Basler | SCOUT LIGHT | User`s manual | Basler SCOUT LIGHT User`s manual

Basler SCOUT LIGHT User`s manual
Basler scout light
USER’S MANUAL
(for scout light Cameras Used with Basler’s Pylon API)
Document Number: AW000753
Version: 02 Language: 000 (English)
Release Date: 17 June 2009
For customers in the U.S.A.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This
equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used
in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful
interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.
You are cautioned that any changes or modifications not expressly approved in this manual could
void your authority to operate this equipment.
The shielded interface cable recommended in this manual must be used with this equipment in
order to comply with the limits for a computing device pursuant to Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC Rules.
For customers in Canada
This apparatus complies with the Class A limits for radio noise emissions set out in Radio
Interference Regulations.
Pour utilisateurs au Canada
Cet appareil est conforme aux normes Classe A pour bruits radioélectriques, spécifiées dans le
Règlement sur le brouillage radioélectrique.
Life Support Applications
These products are not designed for use in life support appliances, devices, or systems where
malfunction of these products can reasonably be expected to result in personal injury. Basler
customers using or selling these products for use in such applications do so at their own risk and
agree to fully indemnify Basler for any damages resulting from such improper use or sale.
Warranty Note
Do not open the housing of the camera. The warranty becomes void if the housing is opened.
All material in this publication is subject to change without notice and is copyright Basler
Vision Technologies.
Contacting Basler Support Worldwide
Europe:
Basler AG
An der Strusbek 60 - 62
22926 Ahrensburg
Germany
Tel.: +49-4102-463-500
Fax.: +49-4102-463-599
bc.support.europe@baslerweb.com
Americas:
Basler, Inc.
855 Springdale Drive, Suite 160
Exton, PA 19341
U.S.A.
Tel.: +1-877-934-8472
Fax.: +1-610-280-7608
bc.support.usa@baslerweb.com
Asia:
Basler Asia Pte. Ltd
8 Boon Lay Way
# 03 - 03 Tradehub 21
Singapore 609964
Tel.: +65-6425-0472
Fax.: +65-6425-0473
bc.support.asia@baslerweb.com
www.baslerweb.com
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
1 Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1
Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2
General Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3
Spectral Response for Mono Cameras. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4
Mechanical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.4.1 Camera Dimensions and Mounting Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.4.2 Mechanical Stress Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.5
Software Licensing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.6
Avoiding EMI and ESD Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.7
Environmental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.7.1 Temperature and Humidity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.7.2 Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.8
Precautions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2 Software and Hardware Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3 Tools for Changing Camera Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.1
The pylon Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.2
The pylon API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.1
Overview (All Models Except slA750-60fm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.2
Overview (slA750-60fm Only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5 Physical Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.1
General Description of the Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2
Connector Pin Assignments and Numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1 IEEE 1394b Socket Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2 12-pin Receptacle Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.3 Pin Numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3
Connector Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.3.1 IEEE 1394b Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.3.2 12-pin Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.4
Cabling Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.4.1 IEEE 1394b Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.4.2 I/O Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.5
IEEE 1394b Device Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.6
Camera Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Basler scout light
24
24
25
26
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Table of Contents
5.7
Input and Output Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.1 I/O Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.2 Input Line Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.2.1
Voltage Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.2.2
Input Line Schematic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.3 Output Line Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.3.1
Voltage Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.3.2
Output Line Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
32
32
32
33
34
34
34
6 Image Acquisition Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.1
Controlling Image Acquisition with Parameters Only (No Triggering) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1 Switching Off Triggering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2 Acquiring One Image at a Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.3 Acquiring Images Continuously (Free-run) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
37
38
38
6.2
Controlling Image Acquisition with a Software Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1 Enabling the Software Trigger Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.2 Acquiring a Single Image by Applying One Software Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.3 Acquiring Images by Applying a Series of Software Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40
40
41
42
6.3
Controlling Image Acquisition with a Hardware Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1 Exposure Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2 Setting the Camera for Hardware Triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.3 Acquiring a Single Image by Applying One Hardware Trigger Transition . . . .
6.3.4 Acquiring Images by Applying a Series of Hardware Trigger Transitions . . . .
44
45
47
48
49
6.4
Exposure Time Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6.4.1 Setting the Exposure Time Using "Raw" Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6.4.2 Setting the Exposure Time Using "Absolute" Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.5
Overlapping Exposure and Sensor Readout (All Models Except slA750-60fm) . . . . . 54
6.5.1 Guidelines for Overlapped Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
6.6
Exposure Must Not Overlap Sensor Readout (slA750-60fm Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
6.7
Trigger Ready Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.7.1 Trigger Ready Signal (All Models Except slA750-60fm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.7.2 Trigger Ready Signal (slA750-60fm Only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6.8
Exposure Active Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.9
Acquisition Timing Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.10 Maximum Allowed Acquisition Frame Rate (All Models Except slA750-60fm). . . . . . . 65
6.10.1 Effect of the Packet Size Setting on the Maximum Allowed Frame Rate . . . . 68
6.11 Maximum Allowed Acquisition Frame Rate (slA750-60fm Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
6.11.1 Effect of the Packet Size Setting on the Maximum Allowed Frame Rate . . . . 73
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Basler scout light
Table of Contents
7 Pixel Data Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7.1
Setting the Pixel Data Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7.2
Pixel Data Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.1 Mono 8 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Mono 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.2 Mono 16 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Mono 16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.3 Mono 12 Packed Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.4 YUV 4:2:2 Packed Format (Equivalent to DCAM YUV 4:2:2) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.5 YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3
Pixel Transmission Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
76
76
78
80
82
83
8 I/O Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
8.1
Configuring the Input Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
8.1.1 Assigning the Input Line to Receive a Hardware Trigger Signal . . . . . . . . . . . 87
8.2
Configuring the Output Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.1 Assigning a Camera Output Signal to the Physical Output Line . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.2 Setting the State of a User Settable Output Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.3 Setting the Output Line for Invert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4 Working with the Timer Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.1
Setting the Trigger Source for the Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.2
Setting the Timer Delay Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.3
Setting the Timer Duration Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3
Checking the State of the I/O Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
8.3.1 Checking the State of the Output Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
8.3.2 Checking the State of All Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
88
88
89
89
91
91
92
94
9 Standard Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
9.1
Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
9.2
Black Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
9.3
Digital Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.1 Digital Shift with 12 Bit Pixel Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.2 Digital Shift with 8 Bit Pixel Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.3 Precautions When Using Digital Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.4 Enabling and Setting Digital Shift. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4
Area of Interest (AOI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
9.4.1 Changing AOI Parameters "On-the-Fly" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
9.5
Reverse X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
9.6
Disable Parameter Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
9.7
Debouncer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
9.8
Trigger Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
9.9
Acquisition Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
105
105
107
109
109
9.10 Test Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
9.11 Device Information Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
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Table of Contents
9.12 Configuration Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.12.1 Saving User Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.12.2 Selecting a Factory Setup as the Default Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.12.3 Loading a Saved Set or the Default Set into the Active Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.12.4 Selecting the Startup Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
127
128
129
130
131
10 Using Multiple Cameras on a Single Bus and Managing Bandwidth . . . . . 133
10.1 Using Multiple Cameras Where All Devices are 1394b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
10.2 Using Multiple Cameras Where 1394a and 1394b Devices are Mixed . . . . . . . . . . . 135
10.2.1 Recommended Packet Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
11 Troubleshooting and Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
11.1 Tech Support Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
11.2 Obtaining an RMA Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
11.3 Troubleshooting with the Camera LED. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
11.4 Troubleshooting Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.1 My Camera Is Not Being Recognized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.2 I Do Not Get an Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.3 I Can Not Get the Full Frame Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.4 I Get Poor Image Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
141
142
143
144
146
11.5 Before Contacting Basler Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
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Basler scout light
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1 Specifications, Requirements,
and Precautions
This section lists the camera models covered by the manual. It provides the general specifications
for those models and the basic requirements for using them.
This section also includes specific precautions that you should keep in mind when using the
cameras. We strongly recommend that you read and follow the precautions.
1.1
Models
The current Basler scout light camera models are listed in the top row of the specification tables on
the next pages of this manual. The camera models are differentiated by their sensor size and their
maximum frame rate at full resolution.
Unless otherwise noted, the material in this manual applies to all of the camera models listed in the
tables. Material that only applies to a particular camera model or to a subset of models will be so
designated.
Basler scout light
1
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.2
General Specifications
Specification
slA750-60fm
slA1000-30fm
Sensor Size
(H x V pixels)
752 x 480
1034 x 779
Sensor Type
Aptina MT9V022 (formerly known as
the Micron MT9V022)
Progressive Scan CMOS
Sony ICX204 AL
Optical Size
1/3"
1/3"
Pixel Size
6.0 µm x 6.0 µm
4.65 µm x 4.65 µm
Max. Frame Rate
(at full resolution)
64.9 fps
30 fps
Mono/Color
Mono
Data Output Type
IEEE 1394b
Pixel Data
Formats
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
YUV 4:2:2 Packed
( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
Mono 16 ( = DCAM Mono 16)
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
YUV 4:2:2 Packed ( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
Progressive Scan CCD
Mono 12 Packed
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
ADC Bit Depth
10 bits
Synchronization
Via external trigger signal or via software
Exposure Control
Programmable via the camera API
Camera Power
Requirements
+8 to +36 VDC supplied via the IEEE 1394 cable, < 1% ripple
I/O Lines
1 opto-isolated input line and 1 opto-isolated output line
Lens Adapter
C-mount
Size (L x W x H)
73.7 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (without lens adapter or connectors)
1.7 W @ 12 V
12 bits
2.5 W @ 12 V
85.5 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (with lens adapter and connectors)
Weight
160 g (typical)
Conformity
CE, FCC, GenICam, IP30
Table 1: General Specifications
2
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Specification
slA1390-17fm
slA1600-14fm
Sensor Size
(H x V pixels)
1392 x 1040
1626 x 1236
Sensor Type
Sony ICX267 AL
Progressive Scan CCD
Sony ICX274 AL
Progressive Scan CCD
Optical Size
1/2"
1/1.8"
Pixel Size
4.65 µm x 4.65 µm
4.4 µm x 4.4 µm
Max. Frame Rate
(at full resolution)
17 fps
14 fps
Mono/Color
Mono
Data Output Type
IEEE 1394b
Pixel Data
Formats
Mono 8 ( = DCAM Mono 8)
Mono 16 ( = DCAM Mono 16)
Mono 12 Packed
YUV 4:2:2 Packed ( = DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed
ADC Bit Depth
12 bits
Synchronization
Via external trigger signal or via software
Exposure Control
Programmable via the camera API
Camera Power
Requirements
+8 to +36 VDC supplied via the IEEE 1394 cable, < 1% ripple
I/O Ports
1 opto-isolated input line and 1 opto-isolated output line
Lens Adapter
C-mount
Size (L x W x H)
73.7 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (without lens adapter or connectors)
2.75 W @ 12 V
2.75 W @ 12 V
85.5 mm x 44 mm x 29 mm (with lens adapter and connectors)
Weight
160 g (typical)
Conformity
CE, FCC, GenICam, IP30
Table 2: General Specifications
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3
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.3
Spectral Response for Mono Cameras
The following graphs show the spectral response for each available monochrome camera model.
Note
Quantum Efficiency (%)
The spectral response curves excludes lens characteristics and light source
characteristics.
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 1: slA750-60fm Spectral Response
4
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Relative Response
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Wave Length (nm)
Relative Response
Fig. 2: slA1000-30fm Spectral Response
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 3: slA1390-17fm Spectral Response
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5
Relative Response
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Wave Length (nm)
Fig. 4: slA1600-14fm Spectral Response
6
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.4
Mechanical Specifications
The camera housing conforms to protection class IP30 provided the lens mount is covered by a lens
or by the cap that is shipped with the camera.
1.4.1
Camera Dimensions and Mounting Points
The cameras are manufactured with high precision. Planar, parallel, and angular sides guarantee
precise mounting with high repeatability.
The camera dimensions in millimeters are as shown in Figure 5.
Camera housings are equipped with four mounting holes on the top and four mounting holes on the
bottom as shown in the drawings.
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7
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Fig. 5: Mechanical Dimensions (in mm) for Cameras with the Standard C-mount Lens Adapter
8
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.4.2
Mechanical Stress Test Results
Scout cameras were submitted to an independent mechanical testing laboratory and subjected to
the stress tests listed below. The mechanical stress tests were performed on selected camera
models with standard housings. After mechanical testing, the cameras exhibited no detectable
physical damage and produced normal images during standard operational testing.
Test
Standard
Conditions
Vibration
(sinusoidal, each axis)
DIN EN 60068-2-6
10-58 Hz / 1.5 mm_58-500 Hz / 20 g_1 Octave/Minute
Shock (each axis)
DIN EN 60068-2-27
10 repetitions
20 g / 11 ms / 10 shocks positive
20 g / 11 ms / 10 shocks negative
Bump (each axis)
DIN EN 60068-2-29
20 g / 11 ms / 100 shocks positive
20 g / 11 ms / 100 shocks negative
Vibration
(broad-band random,
digital control, each axis)
DIN EN 60068-2-64
15-500 Hz / 0.05 PSD (ESS standard profile) / 00:30 h
Table 3: Mechanical Stress Tests
The mechanical stress tests were performed with a dummy lens connected to a C-mount. The
dummy lens was 35 mm long and had a mass of 66 g. Using a heavier or longer lens requires an
additional support for the lens.
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.5
Software Licensing Information
The software in the camera includes the LWIP TCP/IP implementation. The copyright information
for this implementation is as follows:
Copyright (c) 2001, 2002 Swedish Institute of Computer Science. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted
provided that the following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions
and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions
and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
distribution.
3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this
software without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR
PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
10
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.6
Avoiding EMI and ESD Problems
The cameras are frequently installed in industrial environments. These environments often include
devices that generate electromagnetic interference (EMI) and they are prone to electrostatic
discharge (ESD). Excessive EMI and ESD can cause problems with your camera such as false
triggering or can cause the camera to suddenly stop capturing images. EMI and ESD can also have
a negative impact on the quality of the image data transmitted by the camera.
To avoid problems with EMI and ESD, you should follow these general guidelines:
„
Always use high quality shielded cables. The use of high quality cables is one of the best
defenses against EMI and ESD.
„
Try to use camera cables that are the correct length and try to run the camera cables and
power cables parallel to each other. Avoid coiling camera cables. If the cables are too long,
use a meandering path rather then coiling the cables.
„
Avoid placing camera cables parallel to wires carrying high-current, switching voltages such as
wires supplying stepper motors or electrical devices that employ switching technology. Placing
camera cables near to these types of devices may cause problems with the camera.
„
Attempt to connect all grounds to a single point, e.g., use a single power outlet for the entire
system and connect all grounds to the single outlet. This will help to avoid large ground loops.
(Large ground loops can be a primary cause of EMI problems.)
„
Use a line filter on the main power supply.
„
Install the camera and camera cables as far as possible from devices generating sparks. If
necessary, use additional shielding.
„
Decrease the risk of electrostatic discharge by taking the following measures:
„
Use conductive materials at the point of installation (e.g., floor, workplace).
„
Use suitable clothing (cotton) and shoes.
„
Control the humidity in your environment. Low humidity can cause ESD problems.
Note
The Basler application note called Avoiding EMI and ESD in Basler Camera
Installations provides much more detail about avoiding EMI and ESD.
The application note can be downloaded at:
www.baslerweb.com/indizes/download_index_en_31412.html
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.7
Environmental Requirements
1.7.1
Temperature and Humidity
Housing temperature during operation:
0 °C ... +50 °C (+32 °F ... +122 °F)
Humidity during operation:
20 % ... 80 %, relative, non-condensing
Storage temperature:
-20 °C ... +80 °C (-4 °F ... +176 °F)
Storage humidity:
20 % ... 80 %, relative, non-condensing
1.7.2
Ventilation
Allow sufficient air circulation around the camera to prevent internal heat build-up in your system
and to keep the camera’s housing temperature below 50 °C. Additional cooling devices such as
fans or heat sinks are not normally required, but should be provided if necessary.
12
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Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
1.8
Precautions
Avoid Dust on the Sensor
CAUTION
The camera is shipped with a cap on the lens mount. To avoid collecting dust
on the camera’s sensor, make sure that you always put the cap in place when
there is no lens mounted on the camera.
To further enhance dust protection, the internal space in the camera that
contains the imaging sensor is sealed off from the camera’s other internal
spaces.
Incorrect Power Can Cause Damage
CAUTION
The polarity of the power on the camera’s IEEE 1394b socket must be as
shown in the pin assignment table. Do not reverse the power polarity.
Reversing the polarity will damage the camera.
If the voltage to the camera is greater than +36 VDC, damage to the camera
can result. If the voltage is less than +8 VDC, the camera may operate
erratically.
Inappropriate Code May Cause Unexpected Camera Behavior
CAUTION
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The code snippets provided in this manual are included as sample code only.
Inappropriate code may cause your camera to function differently than
expected and may compromise your application.
To ensure that the snippets will work properly in your application, you must
adjust them to meet your specific needs and must test them thoroughly prior to
use.
13
Specifications, Requirements, and Precautions
Warranty Precautions
To ensure that your warranty remains in force:
Do not remove the camera’s serial number label
If the label is removed and the serial number can’t be read from the camera’s registers, the warranty
is void.
Do not open the camera housing
Do not open the housing. Touching internal components may damage them.
Keep foreign matter outside of the camera
Be careful not to allow liquid, flammable, or metallic material inside of the camera housing. If
operated with any foreign matter inside, the camera may fail or cause a fire.
Avoid Electromagnetic fields
Do not operate the camera in the vicinity of strong electromagnetic fields. Avoid electrostatic
charging.
Transport Properly
Transport the camera in its original packaging only. Do not discard the packaging.
Clean Properly
Avoid cleaning the surface of the camera’s sensor if possible. If you must clean it, use a soft, lint
free cloth dampened with a small quantity of high quality window cleaner. Because electrostatic
discharge can damage the sensor, you must use a cloth that will not generate static during cleaning
(cotton is a good choice).
To clean the surface of the camera housing, use a soft, dry cloth. To remove severe stains, use a
soft cloth dampened with a small quantity of neutral detergent, then wipe dry.
Do not use solvents or thinners to clean the housing; they can damage the surface finish.
Read the manual
Read the manual carefully before using the camera!
14
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Software and Hardware Installation
2 Software and Hardware
Installation
The information you will need to install and operate the camera is included in the Installation and
Setup Guide for Cameras Used with Basler’s pylon API, (AW000611xx000).
You can download the guide from the Basler website:
www.baslerweb.com/indizes/download_index_en_19627.html.
The guide includes information about both hardware and software and describes how to begin
capturing images.
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Software and Hardware Installation
16
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Tools for Changing Camera Parameters
3 Tools for Changing Camera
Parameters
This section explains the options available for changing the camera’s parameters. The available
options let you change parameters either by using stand-alone tools that access the camera via a
GUI or by accessing the camera from within your software application.
3.1
The pylon Viewer
The Basler pylon Viewer is a standalone application that lets you view and change most of the
camera’s parameter settings via a GUI based interface. The viewer also lets you acquire images,
display them, and save them. Using the pylon Viewer software is a very convenient way to get your
camera up and running quickly when you are doing your initial camera evaluation or doing a camera
design-in for a new project.
The pylon Viewer is included in Basler’s pylon Driver Package. You can download the pylon
package from the Basler website: www.baslerweb.com/beitraege/beitrag_en_71708.html.
For more information about using the viewer, see the Installation and Setup Guide for Cameras
Used with Basler’s pylon API, (AW000611xx000). You can download the guide from the Basler
website: www.baslerweb.com/indizes/download_index_en_19627.html.
3.2
The pylon API
You can access all of the camera’s parameters and can control the camera’s full functionality from
within your application software by using Basler’s pylon API. The Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference contains an introduction to the API and includes information about all of the
methods and objects included in the API.
The Basler pylon Software Development Kit (SDK) includes a set of sample programs that illustrate
how to use the pylon API to parameterize and operate the camera. These samples include
Microsoft® Visual Studio® solution and project files demonstrating how to set up the build
environment to build applications based on the API.
The SDK is included in Basler’s pylon Driver Package. You can download the pylon package from
the Basler website: www.baslerweb.com/beitraege/beitrag_en_71708.html.
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Tools for Changing Camera Parameters
18
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Functional Description
4 Functional Description
This section provides an overview of the camera’s functionality from a system perspective. The
overview will aid your understanding when you read the more detailed information included in the
next chapters of the user’s manual.
4.1
Overview (All Models Except slA750-60fm)
Note
The information in this section applies to all camera models except the
slA750-60fm. For information about slA750-60fm cameras, see Section 4.2 on
page 21.
Each camera provides features such as a full frame shutter and electronic exposure time control.
Exposure start, exposure time, and charge readout can be controlled by parameters transmitted to
the camera via the Basler pylon API and the IEEE 1394b interface. There are also parameters
available to set the camera for single frame acquisition or continuous frame acquisition.
Exposure start can also be controlled via an externally generated hardware trigger (ExTrig) signal.
The ExTrig signal facilitates periodic or non-periodic acquisition start. Modes are available that
allow the length of exposure time to be directly controlled by the ExTrig signal or to be set for a preprogrammed period of time.
Accumulated charges are read out of the sensor when exposure ends. At readout, accumulated
charges are transported from the sensor’s light-sensitive elements (pixels) to the vertical shift
registers (see Figure 6 on page 20). The charges from the bottom line of pixels in the array are then
moved into a horizontal shift register. Next, the charges are shifted out of the horizontal register. As
the charges move out of the horizontal shift register, they are converted to voltages proportional to
the size of each charge. Each voltage is then amplified by a Variable Gain Control (VGC) and
digitized by an Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC). After each voltage has been amplified and
digitized, it passes through an FPGA and into an image buffer. All shifting is clocked according to
the camera’s internal data rate. Shifting continues in a linewise fashion until all image data has been
read out of the sensor.
The pixel data leaves the image buffer and passes back through the FPGA to an IEEE1394b link
layer controller where it is assembled into data packets. The packets are passed to a 1394b
physical layer controller which transmits them isochronously to an interface board in the host PC.
The physical and link layer controllers also handle transmission and receipt of asynchronous control
data such as changes to the camera’s parameters.
The image buffer between the sensor and the link layer controller allows data to be read out of the
sensor at a rate that is independent of the data transmission rate between the camera and the host
computer. This ensures that the data transmission rate has no influence on image quality.
