Areca ARC-1230 User manual
SATA RAID Cards
ARC-1110/1120/1130/1160/1170
( 4/8/12/16/24-port PCI-X SATA RAID Controllers )
ARC-1110ML/1120ML/1130ML/1160ML
( 4/8/12/16-port PCI-X SATA RAID Controllers )
ARC-1210/1220/1230/1260
( 4/8/12/16-port PCI-Express SATA RAID Controllers )
USER Manual
Version: 2.10
Issue Date: May, 2005
Copyright Statement
Areca Technology Corporation
© COPYRIGHT 2005
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. First Edition.
All trademarks are the properties of their respective owners. No portion of this document may be reproduced, altered, adapted or translated without the prior written approval.
Microsoft WHQL Windows Hardware Compatibility
Test
ARECA is committed to submit to Microsoft Windows Hardware Quality
Labs (WHQL) for participation in the Windows Logo Program. Successful
passage of the WHQL tests results in both the “Designed for Windows”
logo for qualifying ARECA PCI-X or PCI-Express SATA RAID controllers
and a listing on the Microsoft Hardware Compatibility List (HCL).
WARRANTY
The information in this document is subject to change without notice.
We make no warranty of any kind regarding this material, including, but
not limited to, the implied warranties or merchantability and fitness for
a particular purpose. Furthermore, we shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or consequential damage in connection
with the furnishing, performance, or use of this material.
FCC STATEMENT
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for
a Class B digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These
limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and
can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will
not occur in a particular installation.
Contents
1. Introduction ................................................................ 8
1.1 Overview .........................................................................8
1.2 Features ........................................................................ 10
1.3 RAID Concept ................................................................. 12
1.3.1 RAID Set ................................................................... 12
1.3.2 Volume Set................................................................ 12
1.3.3 Easy of Use Features ................................................. 13
1.3.3.1 Instant Availability/Background Initialization ............ 13
1.3.3.2 Array Roaming ..................................................... 13
1.3.3.3 Online Capacity Expansion ..................................... 14
1.3.4 Online RAID Level and Stripe Size Migration .................. 15
1.4 High availability .............................................................. 15
1.4.1 Creating Hot Spares ................................................... 15
1.4.2 Hot-Swap Disk Drive Support ....................................... 16
1.4.3 Hot-Swap Disk Rebuild ................................................ 16
1.5 Understanding RAID ........................................................ 16
1.5.1 RAID 0...................................................................... 17
1.5.2 RAID 1...................................................................... 17
1.5.3 RAID 10 .................................................................... 18
1.5.4 RAID 3...................................................................... 18
1.5.5 RAID 5...................................................................... 19
1.5.6 RAID 6...................................................................... 19
2. Hardware Installation ............................................... 22
2.1 Before Your begin Installation ........................................... 22
2.2 Board Layout .................................................................. 23
2.3 Installation ..................................................................... 27
3. McBIOS RAID Manager .............................................. 38
3.1 Starting the McBIOS RAID Manager ................................... 38
3.2 McBIOS Configuration manager......................................... 39
3.3 Configuring Raid Sets and Volume Sets .............................. 40
3.4 Designating Drives as Hot Spares ...................................... 40
3.5 Using Quick Volume /Raid Setup Configuration .................... 41
3.6 Using Raid Set/Volume Set Function Method ....................... 42
3.7 Main Menu .................................................................... 44
3.7.1 Quick Volume/RAID Setup ........................................... 45
3.7.2 Raid Set Function ....................................................... 47
3.7.2.1 Create Raid Set .................................................... 48
3.7.2.2 Delete Raid Set ..................................................... 49
3.7.2.3 Expand Raid Set .................................................... 49
• Migrating ...................................................................... 50
3.7.2.4 Activate Incomplete Raid Set................................... 51
3.7.2.5 Create Hot Spare ................................................... 52
3.7.2.6 Delete Hot Spare ................................................... 52
3.7.2.7 Raid Set Information .............................................. 53
3.7.3 Volume Set Function ................................................... 53
3.7.3.1 Create Volume Set ................................................. 54
• Volume Name ................................................................ 56
• Raid Level ..................................................................... 56
• Capacity ....................................................................... 57
• Strip Size ...................................................................... 57
• SCSI Channel ................................................................ 58
• SCSI ID ........................................................................ 58
• SCSI LUN ...................................................................... 59
• Cache Mode .................................................................. 59
• Tag Queuing .................................................................. 59
3.7.3.2 Delete Volume Set ................................................. 60
3.7.3.3 Modify Volume Set ................................................. 61
• Volume Growth .............................................................. 62
• Volume Set Migration...................................................... 62
3.7.3.4 Check Volume Set.................................................. 63
3.7.3.5 Stop Volume Set Check .......................................... 63
3.7.3.6 Display Volume Set Info. ........................................ 64
3.7.4 Physical Drives ........................................................... 65
3.7.4.1 View Drive Information .......................................... 65
3.7.4.2 Create Pass-Through Disk ....................................... 66
3.7.4.3 Modify Pass-Through Disk ....................................... 66
3.7.4.4 Delete Pass-Through Disk ....................................... 67
3.7.4.5 Identify Selected Drive ........................................... 67
3.7.5 Raid System Function ................................................. 68
3.7.5.1 Mute The Alert Beeper ........................................... 68
3.7.5.2 Alert Beeper Setting ............................................... 69
3.7.5.3 Change Password .................................................. 69
3.7.5.4 JBOD/RAID Function .............................................. 70
3.7.5.5 Background Task Priority ........................................ 71
3.7.5.6 Maximum SATA Mode ............................................. 71
3.7.5.7 Disk Write Cache Mode ........................................... 72
3.7.5.8 Capacity Truncation ............................................... 72
3.7.5.9 Controller Fan Detection ......................................... 73
3.7.5.10 HDD SMART Status Polling .................................... 74
3.7.6 Ethernet Configuration (12/16/24 ports)........................ 74
3.7.6.1 DHCP Function ...................................................... 75
3.7.6.2 Local IP address .................................................... 75
3.7.6.3 Ethernet Address ................................................... 76
3.7.7 View System Events ................................................... 77
3.7.8 Clear Events Buffer ..................................................... 77
3.7.9 Hardware Monitor ....................................................... 77
3.7.10 System Information .................................................. 78
4. Driver Installation ..................................................... 79
4.1 Creating the Driver Diskettes ............................................ 79
4.2 Driver Installation for Windows ......................................... 80
4.2.1 New Storage Device Drivers in Windows Server 2003 ...... 80
4.2.2 Install Windows 2000/XP/2003 on a SATA RAID Volume .. 81
4.2.2.1 Installation procedures ........................................... 81
4.2.2.2 Making Volume Sets Available to Windows System ..... 82
4.2.3 Install controller into an existing Windows 2000/XP/2003 83
4.2.3.1 Making Volume Sets Available to Windows System ..... 84
4.2.4 Uninstall controller from Windows 2000/XP/2003 ............ 85
4.3 Driver Installation for Linux .............................................. 86
4.4 Driver Installation for FreeBSD.......................................... 86
5. Installation ArcHttp Proxy Server .............................. 88
5.1 For Windows .................................................................. 88
5.2 For Linux ....................................................................... 89
6. Web Browser-based Configuration ........................... 91
6.1 Start-up McRAID Manager for Local Administration .............. 91
6.1.1 For Windows .............................................................. 92
6.1.2 For Linux ................................................................... 94
6.2 Start-up McRAID Manager for Remote Administration ........... 94
6.2.1 Microsoft Windows System .......................................... 94
6.2.2 Linux System ............................................................. 95
6.3 SATA RAID controller McRAID storage manager ................... 95
6.4 Main Menu .................................................................... 96
6.5 Quick Function ................................................................ 97
6.6 RaidSet Functions ........................................................... 98
6.6.1 Create Raid Set ......................................................... 98
6.6.2 Delete Raid Set .......................................................... 98
6.6.3 Expand Raid Set ......................................................... 99
6.6.4 Activate Incomplete Raid Set ....................................... 99
6.6.5 Create Hot Spare ..................................................... 100
6.6.6 Delete Hot Spare ...................................................... 101
6.6.7 Rescue Raid Set ....................................................... 101
6.7 Volume Set Functions .................................................... 101
6.7.1 Create Volume Set ................................................... 102
• Volume Name .............................................................. 102
• Capacity ..................................................................... 102
• Raid Level .................................................................. 102
• Strip Size .................................................................... 103
• Cache Mode ................................................................ 103
• SCSI Channel/SCSI ID/SCSI Lun .................................... 103
• Tag Queuing ................................................................ 103
6.7.2 Delete Volume Set .................................................... 103
6.7.3 Modify Volume Set.................................................... 104
6.7.3.1 Volume Set Migration ........................................... 105
6.7.4 Check Volume Set .................................................... 105
6.7.5 Stop VolumeSet Check .............................................. 106
6.8 Physical Drive .............................................................. 106
6.8.1 Create Pass-Through Disk .......................................... 106
6.8.2 Modify Pass-Through Disk .......................................... 107
6.8.3 Delete Pass-Through Disk .......................................... 108
6.8.4 Identify Selected Drive .............................................. 108
6.9 System Controls ........................................................... 109
6.9.1 System Config ......................................................... 109
• System Beeper Setting ................................................. 109
• Background Task Priority ............................................... 109
• JBOD/RAID Configuration .............................................. 109
6.9.2 Ethernet Configuration (12/16/24 ports)...................... 110
6.9.3 Alert by Mail Configuration (12/16/24 ports) ............... 111
6.9.4 SNMP Configuration .................................................. 112
6.9.5 View Events/Mute Beeper .......................................... 113
6.9.6 Generate Test Event ................................................. 113
6.9.7 Clear Events Buffer ................................................... 113
6.9.8 Modify Password ...................................................... 114
6.9.9 Update Firmware ..................................................... 115
6.10 Information ................................................................ 115
6.10.1 RaidSet Hierarchy ................................................... 115
6.10.2 System Information ................................................ 115
6.10.3 Hardware Monitor ................................................... 116
Appendix A ................................................................. 117
Upgrading Firmware Through McRAID Storage Manager ........... 117
Appendix B .................................................................. 119
Battery Backup Module (BBM) .............................................. 119
BBM Components ........................................................... 119
BBM Specifications .......................................................... 119
Installation .................................................................... 120
Battery Backup Capacity .................................................. 120
Operation ...................................................................... 120
Changing the Battery Backup Module ................................ 121
Appendix C .................................................................. 122
SNMP Operation & Definition ................................................ 122
Appendix D .................................................................. 125
General Troubleshooting Tips ............................................... 125
Appendix E .................................................................. 129
Technical Support ............................................................... 129
Glossary ...................................................................... 130
2TB .............................................................................. 130
Array ............................................................................ 130
ATA .............................................................................. 130
Auto Reassign Sector ..................................................... 130
Battery Backup Module .................................................... 131
BIOS ............................................................................ 131
Cache ........................................................................... 131
Consistency Check .......................................................... 131
Driver ........................................................................... 131
Hot Spare ...................................................................... 132
Hardware RAID versus Software RAID .............................. 132
Hot Swap ...................................................................... 132
NVRAM.......................................................................... 132
Parity ............................................................................ 132
PCI Express .................................................................. 132
PCI-X ........................................................................... 133
RAID ............................................................................ 133
Rebuild ......................................................................... 133
SATA (Serial ATA) ........................................................... 133
SMART .......................................................................... 134
SNMP ............................................................................ 134
Volume Set .................................................................... 134
Write-back ..................................................................... 134
Write-through ................................................................ 134
XOR-Engine ................................................................... 135
INTRODUCTION
1. Introduction
This section briefly describes general overview of SATA RAID Series
controller card, ARC-1110/1120/1130/1160/1170 (4/8/12/16/24-port
PCI-X SATA RAID Controller) and ARC-1210/1220/1230/1260/1270
(4/8/12/16/24-port PCI-Express SATA RAID Controller).
1.1 Overview
ARC-11xx/12xx Series high-performance PCI bus Card Serial ATA
RAID controller supported 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 SATA-II peripheral device on a single controller. With properly configured, SATA controller
can provided non-stop services with a high degree of fault tolerance
through the use of RAID technology and advanced array management features. The 4/8 port SATA RAID controller is a low-profile
PCI cards-Ideal for 1U or 2U rack-mount system. It has the same
RAID kernel of its field-proven external RAID controller. Lets bring
quickly to stable and reliable RAID controller to the market.
Unparalleled Performance
The array controllers provide reliable data protection for desktops,
workstations and servers. They raise the standard higher performance levels with several enhancements including Intel high-performance I/O Processor, a new DDR memory architecture (DDR333) and
high performance PCI bus interconnection. SATA RAID 8/12/16/24port controller with Areca RAID 6 engine buid-in can offer extreme
performance RAID 6 function. It can concurrently compute two parity blocks and performance very similar to RAID 5. The controllers
default support 128MB ECC DDR333 SDRAM memory. The 12/16/24
ports controllers support one SODIMM socket for upgrading up to
1GB. The controllers use the Marvell 4/8 channels SATA PCI-X controller chip, which can simultaneously communicate with the host
system, and read or write data on several drives.
Unsurpassed Data Availability
As storage capacities continue to rapidly increase, user needs greater
level of disk drive fault tolerance, which can be implemented without
8
INTRODUCTION
doubling the investment in disk drives. RAID 1 can provide greater
fault tolerance, but needs double disk drives and is too costly for
most users to implement on large volume sets. User wants protection of RAID 1 or better with an implementation cost comparable to
RAID 5. The RAID 6 can offer fault tolerance greater that RAID 1 or
RAID 5 but only consumes capacity of 2 disk drives for distributed
parity data. The 8/12/16/24-port RAID controllers provide the highest RAID 6 feature to meet above requirements.
The 4/8/12/16/24-port controllers also provide RAID levels 0, 1,
(10), 3, 5, and JBOD RAID configurations. Its high data availability
and protection derives from the following capabilities: Online RAID
Capacity Expansion, Array Roaming, Online RAID Level / Stripe Size
Migration, Dynamic Volume Set Expansion, Global Online Spare, Automatic Drive Failure Detection, Automatic Failed Drive Rebuilding,
Disk Hot-Swap, Online Background Rebuilding and Instant Availability/Background Initialization.
During the controller firmware upgrade flash process, it is possible
for a problem to occur resulting in corruption of the controller firmware. With our Redundant Flash image feature the controller will
revert back to the last known version of firmware and continue operating. This reduces the risk of system failure due to firmware crash.
Easy RAID Management
SATA RAID controller build-in firmware with an embedded terminal
emulation that can access via hot key at BIOS boot-up screen. This
pre-boot manager utility can use to simplify the setup and management of RAID controller. The controller firmware also contains HTTP
browser-based program that can access through the drive ArcHttp
Proxy Server function in Windows, Linux and FreeBSD environment.
The Web browser-based RAID management allows local and remote
to create and modify RAID set, volume set, and monitor RAID status
from standard web browser.
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INTRODUCTION
1.2 Features
Adapter Architecture
• Intel IOP 80331 I/O processor (ARC-11xx series)
• Intel IOP 80332/IOP80333 I/O processor (ARC-12xx series)
• 64-bit/133MHz PCI-X Bus compatible
• PCI Express X8 compatible
• 128MB DDR333 SDRAM with ECC protection
• One SO-DIMM Socket support DDR333 SDRAM with ECC
protection, upgrade to 1GB
• An ECC or non-ECC SDRAM module using X8 or X16 devices
• Support up to 4/8/12/16/24 SATA ll drives
• Write-through or write-back cache support
• Multi-adapter support for large storage requirements
• BIOS boot support for greater fault tolerance
• BIOS PnP (plug and play) and BBS (BIOS boot specification)
support
• Areca or Intel R6 supports extreme performance RAID 6 function
• NVRAM for RAID event & transaction log
• Battery backup module (BBM) ready (Depend on M/B)
RAID Features
• RAID level 0, 1, (10), 3, 5, 6 (R6 engine inside) and JBOD
• Multiple RAID selection
• Online Array roaming
• Online RAID level/stripe size migration
• Online capacity expansion volume growth and RAID
level migration simultaneously
• Instant availability and background initialization
• Automatic drive insertion / removal detection and rebuilding
• Greater than 2TB per volume set for 64-bit LBA
• Redundant flash image for adapter availability
• Support S.M.A.R.T. NCQ and OOB Staggered Spin-up Capable
drives
Monitors/Notification
• System status indication through LED/LCD connector, HDD
activity/fault connector, and alarm buzzer
• SMTP support for email notification
• SNMP support for remote notification
• I2C Enclosure Management Ready
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INTRODUCTION
RAID Management
• Field-upgradeable firmware in flash ROM
• Ethernet port support on 12/16/24-port
In-Band Manager
• Hot key boot-up McBIOS RAID manager via BIOS
• Support controller’s API library for customer to write its own AP
• Support Command Line Interface (CLI)
• Browser-based management utility via ArcHttp Proxy Server
• Single Admin Portal (SAP) monitor utility
• Disk Stress Test (DST) utility for production in Windows
Out-of-Band Manager
• Firmware-embedded Browser-based RAID manager, SMTP
manager, SNMP agent, and Telnet function via Ethernet port
(for 12/16/24 port Adapter)
• Support controller’s API library for customer to write its own
AP(for 12/16/24 port Adapter)
• Push Button and LCD display panel
Operating System
• Windows 2000/XP/Server 2003
• Red Hat Linux
• SuSE Linux
• FreeBSD
(For latest supported OS listing visit http://www.areca.com.tw)
Internal PCI-X RAID Card Comparison (ARC-XXXX)
1110
1120
Host Bus Type
1130
1160
1170
PCI-X 133MHz
RAID 6 support
N/A
YES
YES
YES
YES
Cache Memory
128MB
128MB
One SODIMM
One SODIMM
One SODIMM
Drive Support
4 * SATA ll
8 * SATA ll
12 * SATA ll
16 * SATA ll
24 * SATA ll
SATA
SATA
SATA
SATA
SATA
Disk Connector
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INTRODUCTION
Internal PCI-X RAID Card Comparison (ARC-XXXXML)
1110ML
Host Bus Type
1120ML
1130ML
1160ML
PCI-X 133MHz
RAID 6 support
N/A
YES
YES
YES
Cache Memory
128MB
128MB
One SODIMM
One SODIMM
4 * SATA ll
8 * SATA ll
12 * SATA ll
16 * SATA ll
Drive Support
Disk Connector
SATA/Multi-lane SATA/Multi-lane SATA/Multi-lane SATA/Multi-lane
Internal PCI-Express RAID Card Comparison (ARC-XXXX)
1210
1220
RAID 6 support
N/A
YES
YES
YES
Cache Memory
128MB
128MB
One SODIMM
One SODIMM
Drive Support
4 * SATA ll
8 * SATA ll
12 * SATA ll
16 * SATA ll
SATA
SATA
SATA
SATA
Host Bus Type
Disk Connector
1230
1260
PCI-Express X8
1.3 RAID Concept
1.3.1 RAID Set
A Raid Set is a group of disk containing one or more volume sets.
It has the following features in the SATA RAID controller. A volume
Set must be created either on an existing raid set or on a group of
available individual disks (disks that are not yet a part of an raid
set). If there are pre-existing raid sets with available capacity and
enough disks for specified RAID level desired, then the volume
set will be created in the existing raid set of the user’s choice. If
physical disk of different capacity are grouped together in a raid
set, then the capacity of the smallest disk will become the effective
capacity of all the disks in the raid set.
1.3.2 Volume Set
A Volume Set is seen by the host system as a single logical device.
It is organized in a RAID level with one or more physical disks.
RAID level refers to the level of data performance and protection of
a Volume Set. A Volume Set capacity can consume all or a portion
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INTRODUCTION
of disk capacity available in a RAID Set. Multiple Volume Sets can
exist on a group of disks in a Raid Set.
In the illustration below, Volume 1 can be assigned a RAID 5 level
of operation while Volume 0 might be assigned a RAID (10) level
of operation.
1.3.3 Easy of Use Features
1.3.3.1 Instant Availability/Background Initialization
RAID 0 and RAID 1 volume set can be used immediately after the
creation. But the RAID 3 and 5 volume sets must be initialized to
generate the parity. In the Normal Initialization, the initialization
proceeds as a background task, the volume set is fully accessible
