micromax segmental manual rev 2

micromax segmental manual rev 2
(segmental)
Instruction manual
Bromyard Industrial Estate, Bromyard,
Herefordshire, HR7 4HS, UK
Tel: + 44 (0) 1885 482397
Fax: + 44 (0) 1885 483043
E-mail: [email protected]
URL: http://www.micron.co.uk
CONTENTS
This manual contains all the information required to ensure successful and safe
application of agrochemicals using sprayers fitted with one or more
MICROMAX SEGMENTAL atomisers. It should be treated as an integral part
of the machine and made easily available to the spray operator for reference, as
required, during the spraying operation.
Full instructions for the efficient, effective and safe operation of MICROMAX
atomisers are included in this volume, along with all necessary information for
installation, maintenance and repair. Reference may also be required to the spray
vehicle and/or base sprayer handbooks.
SECTION
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
PAGE
Description ......................................................................................... 2
Specification ....................................................................................... 3
Ten key points for users ................................................................... 4
Safety and the environment ............................................................. 5
Installation .......................................................................................... 6
Basics of Controlled Droplet Application (CDA) ...................... 22
Calibration and adjustment ............................................................ 32
Operation ......................................................................................... 46
Maintenance ..................................................................................... 53
Trouble shooting ............................................................................. 57
Parts list and diagram ..................................................................... 58
Notes on units and useful conversions ......................................... 60
EC Declaration of Incorporation .................................................. 61
User notes ............................................................................. 62 to 64
THE SPECIFICATIONS QUOTED ARE CORRECT AT THE TIME OF GOING TO
PRINT. THE RIGHT IS RESERVED TO VARY SPECIFICATIONS WITHOUT NOTICE.
DUE CARE HAS BEEN TAKEN IN THE PREPARATION OF THIS MANUAL. NO
LIABILITY, ABOVE THAT REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAWS, WILL BE ACCEPTED
FOR INJURY, LOSS OR DAMAGE DUE TO OMISSIONS OR MISTAKES.
REPRODUCTION OF THIS MANUAL, IN PART OR IN WHOLE, IS ONLY
PERMITTED WITH PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT.
© MICRON SPRAYERS LIMITED 2002 – ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
1
DESCRIPTION
ROTARY ATOMISER FOR VEHICLE MOUNTED SPRAYING
The MICROMAX 120 is a sectorial spinning disc rotary atomiser designed for
the Controlled Droplet Application for vehicle mounting. It is intended primarily
for directed and narrow band herbicide application, which produces a flat fan
shaped spray pattern which ensures uniformity of deposits over the swath. The
swath width of the unit can be varied by swivelling it on it’s mounting bracket.
The MICROMAX 120 has an internal venture system which re-circulates
unsprayed liquid.
The unique design of the electrically driven MICROMAX 120 ensures controlled
spray atomisation over a wide range of liquid feed rates and gives a choice of
three disc rotational speeds, and thus spray droplet sizes, to suit different
applications:
200 μm to 300 μm spray droplets for pre-emergent and post-emergent
herbicide applications where drift avoidance is essential.
100 μm to 200 μm spray droplets for most post-emergent herbicides,
defoliants, foliar feeds and fungicides to ensure good coverage of plant
surfaces while minimising any risk of uncontrolled spray drift.
75μm to 150μm spray droplets for insecticides and fungicides.
The MICROMAX is designed primarily for use in agriculture, the materials used
in its construction will withstand all standard products used for conventional
agricultural spraying. The MICROMAX 120 can be used with both water and
oil based sprays, but is not designed for use with liquid fertilisers or unusually
aggressive, dense, or viscous products.
The low application volumes allowed by the MICROMAX 120 mean greater
areas can be sprayed per tank load (or lighter vehicles used), with dramatic
savings in the cost, time and effort of the spraying operation. This both speeds
up the spraying process and allows more spraying days, thus allowing quick and
cost-effective pesticide application to be undertaken when needed.
The MICROMAX is driven by a 12v DC electric motor, allowing it to be
powered by the vehicle's electrical system. Disc rotational speed, and therefore
droplet size, is selected using the three gear belt and pulley drive system.
Standard plumbing can be used.
The MIRCOMAX 120 has been successfully used in orchards for directed spray
to control weeds under trees.
2
2 – SPECIFICATION
Power consumption
25 watts
Power supply
12v DC ( From vehicle battery)
Swath width
Range from 300mm to 1200mm
1.
LOW DISC SPEED
Disc speed
2000 rpm
Liquid feed rate
500 to 1500 ml / minute
Spray drop size
200 to 300 micron
Application volume
30 to 60 Lt / ha
Application
Weeds
2.
MIDDLE DISC SPEED
Disc speed
3500 rpm
Liquid feed rate
150 to 1000 ml / minute
Spray drop size
100 to 200 micron
Application volume
20 to 40 Lt / ha
Application
Weeds / Fungicides
3.
FAST DISC SPEED
Disc speed
5000 rpm
Liquid feed rate
50 to 500 ml / minute
Spray drop size
75 to 150 micron
Application volume
10 to 20 Lt / ha
Application
Insecticides / Fungicides
3
TEN KEY POINTS FOR USERS
The following list is intended to be referred to prior to commencing each
spraying operation, to remind users of the key points for the safe and efficient
use of the MICROMAX atomiser.
1
SAFETY: Always refer to the product label for specific recommendations
for each product, and to Section 4 ‘Safety and Environmental
Considerations’ before commencing any spraying operation.
2
Check that all atomisers rotate freely. If binding or roughness is felt,
inspect the motor, belt drive and disc bearings.
3
Check that the pulleys and belts are clean and free from damage and that
the appropriate gear is selected, see Section 7 ’Calibration and
Adjustment’.
4
Check that the atomiser discs are secure and free from damage or blockage
by dried chemical.
5
Ensure that the atomisers are securely and correctly positioned on the
boom or support structure, and are set to the correct distance from the
crop/target to be sprayed, see Section 5 ‘Installation’.
6
Inspect the entire sprayer for damaged or twisted hoses, leaks in the
chemical system, or damaged wires.
7
Check that the correct nozzles and flow restrictor orifices are fitted, and
that the correct system pressure is set to provide the required liquid feed
rate, see Section 7 ‘Calibration and Adjustment’.
8
Turn the atomiser motors on, to ensure they are rotating and at the correct
speed, see Section 7 ‘ Calibration and Adjustment’.
9
Whilst spraying, visually ensure that each atomiser is working, and verify
the accuracy of the calibration of the sprayer by checking the volume of
liquid used against the area being sprayed.
10
After use, always flush out the entire system with clean water or a suitable
solvent. Never leave chemical residues in the tank or pipe work. Wash
off outer surfaces of atomisers, booms, etc. to avoid build up of pesticide
residues.
4
SAFETY AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Using agrochemicals is a hazardous process. Operators should be familiar, and
comply, with all relevant legislation and/or regulations.
Keep people and animals out of areas being sprayed. Observe all regulations on
spraying near inhabited or public areas and waterways.
Never use a MICROMAX 120 in potentially explosive atmospheres, or spray
flammable liquids, mixtures of incompatible chemicals, suspended insoluble
particles, or anything other than agrochemicals through them.
Always read the product label carefully to discover:
recommended application rate and dilution
operator protection required
necessary environmental protection measures
action required in case of accidental spill, ingestion, skin
or eye contact
Never eat, drink, or smoke when working with agrochemicals.
Always store agrochemicals safely to protect people and animals, and to
safeguard the environment. Wash and rinse chemical product containers well
using proper equipment. Make a hole in the bottom of empty containers to
prevent re-use. Dispose of containers, unused agrochemicals, and washing
residues in accordance with regulations.
4.1 OPERATOR PROTECTION
Always wear the protective clothing items listed on the product label for mixing
and filling. After using agrochemicals or handling equipment always wash your
hands and clothes thoroughly.
The minimum protective clothing required for spraying with the MICROMAX
from an uncabbed vehicle, or of cleaning contaminated atomisers and sprayers is:
rubber gloves
boots/shoes & long trousers
eye protection
long sleeved shirt
5
INSTALLATION
The design of a sprayer incorporating one or more MICROMAX 120
atomisers will vary according to the application to be sprayed.
This section gives general advice and design data but is not intended to
provide specific instructions for building every type of sprayer. Original
Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) should contact Micron if they require
any further information for a particular application.
!
IMPORTANT SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS
The design of agricultural equipment is best done by a qualified
and competent engineer. All relevant legislation and regulations
should be adhered to.
Agricultural equipment should only be worked on by suitably
trained personnel. Manufacture and assembly work should be
completed by trained and competent technicians.
Ensure that all welds are sound, and that all fasteners used are
correctly tightened.
Use the correct tools for the job to avoid injury or damage.
Use safe lifting methods when moving heavy components.
6
MOUNTING INSTRUCTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
The MICROMAX 120 can be mounted to square, round or angle iron
frame
The MICROMAX 120 spray head is mounted with a drop bracket to spray
either to the front or back and from horizontal to a 45 degree angle downwards
After mounting, the nozzle should always be at the lowest point of the
spray head in order for the internal venture system to effectively recalculate the unsprayed liquid.
Swath width is controlled by:A.
Height above ground level
B.
Swivelling the head to the side
C.