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19
Functional Description
CCD Sensor
Vert.
Shift
Reg.
ADC
Pixels
Vert.
Shift
Reg.
Pixels
Vert.
Shift
Reg.
Pixels
Vert.
Shift
Reg.
Pixels
VGC
Horizontal
Shift Register
Fig. 6: CCD Sensor Architecture
20
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Functional Description
4.2
Overview (slA750-60fm Only)
Note
The information in this section only applies to slA750-60fm cameras. For
information about the other camera models, see Section 4.1 on page 19.
Each camera provides features such as a full frame shutter and electronic exposure time control.
The sensor chip includes gain controls, ADCs, and other digital devices.
Exposure start, exposure time, and charge readout can be controlled by parameters transmitted to
the camera via the Basler pylon API and the GigE interface. There are also parameters available
to set the camera for single frame acquisition or continuous frame acquisition.
Exposure start can also be controlled via an externally generated hardware trigger (ExTrig) signal.
The ExTrig signal facilitates periodic or non-periodic acquisition start. Exposure can be set for a
preprogrammed period of time.
Accumulated charges are read out when the programmed exposure time ends. At readout, the
accumulated charges are transported from the sensor’s light-sensitive elements (pixels) to the
sensor’s column buses (see Figure 7 on page 22). The charges from the bottom line of pixels in the
array are then moved into the analog processing section of the sensor. As the charges move from
the pixels to the analog processing section, they are converted to voltages proportional to the size
of each charge. The voltages from the analog processing section are next passed to a bank of
Analog-to-Digital converters (ADCs).
Finally, the voltages pass through a section of the sensor where they receive additional digital
processing and then they are moved out of the sensor. As each voltage leaves the sensor, it passes
through an FPGA and into an image buffer. All shifting is clocked according to the camera’s internal
data rate. Shifting continues in a linewise fashion until all image data has been read out of the
sensor.
The pixel data leaves the image buffer and passes back through the FPGA to an IEEE1394b link
layer controller where it is assembled into data packets. The packets are passed to a 1394b
physical layer controller which transmits them isochronously to an interface board in the host PC.
The physical and link layer controllers also handle transmission and receipt of asynchronous control
data such as changes to the camera’s parameters.
The image buffer between the sensor and the link layer controller allows data to be read out of the
sensor at a rate that is independent of the data transmission rate between the camera and the host
computer. This ensures that the data transmission rate has no influence on image quality.
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21
Functional Description
CMOS Sensor
Pixel
Array
Analog Processing
ADCs
Digital Processing
Digitized
Pixel Data
Fig. 7: CMOS Sensor Architecture
22
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Physical Interface
5 Physical Interface
This section provides detailed information, such as pinouts and voltage requirements, for the
physical interface on the camera. This information will be especially useful during your initial
design-in process.
5.1
General Description of the
Connections
The camera is interfaced to external circuity via connectors located on the back of the housing:
„
an IEEE 1394b socket used to provide power and a bus connection to the camera.
„
a 12-pin receptacle used to provide access to the camera’s I/O ports.
There is also an LED indicator on the back.
The drawing below shows the location of the two connectors and the LED.
12-pin
Receptacle
IEEE
1394b
Socket
LED
Fig. 8: Camera Connectors and LED
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23
Physical Interface
5.2
Connector Pin Assignments and
Numbering
5.2.1
IEEE 1394b Socket Pin Assignments
The IEEE 1394b socket is used to supply power to the camera and to interface video data and
control signals. The pin assignments for the socket are as shown in Table 4. Note that these are the
standard pin assignments for IEEE 1394b sockets.
Pin
Signal
1
TPB -
(twisted pair B minus)
2
TPB +
(twisted pair B plus)
3
TPA -
(twisted pair A minus)
4
TPA +
(twisted pair A plus)
5
TPA R
(twisted pair A ground)
6
VG
(power ground)
7
Not connected
8
VP
(+8 to +36 VDC power)
9
TPB R
(twisted pair B ground)
Table 4: Pin Assignments for the IEEE 1394b Socket
Pin numbering for the IEEE 1394b socket is as shown in Section 5.2.3 on page 26.
24
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Physical Interface
5.2.2
12-pin Receptacle Pin Assignments
The 12 pin receptacle is used to access the one physical input line and one physical output line
available on the camera. The pin assignments for the receptacle are shown in Table 5.
Pin
Designation
1
Non-functional
2
Non-functional
3
I/O Input 1
4
Non-functional
5
I/O Input Gnd
6
I/O Output 1
7
Non-functional
8
Non-functional
9
Non-functional
10
I/O Output VCC
11
Non-functional
12
Non-functional
Table 5: Pin Assignments for the 12-pin Receptacle
Avoid Applying Voltage to the Non-functional Pins
CAUTION
Applying incorrect voltages to the non-functional pins in the 12 pin connector
may damage the electronic components in the camera. We recommend that
you do not apply signals of any kind to the non-functional pins.
Pin numbering for the 12-pin receptacle is as shown in Section 5.2.3 on page 26.
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25
Physical Interface
5.2.3
Pin Numbering
12
5
6
9 8 7 6 5
4
7
3
8
2
9
1 2
3 4
11
1
10
Fig. 9: Pin Numbering for the IEEE 1394b Socket and the 12-pin Receptacle
26
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Physical Interface
5.3
Connector Types
5.3.1
IEEE 1394b Connector
The 1394b socket on the camera is a standard, 9-pin IEEE 1394b bilingual socket.
The recommended mating connector is any standard, 9-pin IEEE 1394b plug.
5.3.2
12-pin Connector
The 12-pin connector on the camera is a Hirose micro receptacle (part number HR10A-10R-12P)
or the equivalent.
The recommended mating connector is the Hirose micro plug (part number HR10A-10P-12S) or the
equivalent.
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Physical Interface
5.4
Cabling Requirements
5.4.1
IEEE 1394b Cable
The maximum length of the IEEE 1394b cable used between the camera and the adapter in your
PC or between the camera and a 1394b hub is 4.5 meters as specified in the IEEE 1394 standard.
Standard, 9-pin, shielded 1394b to 1394b cables should be used.
Note
The camera is backward compatible with IEEE 1394a devices. If you will be
connecting the camera to an IEEE 1394a device, you must use a conversion
cable. The cable should have a 9-pin IEEE 1394b plug on the end that
connects to the camera and a 6-pin IEEE 1394a plug on the end that connects
to the device.
5.4.2
I/O Cable
The end of the I/O cable that connects to the camera must be terminated with a Hirose micro plug
(part number HR10A-10P-12S) or the equivalent. The cable must be wired as shown in Figure 10.
The maximum length of the I/O cable is at least 10 meters. The cable must be shielded and must
be constructed with twisted pair wire. Use of twisted pair wire is essential to ensure that input signals
are correctly received.
Close proximity to strong magnetic fields should be avoided.
The required 12-pin Hirose plug is available from Basler. Basler also offers an I/O cable assembly
that is terminated with a 12-pin Hirose plug on one end and unterminated on the other. Contact your
Basler sales representative to order connectors or standard I/O cables.
28
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Physical Interface
I/O In 1
Non-functional
I/O In Gnd
I/O Out 1
Non-functional
I/O Out VCC
I/O Cable
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Hirose
HR10A-10P-12S
12-pin Plug
Fig. 10: I/O Cable
Avoid Applying Voltage to the Non-functional Pins
CAUTION
Applying incorrect voltages to the non-functional pins in the 12 pin connector
may damage the electronic components in the camera. We recommend that
you do not apply signals of any kind to the non-functional pins.
An Incorrect Plug Can Damage the 12-pin Connector
CAUTION
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The plug on the cable that you attach to the camera’s 12-pin connector must
have 12 pins. Use of a smaller plug, such as one with 10 pins or 8 pins, can
damage the pins in the camera’s 12-pin connector.
29
Physical Interface
5.5
IEEE 1394b Device Information
The camera uses an IEEE1394b - 2002 compliant physical layer device that can transmit at speeds
up to 800 Mbit/s (S800). The device is backward compatible with IEEE 1394a - 2000 devices.
Detailed spec sheets for IEEE 1394b - 2002 compliant physical layer devices of the type used in
the camera are available at the Texas Instruments website: www.ti.com.
30
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Physical Interface
5.6
Camera Power
Camera power must be supplied to the camera via the IEEE 1394b cable. Power consumption is
as shown in the specification tables in Section 1 of this manual.
If your camera is connected to an IEEE 1394b adapter in a desktop computer, consult the
instructions for the adapter and make sure that the adapter is properly configured to supply power
to the camera.
If your camera is connected to a powered hub, consult the instructions for the hub and make sure
that it is properly configured to supply power to the camera.
Many laptop computers have a connector for an IEEE 1394 device. In most cases, laptops do not
supply power to the connected IEEE 1394 device. In this situation, you must use a powered hub
between the laptop and the camera or you must install a PCMCIA IEEE 1394 adapter card that
connects to an external power supply.
Incorrect Power Can Cause Damage
CAUTION
The polarity of the power on the camera’s IEEE 1394b socket must be as
shown in the pin assignment table. Do not reverse the power polarity.
Reversing the polarity will damage the camera.
If the voltage supplied to the camera is greater than +36 VDC, damage to the
camera can result. If the voltage is less than +8 VDC, the camera may operate
erratically.
The following voltage requirements apply to the camera power (supplied via the IEEE 1394b cable):
Voltage
Significance
< +8 VDC
The camera may operate erratically.
+12 VDC
Recommended operating voltage; < 1 % ripple required.
+36 VDC
Absolute maximum; the camera may be damaged when the absolute maximum is
exceeded.
Table 6: Voltage Requirements for the Camera Power
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Physical Interface
5.7
Input and Output Lines
5.7.1
I/O Schematic
Fig. 11: I/O Line Schematic
5.7.2
Input Line Description
5.7.2.1
Voltage Requirements
The following voltage requirements apply to the camera’s I/O input (pin 3 of the 12-pin receptacle):
Voltage
Significance
+0 to +24 VDC
Recommended operating voltage.
+0 to +1.4 VDC
The voltage indicates a logical 0.
> +1.4 to +2.2 VDC
Region where the transition threshold occurs; the logical state is not defined in this
region.
> +2.2 VDC
The voltage indicates a logical 1.
+30.0 VDC
Absolute maximum; the camera may be damaged when the absolute maximum is
exceeded.
Table 7: Voltage Requirements for the I/O Input
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Physical Interface
5.7.2.2
Input Line Schematic
The camera is equipped with one physical input line designated as input line 1. The input line is
accessed via the 12-pin receptacle on the back of the camera.
As shown in the I/O line schematic, the input line is opto-isolated. See the previous section for input
voltages and their significances. The absolute maximum input voltage is +30.0 VDC. The current
draw for each input line is between 5 and 15 mA.
Figure 12 shows an example of a typical circuit you can use to input a signal into the camera.
By default, input line 1 is assigned to receive an external hardware trigger (ExTrig) signal that can
be used to control the start of image acquisition.
12-Pin
Receptacle
Camera
Q
BF545C
3.3 V
3.3 V
180 Ω
5.1k
In_1_Ctrl
1
I/O_In_1 2
3
I/O_In_Gnd 4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Your
Gnd
Input
Voltage
+30 VDC
Absolute
Max.
Your
Gnd
Gnd
Fig. 12: Typical Input Circuit
For more information about input line pin assignments and pin numbering, see Section 5.2 on
page 24.
For more information about how to use an ExTrig signal to control acquisition start, see Section 6.3
on page 44.
For more information about configuring the input line, see Section 8.1 on page 87.
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5.7.3
Output Line Description
5.7.3.1
Voltage Requirements
The following voltage requirements apply to the I/O output VCC (pin 10 of the 12-pin receptacle):
Voltage
Significance
< +3.3 VDC
+3.3 to +24 VDC
+30.0 VDC
The I/O output may operate erratically.
Recommended operating voltage.
Absolute maximum; the camera may be damaged if the absolute maximum is exceeded.
Table 8: Voltage Requirements for the I/O Output VCC
5.7.3.2
Output Line Schematic
The camera is equipped with one physical output line designated as output line 1. The output line
is accessed via the 12-pin receptacle on the back of the camera.
As shown in the I/O schematic, the output line is opto-isolated. See the previous section for the
recommended operating voltage. The absolute maximum voltage is +30.0 VDC. The maximum
current allowed through an output circuit is 100 mA.
A conducting transistor means a logical one and a non-conducting transistor means a logical zero.
Figure 13 shows a typical circuit you can use to monitor the output line with a voltage signal.
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Out_1_Ctrl
Q
BC847BS
220 Ω
Gnd
D
BAS16
Camera
1
2
3
4
I/O_Out_1 5
6
7
8
I/O_Out_VCC 9
10
11
12
12-Pin
Receptacle
Your Gnd
270 Ω
Voltage
Output
Signal
to You
+3.3 to +24
VDC
Your Gnd
Fig. 13: Typical Voltage Output Circuit
Figure 14 shows a typical circuit you can use to monitor the output line with an LED or an optocoupler. In this example, the voltage for the external circuit is +24 VDC. Current in the circuit is
limited by an external resistor.
Out_1_Ctrl
Q
BC847BS
220 Ω
Gnd
D
BAS16
I/O_Out_1
I/O_Out_VCC
Camera
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
12-Pin
Receptacle
LED
Output
to You
Your Gnd
2.2k Ω
+24 VDC
Your Gnd
Fig. 14: Typical LED Output Signal at +24 VDC for the External Circuit (Example)
By default, the camera’s exposure active (ExpAc) signal is assigned to output line 1. The exposure
active signal indicates when exposure is taking place.
The assignment of a camera output signal to the physical output line can be changed by the user.
For more information about output line pin assignments and pin numbering, see Section 5.2 on
page 24.
For more information about the exposure active signal, see Section 6.8 on page 61.
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For more information about assigning camera output signals to the physical output line, see
Section 8.2 on page 88.
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6 Image Acquisition Control
This section provides detailed information about controlling image acquisition. You will find details
about setting the exposure time for each acquired image and about how the camera’s maximum
allowed acquisition frame rate can vary depending on the current camera settings.
6.1
Controlling Image Acquisition with
Parameters Only (No Triggering)
You can configure the camera so that image acquisition will be controlled by simply setting the value
of several parameters via the camera’s API. When the camera is configured to acquire images
based on parameter values only, a software trigger or an external hardware trigger (ExTrig) signal
is not required.
You can set the camera so that it will acquire images one at a time or so that it will acquire images
continuously.
6.1.1
Switching Off Triggering
If you want to control image acquisition based on parameter settings alone, you must make sure
that the camera’s acquisition start trigger is set to off. Setting the acquisition start trigger is a two
step process:
„
First use the camera’s Trigger Selector parameter to select the Acquisition Start trigger.
„
Second use the camera’s Trigger Mode parameter to set the selected trigger to Off.
You can set the Trigger Selector and the Trigger Mode parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_Off );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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6.1.2
Acquiring One Image at a Time
In “single frame” operation, the camera acquires and transmits a single image. To select single
frame operation, the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter must be set to Single Frame.
To begin image acquisition, execute an Acquisition Start command. Exposure time is determined
by the value of the camera’s exposure time parameter.
When using the single frame method to acquire images, you must not begin acquiring a new image
until the previously captured image has been completely transmitted to the host PC.
You can set the Acquisition Mode parameter value from within your application software by using
the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter value:
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_SingleFrame );
You can also execute the Acquisition Start command by using the API.
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameter, see Section 6.4 on page 51.
6.1.3
Acquiring Images Continuously (Free-run)
In “continuous frame” operation, the camera continuously acquires and transmits images. To select
continuous frame operation, the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter must be set to Continuous.
(Note that operating the camera in continuous frame mode without the use of a trigger is also
commonly called "free run".)
To begin acquiring images, issue an Acquisition Start command. The exposure time for each image
is determined by the value of the camera’s exposure time parameter. Acquisition start for the
second and subsequent images is automatically controlled by the camera. Image acquisition and
transmission will stop when you execute an Acquisition Stop command.
When the camera is operating in continuous frame mode without triggering, the acquisition frame
rate is determined by the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter:
„
If the parameter is enabled and set to a value less than the maximum allowed acquisition
frame rate, the camera will acquire images at rate specified by the parameter setting.
„
If the parameter is disabled or is set to a value greater than the maximum allowed acquisition
frame rate, the camera will acquire images at the maximum allowed.
Note that before you can use the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter to control the frame rate,
the parameter must be enabled.
You can set the Acquisition Mode parameter value and you can enable and set the Acquisition
Frame Rate Abs parameter from within your application software by using the pylon API. The
following code snippets illustrate using the API to set the parameter values:
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// set camera in continous mode
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_Continuous );
// set a frame rate and getting the resulting frame rate
Camera.AcquisitionFrameRateEnable.SetValue( true );
Camera.AcquisitionFrameRateAbs.SetValue( 20.5 );
double resultingFrameRate = Camera.ResultingFrameRateAbs.GetValue();
You can also execute the Acquisition Start and Stop commands by using the API.
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameter, see Section 6.4 on page 51.
For more information about determining the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate, see
Section 6.10 on page 65.
Note
The explanations in Section 6.1.2 and Section 6.1.3 are intended to give you
a basic idea of how parameters alone can be used to control image
acquisition. For a more complete description, refer to the Basler pylon
Programmer’s Guide and to the sample programs included in the Basler pylon
Software Development Kit (SDK).
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6.2
Controlling Image Acquisition
with a Software Trigger
You can configure the camera so that image acquisition will be controlled by issuing a software
trigger. The software trigger is issued by executing a Trigger Software command.
Image acquisition starts when the Trigger Software command is executed. The exposure time for
each image is determined by the value of the camera’s exposure time parameter. Figure 15
illustrates image acquisition with a software trigger.
Software Trigger Issued
Image
Acquisition
Exposure
(duration determined by the
exposure time parameters)
Fig. 15: Image Acquisition with a Software Trigger
When controlling image acquisition with a software trigger, you can set the camera so that it will
react to a single software trigger or so that it will react to a continuous series of software triggers.
6.2.1
Enabling the Software Trigger Feature
To enable the software trigger feature:
„
Use the camera’s Trigger Selector parameter to select the Acquisition Start trigger.
„
Use the camera’s Trigger Mode parameter to set the mode to On.
„
Use the camera’s Trigger Source parameter to set the trigger source to Software.
„
Use the Exposure Mode parameter to set the exposure mode to timed.
You can set these parameter values from within your application software by using the pylon API.
The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter values:
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue(TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart);
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue( TriggerSource_Software );
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
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You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
6.2.2
Acquiring a Single Image by Applying
One Software Trigger
You can set the camera to react to a single software trigger and then issue a software trigger to
begin image acquisition. To do so, follow this sequence:
1. Access the camera’s API and set the exposure time parameter for your desired exposure time.
2. Set the value of the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter to Single Frame.
3. Execute an Acquisition Start command. This prepares the camera to react to a software
trigger.
4. When you are ready to begin an image acquisition, execute a Trigger Software command.
5. Image acquisition will start and exposure will continue for the length of time you specified in
step 1.
6. At the end of the specified exposure time, readout and transmission of the acquired image will
take place.
7. At this point, the camera would ignore any additional software triggers. To acquire another
image, you must:
a. Repeat step 3 to prepare the camera to react to a software trigger.
b. Repeat step 4 to issue a software trigger.
If you use the single image acquisition process repeatedly, you must not begin acquisition of a new
image until transmission of the previously acquired image is complete.
You can set the exposure time and the Acquisition Mode parameter values from within your
application software by using the pylon API. You can also execute the Acquisition Start and Trigger
Software commands. The following code snippets illustrate using the API to set the parameter
values and execute the commands:
Camera.ExposureTimeRaw.SetValue( 200 );
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_SingleFrame );
// prepare for image capture
Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
Camera.TriggerSoftware.Execute( );
// retrieve the captured image
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameter, see Section 6.4 on page 51.
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6.2.3
Acquiring Images by Applying a Series of
Software Triggers
You can set the camera to react to multiple applications of the software trigger and then apply a
series of software triggers to acquire images. To do so, follow this sequence:
1. Access the camera’s API and set the exposure time parameter for your desired exposure time.
2. Set the value of the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter to Continuous.
3. Execute an Acquisition Start command. This prepares the camera to react to software triggers.
4. When you are ready to begin an image acquisition, execute a Trigger Software command.
5. Image acquisition will start and exposure will continue for the length of time you specified in
step 1.
6. At the end of the specified exposure time, readout and transmission of the acquired image will
take place.
7. To acquire another image, go to step 4.
8. Execute an Acquisition Stop command. The camera will no longer react to software triggers.
If you are acquiring images using a series of software triggers, you must avoid acquiring images at
a rate that exceeds the maximum allowed with the current camera settings. You can use the
Acquisition Status feature to determine when the camera is ready to be triggered for the next image
acquisition.
You should also be aware that if the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is enabled, it will
influence the rate at which the Trigger Software command can be applied:
„
If the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is set to a value less than the maximum allowed,
you can trigger acquisition at any rate up to the set value.
„
If the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is set to a value greater than the maximum
allowed, you can trigger acquisition at any rate up to the maximum allowed image acquisition
rate with the current camera settings.
You can set the exposure time and the Acquisition Mode parameter values from within your
application software by using the pylon API. You can also execute the Acquisition Start and Trigger
Software commands. The following code snippets illustrate using the API to set the parameter
values and execute the commands:
// issuing software trigger commands
Camera.ExposureTimeRaw.SetValue( 200 );
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_Continuous );
// prepare for image acquisition here
Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
while ( ! finished )
{
Camera.TriggerSoftware.Execute( );
// retrieve acquired image here
}
Camera.AcquisitionStop.Execute( );
// how to set and test the Acquisition Frame Rate
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Camera.AcquisitionFrameRateAbs.SetValue( 60.0 );
double resultingFrameRate = Camera.ResultingFrameRateAbs.GetValue( );
// how to disable the FrameRateAbs parameter
Camera.AcquisitionFrameRateEnable.SetValue( false );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameter, see Section 6.4 on page 51.
For more information about determining the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate, see
Section 6.10 on page 65.
For more information about the Acquisition Status feature, see Section 9.9 on page 121 .