for system reads and writes. The operating system can instantly
access to the newly created arrays without requiring a reboot and
waiting the initialization complete. Furthermore, the RAID volume
set is also protected against a single disk failure while initialing.
In Fast Initialization, the initialization proceeds must be completed before the volume set ready for system accesses.
1.3.3.2 Array Roaming
The SATA RAID controller stores configuration information both in
NVRAM and on the disk drives It can protect the configuration settings in the case of a disk drive or controller failure. Array roaming allows the administrators the ability to move a completely raid
set to another system without losing RAID configuration and data
on that raid set. If a server fails to work, the raid set disk drives
can be moved to another server and inserted in any order.
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INTRODUCTION
1.3.3.3 Online Capacity Expansion
Online Capacity Expansion makes it possible to add one or more
physical drive to a volume set, while the server is in operation,
eliminating the need to store and restore after reconfigured the
raid set. When disks are added to a raid set, unused capacity is
added to the end of the raid set. Data on the existing volume
sets residing on that raid set is redistributed evenly across all the
disks. A contiguous block of unused capacity is made available on
the raid set. The unused capacity can create additional volume
set. The expansion process is illustrated as following figure.
The SATA RAID controller redistributes the original volume set
over the original and newly added disks, using the same faulttolerance configuration. The unused capacity on the expand raid
set can then be used to create an additional volume sets, with a
different fault tolerance setting if user need to change.
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INTRODUCTION
1.3.4 Online RAID Level and Stripe Size Migration
User can migrate both the RAID level and stripe size of an existing
volume set, while the server is online and the volume set is in use.
Online RAID level/stripe size migration can prove helpful during
performance tuning activities as well as in the event that additional
physical disks are added to the SATA RAID controller. For example,
in a system using two drives in RAID level 1, you could add capacity and retain fault tolerance by adding one drive. With the addition of third disk, you have the option of adding this disk to your
existing RAID logical drive and migrating from RAID level 1 to 5.
The result would be parity fault tolerance and double the available
capacity without taking the system off.
1.4 High availability
1.4.1 Creating Hot Spares
A hot spare drive is an unused online available drive, which is ready
for replacing the failure disk drive. In a RAID level 1, (10), 3, or 5
raid set, any unused online available drive installed but not belonging to a raid set can define as a hot spare drive. Hot spares permit
you to replace failed drives without powering down the system.
When SATA RAID controller detects a SATA drive failure, the system
will automatic and transparent rebuilds using hot spare drives. The
raid set will be reconfigured and rebuilt in the background, while
the SATA RAID controller continues to handle system request. During the automatic rebuild process, system activity will continue as
normal, however, the system performance and fault tolerance will
be affected.
Important:
The hot spare must have at least the
same capacity as the drive it replaces.
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INTRODUCTION
1.4.2 Hot-Swap Disk Drive Support
The SATA RAID controller has built the protection circuit to support the replacement of SATA hard disk drives without having to
shut down or reboot the system. The removable hard drive tray
can deliver “hot swappable,” fault-tolerant RAID solutions at prices
much less than the cost of conventional SCSI hard disk SATA RAID
controllers. We provide this feature for controllers to provide the
advanced fault tolerant RAID protection and “online” drive replacement.
1.4.3 Hot-Swap Disk Rebuild
A Hot-Swap function can be used to rebuild disk drives in arrays
with data redundancy such as RAID level 1, (10), 3, and 5. If a hot
spare is not available, the failed disk drive must be replaced with
a new disk drive so that the data on the failed drive can be rebuilt.
If a hot spare is available, the rebuild starts automatically when a
drive fails. The SATA RAID controller automatically and transparently rebuilds failed drives in the background with user-definable
rebuild rates. The SATA RAID controller will automatically restart
the system and the rebuild if the system is shut down or powered
off abnormally during a reconstruction procedure condition. When
a disk is Hot Swap, although the system is functionally operational,
the system may no longer be fault tolerant. Fault tolerance will be
lost until the removed drive is replaced and the rebuild operation
is completed.
1.5 Understanding RAID
RAID is an acronym for Redundant Array of Independent Disks. It is
an array of multiple independent hard disk drives that provide high
performance and fault tolerance. The SATA RAID controller implements several levels of the Berkeley RAID technology. An appropriate RAID level is selected when the volume sets are defined or created. This decision is based on disk capacity, data availability (fault
tolerance or redundancy), and disk performance. The following is the
RAID level, which support in the SATA RAID controller.
The SATA RAID controller makes the RAID implementation and the
disks’ physical configuration transparent to the host operating system. This means that the host operating system drivers and software
16
INTRODUCTION
utilities are not affected, regardless of the RAID level selected. Correct installation of the disk array and the controller requires a proper
understanding of RAID technology and the concepts.
1.5.1 RAID 0
RAID 0, also referred to as striping, writes stripping of data across
multiple disk drives instead of just one disk drive. RAID 0 does not
provide any data redundancy, but does offer the best high-speed
data throughput. RAID 0 breaks up data into smaller blocks and
then writes a block to each drive in the array. Disk striping enhances performance because multiple drives are accessed simultaneously; but the reliability of RAID Level 0 is less than any of its
member disk drives due to its lack of redundancy.
1.5.2 RAID 1
RAID 1 also known as “disk mirroring”, data written to one disk drive
is simultaneously written to another disk drive. Read performance
may be enhanced if the array controller can parallel accesses both
members of a mirrored pair. During writes, there will be a minor
performance penalty when compared to writing to a single disk. If
one drive fails, all data (and software applications) are preserved
on the other drive. RAID 1 offers extremely high data reliability, but
at the cost of doubling the required data storage capacity.
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INTRODUCTION
1.5.3 RAID 10
RAID 10 is a combination of RAID 0 and RAID 1, combing stripping
with disk mirroring. RAID Level 10 combines the fast performance
of Level 0 with the data redundancy of Level 1. In this configuration, data is distributed across several disk drives, similar to Level
0, which are a stripe across a number of mirrored sets for data
protection. RAID 10 provides the highest read/write performance
of any of the Hybrid RAID levels, but at the cost of doubling the
required data storage capacity.
1.5.4 RAID 3
RAID 3 provides disk striping and complete data redundancy though
a dedicated parity drive. RAID 3 breaks up data into smaller blocks,
calculates parity by performing an exclusive-or on the blocks, and
then writes the blocks to all but one drive in the array. The parity
data created during the exclusive-or is then written to the last drive
in the array. If a single drive fails, data is still available by com-
18
INTRODUCTION
puting the exclusive-or of the contents corresponding strips of the
surviving member disk. RAID-3 is best for applications that require
very fast data- transfer rates or long data blocks.
1.5.5 RAID 5
RAID 5 is sometimes called striping with parity at byte level. In
RAID 5, the parity information is written to all of the drives in the
controllers rather than concentrated on a dedicated parity disk. If
one drive in the system fails, the parity information can be used to
reconstruct the data from that drive. All drives in the array system
can be used to seek operation at the same time, greatly increasing
the performance of the RAID system This relieves the write bottleneck that characterizes RAID 4, and is the primary reason that
RAID 5 is more often implemented in RAID arrays.
1.5.6 RAID 6
RAID 6 provides highest reliability, but not widely used. Similar to
RAID 5, but does two different parity computations or the same
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INTRODUCTION
computation on overlapping subsets of the data. The RAID 6 can
offer fault tolerance greater that RAID 1 or RAID 5 but only consumes the capacity of 2 disk drives for distributed parity data.
RAID 6 is an extension of RAID 5 that uses a second independent
distributed parity scheme. Data is striped on a block level across a
set of drives, and then a second set of parity is calculated and written across all of the drives.
20
INTRODUCTION
Summary of RAID Levels
SATA RAID controller supports RAID Levels 0, 1, (10), 3, 5 and 6. Table
below provides a summary of RAID levels.
Features and Performance
RAID
Level
Description
0
1
10
3
5
6
Min.
Drives
Data
Reliability
Data
Transfer
Rate
I/O Request
Rates
Also known as stripping
Data distributed across multiple drives in
the array. There is no data protection
1
No data
Protection
Very High
Very High for
Both Reads and Writes
Also known as mirroring
All data replicated on N
Separated disks. N is almost always 2.
This is a high availability
Solution, but due to the 100% duplication,
it is also a costly solution.
2
Lower
than RAID
6;
Higher
than
RAID 3,5
Reads are
higher
Than a
single disk;
Reads are twice faster
than a single disk;
Also known Block-Interleaved Parity.
Data and parity information is subdivided
and distributed across all disk. Parity must
be the equal to the smallest disk capacity
in the array. Parity information normally
stored on a dedicated parity disk.
3
Lower
than RAID
6;
Higher
than
RAID 3,5
Transfer
rates more
similar
to RAID
1 than
RAID 0
Reads are twice faster
than a single disk;
Also known Bit-Interleaved Parity.
Data and parity information is subdivided
and distributed across all disk. Parity must
be the equal to the smallest disk capacity
in the array. Parity information normally
stored on a dedicated parity disk.
3
Lower
than RAID
1, (10),
6;
Reads are
similar to
RAID 0;
Reads are similar twice
faster than a single
disk;
Writes are
slower
than a
single disk
Writes are similar to a
single disk.
Also known Block-Interleaved Distributed
Parity.
Data and parity information is subdivided
and distributed across all disk. Parity must
be the equal to the smallest disk capacity
in the array. Parity information normally
stored on a dedicated parity disk.
3
Reads are
similar to
RAID 0;
Reads are similar to
RAID 0;
RAID 6 provides highest reliability, but not
widely used. Similar to RAID 5, but does
two different parity computations or the
same computation on overlapping subsets
of the data. The RAID 6 can offer fault tolerance greater that RAID 1 or RAID 5 but
only consumes the capacity of 2 disk drives
for distributed parity data.
4
Higher
than a
single
drive
Lower
than RAID
1, (10),
6;
Higher
than a
single
drive
Writes
similar to a
single disk
Writes are
slower
than a
single disk
Write are similar to a
single disk.
Writes are similar to a
single disk.
Writes are slower than
a single disk.
highest
reliability
21
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
2. Hardware Installation
This section describes the procedures for installing ARC-11xx/12xx series.
2.1 Before Your begin Installation
Thanks for purchase SATA RAID Controller as your RAID data storage
and management system. This user guide gives simple and step-bystep instructions for installing and configuring your SATA RAID Controller. To ensure your personal safety and protect your equipment
and data, carefully read the information that follows the package
content list before you begin installing.
Package Contents
If your package is missing any of the items listed below, contact
your local dealer before proceeding with installation (disk drives
and disk mounting brackets are not included):
ARC-11xx Series SATA RAID Controller
•
•
•
•
1 x PCI-X SATA RAID Controller in an ESD-protective bag
4/8/12/16/24 x SATA interface cables (one per port)
1 x CD
1 x User Manual
ARC-11xxML Series SATA RAID Controller
• 1 x PCI-X SATA RAID Controller in an ESD-protective bag
• 1 x CD
• 1 x User Manual
ARC-12xx Series SATA RAID Controller
•
•
•
•
22
1 x PCI-Express SATA RAID Controller in an ESD-protective bag
4/8/12/16/24 x SATA interface cables (one per port)
1 x Installation CD
1 x User Manual
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
2.2 Board Layout
Follow the instruction below to install a PCI RAID Card into your
PC/ Server.
Figure 2-1 ARC-1110/1120 (4/8-port PCI-X SATA RAID Controller)
Figure 2-2 ARC-1210/1220 (4/8-port PCI-Express SATA RAID Controller)
23
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
Figure 2-3 ARC-1100ML/1120ML (4/8-port PCI-X SATA RAID Controller)
Figure 2-4 ARC-1130/1160 (12/16-port PCI-X SATA RAID Controller)
24
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
Figure 2-5 ARC-1130ML/1160ML (12/16-port PCI-X SATA RAID
Controller)
Figure 2-6 ARC-1230/1260 (12/16-port PCI-EXpress SATA RAID
Controller)
25
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
Figure 2-5 ARC-1170 (24-port PCI-X SATA RAID Controller)
Tools Required
An ESD grounding strap or mat Standard hand tools to open your
system’s case and install the SATA RAID Controller into an available
PCI expansion slot.
System Requirement
The controller can be installed in a universal PCI slot and requires
a motherboard that:
ARC-11xx series
• Complies with the PCI Revision 2.3 32/64-bit 33/66MHz, 3.3V.
• Complies with the PCI-X 32/64-bit 66/100/133 MHz, 3.3V.
ARC-12xx series
• Complies with the PCI-Express X8
• The SATA RAID controller may be connected to up to 4, 8, 12, 16,
and 24 SATA ll hard drives by the supplied cables.
• An optional cables to connect the drive activity LED and fault LED
on the enclosure to the PCI SATA RAID controller.
Installation Tools
The following items may be needed to assist with installing the
26
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
SATA RAID adapter into an available PCI expansion slot.
• Small screwdriver
• Host system hardware manuals and manuals for disk or enclosure being installed.
Personal Safety Information
To ensure you personal safety, as well as the safety of your equipment:
• Always wear a grounded strap or work on an ESD-protective
mat.
• Before opening the system cabinet, turn off power switches and
unplug the power cords. Do no reconnect the power cords until you
have replaced the covers.
Warning:
High voltages may be found inside computer equipment. Before installing any of the hardware in this package or removing the protective covers of any computer equipment, turn off power switches and disconnect
power cords. Do not reconnect the power cords until you have replaced
the covers.
Electrostatic Discharge
Static electricity can be a serious danger to the electronic components on this SATA RAID adapter. To avoid damage caused by
electrostatic discharge, observe the following precautions:
• Don’t remove the SATA RAID controller from its anti-static packaging until you are ready to install it into a computer case.
• Handle the SATA RAID Controller by its edges or by the mounting
metal bracket at its two ends.
• Before you handle the SATA RAID controller in any way, touch a
grounded, anti-static surface, such as an unpainted portion of the
system chassis, for a few seconds to discharge any built-up static
electricity.
2.3 Installation
Follow the instruction below to install a PCI RAID Card into your
PC/ Server.
27
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
Step 1. Unpack
Unpack and remove the PCI RAID card from the package. Inspect
it carefully, if anything is missing or damaged, contact your local
dealer.
Step 2. Power PC/Server Off
Turn off computer and remove the AC power cord. Remove the
system’s cover. See the computer system documentation for instruction.
Step 3. Install the PCI RAID Cards
To install the SATA RAID adapter, remove the mounting screw and
existing bracket from the rear panel behind the selected PCI slot.
Align the gold-fingered edge on the card with the selected PCI expansion slot . Press down gently but firmly to ensure that the card
is properly seated in the slot, as shown in Figure 2-4. Then screw
the bracket into the computer chassis. The card can fit in both PCI
and PCI-X slots. It can get the best performance while the SATA
RAID controller runs in the 64-bit/133MHz PCI-X slot.
Figure 2-7 Insert PCI RAID Card into a PCI slot
28
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
Step 5. Mount the Cages or Drives
Remove the front bezel from the computer chassis and install the
Cages or SATA Drives in the computer chassis. Loading drives to
the drive tray if cages are installed. Be sure that the power is connected to either the Cage backplane or the individual drives.
Figure 2-8 Mount Cages & Drives
Step 6 Connect the SATA cable
Model ARC-11XX and ARC-12XX have dual-layer SATA internal connector. If you have not already connected your SATA cables, use
the cables included with your kit to connect your controller to the
SATA hard drives.
The cable connectors are all identical, so it does not matter which
end you connect to your controller or SATA hard drive or cage
backplane SATA connector.
Figure 2-9 SATA Cable
29
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
Step 6-2. Connect the Multi-lance cable
Model ARC-11XX-ML have multi-lance internal connector, each of
which can support up to four SATA drives. These adapters can be
installed in a server RAID enclosure with InfiniBand 4X connectors
(SFF-8470) backplane.
If you have not already connected your Multi-lance cables, use the
cables included with your kit to connect your controller to the Multilance connector backplane. The cable connectors are all identical,
so it does not matter which end you connect to your controller or
Multi-lance backplane connector. The following diagram shows the
picture of Multi-lane cable.
Unpack and remove the PCI RAID cards. Inspect it carefully. If anything is missing or damaged, contact your local dealer.
Figure 2-10 Multi-Lance Cable
Step 7 Install the LED cable (optional)
SATA RAID controller provides three kinds of LED status connector.
A: Global indicator connector, which lights when any drive is active.
B: Individual LED indicators connector, for each channel drive.
C: I2C connector, for SATA proprietary backplane enclosure.
The following diagram and discription will show each type of connector.
Note:
A cable for the global indicator comes with your
computer system. Cables for the individual drive
LEDs may come with a drive cage, or you may
need to purchase them.
30
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
A: Global Indicator Connector
If your system wants to show the global LED in a two-pin LED
drive activity connector, use the fist two pin of the activity LED
connector. The following diagram shows the connector and setting.
Figure 2-11, ARC1110/1120/1210/1220
global LED connection
for Computer Case.
Figure 2-12, ARC1130/1160/1230/1260
global LED connection
for Computer Case.
Figure 2-13, ARC1170/1270 global LED
connection for Computer Case.
31
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
B: Individual LED indicators connector
Insert the cable from drive activity LED or fault LED connector on
backplane of cage to the respective connector on the SATA RAID
controller. The following table illustrate the fault/activity LED.
LED
Normal Status
Disk Activity
When the activity LED is illuminated, there is I/O activity
on that disk drive. When the
LED is dark, there is no activity on that disk drive.
N/A
Fault LED
When the fault LED is solid
illuminated, there is no disk
present.
When the Red LED is slow
blinking (2 times/sec), that disk
drive has failed and should be
hot-swaed immediately. When
the Blue LED is illuminated adn
Red LED is fast blinking (10
times/sec) there is rebuilding
acitivity on that disk drive.
Figure 2-14, ARC1110/1120/1210/1220
Individual LED indicators connector, for each
channel drive.
Figure 2-15, ARC1130/1160/1230/1260
Individual LED indicators connector, for each
channel drive.
32
Problem Indication
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
Figure 2-16, ARC1170/1270 Individual LED
indicators connector, for
each channel drive.
C: I2C Connector
You can also connect the I2C interface to the SATA proprietary
backplane enclosure. This can reduce the number of activity LED
or fault LED cable. The I2C interface can also cascade to another
SATA backplane enclosure for the additional channel status display.
Figure 2-17, Activity LED I2C connector connected between SATA
RAID Controller & SATA HDD Cage backplane.
33
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
Figure 2-18,
Activity LED I2C
connector connected between
SATA RAID Controller & 2 SATA
HDD Cages backplane.
Step 8. Power up the System
Safety checks the installation, reinstall the computer cover and
reconnect the power cord cables. Turn on the AC power switch at
the rear of the computer then press the power button at the front
of the host computer.
Step 9. Configure volume set
The adapter configures the RAID function through the McBIOS
RAID manager. Please reference the Chapter 3 McBIOS RAID
Manager for the detail configuration. The RAID configuration
can also be configured by McRAID storage manager. After ArcHttp
proxy server be installed. Please refernce the Chapter 6 Web
Browser-Based Configuration.
Step 10. Install the controller driver
In a new system:
• Driver installation usually takes places as part of operating system installation. Please reference the Chapter 4 Diver Installation
34
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
for the detail installation procedure.
In an existing system:
• Install the controller driver to the existing operating system.
Please reference the Chapter 4 Driver Installation for the detail
installation procedure.
Note:
Look for further release version driver of Linux and FreeBSD:
• See the Driver Library at http://www.areca.com.tw
Step 11. Install ArcHttp proxy Server
The SATA RAID controller firmware has embedded the web-browser
RAID manager and SNMP agent function. ArcHttp Proxy driver will
enable it. The Browser-based RAID manager provides all of the
creation, management, and monitor SATA RAID controller status.
Please reference the Chapter 5 for the detail ArcHtt proxy server
installation. The SNM agent function please reference appendix C.
Step 12. Determining the Boot sequences
SATA RAID is a bootable controller. If your system already contains a bootable device with an installed operating system, you can
set up your system to boot a second operating system from the
new controller. To add a second bootable controller, you may need
to enter Setup and change the device boot sequence so that the
SATA RAID controller heads the list. If system BIOS Setup does not
allow this change, your system may not be configurable to allow
the SATA RAID controller to act as a second boot device.
Summary Of the installation
The flow chart below describes the installation procedures for SATA
RAID controller. These procedures included hardware installation, the creation and configuration of a RAID volume through the
McBIOS, OS installation and installation of SATA RAID controller
software.
35
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
Configuration Utility
McBIOS RAID Manager
Operating System supported
OS-Independent
McRAID Storage Manager
(Via Archttp proxy server)
Windows 2000/XP/2003, Linux and
FreeBSD
SAP Monitor
(Single Admin portal to scan for multiple RAID units in the network, Via
ArcHttp Proxy Server)
Windows 2000/XP/2003
Java based for Windows.
Linux and FreeBSD (available in Q2,
2005)
SNMP Manager Console Integration
(Via ArcHttp Proxy Server)
Windows 2000/XP/2003, Linux.
FreeBSD (available in Q2, 2005)
The software components configure and monitor the SATA RAID
controller via ArcHttp Proxy Server.
McRAID Storage Manager
Launching the Firmware-embedded web browser McRAID Storage
manager, you need first to install the ArcHttp Proxy Server in your
server system. If you need additional information about installation
and start-up the function, see the McRAID Storage Manager section
in the chapter 6.
SNMP Manager Console Integration
Launching the Firmware-embedded SNMP agent, you need first to
install the ArcHttp Proxy Server in your server system. If you need
additional information about installation and start-up the function,
see the SNMP operation & Installation section in the Appendix-C.
36
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
Single Admin Portal (SAP) Monitor
Scan for multiple RAID units in the network and monitor the controller set status. It also includes disks stress test utility to kick out
disks meeting marginal spec before the RAID unit is actually put
on-line for real business.
For additional information, see the Utility manual in the package
CD-ROM or download from the web site http://www.areca.com.tw.
37
BIOS CONFIGURATION
3. McBIOS RAID Manager
The mainboard BIOS automatically configures the SATA RAID controller
parameter at power-up;
• I/O Port Address
• Interrupt channel(IRQ)
• Adapter ROM Base Address
Use McBIOS to further configure the SATA RAID adapter to suit your
operating system.
3.1 Starting the McBIOS RAID Manager
This section explains how to use the McBIOS Setup Utility to configure your RAID system. The BIOS Setup Utility is designed to be
user-friendly. It is a menu-driven program, residing in the firmware, which allows you to scroll through its various sub-menus and
select among the predetermined choices.
When starting the system with an SATA RAID controller installed,
the start-up sequence displays the following message appears on
your monitor:







The McBIOS configuration manager message remains on your
screen for about nine seconds, giving you time to start the configure menu by pressing Tab or F6. If you do not wish to enter configuration menu, press <ESC> to skip configuration. When activated, the McBIOS window appears showing a selection dialog box
listing the SATA RAID controller that are installed in the system.
The legend at the bottom of the screen shows you what keys are
enabled for the windows.
38
BIOS CONFIGURATION





Use Up and Down arrow keys to select the adapter you want to
configure. While a desired adapter is highlighted, press the <Enter> key to enter the Main Menu of the McBIOS Configuration Utility.












3.2 McBIOS Configuration manager
The McBIOS configuration utility is firmware-based and uses to configure raid sets and volume sets. Because the utility resides in the
SATA RAID controller firmware, its operation is independent of the
operating systems on your computer. Use this utility to:
• Create raid set,
• Expand raid set,
39
BIOS CONFIGURATION
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Define volume set,
Add physical drive,
Modify volume set,
Modify RAID level/stripe size,
Define pass-through disk drives,
Modify system function, and
Designate drives as hot spares.
3.3 Configuring Raid Sets and Volume Sets
You can configure raid sets and volume sets with McBIOS RAID
manager using Quick Volume/Raid Setup automatically, or Raid
Set/Volume Set Function manually configuration method. Each
configuration method requires a different level of user input. The
general flow of operations for raid set and volume set configuration
is:
Step
Action
1
Designate hot spares/pass-through (optional).
2
Choose a configuration method.
3
Create raid sets using the available physical drives.
4
Define volume sets using the space in the raid set.
5
Initialize the volume sets (logical drives) and use volume sets in the
host OS.
3.4 Designating Drives as Hot Spares
All unused disk drive that is not part of a raid set can be created
as a Hot Spare. The Quick Volume/Raid Setup configuration will
automatically add the spare disk drive with the raid level for user
to select. For the Raid Set Function configuration, user can use the
Create Hot Spare option to define the hot spare disk drive.
A Hot Spare disk drive can be created when you choose the Create Hot Spare option in the Raid Set Function, all unused physical
devices connected to the current controller appear:
Select the target disk by clicking on the appropriate check box.
Press the Enter key to select a disk drive, and press Yes in the
Create Hot Spare to designate it as a hot spare.
40
BIOS CONFIGURATION
3.5 Using Quick Volume /Raid Setup Configuration
In Quick Volume /Raid Setup Configuration, it collects all drives in
the tray and include them in a raid set. The raid set you create is
associated with exactly one volume set, and you can modify the
default RAID level, stripe size, and capacity of the volume set. Designating Drives as Hot Spares will also show in the raid level selection option. The volume set default settings will be:
Parameter
Setting
Volume Name
Volume Set # 00
SCSI Channel/SCSI ID/SCSI LUN
0/0/0
Cache Mode
Write Back
Tag Queuing
Yes
The default setting values can be changed after configuration is
complete. Follow the steps below to create arrays using Quick Volume /Raid Setup Configuration:
Step
Action
1
Choose Quick Volume /Raid Setup from the main menu. The available
RAID levels with hot spare for the current volume set drive are displayed.
2
Recommend use drives have same capacity in a specific array. If you use
drives with different capacities in an array, all drives in the raid set will
select the lowest capacity of the drive in the raid set.
The numbers of physical drives in a specific array determine the RAID
levels that can be implemented with the array.
RAID 0 requires 1 or more physical drives
RAID 1 requires at least 2 physical drives
RAID 1+Spare requires at least 3 physical drives
RAID 3 requires at least 3 physical drives
RAID 5 requires at least 3 physical drives
RAID 3 +Spare requires at least 4 physical drives
RAID 5 + Spare requires at least 4 physical drives
RAID 6 requires at least 4 physical drives
RAID 6 + Spare requires at least 5 physical drives
Highlight RAID level for the volume set and press Enter key to confirm.
3
Set the capacity size for the current volume set. After Highlight RAID
level and press Enter key.
The selected capacity for the current volume set is displayed. Using the
UP and DOWN arrow key to create the current volume set capacity size
and press Enter key to confirm. The available stripe sizes for the current
volume set are displayed.
41
BIOS CONFIGURATION
4
Using UP and DOWN arrow key to select the current volume set stripe
size and press Enter key to confirm it. This parameter specifies the size
of the stripes written to each disk in a RAID 0, 1, 5 or 6 Volume Set. You
can set the stripe size to 4 KB, 8 KB, 16 KB, 32 KB, 64 KB, or 128 KB.
A larger stripe size provides better-read performance, especially if your
computer does mostly sequential reads. However, if you are sure that
your computer does random read requests more often, choose a small
stripe size.
5
When you are finished defining the volume set, press Enter key to confirm the Quick Volume And Raid Set Setup function.
6
Foreground (Fast Completion) Press Enter key to define fast initialization
or Selected the Background (Instant Available). In the background Initialization, the initialization proceeds as a background task, the volume
set is fully accessible for system reads and writes. The operating system
can instantly access to the newly created arrays without requiring a
reboot and waiting the initialization complete. In Fast Initialization, the
initialization proceeds must be completed before the volume set ready
for system accesses.
7
Initialize the volume set you have just configured
8
If you need to add additional volume set, using main menu Create Volume Set function
3.6 Using Raid Set/Volume Set Function
Method
In Raid Set Function, you can use the Create Raid Set function to
generate the new raid set. In Volume Set Function, you can use the
Create Volume Set function to generate its associated volume set
and parameters.
If the current controller has unused physical devices connected,
you can choose the Create Hot Spare option in the Raid Set Function to define a global hot spare. Select this method to configure
new raid sets and volume sets. The Raid Set/Volume Set Function
configuration option allows you to associate volume set with partial
and full raid set.
42
BIOS CONFIGURATION
Step
Action
1
To setup the Hot Spare (option), choose Raid Set Function from the
main menu. Select the Create Hot Spare and press Enter key to set
the Hot Spare.
2
Choose Raid Set Function from the main menu. Select the Create Raid
Set and press Enter key.
3
Select a Drive For Raid Set window is displayed showing the IDE drive
connected to the current controller.
4
Press UP and DOWN arrow keys to select specific physical drives. Press
the Enter key to associate the selected physical drive with the current
raid set.
Recommend use drives has same capacity in a specific raid set. If you
use drives with different capacities in an array, all drives in the raid set
will select the lowest capacity of the drive in the raid set.
The numbers of physical drives in a specific raid set determine the RAID
levels that can be implemented with the raid set.
RAID 0 requires 1 or more physical drives per raid set.
RAID 1 requires at least 2 physical drives per raid set.
RAID 3 requires at least 3 physical drives per raid set.
RAID 5 requires at least 3 physical drives per raid set.
RAID 6 requires at least 4 physical drives per raid set.
5
After adding physical drives to the current raid set as desired, press Yes
to confirm the Create Raid Set function.
6
An Edit The Raid Set Name dialog box appears. Enter 1 to 15 alphanumeric characters to define a unique identifier for a raid set. The default
raid set name will always appear as Raid Set. #. Press Enter to finish the
name editing.
7
Press Enter key when you are finished creating the current raid set. To
continue defining another raid set, repeat step 3. To begin volume set
configuration, go to step 8.
8
Choose Volume Set Function from the Main menu. Select the Create
Volume Set and press Enter key.
9
Choose one raid set from the Create Volume From Raid Set window.
Press Enter key to confirm it.
10
Foreground (Fast Completion) Press Enter key to define fast initialization
or Selected the Background (Instant Available). In the background Initialization, the initialization proceeds as a background task, the volume
set is fully accessible for system reads and writes. The operating system
can instantly access to the newly created arrays without requiring a
reboot and waiting the initialization complete. In Fast Initialization, the
initialization proceeds must be completed before the volume set ready
for system accesses.
11
If space remains in the raid set, the next volume set can be configured.
Repeat steps 8 to 10 to configure another volume set.
43
BIOS CONFIGURATION
Note:
User can use this method to examine the existing configuration. Modify volume set configuration method
provides the same functions as create volume set configuration method. In volume set function, you can use
the modify volume set function to modify the volume set
parameters except the capacity size:
3.7 Main Menu
The main menu shows all function that enables the customer to
execute actions by clicking on the appropriate link.


Note:
The manufacture default password is set
at 0000, this password can be modify by selected the
Change Password
in the section of Raid
System Function.













Option
44
Description
Quick Volume/Raid Setup
Create a default configuration which based on numbers of physical disk installed
Raid Set Function
Create a customized raid set
Volume Set Function
Create a customized volume set
Physical Drives
View individual disk information
Raid System Function
Setting the raid system configuration
Ethernet Configuration
Ethernet LAN setting (ARC-1x30/1x60/1x70 only)
View System Events
Record all system events in the buffer
Clear Event Buffer
Clear all event buffer information
Hardware Monitor
Show all system environment status
System Information
View the controller information
BIOS CONFIGURATION
This password option allows user to set or clear the raid controller’s
password protection feature. Once the password has been set, the
user can only monitor and configure the raid controller by providing
the correct password. The password is used to protect the internal
RAID controller from unauthorized entry. The controller will check
the password only when entering the Main menu from the initial
screen. The RAID controller will automatically go back to the initial
screen when it does not receive any command in twenty seconds.
3.7.1 Quick Volume/RAID Setup
Quick Volume/RAID Setup is the fastest way to prepare a raid set
and volume set. It only needs a few keystrokes to complete it.
Although disk drives of different capacity may be used in the raid
set, it will use the smallest capacity of disk drive as the capacity
of all disk drives in the raid set. The Quick Volume/RAID Setup
option creates a raid set with the following properties:
1. All of the physical drives are contained in a raid set.
2. The raid levels associated with hot spare, capacity, and stripe
size are selected during the configuration process.
3. A single volume set is created and consumed all or a portion
of the disk capacity available in this raid set.
4. If you need to add additional volume set, using main menu
Create Volume set function.
The total physical drives in a specific raid set determine the RAID
levels that can be implemented with the raid set. Press the Quick
Volume/RAID Setup from the main menu; all possible RAID
levels screen will be displayed.





 

 

 




 



45
BIOS CONFIGURATION
A single volume set is created and consumed all or a portion of
the disk capacity available in this raid set. Define the capacity of
volume set in the Available Capacity popup. The default value for
the volume set is displayed in the selected capacity. To enter a
value less than the available capacity, type the value and press
the Enter key to accept this value. If it only use part of the raid
set capacity, you can use the Create Volume Set option to define another volume sets







 

 

 




 



Stripe size This parameter sets the size of the stripe written to
each disk in a RAID 0, 1, 3, or 5 logical drive. You can set the
stripe size to 4 KB, 8 KB, 16 KB, 32 KB, 64 KB, or 128 KB.
A larger stripe size produces better-read performance, especially
if your computer does mostly sequential reads. However, if you
are sure that your computer does random reads more often, select a small stripe size.







 

 


 







 






46
BIOS CONFIGURATION
Press the Yes key in the Create Vol/Raid Set dialog box, the raid
set and volume set will start to initialize it.







 


 



 








 






Select Foreground (Faster Completion) or Background (Instant
Available) for initialization.







 



 




 









 






3.7.2 Raid Set Function
User manual configuration can complete control of the raid set
setting, but it will take longer to complete than the Quick Volume/Raid Setup configuration. Select the Raid Set Function to
manually configure the raid set for the first time or deletes existing raid set and reconfigures the raid set.
47
BIOS CONFIGURATION














3.7.2.1 Create Raid Set
To define raid set, follow the procedure below:
1. Select Raid Set Function from the main menu.
2. Select Create Raid Set option from the Raid Set Function
dialog box.
3. A Select IDE Drive For Raid Set window is displayed showing
the IDE drive connected to the current controller. Press the UP
and DOWN arrow keys to select specific physical drives. Press
the Enter key to associate the selected physical drive with the
current raid set. Repeat this step, as many disk drives as user
want to add in a single raid set.
To finish selecting IDE drives For Raid Set, press Esc key. A
Create Raid Set confirmation screen appears, Press Yes key to
confirm it.









 
















48
BIOS CONFIGURATION
4. An Edit The Raid Set Name dialog box appears. Enter 1 to 15
alphanumeric characters to define a unique identifier for a raid
set. The default raid set name will always appear as Raid Set. #.









 











 






3.7.2.2 Delete Raid Set
To change a raid set, you should first delete it and re-create the
raid set. To delete a raid set, select the raid set number that
user want to delete in the Select Raid Set to Delete screen. The
Delete Raid Set dialog box appears, then press Yes key to delete it.












 

 











3.7.2.3 Expand Raid Set
Instead of deleting a raid set and recreating it with additional
disk drives, the Expand Raid Set function allows the users to add
disk drive to the raid set that was created.
49
BIOS CONFIGURATION



























To expand a raid set:
Click on Expand Raid Set option. If there is an available disk,
then the Select IDE Drives For Raid Set Expansion screen appears.
Select the target Raid Set by clicking on the appropriate radial
button. Select the target disk by clicking on the appropriate
check box.
Presses Yes key to start expand the raid set.
The new add capacity will be define one or more volume sets.
Follow the instruction presented in the Volume Set Function to
create the volume set’s.
Note:
1. Once the Expand Raid Set process has
started, user cannot stop it. The process must
be completed.
2. If a disk drive fails during raid set expansion and a hot spare is available, an auto
rebuild operation will occur after the raid set
expansion completes.
• Migrating
50
BIOS CONFIGURATION






























Migrating occurs when a disk is added to a Raid Set. Migration
status is displayed in the raid status area of the Raid Set information when a disk is added to a raid set. Migrating status is
also displayed in the associated volume status area of the Volume Set Information when a disk is added to a raid set.
3.7.2.4 Activate Incomplete Raid Set
The following screen is the Raid Set Information after one of its
disk drive has removed in the power off state.











 

















When one of the disk drive is removed in power off state, the
raid set state will change to Incomplete State. If user wants to
continue to work, when the SATA RAID controller is power on.
User can use the Activate Raid Set option to active the raid set.
After user complete the function, the Raid State will change to
Degraded Mode.
51
BIOS CONFIGURATION
3.7.2.5 Create Hot Spare



























When you choose the Create Hot Spare option in the Raid Set
Function, all unused physical devices connected to the current
controller appear:
Select the target disk by clicking on the appropriate check box.
Press the Enter key to select a disk drive and press Yes in the
Create Hot Spare to designate it as a hot spare.
The create Hot Spare option gives you the ability to define a
global hot spare.
3.7.2.6 Delete Hot Spare
Select the target Hot Spare disk to delete by clicking on the appropriate check box.
Press the Enter keys to select a disk drive, and press Yes in the
Delete Hot Spare to delete the hot spare.



























52
BIOS CONFIGURATION
3.7.2.7 Raid Set Information
To display Raid Set information, move the cursor bar to the
desired Raid Set number, then press Enter key. The Raid Set
Information will show as above.
You can only view the information of this Raid Set.






























3.7.3 Volume Set Function





















A Volume Set is seen by the host system as a single logical device. It is organized in a RAID level with one or more physical
disks. RAID level refers to the level of data performance and
protection of a Volume Set. A Volume Set capacity can consume
all or a portion of the disk capacity available in a Raid Set. Multiple Volume Sets can exist on a group of disks in a Raid Set.
Additional Volume Sets created in a specified Raid Set will reside
53
BIOS CONFIGURATION
on all the physical disks in the Raid Set. Thus each Volume Set on
the Raid Set will have its data spread evenly across all the disks
in the Raid Set.
3.7.3.1 Create Volume Set
1. Volume sets of different RAID levels may coexist on the same
raid set.
2. Up to 16 volume sets in a raid set can be created by the
SATA RAID controller.
3. The maximum addressable size of a single volume set is 2
TB(32-bit mode).
To create a volume set, follow the following steps:
1. Select the Volume Set Function from the Main menu.
2. Choose the Create Volume Set from Volume Set Functions
dialog box screen.
3. The Create Volume From Raid Set dialog box appears. This
screen displays the existing arranged raid sets. Select the raid
set number and press Enter key. The Volume Creation is displayed in the screen.














 








4. A window with a summary of the current volume set’s settings. The “Volume Creation” option allows user to select the
Volume name, capacity, RAID level, strip size, SCSI ID/LUN,
Cache mode and tag queuing. User can modify the default values in this screen; the modification procedures are at 3.5.3.3
section.
54
BIOS CONFIGURATION
















 





 
 
 



5. After completing the modification of the volume set, press Esc
key to confirm it. A Fast Initialization screen is presented.
• Select Foreground(Fast Completion) for Fast Initialization of
the selected volume set.
• Select Background(Instant Available) for Normal Initialization
of the selected volume set.

















 









 
 



6. Repeat steps 3 to 5 to create additional volume sets.
7. The initialization percentage of volume set will be displayed at
the button line.
55
BIOS CONFIGURATION
• Volume Name
















 









 
 
 



The default volume name will always appear as Volume Set.
#. You can rename the volume set name providing it does not
exceed the 15 characters limit.
• Raid Level




























 

 






Set the RAID level for the Volume Set. Highlight Raid Level and
press <Enter>.
The available RAID levels for the current Volume Set are displayed. Select a RAID level and press Enter key to confirm.
56
BIOS CONFIGURATION
• Capacity



















 







 
 



The maximum volume size is default in the first setting. Enter
the appropriate volume size to fit your application. The capacity
can also increase or decrease by the UP and DOWN arrow key.
Each volume set has a selected capacity which is less than or
equal to the total capacity of the raid set on which it resides.
• Strip Size





 










 





 
 
 



This parameter sets the size of the segment written to each
disk in a RAID 0, 1, 3, or 5 logical drive. You can set the stripe
size to 4 KB, 8 KB, 16 KB, 32 KB, 64 KB, or 128 KB.
57
BIOS CONFIGURATION
• SCSI Channel





 










 





 
 
 



The SATA RAID controller function is simulated to the SCSI
RAID controller. The host bus is represented to the SCSI channel. Choose the SCSI Channel. A Select SCSI Channel dialog
box appears, select the channel number and press Enter key to
confirm it.
• SCSI ID

















 








 
 



Each SCSI device attached to the SCSI card, as well as the
card itself, must be assigned a unique SCSI ID number. A SCSI
channel can connect up to 15 devices. The SATA RAID controller
is as a lots of large SCSI device. We should assign an ID from a
list of SCSI IDs.
58
BIOS CONFIGURATION
• SCSI LUN


























 
 



Each SCSI ID can support up to 8 LUNs. Most SCSI controller
treats each LUN like a SCSI disk.
• Cache Mode





 










 





 
 
 



User can set the cache mode to: Write-Through Cache or WriteBack Cache.
• Tag Queuing
59
BIOS CONFIGURATION

















 






 
 
 



The Enabled option is useful for enhancing overall system
performance under multi-tasking operating systems. The Command Tag (Drive Channel) function controls the SCSI command tag queuing support for each drive channel. This function should normally remain enabled. Disable this function only
when using older SCSI drives that do not support command tag
queuing.
3.7.3.2 Delete Volume Set
To delete Volume set from raid set system function, move the
cursor bar to the Volume Set Functions menu and select the
Delete Volume Set item, then press Enter key. The Volume Set
Functions menu will show all Raid Set # item. Move the cursor
bar to an RAID Set number, then press Enter key to show all
Volume Set # in the raid set. Move cursor to the deleted Volume
Set number, press Enter key to delete it.



 






















60
BIOS CONFIGURATION
3.7.3.3 Modify Volume Set





















Use this option to modify volume set configuration. To modify
Volume Set values from Raid Set system function, move the cursor bar to the Volume Set Functions menu and select the Modify
Volume Set item, then press Enter key. The Volume Set Functions menu will show all Raid Set number items. Move the cursor
bar to an Raid Set number item, then press Enter key to show
all Volume Set item Select the Volume Set from the list you
which to change, press Enter key to modify it.



 

 



















 
 




As shown in the following can be modified at this screen. Choose
this option to display the properties of the selected Volume Set;
you can modify all values except the capacity.
61
BIOS CONFIGURATION
• Volume Growth
Use this raid set expands to expand a raid set, when a disk is
added to your system. The expand capacity can use to enlarge
the volume set size or create another volume set. The modify
volume set function can support the volume set expansion
function. To expand volume set capacity value from raid set
system function, move the cursor bar to the volume set volume
capacity item and entry the capacity size. Tick on the Confirm
The Operation and click on the Submit button to complete the
action. The volume set start to expand.
• Volume Set Migration


















 















Migrating occurs when a volume set is migrating from one RAID
level to another, a Volume set strip size changes, or when a disk
is added to a Raid Set. Migration status is displayed in the volume status area of the Volume Set Information when one RAID
level to another, a Volume set strip size changes or when a disk
is added to a raid set.
62
BIOS CONFIGURATION
3.7.3.4 Check Volume Set



 








  

 










Use this option to verify the correctness of the redundant data
in a volume set. For example, in a system with dedicated parity,
volume set check means computing the parity of the data disk
drives and comparing the results to the contents of the dedicated parity disk drive. To check Volume Set from Raid Set system
function, move the cursor bar to the Volume Set Functions menu
and select the Check Volume Set item, then press Enter key.
The Volume Set Functions menu will show all Raid Set number
items. Move the cursor bar to an Raid Set number item, then
press Enter key to show all Volume Set item Select the Volume
Set from the list you which to check, press Enter key to select
it. After completing the selection, the confirmation screen appears, presses Yes to start check.
3.7.3.5 Stop Volume Set Check
Use this option to stop all the Check Volume Set function.
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BIOS CONFIGURATION
3.7.3.6 Display Volume Set Info.





















To display Volume Set information, move the cursor bar to the
desired Volume Set number, then press Enter key. The Volume
Set Information will show as following. You can only view the
information of this Volume Set.


















 















64
BIOS CONFIGURATION
3.7.4 Physical Drives





















Choose this option from the Main Menu to select a physical disk
and to perform the operations listed above.
3.7.4.1 View Drive Information








 

























When you choose this option, the physical disks in the SATA
RAID controller are listed. Move the cursor to the desired drive
and press Enter. The following appears:
65
BIOS CONFIGURATION
3.7.4.2 Create Pass-Through Disk

































Disk is no controlled by the SATA RAID controller firmware and
thus cannot be a part of a Volume Set. The disk is available to
the operating system as an individual disk. It is typically used on
a system where the operating system is on a disk not controlled
by the SATA RAID controller firmware. The SCSI Channel, SCSI
ID, SCSI LUN, Cache Mode, and Tag Queuing.
3.7.4.3 Modify Pass-Through Disk
Use this option to modify the Pass-Through Disk Attribute. To
modify Pass-Through Disk parameters values from Pass-Through
Disk pool, move the cursor bar to the Physical Drive Function
menu and select the Modify Pass-Through Drive option and then
press Enter key. The Physical Drive Function menu will show all
Raid Pass-Through Drive number option. Move the cursor bar to
a desired item, then press Enter key to show all Pass-Through
Disk Attribute. Select the parameter from the list you which to
change, press Enter key to modify it.
66
BIOS CONFIGURATION
3.7.4.4 Delete Pass-Through Disk


























To delete Pass-through drive from the Pass-through drive pool,
move the cursor bar to the Physical Drive Function menu and
select the Delete pass-through drive item, then press Enter key.
The Delete Pass-Through confirmation screen will appear and
press Yes key to delete it.
3.7.4.5 Identify Selected Drive


























To prevent removing the wrong drive, the selected disk HDD
LED Indicator will light for physically locating the selected disk
when the Identify Selected Device is selected.
67
BIOS CONFIGURATION
3.7.5 Raid System Function
To set the raid system function, move the cursor bar to the main
menu and select the “Raid System Function” item and then
press Enter key. The Raid System Function menu will show all
items. Move the cursor bar to an item, then press Enter key to
select the desired function.















3.7.5.1 Mute The Alert Beeper





























The Mute The Alert Beeper function item is used to control the
SATA RAID controller Beeper. Select the No and press Enter key
in the dialog box to turn the beeper off temporarily. The beeper
will still activate on the next event.
68
BIOS CONFIGURATION
3.7.5.2 Alert Beeper Setting





























The Alert Beeper function item is used to Disabled or Enable the
SATA RAID controller alarm tone generator. Select the Disabled
and press Enter key in the dialog box to turn the beeper off.
3.7.5.3 Change Password



























The password option allows user to set or clear the password
protection feature. Once the password has been set, the user
can only monitor and configure the controller by providing the
correct password. This feature is used to protect the internal
69
BIOS CONFIGURATION
RAID system from unauthorized entry. The controller will check
the password only when entering the Main menu from the initial screen. The system will automatically go back to the initial
screen when it does not received any command in 20 seconds.
To set or change the password, move the cursor to Raid System
Function screen, press the Change Password item. The Enter
New Password screen appears.
To disable the password, press Enter only in both the Enter
New Password and Re-Enter New Password column. The existing
password will be cleared. No password checking will occur when
entering the main menu from the starting screen.
3.7.5.4 JBOD/RAID Function




























JBOD is an acronym for “just a Bunch Of Disk”. It represents
a volume set that is created by the concatenation of partitions
on the disk. It can see all disks, when you selected the JBOD
option. User needs to deleted the RAID set, when you want to
change the option from the RAID to the JBOD function.
70
BIOS CONFIGURATION
3.7.5.5 Background Task Priority































The “Background Task Priority” is a relative indication of how
much time the controller devotes to a rebuild operation. The
SATA RAID controller allows user to choose the rebuild priority
(ultralow, low, normal, high) to balance volume set access and
rebuild tasks appropriately.
3.7.5.6 Maximum SATA Mode
































The Controller can support up to SATA ll, which runs up to
300MB/s. NCQ is a command protocol in Serial ATA that can
only be implemented on native Serial ATA hard drives. It allows multiple commands to be outstanding within a drive at the
same time. Drives that support NCQ have an internal queue
where outstanding commands can be dynamically rescheduled
or re-ordered, along with the necessary tracking mechanisms
71
BIOS CONFIGURATION
for outstanding and completed portions of the workload. The
RAID Controller allows user to choose the SATA Mode: SATA150,
SAT150+NCQ, SAT300, SATA300+NCQ.
3.7.5.7 Disk Write Cache Mode































User can set the “Disk Write Cache Mode” to: Auto, Enabled or
Disabled.
3.7.5.8 Capacity Truncation































ARECA RAID controllers use drive truncation so that drives from
differing vendors are more likely to be able to be used as spares
for each other. Drive truncation slightly decreases the usable
capacity of a drive that is used in redundant units.
The controller provides three truncation modes in the system
configuration: Multiples Of 10G, Multiples Of 1G, and No
Truncation.
72
BIOS CONFIGURATION
Multiples Of 10G: If you have 120 GB drives from different vendors; chances are that the capacity varies slightly. For
example, one drive might be 123.5 GB, and the other 120 GB.
Areca drive Truncation mode Multiples Of 10G uses the same
capacity for both of these drives so that one could replace the
other.
Multiples Of 1G: If you have 123 GB drives from different vendors; chances are that the capacity varies slightly. For example,
one drive might be 123.5 GB, and the other 123.4 GB. Areca
drive Truncation mode Multiples Of 1G uses the same capacity
for both of these drives so that one could replace the other.
No Truncation: It does not truncate the capacity.Within the
subsystem, the SCSI chip acts as a target and 5 SATA ll bus are
connected to the drive.
3.7.5.9 Controller Fan Detection











 
















We have added, in the product box, a field replaceable passive
heatsink to be used if there is enough airflow to carry out the
heat in the passive heat sink.
The “Controller Fan Detection” function is available in the version 1.36 date: 2005-05-19 for preventing the Buzzer warning.
Please disable the “Controller Fan Detection” function through
the BIOS setting.
You can follow the following procedure to disable the Polling
function. (This function is not available in the Web Browser setting.)
73
BIOS CONFIGURATION
3.7.5.10 HDD SMART Status Polling











 
















The external RAID has the hardware monitor in the dedicated
backplane. It can report the HDD temperature status to the
controller. But PCI card uses the general enclosure. The general
enclosure can not report the HDD temperature to the controller. That is the reason why we add this function for customer to
enable the repeat to scan the HDD temperature function in the
version 1.36 date: 2005-05-19.You need to enable the “HDD
SMART Status Polling” function before the function can work.
This function is default disabled.
You can follow the following procedure in the BIOS setting to
enable the Polling function. (This function is not available in
the Web Browser setting.)
3.7.6 Ethernet Configuration (12/16/24 ports)














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BIOS CONFIGURATION
Use this feature to set the controller Ethernet port configuration.
Customer doesn’t need to create a reserved space on the arrays
before the Ethernet port and HTTP service working.
3.7.6.1 DHCP Function
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a protocol that
lets network administrators manage centrally and automate the
assignment of IP (Internet Protocol) configurations on a computer network. When using the Internet’s set of protocols (TCP/
IP), in order for a computer system to communicate to another
computer system it needs a unique IP address. Without DHCP,
the IP address must be entered manually at each computer system. DHCP lets a network administrator supervise and distribute
IP addresses from a central point. The purpose of DHCP is to
provide the automatic (dynamic) allocation of IP client configurations for a specific time period (called a lease period) and to
eliminate the work necessary to administer a large IP network.
To manually configure the IP address of the controller, move the
cursor bar to the Main menu Ethernet Configuration Function
item and then press the Enter key. The Ethernet Configuration menu appears on the screen. Move the cursor bar to DHCP
Function item, then press Enter key to show the DHCP setting.
Select the “Disabled’ or ‘Enabled” option to enable or disable the
DHCP function.






















3.7.6.2 Local IP address
If you intend to set up your client computers manually, make
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BIOS CONFIGURATION
sure that the assigned IP address is in the same range of your
default router address and that it is unique to your private
network. However we would highly recommend that if you have
a network of computers and the option to assign your TCP/IP
client configurations automatically, please do. An IP address
allocation scheme will reduce the time it takes to set-up client computers and eliminate the possibilities of administrative
errors. To manually configure the IP address of the controller,
move the cursor bar to the Main menu Ethernet Configuration
Function item and then press the Enter key. The Ethernet Configuration menu appears on the screen. Move the cursor bar to
Local IP Address item, then press Enter key to show the default
address setting in the RAID controller. You can reassign the IP
address of the controller.

















 



3.7.6.3 Ethernet Address
A MAC address stands for Media Access Control address and is
your computer’s unique hardware number. On an Ethernet LAN,
it’s the same as your Ethernet address. When you’re connected
to the Internet from the RAID controller Ethernet port, a correspondence table relates your IP address to the RAID controller’s
physical (MAC) address on the LAN.
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DRIVER INSTALLATION



















3.7.7 View System Events
To view the SATA RAID controller’s information, move the cursor
bar to the main menu and select the View Events link, then press
the Enter key The SATA RAID controller’s events screen appear.



















Choose this option to view the system events information: Timer,
Device, Event type, Elapse Time and Errors. The RAID system
does not built the real time clock. The Time information is the
relative time from the SATA RAID controller power on.
3.7.8 Clear Events Buffer
Use this feature to clear the entire events buffer information.
3.7.9 Hardware Monitor
77
DRIVER INSTALLATION








 








 




To view the RAID controller’s hardware monitor information, move
the mouse cursor to the main menu and click the Hardware Monitor link. The Hardware Information screen appears.
The Hardware Monitor Information provides the temperature, and
fan speed (I/O Processor fan) of the PCI SATA RAID controller.
3.7.10 System Information








 








 


Choose this option to display Main processor, CPU Instruction
cache and data cache size, firmware version, serial number,
controller model name, and the cache memory size. To check the
system information, move the cursor bar to System Information
item, then press Enter key. All major controller system information will be displayed.
78
DRIVER INSTALLATION
4. Driver Installation
This chapter describes how to install the SATA RAID controller drive to
your operating system. The installation procedures depend on the following terminology:
Installing operating system on the SATA Volume
If you have a new drive configuration without an operating system
and want to install operating system on a disk drive managed by the
SATA RAID Controller. The driver installation is a part of the operating system installation.
Installing SATA RAID controller into an existing operating
system
The computer has an existing operating system installed and the
SATA RAID controller is being installed as a secondary controller.
Have all required system hardware and software component on hand
before proceeding with the setup and installation
Materials required:
• Microsoft Windows 2000/XP/2003, or Linux, and or FreeBSD installation CD-ROM
• SATA RAID Controller Diver CD-ROM
• SATA RAID controller
4.1 Creating the Driver Diskettes
The SATA RAID controller shipped with CD-ROM disc is a self-booting CD. In order to created driver diskettes for Windows, Linux,
and FreeBSD installation drivers. Your system required to supports
bootable from CD-ROM.
If you do not have the CD-ROM disc with the package, contact your
local dealer or you can also download the latest version drivers for
Windows 2000/XP/2003, Linux, and freeBSD from the ARECA web
site at http://www.areca.com.tw .
The following steps is creating the Driver diskettes:
79
DRIVER INSTALLATION
1. The computer system BIOS must set to boot-up from CD-ROM.
2. Insert the SATA Controller Driver CD disc into the CD-ROM drive.
3. System will boot-up from CD-ROM Drive, to create the driver
diskettes selected the “SATA RAID controller Driver Diskette
Make Utility”, and provides several screens with choices.
4. Move the highlight bar to the “Create Driver Disk” entry and
press Enter.
5. The screen queries the SATA RAID controller support driver database and a list of supported driver is displayed. Move the highlight bar to the driver entry and press Enter for moving forward.
6. The next screen will show “Please insert a formatted diskette into drive A:!! Press any key to continue”. Insert the
formatted diskette in drive “A” and press any key to continue.
7. The window will displays the driver building message: ”Now is
writing to Cylinder…” and copy the image file from the CD-ROM
to Driver Diskette.
8. The “Write Complete !!” message will show at the screen when
the driver is build ready.
The driver diskette is now made. Proceed to the following instruction for installation procedures.
4.2 Driver Installation for Windows
SATA RAID controller can be used with Microsoft Windows 2000,
Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003. Windows 2003 64-bit for
AMD Opteron is also supported. SATA RAID controllers supports
SCSI Miniport and StorPort Drivers for Windows Server 2003.
4.2.1 New Storage Device Drivers in Windows
Server 2003
The Storport driver is new to Windows Server 2003. Storport implements a new architecture designed for better performance for
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RAID systems and in Storage Area Network (SAN) environments.
Storport delivers higher I/O throughput, enhanced manageability,
and an improved miniport interface. Storport better utilizes faster
adapters through the use of reduced Delay Procedure Call (DPC)
and improved queue management.
4.2.2 Install Windows 2000/XP/2003 on a SATA
RAID Volume
The following instructions explain how to install the SATA RAID
controller Driver. For completed details on installing Windows,
see the Windows User’s Manual.
4.2.2.1 Installation procedures
The following is the procedures for installing the SATA RAID controller driver while installing Windows 2000/XP/2003.
Boot-up Microsoft Windows 2000/XP/2003 from CD-ROM and
follow the required procedure below to install SATA RAID controller:
1. Make sure you follow the instructions in Chapter 2 “Hardware Installation” to install the controller and connect the disk
drives or enclosure.
2. Start the system and then press Tab/F6 to enable the McBIOS
RAID manager. Use the McBIOS manager to create the RAID
set and volume set to which you will install Windows system.
For details, see Chapter 3 “McBIOS RAID manager”. Once a
volume set is created and configured, continue with next step to
install the operating system.
3. Insert Windows setup CD and restart the system to begin the
Windows installation.
Note:
The computer system BIOS must support
bootable from CD-ROM.
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DRIVER INSTALLATION
4. Press F6 when the screen shows ”Setup is inspecting your
Computer’s hardware Configuration”. This must be done or
else the new driver installed from the SATA RAID driver diskette
will not be recognized.
5. The next screen will show: “Setup could not determine the
type of one or more mass storage device installed in your
system.” Selected specify additional SCSI adapter by pressing
S.
6. Window will prompt for the “Manufacturer-supplied hardware support disk” into floppy drive A: Insert the SATA RAID
series driver diskette in drive “A:” and press Enter.
7. Window will check the floppy and select the correct drive and
CPU type in the listing that you want to install and press Enter
to install it.
8. After Windows scans the hardware and finds the controller, it
will display:
“Setup will load support for the following Mass Storage
devices:”
“Windows 2K, XP,2K3 (ARC1XX0) SATA PCI-X (or PCI-Express) RAID Controller”. Press Enter to continue and copy
the driver files.
At this point, simply follow the Microsoft Windows installation
procedure.
Follow the on-screen instructions, responding as needed to complete the installation.
9. After the installation is completed, reboot the system to load
the new drivers.
10. See Chapter 5 in this manual to customize your RAID volume sets using Storage manager.
4.2.2.2 Making Volume Sets Available to Windows
System
When you reboot the system, log in as system administrator.
Continue with the following steps to make any new volume sets
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or pass-through disks accessible to Windows. This procedure
assumes that the SATA RAID controller hardware, driver, and
Windows are installed and operational in your system.
1. Partition and format the new volume set or disks using Disk
Administrator:
a. Choose Administrative Tools from the Start menu.
b. Choose Computer Management from the Administrative Tools
menu.
c. Select Storage.
d. Select Disk Management.
2. Follow the on-screen prompts to write a signature to the
drive.
3. Right click on the disk drive and select Create Volume from
the menu.
4. Follow the on-screen prompts to create a volume set and to
give a disk drive letter.
4.2.3 Install controller into an existing Windows
2000/XP/2003
In this scenario, you are installing the controller in a new Windows system. To install the driver:
1. Follow the instructions in Chapter 2 Hardware Installation
Chapter to install the controller and connect the disk drives or
enclosure.
2. Start the system and then press Tab/F6 to enter the McBIOSbased configuration utility. Use the configuration utility to create
the raid set and volume set. For details, see Chapter 3 McBIOS
RAID Manager. Once a volume set is created and configured,
continue with install the driver.
3. Re-Boot Windows and OS will recognizes the SATA RAID
Controller and launches the “Found New Hardware Wizard”,
which guides you in installing the SATA RAID driver.
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4. The “Upgrade Device Driver Wizard” popup and provides
a choice for the wizard to select. Choose “Display a list of
known drivers for this device, so that you can choose a
specific driver.” and click on Next.
5. When the next screen queries the user about utilizing the currently installed driver, click on Have Disk button.
6. When the “Install From Disk” dialog appears, insert the
SATA RAID controller driver diskette or the ship CD-ROM and
type the correct path name in the “Copy manufacturer’s files
from:”
7. The previous dialog box appears with the selected driver displayed as of the driver to install. Then click on Next.
8. The “Digital Signature Not Found” screen appears. Click on
Yes to continue the installation.
9. Windows automatically copies the appropriate driver files and
rebuilds its driver database.
10. The “Found New Hardware Wizard” summary screen appears Click on the Finish button.
11. The “System Settings Change” dialog box appears. Remove the diskette from the drive and click on Yes to restart the
computer to load the new drivers.
12. See Chapter 5 in this manual to customize your RAID volumes using Storage manager.
4.2.3.1 Making Volume Sets Available to Windows
System
When you reboot the system, log in as system administrator.
Continue with the following steps to make any new disk arrays
or independent disks accessible to Windows 2000/XP/2003. This
procedure assumes that the SATA RAID controller hardware,
driver, and Windows are installed and operational in your system.
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1. Partition and format the new arrays or disks using Disk Administrator:
a. Choose Administrative Tools from the Start menu.
b. Choose Computer Management from the Administrative Tools
menu.
c. Select Storage.
d. Select Disk Management.
2. Follow the on-screen prompts to write a signature to the
drive.
3. Right click on the drive and select Create Volume from the
menu.
4. Follow the on-screen prompts to create a volume set and to
give a disk drive letter.
4.2.4 Uninstall controller from Windows 2000/
XP/2003
To remove the SATA RAID controller driver from the Windows system follow the instructions below.
1. Ensure that you have closed all applications and are logged in
with administrative rights.
2. Open Control Panel and start the Add/Remove Program
icon.
3. Select the SATA RAID controller driver and click on OK.
4. Click on Yes to confirm removing the SATA RAID driver. The
Uninstall shield program will start removing files and display
a progress bar. After the programs have been completely removed from your system, the uninstall shield program will show
a summary of files removed and updates completed while removing files from the system. It will also recommend that the
user restart the system.
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4.3 Driver Installation for Linux
This chapter describes how to install the SATA RAID controller drive
to your Red Hat Linux, and SuSE Linux.
Before installing the SATA RAID driver to the Linux, you must have
done the following action:
1. Install and configure the controller and hard disk drives according to the instructions in Chapter 2 Hardware Installation.
2. Start the system and then press Tab/F6 to enter the McBIOS
RAID manager configuration utility. Use the BIOS configuration
utility to create the raid set and volume set. For details, see Chapter 3 McBIOS RAID Manager.
If you are using a Linux distribution for which there is not a compiled driver available from ARECA, you can copy the source from
the SATA software CD or download the source from the ARECA
website and compile a new driver.
Compiled and tested drivers for Red Hat and SuSE Linux are included on the ship CD. You can download the updated version compiled
and tested driver for Red Hat or SuSE Linux from the ARECA web
site at http://www.areca.com.tw. Included in these downloads is
the Linux driver source, which you can use to compile the updated
version driver for RedHat, SuSE, and other versions of Linux.
Please refer to the “readme.txt” file on the ARECA ship CD-ROM
or website to make driver diskette and to install driver to the system.
4.4 Driver Installation for FreeBSD
This chapter describes how to install the SATA RAID controller drive
to your FreeBSD.
Before installing the SATA RAID driver to the FreeBSD, you must do
the following action:
1. Install and configure the controller and hard disk drives according to the instructions in Chapter 2 Hardware Installation
2. Start the system and then press Tab/F6 to enter the McBIOS
RAID Manager configuration utility. Use the BIOS configuration
utility to create the raid set and volume set. For details, see Chap-
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DRIVER INSTALLATION
ter 3 McBIOS RAID Manager.
The ship CD-ROM that came with the SATA RAID controller includes
compiled and tested drivers for FreeBSD 4.x (4.2 and onwards) and
5.x (5.2 and onwards). To check if a more updated version driver
is available, please see the ARECA web site http://www.areca.com.
tw.
Please refer to the “readme.txt” file on the SATA RAID controller
software CD-ROM or website to make driver diskette and to install
driver to the system.
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INSTALLATION ARCHTTP PROXY SERVER
5. Installation ArcHttp Proxy Server
Overview
After the hardware installation, the SATA disk drives connected to the
SATA RAID controller must be configured and the volume set units initialized before they are ready to use.
Those user interfaces can access the built-in configuration and administration utility that resides in the controller’s firmware. They provide
complete control and management of the controller and disk arrays,
eliminating the need for additional hardware or software.
The software utility refers to SATA RAID controller software on the CDROM delivered with your system. This CD-ROM contains the software
utility that is required for the monitor, test, and support of SATA RAID
controller. The software utility and McRAID storage manager can configure and monitor the SATA RAID controller via ArcHttp Proxy Server.
The following table outlines their functions:
Configuration Utility
McBIOS RAID Manager
Operating System supported
OS-Independent
McRAID Storage Manager
(Via Archttp proxy server)
Windows 2000/XP/2003, Linux and
FreeBSD
SAP Monitor
(Single Admin portal to scan for multiple RAID units in the network, Via
ArcHttp Proxy Server)
Windows 2000/XP/2003
Java based for Windows.
Linux and FreeBSD (available in Q2,
2005)
SNMP Manager Console Integration
(Via ArcHttp Proxy Server)
Windows 2000/XP/2003, Linux.
FreeBSD (available in Q2, 2005)
5.1 For Windows
You must have administrative level permission to install SATA RAID
software. This procedure assumes that the SATA RAID hardware
and windows are installed and operational in your system.
Screen in this section are taken from a Windows/XP installation.
If you are running other Windows, your installing screen may look
different, but the ArcHttp proxy server installation is essentially the
same.
1. Insert the RAID subsystem CD in the CD-ROM drive.
2. Run the setup.exe file that resides at: <CD-ROM>\windows\
http\setup.exe on the CD-ROM.
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INSTALLATION ARCHTTP PROXY SERVER
3. Click on the Setup file then the Welcome screen appears.
Follow the on-screen prompts to complete ArcHttp Proxy Server
software installation.
A program bar appears that measures the progress of the
ArcHttp setup. When this screen complete, you have completed
the ArcHttp Proxy Server software setup.
4. After a successful installation, the Setup Complete dialog box
of the installation program is displayed.
Click the Finish button to complete the installation.
5. See next chapter in the McRAID storage manager to customize
your RAID volume set.
5.2 For Linux
You must have administrative level permission to install SATA RAID
software. This procedure assumes that the SATA RAID hardware
and Linux are installed and operational in your system.
The following is the Linux installation procedure in the SATA RAID
controller system.
1. Insert the SATA RAID controller CD in the CD-ROM drive.
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INSTALLATION ARCHTTP PROXY SERVER
2. Run the ArcHttpPci file that resides at: <CD-ROM>\linux\http\
on the CD-ROM.
Usage: ArcHttpPci TCP_PORT
Parameters: TCP_PORT value = 1 ~ 65535
For Example:
Start the ArcHttp Proxy Server for TCP_PORT = 6666, user can
type “ArcHttpPci 6666” on command line and enter to execute it.
3. See next chapter in the McRAID storage manager to customize
your RAID volume set.
Note:
For RedHat Users: upgrade Mozilla Browser to
Version 1.6 or later.
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6. Web Browser-based Configuration
Before using the McRAID firmware-based browser utility, do the initial
setup and installation of this product. If you need to boot up the operating system from a RAID volume set, you must first create a RAID
volume by using McBIOS RAID Manager. Please refer to section 3.3
Using Quick Volume /Raid Setup Configuration for information on
creating this initial volume set.
The McRAID manager is firmware-based utility, which utilizes the
browser installed on your operating system. The McRAID Manager
program is an HTML-based application, which utilizes the browser (IE,
Netscape and Mozilla etc) installed on your monitor station. It allows
user through web browser to create and modify RAID set, volume set,
and monitor SATA RAID Controller status. Use this utility to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Create raid set
Expand raid set
Define volume set
Add physical drive
Modify volume set
Modify RAID level/stripe size
Define pass-through disk drives
Modify system function
Update firmware
Designate drives as hot spares
6.1 Start-up McRAID Manager for Local Administration
With McRAID Storage Manager, you can Local manage a system
containing a SATA RAID controller that has Windows or Linux and
a supported browser.
A locally managed system requires all of the following components:
• A supported Web browser, which should already be installed on
the system.
• Installing an ArcHttp proxy server on the SATA RAID system.
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WEB BROWSER-BASED CONFIGURATION
6.1.1 For Windows
Screen in this section are taken from a Windows/XP installation.
If you are running other Windows, your installing screen may look
different, but the ArcHttp proxy server installation is essentially
the same.
1. Click on the Start Button in the Windows 2000/XP task bar
and then click Program, select the ArcHttp Proxy Server and
run “ArcHttp Proxy Server”. The ArcHttp dialog box appears.
If user doesn’t want to launch the web browser, goes to step 4.
2. To start the ArcHttp Proxy Server web-browser management,
click the Start Button.
The Enter Network Password dialog screen appears, type the
User Name and Password. The RAID subsystem controller default User Name is “admin” and the Password is “0000”. After
completing entering user name and password, press Enter to
start-up the ArcHttp Proxy Server.
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WEB BROWSER-BASED CONFIGURATION
3. The Storage Console current configuration screen displays the
current configuration of your RAID subsystem.
4. If you don’t default start-up the web browser, clear “The
Launch Web Browser when server started!!” setting. To
start the ArcHttp Proxy Server web-browser management, click
the Start button.
9. User may execute the ArcHttp proxy server by entering
http://[IP Address] in your web browser.
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WEB BROWSER-BASED CONFIGURATION
6.1.2 For Linux
Execute the ArcHttp proxy server by entering http://[IP Address]
in the Netscape browser provided with Linux. Note that Linux
prompts you to login to the machine with an ID of root. The SATA
RAID controller default User Name (ID) is “admin” and the Password is “0000”
6.2 Start-up McRAID Manager for Remote
Administration
You can manage a system remotely from a system that does not
contain a SATA RAID controller.
A remotely managed system requires all of the following components:
•
•
•
•
The remote system must contain a web browser.
The managed system must contain a McRAID storage manager.
Installing an ArcHttp proxy server on the managed system.
Remote and managed systems must have a TCP/IP connection.
6.2.1 Microsoft Windows System
To configure internal SATA RAID controller on a remote machine,
you need to know its IP Address. You must first start up your local ArcHttp Proxy Server. (Please reference this chapter section
6.1.1).
(1).Launch your ArcHttp Proxy Server by entering http://[IP Address] in the remote web browser.
(2). When connection to the remote system is established, the
System Login screen appears. The SATA RAID controller default
User Name is “admin” and the Password is “0000”
Note:
That you must be logged in as administrator
with local admin rights on the remote machine
to remotely configure it.
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6.2.2 Linux System
To configure SATA RAID controller on a remote machine, you need
to know its IP Address. You must first start up your local ArcHttp
proxy server. (Please reference this chapter section 6.1.1).
(1).Launch your ArcHttp proxy server by entering http://[IP Address] in the remote web browser.
(2). When connection to the remote system is established, the
System Login screen appears. The SATA RAID controller default
User Name is “admin” and the Password is “0000”
Note:
That you must be logged in as administrator
with local admin rights on the remote machine
to remotely configure it.
6.3 SATA RAID controller McRAID storage
manager
The McRAID storage manager current configuration screen displays
the current configuration of your SATA RAID controller. It displays
the Raid Set List, Volume Set List and Physical Disk List. The raid
set information, volume set information and drive information can
also be viewed by clicking on the RaidSet Hierarchy screen. The
current configuration can also be viewed by clicking on RaidSet
Hierarchy in the menu.
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WEB BROWSER-BASED CONFIGURATION
To display raid set information, move the mouse cursor to the
desired raid set number, then click it. The raid set Information will
show in the screen.
To display volume set information, move the mouse cursor to the
desired Volume Set number, then click it. The volume set Information will show in the screen.
To display drive information, move the mouse cursor to the desired
physical drive number, then click it. The drive Information will show
in the screen.
6.4 Main Menu
The Main Menu shows all function that enables the customer to
execute actions by clicking on the appropriate link.
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Individual Category
Description
Quick Function
Create a default configuration, which is
based on the number of physical disk
installed; it can modify the volume set
Capacity, Raid Level, and Stripe Size.
RaidSet Functions
Create a customized raid set
VolumeSet Functions
Create customized volume sets and
modify the existed volume sets parameter.
WEB BROWSER-BASED CONFIGURATION
Physical Drives
Create pass through disks and modify
the existed pass through drives parameter. It also provides the function to
identify the respect disk drive.
System Controls
Setting the raid system configurations
Information
View the controller information. The
Raid Set Hierarchy can also view
through the RaidSet Hierarchy item.
6.5 Quick Function
The number of physical drives in the SATA Raid controller determines the RAID levels that can be implemented with the raid set.
You can create a raid set associated with exactly one volume set.
The user can change the raid level, stripe size, and capacity. A hot
spare option is also created depending upon the existing configuration.
Tick on the Confirm The Operation and click on the Submit button
in the Quick Create screen, the raid set and volume set will start to
initialize.
Note: In Quick Create your volume set is automatically configured
based on the number of disks in your system. Use the Raid Set
Function and Volume Set Function if you prefer to customize your
system.
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6.6 RaidSet Functions
Use the Raid Set Function and Volume Set Function if you prefer to
customize your system. User manual configuration can full control
of the raid set setting, but it will take longer to complete than the
Quick Volume/Raid Setup configuration. Select the Raid Set Function to manually configure the raid set for the first time or deletes
existing raid set and reconfigures the raid set. A raid set is a group
of disks containing one or more volume sets.
6.6.1 Create Raid Set
To create a raid set, click on the Delete Raid Set link. A “Select
The IDE Drive For RAID Set” screen is displayed showing the IDE
drive connected to the current controller. Click on the selected
physical drives with the current raid set. Enter 1 to 15 alphanumeric characters to define a unique identifier for a raid set. The
default raid set name will always appear as Raid Set. #.
Tick on the Confirm The Operation and click on the Submit button
in the screen, the raid set will start to initialize.
6.6.2 Delete Raid Set
To delete a raid set, click on the Create Raid Set link. A “Select
The RAID SET To Delete” screen is displayed showing all raid
set existing in the current controller. Click the raid set number
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WEB BROWSER-BASED CONFIGURATION
you which to delete in the select column to delete screen.
Tick on the Confirm The Operation and click on the Submit button
in the screen to delete it.
6.6.3 Expand Raid Set
Use this option to expand a raid set, when a disk is added to your
system. This function is active when at least one drive is available.
To expand a raid set, click on the Expand Raid Set link. Select the
target raid set, which you want to expand it.
Tick on the available disk and Confirm The Operation, and then
click on the Submit button in the screen to add disks to the raid
set.
6.6.4 Activate Incomplete Raid Set
When one of the disk drive is removed in power off state, the raid
set state will change to Incomplete State. If user wants to contin-
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WEB BROWSER-BASED CONFIGURATION
ue to work, when the SATA RAID controller is power on. User can
use the Activate Raid Set option to active the raid set. After user
complete the function, the Raid State will change to Degraded
Mode.
To activate the incomplete the raid set, click on the Activate Raid
Set link. A “Select The RAID SET To Activate” screen is displayed
showing all raid set existing in the current controller. Click the raid
set number you which to activate in the select column.
Click on the Submit button in the screen to activate the raid set
that has removed one of disk drive in the power off state. The
SATA RAID controller will continue to work in degraded mode.
6.6.5 Create Hot Spare
When you choose the Create Hot Spare option in the Raid Set
Function, all unused physical devices connected to the current
controller appear:
Select the target disk by clicking on the appropriate check box.
Tick on the Confirm The Operation, and click on the Submit button in the screen to create the hot spares.
The create Hot Spare option gives you the ability to define a
global hot spare.
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WEB BROWSER-BASED CONFIGURATION
6.6.6 Delete Hot Spare
Select the target Hot Spare disk to delete by clicking on the appropriate check box.
Tick on the Confirm The Operation, and click on the Submit button in the screen to delete the hot spares.
6.6.7 Rescue Raid Set
When the system is power off in the Raidset update period, it may
be disappeared in this abnormal condition. The “RESCUE” function can recover the missing RaidSet information.
The RAID controller uses the time as the RaidSet signature. The
RaidSet may have different time after the RaidSet is recovered.
The “SIGANT” function can regenerate the signature for the
RaidSet.
6.7 Volume Set Functions
A volume set is seen by the host system as a single logical device.
It is organized in a RAID level with one or more physical disks.
RAID level refers to the level of data performance and protection of
a volume set. A volume set capacity can consume all or a portion
of the disk capacity available in a raid set. Multiple volume sets
can exist on a group of disks in a raid set. Additional volume sets
created in a specified raid set will reside on all the physical disks in
the raid set. Thus each volume set on the raid set will have its data
spread evenly across all the disks in the raid set.
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WEB BROWSER-BASED CONFIGURATION
6.7.1 Create Volume Set
1. Volume sets of different RAID levels may coexist on the same
raid set.
2. Up to 16 volume sets in a raid set can be created by the SATA
RAID controller.
3. The maximum addressable size of a single volume set is 2
TB(32-bit mode).
To create volume set from raid set system, move the cursor bar
to the main menu and click on the Create Volume Set link. The
Select The Raid Set To Create On It screen will show all raid set
number. Tick on a raid set number that you want to create and
then click on the Submit button.
The new create volume set allows user to select the Volume
name, capacity, RAID level, strip size, SCSI ID/LUN, Cache mode
and tag queuing.
• Volume Name
The default volume name will always appear as Volume Set.
#. You can rename the volume set name providing it does not
exceed the 15 characters limit.
• Capacity
The maximum volume size is default in the first setting. Enter
the appropriate volume size to fit your application.
• Raid Level
Set the RAID level for the Volume Set. Highlight Raid Level and
press Enter.
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WEB BROWSER-BASED CONFIGURATION
The available RAID levels for the current Volume Set are displayed. Select a RAID level and press Enter to confirm.
• Strip Size
This parameter sets the size of the stripe written to each disk
in a RAID 0, 1, (10), 5 or 6 logical drive. You can set the stripe
size to 4 KB, 8 KB, 16 KB, 32 KB, 64 KB, or 128 KB.
A larger stripe size produces better-read performance, especially if your computer does mostly sequential reads. However,
if you are sure that your computer does random reads more
often, select a small stripe size
Note: RAID level 3 can’t modify strip size.
• Cache Mode
The SATA RAID controller supports Write-Through Cache and
Write-Back Cache.
• SCSI Channel/SCSI ID/SCSI Lun
SCSI Channel: The SATA RAID controller function is simulated
to the SCSI RAID controller. The host bus is represented to the
SCSI channel. Choose the SCSI Channel.
SCSI ID: Each SCSI device attached to the SCSI card, as well
as the card itself, must be assigned a unique SCSI ID number.
A SCSI channel can connect up to 15 devices. The SATA RAID
controller is as a lots of large SCSI device. We should assign an
ID from a list of SCSI IDs.
SCSI LUN: Each SCSI ID can support up to 8 LUNs. Most SCSI
controller treats each LUN like a SCSI disk.
• Tag Queuing
The Enabled option is useful for enhancing overall system
performance under multi-tasking operating systems. The Command Tag (Drive Channel) function controls the SCSI command tag queuing support for each drive channel. This function should normally remain enabled. Disable this function only
when using older SCSI drives that do not support command tag
queuing
6.7.2 Delete Volume Set
To delete Volume from raid set system function, move the cursor
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WEB BROWSER-BASED CONFIGURATION
bar to the main menu and click on the Delete Volume Set link.
The Select The Raid Set To Delete screen will show all raid set
number. Tick on a raid set number and the Confirm The Operation and then click on the Submit button to show all volume set
item in the selected raid set. Tick on a volume set number and
the Confirm The Operation and then click on the Submit button to
delete the volume set.
6.7.3 Modify Volume Set
To modify a volume set from a raid set:
(1). Click on the Modify Volume Set link.
(2). Tick on the volume set from the list that you wish to modify.
Click on the Submit button.
The following screen appears.
Use this option to modify volume set configuration. To modify volume set attribute values from raid set system function, move the
cursor bar to the volume set attribute menu and click on it. The
modify value screen appears. Move the cursor bar to an attribute
item, and then click on the attribute to modify the value. After
you complete the modification, tick on the Confirm The Operation
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WEB BROWSER-BASED CONFIGURATION
and click on the Submit button to complete the action. User can
modify all values except the capacity.
6.7.3.1 Volume Set Migration
Migrating occurs when a volume set is migrating from one RAID
level to another, a volume set strip size changes, or when a disk
is added to a raid set. Migration status is displayed in the volume status area of the RaidSet Hierarchy screen when one RAID
level to another, a Volume set strip size changes or when a disk
is added to a raid set.
6.7.4 Check Volume Set
To check a volume set from a raid set:
(1). Click on the Check Volume Set link.
(2). Tick on the volume set from the list that you wish to check.
Tick on Confirm The Operation and click on the Submit button.
Use this option to verify the correctness of the redundant data in
a volume set. For example, in a system with dedicated parity, volume set check means computing the parity of the data disk drives
and comparing the results to the contents of the dedicated parity
disk drive. The checking percentage can also be viewed by clicking on RaidSet Hierarchy in the main menu.
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WEB BROWSER-BASED CONFIGURATION
6.7.5 Stop VolumeSet Check
Use this option to stop the Check Volume Set function.
6.8 Physical Drive
Choose this option from the Main Menu to select a physical disk
and to perform the operations listed below.
6.8.1 Create Pass-Through Disk
To create pass-through disk, move the mouse cursor to the main
menu and click on the Create Pass-Through link. The relative setting function screen appears.
Disk is no controlled by the SATA RAID controller firmware and
thus cannot be a part of a volume set. The disk is available to the
operating system as an individual disk. It is typically used on a
system where the operating system is on a disk not controlled by
the RAID firmware. User can also select the cache mode, Tagged
Command Queuing, SCSI channel/SCSI_ID/SCSI_LUN for this
volume.
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6.8.2 Modify Pass-Through Disk
Use this option to modify the Pass-Through Disk Attribute. User
can modify the cache mode, Tagged Command Queuing, and
SCSI channel/ID/LUN on an existed pass through disk.
To modify the pass-through drive attribute from the pass-through
drive pool, move the mouse cursor bar to click on Modify PassThrough link. The Select The Pass Through Disk For Modification
screen appears tick on the Pass-Through Disk from the passthrough drive pool and click on the Submit button to select drive.
The Enter Pass-Through Disk Attribute screen appears, modify the
drive attribute values, as you want.
After you complete the selection, tick on the Confirm The Operation and click on the Submit button to complete the selection
action.
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6.8.3 Delete Pass-Through Disk
To delete pass-through drive from the pass-through drive pool,
move the mouse cursor bar to the main menus and click on Delete Pass Through link.
After you complete the selection, tick on the Confirm The Operation and click on the Submit button to complete the delete action.
6.8.4 Identify Selected Drive
To prevent removing the wrong drive, the selected disk LED will
light for physically locating the selected disk when the Identify
Selected Drive is selected.
To identify the selected drive from the drives pool, move the
mouse cursor bar to click on Identify Selected Drive link. The Select The IDE Device For identification screen appears tick on the
IDE device from the drives pool and Flash method. After completing the selection, click on the Submit button to identify selected
drive.
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6.9 System Controls
6.9.1 System Config
To set the raid system function, move the cursor bar to the main
menu and click on he Raid System Function link. The Raid System Function menu will show all items. Move the cursor bar to an
item, then press Enter key to select the desired function.
• System Beeper Setting
The Alert Beeper function item is used to Disabled or Enable the
SATA RAID controller alarm tone generator.
• Background Task Priority
The Raid Rebuild Priority is a relative indication of how much
time the controller devotes to a rebuild operation. The SATA
RAID controller allows user to choose the rebuild priority (ultraLow, Low, Normal, High) to balance volume set access and
rebuild tasks appropriately. For high array performance, specify
a Low value.
• JBOD/RAID Configuration
JBOD is an acronym for “just a Bunch Of Disk”. It represents
a volume set that is created by the concatenation of partitions
on the disk. It can see all 8 disks, when you selected the JBOD
option. User needs to deleted the RAID set, when you want to
change the option from the RAID to the JBOD function.
• Maximum SATA Mode Supported
The Controller can support up to SATA ll, which runs up to
300MB/s. NCQ is a command protocol in Serial ATA that can
only be implemented on native Serial ATA hard drives. It allows multiple commands to be outstanding within a drive at the
same time. Drives that support NCQ have an internal queue
where outstanding commands can be dynamically rescheduled
or re-ordered, along with the necessary tracking mechanisms for
outstanding and completed portions of the workload. The RAID
subsystem allows user to choose the SATA Mode: SATA150,
SAT150+NCQ, SAT300, SATA300+NCQ.
• Write Disk Cache Mode
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WEB BROWSER-BASED CONFIGURATION
User can set the “Disk Write Cache Mode” to: Auto, Enabled or
Disabled.
• Disk Capacity Truncation Mode:
ARECA RAID controllers use drive truncation so that drives from
differing vendors are more likely to be able to be used as spares
for each other. Drive truncation slightly decreases the usable
capacity of a drive that is used in redundant units.
The controller provides three truncation modes in the system
configuration: Multiples Of 10G, Multiples Of 1G, and No
Truncation.
Multiples Of 10G: If you have 120 GB drives from different
vendors; chances are that the capacity varies slightly. For example, one drive might be 123.5 GB, and the other 120 GB. Areca
drive Truncation mode Multiples Of 10G uses the same capacity for both of these drives so that one could replace the other.
Multiples Of 1G: If you have 123 GB drives from different vendors; chances are that the capacity varies slightly. For example,
one drive might be 123.5 GB, and the other 123.4 GB. Areca
drive Truncation mode Multiples Of 1G uses the same capacity
for both of these drives so that one could replace the other.
No Truncation: It does not truncate the capacity.
6.9.2 Ethernet Configuration (12/16/24 ports)
Use this feature to set the controller Ethernet port configuration.
Customer doesn’t need to create a reserved space on the arrays
before the Ethernet port and HTTP service working. The firmwareembedded Web Browser-based RAID manager can access it from
any standard internet browser or from any host computer either
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directly connected or via a LAN or WAN with no software or patches required.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a protocol that
lets network administrators manage centrally and automate the
assignment of IP (Internet Protocol) configurations on a computer
network. When using the Internet’s set of protocols (TCP/IP), in
order for a computer system to communicate to another computer system it needs a unique IP address. Without DHCP, the
IP address must be entered manually at each computer system.
DHCP lets a network administrator supervise and distribute IP
addresses from a central point. The purpose of DHCP is to provide
the automatic (dynamic) allocation of IP client configurations for
a specific time period (called a lease period) and to eliminate the
work necessary to administer a large IP network.
To configure the raid controller EtherNet port, move the cursor
bar to the main menu and click on the System Controls link. The
System Controls menu will show all items. Move the cursor bar
to the EtherNet Config item, then press Enter key to select the
desired function.
6.9.3 Alert by Mail Configuration (12/16/24
ports)
To configure the raid controller email function, move the cursor
bar to the main menu and click on the System Controls link. The
System Controls menu will show all items. Move the cursor bar
to the Alert By Mail Config item, then press Enter key to select
the desired function. This function can only set by the web-based
configuration.
The firmware contains SMTP manager monitors all system events
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WEB BROWSER-BASED CONFIGURATION
and user can select either single or multiple user notifications to
be sent via “Plain English” e-mails with no software required.
6.9.4 SNMP Configuration
To configure the raid controller SNMP function, move the cursor
bar to the main menu and click on the System Controls link. The
System Controls menu will show all items. Move the cursor bar
to the SNMP Configuration item, then press Enter key to select
the desired function. This function can only set by the web-based
configuration.
The firmware contains SNMP Agent manager monitors all system
events and user can use the SNMP function from the web setting
with no Agent software required.
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WEB BROWSER-BASED CONFIGURATION
6.9.5 View Events/Mute Beeper
To view the SATA RAID controller’s information, move the mouse
cursor to the main menu and click on the System Information
link. The SATA Raid controller events Information screen appears.
Choose this option to view the system events information: Timer,
Device, Event type, Elapse Time and Errors. The RAID system
does not built the real time clock. The Time information is the
relative time from the SATA RAID controller power on.
6.9.6 Generate Test Event
Use this feature is to view test events.
6.9.7 Clear Events Buffer
Use this feature to clear the entire events buffer information.
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6.9.8 Modify Password
To set or change the SATA RAID controller password, move the
mouse cursor to Raid System Function screen, and click on the
Change Password link. The Modify System Password screen appears.
The password option allows user to set or clear the SATA RAID
controller’s password protection feature. Once the password has
been set, the user can only monitor and configure the SATA RAID
controller by providing the correct password.
The password is used to protect the SATA RAID controller from
unauthorized entry. The controller will check the password only
when entering the Main menu from the initial screen. The SATA
RAID controller will automatically go back to the initial screen
when it does not receive any command in ten seconds.
To disable the password, press Enter key only in both the Enter
New Password and Re-Enter New Password column. Once the user
confirms the operation and clicks the Submit button. The existing
password will be cleared. No password checking will occur when
entering the main menu from the starting screen.
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6.9.9 Update Firmware
Please reference the appendix A firmware utility.
6.10 Information
6.10.1 RaidSet Hierarchy
Use this feature to view the SATA RAID controller current raid
set, current volume set and physical disk configuration. Please
reference the this chapter “Configuring Raid Sets and Volume
Sets”
6.10.2 System Information
To view the SATA RAID controller’s information, move the mouse
cursor to the main menu and click on the System Information
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link. The SATA RAID controller Information screen appears.
Use this feature to view the SATA RAID controller’s information. The controller name, firmware version, serial number, main
processor, CPU data/Instruction cache size and system memory
size/speed appear in this screen.
6.10.3 Hardware Monitor
To view the RAID controller’s hardware monitor information, move
the mouse cursor to the main menu and click the Hardware Monitor link. The Hardware Information screen appears.
The Hardware Monitor Information provides the temperature, and
fan speed (I/O Processor fan) of the PCI SATA RAID controller.
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Appendix A
Since the SATA RAID controller features flash firmware, it is not
necessary to change the hardware flash chip in order to upgrade
the RAID firmware. The user can simply re-program the old firmware and BIOS through the McRAID storage manager. New releases of the Firmware and BIOS are available in the form of a DOS file
at web site. The file available at the web site is usually a self-extracting file that contains the following:
1XXXFIRMVVV.BIN Firmware Binary (where “1XXX” refers to the
model name and “VVV” refers to the firmware version)
1XXXBIOSVVV.BIN BIOS Binary (where “1XXX” refers to the model
name and “VVV” refers to the firmware version)
README.TXT It contains the history information of the firmware
change. Read this file first before upgrading the firmware.
These files must be extracted from the compressed file and copied
to one directory in drive A: or C:.
Upgrading Firmware Through McRAID
Storage Manager
Get the new version firmware for your SATA RAID controller. For
Example, download the bin file from your OEM’s web site onto the
C:
1. To upgrade the SATA RAID controller firmware, move the mouse
cursor to “Upgrade Firmware” link. The “Upgrade The Raid
System Firmware” screen appears.
2. Click Browse. Look in the location where the Firmware upgrade
software is located. Select the File name click “Open”.
3. Click the “Confirm The Operation” and press the “Submit”
button.
4. The Web Browser begins to download the firmware binary to the
controller and start to update the flash ROM.
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5. After the firmware upgrade is complete, a bar indicator will show
“Firmware Has Been Updated Successfully”
6. After the new firmware completes download, user should find a
chance to restart the controller for the new firmware to take effect.
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Appendix B
Battery Backup Module (BBM)
The SATA RAID controller operates using cache memory .The
battery Backup Module is an add-on module that provides power
to the PCI SATA RAID controller cache memory in the event of a
power failure. The Battery Backup Module monitors the write back
cache on the SATA RAID controller, and provides power to the
cache memory if it contains data not yet written to the hard drives
when power failure occurs.
BBM Components
BBM Specifications
Mechanical
• Module Dimension (W x H x D)
40 x 22 x 85 mm
• BBM Connector
2 * 6 box header
Environmental
• Operating Temperature
Temperature: +5O C to +40O C
• Humidity: 45-85%, non-condensing
• Storage Temperature
Temperature: -40O C to 60O C
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• Humidity: 45-85%, non-condensing
Electrical
• Input Voltage
+3.6VDC
• On Board Battery Capacity
1000mAH (1*1000mAH)
Installation
1. Make sure all power to the system is disconnected.
2. Connector J2 is available for the optional battery backup
module. Connect the BBM cable to the 12-pin battery connector
on the controller
3. Integrators may provide pre-drilled holes in their cabinet for
securing the BBM using its three mounting positions.
Battery Backup Capacity
Battery backup capacity is defined as the maximum duration
of a power failure for which data in the cache memory can be
maintained by the battery. The BBM’s backup capacity varied
with the memory chips that installed on the SATA RAID controller.
Capacity
128MB DDR
Memory Type
Battery Backup duration (Hours)
Low Power (18mA)
56
Operation
1. Battery conditioning is automatic. There are no manual procedures for battery conditioning or preconditioning to be performed by the user.
2. Battery bad a tendency to “remember” its capacity. In order
to make sure of all the capacity of your battery cells, allow the
battery cell to be fully charged when installed for the first time.
The first time charge of battery cells takes about 24 hours to
complete.
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APPENDIX
Changing the Battery Backup Module
The LI-ION battery will no longer accept a charge properly. LIION battery life expectancy is approximately 1 to 5 years.
1. Shutdown the operating system properly. Make sure that
cache memory has been flushed.
2. Disconnect the battery backup module cable from J2 on the
SATA RAID card.
3. Disconnect the battery pack cable from JP2 on the Battery
Backup Module.
4. Install a new battery pack and connect the new battery pack
to JP2.
5. Connect the Battery Backup Module to J2 on the SATA card.
6. Disable the write-back function from the BIOS or Utility.
Note:
The BBM can not work in the mainboard which
turn off the PCI-x/pci-exprss clock in the begining stage of power failure.
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Appendix C
SNMP Operation & Definition
Overview
The McRAID manager includes a firmware-embedded Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agent for the connect SATA
RAID controller. An SNMP-based management application (also
known as an SNMP manager) can monitor the SATA RAID controller. An example of a SNMP management application is HewlettPackard’s Open View. The firmware-embedded SNMP agent can be
used to augment the SATA RAID controller if you are already running SNMP management application at your site.
SNMP Definition
SNMP, an IP-based protocol, has a set of commands for getting the
status of target devices. The SNMP management platform is called
the SNMP manager, and the managed devices have the SNMP
agent loaded. Management data is organized in a hierarchical data
structure called the management Information Base (MIB). These
MIBs are defined and sanctioned by various industry associations. The objective is for all vendors to create products in compliance with these MIBs so that inter-vendor interoperability can be
achieved. If a vendor wishes to include additional device information that is not specified in a standard MIB, then that is usually
done through MIB extensions.
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APPENDIX
SNMP Installation
The installation of the SNMP manager is accomplished in several
phases:
• Installing the Manager software on the client
• Placing a copy of the management information base (MIB) in a
directory which is accessible to the management application
• Compiling the MIB description file with the management application
Starting the SNMP function setting
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APPENDIX
• Community Name
Community name act as password of screen accesses to the SNMP
agent of a particular network device. Type in the community
names of the SNMP agent. Before access is granted to a request
station, this station must incorporate a valid community names
to its request; otherwise, the SNMP agent will deny access to the
system.
Most network devices use “public” as default of their community
names. This value is case-sensitive.
MIB Compilation and Definition File creation
Before the manager application accesses the RAID controller, user
needs to integrate the MIB into the management application’s database of events and status indicator codes. This process is known
as compiling the MIB into the application. This process is highly
vendor-specific and should be well-covered in the User’s Guide of
your SNMP application. Ensure the compilation process successfully
integrates the contents of the ARECARAID.MIB file into the traps
database.
Location for MIB
Depending upon the SNMP management application used, the MIB
must be placed in a specific directory on the network management
station running the management application. The MIB file must be
manually copied to this directory. For example:
SNMP Management Application
MIB Location
HP OpenView
\OV\MIBS
Netware NMS
\NMS\SNMPMIBS\CURRENT
Your management application may have a different target directory. Consult the management application’s user manual for the
correct location.
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Appendix D
General Troubleshooting Tips
Most of controller errors are traceable to external factors, such as
conflicts with other installed cards, bad or incorrectly configured
drives, loose cables, improper controller installation, or other installation errors.
To troubleshoot SATA RAID controller problems, try simplifying your
hardware configuration by removing some other devices from the
system and then adding them back one at a time.
Look for the latest information on SATA RAID Controllers as well
as the newest drivers on the ARECA web site at http://www.areca.
com.tw. The following general guidelines are for some specific error conditions:
Question 1:
The BIOS Message of the SATA RAID controller never appears on the screen:
Answer:
(1). Ensure the controller is inserted correctly into the PCI slot.
(2). Ensure 3.3 volts are being supplied to the PCI slot.
(3). Check the cabling between the SATA drives or enclosure the
SATA RAID controller.
Question 2:
How many SATA RAID controllers can be installed into a
computer system?
Answer:
Up to 4 RAID controllers in a system are supported.
Question 3:
The boot device cannot found
Answer:
Enter the system BIOS setup utility Per manufacture directions and
configure it so that the volume set is once again selected as the
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APPENDIX
primary boot device (or first in the boot device list)
Question 4:
What PCI slots are supported by the SATA RAID controllers?
Answer:
For all PCI-X SATA RAID controllers, install card in a 64-bit/133MHz
PCI-X for the best performance. It can also be used in 64-bit / 66
MHz slots, 32-bit/66MHz PCI slots as well as 32-bit/33MHz slots.
All PCI-X SATA RAID controllers can not work with 5V PCI slot.
Question 5:
What is the difference between RAID 6 and RAID 5?
Answer:
RAID 6 allows two drives to fail simultaneously without downtime
or data loss. However, RAID 5 only allows one drive to fail. RAID 6
thus provides a much higher level of fault tolerance than RAID 5. It
is a perfect solution when data is mission-critical.
Due to this higher level of protection, users can set up larger RAID
volumes, spanning up to 56 physical drives. With ARECA RAID 6
engine. RAID 6 and RAID 5 have similar performance in the SATA
RAID controller
Question 6:
What products support RAID 6?
Answer:
RAID 6 is available with controller model with RAID 6 engine installed
Question 7:
What operating systems are supported?
Answer:
The SATA RAID controllers support Microsoft® Windows® Server
2003, Windows XP, Windows 2000, Red Hat Linux, SuSE Linux, and
FreeBSD. For specific OS versions, see www.areca.com.tw for more
information.
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APPENDIX
Question 8:
Will ARECA submit the Linux code to kernel.org?
Answer:
Yes. Shortly after we ship products, we will submit our code.
Question 9:
What is the warranty period?
Answer:
Like all ARECA External RAID controllers, the PCI-X or PCI-Express
SATA RAID controller is backed by a 3-year warranty.
Question 10:
Which O/S (Operating System) will support X86 64-bit processors?
Answer:
The following O/S vendors have announced product support for
AMD64 and Intel EM64T. Contact each vendor for more details. The
following is our currently supported OS and version for 64-bit processor. We will support others shortly after other versions release.
Microsoft:
Production support will be available in:
• Windows XP Professional x64 Edition
• Windows Server 2003 64-Bit Edition
Red Hat:
Production support will be available in:
• Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 update 2
SuSE:
Production support will be available in:
• SLES9
FreeBSD:
Production support will be available in:
• FreeBSD 5.3
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APPENDIX
Question 11:
Is it possible to write software that will run on Intel’s processors with Intel® EM64T, and AMD’s 64-bit capable processors?
Answer:
Yes, in most cases. Even though the hardware microarchitecture
for each company’s processor is different, the operating system
and software ported to one processor will likely run on the other
processor due to the close similarity of the instruction set architectures. However, Intel processors support additional features, like
the SSE3 instructions and Hyper-Threading Technology, which are
not supported on non-Intel platforms. As such, we believe developers will achieve maximum performance and stability by designing specifically for Intel architectures and by taking advantage of
Intel’s breadth of software tools and enabling services.
Question 12:
How will Intel® EM64T work and what software is there to
take advantage of 64-bit extensions?
Answer:
Platforms with Intel® EM64T/AMD64 can be run in three basic
ways (note: a 64-bit capable BIOS is required for all three scenarios):
1. 32-bit O/S and 32-bit applications (Legacy Mode): No software
changes are required, however the user gets no benefit from
Intel® EM64T or AMD64;
2. 64-bit O/S and 32-bit applications (Compatibility Mode): This
usage requires all 64-bit device drivers. In this mode, the O/S
will see the 64-bit extensions, but the 32-bit application will
not. Existing 32-bit applications do not need to be recompiled,
and may or may not benefit from the 64-bit extensions. The
application will likely need to be recertified by the vendor to
run on the new 64-bit extended O/S.
3. 64-bit O/S and 64-bit applications (64-bit Mode): This usage
requires 64-bit device drivers. It also requires applications to
be modified for 64-bit operation and then recompiled and vali
dated.
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Appendix E
Technical Support
Areca Technical Support provides several options for Areca users to
access information and updates. We encourage you to use one of
our electric services, which provide product information updates for
the most efficient service and support. If you decide to contact us,
please have the information such as Product model and serial number, BIOS and driver version, and a description of the problem.
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GLOSSARY
Glossary
2TB
The 32-bit versions operating systems have a maximum limitation of 2
TB per volume set. 64-bit versions remove this limitation, so if you are
building large warehouses, you should consider 64-bit versions.
Array
An array is a logical disk comprised of multiple physical hard disks.
The number of hard disks in an array is dictated by the type of the
array and the number of spares that may be assigned to it. (Arrays
are also sometimes referred to as containers). Furthermore, whether
an array can be built using part of the space on a disk (as opposed to
being forced to use the whole disk) depends upon the implementation.
Arrays are typically used to provide data redundancy and/or enhanced
I/O performance.
ATA
Acronym for “AT Bus Attachment” - a standard interface to IDE hard
disks. Western Digital’s IDE disk interface was standardized by ANSI to
form the ATA specification using a 16-bit ISA bus.
Auto Reassign Sector
SATA drives perform automatic defect re-assignment for both read and
write errors. Writes are always completed - if a location to be written is found to be defective, the drive will automatically relocate that
write command to a new location and map out the defective location.
If there is a recoverable read error, the correct data will be transferred
to the host and that location will be tested by the drive to be certain
the location is not defective - if it is found to have a defect, it will be
automatically relocated to a new location and the defective location
mapped out. In the event of an unrecoverable read error, the error will be reported to the host and the location flagged as potentially
defective. A subsequent write to that location will initiate a sector test
and relocation should that location have a defect.
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GLOSSARY
Battery Backup Module
Many modern RAID controllers are armed with a battery backup Module (BBM). While an UPS protects most servers from power fluctuations or failures, a BBM provides an additional level of protection. In
the event of a power failure, a BBM supplies power to retain data in
the RAID controller’s cache, thereby permitting any potentially dirty
data in the cache to be flushed out to secondary storage when power
is restored.
BIOS
(Basic Input/Output System) software is stored on a chip and provides
an interface between the operating system and the hardware. Usually
the BIOS is built into a ROM chip installed on the motherboard so that
the BIOS will always available and not affected by disk failure.
Cache
Controller memory used to speed up data transfer to and from a disk.
Consistency Check
In RAID, check consistency verifies the correctness of redundant data
in an array. For example, in a system with dedicated parity, checking
consistency means computing the parity of the data drives and comparing the results to the contents of the dedicated parity drive.
Driver
It is a piece of software – that is often executed in kernel mode – that
controls a hardware device. Typically drivers provide an interface by
which applications can use the device in a uniform and hardware-independent manner.
Hot Spare
An extra physical disk drive in a RAID configuration that controller can
use to automatically rebuild a system drive when another drive fails.
The hot spare drive must have at least as mush capacity as the largest
disk drive in the array or the rebuild may not start.
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GLOSSARY
Hot Spare
An extra physical disk drive in a RAID configuration that controller can
use to automatically rebuild a system drive when another drive fails.
The hot spare drive must have at least as mush capacity as the largest
disk drive in the array or the rebuild may not start.
Hardware RAID versus Software RAID
Beyond the different types of RAID, there are two implementation
forms: hardware-based and software-based. Hardware-based RAID
is obviously implemented at a physical level, whereas software-based
RAID is done after you start using the operating system. It is always
optimal to have RAID done at a physical level.
Hot Swap
To pull out a component from a system and plug in a new one while
the power is still on and the unit is still operating.
NVRAM
(Non-Volatile Random Access Memory) A memory unit is equipped with
a battery so that the data remain even after the main power had been
switched off. Actually an EEPROM used to store configuration information.
Parity
A technique used to protect a system from data loss due to faults.
When parity is implemented (RAID3 and RAID5), data written is logically XOR’d together to calculate parity, which is stored on the drives
along with the data. In a system with three drives, the data is written
to two drives and the calculated parity is stored on a third drive. If one
drive fails, data on the failed drive is reconstructed from other data
and parity.
PCI Express
An advanced version of the PCI bus introduced in 2002. Rather than
the shared, parallel bus structure of PCI, PCI Express provides a high-
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GLOSSARY
speed, switched architecture. Each PCI Express link is a serial communications channel made up of two differential wire pairs that provide
2.5 Gbits/sec in each direction. Up to 32 channels may be combined,
creating a parallel interface of independently controlled serial links.
PCI-X
(PCI eXtended) an enhanced PCI bus technology is backward compatible with existing PCI cards. PCI and PCI-X slots are physically the
same. PCI cards run in PCI-X slots, and PCI-X cards run in PCI slots at
the slower PCI rates. First introduced in 1999, PCI-X offered increased
speed over PCI and has steadily increased to more than 30 times that
of the original PCI bus. For a comparison of all PCI technologies.
RAID
(Redundant Array of Independent Disks) a disk subsystem that is used
to increase performance or provide fault tolerance. RAID can also be
set up to provide both functions at the same time. RAID is a set of
two or more ordinary hard disks and a specialized disk controller that
contains the RAID functionality. RAID has been developed initially for
servers and stand-alone disk storage systems. RAID is important especially when rebuilding data after a disk failure.
Rebuild
When a RAID array enters into a degraded mode, it is advisable to
rebuild the array and return it to its original configuration (in terms of
the number and state of working disks) to ensure against operation in
degraded mode.
SATA (Serial ATA)
The evolution of the ATA (IDE) interface that changes the physical
architecture from parallel to serial and from master-slave to pointto-point. Unlike parallel ATA interfaces that connect two drives; one
configured as master, the other as slave, each Serial ATA drive is connected to its own interface. At initial introduction, Serial ATA (SATA)
increases the transfer rate to 150 MB/sec (1.5Gb/s).
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GLOSSARY
SMART
This technology provides users with advanced warning of Disk Drive
failures thus enabling the Operating System to warn Users of potential
failure. S.M.A.R.T. was included in EIDE drives with the ATA-3 specification.
SNMP
Since it was developed in 1988, the Simple Network Management
Protocol has become the de facto standard for inter-network management. Because it is a simple solution, requiring little code to implement, vendors can easily build SNMP agents to their products. SNMP is
extensible, allowing vendors to easily add network management functions to their existing products. SNMP also separates the management
architecture from the architecture of the hardware devices, which
broadens the base of multi-vendor support.
Volume Set
A volume set is a concatenation of storage elements that may be RAID
arrays, JBODs, or simply areas of disks that are not part of RAID arrays.
Write-back
When a cache is operating in write-back mode, data written into the
cache is not immediately written out to its destination in secondary storage unless the heuristics governing the flushing of dirty data
demands otherwise. This methodology can improve the efficiency of
write operations under favorable circumstances. However, its use can
potentially lead to incoherencies in a system that is not protected from
power fluctuations or failures.
Write-through
When a cache is operating in write-through mode, data written into
the cache is also written to the destination secondary storage devices.
Essentially write completion does not occur until the data is written to
secondary storage. Thus the contents of the cache and the secondary
storage are always consistent. The advantage is that the possibility
of data corruption is greatly reduced. The disadvantage is that write-
134
GLOSSARY
through operations are more time consuming.
XOR-Engine
All RAID arrays (with the exception of RAID 0, RAID 1 and RAID 10)
require parity to be calculated and written to the array in conjunction
with data. Typically the parity is a simple XOR on the bytes comprising a stripe. This is a computationally intensive operation that many
modern RAID controllers perform using a dedicated ASIC (instead of
calculating them in firmware on the main embedded processor’s core).
This dedicated ASIC is often referred to as a XOR-engine.
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