Angle from horizontal
NOTE:
SPRAY LIQUID IS EMITTED AT A 120 DEGREE ANGLE FROM THE
CATCHER PLATE. THE UNSPRAYED LIQUID FLOWS DOWN INTO THE
SUMP AND IS RECIRCULATED BEY THE VENTURI SYSTEM
7
LIQUID FEED SYSTEM
The design of the liquid feed system will depend on the number of MICROMAX
atomisers to be used, the design of the sprayer, and whether the sprayer is newly
built or a modified older sprayer.
Many of the components for the liquid feed system are available direct from
Micron, otherwise contact your usual sprayer component supplier.
Flow regulation
The flow of spray liquid to each MICROMAX 120 atomiser must be regulated to
give the correct total output from the sprayer and consequently the required
volume application rate on the crop or target. See Section 7 ‘Calibration and
adjustment’ for volume application rate calculations.
The liquid feed rate is regulated by the MICROMAX 120 coloured nozzles, or a
combination of nozzles and either a fixed restrictor or a Variable Restrictor Unit
(VRU) in the feed pipe to each atomiser. The most common configuration is to
use the coloured nozzles and a fixed ‘orifice plate holder’ unit. The restrictor
unit should be placed in the spray line just before the MICROMAX atomiser,
after any filters and the Diaphragm Check Valve (DCV). See Figure 11 ‘Typical
spray liquid feed system’ on page 14.
The appropriate nozzles and VRU setting or orifice plate that give a feed rate, at
the nominal system pressure, nearest to that required for the application are
selected. Fine adjustment of feed rate is then achieved by varying spray line
pressure. See Section 7 ‘Calibration and adjustment’ for details on using system
pressure and nozzle and orifice selection to set the required volume application
rate.
Unlike hydraulic nozzles, MICROMAX atomisers do not require pressure to
operate and droplet size is unaffected by the system pressure. The pressure is
therefore only selected to give the correct liquid flow.
Diaphragm Check Valves (DCVs)
It is strongly recommended that a suitable Diaphragm Check Valve (DCV) be
fitted in the spray liquid line to each MICROMAX 120, just before the flow
restrictor.
8
FILTRATION
A filter must be incorporated in the spray liquid supply. This should have a 0.5
mm (50 mesh/inch) or finer mesh filter.
The filter may be installed either in the suction or pressure line of the pump, but
the filter must always be before any flow restrictors and should preferably be
before the pressure regulator. It is most common to fit the filter to the suction
line of the pump to protect the pump Secondary filtration is strongly
recommended to catch any smaller particles missed by the main filter, as well as
any particles that may already be present in the spray lines, or rust particles etc.
Secondary filters (i.e. nozzle filters) should be fitted just before the DCV and
flow restrictor for each MICROMAX 120 atomiser. A finer mesh 0.25 mm (100
mesh/inch) filter is recommended.
The main purpose of filtration in a MICROMAX 120 system is to protect the
pump and valves, and to prevent partial or total blockage of the flow restrictors.
The MICROMAX is itself very difficult to block, due to the nature of the rotary
disc atomiser.
Pumps
If a new sprayer is being designed or an original pump is to be replaced, it is
recommended that a diaphragm or centrifugal type is chosen. This should be
able to provide a pressure of about 3 bar (45 psi), and should be capable of
delivering the maximum flow rate required of the sprayer plus the flow required
for tank agitation (if a mechanical agitator is not used).
Each MICROMAX 120 atomiser takes a maximum of 3 l/min (6.5 US pt/min).
Consult the specifications of your base sprayer (or tank manufacturer) for the
required flow for tank agitation.
Materials
All liquid feed system components should be rated for the system pressure to be
used, and manufactured from materials that will not be degraded by weathering
or agrochemicals. It is best to source components from Micron or other
specialist agricultural sprayer component suppliers.
9
On/Off valve
An on/off valve must be fitted in the main liquid feed to the MICROMAX 120
atomisers. This may be mechanically or solenoid operated, but should be
positioned so as to be easily and safely actuated by the sprayer operator whilst
driving the sprayer.
Several on/off valves plumbed in parallel, or a multi-position valve, can be used
to select different groups of MICROMAX 120 atomisers if required (for example
for multiple boom sections).
Pipe and hose sizes
The bore size of the components and the pipes or hoses required will depend on
the number of MICROMAX 120 atomisers connected to the system, and
therefore the maximum flow required at the operating pressure. The use of rigid
pipe or flexible hose is purely at the designer’s discretion.
For pump connection, the pump manufacturer’s guidelines should be followed.
However, 20 mm (0.75 inch) bore hose on the suction side and 13 mm (0.5 inch)
bore hose on the pressure side are recommended as a minimum for one atomiser
systems. For systems with multiple atomisers, hose bore sizes up to 40 mm (1.5
inch) on the pump’s suction side and 32 mm (1.25 inch) on the pressure side may
be required.
All hoses, pipes, and components upstream of the pump should be the same bore
size as the pump’s suction side hose.
All hoses, pipes, and components downstream of the pump, up to the on/off
valve (or valves), should be the same bore size as the pump’s pressure side hose
(including the bypass return line).
If only one MICROMAX 120 is connected to the on/off valve, it is
recommended that 13 mm (0.5 inch) bore hose or pipe is used to connect up to
the nozzle filter. The bore size should then be reduced to 6mm (0.25 inch) for
the remaining downstream components and connections.
For systems where more than one MICROMAX 120 is connected to the on/off
valve, it is recommended that the pump pressure side hose bore size is continued
up to the split. The bore size should then be reduced to 13 mm (0.5 inch), and
connection continued as for the single atomiser system described above.
10
INSTALLATION
SPRAY LIQUID TANK
AGITATOR
ON/OFF VALVES FOR MULTIPLE
SECTIONS
FLUSH
TANK
SERVICE
VALVE (b)
PUMP (c)
MULTIPLE MICROMAX IN A SECTION
BYPASS RETURN
SUCTION
FILTER (a)
NOTES:
a
0.5 mm (50 MESH/INCH) MESH FILTER
b
3 WAY LEVER OPERATED ISOLATING / CHANGEOVER VALVE
c
DIAPHRAGM OR CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
3 BAR (45 PSI) OUTPUT AT REQUIRED FLOW RATE
d
e
ADJUSTABLE SINGLE STAGE PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE
f
12v DC SOLENOID OPERATED TWO POSITION ON/OFF VALVE
POWER SUPPLIED BY SPRAYER’S ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
OPERATED BY SWITCH IN SPRAYER’S CAB OR NEAR TO DRIVER
g
0.25 mm (100 MESH/INCH) MESH IN-LINE FILTER
h
LOW PRESSURE DIAPHRAGM CHECK VALVE (DCV)
i
ORIFICE PLATE HOLDER TYPE FIXED FLOW RESTRICTOR UNIT
6mm (0.25 INCH) BORE HOSE CONNECTION
SPLIT USING 6mm (0.25 INCH) BARB ‘Y’ PIECE
Typical spray liquid feed system
11
MICROMAX
CONNECTING
DCV (g)
NOZZLE
FILTER (f)
ON/OFF
VALVE (e)
PRESSURE
GAUGE
(a) - (i)
FLOW
RESTRICTOR (h)
REGULATOR
VALVE (d)
INSTALLATION
Flow indicators
It may be desirable to fit flow indicators in the feed lines to each MICROMAX
atomiser. The flow indicators should be positioned so as to be clearly visible to
the spray operator whilst driving the sprayer, without the operator needing to
take their eyes off the direction of travel for more than a few seconds. Larger
numbers of MICROMAX atomisers may be monitored in groups (such as boom
sections) in order to reduce the number of indicators required and the complexity
of the plumbing.
Modification of an existing system
!
IMPORTANT SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS
Before working on an existing liquid feed system, always flush out the
entire system with clean water or a suitable solvent and wash off outer
surfaces.
When working on a sprayer that has been used with agrochemicals,
always treat it as contaminated, even if it has been thoroughly flushed
and cleaned. Refer to Section 4 ‘Safety and the environment’ for
recommended precautions.
Legislation and regulations on the design of sprayers have changed
significantly over the last few decades. Older sprayers should be
upgraded to meet the latest requirements. If this is not practicable they
should be replaced.
If an older sprayer is being modified, it is essential that the spray liquid feed
system is thoroughly cleaned and overhauled. Any rusty or damaged pipes or
hoses should be replaced, valves should be checked for correct operation, the
pump should be serviced, and the filters cleaned or replaced.
The original spray pump can normally be retained. If this pump is a high
pressure type or if it has excess capacity, it may be necessary to fit an adjustable
pressure regulator in the liquid supply line to the atomisers. If a pressure
regulator is already fitted but cannot be adjusted to a sufficiently low pressure, it
will be necessary to either fit a second low pressure regulator to the output of the
main regulator, or to replace it.
12
INSTALLATION
When retro-fitting multiple MICROMAX 120 atomisers to a boom sprayer it is
common to utilise most of the existing spray system. MICROMAX 120 are
generally plumbed to every other existing nozzle holder, the holders in between
being blanked off, if nozzles are spaced at 0.5m (10 inches).