Note
The explanations in Section 6.2.2 and Section 6.2.3 are intended to give you
a basic idea of how the use of a software trigger works. For a more complete
description, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide and to the sample
programs included in the Basler pylon Software Development Kit (SDK).
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6.3
Controlling Image Acquisition
with a Hardware Trigger
You can configure the camera so that an external hardware trigger (ExTrig) signal applied to the
camera’s input line will control image acquisition. A rising edge or a falling edge of the ExTrig signal
can be used to trigger image acquisition.
The ExTrig signal can be periodic or non-periodic. When the camera is operating under control of
an ExTrig signal, the period of the ExTrig signal will determine the rate at which the camera is
acquiring images:
1
------------------------------------------------------------------ = Acquisition Frame Rate
ExTrig period in seconds
For example, if you are operating a camera with an ExTrig signal period of 20 ms (0.020 s):
1
--------------- = 50 fps
0.020
So in this case, the acquisition frame rate is 50 fps.
The minimum high time for a rising edge trigger (or low time for a falling edge trigger) is 100
nanoseconds.
By default, input line 1 is assigned to receive an ExTrig signal.
When you are triggering image acquisition with an ExTrig signal, you must not acquire images at a
rate that exceeds the maximum allowed for the current camera settings.
For more information about setting the camera for hardware triggering and selecting the input line
to receive the ExTrig signal, see Section 6.3.2 on page 47.
For more information about determining the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate, see
Section 6.10 on page 65.
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6.3.1
Exposure Modes
If you are triggering exposure start with an ExTrig signal, two exposure modes are available, "timed"
and "trigger width."
Timed Exposure Mode
When timed mode is selected, the exposure time for each image is determined by the value of the
camera’s exposure time parameter. If the camera is set for rising edge triggering, the exposure time
starts when the ExTrig signal rises. If the camera is set for falling edge triggering, the exposure time
starts when the ExTrig signal falls. Figure 16 illustrates timed exposure with the camera set for
rising edge triggering.
ExTrig Signal Period
ExTrig Signal
Exposure
(duration determined by the
exposure time parameter)
Fig. 16: Timed Exposure with Rising Edge Triggering
Trigger Width Exposure Mode
When trigger width exposure mode is selected, the length of the exposure will be directly controlled
by the ExTrig signal. If the camera is set for rising edge triggering, the exposure time begins when
the ExTrig signal rises and continues until the ExTrig signal falls. If the camera is set for falling edge
triggering, the exposure time begins when the ExTrig signal falls and continues until the ExTrig
signal rises. Figure 17 illustrates trigger width exposure with the camera set for rising edge
triggering.
Trigger width exposure is especially useful if you intend to vary the length of the exposure time for
each captured image.
ExTrig Signal Period
Exposure
ExTrig Signal
Fig. 17: Trigger Width Exposure with Rising Edge Triggering
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Note
The trigger width exposure mode is not available on slA750-60fm cameras. The
trigger width exposure mode is available on all other camera models.
When you operate the camera in trigger width exposure mode, you must use the camera’s
exposure setting to set an exposure time. The exposure time setting will be used by the camera to
operate the trigger ready signal.
You should adjust the exposure setting to represent the shortest exposure time you intend to use.
For example, assume that you will be using trigger width exposure and that you intend to use the
ExTrig signal to vary the exposure time in a range from 3000 µs to 5500 µs. In this case you would
use the exposure setting to set the exposure time to 3000 µs.
If you are using the trigger width exposure mode and the camera is operating with overlapped
exposures, there is something you must keep in mind. If the action of the ExTrig signal would end
the current exposure while readout of the previously acquired image is still taking place, the camera
will automatically continue the exposure until readout of the previous image is complete. This
situation is illustrated Figure 16 for rising edge operation. On the first cycle of the ExTrig signal
shown in the figure, the signal rises and falls while readout is taking place. Normally you would
expect exposure to take place only when the ExTrig signal is high. But since the signal falls while
the previous frame is still reading out, the camera automatically extends exposure until the readout
is complete. On the second cycle of the ExTrig signal shown in the figure, the signal rises during
previous frame readout, but falls after the readout is complete. This is a normal situation and
exposure would be determined by the high time of the ExTrig signal as you would expect.
TrigRdy
Signal
Exposure
Exposure
ExTrig Signal
Frame Readout
Frame N-1
Frame N
Fig. 18: Trigger Width Exposure Mode with Overlapped Exposure
Selecting an Exposure Mode
You can set the exposure time parameter value and select an exposure mode from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippets illustrate using the API to
set the exposure time parameter and select the exposure mode:
// set for the timed exposure mode, set exposure time to 3000 µs
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
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Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
// set for the width exposure mode, set minimum exposure time to 3000 µs
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_TriggerWidth );
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameter, see Section 6.4 on page 51.
For more information about overlapped exposure, see Section 6.5 on page 54.
For more detailed information about using the trigger width exposure mode with overlapped
exposure, refer to the application notes called "Using a Specific External Trigger Signal with
Overlapped Exposure" (AW000565xx000). The application notes are available in the downloads
section of the Basler website: www.baslerweb.com/indizes/download_index_en_31412.html.
6.3.2
Setting the Camera for Hardware Triggering
To set the camera for hardware triggering:
„
Use the Trigger Selector parameter to select the Acquisition Start trigger.
„
Use the Trigger Mode parameter to set the trigger mode to On.
„
Use the Trigger Source parameter to set the camera to accept the hardware trigger signal on
input line 1.
„
Use the Trigger Activation parameter to set the camera for rising edge triggering or for falling
edge triggering.
You can set these parameter values from within your application software by using the pylon API.
The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter values:
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
Camera.TriggerMode.SetValue( TriggerMode_On );
Camera.TriggerSource.SetValue ( TriggerSource_Line1 );
Camera.TriggerActivation.SetValue( TriggerActivation_RisingEdge );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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6.3.3
Acquiring a Single Image by Applying One
Hardware Trigger Transition
You can set the camera to react to a single transition of an external hardware trigger (ExTrig) signal
and then you can transition the ExTrig signal to begin image acquisition. When you are using an
ExTrig signal to start image acquisition, you should monitor the camera’s trigger ready (TrigRdy)
output signal and you should base the use of your ExTrig signal on the state of the trigger ready
signal.
To set the camera to react to a single ExTrig signal transition, follow the sequence below. The
sequence assumes that you have set the camera for rising edge triggering and for the timed
exposure mode.
1. Access the camera’s API and set the exposure time parameter for your desired exposure time.
2. Set the value of the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter to Single Frame.
3. Execute an Acquisition Start command. This prepares the camera to react to a single trigger.
(In single frame mode, executing the start command prepares the camera to react to a single
trigger.)
4. Check the state of the camera’s Trigger Ready signal:
a. If the TrigRdy signal is high, you can transition the ExTrig signal when desired.
b. If the TrigRdy signal is low, wait until TrigRdy goes high and then transition the ExTrig signal
when desired.
5. When the ExTrig signal transitions from low to high, image acquisition will start. Exposure will
continue for the length of time you specified in step 1.
6. At the end of the specified exposure time, readout and transmission of the acquired image will
take place.
7. At this point, the camera would ignore any additional ExTrig signal transitions. To acquire
another image, you must:
a. Repeat step 3 to prepare the camera to react to a hardware trigger transition.
b. Repeat step 4 to check if the camera is ready to acquire an image.
c. Repeat step 5 to begin image acquisition
You can set the exposure time and the Acquisition Mode parameter values from within your
application software by using the pylon API. You can also execute the Acquisition Start command.
The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter values and execute the
command:
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
Camera.TriggerActivation.SetValue( TriggerActivation_RisingEdge );
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_SingleFrame );
Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
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For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
For more information about the Trigger Ready signal, see Section 6.7 on page 57.
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameter, see Section 6.4 on page 51.
6.3.4
Acquiring Images by Applying a Series of
Hardware Trigger Transitions
You can set the camera so that it will react to a continuous series of external hardware trigger
(ExTrig) transitions and then you can cycle the ExTrig signal as desired to begin image acquisition.
When you are using an ExTrig signal to start image acquisition, you should monitor the camera’s
trigger ready (TrigRdy) output signal and you should base the use of your ExTrig signal on the state
of the trigger ready signal.
To set the camera to react continuously to ExTrig signal transitions, follow the sequence below. The
sequence assumes that you have set the camera for rising edge triggering and for the timed
exposure mode.
1. Access the camera’s API and set the exposure time parameters for your desired exposure
time.
2. Set the value of the camera’s Acquisition Mode parameter to Continuous.
3. Execute an Acquisition Start command. This prepares the camera to react to the trigger
signals.
4. Check the state of the camera’s Trigger Ready signal:
a. If the TrigRdy signal is high, you can transition the ExTrig signal when desired.
b. If the TrigRdy signal is low, wait until TrigRdy goes high and then transition the ExTrig signal
when desired.
5. When the ExTrig signal transitions from low to high, image acquisition will start. Exposure will
continue for the length of time you specified in step 1.
6. At the end of the specified exposure time, readout and transmission of the acquired image will
take place.
7. Repeat steps 4 and 5 each time you want to start another image acquisition.
8. Execute an Acquisition Stop command. The camera will no longer react to hardware triggers.
If you are acquiring images using a series of hardware trigger transitions, you must avoid acquiring
images at a rate that exceeds the maximum allowed with the current camera settings. You can
avoid triggering image acquistion at too high a rate by using the trigger ready signal as described
above.
You should also be aware that if the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is enabled, it will
influence the rate at which images can be acquired:
„
If the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is set to a value less than the maximum allowed,
you can trigger acquisition at any rate up to the set value.
„
If the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is set to a value greater than the maximum
allowed, you can trigger acquisition at any rate up to the maximum allowed image acquisition
rate with the current camera settings.
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You can set the exposure time and the Acquisition Mode parameter values from within your
application software by using the pylon API. You can also execute the Acquisition Start and Stop
commands. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter values and
execute the commands:
Camera.TriggerSelector.SetValue( TriggerSelector_AcquisitionStart );
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 3000 );
Camera.TriggerActivation.SetValue( TriggerActivation_RisingEdge );
Camera.AcquisitionMode.SetValue( AcquisitionMode_Continuous );
Camera.AcquisitionStart.Execute( );
Camera.AcquisitionStop.Execute( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
For more information about the Trigger Ready signal, see Section 6.7 on page 57.
For more information about the camera’s exposure time parameter, see Section 6.4 on page 51.
Note
The explanations in Section 6.3.3 and Section 6.3.4 are intended to give you
a basic idea of how the use of a hardware trigger works. For a more complete
description, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide and to the sample
programs included in the Basler pylon Software Development Kit (SDK).
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6.4
Exposure Time Parameters
Many of the camera’s image acquisition modes require you to specify an exposure time. There are
two ways to set exposure time: by setting "raw" values or by setting an "absolute value". The two
methods are described below. You can use whichever method you prefer to set the exposure time.
The exposure time must not be set below a minimum specified value. The minimum exposure time
varies by camera model as shown in Table 9.
The maximum exposure time that can be set also varies by camera model as shown in Table 9.
Camera Model
Minimum Allowed Exposure Time
Maximum Possible Exposure Time
slA750-60fm
124 µs
126976 µs
slA1000-30fm
32 µs
10000000 µs
slA1390-17fm
34 µs
10000000 µs
slA1600-14fm
31 µs
10000000 µs
Table 9: Minimum Allowed Exposure Time and Maximum Possible Exposure Time
For information on parameter settings for obtaining the maximum possible exposure time, see
Section 6.4.1 on page 51.
6.4.1
Setting the Exposure Time Using "Raw" Settings
When exposure time is set using "raw" values, the exposure time will be determined by a
combination of two elements. The first element is the value of the Exposure Time Raw parameter,
and the second element is the Exposure Time Base. The exposure time is determined by the
product of these two elements:
Exposure Time = (Exposure Time Raw Parameter Value) x (Exposure Time Base)
By default, the Exposure Time Base is fixed at 20 µs on all camera models except the slA750-60fm.
On slA750-60fm cameras, the default Exposure Time Base is 31 µs.
Typically, the exposure time is adjusted by setting only the Exposure Time Raw parameter. The
Exposure Time Raw parameter value can range from 1 to 4095. So if the parameter value was set
to 100 on an slA1000-30fm camera, for example, the exposure time will be 100 x 20 µs or 2000 µs.
Settings for Obtaining the Maximum Possible Exposure Time
On all camera models except the slA750-60fm, you can obtain the maximum possible exposure
time (10000000 µs) by setting the Exposure Time Raw parameter value to 1 and the Exposure Time
Base Abs value to 10000000 µs.
On slA750-60fm cameras, you can obtain the maximum possible exposure time (126976 µs) by,
e.g., setting the exposure time raw parameter value to 2048 and the Exposure Time Base Abs value
to 62 µs.
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Changing the Exposure Time Base
Normally, the exposure time is adjusted by setting the value of the Exposure Time Raw parameter
as explained above. However, if you require an exposure time that is longer than what you can
achieve by changing the value of the Exposure Time Raw parameter alone, the Exposure Time
Base Abs parameter can be used to change the exposure time base.
The Exposure Time Base Abs parameter value sets the exposure time base in µs and this
parameter can be used to change the exposure time base.
On all camera models except the slA750-60fm, the default exposure time base is 20 µs and the
time base can be changed in increments of 1 µs.
On slA750-60fm cameras, the default exposure time base is 31 µs and the time base can be
changed in increments of 31 µs.
You can set the Exposure Time Raw and Exposure Time Base Abs parameter values from within
your application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the
API to set the parameter values:
Camera.ExposureMode.SetValue( ExposureMode_Timed );
Camera.ExposureTimeRaw.SetValue( 100 );
Camera.ExposureTimeBaseAbs.SetValue( 186 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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6.4.2
Setting the Exposure Time Using
"Absolute" Settings
You can also set the exposure time by using an "absolute" value. This is accomplished by setting
the Exposure Time Abs parameter. The units for setting this parameter are µs and the value can be
set in increments of 1 µs.
When you use the Exposure Time Abs parameter to set the exposure time, the camera
accomplishes the setting change by automatically changing the Exposure Time Raw parameter to
achieve the value specified by your Exposure Time Abs setting. This leads to a limitation that you
must keep in mind if you use Exposure Time Abs parameter to set the exposure time. That is, you
must set the Exposure Time Abs parameter to a value that is equivalent to a setting you could
achieve by using the Exposure Time Raw parameter with the current Exposure Time Base
parameter. For example, if the time base was currently set to 62 µs, you could use the Exposure
Time Base Abs parameter to set the exposure to 62 µs, 124 µs, 186 µs, etc.
Note that if you set the Exposure Time Abs parameter to a value that you could not achieve by using
the Exposure Time Raw and Exposure Time Base parameters, the camera will automatically
change the setting for the Exposure Time Abs parameter to the nearest achieveable value.
You should also be aware that if you change the exposure time using the raw settings, the Exposure
Time Abs parameter will automatically be updated to reflect the new exposure time.
Setting the Absolute Exposure Time Parameter
You can set the Exposure Time Abs parameter value from within your application software by using
the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter value:
Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.SetValue( 124 );
double resultingExpTime = Camera.ExposureTimeAbs.GetValue( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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6.5
Overlapping Exposure and Sensor
Readout (All Models Except slA750-60fm)
Note
The information in this section applies to all camera models except the
slA750-60fm fm/fc. For information about slA750-60fm cameras, see Section 6.6
on page 56.
The image acquisition process on the camera includes two distinct parts. The first part is the
exposure of the pixels in the imaging sensor. Once exposure is complete, the second part of the
process – readout of the pixel values from the sensor – takes place.
In regard to this image acquisition process, there are two common ways for the camera to operate:
with “non-overlapped” exposure and with “overlapped” exposure. In the non-overlapped mode of
operation, each time an image is acquired, the camera completes the entire exposure/readout
process before acquisition of the next image is started. This situation is illustrated in Figure 19.
Image Acquisition N
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+1
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+2
Exposure
Readout
Time
Fig. 19: Non-overlapped Exposure
While operating in a non-overlapped fashion is perfectly normal and is appropriate for many
situations, it is not the most efficient way to operate the camera in terms of acquisition frame rate.
On this camera, however, it is allowable to begin exposing a new image while a previously acquired
image is being read out. This situation is illustrated in Figure 20 and is known as operating the
camera with “overlapped” exposure.
As you can see, running the camera with readout and exposure overlapped can allow higher
acquisition frame rates because the camera is performing two processes at once.
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Image Acquisition N
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+1
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+2
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+3
Exposure
Readout
Time
Fig. 20: Overlapped Exposure
Determining whether your camera is operating with overlapped or non-overlapped exposures is not
a matter of issuing a command or switching a setting on or off. Rather the way that you operate the
camera will determine whether the exposures are overlapped or not overlapped. If we define the
“frame period” as the time from the start of exposure for one image acquisition to the start of
exposure for the next image acquisition, then:
„
Exposure will overlap when:
Frame Period ≤ Exposure Time + Readout Time
„
Exposure will not overlap when:
Frame Period > Exposure Time + Readout Time
You can calculate the readout time for a captured image by using the formula on page 62.
6.5.1
Guidelines for Overlapped Operation
If you will be operating the camera with overlapped exposure, there are two important guidelines to
keep in mind:
„
You must not begin the exposure time for a new image acquisition while the exposure time of
the previous acquisition is in progress.
„
You must not end the exposure time of the current image acquisition until readout of the
previously acquired image is complete.
The camera will ignore any trigger signals that violate these guidelines.
When you are operating a camera with overlapped exposure and using a hardware trigger signal
to trigger image acquisition, you could use the camera’s exposure time parameter settings and
timing formulas to calculate when it is safe to begin each new acquisition. However, there is a much
more convenient way to know when it safe to begin each acquisition. The camera supplies a “trigger
ready” signal that is specifically designed to let you trigger overlapped exposure safely and
efficiently.
For more information about using the Trigger Ready signal with all camera models except the
slA750-60fm, see Section 6.7.1 on page 57.
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For more detailed guidelines about using an external trigger signal with the trigger width exposure
mode and overlapped exposure, refer to the application notes called "Using a Specific External
Trigger Signal with Overlapped Exposure" (AW000565xx000). The application notes are available
in the downloads section of the Basler website:
www.baslerweb.com/indizes/download_index_en_31412.html.
6.6
Exposure Must Not Overlap Sensor
Readout (slA750-60fm Only)
Note
The information in this section only applies to slA750-60fm cameras. For
information about the other camera models, see Section 6.5 on page 54.
The image acquisition process on the camera includes two distinct parts. The first part is the
exposure of the pixels in the imaging sensor. Once exposure is complete, the second part of the
process – readout of the pixel values from the sensor – takes place.
On these cameras, exposure for a new acquisition must not begin until readout of the previously
acquired image is complete. This situation is illustrated in Figure 19.
Image Acquisition N
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+1
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+2
Exposure
Readout
Time
Fig. 21: Non-overlapped Readout and Exposure
A result of this characteristic is that the exposure time setting on the camera will have a direct effect
on the camera’s maximum allowed frame rate. At longer exposure times, the maximum allowed
frame rate will be lower.
When you are operating a camera and using a hardware trigger to trigger image acquisition, you
could use the camera’s exposure time parameter settings and the timing formulas to calculate when
it is safe to begin each new acquisition. However, there is a more convenient way to know when it
safe to begin each acquisition. The camera supplies a “trigger ready” signal that is specifically
designed to let you trigger acquisitions safely and efficiently.
For more information about using the Trigger Ready signal with slA750-60fm cameras, see
Section 6.7.2 on page 59.
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6.7
Trigger Ready Signal
6.7.1
Trigger Ready Signal (All Models Except slA750-60fm)
Note
The information in this section applies to all camera models except the
slA750-60fm fm/fc. For information about slA750-60fm cameras, see
Section 6.7.2 on page 59.
As described in the previous section, the cameras can operate in an “overlapped” acquisition
fashion. When the camera is operated in this manner, it is especially important that:
„
the exposure time of a new image acquisition not start until exposure of the previously
acquired image is complete, and
„
the exposure time of a new image acquisition not end until readout of the previously acquired
image is complete.
The camera supplies a “Trigger Ready” (TrigRdy) output signal you can use to ensure that these
conditions are met when you are using a hardware trigger signal to trigger image acquisition. When
you are acquiring images, the camera automatically calculates the earliest moment that it is safe to
trigger each new acquisition. The trigger ready signal will go high when it is safe to trigger an
acquisition, will go low when the acquisition has started, and will go high again when it is safe to
trigger the next acquisition (see Figure 22). The camera calculates the rise of the trigger ready
signal based on the current exposure time parameter setting, the current size of the area of interest,
and the time it will take to readout the captured pixel values from the sensor.
The trigger ready signal is especially useful if you want to run the camera at the maximum
acquisition frame capture rate for the current conditions. If you monitor the trigger ready signal and
you trigger acquisition of each new image immediately after the signal goes high, you will be sure
that the camera is operating at the maximum acquisition frame rate for the current conditions.
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Signal goes high
at earliest safe
moment to trigger
acquisition N+1
Signal goes low
when exposure
for acquisition
N+1 begins
Signal goes high
at earliest safe
moment to trigger
acquisition N+2
Signal goes low
when exposure
for acquisition
N+2 begins
TrigRdy
Signal
Image Acquisition N
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+1
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+2
Exposure
Readout
Time
Fig. 22: Trigger Ready Signal
You should be aware that if the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is enabled, the operation of
the trigger ready signal will be influenced by the value of the parameter:
„
If the value of the parameter is greater than zero but less than the maximum allowed, the
trigger ready will go high at the rate specified by the parameter value. For example, if the
parameter is set to 10, the trigger ready signal will go high 10 times per second.
„
If the value of the parameter is greater than the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate with
the current camera settings, the trigger ready signal will work as described above and will go
high at a point that represents the maximum acquisition frame rate allowed.
Note
If you attempt to start an image acquisition when the trigger ready signal is low,
the camera will simply ignore the attempt.
The trigger ready signal will only be available when hardware triggering is
enabled.
The trigger ready signal is not normally assigned to the physical output line on the camera. This can
be changed, however, and the trigger ready signal can be assigned to the camera’s output line.
For more information about changing the output signal assigned to the camera’s output line, see
Section 8.2 on page 88.
For more information about the electrical characteristics of the camera’s output line, see
Section 5.7.3 on page 34.
