About Macro Sensors
Macro Sensors
Macro Sensors is "your sensor business partner...,"
solving position measurement problems as an extension of the
customer's engineering resource. Macro Sensors’ extensive
line of LVDT-based linear and rotary sensors are used for linear
position measurement and feedback in a wide variety of
factory automation and motion control applications, as well as
valve position sensing and turbine blade position sensing in
steam and gas-fired power plants.
Incorporated in 1994, the Company offers a wealth of design,
applications engineering, and manufacturing experience to
provide both standard and custom product to its OEM and
end-user international customer base.
In 2005, American Sensor Technologies (AST), a state-of-theart manufacturer of Krystal Bond™ Technology MEMS
pressure sensors, acquired Macro Sensors, thereby creating a
single source offering customers both pressure and position
sensing expertise at the highest level.
American Sensor Technologies (AST)
AST was founded in 1997 by a professional management
team with knowledge and experience in the MEMS-based
sensor industry, along with the drive to manufacture
products in the U.S. Their relationship provides AST both
unique and complementary talents in development
engineering, marketing and business administration.
Collectively, the founders bring over 80 years of industry
experience to AST, assuring the company's ability to
manage fast-paced business growth while sustaining the
frequent introductions of new technologies and products.
Common applications of AST's sensor products are
industrial OEM, fluid power, hydraulic systems, fuel cells,
medical gases, HVAC/R, water management, oil & gas
exploration and off-road vehicles. By utilizing AST's
exclusive portfolio of sensor technologies including the
proprietary Krystal Bond™ Technology, the specialized
needs of key niche markets can be supported. Many of
AST's products offer UL/cUL, CSA and CE approvals in
hazardous environments.
Macro Sensors Corporate Headquarters - Pennsauken, NJ USA
AST Corporate Headquarters - Mt. Olive, NJ USA
“quality products made in the USA”
The letters LVDT are an acronym for Linear Variable
Differential Transformer, an electromechanical transducer that
converts the rectilinear motion of an object to which it is
coupled mechanically to a corresponding electrical signal.
Structure of a typical LVDT
The figure below shows the components of a typical LVDT.
The internal structure consists of a primary winding centered
between a pair of secondary windings symmetrically spaced
about the primary. The coils are wound on a coil form,
surrounded by a magnetic shield, and secured in a cylindrical
housing. This coil assembly is usually the stationary element
of the position sensor.
LVDT Basics
What is an LVDT?
means that an LVDT features unlimited mechanical life with no
source of friction.
Infinite Resolution and Repeatability
Since an LVDT operates on electromagnetic coupling principles
in a friction free structure, it can measure infinitesimally small
changes in core position. This infinite capability is limited only
by the noise and resolution of the LVDT signal conditioner.
Single Axis Sensitivity
An LVDT responds to motion of the core along the coil's axis,
but is generally insensitive to cross axis motion of the core or
to its radial position. Thus, an LVDT can usually function
without adverse effect in applications involving misaligned or
floating moving members, and in cases where the core doesn't
travel in a precisely straight line.
Housing and End Caps
Magnetic Shell
Coil Form
Coil Assembly
Primary Winding
Secondary Windings
The moving element of an LVDT is a separate tubular
armature of magnetically permeable material called the core.
The core is free to move axially within the coil's bore, and is
mechanically coupled to the object whose position is being
measured. The bore is large enough to provide radial
clearance between the core and coil with no physical contact.
In operation, the LVDT's primary winding is energized by
alternating current of appropriate amplitude and frequency,
known as the primary excitation. The LVDT's electrical output
signal, which varies with the axial position of the core, is the
secondary winding differential AC voltage. Usually this AC
output voltage is converted a high level DC voltage or current
that is more convenient to use.
Why use an LVDT?
LVDTs have significant features and benefits which derive
from its fundamental physical principles of operation and the
materials and techniques used in its construction.
Unlimited Mechanical Life and Friction Free Operation
Because there is normally no contact between the LVDT's core
and coil structure, parts do not rub together or wear out. This
Separable Coil And Core
Because the only interaction between an LVDT's core and coil
is magnetic coupling, the coil assembly can be isolated from
the core by inserting a non magnetic tube between the core
and the bore. By doing so, a pressurized fluid can be contained
within the tube, in which the core is free to move, while the
coil assembly does not have to be pressurized.