The usual arrangement is to fit a suitable DCV unit and nozzle filter into the
nozzle holder. A nozzle cap, usually one for disc and core type hollow cone
nozzles, is then fitted with a 6 mm (0.25 inch) hose barb adapter. This is fitted to
the DCV unit in place of the conventional nozzle and cap, allowing connection
of 6 mm (0.25 inch) bore hose. The MICROMAX plumbing is then continued as
per Figure 11 ‘Typical spray liquid feed system’ on page 14.
Some DCV units allow an orifice plate to be fitted before the nozzle cap and
hose barb, otherwise a separate orifice plate holder should be fitted in the line to
the atomiser, before the split to feed the two nozzles.
The components required for attaching to most common nozzle holders can be
obtained from Micron, otherwise contact your usual spray component supplier.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
The design of the electrical system will depend on the number of MICROMAX
120 atomisers to be used and the available electrical power. This section
provides general advice and design data for use by a technically competent
person.
!
IMPORTANT SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS
Failure to follow the recommendations in this section, and good electrical
wiring practice, may lead to serious damage to the MICROMAX 120 motor.
Unsafe conditions may also arise, such as; excessive heating of components, risk
of fire, and damage to the spray vehicle’s safety critical systems.
It is strongly recommended that the electrical system be designed and installed
by a qualified and competent electrician with reference to the vehicle
manufacturer’s recommendations.
13
INSTALLATION
All components needed to build the electrical system should be available from
your usual specialist electrical component supplier, otherwise contact Micron for
advice.
Motor rating
The MICROMAX is driven by a permanent magnet DC motor.
6000 rpm (achieved at approximately 14v DC) and 3A are the maximum
recommended speed and current ratings.
Voltage vs. speed, current vs. flow
The MICROMAX motor’s rotational speed is almost directly proportional to the
voltage applied across it. Correct disc speed is essential to ensure appropriate
spray quality (see section 6 – ‘Basics of Controlled Droplet Application’). It is
essential to ensure, therefore, that the voltage across the motor is as near to 12v
DC as is practicable (max. +/- 1v DC).
The current drawn by the MICROMAX 120 motor will increase as the flow rate
of chemical liquid is increased. Higher flow rates than the maximums quoted in
Table A ‘Typical Performance Data’ on Page 3 should not be used. This risks
overloading and damaging the MICROMAX 120 motor, and will also cause a
deterioration in the droplet size spectrum.
Switch Box
A master on/off switch and ‘power on’ indicator should be fitted in order to be
able to turn the MICROMAX 120 atomiser/s on and off as required. The switch
should be large and easily operated with a gloved hand, yet difficult to
accidentally actuate (i.e. when driving the sprayer). The indicator should be
bright enough to be visible in all daylight conditions.
If more than one atomiser is to be controlled high power components should be
used, since each MICROMAX 120 can use up to 36 watts and draw up to 3A. It
is common for multi-atomiser systems, such as boom sprayers, to use a high
power relay to effect switching, with the actual switch operating the relay
actuation circuit.
The switch (and relay if used) and indicator should be mounted in a suitable
weatherproof enclosure, which shall be referred to as the ‘switch box’ in the
following sections.
14
INSTALLATION
Location of the switch box
The switch box should be securely mounted, and located so as to minimise the
length of the battery leads and the MICROMAX power cables. Care should be
taken to position the switch box so that it causes no impediment to the safe
operation of the sprayer.
It is desirable that the sprayer operator, whilst in the driving position, should be
able to comfortably and safely operate the switch. This is not, however, essential
if it is impractical. The spray liquid on/off valves are the primary method of
turning the sprayer on and off whilst in operation (i.e. when turning at the end of
rows).
Power supply
In most instances the MICROMAX 120 electrical system will be connected to
the spray vehicle’s system, powered by the alternator. It is recommended that
connection is made directly to the vehicle’s battery terminals It is essential to
check the spray vehicle manufacturer’s specifications to ensure that the alternator
has sufficient spare capacity to drive the required number of MICROMAX 120.
If not, a larger alternator or dedicated electrical supply must be fitted.
A dedicated electrical supply may be preferred or needed, such as a PTO shaft
driven generator. In this case it is recommended that the dedicated supply be
used to charge a large capacity heavy duty battery. The MICROMAX electrical
system should then be connected to the battery, which will act as a buffer or
accumulator to smooth the supply.
Fuses and circuit protection
The vehicle’s electrical system should be protected by fitting a master fuse into
the positive battery lead. This should be located as near as possible to the battery
terminal connection
The master fuse should be a ‘slow blow’ automotive type.
Some
experimentation may be required to obtain the best balance between circuit
protection and the avoidance of nuisance blowing. As a guide, allow 3A per
MICROMAX 120 then add 10%. A circuit breaker may be used, if preferred,
instead of a fuse.
15
INSTALLATION
The MICROMAX 120 motor and supply circuits should also be protected. Fit a
‘slow blow’ type 5A fuse in the positive power lead to each MICROMAX. The
fuse should be located as near as possible to the atomiser itself (see Figure 12
‘Typical electrical system’ on page 21). It is recommended that a weatherproof
fuse holder is used, otherwise wrap the fuse holder in weatherproof tape.
Battery connection
The power leads from the battery to the switch box should be oversized, to
minimise voltage drop. The following sizes are given as a guide:
Number of
MICROMAX 120
Cross Sectional Area (CSA)
(each lead)
1
4 mm2 (12 AWG)
2 to 6
6 mm2 (10 AWG)
7 to 12
10 mm2 (8 AWG)
13+
16 mm2 (6 AWG)
Battery lead size
The positive and negative leads should be twisted around each other along as
much of their length as possible, to reduce impedance.
The connections to the battery must be secure and offer low resistance. High
quality, heavy duty 8 mm (0.3125 inch) crimp rings are recommended, they will
fit the terminal bolts used on most batteries.
MICROMAX connection
The leads from the switch box to each MICROMAX 120 should be oversized to
minimise voltage drop. Guide sizes are given in Table C MICROMAX 120 feed
cable sizes’ on Page 20.
If more than one MICROMAX 120 atomiser is to be connected, they should
always be connected in parallel (see ‘Typical electrical system’ on page 21). The
lengths of the leads from the switch box to each atomiser should be kept as equal
as practicable.
16
INSTALLATION
Configuration
Cross Sectional
Area (CSA) each lead
Single atomiser
cable less than 3m (10 feet) long
Single atomiser
cable more than 3m (10 feet) long
1.5 mm2 (16 AWG)
2.5 mm2 (14 AWG)
Up to 12 atomisers fed from a single master power
cable split at a junction box (i.e. on a boom sprayer).
Master cable (max. 3m (10 feet) long)
Individual atomiser power cable
6 mm2 (10 AWG)
as above
MICROMAX feed cable sizes
Connection to the MICROMAX 120 motor leads should be made in such a
way as to facilitate quick and easy replacement of the atomiser. Waterproof
automotive type in-line plug/socket connectors are recommended. Screw
terminal blocks wrapped in weatherproof tape are an acceptable low cost
alternative.
Any junction boxes used should be securely mounted and be weatherproof.
Glands should be used on all cable entries.
Materials and cable type
For most applications, all leads/cables can be PVC insulated multi-stranded
flexible copper cable. Arctic grade PVC or CSP insulated cable may be
required in unusually harsh environments.
It is strongly recommended that all leads/cables are protected using flexible
polypropylene or nylon conduit, braided polyethylene sheath, or similar. This
is especially important in areas where abrasion is likely, such as around folding
boom pivot points.
Connections should be sealed with glands or weatherproof tape. Exposed
components should be weatherproof and resistant to agrochemicals.
17
INSTALLATION
SWITCH BOX (b)
MICROMAX
FUSE (e)
1
0
RECHARGE
FUSE (d)
12 VDC
BATTERY (a)
MULTIPLE HEADS IN PARALLEL
(a) - (e)
NOTES:
a
HEAVY DUTY 12 VOLT DC BATTERY
b
SWITCH BOX GIVING ON/OFF CONTROL
c
USUALLY VEHICLE’S ALTERNATOR CIRCUIT
d
e
SLOW BLOW AUTOMOTIVE TYPE (SEE SECTION 5.3.6)
Typical electrical system
Routing leads/cables
Leads/cables should be securely clipped in place and routed to avoid hot areas or
possible pinching hazards. Care should be taken to ensure that no impediment is
caused to the safe operation of the sprayer.
18
BASICS OF CONTROLLED DROPLET APPLICATION (CDA)
This section is included as a brief introduction for spray operators new to
Micron's MICROMAX 120 CDA technology. It is not intended to be a
comprehensive spraying guide, or to offer detailed recommendations. Please
contact Micron for application specific advice.
WHAT IS CDA?
An agricultural sprayer may be used to treat many different targets, varying from
the bare ground to an insect on top of foliage. For each application there is an
optimum droplet size for maximum efficiency.
Ideally all spray liquid would leave the sprayer in optimum sized droplets. In
reality this is impossible, all sprayers produce a range of droplet sizes.
The control of the size and range of droplets produced and applied is called
Controlled Droplet Application (CDA). What defines a CDA sprayer is its
ability to produce relatively even droplets, correctly sized to suit the application.
DROPLET FORMATION
Conventional hydraulic pressure nozzles force liquid under pressure through a
hole, producing a sheet of liquid which then disintegrates randomly into droplets.