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6.7.2
Trigger Ready Signal (slA750-60fm Only)
Note
The information in this section only applies to slA750-60fm cameras. For
information about the other camera models, see Section 6.7.1 on page 57.
As described in an earlier section, on these cameras the exposure for an image acquisition must
not begin until readout of the previously acquired image has ended. The camera supplies a “Trigger
Ready” (TrigRdy) output signal you can use to ensure that these conditions are met when you are
using a hardware trigger signal to trigger image acquisition. When you are acquiring images, the
camera automatically calculates the earliest moment that it is safe to trigger each new acquisition.
The trigger ready signal will go high when it is safe to trigger an acquisition, will go low when the
acquisition has started, and will go high again when it is safe to trigger the next acquisition (see
Figure 22). The camera calculates the rise of the trigger ready signal based on the current exposure
time parameter setting, the current size of the area of interest, and the time it will take to readout
the captured pixel values from the sensor.
The trigger ready signal is especially useful if you want to run the camera at the maximum
acquisition frame capture rate for the current conditions. If you monitor the trigger ready signal and
you begin acquisition of each new image immediately after the signal goes high, you will be sure
that the camera is operating at the maximum acquisition frame rate for the current conditions.
Signal goes high
at earliest safe
moment to trigger
acquisition N+1
Signal goes low
when exposure
for acquisition
N+1 begins
Signal goes high
at earliest safe
moment to trigger
acquisition N+2
Signal goes low
when exposure
for acquisition
N+2 begins
TrigRdy
Signal
Image Acquisition N
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+1
Exposure
Readout
Image Acquisition N+2
Exposure
Readout
Time
Fig. 23: Trigger Ready Signal
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You should be aware that if the Acquisition Frame Rate Abs parameter is enabled, the operation of
the trigger ready signal will be influenced by the value of the parameter:
„
If the value of the parameter is greater than zero but less than the maximum allowed, the
trigger ready will go high at the rate specified by the parameter value. For example, if the
parameter is set to 10, the trigger ready signal will go high 10 times per second.
„
If the value of the parameter is greater than the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate with
the current camera settings, the trigger ready signal will work as described above and will go
high at a point that represents the maximum acquisition frame rate allowed.
Note
If you attempt to start an image acquisition when the trigger ready signal is low,
the camera will simply ignore the attempt.
The trigger ready signal will only be available when hardware triggering is
enabled.
The trigger ready signal is not normally assigned to the physical output line on the camera. This can
be changed, however, and the trigger ready signal can be assigned to the camera’s output line.
For more information about changing the output signal assigned to the camera’s output line, see
Section 8.2 on page 88.
For more information about the electrical characteristics of the camera’s output line, see
Section 5.7.3 on page 34.
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6.8
Exposure Active Signal
The camera’s “exposure active” (ExpAc) signal goes high when the exposure time for each image
acquisition begins and goes low when the exposure time ends as shown in Figure 24. This signal
can be used as a flash trigger and is also useful when you are operating a system where either the
camera or the object being imaged is movable. For example, assume that the camera is mounted
on an arm mechanism and that the mechanism can move the camera to view different portions of
a product assembly. Typically, you do not want the camera to move during exposure. In this case,
you can monitor the ExpAc signal to know when exposure is taking place and thus know when to
avoid moving the camera.
Exposure
Exposure
Frame N
Exposure
Frame N+1
2 - 3.5 µs
2 - 3.5 µs
10 - 26 µs
ExpAc
Signal
Exposure
Frame N+2
10 - 26 µs
Timing charts are not drawn to scale
Times stated are typical
Fig. 24: Exposure Active Signal
Note
When you use the exposure active signal, be aware that there is a delay in the
rise and the fall of the signal in relation to the start and the end of exposure.
See Figure 24 for details.
By default, the ExpAc signal is assigned to physical output line 1 on the camera. However, the
assignment of an output signal to the camera’s physical output line can be changed.
For more information about changing the output signal assigned to the camera’s output line, see
Section 8.2 on page 88.
For more information about the electrical characteristics of the camera’s output line, see
Section 5.7.3 on page 34.
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6.9
Acquisition Timing Chart
Figure 25 shows a timing chart for image acquisition and transmission. The chart assumes that
exposure is triggered with an ExTrig signal with rising edge activation and that the camera is set for
programmable exposure mode.
As Figure 25 shows, there is a slight delay between the rise of the ExTrig signal and the start of
exposure. After the exposure time for an image capture is complete, the camera begins reading out
the captured image data from the imaging sensor into a buffer in the camera. When the camera has
determined that a sufficient amount of image data has accumulated in the buffer, it will begin
transmitting the data from the camera to the host PC.
This buffering technique avoids the need to exactly synchronize the clock used for sensor readout
with the clock used for data transmission over the IEEE 1394b bus. The camera will begin
transmitting data when it has determined that it can safely do so without over-running or underrunning the buffer. This buffering technique is also an important element in achieving the highest
possible frame rate with the best image quality.
The exposure start delay is the amount of time between the point where the trigger signal
transitions to the point where exposure actually begins.
The frame readout time is the amount of time it takes to read out the data for a captured image
from the CCD sensor into the image buffer.
The time to transmission end is the amount of time between the point where the camera begins
reading out the captured image data from the sensor to the point where it finishes transmitting the
data for the captured image from the buffer to the host PC.
The exposure start delay varies from camera model to camera model. The table below shows the
exposure start delay for each camera model:
Camera Model
Exposure Start Delay
slA750-60fm
180.0 µs
slA1000-30fm
45.33 µs
slA1390-17fm
58.90 µs
slA1600-14fm
60.52 µs
Table 10: Exposure Start Delays
Note that, if the debouncer feature is used, the debouncer setting for the input line must be added
to the exposure start delays shown in Table 10 to determine the total start delay. For example,
assume that you are using an slA1000-30fm camera and that you have set the cameras for
hardware triggering. Also assume that you have selected input line 1 to accept the hardware trigger
signal and that you have set the Line Debouncer Time Abs parameter for input line 1 to 5 µs. In this
case:
Total Start Delay = Start Delay from Table 10+ Debouncer Setting
Total Start Delay = 45.33 µs+ 5 µs
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Total Start Delay = 50.33 µs
TrigRdy
Signal
ExTrig
Signal
Exposure Start Delay
Exposure
Exposure
Frame N+1
Exposure
Frame N
Frame
Readout
Frame
Transmission
Exposure Start Delay
Exposure
Frame N+2
Frame N Readout to the Image Buffer
Frame N+1 Readout to the Image Buffer
Frame N Transmission to Host PC
Frame N+1 Transmission to Host PC
Frame N Time to Transmission End
Frame N+1 Time to Transmission End
Timing charts are not drawn to scale
Fig. 25: Exposure Start Controlled with an ExTrig Signal
You can calculate the frame readout time by using this formula:
Frame Readout Time = Tr = ( AOI Height x C1) + C2
Where the values for the constants C1 and C2 are from the table in Section 6.10 on page 65 for all
camera models except the slA750-60fm or from the table in Section 6.11 on page 70 for
slA750-60fm cameras.
For more information about the frame height, see Section 9.4 on page 111.
You can calculate the time to transmission end (Te) using these three steps:
1. Calculate the frame readout time (Tr) using the formula above.
2. Calculate the base transmission time (Tb) using these formulas:
Value of the Payload Size Parameter
Packets per frame = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Value of the Packet Size Parameter
(round the result up to the nearest integer)
Tb = Packets per frame x 125 µs
3. Compare the results:
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If Tb ≤ Tr, then Te = Tr + 250 µs
If Tb > Tr, then Te = Tb + 250 µs
You can determine the value of the Payload Size and Packet Size parameters from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
work with the parameter values:
// Get payload size
int64_t payloadSize = Camera.PayloadSize.GetValue();
// Set packet size
Camera.PacketSizeSize.SetValue( 4096 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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6.10 Maximum Allowed Acquisition Frame
Rate (All Models Except slA750-60fm)
Note
The information in this section applies to all camera models except the
slA750-60fm. For information about slA750-60fm cameras, see Section 6.11 on
page 70.
In general, the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate can be limited by three factors:
„
The amount of time it takes to read an acquired image out of the imaging sensor and into the
camera’s frame buffer (an acquired image is also known as a frame). This time varies
depending on the height of the frame. Shorter frames take less time to read out of the sensor.
The frame height is determined by the camera’s AOI settings.
„
The exposure time for acquired frames. If you use very long exposure times, you can acquire
fewer frames per second.
„
The number of packets needed to transfer an acquired frame from the camera to your PC.
To determine the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate with your current camera settings, you
can read the value of the camera’s Resulting Frame Rate parameter. This parameter indicates the
camera’s current maximum allowed frame rate taking the AOI, exposure time, and packet size
settings into account.
You can read the current value of the Resulting Frame RateAbs parameter from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
get the parameter values:
// Resulting Framerate
double resultingFps = Camera.ResultingFrameRateAbs.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
For more information about the AOI settings, see Section 9.4 on page 111.
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Increasing the Maximum Allowed Frame Rate
You may find that you would like to acquire frames at a rate higher than the maximum allowed with
the camera’s current settings. In this case, you must first use the three formulas described below
to determine what factor is restricting the maximum frame rate the most. Next, you must try to make
that factor less restrictive:
„
You will often find that the sensor readout time is most restrictive factor. Decreasing the height
of the acquired frames will decrease the sensor readout time and will make this factor less
restrictive.
„
If you find that the number of packets needed to transmit an image is restricting the frame rate,
you may be able to decrease the number of packets needed to transmit a frame. The next
section in this manual explains more about the effect of changing the packets per frame.
„
If you are using normal exposure times and you are using the camera at it’s maximum
resolution, your exposure time will not normally be the most restrictive factor on the frame rate.
However, if you are using long exposure times or small areas of interest, it is quite possible to
find that your exposure time is the most restrictive factor on the frame rate. In this case, you
should lower your exposure time. (You may need to compensate for a lower exposure time by
using a brighter light source or increasing the opening of your lens aperture.)
For more information about the AOI settings, see Section 9.4 on page 111.
Formula 1:
Calculates the maximum frame rate based on the sensor readout time:
1
Max. Frames/s = ----------------------------------------------------------------( AOI Height × C 1 ) + C 2
Where:
AOI Height = the height of the acquired frames as determined by the AOI settings.
The constants C1 and C2 depend on the camera model as shown in the table below:
slA1000-30fm
slA1390-17fm
slA1600-14fm
C1
36.57 µs
44.71 µs
52.37 µs
C2
4699 µs
12215 µs
6896 µs
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Formula 2:
Calculates the maximum frame rate based on the exposure time for the acquired frames:
1
Max. Frames/s = -------------------------------------------------------------------Exposure time in µs + C 3
Where the constant C3 depends on the camera model as shown in the table below:
slA1000-30fm
slA1390-17fm
slA1600-14fm
136.47 µs
176.76 µs
181.64 µs
C3
Formula 3:
Calculates the maximum frame rate based on the number of packets needed to transmit a captured
frame from the camera to your host PC via the IEEE 1394 bus:
Value of the Payload Size Parameter
Packets per frame = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Value of the Packet Size Parameter
(round the result up to the nearest integer)
1
Max. Frames/s = ------------------------------------------------------------------------Packets per frame × 125 µs
Example
Assume that you are using a monochrome slA1000-30fm camera set for an exposure time of 2000
µs and for 600 x 400 resolution. Also assume that you have checked the value of the Payload Size
parameter and the Packet Size parameters and found them to be 327100 and 8192 respectively.
Formula 1:
1
Max Frames/s = -----------------------------------------------------------------------( 400 × 36.57 µs ) + 4699 µs
Max Frames/s = 51.7 frames/s
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Formula 2:
1
Max Frames/s = --------------------------------------------------2000 µs + 36.47 µs
Max Frames/s = 491.0 frames/s
Formula 3:
327100
Packets per frame = -------------------8192
Packets per frame = 39.9
(Round the result up to 40.)
1
Max. Frames/s = ------------------------------40 × 125 µs
Max Frames/s = 200 frames/s
Formula one returns the lowest value. So in this case, the limiting factor is the sensor readout time
and the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate would be 51.7 frames per second.
6.10.1 Effect of the Packet Size Setting on the Maximum
Allowed Frame Rate
After a camera acquires a frame, the image data is read out from the sensor into a buffer. Once the
frame has been read out to the buffer, the data is packetized and transmitted across the IEEE 1394b
bus to your host PC.
A parameter called Packet Size determines the number of bytes of data that will be included in each
packet transferred across the bus. The minimum value for the Packet Size parameter is 1 and the
maximum value is 8192. Normally, the value of the Packet Size parameter is set to the maximum
and at maximum, the Packet Size parameter has no noticeable effect on the operation of the
camera.
If you lower the value of the Packet Size parameter, the amount of image data included in each
packet transmitted across the bus will be lower. This means that it will take more packets to transmit
each frame and since the cycle time of the IEEE 1394b bus is fixed, it also means that it will take
more time to transmit each frame. If you lower the Packet Size parameter enough, the slower data
transfer rate can begin to affect the maximum allowed frame capture rate of your camera. If you
look at the formulas the previous section, you will notice that one of the factors that can limit the
maximum allowed frame rate is the number of packets needed to transmit a frame. The number of
packets per frame is directly related to the Packet Size parameter setting.
You can see the effect of changing the Packet Size parameter by looking at the read only parameter
called Resulting Frame Rate Abs. The Resulting Frame Rate Abs parameter indicates the
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maximum frame rate with the current camera settings. If you gradually decrease the setting for the
Packet Size parameter, you will eventually find that the value of the Resulting Frame Rate Abs
parameter will also decrease.
If you are operating a single camera on your IEEE 1394b bus, you would ordinarily leave the Packet
Size parameter set at the maximum. However, if you are operating multiple cameras on a single
IEEE 1394b bus, you will probably need to change the Packet Size parameter so that the cameras
can effectively share the available bus bandwidth.
You can set the value of the Packet Size parameter and read the current value of the resulting
Frame Rate parameter from within your application software by using the pylon API. The following
code snippet illustrates using the API to work withthe parameter values:
// Set packet size
Camera.PacketSize.SetValue( 4096 );
// Get resulting framerate
double resultingFps = Camera.ResultingFrameRateAbs.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about using multiple cameras on a single bus, see Section 10 on page 133.
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6.11 Maximum Allowed Acquisition Frame
Rate (slA750-60fm Only)
Note
The information in this section only applies to slA750-60fm cameras. For
information about the other camera models, see Section 6.10 on page 65.
In general, the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate can be limited by two factors:
„
The sum of the exposure time plus the amount of time it takes to read the acquired image out
of the imaging sensor and into the camera’s frame buffer. (An acquired image is also known as
a frame.)
The exposure time is set by the user. If you use very long exposure times, you can acquire fewer
frames per second.
The readout time varies depending on the height of the frame. Shorter frames take less time to
read out of the sensor. The frame height is determined by the camera’s AOI Height settings.
„
The number of packets needed to transfer an acquired frame from the camera to your PC.
To determine the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate with your current camera settings, you
can read the value of the camera’s Resulting Frame Rate parameter. This parameter indicates the
camera’s current maximum allowed frame rate taking the AOI, exposure time, and packet size
settings into account.
You can read the current value of the Resulting Frame RateAbs parameter from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
get the parameter values:
// Resulting Framerate
double resultingFps = Camera.ResultingFrameRateAbs.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
For more information about the AOI settings, see Section 9.4 on page 111.
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Increasing the Maximum Allowed Frame Rate
You may find that you would like to acquire frames at a rate higher than the maximum allowed with
the camera’s current settings. In this case, you must first use the two formulas described below to
determine what factor is restricting the maximum frame rate the most. Next, you must try to make
that factor less restrictive:
„
You will often find that the sum of the exposure time plus the sensor readout time is the most
restrictive factor.
Decreasing the AOI height for the acquired frames will decrease the sensor readout time and
will make this factor less restrictive.
If you are using long exposure times, it is quite possible to find that your exposure time is making
this factor the most restrictive. In this case, you should lower your exposure time. (You may
need to compensate for a lower exposure time by using a brighter light source or increasing the
opening of your lens aperture.)
„
If you find that the number of packets needed to transmit an image is restricting the frame rate,
you may be able to decrease the number of packets needed to transmit a frame. The next
section in this manual explains more about the effect of changing the packets per frame.
For more information about the AOI settings, see Section 9.4 on page 111.
Formula 1:
Calculates the maximum frame rate based on the sum of the exposure time plus the sensor readout
time:
1
Max. Frames/s = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Exposure Time in µs + ( AOI Height × C 1 ) + C 2
Where:
AOI Height = the height of the acquired frames as determined by the AOI settings.
The constants C1 and C2 depend on the camera model as shown in the table below:
slA750-60 fm
C1
31.0 µs
C2
397.0 µs
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Formula 2:
Calculates the maximum frame rate based on the number of packets needed to transmit a captured
frame from the camera to your host PC via the IEEE 1394 bus:
Value of the Payload Size Parameter
Packets per frame = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Value of the Packet Size Parameter
(round the result up to the nearest integer)
1
Max. Frames/s = ------------------------------------------------------------------------Packets per frame × 125 µs
Example
Assume that you are using a monochrome slA750-60fm camera set for an exposure time of 2000
µs and for 600 x 400 resolution. Also assume that you have checked the value of the Payload Size
parameter and the Packet Size parameters and found them to be 327100 and 8192 respectively.
Formula 1:
1
Max. Frames/s = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2000 µs + ( 400 × 31.0 µs ) + 397.0 µs
Max. Frames/s = 67.6 frames/s
Formula 2:
327100
Packets per frame = -------------------8192
Packets per frame = 39.9
(Round the result up to 40.)
1
Max. Frames/s = ------------------------------40 × 125 µs
Max Frames/s = 200 frames/s
Formula one returns the lowest value. So in this case, the limiting factor is the sum of the exposure
time plus the sensor readout time and the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate would be 67.6
frames per second.
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6.11.1 Effect of the Packet Size Setting on the Maximum
Allowed Frame Rate
After a camera acquires a frame, the image data is read out from the sensor into a buffer. Once the
frame has been read out to the buffer, the data is packetized and transmitted across the IEEE 1394b
bus to your host PC.
A parameter called Packet Size determines the number of bytes of data that will be included in each
packet transferred across the bus. The minimum value for the Packet Size parameter is 1 and the
maximum value is 8192. Normally, the value of the Packet Size parameter is set to the maximum
and at maximum, the Packet Size parameter has no noticeable effect on the operation of the
camera.
If you lower the value of the Packet Size parameter, the amount of image data included in each
packet transmitted across the bus will be lower. This means that it will take more packets to transmit
each frame and since the cycle time of the IEEE 1394b bus is fixed, it also means that it will take
more time to transmit each frame. If you lower the Packet Size parameter enough, the slower data
transfer rate can begin to affect the maximum allowed frame capture rate of your camera. If you
look at the formulas the previous section, you will notice that one of the factors that can limit the
maximum allowed frame rate is the number of packets needed to transmit a frame. The number of
packets per frame is directly related to the Packet Size parameter setting.
You can see the effect of changing the Packet Size parameter by looking at the read only parameter
called Resulting Frame Rate Abs. The Resulting Frame Rate Abs parameter indicates the
maximum frame rate with the current camera settings. If you gradually decrease the setting for the
Packet Size parameter, you will eventually find that the value of the Resulting Frame Rate Abs
parameter will also decrease.
If you are operating a single camera on your IEEE 1394b bus, you would ordinarily leave the Packet
Size parameter set at the maximum. However, if you are operating multiple cameras on a single
IEEE 1394b bus, you will probably need to change the Packet Size parameter so that the cameras
can effectively share the available bus bandwidth.
You can set the value of the Packet Size parameter and read the current value of the resulting
Frame Rate parameter from within your application software by using the pylon API. The following
code snippet illustrates using the API to work withthe parameter values:
// Set packet size
Camera.PacketSize.SetValue( 4096 );
// Get resulting framerate
double resultingFps = Camera.ResultingFrameRateAbs.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about using multiple cameras on a single bus, see Section 10 on page 133.
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7 Pixel Data Formats
By selecting a pixel data format, you determine the format (layout) of the image data transmitted by
the camera. This section provides detailed information about the available pixel data formats.
7.1
Setting the Pixel Data Format
The setting for the camera’s Pixel Format parameter determines the format of the pixel data that will
be output from the camera. The available pixel formats depend on the camera model. Table 11 lists
the pixel formats available on each camera model.
Mono Camera
Model
Mono 8
Mono 16
Mono 12
Packed
YUV 4:2:2
Packed
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV)
Packed
•
•
slA750-60fm
•
slA1000-30fm
•
•
•
•
•
slA1390-17fm
•
•
•
•
•
slA1600-14fm
•
•
•
•
•
Table 11: Pixel Formats Available on Each Camera Model ( • = format available)
Details of the formats are described in Section 7.2 on page 76.
You can set the Pixel Format parameter value from within your application software by using the
pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter value:
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_Mono8 );
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_Mono12Packed );
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_Mono16 );
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_YUV422Packed );
Camera.PixelFormat.SetValue( PixelFormat_YUV422_YUYV_Packed );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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Pixel Data Formats
7.2
Pixel Data Formats
7.2.1
Mono 8 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Mono 8)
When a monochrome camera is set for the Mono 8 pixel data format, it outputs 8 bits of brightness
data per pixel.
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when the camera is set for Mono8 output.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
B0
Brightness value for P0
B1
Brightness value for P1
B2
Brightness value for P2
B3
Brightness value for P3
B4
Brightness value for P4
B5
Brightness value for P5
B6
Brightness value for P6
B7
Brightness value for P7
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-3
Brightness value for Pn-3
Bm-2
Brightness value for Pn-2
Bm-1
Brightness value for Pn-1
Bm
Brightness value for Pn
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With the camera set for Mono8, the pixel data output is 8 bit data of the “unsigned char” type. The
available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal levels are as shown in the
table below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
255
0xFE
254
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
1
0x00
0
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7.2.2
Mono 16 Format (Equivalent to DCAM Mono 16)
When a monochrome camera is set for the Mono16 pixel data format, it outputs 16 bits of brightness
data per pixel with 12 bits effective. The 12 bits of effective pixel data fill from the least significant
bit. The four unused most significant bits are filled with zeros.
