v2r1bootprocess

v2r1bootprocess
Network Station Education
IBM NCD
August 1999
01/31/00 v2r1bootprocess.prz
Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 -©
Course
may not be reproduced in whole
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1
Objectives/Summary
Provide a high-level overview of the Network
Station boot process
What are the basic Network Station Components?
How does the Network Station obtain it's operational
software?
What are the different methods of booting?
How does a Network Station locate a boot server?
What files need to be downloaded?
What is the sequence of events?
What are Boot servers and Application servers?
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Network Computer Division 2
Notes
The objective of this presentation is to provide a high-level overview of the Network Station
boot process. This is meant mainly for those who have not been exposed to this topic
before and who are unfamiliar with a thin client or Network Station.
This presentation has not changed much since the last version because the concepts
really have not changed. There are just a few slight differences and maybe a few new
charts, but most of the charts are the same.
We take a look at the basic Network Station components and the steps that are required
for a station to become operational.
Many of these individual components or processes are covered in a lot more details, when
necessary, in other presentations on this CD or in the supplied redbooks and product
publications.
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Network Computer Division 3
Network Station Components
Boot
Server
RAM
Operating System
(kernel)
PROM
Boot
Monitor
Configuration
Parameters
NVRAM
Applications
Boot/Network
Parameters
Network Station
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Network Computer Division 4
Notes
This chart illustrates the basic Network Station components.
The Boot prom contains a copy of the boot monitor, which is the essential component
required to get the station started in its boot process
The nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) is used to store some of the configuration parameters that
are to be retained between power offs and power ons of the station.
Then comes the RAM, that contains
the operating system that has been downloaded from a server o the network
additional configuration parameters that are downloaded from servers on the network
applications, also downloaded from a server, as they are started by a user
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Network Computer Division 5
Traditional PC vs Network Station Boot
Network
Station
IP Network
Boot Server
Load
Kernel file
CFG Files
Applications
Boot Monitor
For a PC, the boot process
involves loading files from a
local disk
For a Network Station, the boot
process involves loading files
from a remote disk
PC
Load
Kernel file
CFG Files
Applications
BootStrap
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Network Computer Division 6
Notes
The process of starting a Network Station is really not very different from starting a PC.
This chart illustrates the differences and similarities. In the bottom right hand corner, when
a PC is powered on, a small piece of code called a bootstrap, located on a local disk, is
executed and knows to load an operating system from the local disk.
On a Network Station, the equivalent of the bootstrap code is the boot monitor code, and
instead of residing on a local drive, it resides in a PROM chip.
When the boot monitor code is given control, it fetches an operating system, but instead of
loading it from a local disk, it fetches it from a remote disk. What that means is that the
boot monitor code must be a little more sophisticated than a bootstrap code because it
needs to be able to connect to a server over a network before it can fetch an operating
system, but the generic function and concept is basically the same.
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Network Computer Division 7
Network Station Initialization Phases
Four Phases
Power-on Self Tests (POST)
Boot
Locate a boot server
Download an Operating System (kernel)
Customization
Download Terminal Configuration data
User Logon
Validate the user
Download user and group specific
configuration data
Boot
Server
Kernel file
CFG Data
IP Network
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Boot Monitor
Network
Station
(IP host)
Network Computer Division 8
Notes
The network station's initialization process can be broken down into four phases:
The Power-on Self Tests (POST) phase that verifies all the internal circuitry
The boot phase which locates a boot server and download an Operating System (kernel)
The customization phase that download Terminal Configuration data
The user login phase that validates the user and download user and group specific
configuration data
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Network Computer Division 9
What is the Boot Monitor (Boot Code)?
A Program that resides permanently
in the Network Station's nonvolatile
memory (NVRAM)
Boot
Server
Kernel
Is given control after the Power-On
Self tests have completed
Its responsibilities are to:
Open the network interface card
(Token-Ring or Ethernet adapter)
Locate a Boot server
Contact the boot server to get its operating
system (kernel)
Hand over control to the kernel and remove
itself from memory
IP Network
NIC
Boot Monitor
kernel
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Network Computer Division10
Notes
The boot monitor is a program that resides permanently in the Network Station's
nonvolatile memory (NVRAM) and that is given control after the Power-On Self tests have
completed.
Its main responsibilities are to:
Open the network interface card
Locate a Boot server
Contact the boot server to get its operating system (kernel)
Hand over control to the kernel and remove itself from memory
If its process is interrupted after the Power on self tests are completed (by using the ESC
key), it also presents a graphical interface that allows an administrator to enter
configuration parameters into NVRAM, as well as to perform problem determination tasks
if necessary.
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Network Computer Division11
How to Locate Servers?
Extract the configuration data from the local
NVRAM. This data includes:
It's own IP address
The IP address of a boot server
The address of a gateway
The Protocol to use, etc.
Send a broadcast on the network to find a DHCP or
a BOOTP server that will supply this same
configuration data
This is the PREFERRED method
DHCP is preferred over BOOTP (more flexible)
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Network Computer Division12
Notes
How does the station initially locate a server?
There are a couple of methods that can be used:
If the administrator has used the boot monitor's interactive configuration interface to enter
configuration data in NVRAM, the station can be directed to read its data from NVRAM.
THis is why this is called an NVRAM boot.
Or the station can be directed (this is also an NVRAM parameter) to issue a broadcast on
the network looking for a DHCP server that will provide it with the same configuration
information that the administrator would enter in NVRAM .
This second method is the preferred and recommended method because it is a lot more
flexible and lends itself to centralized management of a network of stations.
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Network Computer Division13
User LOGON
User login panel is displayed
Login client contacts the Network Station Login
Daemon on the authentication server
User must be part of NSMUser group on the
authentication server
Triggers the choice of user and group preferences
For desktop appearance such as background color, or
launchbar icons
For automatic startup of applications
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Network Computer Division14
Notes
Next is the user login phase that starts with the display of a panel so that the user can
enter a user name and password.
There are exceptions to this process when the station is configured to operate in kiosk
mode. See the kiosk presentation for more details.
Once the user name and password is entered, the login client on the station contacts the
Network Station Login Daemon on an authentication server.
Note that the user must be part of NSMUser group on the authentication server to be
allowed to login.
Once the user is known, this triggers the choice of user and group preferences for desktop
appearance such as background color, or launchbar icons and for automatic startup of
applications.
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Network Computer Division15
Summary - Boot Sequence
Network Station
Broadcast to DHCP
server
Reply From DHCP server
(or data entered manually)
Download from boot server
Download from configuration server
Validates user/password with
authentication server
Download from authentication
server
Download from boot server
Boot Monitor
Boot parameters
Network Parameters
Other CFG Parameters
Kernel
PROM
NVRAM
RAM
Terminal Cfg
Parameters
Login Client
User Cfg Param.
Applications
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Network Computer Division16
Notes
This summarizes and recaps the boot process in a simplified fashion.
The boot monitor finds a DHCP server and obtains required configuration data from that
server.
If DHCP is not used, the same data was entered manually by an administrator in the
station's NVRAM
Using this configuration data, the station contacts a boot server and downloads its
operating system
It then obtains additional terminal configuration data from a configuration server
The login client then validates the user with an authentication server and user specific
configuration data is downloaded from that server
Applications are finally downloaded from a boot server either as they are autostarted or as
the user requests them.
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Network Computer Division17
Example - Locate a Server Using DHCP
DHCP CONFIGURATION FILE
DHCP Server
MAC Address
00005E68BFAD
9.24.104.240
Host
Name
stationa
Station IP
Address
9.24.104.189
Boot Server
IP Address
9.24.104.178
Kernel
Path
Kernel
File
/prodbase
/x86/
kernel.
2800
DHCPDISCOVER
Broadcast
Your IP address is 9.24.104.189
Your boot server is 9.24.104.178, etc.
DHCPREPLY
MAC=0000E568BFAD
my ip address=?
server's ip address=?
kernel filename=?
path to kernel=?
Network Station
Station broadcasts a DHCP DISCOVER
frame looking for a DHCP server. It
includes its MAC address as identification.
DHCP server replies with the IP address
that the station should use for its own
address
DHCP server also replies with the IP
address of the boot server that should be
contacted and the path to the kernel
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Network Computer Division18
Notes
This is an overview of the process in the case where DHCP is used.
The station (a DHCP client) issues a DHCPDISCOVER broadcast, looking for a DHCP
server that can respond with the type of configuration data that it needs. In the frame that it
sends, the station includes its MAC address as an identifier.
Dependent on how it is configured, the DHCP server may or may not have a record that
identifies this client specifically. In this example, it does have a client record, and that
record indicates the IP address that is reserved for that client (in this case, 9.24.104.189).
The DHCP server replies to the client, giving it the IP address that it should use but also
the address of the boot server that it should contact and the name and location of the
kernel file that it should download.
There are a few other pieces of information also sent, such as the subnet mask, gateway
address, etc. that provides the station with all the data it needs to proceed with its boot
process and download its operating system.
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Network Computer Division19
DHCP Options Request
Option
Network Station
60
77
Name
DHCPDISCOVER frame
Vendor Class ID
User Class
Option
1
3
6
15
66
67
211
26
212
213
214
219
98
Name
Subnet mask
Gateway
DNS Server
Domain Name
Boot Server
Boot File
Boot Protocol
MTU
Terminal Cfg Server
Terminal Cfg Path
Terminal Cfg Protocol
Failover Boot Server
Authentication Server
1
DHCPOFFER frame
2
DHCPREQUEST frame
3
DHCPACK frame
4
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Network Computer Division20
Notes
Without entering into too many details, here is another look at some of the exchanges that
takes place between the station and the DHCP server.
It is important to note, especially for a Network Station as we will see in a moment, the a
Network Station has the ability to use DHCP classes.
In the DHCPDISCOVER frame that the station broadcasts initially, it can also include, in
addition to its MAC address, a vendor class and a user class that further identifies this
particular client.
When the DHCP server initially responds with an offer (2), there are lots of options that can
be included, as listed here in this diagram. All of these are those typically used by a
Network Station.
The station then sends a DHCP request to indicate its acceptance of the offer after which
the server confirms it with a DHCP acknowledge.
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Network Computer Division21
DHCP Options Used by the Network Station
Option
Number
Name
R3 Boot
Code
V2R1
Boot
Code
NVRAM
1*
3*
6*
15*
66*
67*
211*
26
212
213
214
219
98
Subnet mask
Gateway
Domain Name Server
Domain Name
Boot Server (or LOCAL)
Boot File (or MCF)
Boot Protocol
Max Transmission Unit (MTU)
Terminal Config Server
Terminal Config Path
Terminal Config Protocol
Failover Boot Server
Authentication Server
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
N
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
* = Required
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Network Computer Division22
Notes
This chart lists the options commonly used by the Network Station.
As opposed to regular PCs which typically only require an IP address and subnet mask
and possibly a few other, a Network Station, in addition to those, also requires the
addresses of the different servers that it needs to contact in order to get its kernel and its
configuration files.
This chart also identifies the DHCP options that are new with V2R1. Those are:
The MTU size
An alternate address for the boot server in case the first server is not available
An authentication server address
If you are unfamiliar with these different servers, please review the Archictecture, Planning
and Design and the Separaration of servers presentations.
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Network Computer Division23
Vendor and User Class
Vendor Class ID (DHCP Option 60)
Used by DHCP Clients to identify their vendor type and
configuration
Server responds with option 43 that may contain an encapsulated
string of information that the client must parse
Example: The Network Station Vendor Class can be
IBM Network Station (for Series 100, 300 and 1000)
IBM Network Station X86 (for Series 2200 and 2800)
User Class (DHCP Option 77)
Used by DHCP Clients to identify their category of user or
application
Server responds with a set of options corresponding to the user
class (if DHCP server supports classes)
Example: The User Class is "IBMNSM 2.0.0" for an 8361-100
(Series 100 Ethernet 8MB Network Station)
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Network Computer Division24
Notes
These options are useful in the case of a Network Station, and even more so now that we
have different models and families of Network Stations.
The Vendor Class ID (DHCP Option 60) is used by DHCP Clients to identify their vendor
type and configuration. The server responds with option 43 that may contain an
encapsulated string of information that the client must parse.
For example: The Network Station Vendor Class can be IBM Network Station (for Series
100, 300 and 1000) or IBM Network Station X86 (for Series 2200 and 2800)
Even more important is the user class (DHCP Option 77) because it allows clients to
identify themselves more precisely. The server responds with a set of options
corresponding to the user class (if the DHCP server supports classes). For example, the
User Class is "IBMNSM 2.0.0" for an 8361-100 (Series 100 Ethernet 8MB Network
Station).
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Network Computer Division25
Network Station User Class
IBM Network
Station Model
Description
User Class
8361-100
Series 100 - Ethernet - 8 MB
IBMNSM 2.0.0
8361-200
Series 100 - Token-Ring - 8 MB
IBMNSM 2.1.0
8361-110
Series 300 - Ethernet - 16 MB
IBMNSM 1.0.0
8361-210
Series 300 - Token-Ring - 16 MB
IBMNSM 1.1.0
8361-341
Series 300 - Twinax - 1 MB
IBMNSM 3.4.1
8361-A22
Series 1000/32 MB-TRN
IBMNSM A.2.0
8361-A23
Series 1000/64 MB -TRN
IBMNSM A.2.0
8361-A52
Series 1000/32 MB - ETH
IBMNSM A.5.0
8361-A53
Series 1000/64 MB - ETH
IBMNSM A.5.0
8363-Exx
Series 2200 - Ethernet
8363-EXX
8363-Txx
Series 2200 - Token-ring
8363-TXX
8364-Exx
Series 2800 - Ethernet
8364-EXX
8364-Txx
Series 2800 - Token-Ring
8364-TXX
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Network Computer Division26
Notes
This chart lists the user class that correspond to each model of the Network Station.
Let's take a look at how this can work.
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Network Computer Division27
User Class Configuration - DHCP Server
Network Station
DHCPDISCOVER frame
77 More specifically, I am an IBMNSM2.1.0
1
2
3
4
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Network Computer Division28
Notes
In this example, the station sends in a DHCP discover frame (in 1) to request service from
the DHCP server.
As part of that frame, it identifies itself (in 2) as belonging to the class IBMNSM2.1.0
which tells us that this a Series 100 Token ring 8MB station.
Notice that the DHCP server is configured with a class called IBMNSM* which actually
includes all of the PPC models of the Network Station, so this particular client fits that
particular class.
In (3), we see the DHCP options that are configured as part of that IBMNSM* class.
The frame that is returned to the client in (4) therefore contains all of the options for that
class whereas these options would not be sent to a client that did not identify itself with a
class.
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Network Computer Division29
Boot Flows
Power On
Hardware Tests
Network Station
Boot Code:
1. Opens the adapter
2. NVRAM, DHCP/BootP or LOCAL Boot?
3. Issue DHCPDISCOVER
DHCPACK
Block
Standard
and valid
DHCP
options
Unique
Block
Monitor
resolution,
Keyboard
type,
MCF
entries
Option
Name
1
66
67
211
212
219
98
...
Subnet mask
Boot Server
Boot File
Boot Protocol
Terminal Cfg Server
Failover Boot Server
Authentication Server
etc.....
DHCP
Server
DHCPDACK
4. Downloads the kernel
Boot
Server
kernel
Kernel:
1. Mounts root file system
2. Populates Registry from info blocks
3. Registry daemon reads terminal cfgs
4. Login process is loaded
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Terminal
Config
Server
Network Computer Division30
Notes
What happens after the client receives these options?
This chart sort of summarizes the boot flow process from the beginning, that is:
The station is powered on
The POST tests complete
The adapter is opened
The NVRAM config is read to see if the data is there or if it should find a DHCP server
If DHCP, it sends a broadcast and receives a set of configuration options
These options are stored in a control block in memory
The client fetches its operating system from a boot server
The Registry daemon reads the control blocks to get all the configuration information and
populates the registry with that info
Thge registry daemon then reads the terminal configuration files from the configuration
server and populates the registry with that additional information
The login process is then started, which will display a login panel to the user.
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Network Computer Division31
Roaming
Roaming is the ability to select an authentication server other than
the default authentication server
A V2R1 client cannot use a V1R3 level authentication server but a
V1R3 client can use a V2R1 authentication server.
OK
V1R3 Auth Server
V1R3 Login Client
OK
OK
V2R1 Login Client
V2R1 Auth Server
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Network Computer Division32
Notes
When the login panel is displayed, the user can use the roam button in order to select an
authentication server other than the default server.
Since we can now have both V1R3 and V2R1 servers in the same network, one must
realize that a V1R3 client can login to either a V1R3 server or V2R1 server, but that a
V2R1 client can only login to a V2R1 authentication server.
When a V2R1 system coexists with a V1R3 system on the same machine, it is the V2R1
Network Station Login Daemon which is active since it can handle both types of clients.
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Network Computer Division33
Boot Servers vs Application Servers
PC
WTSE/MetaFrame/UIS
WinCenter/WinFrame
PC
RS/6000 AS/400
Windows NT
Boot Server
Boot Server
Boot Server
(Multi-user NT Server)
Windows Desktop Applications
Operating System Kernel
X11 or ICA Session
AS/400
5250 Emulator
Applications
S/390
Java
Applications
Web
Browser
3270 Emulator
Java Virtual
Machine
X-Windows Session
Network Station
Applications
RS/6000
Applications
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Network Computer Division34
Notes
This chart is a reminder that there is a distinction between boot servers (or configuration
servers or authentication servers) that are used during the boot process in order to provide
a station with the code and data that it needs to become operational, and the servers that
are accessed by applications executing on the station once it is up and running.
The three servers in the top right hand corner of the chart represent these servers, which
we have labeled generically as boot servers. The three platforms available for V2R1 are
the AS/400, AIX and Windows NT platforms.
On the left hand side of the chart are numerous application servers that are typically or
commonly used by the native applications on the station.
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Network Computer Division35
How does a Station Get its DNS Info?
Boot/CFG Server
DNS cfg
1
dns server=x.x.x.x
domain name=xxx.xx
etc.
NSM
DHCP Server
prodbase/x86/etc
resolve.conf
hosts
copy
DHCP CFG File
2
3 Option 6=dns server =
Option 15=domain name=
Network Station
dns server=x.x.x.x
domain name=xxx.xx
etc.
5
4
DHCP Offer
IBM Network
Station Technical Education
©- IBM
01/31/00
v2r1bootprocess.prz
Copyright IBM Corp. 1998
CourseCorporation
materials may not be reproduced in whole
or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.
Network Computer Division36
Notes
On the boot or authentication server, the normal TCP/IP configuration already exists and
has DNS information such as the domain name and one or more domain name servers
(1).
In Network Station Manager in the setup task Hardware=>Workstation=>Domain Name
Server, the user can click on Update Network Station Manager DNS file. This causes NSM
to update the .../prodbase/x86/etc/hosts and .../prodbase/x86/etc/resolv.conf files with the
same DNS information that is present on the server (2).
The same DNS configuration information can also be entered by the administrator into the
DHCP server's configuration files for those stations that use DHCP (3).
So how does a Network Station then retrieve the DNS information it requires in order to
operate?
If the station boots using DHCP and the DHCP server transmits the required options that
contain the DNS information (4), then this is the way that the station learns about its DNS
information.
If the station boots using NVRAM, or does not have the required DHCP options, the kernel
retrieves this information from the /etc/hosts and /etc/resolv.conf files on the server through
the file system(5).
IBM Network
Station Technical Education
©- IBM
01/31/00
v2r1bootprocess.prz
Copyright IBM Corp. 1998
CourseCorporation
materials may not be reproduced in whole
or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.
Network Computer Division37
Where To Go For More Information?
Main Web Site
www.ibm.com/nc
Current Network Station Redbook
SG24-5844 Network Station Manager V2R1 Guide
Previous Network Station Redbooks
SG24-5187 AS/400 - Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
SG24-5221 Windows NT - NSM Release 3
SG24-5212 Printing
SG24-2127 Windows NT/WinCenter
SG24-4954 S/390, SG24-2016 RS/6000, SG24-2153 AS/400
Product Publications
SC41-0684 Installing NSM for AS/400
SC41-0685 Installing NSM for RS/6000
SC41-0688 Installing NSM for Windows NT
SC41-0690 Using NSM
IBM Network Station Advanced Information (On the Web Site)
IBM Network
Station Technical Education
©- IBM
01/31/00
v2r1bootprocess.prz
Copyright IBM Corp. 1998
CourseCorporation
materials may not be reproduced in whole
or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.
Network Computer Division38
Notes
A lot more information is available from these different sources.
In addition to the current (in draft redbook for V2R1 and the product publications, we list
also all previous redbooks, for V1R3, since many networks may still have a mix of V1R3
and V2R1 systems.
IBM Network
Station Technical Education
©- IBM
01/31/00
v2r1bootprocess.prz
Copyright IBM Corp. 1998
CourseCorporation
materials may not be reproduced in whole
or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.
Network Computer Division39
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