Conventional hydraulic pressure nozzle droplet formation by sheet disintegration.
19
BASICS OF CONTROLLED DROPLET APPLICATION (CDA)
The droplets formed can vary considerably in size, typically ranging from 1μm to
1000μm. Droplets that are too big bounce off the target or run together and drip,
whilst droplets that are too small drift away. At best both waste chemical, and at worst
cause crop damage or pollution.
Uneven droplets from a conventional
hydraulic pressure nozzle
Relatively even droplets from a
MICROMAX CDA atomiser
Uneven and even droplets
Micron’s MICROMAX 120 CDA atomisers use spinning discs, with precision
formed grooves and teeth, to produce droplets. When the disc speed and spray
liquid feed rate are correctly set, they produce relatively even droplets sized to
suit the application. Overly large and overly small droplets are avoided.
An understanding of how the droplets
are formed is desirable, in order to
correctly select disc speed and spray
liquid flow rate.
At low flow rates, large single droplets
are emitted from the atomiser disc’s
‘teeth’.
As the liquid feed rate increases
ligaments form producing smaller
droplets. A point is reached where all
droplets become ‘ligament formed’ (see
'Ligament Atomisation' below).
20
DIRECTION OF ROTATION
Single droplet atomisation
BASICS OF CONTROLLED DROPLET APPLICATION (CDA)
The atomiser disc’s speed determines the
size of the droplets produced in each
mode. The faster the disc spins, the
smaller the droplets.
Further increasing the spray liquid feed
rate will eventually ‘flood’ the grooves
and teeth, causing ‘sheeting’. Droplets
are then formed by the random
disintegration of the sheet, similar to a
conventional hydraulic pressure nozzle.
DIRECTION OF ROTATION
Ligament atomisation
COVERAGE DENSITY
The objective of an agricultural sprayer is to distribute sufficient active
ingredient evenly over a target area. The density of coverage required
for excellent efficacy is mainly dependent upon the leaf area and
growth stage of the crop or target and the type of chemical being
Type of spray
Crop or
target
density
Nil
Leaf
Area
Index
Nil
Growth
Stage
(feekes)
Nil
Coverage Density droplets/
cm2 ground area
(droplets/sq. inch)
Pre emergent
50–100 (320–650)
Translocated post
1
emergent
Sparse
/2
1–2
50–100 (320–650)
herbicide
Translocated post
Mediumemergent
1–2
3–7
100 (320)
dense
herbicide
Translocated
Sparse- 1
fungicide and
/2 – 2
1 – 10
50–100 (320–650)
dense
insecticide
Sparse- 1
All contact
/2 – 2
1 – 10
150–200 (970–1300)
dense
Coverage density in relation to chemical and target
21
BASICS OF CONTROLLED DROPLET APPLICATION (CDA)
From a fixed volume of liquid, as the droplet size halves the number of droplets increases
eight fold.
1 x 400μm
8 x 200μm
64 x 100μm
512 x 50μm
Number of droplets from a fixed volume of spray liquid
The ability of a MICROMAX 120 CDA atomiser to produce relatively even
sized small droplets allows the volume of spray liquid to be drastically reduced,
whilst maintaining the density of coverage. This is referred to as 'Low Volume'
CDA spraying.
CONVENTIONAL SPRAYING
LOW VOLUME CDA SPRAYING
Volume reduction whilst maintaining coverage
22
BASICS OF CONTROLLED DROPLET APPLICATION (CDA)
A Low Volume CDA sprayer should be calibrated to give the required coverage
density.
Volume application rate l/ha (US gpa)
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
(0.5)
(1)
(1.5)
(2)
(2.5)
(3)
(3.5)
(4)
Droplet
size (μm)
Number of droplets/cm2 of ground area
(droplets /sq. inch)
185
80
(1200)
100
120
140
160
95
190
(610)
(1230)
NOT NECESSARY!
55
110
165
220
(350)
(710)
(1060)
(1420)
70
105
140
175
210
(450)
(680)
(900)
(1130)
(1350)
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
(320)
(480)
(650)
(810)
(970)
(1130)
(1290)
180
200
60
75
90
105
120
(390)
(480)
(580)
(680)
(770)
TOO LITTLE!
250
50
60
70
80
(320)
(390)
(450)
(520)
48
55
(310)
(350)
Table E – Droplet size, volume application rate and coverage density
Low Volume CDA spraying allows dramatic savings to be made in the cost of
the spraying operation. Greater areas can be sprayed per tank load, or lighter
vehicles used. The spraying process is speeded up, allowing more spraying days
and therefore a better chance of spraying at the optimum time.
The advantages of Low Volume CDA are even more pronounced if the chemical
can be applied during the early phase of the recommended application period,
particularly when applying herbicides. The target will have a relatively lower
leaf area, and so will require less chemical for good coverage.
It is vital, however, that consideration be given to the stage of growth, and how
receptive the target is, at the time of spraying.
23
BASICS OF CONTROLLED DROPLET APPLICATION (CDA)
DROPLET TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION
Most agricultural sprayers (excluding air-assisted and electrostatic) use various
combinations of initial momentum, gravity, and controlled drift to transport the
spray liquid droplets to, and deposit them on, the target.
Initial Momentum
Momentum is a function of an object's velocity multiplied by its mass, and is the
force that makes an object continue to move once the force causing it to move in
the first place has been removed.
A droplet gains its initial velocity and hence initial momentum during
production, either by a rotary disc CDA atomiser or by a conventional hydraulic
pressure nozzle.
Air resistance (drag) slows the droplet, usually reducing its initial momentum to
zero within a relatively short distance. Gravity will can also act against a
droplet's initial momentum, if it is travelling upwards.
Rotary disc CDA atomisers and conventional hydraulic spray nozzles both use
the initial momentum of droplets to spread them laterally, producing their
characteristic spray patterns.
Many conventional hydraulic spray nozzles also use the initial momentum of
large droplets to transport them to, and deposit them on, a target.
This is not an effective method for smaller droplets as their initial momentum is
too low, due to their very low mass, resulting in the droplets being easily
deflected from their target by small air currents.
24
BASICS OF CONTROLLED DROPLET APPLICATION (CDA)
Gravity
Gravity is the force which accelerates objects downwards, and is a function of an
object's mass. Air resistance (drag) acts against gravity to slow the object.
As gravity accelerates an object its downward velocity, and therefore
momentum, increases.
The object, if unhindered, continues to accelerate until it reaches its 'terminal
velocity', when the forces of gravity and air resistance are balanced causing the
object to cease accelerating.
Rotary disc CDA atomisers and conventional hydraulic spray nozzles both use
gravity to transport larger droplets vertically downwards, and to deposit them
onto the top surfaces of a target.
This is not effective for smaller droplets as their terminal velocity and hence
momentum is very low, due to their very low mass. This lack of momentum
results in the droplets being easily deflected from their target by small air
currents.
Controlled Drift
Drift is the lateral transportation of droplets away from their point of release by
natural wind currents.
The distance a droplet will travel depends on the mass of the droplet and the
strength of the wind. Tiny droplets in a strong wind may travel great distances,
whereas large droplets in a light wind may hardly be deflected at all.
Uncontrolled off-target drift is always undesirable. However, in many
applications, controlled drift is essential for good penetration and even coverage.
The droplets produced by a correctly set rotary CDA atomiser are relatively
uniform, allowing better control of drift.
Better drift control improves coverage and reduces the risk of off-target spraying
and subsequent crop and/or environmental damage.
25
BASICS OF CONTROLLED DROPLET APPLICATION (CDA)
Deposition and retention
If the target is a crop (i.e. defoliants, fungicides), insects feeding on a crop
(insecticides), or weeds within a crop (selective herbicides) the spray is most
suitable if it is applied as droplets in the range 100μm to 200μm. This
minimises any risk of uncontrolled spray drift whilst reducing the amount of
chemical required, as CDA capitalises on two facts:
Larger droplets in the range 200μm to 500μm are most suitable for foliar
fertiliser, soil applications, pre and post-emergent herbicide applications, and
where drift avoidance is essential.
Smaller droplets in the range 75 to 150 are most suitable for contact
insecticides, achieving high coverage levels and forming a dense mist effective
against insects in-flight. Smaller droplets are also more easily distributed by
the turbulent air currents within the crop canopy, achieving better under-leaf
and vertical stem coverage.
Please contact Micron for the latest information (i.e. recommendations, trials
reports, expert contacts) relating to specific areas of application.
Spray concentration effect
Experience with CDA has shown that results are often far better if an additive
such as an adjuvant oil or wetter is included in the chemical mix.
Without an additive the spray may consist of droplets that have high viscosity
and surface tension, preventing the droplet spreading on impact. When the
liquid evaporates the chemical will be concentrated on a small area of the
target. This may destroy the plant tissue (scorch) and inhibit intake and
translocation of the chemical.
26
BASICS OF CONTROLLED DROPLET APPLICATION (CDA)
The effect of the additive is to reduce the surface tension of the droplet. This
significantly increases the area covered by the droplet, reducing the risk of
scorch and increasing absorption.
Increased surfactant levels may also dissolve and penetrate the waxy surfaces of
plants and insects. However, an excessive amount of wetter can lead to foaming
of the spray mix at very low application volumes.