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when the camera is set for Mono16 output. Note that the data is placed in the image
buffer in little endian format.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
B0
Low byte of brightness value for P0
B1
High byte of brightness value for P0
B2
Low byte of brightness value for P1
B3
High byte of brightness value for P1
B4
Low byte of brightness value for P2
B5
High byte of brightness value for P2
B6
Low byte of brightness value for P3
B7
High byte of brightness value for P3
B8
Low byte of brightness value for P4
B9
High byte of brightness value for P4
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-7
Low byte of brightness value for Pn-3
Bm-6
High byte of brightness value for Pn-3
Bm-5
Low byte of brightness value for Pn-2
Bm-4
High byte of brightness value for Pn-2
Bm-3
Low byte of brightness value for Pn-1
Bm-2
High byte of brightness value for Pn-1
Bm-1
Low byte of brightness value for Pn
Bm
High byte of brightness value for Pn
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When the camera is set for Mono 16, the pixel data output is 16 bit data of the “unsigned short (little
endian)” type. The available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal levels are
as shown in the table below. Note that for 16 bit data, you might expect a value range from 0x0000
to 0xFFFF. However, with the camera set for Mono16 only 12 bits of the 16 bits transmitted are
effective. Therefore, the highest data value you will see is 0x0FFF indicating a signal level of 4095.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0x0FFF
4095
0x0FFE
4094
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x0001
1
0x0000
0
Note
When a camera that is set for Mono 16 has only 12 bits effective, the leader
of transmitted frames will indicate Mono 12 as the pixel format.
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7.2.3
Mono 12 Packed Format
When a monochrome camera is set for the Mono 12 Packed pixel data format, it outputs 12 bits of
brightness data per pixel. Every three bytes transmitted by the camera contain data for two pixels.
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when the camera is set for Mono 12 Packed output.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
B0
P0 bits 11 ... 4
B1
P1 bits 3 ... 0
B2
P1 bits 11 ... 4
B3
P2 bits 11 ... 4
B4
P3 bits 3 ... 0
B5
P3 bits 11 ... 4
B6
P4 bits 11 ... 4
B7
P5 bits 3 ... 0
B8
P5 bits 11 ... 4
B9
P6 bits 11 ... 4
B10
P7 bits 3 ... 0
B11
P7 bits 11 ... 4
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-5
Pn-3 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-4
Pn-2 bits 3 ... 0
Bm-3
Pn-2 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-2
Pn-1 bits 11 ... 4
Bm-1
Pn bits 3 ... 0
Bm
Pn bits 11 ... 4
80
P0 bits 3 ... 0
P2 bits 3 ... 0
P4 bits 3 ... 0
P6 bits 3 ... 0
•
Pn-3 bits 3 ... 0
Pn-1 bits 3 ... 0
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When a monochrome camera is set for Mono 12 Packed, the pixel data output is 12 bit data of the
“unsigned” type. The available range of data values and the corresponding indicated signal levels
are as shown in the table below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0x0FFF
4095
0x0FFE
4094
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x0001
1
0x0000
0
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7.2.4
YUV 4:2:2 Packed Format
(Equivalent to DCAM YUV 4:2:2)
When a monochrome camera is set for the YUV 4:2:2 Packed pixel data format, the camera
transmits Y, U, and V values in a fashion that mimics the output from a color camera set for YUV
4:2:2 Packed.
The Y value transmitted for each pixel is an actual 8 bit brightness value similar to the pixel data
transmitted when a monochrome camera is set for Mono 8. The U and V values transmitted will
always be zero. With this format, a Y value is transmitted for each pixel, but U and V values are only
transmitted for every second pixel.
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when the camera is set for YUV 4:2:2 Packed output.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
B0
U value for P0
B1
Y value for P0
B2
V Value for P0
B3
Y value for P1
B4
U value for P2
B5
Y value for P2
B6
V Value for P2
B7
Y value for P3
B8
U value for P4
B9
Y value for P4
B10
V Value for P4
B11
Y value for P5
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-7
U value for Pn-3
Bm-6
Y value for Pn-3
Bm-5
V Value for Pn-3
Bm-4
Y value for Pn-2
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Bm-3
U value for Pn-1
Bm-2
Y value for Pn-1
Bm-1
V Value for Pn-1
Bm
Y value for Pn
When the camera is set for YUV 4:2:2 Packed output, the pixel data output for the Y component is
8 bit data of the “unsigned char” type. The range of data values for the Y component and the
corresponding indicated signal levels are shown below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
255
0xFE
254
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
1
0x00
0
The pixel data output for the U component or the V component is 8 bit data of the “straight binary”
type. The data values for a U or a V component will always be zero.
7.2.5
YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed Format
When a monochrome camera is set for the YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed pixel data format, the camera
transmits Y, U, and V values in a fashion that mimics the output from a color camera set for YUV
4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed.
The Y value transmitted for each pixel is an actual 8 bit brightness value similar to the pixel data
transmitted when a monochrome camera is set for Mono 8. The U and V values transmitted will
always be zero. With this format, a Y value is transmitted for each pixel, but U and V values are only
transmitted for every second pixel.
The table below describes how the pixel data for a received frame will be ordered in the image buffer
in your PC when the camera is set for YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) output.
The following standards are used in the table:
P0 = the first pixel transmitted by the camera
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Pn = the last pixel transmitted by the camera
B0 = the first byte in the buffer
Bm = the last byte in the buffer
Byte
Data
B0
Y value for P0
B1
U value for P0
B2
Y value for P1
B3
V value for P0
B4
Y value for P2
B5
U value for P2
B6
Y value for P3
B7
V value for P2
B8
Y value for P4
B9
U value for P4
B10
Y value for P5
B11
V value for P4
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bm-7
Y value for Pn-3
Bm-6
U value for Pn-3
Bm-5
Y value for Pn-2
Bm-4
V value for Pn-3
Bm-3
Y value for Pn-1
Bm-2
U value for Pn-1
Bm-1
Y value for Pn
Bm
V value for Pn-1
When a color camera is set for YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) output, the pixel data output for the Y component
is 8 bit data of the “unsigned char” type. The range of data values for the Y component and the
corresponding indicated signal levels are shown below.
This Data Value
(Hexadecimal)
Indicates This Signal Level
(Decimal)
0xFF
255
0xFE
254
•
•
•
•
•
•
0x01
1
0x00
0
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The pixel data output for the U component or the V component is 8 bit data of the “straight binary”
type. The data values for a U or a V component will always be zero.
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7.3
Pixel Transmission Sequence
For each captured image, pixel data is transmitted from the camera in the following sequence:
Row 0 Col 0,
Row 0 Col 1,
Row 0 Col 2
.. ..
Row 0 Col m-2,
Row 0 Col m-1,
Row 0 Col m
Row 1 Col 0,
Row 1 Col 1,
Row 1 Col 2
.. ..
Row 1 Col m-2,
Row 1 Col m-1,
Row 1 Col m
Row 2 Col 0,
Row 2 Col 1,
Row 2 Col 2
.. ..
Row 2 Col m-2,
Row 2 Col m-1,
Row 2 Col m
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Row n-2 Col 0,
Row n-2 Col 1,
Row n-2 Col 2
.. ..
Row n-2 Col m-2,
Row n-2 Col m-1,
Row n-2 Col m
Row n-1 Col 0,
Row n-1 Col 1,
Row n-1 Col 2
.. ..
Row n-1 Col m-2,
Row n-1 Col m-1,
Row n-1 Col m
Row n Col 0,
Row n Col 1,
Row n Col 2
.. ..
Row n Col m-2,
Row n Col m-1,
Row n Col m
Where Row 0 Col 0 is the upper left corner of the sensor
The columns are numbered 0 through m from the left side to the right side of the sensor
The rows are numbered 0 through n from the top to the bottom of the sensor
The sequence assumes that the camera is set for full resolution.
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8 I/O Control
This section describes how to configure the camera’s physical input line and physical output line. It
also provides information about monitoring the state of the input and output lines.
For more detailed information about the physical and electrical characteristics of the input and
output lines, see Section 5.4 on page 28.
8.1
Configuring the Input Line
8.1.1
Assigning the Input Line to Receive a
Hardware Trigger Signal
The camera is equipped with one physical input line designated as input line 1. You can assign the
camera’s input line to receive a external hardware trigger (ExTrig) signal. The incoming ExTrig
signal can then be used to control image acquisition.
Section 6.3.2 on page 47 explains how to configure the camera to react to a hardware trigger signal
and how to assign the input line to receive the hardware trigger signal.
Note
By default, physical input line 1 is assigned to receive the ExTrig signal.
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8.2
Configuring the Output Line
8.2.1
Assigning a Camera Output Signal to the
Physical Output Line
The camera is equipped with one physical output line designated as output line 1. You can use the
camera’s output signal assignment capability to assign one of the camera’s standard output signals
as the source signal for physical output line 1. The camera has a variety of standard output signals
available including:
„
Exposure Active
„
Trigger Ready
„
Timer 1
You can also designate the output line as "user settable". If the output line is designated as user
settable, you can use the camera’s API to set the state of the line as desired.
To assign an output signal to the output line or to designate the line as user settable:
„
Use the Line Selector to select output line 1.
„
Set the value of the Line Source Parameter to one of the available output signals or to user
settable. This will set the source signal for the output line.
Note
By default, the Exposure Active signal is assigned to output line 1.
You can set the Line Selector and the Line Source parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
selector and the parameter value:
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Out1 );
Camera.LineSource.SetValue( LineSource_ExposureActive );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
For more information about setting the state of a user settable output line, see Section 8.2.2 on
page 89.
For more information about working with a timer output signal, see Section 8.2.4 on page 91
For more information about the exposure active signal, see Section 6.8 on page 61.
For more information about the trigger ready signal, see Section 6.7 on page 57.
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8.2.2
Setting the State of a User Settable Output Line
As mentioned in the previous section, you can designate the camera’s output line as "user settable".
If you have designated the output line as user settable, you can use camera parameters to set the
state of the line.
Setting the State of a User Settable Output Line
To set the state of a user settable output line:
„
Use the User Output Selector to select output line 1.
„
Set the value of the User Output Value parameter to true (high) or false (low). This will set the
state of the output line.
You can set the Output Selector and the User Output Value parameter from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to designate
the output line as user settable and to set the state of the output line:
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Out1 );
Camera.LineSource.SetValue( LineSource_UserOutput );
Camera.UserOutputSelector.SetValue( UserOutputSelector_UserOutput1 );
Camera.UserOutputValue.SetValue( true );
bool currentUserOutput1State = Camera.UserOutputValue.GetValue( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
Note
If you have the invert function enabled on the output line and the line is
designated as user settable, the user setting sets the state of the line before
the inverter.
8.2.3
Setting the Output Line for Invert
You can set the output line to invert or not to invert the outgoing signal. To set the invert function on
the output line:
„
Use the Line Selector to select an output line 1.
„
Set the value of the Line Inverter parameter to true to enable inversion on the selected line and
to false to disable inversion.
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You can set the Line Selector and the Line Inverter parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
selector and the parameter value:
// Enable the inverter on output line 1
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Out1 );
Camera.LineInverter.SetValue( true );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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8.2.4
Working with the Timer Signal
The camera a timer output signal available called timer 1. The timer works as follows:
„
A trigger source event occurs that starts the timer.
„
A delay period begins to expire.
„
When the delay expires, the timer signal goes high and a duration period begins to expire.
„
When the duration period expires, the timer signal goes low.
Duration
Delay
Trigger source event occurs
Fig. 26: Timer Signal
Currently, the only trigger source event available to start the timer is "exposure active". In other
words, you can use exposure start to trigger the start of the timer.
If you require the timer signal to be high when the timer is triggered and to go low when the delay
expires, simply set the output line to invert.
8.2.4.1
Setting the Trigger Source for the Timer
To set the trigger source for a timer:
„
Use the Timer Selector to select timer 1.
„
Set the value of the Timer Trigger Source parameter to exposure active. This will set the
selected timer to use the start of exposure to begin the timer.
You can set the Trigger Selector and the Timer Trigger Source parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TimerSelector.SetValue( TimerSelector_Timer1 );
Camera.TimerTriggerSource.SetValue( TimerTriggerSource_ExposureStart );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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8.2.4.2
Setting the Timer Delay Time
There are two ways to set the delay time for timer 1: by setting "raw" values or by setting an
"absolute value". You can use whichever method you prefer to set the delay time.
Setting the Delay Time with Raw Values
When the delay time for timer 1 is set using "raw" values, the delay time will be determined by a
combination of two elements. The first element is the value of the Timer Delay Raw parameter, and
the second element is the Timer Delay Time Base. The delay time is the product of these two
elements:
Delay Time = (Timer Delay Raw Parameter Value) x (Timer Delay Time Base)
By default, the Timer Delay Time Base is fixed at 1 µs. Typically, the delay time is adjusted by setting
the Timer Delay Raw parameter value.
The Timer Delay Raw parameter value can range from 0 to 4095. So if the value is set to 100, for
example, the timer delay will be 100 x 1 µs or 100 µs.
To set the delay for timer 1:
„
Use the Timer Selector to select timer 1.
„
Set the value of the Timer Delay Raw parameter.
You can set the Timer Selector and the Timer Delay Raw parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TimerSelector.SetValue( TimerSelector_Timer1 );
Camera.TimerDelayRaw.SetValue( 100 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
Changing the Delay Time Base
By default, the Timer Delay Time Base is fixed at 1 µs (minimum value), and the timer delay is
normally adjusted by setting the value of the Timer Delay Raw parameter. However, if you require
a delay time that is longer than what you can achieve by changing the value of the Timer Delay Raw
parameter alone, the Timer Delay Time Base Abs parameter can be used to change the delay time
base.
The Timer Delay Time Base Abs parameter value sets the delay time base in µs. The default is 1 µs
and it can be changed in 1 µs increments.
You can set the Timer Delay Time Base Abs parameter value from within your application software
by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter
value:
Camera.TimerDelayTimebaseAbs.SetValue( 5 );
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Setting the Delay Time with an Absolute Value
You can also set the timer 1 delay by using an "absolute" value. This is accomplished by setting the
Timer Delay Abs parameter. The units for setting this parameter are µs and the value can be set in
increments of 1 µs.
To set the delay for timer 1 using an absolute value:
„
Use the Timer Selector to select timer 1.
„
Set the value of the Timer Delay Abs parameter.
You can set the Timer Selector and the Timer Delay Abs parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TimerSelector.SetValue( TimerSelector_Timer1 );
Camera.TimerDelayAbs.SetValue( 100 );
When you use the Timer Delay Abs parameter to set the delay time, the camera accomplishes the
setting change by automatically changing the Timer Delay Raw parameter to achieve the value
specified by the Timer Delay Abs setting. This leads to a limitation that you must keep in mind if you
use Timer Delay Abs parameter to set the delay time. That is, you must set the Timer Delay Abs
parameter to a value that is equivalent to a setting you could achieve by using the Timer Delay Raw
and the current Timer Delay Base parameters. For example, if the time base was currently set to
50 µs, you could use the Timer Delay Abs parameter to set the delay to 50 µs, 100 µs, 150 µs, etc.
Note that if you set the Timer Delay Abs parameter to a value that you could not achieve by using
the Timer Delay Raw and current Timer Delay Time Base parameters, the camera will automatically
change the setting for the Timer Delay Abs parameter to the nearest achieveable value.
You should also be aware that if you change the delay time using the raw settings, the Timer Delay
Abs parameter will automatically be updated to reflect the new delay time.
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8.2.4.3
Setting the Timer Duration Time
There are two ways to set the duration time for timer 1: by setting "raw" values or by setting an
"absolute value". You can use whichever method you prefer to set the duration time.
Setting the Duration Time with Raw Values
When the duration time for timer 1 is set using "raw" values, the duration time will be determined by
a combination of two elements. The first element is the value of the Timer Duration Raw parameter,
and the second element is the Timer Duration Time Base. The duration time is the product of these
two elements:
Duration Time = (Timer Duration Raw Parameter Value) x (Timer Duration Time Base)
By default, the Timer Duration Time Base is fixed at 1 µs. Typically, the duration time is adjusted by
setting only the Timer Duration Raw parameter value.
The Timer Duration Raw parameter value can range from 1 to 4095. So if the value is set to 100,
for example, the timer duration will be 100 x 1 µs or 100 µs.
To set the duration for timer 1:
„
Use the Timer Selector to select timer 1.
„
Set the value of the Timer Duration Raw parameter.
You can set the Timer Selector and the Timer Duration Raw parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TimerSelector.SetValue( TimerSelector_Timer1 );
Camera.TimerDurationRaw.SetValue( 100 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
Changing the Duration Time Base
By default, the Timer Duration Time Base is fixed at 1 µs, and the timer duration is normally adjusted
by setting the value of the Timer Duration Raw parameter. However, if you require a duration time
that is longer than what you can achieve by changing the value of the Timer Duration Raw
parameter alone, the Timer Duration Time Base Abs parameter can be used to change the duration
time base.
The Timer Duration Time Base Abs parameter value sets the duration time base in µs. The default
is 1 µs and it can be changed in 1 µs increments.
You can set the Timer Duration Time Base Abs parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
parameter value:
Camera.TimerDurationTimebaseAbs.SetValue( 5 );
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Setting the Timer Duration with an Absolute Value
You can also set the timer 1 duration by using an "absolute" value. This is accomplished by setting
the Timer Duration Abs parameter. The units for setting this parameter are µs and the value can be
set in increments of 1 µs.
To set the duration timer 1 using an absolute value:
„
Use the Timer Selector to select timer 1.
„
Set the value of the Timer Duration Abs parameter.
You can set the Timer Selector and the Timer Duration Abs parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.TimerSelector.SetValue( TimerSelector_Timer1 );
Camera.TimerDurationAbs.SetValue( 100 );
When you use the Timer Duration Abs parameter to set the duration time, the camera accomplishes
the setting change by automatically changing the Timer Duration Raw parameter to achieve the
value specified by the Timer Duration Abs setting. This leads to a limitation that you must keep in
mind if you use Timer Duration Abs parameter to set the duration time. That is, you must set the
Timer Duration Abs parameter to a value that is equivalent to a setting you could achieve by using
the Timer Duration Raw and the current Timer Duration Base parameters. For example, if the time
base was currently set to 50 µs, you could use the Timer Duration Abs parameter to set the duration
to 50 µs, 100 µs, 150 µs, etc.
If you read the current value of the Timer Duration Abs parameter, the value will indicate the product
of the Timer Duration Raw parameter and the Timer Duration Time Base. In other words, the Timer
Duration Abs parameter will indicate the current duration time setting.
You should also be aware that if you change the duration time using the raw settings, the Timer
Duration Abs parameter will automatically be updated to reflect the new duration time.
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8.3
Checking the State of the I/O Lines
8.3.1
Checking the State of the Output Line
You can determine the current state of the output line. To check the state of the output line:
„
Use the Line Selector parameter to select output line 1.
„
Read the value of the Line Status parameter to determine the current state of the line. A value
of true means the line’s state is currently high and a value of false means the line’s state is
currently low.
You can set the Line Selector and read the Line Status parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
selector and read the parameter value:
// Select output line 1 and read the state
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Out1 );
bool outputLine1State = Camera.LineStatus.GetValue( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
8.3.2
Checking the State of All Lines
You can determine the current state of the input line and the output line with a single operation. To
check the state of both lines:
„
Read the value of the Line Status All parameter.
You can read the Line Status All parameter value from within your application software by using the
pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to read the parameter value:
int64_t lineState = Camera.LineStatusAll.GetValue( );
The Line Status All parameter is a 32 bit value. As shown in Figure 27, certain bits in the value are
associated with each line and the bits will indicate the state of the lines. If a bit is 0, it indicates that
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the state of the associated line is currently low. If a bit is 1, it indicates that the state of the associated
line is current high.
Indicates output line 1 state
Indicates input line 1 state
Fig. 27: Line Status All Parameter Bits
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9 Standard Features
This section provides detailed information about the standard features available on each camera.
It also includes an explanation of their operation and the parameters associated with each feature.
9.1
Gain
The camera’s gain setting is adjustable. As
shown in Figure 28, increasing the gain
increases the slope of the response curve for
the camera. This results in a higher gray
value output from the camera for a given
amount of output from the imaging sensor.
Decreasing the gain decreases the slope of
the response curve and results in a lower
gray value for a given amount of sensor
output.
Gray Values
(12-bit)
(8-bit)
Increasing the gain is useful when at your
brightest exposure, a gray value lower than
255 (in modes that output 8 bits per pixel) or
4095 (in modes that output 12 bits per pixels)
Sensor Output Signal (%)
is reached. For example, if you found that at
your brightest exposure the gray values
Fig. 28: Gain in dB
output by the camera were no higher than
127 (in an 8 bit mode), you could increase the
gain to 6 dB (an amplification factor of 2) and thus reach gray values of 254.
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Setting the Gain (All Models Except slA750-60fm)
Note
The information in this section applies to all camera models except the
slA750-60fm fm/fc. For information about slA750-60fm cameras, see the next
section.
The camera’s gain is determined by the value of the Gain Raw parameter. Gain Raw is adjusted on
a decimal scale. The minimum decimal setting varies depending on the camera model (see
Table 12). The maximum setting depends on whether the camera is set for a pixel data format that
yields 8 bit effective pixel depth (Mono 8, YUV 4:2:2 Packed, YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed) or yields
an effective pixel depth of 12 bits per pixel (Mono 16, Mono 12 Packed).
.
Camera Model
Min Setting
Max Setting
(8 bit depth)
Max Setting
(16 bit depth)
slA1000-30 fm
360
1023
511
slA1390-17fm
360
1023
511
slA1600-14fm
350
1023
511
Table 12: Minimum and Maximum Allowed Gain Raw Settings
To set the Gain Raw parameter value:
„
Set the Gain Selector to Gain All.
„
Set the Gain Raw parameter to your desired value.
You can set the Gain Selector and the Gain Raw parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
selector and the parameter value:
Camera.GainSelector.SetValue( GainSelector_All );
Camera.GainRaw.SetValue( 400 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
If you know the current decimal setting for the gain raw, you can use the formulas below to calculate
the dB of gain that will result from that setting.
