Electrical Energy Pocket Guide English
GUIDE
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Electrical Energy 101
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Pocket Guide
Electrical Energy 101
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Introduction
This pocket guide is divided
into six chapters. The right
pages of each chapter are
marked with a tab that lines
up with the thumb index tabs
on the right of this page.
You can quickly find the
first page of each chapter
by flipping through the pages
of this Pocket Guide or by
using the Table of Contents
which follows.
Fundamentals
1
Sources of Energy
2
Energy Measurement
3
Physical Infrastructure
4
Financial, Codes,
Laws & Standards
5
General Reference
Information
6
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Table of Contents
>Fundamentals15-30
What is Electrical Power?...........................................16
What is a Watt?...........................................................16
What is a kW (kilowatt)?..............................................16
What are kWhrs or kWh?............................................16
What is a MW (megawatt)?.........................................16
What is a MWh?..........................................................16
What is Electric Current?............................................16
What is an Electrical Circuit?......................................17
What is an Ampere (aka Amp)?...................................17
What is Electromotive Force?.....................................17
What is a Volt?............................................................17
What is a kV (kilovolt)?................................................17
What is an Ohm?........................................................18
What is Ohm’s Law?...................................................18
What is a Conductor?.................................................19
What is Electrical Resistance?....................................19
What is Resistance?...................................................19
What is a Resistor?.....................................................20
What is Capacitance?.................................................20
What is a Capacitor?..................................................20
What is Inductance?...................................................20
What is an Inductor?...................................................20
What is a Henry?........................................................20
What is a Diode?.........................................................20
What is an LED?.........................................................21
Where does electrical power come from?
Where does it go?.......................................................21
What is Load?.............................................................21
What is Load Diversity?..............................................21
What is Load Factor?..................................................22
What is Load Management?.......................................22
What is Partial Load?..................................................22
What is Distribution?...................................................22
Table of Contents
What is Distribution Service?......................................22
What is DC (Direct Current) Power?............................23
What is AC (Alternating Current) Power?....................23
What is Frequency?....................................................23
What is Hertz?............................................................24
What is a Cycle?.........................................................24
What is a Sine Wave?..................................................24
What is a Transformer?...............................................24
What is a Transistor?..................................................25
What is Shielding?......................................................25
What is Polarity?.........................................................25
What is Grounding?....................................................26
Why is Grounding important?.....................................26
What is a “Disconnect?”.............................................26
What is Bonding?.......................................................27
What is a Surge?.........................................................27
What is Real, Reactive and Apparent Power?.............27
What is Volt Ampere (VA)?..........................................28
What is Power Factor?................................................28
What is Lead/Lag?.....................................................28
What is Distortion (PF)?..............................................29
What is Efficiency?......................................................29
What is the difference between Power
Consumption and Power Dissipation?........................29
What is a Constant Power Source?............................29
What is a Constant Power Load?................................30
What is a Blower Door Test?.......................................30
Table of Contents
>Sources of Energy
31-40
What is Electricity?.....................................................32
What is an Electricity Supply Service?........................32
What is a Battery?......................................................32
What is Chemical Energy?..........................................32
What are Ahrs?...........................................................32
What is Battery Capacity?..........................................33
What are Battery Types?............................................33
What is a Generator?..................................................33
What is a Power Plant?...............................................33
What is a Power Supply?............................................33
What is a CableUPS®?................................................34
What is Fuel?..............................................................34
What is Generation/Supply?.......................................34
What is a Fuel Cell?.....................................................34
What are Renewable Power Sources?........................35
What are Fossil Fuel Sources?....................................35
What is Wind Power?..................................................36
What is Daylighting?...................................................36
What is Daylighting Control?.......................................36
What is Photovoltaic Power?......................................36
What is the Grid?........................................................36
What is a Smart Grid?.................................................36
What is a Brownout?..................................................37
What is a Blackout?....................................................37
What is Lightning Surge?............................................37
What causes a Power Failure (Blackout)?...................37
What is Single-Phase vs. Three-Phase Power?..........38
What is Demand Bid?.................................................39
What is Demand Charge?...........................................39
What is Demand Response?......................................39
What is Demand-side Management?.........................39
What is Peak Demand?..............................................39
What is Co-generation?..............................................40
What is Transmission?................................................40
Table of Contents
>Energy Measurement
41-45
What is a Meter?.........................................................42
What is a Smart Meter?..............................................42
What is a TOU Meter?.................................................42
What are TOU Rates?.................................................42
What is an Automatic Meter Reading System?...........42
What is a Meter Rate Multiplier?.................................43
What is BTU?..............................................................43
What is a Joule?..........................................................43
What is a Calorie?.......................................................43
What is R Value?.........................................................43
What is Electrical Safety?...........................................43
What is a Lumen?.......................................................44
What is a Ton of Cooling?...........................................44
What is Temperature?.................................................44
What is a Thermographic Scan?.................................44
What is a Thermostat?................................................44
What is Thermostat Setback?....................................44
What is UA?................................................................44
What is the SI Unit Scale?...........................................45
What are Electrical Formulas?....................................45
Table of Contents
>Physical Infrastructure
47-52
What is a Circuit Breaker?..........................................48
What is a Fuse?..........................................................48
What is a Trip Curve?..................................................48
What is a “Main”?........................................................49
What is a Service Entrance?.......................................49
What is a Branch Circuit?...........................................49
What is a Transient Surge Suppressor?......................49
What is MOV?.............................................................49
What is Conduit?........................................................49
What is Neutral?.........................................................49
What is Ventilation?.....................................................50
What is HVAC?...........................................................50
What is a VAV System?...............................................50
What is an Air Conditioner?........................................50
What is Heating Seasonal Performance Factor?........50
What is Recool?..........................................................50
What is a Fan Coil?.....................................................50
What is Cable Loss?...................................................51
What are Losses?.......................................................51
What are the wire components of an AC outlet?.........51
What is a Charge Controller?......................................51
What is a Ferro Transformer?......................................51
What is a Transfer Switch?..........................................52
What is an Inverter?....................................................52
What is PFT Air Infiltration Measurement?..................52
What is a CFL?............................................................52
What is Building Envelope?.........................................52
Table of Contents
>Financial, Codes, Laws & Standards
53-59
How is Electricity Billed?.............................................54
What is Monthly Energy Usage?.................................54
What is the LDC?........................................................54
What is a Municipal Utility?.........................................54
What is a Tariff?..........................................................54
What is Demand Billing?.............................................54
What is a Rate Schedule?...........................................55
What is Real-time Pricing?..........................................55
What is a Rate Structure?...........................................55
What are the components that make
up energy costs?........................................................55
What is an Energy Audit?............................................55
What is an Upgrade?..................................................55
What is Price to Compare?.........................................55
What are Cooperatives?.............................................56
What organization regulates power
laws in the United States?...........................................56
Who is the international power
standards developer?.................................................56
What is Energy Benchmarking?..................................56
What is Energy Charge?.............................................56
What is Energy Consumption?...................................56
What are Renewable Energy Tax Credits?..................56
What is Net-metering?................................................57
What is DOE?.............................................................57
What is the EPA?........................................................57
What is LEED?............................................................57
What are Energy Laws, Codes and Standards?.........58
What is the Law of Conservation of Energy?..............58
What are the types of AC plugs according to National
Electric Manufactures Association (NEMA)?...................58
What are Plug Standards (IEC)?..................................58
What is Power Sustainability?.....................................59
What is NEC?.............................................................59
Table of Contents
>General Reference Information
61-74
Power Conversion Factors..........................................62
Symbols for Power Systems and Facilities..................63
Conversion Factors....................................................64
Celsius to Fahrenheit Conversions.............................67
U.S. Weights and Measurements...............................68
Metric System.............................................................70
Measurement of Fuels................................................73
Metal Properties......................................................... 74
Fundamentals
1
Fundamentals
15
Fundamentals
What is Electrical Power?