Environmentally Robust
The materials and construction techniques used in assembling
an LVDT result in a rugged, durable sensor that is robust to a
variety of environmental conditions. Bonding of the windings is
followed by epoxy encapsulation into the case, resulting in
superior moisture and humidity resistance, as well as the
capability to take substantial shock loads and high vibration
levels in all axes. Both the case and core are made of
corrosion resistant metals, with the case also acting as a
supplemental magnetic shield. And for those applications
where the sensor must withstand exposure to flammable or
corrosive vapors and liquids or operate in pressurized fluid,
the case and coil assembly can be hermetically sealed using a
variety of welding processes.
Ordinary LVDTs operate over a very wide temperature range,
and, if required, they can be produced to operate down to
cryogenic temperatures, or at the elevated temperatures and
radiation levels found in many nuclear reactors.
Absolute Output
An LVDT is an absolute output device, as opposed to an
incremental output device. This means that in the event of loss
of power, the position data being sent from the LVDT will not
be lost. When the measuring system is restarted, the LVDT's
output value will be the same as it was before the power
failure occurred.
High temperatures to 250 ºC
High pressure to 20,000 PSI
Radiation to 3 x 10 7 Rads
Power generation
Hazardous locations
Down-hole pipeline monitoring
Factory Automation
Product gaging
Process control
Wide selection of measurement ranges
Non-linearity to 0.1%
Hermetically sealed
μm (micro-inch) resolutions
Analog I/O for PLC compatibility
Absolute measurement
Indicators / controllers
Aerospace / Military
COTS compatibility
High temperatures to 250 ºC
Hermetically sealed
Control surface position
Engine control feedback
Thermal control
Submarine hatch
Pilot control inputs
Hydraulics / Pneumatics
Spool valves
Valve position
Unlimited cycle life
Excellent stroke to length ratio
Industrial OEM
Cost effective solutions
Supply chain support
Integral or remote electronics
Custom design solutions
ISO 9001: 2000 certified
Electro-mechanical systems
High volume product
Civil Engineering / R&D
Structural monitoring
Test equipment
Wide range of products
High vacuum operation
Extensive selection of indicators and controllers
Subsea / Marine
High pressure to 20,000 PSI
Inconel / Monel construction
316L stainless steel construction
Long term reliability
20+ years survivability
Control valves
ROV and exploration
Pipeline monitoring
Off-shore drilling and platforms
Agricultural equipment
Road paving equipment
Off-road construction equipment
Unlimited cycle life
Hermetically sealed (IP-69K)
High shock to 1000 g
Vibration to 20 g (RMS)
Free-Core AC LVDTs
PR Series
Our Free-Core AC powered LVDT's are available
in a wide varitey of sizes, measuring ranges
and packages. Their robust construction allows
The PR Series of AC LVDTs features excellent linearity and
high sensitivity and is a reliable and cost effective solution
for many position measurements. Available in either 0.750
inch or 0.812 inch diameters, these units are nominally
interchangeable with legacy units from other manufacturers.
them to be used for general purpose, harsh
environments or hazardous locations.
Scale approx. 1:2
Available in standard 0.750 inch [19 mm] or
0.812 inch [20.6 mm] diameter
Ranges of ±0.05 inches to ±10 inches
[±1.25 mm to ±250 mm]
0.031 [0.8 mm] or 0.062 [1.6 mm] radial core to
bore clearance
±0.25% maximum linearity error
CD Series
MD Series
The CD Series of AC LVDTs features a compact
package design for applications with size constraints.
The low mass core also makes them well suited for
dynamic applications.
The MD Series of sub-miniature AC LVDTs are designed to
operate over millions of cycles without wear or degradation of
signal quality in tight spaces. Ultra-low-mass cores allow
them to be used for high response dynamic measurements.
Scale approx. 1:1
Scale approx. 1:1
Miniature 0.375 inch [9.5 mm] body diameter
Miniature 0.188 inch [4.8 mm] body diameter
Low core mass
Low core mass
Ranges of ±0.025 inches to ±2 inches
[±0.63 mm to ±50 mm]
Ranges of ±0.020 inches to ±0.100 inches
[±0.50 mm to ±2.5 mm]
±0.25% maximum linearity error
±0.5% maximum linearity error
HSAR Series
The HSA Series AC LVDTs feature a welded stainless
steel connector with glass sealed pins and are designed
for use in harsh environments.
The HSAR Series offers all the benefits of the HSA with the
additional advantage of a radial connector for reduced
installed length. Ranges of ±1 inch and above are rated to
300°F [150°C].