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For gain raw settings from 110 to 511:
658 + Gain Raw Setting
Gain dB = 20 × log 10 ⎛ ------------------------------------------------------------------⎞ – G c
⎝ 658 – Gain Raw Setting ⎠
For gain raw settings from 512 to 1023:
Gain dB = (0.0354 × Gain Raw Setting) – G c
Where:
658 + Min Gain Raw Setting
G c = 20 × log 10 ⎛ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------⎞
⎝ 658 – Min Gain RawSetting ⎠
Example:
Assume that you are working with an slA1390-17fm camera that is set for the Mono 8 pixel format
and has a gain raw setting of 500. Calculating the gain is a two step process:
Step 1:
658 + 192
G c = 20 × log 10 ⎛ -----------------------------⎞
⎝ 658 – 192 ⎠
G c = 5.22 dB
Step 2:
658 + 500
Gain dB = 20 × log 10 ⎛ -----------------------------⎞ – 5.22 db
⎝ 658 – 500 ⎠
Gain dB = 12.1 dB
Table 13 shows the minimum and maximum gain in dB for each camera model.
Camera Model
dB Gain at
Min Setting
dB Gain at Max Setting
(8 bit depth)
dB Gain at Max Setting
(16 bit depth)
slA1000-30fm
0
25.5
7.3
slA1390-17fm
0
25.5
7.3
slA1600-14fm
0
25.9
7.7
Table 13: Minimum and Maximum dB of Gain
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Setting the Gain (slA750-60fm Only)
Note
The information in this section only applies to slA750-60fm cameras. For
information about the other camera models, see the previous section.
The camera’s gain is determined by the value of the Gain Raw parameter. Gain Raw is adjusted on
a decimal scale. The range for the Gain Raw parameter setting is from 0 to 22.
To set the Gain Raw parameter value:
„
Set the Gain Selector to Gain All.
„
Set the Gain Raw parameter to your desired value.
You can set the Gain Selector and the Gain Raw parameter value from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the
selector and the parameter value:
Camera.GainSelector.SetValue( GainSelector_All );
Camera.GainRaw.SetValue( 20 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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If you know the current decimal setting for the gain raw, you can use the following formula to
calculate the dB of gain that will result from that setting:
Gain Raw Setting
Gain dB = 20 × log 10 ⎛ 1 + --------------------------------------------------⎞
⎝
⎠
6
Example:
Assume that you are working with an slA750-60fm camera that has a gain raw setting of 18. The
gain is calculated as follows:
18
Gain dB = 20 × log 10 ⎛ 1 + --------⎞
⎝
6 ⎠
Gain dB = 12.0 dB
Table 14 shows the dB of gain that will be achieved at various Gain Raw settings.
Gain Setting
dB Gain
0
0
5
5.3
10
8.5
15
10.9
20
12.7
22
13.4
Table 14: dB of Gain at Various Settings
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9.2
Black Level
Adjusting the camera’s black level will result in an offset to the pixel values output by the camera.
Increasing the black level setting will result in a positive offset in the digital values output for the
pixels. Decreasing the black level setting will result in a negative offset in the digital values output
for the pixels.
Effect on All Camera Models Except the slA750-60fm
If the camera is set for a pixel data format that yields 8 bit effective pixel depth (Mono 8, Bayer BG
8, Bayer RG 8, YUV 4:2:2 Packed, YUV 4:2:2 (YUYV) Packed), an increase of 16 in the black level
parameter setting will result in a positive offset of 1 in the digital values output for the pixels. And a
decrease of 16 in the setting will result in a negative offset of 1 in the digital values output for the
pixels.
If the camera is set for a pixel data format that yields an effective pixel depth of 12 bits per pixel
(Mono 16, Mono 12 Packed, Bayer BG 16, Bayer RG 16, Bayer BG 12 Packed), an increase of 1
in the black level parameter setting will result in a positive offset of 1 in the digital values output for
the pixels. A decrease of 1 in the setting will result in a negative offset of 1 in the digital values output
for the pixels.
Effect on slA750-60fm Models
An increase of 4 in the black level parameter setting will result in a positive offset of 1 in the digital
values output for the pixels. And a decrease of 4 in the setting will result in a negative offset of 1 in
the digital values output for the pixels.
Setting the Black Level
The black level can be adjusted by changing the value of the Black Level Raw parameter. The Black
Level Raw parameter value can range from 0 to 255 on all camera models except the slA750-60fm.
On slA750-60fm cameras, the parameter value can range from 0 to 64.
To set the Black Level Raw parameter value:
„
Set the Black Level Selector to Black Level All.
„
Set the Black Level Raw parameter to your desired value.
You can set the Black Level Selector and the Black Level Raw parameter value from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
Camera.BlackLevelSelector.SetValue ( BlackLevelSelector_All );
Camera.BlackLevelRaw.SetValue( 32 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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9.3
Digital Shift
Note
The information in this section applies to all camera models except the
slA750-60fm.
The digital shift feature lets you change the group of bits that is output from the ADC in the camera.
Using the digital shift feature will effectively multiply the output of the camera by 2 times, 4 times, 8
times, or 16 times. The next two sections describe how the digital shift works when the camera is
set for a 12 bit pixel format and when it is set for a 8 bit pixel format. There is also a section
describing precautions that you must observe when using the digital shift feature and a section that
describes enabling and setting the digital shift feature.
9.3.1
Digital Shift with 12 Bit Pixel Formats
No Shift
As mentioned in the Functional Description section of
this manual, the camera uses a 12 bit ADC to digitize
the output from the imaging sensor. When the camera
is set for a pixel format that outputs pixel data at 12 bit
effective depth, by default, the camera transmits the
12 bits that are output from the ADC.
ADC
bit
11
bit
10
bit
9
bit
8
bit
7
M
S
B
bit
6
bit
5
bit
4
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
L
S
B
No Shift
Shift by 1
When the camera is set to shift by 1, the output from
the camera will include bit 10 through bit 0 from the
ADC along with a zero as an LSB.
The result of shifting once is that the output of the
camera is effectively multiplied by 2. For example,
assume that the camera is set for no shift, that it is
viewing a uniform white target, and that under these
conditions the reading for the brightest pixel is 100.
If you changed the digital shift setting to shift by 1,
the reading would increase to 200.
ADC
bit
11
bit
10
M
S
B
bit
9
bit
8
bit
7
bit
6
bit
5
bit
4
bit
3
Shifted Once
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
"0"
L
S
B
When the camera is set to shift by 1, the least significant bit output from the camera for each pixel
value will be 0. This means that no odd gray values can be output and that the gray value scale will
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Standard Features
only include values of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and so on. This absence of some gray values is commonly
referred to as "missing codes".
If the pixel values being output by the camera’s sensor are high enough to set bit 11 to 1, we
recommend not using shift by 1. If you do nonetheless, all bits output from the camera will
automatically be set to 1. Therefore, you should only use the shift by 1 setting when your pixel
readings with a 12 bit pixel format selected and with digital shift disabled are all less than 2048.
Shift by 2
When the camera is set to shift by 2, the output
from the camera will include bit 9 through bit 0
from the ADC along with 2 zeros as LSBs.
ADC
bit
11
The result of shifting twice is that the output of
the camera is effectively multiplied by 4.
bit
10
bit
9
bit
8
bit
7
bit
6
M
S
B
When the camera is set to shift by 2, the 2 least
significant bits output from the camera for each
pixel value will be 0. This means that the gray
value scale will only include every 4th value, for
example, 4, 8, 16, 20, and so on.
bit
5
bit
4
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
"0" "0"
L
S
B
Shifted Twice
If the pixel values being output by the camera’s sensor are high enough to set bit 10 or bit 11 to 1,
we recommend not using shift by 2. If you do nonetheless, all bits output from the camera will
automatically be set to 1. Therefore, you should only use the shift by 2 setting when your pixel
readings with a 12 bit pixel format selected and with digital shift disabled are all less than 1024.
Shift By 3
When the camera is set to shift by 3, the
output from the camera will include bit 8
through bit 0 from the ADC along with 3
zeros as LSBs.
The result of shifting 3 times is that the
output of the camera is effectively multiplied
by 8.
ADC
bit
11
bit
10
bit
9
bit
8
M
S
B
bit
7
bit
6
bit
5
bit
4
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
Shifted Three Times
"0" "0" "0"
L
S
B
When the camera is set to shift by 3, the 3
least significant bits output from the camera
for each pixel value will be 0. This means that the gray value scale will only include every 8th gray
value, for example, 8, 16, 24, 32, and so on.
If the pixel values being output by the camera’s sensor are high enough to set bit 9, bit 10, or bit 11
to 1, we recommend not using shift by 3. If you do nonetheless, all bits output from the camera will
automatically be set to 1. Therefore, you should only use the shift by 3 setting when your pixel
readings with a 12 bit pixel format selected and with digital shift disabled are all less than 512.
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Shift By 4
When the camera is set to shift by 4, the
output from the camera will include bit 7
through bit 0 from the ADC along with 4
zeros as LSBs.
ADC
bit
11
bit
10
bit
9
The result of shifting 4 times is that the
output of the camera is effectively
multiplied by 16.
bit
8
bit
7
bit
6
bit
5
M
S
B
bit
4
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
"0" "0" "0" "0"
L
S
B
Shifted Four Times
When the camera is set to shift by 4, the 4
least significant bits output from the
camera for each pixel value will be 0. This means that the gray value scale will only include every
16th gray value, for example, 16, 32, 48, 64, and so on.
If the pixel values being output by the camera’s sensor are high enough to set bit 8, bit 9, bit 10, or
bit 11 to 1, we recommend not using shift by 4. If you do nonetheless, all bits output from the camera
will automatically be set to 1. Therefore, you should only use the shift by 4 setting when your pixel
readings with a 12 bit pixel format selected and with digital shift disabled are all less than 256.
9.3.2
Digital Shift with 8 Bit Pixel Formats
No Shift
As mentioned in the Functional Description section of
this manual, the camera uses a 12 bit ADC to digitize
the output from the imaging sensor. When the camera
is set for a pixel format that outputs pixel data at 8 bit
effective depth, by default, the camera drops the 4
least significant bits from the ADC and transmits the 8
most significant bits (bit 11 through 4).
ADC
bit
11
bit
10
M
S
B
bit
9
bit
8
bit
7
bit
6
bit
5
bit
4
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
L
S
B
Not Shifted
Shift by 1
When the camera is set to shift by 1, the output from
the camera will include bit 10 through bit 3 from the
ADC.
The result of shifting once is that the output of the
camera is effectively multiplied by 2. For example,
assume that the camera is set for no shift, that it is
viewing a uniform white target, and that under these
conditions the reading for the brightest pixel is 10. If
you changed the digital shift setting to shift by 1, the
reading would increase to 20.
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ADC
bit
11
bit
10
M
S
B
bit
9
bit
8
bit
7
bit
6
bit
5
Shifted Once
bit
4
L
S
B
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If the pixel values being output by the camera’s sensor are high enough to set bit 11 to 1, we
recommend not using shift by 1. If you do nonetheless, all bits ouput from the camera will
automatically be set to 1. Therefore, you should only use the shift by 1 setting when your pixel
readings with an 8 bit pixel format selected and with digital shift disabled are all less than 128.
Shift by 2
When the camera is set to shift by 2, the output from the
camera will include bit 9 through bit 2 from the ADC.
The result of shifting twice is that the output of the
camera is effectively multiplied by 4.
ADC
bit
11
bit
10
bit
9
bit
8
bit
7
bit
6
bit
5
bit
4
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
If the pixel values being output by the camera’s sensor
M
L
are high enough to set bit 10 or bit 11 to 1, we
S
S
B
B
recommend not using shift by 2. If you do nonetheless,
Shifted Twice
all bits ouput from the camera will automatically be set
to 1. Therefore, you should only use the shift by 2
setting when your pixel readings with an 8 bit pixel format selected and with digital shift disabled are
all less than 64.
Shift by 3
When the camera is set to shift by 3, the output from
the camera will include bit 8 through bit 1 from the
ADC.
The result of shifting three times is that the output of
the camera is effectively multiplied by 8.
ADC
bit
11
bit
10
bit
9
bit
8
bit
7
bit
6
bit
5
bit
4
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
bit
0
M
L
If the pixel values being output by the camera’s sensor
S
S
B
B
are high enough to set bit 9, bit 10, or bit 11 to 1, we
Shifted Three Times
recommend not using shift by 3. If you do nonetheless,
all bits ouput from the camera will automatically be set
to 1. Therefore, that you should only use the shift by 3
setting when your pixel readings with an 8 bit pixel format selected and with digital shift disabled are
all less than 32.
Shift by 4
When the camera is set to shift by 4, the output from
the camera will include bit 7 through bit 0 from the
ADC.
The result of shifting four times is that the output of
the camera is effectively multiplied by 16.
If the pixel values being output by the camera’s
sensor are high enough to set bit 8, bit 9, bit 10, or bit
11 to 1, we recommend not using shift by 4. If you do
nonetheless, all bits ouput from the camera will
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ADC
bit
11
bit
10
bit
9
bit
8
bit
7
M
S
B
bit
6
bit
5
bit
4
bit
3
bit
2
bit
1
Shifted Four Times
bit
0
L
S
B
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automatically be set to 1. Therefore, you should only use the multiply by 4 setting when your pixel
readings with an 8 bit pixel format selected and with digital shift disabled are all less than 16.
9.3.3
Precautions When Using Digital Shift
There are several checks and precautions that you must follow before using the digital shift feature.
The checks and precautions differ depending on whether the camera will be set for a 12 bit pixel
format or for an 8 bit pixel format in your application.
If you will be using a 12 bit pixel format, make this check:
Use the pylon Viewer or the pylon API to set the camera for a 12 bit pixel format and no digital shift.
Check the output of the camera under your normal lighting conditions and note the readings for the
brightest pixels.
„
If any of the readings are above 2048, do not use digital shift.
„
If all of the readings are below 2048, you can safely use the shift by 1 setting.
„
If all of the readings are below 1024, you can safely use the shift by 1 or 2 settings.
„
If all of the readings are below 512, you can safely use the shift by 1, 2, or 3 settings.
„
If all of the readings are below 256, you can safely use the shift by 1, 2, 3, or 4 settings.
If you will be using an 8 bit format, make this check:
Use the pylon Viewer or the pylon API to set the camera for a 8 bit pixel format and no digital shift.
Check the output of the camera under your normal lighting conditions and note the readings for the
brightest pixels.
„
If any of the readings are above 128, do not use digital shift.
„
If all of the readings are below 128, you can safely use the shift by 1 setting.
„
If all of the readings are below 64, you can safely use the shift by 1 or 2 settings.
„
If all of the readings are below 32, you can safely use the shift by 1, 2, or 3 settings.
„
If all of the readings are below 16, you can safely use the shift by 1, 2, 3, or 4 settings.
9.3.4
Enabling and Setting Digital Shift
You can enable or disable the digital shift feature by setting the value of the Digital Shift parameter.
When the parameter is set to zero, digital shift will be disabled. When the parameter is set to 1, 2,
3, or 4, digital shift will be set to shift by 1, shift by 2, shift by 3, or shift by 4 respectively.
You can set the Digital Shift parameter values from within your application software by using the
pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter values:
// Disable digital shift
Camera.DigitalShift.SetValue( 0 );
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// Enable digital shift by 2
Camera.DigitalShift.SetValue( 2 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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9.4
Area of Interest (AOI)
The area of interest (AOI) feature lets you specify a portion of the sensor array and after each image
is acquired, only the pixel information from the specified portion of the array is transmitted to the
host PC.
The area of interest is referenced to the top left corner of the sensor array. The top left corner is
designated as column 0 and row 0 as shown in Figure 29.
The location and size of the area of interest is defined by declaring an X offset (coordinate), a width,
a Y offset (coordinate), and a height. For example, suppose that you specify the x offset as 10, the
width as 16, the y offset as 6, and the height as 10. The area of the array that is bounded by these
settings is shown in Figure 29.
The camera will only transfer pixel data from within the area defined by your settings. Information
from the pixels outside of the area of interest is discarded.
Column
Row
Y
Offset
Height
The camera
will only
transmit the
pixel data
from this
area
X Offset
Width
Fig. 29: Area of Interest
One of the main advantages of the AOI feature is that decreasing the height of the AOI can increase
the camera’s maximum allowed acquisition frame rate.
For more information about how changing the AOI height affects the maximum allowed frame rate,
see Section 6.10 on page 65.
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Setting the AOI
The AOI is set by default to use the full resolution of the camera’s sensor.
You can change the size and the position of the AOI by changing the value of the camera’s X Offset,
Y Offset, Width, and Height parameters.
„
The value of the X Offset parameter determines the starting column for the area of interest.
„
The value of the Y Offset parameter determines the starting row for the area of interest.
„
The value of the Width parameter determines the width of the area of interest.
„
The value of the Height parameter determines the height of the area of interest.
When you are setting the camera’s area of interest, you must follow these guidelines:
„
The sum of the current X Offset setting plus the current Width setting must not exceed the
width of the sensor in the camera model you are using. For example, on the slA1000-30fm, the
sum of the current X Offset setting plus the current Width setting must not exceed 1034.
„
The sum of the current Y Offset setting plus the current Height setting must not exceed the
height of the sensor in the camera model you are using. For example, on the the slA100030fm, the sum of the current Y Offset setting plus the current Height setting must not exceed
779.
„
The X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameters can be set in increments of 1.
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You can set the X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameter values from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippets illustrate using the API to get the
maximum allowed settings and the increments for the Width and Height parameters. They also
illustrate setting the X Offset, Y Offset, Width, and Height parameter values
int64_t widthMax = Camera.Width.GetMax( );
int64_t widhInc = Camera.Width.GetInc();
Camera.Width.SetValue( 200 );
Camera.OffsetX.SetValue( 100 );
int64_t heightMax = Camera.Height.GetMax( );
int64_t heightInc = Camera.Height.GetInc();
Camera.Height.SetValue( 200 );
Camera.OffsetY.SetValue( 100 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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9.4.1
Changing AOI Parameters "On-the-Fly"
Making AOI parameter changes “on-the-fly” means making the parameter changes while the
camera is capturing images continuously. On-the-fly changes are only allowed for the parameters
that determine the position of the AOI, i.e., the X Offset and Y Offset parameters. Changes to the
AOI size are not allowed on-the-fly.
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9.5
Reverse X
The reverse X feature is a horizontal mirror image feature. When the reverse X feature is enabled,
the pixel values for each line in a captured image will be swapped end-for-end about the line’s center. This means that for each line, the value of the first pixel in the line will be swapped with the value
of the last pixel, the value of the second pixel in the line will be swapped with the value of the nextto-last pixel, and so on.
Figure 30 shows a normal image on the left and an image captured with reverse X enabled on the
right.
Normal Image
Reverse X Mirror Image
Fig. 30: Reverse X Mirror Imaging
Using AOIs with Reverse X
You can use the AOI feature when using the reverse X feature. Note, however, that an AOI is always
defined with respect to the pixels of the sensor. Therefore, the position of an AOI on the sensor
remains the same regardless of whether or not the reverse X feature is enabled.
As a consequence, an AOI will display different images depending on whether or not the reverse X
feature is enabled.
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Normal Image
AOI
Mirror Image
AOI
Fig. 31: Using an AOI with Reverse X Mirror Imaging
Setting Reverse X
You can enable or disable the reverse X feature by setting the ReverseX parameter value. You can
set the parameter value from within your application software by using the pylon API. The following
code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter value:
// Enable reverse X
Camera.ReverseX.SetValue(true);
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameter.
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9.6
Disable Parameter Limits
For each camera parameter, the allowed range of parameter values normally is limited. The factory
limits are designed to ensure optimum camera operation and, in particular, good image quality. For
special camera uses, however, it may be helpful to set parameter values outside of the factory limits.
The disable parameter limits feature lets you disable the factory parameter limits for certain
parameters. When the factory parameter limits are disabled, the parameter values can be set within
extended limits. Typically, the range of the extended limits is dictated by the physical restrictions of
the camera’s electronic devices, such as the absolute limits of the camera’s variable gain control.
The values for the extended limits can be seen using the Basler pylon Viewer or from within your
application via the pylon API.
Note
Currently, the parameter limits can only be disabled on the Gain feature.
Disabling Parameter Limits
To disable the limits for a parameter:
„
Use the Parameter Selector to select the parameter whose limits you wish to disable.
„
Set the value of the Remove Limits parameter.
You can set the Parameter Selector and the value of the Remove Limits parameter from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
// Select the feature whose factory limits will be disabled
Camera.ParameterSelector.SetValue( ParameterSelector_Gain );
// Disable the limits for the selected feature
Camera.RemoveLimits.SetValue( true );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters. Note that the
disable parameter limits feature will only be available at the "guru" viewing level.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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9.7
Debouncer
The debouncer feature aids in discriminating between valid and invalid input signals and only lets
valid signals pass to the camera. The debouncer value specifies the minimum time that an input
signal must remain high or remain low in order to be considered a valid input signal.
We recommend setting the debouncer value so that it is slightly greater than the
longest expected duration of an invalid signal.
Setting the debouncer to a value that is too short will result in accepting invalid
signals. Setting the debouncer to a value that is too long will result in rejecting valid
signals.
Note that the debouncer delays a valid signal between its arrival at the camera and its transfer. The
duration of the delay will be determined by the debouncer value.
The following diagram illustrates how the debouncer filters out invalid input signals, i.e. signals that
are shorter than the debouncer value. The diagram also illustrates how the debouncer delays a
valid signal.
Unfiltered arriving signals
Debouncer
debouncer
value
Transferred valid signal
delay
TIMING CHARTS ARE NOT DRAWN TO SCALE
Fig. 32: Filtering of Input Signals by the Debouncer
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Setting the Debouncer
The debouncer value is determined by the value of the Line Debouncer Time Abs parameter value.
The parameter is set in microseconds and can be set in a range from 0 to approximately 1 s.
To set the debouncer:
„
Use the Line Selector to select input line1.
„
Set the value of the Line Debouncer Time Abs parameter.
You can set the Line Selector and the value of the Line Debouncer Abs parameter from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and the parameter value:
// Select the input line
Camera.LineSelector.SetValue( LineSelector_Line1 );
// Set the parameter value to 100 microseconds
Camera.LineDebouncerTimeAbs.SetValue( 100 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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9.8
Trigger Delay
The trigger delay feature lets you specify a delay (in microseconds) that will be applied between the
receipt of a hardware trigger and it becoming effective.
