 2)
PLL Parameter
Description
Name
Indicates the PLL instance name and clock output reported.
Output Clock
Indicates the PLL clock output (clock0, clock1, or extclock0) for which the
parameter information in this row applies. This is the clock port specified in the
MegaWizard Plug-In Manager (c0, c1, e0).
Mult
Overall multiplication ratio.
Div
Overall division ratio.
Output Frequency
Output frequency for this output clock.
Phase Shift
Achieved phase shift in degrees and units of time (can differ from user-entered
value).
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May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 6–15. PLL Usage in Compilation Report File (Part 2 of 2)
PLL Parameter
Description
Duty Cycle
Duty cycle for this clock output.
Counter
Post-scale counter used for this clock output, which counter (G0, G1, E0) feeds
the clock output.
Counter Value
Value of post-scale counter.
High/Low
High- and low-time counts that make up the counter value. The ratio of high- and
low-counts is directly proportional to the duty cycle.
Initial
Initial value for this post-scale counter (achieves the coarse granularity for phase
shifting). Specifies the initial number of VCO cycles before starting the counter.
VCO Tap
VCO tap ranges from 0 to 7 (achieves fine granularity for phase shift in units of
1/8 of the VCO period).
The register-to-register timing for each PLL clock output that drives the
logic array is reported with slack. The timing analysis section of the report
file provides slack information in a clock requirement line for each PLL
clock output.
You can derive fMAX numbers from the slack reporting. The
microparameters tCO, tSU, and the path delay are given for a List Path
command on the Actual Maximum P2P timing in the Slack Report
window. You can add and invert these to find the fMAX for that path. See
the following equation:
fMAX = 1/(<register to register delay> - <clock skew delay> +
<micro setup delay> + <micro clock to output delay>)
During timing analysis for Cyclone designs using PLLs, the project clock
settings override the PLL input clock frequency and duty cycle settings.
It is important to note the following:
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■
A warning during compilation reports that the project clock settings
override the PLL clock settings.
■
The project clock setting overrides the PLL clock settings for timingdriven compilation. When you compile a design with timing-driven
compilation turned on, you are overconstraining the design so that
the fitter can give you a better fMAX performance. For example, if the
PLL is set to output a 150 MHz clock, you can set a project clock
setting for 170 MHz so that the fitter tries to achieve a design
performance of 170 MHz.
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May 2008
Software Support
■
The Compiler checks the lock frequency range of the PLL. If the
frequency specified in the project clock settings is outside the lock
frequency range, the PLL clock settings will not be overridden.
■
Overriding the PLL clock settings only changes the timing
requirements; it does not change the overall multiplication/division
and phase delay on each clock output of the PLL. The MegaWizard
Plug-In Manager does not use the project clock settings to determine
the altpll parameters.
■
Performing a timing analysis without recompiling your design does
not change the programming files. You must recompile your design
to update the programming files.
■
A Default Required fMAX setting does not override the PLL clock
settings. Only individual clock settings will override the PLL clock
settings.
This capability is useful when you have configured a Cyclone device and
want to see if your timing requirements are met when you feed the PLL a
different input clock than what is specified for the PLL parameters.
Therefore, this feature allows you to overwrite the PLL input clock
frequency settings for timing analysis, meaning you do not have to resynthesize or re-fit your design. The following procedure allows you to
override the PLL input frequency setting and re-generate timing analysis.
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May 2008
1.
Choose Timing Settings (Project menu).
2.
Click on the Clock Settings tab.
3.
Under Specify circuit frequency as, select Settings for individual
clock signals.
4.
Click New.
5.
In the New Clock Settings dialog box, type a <name> for the new
clock settings in the Clock settings box.
6.
If you want to specify timing requirements for an absolute clock,
follow these steps:
a.
Under Relationship to other clock settings, select
Independent of other clock settings.
b.
In the Required fMAX box, type the required frequency (fMAX)
of the clock signal and select a time unit from the list.
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
c.
In the Duty Cycle list, specify the required duty cycle for the
clock.
1
Cyclone PLLs accept input clocks with 40 to 60% duty cycle.
d.
If you want to include external delays to and from device pins
in the fMAX calculations, turn on Include external delays to and
from device pins in fMAX calculations.
e.
Click OK.
7.
Click OK to close the Timing Settings window.
8.
Open the Assignment Organizer dialog box (Tools menu).
9.
Click on the By Node tab.
10. Under Mode, select Edit specific entity & node settings for.
11. If necessary, copy a specific PLL input clock pin name to the Name
box using the Node Finder dialog box.
12. Under Assignment Categories, click the + icon next to Timing.
13. Click on Click here to add a new assignment.
14. Under Assignment, select Clock Settings in the Name list, and
select the <name> of the clock settings you created in step 5.
15. Under Stored in assignments for, select This instance only, This
instance in all occurrences of its parent entity, or Other.
16. Click Add.
17. Click OK or Apply.
18. Select Start Timing Analysis (Processing Menu).
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Software Support
Simulation
The altpll megafunction supports behavioral and timing simulation in
both the Quartus II software and supported third-party simulation tools.
You can simulate all digital aspects of the PLL, but none of the analog
aspects. Simulation supports all control signals and clock outputs.
Table 6–16 explains the simulation support for altpll.
Table 6–16. altpll Simulation Support for Cyclone FPGAs
Feature
Simulation Support
pllena
The pllena signal is modeled. When this signal is driven low, the PLL loses lock
and the PLL clock outputs are driven to logic low.
areset
The areset signal is modeled. When this signal is driven high, the PLL loses
lock and the PLL clock outputs are driven to logic low. Frequency over-shoot on
the PLL clock outputs is not modeled.
pfdena
The pfdena control signal is modeled. When this signal is driven low, the PLL’s
locked output is undefined and the PLL clock outputs continue to toggle at their
last set frequency. The finite frequency long-term drift of the VCO is not modeled.
locked
The locked signal is modeled for a high-bandwidth condition only. The PLL
locks or relocks within 2 to 10 cycles during simulation, and does not necessarily
reflect the real lock time.
Frequency input change
If the input frequency of the PLL is changed in simulation, the model checks that
fIN × (M/N) is within the VCO frequency range and loses lock if outside the VCO
operating range.
Jitter
Jitter is not modeled in simulation.
You can use the altpll behavioral model to simulate the Cyclone PLLs.
The Cyclone behavioral model instantiation must follow the same
guidelines and restrictions as the design entry. The altpll behavioral
and timing models do not simulate jitter, lock time, or VCO drift.
The behavioral models for altpll reside in the \quartus\eda\sim_lib
directory. ALTERA_MF.VHD contains the VHDL behavioral models and
can be used for Cyclone designs that instantiate altpll. ALTERA_MF.v
contains the Verilog HDL behavioral models. The behavioral model does
not perform parameter error checking, and you must specify only valid
values.
1
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May 2008
You must set the resolution of the simulator to units of pico
seconds (ps) to simulate the model successfully. A larger
resolution rounds off the calculations, providing incorrect
results.
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Global Clock
Network
Cyclone FPGAs have eight global clock networks. The four dedicated
clock input pins (CLK[3..0]), eight dual-purpose clock pins
(DPCLK[7..0]), and PLL clock outputs can drive the global clock
networks. In addition, internal logic for internally-generated global
clocks and asynchronous clears, clock enables, or other control signals
with large fanout can drive the global clock networks.
The eight global clock lines that comprise the global clock network drive
throughout the entire device. You can use the global clock network as
clock sources for all device resources, including IOEs, logic elements
(LEs), and memory blocks. You can also use global clock resources for
control signals, such as clock enables and synchronous or asynchronous
clears fed from external pins.
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May 2008
Global Clock Network
Figure 6–18 shows the global clock network resources.
Figure 6–18. Global Clock Generation
DPCLK2
DPCLK3
8
Global Clock
Network
DPCLK4
(3) DPCLK1
From Core
Logic
From Core
Logic
CLK0
(2) CLK1
CLK2
PLL1
2
4
4
2
(3)DPCLK0
PLL2 (1)
CLK3 (2)
DPCLK5(3)
DPCLK7
DPCLK6
Notes to Figure 6–18:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The EP1C3 device contains PLL1 only.
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package does not have dedicated clock pins CLK1 and CLK3.
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package has five DPCLK pins (DPCLK2, DPCLK3, DPCLK4, DPCLK6, and
DPCLK7). For more information, see "“Dual-Purpose Clock I/O Pins” on page 6–40.
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Dedicated Clock Input Pins
Cyclone FPGAs have up to four dedicated clock input pins (CLK[3..0],
two on the left and right side of the device. You can use the CLK[3..0]
pins to drive the PLLs, or directly drive them onto the global clock
network. Table 6–17 shows which clock pins drive which global clock
network.
Table 6–17. Dedicated Clock Input Pin Connections to Global Clock Network
Clock
Input Pin
GCLK0
GCLK1
GCLK2
GCLK3
GCLK4
GCLK5
GCLK6
GCLK7
CLK0
v
—
v
—
—
—
—
—
CLK1 (1)
—
v
—
v
—
—
—
—
CLK2
—
—
—
—
v
—
v
—
CLK3 (1)
—
—
—
—
—
v
—
v
Note to Table 6–17:
(1)
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package does not have dedicated clock pins CLK1 and CLK3.
Dual-Purpose Clock I/O Pins
Cyclone FPGAs can have up to eight dual-purpose clock pins,
DPCLK[7..0] (two on each side of the device). These dual-purpose pins
can connect to the global clock network. You can use the DPCLK[7..0]
pins for high fanout control signals, such as asynchronous clears, presets,
clock enables, or protocol control signals (e.g., TRDY and IRDY for PCI, or
DQS signals for external memory interfaces). These pins are also available
as general-purpose I/O pins, meaning they can be inputs, outputs, or
bidirectional pins. Table 6–18 shows which dual-purpose clock pins drive
which global clock network in Cyclone FPGAs.
Table 6–18. Dual-Purpose Clock I/O Connections to the Global Clock Network (Part 1 of 2)
DualPurpose
Clock Pin
GCLK0
GCLK1
GCLK2
GCLK3
GCLK4
GCLK5
GCLK6
GCLK7
DPCLK0 (1)
—
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
DPCLK1 (1)
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
—
DPCLK2
v
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
DPCLK3
—
—
—
—
v
—
—
—
DPCLK4
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
—
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May 2008
Global Clock Network
Table 6–18. Dual-Purpose Clock I/O Connections to the Global Clock Network (Part 2 of 2)
DualPurpose
Clock Pin
GCLK0
GCLK1
GCLK2
GCLK3
GCLK4
GCLK5
GCLK6
GCLK7
DPCLK5 (1)
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
DPCLK6
—
—
—
—
—
v
—
—
DPCLK7
—
v
—
—
—
—
—
—
Note to Table 6–18:
(1)
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package does not have the DPCLK0, DPCLK1, or DPCLK5 pins.
Combined Sources
Table 6–19 shows which combined sources drive which global clock
network.
Table 6–19. Global Clock Network Sources (Part 1 of 2)
Source
GCLK0
GCLK1
GCLK2
GCLK3
GCLK4
GCLK5
GCLK6
GCLK7
PLL1 G0
—
v
v
—
—
—
—
—
PLL1 G1
v
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
PLL2 G0 (1)
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
—
PLL2 G1 (1)
—
—
—
—
v
—
—
v
CLK0
v
—
v
—
—
—
—
—
Dedicated CLK1 (2)
Clock
Input Pins CLK2
—
v
—
v
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
—
v
—
CLK3 (2)
—
—
—
—
—
v
—
v
PLL
Counter
Outputs
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May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 6–19. Global Clock Network Sources (Part 2 of 2)
Source
GCLK0
GCLK1
GCLK2
GCLK3
GCLK4
GCLK5
GCLK6
GCLK7
DPCLK0
—
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
DPCLK1 (3)
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
—
DPCLK2
v
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
DualDPCLK3
Purpose
Clock Pins DPCLK4
—
—
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
—
DPCLK5
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
DPCLK6
—
—
—
—
—
v
—
—
DPCLK7
—
v
—
—
—
—
—
—
Notes to Table 6–19:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The EP1C3 device only has PLL1.
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package does not have dedicated clock pins CLK1 and CLK3.
The EP1C3 device does not have DPCLK1.
In the Cyclone FPGA, there are eight distinct dedicated global clock
networks. Multiplexers are used with these clocks to form six-bit buses to
drive LAB row clocks, column IOE clocks, or row IOE clocks (see
Figure 6–19). Another multiplexer is used at the LAB level to select two of
the six row clocks to feed the LE registers within the LAB.
Figure 6–19. Global Clock Network Multiplexers
6
Global Clock
Network
Column I/O Region
IO_CLK[5..0]
4
Dedicated Clock Inputs [3..0]
8
Dual-Purpose Clock I/Os [7..0]
Clock [7..0]
8
6
Lab Row Clock [5..0]
4
PLL Outputs [3..0]
Core Logic [7..0]
8
6
Row I/O Region
IO_CLK[5..0]
IOE clocks have horizontal (row) and vertical (column) block regions that
are clocked by six I/O clock signals chosen from the eight global clock
resources. Figure 6–20 shows the I/O clock regions.
6–42
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Conclusion
Figure 6–20. I/O Clock Regions
Vertical I/O Region
IO_CLK[5..0]
6
I/O Clock Regions
6
6
6
LAB Row Clocks
IO_CLK[5..0]
LAB Row Clocks
IO_CLK[5..0]
LAB Row Clocks
IO_CLK[5..0]
LAB Row Clocks
IO_CLK[5..0]
LAB Row Clocks
IO_CLK[5..0]
LAB Row Clocks
IO_CLK[5..0]
6
6
6
8
Global Clock
Network
Horizontal
I/O Regions
6
6
LAB Row Clocks
IO_CLK[5..0]
LAB Row Clocks
IO_CLK[5..0]
LAB Row Clocks
IO_CLK[5..0]
LAB Row Clocks
IO_CLK[5..0]
6
6
6
Vertical I/O Region
IO_CLK[5..0]
Conclusion
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Cyclone PLLs provide significant features such as M/(N × post-scale)
multiplication/division, phase shift, and programmable duty cycle for
your cost-sensitive clock synthesis applications. The reduction in clock
delay, and the elimination of clock skew within the device, improves
design speed. Cyclone PLL features simplify board design by running the
internal logic of the device at a faster rate than the input clock frequency.
6–43
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Referenced
Documents
This chapter references the following documents:
Document
Revision History
Table 6–20 shows the revision history for this chapter.
■
■
AN 75: High-Speed Board Designs
DC and Switching Characteristics chapter of the Cyclone Device
Handbook
Table 6–20. Document Revision History
Date and
Document
Version
Changes Made
May 2008
v1.5
Minor textual and style changes. Added “Referenced
Documents” section.
January 2007
v1.4
●
●
●
●
Added document revision history.
Updated information about pllena signal in “Control
Signals” section.
Updated “Zero Delay Buffer Mode” section.
Updated Figure 6–5.
Summary of Changes
—
—
August 2005
v1.3
Minor updates.
—
October 2003
v1.2
Updated phase shift information.
—
July 2003
v1.1
Updated input and output frequency specifications.
—
May 2003
v1.0
Added document to Cyclone Device Handbook.
—
6–44
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Section III. Memory
This section provides information on the M4K embedded memory blocks
internal to Cyclone devices.
It contains the following:
■
Revision History
Altera Corporation
Chapter 7. On-Chip Memory Implementations Using Cyclone
Memory Blocks
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information
on when each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates
section, which appears in the complete handbook.
Part III–1
Preliminary
Revision History
Part III–2
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
7. On-Chip Memory
Implementations Using
Cyclone Memory Blocks
C51007-1.4
Introduction
Cyclone® devices feature embedded memory blocks that can be easily
configured to support a wide range of system requirements. These M4K
memory blocks present a very flexible and fast memory solution that you
can use to provide excellent memory bandwidth and density for a host of
cost-sensitive applications.
You can use M4K memory blocks in various memory modes, including
single-port, simple dual-port, true dual-port (also known as bidirectional
dual-port), shift-register, ROM, and first-in first-out (FIFO) mode. M4K
memory blocks also include advanced features such as support for
byte-enable operation, parity-bit-based error correction, and mixed-port
widths. This chapter describes these modes and other characteristics of
the M4K memory blocks.
M4K Memory
Features
Table 7–1 summarizes the features supported by the M4K memory block.
Table 7–1. Summary of M4K Memory Features (Part 1 of 2)
Performance
Total RAM bits (including parity bits)
Configurations
Altera Corporation
May 2008
250 MHz
4,608
4K × 1
2K × 2
1K × 4
512 × 8
512 × 9
256 × 16
256 × 18
128 × 32
128 × 36 (1)
Parity bits
v
Byte enable
v
Single-port memory
v
Simple dual-port memory
v
True dual-port memory
v
Embedded shift register
v
ROM
v
7–1
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 7–1. Summary of M4K Memory Features (Part 2 of 2)
FIFO buffer
v
Simple dual-port mixed width support
v
True dual-port mixed width support
v
Memory initialization (.mif)
v
Mixed-clock mode
v
Power-up condition
Outputs cleared
Register clears
Input and output registers (2)
Same-port read-during-write
New data available at positive clock edge
Mixed-port read-during-write
Outputs set to unknown or old data
Notes to Table 7–1:
(1)
(2)
The Altera® Quartus® II software will automatically cascade or concatenate
multiple M4K memory blocks to provide deeper or wider memory functions.
Asserting the clear port of the rden and byte-enable registers drives the output
of these registers high.
Table 7–2 shows the memory capacity for M4K memory blocks in each
Cyclone device.
Table 7–2. M4K Memory Distribution in Cyclone Devices
Device
Columns
Blocks
Total RAM Bits
EP1C3
1
13
59,904
EP1C4
1
17
78,336
EP1C6
1
20
92,160
EP1C12
2
52
239,616
EP1C20
2
64
294,912
Parity Bit Support
M4K memory blocks support an optional parity bit for each data byte. Of
the 4,608 bits of storage space available in an M4K block, 512 are available
for use as parity-bit storage. The parity bit, along with logic implemented
in logic elements (LEs), can facilitate parity-checking methods of error
detection to ensure data integrity. You can also use parity-size data words
to store user-specified control bits or as extra data bits to provide support
for 9-bit, 18-bit, or 36-bit wide memories.
7–2
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
M4K Memory Features
Byte-Enable Support
Byte-enable signals can be used to mask the input data so that only
specific bytes in memory are overwritten. The unwritten bytes retain the
data value that was last written to them. The write-enable signal (wren)
is used in conjunction with byte-enable signals (byteena) to control the
M4K block's write operations. The default value for the byteena signal
is high (enabled), in which case no bytes are masked and writing is
controlled only by the wren signals.
Asserting the clear port of the byte-enable register drives the byte-enable
signal to its default high level.
M4K blocks support byte write operations when the write port has a data
width of 16, 18, 32, or 36 bits. Table 7–3 summarizes how byteena
controls which bits are masked.
Table 7–3. Byte Enable for M4K Blocks
Notes (1), (2)
byteena
datain × 18
datain × 36
[0] = 1
[8..0]
[8..0]
[1] = 1
[17..9]
[17..9]
[2] = 1
—
[26..18]
[3] = 1
—
[35..27]
Notes to Table 7–3:
(1)
(2)
Any combination of byte-enable signals is possible.
Byte enables can be used in the same manner with 8-bit words, i.e., in
× 32 modes.
× 16 and
Figure 7–1 shows how both the wren and the byteena signals control
the write operations of the RAM.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
7–3
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 7–1. Byte-Enable Operation Functional Waveform
inclock
wren
a0
address
an
data_in
XXXX
byteena
XX
contents at a0
a1
a2
a0
ABCD
10
01
11
XX
ABFF
FFFF
FFCD
FFFF
contents at a2
doutn
asynch_data_out
a2
XXXX
FFFF
contents at a1
a1
ABCD
ABXX
XXCD
ABCD
ABFF
FFCD
ABCD
Power-up Conditions and Memory Initialization
Upon power-up, M4K memory is in an idle state. The outputs always
power-up to zero, regardless of whether the output registers are used or
bypassed. Even if a memory initialization file is used to pre-load the
contents of the RAM block, the outputs will still power-up cleared. For
example, if address 0 is pre-initialized to FF, the M4K blocks power-up
with the output at 00.
Using M4K
Memory
M4K memory blocks include input registers that synchronize write
operations and output registers to pipeline designs and improve system
performance. All M4K memory blocks are fully synchronous, meaning
that all inputs are registered, but outputs can be either registered or
combinatorial. M4K memory can emulate asynchronous memory.
1
f
7–4
Preliminary
Violating the setup or hold time on the address registers could
corrupt the memory contents. This applies to both read and
write operations.
For more information, refer to AN 210: Converting Memory from
Asynchronous to Synchronous for Stratix and Stratix GX Designs.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Using M4K Memory
M4K memory blocks can operate in various modes, including:
■
■
■
■
■
■
Single-port
Simple dual-port
True dual-port (bidirectional dual-port)
Shift-register
ROM
FIFO
Implementing Single-Port Mode
Single-port mode supports non-simultaneous read and write operations.
Figure 7–2 shows the single-port memory configuration for M4K blocks.
Figure 7–2. Single-Port Memory
data[ ]
address[ ]
wren
inclock
inclocken
inaclr
Note (1)
q[ ]
outclock
outclocken
outaclr
Note to Figure 7–2:
(1)
Two single-port memory blocks can be implemented in a single M4K block.
M4K memory blocks can also be divided in half and used for two
independent single-port RAM blocks. The Quartus II software
automatically uses this method of single-port memory packing when
running low on memory resources. When deliberately assigning two
single-port memories to one M4K block, first ensure that each of the two
independent RAM blocks is equal to or less than half the size of the M4K
block.
In the single-port RAM configuration, the outputs can only be in readduring-write mode, which means that during the write operation, data
written to the RAM flows through to the RAM outputs. When the output
registers are bypassed, the new data is available on the rising edge of the
same clock cycle on which it was written.
For more information about read-during-write mode, see “Read-duringWrite Operation at the Same Address” on page 7–20.
Figure 7–3 shows timing waveforms for read and write operations in
single-port mode.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
7–5
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 7–3. Single-Port Timing Waveforms
in clock
wren
address
an-1
an
data_in
din-1
din
synch_data_out
asynch_data_out
a0
din-2
din-1
din
din-1
a1
a2
din
dout0
dout0
a3
dout1
dout1
a4
a5
a6
din4
din5
din6
dout2
dout2
dout3
dout3
din4
din4
din5
Implementing Simple Dual-Port Mode
Simple dual-port memory supports simultaneous read and write
operations. Figure 7–4 shows the simple dual-port memory configuration
for M4K blocks.
Figure 7–4. Simple Dual-Port Memory
data[ ]
wraddress[ ]
wren
inclock
inclocken
inaclr
Note (1)
rdaddress[ ]
rden
q[ ]
outclock
outclocken
outaclr
Note to Figure 7–4:
(1)
Simple dual-port RAM supports read/write clock mode in addition to the
input/output clock mode shown.
M4K memory supports mixed-width configurations, allowing different
read and write port widths. This capability is useful for many
applications, including implementing serializer-deserializers (SERDES)
as well as interfacing with buses of differing widths. Table 7–4 shows the
mixed-width configurations supported by the M4K blocks in Cyclone
devices.
7–6
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Using M4K Memory
Table 7–4. M4K Block Mixed-Width Configurations (Simple Dual-Port Mode)
Write Port
Read
Port
4K × 1
2K × 2
1K × 4
512 × 8
4K × 1
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
2K × 2
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
1K × 4
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
512 × 8
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
256 × 16
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
128 × 32
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
512 × 9
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
v
256 × 18
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
v
128 × 36
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
v
256 × 16 128 × 32
512 × 9
256 × 18 128 × 36
In simple dual-port mode, M4K blocks have one write-enable and one
read-enable signal. On the M4K block, asserting the clear port of the rden
register drives rden high, which allows the read operation to occur.
When the read-enable signal is deactivated, the current data is retained at
the output ports. If the read-enable signal is activated during a write
operation with the same address location selected, the simple dual-port
RAM output is either unknown or can be set to output the old data stored
at the memory address.
For more information, see “Read-during-Write Operation at the Same
Address” on page 7–20.
Figure 7–5 shows timing waveforms for read and write operations in
simple dual-port mode.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
7–7
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 7–5. Simple Dual-Port Timing Waveforms
wrclock
wren
wraddress
an-1
an
data_in
din-1
din
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
din4
din5
din6
rdclock
rden
rdaddress
synch_data_out
asynch_data_out
bn
doutn-2
doutn-1
b1
b0
doutn-1
doutn
b2
b3
doutn
dout0
Implementing True Dual-Port Mode
M4K blocks offer a true dual-port mode to support any combination of
two-port operations: two read operations, two write operations, or one
read operation and one write operation at two different clock frequencies.
True dual-port memory can be used to increase memory bandwidth in
numerous applications. An example system that benefits from the use of
true dual-port memory is a system containing an Altera Nios® embedded
processor and a direct memory access (DMA) controller. Such a system
will experience bottlenecks if the processor and the DMA controller need
simultaneous access to single-port memory. The ability of both the
processor and the DMA controller to access the M4K memory
simultaneously, avoiding the need for arbitration, can dramatically
improve bandwidth in this type of system.
Figure 7–6 shows the true dual-port memory configuration for M4K
blocks.
7–8
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Using M4K Memory
Figure 7–6. True Dual-Port Memory
Note (1)
A
B
dataA[ ]
addressA[ ]
wrenA
clockA
clockenA
qA[ ]
aclrA
dataB[ ]
addressB[ ]
wrenB
clockB
clockenB
qB[ ]
aclrB
Note to Figure 7–6:
(1)
True dual-port memory supports input/output clock mode in addition to the
independent clock mode shown.
The widest bit configuration of a single M4K block in true dual-port mode
is 256 × 16-bit (or 256 × 18-bit with parity). The 128 × 32-bit (128 × 36-bit
with parity) configuration of the M4K block is unavailable because the
number of output drivers is equivalent to the maximum bit width of the
M4K block. Because true dual-port RAM has outputs on two ports, the
maximum width of the true dual-port RAM equals half of the total
number of output drivers. However, multiple M4K blocks can be
concatenated to support wider memory configurations. Table 7–5 lists the
possible M4K RAM block configurations.
Table 7–5. M4K Block Mixed-Port Width Configurations (True Dual-Port
Mode)
Port B
Port A
4K × 1 2K × 2
Altera Corporation
May 2008
1K × 4
512 × 8 256 × 16 512 × 9 256 × 18
4K × 1
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
2K × 2
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
1K × 4
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
512 × 8
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
256 × 16
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
512 × 9
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
256 × 18
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
7–9
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
In true dual-port mode, the RAM outputs can only be configured for
read-during-write mode. This means that during write operation, data
being written to the A or B port of the RAM flows through to the A or B
outputs, respectively. When the output registers are bypassed, the new
data is available on the rising edge of the same clock cycle it was written
on.
For sample waveforms and other information on mixed-port readduring-write mode, see “Read-during-Write Operation at the Same
Address” on page 7–20.
Potential write conflicts must be resolved external to the RAM because
simultaneously writing to the same address location at both ports results
in unknown data storage at that location. For a valid write operation to
the same address of the RAM block, the rising edge of the write clock for
port A must occur following the minimum write cycle time interval after
the rising edge of the write clock for port B. Since data is written into the
M4K blocks at the falling edge of the write clock, the rising edge of the
write clock for port A should occur following half of the minimum write
cycle time interval after the falling edge of the write clock for port B. If this
timing is not met, the data stored in that particular address will be
invalid.
f
For more information about the minimum synchronous write cycle time,
refer to the Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet section of the Cyclone Device
Handbook.
Figure 7–7 shows true dual-port timing waveforms for a write operation
at port A and a read operation at port B.
7–10
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Using M4K Memory
Figure 7–7. True Dual-Port Timing Waveforms
A_clk
A_wren
A_address
A_data_in
an-1
an
din-1
din
A_synch_data_out
din-2
A_asynch_data_out
a0
din
din-1
din
din-1
a1
a2
dout0
dout1
dout1
dout0
a3
a4
a5
a6
din4
din5
din6
dout2
dout2
dout3
dout3
din4
din5
din4
B_clk
B_wren
bn
B_address
B_synch_data_out
B_asynch_data_out
doutn-2
doutn-1
b1
b0
doutn-1
doutn
b2
dout0
doutn
dout0
b3
dout1
dout1
dout2
Implementing Shift-Register Mode
Embedded memory configurations can implement shift-register blocks
for digital signal processing (DSP) applications, such as finite impulse
response (FIR) filters, pseudo-random number generators, multi-channel
filtering, and auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. These and
other DSP applications require local data storage, traditionally
implemented with standard flip-flops that can quickly consume many
logic cells for large shift registers. A more efficient alternative is to use
embedded memory as a shift-register block, which saves logic cell and
routing resources and provides a more efficient implementation.
The size of a (w × m × n) shift register is determined by the input data
width (w), the length of the taps (m), and the number of taps (n). The size
of a (w × m × n) shift register must be less than or equal to the 4,608 bits.
In addition, the size of (w × n) must be less than or equal to 36 bits. If a
larger shift register is required, memory blocks can be cascaded together.
Data is written into each address location at the falling edge of the clock
and read from the address at the rising edge of the clock. The shift-register
mode logic automatically controls the positive and negative edge
clocking to shift the data in one clock cycle. Figure 7–8 shows the M4K
memory block in shift-register mode.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
7–11
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 7–8. M4K Shift-Register Memory Configuration
w × m × n Shift Register
m-Bit Shift Register
w
w
m-Bit Shift Register
w
w
n Number
of Taps
m-Bit Shift Register
w
w
m-Bit Shift Register
w
w
Implementing ROM Mode
M4K blocks can also be configured as ROM. ROM can be initialized in an
M4K block by using a memory initialization file (.mif). Because all M4K
memory configurations must have synchronous inputs, the address lines
of the ROM are registered. ROM outputs can be registered or
combinatorial. The read operation of the ROM is identical to the read
operation of the single-port RAM configuration.
Implementing FIFO Buffers
FIFO buffer outputs are always combinatorial. Simultaneous read and
write operations from an empty FIFO buffer are not supported.
7–12
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Clock Modes
Clock Modes
Depending on the M4K memory mode, independent, input/output,
read/write, and/or single-port clock modes are available. Table 7–6
shows the clock modes supported by the M4K memory modes.
Table 7–6. M4K Memory Clock Modes
True-Dual Port
Mode
Simple DualPort Mode
Single-Port
Mode
Independent
v
—
—
Input/output
v
v
—
Read/write
—
v
—
Single-port
—
—
v
Clocking Mode
Independent Clock Mode
M4K memory blocks can implement independent clock mode for true
dual-port memory. In this mode, a separate clock is available for each port
(A and B). Clock A controls all registers on the port A side, while clock B
controls all registers on the port B side. Each port also supports
independent clock-enable signals and asynchronous clear signals for port
A and B registers. Figure 7–9 shows an M4K memory block in
independent clock mode.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
7–13
Preliminary
(1)
7–14
Preliminary
clockA
clkenA
wrenA
addressA[ ]
8
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
Q
Q
Q
Q
Write
Pulse
Generator
ENA
D
Q
Data Out
Write/Read
Enable
Address A
qA[ ]
Data In
B
qB[ ]
Q
D
ENA
Data Out
Write/Read
Enable
Address B
Byte Enable B
Memory Block
256 ´ 16 (2)
512 ´ 8
1,024 ´ 4
2,048 ´ 2
4,096 ´ 1
Byte Enable A
Data In
A
Write
Pulse
Generator
Q
Q
Q
Q
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
8
clockB
clkenB
wrenB
addressB[ ]
byteenaB[ ]
dataB[ ]
Figure 7–9. Independent Clock Mode
byteenaA[ ]
dataA[ ]
8 LAB Row Clocks
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Note (1)
Note to Figure 7–9:
Violating the setup or hold time on the address registers could corrupt the memory contents. This applies to both
read and write operations.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Clock Modes
Input/Output Clock Mode
M4K memory blocks can implement input/output clock mode for true
and simple dual-port memory. On each of the two ports, A and B, one
clock controls all registers for inputs (data input, wren, and address)
into the memory block. The other clock controls the block's data output
registers. Each memory block port also supports independent clock
enables and asynchronous clear signals for input and output registers.
Figures 7–10 and 7–11 show the memory block in input/output clock
mode for true and simple dual-port modes, respectively.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
7–15
Preliminary
(1)
7–16
Preliminary
clockA
clkenA
wrenA
addressA[ ]
byteenaA[ ]
dataA[ ]
8
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
8 LAB Row Clocks
Q
Q
Q
Q
Write
Pulse
Generator
Q
Data Out
Write/Read
Enable
Address A
qA[ ]
Data In
B
qB[ ]
Q
D
ENA
Data Out
Write/Read
Enable
Address B
Byte Enable B
Memory Block
256 × 16 (2)
512 × 8
1,024 × 4
2,048 × 2
4,096 × 1
Write
Pulse
Generator
Q
Q
Q
Q
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
8
clockB
clkenB
wrenB
addressB[ ]
byteenaB[ ]
dataB[ ]
Figure 7–10. Input/Output Clock Mode in True Dual-Port Mode
ENA
D
A
Byte Enable A
Data In
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Note (1)
Note to Figure 7–10:
Violating the setup or hold time on the address registers could corrupt the memory contents. This applies to both
read and write operations.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Clock Modes
Figure 7–11. Input/Output Clock Mode in Simple Dual-Port Mode
Notes (1), (2)
8 LAB Row
Clocks
Memory Block
256 ´ 16
512 ´ 8
1,024 ´ 4
2,048 ´ 2
4,096 ´ 1
8
data[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Data In
address[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Read Address
Data Out
byteena[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Byte Enable
wraddress[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Write Address
D
Q
ENA
Read Enable
D
Q
ENA
To MultiTrack
Interconnect
rden
wren
outclken
inclken
wrclock
D
Q
ENA
Write
Pulse
Generator
Write Enable
rdclock
Notes to Figure 7–11:
(1)
(2)
For more information on the MultiTrackTM interconnect, refer to the Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet section of the
Cyclone Device Handbook.
Violating the setup or hold time on the address registers could corrupt the memory contents. This applies to both
read and write operations.
Read/Write Clock Mode
M4K memory blocks can implement read/write clock mode for simple
dual-port memory. This mode can use up to two clocks. The write clock
controls the block's data inputs, wraddress, and wren. The read clock
controls the data output, rdaddress, and rden. The memory blocks
support independent clock enables for each clock and asynchronous clear
signals for the read- and write-side registers. Figure 7–12 shows a
memory block in read/write clock mode.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
7–17
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 7–12. Read/Write Clock Mode in Simple Dual-Port Mode
8 LAB Row
Clocks
Memory Block
256 × 16
512 × 8
1,024 × 4
Data In
2,048 × 2
4,096 × 1
8
data[ ]
Notes (1), (2)
D
Q
ENA
Data Out
address[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Read Address
wraddress[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Write Address
byteena[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Byte Enable
D
Q
ENA
Read Enable
D
Q
ENA
To MultiTrack
Interconnect
rden
wren
outclken
inclken
D
Q
ENA
wrclock
Write
Pulse
Generator
Write Enable
rdclock
Notes to Figure 7–12:
(1)
(2)
For more information on the MultiTrack interconnect, refer to the Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet section of the
Cyclone Device Handbook.
Violating the setup or hold time on the address registers could corrupt the memory contents. This applies to both
read and write operations.
Single-Port Mode
The M4K memory blocks can implement single-port clock mode when
simultaneous read and write operations are not required (see
Figure 7–13). A single block in a memory block can support up to two
single-port mode RAM blocks in M4K blocks.
7–18
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Synchronous and Pseudo-Asynchronous Modes
Figure 7–13. Single-Port Mode
Notes (1), (2)
8 LAB Row
Clocks
RAM/ROM
256 × 16
512 × 8
1,024 × 4
Data In
2,048 × 2
4,096 × 1
8
data[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Data Out
address[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Address
D
Q
ENA
To MultiTrack
Interconnect
wren
Write Enable
outclken
inclken
inclock
D
Q
ENA
Write
Pulse
Generator
outclock
Notes to Figure 7–13:
(1)
(2)
For more information about the MultiTrack interconnect, refer to the Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet section of the
Cyclone Device Handbook.
Violating the setup or hold time on the address registers could corrupt the memory contents. This applies to both
read and write operations.
Synchronous
and PseudoAsynchronous
Modes
The M4K memory architecture implements synchronous, pipelined RAM
by registering both the input and output signals to the RAM block. All
M4K memory inputs are registered, providing synchronous write cycles.
In synchronous operation, an M4K block generates its own self-timed
strobe write enable (wren) signal derived from the global or regional
clock. In contrast, a circuit using asynchronous RAM must generate the
RAM wren signal while ensuring its data and address signals meet setup
and hold time specifications relative to the wren signal. The output
registers can be bypassed.
In an asynchronous memory, neither the input nor the output is
registered. While Cyclone devices do not support asynchronous memory,
they do support a pseudo-asynchronous read operation where the output
data is available during the same clock cycle as when the read address is
driven into it. Pseudo-asynchronous reading is possible in the simple and
Altera Corporation
May 2008
7–19
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
true dual-port modes of the M4K blocks by clocking the read enable and
read address registers on the negative clock edge and bypassing the
output registers.
The clear signal for both asynchronous and synchronous mode for the
memory are treated similarly in Cyclone devices. All inputs to the
memory must be synchronous, therefore, the time it takes a clear signal to
reset the input or output registers is synchronous to the clock.
f
Read-duringWrite Operation
at the Same
Address
For more information, refer to AN 210: Converting Memory from
Asynchronous to Synchronous for Stratix and Stratix GX Designs.
The following two sections describe the functionality of the various M4K
memory configurations when reading from an address during a write
operation at that same address. There are two types of read-during-write
operations: same-port and mixed-port. Figure 7–14 illustrates the
difference in data flow between same-port and mixed-port read-duringwrite.
Figure 7–14. Read-during-Write Data Flow
Port A
data in
Port B
data in
Mixed-port
data flow
Same-port
data flow
Port A
data out
Port B
data out
Same-Port Read-during-Write Mode
For read-during-write operation of a single-port RAM or the same port of
a true dual-port RAM, the new data is available on the rising edge of the
same clock cycle it was written on. See Figure 7–15 for a sample
functional waveform.
When using byte-enable signals in true dual-port RAM mode, the outputs
for the masked bytes on the same port are unknown. (See Figure 7–1.) The
non-masked bytes are read out as shown in Figure 7–15.
7–20
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Read-during-Write Operation at the Same Address
Figure 7–15. Same-Port Read-during-Write Functionality
Note (1)
inclock
data_in
A
B
wren
data_out Old
A
Note to Figure 7–15:
(1)
Outputs are not registered.
Mixed-Port Read-during-Write Mode
This mode is used when a RAM in simple or true dual-port mode has one
port reading and the other port writing to the same address location with
the same clock. You can configure the M4K memory block to operate in
this mode and modify the parameter shown below using the
MegaWizard® Plug-In Manager included with the Quartus II software.
The READ_DURING_WRITE_MODE_MIXED_PORTS parameter for
M4K memory blocks determines whether or not to output the old data at
the address. Setting this parameter to OLD_DATA outputs the old data at
that address. Setting this parameter to DONT_CARE outputs an
unknown value. During the instantiation of an ALTSYNCRAM or
LPM_RAM_DP+ storage megafunction using the Quartus II software, the
MegaWizard plug-in manager asks “How should the q output behave
when reading a memory location that is being written from the other
port?” Clicking “I don’t care” assigns the DONT_CARE value to the
parameter, and clicking “Old memory contents appear” assigns the
OLD_DATA value to the parameter.
1
Altera recommends using the MegaWizard Plug-In Manager to
create these memory megafunctions rather than directly
creating instances. Once a storage megafunction is created using
the MegaWizard Plug-In Manager, use the MegaWizard Plug-In
Manager to make any necessary changes.
See Figures 7–16 and 7–17 for sample functional waveforms showing
mixed-port read-during-write mode operation. These figures assume that
the outputs are not registered.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
7–21
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 7–16. Mixed-Port Read-during-Write: OLD_DATA
inclock
addressA and
addressB
Port A
data_in
Address Q
A
B
Port A
wren
Port B
wren
Port B
data_out
Old
A
B
Figure 7–17. Mixed-Port Read-during-Write: DONT_CARE
inclock
addressA and
addressB
Port A
data_in
Address Q
A
B
Port A
wren
Port B
wren
Port B
data_out
Unknown
B
Mixed-port read-during-write is not supported when two different clocks
are used in a dual-port RAM. The output value is unknown during a
mixed-port read-during-write operation.
f
Conclusion
7–22
Preliminary
For the minimum synchronous-write-cycle time, refer to the Cyclone
FPGA Family Data Sheet section of the Cyclone Device Handbook.
M4K memory blocks are a flexible memory solution available in Cyclone
devices that provide advanced features such as byte-enable capability,
parity bit storage capability, and shift-register mode, as well as mixedport width support and true dual-port mode. This flexibility makes these
embedded memory blocks well suited for a wide range of applications
including ATM cell packet processing, header/cell storage, channelized
functions, and program memory for processors.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Referenced Documents
Referenced
Documents
This chapter references the following documents:
■
■
Document
Revision History
AN 210: Converting Memory from Asynchronous to Synchronous for
Stratix and Stratix GX Designs
Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet section of the Cyclone Device
Handbook
Table 7–7 shows the revision history for this chapter.
Table 7–7. Document Revision History
Date and
Document
Version
Changes Made
Summary of Changes
May 2008
v1.4
Minor textual and style changes. Added “Referenced
Documents” section.
—
January 2007
v1.3
Added document revision history.
—
August 2005
v1.2
Minor updates.
—
February 2005
v1.1
Updated notes for Figures 7-9 through 7-13.
—
May 2003
v1.0
Added document to Cyclone Device Handbook.
—
Altera Corporation
May 2008
7–23
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
7–24
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Section IV. I/O Standards
This section provides information on the Cyclone FPGA I/O capabilities.
It also includes information on selecting I/O standards for Cyclone
devices in the Quartus II software.
This section contains the following chapters:
Revision History
Altera Corporation
■
Chapter 8. Using Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone Devices
■
Chapter 9. High-Speed Differential Signaling in Cyclone Devices
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information
on when each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates
section, which appears in the complete handbook.
Section IV–1
Preliminary
Revision History
Section IV–2
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
8. Using Selectable I/O
Standards in Cyclone Devices
C51008-1.6
Introduction
The proliferation of I/O standards and the need for improved
I/O performance have made it critical that low-cost devices have flexible
I/O capabilities. Selectable I/O capabilities such as SSTL-2, SSTL-3, and
LVDS compatibility allow Cyclone® devices to connect to other devices
on the same printed circuit board (PCB) that may require different
operating and I/O voltages. With these aspects of implementation easily
manipulated using the Altera Quartus® II software, the Cyclone device
family enables system designers to use low-cost FPGAs while keeping
pace with increasing design complexity.
This chapter is a guide to understanding the input/output capabilities of
the Cyclone devices, including:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Supported I/O Standards
Cyclone I/O Banks
Programmable Current Drive Strength
Hot Socketing
I/O Termination
Pad Placement and DC Guidelines
Quartus II Software Support
“Quartus II Software Support” on page 8–18 describes how to use the
Quartus II software to specify device and pin options and assign pins to
implement the above features of Cyclone devices.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
8–1
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Supported
I/O Standards
Cyclone devices support the I/O standards shown in Table 8–1.
f
For more details about the I/O standards discussed in this section, refer
to the Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet section of the Cyclone Device
Handbook.
Table 8–1. I/O Standards Supported by Cyclone Devices
Notes (1), (2)
Type
Input Voltage
Level (V)
Output
Voltage
Level (V)
Input
VREF (V)
Output
VCCIO (V)
Termination
VTT (V)
3.3-V
LVTTL/LVCMOS
Single-ended
3.3/2.5
3.3
N/A
3.3
N/A
2.5-V
LVTTL/LVCMOS
Single-ended
3.3/2.5
2.5
N/A
2.5
N/A
1.8-V
LVTTL/LVCMOS
Single-ended
3.3/2.5/1.8
1.8
N/A
1.8
N/A
1.5-V LVCMOS
Single-ended
3.3/2.5/1.8/1.5
1.5
N/A
1.5
N/A
PCI (3)
Single-ended
3.3
3.3
N/A
3.3
N/A
SSTL-3 Class I
and II
Voltage-referenced
–0.3 to 3.9
3.3
1.5
3.3
1.5
SSTL-2 Class I
and II
Voltage-referenced
–0.3 to 3.0
2.5
1.25
2.5
1.25
LVDS
Compatibility
Differential
0 to 2.4
VOD = 0.25
to 0.55
N/A
2.5
N/A
RSDS
Compatibility
Differential
0.1 to 1.4
VOD = 0.1 to
0.6
N/A
2.5
N/A
Differential
SSTL - 2
Differential
N/A (4)
2.5
1.25
2.5
1.25
I/O Standard
Notes to Table 8–1:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin thin quad flat pack (TQFP) package does not have support for a PLL LVDS input
or an external clock output.
Cyclone devices have dual-purpose differential inputs. Outputs are balanced SSTL outputs requiring an external
resistor divider.
EP1C3 devices support PCI by using the LVTTL 16-mA I/O standard and drive strength assignments in the
Quartus II software. The device requires an external diode for PCI compliance.
This I/O standard is only available on output clock pins (PLL_OUT pins).
8–2
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Supported I/O Standards
3.3-V LVTTL (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-B)
The 3.3-V LVTTL I/O standard is a general-purpose, single-ended
standard used for 3.3-V applications. The LVTTL standard defines the DC
interface parameters for digital circuits operating from a 3.0-V/3.3-V
power supply and driving or being driven by LVTTL-compatible devices.
The LVTTL input standard specifies a wider input voltage range of
– 0.3 V ≤VI ≤ 3.9 V. Altera recommends an input voltage range of – 0.5 V ≤
VI ≤ 4.1 V. The LVTTL standard does not require input reference voltages
or board terminations. Cyclone devices support both input and output
levels for 3.3-V LVTTL.
3.3-V LVCMOS (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-B)
The 3.3-V LVCMOS I/O standard is a general-purpose, single-ended
standard used for 3.3-V applications. The LVCMOS standard defines the
DC interface parameters for digital circuits operating from a 3.0-V or
3.3-V power supply and driving or being driven by LVCMOS-compatible
devices.
The LVCMOS standard specifies the same input voltage requirements as
LVTTL (– 0.3 V ≤ VI ≤ 3.9 V). The output buffer drives to the rail to meet
the minimum high-level output voltage requirements. The 3.3-V I/O
Standard does not require input reference voltages or board terminations.
Cyclone devices support both input and output levels specified by the
3.3-V LVCMOS I/O standard.
2.5-V LVTTL Normal and Wide Voltage Ranges (EIA/JEDEC
Standard EIA/JESD8-5)
The 2.5-V I/O standard is used for 2.5-V LVTTL applications. This
standard defines the DC interface parameters for high-speed, lowvoltage, non-terminated digital circuits driving or being driven by other
2.5-V devices. The input and output voltage requirements are:
■
■
■
The 2.5-V normal and wide range input standards specify an input
voltage range of –0.3 V ≤ VI ≤ 3.0-V.
The normal range minimum high-level output voltage requirement
(VOH) is 2.1-V.
The wide range minimum high-level output voltage requirement
(VOH) is VCCIO – 0.2-V.
The 2.5-V standard does not require input reference voltages or board
terminations. Cyclone devices support input and output levels for both
2.5-V LVTTL ranges.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
8–3
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
2.5-V LVCMOS Normal and Wide Voltage Ranges (EIA/JEDEC
Standard EIA/JESD8-5)
The 2.5-V I/O standard is used for 2.5-V LVCMOS applications. This
standard defines the DC interface parameters for high-speed,
low-voltage, non-terminated digital circuits driving or being driven by
other 2.5-V parts. The input and output voltage ranges are:
■
■
■
The 2.5-V normal and wide range input standards specify an input
voltage range of – 0.3-V ≤ VI ≤ 3.0-V.
The normal range minimum VOH requirement is 2.1 V.
The wide range minimum VOH requirement is VCCIO – 0.2 V.
The 2.5-V standard does not require input reference voltages or board
terminations. Cyclone devices support input and output levels for both
2.5-V LVCMOS ranges.
1.8-V LVTTL Normal and Wide Voltage Ranges (EIA/JEDEC
Standard EIA/JESD8-7)
The 1.8-V I/O standard is used for 1.8-V LVTTL applications. This
standard defines the DC interface parameters for high-speed,
low-voltage, non-terminated digital circuits driving or being driven by
other 1.8-V parts. The input and output voltage ranges are:
■
■
■
The 1.8-V normal and wide range input standards specify an input
voltage range of – 0.3 V ≤ VI ≤ 2.25 V.
The normal range minimum VOH requirement is VCCIO – 0.45 V.
The wide range minimum VOH requirement is VCCIO – 0.2 V.
The 1.8-V standard does not require input reference voltages or board
terminations. Cyclone devices support input and output levels for both
normal and wide 1.8-V LVTTL ranges.
1.8-V LVCMOS Normal and Wide Voltage Ranges (EIA/JEDEC
Standard EIA/JESD8-7)
The 1.8-V I/O standard is used for 1.8-V LVCMOS applications. This
standard defines the DC interface parameters for high-speed,
low-voltage, non-terminated digital circuits driving or being driven by
other 1.8-V devices. The input and output voltage ranges are:
■
■
■
8–4
Preliminary
The 1.8-V normal and wide range input standards specify an input
voltage range of – 0.3 V ≤ VI ≤ 2.25 V.
The normal range minimum VOH requirement is VCCIO – 0.45 V.
The wide range minimum VOH requirement is VCCIO – 0.2 V.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Supported I/O Standards
The 1.8-V standard does not require input reference voltages or board
terminations. Cyclone devices support input and output levels for both
normal and wide 1.8-V LVCMOS ranges.
1.5-V LVCMOS Normal and Wide Voltage Ranges (EIA/JEDEC
Standard JESD8-11)
The 1.5-V I/O standard is used for 1.5-V applications. This standard
defines the DC interface parameters for high-speed, low-voltage, nonterminated digital circuits driving or being driven by other 1.5-V devices.
The input and output voltage ranges are:
■
■
■
The 1.5-V normal and wide range input standards specify an input
voltage range of – 0.3 V ≤ VI ≤ 1.9-V.
The normal range minimum VOH requirement is 1.05 V.
The wide range minimum VOH requirement is VCCIO – 0.2-V.
The 1.5-V standard does not require input reference voltages or board
terminations. Cyclone devices support input and output levels for both
normal and wide 1.5-V LVCMOS ranges.
3.3-V (PCI Special Interest Group (SIG) PCI Local Bus
Specification Revision 2.2)
The PCI local bus specification is used for applications that interface to
the PCI local bus, which provides a processor-independent data path
between highly integrated peripheral controller components, peripheral
add-in boards, and processor/memory systems. The conventional PCI
specification revision 2.2 defines the PCI hardware environment
including the protocol, electrical, mechanical, and configuration
specifications for the PCI devices and expansion boards. This standard
requires 3.3-V VCCIO. The 3.3-V PCI standard does not require input
reference voltages or board terminations.
The side I/O pins on all Cyclone devices (except the EP1C3 device) are
fully compliant with the 3.3-V PCI Local Bus Specification Revision 2.2
and meet 32-bit/66-MHz operating frequency and timing requirements.
The EP1C3 device supports the PCI I/O standard by using the LVTTL
16-mA setting and an external diode. The top and bottom I/O pins on all
Cylcone devices support PCI by using the LVTTL 16-mA setting and an
external diode.
Cyclone devices support PCI input and output levels on I/O banks 1 and
3 only. See “Cyclone I/O Banks” for more details and the IP MegaStoreTM
website.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
8–5
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 8–2 lists the specific Cyclone devices that support 64- and 32-bit PCI
at 66 MHz.
Table 8–2. Cyclone 66-MHz PCI Support
-6 and -7 Speed Grades
Device
Package
64 Bit
32 Bit
324-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
400-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
240-pin PQFP
—
v
256-pin FineLine BGA
—
v
EP1C12
324-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
EP1C20
324-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
400-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
EP1C4
EP1C6
Table 8–3 lists the specific Cyclone devices that support 64- and 32-bit PCI
at 33 MHz.
Table 8–3. Cyclone 33-MHz PCI Support
-6, -7 and -8 Speed Grades
Device
EP1C4
EP1C6
EP1C12
EP1C20
8–6
Preliminary
Package
64 Bit
32 Bit
324-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
400-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
240-pin PQFP
—
v
256-pin FineLine BGA
—
v
240-pin PQFP
—
v
256-pin FineLine BGA
—
v
324-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
324-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
400-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Supported I/O Standards
SSTL-3 Class I and II (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-8)
The SSTL-3 I/O standard is a 3.3-V memory bus standard used for
applications such as high-speed SDRAM interfaces. This standard
defines the input and output specifications for devices that operate in the
SSTL-3 logic switching range of 0.0 to 3.3 V. The SSTL-3 standard specifies
an input voltage range of – 0.3 V ≤ VI ≤ VCCIO + 0.3-V.
SSTL-3 requires a 1.5-V VREF and a 1.5-V VTT to which the series and
termination resistors are connected (see Figures 8–1 and 8–2). In typical
applications, both the termination voltage and reference voltage track the
output supply voltage.
Figure 8–1. SSTL-3 Class I Termination
VTT = 1.5 V
Output Buffer
50 Ω
25 Ω
Z = 50 Ω
Input Buffer
VREF = 1.5 V
Figure 8–2. SSTL-3 Class II Termination
VTT = 1.5 V
Output Buffer
50 Ω
25 Ω
Z = 50 Ω
Input Buffer
VREF = 1.5 V
Cyclone devices support both input and output SSTL-3 Class I and II
levels.
SSTL-2 Class I and II (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-9A)
The SSTL-2 I/O standard is a 2.5-V memory bus standard used for
applications such as high-speed double data rate (DDR) SDRAM
interfaces. This standard defines the input and output specifications for
devices that operate in the SSTL-2 logic switching range of 0.0-V to 2.5-V.
This standard improves operation in conditions where a bus must be
isolated from large stubs. The SSTL-2 standard specifies an input voltage
range of –0.3 V ≤ VI ≤ VCCIO + 0.3 V. SSTL-2 requires a VREF value of 1.25 V
and a VTT value of 1.25 V connected to the series and termination resistors
(see Figures 8–3 and 8–4).
Altera Corporation
May 2008
8–7
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 8–3. SSTL-2 Class I Termination
VTT = 1.25 V
Output Buffer
50 Ω
25 Ω
Z = 50 Ω
Input Buffer
VREF = 1.25 V
Figure 8–4. SSTL-2 Class II Termination
VTT = 1.25 V
VTT = 1.25 V
Output Buffer
50 Ω
25 Ω
50 Ω
Z = 50 Ω
Input Buffer
VREF = 1.25 V
Cyclone devices support both input and output SSTL-2 Class I and II
levels.
LVDS (ANSI/TIA/EIA Standard ANSI/TIA/EIA-644)
The LVDS I/O standard is a differential high-speed, low-voltage swing,
low-power, general-purpose I/O interface standard. This standard is
used in applications requiring high-bandwidth data transfer, backplane
drivers, and clock distribution. The ANSI/TIA/EIA-644 standard
specifies LVDS transmitters and receivers capable of operating at
recommended maximum data signaling rates of 655 Mbps. Devices can
operate at slower speeds if needed however, and there is a theoretical
maximum of 1.923 Gbps. Due to the low-voltage swing of the LVDS I/O
standard, the electromagnetic interference (EMI) effects are much smaller
than CMOS, TTL, and PECL. This low EMI makes LVDS ideal for
applications with low EMI requirements or noise immunity
requirements. The LVDS standard specifies a differential output voltage
range of 250 mV ≤ VOD ≤ 550 mV.
The Cyclone device family meets the ANSI/TIA/EIA-644 standard and
is LVDS-compatible but, unlike previous products with LVDS support,
Cyclone does not have dedicated SERDES or LVDS drivers. While
external resistors are required for LVDS output support, Cyclone does
have direct LVDS-compatible input support throughout the device. This
8–8
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Cyclone I/O Banks
flexible approach to LVDS support allows LVDS compatibility on every
bank of the Cyclone device at speeds up to 640 Mbps. (Contact Altera
Applications for the latest LVDS specification).
Differential SSTL-2 - EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-9A
The differential SSTL-2 I/O standard is a 2.5-V standard used for
applications such as high-speed DDR SDRAM clock interfaces. This
standard supports differential signals in systems using the SSTL-2
standard and supplements the SSTL-2 standard for differential clocks.
The differential SSTL-2 standard specifies an input voltage range of
– 0.3 V ≤ VI ≤ VCCIO + 0.3-V. The differential SSTL-2 standard does not
require an input reference voltage differential. See Figure 8–5 for details
on differential SSTL-2 termination. Cyclone devices support output clock
levels for differential SSTL-2 class II operation.
Figure 8–5. SSTL-2 Class II Differential Termination
VTT = 1.25 V
Differential
Transmitter
50 Ω
VTT = 1.25 V
50 Ω
VTT = 1.25 V
50 Ω
VTT = 1.25 V
50 Ω
Differential
Receiver
25 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
25 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
f
Cyclone I/O
Banks
For more details about the I/O standards discussed in this section, refer
to the Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet section of the Cyclone Device
Handbook.
The I/O pins on Cyclone devices are grouped together into I/O banks
and each bank has a separate power bus. This permits designers to select
the preferred I/O standard for a given bank enabling tremendous
flexibility in the Cyclone device’s I/O support.
Each Cyclone device supports four I/O banks regardless of density.
Similarly, each device I/O pin is associated with one of these specific,
numbered I/O banks. To accommodate voltage-referenced I/O
Altera Corporation
May 2008
8–9
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
standards, each Cyclone I/O bank supports three VREF pins (see
Figure 8–6). In the event these pins are not used as VREF pins, they may be
used as regular I/O pins.
Figure 8–6. Cyclone Power Bank and VREF Arrangement
VREF2B2
VREF1B2
VREF0B2
VREF1B3
VREF2B3
B3
B1
VREF2B1
VREF1B1
VREF0B1
VREF0B3
B2
B4
VREF2B4
VREF1B4
VREF0B4
Additionally, each Cyclone I/O bank has its own VCCIO pins. Any single
I/O bank must have only one VCCIO setting from among 1.5-V, 1.8-V, 2.5-V
or 3.3-V. Although there can only be one VCCIO voltage, Cyclone devices
permit additional input signaling capabilities as shown in Table 8–4.
Table 8–4. Acceptable Input Levels for LVTTL/LVCMOS Note (1) (Part 1 of 2)
Acceptable Input Levels
Bank VCCIO
3.3-V
2.5-V
1.8-V
1.5-V
3.3-V
v
v
—
—
2.5-V
v
v
—
—
1.8-V
v(2)
v(2)
v
v
8–10
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Cyclone I/O Banks
Table 8–4. Acceptable Input Levels for LVTTL/LVCMOS Note (1) (Part 2 of 2)
Acceptable Input Levels
Bank VCCIO
1.5-V
3.3-V
2.5-V
1.8-V
1.5-V
v(2)
v(2)
v
v
Notes to Table 8–4:
(1)
(2)
For SSTL and LVDS I/O Standard, input buffers are powered by VCCINT and not VCCIO. Hence, input buffers can
accept input levels of 3.3 V or 2.5 V regardless of VCCIO level for both SSTL and LVDS I/O Standard.
These input values overdrive the input buffer, so the pin leakage current is slightly higher than the default value.
Check Allow voltage overdrive for LVTTL/LVCMOS input pins in Settings > Device > Device and Pin Options >
Pin Placement tab to allow input pins with LVTTL or LVCMOS I/O standards to be placed by the Quartus II
software inside an I/O bank with a lower VCCIO voltage than the voltage specified by the pins.
f
For more information about acceptable input levels, refer to Using
Cyclone Devices in Multiple-Voltage Systems chapter in the Cyclone Device
Handbook.
Any number of supported single-ended or differential standards can be
simultaneously supported in a single I/O bank as long as they use
compatible VCCIO levels for input and output pins. For example, an
I/O bank with a 2.5-V VCCIO setting can support 2.5-V LVTTL inputs and
outputs, 2.5-V LVDS-compatible inputs and outputs, and 3.3-V LVCMOS
inputs only.
Voltage-referenced standards can be supported in an I/O bank using any
number of single-ended or differential standards as long as they use the
same VREF and a compatible VCCIO value. For example, if you choose to
implement both SSTL-3 and SSTL-2 in your Cyclone device, I/O pins
using these standards—because they require different VREF values—must
be in different banks from each other. However, SSTL-3 and 3.3-V
LVCMOS could be supported in the same bank with the VCCIO set to 3.3-V
and the VREF set to 1.5-V.
See “Pad Placement and DC Guidelines” on page 8–14 for more
information.
All four I/O banks support all of the I/O standards with the exception of
PCI, which is only supported on banks 1 and 3 (see Figure 8–7).
Altera Corporation
May 2008
8–11
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 8–7. I/O Standards Supported in Cyclone Devices
Notes (1), (2)
I/O Bank 2
All I/O Banks support
■ 3.3-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 1.5-V LVCMOS
■ LVDS
■ RSDS
■ SSTL-2 Class I and II
■ SSTL-3 Class I and II
I/O Bank 3
also supports
the 3.3-V PCI
I/O Standard
I/O Bank 3
I/O Bank 1
I/O Bank 1
also supports
the 3.3-V PCI
I/O Standard
I/O Bank 4
Notes to Figure 8–7
(1)
(2)
EP1C3 devices support PCI by using the LVTTL 16-mA I/O standard and drive strength assignments in the
Quartus II software. The device requires an external diode for PCI compliance.
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin thin quad flat pack (TQFP) package does not have support for a PLL
LVDS-compatible input or an external clock output.
Programmable
Current Drive
Strength
The Cyclone device I/O standards support various output current drive
settings as shown in Table 8–5. These programmable drive-strength
settings are a valuable tool in helping decrease the effects of
simultaneously switching outputs (SSO) in conjunction with reducing
system noise. The supported settings ensure that the device driver meets
the specifications for IOH and IOL of the corresponding I/O standard.
These drive-strength settings are programmable on a per-pin basis (for
output and bidirectional pins only) using the Quartus II software. To
modify the current strength of a particular pin, refer to “Programmable
Drive Strength Settings”.
8–12
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Hot Socketing
Table 8–5. Programmable Drive Strength
I/O Standard (1)
IOH/IOL Current Strength Setting (2)
3.3-V LVTTL
24, 16, 12, 8, 4 mA
3.3-V LVCMOS
12, 8, 4, 2 mA
2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
16, 12, 8, 2 mA
1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
12, 8, 2 mA
1.5-V LVCMOS
8, 4, 2 mA
Notes to Table 8–5:
(1)
(2)
Hot Socketing
The Quartus II software default current setting is the maximum setting for each
I/O standard.
SSTL 2 class I and II, SSTL 3 class I and II, and PCI do not support programmable
drive strength.
Cyclone devices support any power-up or power-down sequence (VCCIO
and VCCINT) to facilitate hot socketing. You can drive signals into the
device before or during power-up or power-down without damaging the
device. Cyclone devices will not drive out until the device is configured
and has attained proper operating conditions.
You can power up or power down the VCCIO and VCCINT pins in any
sequence. The power supply ramp rates can range from 100 ns to 100 ms.
All VCC supplies must power down within 100 ms of each other to
prevent I/O pins from driving out. Additionally, during power-up, the
I/O pin capacitance is less than 15 pF and the clock pin capacitance is less
than 20pF.
■
■
I/O Termination
The hot socketing DC specification is | IIOPIN | < 300 µA.
The hot socketing AC specification is | IIOPIN | < 8 mA for 10 ns or
less.
The majority of the Cyclone I/O standards are single-ended, non-voltagereferenced I/O standards and, as such, the following I/O standards do
not specify a recommended termination scheme:
■
■
■
■
■
3.3-V LVTTL / LVCMOS
2.5-V LVTTL / LVCMOS
1.8-V LVTTL / LVCMOS
1.5-V LVCMOS
3.3-V PCI
The Cyclone device family does not feature on-chip I/O termination
resistors.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
8–13
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Voltage-Referenced I/O Standard Termination
Voltage-referenced I/O standards require both an input reference
voltage, VREF, and a termination voltage, VTT. An external pull up to VTT
must be provided to the Cyclone device as the device does not have VTT
pins. The reference voltage of the receiving device tracks the termination
voltage of the transmitting device.
For more information on termination for voltage-referenced I/O
standards, refer to “Supported I/O Standards”.
Differential I/O Standard Termination
Differential I/O standards typically require a termination resistor
between the two signals at the receiver. The termination resistor must
match the differential load impedance of the bus.
LVDS and RSDS are the only differential I/O standards supported by
Cyclone devices. For information on LVDS termination and RSDS
termination, refer to the LVDS Receiver and Transmitter Termination and
RSDS I/O Standard Support in Cyclone Devices sections, respectively, in the
High-Speed Differential Signaling in Cyclone Devices chapter in the Cyclone
Device Handbook.
Pad Placement
and DC
Guidelines
This section provides pad placement guidelines for the programmable
I/O standards supported by Cyclone devices and includes essential
information for designing systems using the devices’ selectable I/O
capabilities. This section also discusses the DC limitations and guidelines.
Differential Pad Placement Guidelines
In order to maintain an acceptable noise level on the VCCIO supply, there
are restrictions on placement of single-ended I/O pads in relation to
differential pads. Use the following guidelines for placing single-ended
pads with respect to differential pads in Cyclone devices.
■
■
1
8–14
Preliminary
Single-ended inputs may be only be placed four or more pads away
from a differential pad.
Single-ended outputs and bidirectional pads may only be placed five
or more pads away from a differential pad.
The Quartus II software generates an error message for illegally
placed pads.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Pad Placement and DC Guidelines
VREF Pad Placement Guidelines
In order to maintain an acceptable noise level on the VCCIO supply and to
prevent output switching noise from shifting the VREF rail, there are
restrictions on the placement of single-ended voltage referenced I/Os
with respect to VREF pads and VCCIO/GND pairs. Please use the following
guidelines for placing single-ended pads in Cyclone devices.
Input Pads
Each VREF pad supports a maximum of 40 input pads with up to 20 on
each side of the VREF pad. This is irrespective of VCCIO/GND pairs.
Output Pads
When a voltage referenced input or bidirectional pad does not exist in a
bank, there is no limit to the number of output pads that can be
implemented in that bank. When a voltage referenced input exists, each
VCCIO/GND pair supports 9 outputs for Fineline BGA® packages or
4 outputs for quad flat pack (QFP) packages. Any output pads must be
placed greater than 1 pad away from your VREF pad to maintain
acceptable noise levels.
Bidirectional Pads
Bidirectional pads must satisfy input and output guidelines
simultaneously. If the bidirectional pads are all controlled by the same OE
and there are no other outputs or voltage referenced inputs in the bank,
then there is no case where there is a voltage referenced input active at the
same time as an output. Therefore, the output limitation does not apply.
However, since the bidirectional pads are linked to the same OE, the
bidirectional pads will all act as inputs at the same time. Therefore, the
input limitation of 40 input pads (20 on each side of your VREF pad) will
apply.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
8–15
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
If the bidirectional pads are all controlled by different output enables
(OE) and there are no other outputs or voltage referenced inputs in the
bank, then there may be a case where one group of bidirectional pads is
acting as inputs while another group is acting as outputs. In such cases,
apply the formulas shown in Table 8–6.
Table 8–6. Input-Only Bidirectional Pad Limitation Formulas
Package Type
Formula
FineLine BGA
(Total number of bidirectional pads) - (Total number of
pads from the smallest group of pads controlled by an OE)
≤ 9 (per VCCIO/GND pair)
QFP
(Total number of bidirectional pads) - (Total number of
pads from the smallest group of pads controlled by an OE)
≤ 4 (per VCCIO/GND pair).
Consider an FineLine BGA package with 4 bidirectional pads controlled
by OE1, 4 bidirectional pads controlled by OE2, and 2 bidirectional pads
controlled by OE3. If OE1 and OE2 are active and OE3 is inactive, there
are 10 bidirectional pads, but it is safely allowable because there would be
8 or fewer outputs per VCCIO/GND pair.
When at least one additional voltage referenced input and no other
outputs exist in the same VREF bank, the bidirectional pad limitation
applies in addition to the input and output limitations. See the following
equation.
(Total number of bidirectional pads) + (Total number of input pads) ≤ 40
(20 on each side of your VREF pad)
1
The bidirectional pad limitation applies to both Fineline BGA
packages and QFP packages.
After applying the equation above, apply one of the equations in
Table 8–7, depending on package type.
Table 8–7. Bidirectional Pad Limitation Formulas (Where VREF Inputs Exist)
Package Type
8–16
Preliminary
Formula
FineLine BGA
(Total number of bidirectional pads) ≤ 9 (per VCCIO/GND pair)
QFP
(Total number of bidirectional pads) ≤ 4 (per VCCIO/GND pair)
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Pad Placement and DC Guidelines
When at least one additional output exists but no voltage referenced
inputs exist, apply the appropriate formula from Table 8–8.
Table 8–8. Bidirectional Pad Limitation Formulas (Where VREF Outputs
Exist)
Package Type
Formula
FineLine BGA
(Total number of bidirectional pads) + (Total number of
additional output pads) - (Total number of pads from the
smallest group of pads controlled by an OE) ≤ 9 (per
VCCIO/GND pair)
QFP
(Total number of bidirectional pads) + (Total number of
additional output pads) - (Total number of pads from the
smallest group of pads controlled by an OE) = 4 (per
VCCIO/GND pair)
When additional voltage referenced inputs and other outputs exist in the
same VREF bank, then the bidirectional pad limitation must again
simultaneously adhere to the input and output limitations. As such, the
following rules apply:
Total number of bidirectional pads + Total number of input pads ≤ 40 (20 on each
side of your VREF pad).
1
The bidirectional pad limitation applies to both Fineline BGA
packages and QFP packages.
After applying the equation above apply one of the equations in
Table 8–9, depending on package type.
Table 8–9. Bidirectional Pad Limitation Formulas (Multiple VREF Inputs and Outputs)
Package Type
Formula
FineLine BGA
(Total number of bidirectional pads) + (Total number of output pads) ≤ 9 (per VCCIO/GND pair)
QFP
(Total number of bidirectional pads) + (Total number of output pads) ≤ 4 (per VCCIO/GND pair)
Each I/O bank can only be set to a single VCCIO voltage level and a single
VREF voltage level at a given time. Pins of different I/O standards can
share the bank if they have compatible VCCIO values (see Table 8–4 for
more details).
In all cases listed above, the Quartus II software generates an error
message for illegally placed pads.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
8–17
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
DC Guidelines
There is a current limit of 320 mA per 16 consecutive output pins, as
shown by the following equation:
pin + 15
Σ
Ipin < 320 mA
pin
Table 8–10 shows the current allowed per pin by select I/O standards as
measured under the standard's defined loading conditions. PCI, LVTTL,
LVCMOS, and other supported I/O standards not shown in the table do
not have standardized loading conditions. As such, the current allowed
per pin in a series-loaded condition for these standards is considered
negligible.
Table 8–10. I/O Standard DC Specification
I Pin (mA)
Pin I/O Standard
3.3-V VCCIO
Quartus II
Software
Support
2.5-V VCCIO
SSTL-3 Class I
8
N/A
SSTL-3 Class II
16
N/A
SSTL-2 Class I
N/A
8.1
SSTL-2 Class II
N/A
16.4
LVDS
N/A
Use the Quartus II software to specify which programmable I/O
standards to use for Cyclone devices. This section describes Quartus II
implementation, placement, and assignment guidelines, including:
■
■
■
■
■
■
Settings
Device and pin options
Assigning pins
Programmable drive strength settings
I/O banks in the floorplan view
Auto placement and verification
Settings
The Settings dialog box (Assignments menu) includes options allowing
you to set a default I/O standard, optimize for I/O placement, assign I/O
pins, and numerous other I/O-related options. The most pertinent user
features are described in detail below.
8–18
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Quartus II Software Support
Device and Pin Options
To access Device and Pin Options, choose Settings from Assignments
menu. From Settings dialog box, click Device and Pin Options. There are
numerous categories in the Device and Pin Options dialog box, including
General, Configuration, Programming Files, Unused Pins, Dual-Purpose
Pins, and Voltage. Similarly, each of these categories contains settings
vital to the device operation such as the default I/O standard applied to
the device (Voltage tab), how to reserve all unused pins (Unused Pins
tab), specify the capacitive load (in picofarads (pF)) on output pins for
each I/O standards (Capacitive Loading tab), and whether or not the
device should enable a device-wide reset (General tab).
Assigning Pins
Assuming a specific device has been chosen in the available devices list in
the Device Settings dialog box (Assignments menu), clicking Pin Planner
provides the device's pin settings and pin assignments (see Figure 8–8).
You can view, add, remove and update pin settings in the Pin Planner
window. The information for each pin includes:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Node Name
Direction
Location
I/O Bank
Vref Group
I/O Standard
Reserved
Group
8–19
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 8–8. Assign Pins
1
You can use Filter in the Pin Planner window to list assigned,
unassigned, input, output, bidirectional or all pins.
When you assign an I/O standard that requires a reference voltage to an
I/O pin, the Quartus II software automatically assigns VREF pins. Refer
to Quartus II Help for instructions on how to use an I/O standard for a
pin.
Programmable Drive Strength Settings
To specify programmable drive strength settings, perform the following
steps:
8–20
Preliminary
1.
Choose Assignment Editor (Assignments menu).
2.
Under To field in the Assignment Editor box, right-click on a new
row. Select Node Finder. Click List in the Node Finder window.
Then select the output or bidirectional pin for which you will
specify the current strength.
3.
Set the Assignment Name field to Current Strength (accepts
wildcards/groups), then enter the desired value in the Value field.
4.
Select Yes under Enabled field to enable the selected current
strength.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Quartus II Software Support
The Quartus II software displays the entire range of drive strength
choices. While the Quartus II software does not prohibit you from
specifying any of these for your I/O pin, not every setting is supported
by every I/O standard. See Table 8–5 for supported combinations.
I/O Banks in the Floorplan View
View the arrangement of the device I/O banks by choosing Timing
Closure Floorplan (Assignments View menu) with the Floorplan View
displayed (see Figure 8–9). Pins that belong to the same I/O bank must
use the same VCCIO voltage. You can assign multiple I/O standards to the
I/O pins in any given I/O bank as long as the VCCIO voltage of the desired
I/O standards is the same.
A given bank can have up to three VREF signals, and each signal can
support one voltage-referenced I/O standard. Each device I/O pin
belongs to a specific, numbered I/O bank. By default, the Show I/O
Banks option is enabled, allowing the I/O banks to be displayed as color
coded (See Figure 8–9).
Figure 8–9. Floorplan View Window
Altera Corporation
May 2008
8–21
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Auto Placement and Verification of Selectable I/O Standards
The Quartus II software automatically verifies the placement for all I/O
and VREF pins and performs the following actions:
■
■
■
■
Automatically places I/O pins of different VREF standards without
pin assignments in separate I/O banks and enables the VREF pins of
these I/O banks.
Verifies that voltage-referenced I/O pins requiring different VREF
levels are not placed in the same bank.
Reports an error message if the current limit is exceeded for a
Cyclone power bank (See “DC Guidelines”).
Automatically assigns VREF pins and I/O pins such that the current
requirements are met and I/O standards are placed properly.
Conclusion
Cyclone device I/O capabilities enable system designers to keep pace
with increasing design complexity utilizing a low-cost FPGA device
family. Support for I/O standards including SSTL and LVDS
compatibility allow Cyclone devices to fit into a wide variety of
applications. The Quartus II software makes it easy to use these I/O
standards in Cyclone device designs. After design compilation, the
software also provides clear, visual representations of pads and pins and
the selected I/O standards. Taking advantage of the support of these I/O
standards in Cyclone devices will allow you to lower your design costs
without compromising design flexibility or complexity.
More
Information
For more information about Cyclone devices refer to the following
resources:
■
■
■
References
For more information on the I/O standards referred to in this document,
see the following sources:
■
■
8–22
Preliminary
Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet section of the Cyclone Device
Handbook
Using Cyclone Devices in Multiple-Voltage Systems chapter in the
Cyclone Device Handbook
AN 75: High-Speed Board Designs
Stub Series Terminated Logic for 2.5-V (SSTL-2), JESD8-9A,
Electronic Industries Association, December 2000.
1.5-V +/- 0.1-V (Normal Range) and 0.9-V - 1.6-V (Wide Range)
Power Supply Voltage and Interface Standard for Non-terminated
Digital Integrated Circuits, JESD8-11, Electronic Industries
Association, October 2000.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Referenced Documents
■
■
■
■
■
Referenced
Documents
1.8-V +/- 0.15-V (Normal Range) and 1.2-V - 1.95-V (Wide Range)
Power Supply Voltage and Interface Standard for Non-terminated
Digital Integrated Circuits, JESD8-7, Electronic Industries
Association, February 1997.
2.5-V +/- 0.2-V (Normal Range) and 1.8-V to 2.7-V (Wide Range)
Power Supply Voltage and Interface Standard for Non-terminated
Digital Integrated Circuits, JESD8-5, Electronic Industries
Association, October 1995.
Interface Standard for Nominal 3-V/ 3.3-V Supply Digital Integrated
Circuits, JESD8-B, Electronic Industries Association, September 1999.
PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.2, PCI Special Interest Group,
December 1998.
Electrical Characteristics of Low Voltage Differential Signaling
(LVDS) Interface Circuits, ANSI/TIA/EIA-644, American National
Standards Institute/Telecommunications Industry/Electronic
Industries Association, October 1995.
This chapter references the following documents:
■
■
■
■
Document
Revision History
AN 75: High-Speed Board Designs
Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet section of the Cyclone Device
Handbook
High-Speed Differential Signaling in Cyclone Devices chapter in the
Cyclone Device Handbook
Using Cyclone Devices in Multiple-Voltage Systems chapter in the
Cyclone Device Handbook
Table 8–11 shows the revision history for this chapter.