Several chemicals, including hormone herbicides, do not mix freely with
adjuvant oils and can scorch a crop that is under stress.
Oil may also help to waterproof the chemical making it rain resistant.
DROPLET WITHOUT
ADDITIVE
DROPLET WITH
ADDITIVE
SMALL AREA OF
CHEMICAL DEPOSIT
LARGE AREA OF
CHEMICAL DEPOSIT
The addition of a wetter reduces surface tension
In dry and/or sunny conditions the size of a water-based spray droplet decreases
rapidly due to evaporation. The resulting droplet may be very concentrated, have
a high surface tension, and may not spread on impact. This may result in plant
tissue damage and make spraying less effective.
Evaporation will also increase the risk of drift.
The addition of an adjuvant oil at 2% - 5% of the total spray volume will help
prevent evaporation.
27
BASICS OF CONTROLLED DROPLET APPLICATION (CDA)
CDA IN ACTION
Reducing volumes and dose rates
With some chemicals, the advantages that CDA gives in relation to more
effective coverage allow the use of reduced dose rates whilst maintaining
efficacy. However, the reduction of dose rates is undertaken at the individual
user’s own risk and is best done based on comprehensive trials data.
Reduced dose rates are not recommended in all situations. Care must be taken
with respect to possible increases in weed, pest and disease resistance resulting
from a sub-optimal treatments.
Reduced drift and run-off
The accurate control of droplet size allows not only more effective treatment, but
also the selection of the most appropriate spray quality to reduce environmental
damage due to drift and run-off.
Tiny droplets that cause drift and oversize droplets that cause run-off can be
dramatically reduced.
Please call on Micron’s extensive experience and library of trials data for
further information on particular applications and current
recommendations. Academic and experienced user contacts can also be
provided.
28
CALIBRATION AND ADJUSTMENTMICROMAX
CALIBRATION AND ADJUSTMENT
Before each use the sprayer must be calibrated for droplet size and application
rate.
It is important to note that the data provided in the following section is based on
performance with water and is intended as a guide. Actual performance will
vary according to the formulation of chemical being used. It is therefore vital
that the calibration of the system is checked whenever a new chemical is used.
The following sections describe the calibration procedure for a typical
MICROMAX 120 based sprayer. The procedure may vary with some types of
sprayer, contact Micron for advice if in doubt.
!
IMPORTANT SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS
Failure to correctly calibrate the sprayer may result in crop damage,
ineffective treatment or environmental damage through excessive runoff and/or drift.
When calibrating a sprayer, take safety precautions as per spraying
DROPLET SIZE AND ATOMISER SPEED
Atomiser Speed Selection
The MICROMAX has three speed settings or gears providing three droplet size
ranges. Select the appropriate setting for the application from ‘Atomiser Speed
Selection’ on Page 33. Refer to section 6 – ‘Basics of controlled droplet
application’ for further guidance on droplet sizes.
Atomiser Speed Setting
The chosen speed is set by moving the MICROMAX 120 drive belt, by hand, to
one of the three available positions, see ‘Atomiser Speed Setting’ on page 33.
Ensure that the belt is tight and level, and that the belt and pulleys are clean.
29
CALIBRATION AND ADJUSTMENT
Application
Speed Setting
Nominal Disc
Speed
Droplet Size
Range
Herbicides,
Foliar Fertilisers,
Soil Applications,
and Drift
Minimisation
Low
2000 rpm
200 – 500 μm
Fungicides and
Insecticides
Medium
3500 rpm
100 – 200 μm
5000 rpm
75 – 150 μm
Contact Insecticides High
Atomiser Speed Selection
MOTOR
LOW SPEED
MEDIUM SPEED
HIGH SPEED
DISC
Atomiser Speed Setting
30
CALIBRATION AND ADJUSTMENT
Checking Atomiser Speed
On first use, at the start of each spraying season, and periodically
throughout the season MICROMAX 120 atomisers should be checked
for correct running speed using an optical tachometer, timing strobe or
other similar suitable device.
Fast running is usually due to a fault in the electrical system, whereas
slow running may also be due to atomiser motor problems. See section
10 ‘Trouble shooting’ should a significant deviation (+/- 10%) from
the stated running speeds be experienced (see ‘Typical performance
data’ on page 3).
!
IMPORTANT SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS
Be aware that when a MICROMAX atomiser is running it rotates at
high speed, which and can present an entanglement hazard and risk
of injury by cutting by the discs’ teeth.
Secure loose clothing and long hair.
Do not touch a rotating atomiser disc.
APPLICATION RATE AND FLOW RATE
Determining the required spray volume and dose rate
Choosing the appropriate chemical dose rate, concentration, and
therefore spray liquid volume application rate is essential for
successful spraying.
CDA technology allows significant reductions in spray liquid volume
application rates, and often also chemical dose application rates, to be
made whilst maintaining efficacy. Refer to section section 6 – ‘Basics
of Controlled Droplet Application’ for further discussion of the
principles behind reducing volumes and dose rates.
The following guidelines should be followed, backed up where
possible by data from field trials. Contact Micron for further guidance
if required.
31
CALIBRATION AND ADJUSTMENT
GUIDELINES FOR THE APPLICATION OF PESTICIDES WITH CDA - REDUCED
VOLUME SPRAYING.
Chemicals are categorised into three groups when applying through CDA
equipment.
1. Chemicals whose labels give specific CDA instructions:
For chemicals available as CDA formulations or with label instructions on use
with CDA equipment the label instructions should be followed.
2. Chemicals whose labels prohibit higher concentrations:
Including products where the label prohibits low volume spraying at the
recommended dose, having a statutory maximum concentration, or classified as
very toxic, corrosive or posing serious risk of eye injury.
Spray volumes may be reduced only if the product dose is reduced in line with
the spray volume so as not to exceed the maximum concentration recommended
on the label.
EXAMPLE:
The maximum label concentration of spray at 5 l/ha dose in 200 l/ha spray
volume = 2.5% product in water.
So at 100 l/ha reduced volume spraying, maintaining the maximum
concentration at 2.5% gives a maximum dose rate of 2.5 l/ha.
3. Chemicals whose labels allow increased concentration:
Spray volumes may be reduced at full dose rates. The maximum concentration
permitted is 10X the maximum concentration recommended on the label for
conventional spraying.
EXAMPLE:
The maximum label concentration of spray at 5 l/ha dose in 200 l/ha spray
volume = 2.5% product in water.
So a full 5 l/ha dose can be used down to a spray volume of 20 l/ha, giving a
spray concentration of 25% product in water.
At volumes below this the dose rate must be reduced to maintain a maximum
10x concentration as per 2 above.
‘OFF-LABEL’ USERS WILL HAVE TO ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE
EFFICACY OF THE TREATMENT.
IN ALL CASES USE THE MINIMUM DOSE RECOMMENDED ON THE LABEL.
32
CALIBRATION AND ADJUSTMENT
Determining the area sprayed per minute
Once the required volume application rate and dose rate have been established,
the area sprayed per minute must be determined in order to calculate the required
sprayer output per minute.
The area sprayed per minute is dependant on the swath width and the forward
speed of the sprayer.
Swath width
The swath width will depend on the design of the sprayer and the number of
MICROMAX atomisers used. As a general guide for non-shrouded sprayers,
one MICROMAX atomiser alone produces a swath approximately 2.4m wide.
Two or more atomisers spaced equally will produce a swath width equal to:
2.4m + [Atomiser spacing (m) x [Number of atomisers - 1] ]
EXAMPLE:
For a 12m boom sprayer with 12 MICROMAX heads spaced at 1m the swath
width would be calculated as:
2.4m + [ 1m x [12 – 1] ]
= 2.4m + [1m x 11]
= 2.4m + 11m
= 13.4m
However, this sprayer should be driven through the crop on a 12m track spacing
in order to achieve the required spray pattern overlap for the end atomisers, and
give equal coverage. Therefore the swath should be assumed to be 12m.
Forward speed
If the sprayer or tractor is fitted with a reliable and accurate forward speed
indicator simply convert the forward speed to be used to metres per minute (m/
min) using the calculations below:
33
CALIBRATION AND ADJUSTMENT
If the sprayer or tractor is not fitted with a forward speed indicator, use markers
to determine the forward speed. Start the vehicle and adjust the throttle to
achieve the required constant forward speed, drop the first marker, time 30
seconds then drop the second marker. Measure the distance in metres between
the two markers. Simply multiply this by 2 to give the forward speed in metres
per minute (m/min).
Calculation of area sprayed per minute
Using the figures obtained for swath width and forward speed determined as per
the area sprayed in hectares per minute (ha/min) is calculated using the formula
Area sprayed
(ha/min)
Forward speed
(m/min)
=
X
Swath width
(m)
10000
EXAMPLE:
If a forward speed of 9 kph and a swath width of 12m is used:
9 kph = 9 x 16.7 = 150.3 m/min (see 7.2.2.2 above)
Area sprayed
(ha/min)
=
Area sprayed
=
150.3 m/min
X
12 m
10000
0.18 ha/min
AREA SPRAYED (m2/min)
SWATH WIDTH (m)
DISTANCE TRAVELLED
IN 1 MIN (m)
=
FORWARD SPEED
(m/min)
Area sprayed per min
34
CALIBRATION AND ADJUSTMENT
Determining the total sprayer output per minute
Using the required spray liquid application rate in litres per hectare and the area
sprayed per minute determined as per 7.2.1 and 7.2.2 above, the total sprayer
output (litres per minute) is calculated as below.
Total output
(l/min)
Spray liquid
application rate
required (l/ha)
=
X
Area sprayed
per minute
(ha/min)
EXAMPLE:
Using the example figures from 7.2.1, i.e. 9 kph forward speed with a 12m swath
gives an area sprayed per min figure of 0.18 ha/min. Assume (as per 7.2.1) a
required application rate of 30l/ha spray liquid, the sprayer total output is
Total output (l/min)
=
30 l/ha
Total output (l/min)
=
5.4 l/min
X
0.18 ha/min
Determining the output per atomiser per minute
Using the total spray liquid output rate in litres per minute calculated in 7.2.3
above, and the known number of MICROMAX atomisers used, the output (litres
per minute) per atomiser is calculated as below.
Output per MICROMAX
(l/min)
Total output (l/min)
=
Number of atomisers
EXAMPLE:
Using the example figures from 7.2.1 and 7.2.2, apply 5.4 l/min through a 12
head boom sprayer gives:
Output per MICROMAX
=
(l/min)
5.4 l/min
=
12
35
0.45 l/min (or 450 ml/min)
CALIBRATION AND ADJUSTMENT
MICROMAX
spacing
2.4 +
(
X
(
Number of
atomisers
-1
))
Swath
width
=
m
SECTION 7.2.2.1
Forward
speed
mph X
26.8
or
kph
X
Forward
speed
16.7
or
m/min
=
Distance travelled
in 30 seconds
m
X
2
SECTION 7.2.2.2
Area sprayed
ha/min
m/min
=
X
m
10000
SECTION 7.2.2.3
Application
rate required
ha/min
X
Total sprayer
output
l/ha =
l/min
SECTION 7.2.3
SECTION 7.2.4
Output per MICROMAX
l/min
l/min
=
Number of atomisers
Figure 24 – Calculating flow rate (l/min) per MICROMAX
NOTE:
MORE COPIES OF THIS CALCULATION GRID MAY BE FOUND IN
SECTION 14 – ’USER NOTES’.
36
CALIBRATION AND ADJUSTMENT
Compensating for MICROMAX performance parameters
In order to produce the droplet spectrum required, the MICROMAX atomiser
must be used with a flow rate within the ranges specified in Table H ’Flow rate
parameters’ below.
Application
Speed Setting
Minimum Flow Rate Maximum Flow Rate
Herbicides,
Foliar Fertilisers,
Soil Applications,
and Drift
Minimisation
Low
0.5 l/min
3 l/min
Fungicides and
Insecticides
Medium
0.25 l/min
1 l/min
Contact Insecticides
High
0.125 l/min
0.5 l/min
Flow rate parameters
If the required flow rate per MICROMAX atomiser (see section 7.2.4) does not
fall within the permissible range, for the speed setting for the application, action
must be taken to compensate and bring the flow rate into the range. The
suggested actions being:
Flow rate too high:
Reduce the application rate required whilst maintaining the dose rate by
increasing the spray liquid concentration (see section 7.2.1 for limits).
Reduce the forward speed of the sprayer.
Flow rate too low:
Increase the application rate required whilst maintaining the dose rate by
reducing the spray liquid concentration (see section 7.2.1 for limits).
Increase the forward speed of the sprayer.
Re-calculate the flow rate required after adjustment to check that it now falls
within the required limits. Contact Micron for advice if it is not possible to make
sufficient adjustment.
37
CALIBRATION AND ADJUSTMENT
Setting the required flow rate
The flow rate to each atomiser is usually set to be the same.
Flow is regulated by the MICROMAX 120 coloured nozzles and/or a flow
restrictor fitted into the line before each MICROMAX head (see Section 5.2.1)
and the spray line pressure.
Nominal spray line pressure and permitted adjustment
The spray line pressure should be maintained within the range allowed for
correct operation of the diaphragm check valves fitted (normally 1.0 – 1.75 bar –
check manufacturers specifications).
Higher pressures can be used to achieve higher flow rates, however it is better to
select a higher VRU setting or larger orifice plate / nozzle. This will reduce the
risk of blockages and also provide more consistent flow when applying wettable
powders.
Lower pressures should not be used as they will prevent the diaphragm check
valves from opening correctly.
It is recommended that a nominal pressure of 1.5 bar is used, with a maximum
adjustment of +/- 0.25 bar to achieve flow calibration.
Coloured nozzles
The MICROMAX atomiser is supplied with three sets of two coloured nozzles,
Blue, Yellow and Red. These equate roughly to the orifice plate sizes 31, 43,
and 48 respectively.
Low cost flow control can be achieved by using these nozzles singly or in pairs
(i.e. fit both but plumb spray line to only one or both) without fitting a separate
flow restrictor.
Where this method is to be used follow the procedures in 7.2.6.4 ‘Orifice plates’
below, equating the single coloured nozzles to the orifice plate sizes stated
above. Use in pairs doubles the flow at any given pressure.
EXAMPLE:
A single Blue nozzle equates to an orifice plate size 31, giving approximately
approx. 345 ml/min at 1.4 bar. A pair of blue nozzles equate to double the flow
of an orifice plate size 31 giving approx. 690 ml/min at 1.4 bar.
38
CALIBRATION AND ADJUSTMENT
If a variable restrictor unit or orifice plate holder unit is to be used to control
flow, simply fit the two Red nozzles and plumb spray line to both. These will
then have no effect on the flow rate until it reaches over 1.3 l/min at 1 bar,
when they will begin to act as a pair of orifice plate size 48 restrictors as
described above.
Variable Restrictor Units (VRUs)
The procedures given below in section 7.6.2.4 ‘Orifice Plates’ apply equally to
variable restrictor units (VRU) utilising a number of selectable orifice sizes,
however the manufacturers data will have to be consulted to obtain flow rate
vs. pressure figures for each setting.
Infinitely variable restrictor units (i.e. needle valves) are not recommended due
to their instability (particularly their susceptibility to vibration) and tendency to
block easily. They also tend to be expensive.
Orifice plates.
Orifice plate type flow restrictors are most commonly used due to their robust
simplicity and low cost, the following procedure is presented assuming their
use.
Select the orifice plate size that gives nearest to the required flow rate at the
nominal system pressure. Data for commonly used orifice plates are given in
Figure 25 ‘Graph of Flow Rate vs. Pressure for common orifice plate sizes’ on
page 43, else refer to manufacturers data.
Spray line pressure is then adjusted up or down to give the correct flow rate.
EXAMPLE:
From section 7.2.6.1 a nominal system pressure of 1.5 bar is determined.
Following on the example from previous sections, a flow rate of 450 ml/min is
required.
Therefore from Figure 25 (page 43) we choose an orifice plate size 37, and
adjust the spray line pressure down to approximately 1.3 bar to achieve 450 ml/
min.
39
CALIBRATION AND ADJUSTMENT
ORIFICE
1400
55
1200
48
FLOW RATE (ml/min)
FLOW RATE (ml/min)
1000
43
800
37
600
Nearest Size
Required
Flow Rate
31
400
26
0
0.7
10.5
Nominal pressure
Required pressure
200
1.4
1.75
2.1
PRESSURE (bar)
PRESSURE
(bar)
Graph of flow rate vs. pressure for common orifice plate sizes.
40
CALIBRATION AND ADJUSTMENT
Checking and calibrating the flow rate
Before each use the sprayer should be calibrated to ensure that the flow rate
output from each MICROMAX is as expected and desired. Firstly ensure that the
correct VRU setting is selected if used, the correct orifice plates and coloured
nozzles are fitted, and that the system pressure is adjusted to approximately the
correct value.
Always calibrate the sprayer with the spray liquid to be used, variations in
viscosity and density between formulations will effect the output. See section 8
‘Operation’ for guidance on mixing and filling before calibration.
CALIBRATION PROCEDURE:
Place a pail under each MICROMAX head on the sprayer, making sure that
the sides of the pail extend above the disc’s teeth.
Start the MICROMAX atomiser/s rotating.
Turn the spray liquid on, time 1 minute accurately then turn off.
Stop the MICROMAX/s.
Measure the output (ml/min) from each MICROMAX by carefully pouring
the spray liquid collected in each pail into an accurate measuring jug
graduated in millilitres.
If the output is not correct adjust the spray line pressure up or down as
required and repeat the procedure above.
The output from each atomiser should be the same. If not then check the
nozzles, orifice plates / VRU settings, and nozzle filters and spray line for
blockages or other restrictions. Once the cause of the variation has been
!
IMPORTANT SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS
Spray liquid collected during calibration should be poured back into the spray
tank, or if contaminated disposed of according to local regulations.
Collection and measuring vessels should not be used for any other purpose and
should be washed thoroughly before storage.
When calibrating a sprayer, take safety precautions as per spraying (see Section
4 ‘Safety and Environment‘).
41
MICROMAX
7 – CALIBRATION AND ADJUSTMENT
Verifying application rate
During use the amount of spray fluid used and area covered should be
monitored to check that the correct application rate (l/ha) is being achieved.