The trigger delay may be specified in the range from 0 to 10000000l µs (equivalent to 10 s). When
the delay is set to 0 µs, no delay will be applied.
The trigger delay will not operate when the camera is triggered by your application software and
when the camera operates in continuous frame mode (free run).
Setting the Trigger Delay
You can set the Trigger Delay Abs parameter value from within your application software by using
the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter values:
// Trigger delay
double TriggerDelay_us = 1000.0
// 1000us == 1ms == 0.001s;
Camera.TriggerDelayAbs.SetValue( TriggerDelay_us );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
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9.9
Acquisition Status
When controlling image acquisition with a software trigger you can use the acquisition staus feature
to detemine when the camera is ready to be triggered for an image acquisition. Using this feature,
you can avoid triggering the camera at a rate that exceeds the maximum allowed with the current
camera settings.
Note
It is not possible to monitor the status of the Acquisition Start command.
Therefore, you can not use the status of the Acquisition Start command to
determine when the camera is ready to be triggered for an image acquisition.
Determining the Acquisition Status
To determine the acquisition status of the camera:
„
Use the Acquisition Status Selector to select the Frame Trigger Wait status.
„
Read the value of the AcquisitionStatus parameter. If the value is set to "false", the camera is
not ready to receive a software trigger, if the value is set to "true", the camera is ready to
receive a software trigger.
You can set the Acquisition Status Selector and read the AcquisitionStatus parameter from within
your application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the
API to set and read the parameter values:
// Set the Acquisition Status Selector
Camera.AcquisitionStatusSelector.SetValue(
AcquisitionStatusSelector_FrameTriggerWait );
// Read the acquisition status
bool IsWaitingForFrameTrigger = Camera.AcquisitionStatus.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the Acquisition Status Selector.
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9.10 Test Images
All cameras include the ability to generate test images. Test images are used to check the camera’s
basic functionality and its ability to transmit an image to the host PC. Test images can be used for
service purposes and for failure diagnostics. For test images, the image is generated internally by
the camera’s logic and does not use the optics, the imaging sensor, or the ADC. Five test images
are available.
The Effect of Camera Settings on Test Images
When any of the test image is active, the camera’s analog features such as gain, black level, and
exposure time have no effect on the images transmitted by the camera. For test images 1, 2, and
3, the cameras digital features will also have no effect on the transmitted images. But for test images
4 and 5, the cameras digital features will affect the images transmitted by the camera. This makes
test images 4 and 5 a good way to check the effect of using a digital feature.
Enabling a Test Image
The Test Image Selector is used to set the camera to output a test image. You can set the value of
the Test Image Selector to one of the test images or to "test image off".
You can set the Test Image Selector from within your application software by using the pylon API.
The following code snippets illustrate using the API to set the selector:
// set for no test image
Camera.TestImageSelector.SetValue( TestImageSelector_Off );
// set for the first test image
Camera.TestImageSelector.SetValue( TestImageSelector_Testimage1 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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Test Image 1 - Fixed Diagonal Gray Gradient (8 bit)
The 8 bit fixed diagonal gray gradient test image is best suited for use when the camera is set for
monochrome 8 bit output. The test image consists of fixed diagonal gray gradients ranging from 0
to 255.
If the camera is set for 8 bit output and is operating at full resolution, test image one will look similar
to Figure 33.
The mathematical expression for this test image:
Gray Value = [column number + row number] MOD 256
Fig. 33: Test Image One
Test Image 2 - Moving Diagonal Gray Gradient (8 bit)
The 8 bit moving diagonal gray gradient test image is similar to test image 1, but it is not stationary.
The image moves by one pixel from right to left whenever a new image acquisition is initiated. The
test pattern uses a counter that increments by one for each new image acquisition.
The mathematical expression for this test image is:
Gray Value = [column number + row number + counter] MOD 256
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Test Image 3 - Moving Diagonal Gray Gradient (12 bit)
The 12 bit moving diagonal gray gradient test image is similar to test image 2, but it is a 12 bit
pattern. The image moves by one pixel from right to left whenever a new image acquisition is
initiated. The test pattern uses a counter that increments by one for each new image acquisition.
The mathematical expression for this test image is:
Gray Value = [column number + row number + counter] MOD 4096
Note
On slA750-60fm cameras, test image 3 is a 10 bit pattern. Since these
cameras do not have a 10 bit output mode available, use of test image 3 on
slA750-60fm cameras is not recommended.
Test Image 4 - Moving Diagonal Gray Gradient Feature Test (8 bit)
The basic appearance of test image 4 is similar to test image 2 (the 8 bit moving diagonal gray
gradient image). The difference between test image 4 and test image 2 is this: if a camera feature
that involves digital processing is enabled, test image 4 will show the effects of the feature while
test image 2 will not. This makes test image 4 useful for checking the effects of digital features such
as the luminance lookup table.
Test Image 5 - Moving Diagonal Gray Gradient Feature Test (12 bit)
The basic appearance of test image 5 is similar to test image 3 (the 12 bit moving diagonal gray
gradient image). The difference between test image 5 and test image 3 is this: if a camera feature
that involves digital processing is enabled, test image 5 will show the effects of the feature while
test image 3 will not. This makes test image 5 useful for checking the effects of digital features such
as the luminance lookup table.
Note
On slA750-60fm cameras, test image 5 is a 10 bit pattern. Since these
cameras do not have a 10 bit output mode available, use of test image 5 on
slA750-60fm cameras is not normally recommended.
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9.11 Device Information Parameters
Each camera includes a set of "device information" parameters. These parameters provide some
basic information about the camera. The device information parameters include:
„
Device Vendor Name (read only) - contains the name of the camera’s vendor. For scout
cameras, this string will always indicate Basler as the vendor.
„
Device Model Name (read only) - contains the model name of the camera, for example,
slA1000-30fm.
„
Firmware Version (read only) - contains the version of the firmware in the camera.
„
Device ID (read only) - contains the serial number of the camera.
„
Device Scan Type (read only) - contains the scan type of the camera, for example, area scan.
„
Sensor Width (read only) - contains the physical width of the sensor in pixels.
„
Sensor Height (read only) - contains the physical height of the sensor.
„
Max Width (read only) - Indicates the camera’s maximum area of interest (AOI) width setting.
„
Max Height (read only) - Indicates the camera’s maximum area of interest (AOI) height setting.
You can read the values for all of the device information parameters or set the value of the Device
ID parameter from within your application software by using the pylon API. The following code
snippets illustrate using the API to read the parameters or write the Device ID:
// Read the Vendor Name parameter
Pylon::String_t vendorName = Camera.DeviceVendorName.GetValue();
// Read the Model Name parameter
Pylon::String_t modelName = Camera.DeviceModelName.GetValue();
// Read the Firmware Version parameter
Pylon::String_t firmwareVersion = Camera.DeviceFirmwareVersion.GetValue();
// Write and read the Device ID
Camera.DeviceID = "custom name";
Pylon::String_t deviceID = Camera.DeviceID.GetValue();
// Read the Sensor Width parameter
int64_t sensorWidth = Camera.SensorWidth.GetValue();
// Read the Sensor Height parameter
int64_t sensorHeight = Camera.SensorHeight.GetValue();
// Read the Max Width parameter
int64_t maxWidth = Camera.WidthMax.GetValue();
// Read the Max Height parameter
int64_t maxHeight = Camera.HeightMax.GetValue();
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For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily read the parameters and to read or
write the Device ID.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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9.12 Configuration Sets
A configuration set is a group of values that contains all
of the parameter settings needed to control the camera.
There are three basic types of configuration sets: the
active configuration set, the default configuration set,
and user configuration sets.
Active Configuration Set
The active configuration set contains the camera’s
current parameter settings and thus determines the
camera’s performance, that is, what your image
currently looks like. When you change parameter
settings using the pylon API or the pylon Viewer, you are
Fig. 34: Configuration Sets
making changes to the active configuration set. The
active configuration set is located in the camera’s volatile memory and the settings are lost if the
camera is reset or if power is switched off. The active configuration set is usually called the "active
set" for short.
Default Configuration Set
When a camera is manufactured, numerous tests are performed on the camera and two factory
optimized setups are determined. The two factory optimized setups are:
„
The Standard Factory Setup - is optimized for average conditions and will provide good
camera performance in many common applications. In the standard factory setup, the gain is
set to a low value, and all auto functions are set to off.
„
The High Gain Factory Setup - is similar to the standard factory setup, but the gain is set to
+ 6 dB.
The factory setups are saved in permanent files in the camera’s non-volatile memory. They are not
lost when the camera is reset or switched off and they cannot be changed.
You can select one of the two factory setups to be the camera’s "default configuration set".
Instructions for selecting which factory setup will be used as the default set appear below. Note that
your selection of which factory setup will serve as the default set will not be lost when the camera
is reset or switched off.
The default configuration set can be loaded into the active set. The default configuration set can
also be selected as the camera’s startup set. Instructions for loading the default set into the active
set and for selecting the startup set appear below.
User Configuration Sets
As mentioned above, the active configuration set is stored in the camera’s volatile memory and the
settings are lost if the camera is reset or if power is switched off. The camera can save most of the
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settings from the current active set to a reserved area in the camera’s non-volatile memory. A
configuration set saved in the non-volatile memory is not lost when the camera is reset or switched
off. There are three reserved areas in the camera’s non-volatile memory available for saving
configuration sets. A configuration set saved in a reserved area is commonly referred to as a "user
configuration set" or "user set" for short.
The three available user sets are called User Set 1, User Set 2, and User Set 3.
Note
The settings for the luminance lookup table are not saved in the user sets and
are lost when the camera is reset or switched off. If used, these settings must
be set again after each camera reset or restart.
Startup Set
You can select the default configuration set or one of the user configuration sets stored in the
camera’s non-volatile memory to be the "startup set." The configuration set that you have selected
as the startup set will automatically be loaded into the active set whenever the camera starts up at
power on or after a reset. Instructions for selecting the startup set appear below.
9.12.1 Saving User Sets
Saving the current active set into a user set in the camera’s non-volatile memory is a three step
process:
„
Make changes to the camera’s settings until the camera is operating in a manner that you
would like to save.
„
Set the User Set Selector to User Set 1, User Set 2, or User Set 3.
„
Execute a User Set Save command to save the active set to the selected user set.
Saving an active set to a user set in the camera’s non-volatile memory will overwrite any parameters
that were previously saved in that user set.
You can set the User Set Selector and execute the User Set Save command from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and execute the command:
Camera.UserSetSelector.SetValue( UserSetSelector_UserSet1 );
Camera.UserSetSave.Execute( );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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9.12.2 Selecting a Factory Setup as the Default Set
When the camera is delivered, the Standard Factory Setup will be selected as the default
configuration set. You can, however, select either one of the two factory setups to serve as the
default set.
To select which factory setup to serve as the default set:
„
Set the Default Set Selector to the Standard Factory Setup or the High Gain Factory Setup.
You can set the Default Set Selector from within your application software by using the pylon API.
The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the selector:
If you want to select the Standard Factory Setup:
Camera.DefaultSetSelector.SetValue(DefaultSetSelector_Standard);
If you want to select the High Gain Factory Setup:
Camera.DefaultSetSelector.SetValue(DefaultSetSelector_HighGain);
Note
Selecting which factory setup will serve as the default set is only allowed when
the camera is idle, i.e. when it is not acquiring images continuously or does not
have a single image acquisition pending.
Selecting the Standard Factory Setup as the default set and then loading the
default set into the active set is a good course of action if you have grossly
misadjusted the settings in the camera and you are not sure how to recover.
The standard factory setup is optimized for use in typical situations and will
provide good camera performance in most cases.
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9.12.3 Loading a Saved Set or the Default Set
into the Active Set
If you have saved a configuration set into the camera’s non-volatile memory, you can load the saved
set from the camera’s non-volatile memory into the camera’s active set. When you do this, the
loaded set overwrites the parameters in the active set. Since the settings in the active set control
the current operation of the camera, the settings from the loaded set will now be controlling the
camera.
You can also load the default set into the camera’s active set.
To load a saved configuration set or the default set from the camera’s non-volatile memory into the
active set:
„
Set the User Set Selector to User Set 1, User Set 2, User Set 3 or Default.
„
Execute a User Set Load command to load the selected set into the active set.
You can set the User Set Selector and execute the User Set Load command from within your
application software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to
set the selector and execute the command:
Camera.UserSetSelector.SetValue( UserSetSelector_UserSet2 );
Camera.UserSetLoad.Execute( );
Note
Loading a user set or the default set into the active set is only allowed when
the camera is idle, i.e. when it is not acquiring images continuously or does not
have a single image acquisition pending.
Loading the Default Set with the Standard Factory Setup selected into the
active set is a good course of action if you have grossly misadjusted the
settings in the camera and you are not sure how to recover. The standard
factory setup is optimized for use in typical situations and will provide good
camera performance in most cases.
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9.12.4 Selecting the Startup Set
You can select the default configuration set (i.e., whichever was selected as the default
configuration set, either the Standard Factory Setup or the High Gain Factory Setup) or one of the
user configuration sets stored in the camera’s non-volatile memory to be the "startup set". The
configuration set that you designate as the startup set will be loaded into the active set whenever
the camera starts up at power on or after a reset.
The User Set Default Selector is used to select the startup set:
„
Set the User Set Default Selector to User Set 1, User Set 2, User Set 3 or Default.
You can set the User Set Default Selector from within your application software by using the pylon
API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the selector:
Camera.UserSetDefaultSelector.SetValue( UserSetDefaultSelector_Default );
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10 Using Multiple Cameras on a
Single Bus and Managing
Bandwidth
This section includes information about using multiple cameras on a single IEEE 1394 bus.
10.1 Using Multiple Cameras Where All
Devices are 1394b
Most of the information included in this manual assumes that you have a single camera attached to
your IEEE 1394b bus. But is it also quite common to attach more than one camera to a single bus.
One of the main advantages of the IEEE 1394 bus architecture is that it is designed to handle
multiple devices (such as cameras) connected to a single bus. And the connected devices can
share the available bandwidth on the bus.
One way you can manage two cameras on a single bus is to operate the cameras so that only on
camera is transmitting an image at any given time. In this situation, the camera transmitting images
can use 100% of the bus bandwidth. In many situations, however, you would like to have two (or
more) cameras transmitting images at the same time. In this case, the cameras that are transmitting
images simultaneously must share the available bus bandwidth.
To understand how bandwidth is shared on an IEEE 1394 bus, we need to look at a few bus
architecture basics. The IEEE 1394b bus operates on a 125 microsecond cycle. During each cycle,
the bus can carry a single packet from one device with a packet size up to 8192 bytes. As an
alternative, the bus can carry several packets from different devices where the sum of the packet
sizes is 8192 bytes or less. These two situations are illustrated in Figure 35.
In situation 1 shown in the figure, a single camera (camera A) is attached to the bus and we want
that camera to use 100% of the bandwidth available during each bus cycle. In this case, we would
set the camera so that it would put 8192 bytes into the packet that it sends on each cycle of the bus.
In situation 2, we have three cameras (cameras A, B, and C) attached to the bus and all three
cameras will transmit image data simultaneously. We want camera A to use 25%, of the available
bus bandwidth, camera B to use 25%, and camera 3 to use 50%. In this case, we would set camera
A so that it would put 2048 bytes, i.e., 25% of the 8192 byte maximum, into each packet it sends.
We would set camera B so that it would put 2048 bytes (25% of 8192) into each packet it sends.
And we would set camera C so that it would put 4096 bytes (50% of the 8192) into each packet it
sends. As shown in the figure, the bus carries the packets sequentially on each cycle. The total byte
load in all of the packets combined is 8192 and is equal to the maximum allowed per cycle. Note
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that we could have made the packet sizes smaller and thus the total byte load per cycle would be
less than the maximum allowed. It is OK to make the total byte load smaller than the maximum, but
not larger.
Situation 1:
125 µs
125 µs
8192 Byte Packet Camera A
8192 Byte Packet Camera A
Situation 2:
125 µs
125 µs
2048 Byte
Packet
Camera A
2048 Byte
Packet
Camera B
4096 Byte
Packet
Camera C
2048 Byte
Packet
Camera A
2048 Byte
Packet
Camera B
4096 Byte
Packet
Camera C
Fig. 35: Packet Transmission During Bus Cycles
A parameter called the Packet Size is used to set the size of the packet that the camera will transmit
on each cycle of the bus. For an IEEE 1394b camera attached to an IEEE 1394b bus, the minimum
value for this setting is 1 byte and the maximum is 8192 bytes. If you set the packet size to 8192,
the camera will use 100% of the available bus bandwidth when it is transmitting images. If you set
the bytes per packet to a lower value, the camera will use less of the bandwidth. For example, if you
set the value to 5120 (62.5% of 8192), then the camera will send 5120 byte packets when it is
transmitting image data and will use 62.5% of the available bus bandwidth.
You can set the value of the Packet Size parameter from within your application software by using
the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to set the parameter value:
// Set packet size
Camera.PacketSize.SetValue( 4096 );
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameter.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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10.2 Using Multiple Cameras Where 1394a
and 1394b Devices are Mixed
The descriptions in the previous section assume that all of the devices on the bus are IEEE 1394b
devices. If the bus has mixed IEEE 1394a devices and IEEE 1394b devices, determining how to
share bandwidth between devices is a bit more difficult. As a first step toward understanding the
situation, consider the difference between 1394a devices and 1394b devices:
„
„
„
„
A 1394a device can transmit at what is known as S400 speed (400 Mbit/s).
During a single bus cycle, a device operating at S400 speed can transmit a single packet of up
to 4096 bytes. Alternatively, several devices operating at S400 speed can transmit packets
during a single bus cycle as long as the sum of the bytes in the packets is 4096 bytes or less.
A 1394b device can transmit at what is known as S800 speed (800 Mbit/s).
During a single bus cycle, a device operating at S800 speed can transmit a single packet of up
to 8192 bytes. Alternatively, several devices operating at S800 speed can transmit packets
during a single bus cycle as long as the sum of the bytes in the packets is 8192 bytes or less.
The next thing that we must consider in a bus that has mixed 1394a and 1394b devices is the speed
at which each device will transmit:
„
A 1394a device will always be capable of transmitting at S400 speed on a mixed 1394a /
1394b bus. (The 1394a device can transmit at slower speeds, but we are assuming that you
always want to transmit at the fastest speed.)
„
A 1394b device will transmit at S800 speed if all of the devices in its path to the host PC,
including the adapter card in the PC, are 1394b devices. If the path to the PC passes through
any 1394a device, then the 1394b device will transmit at S400 speed.
Figure 36 illustrates some situations where 1394a devices and 1394b devices are mixed on a single
bus. If you look at the figure, you will notice:
„
Camera 1 will transmit image data at S400 speed. This is simply because the camera itself is a
1394a device and S400 is the maximum speed for 1394a devices.
„
Camera 2 will transmit image data at S400 speed. The camera is a 1394b device, which
means that it is capable of S800 speed. But the camera’s path to the host PC passes through
a 1394a adapter, so this limits the camera’s actual maximum speed to S400.
„
Camera 3 will transmit image data at S800 speed. This is because the camera is a 1394b
device and its path to the host PC passes through only 1394b devices.
„
Camera 4 will transmit image data at S400 speed. This is simply because the camera itself is a
1394a device.
„
Camera 5 will transmit image data at S400 speed. The camera is a 1394b device, but its path
to the host PC passes through a 1394a hub, so this limits the camera’s maximum speed to
S400.
„
Camera 6 will transmit image data at S400 speed. This is simply because the camera itself is a
1394a device.
„
Camera 7 will transmit image data at S800 speed. This is because the camera is a 1394b
device and its path to the host PC passes through only 1394b devices.
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PC
PC
1394a
Adapter
1394a
Adapter
1394b
Adapter
1394b
Adapter
1394b
Adapter
S400
S400
S800
S800
S800
1394a Hub
1394b Hub
S400
S800
1
2
3
1394a
Camera
Transmits
at S400
1394b
Camera
Transmits
at S400
1394b
Camera
Transmits
at S800
4
5
6
7
1394a
Camera
Transmits
at S400
1394b
Camera
Transmits
at S400
1394a
Camera
Transmits
at S400
1394b
Camera
Transmits
at S800
Fig. 36: Examples of Mixed Device Types
Note
The driver will always set each device to operate at the fastest possible speed
for the current network configuration. This behavior of the driver can’t be
changed by the user.
So what does all of this mean when we are trying to share bandwidth between devices operating at
different speeds on the same bus? Some examples will provide the best explanation.
Example 1: Assume that you have two cameras on the bus and that you want them to capture and
transmit images simultaneously. Camera 1 is operating at S400 speed and the camera 2 is
operating at S800 speed. Also assume that you want camera one to use 40% of the available
bandwidth and camera 2 to use 60%. How would you set the packet size on the cameras so that
each one would use the desired portion of the bandwidth available in each bus cycle?
For camera 1, the calculation would be:
0.40 x 4096 = 1638.4 bytes per packet
(the packet size must be set to a multiple of 4, so we would round the setting down to 1636)
For camera 2, the calculation would be:
0.60 x 8192 = 4915.2 bytes per packet
(the packet size must be set to a multiple of 4, so we would round the setting down to 4912)
So in this case, you would set the packet size for camera 1 to 1636 bytes and for camera 2 to 4912
bytes.
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You may be asking why we multiply the percentage for camera 1 by 4096 and the percentage for
camera 2 by 8192. The reason is:
During the part of the bus cycle when the packet for camera 1 is transmitted, the bus will operate
at S400 speed. At S400, the maximum number of bytes that can be transmitted in a bus cycle
is 4096.
During the part of the bus cycle when the packet for camera 2 is transmitted, the bus will operate
at S800 speed. At S800, the maximum number of bytes that can be transmitted in a bus cycle
is 8192.
Example 2: Assume that you have three cameras on the bus and that you want these camera to
capture and transmit images simultaneously. Camera one is operating at S800 speed and is set for
a packet size of 4200 bytes. Camera two is operating at S800 speed and is set for a packet size of
1800 bytes. Camera 3 is operating at S400 speed and is set for a packet size of 1000 bytes. How
much of the available bandwidth would each camera use?