The time rate at which electrical energy is emitted, transferred,
or received. In the USA, electrical power is typically expressed
in watts.
What is a Watt?
The watt is a unit of measure for electrical power. Wattage is the
product of the electrical force (voltage) and the electrical current
(amperes) in an electrical circuit.
What is a kW (kilowatt)?
One thousand watts (1,000). A form of measurement for the
quantity of electricity needed to control given equipment.
What are kWhrs or kWh?
Kilowatt hours. This is the time-rate measurement for the
consumption of energy. If a device consumes 1000 Watts
of power for 1 hour, it has consumed 1 kilowatt hour (kWh).
Additionally, 500 Watts for 2 hours is also 1 kWh.
What is a MW (megawatt)?
One-thousand kilowatts (1,000 kW) or one million
(1,000,000) watts.
What is a MWh?
(Megawatt Hour) One thousand kilowatt hours.
What is Electric Current?
A flow of electricity through a conductor.
16
Fundamentals
1
What is an Electrical Circuit?
A circuit is a closed path through which an electric current flows.
It is an arrangement of interconnected electronic components
that can perform specific functions upon application of proper
voltages and signals. If you think of your home, typically each
room is serviced by a dedicated electrical circuit, protected by
a circuit breaker in the main service panel to allow you to can
turn sections of your home ON or OFF without affecting the
entire house.
What is an Ampere (aka Amp)?
A unit of measure for the flow of electrons (current) within an
electrical wire. It is analogous to the flow of water (gallons/sec)
in a water pipe. Common electrical circuits used in homes are
typically rated at 15 or 20 Amps.
What is Electromotive Force?
The voltage generated by a battery or by magnetic force. Refers
to the potential, or energy per unit of charge.
What is a Volt?
A unit of measure for electrical potential difference or
electromotive force in an electrical circuit. It is analogous to
the amount of water pressure (pounds per square inch) in a
water line. Electrical systems of most US houses and offices
have 120 volts.
What is a kV (kilovolt)?
One thousand (1,000) volts. Electrical lines in housing areas
usually are 12kV (12,000 volts).
17
Fundamentals
What is an Ohm?
A unit of measure for the resistance in an electrical circuit.
What is Ohm’s Law?
A law and mathematical formula stating the current in an electric
circuit is inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit
and is directly proportional to the electromotive force in the
circuit. Ohm’s law applies strictly to linear constant-current
circuits.
(P) Power, measured in watts.
(E) Voltage, measured in volts
(I) Current, measured in amperes or amps
(R) Resistance, measured in ohms
E2
R
RxI
M
S
P
E
I
OH
R
PS
P
E
PxR
E
I
AM
P
R
P
I
S
LT
ExI
VO
W
AT
TS
R x I2
E
R
P
I2
E2
P
There are three basic Ohm’s Law formulas:
I=E/RAmperes=Volts/Ohms
R=E/IOhms=Volts/Amperes
E=I*RVolts=Amperes*Ohms
18
V
R
Fundamentals
1
What is a Conductor?
A conductor (aka “a wire”) is a substance or body that allows a
current of electricity to pass continuously along it. Conductors
may be solid or stranded, that is, built up by an assembly of
smaller solid conductors. For example, metal wires and cables
are frequently used for carrying electric current.
American
Wire Gauge
mm
Area Cir.
Mils.
Current Rating Amps
(for ventilated cable
rack installation)
18
.75
1,620
5
16
1.5
2,580
10
14
2.5
4,110
15
12
4
6,530
20
10
6
10,380
30
8
10
16,510
45
6
16
26,240
65
4
25
41,740
85
2
35
66,360
115
1
50
83,690
130
105,600
150
0
What is Electrical Resistance?
The degree to which an object opposes the flow of electrical
current. The result of resistance is that the voltage of a circuit
will decrease as the current flows through the circuit. This is
similar to the way water flow decreases due to friction as it
passes through a hose.
What is Resistance?
The ability of all conductors of electricity to defy the flow of
current, turning some of it into heat. Resistance relies on the
cross section of the conductor (the smaller the cross section,
the superior the resistance) and its temperature (the hotter the
cross section, the more the resistance).
19
Fundamentals
What is a Resistor?
A electrical component that implements resistance as a circuit
element. Resistance is the opposition to the passage of current
through a conductor. Measured in Ohms.
What is Capacitance?
The ability of an object to store an electrical charge.
Measured in Farads.
What is a Capacitor?
A device with the primary purpose of introducing capacitance
into an electric current. It is an electronic component, consisting
of two or more isolated plates, used to temporarily store
electrical energy. It is similar to a reservoir storing the spring
runoff for use later in the summer months.
What is Inductance?
The ability of an object to resist a change in electrical current by
generating an electromagnetic field. Measured in Henrys.
What is an Inductor?
An electrical component that stores energy in its magnetic
field. An Inductor is typically made of a wire or other conductor
wound into a coil, to increase the magnetic field.
What is a Henry?
The inductance of a closed circuit in which an electromotive
force of one volt is produced when the electric current in the
circuit varies uniformly at a rate of one ampere per second.
What is a Diode?
A diode is a semiconductor device. Since electric current
passes through it in only one direction, the diode is ideal for use
as a rectifier (AC in one side, DC out on the other).
20
Fundamentals
1
What is an LED?
Light-Emitting Diodes are used as indicator lamps in many
devices, especially for lighting. LED’s are based on the
semiconductor diode and present many advantages over
incandescent lights including lower energy consumption and
longer life span.
Where does electrical power come from? Where does it go?
Electrical power is typically generated by converting other forms
of energy into electricity. For example, the energy in coal, natural
gas and nuclear reactors are all used to produce steam that is
used to drive generators that produce electricity. Electricity
is delivered to homes and businesses over transmission
wires often referred to as “The Grid.” The potential for work
contained in the electricity delivered to our homes and
businesses is then consumed by a wide variety of electrical
devices to perform work. For example, a space heater will
convert 1000 Watts of electrical energy into heat to raise the
temperature of a cold room.
What is Load?
The amount of electric power supplied to meet one or more final
user’s needs. Also refers to an end-use device or an end-use
customer that uses power.
What is Load Diversity?
A situation that subsists when the peak demands of several
electric customers happen at dissimilar times. This is the goal
of “load molding” strategies, which curbs the total capacity
requirements of a utility.
21
Fundamentals
What is Load Factor?