The simplest method to do this is to calculate the area sprayed per tank load.
If the sprayer or tractor is fitted with a ‘distance travelled’ meter this is
calculated by:
Area sprayed
(ha)
=
Distance
Travelled (m)
X
Swath width
(m)
10000
NOTE:
1 mile = 1609 m,
1 kilometre = 1000 m
If no meter is fitted then the spraying time (in minutes) multiplied by the forward
speed (m/min) calculated previously in section 7.2.2.2 will also give the distance
travelled in metres. The area sprayed is then calculated as above. Else estimate
area sprayed from known field size etc.
The spray fluid load (litres) in the tank is then divided by the area sprayed (ha) to
give the actual application rate achieved in l/ha. If this varies from that required
adjust the sprayer output up or down accordingly.
EXAMPLE:
From previous example figures used, an application rate of 30 l/ha is required
using a 12m swath boom sprayer travelling at 9 kph (150.3 m/min). The sprayer
is calibrated to give the theoretical output required, and loaded up with 250l of
spray mixture. It then takes 50 minutes to empty the spray tank. Therefore:
distance travelled = 50 min x 150.3 m/min = 7515 m
area sprayed (ha) = 7515m x 12m / 10000 = 9.02 ha
application rate achieved = 250l / 9.02 ha = 27.7 l/ha
Therefore the output rate of the sprayer needs increasing by:
( ( 30 / 27.7 ) – 1 ) x 100 = 8%
42
OPERATION
!
IMPORTANT SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS
Using agrochemicals is a hazardous process. Operators should take the
recommended safety precautions, wear the necessary personal
protective clothing and equipment, and be familiar and comply with
all relevant legislation and/or regulations. Refer to section 4 ‘safety
and the Environment’.
Spray operators should be fully trained on the specific spraying
machine to be used, certification is usually required – check local
regulations in force.
PRE-OPERATION CHECKS
Before commencing each spray operation the sprayer should be thoroughly
checked for safety and correct operation. Each type of sprayer will require
different checks, but they should include at least the following:
Check that the atomisers rotate freely.
Check that the pulleys and belts are clean and free from damage.
Check that all atomiser discs are secure and free from damage or blockage by
dried chemical.
Ensure that the atomisers are securely and correctly positioned on the boom
or support structure, and that they are set to the correct distance from the
crop/target to be sprayed, see Section 5 ‘Installation’.
Inspect the entire sprayer for damaged or twisted hoses, leaks in the chemical
system, or damaged wires.
Clean all filters.
Turn the atomiser’s motors on, ensure all are rotating.
43
OPERATION
WHEN TO SPRAY
Application timing
The recommendations for CDA spraying are the same as for conventional
spraying, however the advantages of CDA are more easily achieved if the
chemical can be applied during the early phase of the recommended application
time, particularly when applying herbicides. See section 6 ‘Basics of controlled
droplet application’.
Suitable ‘spraying days’
CDA spraying should only be carried out on days suitable for conventional
spraying.
When using the MICROMAX 120 at its medium or high speed wind movement
is beneficial as it imparts lateral movement to the spray aiding penetration and
coverage of denser canopies, 8 to 16 kph is recommended.
Also at the medium and higher speeds the droplets produced are prone to
evaporation, a suitable anti-evaporant (1-1.5%) should be used. This is
particularly important in warm climates or on warmer days.
FILLING & MIXING
Mixing and filling is generally the most hazardous process in the spraying
operation. Always follow the label instructions. It is important that all
necessary protective safety clothing is used, refer to section 4 ‘Safety and the
Environment’.
Tank Filling
Agricultural sprayers should only be filled indirectly by open and free falling
water, particularly when filling from the water mains. This is to avoid
contamination of the water supply by reverse suction of the filling pipe back into
the water source. The filling tube must not come into contact with the liquid
inside the tank.
Sprayer designs will vary, but most tanks are fitted with a filling filter, which
should be used, and equipped with graduations indicating the precise quantity of
liquid inside the tank. These are designed to be read when the sprayer is level, so
44
OPERATION
Only the quantity of spray liquid needed for the spray operation should be mixed,
eliminating the need to store or dispose of any excess. Mixed chemical solution
should not be left in the spray tank overnight.
The manufacturers recommendations should be followed, but in general the
water is added to the spray tank first.
To calculate the quantity of water needed first calculate the total spray liquid
required by multiplying the area to be sprayed (ha) by the application rate (l/ha)
previously determined
Remembering that the spray fluid will usually (for CDA spraying) consist of the
chemical product, a wetting agent, an anti-evaporant and the water carrier, the
Percentage
water in
tank mix
Water
required
= 100% –
=
Percentage
chemical
product
Percentage
water in
tank mix
–
Percentage
wetting
agent
Area
sprayed*
(ha)
X
X
–
Percentage
antievaporant
Application
rate*
(l/ha)
100
* NOTE: Substitute ‘tank capacity (l)’ for ‘area sprayed (ha) x
application rate (l/ha)’ if using a full tank load.
However, most sprayer’s tank graduations are in tens of litres. It is simplest to
put half the water load into the tank, then add the chemicals, then top the water
level up to give the desired total volume.
EXAMPLE:
The tank mix to be used will consist of 2.5% chemical product, 1% wetting agent
and 1% anti-evaporant. Therefore:
Percentage water in tank mix = 100% – 2.5% - 1% - 1% = 95.5%
The tank will hold 250l and it is desired to spray the maximum between fills at
20l/ha (area to be sprayed = 250l / 20l/ha = 12.5 ha per tank load). Therefore:
Water required = 95.5% X 250 litres / 100 = 238.75 litres
45
OPERATION
Adding chemicals
In general for CDA spraying a chemical product, a wetting agent and an antievaporant are added to the mix. The quantities required of each spray mix
constituent are calculated as below.
Quantity of
spray mix
constituent
required (l)
=
Percentage of
X
spray mix
constituent in
tank mix
Area
sprayed*
(ha)
X
Application
rate*
(l/ha)
100
* NOTE: Substitute ‘tank capacity (l)’ for ‘area sprayed (ha) x
application rate (l/ha)’ if using a full tank load.
!
IMPORTANT SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS
Always wear gloves.
Always use the correct
equipment.
Always wash off any skin
contamination.
Always clean all
46
OPERATION
EXAMPLE:
As per the previous example, the tank mix to be used will consist of 2.5%
chemical product, 1% wetting agent and 1% anti-evaporant. The tank mix will
total 250l. Therefore:
Chemical product required = 2.5% x 250 litres / 100 = 6.25 litres
Wetting agent required = 1% x 250 litres / 100 = 2.5 litres
Anti-evaporant required = 1% x 250 litres / 100 = 2.5 litres
To check calculations, the quantities calculated for each constituent should add
up to the total spray load. From 8.3.1 the quantity of water required was
calculated as 238.75 litres. Add the quantities calculated above:
Mixing
Good mixing and a good agitation before and during the spraying operation are
very important for a correct distribution of agrochemicals onto the crop or target.
In order to achieve adequate mixing of products in the tank prior to spraying,
with the spray line pressure valve set to zero so that the pump bypass returns all
product to the tank, run the pump for 10-15 minutes to thoroughly agitate and
mix the spray solution. This should be done prior to calibration.
Ensure that the spray system has aggressive tank agitation. Spray solutions
formulated for CDA spraying will normally be more concentrated than for
conventional spraying, requiring thorough and continuous mixing.
SPRAYING
Before commencing spraying operations the MICROMAX 120 atomisers should
be set to the correct speed for the application and the sprayer’s output should be
set and calibrated (see – ‘Calibration’)
The actual method used for the spraying operation will depend on the type of
machine, the crop or target and the application type. For further advice on
specific operations consult a qualified and experienced agronomist, Micron can
also offer advice on many aspects.
47
OPERATION
The following points should, however, be noted for all types of application and
spraying methods.
NOTES FOR SPRAY OPERATION:
Always turn the atomisers on before the spray liquid.
Always use the spray liquid controls to turn chemical flow on and off (i.e.
when turning at row ends) whilst spraying. Leave the atomisers running.
Always turn the liquid flow off several seconds before the atomisers.
Whilst spraying periodically check (visually) that all atomisers are
turning. A stopped atomiser will be highlighted by the fact that it will be
dripping chemical rather than producing a spray.
Take care to prevent contact between the atomisers and the ground,
obstacles or the crop.
The atomisers should be oiled twice daily with two drops of light engine
oil (see section 9 – ‘Maintenance’).
Check the filters twice daily and clean as required.
AFTER SPRAYING
Dispose of any surplus spray mix according to
the product approval. Store products safely,
locked up and out of the reach of children.
It is essential to flush the spray system out and to clean the sprayer and tank
thoroughly using a pressure washer or similar. In order to clean most
thoroughly (important when using a variety of types of product on different
crops) add soda to the washing liquid. Dispose of contaminated washing liquid
according to local regulations in force.
48
OPERATION
After working with agrochemicals, or handling spraying equipment, always
thoroughly wash hands and exposed skin. All protective clothing should be
washed separately from other clothing and stored. Contaminated gloves should
be washed inside and out.
STORAGE
If the sprayer is to be stored for an extended period of time before next
use, after cleaning the sprayer oil the MICROMAX 120 atomisers (see
‘Maintenance’ and turn the disc several full rotations by hand. The
atomiser discs, pulleys and belt should be cleaned thoroughly (see
‘Maintenance‘) and the MICROMAX 120 electrical system should be
disconnected from the battery.
The entire sprayer should be kept under cover if possible (use a
tarpaulin if no shed space is available) with each MICROMAX 120
atomiser covered individually with plastic. Consult the manufacturer
for guidelines on storage preparations for the base sprayer / spray
vehicle.
It is recommended that the entire sprayer is checked and serviced
sufficiently before the start of the next spraying season to allow time to
rectify any problems without losing spraying time.
The procedures for checking and servicing the MICROMAX 120
atomisers and their associated electrical and spray line systems are
given in ‘Maintenance’.
49
MAINTENANCE
REGULAR MAINTENANCE
To ensure a long life and trouble free operation, the MICROMAX atomiser
requires some regular maintenance. Refer also to the base sprayer or spray
vehicle manufacturer’s guidelines for their recommended maintenance schedule.
Your local Micron distributor / dealer may have special recommendations based
on in-depth knowledge of local applications and climates.
Daily Maintenance
The following maintenance is required daily, or several times per day, during
spraying:
50
MAINTENANCE
Checking the drive belts
Before the start of spraying each day check the drive belts are tight and
undamaged. Replace damaged, worn or loose (stretched) drive belts.
1
6
3
2 5
4
1
REMOVE THE
WASHER.
2
DROP THE DISC ASSEMBLY UNTIL THE BELT CAN
BE MANOEUVRED OVER THE TOP OF THE SHAFT.
3
REMOVE THE OLD BELT AND DISCARD.
4
FIT A NEW BELT – USE ONLY GENUINE MICRON
PARTS.
5
LIFT THE DISC ASSEMBLY BACK INTO POSITION.
6
FIT THE SHAFT RETAINING WASHER AND NUT
AND TIGHTEN TO A FIRM HAND TIGHTNESS – DO
SHAFT
RETAINING
NUT
AND
Changing the drive belt
Cleaning
The MICROMAX 120 atomiser should be cleaned at the end of each spraying
day using a pressure washer or similar. Avoid directing the water jet upwards
into the nose of the motor.
51
MAINTENANCE
Filters and the spray fluid system
The pump suction filter and nozzle filters should be checked, and cleaned or
replaced if required, at least daily. The rest of the spray system should also be
checked daily for leaks and damage, and repairs made as required.
Periodical Maintenance
The following maintenance should be carried out before the start, as required
during, and at the end of each spraying season:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Check strainers daily for blockage
Check the flow rate daily prior to operation. Nozzles will change in time
with use, adjust pressure or replace nozzles where necessary.
Check the drive belts regularly for slippage and replace the belts yearly or
whenever necessary
Electric connections should be tightened regularly and checked for
chemical corrosion. Loose and damaged connections will result in voltage
drop and therefore affect the speed.
Fuses (when used) should be removed from the holders and cleaned
periodically.
After spraying, wash the system and run water through the spray head to
flush all chemical spray solution from the system. Daily cleaning is
recommended.
Cleaning the belt and pulleys
At the end of each spraying season, ready for the next, the motor and disc pulleys
and the drive belt should be washed thoroughly using warm water and a small
brush. Do not use a soap or detergent as residues may cause the belt to slip.
Securing electrical connections
If screw type electrical connections have been used in the wiring system these
should be nipped up periodically.
52
TROUBLE SHOOTING
PROBLEM
Motor doesn’t run
Motor runs but disc
doesn’t turn
POSSIBLE
CAUSE
SUGGESTED
SOLUTION
Blown fuse
Replace blown fuse
Break in wiring
Repair break
Failed switch or relay
Replace as required
Failed motor
Replace motor
Slipping or broken drive Replace drive belt (see
belt
Page 54)
Slipping motor pulley
Tighten grub screw
Seized disc bearings
Replace bearings
Disc speed is too high in Electrical system is
all gears
producing over 12V
Get electrical system
serviced and adjusted
Motor pulley rubbing on Replace motor and
bracket
pulley
Disc speed is too low in
Disc bearings binding
all gears
Voltage drop in wiring
too high
Spray pattern is uneven
Droplet spectrum is
poor
Replace bearings
Rewire with larger size
cable
Blocked feed hole in
inner cup
Clean inner cup (see
Page 56)
Damaged disc
Replace disc
Feed rate too high or
too low for disc speed
Adjust feed rate or
change gear
Blocked disc grooves
Clean disc (see Page 56)
Damaged disc
Replace disc
53
PARTS LIST AND DIAGRAM
ITEM NO.
PART NUMBER
DESCRIPTION
QTY.
1
3282
NUT 5/16" BSCY, HEX
2
2
4469/RG
ATOMISER DISC
1
3
4497
PROTECTIVE RING
1
4
4553
DRIVE BELT BS229
1
5
4676
SCREW NO.6 X 2"
4
6
4677
SCREW No.8 x 1/2" (B)
3
7
4687
WASHER, SHIM
4
8
4708
DISC PULLEY
1
9
4709
MOTOR PULLEY
1
10
4757
WASHER 5/16" X 3/8" FLAT
3
11
4836
GRUB SCREW No.4 x 3/8"
1
12
4839
SHAFT
1
13
4840
LABEL, MICROMAX
1
14
4844
NUT, 5/16" BSCY SHAFT
1
15
5097
MOTOR 12 VOLT
1
16
5223
VENTURI BODY
1
17
5228
CATCHER PLATE
1
18
5232
SPLASH GUARD
1
19
5233
O'RING
1
20
5234
NUT
1
21
5235
UNION NUT
1
22
5236
INNER CUP
1
23
5336_49
TUBE 8.0MM I.D X 13.0MM O.D
1
24
5413
CLIP HOSE SIZE BB
1
25
5488
WASHER
1
26
5512
HOSE BARB
1
27
5558
SUMP
1
28
5559
SPACER
1
29
5819
BRACKET, MOTOR MOUNTING
1
30
6089
BEARING 628 ZRS
2
31
6090
FILTER MESH
1
54
PARTS LIST AND DIAGRAM
6
5
13
1
15
10
29
14
11
30
9
8
4
23
12
17
22
3
2
7
30
7
10
31
18
28
19
27
21
10
25
24
1
55
16
20
26
EC DECLARATION OF INCORPORATION
Name of manufacturer or supplier:
Micron Sprayers Ltd.
Full postal address:
Bromyard Industrial Estate,
BROMYARD, Herefordshire
Country of origin:
England
Post code:
HR7 4HS
Description of Product:
Electrically (12V DC) powered
agricultural atomiser.
Name and model number of machine:
MICROMAX 3 SPEED UK
Place of Issue:
Bromyard, England
Name of authorised representative:
G. S. Povey
Position of authorised Representative:
Joint Managing Director
STATEMENT:
This product must not be put into service within the European Economic Area
(EEA) until the machinery into which it is to be incorporated has been declared
in conformity with the provisions of the Machinery Directive 89/392/EEC as
amended by 91/368/EEC, 93/44/EEC, 93/68/EEC and 98/37/EC and is
certified to be in compliance with the relevant essential health and safety
requirements.
Signature of authorised Representative:
56
USER NOTES
APPLICATION:
Calculations:
Calculation Notes:
MICROMAX
2.4 +
(
Number of
X
Swath width
(
-1
))
=
m
SECTION 7.2.2.1
Forward
mph
X
26.8
kph
X
16.7
or
Forward
or
m/min
=
Distance travelled in
m
X
2
SECTION 7.2.2.2
Area sprayed
m/min
ha/min
X
m
=
10000
SECTION 7.2.2.3
Application rate
required
ha/min
X
Total sprayer
l/ha
=
l/min
SECTION 7.2.3
SECTION 7.2.4
l/min
Output per MICROMAX
l/min
=
Number of atomisers
Settings:
Speed Setting: Low / Medium / High
Nozzles: Red / Blue / Yellow
VRU Setting / Orifice Plate Number:
1/ 2
Spray Line Pressure:
Notes:
www.micron.co.uk
COPYRIGHT NOTICE: PLEASE FEEL FREE TO REPRODUCE THIS PAGE
57
USER NOTES
APPLICATION:
Calculations:
Calculation Notes:
MICROMAX
2.4 +
(
Number of
X
Swath width
(
-1
))
=
m
SECTION 7.2.2.1
Forward
mph
X
26.8
kph
X
16.7
or
Forward
or
m/min
=
Distance travelled in
m
X
2
SECTION 7.2.2.2
Area sprayed
m/min
ha/min
X
m
=
10000
SECTION 7.2.2.3
Application rate
required
ha/min
X
Total sprayer
l/ha
=
l/min
SECTION 7.2.3
SECTION 7.2.4
l/min
Output per MICROMAX
l/min
=
Number of atomisers
Settings:
Speed Setting: Low / Medium / High
Nozzles: Red / Blue / Yellow
VRU Setting / Orifice Plate Number:
1/ 2
Spray Line Pressure:
Notes:
www.micron.co.uk
COPYRIGHT NOTICE: PLEASE FEEL FREE TO REPRODUCE THIS PAGE
58
USER NOTES
59
USER NOTES
60
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