For camera 1, the calculation would be:
4200 / 8192 = 51.3%
For camera 2, the calculation would be:
1800 / 8192 = 22.0%
For camera 3, the calculation would be:
1000 / 4096 = 24.4%
If you add these three results together, you find that 97.7% of the available bandwidth is being used.
Keep in mind that if the sum was greater than 100%, you would need to lower the packet size setting
for one or more of the cameras.
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10.2.1 Recommended Packet Size
When you change the value of the packet size setting on a camera, there is something that you
must keep in mind. If you lower the packet size setting, the camera takes longer to transmit each
acquired image. And if you lower the packet size enough, it will begin to restrict the maximum frame
rate that the camera can achieve. A read only parameter called the Recommended Packet Size can
help you avoid this problem.
The recommended packet size parameter indicates the lowest value you can use for the packet size
setting without restricting the camera’s maximum allowed frame rate. Assume, for example, that
you checked the packet size parameter value and you found it to be 2400. This would mean that if
you set the camera’s packet size to 2400 bytes or more, the camera’s maximum allowed frame rate
would not be affected by the packet size setting. And if you set the packet size lower than 2400, the
camera’s maximum allowed frame rate would be affected. The farther below 2400 you set the
packet size, the more restricted the maximum frame rate would be.
You read the value of the Recommended Packet Size parameter from within your application
software by using the pylon API. The following code snippet illustrates using the API to get the
parameter values:
// RecommendedPacketSize
int64_t recommendedPacketSize = Camera.RecommendedPacketSize.GetValue();
For detailed information about using the pylon API, refer to the Basler pylon Programmer’s Guide
and API Reference.
You can also use the Basler pylon Viewer application to easily set the parameters.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
For more information about the camera’s maximum allowed frame rate and how it can be restricted
by the packet size setting, see Section 6.10 on page 65.
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11 Troubleshooting and Support
This section outlines the resources available to you if you need help working with your camera. It
also provides some basic troubleshooting information that you can use to solve problems.
11.1 Tech Support Resources
The troubleshooting resources in this section of the manual will help you to find the cause of many
common problems. If you need more assistance, you can contact the Basler technical support team
for your area. Basler technical support contact information is located in the front pages of this
manual.
If you do decide to contact Basler technical support, please take a look at the form that appears on
the last two pages of this section before you call. Filling out this form will help make sure that you
have all of the information the Basler technical support team needs to help you with your problem.
You will also find helpful information such as frequently asked questions, downloads, and
application notes on the Basler website at:
www.baslerweb.com/indizes/beitrag_index_en_22089.html
11.2 Obtaining an RMA Number
Whenever you want to return material to Basler, you must request a Return Material Authorization
(RMA) number before sending it back. The RMA number must be stated in your delivery
documents when you ship your material to us! Please be aware that if you return material without
an RMA number, we reserve the right to reject the material.
You can find detailed information about how to obtain an RMA number on the Basler website at:
www.baslerweb.com/beitraege/beitrag_en_79701.html
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11.3 Troubleshooting with the Camera LED
If the camera boots up successfully, the LED on the back of the camera will light and will remain
green continuously.
If an error condition is detected, the LED will begin to flash. The number of flashes indicates the
detected error as shown in Table 15.
LED State
Status Indication
Off
No power to the camera
Continuous green
The camera is OK.
Continuous red
Internal error. Contact Basler technical support.
Table 15: LED Indications
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11.4 Troubleshooting Charts
The following pages contain several troubleshooting charts that can help you find the cause of
problems users sometimes encounter. The charts assume that you are familiar with the camera’s
features and settings. If you are not, we suggest that you review the camera manual before you
troubleshoot a problem.
The charts also assume that you have the pylon Viewer software installed on your host PC and that
you are familiar with using the software.
For more information about the pylon Viewer, see Section 3.1 on page 17.
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11.4.1 My Camera Is Not Being Recognized
Use this chart if your camera is connected to a PC, but is not being recognized by the PC.
Does your PC have a Windows XP or a
Windows 2000 operating system?
The cameras will only work with these
operating systems
No
Yes
Start the pylon Viewer software. Is your camera listed in
the device tree at the left side of the viewer window?
Go to the “I Do Not Get an Image”
troubleshooting chart.
Yes
No
Open the Windows device manager. Do you see a
device listing for “Basler pylon 1394 Digital Cameras”?
Yes
Make sure that the correct camera driver is
associated with the camera. To do this, perform
the "Associating the Driver with Additional
Cameras" portion of the installation procedure.
No
Check the camera power source:
If the camera is connected to an IEEE 1394 adapter in a desktop computer, consult the instructions for
the adapter and make sure that the adapter is properly configured to supply power to the camera.
If the camera is connected to a powered hub, make sure that the
power supply for the hub is working properly.
No
If the camera is connected to a laptop, you should use a powered hub between the laptop and the
camera or you should install a PCMCIA IEEE 1394 adapter card that connects to an external power
supply. (The IEEE 1394 connector available on many laptops does not supply power to the camera.)
Correct
the
power
source
Is your power source correct?
Yes
Replace the IEEE 1394 cable(s) that runs between the
camera and the PC with a known good cable.
Troubleshooting
is complete. Exit
this chart.
Yes
Does this correct the problem?
No
If you are using a desktop PC or a laptop equipped with an IEEE 1394
adapter card, swap the adapter card with a known good card.
Does this correct the problem?
Yes
Troubleshooting
is complete. Exit
this chart.
No
Contact Basler technical support. The contact
numbers appear on the title page of this manual.
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11.4.2 I Do Not Get an Image
Use this chart if you get no image at all when you attempt to capture an image. If you get a poor
quality image, use the "Poor Image Quality" chart.
Start the pylon Viewer software. Is your
camera listed in the device tree at the
left side of the viewer window?
No
Go to the “My Camera Is Not Being
Recognized” troubleshooting chart.
Yes
Go to the Image Format Controls parameters
group, enable one of the test images, and use the
single grab button to capture an image.
Do you see a test image in the viewer?
Yes
No, I just
see a
uniform
gray image
in the
viewer
Go to the Acquisition Controls parameters group and
check to see if the trigger mode is set to on. If the trigger
mode is set to "on", set it to "off" now.
Use the single grab button to capture an image.
No
Do you see a test image in the viewer now?
Yes
Disable test images and then use
the single grab button to capture a
live image.
Do you see a captured image in the
viewer now?
Yes
No, I just
see a
uniform
black
image in
the viewer
Triggering was enabled but you were not supplying an
external trigger signal. When triggering is enabled, you must
supply a trigger signal to start image capture. Exit this chart.
First, make sure that the lens cap has been removed. Next, try
increasing the brightness of your lighting, decreasing the f/stop
setting on your lens, increasing the exposure time setting,
increasing the gain setting, or increasing the black level setting.
No
After you make each change, use the single grab button to
capture an image.
Do you see a captured test image in the viewer now?
Yes
The camera was badly misadjusted. Exit this chart.
No, I just
see a
uniform
white
image in
the viewer
Try decreasing the brightness of you lighting, increasing the
f/stop setting on your lens, decreasing the exposure time setting,
decreasing the gain setting, or decreasing the black level setting.
After you make each change, use the single grab button to
capture an image.
If the image
quality is poor,
go to the “Poor
Image Quality”
troubleshooting
chart.
Do you see a captured test image in the viewer now?
If the image
quality is
acceptable,
troubleshooting
is complete.
The camera was badly misadjusted. Exit this chart.
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No
Yes
Contact Basler technical support. The contact
numbers appear on the title page of this manual.
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Troubleshooting and Support
11.4.3 I Can Not Get the Full Frame Rate
Use this troubleshooting chart if you are attempting to run the camera at its maximum stated frame
rate and you are not able to do so.
Start the pylon Viewer software,
enter the Transport Layer group,
and check the setting for the
Packet Size parameter.
Is the packet size set the to the
maximum?
No
Set the packet size to the maximum and then use the
continuous grab button to start image capture.
Can you achieve the full frame rate now?
Yes
Yes
No
When the packet size setting is set low, it increases
the number of packets that it takes to transmit an
image from the camera to the PC. This means that
it takes longer to transmit each image and
decreases the maximum possible frame rate.
Exit this chart.
Go to the Acquisition Controls
parameter group and check the
exposure time raw setting.
Is the exposure time set near to the
minimum?
No
Set the exposure time near to the minimum and then
use the continuous grab button to start image capture.
Can you achieve the full frame rate now?
Yes
Yes
No
If the exposure time is very high, it can be a limiting
factor on the maximum frame rate that can be
achieved. You will need to run with a lower exposure
time. (If this makes your image too dark, try
increasing your lighting, decreasing the f/stop on
your lens, increasing the gain setting, or increasing
the black level setting.)
Exit this chart.
Are you using an external trigger
signal to trigger image capture?
No
Increase the frequency of the trigger signal.
Yes
Does this give you an increase in the frame rate?
No
Yes
When you are operating the camera with an
external trigger signal, the frequency of the
signal determines the frame rate. If the
frequency is too low, you will not achieve
the maximum allowed frame rate.
Exit this chart.
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Is there more than one camera
attached to the IEEE 1394 bus?
No
Yes
Leave one camera attached to the bus and
detach all of the others.
Can the attached camera now run at a
higher frame rate?
No
Yes
The IEEE bus does not have sufficient
bandwidth to transmit the data from multiple
cameras running at high frame rates. Try
attaching each camera to a separate IEEE
1394 adapter card in the PC.
Exit this chart.
Contact Basler technical support. The
contact numbers appear on the title
page of this manual.
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11.4.4 I Get Poor Image Quality
Use this chart if you can capture images, but they are poor quality. (If you can’t capture images at
all, use the "I Do Not Get an Image" troubleshooting chart.)
Start the pylon Viewer software.
Go to the Image Formats Controls
parameter group, enable one of the test
images, and use the single grab button
to capture an image.
Is the imaging system operating in an environment with
strong EMI generators such as stepper motors, switching
power supplies, or other high-current AC devices?
No
Do test images look OK?
Yes
Yes
No
Make sure that you are
using high quality cables
and that the cables and
the system are placed as
far as possible from
sources of EMI.
Suspect the IEEE1394 cables, the
adapter card in your PC, or the hub (if
you are using one). The best way to
troubleshoot these devices is to swap
them with known good devices and
then see if the problem is corrected.
Did this correct the
problem?
Did this correct the problem?
Yes
Yes
No
Exit this
chart.
No
Exit this
chart.
Contact Basler technical support. The contact numbers
appear on the title page of this manual.
Disable the test image.
Place an object in the field of view of the
camera. Using your normal lighting and
camera settings, capture several images.
Are the images too dark?
Yes
Take the following actions. After you complete each
action, capture several images to see if the problem has
been corrected:
Make sure that the lens cap has been removed.
Check your light source. Try increasing the intensity of
your light source if possible.
No
Check the f/stop (lens aperture) on your lens. Try
decreasing the f/stop to let more light into the camera.
Check the exposure time setting (in the Acquisition
Controls group on the pylon Viewer). Try increasing
the exposure time.
Check the gain setting. Try increasing the gain setting.
Check the black level setting. Try increasing the black
level setting.
Has the problem been corrected?
146
Yes
No
Exit this
chart.
Contact Basler technical
support. The contact
numbers appear on the
title page of this manual.
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Troubleshooting and Support
Take the following actions. After you complete each
action, capture several images to see if the problem has
been corrected:
Are the images too light?
Yes
Check your light source. Try decreasing the intensity
of your light source if possible.
Check the f/stop (lens aperture) on your lens. Try
increasing the f/stop to let less light into the camera.
Check the exposure time setting (in the Acquisition
Controls group on the pylon Viewer). Try decreasing
the shutter setting.
No
Check the gain setting. Try decreasing the gain
setting.
Check the brightness setting. Try decreasing the
brightness setting.
Has the problem been corrected?
Yes
No
Exit this
chart.
Contact Basler technical
support. The contact
numbers appear on the
title page of this manual.
Take the following actions. After you complete each action,
capture several images to see if the problem has been
corrected:
Do the images appear “noisy”?
No
Yes
Make sure that you are using a DC light source. Using an
AC light source can make images appear noisy due to the
inherent intensity variations normally seen with AC light
sources. (Note: Some very specialized AC light sources are
designed to output a constant light level even though they
operate on AC. If you must use an AC light source, check
with the manufacturer to make sure that it outputs an
absolutely constant light intensity.)
Make sure that the camera has proper ventilation. If the
camera gets extremely hot, it may produce noisy images.
Check the exposure time setting (in the Acquisition
Controls group on the pylon Viewer). If the camera is set for
a very long exposure time, the images can become noisy.
Check the gain setting. Using a very low or a very high gain
setting can cause noisy images
Contact Basler technical
support. The contact
numbers appear on the
title page of this manual.
Basler scout light
Examine the objects you are imaging. Objects with
characteristics such as changing surface texture or
reflectance will produce images that appear noisy.
Has the problem been corrected?
Yes
No
Exit this
chart.
Contact Basler technical
support. The contact
numbers appear on the
title page of this manual.
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Troubleshooting and Support
11.5 Before Contacting Basler
Technical Support
To help you as quickly and efficiently as possible when you have a problem with a Basler camera,
it is important that you collect several pieces of information before you contact Basler technical
support.
Copy the form that appears on the next two pages, fill it out, and fax the pages to your local dealer
or to your nearest Basler support center. Or, you can send an e-mail listing the requested pieces of
information and with the requested files attached. Basler technical support contact information is
shown in the title section of this manual.
1
The camera’s product ID:
2
The camera’s serial number:
3
1394 adapter that you use
with the camera:
4
Describe the problem in as much
detail as possible:
(If you need more space,
use an extra sheet of paper.)
5
If known, what’s the cause
of the problem?
6
When did the problem occur?
After start.
While running.
After a certain action (e.g., a change of parameters):
148
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Troubleshooting and Support
7
How often did/does the problem
occur?
Once.
Every time.
Regularly when:
Occasionally when:
8
How severe is the problem?
Camera can still be used.
Camera can be used after I take this action:
Camera can no longer be used.
9
10
Did your application ever run
without problems?
Yes
No
Parameter set
It is very important for Basler technical support to get a copy of the exact camera parameters that
you were using when the problem occurred.
To make a copy of the parameters, use the dump register tool. To get the tool, go to:
www.baslerweb.com/beitraege/beitrag_en_19478.html (the tool is available for XP PCs only).
Send the generated file to Basler technical support. Or, you can look up the settings with the pylon
Viewer.
If you cannot access the camera, please try to state the following parameter settings:
Pixel format:
Packet size:
Exposure time:
Frame rate:
11
Live image/test image
If you are having an image problem, try to generate and save live images that show the problem.
Also generate and save test images. Please save the images in BMP format, zip them, and send
them to Basler technical support.
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150
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Revision History
Revision History
Doc. ID Number
Date
Changes
AW00075301000
25 Nov 2008
Initial release of this document.
AW00075302000
17 June 2009
Updated sensor name "Micron MT9V022" to "Aptina MT9V022" in
Section 1.2 on page 2.
Updated minimum allowed exposure times in Section 6.4 on page 51.
Added the digital shift feature in Section 9.3 on page 105.
Corrected the indications of x offset and y offset in Figure 29 in Section 9.4
on page 111.
Added the reverse X feature in Section 9.5 on page 115.
Added the trigger delay feature in Section 9.8 on page 120.
Added the acquisition status feature in Section 9.9 on page 121 and
added a reference in Section 6.2.3 on page 42.
Removed the incorrect information about a Device User ID in Section 9.11
on page 125 and replaced it with the correct information about the Device
ID parameter.
Added the high gain factory setup and the standard factory setup (formerly
the "default set") in Section 9.12 on page 127.
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Revision History
152
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Feedback
Feedback
Your feedback will help us improve our documentation. Please click the link below to access an
online feedback form. Your input is greatly appreciated.
http://www.baslerweb.com/umfrage/survey.html
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Feedback
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Index
Index
A
D
acquisition frame rate
and AOI size ................................65, 70
maximum allowed .......................65, 70
acquisition frame rate abs parameter
.................................................... 38, 42, 49
acquisition mode parameter
........................................ 38, 41, 42, 48, 49
acquisition start command
................................ 38, 41, 42, 48, 49, 121
acquisition status ...................................121
active configuration set ..........................127
AOI
see area of interest
API ...........................................................17
area of interest
default resolution .............................112
explained .........................................111
setting ..............................................112
debouncer
and exposure start delay .................. 62
explained ........................................ 118
setting ............................................. 119
signal delay ..................................... 118
default configuration set ........................ 127
device firmware version parameter ....... 125
device ID parameter ............................. 125
device model name parameter ............. 125
device scan type parameter .................. 125
device vendor name parameter ............ 125
digital shift ............................................. 105
disable parameter limits
explained ........................................ 117
B
bandwidth ................................... 68, 69, 73
sharing with multiple cameras .........133
bit depth .................................................2, 3
black level
explained .........................................104
setting ..............................................104
black level raw parameter .....................104
black level selector ................................104
C
cables
IEEE 1394 .........................................28
standard I/O cable .............................28
camera power requirements ........... 2, 3, 31
cleaning the camera and sensor .............14
code snippets, proper use .......................13
configuration set loaded at startup ........131
configuration sets ..........................127–131
connector types .......................................27
connectors .........................................23, 27
Basler scout light
E
electromagnetic interference .................. 11
electrostatic discharge ............................ 11
EMI ......................................................... 11
environmental requirements ................... 12
ESD ........................................................ 11
exposure
controlling with an ExTrig signal ....... 44
overlapped .................................. 54, 56
exposure active signal ............................ 61
exposure mode
timed ........................................... 40, 45
trigger width ...................................... 45
exposure modes ..................................... 45
exposure start delay ............................... 62
exposure time
maximum possible ............................ 51
minimum allowed .............................. 51
setting ............................................... 51
exposure time abs parameter ................. 53
exposure time base abs parameter ........ 52
exposure time raw parameter ................. 51
external trigger signal
controlling exposure with .................. 44
min high/low time .............................. 44
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Index
F
M
factory setup .........................................127
high gain factory setup ....................127
standard factory setup ....................127
frame rate
controlling with a hardware trigger ....44
controlling with a software trigger .....42
maximum allowed .......................65, 70
setting with a parameter ...................38
frame readout time .................................. 63
frame transmission end time ...................63
free run ....................................................38
functional description ..............................19
max height parameter ........................... 125
max width parameter ............................ 125
maximum acquisition frame rate ....... 65, 70
mechanical stress tests ............................ 9
mirror imaging ....................................... 115
models ...................................................... 1
mono 12 packed pixel format ................. 80
mono 16 pixel format .............................. 78
mono 8 pixel format ................................ 76
multiple cameras on a bus .................... 133
O
G
gain
setting .....................................100, 102
H
high gain factory setup ..........................127
humidity ...................................................12
I
IEEE 1394b device information ...............30
input line
configuring ........................................87
electrical characteristics .................... 33
installation
hardware ...........................................15
software ............................................15
integrate enabled signal ..........................61
inverter
output line .........................................89
IP30 ...........................................................7
L
LED .................................................23, 140
lens adapter ..........................................2, 3
line inverter parameter ............................89
line selector .............................................88
line source parameter .............................88
line status parameter ..............................96
156
optical size of the sensor ...................... 2, 3
output line
configuring ........................................ 88
electrical characteristics ................... 34
inverter ............................................. 89
voltage requirements ........................ 34
output lines
voltage requirements ........................ 34
overlapped exposure ........................ 54, 56
P
packet size ............... 68, 73, 133, 136, 138
packet size parameter ...................... 68, 73
parameter sets ..................................... 127
parameter sets, saving ......................... 128
parameters loaded at startup ................ 131
pin assignments ............................... 24, 25
pixel data formats ................................... 75
YUV 422 (YUYV) packed ................. 83
YUV 422 packed .............................. 82
pixel format parameter ............................ 75
pixel formats
mono 12 packed ............................... 80
mono 16 ........................................... 78
mono 8 ............................................. 76
pixel size ............................................... 2, 3
pixel transmission sequence .................. 86
polarity, power ........................................ 31
power consumption ................................ 31
precautions ............................................. 13
programmable exposure mode
with an external trigger signal ........... 45
protection class ........................................ 7
pylon API ................................................ 17
pylon Viewer ........................................... 17
Basler scout light
Index
R
recommended packet size parameter ...138
resulting frame rate abs parameter
.............................................. 65, 69, 70, 73
return material authorization ..................139
reverse X ...............................................115
RMA number .........................................139
S
s400 speed ............................................135
s800 speed ............................................135
saving parameter sets ...................127, 128
sensor
CCD architecture ...............................20
CMOS architecture ............................22
optical size ......................................2, 3
pixel size .........................................2, 3
size ............................................. 1, 2, 3
type .................................................2, 3
sensor height parameter .......................125
sensor width parameter .........................125
serial number ...........................................14
sets of parameters, saving ....................128
software development kit .........................17
software trigger ........................................40
spectral response ..................................4–6
standard factory setup ...................127, 130
startup parameter set ............................131
startup set ......................................128, 131
stress tests ................................................9
support ..................................................148
timer selector ........................ 91, 92, 94, 95
timer trigger source parameter ............... 91
transition threshold ................................. 32
trigger delay .......................................... 120
trigger mode parameter .............. 37, 40, 47
trigger ready signal ................................. 57
trigger selector parameter ........... 37, 40, 47
trigger software command ................ 41, 42
trigger source parameter .................. 40, 47
trigger width exposure mode .................. 45
troubleshooting
charts .............................................. 141
with the LED ................................... 140
U
user configuration set ........................... 127
user output selector ................................ 89
user output value parameter ................... 89
V
ventilation ................................................ 12
viewer ..................................................... 17
voltage, input .......................................... 31
Y
YUV 422 (YUYV) data range .................. 85
YUV 422 (YUYV) packed pixel data format
................................................................. 83
YUV 422 data range ............................... 83
YUV 422 packed pixel data format ......... 82
T
temperature .............................................12
test image selector ................................122
test images ............................................122
time delay time base abs parameter .......92
timed exposure mode ........................40, 45
timer delay ...............................................93
timer delay abs parameter .......................93
timer delay raw parameter .......................92
timer delay time .......................................92
timer delay time base ..............................92
timer duration ..........................................94
timer duration abs parameter ..................95
timer duration raw parameter ..................94
timer duration time base ..........................94
timer duration time base abs parameter ..94
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Index
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