The difference between the amount of electricity consumed by
a customer during a specified time and the amount that would
have been used if the usage had stayed at the consumers
highest demand level during the whole time. The term is also
used to mean the percentage of capacity of an energy facility
(such as power plant or gas pipeline) that is employed in a
specific time period.
What is Load Management?
Steps taken to decrease power demand at highest load
times or to move some of it to off-peak times. This may
refer to peak hours, peak days or peak seasons. The main
disruption to electric peaks is air-conditioning usage, which
is therefore a major target for load management labors. Load
management may be pursued by convincing consumers to
change behavior or by using equipment that regulates some
electric consumption.
What is Partial Load?
An electrical demand that only uses a fraction of the available
electrical power.
What is Distribution?
Electricity delivered to a location through low voltage
distribution lines.
What is Distribution Service?
The delivery of electricity directly to a home or business.
22
Fundamentals
1
What is DC (Direct Current) Power?
An electric current that flows in only one direction. Direct current
is produced by sources such as batteries and solar cells.
What is AC (Alternating Current) Power?
An electrical current that reverses direction in a circuit at regular
intervals. Alternating current is the type of electricity produced
and delivered by the utility (power company) to your wall plug.
Electrical power delivered in the USA alternates current at a
frequency of 60 cycles per second (Hertz). Utilities deliver AC
power instead of DC power because transformers can be used
to easily convert the voltage from one circuit to another. Utilities
typically deliver electricity over long distances from power plants
to neighborhoods using high voltage transmission lines of 1
million volts or more. Transformers are then used to convert the
high voltage lines to the 120V electrical power used in most
homes and businesses.
DIRECT CURRENT
(DC)
1
1
ALTERNATING CURRENT
(AC)
1
1
What is Frequency?
Refers to the frequency of oscillations of alternating current (AC)
in an electric power grid transmitted from a power plant to the
end-user. Typically for AC power lines, the power frequency is
either 60 Hz (primarily North America) or 50 Hz (primarily Europe
and other countries around the world).
23
Fundamentals
What is Hertz?
Hertz is the international standard of measurement for frequency
in cycles per second.
What is a Cycle?
A series of events that are regularly repeated in the same order.
When referring to electricity, it is the transition of voltage or
current from a starting point of zero to the positive peak, back
through the zero to the negative peak, and returning to zero.
What is a Sine Wave?
A mathematical function that describes a smooth repetitive
oscillation. AC electricity alternates current direction based on a
60Hz sine wave in the USA.
Sine
What is a Transformer?
An electrical device used to transfer an alternating current
or voltage from one electric circuit to another by means of
electromagnetic induction. The simplest type of transformer
consists of two coils of wire, electrically insulated from one
another and arranged so that a change in the current in one
coil (the primary) will produce a change in voltage in the other
(the secondary).
24
Fundamentals
1
What is a Transistor?
A semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic
signals and current. It is composed of semiconductor material
with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit.
A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor’s
terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of
terminals. Consider a dimming light switch where it is able to be
on, off or at some point in between.
What is Shielding?
The process of applying a conducting barrier between a
potentially disturbing noise source and electronic circuitry.
Shielding is used to protect cables (data and power) and
electronic circuits. Shielding may be accomplished by the use of
metal barriers, enclosures or wrappings around source circuits
and receiving circuits.
What is Polarity?
Polarity (Positive and negative) is present in every electrical
circuit, with Electrons flowing from the negative pole to the
positive pole. In a direct current (DC) circuit, one pole is always
negative, the other pole is always positive and the electrons
flow in one direction only. In an alternating current (AC) circuit,
the two poles alternate between negative and positive and the
direction of the electron flow reverses.
25
Fundamentals
What is Grounding?
Generally used to describe the common connection in an
electrical or electronic circuit (almost always ultimately routed
to the earth). In North America, the standard color for ground
is GREEN.
Sensitive electronic systems must be solidly grounded, i.e,
directly connected with earth as required by either the ANSI/
NFPA-70 or ANSA/NFPA-78, or both. Grounding systems
designed for a sensitive electronic equipment facility can
be conceptualized as having distinct, solidly interconnected
functional subsystems.
The following diagram is an example of a grounding method
for a standard enclosure. The grounding method for a
particular site also depends on soil type, available space,
local codes, National Electric Code requirements and other
site-specific characteristics.
Why is Grounding important?
Grounding reduces the risk of serious electric shock from
current leaking into uninsulated metal parts of an appliance,
power tool or other electrical device. Grounding provides an
alternate low potential path for the energy in a circuit to flow.
What is a “Disconnect?”
A device used for control, circuit protection or safety that
removes a circuit from a source of power. It takes an electrical
device out of action by detaching it from a power supply
through the operation of a disconnecting switch, circuit breaker
or other switching device.
26
Fundamentals
1
What is Bonding?
Electrically connecting all exposed metallic, non-current carrying
items in a room or building as protection from electric shock.
What is a Surge?
A transient variation of current, voltage, or power flow in an
electric circuit or across an electric system. Surges are typically
caused by lightning strikes, power outages, tripped circuit
breakers, short circuits, etc.
What is Real, Reactive and Apparent Power?
Real power is the portion of electricity that supplies energy
to the load. Reactive power is the portion of electricity that
establishes and sustains the electric and magnetic fields of
alternating-current equipment (must be supplied to most
types of magnetic equipment, such as motors and
transformers). Apparent power is the product of the voltage
(volts) and the current (amperes), comprised of both active
power and reactive power.
P = real power
P=
P = I2R
E2
R
Measured in units of Watts
Q = reactive power
Q = I2X
Q=
E2
X
Measured in units of Volt-Amps-Reactive (VAR)
S = apparent power
S = I2Z
S=
E2
X
S = 1E
Measured in units of Volt-Amps
27
Fundamentals
What is Volt Ampere (VA)?
A measure of electrical power. In a DC circuit, one volt-ampere
is equivalent to one watt. In an AC circuit, power and VA mean
the same thing only when there is no reactance. Reactance is
introduced when an electrical circuit contains an inductor or
capacitor. Because most AC circuits contain reactance, VA is
greater than the actual power delivered in watts.
What is Power Factor?
The relationship of actual power to apparent power. With
regards to uninterruptible power, it is the relationship between
watts and volt amps.
Example:
Power factor =
True power
Apparent power
Power factor =
119.365 W
169.256 VA
Power factor = 0.705
cos 45.152° = 0.705
What is Lead/Lag?
Lead/lag describes a situation where one (leading) variable is
correlated with the values of another (lagging) variable at later
times. In the following case, it refers to the relationship between
current and voltage in a circuit where current is leading the
voltage and alternately the voltage is lagging the current. When
charging a battery (capacitor) where the voltage starts low the
battery will draw large amounts of current. Eventually the voltage
will rise and the current will diminish.
28
Fundamentals
1
What is Distortion (PF)?
Distortion, when referring to electricity, is the deviation from the
ideal transfer of power where the reactive element of the circuit
is reducing the ratio of real power to apparent power. This can
happen at the main frequency of the circuit or at multiples of
that frequency (harmonics).
What is Efficiency?
The ratio of output over input. Pertaining to energy, it is the
amount of power delivered over the amount of power consumed
by a device.
What is the difference between Power Consumption
and Power Dissipation?
Power consumption is energy being consumed and used by a
device, whereas power dissipation is energy being extracted
or “given off” by a device rather than delivered to the load.
Consumption = Dissipation + Delivery
What is a Constant Power Source?
A constant power source maintains a consistent energy level
output by modifying the voltage in relation to change in demand.
29
Fundamentals
What is a Constant Power Load?
A load that demands constant power from a source. If the
voltage drops the current will increase to maintain a given
power consumption.
What is a Blower Door Test?
A special instrument used to measure air leakage in a building
and its ductwork. The equipment is made of a temporary door
covering which is installed in an outside doorway and a blower
which forces air into or out of the building. The blower door
measures leaks in the building and ductwork, and can be used
to find the exact location of the major leaks.
30
2
Sources
of Energy
31
Sources of Energy
What is Electricity?
The flow of power along a conductor (i.e. a wire). In the USA,
electricity is measured in kilowatt hours (kWh).
What is an Electricity Supply Service?
The generation and transmission of electricity.
What is a Battery?
One or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical
energy into electrical energy.
What is Chemical Energy?
The potential of a chemical substance to undergo a
transformation through a chemical reaction or to transform other
chemical substances, such transformations produce electricity.
Below - Example of Chemical Energy in a Battery
Heat Energy
Light Energy
Electrical Energy in Wires
Chemical Energy
What are Ahrs?
Amp-hours. This is the time-rate measurement of the
consumption of current. If a device consumes 1 amp of
current for 1 hour, it has consumed 1 Amp-hour (A-hr). This is
commonly used to measure the capacity of a battery.
32
Sources of Energy
What is Battery Capacity?
The amount of electric charge a battery can store.
What are Battery Types?
2
Pertains to the composition of the battery and how the energy
is stored. The three most common types of batteries are LeadAcid, Lithium-Ion and Nickel Cadmium. Batteries can be further
categorized as Flooded (wet), VRLA (Valve-Regulated LeadAcid) and Gel-cell.
What is a Generator?
A device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Generators can be designed to provide either alternating current
(AC) or direct current (DC).
What is a Power Plant?
A central generating facility that creates energy.
What is a Power Supply?
A device that converts power from a source, such as an
electricity supply service, battery, generator, or alternative
source into a form suitable for use by electronic devices.
What is a UPS? (Uninterruptible Power Supply)
If the AC utility fails, the UPS keeps the system powered without
interrupting the load, using batteries to power the device.
33
Sources of Energy
What is a CableUPS®?
If the AC utility fails, the uninterruptible power supply will keep
a cable/broadband system powered without interrupting the
load using batteries.
What is Fuel?
A combustible material that can be used to power a generator.
What is Generation/Supply?
Production of electrical energy, generally refers to power plants
utilizing fossil fuels or renewables such as solar or wind.
What is a Fuel Cell?
A device capable of generating an electrical current by
converting the chemical energy of a fuel (e.g., Hydrogen)
directly into electrical energy. Fuel cells differ from generators
in that the chemical energy (fuel) is not converted to mechanical
energy (through combustion) before being converted into
electrical energy.
Figure 1: A typical PEM Fuel Cell
Load
PEM
e
H+
H+
H+
34
O2
Cathode
Anode
H2
e
Water
Vapor
Sources of Energy
Figure 2: Typical Layout of a Fuel Cell Power Plant
Propane Tank
Hydrogen
Fuel Cell and
Equipment Pad Storage
Cabinet
2
Generator
Tower
Transformer
Chain
Link
Fence
Storage
Shed
Fuel Cell and
Equipment Pad
Storage
Shed
Hydrogen
Storage
Cabinet
Figure 3: Actual Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Storage Cabinet Installation
What are Renewable Power Sources?
Energy derived from sunlight, wind, falling water, sustainable
biomass, energy from waste, municipal solid waste, wave
motion, tides and geothermal power, and does not include
energy derived from coal, oil, natural gas or nuclear power.
What are Fossil Fuel Sources?
An energy source formed in the Earth’s crust from decayed
organic material. The common fossil fuels are petroleum, coal
and natural gas.
35
Sources of Energy
What is Wind Power?
The conversion of wind energy into a useful form of electricity.
This can be achieved using wind turbines to make electricity,
windmills for mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping
or drainage, or sails to propel ships.
What is Daylighting?
Using sunlight instead of electrical lighting.
What is Daylighting Control?
A system that controls electrical lighting in response to variations
in available daylight.
What is Photovoltaic Power?
Photovoltaic power is electricity produced using energy derived
from the sun’s rays.
Photovoltaics uses large silicon panels to capture solar energy,
which is then transformed into electricity that can be used to
power homes, businesses and potentially entire cities.
What is the Grid?
A system of synchronized power providers and consumers
connected by transmission and distribution lines and operated
by one or more control centers. Also referred to as the “utility.”
What is a Smart Grid?
Delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using two-way
digital technology to control appliances at consumers’ homes to
save energy and reduce cost.
36
Sources of Energy
What is a Brownout?
When the voltage on the utility grid is still present but falls
below the specified or usable level. The utility can do this in
a controlled manner if total power demand surpasses the
maximum supply available to curtail a total blackout. The term
"brownout" originated from the fact that lights are dimmer during
a brownout because there is less power. Long-term exposure to
brownouts can damage some types of electrical equipment that
depend on a constant power because they will attempt to draw
more current to make up for the loss in voltage. Brownouts can
also cause unexpected behavior in systems with digital control
circuits. Reduced voltages can bring control signals below the
threshold at which logic circuits can reliably detect which state
is being represented.
2
What is a Blackout?
When power is no longer available from the utility grid.
Damaging conditions, like voltage spikes, can occur depending
on how the power is interrupted and how the return of power
is controlled.
What is Lightning Surge?
This is an introduction of energy into a circuit by a lightning bolt
strike on or near a component of that circuit. The strike will
cause an increase of both current and voltage within the circuit.
If this additional energy is not properly shunted then damage
will occur.
What causes a Power Failure (Blackout)?
Faults at power stations, damage to electric transmission lines,
substations or other parts of the distribution system.
37
Sources of Energy
What is Single-Phase vs. Three-Phase Power?
Single-phase delivers AC power to a circuit over two conductors
where both conductors carry the same current equally. A threephase system uses three conductors where the current supplied
between any pair of the three conductors is the same frequency
but out of phase (or reaches the peak at a different time) in
relation to the other pairs. This provides a current cancellation
between the phases allowing higher total currents without the
penalty of power loss due the resistance of the conductors.
Three-phase is a common method of AC electric power
generation, transmission and distribution. A three-phase system
is generally more economical than others because it uses less
conductor material to transmit electric power than equivalent
single-phase or two-phase systems of the same voltage.
Peak-to-Peak
Time
Phase 2 Phase 1 Phase 3
240°
0
38
120°
180°
360°
Sources of Energy
What is Demand?
The amount of electricity or natural gas delivered to consumers
at a point in time.
2
What is Demand Bid?
Indicates a quantity of energy that a qualified electrical supply
service customer is willing to buy.
What is Demand Charge?
The price a consumer pays for its peak usage level.
What is Demand Response?
Programs that enable customers to contribute to energy load
reductions during times of peak demand.
What is Demand-side Management?
Programs that encourage consumers to modify their level and
pattern of electricity usage to generally reduce demand.
What is Peak Demand?
Refers to the time when the demand for electricity is highest.
Peak-to-Peak
Time
39
Sources of Energy
What is Co-generation?
The production of electrical energy and another form of useful
energy (such as heat or steam) at the same time.
What is Transmission?
The movement of bulk energy supply from the generation facility
to the local distribution company.
40
Energy Measurement
3
Energy
Measurement
41
Energy Measurement
What is a Meter?
A tool for gauging levels or volumes of the measured parameter.
An ammeter measures current, a voltmeter measures voltage
and a wattmeter indicates power consumption.
What is a Smart Meter?
A type of computerized electrical meter that identifies
consumption in more detail than a conventional meter and
communicates that information by way of a network back to
local utility for monitoring and billing purposes. Also known as
advanced metering infrastructure or AMI.
What is a TOU Meter?
A Time-Of-Use (TOU) Meter is a mechanism that measures and
reports the times during which a patron uses varying degrees
of electricity. This kind of meter is used for patrons who pay
time-of-use rates.
What are TOU Rates?
Determining the price of electricity relating to the cost estimates
of electricity usage during a specific amount of time. Timeof-use rates are typically separated into several time blocks
per twenty-four hour time span (on-peak, off-peak, mid-peak,
and sometimes super off-peak) and by seasons. Real-time
pricing is different from TOU rates in that it is based on actual
(as opposed to predicted) prices which may vary throughout
the day and are sensitive to weather, rather than varying with a
concrete schedule.
What is an Automatic Meter Reading System?
A structure that records the utilization of electricity, water and
gas, and sends the data to a central data gathering mechanism.
42
Energy Measurement
What is a Meter Rate Multiplier?
A meter that is programmed to document energy at a
slower rate relevant to the amount needed. Once the readings
are gained, the usage is increased by the programmed
rate (multiplier).
What is BTU?
(British Thermal Unit) The quantity of heat required to raise the
temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit
at the temperature at which water has its greatest density
(approx. 39 degrees Fahrenheit).
3
What is a Joule?
A unit of energy equal to the amount of work done when a force
of 1 Newton is relocated 1 meter towards the force. It takes
1,055 joules to equal a British Thermal Unit (BTU).
What is a Calorie?
The amount of heat needed to elevate the temperature of 1
gram of water by 1 degree Celsius from a set initial temperature.
A calorie is the quantity of heat equal to 4.184 joules.
What is R Value?
The R value is a measure of efficiency of insulation.
What is Electrical Safety?
A set of measures to prevent damage from the uncontrolled
transfer of energy. For example, insulating conductors
prohibits a person from inadvertently coming in contact with
an energized circuit.
43
Energy Measurement
What is a Lumen?
An empirical measure of the quantity of light. It is based upon
the spectral sensitivity of the photosensors in the human eye
under high (daytime) light levels.
What is a Ton of Cooling?
A unit used in refrigeration and air conditioning to measure
heat absorption.
What is Temperature?
A degree of warmth or coolness measured on one of
several scales.
What is a Thermographic Scan?
A diagnostic technique in which an infrared camera is used to
measure temperature variations of a subject.
What is a Thermostat?
A device that controls a heating/cooling system to maintain a
constant ambient temperature.
What is Thermostat Setback?
A thermostat that can vary the ambient temperature according
to a schedule. It reduces overall energy consumption by
lessening the utilization of heating and cooling systems when
they aren't needed.
What is UA?
Amount of heat that can be transferred through a specified
surface or enclosed space (such as a building envelope) with
a one degree Fahrenheit temperature difference between the
opposing sides. The UA is determined by multiplying the U-value
by the area of the surface (or multiple surfaces). UA equals
microamperes (one millionth of an ampere).
44
Energy Measurement
What is the SI Unit Scale?
The modern form of the metric system, it is a system of units
of measurement devised around seven base units and the
convenience of the number 10.
What are Electrical Formulas?
Mathematical equations used to calculate volts, ohms, amperes,
watts, etc.
3
AC/DC Electrical Formulas
Alternating Current
To Find
Direct
Current
Single Phase
Three Phase
Amps when
Horsepower
is known
HP x 746
E x %Eff
HP x 746
E x %Eff x PF
HP x 746
1.73 x E x %Eff x PF
Amps when
Kilowatts
are known
kW x 1000
E
kW x 1000
E x PF
kW x 1000
1.73 x E x PF
kVA x 1000
E
kVA x 1000
1.73 x E
I x E x PF
1000
I x E x 1.73 PF
1000
IxE
1000
I x E x 1.73
1000
I x E x Eff x PF
746
I x E x Eff x 1.73 x PF
746
Amps when
kVA is known
Kilowatts
IxE
1000
KilovoltAmps
Horsepower
(output)
I x E x Eff
746
45
Energy Measurement
46
Physical Infastructure
4
Physical
Infrastructure
47
Physical Infastructure
What is a Circuit Breaker?
A device designed to open and close a circuit manually, and
to open the circuit automatically on a predetermined overload
of current, without injury to itself when properly applied within
its rating. Thus it allows or prevents the flow of electric current
whenever current overload or short circuit occurs. Circuit
breakers are rated according to amperage and come in
various shapes and sizes. Most AC outlets in your home
are protected by a 15Amp circuit breaker, whereas the dryer
is a 40Amp breaker.
Shore Power
Connector
or AC Source
Selector Switch
Ground
(Green)
Safety
Ground
AC
Master
Breaker
Neutral
(White)
Hot
(Black)
Ground
To AC Load
(Typical)
Neutral
Hot
What is a Fuse?
An overcurrent protective device with a circuit-opening
fusible part that is heated and severed by the passage of the
overcurrent through it. A fuse is used to protect an electrical
device from a current surge. The most common fuses are
made of glass with a thin piece of wire in the middle. When an
overcurrent condition occurs, the wire melts and opens the
circuit, interrupting the flow of current.
What is a Trip Curve?
(Time-Current Curves) Used to show how fast a breaker will trip
at any magnitude of current.
48
Physical Infastructure
What is a “Main”?
A set of conductors (or “line”) extending from the service switch
to the main distribution center.
What is a Service Entrance?
Refers to the point where electricity enters an enclosure
or dwelling.
What is a Branch Circuit?
A portion of a wiring system in the interior of a structure that
extends from a final overload protective device to a plug
receptacle or a load such as a lighting fixture, motor, or heater.
What is a Transient Surge Suppressor?
4
An appliance designed to protect electrical devices from
voltage spikes.
What is MOV?
(Metal Oxide Varistor) An insulated voltage-dependent resistor.
An MOV is a nonlinear resistor whose value varies with the
voltage applied across it. The resistance curve has a sharp
“knee” in relation to the voltage where the resistance will drop
significantly. This is useful to clamp a voltage across a circuit by
shunting the energy when a preset voltage is exceeded.
What is Conduit?
An electrical piping system used for
protection and routing of electrical wiring.
What is Neutral?
The point along an insulated winding where the voltage is the
instantaneous average of the line terminal voltages during
normal operation. The term "neutral" is understood to be the
center tap of a grounded three-phase transformer winding.
49
Physical Infastructure
What is Ventilation?
The process of providing or taking away available air from any
area. The air may or may not have been previously treated.
What is HVAC?
(Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning) A system that
supplies heating, ventilation and/or cooling within or connected
with a building.
What is a VAV System?
(Variable Air Volume System) A mechanical HVAC System
responsible for serving multiple zones by regulating the quantity
of warm or cooled air supplied to the zone.
What is an Air Conditioner?
Equipment for air treatment used for air circulation, air cleaning,
ventilation and heat transfer. Units usually contain a cooling
coil or evaporator and a combination of an electrically-driven
compressor and condenser.
What is Heating Seasonal Performance Factor?
A depiction of the entire heating output of a central airconditioning heat pump in BTU’s during its regular usage time
for heating, separated by the summation of electrical energy
input in watt hours during the same time period.
What is Recool?
The cooling of air that has been formerly heated by
HVAC mechanisms.
What is a Fan Coil?
Component of a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)
mechanism that includes a fan plus a heating or cooling coil;
used to allocate warm or cool air.
50
Physical Infastructure
What is Cable Loss?
The dissipation of energy over a length of conductor carrying
current due to inherent resistance. This will result in a lower
amplitude of signal or voltage at the load point than at
the source.
What are Losses?
A power decrease caused by resistance in a circuit, circuit
element or device.
What are the wire components of an AC outlet?
Hot, neutral and grounding.
What is a Charge Controller?
4
A device that limits the rate at which electric current is added to
or drawn from electric batteries.
What is a Ferro Transformer?
Typical non-standby power supplies use ferroresonant
transformer technology to provide line conditioning and
voltage regulation. The primary and secondary winding of the
transformer are physically isolated from each other by a large
steel core which significantly reduces the capacitive coupling
of spikes and noise to the secondary winding. This provides
a regulated, current-limited output with excellent isolation and
noise attenuation.
Advantages of Ferro Technology
1. Immunity to lightning strikes
2. Tolerance of overloads
3. Resistance to physical damage
51
Physical Infastructure
What is a Transfer Switch?
Responsible for connecting power sensitive loads to one of
several possible power sources, ensuring that the transition
between the sources is smooth.
What is an Inverter?
A device that converts direct current electricity (DC) to
alternating current electricity (AC). An inverter is used to take DC
power from a set of rechargeable batteries and invert it into AC
power when there is a utility power outage.
What is PFT Air Infiltration Measurement?
(Perfluorocarbron Tracer Gas) Measures changes over time (a
few hours to several months) when determining a building’s
air-infiltration rate. While this test cannot locate exact points of
infiltration, it does reveal long-term infiltration problems. It can
be used with or instead of the blower door test.
What is a CFL?
Also known as a compact fluorescent light or energy saving
light. It is a type of fluorescent lamp and designed to replace the
standard incandescent lamp. CFLs use less power and have a
longer rated life.
What is Building Envelope?
The physical separator between the interior and exterior
environments of a building.
52
Financial, Codes, Laws & Standards
5
Financial, Codes,
Laws & Standards
53
Financial, Codes, Laws & Standards
How is Electricity Billed?
The household pays the electric utility company directly for
use of electricity (such as water heating, space heating, airconditioning, lighting and operating appliances).
What is Monthly Energy Usage?
The amount of energy a household or business uses per month,
expressed in kWh for electricity. Your energy bill may show your
monthly energy usage for up to the past 12 months.
What is the LDC?
Local Distribution Company. The public utility regulated by
the State Corporation Commission that owns, maintains and
operates the distribution lines and the equipment to deliver
electricity to homes and businesses.
What is a Municipal Utility?
An electric or natural gas system owned and operated by a
local government.
What is a Tariff?
A schedule of rates or charges of a public utility.
What is Demand Billing?
An arrangement in which a customer of an energy utility pays
on the basis of an agreed minimum or maximum; measured
in kilowatts.
54
Financial, Codes, Laws & Standards
What is a Rate Schedule?
A value (a multiplier of the quantity of electricity consumed) used
to compute consumer’s bills.
What is Real-time Pricing?
Electricity pricing that reflects its real-time cost.
What is a Rate Structure?
(Block-rate structure) An electric rates schedule with a provision
for charging a different unit cost for various demands for energy.
What are the components that make up energy costs?
Initial capital, rates and costs of continuous operation, fuel and
maintenance.
What is an Energy Audit?
A program carried out by a utility company in which an auditor
inspects a building and suggests ways energy can be saved.
5
What is an Upgrade?
Substitute or addition of electrical gear that concludes in higher
generation or transmission.
What is Price to Compare?
The price per kWh of electricity supply service, to be used to
contrast prices with competitive service providers.
55
Financial, Codes, Laws & Standards
What are Cooperatives?
Electric cooperatives are private, independent electric utilities,
owned by the members they serve.
What organization regulates power laws in the United States?
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
Who is the international power standards developer?
International Electrotechnical Commission.
What is Energy Benchmarking?
Energy benchmarking is the process of quantifying energy use
a facility’s energy use for the purpose of comparing a facilities's
energy use to similar facilities in order to assess opportunities
for improvement, and quantifying/verifying energy savings.
What is Energy Charge?
Money owed by an electric consumer for kilowatt hours used.
What is Energy Consumption?
The amount of energy used in the form by which it is
obtained by the consumer excluding electrical generation
and distribution losses.
What are Renewable Energy Tax Credits?
Credits established by the federal and state government to
promote growth in the alternative energy industry.
56
Financial, Codes, Laws & Standards
What is Net-metering?
Net-metering allows electricity that is generated on-site by an
electrical supply service customer to be sold to the service at
full retail value when local generation exceeds local demand, the
excess may flow back to the service.
What is DOE?
(US Department of Energy) The federal department erected
by the Department of Energy Organization Act to bring together
the main federal energy operations into one cabinet-level
department that devises an all-inclusive, equitable national
energy policy.
What is the EPA?
(Environmental Protection Agency) A federal agency created in
1970 to authorize organized governmental action to preserve
the environment by systematic reduction and control of pollution
through or research, monitoring, setting standards and activities
of enforcement.
5
What is LEED?
(Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Consists
of a suite of rating systems for the design, construction and
operation of high performance green buildings, homes
and neighborhoods.
57
Financial, Codes, Laws & Standards
What are Energy Laws, Codes and Standards?
Energy laws, codes and standards provide baseline
requirements and/or guidelines regarding all things energy in
an effort to encourage safe energy practices, reduce emissions
and contribute to increased sustainability by saving energy and
protecting the environment.
What is the Law of Conservation of Energy?
States that energy may neither be created nor destroyed.
Therefore the total amount of energy in an isolated system
remains constant over time.
What are the types of AC plugs according to National Electric
Manufactures Association (NEMA)?
NEMA 1 (two prongs), NEMA 5 (three prongs).
What are Plug Standards (IEC)?
(International Electrotechnical Commission) A set of standards
specifying non-locking electrical power couplers for the
connection of power supply cords to electrical appliances
up to 250 V.
58
Financial, Codes, Laws & Standards
What is Power Sustainability?
The ability of a power source to provide long-lasting energy.
What is NEC?
The National Electric Code (NEC) consists of electrical
safety standards that set the ground rules for practical
safeguarding of persons during the installation, operation
or maintenance of electric supply and communication lines
and associated equipment.
5
59
Financial, Codes, Laws & Standards
60
General Reference Information
6
General Reference
Information
61
General Reference Information
Power Conversion Factors
Multiply
By
To Obtain
Power
Ampere-Hours
x
3600
Coulombs
Btu Per Hour
x
0.293
Watts
Horsepower
x
33000
Foot-Pounds
Per Minute
Horsepower
x
550
Foot-Pounds
Per Second
Horsepower
x
0.7457
Kilowatt
Horsepower
x
746
Watts
Kilowatts
x
1.341
Horsepower
Multiply
By
To Obtain
Plane Angle
Degrees
x
0.0175
Radians
Minutes
x
0.01667
Degrees
Minutes
x
2.9 x 10-4
Radians
Quadrants
x
90
Degrees
Quadrants
x
1.5708
Radians
Radians
x
57.3
Degrees
62
General Reference Information
Symbols for Power Systems and Facilities
Outlets
Outlet
D
Drop Cord
F
Fan Outlet
J
Junction Box
L
Lamp Holder
S
Pull Switch
V
Vapor Discharge Switch
X
Exit Outlet
C
Clock Outlet
B
Blanked Outlet
Switches
S
Single Pole Switch
S2
Double Pole Switch
S3
Three Way Switch
S4
Four Way Switch
SD
Automatic Door Switch
SE
Electrolier Switch
SK
Key Operated Switch
SP
Switch and Pilot Lamp
SCB
Circuit Breaker
SWCB
Weatherproof Circuit Breaker
SMC
Momentary Contacts Switch
SRC
Remote Control Switch
SWP
Weatherproof Switch
SF
Fused Switch
SWPF
6
Weatherproof Fused Switch
63
General Reference Information
Conversion Factors
Multiply
By
To Obtain
Length
Centimeters
x
0.3937
Inches
Feet
x
12
Inches
Feet
x
0.3048
Meters
Inches
x
2.24
Centimeters
Inches
x
25.4
Millimeters
Kilometers
x
0.6214
Miles
Meters
x
3.281
Feet
Meters
x
39.37
Inches
Meters
x
1.094
Yards
Miles
x
5280
Feet
Miles
x
1.609
Kilometers
Millimeters
x
0.03937
Inches
Yards
x
0.9144
Meters
Multiply
By
To Obtain
Area
Circular Mils
x
7.854 x 10-7
Square Inches
Circular Mils
x
0.7854
Square Mils
Square Centimeters
x
0.155
Square Inches
Square Feet
x
144
Square Inches
Square Feet
x
0.0929
Square Meters
Square Inches
x
6.452
Square Centimeters
Square Meters
x
10.764
Square Feet
Square Meters
x
1.196
Square Yards
Square Millimeters
x
0.00155
Square Inches
Square Mils
x
1.273
Circular Mils
Square Yards
x
0.8361
Square Meters
64
General Reference Information
Multiply
By
To Obtain
Volume
Cubic Centimeters
x
0.061
Cubic Inches
Cubic Feet
x
0.0283
Cubic Meters
Cubic Feet
x
7.481
Gallons
Cubic Inches
x
0.5541
Ounces
Cubic Meters
x
35.31
Cubic Feet
Cubic Meters
x
1.308
Cubic Yards
Cubic Meters
x
264.2
Gallons
Gallons
x
0.1337
Cubic Meters
Gallons
x
3.785
Liters
Liters
x
0.2642
Gallons
Liters
x
1.057
Quarts
Ounces (fluid)
x
1.805
Cubic Inches
Ounces (liquid)
x
0.9463
Liters
Multiply
By
To Obtain
Force and Weight
Grams
x
0.0353
Ounces
Kilograms
x
2.205
Pounds
Kilograms
x
0.0011
Tons (short)
Newtons
x
0.2248
Pounds (force)
Ounces
x
28.35
Grams
Pounds
x
453.6
Grams
Pounds (force)
x
4.448
Newtons
Tons (short)
x
907.2
Kilograms
Tons (short)
x
2000
Pounds
6
65
General Reference Information
Multiply
By
To Obtain
Pressure
Atmosphere
x
101325
Pascals
Atmosphere
x
14.7
Pounds Per
Square Inch
Pascals
x
0.102
Kilograms Per
Square Meter
Multiply
By
To Obtain
Torque
Gram-Centimeters
x
0.0139
Ouce-Inches
Kilograms-Meters
x
7.233
Pound-Feet
Newton-Meters
x
0.7376
Pound-Feet
Newton-Meters
x
8.851
Pound-Inches
Ounce-Inches
x
72
Gram-Centimeters
Pound-Feet
x
1.3558
Newton-Meters
Pound-Inches
x
0.113
Newton-Meters
Multiply
By
To Obtain
Energy/Work
Btu
x
778.2
Foot-Pounds
Btu
x
252
Gram-Calories
Btu
x
3.93015 x 10-4
Horsepower-Hour
Btu
x
1055.056
Joule
Btu
x
2.9309 x 10-4
Kilowatt-Hour
Coulombs
x
1.036 x 10-5
Farads
Farads
x
96,500
Amperes
Joule
x
9.478 x 10-4
Btu
Kilowatt Hour
x
3.6 x 106
Joule
66
General Reference Information
Celsius to Fahrenheit Conversions
°C
°F
°C
°F
°C
°F
°C
°F
-250
-418
0
32
36
96.8
200
392
-200
-328
1
33.8
37
98.6
225
437
-150
-238
2
35.6
38
100.4
250
482
-100
-148
3
37.4
39
102.2
275
509
-90
-130
4
39.2
40
104
300
572
-80
-112
5
41
41
105.8
325
617
-70
-94
6
42.8
42
107.6
350
662
-60
-76
7
44.6
43
109.4
375
707
-50
-58
8
46.4
44
111.2
400
752
-40
-40
9
48.2
45
113
450
842
-30
-22
10
50
46
114.8
500
932
-25
-13
11
51.8
47
116.6
550
1022
-24
-11.2
12
53.6
48
118.4
600
1112
-23
-9.4
13
55.4
49
120.2
650
1202
-22
-7.6
14
57.2
50
122
700
1292
-21
-5.8
15
59
51
123.8
800
1472
-20
-4
16
60.8
52
125.6
900
1652
-19
-2.2
17
62.6
53
127.4
1000
1832
-18
-0.4
18
64.4
54
129.2
1500
2732
-17
1.4
19
66.2
55
131
2000
3632
-16
3.2
20
68
56
132.2
2500
4532
-15
5
21
69.8
57
134.6
3000
5432
-14
6.8
22
71.6
58
136.4
3500
6332
-13
8.6
23
73.4
59
138.2
4000
7232
-12
10.4
24
75.2
60
140
4500
8132
-11
12.2
25
77
70
158
5000
9032
-10
14
26
78.8
80
176
5500
9932
-9
15.8
27
80.6
90
194
6000
10832
-8
17.6
28
82.4
100
212
6500
11732
-7
19.4
29
84.2
110
230
7000
12632
-6
21.2
30
86
120
248
7500
13532
-5
23
31
87.8
130
266
8000
14432
-4
24.8
32
89.6
140
284
8500
15332
-3
26.6
33
91.4
150
302
9000
16232
-2
28.4
34
93.2
160
320
9500
17132
-1
30.2
35
95
180
356
10000
18032
6
Temp. C° = 5/9 x (Temp. F° - 32)
Temp. F° = (9/5 x Temp. C°) + 32
Ambient Temperature is the temperature of the surrounding
cooling medium.
Rated temperature rise is the permissible rise in temperature
above ambient when operating under load.
67
General Reference Information
U.S. Weights and Measurements
Linear Measure
1 Inch
12 Inches
Equals
Equals
2.54 Centimeters
1 Foot
3.046 Decimeters
3 Feet
1 Yard
9.144 Decimeters
5280 Feet
1 Mile
1.609 Kilometers
Equals
144 Sq. Inches
Area Measure
1 Sq. Foot
1 Sq. Yard
9 Sq. Feet
1 Acre
4 Roods
1 Sq. Mile
640 Acres
1 Section
1 Sq. Mile
68
General Reference Information
Weight Measurements
Avoirdupois Weight System
1 Ounce
Equals
16 Drams
1 Pound
16 Ounces
1 Hundredweight
100 Pounds
1 Ton
2000 Pounds
Troy Weight System
1 Carat
Equals
3.17 Grains
1 Pennyweight
20 Grains
1 Ounce
20 Pennyweights
1 Pound
12 Ounces
Kitchen Weight System
1 U.S. Pint
Equals
16 Fl. Ounces
1 Standard Cup
8 Fl. Ounces
1 Tablespoon
0.5 Fl. Ounces
1 Teaspoon
0.16 Fl. Ounces
Liquid Measurements
1 Pint
Equals
2 Cups
1 Quart
2 Pints
1 Gallon
4 Quarts
1 Barrel
42 Gallons
(petroleum or crude oil)
6
69
General Reference Information
Cubic Measurements
1 Cu. Foot
Equals
1728 Cu. Inches
1 Cu. Yard
27 Cu. Feet
A Cu. Foot
7.48 Gallons
1 Gallon (water)
8.34 lbs
1 Gallon (U.S.)
231 Cu. Inches of water
Metric System
Linear Measure
1 Centimeter
1 Decimeter
Equals
10 Millimeters
Equals
.39 Inches
10 Centimeters
3.94 Inches
39.37 Inches
1 Meter
10 Decimeters
1 Dekameter
10 Meters
32.8 Feet
1 Hectometer
10 Dekameters
328.08 Feet
1 Kilometer
10 Hectometers
3280.8 Feet
70
General Reference Information
Area Measure
1 Sq.
Centimeter
Equals
100 Sq.
Millimeters
Equals
.155 Sq. Inches
1 Sq.
Decimeter
100 Sq.
Centimeters
15.5 Sq. Inches
1 Sq. Meter
100 Sq.
Decimeters
10.76 Sq.
Inches
1 Sq.
Dekameter
100 Sq. Meters
1076.4 Sq. Feet
1 Hectare (ha)
100 Sq.
Dekameters
2.47 Acres
1 Sq.
Kilometer
100 Sq.
Hectometers
.386 Sq. Miles
Weight Measurements
1 Centigram
Equals
10 Milligrams
Equals
.15 Grains
1 Decigram
10 Centigrams
1.54 Grains
1 Gram
10 Decigrams
.035 Ounces
1 Dekagram
10 Grams
.35 Ounces
1 Hectogram
10 Dekagrams
3.52 Ounces
1 Kilogram
10 Hectograms
2.2 Pounds
1 Quintal
100 Kilograms
220.46 Pounds
1 Metric Ton
10 Quintals
1.1 Short Tons
6
71
General Reference Information
Liquid Measurements
1 Centiliter
Equals
10 Millimeters
Equals
.34 Fl. Ounces
1 Deciliter
10 Centiliters
3.38 Fl. Ounces
1 Liter
10 Deciliters
33.81 Fl. Ounces
1 Dekaliter
10 Liters
2.64 Gallons
1 Hectoliter
10 Dekaliters
26.42 Gallons
1 Kiloliter
10 Hectoliters
264.18 Gallons
Cubic Measurements
1 Cu.
Centimeter
Equals
1000 Cu.
Millimeters
Equals
.06 Cu. Inches
1 Cu.
Decimeter
1000 Cu.
Centimeters
61.02 Cu. Inches
1 Cu. Meter
1000 Cu.
Decimeters
35.31 Cu. Feet
72
General Reference Information
Measurement of Fuels
Unit Type
Fuel Type
Fuel Units
Unit Symbol
AC Generator
Natural Gas
Cubic Feet
cf
AC Generator
Diesel
Gallons
gal
DC Generator
Natural Gas
Cubic Feet
cf
DC Generator
LP - Liquid
Petroleum
Gallons
gal
Fuel Cell
Hydrogen
Pounds
lbs.
6
73
General Reference Information
Metal Properties
Metal
or Alloy
Specific
Gravity
(g/cc)
°F
°C
Thermal
Cond. 20°C
W/CM. °C
Thermal
Expansion
Near 20°C
(X 10-6/°C)
Electric
Cond.
% Copper
Aluminum
(Al)
2.70
1120
660
2.22
23.6
.0978
Beryllium
(Be)
1.83
2354
1280
1.46
11.6
.0660
Bismuth (BI)
9.80
520
271
0.08
13.3
.3540
Brass
8.51
1652
900
1.17
20.3
.3070
Bronze
8.87
1832
1000
1.88
18.4
.3200
Cadmium
(Ca)
8.65
610
321
0.92
29.8
.3120
Cobalt (Co)
8.90
2723
1495
0.69
13.8
.3210
Copper (Cu)
8.89
1981
1083
3.91
16.8
.3210
Gold (Au)
19.30
1945
1063
2.96
14.2
.6970
Iron (Fe)
7.2
2800
1538
0.75
11.8
.2600
Lead (Pb)
11.40
621
327
0.35
29.3
.4120
Magnesium
(Mg)
1.74
651
1204
1.53
27.1
.0628
Mercury (Hg)
13.65
-37.7
-38.9
0.08
-
.4930
Molybdenum
(Mo)
10.20
4730
2610
1.42
4.9
.3680
Monel
887
2372
1300
0.26
14.0
.3200
Nickel (Ni)
8.90
2647
1453
0.61
13.3
.3210
Platinum (Pt)
21.46
3221
1773
0.69
8.9
.7750
Silver (Ag)
10.50
1760
960
4.18
19.7
.3790
Steel
7.84
2436
1330
0.5
11.0
.2830
Tin (Sn)
7.30
450
232
0.63
23.0
.264
Titanium (Ti)
4.50
3034
1668
0.41
8.4
.162
Tungsten (W)
19.30
6170
3410
1.67
4.6
.697
Uranium (U)
18.70
2066
1130
0.27
7-14
.675
Zinc (Zn)
7.14
788
420
1.10
33.0
.258
Zirconium
(Zr)
6.40
3366
1852
0.21
0.58
.231
74
Melting Point
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