Free-Core AC LVDTs
HSA Series
Scale approx. 1:2
Scale approx. 1:2
Available in standard 0.750 inch [19 mm] diameter
Hermetically sealed against hostile environments
Hermetically sealed against hostile environments
Ranges of ±0.05 inches to ±10 inches
[±1.25 mm to ±250 mm]
Ranges of ±0.05 inches to ±10 inches
[±1.25 mm to ±250 mm]
±0.25% maximum linearity error
±0.25% maximum linearity error
Mating plug for connector included
Through-bore design
Available in standard 0.750 inch [19 mm] diameter
Mating plug for connector included
SQ Series
HLR Series
The SQ Series of AC LVDTs has been developed for use
in extremely harsh environments. They are epoxy
encapsulated in heavy duty aluminum housings and are
double shielded to enhance their immunity to noise and
external magnetic fields.
HLR Series AC LVDTs are UL listed for Class 1, Div 2,
Groups A, B, C, and D, and Class 1, Zone 2, Group IIC
hazardous locations.
Scale approx. 1:4
Scale approx. 1:3
Heavyduty industrial design
Available in standard 0.750 inch [19 mm] diameter
Ranges of ±0.50 inches to ±10 inches
[±12.5 mm to ±250 mm]
Stainless steel throughbore construction
Splashproof design to IEC IP64*
Ranges of ±1 inch to ±10 inches
[±25 mm to ±250 mm]
300°F (150°C) operating temperature
1/2 inch conduit outlet for lead wires
*within temperature rating
300°F (150°C) operating temperature
Spring-Loaded AC LVDTs
GHSA Series
Macro Sensors offers a wide variety of springloaded AC-powered LVDTs designed for
precision dimensional gaging and other factory
automation applications.
These heavy duty units use sleeve bearings to provide good
repeatability and extended service life in shop floor
applications. Three different configurations are available:
the GHSA, with an axial connector for close mounting; the
GHSAR, with a radial connector for shorter installed length;
and the GHSAR-A, an air extend/spring retract version with
a radial connector.
Scale approx. 1:2
Available in standard 0.750 inch [19 mm] diameter
Ranges of ±0.05 inches to ±2 inches
[±1.25 mm to ±50 mm]
Repeatability of 0.000025 inches or better
Mating plug for connector included
BBP/BBT Series
GSA Series
These AC LVDTs utilize linear ball bearings to provide
exceptional repeatability and long service life. They
are available in 0.315 inch [8 mm] diameter plain body
and 0.375 inch [9.5 mm] diameter, either plain or
threaded body.
The GSA Series of short range spring loaded
position sensors were developed for cost sensitive
applications requiring LVDT reliability and performance.
Scale approx. 1:2
Scale approx. 1:2
Ranges of ±0.04 inches to ±0.20 inches
[±1 mm to ±5 mm]
Ranges of ±0.10 inches to ±0.30 inches
[±2.5 mm to ±7.5 mm]
Repeatability of 0.000006 inches
(0.15 ìm) or better
±0.5% maximum linearity error
Life exceeds 2 x 108 cycles
Economical 3/4 inch size
Sealed to IEC IP65
Also available in air extend/spring retract versions
Support Electronics
LVC 2500 Series
The LVC 2500 is a rugged, compact, din rail mount,
single-channel signal conditioner for AC LVDTs that
operates on 10-30 V DC. Designed expressly for use in
24 V systems with PLCs, it offers the user a choice of
three analog outputs.
Macro Sensors provides support electronics
solutions for users, system integrators and
OEMS. These include AC/DC operated singlechannel and dual channel microprocessorbased controllers and indicators with digital
readout and setpoint control for both AC and
Scale approx. 1:3
10-30 V DC operation
Outputs of 0 to 10 V DC, 0 to ±10 V DC, or 4-20 mA
DIN rail mounting
Adjustable span and zero
User selectable gain and excitation frequencies
Synchronizable oscillator
DMC Series
DMI Series
The DMC Series is an accurate, high performance,
programmable dual-channel controller.
The DMI Series is an accurate, high performance,
programmable single-channel indicator.