Table 8–11. Document Revision History
Date and Document
Version
Changes Made
May 2008
v1.6
Minor textual and style changes. Added “Referenced
Documents” section.
January 2007
v1.5
●
●
●
●
●
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Added document revision history.
Removed references to “compiler” settings and updated
information in “Quartus II Software Support” section.
Updated Figure 8–8 and the following handpara note.
Updated procedure in “Programmable Drive Strength
Settings” section.
Minor update in “I/O Banks in the Floorplan View”.
Summary of
Changes
—
—
8–23
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
August 2005
v1.4
Minor updates.
February 2005
v1.3
●
●
●
Updated information concerning hot socketing AC
specifications.
Updated the notes to Figures 8-13 through
8-20.
Updated text in the Output Pads section. Changed 2 pads
away to 1.
—
—
October 2003
v1.2
Updated the 3.3-V (PCI Special Interest Group (SIG) PCI Local
Bus Specification Revision 2.2) section.
—
September 2003
v1.1
Updated LVDS data rates to 640 Mbps from 311 Mbps.
—
May 2003
v1.0
Added document to Cyclone Device Handbook.
—
8–24
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
9. High-Speed Differential
Signaling in Cyclone Devices
C51009-1.6
Introduction
From high-speed backplane applications to high-end switch boxes,
low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) is the technology of choice.
LVDS is a low-voltage differential signaling standard, allowing higher
noise immunity than single-ended I/O technologies. Its low-voltage
swing allows for high-speed data transfers, low power consumption, and
less electromagnetic interference (EMI). LVDS I/O signaling is a data
interface standard defined in the TIA/EIA-644 and IEEE Std. 1596.3
specifications.
The reduced swing differential signaling (RSDS) standard is a derivative
of the LVDS standard. The RSDS I/O standard is similar in electrical
characteristics to LVDS, but has a smaller voltage swing and therefore
provides further power benefits and reduced EMI. National
Semiconductor Corporation introduced the RSDS specification and now
many vendors use it for flat panel display (FPD) links between the
controller and the drivers that drive the display column drivers. Cyclone®
devices support the RSDS I/O standard at speeds up to 311 megabits per
second (Mbps).
Altera® Cyclone devices allow you to transmit and receive data through
LVDS signals at a data rate up to 640 Mbps. For the LVDS transmitter and
receiver, the Cyclone device’s input and output pins support serialization
and deserialization through internal logic.
This chapter describes how to use Cyclone I/O pins for LVDS and RSDS
signaling and contains the following topics:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Cyclone I/O Banks
Cyclone High-Speed I/O Interface
LVDS Receiver and Transmitter
RSDS I/O Standard Support in Cyclone Devices
Cyclone Receiver and Transmitter Termination
Implementing Cyclone LVDS and RSDS I/O Pins in the Quartus® II
Software
Design Guidelines
9–1
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Cyclone HighSpeed I/O Banks
Cyclone devices offer four I/O banks, as shown in Figure 9–1. A subset of
pins in each of the four I/O banks (on both rows and columns) support
the high-speed I/O interface. Cyclone pin tables list the pins that support
the high-speed I/O interface. The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin thin quad
flat pack (TQFP) package does not support the high-speed I/O interface.
Figure 9–1. Cyclone I/O Banks
I/O Bank 2
I/O Bank 1
Also Supports
the 3.3-V PCI
I/O Standard
I/O Bank 1
I/O Bank 3
Also Supports
the 3.3-V PCI
I/O Standard
All I/O Banks Support
■ 3.3-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 1.5-V LVCMOS
■ LVDS
■ RSDS
■ SSTL-2 Class I and II
■ SSTL-3 Class I and II
I/O Bank 3
Individual
Power Bus
I/O Bank 4
Table 9–1 shows the total number of supported high-speed I/O channels
in each Cyclone device. You can use each channel as a receiver or
transmitter.
Cyclone devices support different modes (× 1, × 2, × 4, × 7, × 8, and × 10)
of operation with a maximum internal clock frequency of 405 MHz
(-6 speed grade), 320 MHz (-7 speed grade), or 275 MHz (-8 speed grade),
and a maximum data rate of 640 Mbps (-6 speed grade).
9–2
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Cyclone High-Speed I/O Interface
Table 9–1. Number of High-Speed I/O Channels Per Cyclone Device
Pin Count
Total Number of HighSpeed I/O Channels
EP1C3
144
34
EP1C4
324
103
400
129
144
29
240
72
256
72
240
66
Device
EP1C6
EP1C12
EP1C20
f
Cyclone HighSpeed I/O
Interface
256
72
324
103
324
95
400
129
For more information about I/O standards supported by Cyclone
devices, refer to the Using Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone Devices
chapter in the Cyclone Device Handbook.
You can use the I/O pins and internal logic to implement an high-speed
I/O receiver and transmitter in Cyclone devices. Cyclone devices do not
contain dedicated serialization or deserialization circuitry; therefore, shift
registers, internal global phase-locked loops (PLLs), and I/O cells are
used to perform serial-to-parallel conversions on incoming data and
parallel-to-serial conversion on outgoing data.
Clock Domains
Cyclone devices provide a global clock network and two PLLs (the EP1C3
device only contains one PLL). The global clock network consists of eight
global clock lines that drive through the entire device (see Figure 9–2).
There are four dedicated clock pins that feed the PLL inputs (two
dedicated clocks for each PLL). PLL pins can also act as LVDS input pins.
Cyclone PLLs provide general-purpose clocking with clock
multiplication and phase shifting as well as external outputs for highspeed differential I/O support. Altera recommends that designers use a
data channel for the high-speed clock output for better balanced skew on
the transmitter data pins with respect to the output clock.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
9–3
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 9–2. Cyclone Global Clock Network
Note (1)
DPCLK2
DPCLK3
Cyclone Device
Global Clock
Network
8
DPCLK1
DPCLK4
From logic
array
From logic
array
4
CLK0
CLK1 (3)
4
PLL1
4
2
4
2
DPCLK0
PLL2
(2)
CLK2
CLK3
DPCLK5
DPCLK7
DPCLK6
Notes to Figure 9–2:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin TQFP package has five DPCLK pins (DPCLK2, DPCLK3, DPCLK4, DPCLK6, and
DPCLK7).
EP1C3 devices only contain one PLL (PLL1).
EP1C3 devices in the 100-pin TQFP package do not support differential clock inputs or outputs.
LVDS Receiver
and Transmitter
9–4
Preliminary
Figure 9–3 shows a simple point-to-point LVDS application where the
source of the data is a LVDS transmitter. These LVDS signals are typically
transmitted over a pair of printed circuit board (PCB) traces, but a
combination of a PCB trace, connectors, and cables is a common
application setup.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
LVDS Receiver and Transmitter
Figure 9–3. Typical LVDS Application
Cyclone Device
Transmitting Device
txout +
txout +
rxin +
Cyclone
Logic
Array
100 Ω
txout -
120 Ω
120 Ω
rxin txout -
Receiving Device
rxin +
170 Ω
100 Ω
rxin -
Input Buffer
Output Buffer
The Cyclone LVDS I/O pins meet the IEEE 1596 LVDS specification.
Figures 9–4 and 9–5 show the signaling levels for LVDS receiver inputs
and transmitter outputs.
Figure 9–4. Receiver Input Waveform for the Differential I/O Standard
Single-Ended Waveform
Positive Channel (p)
VID
Negative Channel (n)
VCM
Ground
Differential Waveform
+VID
p-n=0V
VID (Peak-to-Peak)
Altera Corporation
May 2008
-VID
9–5
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 9–5. Transmitter Output Waveform for Differential I/O Standard
Single-Ended Waveform
Positive Channel (p)
VOD
Negative Channel (n)
VOS
Ground
Differential Waveform
+VOD
p
n=0V
VOD
Table 9–2 lists the LVDS I/O specifications.
Table 9–2. LVDS I/O Specifications (Part 1 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
VCCINT
Supply Voltage
—
1.425
1.5
1.575
V
VCCIO
I/O Supply
Voltage
—
2.375
2.5
2.625
V
VOD
Differential Output RL = 100 Ω
Voltage
250
350
550
mV
Δ VOD
Change in VOD
between H and L
RL = 100 Ω
—
—
50
mV
VOS
Output Offset
Voltage
RL = 100 Ω
1.125
1.25
1.375
V
Δ VOS
Change in VOS
between H and L
RL = 100 Ω
—
—
50
mV
VID
Input differential
voltage swing
(single-ended)
0.1 V ≤VCM ≤
2.0 V
100
—
650
mV
VIN
Receiver input
voltage range
0
—
2.4
V
9–6
Preliminary
—
Altera Corporation
May 2008
RSDS I/O Standard Support in Cyclone Devices
Table 9–2. LVDS I/O Specifications (Part 2 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
VCM
Receiver input
common mode
voltage
RL
Receiver
Differential Input
Resistor
RSDS I/O
Standard
Support in
Cyclone Devices
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
100 mV ≤VID ≤
650 mV
100
—
2,000
mV
—
90
100
110
W
The RSDS specification defines its use in chip-to-chip applications
between the timing controller and the column drivers on display panels.
The Cyclone characterization and simulations were performed to meet
the National Semiconductor Corp. RSDS Interface Specification.
Table 9–3 shows the RSDS electrical characteristics for Cyclone devices.
Table 9–3. RSDS Electrical Characteristics for Cyclone Devices
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
2.375
2.5
2.625
V
VCCIO
I/O supply voltage
VOD
Differential output voltage
100
200
600
mV
VOS
Output offset voltage
0.5
1.2
1.5
V
VTH
Differential threshold
—
—
±100
mV
VCM
Input common mode voltage
0.3
—
1.5
V
Figures 9–6 and 9–7 show the RSDS receiver and transmitter signal
waveforms.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
9–7
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 9–6. Receiver Input Signal Level Waveforms for RSDS
Single-Ended Waveform
Positive Channel (p) = VIH
VID
Negative Channel (n) = VIL
VCM
Ground
Differential Waveform
VID
p
VID (Peak-to-Peak)
n=0V
VID
Figure 9–7. Transmitter Output Signal Level Waveforms for RSDS
Single-Ended Waveform
Positive Channel (p) = VOH
VOD
Negative Channel (n) = VOL
VOS
Ground
Differential Waveform
VOD
p
n=0V
VOD
9–8
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
RSDS I/O Standard Support in Cyclone Devices
Cyclone FPGA devices support all three bus configuration types as
defined by the RSDS specification:
■
■
■
Multi-drop bus with double termination
Multi-drop bus with single end termination
Double multi-drop bus with single termination
Designing with RSDS
Cyclone devices support the RSDS standard using the LVDS I/O buffer
types. For receivers, the LVDS input buffer can be used without any
changes. For transmitters, the LVDS output buffer can be used with the
external resistor network shown in Figure 9–8.
Figure 9–8. RSDS Resistor Network
Cyclone Device
≤1 inch
Resistor Network
LVDS Transmitter
RS
RSDS Receiver
50 Ω
RL = 100 Ω
RP
50 Ω
RS
Table 9–4 shows the resistor values recommended for each RSDS bus
configuration type.
Table 9–4. Recommended Resistor Values
RS (Ω)
RP (Ω)
Multi-drop bus with double termination
160
145
Multi-drop bus with single end termination
226
124
Double multi-drop bus with single termination
226
124
Bus Configuration Type
f
Altera Corporation
May 2008
For more information about RSDS bus configuration types, refer to the
RSDS specification from the National Semiconductor website
(www.national.com).
9–9
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
A resistor network is required to attenuate the LVDS output voltage
swing to meet the RSDS specifications. The resistor network values can be
modified to reduce power or improve the noise margin. The resistor
values chosen should satisfy the following equation:
RS ×
RS +
RP
2
RP
= 50 Ω
2
For example, in the multi-drop bus with single end termination or double
multi-drop bus with single termination bus configuration, the resistor
values can be modified to RS = 200 Ω and RP = 130 Ω to increase the VOD
or voltage swing of the signal.
Additional simulations using the IBIS models should be performed to
validate that custom resistor values meet the RSDS requirements.
RSDS Software Support
When designing for the RSDS I/O standard, assign the LVDS I/O
standard to the I/O pins intended for RSDS in the Quartus II software.
Contact Altera Applications for reference designs.
9–10
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
High-Speed I/O Timing in Cyclone Devices
High-Speed I/O
Timing in
Cyclone Devices
Since LVDS and RSDS data communication is source synchronous, timing
analysis is different than other I/O standards. You must understand how
to analyze timing for the high-speed I/O signal, which is based on skew
between the data and the clock signal.
You should also consider board skew, cable skew, and clock jitter in your
calculation. This section provides details on high-speed I/O standards
timing parameters in Cyclone devices.
Table 9–5 defines the parameters of the timing diagram shown in
Figure 9–9.
Table 9–5. High-Speed I/O TIming Definitions Note (1)
Parameter
Symbol
Description
High-speed clock frequency
fH S C L K
High-speed receiver/transmitter input clock frequency.
High-speed I/O data rate
HSIODR
High-speed receiver/transmitter input and output data rate.
High-speed external output
clock
fH S C L K O U T
High-speed transmitter external output clock frequency
using an LVDS data channel.
Channel-to-channel skew
TCCS
The timing difference between the fastest and slowest
output edges, including tC O variation and clock skew. The
clock is included in the TCCS measurement.
Sampling window
SW
The period of time during which the data must be valid in
order for you to capture it correctly. The setup and hold times
determine the ideal strobe position within the sampling
window. SW = tS W (max) – tS W (min).
Receiver input skew margin
RSKM
RSKM is defined by the total margin left after accounting for
the sampling window and TCCS. The RSKM equation is:
RSKM = (TUI – SW – TCCS) / 2
Input jitter tolerance (peak-topeak)
Allowed input jitter on the input clock to the PLL that is
tolerable while maintaining PLL lock.
Output jitter (peak-to-peak)
Peak-to-peak output jitter from the PLL.
Rise time
tR I S E
Low-to-high transmission time.
Fall time
tF A L L
High-to-low transmission time.
Duty cycle
tD U T Y
Duty cycle on LVDS transmitter output clock.
PLL lock time
tL O C K
Lock time for the PLL
Note to Table 9–5:
(1)
The TCCS specification applies to the whole bank of LVDS as long as the SERDES logic is placed within the LAB
adjacent to the output pins.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
9–11
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 9–9. High-Speed I/O Timing Diagram
External
Input Clock
Time Unit Interval (TUI)
Internal Clock
TCCS
Receiver
Input Data
RSKM
RSKM
TCCS
Sampling Window (SW)
Figure 9–10 shows the high-speed I/O timing budget.
Figure 9–10. Cyclone High-Speed I/O Timing Budget
Note (1)
Internal Clock Period
0.5 × TCCS
RSKM
SW
0.5 × TCCS
RSKM
Note to Figure 9–10:
(1)
The equation for the high-speed I/O timing budget is: Period = 0.5 × TCCS + RSKM + SW + RSKM + 0.5 × TCCS.
Table 9–6 shows the RSDS timing budget for Cyclone devices at
311 Mbps.
Table 9–6. RSDS Timing Specification for Cyclone Devices (Part 1 of 2)
-6 Speed Grade
Symbol
fH S C L K
9–12
Preliminary
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Conditions
Unit
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
×10
15.625
NA
31.1
15.625
NA
31.1
15.625
NA
31.1
MHz
×8
15.625
NA
38.875
15.625
NA
38.875
15.625
NA
38.875
MHz
×7
17.857
NA
44.429
17.857
NA
44.429
17.857
NA
44.429
MHz
×4
15.625
NA
77.75
15.625
NA
77.75
15.625
NA
77.75
MHz
×2
15.625
NA
155.5
15.625
NA
155.5
15.625
NA
155.5
MHz
×1 (1)
15.625
NA
275
15.625
NA
275
15.625
NA
275
MHz
Altera Corporation
May 2008
High-Speed I/O Timing in Cyclone Devices
Table 9–6. RSDS Timing Specification for Cyclone Devices (Part 2 of 2)
-6 Speed Grade
Symbol
HSIODR
fH S C L K O U T
-7 Speed Grade
-8 Speed Grade
Conditions
Unit
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
×10
156.25
NA
311
156.25
NA
311
156.25
NA
311
Mbps
×8
125
NA
311
125
NA
311
125
NA
311
Mbps
×7
125
NA
311
125
NA
311
125
NA
311
Mbps
×4
62.5
NA
311
62.5
NA
311
62.5
NA
311
Mbps
×2
31.25
NA
311
31.25
NA
311
31.25
NA
311
Mbps
×1 (1)
15.625
NA
275
15.625
NA
275
15.625
NA
275
Mbps
—
15.625
NA
275
15.625
NA
275
15.625
NA
275
MHz
TCCS
—
NA
NA
±150
NA
NA
±150
NA
NA
±150
ps
SW
—
NA
NA
500
NA
NA
550
NA
NA
550
ps
Input jitter
tolerance
(peak-topeak)
—
NA
NA
400
NA
NA
400
NA
NA
400
ps
Output
jitter (peakto-peak)
—
NA
NA
400
NA
NA
400
NA
NA
400
ps
tR I S E
—
150
200
250
150
200
250
150
200
250
ps
tF A L L
—
150
200
250
150
200
250
150
200
250
ps
tD U T Y
—
45
50
55
45
50
55
45
50
55
%
tL O C K
—
NA
NA
100
NA
NA
100
NA
NA
100
μs
Note to Table 9–6:
(1)
The PLL must divide down the input clock frequency to have the internal clock frequency meet the specification
shown in the DC and Switching Characteristics chapter in the Cyclone Device Handbook.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
9–13
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 9–7 shows the LVDS timing budget for Cyclone devices at
640 Mbps.
Table 9–7. LVDS Timing Specification for Cyclone Devices
-6 Speed Grade
Symbol
HSIODR
-8 Speed Grade
Unit
Min
fH S C L K
-7 Speed Grade
Conditions
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
×10
15.625
NA
64
15.625
NA
64
15.625
NA
55
MHz
×8
15.625
NA
80
15.625
NA
80
15.625
NA
68.75
MHz
×7
17.857
NA
91.429
17.857
NA
91.429
17.857
NA
78.571
MHz
×4
15.625
NA
160
15.625
NA
160
15.625
NA
137.5
MHz
×2
15.625
NA
320
15.625
NA
320
15.625
NA
275
MHz
×1 (1)
15.625
NA
567
15.625
NA
549
15.625
NA
531
MHz
×10
156.25
NA
640
156.25
NA
640
156.25
NA
550
Mbps
×8
125
NA
640
125
NA
640
125
NA
550
Mbps
×7
125
NA
640
125
NA
640
125
NA
550
Mbps
×4
62.5
NA
640
62.5
NA
640
62.5
NA
550
Mbps
×2
31.25
NA
640
31.25
NA
640
31.25
NA
550
Mbps
×1 (1)
15.625
NA
320
15.625
NA
320
15.625
NA
275
Mbps
15.625
NA
320
15.625
NA
320
15.625
NA
275
MHz
fH S C L K O U T
TCCS
NA
NA
±150
NA
NA
±150
NA
NA
±150
ps
SW
NA
NA
500
NA
NA
500
NA
NA
550
ps
Input jitter
tolerance
(peak-topeak)
NA
NA
400
NA
NA
400
NA
NA
400
ps
Output
jitter (peakto-peak)
NA
NA
400
NA
NA
400
NA
NA
400
ps
tR I S E
150
200
250
150
200
250
150
200
250
ps
tF A L L
150
200
250
150
200
250
150
200
250
ps
tD U T Y
45
50
55
45
50
55
45
50
55
%
tL O C K
NA
NA
100
NA
NA
100
NA
NA
100
μs
Note to Table 9–7:
(1)
The PLL must divide down the input clock frequency to have the internal clock frequency meet the specification
shown in the DC and Switching Characteristics chapter in the Cyclone Device Handbook.
9–14
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
LVDS Receiver and Transmitter Termination
LVDS Receiver
and Transmitter
Termination
Receiving LVDS signals on Cyclone I/O pins is straightforward, and can
be done by assigning LVDS to desired pins in the Quartus II software. A
100-Ω parallel terminator is required at the receiver input pin, as shown
in Figure 9–11.
Figure 9–11. Termination Scheme on Cyclone LVDS Receiver
LVDS Transmitter
Cyclone Receiver
Z0 = 50 Ω
+
In
+
Receiver
100 Ω
Driver
Out
Z0 = 50 Ω
f
For PCB layout guidelines, refer to AN 224: High-Speed Board Layout
Guidelines.
Cyclone LVDS transmitter signals are generated using a resistor network,
as shown in Figure 9–12 (with RS = 120 Ω and RDIV = 170 Ω). The resistor
network attenuates the driver outputs to levels similar to the LVDS
signaling, which is recognized by LVDS receivers with minimal effect on
50-Ω trace impedance.
Figure 9–12. Termination Scheme on Cyclone LVDS Transmitter
Core
Resistor Network
120 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
120 Ω
+
100 Ω
170 Ω
In
Receiver
Out
Z0 = 50 Ω
VCCIO = 2.5 V
Altera Corporation
May 2008
9–15
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Implementing
Cyclone LVDS
and RSDS I/O
Pins in the
Quartus II
Software
For differential signaling, the receiver must deserialize the incoming data
and send it to the internal logic as a parallel signal. Accordingly, the
transmitter must serialize the parallel data coming from the internal logic
to send it off-chip (see Figure 9–13).
Figure 9–13. Deserialization and Serialization at Receiver and Transmitter
Cyclone Device
Receiver
Transmitter
rxin +
txout +
Serial Data
Serial Data
txout -
rxin Deserializer
Serializer
Although Cyclone devices do not incorporate a dedicated serializer/
deserializer (SERDES), you can incorporate these functions in your
design using the Quartus II software. The device implements the SERDES
in logic elements (LEs) and requires a PLL.
LVDS in Cyclone devices is implememented using megafunctions in
Quartus II software. The altlvds_rx megafunction implements a
deserialization receiver. The altlvds_tx megafunction implements a
serialization transmitter.
The placement of the LE registers is handled by the LVDS MegaWizard®
in the Quartus II software. The Cyclone device DDIO logic placer in the
Quartus II software only places the DDIO output registers according to
Altera’s recommendation and does not check if it meets the TCCS
specification. There is no timing analysis done in the Quartus II software
to report the TCCS. Verify timing anaysis by running the Timing Analyzer
in the Quartus II software.
Refer to the Quartus II software documenation and the Quartus II Help
for more information on these megafunctions. Follow the
recommendations in Tables 9–8 and 9–9 for PLL phase shift settings. The
operation of these settings are guaranteed by operation.
9–16
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Implementing Cyclone LVDS and RSDS I/O Pins in the Quartus II Software
The required receiver PLL phase settings for top and bottom I/O banks
(I/O banks 2 and 4) based on high-speed I/O data rate and operating
mode are shown in Table 9–8.
Table 9–8. Receiver PLL Phase Settings for Top and Bottom I/O Banks
Phase Shift (Degree)
Device
Unit
0
22.5
45
EP1C3
—
—
300 to 640
Mbps
EP1C4
—
601 to 640
300 to 600
Mbps
EP1C6
—
601 to 640
300 to 600
Mbps
EP1C12
—
451 to 640
300 to 450
Mbps
EP1C20
551 to 640
300 to 550
—
Mbps
The required receiver PLL phase settings for right and left I/O banks (I/O
Bank 1 and 3) based on high-speed I/O data rate and operating mode are
shown in Table 9–9.
Table 9–9. Receiver PLL Phase Settingsfor Right and Left I/O Banks
Phase Shift (Degree)
Device
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Unit
–22.5
0
22.5
45
EP1C3
—
—
451 to 640
300 to 450
Mbps
EP1C4
—
551 to 640
300 to 550
—
Mbps
EP1C6
—
—
451 to 640
300 to 450
Mbps
EP1C12
601 to 640
451 to 600
300 to 450
—
Mbps
EP1C20
501 to 640
300 to 500
—
—
Mbps
9–17
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Design
Guidelines
To implement LVDS in Cyclone devices, adhere to the following design
guidelines in the Quartus II software.
■
■
■
■
■
Route LVDS CLKOUT to pins through regular user LVDS pins. This
routing provides better TCCS margin.
To meet the tSU and tCO timing requirement between serial and
parallel registers, use the I/O registers of the input and output pins.
fMAX is limited by the delay between the IOE and the next logic
element (LE) register. To achieve an fMAX of 320 MHz, the delay
between the IOE and the next LE register at the receiver and
transmitter side must not be more than 3.125 ns.
The best location to implement the shift registers is within the LAB
adjacent to the input or output pin.
LVDS data and clock should be aligned at the output pin. If these
signals are not aligned, use a phase shift to align them.
Differential Pad Placement Guidelines
To maintain an acceptable noise level on the VCCIO supply, there are
restrictions on placement of single-ended I/O pins in relation to
differential pads.
f
For placing single-ended pads with respect to differential pads in
Cyclone devices, refer to the guidelines in the Using Selectable I/O
Standards in Cyclone Devices chapter in the Cyclone Device Handbook.
Board Design Considerations
This section explains how to get the optimal performance from the
Cyclone I/O block and ensure first-time success in implementing a
functional design with optimal signal quality. The critical issues of
controlled impedance of traces and connectors, differential routing, and
termination techniques must all be considered to get the best
performance from the integrated circuit (IC). Use this chapter together
with the Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet section of the Cyclone Device
Handbook.
The Cyclone device generates signals that travel over the media at
frequencies as high as 640 Mbps. Use the following general guidelines:
■
■
9–18
Preliminary
Base board designs on controlled differential impedance. Calculate
and compare all parameters such as trace width, trace thickness, and
the distance between two differential traces.
Maintain equal distance between traces in LVDS pairs, as much as
possible. Routing the pair of traces close to each other will maximize
the common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR)
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Conclusion
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Longer traces have more inductance and capacitance. These traces
should be as short as possible to limit signal integrity issues.
Place termination resistors as close to receiver input pins as possible.
Use surface mount components.
Avoid 90° or 45° corners.
Use high-performance connectors.
Design backplane and card traces so that trace impedance matches
the connector’s and/or the termination’s impedance.
Keep equal number of vias for both signal traces.
Create equal trace lengths to avoid skew between signals. Unequal
trace lengths result in misplaced crossing points and decrease system
margins as the TCCS value increases.
Limit vias because they cause discontinuities.
Use the common bypass capacitor values such as 0.001 μF, 0.01 μF,
and 0.1 μF to decouple the high-speed PLL power and ground
planes.
Keep switching TTL signals away from differential signals to avoid
possible noise coupling.
Do not route TTL clock signals to areas under or above the
differential signals.
Analyze system-level signals.
Conclusion
Cyclone LVDS I/O capabilities enable you to keep pace with increasing
design complexity while offering the lowest-cost FPGA on the market.
Support for I/O standards including LVDS allows Cyclone devices to fit
into a wide variety of applications. Taking advantage of these I/O
standards and Cyclone pricing allows you to lower your design costs
while remaining on the cutting edge of technology.
Referenced
Documents
This chapter references the following documents:
■
■
■
■
Altera Corporation
May 2008
AN 224: High-Speed Board Layout Guidelines
Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet section of the Cyclone Device
Handbook
DC and Switching Characteristics chapter in the Cyclone Device
Handbook
Using Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone Devices chapter in the Cyclone
Device Handbook
9–19
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Document
Revision History
Table 9–10 shows the revision history for this chapter.
Table 9–10. Document Revision History
Date and
Document Version
Changes Made
Summary of Changes
May 2008
v1.6
Minor textual and style changes. Added “Referenced
Documents” section.
—
January 2007
v1.5
Added document revision history.
—
August 2005
v1.4
Updated minimum LVDS LOD value listed in Table 9-2.
—
February 2005
v1.3
Minor updates.
—
October 2003
v1.2
●
●
●
●
Added RSDS information.
Removed VS S from Figure 9–5.
Added RSDS and LVDS timing information in Tables 9–6 and
9–7, respectively.
Updated Implementing Cyclone LVDS and RSDS I/O Pins in
the Quartus II Software section, including addition of the PLL
Circuit section.
—
September 2003
v1.1
Updated LVDS data rates to 640 Mbps from 311 Mbps.
—
May 2003
v1.0
Added document to Cyclone Device Handbook.
—
9–20
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Section V. Design
Considerations
This section provides documentation on design considerations when
utilizing Cyclone devices. In addition to these design considerations,
refer to the Intellectual Property section of the Altera web site for a
complete offering of IP cores for Cyclone devices.
This section contains the following chapters:
Revision History
Altera Corporation
■
Chapter 10, Implementing Double Data Rate I/O Signaling in
Cyclone Devices
■
Chapter 11. Using Cyclone Devices in Multiple-Voltage Systems
■
Chapter 12. Designing with 1.5-V Devices
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information
on when each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates
section, which appears in the complete handbook.
Section V–1
Preliminary
Revision History
Section V–2
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
10. Implementing Double
Data Rate I/O Signaling in
Cyclone Devices
C51010-1.2
Introduction
Double data rate (DDR) transmission is used in many applications where
fast data transmission is needed, such as memory access and first-in
first-out (FIFO) memory structures. DDR uses both edges of a clock to
transmit data, which facilitates data transmission at twice the rate of a
single data rate (SDR) architecture using the same clock speed. This
method also reduces the number of I/O pins required to transmit data.
This chapter shows implementations of a double data rate I/O interface
using Cyclone® devices. Cyclone devices support DDR input, DDR
output, and bidirectional DDR signaling.
For more information on using Cyclone devices in applications with DDR
SDRAM and FCRAM memory devices, refer to “DDR Memory Support”
on page 10–4.
Double Data
Rate Input
The DDR input implementation shown in Figure 10–1 uses four internal
logic element (LE) registers located in the logic array block (LAB) adjacent
to the DDR input pin. The DDR data is fed to the first two of four
registers. One register captures the DDR data present during the rising
edge of the clock. The second register captures the DDR data present
during the falling edge of the clock.
Figure 10–1. Double Data Rate Input Implementation
DFF
DFF
PRN
D
Q
ddr
p_edge_reg
DFF
D
PRN
Q
D
PRN
Q
ddr_out_h
ddr_h_sync_reg
DFF
D
PRN
Q
ddr_out_l
NOT
n_edge_reg
ddr_l_sync_reg
clk
Altera Corporation
May 2008
10–1
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
The third and fourth registers synchronize the two data streams to the
rising edge of the clock. Figure 10–2 shows examples of functional
waveforms from a double data rate input implementation.
Figure 10–2. Double Data Rate Input Functional Waveforms
clk
ddr
ddr_out_l
ddr_out_h
Double Data
Rate Output
Figure 10–3 shows a schematic representation of double data rate output
implemented in a Cyclone device. The DDR output logic is implemented
using LEs in the LAB adjacent to the output pin. Two registers are used to
synchronize two serial data streams. The registered outputs are then
multiplexed by the common clock to drive the DDR output pin at two
times the data rate.
Figure 10–3. Double Data Rate Output Implementation
DFF
data_in_h
D
PRN
Q
data1
reg_h
result
data0
ddr
DFF
data_in_l
D
PRN
Q
sel
reg_l
clk
While the clock signal is logic-high, the output from reg_h is driven onto
the DDR output pin. While the clock signal is logic-low, the output from
reg_l is driven onto the DDR output pin. The DDR output pin can be
any available user I/O pin.
Figure 10–4 shows examples of functional waveforms from a double data
rate output implementation.
10–2
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Bidirectional Double Data Rate
Figure 10–4. Double Data Rate Output Waveforms
clk
ddr
data_in_h
data_in_l
Bidirectional
Double Data
Rate
Figure 10–5 shows a bidirectional DDR interface, constructed using the
DDR input and DDR output examples described in the previous two
sections. As with the DDR input and DDR output examples, the
bidirectional DDR pin can be any available user I/O pin, and the registers
used to implement DDR bidirectional logic are LEs in the LAB adjacent to
that pin. The tri-state buffer (TRI) controls when the device drives data
onto the bidirectional DDR pin.
Figure 10–5. Bidirectional Double Data Rate Implementation
ddr_wen
DFF
PRN
D
Q
ddr_in_h
data1
result
DFF
ddr_in_l
D
TRI
data0
PRN
Q
sel
ddr
clk
DFF
DFF
PRN
PRN
ddr_out_h
Q
D
DFF
DFF
PRN
ddr_out_l
Q
D
Q
PRN
D
Q
D
NOT
Altera Corporation
May 2008
10–3
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 10–6 shows example waveforms from a bidirectional double data
rate implementation.
Figure 10–6. Double Data Rate Bidirectional Waveforms
data_in_h
data_in_l
ddr_wen
clk
ddr
ddr~result
data_out_h
data_out_l
DDR Memory
Support
f
The Cyclone device family supports both DDR SDRAM and FCRAM
memory interfaces up to 133 MHz.
For more information about extended DDR memory support in Cyclone
devices, refer to the Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet section of the Cyclone
Device Handbook.
Conclusion
Utilizing both the rising and falling edges of a clock signal, double data
rate transmission is a popular strategy for increasing the speed of data
transmission while reducing the required number of I/O pins. Cyclone
devices can be used to implement this strategy for use in applications
such as FIFO structures, SDRAM/FCRAM interfaces, as well as other
time-sensitive memory access and data-transmission situations.
Referenced
Documents
This chapter references the following document:
10–4
Preliminary
■
Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet section of the Cyclone Device
Handbook
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Document Revision History
Document
Revision History
Table 10–1 shows the revision history for this chapter.
Table 10–1. Document Revision History
Date and
Document
Version
Changes Made
Summary of Changes
May 2008
v1.2
Minor textual and style changes. Added “Referenced
Documents” section.
—
January 2007
v1.1
Added document revision history.
—
May 2003 v1.0
Added document to Cyclone Device Handbook.
—
Altera Corporation
May 2008
10–5
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
10–6
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
11. Using Cyclone Devices in
Multiple-Voltage Systems
C51011-1.2
Introduction
To meet the demand for higher system speed in data communications,
semiconductor vendors use increasingly advanced processing
technologies requiring lower operating voltages. As a result, printed
circuit boards (PCBs) often incorporate devices conforming to one of
several voltage level I/O standards, such as 3.3-V, 2.5-V, 1.8-V and 1.5-V.
A mixture of components with various voltage level I/O standards on a
single PCB is inevitable.
In order to accommodate this mixture of devices on a single PCB, a device
that can act as a bridge or interface between these devices is needed. The
Cyclone® device family’s MultiVolt™ I/O operation capability meets the
increasing demand for compatibility with devices of different voltages.
MultiVolt I/O operation separates the power supply voltage from the
output voltage, enabling Cyclone devices to interoperate with other
devices using different voltage levels on the same PCB.
In addition to MultiVolt I/O operation, this chapter discusses several
other features that allow you to use Cyclone devices in multiple-voltage
systems without damaging the device or the system, including:
■
■
■
I/O Standards
The I/O buffer of a Cyclone device is programmable and supports a wide
range of I/O voltage standards. Each I/O bank in a Cyclone device can
be programmed to comply with a different I/O standard. All I/O banks
can be configured with the following I/O standards:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Hot-Socketing—add and remove Cyclone devices to and from a
powered-up system without affecting the device or system operation
Power-Up Sequence flexibility—Cyclone devices can accommodate
any possible power-up sequence
Power-On Reset—Cyclone devices maintain a reset state until
voltage is within operating range
3.3-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
1.5-V LVCMOS
LVDS
SSTL-2 Class I and II
SSTL-3 Class I and II
11–1
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O banks 1 and 3 also include 3.3-V PCI I/O standard interface
capability. See Figure 11–1.
Figure 11–1. I/O Standards Supported by Cyclone Devices
Notes (1), (2), (3)
I/O Bank 2
I/O Bank 1
also supports
the 3.3-V PCI
I/O Standard
I/O Bank 1
I/O Bank 3
also supports
the 3.3-V PCI
I/O Standard
All I/O Banks support
■ 3.3-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 1.5-V LVCMOS
■ LVDS
■ SSTL-2 Class I and II
■ SSTL-3 Class I and II
I/O Bank 3
Individual
Power Bus
I/O Bank 4
Notes to Figure 11–1
(1)
(2)
(3)
Figure 1 is a top view of the silicon die.
Figure 1 is a graphical representation only. Refer to the pin list and the Quartus ® II software for exact pin locations.
The EP1C3 device in the 100-pin thin quad flat pack (TQFP) package does not have support for a PLL LVDS input
or an external clock output.
MultiVolt I/O
Operation
11–2
Preliminary
Cyclone devices include MultiVolt I/O operation capability, allowing the
core and I/O blocks of the device to be powered-up with separate supply
voltages. The VCCINT pins supply power to the device core and the
VCCIO pins supply power the device’s I/O buffers.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
5.0-V Device Compatibility
1
Supply all device VCCIO pins that have MultiVolt I/O capability
at the same voltage level (e.g., 3.3-V, 2.5-V, 1.8-V, or 1.5-V). See
Figure 11–2.
Figure 11–2. Implementing a Multiple-Voltage System with a Cyclone Device
5.0-V
Device
Cyclone
Device
3.3-V
Device
2.5-V
Device
5.0-V Device
Compatibility
A Cyclone device may not correctly interoperate with a 5.0-V device if the
output of the Cyclone device is connected directly to the input of the 5.0-V
device. If VOUT of the Cyclone device is greater than VCCIO, the PMOS
pull-up transistor still conducts if the pin is driving high, preventing an
external pull-up resistor from pulling the signal to 5.0-V.
A Cyclone device can drive a 5.0-V LVTTL device by connecting the
VCCIO pins of the Cyclone device to 3.3 V. This is because the output high
voltage (VOH) of a 3.3-V interface meets the minimum high-level voltage
of 2.4-V of a 5.0-V LVTTL device. (A Cyclone device cannot drive a 5.0-V
LVCMOS device.)
Because the Cyclone devices are 3.3-V, 64- and 32-bit, 66- and 33-MHz PCI
compliant the input circuitry accepts a maximum high-level input
voltage (VIH) of 4.1-V. To drive a Cyclone device with a 5.0-V device, you
must connect a resistor (R2) between the Cyclone device and the 5.0-V
device. See Figure 11–3.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
11–3
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 11–3. Driving a Cyclone Device with a 5.0-Volt Device
Cyclone Device
5.0-V Device
3.0 - 3.4 V ± 0.25 V
5.0 V ± 0.25 V
V CCIO
V CC
V CCIO
PCI Clamp
I
Model as R 1
R2
I
B
If VCCIO is between 3.0-V and 3.6-V and the PCI clamping diode (not
available on EP1C3 devices) is enabled, the voltage at point B in
Figure 11–3 is 4.3-V or less. To limit large current draw from the 5.0-V
device, R2 should be small enough for a fast signal rise time and large
enough so that it does not violate the high-level output current (IOH)
specifications of the devices driving the trace. The PCI clamping diode in
the Cyclone device can support 25mA of current.
To compute the required value of R2, first calculate the model of the
pull-up transistors on the 5.0-V device. This output resistor (R1) can be
modeled by dividing the 5.0-V device supply voltage (VCC) by the IOH:
R1 = VCC/IOH.
Figure 11–4 shows an example of typical output drive characteristics of a
5.0-V device.
11–4
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
5.0-V Device Compatibility
Figure 11–4. Output Drive Characteristics of a 5.0-V Device
150
IOL
135
120
Typical IO
Output
Current (mA)
VCCINT = 5.0V
VCCIO = 5.0V
90
60
IOH
30
1
2
3
4
5
VO Output Voltage (V)
As shown above, R1 = 5.0-V/135 mA.
1
The values usually shown in data sheets reflect typical operating
conditions. Subtract 20% from the data sheet value for guard
band. This subtraction applied to the above example gives R1 a
value of 30 Ω.
R2 should be selected to not violate the driving device’s IOH specification.
For example, if the above device has a maximum IOH of 8 mA, given the
PCI clamping diode, VIN = VCCIO + 0.7-V = 3.7-V. Given that the
maximum supply load of a 5.0-V device (VCC) will be 5.25-V, the value of
R2 can be calculated as follows:
( 5.25V – 3.7 V ) – ( 8 mA × 30 Ω-) = 164 Ω
R 2 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8 mA
This analysis assumes worst-case conditions. If your system will not see
a wide variation in voltage-supply levels, you can adjust these
calculations accordingly.
1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Because 5.0-V device tolerance in Cyclone devices requires use
of the PCI clamp (not available on EP1C3 devices), and this
clamp is activated during configuration, 5.0-V signals may not
be driven into the device until it is configured.
11–5
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Hot-Socketing
Hot-socketing, also known as hot-swapping, refers to inserting or
removing a board or device into or out of a system board while system
power is on. For a system to support hot-socketing, plug-in or removal of
the subsystem or device must not damage the system or interrupt system
operation.
All devices in the Cyclone family are designed to support hot-socketing
without special design requirements. The following features have been
implemented in Cyclone devices to facilitate hot-socketing:
■
■
■
1
Devices can be driven before power-up with no damage to the
device.
I/O pins remain tri-stated during power-up.
Signal pins do not drive the VCCIO or VCCINT power supplies.
Because 5.0-V tolerance in Cyclone devices require the use of the
PCI clamping diode, and the clamping diode is only available
after configuration has finished, be careful not to connect 5.0-V
signals to the device.
Devices Can Be Driven before Power-Up
The device I/O pins, dedicated input pins, and dedicated clock pins of
Cyclone devices can be driven before or during power-up without
damaging the devices.
I/O Pins Remain Tri-Stated during Power-Up
A device that does not support hot-socketing may interrupt system
operation or cause contention by driving out before or during power-up.
For Cyclone devices, I/O pins are tri-stated before and during power-up
and configuration, and will not drive out.
Signal Pins Do Not Drive the VCCIO or VCCINT Power Supplies
A device that does not support hot-socketing will short power supplies
together when powered-up through its signal pins. This irregular
power-up can damage both the driving and driven devices and can
disrupt card power-up.
In Cyclone devices, there is no current path from I/O pins, dedicated
input pins, or dedicated clock pins to the VCCIO or VCCINT pins before
or during power-up. A Cyclone device may be inserted into (or removed
from) a powered-up system board without damaging or interfering with
system-board operation. When hot-socketing, Cyclone devices have a
minimal effect on the signal integrity of the backplane.
11–6
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Power-Up Sequence
1
The maximum DC current when hot-socketing Cyclone devices
is less than 300 µA, whereas the maximum AC current during
hot-socketing is less than 8 mA for a period of 10ns or less.
During hot-socketing, the signal pins of a device may be connected and
driven by the active system before the power supply can provide current
to the device VCC and ground planes. Known as latch-up, this condition
can cause parasitic diodes to turn on within the device, causing the device
to consume a large amount of current, and possibly causing electrical
damage. This operation can also cause parasitic diodes to turn on inside
of the driven device. Cyclone devices are immune to latch-up when hotsocketing.
Power-Up
Sequence
Because Cyclone devices can be used in a multi-voltage environment,
they are designed to tolerate any possible power-up sequence. Either
VCCINT or VCCIO can initially supply power to the device, and 3.3-V, 2.5-V,
1.8-V, or 1.5-V input signals can drive the devices without special
precautions before VCCINT or VCCIO is applied. Cyclone devices can
operate with a VCCIO voltage level that is higher than the VCCINT level. You
can also change the VCCIO supply voltage while the board is powered-up.
However, you must ensure that the VCCINT and VCCIO power supplies stay
within the correct device operating conditions.
When VCCIO and VCCINT are supplied from different power sources to a
Cyclone device, a delay between VCCIO and VCCINT may occur. Normal
operation does not occur until both power supplies are in their
recommended operating range. When VCCINT is powered-up, the IEEE
Std. 1149.1 Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) circuitry is active. If TMS and
TCK are connected to VCCIO and VCCIO is not powered-up, the JTAG
signals are left floating. Thus, any transition on TCK can cause the state
machine to transition to an unknown JTAG state, leading to incorrect
operation when VCCIO is finally powered-up. To disable the JTAG state
during the power-up sequence, TCK should be pulled low to ensure that
an inadvertent rising edge does not occur on TCK.
Power-On Reset
Altera Corporation
May 2008
When designing a circuit, it is important to consider system state at
power-up. Cyclone devices maintain a reset state during power-up.
When power is applied to a Cyclone device, a power-on-reset event
occurs if VCC reaches the recommended operating range within a certain
period of time (specified as a maximum VCC rise time). A POR event does
not occur if these conditions are not met because slower rise times can
cause incorrect device initialization and functional failure. The VCCIO
level of the I/O banks that contains configuration pins must also reach an
acceptable level to trigger POR event.
11–7
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
1
If VCCINT does not remain in the specified operating range,
operation is not assured until VCCINT re-enters the range.
Conclusion
PCBs often contain a mix of 5.0-V, 3.3-V, 2.5-V, 1.8-V, and 1.5-V devices.
The Cyclone device family’s MultiVolt I/O operation capability allows
you to incorporate newer-generation devices with devices of varying
voltage levels. This capability also enables the device core to run at its
core voltage, VCCINT, while maintaining I/O pin compatibility with other
logic levels. Altera has taken further steps to make system design easier
by designing devices that allow VCCINT and VCCIO to power-up in any
sequence and by incorporating support for hot-socketing.
Document
Revision History
Table 11–1 shows the revision history for this chapter.
Table 11–1. Document Revision History
Date and
Document
Version
Changes Made
Summary of Changes
May 2008
v1.3
Minor textual and style changes.
—
January 2007
v1.2
Updated “Power-On Reset” section.
—
October 2003
v1.1
Added 64-bit PCI support information.
—
May 2003
v1.0
Added document to Cyclone Device Handbook.
—
11–8
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
12. Designing with
1.5-V Devices
C51012-1.4
Introduction
The Cyclone® FPGA family provides the best solution for high-volume,
cost-sensitive applications. A Cyclone device is fabricated on a
leading-edge 1.5-V, 0.13-µm, all-layer copper SRAM process.
Using a 1.5-V operating voltage provides the following advantages:
■
■
■
Lower power consumption compared to 2.5-V or 3.3-V devices.
Lower operating temperature.
Less need for fans and other temperature-control elements.
Since many existing designs are based on 5.0-V, 3.3-V and 2.5-V power
supplies, a voltage regulator may be required to lower the voltage supply
level to 1.5-V. This document provides guidelines for designing with
Cyclone devices in mixed-voltage and single-voltage systems and
provides examples using voltage regulators. This document also includes
information about:
■
■
■
■
■
■
Power
Sequencing and
Hot Socketing
“Power Sequencing and Hot Socketing” on page 12–1
“Using MultiVolt I/O Pins” on page 12–2
“Voltage Regulators” on page 12–3
“1.5-V Regulator Application Examples” on page 12–19
“Board Layout” on page 12–21
“Power Sequencing and Hot Socketing” on page 12–1
Because 1.5-V Cyclone FPGAs can be used in a mixed-voltage
environment, they have been designed specifically to tolerate any
possible power-up sequence. Therefore, the VCCIO and VCCINT power
supplies may be powered in any order.
You can drive signals into Cyclone FPGAs before and during power up
without damaging the device. In addition, Cyclone FPGAs do not drive
out during power up since they are tri-stated during power up. Once the
device reaches operating conditions and is configured, Cyclone FPGAs
operate as specified by the user.
f
Altera Corporation
May 2008
For more information, refer to the Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet
section of the Cyclone Device Handbook.
12–1
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Using MultiVolt
I/O Pins
Cyclone FPGAs require a 1.5-V VCCINT and a 3.3-V, 2.5-V, 1.8-V, or 1.5-V
I/O supply voltage level (VCCIO). All pins, including dedicated inputs,
clock, I/O, and JTAG pins, are 3.3-V tolerant before and after VCCINT and
VCCIO are powered.
When VCCIO is connected to 1.5-V, the output is compatible with 1.5-V
logic levels. The output pins can be made 1.8-V, 2.5-V, or 3.3-V compatible
by using open-drain outputs pulled up with external resistors. You can
use external resistors to pull open-drain outputs up with a 1.8-V, 2.5-V, or
3.3-V VCCIO. Table 12–1 summarizes Cyclone MultiVolt I/O support.
Table 12–1. Cyclone MultiVolt I/O Support
Note (1)
Input Signal
VCCIO (V)
Output Signal
1.5-V
1.8-V
2.5-V
3.3-V
5.0-V
1.5-V
1.8-V
2.5-V
3.3-V
5.0-V
1.5-V
v
v
v (2)
v (2)
—
v
—
—
—
—
1.8-V
v
v
v
v
—
v (3)
v
—
—
—
2.5-V
—
—
v
v
—
v (5)
v (5)
v
—
—
3.3-V
—
—
v (4)
v
v (6)
v (7)
v (7)
v (7)
v
v (8)
Notes to Table 12–1:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
The PCI clamping diode must be disabled to drive an input with voltages higher than VCCIO.
When VCCIO = 1.5-V and a 2.5-V or 3.3-V input signal feeds an input pin, higher pin leakage current is expected.
When VCCIO = 1.8-V, a Cyclone device can drive a 1.5-V device with 1.8-V tolerant inputs.
When VCCIO = 3.3-V and a 2.5-V input signal feeds an input pin, or when VCCIO = 1.8-V and a 1.5-V input signal
feeds an input pin, the VCCIO supply current is slightly larger than expected. The reason for this increase is that the
input signal level does not drive to the VCCIO rail, which causes the input buffer to not completely shut off.
When VCCIO = 2.5-V, a Cyclone device can drive a 1.5-V or 1.8-V device with 2.5-V tolerant inputs.
Cyclone devices can be 5.0-V tolerant with the use of an external resistor and the internal PCI clamp diode.
When VCCIO = 3.3-V, a Cyclone device can drive a 1.5-V, 1.8-V, or 2.5-V device with 3.3-V tolerant inputs.
When VCCIO = 3.3-V, a Cyclone device can drive a device with 5.0-V LVTTL inputs but not 5.0-V LVCMOS inputs.
Figure 12–1 shows how Cyclone FPGAs interface with 3.3--V and 2.5-V
devices while operating with a 1.5-V VCCINT to increase performance and
save power.
12–2
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Voltage Regulators
Figure 12–1. Cyclone FPGAs Interface with 3.3-V and 2.5-V Devices
3.3 V
2.5 V
1.5 V
Cyclone Device
3.3-V TTL
3.3-V Device
3.3-V CMOS
Voltage
Regulators
VCCINT = 1.5 V
VCCIO1 = 2.5 V
VCCIO2 = 3.3 V
2.5-V TTL
2.5-V Device
2.5-V CMOS
This section explains how to generate a 1.5-V supply from another system
supply. Supplying power to the 1.5-V logic array and/or I/O pins
requires a 5.0-V- or 3.3-V-to-1.5-V voltage regulator. A linear regulator is
ideal for low-power applications because it minimizes device count and
has acceptable efficiency for most applications. A switching voltage
regulator provides optimal efficiency. Switching regulators are ideal for
high-power applications because of their high efficiency.
This section will help you decide which regulator to use in your system,
and how to implement the regulator in your design. There are several
companies that provide voltage regulators for low-voltage devices, such
as Linear Technology Corporation, Maxim Integrated Products, Intersil
Corporation (Elantec), and National Semiconductor Corporation.
Table 12–2 shows the terminology and specifications commonly
encountered with voltage regulators. Symbols are shown in parentheses.
If the symbols are different for linear and switching regulators, the linear
regulator symbol is listed first.
Table 12–2. Voltage Regulator Specifications and Terminology (Part 1 of 2)
Specification/Terminology
Description
Input voltage range (VIN,VCC)
Minimum and maximum input voltages define the input voltage range, which
is determined by the regulator process voltage capabilities.
Line regulation
(line regulation, VOUT)
Line regulation is the variation of the output voltage (VOUT) with changes in
the input voltage (VIN). Error amplifier gain, pass transistor gain, and output
impedance all influence line regulation. Higher gain results in better
regulation. Board layout and regulator pin-outs are also important because
stray resistance can introduce errors.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
12–3
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 12–2. Voltage Regulator Specifications and Terminology (Part 2 of 2)
Specification/Terminology
Description
Load regulation
(load regulation, VOUT)
Load regulation is a variation in the output voltage caused by changes in the
input supply current. Linear Technology regulators are designed to minimize
load regulation, which is affected by error amplifier gain, pass transistor gain,
and output impedance.
Output voltage selection
Output voltage selection is adjustable by resistor voltage divider networks,
connected to the error amplifier input, that control the output voltage. There
are multiple output regulators that create 5.0-, 3.3-, 2.5-, 1.8- and 1.5-V
supplies.
Quiescent current
Quiescent current is the supply current during no-load or quiescent state.
This current is sometimes used as a general term for a supply current used
by the regulator.
Dropout voltage
Dropout voltage is the difference between the input and output voltages
when the input is low enough to cause the output to drop out of regulation.
The dropout voltage should be as low as possible for better efficiency.
Current limiting
Voltage regulators are designed to limit the amount of output current in the
event of a failing load. A short in the load causes the output current and
voltage to decrease. This event cuts power dissipation in the regulator during
a short circuit.
Thermal overload protection
This feature limits power dissipation if the regulator overheats. When a
specified temperature is reached, the regulator turns off the output drive
transistors, allowing the regulator to cool. Normal operation resumes once
the regulator reaches a normal operating temperature.
Reverse current protection
If the input power supply fails, large output capacitors can cause a substantial
reverse current to flow backward through the regulator, potentially causing
damage. To prevent damage, protection diodes in the regulator create a path
for the current to flow from VOUT to VIN.
Stability
The dominant pole placed by the output capacitor influences stability.
Voltage regulator vendors can assist you in output capacitor selection for
regulator designs that differ from what is offered.
Minimum load requirements
A minimum load from the voltage divider network is required for good
regulation, which also serves as the ground for the regulator’s current path.
Efficiency
Efficiency is the division of the output power by the input power. Each
regulator model has a specific efficiency value. The higher the efficiency
value, the better the regulator.
Linear Voltage Regulators
Linear voltage regulators generate a regulated output from a larger input
voltage using current pass elements in a linear mode. There are two types
of linear regulators available: one using a series pass element and another
using a shunt element (e.g., a zener diode). Altera recommends using
series linear regulators because shunt regulators are less efficient.
12–4
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Voltage Regulators
Series linear regulators use a series pass element (i.e., a bipolar transistor
or MOSFET) controlled by a feedback error amplifier (see Figure 12–2) to
regulate the output voltage by comparing the output to a reference
voltage. The error amplifier drives the transistor further on or off
continuously to control the flow of current needed to sustain a steady
voltage level across the load.
Figure 12–2. Series Linear Regulator
VOUT
VIN
Error
Amplifier
+
–
Reference
Table 12–3 shows the advantages and disadvantages of linear regulators
compared to switching regulators.
Table 12–3. Linear Regulator Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages
Requires few supporting components
Low cost
Requires less board space
Quick transient response
Better noise and drift characteristics
No electromagnetic interference (EMI)
radiation from the switching
components
Tighter regulation
Disadvantages
Less efficient (typically 60%)
Higher power dissipation
Larger heat sink requirements
You can minimize the difference between the input and output voltages
to improve the efficiency of linear regulators. The dropout voltage is the
minimum allowable difference between the regulator’s input and output
voltage.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
12–5
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Linear regulators are available with fixed, variable, single, or multiple
outputs. Multiple-output regulators can generate multiple outputs (e.g.,
1.5- and 3.3-V outputs). If the board only has a 5.0-V power voltage
supply, you should use multiple-output regulators. The logic array
requires a 1.5-V power supply, and a 3.3-V power supply is required to
interface with 3.3- and 5.0-V devices. However, fixed-output regulators
have fewer supporting components, reducing board space and cost.
Figure 12–3 shows an example of a three-terminal, fixed-output linear
regulator.
Figure 12–3. Three-Terminal, Fixed-Output Linear Regulator
Linear Regulator
VIN
IN
1.5 V
OUT
ADJ
Adjustable-output regulators contain a voltage divider network that
controls the regulator’s output. Figure 12–4 shows how you can also use
a three-terminal linear regulator in an adjustable-output configuration.
Figure 12–4. Adjustable-Output Linear Regulator
Linear Regulator
VIN
IN
+
OUT
ADJ
C1
VOUT = [VREF × (1 +
+
VREF
R1
R1
R2
)] + (IADJ × R1)
C2
IADJ
R2
Switching Voltage Regulators
Step-down switching regulators can provide 3.3-V-to-1.5-V conversion
with up to 95% efficiencies. This high efficiency comes from minimizing
quiescent current, using a low-resistance power MOSFET switch, and, in
higher-current applications, using a synchronous switch to reduce diode
losses.
12–6
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Voltage Regulators
Switching regulators supply power by pulsing the output voltage and
current to the load. Table 12–4 shows the advantages and disadvantages
of switching regulators compared to linear regulators.
f
For more information about switching regulators, refer to Linear
Technology’s application note, AN35: Step Down Switching Regulators, at
www.linear.com/designtools/app_notes.jsp.
Table 12–4. Switching Regulator Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages
Disadvantages
Highly efficient (typically >80%)
Reduced power dissipation
Smaller heat sink requirements
Wider input voltage range
High power density
Generates EMI
Complex to design
Requires 15 or more supporting
components
Higher cost
Requires more board space
There are two types of switching regulators, asynchronous and
synchronous. Asynchronous switching regulators have one field effect
transistor (FET) and a diode to provide the current path while the FET is
off (see Figure 12–5).
Figure 12–5. Asynchronous Switching Regulator
MOSFET
Switch Node
VIN
VOUT
High-Frequency
Circulating Path
LOAD
Synchronous switching regulators have a voltage- or current-controlled
oscillator that controls the on and off time of the two MOSFET devices
that supply the current to the circuit (see Figure 12–6).
Altera Corporation
May 2008
12–7
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 12–6. Voltage-Controlled Synchronous Switching Regulator
VIN
Voltage-Controlled
Oscillator (VCO)
VOUT
Maximum Output Current
Select an external MOSFET switching transistor (optional) based on the
maximum output current that it can supply. Use a MOSFET with a low
on-resistance and a voltage rating high enough to avoid avalanche
breakdown. For gate-drive voltages less than 9-V, use a logic-level
MOSFET. A logic-level MOSFET is only required for topologies with a
controller IC and an external MOSFET.
Selecting Voltage Regulators
Your design requirements determine which voltage regulator you need.
The key to selecting a voltage regulator is understanding the regulator
parameters and how they relate to the design.
The following checklist can help you select the proper regulator for your
design:
■
■
■
■
■
■
12–8
Preliminary
Do you require a 3.3-V, 2.5-V, and 1.5-V output (VOUT)?
What precision is required on the regulated 1.5-V supplies (line and
load regulation)?
What supply voltages (VIN or VCC) are available on the board?
What voltage variance (input voltage range) is expected on VIN or
VCC?
What is the maximum ICC (IOUT) required by your Altera® device?
What is the maximum current surge (IOUT(MAX)) that the regulator
will need to supply instantaneously?
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Voltage Regulators
Choose a Regulator Type
If required, select either a linear, asynchronous switching, or
synchronous switching regulator based on your output current, regulator
efficiency, cost, and board-space requirements. DC-to-DC converters
have output current capabilities from 1 to 8 A. You can use a controller
with an external MOSFET rated for higher current for higher-outputcurrent applications.
Calculate the Maximum Input Current
Use the following equation to estimate the maximum input current based
on the output power requirements at the maximum input voltage:
IIN,DC(MAX) =
VOUT × IOUT(MAX)
η × VIN(MAX)
Where η is nominal efficiency: typically 90% for switching regulators,
60% for linear 2.5-V-to-1.5-V conversion, 45% for linear 3.3-V-to-1.5-V
conversion, and 30% for linear 5.0-V-to-1.5-V conversion.
Once you identify the design requirements, select the voltage regulator
that is best for your design. Tables 12–5 and 12–6 list a few Linear
Technology and Elantec regulators available at the time this document
was published. There may be more regulators to choose from depending
on your design specification. Contact a regulator manufacturer for
availability.
Table 12–5. Linear Technology 1.5-V Output Voltage Regulators
Total Number of
Components
VIN (V)
Linear
10
2.5 or 3.3 (1)
6
—
Linear
5
5.0
7.5
—
LT1084
Linear
5
5.0
5
LT1085
Linear
5
5.0
3
Inexpensive solution
LTC1649
Switching
22
3.3
15
Selectable output
LTC1775
Switching
17
5.0
5
Voltage Regulator
Regulator Type
LT1573
LT1083
IOUT (A)
Special Features
—
—
Note to Table 12–5:
(1)
A 3.3-V VIN requires a 3.3-V supply to the regulator’s input and 2.5-V supply to bias the transistors.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
12–9
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Table 12–6. Elantec 1.5-V Output Voltage Regulators
Total Number of
Components
VIN (V)
IOUT (A)
Special Features
Switching
11
5.0
1
—
EL7564CM
Switching
13
5.0
4
—
EL7556BC
Switching
21
5.0
6
—
EL7562CM
Switching
17
3.3 or 5.5
2
—
EL7563CM
Switching
19
3.3
4
—
Voltage Regulator
Regulator Type
EL7551C
Voltage Divider Network
Design a voltage divider network if you are using an adjustable output
regulator. Follow the controller or converter IC’s instructions to adjust
the output voltage.
1.5-V Regulator Circuits
This section contains the circuit diagrams for the voltage regulators
discussed in this chapter. You can use the voltage regulators in this
section to generate a 1.5-V power supply. Refer to the voltage regulator
data sheet to find detailed specifications. If you require further
information that is not shown in the data sheet, contact the regulator’s
vendor.
Figures 12–7 through 12–12 show the circuit diagrams of Linear
Technology voltage regulators listed in Table 12–5.
The LT1573 linear voltage regulator converts 2.5-V to 1.5-V with an
output current of 6A (see Figure 12–7).
12–10
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Voltage Regulators
Figure 12–7. LT1573: 2.5-V-to-1.5-V/6.0-A Linear Voltage Regulator
LT1573
FB
COMP
CTIME
0.5 μF
(3)
VIN1
+
2.5 V
(1)
VOUT
LATCH
+
CIN1
VIN
SHDN (2)
GND
RD
6Ω
1/2 W
DRIVE
RB
200 Ω
1/8 W
Motorola
D45H11
VIN2
3.3 V
+
+
CIN2
COUT
(4)
(1)
VOUT
R1
186 Ω
1/8 W
1.5 V
LOAD
R2 1k
1/8 W
Notes to Figure 12–7:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
CIN1 and COUT are AVX 100-μF/10-V surface-mount tantalum capacitors.
Use SHDN (active high) to shut down the regulator.
CTIME is a 0.5-μF capacitor for 100-ms time out at room temperature.
CIN2 is an AVX 15-μF/10-V surface-mount tantalum capacitor.
Use adjustable 5.0- to 1.5-V regulators (shown in Figures 12–8 through
12–10) for 3.0- to 7.5-A low-cost, low-device-count, board-space-efficient
solutions.
Figure 12–8. LT1083: 5.0-V-to-1.5-V/7.5-A Linear Voltage Regulator
VIN
IN
LT1083
ADJ
+
(1) C1
10 μF
R2
1 kΩ
VOUT = 1.25 V × (1 +
OUT
R2
R1
)
R1
5 kΩ
C2
+
10 μF
Note to Figure 12–8:
(1)
Altera Corporation
May 2008
This capacitor is necessary to maintain the voltage level at the input regulator.
There could be a voltage drop at the input if the voltage supply is too far away.
12–11
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 12–9. LT1084: 5.0-V-to-1.5-V/5.0-A Linear Voltage Regulator
VIN
IN
LT1083
ADJ
+
(1) C1
VOUT = 1.25 V × (1 +
OUT
R2
R1
)
R1
5 kΩ
10 μF
R2
1 kΩ
C2
+
10 μF
Note to Figure 12–9:
(1)
This capacitor is necessary to maintain the voltage level at the input regulator.
There could be a voltage drop at the input if the voltage supply is too far away.
Figure 12–10. LT1085: 5.0-V-to-1.5-V/3-A Linear Voltage Regulator
VIN
IN
LT1084
ADJ
+
(1) C1
10 μF
R2
1 kΩ
VOUT = 1.25 V × (1 +
OUT
R2
R1
)
R1
5 kΩ
C2
+
10 μF
Note to Figure 12–10:
(1)
12–12
Preliminary
This capacitor is necessary to maintain the voltage level at the input regulator.
There could be a voltage drop at the input if the voltage supply is too far away.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Voltage Regulators
Figure 12–11 shows a high-efficiency switching regulator circuit diagram.
A selectable resistor network controls the output voltage. The resistor
values in Figure 12–11 are selected for 1.5-V output operation.
Figure 12–11. LT1649: 3.3-V-to-1.5-V/15-A Asynchronous Switching Regulator
VIN
3.3 V
MBR0530 (1)
+
RIMAX
50 kΩ
22 kΩ
1 μF
P VCC1
G1
P VCC2
I FB
I MAX
10 μF
+
LEXT (3) 1.2 μH
VOUT
Q3
IRF7801
G2
LTC1649
1.5 V
(15 A)
R1
2.16 kΩ
FB
SHDN
V IN
COMP
C+
SS
C–
GND
RC
7.5 kΩ
CIN
3,300 μF
1 kΩ
V CC
SHUTDOWN
Q1, Q2
IRF7801
Two in
Parallel (2)
+
1 μF
COUT
4,400 μF
R2
12.7 kΩ
CP OUT
+
0.1 μF
C1
220 pF
MBR0530
10 μF
0.33 μF
CC
0.01 μF
Notes to Figure 12–11:
(1)
(2)
(3)
MBR0530 is a Motorola device.
IRF7801 is a International Rectifier device.
Refer to the Panasonic 12TS-1R2HL device.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
12–13
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 12–12 shows synchronous switching regulator with adjustable
outputs.
Figure 12–12. LTC1775: 5.0-V-to-1.5-V/5-A Synchronous Switching Regulator
RF
1Ω
1
2
CSS
0.1 μF
CC1
2.2 nF
RC
10 kΩ
3
INTVCC
4
5
CC2
220 pF
6
7
OPEN
8
EXTVCC
SYNC
VIN
TK
RUN/SS
SW
FCB
TG
ITH
SGND
VOSENSE
VPROG
BOOST
INTVCC
BG
PGND
16
15
13
11
CB
0.22 μF
DB
CMDSH-3
10
9
CIN (1)
15 μF
35 V
×3
CF
0.1 μF
14
12
VIN
5V
CVCC
4.7 μF
M1
1/2 FDS8936A
L1 (2)
6.1 μH
D1
MBRS140
M2
1/2 FDS8936A
VOUT
1.5 V
5A
R2
2.6 kΩ
R1
10 kΩ
COUT (3)
680 μF
4V
×2
Notes to Figure 12–12:
(1)
(2)
(3)
This is a KEMETT495X156M035AS capacitor.
This is a Sumida CDRH127-6R1 inductor.
This is a KEMETT510X687K004AS capacitor.
12–14
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Voltage Regulators
Figures 12–13 through 12–17 show the circuit diagrams of Elantec voltage
regulators listed in Table 12–6.
Figures 12–13 through 12–15 show the switching regulator that converts
5.0-V to 1.5-V with different output current.
Figure 12–13. EL7551C: 5.0-V-to-1.5-V/1-A Synchronous Switching Regulator
1
C3
0.1 μF
R3
39 kΩ
C4
270 pF
SGND
PGND
2
VREF
COSC
5
6
FB
PGND
VDRV
PGND
LX
VIN
LX
7
VIN
5.0 V
R2
539 Ω
14
VDD
C1
10 μF
Ceramic
C5
0.1 μF
15
3
4
16
13
12
11
10
VIN
VHI
EN
PGND
R1
1 kΩ
L1
10 μH
V0
1.5 V
1A
C6
0.1 μF
C7
47 μF
9
8
EL7551C
Altera Corporation
May 2008
12–15
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 12–14. EL7564CM: 5.0-V-to-1.5-V/4-A Synchronous Switching Regulator
1
C5
0.1 μF
20
VREF
EN
SGND
FB
COSC
PG
2
3
19
C4
390 pF
R4
22 Ω
4
C3
0.22 μF
5
VDD
VDRV
VTJ
VHI
C2
2.2 nF
16
15
D1
14
PGND
8
9
10
L1
4.7 μH
LX
PGND
7
C1
330 μF
17
C6
0.22 μF
6
VIN
5.0 V
18
LX
VIN
PGND
STP
PGND
STN
PGND
C7
330 μF
R2
539 Ω
V0
1.5 V
4A
C10
100 pF
13
12
R1
1 kΩ
11
EL7564CM
12–16
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Voltage Regulators
Figure 12–15. EL7556BC: 5.0-V-to-1.5-V/6-A Synchronous Switching Regulator
R3
50 Ω
R4
100 Ω
VIN
1
C4 (1)
0.1 μF
2
C7 (1)
39 pF
3
C8 (1)
220 pF
R5
5.1 Ω
4
5
6
7
8
VIN
C12
1.0 μF
C9 (5)
660 μF
9
10
11
12
13
14
FB2
FB1
CREF
CP
CSLOPE
C2V
COSC
VSS
VDD
VHI
VIN
LX
VSSP
LX
VIN
LX
VSSP
LX
VSSP
VSSP
VSSP
VSSP
VSSP
VCC2DET
OUTEN
28
27
C5 (2)
1 μF
R1
20 Ω
26
25
22
21
D4
Optional (3), (4)
D2 (3)
D1 (3)
C11 (2)
0.22 μF
R6
39.2 Ω
24
23
D3 (3)
C6 (1)
0.1 μF
L1
2.5 μH
VOUT
R3
= 1.5 V × (1 +
)
R4
20
19
18
TEST 17
16
PWRGD
15
OT
C10 (6)
1.0 mF
EL7556BC
Notes to Figures 12–13 − 12–15:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
These capacitors are ceramic capacitors.
These capacitors are ceramic or tantalum capacitor.
These are BAT54S fast diodes.
D4 is only required for EL7556ACM.
This is a Sprague 293D337X96R3 2X330μF capacitor.
This is a Sprague 293D337X96R3 3X330μF capacitor.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
12–17
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figures 12–16 and 12–17 show the switching regulator that converts 3.3 V
to 1.5 V with different output currents.
Figure 12–16. EL7562CM: 3.3-V to 1.5-V/2-A Synchronous Switching Regulator
1
C3
R3
0.1 μF
39 Ω
C4
270 pF
2
3
SGND
PGND
COSC
VREF
FB
VDD
16
15
C5
0.1 μF
14
D2
4
5
C1
100 μF
C2
0.1 μF
6
7
VIN
3.3 V
8
PGND
VDRV
PGND
LX
VIN
LX
VIN
VHI
EN
PGND
13
D3
D4
C8
0.1 μF
12
11
C9
0.1 μF
C6
0.1 μF
10
L1
2.5 μH
9
C7
100 μF
EL7562CM
R2
539 Ω
VOUT
1.5 V
2A
R1
1 kΩ
Figure 12–17. EL7563CM: 3.3-V to 1.5-V/4-A Synchronous Switching Regulator
C5
0.1 μF
1
2
VREF
EN
SGND
FB
COSC
PG
20
19
C4
390 pF
3
R4
22 Ω
4
C3
0.22 μF
C2
2.2 nF
5
VDD
VDRV
VTJ
VHI
18
D2
17
D3
16
C6
0.22 μF
6
C1
330 μF
VIN
3.3 V
7
8
9
10
PGND
LX
PGND
LX
VIN
PGND
STP
PGND
STN
PGND
D4
D1
C8
0.22 μF
C9
0.1 μF
15
14
L1
2.5 μH
13
12
C7
330 μF
C10
2.2 nF
R2
513 Ω
VOUT
1.5 V
4A
11
R1
1 kΩ
EL7563CM
12–18
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
1.5-V Regulator Application Examples
1.5-V Regulator
Application
Examples
The following sections show the process used to select a voltage regulator
for three sample designs. The regulator selection is based on the amount
of power that the Cyclone device consumes. There are 14 variables to
consider when selecting a voltage regulator. The following variables
apply to Cyclone device power consumption:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
fMAX
Output and bidirectional pins
Average toggle rate for I/O pins (togIO)
Average toggle rate for logic elements (LEs) (togLC)
User-mode ICC consumption
Maximum power-up ICCINT requirement
Utilization
VCCIO supply level
VCCINT supply level
The following variables apply to the voltage regulator:
■
■
■
■
■
Output voltage precision requirement
Supply voltage on the board
Voltage supply output current
Variance of board supply
Efficiency
Different designs have different power consumptions based on the
variables listed. Once you calculate the Cyclone device’s power
consumption, you must consider how much current the Cyclone device
needs. You can use the Cyclone power calculator (available at
www.altera.com) or the PowerGaugeTM tool in the Quartus II software to
determine the current needs. Also check the maximum power-up current
requirement listed in the Power Consumption section of the Cyclone
FPGA Family Data Sheet because the power-up current requirement may
exceed the user-mode current consumption for a specific design.
Once you determine the minimum current the Cyclone device requires,
you must select a voltage regulator that can generate the desired output
current with the voltage and current supply that is available on the board
using the variables listed in this section. An example is shown to illustrate
the voltage regulator selection process.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
12–19
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Synchronous Switching Regulator Example
This example shows a worst-case scenario for power consumption where
the design uses all the LEs and RAM. Table 12–7 shows the design
requirements for 1.5-V design using a Cyclone EP1C12 FPGA.
Table 12–7. Design Requirements for the Example EP1C12F324C
Design Requirement
Value
Output voltage precision requirement
±5%
Supply voltages available on the board
3.3 V
Voltage supply output current available for this
section (II N , D C ( M A X ) )
2A
Variance of board supply (VIN)
±5%
fMAX
150 MHz
Average togIO
12.5%
Average togLC
12.5%
Utilization
100%
Output and bidirectional pins
125
VCCIO supply level
3.3 V
VCCINT supply level
Efficiency
1.5 V
≥90%
Table 12–8 uses the checklist on page 12–8 to help select the appropriate
voltage regulator.
Table 12–8. Voltage Regulator Selection Process for EP1C12F324C Design (Part 1 of 2)
Output voltage requirements
Supply voltages
Supply variance from Linear Technology data sheet
Estimated IC C I N T
Use Cyclone Power Calculator
Estimated IC C I O if regulator powers VC C I O
Use Cyclone Power Calculator (not applicable in this example
because VC C I O = 3.3 V)
Total user-mode current consumption
IC C = IC C I N T + IC C I O
12–20
Preliminary
VOUT = 1.5 V
VIN OR VCC = 3.3 V
Supply variance = ±5%
ICCINT = 620 mA
ICCIO = N/A
IC C = 620 mA
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Board Layout
Table 12–8. Voltage Regulator Selection Process for EP1C12F324C Design (Part 2 of 2)
EP1C12 maximum power-up current requirement
See Power Consumption section of the Cyclone FPGA Family
Data Sheet for other densities
IP U C ( M A X ) = 900 mA
Maximum output current required
Compare IC C with IP U C ( M A X )
IO U T ( M A X ) = 900 mA
Voltage regulator selection
See Linear Technology LTC 1649 data sheet
See Intersil (Elantec) EL7562C data sheet
LTC1649 IO U T ( M A X ) = 15 A
EL7562C IO U T ( M A X ) = 2 A
LTC1649
Nominal efficiency (η)
Nominal efficiency (η) = > 90%
Line and load regulation
Line regulation + load regulation = (0.17 mV + 7 mV)/ 1.5 V ×
100%
Minimum input voltage (VIN(MIN))
(VIN(MIN)) = VIN(1 – ΔVIN) = 3.3V(1 – 0.05)
Maximum input current
IIN, DC(MAX) = (VOUT × IOUT(MAX))/(η× VIN(MIN))
Line and Load
Regulation = 0.478% < 5%
(VIN(MIN)) = 3.135 V
IIN, DC(MAX) = 478 mA < 2 A
EL7562C
Nominal efficiency (η)
Nominal efficiency (η) = > 95%
Line and load regulation
Line regulation + load regulation = (0.17 mV + 7 mV)/ 1.5 V ×
100%
Minimum input voltage (VIN(MIN))
(VIN(MIN)) = VIN(1 – ΔVIN) = 3.3V(1 – 0.05)
Maximum input current
IIN, DC(MAX) = (VOUT × IOUT(MAX))/(η× VIN(MIN))
Board Layout
Line and Load
Regulation = 0.5% < 5%
(VIN(MIN)) = 3.135 V
IIN, DC(MAX) = 453 mA < 2 A
Laying out a printed circuit board (PCB) properly is extremely important
in high-frequency (≥100 kHz) switching regulator designs. A poor PCB
layout results in increased EMI and ground bounce, which affects the
reliability of the voltage regulator by obscuring important voltage and
current feedback signals. Altera recommends using Gerber files ⎯predesigned layout files⎯supplied by the regulator vendor for your board
layout.
If you cannot use the supplied layout files, contact the voltage regulator
vendor for help on re-designing the board to fit your design requirements
while maintaining the proper functionality.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
12–21
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera recommends that you use separate layers for signals, the ground
plane, and voltage supply planes. You can support separate layers by
using multi-layer PCBs, assuming you are using two signal layers.
Figure 12–18 shows how to use regulators to generate 1.5-V and 2.5-V
power supplies if the system needs two power supply systems. One
regulator is used for each power supply.
Figure 12–18. Two Regulator Solution for Systems that Require 5.0-V, 2.5-V and 1.5-V Supply Levels
PCB
5.0 V
Regulator
1.5 V
1.5-V
Device
Altera
Cyclone
FPGA
Regulator
2.5 V
2.5-V
Device
Figure 12–19 shows how to use a single regulator to generate two
different power supplies (1.5-V and 2.5-V). The use of a single regulator
to generate 1.5-V and 2.5-V supplies from the 5.0-V power supply can
minimize the board size and thus save cost.
12–22
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Board Layout
Figure 12–19. Single Regulator Solution for Systems that Require 5.0-V, 2.5-V and 1.5-V Supply Levels
PCB
1.5-V
Device
1.5 V
5.0 V
Regulator
Altera
Cyclone
FPGA
2.5 V
2.5-V
Device
Split-Plane Method
The split-plane design method reduces the number of planes required by
placing two power supply planes in one plane (see Figure 12–20). For
example, the layout for this method can be structured as follows:
■
■
One 2.5-V plane, covering the entire board
One plane split between 5.0-V and 1.5-V
This technique assumes that the majority of devices are 2.5-V. To support
MultiVolt I/O, Altera devices must have access to 1.5-V and 2.5-V planes.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
12–23
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Figure 12–20. Split Board Layout for 2.5-V Systems With 5.0-V and 1.5-V Devices
1.5 V
5.0 V
PCB
2.5-V
Device
5.0-V
Device
5.0-V
Device
2.5-V
Device
1.5-V
Device
Altera
Cyclone
FPGA
(1.5 V)
Regulator
2.5-V
Device
1.5-V
Device
2.5-V
Device
Conclusion
With the proliferation of multiple voltage levels in systems, it is
important to design a voltage system that can support a low-power
device like Cyclone devices. Designers must consider key elements of the
PCB, such as power supplies, regulators, power consumption, and board
layout when successfully designing a system that incorporates the lowvoltage Cyclone family of devices.
References
Linear Technology Corporation. Application Note 35 (Step-Down Switching
Regulators). Milpitas: Linear Technology Corporation, 1989.
Linear Technology Corporation. LT1573 Data Sheet (Low Dropout
Regulator Driver). Milpitas: Linear Technology Corporation, 1997.
Linear Technology Corporation. LT1083/LT1084/LT1085 Data Sheet (7.5 A,
5 A, 3 A Low Dropout Positive Adjustable Regulators). Milpitas: Linear
Technology Corporation, 1994.
Linear Technology Corporation. LTC1649 Data Sheet (3.3V Input High
Power Step-Down Switching Regulator Controller). Milpitas: Linear
Technology Corporation, 1998.
12–24
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Referenced Documents
Linear Technology Corporation. LTC1775 Data Sheet (High Power No
Rsense Current Mode Synchronous Step-Down Switching Regulator).
Milpitas: Linear Technology Corporation, 1999.
Intersil Corporation. EL7551C Data Sheet (Monolithic 1 Amp DC:DC StepDown Regulator). Milpitas: Intersil Corporation, 2002.
Intersil Corporation. EL7564C Data Sheet (Monolithic 4 Amp DC:DC StepDown Regulator). Milpitas: Intersil Corporation, 2002.
Intersil Corporation. EL7556BC Data Sheet (Integrated Adjustable 6 Amp
Synchronous Switcher). Milpitas: Intersil Corporation, 2001.
Intersil Corporation. EL7562C Data Sheet (Monolithic 2 Amp DC:DC StepDown Regulator). Milpitas: Intersil Corporation, 2002.
Intersil Corporation. EL7563C Data Sheet (Monolithic 4 Amp DC:DC StepDown Regulator). Milpitas: Intersil Corporation, 2002.
Referenced
Documents
This chapter references the following document:
Document
Revision History
Table 12–9 shows the revision history for this chapter.
■
Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet section of the Cyclone Device
Handbook
Table 12–9. Document Revision History
Date and
Document
Version
Changes Made
Summary of Changes
May 2008
v1.4
Minor textual and style changes. Added “Referenced
Documents” section.
January 2007
v1.3
●
August 2005
v1.1
Minor updates.
—
May 2003
v1.0
Added document to Cyclone Device Handbook.
—
●
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Added document revision history.
Removed references to Stratix in “Introduction” and “Power
Sequencing and Hot Socketing” sections.
—
—
12–25
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
12–26
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Section VI. Configuration
This section provides information for all of the supported configuration
schemes for Cyclone devices. The last chapter provides information on
EPCS1 and EPCS4 serial configuration devices.
This section contains the following chapters:
Revision History
Altera Corporation
■
Chapter 13. Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
■
Chapter 14. Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16,
EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information
on when each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates
section, which appears in the complete handbook.
Section VI–1
Preliminary
Revision History
Section VI–2
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
13. Configuring
Cyclone FPGAs
C51013-1.8
Introduction
You can configure Cyclone® FPGAs using one of several configuration
schemes, including the active serial (AS) configuration scheme. This
scheme is used with the low cost serial configuration devices. Passive
serial (PS) and Joint Test Action Group (JTAG)-based configuration
schemes are also supported by Cyclone FPGAs. Additionally, Cyclone
FPGAs can receive a compressed configuration bit stream and
decompress this data in real-time, reducing storage requirements and
configuration time.
This chapter describes how to configure Cyclone devices using each of
the three supported configuration schemes.
f
Device
Configuration
Overview
For more information about setting device configuration options or
generating configuration files, refer to the Software Settings section in
volume 2 of the Configuration Handbook.
Cyclone FPGAs use SRAM cells to store configuration data. Since SRAM
memory is volatile, configuration data must be downloaded to Cyclone
FPGAs each time the device powers up. You can download configuration
data to Cyclone FPGAs using the AS, PS, or JTAG interfaces (see
Table 13–1).
Table 13–1. Cyclone FPGA Configuration Schemes
Configuration Scheme
Active serial (AS) configuration
Description
Configuration using:
● Serial configuration devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, and EPCS16)
Passive serial (PS) configuration Configuration using:
● Enhanced configuration devices (EPC4, EPC8, and EPC16)
● EPC2, EPC1 configuration devices
● Intelligent host (microprocessor)
● Download cable
JTAG-based configuration
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuration via JTAG pins using:
● Download cable
● Intelligent host (microprocessor)
● JamTM Standard Test and Programming Language (STAPL)
● Ability to use SignalTap® II Embedded Logic Analyzer.
13–1
Device Configuration Overview
You can select a Cyclone FPGA configuration scheme by driving its
MSEL1 and MSEL0 pins either high (1) or low (0), as shown in Table 13–2.
If your application only requires a single configuration mode, the MSEL
pins can be connected to VCC (the I/O bank’s VCCIO voltage where the
MSEL pin resides) or to ground. If your application requires more than
one configuration mode, the MSEL pins can be switched after the FPGA
has been configured successfully. Toggling these pins during user mode
does not affect the device operation. However, the MSEL pins must be
valid before initiating reconfiguration.
Table 13–2. Selecting Cyclone Configuration Schemes
MSEL1
MSEL0
Configuration Scheme
0
0
AS
0
1
PS
0
1
JTAG-based (1)
Note to Table 13–2:
(1)
JTAG-based configuration takes precedence over other schemes, which means
that MSEL pin settings are ignored.
After configuration, Cyclone FPGAs will initialize registers and I/O pins,
then enter user mode and function as per the user design. Figure 13–1
shows an AS configuration waveform.
Figure 13–1. AS Configuration Waveform
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCSO
DCLK
ASDO
Read Address
DATA0
bit N
bit N − 1
bit 1
bit 0
136 Cycles
INIT_DONE
User Mode
User I/O
Tri-stated with internal
pull-up resistor.
13–2
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
You can configure Cyclone FPGAs using the 3.3-, 2.5-, 1.8-, or 1.5-V
LVTTL I/O standard on configuration and JTAG input pins. These
devices do not feature a VCCSEL pin; therefore, you should connect the
VCCIO pins of the I/O banks containing configuration or JTAG pins
according to the I/O standard specifications.
Table 13–3 summarizes the approximate uncompressed configuration file
size for each Cyclone FPGA. To calculate the amount of storage space
required for multi-device configurations, add the file size of each device
together.
Table 13–3. Cyclone Raw Binary File (.rbf) Sizes
Device
Data Size (Bits)
Data Size (Bytes)
627,376
78,422
EP1C4
924,512
115,564
EP1C6
1,167,216
145,902
EP1C12
2,323,240
290,405
EP1C20
3,559,608
435,000
EP1C3
You should only use the numbers in Table 13–3 to estimate the
configuration file size before design compilation. Different file formats,
such as .hex or .ttf files, have different file sizes. For any specific version
of the Quartus® II software, any design targeted for the same device has
the same uncompressed configuration file size. If compression is used,
the file size can vary after each compilation.
Data
Compression
Cyclone FPGAs are the first FPGAs to support decompression of
configuration data. This feature allows you to store compressed
configuration data in configuration devices or other memory, and
transmit this compressed bit stream to Cyclone FPGAs. During
configuration, the Cyclone FPGA decompresses the bit stream in real
time and programs its SRAM cells.
Cyclone FPGAs support compression in the AS and PS configuration
schemes. Compression is not supported for JTAG-based configuration.
1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Preliminary data indicates that compression reduces
configuration bit stream size by 35 to 60%.
13–3
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Data Compression
When you enable compression, the Quartus II software generates
configuration files with compressed configuration data. This
compression reduces the storage requirements in the configuration
device or flash, and decreases the time needed to transmit the bit stream
to the Cyclone FPGA.
There are two methods to enable compression for Cyclone bitstreams:
before design compilation (in the Compiler Settings menu) and after
design compilation (in the Convert Programming Files window).
To enable compression in the project's compiler settings, select Device
under the Assignments menu to bring up the settings window. After
selecting your Cyclone device open the Device and Pin Options window,
and in the General settings tab enable the check box for Generate
compressed bitstreams (as shown in Figure 13–2).
13–4
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Figure 13–2. Enabling Compression for Cyclone Bitstreams in Compiler
Settings
Altera Corporation
May 2008
13–5
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Data Compression
Compression can also be enabled when creating programming files from
the Convert Programming Files window. See Figure 13–3.
1.
Click Convert Programming Files (File menu).
2.
Select the programming file type (POF, SRAM HEXOUT, RBF, or
TTF).
3.
For POF output files, select a configuration device.
4.
Select Add File and add a Cyclone SOF file(s).
5.
Select the name of the file you added to the SOF Data area and click
Properties.
6.
Turn on Compression.
Figure 13–3. Enabling Compression for Cyclone Bitstreams in Convert
Programming Files
13–6
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
When multiple Cyclone devices are cascaded, the compression feature
can be selectively enabled for each device in the chain. Figure 13–4
depicts a chain of two Cyclone FPGAs. The first Cyclone FPGA has the
compression feature enabled and therefore receives a compressed bit
stream from the configuration device. The second Cyclone FPGA has the
compression feature disabled and receives uncompressed data.
Figure 13–4. Compressed and Uncompressed Configuration Data in the Same
Programming File
Note (1)
Serial Data
Serial or Enhanced
Configuration
Device
Compressed
Uncompressed
Decompression
Controller
Cyclone FPGA
nCE
nCEO
Decompression
Controller
Cyclone FPGA
nCE
nCEO
N.C.
GND
Note to Figure 13–4:
(1)
The first device in the chain should be set up in AS configuration mode
(MSEL[1..0]="00"). The remaining devices in the chain must be set up in PS
configuration mode (MSEL[1..0]="01").
You can generate programming files for this setup from the Convert
Programming Files window (File menu) in the Quartus II software.
The decompression feature supported by Cyclone FPGAs is separate
from the decompression feature in enhanced configuration devices
(EPC16, EPC8, and EPC4 devices). The data compression feature in the
enhanced configuration devices allows them to store compressed data
and decompress the bit stream before transmitting to the target devices.
When using Cyclone FPGAs with enhanced configuration devices, Altera
recommends using compression on one of the devices, not both
(preferably the Cyclone FPGA since transmitting compressed data
reduces configuration time).
Altera Corporation
May 2008
13–7
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
Configuration
Schemes
This section describes the various configuration schemes you can use to
configure Cyclone FPGAs. Descriptions include an overview of the
protocol, pin connections, and timing information. The schemes
discussed are:
■
■
■
AS configuration (serial configuration devices)
PS configuration
JTAG-based configuration
Active Serial Configuration (Serial Configuration Devices)
In the AS configuration scheme, Cyclone FPGAs are configured using the
new serial configuration devices. These configuration devices are low
cost devices with non-volatile memory that feature a simple four-pin
interface and a small form factor. These features make serial
configuration devices an ideal solution for configuring the low-cost
Cyclone FPGAs.
f
For more information on programming serial configuration devices,
refer to the Cyclone Literature web page at www.altera.com and the
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and
EPCS128) Data Sheet.
Serial configuration devices provide a serial interface to access
configuration data. During device configuration, Cyclone FPGAs read
configuration data via the serial interface, decompress data if necessary,
and configure their SRAM cells. This scheme is referred to as an AS
configuration scheme because the FPGA controls the configuration
interface. This scheme is in contrast to the PS configuration scheme where
the configuration device controls the interface.
Serial configuration devices have a four-pin interface: serial clock input
(DCLK), serial data output (DATA), AS data input (ASDI), and an
active-low chip select (nCS). This four-pin interface connects to Cyclone
FPGA pins as shown in Figure 13–5.
13–8
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Figure 13–5. AS Configuration of a Single Cyclone FPGA
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
Serial Configuration
Device
Cyclone FPGA
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
N.C.
GND
DATA
DATA0
DCLK
DCLK
nCS
nCSO
MSEL1
ASDI
ASDO
MSEL0
(2)
GND
Notes to Figure 13–5:
(1)
(2)
Connect the pull-up resistors to a 3.3-V supply.
Cyclone FPGAs use the ASDO to ASDI path to control the configuration device.
Connecting the MSEL[1..0] pins to 00 selects the AS configuration
scheme. The Cyclone chip enable signal, nCE, must also be connected to
ground or driven low for successful configuration.
During system power up, both the Cyclone FPGA and serial
configuration device enter a power-on reset (POR) period. As soon as the
Cyclone FPGA enters POR, it drives nSTATUS low to indicate it is busy
and drives CONF_DONE low to indicate that it has not been configured.
After POR, which typically lasts 100 ms, the Cyclone FPGA releases
nSTATUS and enters configuration mode when this signal is pulled high
by the external 10-kΩ resistor. Once the FPGA successfully exits POR, all
user I/O pins are tri-stated. Cyclone devices have weak pull-up resistors
on the user I/O pins which are on before and during configuration.
f
The value of the weak pull-up resistors on the I/O pins that are on before
and during configuration can be found in the DC and Switching
Characteristics chapter in the Cyclone Device Handbook.
The serial clock (DCLK) generated by the Cyclone FPGA controls the
entire configuration cycle (see Figure 13–1 on page 13–2) and this clock
signal provides the timing for the serial interface. Cyclone FPGAs use an
Altera Corporation
May 2008
13–9
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
internal oscillator to generate DCLK. After configuration, this internal
oscillator is turned off. Table 13–4 shows the active serial DCLK output
frequencies.
Table 13–4. Active Serial DCLK Output Frequency
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Units
14
17
20
MHz
The serial configuration device latches input/control signals on the rising
edge of DCLK and drives out configuration data on the falling edge.
Cyclone FPGAs drive out control signals on the falling edge of DCLK and
latch configuration data on the falling edge of DCLK.
In configuration mode, the Cyclone FPGA enables the serial
configuration device by driving its nCSO output pin low that is connected
to the chip select (nCS) pin of the configuration device. The Cyclone
FPGA’s serial clock (DCLK) and serial data output (ASDO) pins send
operation commands and read-address signals to the serial configuration
device. The configuration device provides data on its serial data output
(DATA) pin that is connected to the DATA0 input on Cyclone FPGAs.
After the Cyclone FPGA receives all configuration bits, it releases the
open-drain CONF_DONE pin allowing the external 10-kΩ resistor to pull
this signal to a high level. Initialization begins only after the CONF_DONE
line reaches a high level. The CONF_DONE pin must have an external
10-kΩ pull-up resistor in order for the device to initialize.
You can select the clock used for initialization by using the User Supplied
Start-Up Clock option in the Quartus II software. The Quartus II
software uses the 10-MHz (typical) internal oscillator (separate from the
AS internal oscillator) by default to initialize the Cyclone FPGA. After
initialization, the internal oscillator is turned off. When you enable the
User Supplied Start-Up Clock option, the software uses the CLKUSR pin
as the initialization clock. Supplying a clock on the CLKUSR pin does not
affect the configuration process. After all configuration data is accepted
and the CONF_DONE signal goes high, Cyclone devices require 136 clock
cycles to initialize properly.
An optional INIT_DONE pin is available. This pin signals the end of
initialization and the start of user mode with a low-to-high transition. The
Enable INIT_DONE output option is available in the Quartus II
software. If the INIT_DONE pin is used, it is high due to an external 10-kΩ
pull-up resistor when nCONFIG is low and during the beginning of
configuration. Once the option bit to enable INIT_DONE is programmed
into the device (during the first frame of configuration data), the
13–10
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
INIT_DONE pin goes low. When initialization is complete, the
INIT_DONE pin is released and pulled high. This low-to-high transition
signals that the FPGA has entered user mode. In user mode, the user I/O
pins do not have weak pull-ups and functions as assigned in your design.
If an error occurs during configuration, the Cyclone FPGA asserts the
nSTATUS signal low indicating a data frame error, and the CONF_DONE
signal stays low. With the Auto-Restart Configuration on Frame Error
option enabled in the Quartus II software, the Cyclone FPGA resets the
configuration device by pulsing nCSO, releases nSTATUS after a reset
time-out period (about 30 μs), and retries configuration. If this option is
turned off, the system must monitor nSTATUS for errors and then pulse
nCONFIG low for at least 40 μs to restart configuration. After successful
configuration, the CONF_DONE signal is tri-stated by the target device and
then pulled high by the pull-up resistor.
All AS configuration pins, DATA0, DCLK, nCSO, and ASDO, have weak
internal pull-up resistors. These pull-up resistors are always active.
When the Cyclone FPGA is in user mode, you can initiate reconfiguration
by pulling the nCONFIG pin low. The nCONFIG pin should be low for at
least 40 μs. When nCONFIG is pulled low, the FPGA also pulls nSTATUS
and CONF_DONE low and all I/O pins are tri-stated. Once nCONFIG
returns to a logic high level and nSTATUS is released by the Cyclone
FPGA, reconfiguration begins.
Configuring Multiple Devices (Cascading)
You can configure multiple Cyclone FPGAs using a single serial
configuration device. You can cascade multiple Cyclone FPGAs using the
chip-enable (nCE) and chip-enable-out (nCEO) pins. The first device in the
chain must have its nCE pin connected to ground. You must connect its
nCEO pin to the nCE pin of the next device in the chain. When the first
device captures all of its configuration data from the bit stream, it drives
the nCEO pin low enabling the next device in the chain. You must leave
the nCEO pin of the last device unconnected. The nCONFIG, nSTATUS,
CONF_DONE, DCLK, and DATA0 pins of each device in the chain are
connected (see Figure 13–6).
This first Cyclone FPGA in the chain is the configuration master and
controls configuration of the entire chain. You must connect its MSEL pins
to select the AS configuration scheme. The remaining Cyclone FPGAs are
configuration slaves and you must connect their MSEL pins to select the
PS configuration scheme. Figure 13–6 shows the pin connections for this
setup.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
13–11
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
Figure 13–6. Configuring Multiple Devices Using a Serial Configuration Device (AS)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Serial Configuration
Device
Cyclone FPGA Master
Cyclone FPGA Slave
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
DATA
DATA0
MSEL1
DATA0
DCLK
DCLK
MSEL0
DCLK
nCS
nCSO
ASDI
ASDO
nCEO
N.C.
GND
VCC
MSEL1
MSEL0
GND
GND
Note to Figure 13–6:
(1)
Connect the pull-up resistors to a 3.3-V supply.
As shown in Figure 13–6, the nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins on all target
FPGAs are connected together with external pull-up resistors. These pins
are open-drain bidirectional pins on the FPGAs. When the first device
asserts nCEO (after receiving all of its configuration data), it releases its
CONF_DONE pin. But the subsequent devices in the chain keep this shared
CONF_DONE line low until they have received their configuration data.
When all target FPGAs in the chain have received their configuration data
and have released CONF_DONE, the pull-up resistor drives a high level on
this line and all devices simultaneously enter initialization mode. If an
error occurs at any point during configuration, the nSTATUS line is
driven low by the failing FPGA. If you enable the Auto Restart
Configuration on Frame Error option, reconfiguration of the entire chain
begins after a reset time-out period (a maximum of 40 μs). If the option is
turned off, the external system must monitor nSTATUS for errors and
then pulse nCONFIG low to restart configuration. The external system can
pulse nCONFIG if it is under system control rather than tied to VCC.
1
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
While you can cascade Cyclone FPGAs, serial configuration
devices cannot be cascaded or chained together.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
If the configuration bit stream size exceeds the capacity of a serial
configuration device, you must select a larger configuration device
and/or enable the compression feature. While configuring multiple
devices, the size of the bit stream is the sum of the individual devices’
configuration bit streams.
Configuring Multiple Devices with the Same Data
Certain applications require the configuration of multiple Cyclone
devices with the same design through a configuration bit stream or SOF
file. This can actually be done by two methods and they are shown below.
For both methods, the serial configuration devices cannot be cascaded or
chained together.
Method 1
For method 1, the serial configuration device stores two copies of the SOF
file. The first copy configures the master Cyclone device, and the second
copy configures all the remaining slave devices concurrently. The setup
is similar to Figure 13–7 where the master is setup in AS mode (MSEL=00)
and the slave devices are setup in PS mode (MSEL01).
To configure four identical Cyclone devices with the same SOF file, you
could setup the chain similar to the example shown in Figure 13–6, except
connect the three slave devices for concurrent configuration. The nCEO
pin from the master device drives the nCE input pins on all three slave
devices, and the DATA and DCLK pins connect in parallel to all four
devices. During the first configuration cycle, the master device reads its
configuration data from the serial configuration device while holding
nCEO high. After completing its configuration cycle, the master drives
nCE low and transmits the second copy of the configuration data to all
three slave devices, configuring them simultaneously. The advantage of
using the setup in Figure 13–7 is you can have a different SOF file for the
Cyclone master device. However, all the Cyclone slave devices must be
configured with the same SOF file.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
Figure 13–7. Configuring Multiple Devices with the Same Design Using a Serial Configuration Device
Cyclone FPGA Slave
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
VCC (1)
nCEO
N.C.
VCC
10 kΩ 10 kΩ 10 kΩ
Data0
DCLK
MSEL0
MSEL1
GND
Cyclone FPGA Slave
Cyclone FPGA Master
nSTATUS
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
nCEO
N.C.
VCC
GND
Data
Data0
DCLK
DCLK
nCS
nCSO
ASDI
ASDO
Serial
Configuration
Device
Data0
MSEL0
DCLK
MSEL1
MSEL0
MSEL1
GND
GND
Cyclone FPGA Slave
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
N.C.
VCC
Data0
DCLK
MSEL0
MSEL1
GND
Note to Figure 13–7:
(1)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to the same supply voltage as the configuration device.
Method 2
Method 2 configures multiple Cyclone devices with the same SOFs by
storing only one copy of the SOF in the serial configuration device. This
saves memory space in the serial configuration device for
general-purpose use and may reduce costs. This method is shown in
Figure 13–8 where the master device is set up in AS mode (MSLE=00), and
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
the slave devices are set up in PS mode (MSEL=01). You could set up one
or more slave devices in the chain and all the slave devices are set up in
the same way as the design shown in Figure 13–8.
Figure 13–8. Configuring Multiple Devices with the Same Design Using a Serial Configuration Device
VCC
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Master Cyclone Device
EPCS4
Device
Slave Cyclone Device
nSTATUS
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCONFIG
nCE
nCE
GND
VCC
GND
Data
Data0
MSEL0
Data0
MSEL0
DCLK
DCLK
MSEL1
DCLK
MSEL1
nCS
nCS0
ASDI
ASDO
nCS0
GND
ASDO
GND
Buffer
In this setup, all the Cyclone devices in the chain are connected for
concurrent configuration. This reduces the active serial configuration
time because all the Cyclone devices are configured in only one
configuration cycle. To achieve this, the nCE input pins on all the Cyclone
devices are connected to ground and the nCEO output pins on all the
Cyclone devices are left unconnected. The DATA and DCLK pins connect
in parallel to all the Cyclone devices.
It is recommended to add a buffer before the DATA and DCLK output from
the master Cyclone to avoid signal strength and signal integrity issues.
The buffer should not significantly change the DATA-to-DCLK
relationships or delay them with respect to other ASMI signals, which are
Altera Corporation
May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
ASDI and nCS signals. Also, the buffer should only drive the slave
Cyclone devices, so that the timing between the master Cyclone device
and serial configuration device is unaffected.
This setup can support both compressed and uncompressed SOFs.
Therefore, if the configuration bit stream size exceeds the capacity of a
serial configuration device, you can enable the compression feature on
the SOF used or you can select a larger serial configuration device.
Estimating Active Serial Configuration Time
Active serial configuration time is dominated by the time it takes to
transfer data from the serial configuration device to the Cyclone FPGA.
This serial interface is clocked by the Cyclone DCLK output (generated
from an internal oscillator). As listed in Table 13–4, the DCLK minimum
frequency is 14 MHz (71 ns). Therefore, the maximum configuration time
estimate for an EP1C3 device (0.628 MBits of uncompressed data) is:
(0.628 MBits × 71 ns) = 47 ms.
The typical configuration time is 33 ms.
Enabling compression reduces the amount of configuration data that is
transmitted to the Cyclone device, reducing configuration time. On
average, compression reduces configuration time by 50%.
Programming Serial Configuration Devices
Serial configuration devices are non-volatile, flash-memory-based
devices. You can program these devices in-system using the
ByteBlasterTM II download cable. Alternatively, you can program them
using the Altera Programming Unit (APU) or supported third-party
programmers.
You can perform in-system programming of serial configuration devices
via the AS programming interface. During in-system programming, the
download cable disables FPGA access to the AS interface by driving the
nCE pin high. Cyclone FPGAs are also held in reset by a low level on
nCONFIG. After programming is complete, the download cable releases
nCE and nCONFIG, allowing the pull-down and pull-up resistor to drive
GND and VCC, respectively. Figure 13–9 shows the download cable
connections to the serial configuration device.
f
For more information about the ByteBlaster II cable, refer to the
ByteBlaster II Download Cable User Guide.
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Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
The serial configuration devices can be programmed in-system by an
external microprocessor using SRunner. SRunner is a software driver
developed for embedded serial configuration device programming that
can be customized to fit in different embedded systems. The SRunner can
read a Raw Programming Data file (.rpd) and write to the serial
configuration devices. The programming time is comparable to the
Quartus II software programming time.
f
For more information about SRunner, refer tothe AN 418: SRunner: An
Embedded Solution for Serial Configuration Device Programming and the
source code on the Altera website (www.altera.com).
Figure 13–9. In-System Programming of Serial Configuration Devices
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
Cyclone FPGA
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
Serial
Configuration
Device
nCEO
N.C. (2)
nCONFIG
nCE
10 kΩ
DATA
DATA0
DCLK
DCLK
nCS
nCSO
MSEL1
ASDI
ASDO
MSEL0
GND
Pin 1
VCC (3)
ByteBlaser II
10-Pin Male Header
Notes to Figure 13–9:
(1)
(2)
(3)
Connect these pull-up resistors to 3.3-V supply.
The nCEO pin is left unconnected.
Power up the ByteBlaster II cable’s VCC with a 3.3-V supply.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
You can program serial configuration devices by using the Quartus II
software with the APU and the appropriate configuration device
programming adapter. All serial configuration devices are offered in an
eight-pin small outline integrated circuit (SOIC) package and can be
programmed using the PLMSEPC-8 adapter.
In production environments, serial configuration devices can be
programmed using multiple methods. Altera programming hardware
(APU) or other third-party programming hardware can be used to
program blank serial configuration devices before they are mounted onto
PCBs. Alternatively, you can use an on-board microprocessor to program
the serial configuration device in-system using C-based software drivers
provided by Altera.
f
For more information on programming serial configuration devices,
refer to the Cyclone Literature web page at www.altera.com and the
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and
EPCS128) Data Sheet.
f
Device configuration options and how to create configuration files are
discussed further in the Software Settings section in volume 2 of the
Configuration Handbook.
Passive Serial Configuration
Cyclone FPGAs also feature the PS configuration scheme supported by
all Altera FPGAs. In the PS scheme, an external host (configuration
device, embedded processor, or host PC) controls configuration.
Configuration data is clocked into the target Cyclone FPGAs via the
DATA0 pin at each rising edge of DCLK. The configuration waveforms for
this scheme are shown in Figure 13–10.
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Figure 13–10. PS Configuration Cycle Waveform
D(N – 1)
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE (1)
(4)
DCLK
DATA High-Z
D0
D1
D2
D3
DN
High-Z
User I/O Pins (2) Tri-stated with internal pull-up resistor
(5)
User I/O
INIT_DONE (3)
MODE
Configuration
Configuration
Initialization
User
Notes to Figure 13–10:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
During initial power up and configuration, CONF_DONE is low. After configuration, CONF_DONE goes high to
indicate successful configuration. If the device is reconfigured, CONF_DONE goes low after nCONFIG is driven low.
User I/O pins are tri-stated during configuration. Cyclone FPGAs also have a weak pull-up resistor on I/O pins
during configuration. After initialization, the user I/O pins perform the function assigned in the user’s design.
When used, the optional INIT_DONE signal is high when nCONFIG is low before configuration and during the first
136 clock cycles of configuration.
In user mode, DCLK should be driven high or low when using the PS configuration scheme. When using the AS
configuration scheme, DCLK is a Cyclone output pin and should not be driven externally.
In user mode, DATA0 should be driven high or low.
PS Configuration Using Configuration Device
In the PS configuration device scheme, nCONFIG is usually tied to VCC
(when using EPC16, EPC8, EPC4, or EPC2 devices, you can connect
nCONFIG to nINIT_CONF). Upon device power-up, the target Cyclone
FPGA senses the low-to-high transition on nCONFIG and initiates
configuration. The target device then drives the open-drain CONF_DONE
pin low, which in-turn drives the configuration device’s nCS pin low.
When exiting POR, both the target and configuration device release the
open-drain nSTATUS pin (typically Cyclone POR lasts 100 ms).
Before configuration begins, the configuration device goes through a
POR delay of up to 100 ms (maximum) to allow the power supply to
stabilize. You must power the Cyclone FPGA before or during the POR
time of the enhanced configuration device. During POR, the
configuration device drives its OE pin low. This low signal delays
configuration because the OE pin is connected to the target device’s
nSTATUS pin. When the target and configuration devices complete POR,
they both release the nSTATUS to OE line, which is then pulled high by a
pull-up resistor.
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May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
When configuring multiple devices, configuration does not begin until all
devices release their OE or nSTATUS pins. When all devices are ready, the
configuration device clocks out DATA and DCLK to the target devices
using an internal oscillator.
After successful configuration, the Cyclone FPGA starts initialization
using the 10-MHz internal oscillator as the reference clock. After
initialization, this internal oscillator is turned off. The CONF_DONE pin is
released by the target device and then pulled high by a pull-up resistor.
When initialization is complete, the target Cyclone FPGA enters user
mode. The CONF_DONE pin must have an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor
in order for the device to initialize.
If an error occurs during configuration, the target device drives its
nSTATUS pin low, resetting itself internally and resetting the
configuration device. If you turn on the Auto-Restart Configuration on
Frame Error option, the device reconfigures automatically if an error
occurs. To set this option, select Compiler Settings (Processing menu),
and click on the Chips & Devices tab. Select Device and Pin Options,
and click on the Configuration tab.
If the Auto-Restart Configuration on Frame Error option is turned off,
the external system (configuration device or microprocessor) must
monitor nSTATUS for errors and then pulse nCONFIG low to restart
configuration. The external system can pulse nCONFIG if it is under
system control rather than tied to VCC. When configuration is complete,
the target device releases CONF_DONE, which disables the configuration
device by driving nCS high. The configuration device drives DCLK low
before and after configuration.
In addition, if the configuration device sends all of its data and then
detects that CONF_DONE has not gone high, it recognizes that the target
device has not configured successfully. (For CONF_DONE to reach a high
state, enhanced configuration devices wait for 64 DCLK cycles after the
last configuration bit. EPC2 devices wait for 16 DCLK cycles.) In this case,
the configuration device pulses its OE pin low for a few microseconds,
driving the target device’s nSTATUS pin low. If the Auto-Restart
Configuration on Frame Error option is set in the Quartus II software, the
target device resets and then releases its nSTATUS pin after a reset timeout period. When nSTATUS returns high, the configuration device
reconfigures the target device.
You should not pull CONF_DONE low to delay initialization. Instead, use
the Quartus II software’s User-Supplied Start-Up Clock option to
synchronize the initialization of multiple devices that are not in the same
configuration chain. Devices in the same configuration chain initialize
together since their CONF_DONE pins are tied together.
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Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
CONF_DONE goes high during the first few clock cycles of initialization.
Hence, when using the CLKUSR feature you would not see the
CONF_DONE signal high until you start clocking CLKUSR. However, the
device does retain configuration data and waits for these initialization
clocks to release CONF_DONE and go into user mode. Figure 13–11
shows how to configure one Cyclone FPGA with one configuration
device.
Figure 13–11. Single Device Configuration Circuit
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
Cyclone FPGA
MSEL0
MSEL1
GND
nCEO
10 kΩ
Configuration
Device
DCLK
DATA
OE
nCS
nINIT_CONF (2)
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
VCC (4)
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
N.C. (3)
nCE
GND
Notes to Figure 13–11:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to the same supply voltage as the
configuration device. This pull-up resistor is 10 kΩ. The EPC16, EPC8, EPC4, and
EPC2 devices’ OE and nCS pins have internal, user-configurable pull-up resistors.
If you use internal pull-up resistors, do not use external pull-up resistors on these
pins.
The nINIT_CONF pin is available on EPC16, EPC8, EPC4, and EPC2 devices and
has an internal pull-up resistor that is always active. If nINIT_CONF is not used,
nCONFIG can be pulled to VCC directly or through a resistor.
The nCEO pin is left unconnected for the last device in the chain.
Connect MSEL0 to the VCC supply voltage of the I/O bank it resides in.
Configuring Multiple Cyclone FPGAs
You can use a single configuration device to configure multiple Cyclone
FPGAs. In this setup, the nCEO pin of the first device is connected to the
nCE pin of the second device in the chain. If there are additional devices,
connect the nCE pin of the next device to the nCEO pin of the previous
device. You should leave the nCEO pin on the last device in the chain
unconnected. To configure properly, all of the target device CONF_DONE
and nSTATUS pins must be tied together. Figure 13–12 shows an example
of configuring multiple Cyclone FPGAs using a single configuration
device.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
Figure 13–12. Configuring Multiple Cyclone FPGAs with a Single Configuration Device
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
VCC (6)
Cyclone FPGA 2
MSEL0
MSEL1
VCC (6)
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
DCLK
DATA
OE
nCS
nCASC
nINIT_CONF (4), (5)
GND
GND
N.C.
10 kΩ
Configuration
Device (2)
Cyclone FPGA 1
MSEL0
MSEL1
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
nCEO (3)
nCE
nCEO
nCE
GND
Notes to Figure 13–12:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to the same supply voltage as the configuration device. The EPC16, EPC8,
EPC4, and EPC2 devices’ OE and nCS pins have internal, user-configurable pull-up resistors. If you use internal
pull-up resistors, do not use external pull-up resistors on these pins.
EPC16, EPC8, and EPC4 configuration devices cannot be cascaded.
The nCEO pin is left unconnected for the last device in the chain.
The nINIT_CONF pin is available on EPC16, EPC8, EPC4, and EPC2 devices. If nINIT_CONF is not used, nCONFIG
must be pulled to VCC directly or through a resistor.
The nINIT_CONF pin has an internal pull-up resistor that is always active in EPC16, EPC8, EPC4, and EPC2 devices.
These devices do not need an external pull-up resistor on the nINIT_CONF pin.
Connect MSEL0 to the VCC supply voltage of the I/O bank it resides in.
When performing multi-device PS configuration, you must generate the
configuration device programming file (.sof) from each project. Then you
must combine multiple .sof files using the Quartus II software through
the Convert Programming Files dialog box.
After the first Cyclone FPGA completes configuration during multidevice configuration, its nCEO pin activates the second device’s nCE pin,
prompting the second device to begin configuration. Because all device
CONF_DONE pins are tied together, all devices initialize and enter user
mode at the same time.
In addition, all nSTATUS pins are tied together; therefore, if any device
(including the configuration device) detects an error, configuration stops
for the entire chain. Also, if the configuration device does not detect
CONF_DONE going high at the end of configuration, it resets the chain by
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Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
pulsing its OE pin low for a few microseconds. For CONF_DONE to reach a
high state, enhanced configuration devices wait for 64 DCLK cycles after
the last configuration bit. EPC2 devices wait for 16 DCLK cycles.
If the Auto-Restart Configuration on Frame Error option is turned on in
the Quartus II software, the Cyclone FPGA releases its nSTATUS pins
after a reset time-out period (about 30 μs). When the nSTATUS pins are
released and pulled high, the configuration device reconfigures the chain.
If the Auto-Restart Configuration on Frame Error option is not turned
on, the devices drive nSTATUS low until they are reset with a low pulse
on nCONFIG.
You can also cascade several EPC2 or EPC1 configuration devices to
configure multiple Cyclone FPGAs. When all data from the first
configuration device is sent, it drives nCASC low, which in turn drives
nCS on the subsequent EPC2 or EPC1 device. Because a configuration
device requires less than one clock cycle to activate a subsequent
configuration device, the data stream is uninterrupted. You cannot
cascade EPC16, EPC8, and EPC4 configuration devices.
Figure 13–13 shows how to configure multiple devices using cascaded
EPC2 or EPC1 devices.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
Figure 13–13. Multi-Device PS Configuration Using Cascaded EPC2 or EPC1 Devices
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
(3) 10 kΩ
Cyclone Device 2
VCC
MSEL1
MSEL0
N.C.
nCEO
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
(2)
10 kΩ (3)
EPC2 or EPC1
Device 1
Cyclone Device 1
VCC
MSEL1
MSEL0
nCEO
nCE
GND
10 kΩ
GND
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
EPC2 or EPC1
Device 2
DCLK
DATA
OE (3)
nCS (3)
nCASC
nINIT_CONF (2)
DCLK
DATA
nCS
OE
nINIT_CONF
nCE
GND
Notes to Figure 13–13:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to the same supply voltage as the configuration device.
The nINIT_CONF pin (available on enhanced configuration devices and EPC2 devices only) has an internal pull-up
resistor that is always active, meaning an external pull-up resistor should not be used on the nINIT_CONFnCONFIG line. The nINIT_CONF pin does not need to be connected if its function is not used. If nINIT_CONF is
not used or not available (such as on EPC1 devices), nCONFIG must be pulled to VCC either directly or through a
resistor.
The enhanced configuration devices' and EPC2 devices’ OE and nCS pins have internal programmable pull-up
resistors. External 10-kΩ pull-up resistors should be used. To turn off the internal pull-up resistors, check the
Disable nCS and OE pull-ups on configuration device option when generating programming files.
PS Configuration Using a Download Cable
Using a download cable in PS configuration, an intelligent host (for
example, your PC) transfers data from a storage device (for example,
your hard drive) to the Cyclone FPGA through a USB Blaster,
ByteBlaster II, MasterBlaster, or ByteBlasterMV cable. To initiate
configuration in this scheme, the download cable generates a low-to-high
transition on the nCONFIG pin. The programming hardware then sends
the configuration data one bit at a time on the device’s DATA0 pin. The
data is clocked into the target device using DCLK until the CONF_DONE
goes high.
When using programming hardware for the Cyclone FPGA, turning on
the Auto-Restart Configuration on Frame Error option does not affect
the configuration cycle because the Quartus II software must restart
configuration when an error occurs. Figure 13–14 shows the PS
configuration setup for the Cyclone FPGA using a USB Blaster,
ByteBlaster II, MasterBlaster, or ByteBlasterMV cable.
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Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Figure 13–14. PS Configuration Circuit with a Download Cable
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
(3)
(3)
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Cyclone Device
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
VCC (4)
MSEL0
MSEL1
nCE
nCEO
N.C.
10-Pin Male Header
(PS Mode)
GND
DCLK
DATA0
nCONFIG
Pin 1
VCC
GND
VIO (2)
Shield
GND
Notes to Figure 13–14:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
You should connect the pull-up resistor to the same supply voltage as the MasterBlaster (VIO pin) or ByteBlasterMV
cable.
Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO should match the device’s
VCCIO. This pin is a no-connect pin for the ByteBlasterMV header.
The pull-up resistors on DATA0 and DCLK are only needed if the download cable is the only configuration scheme
used on your board. This is to ensure that DATA0 and DCLK are not left floating after configuration. For example, if
you are also using a configuration device, the pull-up resistors on DATA0 and DCLK are not needed.
Connect MSEL0 to the VCC supply voltage of the I/O bank it resides in.
You can use the download cable to configure multiple Cyclone FPGAs by
connecting each device’s nCEO pin to the subsequent device’s nCE pin.
All other configuration pins are connected to each device in the chain.
Because all CONF_DONE pins are tied together, all devices in the chain
initialize and enter user mode at the same time. In addition, because the
nSTATUS pins are tied together, the entire chain halts configuration if any
device detects an error. In this situation, the Quartus II software must
restart configuration; the Auto-Restart Configuration on Frame Error
option does not affect the configuration cycle. Figure 13–15 shows how to
configure multiple Cyclone FPGAs with a ByteBlaster II, MasterBlaster,
or ByteBlasterMV cable.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
Figure 13–15. Multi-Device PS Configuration with a Download Cable
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
(3)
VCC (4)
VCC (1)
10-Pin Male Header
(PS Mode)
10 kΩ
Cyclone FPGA 1
Pin 1
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
DCLK
MSEL0
10 kΩ
(3)
VCC
MSEL1
VCC (1)
GND
VIO (2)
nCE
10 kΩ
GND
DATA0
nCONFIG
VCC
GND
Cyclone FPGA 2
MSEL0
MSEL1
GND
nCEO
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
DCLK
nCE
nCEO
N.C.
DATA0
nCONFIG
Notes to Figure 13–15:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
You should connect the pull-up resistor to the same supply voltage as the MasterBlaster (VIO pin) or ByteBlasterMV
cable.
VIO is a reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO should match the device’s VCCIO. Refer to the
MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide for this value.
The pull-up resistors on DATA0 and DCLK are only needed if the download cable is the only configuration scheme
used on your board. This is to ensure that DATA0 and DCLK are not left floating after configuration. For example, if
you are also using a configuration device, the pull-up resistors on DATA0 and DCLK are not needed.
Connect MSEL0 to the VCC supply voltage of the I/O bank it resides in.
If you are using a ByteBlaster II, MasterBlaster, or ByteBlasterMV cable to
configure device(s) on a board that also is populated with configuration
devices, you should electrically isolate the configuration devices from the
target device(s) and cable. One way to isolate the configuration devices is
to add logic, such as a multiplexer, that can select between the
configuration devices and the cable. The multiplexer allows bidirectional
transfers on the nSTATUS and CONF_DONE signals. Another option is to
add switches to the five common signals (CONF_DONE, nSTATUS, DCLK,
13–26
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
nCONFIG, and DATA0) between the cable and the configuration devices.
The last option is to remove the configuration devices from the board
when configuring with the cable. Figure 13–16 shows a combination of a
configuration device and a ByteBlaster II, MasterBlaster, or
ByteBlasterMV cable to configure a Cyclone FPGA.
Figure 13–16. Configuring with a Combined PS and Configuration Device Scheme
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
(5)
VCC (6)
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
(5)
Cyclone FPGA
CONF_DONE
MSEL0
nSTATUS
DCLK
MSEL1
10 kΩ
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
(PS Mode)
VCC (1)
Pin 1
VCC
VIO GND
(2)
nCEO N.C.
nCE
GND
DATA0
nCONFIG
(3)
(3)
(3)
GND
Configuration Device
(3)
DCLK
DATA
OE
nCS
nINIT_CONF (4)
(3)
Notes to Figure 13–16:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
You should connect the pull-up resistor to the same supply voltage as the configuration device.
Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO should match the target
device’s VCCIO. This is a no-connect pin for the ByteBlasterMV header.
You should not attempt configuration with a ByteBlaster II, MasterBlaster, or ByteBlasterMV cable while a
configuration device is connected to a Cyclone FPGA. Instead, you should either remove the configuration device
from its socket when using the download cable or place a switch on the five common signals between the download
cable and the configuration device. Remove the ByteBlaster II, MasterBlaster, or ByteBlasterMV cable when
configuring with a configuration device.
If nINIT_CONF is not used, nCONFIG must be pulled to VCC either directly or through a resistor.
The pull-up resistors on DATA0 and DCLK are only needed if the download cable is the only configuration scheme
used on your board. This is to ensure that DATA0 and DCLK are not left floating after configuration. For example, if
you are also using a configuration device, the pull-up resistors on DATA0 and DCLK are not needed.
Connect MSEL0 to the VCC supply voltage of the I/O bank it resides in.
f
For more information on how to use the ByteBlaster II, MasterBlaster, or
ByteBlasterMV cables, see the following documents:
■
■
■
Altera Corporation
May 2008
ByteBlaster II Download Cable User Guide
ByteBlasterMV Download Cable User Guide
MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide
13–27
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
PS Configuration from a Microprocessor
In PS configuration with a microprocessor, a microprocessor transfers
data from a storage device to the target Cyclone FPGA. To initiate
configuration in this scheme, the microprocessor must generate a low-tohigh transition on the nCONFIG pin and the target device must release
nSTATUS. The microprocessor then places the configuration data one bit
at a time on the DATA0 pin of the Cyclone FPGA. The least significant bit
(LSB) of each data byte must be presented first. Data is clocked
continuously into the target device using DCLK until the CONF_DONE
signal goes high.
The Cyclone FPGA starts initialization using the internal oscillator after
all configuration data is transferred. After initialization, this internal
oscillator is turned off. The device’s CONF_DONE pin goes high to show
successful configuration and the start of initialization. During
configuration and initialization and before the device enters user ode the
microprocessor must not drive CONF_DONE low. Driving DCLK to the
device after configuration does not affect device operation.
Since the PS configuration scheme is a synchronous scheme, the
configuration clock speed must be below the specified maximum
frequency to ensure successful configuration. Maximum DCLK frequency
supported by Cyclone FPGAs is 100 MHz (see Table 13–5 on page 13–30).
No maximum DCLK period (i.e., minimum DCLK frequency) exists. You
can pause configuration by halting DCLK for an indefinite amount of time.
If the target device detects an error during configuration, it drives its
nSTATUS pin low to alert the microprocessor. The microprocessor can
then pulse nCONFIG low to restart the configuration process.
Alternatively, if the Auto-Restart Configuration on Frame Error option
is turned on in the Quartus II software, the target device releases
nSTATUS after a reset time-out period. After nSTATUS is released, the
microprocessor can reconfigure the target device without needing to
pulse nCONFIG low.
The microprocessor can also monitor the CONF_DONE and INIT_DONE
pins to ensure successful configuration and initialization. If the
microprocessor sends all data, but CONF_DONE and INIT_DONE has not
gone high, it must reconfigure the target device. Figure 13–17 shows the
circuit for PS configuration with a microprocessor.
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Figure 13–17. PS Configuration Circuit with a Microprocessor
Memory
ADDR
DATA0
VCC
10 k Ω
VCC
VCC (2)
Cyclone Device
10 k Ω
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
MSEL0
MSEL1
nCE
Microprocessor
GND
GND
nCEO
N.C. (1)
DATA0
nCONFIG
DCLK
Notes to Figure 13–17:
(1)
(2)
The nCEO pin is left unconnected.
Connect MSEL0 to the VCC supply voltage of the I/O bank it resides in.
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs with the MicroBlaster Software
The MicroBlasterTM software driver allows you to configure Altera
FPGAs, including Cyclone FPGAs, through the ByteBlaster II or
ByteBlasterMV cable in PS mode. The MicroBlaster software driver
supports a Raw Binary File (.rbf) programming input file and is targeted
for embedded PS configuration. The source code is developed for the
Windows NT operating system, although you can customize it to run on
other operating systems.
f
For more information about the MicroBlaster software driver, refer to the
AN 423: Configuring the MicroBlaster Passive Serial Software Driver and
source files on the Altera website at www.altera.com.
Passive Serial Timing
For successful configuration using the PS scheme, several timing
parameters such as setup, hold, and maximum clock frequency must be
satisfied. The enhanced configuration and EPC2 devices are designed to
meet these interface timing specifications. If you use a microprocessor or
another intelligent host to control the PS interface, ensure that you meet
these timing requirements.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
13–29
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
Figure 13–18 shows the PS timing waveform for Cyclone FPGAs.
Figure 13–18. PS Timing Waveform for Cyclone FPGAs
tCF2ST1
tCFG
tCF2CK
nCONFIG
nSTATUS (1)
tSTATUS
tCF2ST0
t
CLK
CONF_DONE (2)
tCF2CD
tST2CK
tCH tCL
DCLK (3)
tDH
Bit 0 Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 3
DATA
Bit n
(4)
tDSU
User I/O
Tri-stated with internal pull-up resistor
User Mode
INIT_DONE
tCD2UM
Notes to Figure 13–18:
Upon power-up, the Cyclone FPGA holds nSTATUS low for about 100 ms.
Upon power-up and before configuration, CONF_DONE is low.
In user mode, DCLK should be driven high or low when using the PS configuration scheme. When using the AS
configuration scheme, DCLK is a Cyclone output pin and should not be driven externally.
DATA should not be left floating after configuration. It should be driven high or low, whichever is more convenient.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Table 13–5 contains the PS timing information for Cyclone FPGAs.
Table 13–5. PS Timing Parameters for Cyclone Devices Note (1) (Part 1 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Units
tCF2CD
nCONFIG low to CONF_DONE low
800
ns
tCF2ST0
nCONFIG low to nSTATUS low
800
ns
tCF2ST1
nCONFIG high to nSTATUS high
40 (4)
µs
tCFG
nCONFIG low pulse width (2)
40
tSTATUS
nSTATUS low pulse width
10
40 (4)
µs
tCF2CK
nCONFIG high to first rising edge on DCLK
40
µs
tST2CK
nSTATUS high to first rising edge on DCLK
1
µs
tDSU
Data setup time before rising edge on DCLK
7
ns
tDH
Data hold time after rising edge on DCLK
0
ns
tCH
DCLK high time
7
ns
13–30
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
µs
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Table 13–5. PS Timing Parameters for Cyclone Devices Note (1) (Part 2 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Units
tCL
DCLK low time
7
ns
tCLK
DCLK period
15
ns
fMAX
DCLK maximum frequency
tCD2UM
CONF_DONE high to user mode (3)
6
66
MHz
20
µs
Notes to Table 13–5:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
This information is preliminary.
This value applies only if the internal oscillator is selected as the clock source for device initialization. If the clock
source is CLKUSR, multiply the clock period by 270 to obtain this value. CLKUSR must be running during this
period to reset the device.
The minimum and maximum numbers apply only if the internal oscillator is chosen as the clock source for device
initialization. If the clock source is CLKUSR, multiply the clock period by 140 to obtain this value.
You can obtain this value if you do not delay configuration by extending the nSTATUS low-pulse width.
f
Device configuration options and how to create configuration files are
discussed further in the Software Settings section in volume 2 of the
Configuration Handbook.
JTAG-Based Configuration
JTAG has developed a specification for boundary-scan testing. This
boundary-scan test (BST) architecture offers the capability to efficiently
test components on printed circuit boards (PCBs) with tight lead spacing.
The BST architecture can test pin connections without using physical test
probes and capture functional data while a device is operating normally.
You can also use the JTAG circuitry to shift configuration data into
Cyclone FPGAs. The Quartus II software automatically generates .sof
files that can be used for JTAG configuration.
f
For more information about JTAG boundary-scan testing, refer to
AN 39: IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing in Altera Devices.
To use the SignalTap II Embedded Logic Analyzer, you need to connect
the JTAG pins of your Cyclone device to a download cableheader on your
PCB.
f
For more information about SignalTap II, refer to the Design Debugging
Using the SignalTap II Embedded Logic Analyzer chapter in volume 3 of the
Quartus II Handbook.
Cyclone devices are designed such that JTAG instructions have
precedence over any device operating modes. So JTAG configuration can
take place without waiting for other configuration to complete (e.g.,
Altera Corporation
May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
configuration with serial or enhanced configuration devices). If you
attempt JTAG configuration in Cyclone FPGAs during non-JTAG
configuration, non-JTAG configuration is terminated and JTAG
configuration is initiated.
1
The Cyclone configuration data decompression feature is not
supported in JTAG-based configuration.
A device operating in JTAG mode uses four required pins: TDI, TDO, TMS,
and TCK. Cyclone FPGAs do not support the optional TRST pin. The three
JTAG input pins, TCK, TDI, and TMS, have weak internal pull-up
resistors, whose values are approximately 20 to 40 kΩ. All user I/O pins
are tri-stated during JTAG configuration.
Table 13–6 shows each JTAG pin’s function.
Table 13–6. JTAG Pin Descriptions
Pin
Description
Function
TDI
Test data input
Serial input pin for instructions as well as test and programming data. Data is
shifted in on the rising edge of TCK. If the JTAG interface is not required on the
board, the JTAG circuitry can be disabled by connecting this pin to VCC.
TDO
Test data output
Serial data output pin for instructions as well as test and programming data. Data
is shifted out on the falling edge of TCK. The pin is tri-stated if data is not being
shifted out of the device. If the JTAG interface is not required on the board, the
JTAG circuitry can be disabled by leaving this pin unconnected.
TMS
Test mode select
Input pin that provides the control signal to determine the transitions of the Test
Access Port (TAP) controller state machine. Transitions within the state machine
occur on the rising edge of TCK. Therefore, TMS must be set up before the rising
edge of TCK. TMS is evaluated on the rising edge of TCK. If the JTAG interface
is not required on the board, the JTAG circuitry can be disabled by connecting
this pin to VCC.
TCK
Test clock input
The clock input to the BST circuitry. Some operations occur at the rising edge,
while others occur at the falling edge. If the JTAG interface is not required on the
board, the JTAG circuitry can be disabled, by connecting this pin to GND.
JTAG Configuration Using a Download Cable
During JTAG configuration, data is downloaded to the device on the
board through a USB Blaster, ByteBlaster II, ByteBlasterMV, or
MasterBlaster download cable. Configuring devices through a cable is
similar to programming devices in-system. See Figure 13–19 for pin
connection information.
13–32
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May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Figure 13–19. JTAG Configuration of Single Cyclone FPGA
VCC
VCC
VCC
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Cyclone Device 10 kΩ
nCE
GND
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
VCC
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
MSEL0
MSEL1
DATA0
DCLK
TCK
TDO
TMS
TDI
ByteBlaster II, MasterBlaster, or ByteBlasterMV
10-Pin Male Header
(Top View)
Pin 1
VCC (1)
GND
VIO (3)
1 kΩ
GND
GND
Notes to Figure 13–19:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
You should connect the pull-up resistor to the same supply voltage as the download cable.
You should connect the nCONFIG, MSEL0, and MSEL1 pins to support a non-JTAG configuration scheme. If you only
use JTAG configuration, connect nCONFIG and MSEL0 to VCC, and MSEL1 to ground. Pull DATA0 and DCLK to high
or low.
VIO is a reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO should match the device’s VCCIO. Refer to the
MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide for this value. In the ByteBlaster MV, this pin is a no
connect. In the USB Blaster and ByteBlaster II, this pin is connected to nCE when it is used for Active Serial
programming; otherwise it is a no connect.
nCE must be connected to GND or driven low for successful configuration.
To configure a single device in a JTAG chain, the programming software
places all other devices in bypass mode. In bypass mode, devices pass
programming data from the TDI pin to the TDO pin through a single
bypass register without being affected internally. This scheme enables the
programming software to program or verify the target device.
Configuration data driven into the device appears on the TDO pin one
clock cycle later.
The Quartus II software verifies successful JTAG configuration upon
completion. The software checks the state of CONF_DONE through the
JTAG port. If CONF_DONE is not high, the Quartus II software indicates
that configuration has failed. If CONF_DONE is high, the software
indicates that configuration was successful. After the configuration bit
stream is transmitted serially via the JTAG TDI port, the TCK port is
clocked an additional 134 cycles to perform device initialization.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
1
If VCCIO is tied to 3.3-V, both the I/O pins and the JTAG TDO port
drive at 3.3-V levels.
Cyclone FPGAs have dedicated JTAG pins. Not only can you perform
JTAG testing on Cyclone FPGAs before and after, but also during
configuration. While other device families do not support JTAG testing
during configuration, Cyclone FPGAs support the BYPASS, IDCODE, and
SAMPLE instructions during configuration without interrupting
configuration. All other JTAG instructions may only be issued by first
interrupting configuration and reprogramming I/O pins using the
CONFIG_IO instruction.
The CONFIG_IO instruction allows I/O buffers to be configured via the
JTAG port, and when issued, interrupts configuration. This instruction
allows you to perform board-level testing prior to configuring the
Cyclone FPGA or waiting for a configuration device to complete
configuration. Once configuration has been interrupted and JTAG testing
is complete, the part must be reconfigured via JTAG (PULSE_CONFIG
instruction) or by pulsing nCONFIG low.
The chip-wide reset and output enable pins on Cyclone FPGAs do not
affect JTAG boundary-scan or programming operations. Toggling these
pins does not affect JTAG operations (other than the usual boundary-scan
operation).
13–34
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
When designing a board for JTAG configuration of Cyclone FPGAs, you
should consider the dedicated configuration pins. Table 13–7 shows how
you should connect these pins during JTAG configuration.
Table 13–7. Dedicated Configuration Pin Connections During JTAG Configuration
Signal
Description
nCE
Drive all Cyclone devices in the chain low by connecting nCE to ground, pulling it down via a
resistor, or driving it low by some control circuitry. For devices in a multi-device PS and AS
configuration chains, connect the nCE pins to ground during JTAG configuration or configure
them via JTAG in the same order as the configuration chain.
nCEO
For all Cyclone devices in a chain, the nCEO pin can be left floating or connected to the nCE
pin of the next device. See nCE description above.
nSTATUS
Pulled to VCC through a 10-kΩ resistor. When configuring multiple devices in the same JTAG
chain, pull up each nSTATUS pin to VCC individually.
CONF_DONE
Pulled to VCC through a 10-kΩ resistor. When configuring multiple devices in the same JTAG
chain, pull up each CONF_DONE pin to VCC individually. The CONF_DONE pin must have an
external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor in order for the device to initialize.
nCONFIG
Driven high by connecting to VCC, pulling up through a resistor, or driving it high by some
control circuitry.
MSEL0,
MSEL1
Do not leave these pins floating. These pins support whichever non-JTAG configuration is
used in production. If only JTAG configuration is used, you should tie these pins to ground.
DCLK
Do not leave these pins floating. Drive low or high, whichever is more convenient.
DATA0
Do not leave these pins floating. Drive low or high, whichever is more convenient.
JTAG Configuration of Multiple Devices
When programming a JTAG device chain, one JTAG-compatible header,
such as the ByteBlaster II header, is connected to several devices. The
number of devices in the JTAG chain is limited only by the drive capacity
of the download cable. However, when four or more devices are
connected in a JTAG chain, Altera recommends buffering the TCK, TDI,
and TMS pins with an on-board buffer.
JTAG-chain device configuration is ideal when the system contains
multiple devices, or when testing your system using JTAG BST circuitry.
Figure 13–20 shows multi-device JTAG configuration.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
13–35
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
Figure 13–20. Multi-Device JTAG Configuration Note (1)
VCC
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
(JTAG Mode)
VCC
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Cyclone FPGA
VCC
VCC
VCC
10 kΩ
VCC
10 kΩ
Cyclone FPGA
10 kΩ
Cyclone FPGA
VCC
Pin 1
10 kΩ
VCC
VCC
10 kΩ
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
VIO
(3)
nSTATUS
DATA0
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL1 CONF_DONE
MSEL0
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
TCK
TDO
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
nSTATUS
DATA0
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL1 CONF_DONE
MSEL0
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
TDO
TCK
nSTATUS
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
DATA0
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL1 CONF_DONE
MSEL0
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
TDO
TCK
1 kΩ
Notes to Figure 13–20:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Cyclone, Stratix, Stratix GX, APEXTM II, APEX 20K, MercuryTM, ACEX® 1K, and FLEX® 10K devices can be placed
within the same JTAG chain for device programming and configuration.
Connect the nCONFIG, MSEL0, and MSEL1 pins to support a non-JTAG configuration scheme. If only JTAG
configuration is used, connect nCONFIG to VCC, and MSEL0 and MSEL1 to ground. Pull DATA0 and DCLK to either
high or low.
VIO is a reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO should match the device’s VCCIO. Refer to the
MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide for this value. In the ByteBlaster MV, this pin is a no
connect. In the USB Blaster and ByteBlaster, this pin is connected to nCE when it is used for Active Serial
programming; otherwise it is a no connect.
nCE must be connected to GND or driven low for successful configuration.
Connect the nCE pin to ground or drive it low during JTAG
configuration. In multi-device PS and AS configuration chains, connect
the first device’s nCE pin to ground and connect the nCEO pin to the nCE
pin of the next device in the chain. The last device’s nCE input comes from
the previous device, while its nCEO pin is left floating. After the first
device completes configuration in a multi-device configuration chain, it’s
nCEO pin drives low to activate the second device’s nCE pin, which
prompts the second device to begin configuration. Therefore, if these
devices are also in a JTAG chain, you should make sure the nCE pins are
connected to ground during JTAG configuration or that the devices are
configured via JTAG in the same order as the configuration chain. As long
as the devices are configured in the same order as the multi-device
configuration chain, the nCEO pin of the previous device drives the nCE
pin of the next device low when it has successfully been configured.
Figure 13–21 shows the JTAG configuration of a Cyclone FPGA with a
microprocessor.
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Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Figure 13–21. JTAG Configuration of Cyclone FPGAs with a Microprocessor
Memory
ADDR
Cyclone FPGA
DATA
(1)
(2)
(2)
Microprocessor
(1)
MSEL1
(1)
VCC
nCONFIG MSEL0
DATA0
VCC
10 kΩ
nCE (3)
DCLK
nCEO N.C.
TDI
10 kΩ
TCK
TDO
TMS
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
Notes to Figure 13–21:
(1)
(2)
(3)
f
Connect the nCONFIG, MSEL1, and MSEL0 pins to support a non-JTAG
configuration scheme. If your design only uses JTAG configuration, connect the
nCONFIG pin to VCC and the MSEL1 and MSEL0 pins to ground.
Pull DATA0 and DCLK to either high or low.
nCE must be connected to GND or driver low for succesful JTAG configuration.
For more information about JTAG programming in an embedded
environment, refer to AN 122: Using JamSTAPL for ISP &ICR via an
Embedded Processor.
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs with JRunner
JRunner is a software driver that allows you to configure Altera FPGAs,
including Cyclone FPGAs, through the ByteBlaster II or ByteBlasterMV
cables in JTAG mode. The programming input file supported is in .rbf
format. JRunner also requires a Chain Description File (.cdf) generated by
the Quartus II software. JRunner is targeted for embedded JTAG
configuration. The source code has been developed for the Windows NT
operating system (OS). You can customize the code to make it run on
other platforms. For more information on the JRunner software driver,
see JRunner Software Driver: An Embedded Solution to the JTAG
Configuration and the source files on the Altera website.
Jam STAPL
Jam STAPL, JEDEC standard JESD-71, is a standard file format for insystem programmability (ISP) purposes. Jam STAPL supports
programming or configuration of programmable devices and testing of
electronic systems, using the IEEE 1149.1 JTAG interface. Jam STAPL is a
freely licensed open standard.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
1
Both JTAG connection methods should include space for the
MasterBlaster or ByteBlasterMV header connection. The header
is useful during prototyping because it allows you to verify or
modify the Cyclone FPGA’s contents. During production, you
can remove the header to save cost.
Program Flow
The Jam Player provides an interface for manipulating the IEEE
Std. 1149.1 JTAG TAP state machine. The TAP controller is a 16-state,
state machine that is clocked on the rising edge of TCK, and uses the TMS
pin to control JTAG operation in a device. Figure 13–22 shows the flow of
an IEEE Std. 1149.1 TAP controller state machine.
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Figure 13–22. JTAG TAP Controller State Machine
TMS = 1
TEST_LOGIC/
RESET
TMS = 0
SELECT_DR_SCAN
SELECT_IR_SCAN
TMS = 1
TMS = 1
TMS = 0
TMS = 1
RUN_TEST/
IDLE
TMS = 0
TMS = 0
TMS = 1
TMS = 1
CAPTURE_IR
CAPTURE_DR
TMS = 0
TMS = 0
SHIFT_DR
SHIFT_IR
TMS = 0
TMS = 0
TMS = 1
TMS = 1
TMS = 1
TMS = 1
EXIT1_IR
EXIT1_DR
TMS = 0
TMS = 0
PAUSE_IR
PAUSE_DR
TMS = 0
TMS = 1
TMS = 0
TMS = 1
TMS = 0
TMS = 0
EXIT2_IR
EXIT2_DR
TMS = 1
TMS = 1
TMS = 1
TMS = 1
UPDATE_DR
TMS = 0
UPDATE_IR
TMS = 0
While the Jam Player provides a driver that manipulates the TAP
controller, the Jam Byte-Code File (.jbc) provides the high-level
intelligence needed to program a given device. All Jam instructions that
Altera Corporation
May 2008
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Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
send JTAG data to the device involve moving the TAP controller through
either the data register leg or the instruction register leg of the state
machine. For example, loading a JTAG instruction involves moving the
TAP controller to the SHIFT_IR state and shifting the instruction into the
instruction register through the TDI pin. Next, the TAP controller is
moved to the RUN_TEST/IDLE state where a delay is implemented to
allow the instruction time to be latched. This process is identical for data
register scans, except that the data register leg of the state machine is
traversed.
The high-level Jam instructions are the DRSCAN instruction for scanning
the JTAG data register, the IRSCAN instruction for scanning the
instruction register, and the WAIT command that causes the state machine
to sit idle for a specified period of time. Each leg of the TAP controller is
scanned repeatedly, according to instructions in the .jbc file, until all of
the target devices are programmed.
Figure 13–23 shows the functional behavior of the Jam Player when it
parses the .jbc file. When the Jam Player encounters a DRSCAN, IRSCAN,
or WAIT instruction, it generates the proper data on TCK, TMS, and TDI to
complete the instruction. The flow diagram shows branches for the
DRSCAN, IRSCAN, and WAIT instructions. Although the Jam Player
supports other instructions, they are omitted from the flow diagram for
simplicity.
13–40
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Figure 13–23. Jam Player Flow Diagram (Part 1 of 2)
Start
Set TMS to 1
and Pulse TCK
Five Times
Test-Logic-Reset
Set TMS to 0
and Pulse TCK
Run-Test/Idle
Switch
WAIT
Read Instruction
from the Jam
File
EOF?
F
T
Case[]
DRSCAN
IRSCAN
Set TMS to 0
and Pulse TCK
Parse Argument
Parse Argument
Run-Test/Idle
Set TMS to 1
and Pulse TCK
Twice
Delay
Set TMS to 1
and Pulse TCK
Select-IR-Scan
Set TMS to 1
and Pulse TCK
Three Times
Set TMS to 0
and Pulse TCK
Twice
Set TMS to 0
and Pulse TCK
Twice
Switch
Test-Logic-Reset
Shift-DR
Shift-IR
Set TMS to 0
and Pulse TCK
and Write TDI
End
Set TMS to 1
and Pulse TCK
Select-DR-Scan
Set TMS to 0
and Pulse TCK
and Write TDI
Shift-IR
Shift-DR
Exit1-IR
Set TMS to 0
and Pulse TCK
Pause-IR
Set TMS to 1
and Pulse TCK
Twice
T
EOF
Shift-IR
Continued on
Part 2 of
Flow Diagram
F
Set TMS to 0
and Pulse TCK
and Write TDI
Update-IR
Set TMS to 0
and Pulse TCK
Run-Test/Idle
Switch
Altera Corporation
May 2008
13–41
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
Figure 13–24. Jam Player Flow Diagram (Part 2 of 2)
Continued from
Part 1 of
Flow Diagram
Compare
Case[]
Default
Capture
Set TMS to 1
and Pulse TCK
and Store TDO
F
Exit1-DR
Loop<
DR Length
F
Set TMS to 1
and Pulse TCK
and Store TDO
Set TMS to 1
and Pulse TCK
Update-IR
Shift-DR
T
Set TMS to 0
and Pulse TCK,
Write TDI, and
Store TDO
Exit1-DR
T
Set TMS to 0
and Pulse TCK,
Write TDI, and
Store TDO
Loop<
DR Length
Correct F
TDO Value
Report
Error
Set TMS to 0
and Pulse TCK
Set TMS to 1
and Pulse TCK
and Store TDO
F
Loop<
DR Length
Run-Test/Idle
Exit1-DR
T
T
Switch
Set TMS to 1
and Pulse TCK
Set TMS to 1
and Pulse TCK
Update-IR
Set TMS to 0
and Pulse TCK
and Write TDI
Update-IR
Set TMS to 0
and Pulse TCK
Run-Test/Idle
Switch
Set TMS to 0
and Pulse TCK
Run-Test/Idle
Switch
Execution of a Jam program starts at the beginning of the program. The
program flow is controlled using GOTO, CALL/RETURN, and FOR/NEXT
structures. The GOTO and CALL statements refer to labels that are
symbolic names for program statements located elsewhere in the Jam
program. The language itself enforces almost no constraints on the
organizational structure or control flow of a program.
1
13–42
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
The Jam language does not support linking multiple Jam
programs together or including the contents of another file into
a Jam program.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Jam Instructions
Each Jam statement begins with one of the instruction names listed in
Table 13–8. The instruction names, including the names of the optional
instructions, are reserved keywords that you cannot use as variable or
label identifiers in a Jam program.
Table 13–8. Instruction Names
BOOLEAN
INTEGER
PREIR
CALL
IRSCAN
PRINT
CRC
IRSTOP
PUSH
DRSCAN
LET
RETURN
DRSTOP
NEXT
STATE
EXIT
NOTE
WAIT
EXPORT
POP
VECTOR (1)
FOR
POSTDR
VMAP (1)
GOTO
POSTIR
—
IF
PREDR
—
Note to Table 13–8:
(1)
This instruction name is an optional language extension.
Table 13–9 shows the state names that are reserved keywords in the Jam
language. These keywords correspond to the state names specified in the
IEEE Std. 1149.1 JTAG specification.
Table 13–9. Reserved Keywords (Part 1 of 2)
IEEE Std. 1149.1 JTAG State Names
Test-Logic-Reset
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Jam Reserved State Names
RESET
Run-Test-Idle
IDLE
Select-DR-Scan
DRSELECT
Capture-DR
DRCAPTURE
Shift-DR
DRSHIFT
Exit1-DR
DREXIT1
Pause-DR
DRPAUSE
Exit2-DR
DREXIT2
Update-DR
DRUPDATE
Select-IR-Scan
IRSELECT
Capture-IR
IRCAPTURE
13–43
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
Table 13–9. Reserved Keywords (Part 2 of 2)
IEEE Std. 1149.1 JTAG State Names
Jam Reserved State Names
Shift-IR
IRSHIFT
Exit1-IR
IREXIT1
Pause-IR
IRPAUSE
Exit2-IR
IREXIT2
Update-IR
IRUPDATE
Example Jam File that Reads the IDCODE
The following illustrates the flexibility and utility of the Jam STAPL. The
example code reads the IDCODE out of a single device in a JTAG chain.
1
The array variable, I_IDCODE, is initialized with the IDCODE
instruction bits ordered the LSB first (on the left) to most
significant bit (MSB) (on the right). This order is important
because the array field in the IRSCAN instruction is always
interpreted and sent, MSB to LSB.
Example Jam File Reading IDCODE
BOOLEAN read_data[32];
BOOLEAN I_IDCODE[10] = BIN 1001101000; ‘assumed
BOOLEAN ONES_DATA[32] = HEX FFFFFFFF;
INTEGER i;
‘Set up stop state for IRSCAN
IRSTOP IRPAUSE;
‘Initialize device
STATE RESET;
IRSCAN 10, I_IDCODE[0..9]; ‘LOAD IDCODE INSTRUCTION
STATE IDLE;
WAIT 5 USEC, 3 CYCLES;
DRSCAN 32, ONES_DATA[0..31], CAPTURE read_data[0..31];
‘CAPTURE IDCODE
PRINT “IDCODE:”;
FOR i=0 to 31;
PRINT read_data[i];
NEXT i;
EXIT 0;
13–44
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Combining
Configuration
Schemes
This section shows you how to configure Cyclone FPGAs using multiple
configuration schemes on the same board.
Active Serial and JTAG
You can combine the AS configuration scheme with JTAG-based
configuration. Set the MSEL[1..0] pins to 00 in this setup, as shown in
Figure 13–25. This setup uses two 10-pin download cable headers on the
board. The first header programs the serial configuration device
in-system via the AS programming interface, and the second header
configures the Cyclone FPGA directly via the JTAG interface.
If you try configuring the device using both schemes simultaneously,
JTAG configuration takes precedence and AS configuration is terminated.
Figure 13–25. Combining AS and JTAG Configuration
(1) VCC
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Serial Configuration
Device
Cyclone FPGA
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE nCEO
nCONFIG
nCE
VCC
N.C.
10 kΩ
VCC
MSEL1
10 kΩ
MSEL0
GND
DATA
DATA
TCK
DCLK
DCLK
TDO
nCS
nCSO
TMS
ASDI
ASDO
TDI
10 kΩ
GND
Download Cable
(JTAG Mode)
10-Pin Male Header (top View)
Pin 1
Pin 1
VCC
VCC (1)
VIO
1 kΩ
Download Cable
(AS Mode)
10-Pin Male Header
GND
Note to Figure 13–25:
(1)
Connect these pull-up resistors to 3.3 V.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
13–45
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Device Configuration Pins
Device
Configuration
Pins
Tables 13–10 through 13–12 describe the connections and functionality of
all the configuration related pins on the Cyclone device. Table 13–10
describes the dedicated configuration pins. These pins are required to be
connected properly on your board for successful configuration. Some of
these pins may not be required for your configuration schemes.
Table 13–10. Dedicated Cyclone Device Configuration Pins (Part 1 of 3)
User
Mode
Pin Name
Configuration
Scheme
Pin Type
Description
MSEL1
MSEL0
–
All
Input
Two-bit configuration input that set the Cyclone
device configuration scheme (see Table 13–2). Use
these pins to select the Cyclone configuration
schemes for the appropriate connections. These pins
must remain at a valid state during power-up before
nCONFIG is pulled low to initiate a reconfiguration
and during configuration. This pin uses Schmitt trigger
input buffers.
nCONFIG
–
All
Input
Configuration control input. Pulling this pin low during
user-mode causes the FPGA to lose its configuration
data, enter a reset state, and tri-state all I/O pins.
Returning this pin to a logic high initiates a
reconfiguration. If the configuration scheme uses an
enhanced configuration device or EPC2 device, the
nCONFIG pin can be tied directly to VC C or to the
configuration device's nINIT_CONF pin. This pin
uses Schmitt trigger input buffers
13–46
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Table 13–10. Dedicated Cyclone Device Configuration Pins (Part 2 of 3)
User
Mode
Pin Name
nSTATUS
–
Configuration
Scheme
All
Pin Type
Description
Bidirectional The device drives nSTATUS low immediately after
open-drain power-up and releases it within 5 µs. (When using a
configuration device, the configuration device holds
nSTATUS low for up to 200 ms.)
Status output. If an error occurs during configuration,
nSTATUS is pulled low by the target device.
Status input. If an external source drives the
nSTATUS pin low during configuration or initialization,
the target device enters an error state. Driving
nSTATUS low after configuration and initialization
does not affect the configured device.
If the design uses a configuration device, driving
nSTATUS low causes the configuration device to
attempt to configure the FPGA, but since the FPGA
ignores transitions on nSTATUS in user-mode, the
FPGA does not reconfigure. To initiate a
reconfiguration, nCONFIG must be pulled low. The
OE and nCS pins in the enhanced configuration
devices and EPC2 devices have optional internal
programmable pull-up resistors. If the design uses
internal pull-up resistors, do not use external 10-kΩ
pull-up resistors on these pins. This pin uses Schmitt
trigger input buffers
CONF_DONE –
All
Bidirectional Status output. The target device drives the
open-drain CONF_DONE pin low before and during configuration.
Once all configuration data is received without error
and the initialization clock cycle starts, the target
device releases CONF_DONE.
Status input. After all data is received and
CONF_DONE goes high, the target device initializes
and enters user mode.
Driving CONF_DONE low after configuration and
initialization does not affect the configured device.
The OE and nCS pins in the enhanced configuration
devices and EPC2 devices have optional internal
programmable pull-up resistors. If the design uses
internal pull-up resistors, do not use external 10-kΩ
pull-up resistors on these pins. This pin uses Schmitt
trigger input buffers
Altera Corporation
May 2008
13–47
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Device Configuration Pins
Table 13–10. Dedicated Cyclone Device Configuration Pins (Part 3 of 3)
User
Mode
Pin Name
Configuration
Scheme
Pin Type
Description
DCLK
–
ASDO
I/O in PS AS
mode,
N/A in AS
mode
Output
Control signal from the Cyclone FPGA to the serial
configuration device in AS mode used to read out
configuration data.
nCSO
I/O in PS AS
mode,
N/A in AS
mode
Output
Output control signal from the Cyclone FPGA to the
serial configuration device in AS mode that enables
the configuration device.
nCE
–
All
Input
Active-low chip enable. The nCE pin activates the
device with a low signal to allow configuration. The
nCE pin must be held low during configuration,
initialization, and user mode. In single device
configuration, tie the nCE pin low. In multi-device
configuration, the first device’s nCE pin is tied low
while its nCEO pin is connected to nCE of the next
device in the chain. Hold the nCE pin low for
programming the FPGA via JTAG. This pin uses
Schmitt trigger input buffers
nCEO
–
All
Output
Output that drives low when device configuration is
complete. In single device configuration, this pin is left
floating. In multi-device configuration, this pin feeds
the next device's nCE pin. The nCEO of the last
device in the chain is left floating.
DATA0
–
All
Input
Data input. In serial configuration mode, bit-wide
configuration data is presented to the target device on
the DATA0 pin. Toggling DATA0 after configuration
does not affect the configured device. This pin uses
Schmitt trigger input buffers
PS
AS
13–48
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Input (PS)
In PS configuration, the clock input clocks data from
Output (AS) an external source into the target device. Data is
latched into the FPGA on the rising edge of DCLK. In
AS configuration, DCLK is an output from the Cyclone
FPGA that provides timing for the configuration
interface. After configuration, the logic levels on this
pin do not affect the Cyclone FPGA. This pin uses
Schmitt trigger input buffers
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Table 13–11 describes the optional configuration pins. If these optional
configuration pins are not enabled in the Quartus II software, they are
available as general-purpose user I/O pins. Therefore during
configuration, these pins function as user I/O pins and are tri-stated with
weak pull-ups.
Table 13–11. Optional Cyclone Device Configuration Pins
Pin Name
CLKUSR
User Mode
Pin Type
N/A if option is
Input
on, I/O if option is
off
Description
Optional user-supplied clock input. Synchronizes the
initialization of one or more devices. This pin is enabled by
turning on the Enable user-supplied start-up clock (CLKUSR)
option in the Quartus II software.
INIT_DONE N/A if option is
Output
Status pin. Can be used to indicate when the device has
on, I/O if option is open-drain initialized and is in user mode. The INIT_DONE pin must be
off
pulled to VCC with a 10-kΩ resistor. The INIT_DONE pin drives
low during configuration. Before and after configuration, the
INIT_DONE pin is released and is pulled to VCC by an external
pull-up resistor. Because INIT_DONE is tri-stated before
configuration, it is pulled high by the external pull-up resistor.
Thus, the monitoring circuitry must be able to detect a low-tohigh transition. This pin is enabled by turning on the Enable
INIT_DONE output option in the Quartus II software.
DEV_OE
N/A if the option
is on, I/O if the
option is off.
Input
Optional pin that allows the user to override all tri-states on the
device. When this pin is driven low, all I/O pins are tri-stated;
when this pin is driven high, all I/O pins behave as programmed.
This pin is enabled by turning on the Enable device-wide
output enable (DEV_OE) option in the Quartus II software.
DEV_CLRn
N/A if the option
is on, I/O if the
option is off.
Input
Optional pin that allows you to override all clears on all device
registers. When this pin is driven low, all registers are cleared;
when this pin is driven high, all registers behave as programmed.
This pin is enabled by turning on the Enable device-wide reset
(DEV_CLRn) option in the Quartus II software.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
13–49
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Referenced Documents
Table 13–12 describes the dedicated JTAG pins. JTAG pins must be kept
stable before and during configuration to prevent accidental loading of
JTAG instructions.
Table 13–12. Dedicated JTAG Pins
Pin Name
User
Pin Type
Mode
TDI
N/A
Input
Serial input pin for instructions as well as test and programming data. Data is
shifted in on the rising edge of TCK. If the JTAG interface is not required on the
board, the JTAG circuitry can be disabled by connecting this pin to VC C . This pin
uses Schmitt trigger input buffers
TDO
N/A
Output
Serial data output pin for instructions as well as test and programming data. Data
is shifted out on the falling edge of TCK. The pin is tri-stated if data is not being
shifted out of the device. If the JTAG interface is not required on the board, the
JTAG circuitry can be disabled by leaving this pin unconnected.
TMS
N/A
Input
Input pin that provides the control signal to determine the transitions of the TAP
controller state machine. Transitions within the state machine occur on the rising
edge of TCK. Therefore, TMS must be set up before the rising edge of TCK. TMS
is evaluated on the rising edge of TCK. If the JTAG interface is not required on
the board, the JTAG circuitry can be disabled by connecting this pin to VC C . This
pin uses Schmitt trigger input buffers
TCK
N/A
Input
The clock input to the BST circuitry. Some operations occur at the rising edge,
while others occur at the falling edge. If the JTAG interface is not required on the
board, the JTAG circuitry can be disabled by connecting this pin to ground. This
pin uses Schmitt trigger input buffers
Referenced
Documents
Description
This chapter references the following documents:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
AN 39: IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing in Altera Devices
AN 418: SRunner: An Embedded Solution for Serial Configuration Device
Programming
AN 423: Configuring the MicroBlaster Passive Serial Software Driver
ByteBlaster II Download Cable User Guide
ByteBlasterMV Download Cable User Guide
Cyclone FPGA Family Data Sheet section of the Cyclone Device
Handbook
DC and Switching Characteristics chapter in the Cyclone Device
Handbook
Design Debugging Using the SignalTap II Embedded Logic Analyzer
chapter in volume 3 of the Quartus II Handbook
MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and
EPCS128) Data Sheet
Software Settings section in volume 2 of the Configuration Handbook
13–50
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Configuring Cyclone FPGAs
Document
Revision History
Table 13–13 shows the revision history for this chapter.
Table 13–13. Document Revision History
Date and
Document
Version
Changes Made
May 2008
v1.8
Minor textual and style changes. Added “Referenced
Documents” section.
January 2007
v1.7
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Summary of Changes
—
Added document revision history.
Removed a note from Table 13–2.
Updated Figure 13–1.
Updated Table 13–3.
Updated feetpara note in “Active Serial Configuration (Serial
Configuration Devices)” section.
Updated feetpara note on page 13–18.
Updated Note (2) in Figure 13–11.
Updated Note (4) in Figure 13–12.
Updated Note (2) in Figure 13–19.
—
July 2006
v1.6
Updated Figure 13–19.
—
August 2005
v1.5
●
Updated tables.
Minor text updates.
—
March 2005
v1.4
●
Updated Figure 13–1.
Updated Figure 13–10.
—
February 2005
v1.3
Updated Figure 13–13.
August 2004
v1.2
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
—
Deleted sections: Programming Configuration Devices,
Connecting the JTAG Chain, Passive Serial and JTAG,
Device Options, Device Configuration Files, Configuration
Reliability, and Board Layout Tips.
Deleted figures: Embedded System Block Diagram,
Combining PS & JTAG Configuration, Configuration Options
Dialog Box.
Deleted table: Cyclone Configuration Option Bits.
Added: USB Blaster to cable list; new Figure 13–13; text on
pages 13-14, 13-29, and 13-30, and information to
Table 13–6.
Changes to Figures 13–14 to 13–16, 13–19, 13–20, 13–25;
numbers changed in EP1C4 row of Table 13–3.
Added extensive descriptions of configuration methods under
the “Configuring Multiple Devices with the Same Data”
section.
—
July 2003 v1.1
Updated .rbf sizes. Minor updates throughout the document.
—
May 2003 v1.0
Added document to Cyclone Device Handbook.
—
Altera Corporation
May 2008
13–51
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Document Revision History
13–52
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
14. Serial Configuration Devices
(EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64,
and EPCS128) Data Sheet
C51014-3.1
Introduction
The serial configuration devices provide the following features:
■
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■
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■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
1-, 4-, 16-, 64-, and 128-Mbit flash memory devices that serially
configure Stratix® III, Stratix II GX, and Stratix II FPGAs, Arria™ GX
FPGAs, and the Cyclone® series FPGAs using the active serial (AS)
configuration scheme
Easy-to-use four-pin interface
Low cost, low-pin count, and non-volatile memory
Low current during configuration and near-zero standby mode
current
3.3-V operation
Available in 8-pin and 16-pin small outline integrated circuit (SOIC)
package
Enables the Nios® processor to access unused flash memory through
AS memory interface
Re-programmable memory with more than 100,000 erase/program
cycles
Write protection support for memory sectors using status register
bits
In-system programming support with SRunner software driver
In-system programming support with USB Blaster™,
EthernetBlaster™, or ByteBlaster™ II download cables
Additional programming support with the Altera® Programming
Unit (APU) and programming hardware from BP Microsystems,
System General, and other vendors
Software design support with the Altera Quartus® II development
system for Windows-based PCs as well as Sun SPARC station and
HP 9000 Series 700/800
Delivered with the memory array erased (all the bits set to 1)
The term “serial configuration devices” used in this document
refers to Altera EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128.
14–1
Functional Description
Functional
Description
With SRAM-based devices that support active serial configuration,
configuration data must be reloaded each time the device powers up, the
system reconfigures, or when new configuration data is required. Serial
configuration devices are flash memory devices with a serial interface
that can store configuration data for FPGA devices that support active
serial configuration and reload the data to the device upon power-up or
reconfiguration. Table 14–1 lists the serial configuration devices.
Table 14–1. Serial Configuration Devices (3.3-V Operation)
Device
Memory Size (Bits)
EPCS1
1,048,576
EPCS4
4,194,304
EPCS16
16,777,216
EPCS64
67,108,864
EPCS128
134,217,728
For an 8-pin SOIC package, you can migrate vertically from the EPCS1 to
the EPCS4 or EPCS16 since the EPCS devices are offered in the same
device package. Similarly, for a 16-pin SOIC package, you can migrate
vertically from the EPCS16 to the EPCS64 or EPCS128.
1
EPCS16 is available in 8-pin and 16-pin SOIC packages.
Table 14–2 lists the serial configuration device used with each Stratix III
FPGA and the configuration file size. Stratix III devices can be used with
EPCS16, EPCS64, or EPCS128.
Table 14–2. Serial Configuration Device Support for Stratix III Devices (Part 1 of 2)
Serial Configuration Device
Raw Binary File Size
(Bits) (1)
EPCS1
EPCS4
EPCS16
EPCS64
EPCS128
EP3SL50
22,178,792
—
—
v (2)
v
v
EP3SL70
22,178,792
—
—
v (2)
v
v
EP3SL110
47,413,312
—
—
—
v
v
EP3SL150
47,413,312
—
—
—
v
v
Stratix III Device
EP3SL200
93,324,656
—
—
—
v (2)
v
EP3SL340
117,384,664
—
—
—
—
v
EP3SE50
25,891,968
—
—
—
v
v
EP3SE80
48,225,392
—
—
—
v
v
14–2
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Table 14–2. Serial Configuration Device Support for Stratix III Devices (Part 2 of 2)
Serial Configuration Device
Raw Binary File Size
(Bits) (1)
EPCS1
EPCS4
EPCS16
EP3SE110
48,225,392
—
—
—
v
v
EP3SE260
93,324,656
—
—
—
v (2)
v
Stratix III Device
EPCS64
EPCS128
Notes to Table 14–2:
(1)
(2)
These are uncompressed file sizes.
This is with the Stratix III compression feature enabled.
Table 14–3 lists the serial configuration device used with each
Stratix II GX FPGA and the configuration file size. Stratix II GX devices
can be used with EPCS16, EPCS64, or EPCS128.
Table 14–3. Serial Configuration Device Support for Stratix II GX Devices
Stratix II GX Device
Raw Binary File Size
(Bits) (1)
EP2SGX30C
EP2SGX30D
9,640,672
EP2SGX60C
EP2SGX60D
EP2SGX60E
16,951,824
EP2SGX90E
EP2SGX90F
25,699,104
EP2SGX130G
37,325,760
Serial Configuration Device
EPCS1
EPCS4
EPCS16
EPCS64
EPCS128
—
—
v
v
v
—
—
v (2)
v
v
—
—
—
v
v
—
—
—
v
v
Notes to Table 14–3:
(1)
(2)
These are uncompressed file sizes.
This is with the Stratix II GX compression feature enabled.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
14–3
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Functional Description
Table 14–4 lists the serial configuration device used with each Stratix II
FPGA and the configuration file size. Stratix II devices can be used with
EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, or EPCS128.
Table 14–4. Serial Configuration Device Support for Stratix II Devices
Serial Configuration Device
Raw Binary File Size
(Bits) (1)
EPCS4
EPCS16
EPCS64
EPCS128
EP2S15
4,721,544
v (2)
v
v
v
EP2S30
9,640,672
—
v
v
v
EP2S60
16,951,824
—
v (2)
v
v
EP2S90
25,699,104
—
v (2)
v
v
EP2S130
37,325,760
—
—
v
v
EP2S180
49,814,760
—
—
v
v
Stratix II Device
Notes to Table 14–4:
(1)
(2)
These are uncompressed file sizes.
This is with the Stratix II compression feature enabled.
Table 14–5 lists the serial configuration device used with each Arria GX
FPGA and the configuration file size. Arria GX devices can be used with
EPCS16, EPCS64, or EPCS128.
Table 14–5. Serial Configuration Device Support for Arria GX Devices
Serial Configuration Device
Raw Binary File Size
(Bits) (1)
EPCS1
EPCS4
EPCS16
EPCS64
EPCS128
EP1AGX20C
9,640,672
—
—
v
v
v
EP1AGX35C
EP1AGX35D
9,640,672
—
—
v
v
v
EP1AGX50C
EP1AGX50D
16,951,824
—
—
v (2)
v
v
EP1AGX60C
EP1AGX60D
EP1AGX60E
16,951,824
—
—
v (2)
v
v
EP1AGX90E
25,699,104
—
—
—
v
v
Arria GX Device
Notes to Table 14–5:
(1)
(2)
These are uncompressed file sizes.
This is with the Arria GX compression feature enabled.
14–4
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Table 14–6 lists the serial configuration device used with each Cyclone III
FPGA and the configuration file size. Cyclone III devices can be used
with EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, or EPCS128.
Table 14–6. Serial Configuration Device for Cyclone III Devices
Serial Configuration Device
Raw Binary File Size
(Bits) (1)
EPCS1
EPCS4
EPCS16
EPCS64
EPCS128
EP3C5
2,944,088
—
v
v
v
v
EP3C10
2,944,088
—
v
v
v
v
EP3C16
4,086,848
—
v
v
v
v
EP3C25
5,748,552
—
—
v
v
v
EP3C40
9,534,304
—
—
v
v
v
EP3C55
14,889,560
—
—
v
v
v
EP3C80
19,965,752
—
—
v(2)
v
v
EP3C120
28,571,696
—
—
—
v
v
Cyclone III Device
Notes to Table 14–6:
(1)
(2)
These are uncompressed file sizes.
This is with the Cyclone III compression feature enabled.
Table 14–7 lists the serial configuration device used with each Cyclone II
FPGA and the configuration file size. Cyclone II devices can be used with
EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, or EPCS128.
Table 14–7. Serial Configuration Device for Cyclone II Devices
Serial Configuration Device
Raw Binary File Size
(Bits) (1)
EPCS1
EPCS4
EPCS16
EPCS64
EPCS128
EP2C5
1,265,792
v (2)
v
v
v
v
EP2C8
1,983,536
—
v
v
v
v
EP2C20
3,892,496
—
v
v
v
v
EP2C35
6,848,608
—
—
v
v
v
EP2C50
9,951,104
—
—
v
v
v
EP2C70
14,319,216
—
—
v
v
v
Cyclone II Device
Notes to Table 14–7:
(1)
(2)
These are uncompressed file sizes.
This is with the Cyclone II compression feature enabled.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
14–5
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Functional Description
Table 14–8 lists the serial configuration device used with each Cyclone
FPGA and the configuration file size. Cyclone devices can be used with
EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, or EPCS128.
Table 14–8. Serial Configuration Device Support for Cyclone Devices
Serial Configuration Device
Raw Binary File
Size (Bits) (1)
EPCS1
EPCS4
EPCS16
EPCS64
EPCS128
EP1C3
627,376
v
v
v
v
v
EP1C4
924,512
v
v
v
v
v
EP1C6
1,167,216
v (2)
v
v
v
v
EP1C12
2,323,240
—
v
v
v
v
EP1C20
3,559,608
—
v
v
v
v
Cyclone Device
Notes to Table 14–8:
(1)
(2)
These are uncompressed file sizes.
This is with the Cyclone compression feature enabled.
With the new data-decompression feature in the Stratix III, Stratix II GX,
and Stratix II FPGAs, Arria GX FPGAs, and Cyclone FPGA families, you
can use smaller serial configuration devices to configure larger FPGAs.
1
f
Serial configuration devices cannot be cascaded.
For more information about the FPGA decompression feature, refer to
the configuration chapter in the appropriate device handbook.
The serial configuration devices are designed to configure Stratix III,
Stratix II GX, and Stratix II FPGAs and the Cyclone series FPGAs and
cannot configure other existing Altera FPGA device families.
14–6
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Figure 14–1 shows the serial configuration device block diagram.
Figure 14–1. Serial Configuration Device Block Diagram
Serial Configuration Device
nCS
Control
Logic
DCLK
DATA
I/O Shift
Register
Address Counter
Data Buffer
Decode Logic
Memory
Array
ASDI
Status Register
Accessing Memory in Serial Configuration Devices
You can access the unused memory locations of the serial configuration
device to store or retrieve data through the Nios processor and SOPC
Builder. SOPC Builder is an Altera tool for creating bus-based (especially
microprocessor-based) systems in Altera devices. SOPC Builder
assembles library components such as processors and memories into
custom microprocessor systems.
SOPC Builder includes the EPCS device controller core, which is an
interface core specifically designed to work with the serial configuration
device. With this core, you can create a system with a Nios embedded
processor that allows software access to any memory location within the
serial configuration device.
f
Altera Corporation
May 2008
For more information about accessing memory within the serial
configuration device, refer to the Active Serial Memory Interface Data Sheet.
14–7
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Active Serial FPGA Configuration
Active Serial
FPGA
Configuration
The following Altera FPGAs support Active Serial (AS) configuration
scheme with serial configuration devices:
■
■
■
■
■
1
Stratix III
Stratix II GX
Stratix II
Arria GX
Cyclone series FPGAs
This section is only relevant for FPGAs that support the AS
configuration scheme.
There are four signals on the serial configuration device that interface
directly with the FPGA’s control signals. The serial configuration device
signals DATA, DCLK, ASDI, and nCS interface with DATA0, DCLK, ASDO,
and nCSO control signals on the FPGA, respectively. Figure 14–2 shows a
serial configuration device programmed via a download cable, which
configures an FPGA in AS mode. Figure 14–3 shows a serial configuration
device programmed using the APU or a third-party programmer
configuring an FPGA in AS configuration mode.
14–8
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Figure 14–2. Cyclone FPGA Configuration in AS Mode (Serial Configuration Device Programmed Using
Download Cable) Note (4)
VCC (1)
10 k9
VCC (1) VCC (1)
10 k9
10 k9
Cyclone FPGA
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
Serial
Configuration
Device (2)
N.C.
nCEO
nCONFIG
nCE
MSEL[1..0]
00
(3)
10 k9
DATA
DATA0
DCLK
DCLK
nCS
nCSO
ASDI
ASDO
Pin 1
VCC (1)
Notes to Figure 14–2:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
VCC = 3.3 V.
Serial configuration devices cannot be cascaded.
Connect the FPGA MSEL[] input pins to select the AS configuration mode. For details, refer to the appropriate
FPGA family chapter in the Configuration Handbook.
For more information about configuration pin I/O requirements in an AS scheme for a Cyclone III FPGA, refer to
the Configuring Cyclone III Devices chapter in volume 1 of the Cyclone III Device Handbook.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
14–9
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Active Serial FPGA Configuration
Figure 14–3. Cyclone FPGA Configuration in AS Mode (Serial Configuration Device Programmed by APU or
Third-Party Programmer) Note (4)
VCC (1)
10 k9
VCC (1) VCC (1)
10 k9
10 k9
Cyclone FPGA
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
Serial
Configuration
Device (2)
nCEO
N.C.
nCONFIG
nCE
DATA
DATA0
DCLK
DCLK
nCS
nCSO
ASDI
ASDO
MSEL[1..0]
00
(3)
Notes to Figure 14–3:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
VCC = 3.3 V.
Serial configuration devices cannot be cascaded.
Connect the FPGA MSEL[] input pins to select the AS configuration mode. For details, refer to the appropriate
FPGA family chapter in the Configuration Handbook.
For more information about configuration pin I/O requirements in an AS scheme for a Cyclone III FPGA, refer to
the Configuring Cyclone III Devices chapter in volume 1 of the Cyclone III Device Handbook.
The FPGA acts as the configuration master in the configuration flow and
provides the clock to the serial configuration device. The FPGA enables
the serial configuration device by pulling the nCS signal low via the nCSO
signal (refer to Figures 14–2 and 14–3). Subsequently, the FPGA sends the
instructions and addresses to the serial configuration device via the ASDO
signal. The serial configuration device responds to the instructions by
sending the configuration data to the FPGA’s DATA0 pin on the falling
edge of DCLK. The data is latched into the FPGA on the DCLK signal’s
falling edge.
The FPGA controls the nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins during
configuration in AS mode. If the CONF_DONE signal does not go high at
the end of configuration or if the signal goes high too early, the FPGA will
pulse its nSTATUS pin low to start reconfiguration. Upon successful
configuration, the FPGA releases the CONF_DONE pin, allowing the
external 10-kΩ resistor to pull this signal high. Initialization begins after
the CONF_DONE goes high. After initialization, the FPGA enters user
mode.
14–10
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
f
Refer to the configuration chapter in the appropriate device handbook
for more information about configuring the FPGAs in AS mode or other
configuration modes.
Multiple devices can be configured by a single EPCS device. However,
serial configuration devices cannot be cascaded. Refer to Table 14–1 to
ensure the programming file size of the cascaded FPGAs does not exceed
the capacity of a serial configuration device. Figure 14–4 shows the AS
configuration scheme with multiple FPGAs in the chain. The first FPGA
is the configuration master and has its MSEL[] pins set to AS mode. The
following FPGAs are configuration slave devices and have their MSEL[]
pins set to PS mode.
Figure 14–4. Multiple Devices in AS Mode Note (5)
VCC (1)
10 k9
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 k9
10 k9
Cyclone FPGA (Master)
Serial
Configuration
Device (2)
Cyclone FPGA (Slave)
CONF_DONE
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
MSEL[1..0]
nCE
00
MSEL[1..0]
(3)
DATA
DATA0
DATA0
DCLK
DCLK
DCLK
nCS
nCSO
ASDI
ASDO
N.C.
nCEO
01
(4)
Notes to Figure 14–4:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
VCC = 3.3 V.
Serial configuration devices cannot be cascaded.
Connect the FPGA MSEL[] input pins to select the AS configuration mode. For details, refer to the appropriate
FPGA family chapter in the Configuration Handbook.
Connect the FPGA MSEL[] input pins to select the PS configuration mode. For details, refer to the appropriate
FPGA family chapter in the Configuration Handbook.
For more information about configuration pin I/O requirements in an AS scheme for a Cyclone III FPGA, refer to
the Configuring Cyclone III Devices chapter in volume 1 of the Cyclone III Device Handbook.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
14–11
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Serial Configuration Device Memory Access
Serial
Configuration
Device Memory
Access
This section describes the serial configuration device’s memory array
organization and operation codes. Timing specifications for the memory
are provided in the “Timing Information” section.
Memory Array Organization
Table 14–9 provides details about the memory array organization in
EPCS128, EPCS64, EPCS16, EPCS4, and EPCS1.
Table 14–9. Memory Array Organization in Serial Configuration Devices
Details
EPCS128
EPCS64
EPCS16
EPCS4
EPCS1
Bytes (bits)
16,777,216 bytes
(128 Mbits)
8,388,608 bytes
(64 Mbits)
2,097,152 bytes
(16 Mbits)
524,288 bytes
(4 Mbits)
131,072 bytes
(1 Mbit)
Number of
sectors
64
128
32
8
4
262,144
(2 Mbits)
65,536 bytes
(512 Kbits)
65,536 bytes
(512 Kbits)
65,536 bytes
(512 Kbits)
32,768 bytes
(256 Kbits)
Pages per sector
1,024
256
256
256
128
Total number of
pages
65,536
32,768
8,192
2,048
512
Bytes per page
256 bytes
256 bytes
256 bytes
256 bytes
256 bytes
Bytes (bits) per
sector
Tables 14–10 through 14–14 show the address range for each sector in
EPCS128, EPCS64, EPCS16, EPCS4, and EPCS1.
Table 14–10. Address Range for Sectors in EPCS128 (Part 1 of 3)
Address Range (Byte Addresses in HEX)
Sector
14–12
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Start
End
63
H'FC0000
H'FFFFFF
62
H'F80000
H'FBFFFF
61
H'F40000
H'F7FFFF
60
H'F00000
H'F3FFFF
59
H'EC0000
H'EFFFFF
58
H'E80000
H'EBFFFF
57
H'E40000
H'E7FFFF
56
H'E00000
H'E3FFFF
55
H'DC0000
H'DFFFFF
54
H'D80000
H'DBFFFF
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Table 14–10. Address Range for Sectors in EPCS128 (Part 2 of 3)
Address Range (Byte Addresses in HEX)
Sector
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Start
End
53
H'D40000
H'D7FFFF
52
H'D00000
H'D3FFFF
51
H'CC0000
H'CFFFFF
50
H'C80000
H'CBFFFF
49
H'C40000
H'C7FFFF
48
H'C00000
H'C3FFFF
47
H'BC0000
H'BFFFFF
46
H'B80000
H'BBFFFF
45
H'B40000
H'B7FFFF
44
H'B00000
H'B3FFFF
43
H'AC0000
H'AFFFFF
42
H'A80000
H'ABFFFF
41
H'A40000
H'A7FFFF
40
H'A00000
H'A3FFFF
39
H'9C0000
H'9FFFFF
38
H'980000
H'9BFFFF
37
H'940000
H'97FFFF
36
H'900000
H'93FFFF
35
H'8C0000
H'8FFFFF
34
H'880000
H'8BFFFF
33
H'840000
H'87FFFF
32
H'800000
H'83FFFF
31
H'7C0000
H'7FFFFF
30
H'780000
H'7BFFFF
29
H'740000
H'77FFFF
28
H'700000
H'73FFFF
27
H'6C0000
H'6FFFFF
26
H'680000
H'6BFFFF
25
H'640000
H'67FFFF
24
H'600000
H'63FFFF
23
H'5C0000
H'5FFFFF
22
H'580000
H'5BFFFF
14–13
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Serial Configuration Device Memory Access
Table 14–10. Address Range for Sectors in EPCS128 (Part 3 of 3)
Address Range (Byte Addresses in HEX)
Sector
Start
End
21
H'540000
H'57FFFF
20
H'500000
H'53FFFF
19
H'4C0000
H'4FFFFF
18
H'480000
H'4BFFFF
17
H'440000
H'47FFFF
16
H'400000
H'43FFFF
15
H'3C0000
H'3FFFFF
14
H'380000
H'3BFFFF
13
H'340000
H'37FFFF
12
H'300000
H'33FFFF
11
H'2C0000
H'2FFFFF
10
H'280000
H'2BFFFF
9
H'240000
H'27FFFF
8
H'200000
H'23FFFF
7
H'1C0000
H'1FFFFF
6
H'180000
H'1BFFFF
5
H'140000
H'17FFFF
4
H'100000
H'13FFFF
3
H'0C0000
H'0FFFFF
2
H'080000
H'0BFFFF
1
H'040000
H'07FFFF
0
H'000000
H'03FFFF
Table 14–11. Address Range for Sectors in EPCS64 (Part 1 of 5)
Address Range (Byte Addresses in HEX)
Sector
14–14
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Start
End
127
H'7F0000
H'7FFFFF
126
H'7E0000
H'7EFFFF
125
H'7D0000
H'7DFFFF
124
H'7C0000
H'7CFFFF
123
H'7B0000
H'7BFFFF
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Table 14–11. Address Range for Sectors in EPCS64 (Part 2 of 5)
Address Range (Byte Addresses in HEX)
Sector
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Start
End
122
H'7A0000
H'7AFFFF
121
H'790000
H'79FFFF
120
H'780000
H'78FFFF
119
H'770000
H'77FFFF
118
H'760000
H'76FFFF
117
H'750000
H'75FFFF
116
H'740000
H'74FFFF
115
H'730000
H'73FFFF
114
H'720000
H'72FFFF
113
H'710000
H'71FFFF
112
H'700000
H'70FFFF
111
H'6F0000
H'6FFFFF
110
H'6E0000
H'6EFFFF
109
H'6D0000
H'6DFFFF
108
H'6C0000
H'6CFFFF
107
H'6B0000
H'6BFFFF
106
H'6A0000
H'6AFFFF
105
H'690000
H'69FFFF
104
H'680000
H'68FFFF
103
H'670000
H'67FFFF
102
H'660000
H'66FFFF
101
H'650000
H'65FFFF
100
H'640000
H'64FFFF
99
H'630000
H'63FFFF
98
H'620000
H'62FFFF
97
H'610000
H'61FFFF
96
H'600000
H'60FFFF
95
H'5F0000
H'5FFFFF
94
H'5E0000
H'5EFFFF
93
H'5D0000
H'5DFFFF
92
H'5C0000
H'5CFFFF
91
H'5B0000
H'5BFFFF
14–15
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Serial Configuration Device Memory Access
Table 14–11. Address Range for Sectors in EPCS64 (Part 3 of 5)
Address Range (Byte Addresses in HEX)
Sector
14–16
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Start
End
90
H'5A0000
H'5AFFFF
89
H'590000
H'59FFFF
88
H'580000
H'58FFFF
87
H'570000
H'57FFFF
86
H'560000
H'56FFFF
85
H'550000
H'55FFFF
84
H'540000
H'54FFFF
83
H'530000
H'53FFFF
82
H'520000
H'52FFFF
81
H'510000
H'51FFFF
80
H'500000
H'50FFFF
79
H'4F0000
H'4FFFFF
78
H'4E0000
H'4EFFFF
77
H'4D0000
H'4DFFFF
76
H'4C0000
H'4CFFFF
75
H'4B0000
H'4BFFFF
74
H'4A0000
H'4AFFFF
73
H'490000
H'49FFFF
72
H'480000
H'48FFFF
71
H'470000
H'47FFFF
70
H'460000
H'46FFFF
69
H'450000
H'45FFFF
68
H'440000
H'44FFFF
67
H'430000
H'43FFFF
66
H'420000
H'42FFFF
65
H'410000
H'41FFFF
64
H'400000
H'40FFFF
63
H'3F0000
H'3FFFFF
62
H'3E0000
H'3EFFFF
61
H'3D0000
H'3DFFFF
60
H'3C0000
H'3CFFFF
59
H'3B0000
H'3BFFFF
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Table 14–11. Address Range for Sectors in EPCS64 (Part 4 of 5)
Address Range (Byte Addresses in HEX)
Sector
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Start
End
58
H'3A0000
H'3AFFFF
57
H'390000
H'39FFFF
56
H'380000
H'38FFFF
55
H'370000
H'37FFFF
54
H'360000
H'36FFFF
53
H'350000
H'35FFFF
52
H'340000
H'34FFFF
51
H'330000
H'33FFFF
50
H'320000
H'32FFFF
49
H'310000
H'31FFFF
48
H'300000
H'30FFFF
47
H'2F0000
H'2FFFFF
46
H'2E0000
H'2EFFFF
45
H'2D0000
H'2DFFFF
44
H'2C0000
H'2CFFFF
43
H'2B0000
H'2BFFFF
42
H'2A0000
H'2AFFFF
41
H'290000
H'29FFFF
40
H'280000
H'28FFFF
39
H'270000
H'27FFFF
38
H'260000
H'26FFFF
37
H'250000
H'25FFFF
36
H'240000
H'24FFFF
35
H'230000
H'23FFFF
34
H'220000
H'22FFFF
33
H'210000
H'21FFFF
32
H'200000
H'20FFFF
31
H'1F0000
H'1FFFFF
30
H'1E0000
H'1EFFFF
29
H'1D0000
H'1DFFFF
28
H'1C0000
H'1CFFFF
27
H'1B0000
H'1BFFFF
14–17
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Serial Configuration Device Memory Access
Table 14–11. Address Range for Sectors in EPCS64 (Part 5 of 5)
Address Range (Byte Addresses in HEX)
Sector
14–18
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Start
End
26
H'1A0000
H'1AFFFF
25
H'190000
H'19FFFF
24
H'180000
H'18FFFF
23
H'170000
H'17FFFF
22
H'160000
H'16FFFF
21
H'150000
H'15FFFF
20
H'140000
H'14FFFF
19
H'130000
H'13FFFF
18
H'120000
H'12FFFF
17
H'110000
H'11FFFF
16
H'100000
H'10FFFF
15
H'0F0000
H'0FFFFF
14
H'0E0000
H'0EFFFF
13
H'0D0000
H'0DFFFF
12
H'0C0000
H'0CFFFF
11
H'0B0000
H'0BFFFF
10
H'0A0000
H'0AFFFF
9
H'090000
H'09FFFF
8
H'080000
H'08FFFF
7
H'070000
H'07FFFF
6
H'060000
H'06FFFF
5
H'050000
H'05FFFF
4
H'040000
H'04FFFF
3
H'030000
H'03FFFF
2
H'020000
H'02FFFF
1
H'010000
H'01FFFF
0
H'000000
H'00FFFF
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Table 14–12. Address Range for Sectors in EPCS16
Address Range (Byte Addresses in HEX)
Sector
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Start
End
31
H'1F0000
H'1FFFFF
30
H'1E0000
H'1EFFFF
29
H'1D0000
H'1DFFFF
28
H'1C0000
H'1CFFFF
27
H'1B0000
H'1BFFFF
26
H'1A0000
H'1AFFFF
25
H'190000
H'19FFFF
24
H'180000
H'18FFFF
23
H'170000
H'17FFFF
22
H'160000
H'16FFFF
21
H'150000
H'15FFFF
20
H'140000
H'14FFFF
19
H'130000
H'13FFFF
18
H'120000
H'12FFFF
17
H'110000
H'11FFFF
16
H'100000
H'10FFFF
15
H'0F0000
H'0FFFFF
14
H'0E0000
H'0EFFFF
13
H'0D0000
H'0DFFFF
12
H'0C0000
H'0CFFFF
11
H'0B0000
H'0BFFFF
10
H'0A0000
H'0AFFFF
9
H'090000
H'09FFFF
8
H'080000
H'08FFFF
7
H'070000
H'07FFFF
6
H'060000
H'06FFFF
5
H'050000
H'05FFFF
4
H'040000
H'04FFFF
3
H'030000
H'03FFFF
2
H'020000
H'02FFFF
1
H'010000
H'01FFFF
0
H'000000
H'00FFFF
14–19
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Serial Configuration Device Memory Access
Table 14–13. Address Range for Sectors in EPCS4
Address Range (Byte Addresses in HEX)
Sector
Start
End
7
H'70000
H'7FFFF
6
H'60000
H'6FFFF
5
H'50000
H'5FFFF
4
H'40000
H'4FFFF
3
H'30000
H'3FFFF
2
H'20000
H'2FFFF
1
H'10000
H'1FFFF
0
H'00000
H'0FFFF
Table 14–14. Address Range for Sectors in EPCS1
Address Range (Byte Addresses in HEX)
Sector
Start
End
3
H'18000
H'1FFFF
2
H'10000
H'17FFF
1
H'08000
H'0FFFF
0
H'00000
H'07FFF
Operation Codes
This section describes the operations that can be used to access the
memory in serial configuration devices. The DATA, DCLK, ASDI, and nCS
signals access the memory in serial configuration devices. All serial
configuration device operation codes, addresses and data are shifted in
and out of the device serially, with the most significant bit (MSB) first.
The device samples the active serial data input on the first rising edge of
the DCLK after the active low chip select (nCS) input signal is driven low.
Shift the operation code (MSB first) serially into the serial configuration
device through the active serial data input pin. Each operation code bit is
latched into the serial configuration device on the rising edge of the DCLK.
Different operations require a different sequence of inputs. While
executing an operation, you must shift in the desired operation code,
followed by the address bytes, data bytes, both, or neither. The device
14–20
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
must drive nCS high after the last bit of the operation sequence is shifted
in. Table 14–15 shows the operation sequence for every operation
supported by the serial configuration devices.
For the read byte, read status, and read silicon ID operations, the
shifted-in operation sequence is followed by data shifted out on the
DATA pin. You can drive the nCS pin high after any bit of the data-out
sequence is shifted out.
For the write byte, erase bulk, erase sector, write enable, write disable,
and write status operations, drive the nCS pin high exactly at a byte
boundary (drive the nCS pin high a multiple of eight clock pulses after the
nCS pin is driven low); otherwise, the operation is rejected and is not
executed.
All attempts to access the memory contents while a write or erase cycle is
in progress will not be granted, and the write or erase cycle will continue
unaffected.
Table 14–15. Operation Codes for Serial Configuration Devices
Operation Code (1)
Address Bytes
Dummy Bytes
Data Bytes
DCLK fMAX
(MHz)
Write enable
0000 0110
0
0
0
25
Write disable
0000 0100
0
0
0
25
Read status
0000 0101
0
0
1 to infinite (2)
25
Read bytes
0000 0011
3
0
1 to infinite (2)
20
Read silicon ID (4)
1010 1011
0
3
1 to infinite (2)
25
Write status
0000 0001
0
0
1
25
Write bytes
0000 0010
3
0
1 to 256 (3)
25
Erase bulk
1100 0111
0
0
0
25
Erase sector
1101 1000
3
0
0
25
Read Device
Identification (5)
1001 1111
0
2
1 to infinite (2)
25
Operation
Notes to Table 14–15:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
The MSB is listed first and the least significant bit (LSB) is listed last.
The status register, data or silicon ID are read out at least once on the DATA pin and will continuously be read out
until nCS is driven high.
Write bytes operation requires at least one data byte on the DATA pin. If more than 256 bytes are sent to the device,
only the last 256 bytes are written to the memory.
Read silicon ID operation is available only for EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, and EPCS64.
Read Device Identification operation is available only for EPCS128.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
14–21
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Serial Configuration Device Memory Access
Write Enable Operation
The write enable operation code is b'0000 0110, and the MSB is listed
first. The write enable operation sets the write enable latch bit, which is
bit 1 in the status register. Always set the write enable latch bit before
write bytes, write status, erase bulk, and erase sector operations.
Figure 14–5 shows the timing diagram for the write enable operation.
Figures 14–7 and 14–8 show the status register bit definitions.
Figure 14–5. Write Enable Operation Timing Diagram
nCS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
DCLK
Operation Code
ASDI
High Impedance
DATA
Write Disable Operation
The write disable operation code is b'0000 0100, with the MSB listed
first. The write disable operation resets the write enable latch bit, which
is bit 1 in the status register. To prevent the memory from being written
unintentionally, the write enable latch bit is automatically reset when
implementing the write disable operation as well as under the following
conditions:
■
■
■
■
■
Power up
Write bytes operation completion
Write status operation completion
Erase bulk operation completion
Erase sector operation completion
Figure 14–6 shows the timing diagram for the write disable operation.
14–22
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Figure 14–6. Write Disable Operation Timing Diagram
nCS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
DCLK
Operation Code
ASDI
High Impedance
DATA
Read Status Operation
The read status operation code is b'0000 0101, with the MSB listed first.
You can use the read status operation to read the status register.
Figures 14–7 and 14–8 show the status bits in the status register of both
serial configuration devices.
Figure 14–7. EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128 Status Register Status
Bits
Bit 7
Bit 0
BP2
BP1
BP0
WEL
WIP
Write In
Progress Bit
Block Protect Bits [2..0]
Write Enable
Latch Bit
Figure 14–8. EPCS1 Status Register Status Bits
Bit 7
Bit 0
BP1
BP0
Block Protect
Bits [1..0]
WEL
WIP
Write In
Progress Bit
Write Enable
Latch Bit
Altera Corporation
May 2008
14–23
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Serial Configuration Device Memory Access
Setting the write in progress bit to 1 indicates that the serial configuration
device is busy with a write or erase cycle. Resetting the write in progress
bit to 0 means no write or erase cycle is in progress.
Resetting the write enable latch bit to 0 indicates that no write or erase
cycle will be accepted. Set the write enable latch bit to 1 before every write
bytes, write status, erase bulk, and erase sector operation.
The non-volatile block protect bits determine the area of the memory
protected from being written or erased unintentionally. Table 14–16
through Table 14–20 show the protected area in the serial configuration
devices with reference to the block protect bits. The erase bulk operation
is only available when all the block protect bits are 0. When any of the
block protect bits are set to 1, the relevant area is protected from being
written by write bytes operations or erased by erase sector operations.
Table 14–16. Block Protection Bits in EPCS1
Status Register Content
Memory Content
BP1 Bit
BP0 Bit
Protected Area
Unprotected Area
0
0
None
All four sectors: 0 to 3
0
1
Sector 3
Three sectors: 0 to 2
1
0
Two sectors: 2 and 3
Two sectors: 0 and 1
1
1
All sectors
None
Table 14–17. Block Protection Bits in EPCS4
Status Register Content
14–24
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Memory Content
BP2 Bit
BP1 Bit
BP0 Bit
Protected Area
Unprotected Area
0
0
0
None
All eight sectors: 0 to 7
0
0
1
Sector 7
Seven sectors: 0 to 6
0
1
0
Sectors 6 and 7
Six sectors: 0 to 5
0
1
1
Four sectors: 4 to 7
Four sectors: 0 to 3
1
0
0
All sectors
None
1
0
1
All sectors
None
1
1
0
All sectors
None
1
1
1
All sectors
None
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Table 14–18. Block Protection Bits in EPCS16
Status Register
Content
Memory Content
BP2
Bit
BP1
Bit
BP0
Bit
0
0
0
None
0
0
1
Upper 32nd (Sector 31)
Lower 31/32nds (31 sectors: 0 to 30)
0
1
0
Upper sixteenth (two sectors: 30 and 31)
Lower 15/16ths (30 sectors: 0 to 29)
0
1
1
Upper eighth (four sectors: 28 to 31)
Lower seven-eighths (28 sectors: 0 to 27)
1
0
0
Upper quarter (eight sectors: 24 to 31)
Lower three-quarters (24 sectors: 0 to 23)
1
0
1
Upper half (sixteen sectors: 16 to 31)
Lower half (16 sectors: 0 to 15)
1
1
0
All sectors (32 sectors: 0 to 31)
None
1
1
1
All sectors (32 sectors: 0 to 31)
None
Protected Area
Unprotected Area
All sectors (32 sectors 0 to 31)
Table 14–19. Block Protection Bits in EPCS64
Status Register
Content
Memory Content
BP2
Bit
BP1
Bit
BP0
Bit
0
0
0
None
All sectors (128 sectors: 0 to 127)
0
0
1
Upper 64th (2 sectors: 126 and 127)
Lower 63/64ths (126 sectors: 0 to 125)
0
1
0
Upper 32nd (4 sectors: 124 to 127)
Lower 31/32nds (124 sectors: 0 to 123)
0
1
1
Upper sixteenth (8 sectors: 120 to 127)
Lower 15/16ths (120 sectors: 0 to 119)
1
0
0
Upper eighth (16 sectors: 112 to 127)
Lower seven-eighths (112 sectors: 0 to 111)
1
0
1
Upper quarter (32 sectors: 96 to 127)
Lower three-quarters (96 sectors: 0 to 95)
1
1
0
Upper half (64 sectors: 64 to 127)
Lower half (64 sectors: 0 to 63)
1
1
1
All sectors (128 sectors: 0 to 127)
None
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Protected Area
Unprotected Area
14–25
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Serial Configuration Device Memory Access
Table 14–20. Block Protection Bits in EPCS128
Status Register
Content
Memory Content
BP2
Bit
BP1
Bit
BP0
Bit
0
0
0
None
All sectors (64 sectors: 0 to 63)
0
0
1
Upper 64th (1 sector: 63)
Lower 63/64ths (63 sectors: 0 to 62)
0
1
0
Upper 32nd (2 sectors: 62 to 63)
Lower 31/32nds (62 sectors: 0 to 61)
0
1
1
Upper 16th (4 sectors: 60 to 63)
Lower 15/16ths (60 sectors: 0 to 59)
1
0
0
Upper 8th (8 sectors: 56 to 63)
Lower seven-eighths (56 sectors: 0 to 55)
1
0
1
Upper quarter (16 sectors: 48 to 63)
Lower three-quarters (48 sectors: 0 to 47)
1
1
0
Upper half (32 sectors: 32 to 63)
Lower half (32 sectors: 0 to 31)
1
1
1
All sectors (64 sectors: 0 to 63)
None
Protected Area
Unprotected Area
You can read the status register at any time, even while a write or erase
cycle is in progress. When one of these cycles is in progress, you can check
the write in progress bit (bit 0 of the status register) before sending a new
operation to the device. The device can also read the status register
continuously, as shown in Figure 14–9.
Figure 14–9. Read Status Operation Timing Diagram
nCS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
DCLK
Operation Code
ASDI
Status Register Out
Status Register Out
High Impedance
7
DATA
6
5
MSB
4
3
2
1
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
7
MSB
Write Status Operation
The write status operation code is b'0000 0001, with the MSB listed
first. Use the write status operation to set the status register block
protection bits. The write status operation has no effect on the other bits.
Therefore, you can implement this operation to protect certain memory
sectors, as defined in Table 14–16 through Table 14–20. After setting the
block protect bits, the protected memory sectors are treated as read-only
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Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
memory. You must execute the write enable operation before the write
status operation so the device sets the status register’s write enable latch
bit to 1.
The write status operation is implemented by driving nCS low, followed
by shifting in the write status operation code and one data byte for the
status register on the ASDI pin. Figure 14–10 shows the timing diagram
for the write status operation. nCS must be driven high after the eighth
bit of the data byte has been latched in, otherwise, the write status
operation is not executed.
Immediately after nCS drives high, the device initiates the self-timed
write status cycle. The self-timed write status cycle usually takes 5 ms for
all serial configuration devices and is guaranteed to be less than 15 ms
(refer to tWS in Table 14–23). You must account for this delay to ensure that
the status register is written with desired block protect bits. Alternatively,
you can check the write in progress bit in the status register by executing
the read status operation while the self-timed write status cycle is in
progress. The write in progress bit is 1 during the self-timed write status
cycle, and 0 when it is complete.
Figure 14–10. Write Status Operation Timing Diagram
nCS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
DCLK
Operation Code
Status Register
7
ASDI
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MSB
High Impedance
DATA
Read Bytes Operation
The read bytes operation code is b'0000 0011, with the MSB listed first.
To read the memory contents of the serial configuration device, the device
is first selected by driving nCS low. Then, the read bytes operation code
is shifted in followed by a 3-byte address (A[23..0]). Each address bit
must be latched in on the rising edge of the DCLK. After the address is
latched in, the memory contents of the specified address are shifted out
serially on the DATA pin, beginning with the MSB. For reading Raw
Programming Data files (.rpd), the content is shifted out serially
beginning with the LSB. Each data bit is shifted out on the falling edge of
Altera Corporation
May 2008
14–27
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Serial Configuration Device Memory Access
DCLK. The maximum DCLK frequency during the read bytes operation is
20 MHz. Figure 14–11 shows the timing diagram for the read bytes
operation.
The first byte address can be at any location. The device automatically
increments the address to the next higher address after shifting out each
byte of data. Therefore, the device can read the whole memory with a
single read bytes operation. When the device reaches the highest address,
the address counter restarts at 0x000000, allowing the memory contents
to be read out indefinitely until the read bytes operation is terminated by
driving nCS high. The device can drive nCS high any time after data is
shifted out. If the read bytes operation is shifted in while a write or erase
cycle is in progress, the operation is not executed and has no effect on the
write or erase cycle in progress.
Figure 14–11. Read Bytes Operation Timing Diagram
nCS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
DCLK
Operation Code
24-Bit Address (1)
23
ASDI
22
21
3
2
1
0
MSB
DATA Out 1
DATA Out 2
High Impedance
7
DATA
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
7
MSB (2)
Notes to Figure 14–11:
(1)
(2)
Address bit A[23] is a don't-care bit in EPCS64. Address bits A[23..21] are don't-care bits in EPCS16. Address
bits A[23..19] are don't-care bits in EPCS4. Address bits A[23..17] are don't-care bits in EPCS1.
For RPD files, the read sequence shifts out the LSB of the data byte first.
Read Silicon ID Operation
The read silicon ID operation code is b'1010 1011, with the MSB listed
first. Only EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, and EPCS64 support this operation. It
reads the serial configuration device’s 8-bit silicon ID from the DATA
output pin. If this operation is shifted in during an erase or write cycle, it
is ignored and has no effect on the cycle that is in progress.
14–28
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Table 14–21 shows the serial configuration device silicon IDs.
Table 14–21. Serial Configuration Device Silicon ID
Serial Configuration Device
Silicon ID (Binary Value)
EPCS1
b'0001 0000
EPCS4
b'0001 0010
EPCS16
b'0001 0100
EPCS64
b'0001 0110
The device implements the read silicon ID operation by driving nCS low
then shifting in the read silicon ID operation code followed by three
dummy bytes on ASDI. The serial configuration device’s 8-bit silicon ID
is then shifted out on the DATA pin on the falling edge of DCLK, as shown
in Figure 14–12. The device can terminate the read silicon ID operation by
driving nCS high after the silicon ID has been read at least once. Sending
additional clock cycles on DCLK while nCS is driven low can cause the
silicon ID to be shifted out repeatedly.
Figure 14–12. Read Silicon ID Operation Timing Diagram Note (1)
nCS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
DCLK
Operation Code
Three Dummy Bytes
23
ASDI
22
21
3
2
1
0
MSB
Silicon ID
High Impedance
7
DATA
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MSB
Note to Figure 14–12:
(1)
Only EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, and EPCS64 support Read Silicon ID operation.
Read Device Identification Operation
The read device identification operation code is b’1001 1111, with the
MSB listed first. Only EPCS128 supports this operation. It reads the serial
configuration device’s 8-bit device identification from the DATA output
pin. If this operation is shifted in during an erase or write cycle, it is
ignored and has no effect on the cycle that is in progress. Table 14–22
shows the serial configuration device identification.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
14–29
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Serial Configuration Device Memory Access
Table 14–22. Serial Configuration Device Identification
Serial Configuration Device
Silicon ID (Binary Value)
EPCS128
b'0001 1000
The device implements the read device identification operation by
driving nCS low then shifting in the read device identification operation
code followed by one dummy byte on ASDI. The serial configuration
device’s 16-bit device identification is then shifted out on the DATA pin on
the falling edge of DCLK, as shown in Figure 14–13. The device can
terminate the read device identification operation by driving nCS high
after reading the device identification at least once.
Figure 14–13. Read Device Identification Operation Timing Diagram Note (1)
nCS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
7
6
5
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
2
1
0
7
6
5
27
28
29
30
31
DCLK
Operation Code
ASDI
Dummy Byte 1
DATA
Dummy Byte 2
Silicon ID
High Impedance
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
MSB
0
MSB
4
3
4
3
2
1
0
MSB
Note to Figure 14–13:
(1)
Only EPCS128 supports read device identification operation.
Write Bytes Operation
The write bytes operation code is b'0000 0010, with the MSB listed
first. The write bytes operation allows bytes to be written to the memory.
The write enable operation must be executed prior to the write bytes
operation to set the write enable latch bit in the status register to 1.
The write bytes operation is implemented by driving nCS low, followed
by the write bytes operation code, three address bytes and a minimum
one data byte on ASDI. If the eight least significant address bits
(A[7..0]) are not all 0, all sent data that goes beyond the end of the
current page is not written into the next page. Instead, this data is written
at the start address of the same page (from the address whose eight LSBs
are all 0). Drive nCS low during the entire write bytes operation sequence,
as shown in Figure 14–14.
14–30
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Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
If more than 256 data bytes are shifted into the serial configuration device
with a write bytes operation, the previously latched data is discarded and
the last 256 bytes are written to the page. However, if less than 256 data
bytes are shifted into the serial configuration device, they are guaranteed
to be written at the specified addresses and the other bytes of the same
page are unaffected.
If the design must write more than 256 data bytes to the memory, it needs
more than one page of memory. Send the write enable and write bytes
operation codes followed by three new targeted address bytes and
256 data bytes before a new page is written.
nCS must be driven high after the eighth bit of the last data byte has been
latched in. Otherwise, the device will not execute the write bytes
operation. The write enable latch bit in the status register is reset to 0
before the completion of each write bytes operation. Therefore, the write
enable operation must be carried out before the next write bytes
operation.
The device initiates the self-timed write cycle immediately after nCS is
driven high. Refer to tWB in Table 14–23 for the self-timed write cycle time
for the respective EPCS devices. Therefore, you must account for this
amount of delay before another page of memory is written. Alternatively,
you can check the status register’s write in progress bit by executing the
read status operation while the self-timed write cycle is in progress. The
write in progress bit is set to 1 during the self-timed write cycle, and 0
when it is complete.
Figure 14–14. Write Bytes Operation Timing Diagram
nCS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
6
5
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
0
7
6
5
43
44
45
46
47
2
1
0
2072 2073 2074 2075 2076 2077 2078 2079
DCLK
Operation Code
24-Bit Address (1)
23
ASDI
MSB
22
21
3
Data Byte 1
2
1
0
7
MSB (2)
4
3
Data Byte 2
2
1
MSB (2)
4
3
Data Byte 256
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MSB (2)
Notes to Figure 14–14:
(1)
(2)
Address bit A[23] is a don't-care bit in EPCS64. Address bits A[23..21] are don't-care bits in EPCS16. Address
bits A[23..19] are don't-care bits in EPCS4. Address bits A[23..17] are don't-care bits in EPCS1.
For RPD files, write the LSB of the data byte first.
Erase Bulk Operation
The erase bulk operation code is b'1100 0111, with the MSB listed first.
The erase bulk operation sets all memory bits to 1 or 0xFF. Similar to the
write bytes operation, the write enable operation must be executed prior
to the erase bulk operation so that the write enable latch bit in the status
register is set to 1.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
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Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Serial Configuration Device Memory Access
You can implement the erase bulk operation by driving nCS low and then
shifting in the erase bulk operation code on the ASDI pin. nCS must be
driven high after the eighth bit of the erase bulk operation code has been
latched in. Figure 14–15 shows the timing diagram.
The device initiates the self-timed erase bulk cycle immediately after nCS
is driven high. Refer to tEB in Table 14–23 for the self-timed erase bulk
cycle time for the respective EPCS devices.
You must account for this delay before accessing the memory contents.
Alternatively, you can check the write in progress bit in the status register
by executing the read status operation while the self-timed erase cycle is
in progress. The write in progress bit is 1 during the self-timed erase cycle
and 0 when it is complete. The write enable latch bit in the status register
is reset to 0 before the erase cycle is complete.
Figure 14–15. Erase Bulk Operation Timing Diagram
nCS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
DCLK
Operation Code
ASDI
Erase Sector Operation
The erase sector operation code is b'1101 1000, with the MSB listed
first. The erase sector operation allows the user to erase a certain sector in
the serial configuration device by setting all bits inside the sector to 1 or
0xFF. This operation is useful for users who access the unused sectors as
general purpose memory in their applications.
The write enable operation must be executed prior to the erase sector
operation so that the write enable latch bit in the status register is set to 1.
The erase sector operation is implemented by first driving nCS low, then
shifting in the erase sector operation code and the three address bytes of
the chosen sector on the ASDI pin. The three address bytes for the erase
sector operation can be any address inside the specified sector. (Refer to
Tables 14–10 through 14–14 for sector address range information.) Drive
nCS high after the eighth bit of the erase sector operation code has been
latched in. Figure 14–16 shows the timing diagram.
14–32
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Immediately after the device drives nCS high, the self-timed erase sector
cycle is initiated. Refer to tES in Table 14–23 for the self-timed erase sector
cycle time for the respective EPCS devices. You must account for this
amount of delay before the memory contents can be accessed.
Alternatively, you can check the write in progress bit in the status register
by executing the read status operation while the erase cycle is in progress.
The write in progress bit is 1 during the self-timed erase cycle and 0 when
it is complete. The write enable latch bit in the status register resets to 0
before the erase cycle is complete.
Figure 14–16. Erase Sector Operation Timing Diagram
nCS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
28
29
30
31
DCLK
Operation Code
24-Bit Address (1)
23
ASDI
22
3
2
1
0
MSB
Note to Figure 14–16:
(1)
Address bit A[23] is a don't-care bit in EPCS64. Address bits A[23..21] are don't-care bits in EPCS16. Address
bits A[23..19] are don't-care bits in EPCS4. Address bits A[23..17] are don't-care bits in EPCS1.
Power and
Operation
This section describes the power modes, power-on reset (POR) delay,
error detection, and initial programming state of serial configuration
devices.
Power Mode
Serial configuration devices support active power and standby power
modes. When nCS is low, the device is enabled and is in active power
mode. The FPGA is configured while in active power mode. When nCS is
high, the device is disabled but could remain in active power mode until
all internal cycles have completed (such as write or erase operations). The
serial configuration device then goes into stand-by power mode. The ICC1
parameter specifies the VCC supply current when the device is in active
power mode and the ICC0 parameter specifies the current when the device
is in stand-by power mode (refer to Table 14–29).
Altera Corporation
May 2008
14–33
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Power and Operation
Power-On Reset
During initial power-up, a POR delay occurs to ensure the system voltage
levels have stabilized. During AS configuration, the FPGA controls the
configuration and has a longer POR delay than the serial configuration
device.
f
For the POR delay time, refer to the configuration chapter in the
appropriate device handbook.
Error Detection
During AS configuration with the serial configuration device, the FPGA
monitors the configuration status through the nSTATUS and CONF_DONE
pins. If an error condition occurs (nSTATUS drives low) or if the
CONF_DONE pin does not go high, the FPGA will initiate reconfiguration
by pulsing the nSTATUS and nCSO signals, which controls the chip select
pin on the serial configuration device (nCS).
After an error, configuration automatically restarts if the Auto-Restart
Upon Frame Error option is turned on in the Quartus II software. If the
option is turned off, the system must monitor the nSTATUS signal for
errors and then pulse the nCONFIG signal low to restart configuration.
14–34
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Timing
Information
Figure 14–17 shows the timing waveform for write operation to the serial
configuration device.
Figure 14–17. Write Operation Timing
tCSH
nCS
tNCSH
tNCSSU
tCH
tCL
DCLK
tDSU
ASDI
DATA
tDH
Bit n - 1
Bit n
Bit 0
High Impedance
Table 14–23 defines the serial configuration device timing parameters for
write operation.
Table 14–23. Write Operation Parameters (Part 1 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
fW C L K
Write clock frequency (from FPGA, download
cable, or embedded processor) for write enable,
write disable, read status, read silicon ID, write
bytes, erase bulk, and erase sector operations
—
—
25
MHz
tCH
DCLK high time
20
—
—
ns
tCL
DCLK low time
20
—
—
ns
tNCSSU
Chip select (nCS) setup time
10
—
—
ns
tNCSH
Chip select (nCS) hold time
10
—
—
ns
tDSU
Data (ASDI) in setup time before rising edge on
5
—
—
ns
DCLK
tDH
Data (ASDI) hold time after rising edge on DCLK
tCSH
Chip select high time
tWB (1)
tWS (1)
5
—
—
ns
100
—
—
ns
Write bytes cycle time for EPCS1, EPCS4,
EPCS16, and EPCS64
—
1.5
5
ms
Write bytes cycle time for EPCS128
—
2.5
7
ms
Write status cycle time
—
5
15
ms
Altera Corporation
May 2008
14–35
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Information
Table 14–23. Write Operation Parameters (Part 2 of 2)
Symbol
tEB (1)
Parameter
Erase bulk cycle time for EPCS1
tES (1)
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
—
3
6
s
Erase bulk cycle time for EPCS4
—
5
10
s
Erase bulk cycle time for EPCS16
—
17
40
s
Erase bulk cycle time for EPCS64
—
68
160
s
Erase bulk cycle time for EPCS128
—
105
250
s
Erase sector cycle time for EPCS1, EPCS4,
EPCS16, and EPCS64
—
2
3
s
Erase sector cycle time for EPCS128
—
2
6
s
Note to Table 14–23:
(1)
These parameters are not shown in Figure 14–17.
Figure 14–18 shows the timing waveform for the serial configuration
device's read operation.
Figure 14–18. Read Operation Timing
nCS
tCH
DCLK
tCL
tnCLK2D
ASDI
Bit N - 1
Bit N
DATA
tODIS
Bit 0
Add_Bit 0
Table 14–24 defines the serial configuration device timing parameters for
read operation.
Table 14–24. Read Operation Parameters (Part 1 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Unit
fRCLK
Read clock frequency (from
FPGA or embedded processor)
for read bytes operation
—
20
MHz
tCH
DCLK high time
25
—
ns
tCL
DCLK low time
25
—
ns
14–36
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Table 14–24. Read Operation Parameters (Part 2 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Unit
tODIS
Output disable time after read
—
15
ns
tnCLK2D
Clock falling edge to data
—
15
ns
Figure 14–19 shows the timing waveform for FPGA AS configuration
scheme using a serial configuration device.
Figure 14–19. AS Configuration Timing
tCF2ST1
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCSO
tCL
DCLK
tCH
tH
ASDO
Read Address
tSU
DATA0
bit N
bit N − 1
bit 1
bit 0
136 Cycles
INIT_DONE
User Mode
User I/O
Tri-stated with internal pull-up resistor
Altera Corporation
May 2008
14–37
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Programming and Configuration File Support
Table 14–25 shows the timing parameters for AS configuration mode.
Table 14–25. Timing Parameters for AS Configuration
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
DCLK frequency from Cyclone FPGA
14
17
20
MHz
DCLK frequency from Stratix II or Cyclone II FPGA (40 MHz) (1)
20
26
40
MHz
DCLK frequency from Stratix II or Cyclone II FPGA (20 MHz)
10
13
20
MHz
DCLK frequency from Cyclone III FPGA (1)
20
30
40
MHz
DCLK frequency from Stratix III FPGA (1)
15
25
40
MHz
tH
Data hold time after rising edge on DCLK
0
—
—
ns
tSU
Data set up time before rising edge on DCLK
5
—
—
ns
fCLK
Parameter
Note to Table 14–25:
(1)
Existing batches of EPCS1 and EPCS4 manufactured on 0.15 µm process geometry supports AS configuration up
to 40 MHz. However, batches of EPCS1 and EPCS4 manufactured on 0.18 µm process geometry support only up
to 20 MHz. EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128 are not affected. For information about product traceability and
transition date to differentiate between 0.15 µm process geometry and 0.18 µm process geometry EPCS1 and
EPCS4, refer to PCN 0514 Manufacturing Changes on EPCS Family process change notification on the Altera
website at www.altera.com.
Programming
and
Configuration
File Support
The Quartus II design software provides programming support for serial
configuration devices. After selecting the serial configuration device, the
Quartus II software automatically generates the Programmer Object File
(.pof) to program the device. The software allows users to select the
appropriate serial configuration device density that most efficiently
stores the configuration data for a selected FPGA.
The serial configuration device can be programmed in-system by an
external microprocessor using SRunner. SRunner is a software driver
developed for embedded serial configuration device programming that
designers can customize to fit in different embedded systems. The
SRunner can read RPD file and write to the serial configuration devices.
The programming time is comparable to the Quartus II software
programming time. Note that writing and reading the RPD file to the
EPCS is different from other data and address bytes. The LSB of RPD
bytes must be shifted out first during the read bytes instruction and the
LSB of RPD bytes must be shifted in first during the write bytes
instruction. This is because the FPGA reads the LSB of the RPD data first
during the configuration process.
f
For more information about SRunner, refer to the AN 418: SRunner: An
Embedded Solution for Serial Configuration Device Programming User Guide
and the source code on the Altera website (www.altera.com).
14–38
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Serial configuration devices can be programmed using the APU with the
appropriate programming adapter (PLMSEPC-8) via the Quartus II
software, USB Blaster, EthernetBlaster, or the ByteBlaster II download
cable via the Quartus II software. In addition, many third-party
programmers, such as BP Microsystems and System General, offer
programming hardware that supports serial configuration devices.
During in-system programming of a serial configuration device via the
USB Blaster, EthernetBlaster, or ByteBlaster II download cable, the cable
pulls nCONFIG low to reset the FPGA and overrides the 10-kΩ
pull-down resistor on the FPGA’s nCE pin (refer to Figure 14–2). The
download cable then uses the four interface pins (DATA, nCS, ASDI, and
DCLK) to program the serial configuration device. Once the programming
is complete, the download cable releases the serial configuration device’s
four interface pins and the FPGA’s nCE pin, and pulses nCONFIG to start
configuration.
The FPGA can program the serial configuration device in-system using
the JTAG interface with the Serial FlashLoader. This solution allows you
to indirectly program the serial configuration device using the same JTAG
interface that is used to configure the FPGA.
f
For more information about the Serial FlashLoader, refer to AN 370:
Using the Serial FlashLoader with the Quartus II Software.
f
For more information on programming and configuration support, refer
to the following documents:
■
■
■
■
■
Operating
Conditions
Altera Programming Hardware Data Sheet
Programming Hardware Manufacturers
USB-Blaster Download Cable User Guide
ByteBlaster II Download Cable User Guide
EthernetBlaster Communications Cable User Guide
Tables 14–26 through 14–30 provide information on absolute maximum
ratings, recommended operating conditions, DC operating conditions,
and capacitance for serial configuration devices.
Table 14–26. Absolute Maximum Ratings
Symbol
VCC
Parameter
Note (1)
(Part 1 of 2)
Condition
Min
Max
Unit
Supply voltage for EPCS1,
EPCS4, and EPCS16
With respect to ground
–0.6
4.0
V
Supply voltage for EPCS64 and
EPCS128
With respect to ground
–0.2
4.0
V
Altera Corporation
May 2008
14–39
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Operating Conditions
Table 14–26. Absolute Maximum Ratings
Symbol
VI
Note (1)
Parameter
(Part 2 of 2)
Condition
Min
Max
Unit
DC input voltage for EPCS1,
EPCS4, and EPCS16
With respect to ground
–0.6
4.0
V
DC input voltage for EPCS64 and
EPCS128
With respect to ground
–0.5
4.0
V
IMAX
DC VCC or GND current
—
—
15
mA
IOUT
DC output current per pin
—
–25
25
mA
PD
Power dissipation
—
—
54
mW
TSTG
Storage temperature
No bias
–65
150
°C
TAMB
Ambient temperature
Under bias
–65
135
°C
TJ
Junction temperature
Under bias
—
135
°C
Min
Max
Unit
Table 14–27. Recommended Operating Conditions
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
VCC
Supply voltage
(2)
2.7
3.6
V
VI
Input voltage
Respect to GND
–0.3
0.3 + VCC
V
VO
Output voltage
TA
Operating temperature
—
For commercial use
For industrial use
0
VCC
V
0
70
°C
–40
85
°C
tR
Input rise time
—
—
5
ns
tF
Input fall time
—
—
5
ns
Table 14–28. DC Operating Conditions
Symbol
Conditions
Min
Max
Unit
High-level input voltage for
EPCS1, EPCS4, and EPCS16
—
0.6 × VCC
VCC + 0.4
V
High-level input voltage for
EPCS64 and EPCS128
—
0.6 × VCC
VCC + 0.2
V
VIL
Low-level input voltage
—
–0.5
0.3 × VCC
V
VOH
High-level output voltage
IOH = –100 μA (3)
VCC – 0.2
—
V
VOL
Low-level output voltage
IOL = 1.6 mA (3)
—
0.4
V
II
Input leakage current
VI = VCC or GND
–10
10
μA
IOZ
Tri-state output off-state current
VO = VCC or GND
–10
10
μA
VIH
Parameter
14–40
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Table 14–29. ICC Supply Current
Symbol
ICC0
ICC1
Conditions
Min
Max
Unit
VCC supply current (standby)
for EPCS1, EPCS4, and EPCS16
Parameter
—
—
50
μA
VCC supply current (standby)
for EPCS64 and EPCS128
—
—
100
μA
VCC supply current (during active power
mode) for EPCS1, EPCS4, and EPCS16
—
5
15
mA
VCC supply current (during active power
mode) for EPCS64 and EPCS128
—
5
20
mA
Min
Max
Unit
Table 14–30. Capacitance
Symbol
Note (4)
Parameter
Conditions
CIN
Input pin capacitance
VIN = 0 V
—
6
pF
COUT
Output pin capacitance
VOUT = 0 V
—
8
pF
Notes to Table 14–26 through 14–30:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Refer to the Operating Requirements for Altera Devices Data Sheet.
Maximum VCC rise time is 100 ms.
The IOH parameter refers to high-level TTL or CMOS output current; the I OL parameter refers to low-level TTL or
CMOS output current.
Capacitance is sample-tested only at TA = 25 ° C and at a 20-MHz frequency.
Pin Information
As shown in Figures 14–20 and 14–21, the serial configuration device is an
8-pin or 16-pin device. The control pins on the serial configuration device
are: serial data output (DATA), active serial data input (ASDI), serial clock
(DCLK), and chip select (nCS). Table 14–31 shows the serial configuration
device's pin descriptions.
Figure 14–20 shows the Altera serial configuration device 8-pin SOIC
package and its pin-out diagram.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
14–41
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Pin Information
Figure 14–20. Altera Serial Configuration Device 8-Pin SOIC Package Pin-Out
Diagram
EPCS1, EPCS4,
or EPCS16
nCS
1
8
VCC
DATA
VCC
2
7
VCC
3
6
DCLK
GND
4
5
ASDI
Figure 14–21 shows the Altera serial configuration device 16-pin SOIC
package and its pin-out diagram.
Figure 14–21. Altera Serial Configuration Device 16-Pin SOIC Package Pin-Out
Diagram
EPCS16,
EPCS64,
or EPCS128
VCC
1
16
DCLK
VCC
2
15
ASDI
N.C.
3(1)
14(1)
N.C.
N.C.
4(1)
13(1)
N.C.
N.C.
5(1)
12(1)
N.C.
N.C.
6(1)
11(1)
N.C.
nCS
7
10
GND
DATA
8
9
VCC
Note to Figure 14–21:
(1)
14–42
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
These pins can be left floating or connected to VCC or GND, whichever is more
convenient on the board.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Table 14–31. Serial Configuration Device Pin Description
Pin
Name
Pin Number Pin Number
in 16-Pin
in 8-Pin
Pin Type
SOIC
SOIC
Package
Package
Description
DATA
2
8
Output
The DATA output signal transfers data serially out of the serial
configuration device to the FPGA during read/configuration
operation. During a read/configuration operations, the serial
configuration device is enabled by pulling nCS low. The DATA
signal transitions on the falling edge of DCLK.
ASDI
5
15
Input
The AS data input signal is used to transfer data serially into the
serial configuration device. It receives the data that should be
programmed into the serial configuration device. Data is latched
on the rising edge of DCLK.
nCS
1
7
Input
The active low chip select input signal toggles at the beginning
and end of a valid instruction. When this signal is high, the
device is deselected and the DATA pin is tri-stated. When this
signal is low, it enables the device and puts the device in an
active mode. After power up, the serial configuration device
requires a falling edge on the nCS signal before beginning any
operation.
DCLK
6
16
Input
DCLK is provided by the FPGA. This signal provides the timing
of the serial interface. The data presented on ASDI is latched
to the serial configuration device on the falling edge of DCLK.
Data on the DATA pin changes after the falling edge of DCLK
and is latched into the FPGA on the falling edge.
VC C
3, 7, 8
1, 2, 9
Power
Power pins connect to 3.3 V.
GND
4
10
Ground
Ground pin.
Package
All serial configuration devices are available in 8-pin or 16-pin plastic
SOIC package.
f
Altera Corporation
May 2008
For more information on Altera device packaging including mechanical
drawing and specifications for this package, refer to the Altera Device
Package Information Data Sheet.
14–43
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Ordering Code
Ordering Code
Table 14–32 shows the ordering codes for serial configuration devices.
Table 14–32. Serial Configuration Device Ordering Codes
Device
Ordering Code (1)
EPCS1
EPCS1SI8
EPCS1SI8N
EPCS4
EPCS4SI8
EPCS4SI8N
EPCS16
EPCS16SI16N
EPCS16SI8N
EPCS64
EPCS64SI16N
EPCS128
EPCS128SI16N
Note to Table 14–32:
(1)
Referenced
Documents
This chapter references the following documents:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Document
Revision History
N: Lead free.
Active Serial Memory Interface Data Sheet
Altera Device Package Information Data Sheet
Altera Programming Hardware Data Sheet
AN 370: Using the Serial FlashLoader with the Quartus II Software
AN 418: SRunner: An Embedded Solution for Serial Configuration Device
Programming User Guide
ByteBlaster II Download Cable User Guide
Configuring Cyclone III Devices chapter in volume 1 of the Cyclone III
Device Handbook
EthernetBlaster Communications Cable User Guide
Operating Requirements for Altera Devices Data Sheet
Programming Hardware Manufacturers
USB-Blaster Download Cable User Guide
Table 14–33 shows the revision history for this chapter.
14–44
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
Table 14–33. Document Revision History (Part 1 of 2)
Date and
Document Version
May 2008
v3.1
●
●
●
August 2007
v3.0
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
April 2007
v2.0
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
January 2007
v1.7
●
●
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Changes Made
Summary of Changes
Updated Tables 14–2, 14–5, 14–6, 14–27, and 14–28.
Deleted Note 5 to Table 14–30.
Added “Referenced Documents” section.
—
Updated “Introduction” section.
Updated “Functional Description” section.
Updated Tables 14–1 through 14–3 and Tables 14–6
through 14–8 to with EPCS128 information.
Added Table 14–5 on Arria GX.
Added Note (4) to Figure 14–3.
Added Note (5) to Figure 14–4.
Updated Table 14–9 with EPCS128 information.
Added new Table 14–10 on address range for sectors in
EPCS128.
Updated Table 14–15 with information on “Read Device
Identification” and added Note (5).
Added new Table 14–20 on block protection bits in
EPCS128.
Added Note (1) to Figure 14–12.
Added new section “Read Device Identification
Operation” with Table 14–22 and Figure 14–13.
Updated “Write Bytes Operation”, “Erase Bulk Operation”
and “Erase Sector Operation” sections.
Updated Table 14–23 to include EPCS128 information.
Updated Note (1) to Table 14–25.
Updated VCC and VI information to include EPCS128 in
Table 14–26.
Updated VIH information to include EPCS128 in
Table 14–28.
Updated ICC0 and ICC1 information to include EPCS128 in
Table 14–29.
Updated Figure 14–21 and Table 14–32 with EPCS128
information.
●
Updated “Introduction” section.
Updated “Functional Description” section and added
handpara note.
Added Tables 14–3, 14–5, and 14–6.
Updated “Active Serial FPGA Configuration” section and
its handpara note.
Added Note (4) to Figure 14–2.
Updated Table 14–25 and added Note (1).
Updated Figure 14–20.
Updated Table 14–32.
●
Removed reference to PLMSEPC-16 in “Programming
and Configuration File Support”.
Updated DCLK pin information in Table 14–31.
●
●
Updated document to
include EPCS128.
Updated document to
include Arria GX.
Updated chapter to
include Stratix II GX,
Stratix III, and
Cyclone III support for
EPCS devices.
Added information about
EPCS16SI8N.
—
14–45
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Document Revision History
Table 14–33. Document Revision History (Part 2 of 2)
Date and
Document Version
Changes Made
October 2006
v1.6
●
August 2005
v1.5
Updated table 4-4 to include EPCS64 support for Cyclone
devices.
August 2005
v1.4
●
February 2005
v1.3
Updated hot socketing AC specifications.
October 2003
v1.2
●
●
●
●
●
Updated Figure 14–19.
Updated Table 14–29 and Table 14–31.
Updated tables.
Minor text updates.
Added Serial Configuration Device Memory Access
section.
Updated timing information in Tables 4–10 and
4–11.section.
Updated timing information in Tables 4-16 and 4-17.
Summary of Changes
—
—
—
—
—
July 2003
v1.1
Minor updates.
—
May 2003
v1.0
Added document to the Cyclone Device Handbook.
—
14–46
Cyclone Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Section VII. Cyclone Device
Package Information
This section provides information for board layout designers to
successfully layout their boards for Cyclone devices. It contains the
required PCB layout guidelines, device pin tables, and package
specifications.
This section includes the following chapter:
■
Revision History
Altera Corporation
Chapter 15. Package Information for Cyclone Devices
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information
on when each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates
section, which appears in the complete handbook.
Section VII–1
Preliminary
Revision History
Section VII–2
Preliminary
Altera Corporation
15. Package Information for
Cyclone Devices
C52006-1.3
Introduction
This data sheet provides package information for Altera® devices. It
includes the following sections:
■
■
■
“Device and Package Cross Reference” on page 15–1
“Thermal Resistance” on page 15–2
“Package Outlines” on page 15–2
In this data sheet, packages are listed in the order of ascending pin count.
Device and
Package Cross
Reference
Table 15–1 shows which Altera Cyclone® devices are available in FineLine
BGA packages.
Table 15–1. Cyclone Devices in FineLine BGA Packages
Device
Pins
EP1C4
Non-Thermally Enhanced FineLine BGA
Non-Thermally Enhanced FineLine BGA
400
EP1C6
Non-Thermally Enhanced FineLine BGA
256
EP1C12
Non-Thermally Enhanced FineLine BGA
256
Non-Thermally Enhanced FineLine BGA
324
Non-Thermally Enhanced FineLine BGA
324
Non-Thermally Enhanced FineLine BGA
400
EP1C20
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Package
324
15–1
Preliminary
Cyclone Device Handbook, Volume 2
Thermal
Resistance
Table 15–2 provides θ JA (junction-to-ambient thermal resistance) and θJC
(junction-to-case thermal resistance) values for Altera Cyclone devices.
Table 15–2. Thermal Resistance of Cyclone Devices
Device
Pin Count
Package
Notes (1), (2)
θJC (° C/W)
θ JA (° C/W)
Still Air
θJA (° C/W)
100 ft./min.
θJA (° C/W)
200 ft./min.
θJA (° C/W)
400 ft./min.
EP1C3
100
TQFP
11.0
37.5
35.4
33.4
29.8
144
TQFP
10.0
31.1
29.4
27.9
25.5
EP1C4
324
FineLine
BGA
8.3
28.5
24.4
22.1
20.3
400
FineLine
BGA
7.9
20.7
17.5
15.5
13.9
144
TQFP
9.8
29.4
28.0
26.7
24.7
240
PQFP
4.3
27.2
24.7
22.1
17.8
256
FineLine
BGA
8.8
28.7
24.5
22.3
20.5
240
PQFP
4.0
26.0
23.4
20.8
17.1
256
FineLine
BGA
6.6
24.3
20.2
18.1
16.4
324
FineLine
BGA
6.1
23.0
19.8
17.7
16.1
324
FineLine
BGA
5.0
21.0
17.7
15.6
14.1
400
FineLine
BGA
4.7
20.7
17.5
15.5
13.9
EP1C6
EP1C12
EP1C20
Notes to Table 15–2:
(1)
(2)
TQFP: thin quad flat pack
PQFP: plastic quad flat pack
Package
Outlines
15–2
Preliminary
The package outlines on the following pages are listed in order of
ascending pin count. Altera package outlines meet the requirements of
JEDEC Publication No. 95.
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Document Revision History
Document
Revision History
Table 15–3 shows the revision history for this chapter.
Table 15–3. Document Revision History
Date and
Document
Version
Changes Made
Summary of Changes
May 2008
v1.3
Minor changes to format.
—
January 2007
v1.2
Added document revision history.
—
Altera Corporation
May 2008
15–3
Preliminary
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