115/230 V AC power line operation
0-10 V DC single analog output; 4-20 mA (optional)
Supports all standard AC LVDTs (DMI-A1)
or 24 V powered DC LVDTs (DMI-D1)
RS232C serial communications
Four independently programmable set points
to control four 5 A Form A relays
12/24 V DC powered operation (optional)
Supports all standard AC LVDTs (DMC-A2)
or 24 V powered DC LVDTs (DMC-D2)
RS232C serial communications (optional)
PC-software configurable
F o r A C & D C LV D Ts
115/230 V AC power line operation; 12/24 V DC (optional)
0-10 V DC single analog output (optional)
Four independently programmable set points
to control four 5 A Form A relays (optional)
Scrolling prompts for easy meter setup
Free-Core and Spring-Loaded DC LVDTs
HSD Series
Macro Sensors pre-calibrated DC-powered LVDTs
are designed for a wide range of industrial
applications. Free-core and spring-loaded models
are offered in a variety of mechanical
The HSD Series of precalibrated DC LVDTs is designed for
operation in hostile environments. The standard HSD
includes an in-line, hermetically-sealed, stainless steel
connector, while a radial version (HSDR) with a throughbore design allows easy cleaning and reduced installed
length. A mating plug is also included.
configurations and include built-in electronics for
the following standard I/O configurations:
24 V DC input, true 0-10 V DC output,
3-wire, single-ended electronics
±15 V DC input, 0 to ±10 V DC output
Available in standard 0.750 inch [19 mm] diameter
4-20 mA loop powered
Precalibrated ranges of 0.10 inches to 20 inches
or ±0.05 inches to ±10 inches
[2.5 mm to 500 mm or ±1.25 mm to ±250 mm]
Scale approx. 1:2
±0.25% maximum linearity error, ±0.1% optional
Operate in hostile environments
S Series
GHSD Series
The S Series consists of general purpose, free- core
DC LVDTs that utilize built-in electronics to provide the
desirable features of an AC LVDT, while offering the
convenience of DC input and pre-calibrated DC output.
The heavy duty GHSD includes an axial connector for close
mounting. It is also available with a radial connector for
shorter installed length (GHSDR) or in an air extend/spring
retract version with a radial connector (GHSDR-A).
Scale approx. 1:2
Scale approx. 1:2
Available in standard 0.750 inch [19 mm] diameter
Available in standard 0.750 inch [19 mm] diameter
Precalibrated ranges of 0.10 inches to 20 inches
or ±0.05 inches to ±10 inches
[2.5 mm to 500 mm or ±1.25 mm to ±250 mm]
Ranges of 0.10 inches to 4 inches
or ±0.05 inches to ±2 inches
[2.5 mm to 100 mm or ±1.25 mm to ±50 mm]
±0.25% maximum linearity error, ±0.1% optional
±0.1% or ±0.25% maximum linearity error
Economical, general purpose DC LVDTs
Low pressure air extend/spring retract version
Long Stroke and Rotary Position Sensors
LP Series
LP Series infinite life position sensors offer frictionless operation, enhanced
stroke to length ratios, high resolution, excellent repeatability, and low hysteresis.
They are particularly suited for use where installation space is limited. These
rugged sensors are contructed of stainless steel, and are hermetically sealed
against hostile environments to IEC standard IP-68.
Scale approx. 1:3
Potentiometer replacement; unlimited cycle life
Available in standard 0.750 inch [19 mm] diameter
Ranges of 4.0 inches to 40.0 inches [100 mm to 1000 mm]
±0.25% maximum linearity error, ±0.1% optional
Available with the following standard I/O configurations:
24 V DC input, true 0-10 V DC output, 3-wire, single-ended
5 V DC input, 0.5 to 4.5 V DC output
4-20 mA loop powered
RSE 1500 Series
The Macro Sensors RSE 1500 series of
contactless, fractional turn rotary position sensors
provide an output proportional to shaft rotation
with a true zero to 10 V DC output. RSE 1500
series rotary sensors are enclosed in a 1-1/2 inch
diameter anodized aluminum shell, and have a
0.250 inch stainless steel shaft running in high
performance ball bearings.
Scale approx. 1:1
0° to 30°, 60°, 90°, or 120° rotational ranges
Full 360° rotation contactless technology
Non-linearity less than ±0.1% of FRO
DC voltage absolute analog outputs
Environmentally sealed to IEC IP-66
Integral DC-in / DC-out electronics
Custom OEM Designs
Macro Sensors has a library of over 800 custom
High Pressure
designs. Our engineering team will work closely
with your company to offer the most cost-effective
solution to your measurement challenges.
Flange mount
Spring loaded
Up to 5000 psi
Monel / Inconel
High Temperature
High pressure up to 5000 psi
Up to 200 °C
Ruggedized design
Rod-eye end connections
Remote Electronics
Hostile environments
UL approved
Wide range of operating temperatures
High level outputs
(0-10 V, 4-20 mA, 0.5 - 4.5 V, etc.)
Military / Aerospace
Custom OEM Designs
Hazardous Locations
In-Cylinder Mounting
Flight qualified
High reliability
High pressure hydraulics
High stroke to length ratio
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF