South Africa Report May06

South Africa Report May06
Energy policies for sustainable
development in South Africa
Options for the future
Edited by Harald Winkler
Energy Research Centre,
University of Cape Town
Energy policies for sustainable
development in South Africa
Options for the future
Edited by
HARALD WINKLER
Lead authors
Ogunlade Davidson, Harald Winkler,
Andrew Kenny, Gisela Prasad, Jabavu Nkomo,
Debbie Sparks, Mark Howells, Thomas Alfstad
Contributing authors:
Stanford Mwakasonda, Bill Cowan, Eugene Visagie
Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town
April 2006
Published by the
Energy Research Centre
University of Cape Town
Private Bag
Rondebosch 7701
South Africa
Website: www.erc.uct.ac.za
2006
ISBN: 0-620-36294-4
Contents
Acknowledgements
viii
Executive summary
ix
Abbreviations and acronyms used
xv
Part I: Energy for sustainable development – a profile of South Africa
1
1
Energy for sustainable development: an introduction
1
2
Energy policy
4
2.1
Introduction to South Africa’s energy system
4
2.2
Energy policy – an historical perspective
2.2.1 Introduction
2.2.2 The apartheid period
2.2.3 After the 1994 elections
2.2.4 After 2000
5
5
6
6
10
2.3
Energy for sustainable development – critical issues
2.3.1 Energy provision to the poor and disadvantaged
2.3.2 Access to cleaner technologies
2.3.3 Complying with environmental regulations
2.3.4 Energy integration and security in Africa
2.3.5 Conditions for a sustainable energy system
13
14
15
16
16
17
2.4
Outlook for the future – technologies and policies
2.4.1 Energy supply and the SAPP
2.4.2 Energy efficiency
2.4.3 Renewable energy
2.4.4 Cleaner fossil fuels
2.4.5 Cross-cutting issues
18
19
19
20
21
21
3
Energy demand
23
3.1
The current situation
3.1.1 History of energy demand
3.1.2 South Africa’s energy demand in a comparative perspective
3.1.3 Demand for electricity
3.1.4 Demand for liquid fuels
3.1.5 Final energy consumption by sector
23
23
25
26
29
30
3.2
Energy for sustainable development – critical issues
3.2.1 Energy intensity
3.2.2 Energy efficiency and inefficiency
3.2.3 More efficient technologies and cleaner fuels
36
36
37
39
4
5
3.2.4 Concluding remarks on main issues
40
3.3
Outlook for the future of energy demand
3.3.1 How is demand expected to change in future?
3.3.2 Drivers of energy demand
41
41
42
3.4
Emerging gaps
43
Energy supply in South Africa
45
4.1
Energy reserves and primary production
4.1.1 Coal
4.1.2 Oil
4.1.3 Natural gas and coalbed methane
4.1.4 Uranium
4.1.5 Biomass
4.1.6 Hydroelectric power
4.1.7 Solar
4.1.8 Wind
45
46
47
48
48
48
50
50
51
4.2
Energy transformation
4.2.1 Electricity generation
4.2.2 Production of liquid fuels
4.2.3 Renewable energy
52
52
56
58
4.3
Issues for future energy supply
4.3.1 Energy reserves and prices
4.3.2 Electricity supply
4.3.3 Liquid fuels
4.3.4 Renewables
59
59
59
60
60
Social issues
61
5.1
Analysis of the current situation
5.1.1 Introduction
5.1.2 Household energy access
5.1.3 Household energy use
61
61
61
64
5.2
Sustainability issues for energy development
5.2.1 Access, affordability and acceptability
5.2.2 Subsidies
5.2.3 Energy and job creation
5.2.4 Economic empowerment of the historically disadvantaged
5.2.5 The need to inform and educate the poor on energy issues
5.2.6 Gender and energy
68
68
69
69
70
70
70
5.3
Energy-related social issues
5.3.1 Future energy generation and job creation
5.3.2 Effects of electricity prices and subsidies
5.3.3 Energisation approaches
5.3.4 Energy and integrated development approaches
5.3.5 The challenge of inter-sectoral linkages
71
71
71
72
75
75
5.4
Emerging gaps
76
6
7
8
Energy and economic development
77
6.1
Analysis of the current situation
6.1.1 Situational analysis of the energy sector
6.1.2 Energy and energy-economy linkages
6.1.3 Externality costs
77
77
77
81
6.2
Energy for sustainable development – critical issues
82
6.3
Future outlook
6.3.1 Some issues on energy demand
6.3.2 Restructuring and energy diversification
6.3.3 Realising the potential benefits of energy efficiency
85
85
85
86
6.3
Emerging gaps and challenges
87
Energy and the environment
88
7.1
Analysis of the current situation
7.1.1 Broad overview
7.1.2 Legislation and policy
88
88
88
7.2
Critical local issues
7.2.1 Petroleum
7.2.2 Transport pollution
7.2.3 Impacts of kerosene as a fuel
7.2.4 Coal production and use
7.2.5 Gas-fired power generation
7.2.6 Nuclear energy – potential impacts
7.2.7 Biomass fuel impacts
7.2.8 Environmental issues related to renewable energies
89
89
91
91
92
94
94
94
95
7.3
Critical global issues
7.3.1 Greenhouse gas emissions and climate change
7.3.2 Other global agreements or protocols
97
97
99
7.4
Outlook for the future
7.4.1 Future environmental policy goals
7.4.2 Future commitments on GHG reductions
100
100
100
Identifying and modelling policy options
104
8.1
Industry and energy efficiency
8.1.1 Mining
8.1.2 Iron and steel
8.1.3 Chemicals
8.1.4 Non-ferrous metals
8.1.5 Non-metallic minerals
8.1.6 Pulp and paper
8.1.7 Food, tobacco and beverages
8.1.8 Other
8.1.9 Energy intensity changes
8.1.10 Structural change in industry
8.1.11 Demand projections
8.1.12 Implementing policy options
104
104
105
105
106
106
107
107
107
108
109
110
110
8.2
Commercial energy use
114
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3
8.2.4
8.2.5
8.2.6
8.2.7
8.2.8
8.2.9
8.2.10
8.2.11
8.2.12
9
Definition of commercial sector and commercial sector activity
Energy use patterns in the commercial sector
Characteristics of energy demand technologies
Demand projections
New building thermal design
HVAC retrofit
Efficient HVAC systems for new buildings
Variable speed drives for fans
Efficient lighting systems for new buildings
Heat pumps for water heating
Solar water heating
Fuel switching
114
115
116
117
117
118
118
118
118
119
119
119
8.3
Residential energy policies
8.3.1 Defining the sector – six household types
8.3.2 Energy use patterns in the residential sector
8.3.3 Characteristics of energy technologies
8.3.4 Projections of future residential energy demand
8.3.5 Solar water heaters and geyser blankets
8.3.6 Energy-efficient housing
8.3.7 Subsidies for energy efficiency in low-cost housing
8.3.8 Efficient lighting
119
119
122
123
124
127
128
128
129
8.4
Agriculture
8.4.1 Agricultural sector activity
8.4.2 Energy use in the agricultural sector
8.4.3 Demand projections
130
130
130
131
8.5
Coal mining
132
8.6
Electricity generation – gas, renewables, hydroelectricity and nuclear
8.6.1 Switch from coal to gas
8.6.2 Renewable energy for electricity generation
8.6.3 The nuclear route – the pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR)
8.6.4 Importing hydroelectricity from the region
8.6.5 Reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants
133
135
135
139
140
141
8.7
Transport and liquid fuels
8.7.1 Liquid fuel supply
8.7.2 Transport sector activity
8.7.3 Transport energy use
8.7.4 Characteristics of energy demand technologies
8.7.5 Demand projections
8.7.6 Liquid fuel policies
142
142
143
143
144
145
146
8.8
Energy-related environmental taxation
146
Modelling framework and drivers
147
9.1
Model description
147
9.2
General assumptions and drivers of future trends
9.2.1 Economic growth
9.2.2 Population projections and impact of Aids
9.2.3 Technological change
9.2.4 Future fuel prices
148
148
148
149
150
9.2.5 Discounting costs
9.2.6 Emission factors
10 Results of scenario modelling
152
152
153
10.1 Reference case
153
10.2 Industrial energy efficiency scenario
159
10.3 Commercial efficiency and fuel switching scenario
161
10.4 Cleaner and more efficient residential energy scenario
163
10.5 Electricity supply scenario options
10.5.1 Imported gas
10.5.2 Imported hydroelectricity
10.5.3 PBMR nuclear
10.5.4 Electricity supply: renewable energy
168
168
168
169
170
10.6 Liquid fuel – bio-fuel refinery scenario
171
10.7 Fuel input tax scenario
172
11 Energy indicators of sustainable development
175
11.1 Environment indicators
175
11.2 Social indicators
180
11.3 Economic indicators
183
12 Conclusions
187
12.1 The reference case
187
12.2 Demand-side scenarios
12.2.1 Industrial sector
12.2.2 Commercial sector
12.2.3 Residential sector
188
188
188
189
12.3 Supply-side scenarios
12.3.1 Electricity supply
12.3.2 Liquid fuels and biodiesel
12.3.3 Tax on coal
189
189
190
190
12.4 Overall conclusion
190
Appendix
191
References
196
Acknowledgements
This publication combines research from a two-phase project, the first supported by the
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) and the second
phase funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The research was
undertaken by the Energy Research Centre (ERC) – an amalgamation of the former Energy
and Development Research Centre and the Energy Research Institute. ERC would like to
express its thanks to UNDESA and IAEA for the support provided.
The authors are Ogunlade Davidson, Harald Winkler, Andrew Kenny, Gisela Prasad,
Debbie Sparks, Mark Howells and Thomas Alfstad, with contributions from Stanford
Mwakasonda, Bill Cowan Cowan and Eugene Visagie.
The reports were edited into a single publication by Harald Winkler, and language edited
by Robert Berold and Mindy Stanford.
The report presents the findings and views of the authors, and does not claim to represent
the views of any organisation.
vii
Executive summary
The purpose of this publication is to present a profile of energy in South Africa, assess
trends and analyse some options for the future. It is divided into two parts – Part I presents
a profile of energy and sustainable development in South Africa, while Part II uses
modelling tools and indicators to assess future policy options for the country.
Part I: Energy for sustainable development – a profile of South Africa
The initial two chapters introduce the concept of energy for sustainable development and
sketch the context of energy policy for South Africa. The next two chapters outline the
current situation and future outlook for both energy demand (Chapter 3) and supply
(Chapter 4), identifying critical issues for sustainable development for the scenario
modelling undertaken in Part II. Chapters 5 to 7 consider the social, economic and
environmental dimensions.
South Africa’s profile of energy demand, characterised by relatively high energy intensity,
makes the more efficient use of energy particularly important. Important energy policy
initiatives are already underway with respect to energy efficiency and renewable energy.
Many interventions have been proposed and studied in detail and these suggest that it
makes economic sense to promote end-use energy efficiency and demand-side
management. A key policy question, which is examined here, is why greater efficiency is
not realised.
Since most projections indicate that coal will continue to be used for some time to come,
finding ways of using fossil fuels in a cleaner way is important during the transition to
different energy systems. It is suggested that cross-cutting policy instruments, such as
energy-environmental taxes, could play an important role in this regard.
The excess electricity capacity, which characterised South Africa’s energy profile in the
past, has come to an end, and the country now needs to invest in new capacity. Coal-fired
power plants provide baseload through some new pulverised fuel plants, and also through
fluidised bed combustion. Options that depart from business-as-usual are domestic supply
alternatives (various renewable energy technologies and nuclear power) and increased
electricity imports (hydro-electricity, and gas for combined cycle gas turbines). In the liquid
fuel sector, options examined are the extension of refinery capacity and introduction of biofuels, which raise important policy questions regarding energy for sustainable development.
Part I concludes with three chapters, which consider each of the major dimensions of
sustainable development in turn – social, economic and environmental. The environmental
implications are both local and global. Given its coal-based energy economy, South African
is one of the highest emitters of greenhouse gases when compared to other developing
countries, whether this is measured in emissions per person or per unit of gross domestic
product (GDP). Local air pollution is associated with negative impacts on respiratory
health.
A major social aspect is access to modern energy services as a key goal, and Chapter 5
outlines the challenge of making such access affordable for poorer households. Experience
with the ‘poverty tariff’ (which provides 50 kWh per month of free basic electricity for
households) raises important issues about the role of subsidies.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
In Chapter 6, which examines the economic point of view, the building of local
manufacturing capacity for added-value industries is identified as a way of changing
existing patterns of investment in sectors that see their competitive advantage in cheap
electricity. Changes in energy pricing deserve more attention in this regard. Overall, the
issue of energy security and its relation to diversity of supply has implications for the
economy as a whole. Another economic dimension concerns job losses in the coal mining
and electricity sectors, which raises the need to identify new areas where jobs can be
created in energy supply – or indeed in promoting the more efficient use of energy.
Part II: Scenarios of future energy policies and indicators of sustainable
development
Part II presents possible energy futures for South Africa and demonstrates how indicators of
sustainable development can be used to assess options. A range of energy policies for the
period 2000-2025 were modelled and the results are evaluated against energy indicators.
The model used – the Markal model framework – is a least-cost optimising tool, rich in
technologies and capable of including environmental constraints. The method of using
indicators of sustainable development provides a sound means for policymakers to identify
synergies and trade-offs between options, and to evaluate their economic, social and
environmental dimensions.
Using Markal, the authors analysed both demand-side and supply-side policies for their
contribution to energy objectives and also to broader sustainable development goals. On
the demand side, the policy options modelled covered industry, commerce, residential and
transport sectors; on the supply side, they covered electricity and liquid fuels. The types of
policy instruments investigated include both economic and regulatory instruments.
Part II is divided into five chapters: Chapter 8 identifies policy options for the scenario
modelling, analysing in greater detail a selection of policies from Part I. Chapter 9 describes
the modelling framework and the key drivers of the reference case, which is close to current
government policy. The modelling results for each of the policy options are reported in
Chapter 10, while Chapter 11 consolidates the assessment against indicators of sustainable
development. Conclusions are presented in Chapter 12.
The results show that the tools used in this analysis – a modelling framework combined
with indicators of sustainable development – provide researchers and policymakers with a
useful way of examining trade-offs, while at the same time providing scope for
compromise.
The reference case
The base reference case (‘current development trends’) is close to the government’s
Integrated Energy Plan (DME 2003a). For electricity, the second National Integrated
Resource Plan (NIRP) (NER 2004a) was used.
On the demand-side, fuel consumption in industry and transport dominates, with transport
growing most rapidly among sectors.
On the supply-side, the energy sources used to generate electricity consist of existing and
new sources of coal, supplemented by gas turbines and new fluidised bed combustion
using discard coal. Smaller contributions come from existing hydroelectric schemes and
bagasse (sugar cane husks), electricity imports, existing and new pumped storage and
interruptible supply. The supply of liquid fuel is met mostly from some expansion to
existing refineries, together with a small proportion of imports of finished petroleum
products.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Emissions of both local and global air pollutants increase steadily in the reference case,
over the period 2000-2025. Carbon dioxide emissions increase from 337 Mt CO2 in 2001 1
to 591 Mt CO2 in 2025 – an increase of 75% over the entire period.
Policies modelled
A set of energy policy cases was modelled and compared to the base case. These were:
Higher energy efficiency in industry. Industrial energy efficiency meets the national target
of 12%, less final energy consumption (compared to business-as-usual). This is achieved
through greater use of variable speed drives, efficient motors, compressed air management,
efficient lighting, heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system efficiency, and other
thermal saving. Achievement of this goal depends on forcefully implementing the policy.
New commercial buildings designed more efficiently. HVAC systems are retrofitted or new
systems have higher efficiency; variable speed drives are employed; efficient lighting
practices are introduced; water use is improved, both with heat pumps and solar water
heaters. In addition to specific measures, fuel switching for various end uses is allowed.
Achievement of this goal depends on forcefully implementing the policy.
Cleaner and more efficient use of energy in the residential sector. Water heating is
provided through increased use of solar water heaters (SWHs) and geyser blankets. The
costs of SWHs decline over time, as new technology is accepted more widely in the South
African market. More efficient lighting, using compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) spreads
more widely, with a further reduction in costs. The shells of houses are improved by
insulation, prioritising ceilings. Households switch from electricity and other cooking fuels
to liquid petroleum gas (LPG). Subsidies are required to make interventions more
economic for poorer households.
Biodiesel production increases. A key policy option regarding liquid fuels for transport is
the supply of biodiesel to displace high dependence on petroleum. Biodiesel production
increases to 35 PJ by 2025, with a maximum growth rate of 30% per year from 2010.
These energy crops do not displace food production, and sustainable production means
the fuel is effectively zero-carbon.
The share of renewable electricity increases. The share increases to meet the target of
10 000 GWh (gigawatt-hours) by 2013. The shares of energy from solar thermal, wind,
bagasse and small hydroelectric sources increase beyond the base case. New technology
costs decline as global production increases
Pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) modules increase the capacity of nuclear energy
production. Nuclear capacity is increased to 4 480 MW by introducing 32 PBMR modules.
Costs decline with national production and initial investments are written off.
An increase in imported hydroelectricity. The share of hydroelectricity imported from the
Southern African Development Community (SADC) region increases from 9.2 TWh in
2001, as more hydroelectric capacity is built in southern Africa.
An increase in imported gas. Sufficient gas is imported to provide 5 850 MW of combined
cycle gas turbines, compared to 1 950 MW in the base case.
Tax on coal for electricity generation. The use of economic instruments for environmental
fiscal reform is being considered by the national Treasury. The option of a fuel input tax on
1
The base year number is fairly close to the CO2 emissions reported in the Climate Analysis Indicator Tool
(WRI 2005) for 2000 – 344.6 Mt CO2. It is somewhat higher than the 309 Mt CO2 from fuel combustion
reported in the Key World Energy Statistics for 2001 (IEA 2003a).
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
coal used for electricity generation is analysed. Such economic instruments could be
extended to coal for synthetic fuel (synfuel) production and industrial use. Alternatively, the
environmental outputs could be taxed directly, e.g. in a pollution tax, although this is not
analysed in this study.
Key results
Key results are presented in Chapters 9, 10 and 11, and a summary of quantitative results
can be found in the appendix. Important findings and conclusions are as follows:
On the demand-side, energy efficiency policies were found to be particularly important.
The overall strategy of reducing final energy demand by 12% compared to business-asusual can be implemented most effectively in the industrial sector. Industrial energy
efficiency is effective both in lowering the cost of the energy system by R18 billion over 25
years, and in reducing global and local air pollution. Carbon dioxide emissions are reduced
by 770 Mt CO2 over 25 years. Greater efficiency has benefits in delaying the need for
investment in power stations, with new base load power stations postponed by four years,
and peaking power plant by three years.
Higher energy efficiency in industry. Realising the potential for industrial energy efficiency
requires forceful and determined, even aggressive, implementation. Current practice is
often not economically optimal and clear signals are needed to induce industry to invest in
options that must be shown to make financial sense. The agreement between industry and
government to implement the energy efficiency strategy (DME 2005a), and the recent
announcement that a dedicated Energy Efficiency Agency is to be established, bode well in
this regard.
New commercial buildings designed more efficiently. A strong legal and institutional
framework is needed for the commercial sector. The modelling suggests that a 12% energy
efficiency target is achievable and can save R13 billion over 25 years. However the results
also suggest that the cost of optimal energy efficiency improvements are 2-3% lower than
the 12% of the government target and that these savings thus come at a cost (which works
out at about 5% of investment costs). Government can play an important role here by
taking the lead in making its own buildings and practices more efficient.
Cleaner and more efficient use of energy in the residential sector. The residential sector is
particularly important for social sustainability. A sustainable development approach aims to
deliver services that meet basic human needs, but in a cleaner and more efficient manner.
The policy interventions that are modelled focus on end uses – solar water heaters and
geyser blankets, liquid petroleum gas for cooking, efficient housing shells, and compact
fluorescent lights (CFLs) for lighting. Making social housing more energy-efficient through
simple measures, such as including insulating in ceilings, should be adopted as a general
policy.
All policy cases assume near-universal electrification, and in the residential case we find
that the share of other commercial fuels (LPG and paraffin) also increases. Overall fuel
consumption, however, is lowered compared to the base case (8.13 PJ less in 2025),
because of increasing efficiency and the use of solar energy for water heating. Not all
interventions are used by all household types – for example, energy efficient houses are
only taken up by urban higher-income electrified households. The lower costs of geyser
blankets – both upfront costs and costs per unit of energy saved – suggests that geyser
blankets are appropriate policy interventions in poor electrified households.
Access to energy in physical terms needs to be accompanied by affordability in economic
terms. The findings suggest that a relatively small subsidy can make energy efficiency
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
interventions economic for poorer households. The order of magnitude of the subsidy
required to make efficient housing as affordable for poorer households as for richer ones is
less than R1000.
Supply-side measures. On the supply-side, four policy cases focused on electricity supply –
imported gas, important hydroelectricity, generating electricity domestically from pebble
bed modular reactor (PBMR) nuclear, and renewable energy technologies. A sustained
move towards greater diversity requires more than a single policy.
An increase in imported hydro-electricity and imported gas. Imported hydroelectric power
potentially reduces investment costs, but increases the share of imported energy as a
percentage of total primary energy supply (TPES). Imported gas increases the share of
imports, while making little difference to total energy system costs.
PBMR and renewable energy options. The pebble bed modular reactor case with imported
fuel also shows an increase of imported energy reaching 4.3% of TPES in 2025.
Renewable energy technologies perform better, although they too include a substantial
proportion of imported components. Investing in the PBMR and renewable energy options
increases the costs of the energy system, while imported gas has a much smaller effect, and
hydroelectricity imports actually reduce costs. While the increased costs for both the PBMR
and renewables are only 0.06% of the costs of the energy system, they nonetheless amount
to over R3 billion over the period. In unit costs (R/kW of new capacity), gas is significantly
cheaper than other options, followed by a mix of renewable energy technologies,
hydroelectricity and the PBMR. These options show quite substantial emission reductions –
246 Mt CO2 for the PBMR and 180 Mt CO2 for renewable energy technologies, both over
the 25-year horizon. Both reduce local pollutants, notably sulphur dioxide, by 3% and
1.6% respectively.
Biodiesel production. The potential to produce 1.4 billion litres of biodiesel was modelled
to start in 2010 and reach a market share of 9% of transport diesel by 2025. Through this,
an average of 4 500 barrels/day of oil refining capacity can be avoided. Total reduction in
CO2 reaches 5 Mt CO2 per annum in 2025 and the cumulative savings are 31 Mt CO2 for
the entire period. There are also reductions in local pollutants. The present value of the
total system cost for this scenario is R2.4 billion higher than for the reference scenario.
Tax on coal for electricity generation. The results for a tax on coal for electricity generation
show that the reductions of CO2 emissions from coal for electricity generation are small
relative to the reference case. The economic difference lies less in system costs (R67 million
over 25 years) and more in the tax revenues. These revenues, while imposing added costs
on producers, could also generate economic benefits if recycled. More detailed analysis is
required of this policy option, for instance possibly extending the tax to coal for synfuels
and industry, and quantifying the indirect economic effects of tax recycling and the impacts
on other policy objectives.
Emissions reductions. If combined, the emission reductions achieved by all the policies
analysed here add up to 50 Mt CO2 by 2015 and 142 Mt CO2 for 2025, which amounts to
14% and 24% of the projected base case emissions respectively. One important conclusion
is that significant emission reductions (‘avoided emissions’) compared to business-as-usual
are possible. However this should be understood together with a second conclusion, which
is that stabilising emissions levels (e.g. at 2010 levels) would require some additional effort
from 2020 onwards.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Conclusions
Over the 25-year timeframe considered here, energy efficiency makes the greatest impact
when seen against indicators of sustainable development. Industrial efficiency, in particular,
shows significant savings in energy and costs, with reductions in air pollution. Commercial
energy shows a similar pattern, although at a slightly smaller scale. Residential energy
efficiency is particularly important for social sustainability. Even small energy savings can
be important for poorer households. In the short-term – the 2006 to 2015 decade – we can
conclude that energy efficiency will be critical to making South Africa’s energy
development more sustainable.
In the longer-term – the next several decades – transitions which include the supply-side
will become increasingly important. To achieve greater diversity there will need to be a
combination of policies, since single policies on their own will not change the share of coal
in TPES by very much. The various alternative electricity supply options show potential for
significant emission reductions and improvements in local air quality. However, they will
require a policy of careful trade-offs in relation to energy system costs, energy security and
diversity of supply.
The global costs (discounted total energy system costs) for the combined scenario are lower
than for the base case by some R16 billion over the full 25-year period (2000-2025). Thus
the savings due to the combined efficiency measures more than justify the additional costs
of investing in a diversified electricity supply.
xiii
Abbreviations and acronyms used
ADMD
Aids
ANC
bcm
BESST
CBO
CCGT
CDM
CER
CFL
CH4
CO
CO2
COP
DBSA
DME
DSM
EBSST
EDRC
EIA
ERC
ERI
ESCO
FBC
FGD
GDFI
GDP
GEAR
GHG
GJ
GWh
HFO
HH
HVAC
IBLC
IEP
IGCC
IPCC
IPP
IRP
kW
after diversity maximum demand
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
African National Congress
billion cubic metres
basic electricity support service tariff
community based organisation
combined cycle gas turbine
Clean Development Mechanism
certified emissions reductions
compact fluorescent light
methane
carbon monoxide
carbon dioxide
coefficient of performance
Development Bank of Southern Africa
Department of Minerals and Energy
demand-side management
electricity basic support services tariff
Energy and Development Research Centre (forerunner of ERC)
environmental impact assessment
Energy Research Centre
Energy Research Institute (forerunner of ERC)
energy service company
fluidised bed combustion
flue gas desulphurisation
gross domestic fixed investment
gross domestic product
Growth Employment and Redistribution (policy)
greenhouse gas
gigajoule (109 joules)
gigawatt-hour (109 watt-hours)
heavy furnace oil
household
heating, ventilation and cooling
in-bond landed cost
Integrated Energy Plan
integrated gasification combined cycle
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
independent power producer
Integrated Resource Plan
kilowatt (103 watts)
xiv
kWh
LNG
LPG
Markal
mcf
MJ
Mt/a
Mtoe
MW
MWe
MWh
NEP
NER
NGO
NIRP
NOx
N2O
NMVOC
O&M
OCGT
OECD
PBMR
PetroSA
RDP
RHE
RLE
RLN
SADC
SAPP
SD-PAMs
SHS
SIC
SO2
SWH
synfuels
tcf
TFC
TJ
TPES
TWh
UHE
ULE
ULN
UNFCCC
VSD
kilowatt-hour (103 watt-hours)
liquefied natural gas
liquefied petroleum gas
Market Allocation Modelling Tool
million cubic feet
megajoule (106 joules)
million tons per annum
million tons of oil equivalent
megawatt (106 watts)
megawatt of electrical power
megawatt-hour (106 watt-hours)
National Electrification Programme
National Energy Regulator
non-governmental organisation
National Integrated Resource Plan
nitrogen oxides (also referred to as ‘oxides of nitrogen’)
nitrous oxide
non-methane volatile organic compounds
operations and maintenance
open cycle gas turbine
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
pebble bed modular reactor
Petroleum Oil and Gas Corporation of South Africa
Reconstruction and Development Programme
rural higher income electrified household
rural lower income electrified household
rural lower income non-electrified household
Southern African Development Community
Southern African Power Pool
sustainable development policies and measures
solar home system
standard industrial classification
sulphur dioxide
solar water heater
synthetic fuels
trillion cubic feet
total final energy consumption
terajoule (1012 joules)
total primary energy supply
terawatt-hour
urban higher income electrified household
urban lower income electrified household
urban lower income non-electrified household
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
variable speed drive
xv
Part I
ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
– A PROFILE OF SOUTH AFRICA
1
Energy for sustainable development: an introduction
Ogunlade Davidson
E
nergy has been the key to economic development worldwide, but in the way it is
sourced, produced and used, two major drawbacks have emerged. First, the overall
energy system has been very inefficient. And second, major environmental and
social problems, both local and global, have been associated with the energy system.
Up to about 30 years ago, the global energy system was about 34% efficient, meaning that
only a third of the world’s energy input was being converted into useful energy
(Nakicenovic et al. 1998). Since then, improvements to the efficiency of the global energy
chain have led to this figure increasing to about 39%. Viewed thermodynamically, there
are major ‘irreversibilities’ in the system, which means that the task of further improving the
overall efficiency of the global energy system is a daunting one.
Many environmental and social problems are caused by the way the energy system
operates. The combustion, transport and disposal of energy sources as they go through
different conversion processes results in harmful emissions. These emissions in turn cause
local, regional and global environmental problems, including serious, even fatal, human
health hazards. The workings of the energy sector are also socially disruptive – the
development of most energy sources results in the dislocation of people and exacerbates
differentials among social groups. Reducing the environmental and social burden is thus a
major concern for the energy sector.
Before the industrial revolution in England, the world economy was essentially based on
agriculture. Energy demand was limited and could be met by biomass and animal power.
Then coal fuelled the industrial revolution and the new industrial demand permanently
1
2
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
changed the global energy sector. In the early 1900s, the internal combustion engine and
the use of petroleum transformed the transport sector. As the electricity and industrial
sectors grew, the entire energy sector changed profoundly. Long-distance pipeline
technology to transport natural gas proved to be efficient and environmentally acceptable.
In the 1970s a series of crises in the oil sector deeply affected the global energy system,
forcing countries to re-examine the efficiency of energy production and use, and to search
for alternatives to fossil fuels. Together, the ideas of energy efficiency and renewable
energy led to the concept of sustainable energy, which is now widely accepted in
international energy discourse.
Sustainable energy
Sustainable energy can be defined as energy which provides affordable, accessible and
reliable energy services that meet economic, social and environmental needs within the
overall developmental context of society, while recognising equitable distribution in
meeting those needs (Davidson 2002a). In practice, sustainable energy has meant different
things to different people. Some think of it as the energy related to renewable energy and
energy efficiency. Some include natural gas under the heading of sustainable energy
because of its more favourable environmental quality. Whatever approach is used,
sustainable energy always implies a broad context which covers resource endowment,
existing energy infrastructure, and development needs.
Sustainable development
The concept of sustainable development, which is closely related to sustainable energy, has
also become increasingly important. The development paradigms in operation after the
Second World War led to major social and environmental problems. During the 1950s and
1960s, most nations were preoccupied with economic growth and energy consumption,
which led naturally to a dramatic increase in energy demand. Economic growth was the
major concern, with social and environmental issues being ignored in comparison. After
the 1950s, the paths taken to heal the ravages of the Second World War incorporated new
realisations about the social deprivation of the majority of the world’s population. By the
1970s development paradigms began to include social considerations. There was a new
realisation of the social dangers of a world where the richest 20% of the population
received 83% of the world’s income and the poorest 20% received 1.4% (Davidson
2002b). In the late 1970s and the 1980s there was a growing realisation of the seriousness
of the deterioration in the environment, and a significant number of people began to call
for development paradigms that would consider environmental issues alongside economic
and social issues. The late 1980s saw further concerns being raised about the global
environment, the climate change threat in particular. Sustainable development paradigms
started to become part of the international agenda.
Sustainable development is defined as development that meets the present needs and
goals of the population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet
theirs. Because sustainable development involves economic development, social
development and environmental development, it requires us to define these. Economic
development is economic progress that leads people to be willing and able to pay for goods
and services that enhance income and efficient production. It is closely related to economic
efficiency. Social development is the improvements in the well-being of individuals and
society which lead to an increase in social capital, institutional capital and organisational
capital. Environmental development is the management of ecological services and of the
human beings that depend on them. Sustainable development takes all three into
consideration. How to provide sustainable energy to satisfy the sustainable development of
South Africa is the motivation and subject of this report.
ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: AN INTRODUCTION
Figure 1.1: Elements of sustainable development
3
2
Energy policy
Ogunlade Davidson
Contributing author: Harald Winkler
2.1 Introduction to South Africa’s energy system
T
he South African economy is energy-intensive, meaning that the country uses a large
amount of energy for every rand of economic output (Hughes et al. 2002). It
requires 0.24 tons of oil equivalent to produce 1000 international2 dollars at
purchasing power parity3 (PPP) of GDP in 2001 (IEA 2003a). Annual per capita energy
consumption in South Africa is 2.4 tons of oil equivalent. Although large, this figure is still
much lower than that of the United States of America, where it is 8 tons of oil equivalent
(WRI 2005).
The national energy supply is secure and well structured. It is dominated by coal, which
contributes 70% of the country’s primary energy (DME 2005b) and fuels 93% of electricity
production (DME 2005b). Currently, 33% of the coal mined in South Africa is exported. Of
the total domestic supply, 55% is transformed into electricity, 21% into petroleum products,
4% into gas, and the remaining 20% is used directly (ERC 2003). The industrial,
commercial, transport and residential sectors all consume coal directly. Energy supply is
therefore carbon dioxide-intensive. Much of the coal mined is of a low quality, and so
needs to be beneficiated (DME 2004a). Solid waste is discarded annually – about 6.3
million tons in 2003 (DME 2004a). National coal reserves are plentiful and pressure on
supplies is only likely to be felt around 2012, with peak production expected around 2070
(Dutkiewicz 1994).
Petroleum products account for 38% of total final energy consumption (TFC). Liquid fuels
are derived from refined crude oil and liquefied natural gas, and from coal via the Sasol
coal-to-oil process. Most of the crude oil refined in South Africa is imported – in 2001,
crude oil imports totalled 139 million barrels (DME 2005b). Of the TFC of liquid fuels, 72%
is derived from crude oil, 23% from coal and 5% from natural gas. Currently there is an
imbalance in the diesel to petrol demand from the transport sector. If this situation persists,
refined petroleum products may have to be imported. Although there are small oil reserves
offshore, petroleum supply is associated with a high import dependency. Synthetic fuel
production from coal is expected to be phased out over the next 40 years because of the
demand for other chemicals. Gas field reserves are also limited, and the Mossgas
installation is unlikely to continue beyond 2010.
2
When comparisons are made with purchasing power parity, the value used is the ‘international dollar’,
which is a hypothetical currency unit with the same purchasing power that the US dollar has in the United
States at a given point in time. It shows how much a local currency unit is worth within the country’s
borders. Conversions to international dollars are calculated using purchasing power parities (PPP). It is
used mainly for comparisons of gross domestic product (GDP) – both between countries and over time.
3
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is an alternative exchange rate between the currencies of two countries. It
takes into account the fact that some goods such as real estate, and some services such as medical
services, and certain heavy items are not traded, and are thus not reflected in the exchange rate.
4
ENERGY POLICY
5
Gas consumption plays only a small part in the South African energy mix, accounting for
2% of primary energy supply and 1% of final consumption (DME 2005b). The natural gas
supply is almost exclusively used by the Mossgas gas-to-oil plant and most of the gas
consumed directly is produced by coal gasification. By international standards, gas
consumption is low – this is due to small reserves, and the fact that little has been done to
establish industrial gas networks. Natural gas is found off the country’s shores, with reserves
estimated at 30 billion cubic metres (bcm) off the south coast and some very small
discoveries of 3 bcm off the west coast. Although these reserves are not large, the
opportunity for using this low CO2 emission fuel has not been sufficiently harnessed.
Electricity supplies 28% of national TFC (DME 2005b). The national supply body, Eskom,
supplies 95% of demand, with the remainder coming from small inputs from local
authorities. Because of South Africa’s inexpensive coal, Eskom boasts the lowest electricity
cost in the world. Ninety-one percent of the country’s electricity is generated from coal,
with small amounts coming from hydro and pumped storage (4%), and nuclear (5%).
Sulphur-related emissions from power stations, though significant at 1.5 million tons per
year (Eskom 2004; NER 2004b), are relatively low, as the sulphur content of local coal is
low. Many existing power stations have control equipment for particulate emissions.
Much of rural South Africa is without access to grid electricity, and the cost associated with
grid extension has resulted in an increased use of small-scale renewable generation sources
such as photovoltaics and micro-hydro. South Africa has a large off-grid electrification
programme. Although small with respect to total generation, these sources are of special
significance because of their contribution to meeting ‘basic needs’.
Biomass, particularly fuelwood, is an important fuel in South Africa. Commercial and noncommercial biomass is estimated to supply just under 20% of the national final energy
consumption. The biomass fuel cycle is unregulated and shortages exist in various areas.
Most biomass is consumed directly by households. Small amounts are used for charcoal
production, and biomass for industrial consumption is provided by bagasse in the sugar
industry and wood wastes in the pulp and paper industry. Most of the household fuelwood
is collected from the areas in and around the crowded settlements of fuelwood consumers.
This has resulted in the degradation of large areas of otherwise potentially arable land.
2.2 Energy policy – an historical perspective
2.2.1 Introduction
Energy production has been, and still is, one of the main contributing factors to the social
and economic development of South Africa. It has lent prosperity and security to the
country by providing heat and power for industry, transportation, and household use. The
sector has been largely driven by economic and political forces, which have had a
profound impact on energy policies.
When considering the country’s energy policies, it is best to consider three different
periods: the first being the period of the apartheid regime, from 1948 up to 1994; the
second the period following the first democratic elections of 1994, up to 2000; and the
third from 2000 onwards, after the euphoria of independence had started to recede.
The energy policies of all three periods differed, but all contributed to the growth of the
sector. During the apartheid period, due to the political isolation of the country, energy
policies were mostly centred on energy security. After the advent of democracy, energy
policies were directed to addressing the injustices faced by the majority of the population
who had previously been denied basic services – equity and justice were therefore the
6
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
primary goals. From 2000, energy policies focused on trying to achieve the targets and
timetables that the government set itself after 1994. These targets relate to job creation and
economic security, and recognise that development paths have to proceed in a sustainable
manner and protect both local and global environments.
In South Africa one of the primary environmental issues is adverse emissions from coal.
Nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide from coal combustion cause serious problems for the
local environment, while the CO2 emissions cause climate change. This is challenging to
the government – it has to balance affordability with the huge task of providing services for
the poor, while at the same time complying with local and international obligations to
protect the environment. In general the country’s energy policies broadly reflect this new
context.
2.2.2 The apartheid period
Before 1994, energy policies were designed to provide energy services based on ‘separate
development’, the apartheid government’s euphemism for racial discrimination. In the
domestic sector, this meant providing modern energy services to the ‘white’ population
group, which formed 11% of the population, and limited or no services at all to the rest of
the population. High priority was given to the needs of the industrial sector because of its
role in economic and political security. In general, this meant concentrating on electricity
and liquid fuels, as these were crucial to economic and political interests. Security, secrecy
and control characterised most of the policies that prevailed.
An important government decision in the 1950s, made for political and economic reasons,
was to produce liquid fuel from coal through the government-owned Sasol. Security of
liquid fuel supply was the main driver here. At the same time, the decision was made to
refine crude oil locally. Up to 1954, all refined oil products had been imported and
distributed by BP, Caltex, Mobil, and Shell (Trollip 1996) but now the growing demand for
liquid fuels justified the development of refineries. Production of liquid fuel started at Sasol
I in 1954 and the Mossgas plant was developed in 1992. Both plants were heavily
subsidised by the government (Trollip 1996).
Escom (the Electricity Supply Commission, forerunner of Eskom) had been producing
electricity for a long time, supplying the industrial structure including the military complex,
and a number of mainly white households. In 1987, some major changes took place,
which still significantly affect power sector reforms today. Two key statutes were
introduced: the Escom Act of 1987, and the Electricity Act of 1987. The Escom Act defined
the responsibility of the utility as providing electricity in the most cost-effective manner,
although it said nothing about supplying electricity to all citizens. The Electricity Act defined
the structure, functions and responsibilities of the Electricity Control Board and assigned
the sole right of electricity supply within municipal boundaries to local government
(Eberhard & Van Horen 1995). Five years later, in 1992, a new body called Eskom (now
with a ‘k’) was established in terms of the Electricity Act. Eskom was to be controlled by the
Electricity Council whose composition was now more representative of stakeholders. The
Electricity Council would appoint Eskom’s management board.
2.2.3 After the 1994 elections
The government that took office after the first democratic elections was committed to
democratic governance and a new constitution, and it was determined to provide basic
services to the poor and disadvantaged majority of South Africans. Modern energy,
especially electricity, was considered to be one of the main components of such services.
Government focussed its attention on electrification and liquid fuels.
ENERGY POLICY
7
2.2.3.1 Accelerated electrification
Well before the African National Congress (ANC) won the first democratic elections in
1994, a number of groups had been working with the ANC to formulate an energy
programme to address the needs of the poor and disadvantaged. To this end a national
meeting on electrification in South Africa was held in 1994 by the Department of Economic
Planning of the ANC, and organised by the Energy and Development Research Centre
(EDRC) of the University of Cape Town. This meeting aimed to formulate an accelerated
electrification programme to serve the underdeveloped urban, peri-urban and rural areas
where 80% of the population lived, nearly all of them black South Africans. The meeting
was attended by different stakeholders, universities, municipalities, and non-governmental
organisations (NGOs). The results of the Energy Policy Research and Training Project
(EPRET) undertaken by EDRC, provided major inputs to this meeting (ANC 1994;
Marquard 1999).
From 1992 to 1994, although a period of political uncertainty, was a time of several
negotiating forums between government, business, labour and opposition groups on
policy-making and governance in many economic sectors, including energy. EDRC
researchers participated in several ANC policy committees (Marquard 1999). These and
other forums led to the development of an energy section, including an electrification
programme, within the ANC’s Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP). This
formed the basis of all energy programmes that followed, including current programmes.
The results of the EPRET research greatly influenced the electrification programme and its
targets. A number of working groups were formed, covering regulatory framework,
structure and policy, financing and tariffs, the
electricity supply industry, end use and efficiency.
2.2.3.2 The National Electrification Programme
The National Electrification Programme was implemented between 1994 and 1999. Its
objective was to electrify rural and urban low-income households which had been deprived
of access to electricity during the apartheid period. The Programme expected that newly
electrified households would switch from using fuelwood, candles and batteries to using
electricity for their household needs. Eskom had already embarked on a programme in
1991 called ‘Electricity for All’. The Government of National Unity that emerged in 1994
endorsed the electrification programme. Phase 1 of the programme, completed by 1999,
aimed at electrifying an additional 2.5 million households on top of the 3 million that had
already been electrified, which would bring the national proportion of households
electrified up to 66%. The government funded the programme together with Eskom, which
had the advantage of tax-free status.
2.2.3.3 The White Paper on Energy
The process leading to the formulation of the White Paper on Energy was contracted to
EDRC. There were two stages: consultation and writing, then production and approval.
The first stage involved a number of stakeholder forums, leading to a discussion document
as a basis for comment. After a period for inviting public comment, a National Energy
Summit was held to arrive at a consensus on energy sector goals. The next stage, which
was the production and approval part of the process, involved several consultation
meetings. These meetings led to a draft paper in June 1996. Because of several political
and administrative problems, the draft paper became public only in July 1998. The
Parliamentary Portfolio Committee then held a series of public hearings, and the final
paper was published at the end of 1998.
8
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
The White Paper consisted of four parts: (1) context and objectives for energy policy, (2)
demand sectors, (3) supply sectors, (4) cross-cutting issues.
Context and objectives of the White Paper
The White Paper recognised national energy and economic demands, while accepting the
international energy agenda and the need to identify appropriate energy supply and use.
The following five policy objectives were agreed upon:
1. Increasing access to affordable energy services.
2. Improving energy governance – clarifying the relative roles and functions of various
energy institutions in the context of accountability, transparency and inclusive
membership, particularly participation by the previously disadvantaged.
3. Stimulating economic development – encouraging competition within energy markets.
4. Managing energy-related environmental and health effects – promoting access to basic
energy services for poor households while reducing negative health impacts arising from
energy activities.
5. Securing supply through diversity – promoting increased opportunities for energy trade,
particularly within the Southern African region, and diversity of both supply sources and
primary energy carriers.
Demand sectors
For households, the emphasis of the White Paper was on low-income and rural areas –
addressing problems of inadequate energy services to these areas, as well as inconvenient
and unhealthy fuels. The White Paper considered access to fuels and their associated
appliances, as well as fuel availability and pricing. Another issue that was considered was
the building of thermally efficient low-cost housing as an opportunity to promote energy
efficiency and conservation.
A further goal was providing greater energy efficiency to industry, commerce and mining,
both for its environmental benefits and for its cost benefits such as increasing international
competitiveness. The White Paper estimated that greater energy efficiency could save
between 10% and 20% of current consumption. Certain obstacles were highlighted:
inappropriate economic signals; lack of awareness, information and skills; lack of efficient
technologies; high economic return criteria; and high capital costs. Despite these obstacles,
government committed itself to facilitating greater energy efficiency.
The need to provide equitable access to affordable public transport was noted, and the
challenges were identified. The provision of energy for specific sectors was also noted, with
priorities being smallholder agriculture, rural schools, clinics, roads, and communication
infrastructure.
Supply sectors
Electricity: The White Paper proposed restructuring the electricity distribution industry
into independent regional distributors, at the same time making a commitment to the goal
of universal household access to electricity. Government supported gradual steps towards a
competitive electricity market while it investigated the desired form of competition. Eskom
was to be unbundled into separate generation and transmission companies. The Southern
African Power Pool (SAPP) would be supported.
Coal: Almost 72% of South Africa’s primary energy is from coal, over half being used to
generate electricity and a quarter being used for synfuels production. The coal industries
ENERGY POLICY
9
are privately owned and deregulation in 1992 allowed greater competition in the market.
This left government with the role of monitoring the industry. According to the White
Paper, the coal industry would remain deregulated and government would continue to
investigate options for the utilisation of coal discard streams.
Liquid fuels: The White Paper proposed minimum governmental intervention and
regulation of the liquid fuels sector, while emphasising international competitiveness and
investment, appropriate environmental and safety standards, sustainable employment and
the inclusion of local black interests in ownership.
Deregulation of crude oil procurement and refining would be promoted, as would the
removal of price control. The development of the gas industry and of coal-bed methane
would be promoted, and there would be legislation for the transmission, storage,
distribution and trading of piped gas.
Other energy sources: The future development of nuclear energy would depend on the
environmental and economic merits of the various alternative energy sources. Exploration
and production of oil and gas would continue under the principles of ‘use it and keep it’,
and ‘the polluter pays’, with offshore rights continuing to be vested with the state.
Renewable energy was considered to be advantageous for remote areas that were not
economically feasible for grid electricity supply. The government would facilitate the
sustainable production and management of solar power and non-grid electrification
systems largely targeted at rural communities. The promotion of appropriate standards,
guidelines, code of practice, and suitable information systems for renewal energy would be
considered.
Cross-cutting issues
These issues included the need for:
• Integrated energy planning
• Good statistics and information
• The promotion of energy efficiency
• A balance between environmental, health and safety and development goals
• Energy supplies and the private sector to carry out appropriate research and
development
• Development of human resources
• Capacity building, education and information dissemination
• The facilitation of international energy trade and co-operation
• The alignment of fiscal and pricing issues by the use of levies, tax differentials and
support for more environmentally benign and sustainable energy options, including
energy efficiency
2.2.3.4 Energy legislation
Several pieces of energy legislation were passed in the 1987-2000 period, of direct
relevance to the future of the energy sector in the country. They include:
Escom Act 40 of 1987
Defines the responsibilities of Eskom.
Electricity Act 41 of 1987
Defines the structure, functions and responsibilities of the Electricity Control Board, and
assigns the sole right of electricity supply within municipal boundaries to local government
authorities.
10
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Electricity Amendment Act 58 of 1989
Amends the Electricity Act of 1987 to provide for a levy on electricity; ensures that a
licence shall not be required for the generation of electricity; and provides for the transfer of
servitudes on the transfer of undertakings; and other incidental matters.
Nuclear Energy Act 3 of 1993
Brings all nuclear activities funded by the state under the control of the Atomic Energy
Corporation, with specified exceptions.
Electricity Amendment Act 46 of 1994
Amends the Electricity Act, 1987 by providing for the continued existence of the Electricity
Control Board as the National Electricity Regulator (NER), and applying certain provisions
of the Act to other institutions and bodies.
Electricity Amendment Act 60 of 1995
Amends the Electricity Act of 1987 further to establish the NER as a juristic body; it makes
provision for the appointment, conditions of employment and functions of the chief
executive officer and employees; and for the funding and accountability of the NER. The
objectives of the NER are given as:
• Eliminating monopolies in the generation and sales/supply sectors
• Rationalising end-use prices and tariffs
• Giving customers the right to choose their electricity supplier
• Creating an electricity market
• Introducing competition into the industry, especially in the generation sector
• Addressing the impact of generation, transmission and distribution on the
environment
• Permitting open, non-discriminatory access to the transmission system
• Creating similar opportunities for all distributors of electricity
The 1999 National Nuclear Regulation Act
This Act amends the governance of nuclear energy.
2.2.4 After 2000
After 2000, there was renewed discussion about reform in the energy sector. There were
suggestions that some regulation should return to the deregulated market, starting with the
gas and electricity sectors. The concern to extend social benefits of electrification was
reflected in the ‘poverty tariff’, which provided 50 kWh of free electricity to poorer
households. New policy, for example on renewable energy, continued to emerge. Many of
these considerations were combined in the first Integrated Energy Plan in 2003.
The 2001 Gas Act
Made for the orderly development of the piped gas industry and established a National Gas
Regulator.
The 2001 Eskom Conversion Act
This Act made Eskom into a public company.
The 2002 Gas Regulator Levies Act
This Act provided for the imposition of levies by the National Gas Regulator.
ENERGY POLICY
11
The 2003 Petroleum Pipelines Bill
The Bill seeks the establishment of a national regulatory framework for petroleum
pipelines, and provides for the licensing of persons involved in the manufacturing or sale of
petroleum products.
Merging of the energy regulators
In April 2003, the Minister of Minerals and Energy announced that the NER, the Gas
Regulator and the Upstream Petroleum Regulator would merge into a single entity within
five years.
2.2.4.1 Integrated Energy Plan
At the end of 2003, the Department of Minerals and Energy (DME) published an Integrated
Energy Plan (IEP). This plan provided a framework for taking decisions on energy policy
and for the development of different energy sources and energy technologies in the
country. The Energy Research Institute was contracted to undertake a computerised
analysis of the plan based on energy reserves, energy demand, and consumption up to
2020, using different scenarios of the South African economy. These scenarios show future
energy use from different energy sources, and evaluate the associated pollution, including
emissions of greenhouse gases.
2.2.4.2 Oil and gas industry
South Africa depends heavily on imported crude oil, which is then refined locally.
Historically, several different government institutions have been involved in various areas
of the petroleum industry such as importation of crude oil, exploration activities, and
strategic fund development.
Liquid fuels production, importation and consumption account for approximately 20% of
South African total primary energy supply (TPES). Currently consumption is about 450
000 barrels/day. Net imports account for about 255 000 b/d, with the balance being
synthetic fuels from coal produced by Sasol, and natural gas from Mossgas.
The petroleum sector is governed by a complex system of agreements between
government and the oil industries. These agreements essentially regulate the price of petrol
and diesel and determine how it is to be distributed, produced, transported and sold,
although the operations themselves are undertaken by the respective companies. With the
exception of pricing, the petroleum sector is not yet deregulated.
In 2003, DME introduced a new price mechanism, changing from the ‘in-bond landed cost’
(IBLC) to a basic fuel price set by the DME that will give back to motorists and the
economy an amount of R1 billion over 12 months.
The DME, in collaboration with the Department of Transport (DT), has recommended the
use of diesel fuel in minibus taxis as a means to reduce air pollution. To be effective as a
policy, this will require more diesel vehicles and good collaboration between the oil
industries and car manufacturers.
In 1991 the government deregulated refinery industries in South Africa. The income of
refineries is determined by import parity cost of fuels, and there is no control over refinery
margins. In summary:
• The government will not extend regulatory control over crude oil refining.
• There is no need for South Africa to build another refinery, since the current total
refinery capacity is sufficient to meet the present demand.
12
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
• The DME still sets the price of fuels.
• The DME advises the ministries of Transport and Finance on the energy-efficiency
implications of alternative transport and subsidy policies.
The overall quantity of South Africa natural gas resources is yet to be fully explored. At
present, natural gas is produced by Mossgas from the F-A Field off the Mossel Bay area. In
1997 it accounted for about only 1.6% of total primary energy in the country. Sasol also
produces gas amounting for about 1.1% of net energy consumption – this is mostly
consumed by large industries in Gauteng and Mpumalanga. There are possibilities to
increase the use of gas and to draw on the natural reserves from the neighbouring
countries of Mozambique and Namibia.
2.2.4.3 Government institutions
Soekor (Pty) Ltd was formed by the government in 1965 and is responsible for petroleum
exploration offshore activities in the country, including related policy and regulatory
functions. Early on in its history Soekor worked with several international oil companies but
most of them withdrew due to international sanctions. It has the mandate to carry out joint
exploration ventures and to allocate areas for exploration. Soekor operates beyond South
Africa, and has interests in Angola and South East Asia.
Mossgas was established by the government in 1992 to be responsible for the production
of gas from Mossel Bay and convert it to liquid synthetic fuels. Its production capacity is 45
000 barrels per day of crude oil equivalent; the product is refined to produce petrol, diesel,
kerosene and LPG from a feedstock comprising 4.9 million cubic metre day of natural gas
(IEA 1996: 180).
Petroleum Oil and Gas Corporation of South Africa (PetroSA) was established in July
2000, merging Mossgas and Soekor. The goal of PetroSA is to be a leading integrated
provider of oil, gas and petrochemicals competitively in African markets and beyond. The
overall production of PetroSA is 8% of the liquid fuel requirement of South Africa, and its
products are produced under different brand names in the Southern Cape and parts of the
Northern and Eastern Cape. Alcohols and small quantities of transportation fuels are
exported worldwide.
The Strategic Fuel Fund is a subsidiary of the Central Energy Fund. Its function is
stockpiling strategic reserves of crude oil. In 1988, the Strategic Fuel Fund stocked one and
a half years’ supply. By 1995 this was reduced to about half a year’s supply. The
government has approved a stock of four months supply, about 35 million barrels (Trollip
1996).
2.2.4.4 Promotion of renewable energy
The expansion of renewable energy in South Africa has taken place mostly in the rural
areas, where poor households are electrified with solar home systems (SHSs) in places
where the national grid cannot penetrate economically. In many cases renewable energy is
the lowest cost energy for these households. The broader approach known as
‘energisation’, which combines renewable energy technologies with sources like LPG, is
also being considered.
The government considers the use of renewable energy as a contribution to sustainable
development. Most of the sources are indigenous and naturally available, and the use of
renewables therefore strengthens energy security because it is not subject to disruption by
international crisis. In August 2002 a White Paper on renewable energy was published by
the DME for public comment. Some of its key objectives were:
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13
• To ensure that an equitable level of national resources is invested in renewable
technologies, given their potential and compared to investments in other energy supply.
• To introduce suitable fiscal incentives for renewable energy.
• To facilitate a good investment climate for the development of the renewable energy
sector, so that it can attract foreign and local investors.
The following policies were proposed:
• To develop an appropriate legal and regulatory framework for pricing and tariff
structures in order to support the integration of renewable energy into the energy
economy and attract investors.
• To develop an enabling legislative and regulatory framework to integrate independent
power producers into the existing electricity system.
• To develop an enabling legislative framework to integrate local producers of liquid fuel
and gas from renewable resources into their respective systems.
Further policies proposed were:
• To promote the development and implementation of appropriate standards, guidelines,
and codes of practice for the appropriate use of renewable energy technologies.
• To support appropriate research and development and local manufacturing to
strengthen renewable energy technology and optimise its implementation.
2.2.4.5 Electricity basic service support tariff (EBSST)
In 2003, as a social responsibility measure, the government decided to provide free
electricity to all connected households as a way of meeting the basic needs of the poor.
Fifty KWh monthly was considered sufficient to cover basic lighting, media access and
some water heating. Many municipalities across the country had already introduced free
electricity as of July 2001, varying from 20 KWh to 100 KWh monthly. The funding for the
EBSST programme was to come from government allocations to the municipalities and
from cross-subsidies.
A major impact of the EBSST has been to reduce the fee paid by the users of SHSs in the
non-grid electrification programme. Households, which had been paying R58 per month,
can now pay R18 as a result of the EBSST.
2.3 Energy for sustainable development – critical issues
To achieve its objective of sustainable development, South Africa needs to substantially
increase the supply of modern affordable energy services to all its citizens, while at the
same time maintaining environmental integrity and social cohesion. This is not an easy
path to follow.
Fuel for cooking is a major problem, especially in peri-urban and rural areas where most
poor and disadvantaged South Africans depend largely on firewood, charcoal, coal and
kerosene for their cooking needs. Sustainable development implies replacing firewood and
charcoal with more modern energy sources, while at the same time introducing
technological innovations to improve the efficiency and environmental problems associated
with coal and kerosene. It also means providing electricity to those without it – some 20%
of urban and 50% of rural people. Sustainable development also implies the provision of
electricity and other modern fuels to the commercial and industrial sectors to promote their
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
economic competitiveness and future prosperity, as well as greatly improving the public
transport system both with regard to service to commuters and technologically.
Accomplishing these tasks raises critical issues for energy sector policy. The major issues
are: energy provision to the poor and disadvantaged, access to cleaner technologies,
complying with both local and international environmental legislations, and energy
integration and security in Africa as a whole. We now look at these issues one by one.
2.3.1 Energy provision to the poor and disadvantaged
The government has stated that it wants 100% access to electricity by 2010, although it is
not clear if the intention is 100% grid electricity or if some of this will be off-grid. The
quantity of electricity to be available to each household has yet to be decided. Originally
the plan was to supply households with 350 kWh/month, but experience has shown that
newly connected households choose to consume between and 75kWh and 250 kWh per
month, with an average of about 100 kWh/month (Prasad & Ranninger 2003). Provision
should still be made for higher consumption, because it is known that providing electricity
leads to the development of other productive activities that use electricity. Further policies
will be required, as discussed below.
Grid and off-grid electricity supply
Generally, the overall macro-economic environment will determine the extent of
electrification for the remaining 20% of unelectrified households in urban areas and 50% in
rural areas, even though the multiplier effect of grid electricity can be significant if well
planned. Eskom (2002) has shown that the cost of new connections is declining, but it is
nevertheless clear that the cost of connecting the remaining urban and rural residents will
be very high. Supplying grid electricity to some rural areas is difficult because of their
remoteness and low population density, so cost becomes prohibitive, and a weak rural
economy makes cost recovery even more difficult. However, policy approaches based on
‘taking electricity to the people’ or ‘bringing the people to electricity’ should be explored.
Some problems have arisen because of the belief that ‘electricity for all’ means grid
electricity for all. The government is presently supporting off-grid SHSs by allocating
concessions, subsidising up to 70% of the capital cost and about 80% of the maintenance
costs. The results, from the systems installed so far, are mixed, and the cost to the
government is high (Afrane-Okese & Muller 2003). Policy attention will be required to
ensure the sustainability of the off-grid project.
A limited programme carried out at Lwandle in the Western Cape shows that with the right
policy, solar water heaters can be viable (Lukamba-Muhiya & Davidson 2003). The use of
liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is not yet widespread in South Africa, though it is increasing.
Some barriers can be addressed by certain policies and measures (Cowan 2005; Lloyd
2002) and South Africa can learn from successful programmes in Botswana, Senegal and
Ghana (Davidson & Sokona 2003).
There are some ongoing programmes aimed at introducing improved cooking stoves for
kerosene and coal. The Cape Technikon in Cape Town is working on improved kerosene
stoves, and the government is promoting low smoke fuel stoves using coal. These
technologies, if widespread, would improve efficiency and reduce health hazards.
Access to high quality transport fuels
Sustainable development requires the improvement of petroleum fuels and the introduction
of cleaner transport fuels. It requires public transport to be greatly improved to provide
essential travel, especially for the poor and disadvantaged. South Africans have far too
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great a reliance on private transport, which is not sustainable. However, such systems will
require major improvements in road and communication infrastructure. Developing this
infrastructure will require significant investments, and energy provision is only one of the
features needed.
Real steps are being taken in South Africa to improve the environmental qualities of petrol
and diesel. The use of unleaded petrol is growing, and the government intends to phase
out the use of leaded fuel within a few years. The rehabilitation of the Natref refinery to
produce low-sulphur diesel has been another move by the government to improve the
effect on the local environment. The government also intends to use up to 5% biodiesel,
which will also reduce adverse emissions. Some cities, such as Gauteng and Cape Town,
are planning to use compressed natural gas in public buses, which will result in both local
and global environmental benefits (Davidson & Xhali 2003).
2.3.2 Access to cleaner technologies
The cleaner technologies available to South Africa in the short and medium terms can be
divided into cleaner fossil fuel, technologies that are more energy efficient, and renewable
energy
2.3.2.1 Cleaner fossil fuel technologies
South Africa’s coal reserves are huge, and coal will remain a significant fuel for the country
for the foreseeable future. However, current technologies cause serious local and
(especially) global environmental problems. Natural gas is about 60% cleaner than coal in
terms of CO2 emissions, and significant progress is being made to improve technologies
associated with natural gas use. But natural gas currently contributes only about 1.5% of
the country’s needs, although the government intends to increase this share to 10% by
2010. Crude petroleum accounts for over 75% of the country’s transport needs and nearly
all of this is imported. The government is beginning to address some of the environmental
consequences of petroleum product use. Some further clean technology options are
discussed below.
Cleaner coal technologies
Technologies to reduce sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are used in many
industrialised countries, but they are expensive and require significant investment.
However if the overall economy improves, electricity consumers could possibly be taxed to
contribute to the increased investments needed.
Major technological progress is expected in coal technologies for power production, though
most of these will only be available in the medium term. Such technologies include
pulverised fuel combustion and integrated gasification and combustion technologies, and,
in the longer term, coal-powered fuel cells. These technologies could reduce CO2 emissions
from current levels of 1200 kg CO2/MWh to about 500 kg CO2/MWh, while at the same
time increasing efficiency from about 30% to 70%. In the longer term, technologies for
carbon capture and storage will be available – South Africa has many old coalmines where
carbon dioxide can be stored. Future coal power plants may need to include some end-ofpipe treatments, such as flue gas desulphurisation, although these add some 30% to the
cost of stations (see chapter 4).
Cleaner oil and gas technologies
Power production technologies using oil and gas are also improving, and in the longer-term
improved oil powered technologies are expected to reduce CO2 emissions by half. Similar
16
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
efficiency improvements are expected with oil-powered fuel cell technologies and with gaspowered technologies with improved turbine systems and fuel cells.
2.3.2.2 Energy efficiency technologies
There is room for significant improvement in energy efficiency in South Africa, especially in
the power and industrial sectors, but also in the household sector. However, major policy
changes will be needed to achieve these gains. The changes would have to be a
combination of regulatory and market-based policies and institutional changes. At present
the NER, along with Eskom, has embarked on load management and demand-side
management programmes in the residential, industrial and commercial sectors, aiming to
achieve gains between 1000 MW and 3000 MW by 2010.
2.3.2.3 Renewable energy technologies
Compared to the total energy used, the usage of renewables is very small, but the
government intends to increase it to about 14% by 2014 (Mlambo-Ngcuka 2003). A White
Paper on renewable energy was published in 2003.
2.3.3 Complying with environmental regulations
Because of South Africa’s extensive use of coal and petroleum fuels, adverse impacts on
both the local and global environment are significant.
The extraction of large quantities of coal leads to noticeable environmental impacts and
‘upstream’ emissions. For example, most of the methane released from the South African
energy sector is as a result of coal mining. Land scarring is caused by pit digging and
discard dumping. Discard dumps are prone to spontaneous combustion, water pollution
from run-off, and increased surrounding particulate concentrations. The conversion of coal
to petroleum products is about 40% efficient, resulting in significant emissions. Coal power
generation is relatively efficient, operating at about 35%. Power stations produce large
amounts of CO2, SO2, NOx and ash, although stacks that penetrate the inversion layers,
and effective ESP particulate controls, minimise impacts of all but the CO2 emissions.
South Africa is presently drafting stricter air quality standards. The country is a signatory to
the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and at the
same time it is Africa’s highest emitter of greenhouse gases. It is very likely that targets will
be imposed on South Africa as soon as these apply to developing countries. Complying
with such obligations, both local and global, will be expensive. To ensure sustainable
development, this should not be done at the expense of the country’s socio-economic
development.
2.3.4 Energy integration and security in Africa
South Africa is a member of the SAPP – made up of the different power utilities in
Southern Africa, with a secretariat in Harare, Zimbabwe. SAPP started operations in 2002,
with the aim of optimising the use of electricity in the region. South Africa has the biggest
electricity utility in SAPP, and its future will be affected by SAPP’s activities. Eskom is
currently working in 39 African countries, confirming South Africa’s importance for energy
integration in the continent.
As an example of regional energy cooperation, South Africa has embarked on diversifying
its energy supply base and reducing its reliance on the coal that accounts for 75% of its
energy supply. Substitution of coal for natural gas from Mozambique is one such measure:
full operation of this system started in early 2004. It is intended to use the gas to produce
power in combined cycles. Work with Namibia to develop its natural gas potential is also
ENERGY POLICY
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under way. Concerning oil, while over 70% of current supplies of crude oil come from the
Middle East, South Africa is now increasing its share from Nigeria. South Africa is also
working with the Democratic Republic of Congo to develop a 100 GW hydropower plant.
2.3.5 Conditions for a sustainable energy system
A sustainable energy system can be defined as one that provides for present energy needs
without compromising the ability of future generations to satisfy their energy requirements
(Goldemberg & Johannson 1995). At the same time, the system has to be affordable to
users and contribute to socio-economic development. If South Africa is to take the path of
sustainable energy, it is important to establish the real costs of energy (including
environmental costs) and to integrate the energy system with national development goals.
The lower the real cost of energy, the more competitive the system is.
To optimise an energy system, three approaches must be applied simultaneously. Firstly,
an evaluation of future energy scenarios and technology options must be made, together
with their associated impacts. Secondly, information should be clearly disseminated so that
the market can drive the energy system optimally. Thirdly, until the parties concerned are
empowered, steps should be taken to encourage external cost accountability and longerterm energy planning. Initially government can coordinate these steps, but over time they
should be self-perpetuating.
It is important to model technically accurate energy scenarios and their impacts on the
economy, resources, society and the environment, for both the medium to longer term.
From such analyses, we can derive information that is vital for policy construction and
investment (DME 2003a). Areas of specific interest and research direction includethe
following:
• The possibility of current energy sector development leading to future over-dependence
on finite resources, or on imports.
• The potential for longer-term national savings that could be brought about by extending
local, national and regional resources.
• The technical potential of power pooling in the region, taking into account the various
energy demand growth rate predictions for neighbouring countries.
• The potential for distributed power generation, especially where piped gas supply may
be cheaper than electricity distribution.
• The impact of novel technologies.
• Case studies to establish the applicability of technologies and energy strategies for the
South African situation. These could be either national or international in scope,
depending on the nature of the economic challenges involved. For example, Indian and
South African coal reserves are similar, so a joint integrated gasification combined cycle
(IGCC) pilot plant project holds potential savings (currently Eskom is completing the
construction of a fluidised bed plant with an Indian consortium). Another example is
biomass depletion and the health impacts from biomass burning, which is a common
theme in African rural energy supply. Coordinating research between different African
countries could lead to potential savings and African-specific solutions.
• The determination of energy efficiency potentials, and technological options for the
demand-side as a function of cost.
• The establishment of the real cost of energy and externality costs in the context of
national development goals.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
2.3.5.1 Real costs and externality costs
An externality cost can be defined as the change in utility or welfare of an agent when
brought about by another, when this change in welfare is not compensated for, or
appropriated (Van Horen 1996) by the second agent. When we add externality costs to the
supply cost of energy, we get the real cost of this energy to society. Externality costs,
whether positive or negative, give us a basis for penalising or reimbursing energy users for
their impact on the environment or society. Due to the somewhat subjective nature of
evaluating actual or potential impact costs, methodologies used for externality derivation
must be transparent and related to the context of economic growth in the short, medium
and longer terms. Externality data, if derived correctly, can provide important elements for
constructing an optimised energy system.
Information dissemination is vital for the establishment of a national, sustainable energy
system, and the most effective driver for the system should be the free market. However,
this is only possible if those involved can base their decisions on clear authoritative data.
For example, it is often said that energy savings are possible for South African industry and
commerce with significant medium-term financial gains. Such options are not being
pursued primarily because of a lack of accessible authoritative data.
The lower the real cost of energy, the more competitive the economy becomes – an
essential prerequisite for economic growth. This is why energy efficiency information and
externality costs, including the potential impacts of CO2 emissions restrictions on
production, must be made known. Meaningful databases should be built up for fuel use for
all energy cycles, from generation to efficient demand-side consumption, and this
information should be made accessible. It should include, for example, all feasible options
for rural electrification and energy supply. Such information would encourage optimal
energy development and form the basis for sound policy. With the right information and
market forces, South Africa’s energy system will evolve.
In the short term, government encouragement of a sustainable energy development is
essential, with a clear analysis of the most socially economic development paths. Possible
means of encouraging integrated energy planning include:
• physical controls such as short-term supply rationing;
• investment policies;
• education policies;
• taxes or subsidies;
• market controls such as regulating residential coal prices;
• establishing energy efficiency agencies.
In implementing regulation, careful consideration must be given to ensuring that externality
costs are borne by the parties responsible, and that controls do not restrict free market
activity (Spalding-Fecher & Matibe 2003). Control measures should be seen as temporary
and, in time, diminish. In the case of externalities, as the parties affected become
empowered, a laissez-faire situation would ideally evolve – so that, for example, a polluter
and the parties affected by the pollution would bargain to establish an optimum pollution
level and an associated cost compensation. Thus energy supplied will be at the lowest real
cost to society.
2.4 Outlook for the future – technologies and policies
The South African energy sector faces a twofold challenge – to address the unacceptable
lot of the poor, and to employ technologies and practices that will provide inexpensive
energy for a competitive economy without straining resources of the national, regional and
ENERGY POLICY
19
global environment. Within the context of responsible research, information dissemination,
fiscal influences and market forces, there are opportunities for an energy system optimised
economically, socially and environmentally. How do we provide the lowest cost energy to
society as a whole for the short, medium and long term? Clearly there are many possible
future energy scenarios. Although many of the technologies we describe below are not
new, they are presented in timeframes that probably best fit sustainable solutions. They are
presented in the categories of electricity supply and the SAPP, energy efficiency, renewable
energy technologies, and cleaner fossil fuels.
2.4.1 Energy supply and the SAPP
In the short term, changes in electricity supply will come through the SAPP and new local
power stations. The power supplied to SAPP from outside of South Africa will be generated
mostly by hydro, with some gas.
The largest hydro reserves in this region are in the Democratic Republic of Congo where
there is a technical potential of 100 000 MW, of which 40 000 MW of run-of-river may be
harnessed. Currently, South Africa has a generation capacity of 48 000 MW, while the rest
of the region has a capacity of 6 000 MW. Hydroelectric power imports hold the potential
of significantly reducing the CO2 emissions that would come with extra coal use. However,
these imports are bound to be limited by political and supply-security considerations.
Conventional wisdom suggests a limit in the short term of about 9%.
In the medium term, international pressures placed on fossil fuels may result in increased
imports from the SAPP, depending on energy supply constraints, and political and security
considerations. It is possible that increased gas supply could come from piped methane
from the Waterberg area and also from pre-mining extraction. Other sources may include
coal gasification and biogas from landfills, sewerage works, liquefied natural gas imports
(LNG) and possible gas imports from Mozambique.
Another supply option is increased domestic nuclear capacity. Of particular interest for
South Africa is the local development of the pebble bed nuclear reactor. This reactor has
the advantages of being small, of low energy density, inexpensive, intrinsically safe, of
modular design, and gas-cooled. At present, plans are underway for pilot plant feasibility
studies, as the pebble bed system holds potential for distributed generation.
More efficient storage will allow for energy supply integration, and thus more commercial
scope for intermittent generation of renewables. In the medium term, new energy carriers
and mixes are likely to become important. Also in the medium term, energy and pollutant
efficiencies should improve dramatically due to market forces.
The longer term is harder to predict. It seems likely that low-temperature superconductors
will revolutionise energy storage and generation. Fast breeder nuclear reactors are likely to
be in use, extending nuclear fuel reserves significantly. It has been suggested that nuclear
fusion will be viable and will be able to supply large quantities of hydrogen fuel, most likely
to be stored in the form of methanol for easy handling. Other technologies that are
expected to play a large role in the longer term include advanced solar technologies,
including molten salt ‘power towers’ and the artificial photosynthesis of sunlight into energy
carriers. In the long term, costs will include externalities and be optimised by market forces.
2.4.2 Energy efficiency
There are many possibilities for future energy policy in the field of improving energy
efficiency, which could have a major impact on sustainable development goals. While
some progress has been made, many potential gains remain.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
In the residential sector, for example, the savings to households from greater energy
efficiency can directly contribute to alleviating energy poverty. Turning current voluntary
guidelines for new housing into mandatory standards (especially in middle- and upperincome housing) would facilitate this. But even before this happens, building codes in the
commercial sector, which has greater financial capacity, should become mandatory.
Government is taking the lead in some of its own buildings in this regard, but more could
be done. Government procurement could impose energy efficiency standards on a wider
range of equipment. Standards for a diversity of equipment (such as variable speed drives,
air compression, heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) systems) can help increase
industrial energy efficiency. Appliance labelling and mandatory energy performance
standards are other measures that should be considered. All efforts to improve industrial
energy efficiency would contribute to economic development.
The transport sector is a large sector of energy consumption at municipal level, with large
emissions of both local and global pollutants. Improved fuel efficiency standards would
increase the energy efficiency of the national fleet. Vehicle emissions standards are
currently being considered by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism.
Implementing efficiency measures requires institutional support. The institutional
framework needs to be strengthened, both within and outside government. A national
agency championing energy efficiency would consolidate efforts, possibly working in
collaboration with energy service companies. Research, development and demonstration
would be of particular importance.
2.4.3 Renewable energy
At present, the commercial exploitation of South Africa’s renewable energy sources is
limited, but it is clear that the cost of renewable energy will continue to decline as the
technologies mature. Increased use of renewables will require the introduction of new
policies. The White Paper on Renewable Energy (2003) set a target of 4% of projected
electricity demand for 2013 (DME 2003b). A strategy for implementing this target needs to
be formulated, focussing on specific projects and their financing.
The government has often stated its intention to improve the local content of renewable
energy technologies used in South Africa. Hence a policy should be set up for progressively
increasing local content in the local manufacture of renewable technologies. Such a policy
should be accompanied by government-sponsored enabling conditions for local technology
development.
Strengthening the regulatory framework for promotion of these technologies within the
NER will help their development. Financial support for renewables in the form of subsidies
and tax incentives should be considered, targeted for a limited period. Initially, it appears
that the national Treasury will set aside funds on a once-off basis, but in the longer term,
financing schemes will have to be considered. They could include:
• feed-in tariff mechanisms;
• portfolio quotas with or without tradable certificates;
• tax incentives;
• green pricing.
In late 2005, the Renewable Energy Finance and Subsidy Office was established. The
Office’s mandate includes the management of renewable energy subsidies and provision of
advice to developers and other stakeholders on renewable energy finance and subsidies,
including size of awards, eligibility, and procedural requirements (www.dme.gov.za/dme/
energy/refso.htm).
ENERGY POLICY
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2.4.4 Cleaner fossil fuels
As mentioned above, technological progress is being made in developing and
implementing cleaner fossil fuel technologies. However, most of these efforts are in
developed countries and are restricted mainly to research and development networks.
Policy intervention could bring South Africa into participating in these networks and
partnerships. This would not only enhance the knowledge basis for suitable selection of
technologies, it would also allow local forces to be part of their development, thus increase
their chances of utilisation.
The international community has ratified the Kyoto Protocol to help reduce global
greenhouse gas emissions. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows developed
countries to invest in greenhouse gas mitigating projects that are ‘additional’ – meaning
that they would not otherwise have gone ahead. CDM projects should further the host
countries’ sustainable development goals, and emissions that are thus saved will be
credited to the developed country’s CDM project investors. An amount of approximately
21 million tons of CO2 equivalent4 is currently expected to be saved over the period from
2005 to 2012 in South Africa from the CDM (DME 2005b).
Other opportunities will also have positive environmental effects. The national electricity
regulator assumes that all future coal-fired plant will comply with World Bank emissions
standards (NER 2004a). New coal-fired (fluidised bed) plant is being considered which can
burn currently discarded coal waste. Although it will increase emissions from power
stations, wider availability of electricity will reduce much severe indoor air pollution (DME
2003a). The poverty tariff, providing 50 kWh per household per month of free basic
electricity (UCT 2002), is designed to promote the uptake of electricity and make its use
more affordable for newly connected households.
Other initiatives include the promotion of Basa Njengo Magogo, a scheme to reduce the
emissions from coal and wood burning in residential areas using informal stoves (DME
2005b), and the deployment of ‘Energy Centres’ dispensing clean fuels in low income
areas.
2.4.5 Cross-cutting issues
Financial instruments tend to have effects that cut across economic sectors. Particular kinds
of energy efficiency – notably for low-income households – would require subsidies. For
sectors that can pay for the capital costs, government needs to invest in programmes
promoting options with payback times short enough to attract investment by users
themselves.
Pollution taxes – possibly targeted at local pollutants rather than greenhouse gases – are a
crosscutting measure that would both meet environmental objectives and generate
revenues. Care should be taken that the energy burden of poor households is not increased
by such measures, but with appropriate targeting and recycling of revenue, this would be
avoided. More generally, funding for social and environment public benefits requires more
attention, particularly as deregulation increases competition.
Another suggestion for policy intervention is developing an adequate policy framework for
technology development and transfer. Policies could enhance a national system of
innovation, improve technology databases, and optimise human and financial resources
for technology acquisition.
4
Gases other than CO2 contribute to global warming. For simplicity, they are reported as the greenhouse
effect of tons of ‘carbon dioxide equivalent’.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Improvement of beneficiation from energy-intensive industries in South Africa would
provide macro-economic advantages, help technology development significantly, and
reduce technology imports. Some attempts in this respect are being made in the
manufacturing sector, but much more needs to be done.
An important issue is research and development and training institutions. Energy policy
development in South Africa is done by the government, which in turn contracts various
institutions to undertake selected policy studies. This system works fairly well, but it can be
improved. The government needs a well-organised structure that undertakes screening and
synthesis of the many options available. This structure should also have strong international
linkages. An important role of the structure would be to identify critical areas where the
government needs intellectual input for policy-making.
Government needs to fund institutions that develop highly qualified energy policy
technocrats. At present this is done on an ad hoc basis, which does not give optimum
results. Using different mixes of short- and long-term programmes will greatly enhance the
capacity of government to make adequate policies.
Promotion of public awareness programmes around energy for sustainable development is
particularly important, as sustainable development is a new paradigm which needs
deliberate effort.
3
Energy demand
Harald Winkler
3.1 The current situation
I
f we analyse energy needs for sustainable development, it is better to do this in relation
to a common demand such as ‘the cost of cooking a meal for a poor family of six’ rather
than simply assessing this family’s overall access to electricity. Such an analysis is more
useful from the sustainable development point of view because it reflects not just energy
costs but also the efficiency of the appliances and the fuels available to that particular
household.
Applying this logic to a whole energy system, we should start with energy services –
heating, lighting, cooking, water heating, transport, and energy for productive and
industrial activities. We should then work backwards to look at useful energy, the
appliances required to deliver that energy, and finally the energy-to-energy supply. To help
contextualise this analysis, we begin with a historical perspective on energy demand.
3.1.1 History of energy demand
Energy has been a key factor in the shaping of South Africa’s economy. In the early part of
the twentieth century, electricity supply was driven by demand from the mining industry. In
the 1950s, concerned about energy security, the apartheid government decided to develop
a synthetic fuels programme to meet demand for liquid fuels and to lessen its dependence
on energy imports. In the 1960s and 1970s, massive power station projects were initiated
(including some nuclear capacity) on the assumption of continued rapid increases in
electricity demand. These left the national utility with large excess capacity in the 1980s
and 1990s. The excess capacity has helped to keep electricity prices low, but it is now
practically exhausted (Eskom 2000). There has been little need for new investment in
recent decades, and therefore debt has been reduced, as most of the capacity has already
been paid off. However, when new investments are needed, the capital costs and electricity
prices can be expected to rise. Figure 3.1 shows the excess capacity, expressed as the
difference between total licensed capacity and peak demand.
South Africa’s low energy price, mainly because of coal-generated electricity, has been one
of the country’s key competitive advantages, and continues to a large extent to drive new
investment in industry. However a note of caution should be raised here. Due to a lack of
knowledge about the market structure and the absence of specific data, the country’s low
energy price conceals inefficient energy use and accelerated national reserve depletion. The
extra energy intensities involved require increased extraction and transformation
processing, which have led to significant increases in pollution. Low energy costs also have
the effect of retarding the development of new energy sources, thus limiting the diversity of
the fuel mix, its associated supply security, and possible efficiency improvements.
23
24
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Figure 3.1: Eskom licensed capacity and peak demand (MW)
Sources: Eskom (1987, 1996); National Energy Regulator (NER) (2000)
Historically, energy demand in South Africa has been dominated by heavy industry and
mining, which have determined the economic and energy structure of the country. Much of
the manufacturing sector is linked to mining activities through minerals beneficiation and
metals production. These industries are all energy intensive, and rely on the availability of
inexpensive coal and electricity. Figure 3.2 (SANEA 2003) shows how the industry and
transport sectors dominate final demand. (The ‘non-energy’ segment of Figure 3.2 refers to
resources such as coal, oil, gas and wood, which could be used for energy but which are
converted to other products like chemicals and paper).
Figure 3.2: Share of final energy consumption in South Africa, 2000
Source: Based on SANEA (2003)
In recent years, industrial demand has been the major source of growth across all energy
carriers (see Figure 3.3). Some growth can be seen in the transport sector, while in mining
production the demand declined slightly towards the end of the past decade.
ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: SOUTH AFRICAN SCENARIOS
25
3.1.2 South Africa’s energy demand in a comparative perspective
Let us consider how energy demand has changed on an international scale. Globally, total
final energy consumption for coal declined from 627 to 546 Mtoe from 1973 to 2000,
while industry’s share of this grew from 44% to 75%. World oil consumption increased
over the same period from 2 139 to 2 950 Mtoe, with transport being the fastest growing
sector (South Africa showed a similar trend). Consumption of natural gas almost doubled
from 672 to 1 115 Mtoe, although the share of consumption by industry declined from
over 50% to 44%. The greatest increase in global consumption was in electricity final
consumption, from 439 to 1 089 Mtoe; the share of industry and transport have declined in
relative terms, while other sectors have increased their share (IEA 2002a).
If we look at the regional share of global consumption, the OECD countries continue to
consume more than half of total final energy, although their relative share declined from
62% in 1973 to 52% in 2000. African energy consumption has risen from 2.8% to 5.5%
over the period. The biggest growth worldwide has been in Asia (5.2% to 12%) and China
(5.8% to 11.4%).
2500
Residential
2000
Commerce &
public service
1500
Agriculture
1000
Transport
500
Mining &
quarrying
Industry
0
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Note: does not include consumption of renewables and waste, due to uncertainties in biomass data
Figure 3.3: Energy demand, 1992-2000
Source: Based on data in energy balances (DME 2002a)
Compared to other developing countries, the total primary energy supply (TPES) for South
Africa per person is relatively high (see Table 3.1). The two-thirds of South Africa’s
population who have access to electricity consume close to 50% of Africa’s electricity
although they make up only 5% of Africa’s population. Because of South Africa’s strong
industrial base, its energy consumption levels, particularly of electricity, are significantly
higher than those of many other developing countries, although some other rapidly
industrialising countries, such as South Korea, do have a higher consumption per capita.
Table 3.2 gives an international comparison of electrification rates in 2000.
26
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Table 3.1: Global energy and electricity consumption, 2000
Source: IEA (2002a)
Total primary energy supply
/capita
Electricity consumption
Toe/capita
TWh
South Africa
2.51
194
Africa
0.64
399
South Korea
4.10
279
Indonesia
0.69
82
Non-OECD
0.96
5 038
OECD
4.78
9 077
World
1.67
14 115
Note: TPES is shown per person, while electricity consumption is the total for whole countries or regions
Table 3.2: Global electrification rates in 2000
Source: IEA (2002b)
Electrification
rate
Population without
electricity
Population with
electricity
%
million
million
South Africa
66.1
14.5
28.3
Africa
34.3
522.3
272.7
Indonesia
53.4
98.0
112.4
Developing countries
64.2
1 634.2
2 930.7
OECD
99.2
8.5
1108.3
World
72.8
1644.5
4 390.4
3.1.3 Demand for electricity
Electricity has played, and continues to play, a particular role in the South African
economy. It represents a modern energy service to those who have been denied access in
the past, and it is a major input of industrial development. It makes up 22% of final energy
demand in the country, but this figure understates the role that electricity plays as a high
quality energy carrier. In industry and manufacturing, the electricity-intensive industries are
some of the largest contributors to economic growth and exports, and they take up more
than 60% of national electricity sales (Trollip 1996; Berger 2000; DME 2000). Figure 3.4
breaks down final energy demand by carrier, and shows that liquid fuels and gas make up
the largest single share, followed by coal and electricity.
The flow of electricity from production, through distribution, to end use customers is shown
in Figure 3.5. (Note: the percentages for different sectors in Figure 3.5 are for electricity
only, while those in Figure 3.2 are for all forms of energy).
ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: SOUTH AFRICAN SCENARIOS
27
Figure 3.4: Share of final energy demand by energy carrier
Source: Based on data from DME (2002a)
Private
generation
3.1%
4.1%
Municipal
generation
1.3%
T
91.5% R 96.5%
A
Ekom
generation
95.7%
Municipal and other
distributors
44.9%
Eskom
distributors
55.1%
N
Agriculture
2.3%
Mining
17.4%
55.1%
Manufacturing (ind.)
42.4
S
Commercial
10.3%
M
I
S
0.3%
S
SAPP
Imports to
S Africa
44.9%
Domestic
19.4%
I
4.5%
O
N
3.5%
SAPP
Exports from
S Africa
Transport
3.1%
General
5.0%
5
Figure 3.5: Energy flow through the electricity supply industry in South Africa
Source: NER (2001a)
The largest proportion of electricity is consumed by the industrial sector (42%). Mining and
residential are the next two largest, with these sectors also showing the greatest growth in
electricity demand in recent years.
The typical pattern of electricity demand during the working week shows two distinct peaks
(shown in Figure 3.7) – one in the morning and a higher one in the early evening. In
winter, peak demand is more pronounced than in summer, because of the demand for
space heating. To meet peak demand, additional capacity is required. Eskom peak
demand in 2001 was 30 599 MW, almost 50% higher than average demand, which was
approximately 20 000 MW (NER 2001a).
5
The original diagram gives no percentages for imports and exports. For 2000, however, 5 294 GWh was
imported from SAPP utilities and 3 967 GWh exported. As a percentage of gross energy sent out of
198 206 GWh, imports constituted 2.6% and exports 2.0%. It is not exactly clear how this would change
the percentages above, but the impact of a 327 GWh difference between imports and exports is unlikely to
result in changes of as much as one percentage point.
28
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
180 000
160 000
KEY
140 000
General
120 000
Transport
100 000
Commercial
80 000
Manufacturing
60 000
Mining
40 000
Residential
20 000
0
1986
1989
1992
1996
2000
Figure 3.6: Electricity demand, 1986-2000
Source: Davis (1998), NER (2000)
31 000
29 000
27 000
25 000
23 000
21 000
Peak day of year
Typical winter day
Typical summer day
19 000
17 000
15 000
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
Hour of the day
Figure 3.7: Weekday electricity demand profile (average across seasons)
Source: NER (2001a)
A key policy objective of the South African government has been universal access to
electricity. This objective formed part of the post-1994 government’s Reconstruction and
Development Programme (ANC 1994), and in 1998 it was included in the White Paper on
Energy Policy (DME 1998). The National Electrification Programme in its first phase, from
1994 to 1999, aimed to connect 2.5 million households. By 1999, electrification rates
among South African households had increased from about one third to about two-thirds.
According to statistics provided by the National Energy Regulator (NER), in 2001 the
overall rate of electrification in the country was 66% (NER 2001b; 2001a), and during
2002 a further 338 572 homes, 974 schools and 49 clinics were grid-electrified, as well as
5 321 SHSs installed (Mlambo-Ngcuka 2003).
By 1999 the total investment in the electrification programme was about R7 billion, all of
which had been financed domestically by Eskom. Without cross-subsidy from Eskom,
electrification would not be viable (Borchers et al. 2001). Electrification is now being taken
over by government with financing from Treasury allocated to the Department of Minerals
and Energy, so direct government subsidies will be required. Estimates are that a capital
subsidy of R840 million per year will be required from government to Regional Electricity
ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: SOUTH AFRICAN SCENARIOS
29
Distributors (REDs) for the first five years and R560 million per year thereafter (PWC 2000:
14). This works out to a subsidy of R2 800 per connection.
Interestingly, consumption levels for newly connected households have remained low for
several years at about 100-150 kWh per month – well below the planning estimate of 350
kWh. This reflects problems of affordability. Despite the ‘low’ electricity tariffs, research
suggests that many electrified households continue to use traditional, highly polluting fuels
(Mehlwana & Qase 1998; Thom 2000). High rates of electricity cut-offs and community
protests against cut-offs further confirm the affordability problem. Added to this, there are a
variety of social and cultural reasons why people still choose to use non-electric fuels
(Mehlwana 1999).
3.1.4 Demand for liquid fuels
Demand for liquid fuels, shown in Figure 3.8, is dominated by petrol and diesel. The
transport sector accounts for some 80% of the demand for these fuels, with most petroleum
products being used in road transport (DME 2002a). Consumption of other liquid fuels is
much smaller. Jet fuel is obviously used in aviation, while kerosene and liquid petroleum
gas (LPG) are important in the residential sector. Fuel oil is typically used by heavy
industry.
Figure 3.8: Consumption of major liquid fuels, 2001
Source: DME (2002b)
Over the period 1988-2000, two trends can be noticed (see Figure 3.9 and Table 3.3). One
is that the consumption of jet fuel has grown rapidly. The other is that in the last few years
the consumption of petrol has been declining, while that of diesel has been increasing.
Comparing 2000 to the previous year, petrol sales dropped by 4.3%, while diesel grew by
4.3%, against the backdrop of an overall decrease of 1.6% for liquid fuels (SAPIA 2001).
Table 3.3: Inland consumption of petroleum products
Source: SAPIA (2001); SANEA (2003)
Year
Petrol
Diesel
Kerosene
Jet fuel
Fuel oil
LPG
1988
7 995
5 409
641
784
524
406
1989
8 395
5 350
678
835
546
432
1990
8 612
5 273
723
866
576
434
1991
8 906
5 130
725
861
526
464
1992
9 171
4 950
743
1 009
549
465
1993
9 202
4 940
834
1 095
595
454
1994
9 630
5 110
875
1 193
633
485
1995
10 153
5 432
850
1 368
616
472
30
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Year
Petrol
Diesel
Kerosene
Jet fuel
Fuel oil
LPG
1996
10 566
5 759
917
1 601
704
450
1997
10 798
5 875
970
1 777
635
502
1998
10 883
5 959
1 052
1 877
574
523
1999
10 861
5 993
1 054
1 995
561
540
2000
10 396
6 254
857
2 020
555
567
2001
10 340
6 448
786
1 924
555
599
Figure 3.9: Trends in petrol and diesel consumption (upper figure) and other liquid
fuel consumption (lower figure), 1988-2001
Source: SAPIA (2001); SANEA (2003)
3.1.5 Final energy consumption by sector
The breakdown of final energy consumption by economic sector has been described in
some detail in Preliminary energy outlook for South Africa (ERI 2001), a document which
sets out the basis for an integrated energy plan (IEP). Another recent publication is the
South African Energy Profile (SANEA 2003) compiled for the South African National
Energy Association (an affiliate of the World Energy Council), although most of the data is
for 2000/1. This data has been used and supplemented by unpublished modelling data
from the Energy Research Centre (ERC 2003).
ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: SOUTH AFRICAN SCENARIOS
31
3.1.5.1 Industry
Industry is the largest user of energy in South Africa in final energy consumption, as can be
seen from Figure 3.3. Within the industrial sector, the major sub-sectors are mining, iron
and steel, pulp and paper, non-ferrous metals, chemicals and petro-chemicals, food and
tobacco, and other (see breakdown in Figure 3.10).
Figure 3.10: Final industrial energy consumption by sub-sector
(2001 total: 1302 PJ)
Mining in particular is a large energy-consuming sector, and is sometimes shown separately
from industry (for example, in electricity statistics). The chemical and iron and steel
industries are also large sub-sectors. Figure 3.11 gives the same information as Figure 3.10
in a different form, illustrating the energy carriers – coal and electricity – that dominate
consumption in the industrial sector. In mining, demand from gold mining is decreasing,
but the demand from ‘other mining’ is growing. With only about 75% of energy in the
‘other mining’ sub-sector coming from electricity, the share of that carrier is likely to
increase in future. This sub-sector is expected to grow more slowly than gross domestic
product (GDP), unlike most other industries which are expected to keep pace with or even
exceed the rate of economic growth (ERI 2001).
Figure 3.11: Final energy demand in industry by energy carrier
(2001 total: 1302 PJ)
Source: Based on SANEA (2003); ERC (2003)
32
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
The industrial sector consumes just over 50% of final energy, of which 51% comes from
coal, 33% from electricity, 12% from petroleum products and 3% from gas (DME 2005b).
Energy intensities are high relative to Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) countries, and certain industries consume up to twice as much
energy per ton of output. It has been estimated that a 9-12% energy saving is possible
through improved efficiency standards compared to current specific intensity, with
attendant pollution decreases and a five-year payback period (Dutkiewitz & De Villiers
1995; Trikam 2002).
The low cost of energy has given South Africa a competitive advantage, and encouraged
the growth of energy-intensive industry such as aluminium smelting and mining. The use of
this low-cost energy is inefficient, though there are significant opportunities to save energy
and to lower the related environmental impact costs through energy efficiency measures
(ERI 2000; Trikam 2002). These measures will move the economy towards better practice
and increased profitability (Laitner 2004).
3.1.5.2 Transport
Transport energy use is dominated by liquid fuels, notably petrol and diesel (see Figure
3.12). Land passenger transport is the largest consumer of energy, followed by land freight
(SANEA 2003). Road transport is a much larger consumer than rail and air (DME 2001).
The use of energy for transport is expected to grow more quickly than GDP.
The transport sector currently consumes 27% of final energy consumption, of which about
97% is petroleum products, 3% electricity, and 0,2% coal (DME 2005b). Energy intensities
in this sector are high due to various inherited problems and poor fiscal control. The
national transport fleet is old, poorly maintained, and has low occupancy. Commuting
patterns, shaped by the geography of apartheid settlements, increase fuel consumption and
hence emissions. Loading and maintenance regulations are not enforced and efficient
public transport systems are poorly planned. The results are substantial smog levels and
increased road damage.
3.1.5.3 Commercial
Electricity is the predominant energy carrier in the commercial sector (Figure 3.13). All
government and office buildings, financial services, information technology, educational
and recreational institutions use lights, air conditioners, heaters and office equipment. The
commercial sector, like transport, shows higher growth rates in energy consumption than
other sectors, and energy consumption can be expected to grow faster than economic
output (SANEA 2003).
The commercial sector consumes only 6% of the national total final energy consumption
(TFC), in the proportion of electricity 64%, coal 35% and gas 1%. Currently there are no
thermal efficiency standards for South African buildings, which means the costs of
temperature control remain high. Utilities costs are normally borne by tenants, so there is
little incentive for developers and property owners to focus on energy efficiencies. If
energy-efficiency standards were made mandatory for commercial buildings, significant
savings could be made. Studies estimate that 20-40% energy savings are possible in this
sector, decreasing emissions, with a 2- to 3-year payback period (IEA 1996). Increases in
efficiencies also offer proportional decreases in pollution.
ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: SOUTH AFRICAN SCENARIOS
33
Figure 3.12: Final transport energy demand by energy carrier (2001 total: 596 PJ)
Source: Based on SANEA (2003) and ERC (2003)
Figure 3.13: Final energy demand in the commercial sector by energy carrier
(2001 total: 79 PJ)
Source: Based on SANEA (2003) and ERC (2003)
3.1.5.4 Residential
Energy use in the residential sector is characterised by a multiplicity of fuel types and a
variety of appliances (Figure 3.14). Within this sector, especially with its increasing rate of
domestic electrification, electricity is the largest source of energy, although many other fuels
are also used, such as kerosene, coal, fuelwood and LPG.
Within this sector, as with commercial buildings, there is significant potential for energyefficiency improvements. An important distinction needs to be made, however, between
the low-income residential sector and those of other income levels. Relatively cheap energy
conservation interventions (such as installation of ceilings) are mostly not affordable for
poor households and would probably require subsidies; on the other hand middle- and
upper-income households generally have the means to invest in various forms of energy
saving, for example by installing solar water heaters.
The three major challenges faced by the residential sector are: firstly, the provision of
energy needs and environment reclamation, where population pressure on fuelwood
34
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
gathering has depleted traditional biomass supplies and damaged large areas of land;
secondly, the provision of lighting as a precursor for the education and economic
empowerment of rural people; and, thirdly, a more widespread adoption of ‘clean energy’
in order to reduce concentrations of pollutants within residential houses.
Energy costs for the poor are high; thus improved efficiencies are of special importance. In
the current low-cost housing programmes, 50-90% efficiency savings are attainable with
only a 1% to 5% increase in costs (IEA 1996) – a significant window of opportunity to
improve the energy efficiencies and emissions of residential dwellings. By 2015, an
estimated 7 million new houses will be constructed in South Africa.
The residential sector consumes 16% of final energy, of which biomass contributes 14%,
electricity 62%, coal 8%, paraffin 12%, and LPG and candles 2% each. Patterns of
household energy demand differ significantly in rich and poor households, and in urban
and rural households (Simmonds & Mammon 1996; Mehlwana & Qase 1998; Mehlwana
1999). Electricity contributes a larger share of household energy use in urban areas than it
does in rural areas, while the reverse is true for fuelwood. Electrification is taking place
rapidly. Recent estimates suggest that by 2025, 92% of households will be electrified, with
87% using electricity only, and 5% using electricity together with other fuels. Off-grid
electricity supply is being delivered to community centres such as schools and clinics, and
to households. The most common technologies are photovoltaics, diesel generators and
micro-hydro schemes. Several energy service companies have obtained concessions from
DME to install and maintain SHSs.
Figure 3.14: Final residential energy demand by energy carrier (2001 total: 288 PJ)
Source: Based on SANEA (2003) and ERC (2003)
Drastic health impacts result from coal and biomass combustion in the houses of poor
people, where ventilation is often minimised in an attempt to increase thermal insulation.
These conditions have led to respiratory disease being the second highest cause of infant
mortality in the country. As fuelwood is depleted, the ecosystem is damaged, and more
time is spent in the collection process with losses in opportunity costs.
The adoption of clean energy in the residential sector requires energy use that reduces
particulate and noxious gaseous emissions. The short- to medium-term options include grid
electrification, non-grid electrification, transition to low-smoke fuels, clean-burning stoves,
ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: SOUTH AFRICAN SCENARIOS
35
solar hot water heaters and general housing efficiency improvements. The primary
obstacles are the establishment of fuel distribution networks, and cultural acceptance of
new clean energy forms and appliances. The energy systems involved are new
technologies, such as clean-burning stoves, and photovoltaics; new fuel management
systems, such as community woodlots; and the use of new commercial fuels such as
biofuels.
3.1.5.5 Agriculture
Of South Africa’s 122.3 million hectares, 13.7% (16.7 million ha) is potentially arable,
68.6% (83.9 million ha) is suitable for grazing land, 9.6% (11.8 million ha) is protected by
nature conservation, 1.2% (1.4 million ha) is under forestry, and 6.9% is used for other
purposes. Of the 16.7 million hectare arable portion, 2.5 million hectares is in the former
homelands, and 14.2 million is farmed by commercial farmers in the former ‘white’ areas.
A total of 9.5 million hectares is used for field crops (NDA 2000: 5-6). Most energy use in
agriculture is on commercial farms, which are tending to increase in size and decrease in
number.
Traditional peasant farming barely exists, having been destroyed by colonial and apartheid
policies (Bundy 1979). Even agricultural activity categorised as ‘subsistence’ is
questionable, since the homeland system created rural settlements so dense that they do
not even allow for subsistence. These dense rural settlements do not quite fit either the
agricultural or the urban residential settlement models. There is little data on energy use by
these settlements or by subsistence farmers, except for some isolated studies (Auerbach &
Gandar 1994). Land restitution and land reform under the new government is increasingly
aiming at creating a new class of small black farmers.
Agriculture’s share of the economy has been in decline for many years. In 1965 its share of
GDP was 9.1% and by 1998 it was only 4.0% (NDA 2000). This trend is likely to continue
in future. With a declining share of GDP, agriculture can expect very slow growth in energy
demand, although exactly what this will be is difficult to predict.
Figure 3.15: Final energy demand in agriculture by energy carrier (2001 total: 100 PJ)
Source: Based on SANEA (2003); ERC (2003)
Agriculture requires energy primarily for draft power and other tasks of land preparation,
which are necessary for the effective utilisation of land (Auerbach & Gandar 1994). Energy
36
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
for water pumping is the second major use, followed by smaller energy demands for
activities such as crop processing, transport and lighting. Energy in agriculture is used
primarily in the form of diesel, followed by electricity and coal (Figure 3.15).
3.2 Energy for sustainable development – critical issues
The use of energy has significant environmental implications in addition to supply-side
impacts. This section focuses on South Africa’s ‘energy intensity’ – the amount of energy
used per unit of economic output – and in particular the potential for more efficient
technologies and cleaner fuels.
3.2.1 Energy intensity
Overall South Africa’s energy intensity is high – it is a country with a high energy input per
unit of gross national product. Low energy costs combined with an abundance of mineral
deposits have led to an emphasis on primary extraction and processing, activities which are
inherently energy intensive. Most energy-intensive enterprises are part of South Africa’s
‘minerals-energy complex’ (Fine & Rustomjee 1996).
The Integrated Energy Plan (DME 2003) acknowledges that by international standards,
South Africa has a high energy intensity. Table 3.4 shows South Africa’s energy intensity
between 1993 and 2000. After 1995, GDP rises and final energy consumption falls,
resulting in a lowering of energy intensity over that period.
Table 3.4: National energy intensities between 1993 and 2000 (DME 2003)
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
GDP- All industries
at basic prices (R
billion; constant
1995 prices)
472
486
500
521
534
538
549
571
Total final energy
consumption
(renewable and
waste excluded; PJ)
1 766
1 789
2 016
1 996
2 071
2 098
2 026
2 003
Energy intensity
(Total energy
consumption/GDP;
PJ/R billion)
3.74
3.68
4.03
3.83
3.88
3.90
3.69
3.51
If we compare South Africa to an industrialising nation like South Korea, South African
energy intensity is higher in relation to GDP, similar if adjusted for power purchasing
parity, and lower if measured by per capita consumption of primary energy. South Africa’s
energy intensity is close to that of Indonesia, although with a higher level of primary energy
and electricity consumption per capita.
If we compare South Africa to other middle-income countries, there is clearly room for
energy efficiency improvements (Simmonds 1995; Clark 2000). The best areas for
improvements are those industries that require high levels of energy per unit of output –
mining, iron and steel, aluminium, ferrochrome, and chemicals – the same sectors that
make up a large share of South African exports.
ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: SOUTH AFRICAN SCENARIOS
37
Low energy prices do not provide much incentive for energy efficiency, because it makes
economic sense to use more energy if energy is cheap.6 Nonetheless, South Africa has
made improvements in some sectors, notably iron and steel. Even here, while South
Africa’s energy intensity for iron and steel improved from 40 TJ per ton of steel in 1971 to
30 TJ/ton in 1991, in Taiwan the improvement over the same period was from 31 to 14
TJ/ton. In gold mining, while annual production has been generally declining since the
1970s, the input of energy per unit (TJ/ton) has been increasing over time. An effective
comparison of intensity levels would require more detail regarding resource endowment,
type of mining and industrial processes.
Table 3.5: Energy consumption and intensity indicators, 2000
Source: IEA (2002a)
TPES/capita
(Toe/capita)
TPES/GDP
(Toe/000 1995
US$)
TPES/GDP
(Toe/ 000 PPP
1995 US$)
Electricity consumption per
capita (national average)
(kWh/capita)
South Africa
2.51
0.63
0.29
4 533
Africa
0.64
0.86
0.32
501
South Korea
4.10
0.31
0.30
5 901
Indonesia
0.69
0.70
0.25
390
Non-OECD
0.96
0.74
0.28
1 028
OECD
4.78
0.19
0.22
8 090
World
1.67
0.30
0.24
2 343
TPES = total primary energy supply, toe = tons of oil equivalent, PPP = purchasing power parity (adjusted to remove
distortions of exchange rates), GDP = Gross domestic product
While South African industry is dominated by primary extraction and relatively low-grade
processing, it will remain a heavy user of energy; but as the industrial sector diversifies into
more high-technology manufacturing and processing, its energy intensity should reduce.
On the other hand, there are pressures for the energy intensity of the sector to increase:
international trends show that countries like South Africa become receptors of investment
in energy-intensive activities as developed countries shed these activities in favour of more
service-oriented and lucrative activities using more skilled labour. Recent investments in
South African aluminium smelters and iron and steel mills, and also the SAPP strategy,
indicate future industrial trends. To some extent, especially in the short term, this allays
fears that lower purchases of coal by Annex I countries with emission limits will threaten
South African coal exports.
3.2.2 Energy efficiency and inefficiency
The Energy Research Institute has conducted benchmark studies of energy efficiency in the
industrial, residential, transport and commercial sectors in South Africa (Hughes et al.
2002). Whole sector studies are broad approximations, because of large differences within
each sector due to variations in products, raw materials, and processes. Examples from
6
This section deals with energy intensity and energy efficiency. Economic efficiency is a different concept,
referring to the optimal allocation of resources, theoretically derived from the intersection of supply and
demand (marginal cost and benefit). It may be economically efficient to use more energy if it is cheap, if
the price of energy is correctly set by the market. The market ‘optimum’ does not usually coincide with
social or environmental optima, which might internalise environmental costs or add expenditure for social
benefits.
38
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
specific sub-sectors would possibly be more illuminating. Further research is needed in this
area and data quality remains a problem.
Industrial production in South Africa has shifted over time from mining to manufacturing,
with major contributions to economic output coming from iron and steel, chemicals and
petrochemicals, pulp and paper, and mining. A greater shift is expected in future towards
the production of technically advanced products, which require lower energy input but
make high value-added contributions (Hughes et al. 2002). Differences in final energy
demand by industrial sub-sector from 1996 to 2000 are shown in Figure 3.16.
Figure 3.16: Final energy demand by industrial sub-sector (PJ of final energy demand)
Source: (Hughes et al. 2002)
Two examples of South African industrial sub-sectors which are relatively inefficient
compared with OECD countries are pulp and paper, and iron and steel, both of them subsectors with relatively high energy intensities. Recent innovations, such as the Corex and
Midrex production processes for steel making, are expected to lower the energy intensity of
the steel industry significantly, but this is not reflected in current data. Without such
innovation, use of standard technology could not achieve much gain in efficiency. In the
pulp and paper industry, South Africa produces pulp at an energy intensity per gross
product output higher than that of other pulp-producing countries. Paper, on the other
hand, is produced at a similar energy intensity to many of the countries running bestpractice programmes in this industry (see Table 3.6).
High energy intensities imply that there is potential for improvements in efficiency, at least
in theory (Thorne 1995). For most sectors there is insufficient information for an accurate
estimate of potential energy savings; however, attempts have been made to identify areas
where savings are possible. There are a number of standard energy efficiency measures
that can be applied. Schemes with payback periods as short as one year can lead to
significant reductions in energy demand and savings for industry (Hughes et al. 2002).
These initiatives could be supported by labelling schemes, energy audits, and awareness
and training programmes.
ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: SOUTH AFRICAN SCENARIOS
39
Table 3.6: Energy intensity in the pulp and paper sector
Source: Hughes et al. (2002)
3.2.3
GJ/ton
Pulp production
(Ktonne)
Paper production
(Ktonne)
South Africa
34.13
2138
2226
USA
26.36
743
4824
UK
26
Brazil
20
Sweden
23.5
10215
8419
Canada
29.21
9756
25971
More efficient technologies and cleaner fuels
3.2.3.1 Energy efficiency and demand-side management
There is great potential for energy efficiency measures in South Africa, across all sectors
from industry and commerce, to transport and residential. The largest energy savings, in
absolute terms, can be made in the industrial and transport sectors. Interventions aimed at
improving energy efficiency in the residential sector can contribute significantly to
improving the quality of life of households while reducing costs (Clark 1997; Simmonds
1997; Spalding-Fecher et al. 1999; Winkler et al. 2000).
There is already a pool of existing experience in innovative technologies and programmes
for energy efficiency and demand-side management (DSM). Eskom’s DSM programme has
focused on three key areas: load management, industrial equipment, and efficient lighting.
Interventions include both load management (typically carried out by the utility) and
energy efficiency improvements normally carried out by end-users. The NER included
estimates of potential future savings in its Integrated Electricity Outlook (2002). This report
expresses savings from energy efficiency as the equivalent cumulative electricity generation
capacity (in MW) that would be avoided by these interventions up to 2010 and then up to
2020. Market penetration of energy efficiency is key to the results, so the estimates reflect
different penetration assumptions, as shown in Table 3.7.
Table 3.7: Potential future savings from energy efficiency and demand side management
(cumulative capacity equivalent in MW)
Source: NER (2002b)
Low penetration
Moderate penetration
High penetration
2010
2020
2010
2020
2010
2020
Industrial and
commercial energy
efficiency
567
878
889
1 270
890
1 270
Residential energy
efficiency
171
514
537
930
537
930
Industrial and
commercial load
management
355
444
428
535
510
535
Residential load
management
222
735
443
936
669
936
1 315
2 571
2 297
3 671
2 607
3 671
Total
40
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Theoretical gains are not always realised in practice, for technical or economic reasons.
Removing key barriers – informational, institutional, social, financial and market, and
technical – is critical to the full realisation of energy efficiency measures (see detailed
discussion of barriers in EDRC (2003)). Important success factors to implement efficiency
measures include: a government policy setting out standards, incentives, and recovery of
programme costs that enable greater efficiency; electricity pricing mechanisms that do not
penalise efficiency; and the effective DSM delivery agencies (NER 2002b). Energy
efficiency will also be affected by potential reforms in the power sector (Barberton 1999;
Clark & Mavhungu 2000; Tyani 2000).
3.2.3.2 Demand for ‘green electricity’
Renewable energy technologies for electricity generation are primarily a supply issue, but
demand for ‘green power’ products is also a significant factor. A small pilot project was
established to supply the Johannesburg based World Summit on Sustainable Development
with ‘green electricity’. Building on this initiative, the NER has indicated a commitment to
regulate the development of a ‘green’ electricity market (NER 2002a). Developing niche
markets is an important first step. Potential customers include large municipalities,
provincial governments, national departments, environmentally conscious companies and
a small market of residential customers.
The city of Cape Town has recently agreed to buy ‘green power’ from the Darling wind
farm, according to newspaper reports (SAPA 2003). Once the facility comes onstream, the
city will offer customers the option of buying electricity from a renewable source, although
this will be sold at a premium. The available electricity from this source would be 3 GWh
per year, a very small contribution to the 9 000 GWh consumed by the city.
3.2.3.3 Solar water heaters
Solar water heaters (SWHs) deliver a development service – hot water. They save energy
and therefore reduce emissions. But they have not been extensively pursued in South
Africa, despite DME support from the Global Environmental Facility project for a National
Solar Water Heating Programme (DME 2001b). As a result of the limited market for solar
water heaters, the South African industry is weak and rather fragmented. The only
significant project has been in Lwandle township near Somerset West (Thorne et al. 2000;
Ward 2002; Lukamba-Muhiya & Davidson 2003). Most installed solar water heaters, other
than for the Lwandle project, have been sold by private entrepreneurs to middle-to-highincome households, primarily so that these households can save costs of electricity. Solar
water heaters have been installed using mortgage financing and, predominantly in the case
of retrofits, using supplier finance. One scheme to get solar water heaters into the market is
based on a hot water utility/ESCO model whereby hotels purchase hot water from a
supplier who finances the installation of the solar water heaters.
3.2.4 Concluding remarks on main issues
This section has discussed energy efficiency, energy intensity and demand-side measures to
encourage cleaner energy. As already mentioned, South Africa’s energy intensity is
relatively high, and this, combined with the dominance of coal in the local fuel mix, results
in high levels of local emissions and greenhouse gases. At the same time, compared to
other middle-income countries, there is much room for improvement of energy intensities
in South Africa. Interventions to lower the level of energy intensity can assist basic
development needs in the residential sector, and provide major energy savings in the
industrial and transport sectors. On the demand side, two areas of demand for cleaner
ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: SOUTH AFRICAN SCENARIOS
41
energy supply that are receiving particular attention are solar water heaters and ‘green
electricity’.
Probably the most critical issue for sustainable development on the demand side is the
unequal access to affordable energy services, despite the progress that has been made with
electrification. Issues of access to electricity are considered in Chapter 6, which deals with
social issues. Similarly, the environmental impacts of demand are discussed in more detail
in Chapter 7.
3.3 Outlook for the future of energy demand
3.3.1 How is demand expected to change in future?
A default assumption in many scenario-modelling exercises is that energy demand grows
with economic output (GDP). In section 3.1.5 above, we noted that in some sectors this
assumption might not hold for South Africa’s future energy demand. Let us now consider
what factors might drive overall changes in the energy demand.
Some of the relevant assumptions used in the Integrated Energy Plan are (DME 2003): 7
• $1 = R8 (1 Jan 2001).
• Net discount rate: 11%.
• Inflation rate: 5.5% (SA Reserve Bank target 3-6%).
• Population growth: 2000 = 44 million, 2010 = 50 million (1.3% p.a.), 2020 = 57
million (0.87% p.a.).
• GDP growth: 2.8% average annual growth over period.
3.3.1.1 Changes in electricity demand
Overall consumption – as recorded by total sales of electricity in GWh – has grown fairly
consistently over the past 50 years. However, as shown in Figure 3.17 below, percentage
change compared to the previous year has been dropping over the past decades. From the
1950s to 1970s, the percentage change ranged between 6% and 13%; whereas in the
1980s to 1990s it ranged between 1% and 4%.
In Figure 3.18, historical electricity sales data is combined with projections for the future,
based on the Integrated Resource Plan (IRP). The IRP explored assumptions of GDP
growth of 1.5%, 2.8% and 4% per year, and a ‘moderate outlook’ on growth in electricity
sales between 2% and 3% (NER 2002b: 5-6).8 These assumptions were used to construct
future projections. While the percentage increase is in the low range of changes shown in
Figure 3.17, it should be noted that earlier increases started from a much lower base.
7
Further assumptions are contained in the DME report released late in 2003, which can accessed from
www.dme.gov.za.
8
These very broad assumptions are based on much more detailed demand modelling in Eskom’s eighth
Integrated Strategic Electricity Plan. The IRP, however, only publishes the broad growth figures used here.
Economic growth rates ‘include total national sales, as well as sales to foreign countries’, including
contracts between Eskom and other countries, but do not include imports, which are modelled as supplyside options (NER 2002b).
42
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Figure 3.17: Percentage changes in Eskom electricity sales and change in real GDP at
market prices
Source: Eskom (1987, 1996); NER (2000); SARB (2002)
Note: projections follow assumptions in the IRP (NER 2002b)
Figure 3.18: Growth in electricity sales, actual historical and future projections
Source: Historical data from Eskom (1987, 1996); NER (2000)
3.3.2 Drivers of energy demand
The fundamental drivers of energy policy in South Africa have shifted from the supply-side
to the demand-side. During the apartheid years, top-down planning and concerns around
energy security (amongst other factors) lead to large investments in synthetic fuels from
coal, nuclear power generation and predominantly coal-fired electricity generation.
Since the first democratic elections in 1994, socio-economic development has become the
key driving factor for all policy. The new government was determined that energy should
not only support economic development, but also improve the lives of the poor – the black
majority. Among the many priorities, job creation stands out as the most important, given
ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: SOUTH AFRICAN SCENARIOS
43
that South Africa has an unemployment rate of 41.6% according to the strict definition of
the 2001 Census, or 29.5% according to the Labour Force Survey (see discussion in
chapter 5) (SSA 2003). In the energy sector, this has meant giving more attention to
demand-side management and to delivering energy services, including productive energy
for all South Africans and domestic energy for cooking.
Economic growth is an important driver for energy demand, and GDP is its usual
expression. But using GDP as a measure is not without its problems. GDP fails to account
adequately for natural resources and external costs, and its focus by definition is on overall
growth, which diverts attention from the structure of the economy. The emphasis of
economic and industrial strategy, depending on how it falls between the primary,
secondary and tertiary economic sectors, has major implications for future energy demand.
The tertiary sector, for example, is much less energy intensive per rand GDP.
Demographic trends are also an important driver of energy demand. While the direct
impact on final consumption in the residential sector is relatively small at 10% (see
3.1.5.4), indirect effects would be felt through reduced consumption of industrial goods
and other factors that are reflected in GDP. Another factor is HIV/Aids, which is having a
major effect on population growth (ASSA 2000). For its effects on energy demand, the
Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) analysis, which examines the uncertainty of
a low or high impact of Aids on the population, seems a reasonable approach (Calitz
2000b, 2000a).
The rate of technological change in the future is another important driver. Technologies for
energy efficiency are of particular importance here. International developments may offer
opportunities for savings, but the actual ‘nega-watts’ delivered depend on the rate of
implementation of such technologies. The NER’s Integrated Resource Plan has projected a
total saving of 4 784 MW over the period 2001-2025 (NER 2002b).
Plans for power sector reform are being driven both by local concerns and international
agendas. They include significant changes to the electricity distribution industry. An
electricity distribution industry holdings company has already been established, with a view
to establishing six new regional electricity distributors (REDs) by mid-2005. Meanwhile,
concerns have been raised about the impacts on social and environmental public benefits
(Clark & Mavhungu 2000; Winkler & Mavhungu 2001). There is also the possibility that
investment in energy efficiency may decline if private investors show less inclination to
invest in measures that reduce revenue than in utilities with a public mandate.
3.4 Emerging gaps
Energy scenarios still tend too often to start from supply and resource constraints, and from
the perspective of energy services. More work needs to be done in back-casting energy
scenarios systematically from development objectives. Assuming that energy demand will
increase from the current baseline, and taking into account government’s stated objective
of 100% access to modern energy services by 2012 (Mlambo-Ngcuka 2003), future energy
demand needs to be met on a least-cost basis, given specified resources and technologies.
Two significant changes in approach need further development – clear identification of the
energy services required, and the analysis of future scenarios in relation to multiple
objectives such as cost, environment, and social criteria. In order to analyse energy needs
for sustainable development it is essential to take a balanced view of the economic, social
and environmental objectives.
Other emerging gaps include:
44
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
• The understanding of drivers of energy development could be refined, based on both
international and local dimensions:
• A review of drivers identified in the World Energy Assessment (UNDP et al. 2000)
and by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC 2001) could provide lessons for South Africa, with due care to our national
circumstances.
• A more detailed study of industrial strategy and policy would provide a more
nuanced indication of areas of future development and their impact on energy
demand.
• Searching the literature on coal and oil more thoroughly so as to improve the
projections for future demand for hydrocarbons.
4
Energy supply in South Africa
Andrew Kenny
E
nergy supply can be divided into two parts, primary supply and energy
transformation. Primary energy is obtained by extraction or collection. This could be
mining of coal or uranium, drilling for oil or gas, damming rivers, gathering fuelwood
or collecting solar radiation. Sometimes the primary energy can be used directly, as when
we use coal for cooking or solar radiation for heating water. But most primary energy has
to be converted into final energy to be suitable for human use, such as the burning of coal
in a power station to make electricity, or the refining of crude oil to make petrol and diesel.
4.1 Energy reserves and primary production
South Africa has large coal reserves, which supply over 70% of its primary energy, large
reserves of uranium, and small reserves of crude oil and natural gas. The country’s
renewable energy reserves are smaller but nonetheless significant. Biomass is an important
source of energy, both as firewood for poor households and to supply the sugar refining
and pulp and paper industries. Conditions for solar power are good, especially in the
Northern Cape. Wind power conditions are fairly good, mainly in the coastal regions. For
hydropower, there is very limited potential as most of the country consists of arid terrain.
Figure 4.1 gives an estimate of South Africa’s non-renewable energy reserves (and also
indicates the annual primary energy demand). These reserves are stock resources, unlike
annual flows of renewable energy resources. The uranium reserves estimate is for the
quality needed in conventional nuclear reactors. If the uranium were to be used in fast
breeders, the estimate for its effective reserves would be 50 times higher.
Figure 4.1: South African energy reserves (excluding renewables)
Sources - Coal: Estimate from DME (2003a); Uranium: WEC/IIASA (1995); Gas: estimate from Holliday
(2003); Oil: PetroSA; One year’s demand: estimate by DME and Energy Research institute
45
46
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
4.1.1 Coal
Coal from the southern hemisphere differs from that of the northern hemisphere in that it is
rich in durain, contains more ash and less sulphur. Most South African coal is of a
bituminous thermal grade, with only about 0.8% anthracite and about 1% sulphur. Its
heating value varies from about 27 MJ/kg for export coal, to between 22 and 15 MJ/kg for
steam coal. Coal from the Mpumalanga and Limpopo provinces is nearly always
bituminous. It is laid down in thick shallow seams relatively free of faulting, so mining is
relatively inexpensive. Coal in KwaZulu-Natal is often anthracite in relatively thin seams.
Little of South Africa’s coal is suitable for coking.
For many decades, the figure given for South Africa’s coal reserves has been 55 billion
tons, but this figure is now being questioned. The Department of Minerals and Energy
(DME) is conducting a thorough study to assess the true reserves, but meanwhile an interim
estimate of 38 billion tons (Prevost 2003) is probably more accurate. This means that
South Africa has the world’s sixth biggest coal reserves after China, the USA, India, Russia
and Australia.
About 44.5% of South African coal is mined by opencast methods, 44% is mined
underground by bord and pillar, and 10.6% by pillar recovery. By far the most coal
(83.8%) is produced in Mpumalanga province, with 8.5% produced in the Free State,
6.1% in Limpopo and 0.8% in KwaZulu-Natal. South African mines typically produce three
grades of coal: export, steam coal and discards. Many large mines process the coal to the
required quality for export and local markets.
Figure 4.2 shows coal production from 1992 to 2001. In 2001, South Africa mined 290
million tons of coal, of which 221 million tons was saleable. Of this, 152 million tons went
to the local market and 69 million was exported. Discards – too low in heating value and
too high in ash to have commercial value – made up 69 million tons. It is likely that in the
future there will be a market for discards in fluidised bed combustion (FBC) boilers. About
62% of exports go to the European Union, 29% to the Far East and Middle East, and the
remainder to South America and Africa.
Figure 4.2: Total saleable production, local sales and exports of South African coal,
1992 to 2001
Source: DME (2003)
ENERGY SUPPLY IN SOUTH AFRICA
47
Table 4.1: Consumption of South African coal, 2001/2002
Source: DME (2003)
Sales category
Million tons
Exports
69.2
Electricity
89.0
Synthetic fuels & chemicals
48.0
Industry
6.0
Metallurgical
5.5
Merchant & domestic
3.7
Mining
0.05
4.1.2 Oil
South Africa has to import the bulk of its oil requirements. Its own reserves are limited to
small fields in the Bredasdorp Basin off the southern coast – the Oribi/Oryx Fields and the
Sable Field, which are owned and operated by PetroSA, Energy Africa and Pioneer. The
two fields together have proven reserves of 49 million barrels. Production from the
Oribi/Oryx Fields was 4.6 million barrels in 2002. Development drilling in the Sable Field
began at the end of 2002 and production began in August 2003. The Sable Field will
eventually produce 30 000 to 40 000 barrels a day, which will replace 7% to 10% of South
Africa’s imported oil.
Figure 4.3 shows imports of oil products in 2001, and Figure 4.4 shows the countries of
origin of South Africa’s crude oil imports in 2001.
Figure 4.3: South African imports of oil products, 2001
Source: DME (2002)
Figure 4.4: South African crude oil imports by country of origin, 2001
Source: DME (2002)
48
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
4.1.3 Natural gas and coalbed methane
South Africa has small reserves of natural gas and coalbed methane. There are no inland
gas fields, but there are gas fields off the west and south coasts. In 2005, the only South
African gas field in production was the F-A field off the south coast. This field, owned by
PetroSA, supplies the PetroSA Mossgas plant at Mossel Bay, which makes liquid fuels from
natural gas, including petrol, diesel and kerosene. The F-A field supplies about 189 mcf of
gas and 7 100 barrels of condensate daily to the synfuel plant, via two 91km pipelines. The
proven reserves of the field are only about 1tcf, and it is expected to run out by about
2008. PetroSA and its joint venture partners are exploring the adjacent Blocks 9 and 11a to
possibly extend the production life of Mossgas.
The most promising new fields seem to be those off the Cape west coast. The Ibhubesi
field, which is about 3 000 metres below the ocean bed, has proven reserves of 0.5 tcf, but
there is a possibility that they might be much larger. Ibhubesi field has been studied for
development by Forest Exploration International (South Africa) and the Anschutz
Corporation (South Africa). Global Offshore Oil Exploration SA, Sasol Petroleum
International and BHP Billiton Petroleum UK are investigating other fields off the South
African west coast. The proven gas reserves of South Africa, currently estimated as about 2
tcf, could be found to be as extensive as 27 tcf after drilling and assessment.
South Africa’s immediate neighbours, Namibia and Mozambique, also have small gas
fields. The offshore Kudu field, about 180 km west of the Namibian coast, has reserves of
about 1.5 tcf. Angola has two inland fields at Pande and Temane, with combined reserves
of about 3 tcf. An 895 km pipeline is now being built which will bring gas from Temane in
Angola to Secunda in South Africa, where it will join the existing pipeline system that links
Gauteng province to the urban areas of Durban and Secunda. The pipeline started
delivering gas in early 2004.
Coalbed methane is found in varying amounts in coalfields, and South Africa has reserves
of about 3 tcf, mainly in the Waterberg and Perdekop regions. These have not yet been
tapped.
4.1.4 Uranium
Nuclear energy reserves are different from those of fossil fuels because their energy is so
concentrated that transport and storage costs are relatively negligible. Uranium is abundant
in the earth’s crust, so there has been little commercial incentive to develop new mines.
Because uranium and gold are found together in mineral deposits in South Africa, uranium
is produced as a by-product of gold mining. There are an estimated 261 000 tons of
uranium, consisting of 205 000 tons of ‘reasonably assured resources’ together with 56 000
tons of ‘estimated additional resources’ (DME 1998). If used to generate electricity in
conventional nuclear reactors, these reserves would be equivalent to 158 EJ of energy.
During the apartheid era, South Africa manufactured finished fuel for the Koeberg nuclear
power station near Cape Town. Today the finished fuel is imported because it is cheaper.
4.1.5 Biomass
South Africa is a dry country, with about half of its land area consisting of desert or semidesert and only 1.2% under forest, so conditions for building up and sustaining biomass
are generally poor. Nonetheless, biomass is an important source of energy, used both by
industry (sugar refining plus pulp and paper) and by households for domestic energy.
South Africa’s sugar cane crop is about 20 million tons a year, of which about 7 million
tons is bagasse (husks) with a heating value of 6.7 MJ/kg. Some bagasse is used to make
paper, but most is used in sugar refineries to raise steam for electricity generation and to
ENERGY SUPPLY IN SOUTH AFRICA
49
process heat. The sugar refineries have an installed generation capacity of about 245 MWe
(Megawatts of electrical power).
The annual production of commercial roundwood in South Africa is about 15 million cubic
metres. About 10 million cubic metres of this is used to make pulp, paper and board
(DWAF 1997). Bark from softwood (pine) along with ‘black liquor’ from pulp mills is used
to fire boilers to generate electricity and process steam. The pulp mills have an installed
generation capacity of about 170 MWe.
Households, mainly poor households in rural areas, use wood, dung and other vegetable
matter for heating and cooking. It is estimated that about 7 million tons of wood, an energy
total of about 86 PJ/year, is burned for this purpose.
The South African renewable energy database has mapped the annual biomass potential,
in GJ/ha. Figure 4.5 reflects potential resources for wood (unprocessed and processed),
agricultural, and grass residues, but does not show the use of residues or waste. Detailed
maps with data can be downloaded from the Environmentek website –
www.csir.co.za/environmentek/sarerd/contact.html. The site also includes definitions of
wood, grasses and agricultural crops. It does not cover biomass sources such as animal
dung or the potential of human waste.
Biodiesel, ethanol, methanol and hydrogen can be generated from biomass. Most biodiesel
is produced from rape oilseed, sunflower oil and Jatropha, while bioethanol is processed
from wheat, sugar beet and sweet sorghum (EDRC 2003). The main cost is feedstock, for
which cheaper sources are being sought. It is predicted that cheaper feedstocks, such as
wood, could reduce the costs of production quite considerably and help make biofuels
more competitive in relation to fossil fuels (EC 2002). Biofuel options have the potential for
generating income in rural areas through biomass plantations, which could create many
jobs in the process. However the prospect of biomass plantations has raised some concerns
about food supplies and about the impact of planting mono-cultural crops on biodiversity
(EDRC 2003).
Figure 4.5: Map of biomass potential in South Africa
Source: DME et al. (2001)
50
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
4.1.6 Hydroelectric power
South Africa has few rivers suitable for generating hydroelectricity, and even these are
small. They include an estimated 3 500 to 5 000 potential sites for mini-hydropower
generation, mainly along the eastern escarpment. The country’s existing installed capacity
for hydroelectricity is 661 MWe and the potential for increasing this is limited. Other
countries in southern and central Africa have enormous potential for generating
hydroelectricity, some of which could be exported to South Africa. Table 4.2 gives an
indication of the potential, although there are significant political constraints to developing
the resource. A technical challenge would be increasing the interconnectedness of grids to
distribute power within southern Africa.
Table 4.2: Hydroelectric power potential in southern Africa in addition to existing or
planned hydropower
Source: Black & Veatch International (1996); Dale (1995); Dutkiewicz (1996); SAD-ELEC & MEPC (1996);
World Resources Institute (1996)
Location
Country
Potential (MWe)
Zambia
300
Zambezi River Basin
Kariba North Extension
Batoka Gorge
Zambian side only
800
Devil’s Gorge
Zambia / Zimbabwe
1 240 – 1 600
Mupata Gorge
Zambia / Zimbabwe
1 000 – 1 200
Cahora Bassa North Bank
Extension
Mozambique
550 – 1 240
Mepanda Uncua
Mozambique
1 600 – 1 700
Total Zambezi
approx 6 000
Other sources excluding
Inga
Angola
Including Kunene Basin
16 400
Lesotho
160
Malawi
250
Mozambique
Namibia
Other than Zambezi
1 084 – 1 308
Other than Kunene Basin
500
Swaziland
60
Tanzania
3 000
Zambia
Other than Zambezi
1 084 – 1 308
Total other sources
excluding Inga
Inga
36 000 – 100 000
Total southern Africa
70 800 – 134 800
4.1.7 Solar
The annual 24-hour solar radiation average for South Africa is 220 W/m2, compared with
150 W/m2 for parts of the USA and about 100 W/m2 for Europe. Almost the whole of the
interior of the country has an average insolation in excess of 5 000 Wh/m2/day. Some parts
of the Northern Cape have an average insolation of over 6 000 Wh/m2/day. Figure 4.6
shows the distribution of solar energy falling on South Africa.
ENERGY SUPPLY IN SOUTH AFRICA
51
Figure 4.6: Annual solar radiation for South Africa
Source: DME et al. (2001)
4.1.8 Wind
South Africa’s best wind resources are to be found mainly in the coastal regions. Figure 4.7
shows wind speeds over the country.
Figure 4.7: Annual average wind speeds in South Africa
Source: DME et al. (2001)
52
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
4.2 Energy transformation
The two most important conversions of primary energy in South Africa are the generation
of electricity and the production of liquid fuels. Figure 4.8 shows total levels of primary and
final energy.
Note: Final energy includes biomass, both as household fuels and as industrial energy, and marine bunkers. This gives
a different total from Chapter 2, where these are not included.
Figure 4.8: Total primary and final energy in South Africa, 2000
4.2.1 Electricity generation
South Africa generates over half of the electricity used on the African continent. The
country has three groups of electricity generators: the national public electricity utility,
Eskom; municipal generators and autogenerators; and industries that generate electricity
for their own use. The latter include pulp mills, sugar refineries, Sasol, Mossgas and
metallurgical industries. Electricity provides 20% of South Africa’s final energy.
Of these groups of electricity generators, Eskom has 91% of the total generating capacity
(93.5% of the total production), the municipalities 5.6% (2.0%) and the autogenerators
3.1% (4.5%) (NER 2001). Eskom’s licensed capacity is 39 870 MWe, which includes 3 550
MWe of non-operating (mothballed) coal fired power stations. The licensed capacity
comprises 35 627 MWe of coal power stations, 1 840 MWe of nuclear power stations, 342
MWe of gas turbines, 661 MWe of hydro power and 1 400 MWe of pumped storage. This
energy mix is shown in Figure 4.9.
In 2002, South Africa consumed 203 GWh of electricity. Eskom had a peak demand (in
July) of 31 621 MWe. There are about 400 electricity distributors, including Eskom itself,
large municipalities, and small town councils.
ENERGY SUPPLY IN SOUTH AFRICA
53
Figure 4.9: Eskom’s generation mix by energy source
4.2.1.1 Coal power stations
Over 92% of the electricity currently generated in South Africa comes from conventional
coal power stations (see Table 4.3), all of which are pulverised fuel power stations without
flue gas desulphurisation. Future power stations will most likely include desulphurisation.
From 1980 on, Eskom only built power stations with capacities of over 3 000 MWe,
comprising six units each. These power stations have huge coal requirements, typically 10
million tons a year. Because it is costly to transport coal over long distances, the power
stations have been built on the coalfields, with the coal transported directly from the mines
on conveyor belts. The power stations are all concentrated around the coalfields in the
provinces of Mpumalanga, Gauteng and Limpopo.
South African coal has a high ash and low sulphur content, and a low calorific value, some
with a heating value of less than 16 MJ/kg. As a result South Africa has become a world
leader in the expertise of burning poor quality coal. The combination of cheap coal and
large standardised power stations without desulphurisation has allowed South Africa to
produce the cheapest electricity in the world.
The power stations have certain disadvantages. Primarily, they are polluting. And because
they are located at the coalfields, they are concentrated in the northern interior of the
country, so power has to be transmitted long distances to coastal centres like Richards Bay,
Durban and East London. This leads to problems with the quality of electricity in these
areas.
Most of the coal power stations dump the heat from their condensers in conventional
cooling towers, which use between 1.8 and 2.0 litres of water for every kilowatt-hour of
electricity generated. Because fresh water is such a critical resource in South Africa, two of
the largest stations, Kendal and Matimba, operate with dry cooling, which uses only 0.1
litres of water for every kilowatt-hour. Kendal and Matimba are by far the largest air-cooled
power stations in the world. As can been seen from Table 4.3, the costs of lost efficiency for
dry cooling are small.
The municipalities of Cape Town, Bloemfontein and Pretoria each have small coal power
stations, which are run at low load factors. Kelvin Power Station (600 MWe) in
Johannesburg is run as an independent power producer.
Eskom is investigating the future use of fluidised bed combustion coal power stations,
which could burn discard coal.
54
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Table 4.3: Eskom’s coal-fired power stations
Source: National Electricity Regulator (2004b)
Nominal capacity
(Mwe)
First unit
commissioned
Thermal MJ / kg
efficiency for coal
Arnot
2 100
1971
Camden
1 600
1966
Duhva
3 600
1980
Grootvlei
1 200
1969
Hendrina
2 000
1970
32.34
21.57
Wet
Operating
Kendal
4 116
1988
34.31
19.96
Dry
Operating
Komati
1 000
1961
Wet
Mothballed
Kriel
3 000
1976
35.02
20.04
Wet
Operating
Lethabo
3 708
1985
34.89
15.27
Wet
Operating
Matimba
3 990
1987
33.52
20.77
Dry
Operating
Majuba
4 100
1996
Wet/dry
Operating
Matla
3 600
1979
35.47
20.58
Wet
Operating
Tutuka
3 654
1985
35.32
21.09
Wet
Operating
Cooling
Operating
status
33.3
22.35
Wet
Partly operating
Wet
Mothballed
34.5
21.25
Wet
Operating
Wet
Mothballed
4.2.1.2 Nuclear power
South Africa has one nuclear power station, Koeberg, about 30 km north of Cape Town on
the west coast. It consists of two pressurised water reactor units, each with a capacity of
920 MWe, and is cooled by seawater. Its first unit was commissioned in 1984. It is the only
large power station in South Africa that is not located in the north east of the country, and
as such it assists grid stability in the southwest. The finished fuel for Koeberg is imported,
which is more economical than manufacturing it locally.
Eskom has been developing a new type of nuclear power reactor, the pebble bed modular
reactor (PBMR). This is a small, simple, inherently safe design, using helium as the coolant
and graphite as the moderator. The fuel consists of pellets of uranium surrounded by
multiple barriers and embedded in graphite balls (‘pebbles’). If all the necessary legal,
political and commercial approvals are forthcoming, the first demonstration model (165
MWe) will go into production in about 2008.
4.2.1.3 Gas turbines
South Africa has 662 MWe capacity of gas turbine generators. Half of these generators are
owned by Eskom and half by municipalities. They are all are open cycle (single cycle) gas
turbines which run on liquid fuels such as diesel or kerosene. At present they are used only
for emergency power, but in the future they could be used to meet peak capacity.
A possible new source of electricity generation in the future is combined cycle gas turbines.
These burn gas in a gas turbine and send the exhaust gases to a steam boiler that drives a
steam turbine. Combined cycle gas turbines have the lowest capital costs per kWh of any
power generation technology, and have the further advantages of high efficiency and quick
construction time. They may well be suitable for South Africa, provided that gas supply and
gas prices are acceptable.
4.2.1.4 Hydroelectric power and pumped storage
There is 665 MWe of installed hydroelectric power in South Africa, of which all but 4 MWe
is owned by Eskom. Only two hydroelectric stations are over 50 MWe – Gariep (360 MWe)
ENERGY SUPPLY IN SOUTH AFRICA
55
and Vanderkloof (240 MWe). There is 1 400 MWe capacity of pumped storage in two
stations owned by Eskom – Drakensberg (1 000 MWe) and Palmiet (400 MWe), and 180
MWe in the Steenbras station which is owned by the Cape Town municipality. A new
pumped storage scheme is being planned for Braamhoek on the Free State/KwaZulu-Natal
border, which will consist initially of three 333 MWe units.
4.2.1.5 Electricity supply and demand
In the late 1960s, faced with high economic growth and high growth rates in electricity
demand, South Africa embarked on an ambitious programme of building large coal
stations. In the 1980s, economic growth slowed down, but the momentum of the long lead
times for building the stations kept the building programme active. The result was large
over-capacity in the mid-1990s. Figure 4.10 shows how the gap between total generation
capacity and peak demand widened from the 1970s onwards. Since 1994 economic
growth has gradually reduced the surplus capacity. From around 2007, South Africa will in
fact face a shortfall of electricity generation. New power stations will soon be required.
Figure 4.10: Eskom generation capacity and peak demand, 1956 to 2002
4.2.1.6 Electricity imports and exports
The volume of imports and exports of electricity from South Africa is roughly equivalent –
about 3% of the total electricity consumed in the country. Electricity is exported to
Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia, and imported from Zambia and Mozambique. Table
4.3 shows South Africa’s total electricity consumption, together with its imports and
exports, from 1998 to 2003.
Table 4.4: South African electricity consumption, imports and exports (GW-hours)
Year
SA consumption
Imports
Exports
1998
187 516
2 375
4 532
1999
190 120
6 673
4 266
2000
195 660
4 719
4 007
2001
196 063
7 247
6 519
2002
203 348
7 873
6 950
2003
211 023
6 739
10 136
56
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
4.2.2 Production of liquid fuels
South Africa makes liquid fuels by three different processes: refining of crude oil,
conversion of coal, and conversion of natural gas. Liquid fuels come from four refineries:
Sapref, Genref, Calref and Natref; from Sasol’s two coal-to-liquid plants at Secunda; and
from the Mossgas natural gas-to-liquid plant at Mossel Bay. Figure 4.11 shows their
capacities.
Note: The units of production in this figure are given as barrels of crude oil equivalent per day. For the synfuel plants,
fuel production is converted into production that would have come from a conventional refinery using crude oil.
Figure 4.11: Capacities of South African liquid fuel production plants
Source: SAPIA (2003)
4.2.2.1 Oil refineries
South Africa has three coastal oil refineries: Genref (Engen) and Sapref (BP/Shell) in
Durban; and Calref (Caltex) in Cape Town; and one inland refinery in Sasolburg
(Sasol/Total). Because the Sasolburg refinery does not have a market for the heavy residual
oil used for marine bunkers at the coast, the refinery process is modified to produce less
heavy oil, which somewhat increases costs.
4.2.2.2 Coal-to-liquid fuel plants
Sasol has by far the largest plants in the world for making liquid fuels from coal. The first
was built in Sasolburg in 1955, and is now used only for making other chemicals. Two
larger plants were built at Secunda in the 1970s and produce about 150 000 barrels of
crude oil equivalent a day. They consume 40 million tons of coal a year, mined from
Sasol’s own coalfields. The coal is first converted into ‘syngas’, a mixture of hydrogen and
carbon monoxide. Then, using the Fischer-Tropsch process, it is built up into
hydrocarbons, making petrol, diesel and other fuels and chemicals. These fuels are very
clean and contain no sulphur.
The synfuel plant at Secunda also includes the world’s biggest oxygen plant, which will
soon have a capacity of 3 550 tons of oxygen a day. A by-product of the synfuel process is
methane-rich gas with a heating value of about 35 MJ/kg. This is sent by pipeline to
industrial and commercial markets in Gauteng, Durban and Richards Bay. The Sasolburg
plant produces hydrogen-rich gas, which has a heating value of about 18 MJ/kg and is
used by steel makers and other industries.
4.2.2.3 Natural gas-to-liquid fuels
It is cleaner, easier and more efficient to make liquid fuels from natural gas than from coal,
and South Africa has become a world leader in this process. The PetroSA plant at Mossel
Bay (Mossgas) makes liquid fuels from natural gas piped from the offshore F-A field,
producing about 45 000 barrels a day of crude oil equivalent. The field will run out of gas
ENERGY SUPPLY IN SOUTH AFRICA
57
in about 2008, so new gas will have to be found to keep it in operation. Gas will have to
come either from developing the neighbouring fields or by importing gas in the form of
LNG.
Sasol has developed a new process, known as Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate technology, for
making very clean liquid fuels from natural gas. Because these fuels are free of sulphur,
they will be attractive for the fuel markets of Europe, Japan and the USA, which have
stringent legislation on emissions and air pollution. Sasol is building similar production
plants in Qatar in the Middle East and at Escravos in Nigeria.
4.2.2.4 Liquid fuel consumption, imports and exports
The tables below show South Africa’s liquid fuel consumption, imports and exports.
Table 4.5: South African liquid fuel consumption, 1988 to 2001
Petrol
Diesel
Kerosene
Jet fuel
Fuel oil
LPG
Total
1988
Year
7 995
5409
641
784
524
406
15 759
1989
8 395
5 350
678
835
546
432
16 236
1990
8 612
5 273
723
866
576
434
16 484
1991
8 906
5 130
725
861
526
464
16 612
1992
9 171
4 950
743
1 009
549
465
16 887
1993
9 202
4 940
834
1 095
595
454
17 120
1994
9 630
5 110
875
1 193
633
485
17 926
1995
10 153
5 432
850
1 368
616
472
18 891
1996
10 566
5 759
917
1 601
704
450
19 997
1997
10 798
5 875
970
1 777
635
502
20 557
1998
10 883
5 959
1 052
1 877
574
523
20 868
1999
10 861
5 993
1 054
1 995
561
540
21 004
2000
10 396
6 254
857
2 020
555
567
20 649
2001
10 340
6 488
786
1 924
555
599
20 692
Table 4.6: South African liquid fuel imports, 2001
Product
Crude
Quantity (tons)
16 563 625
Value (R million)
23 503
Petrol
220 361
487
Diesel
653 926
139
8 974
56
Kerosene
114 224
232
Others
347 525
873
17 908 635
25 290
Heavy fuel
Total
58
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Table 4.7: South African liquid fuel exports, 2001
Product
Value (R million)
Crude
184 169
407
Petrol
990 989
1 075
Diesel
2 174 699
2 249
8 974
172
243 525
140
Heavy fuel
Aviation& kerosene
Others
Total
4.2.3
Quantity (tons)
470 094
1 027
4 072 450
5 070
Renewable energy
4.2.3.1 Biomass
The historical trend, both worldwide and in South Africa, is a progression from traditional
fuels like wood and dung, through transitional fuels like coal, kerosene, LPG and candles,
to modern fuels, like electricity and piped gas. Within South Africa there is a demographic
trend for people to migrate from the countryside to the urban areas. Taken together, these
trends suggest a declining use of biomass for household energy in the future, although
widespread poverty might well counter this decline. It is estimated that about 87 PJ of
wood is used for household energy, mainly in the rural areas.
The industrial use of biomass is small but significant. Annually South Africa’s sugar industry
produces about 2 million tons of sugar from about 20 million tons of cane. About seven
million tons of bagasse is burnt in boilers to make steam for electricity generation and to
process heat.
South African pulp mills use biomass to generate electricity, with an estimated capacity of
170 MWe. The mills burn sawdust and bark (from softwoods) in their boilers to make
steam for electricity generation and to process heat. In the chemical pulp mills, ‘black
liquor’ is separated from the wood fibres after passing through digesters. The black liquor is
burnt in recovery boilers to make steam. The pulp and paper industry is thriving, and
timber yields in the forest are growing, so there are good prospects for expansion. The big
pulp mills can generate more electricity than they need at present, and if the price was
right, they could add their surplus electricity to the national grid.
4.2.3.2 Solar
So far no electricity from solar power is generated for the national grid, but solar
photovoltaic electricity is used widely in rural areas. It is estimated that about 70 000
households, 250 clinics and 2 100 schools have photovoltaic panels. Rural area supply
companies have been contracted under concession agreements to supply households in
more remote areas with photovoltaic units, sometimes combined with LPG supply. About 1
000 households are being added to this system each month. There is also a steady increase
in solar water heating for middle-income households.
Eskom is exploring the potential of grid electricity from solar and wind power. It initiated
the South African Bulk Renewable Energy Generation (SABRE) programme in 1998, and
in 2002, installed a 25kW solar dish with a Stirling engine at the Development Bank of
Southern Africa premises in Midrand.
Eskom is studying the feasibility of building a 300 MWe solar thermal power station near
Upington in Northern Cape. If built, this station would have three 100 MWe units,
ENERGY SUPPLY IN SOUTH AFRICA
59
concentrating sunlight in reflecting troughs onto pipes carrying a coolant of molten salt. The
salt would store heat so that the station would be able to deliver electricity 24 hours a day.
4.2.3.3 Wind
So far no electricity in the national grid is generated from wind. Wind was important
traditionally, and continues to be, for water pumping on farms. There are about 500 wind
turbines on farms that generate direct current electricity, usually at 36V.
In 2003, Eskom installed two 660 kWh wind turbines and a 1.7 MWe one at Klipheuvel in
the Western Cape as part of its SABRE programme of demonstration and research. An
independent group, Darling Independent Power Producer (Darlipp), proposes to develop
the 5 MWe Darling Wind Farm, also in the Western Cape. It has been licensed by the
National Electricity Regulator, but is still awaiting approval of its environmental impact
assessment (EIA).
4.2.3.4 Municipal waste
It has been estimated that South Africa’s total domestic and industrial refuse disposed in
landfill sites has an energy content of about 11 000 GWh per annum. This could be directly
incinerated or converted into biogas and methane to produce electricity. Various proposals
for this undertaking have been made.
4.3 Issues for future energy supply
4.3.1 Energy reserves and prices
Coal is by far the largest source of primary energy for South Africa, and it is likely to remain
so for decades. The country’s coal reserves are now being re-assessed by the DME, and the
result will be of great importance of energy planners. In view of the rising demand for coal
worldwide, especially because of demand from China, coal prices are likely to rise
markedly in the medium term, which will have significant effects for South Africa’s energy
economy, particularly in electricity generation. For gas, even if the most favourable
estimates are confirmed, the indigenous gas reserves remain small.
4.3.2 Electricity supply
South Africa is rapidly running out of generation capacity and must build new stations
soon. Two problems immediately arise: Who is going to build and run the new stations?
What energy sources are they going to use?
At the moment Eskom, the state-owned utility, is the only national supplier of electricity.
The government has stated that Eskom should not build any more power stations, but at
the same time it has stated that Eskom has an obligation to supply power. Independent
power producers (IPPs) would need a return on investment of about 15%, which would
require electricity prices to be much higher than they are at present. New stations could
possibly be built using loans, with lower returns and smaller electricity price increases. But
in the circumstances it seems likely that Eskom will be asked to build new stations, or at
least to build them in partnership with others.
Since gas reserves are small, and renewable sources have limited potential, the only two
indigenous sources of energy for bulk electricity are coal and nuclear power. Future coal
stations would probably be similar to the existing pulverised fuel stations but with the
addition of desulphurisation and dry cooling. Fluidised bed combustion stations using
discard coal have become a strong possibility. Of the nuclear options, the pebble bed
60
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
modular reactor seems the most promising, but it will first be necessary to build a full-sized
commercial prototype at Koeberg in order to make a proper evaluation of the technology.
Importing hydroelectricity from new schemes in central Africa is a further possibility. The
problem here is security of supply, given the history of political instability in the region.
South African power stations could also be run on imported natural gas, either piped from
Angola or shipped in as LNG.
4.3.3 Liquid fuels
An unresolved question concerning liquid fuels in the future is whether South Africa will
build any more production capacity, either in the form of oil refineries or synfuel plants, or
whether it will simply import finished liquid fuels to meet extra demand.
4.3.4 Renewables
Renewable energy on a large scale could come from pulp mills, sugar refineries and solar
water heating, with wind turbo-generators making a smaller contribution. The
government’s 2003 White Paper on Renewable Energy requires that from 2013 onwards,
10 000 GWh per year of final energy demand should be met by renewable energy. Of
biomass, wind, solar and small hydro, biomass is currently by far the largest potential
contributor.
5
Social issues
Gisela Prasad
Contributing authors: Bill Cowan and Eugene Visagie
5.1 Analysis of the current situation
5.1.1
Introduction
he social issues of sustainable development are strongly linked to economic issues.
This is particularly so for very wealthy and very poor countries, because both overconsumption and poverty are threats to sustainable development. Social
sustainability is strongly affected by local, national and international economic
relationships, which affect access to resources, employment and social power.
T
As is well known, South Africa’s level of income inequality, measured by the Gini
coefficient, is one of the highest in the world (SSA 2000).
Access to electricity is generally seen as an important step in socio-economic development.
Many countries, including South Africa, are aiming for universal access to electricity. In
South Africa, prior to the 1994 democratic elections, black people (meaning all ‘people of
colour’) were largely excluded from access to services, including electricity. The
government has embarked on an electrification programme which seeks to address the
electrification backlog by 2014.
Adequate energy is in itself a basic survival need, and energy is also required to meet other
basic needs, such as water supply. The fuels that are commonly used by poor communities
for cooking and heating (fuelwood, kerosene, coal) may be adequate to meet immediate
basic energy needs, provided that these fuels are affordable and available. Where there is
extreme energy poverty, the direct effects can be malnutrition, exposure to disease, and
even death.
Levels of energy poverty are difficult to quantify in South Africa since they are tied up with
other factors threatening the survival of the poorest people, such as food shortages,
inadequate water supplies, and limited access to health care. However, there is little doubt
that extreme energy poverty contributes to the plight of vulnerable households, and within
these households to the survival prospects of the most vulnerable family members, such as
the elderly, the infirm and the very young. Economic inequities are clearly a major cause of
extreme energy poverty in South Africa, given the fact that there are no shortages in
national energy supply capability.
5.1.2 Household energy access
In the early 1990s, Eskom planners, working under the slogan of ‘Electricity for All’, aimed
to reach as many people as possible. The National Electrification Programme (NEP) Phase
1 (1994-1999) was duly launched, and provided 2.5 million electricity connections at a
total cost of about R7 billion. Thousands of disadvantaged areas, rural areas, schools and
clinics formerly without electricity, were connected to the national grid. Phase 2 of the
61
62
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
National Electrification programme was started in 2000 with a target to provide 300 000
additional households with electricity every year – a target which has been met for the past
five years.
The National Electrification Coordinating Committee realised that some people in South
Africa would probably not have access to grid electricity in the foreseeable future. The high
costs of grid supply to households in very sparsely settled or remote places, together with
the low income levels of most rural people, meant that any electrification programme
would have to be non-grid. There was an acceptance that such households would have to
continue using non-electric fuels for thermal energy, particularly for cooking, which is their
largest energy need.
5.1.2.1 Electrification programme of the last 10 years (1995-2005)
Phase 1 of the National Electrification Programme (NEP), ambitious as it was, was an
outstanding success. The national utility, Eskom, installed 1.75 million connections and
municipalities installed a further 0.75 million connections. This rate of electrification was
amongst the highest ever achieved in the world and was done without external funding
(Borchers et al. 2001). Eskom funded the NEP out of its own resources and the
municipalities’ subsidies were derived from Eskom revenues through the electrification
fund. This meant that connection fees for poor customers could be kept low. Valuable
lessons were learned and innovative approaches and technologies were pioneered.
One of the innovations of the electrification programme was pre-payment meters. Paying
for electricity before consuming it gives households better control over electricity
expenditure and avoids the accumulation of household debt. Pre-payment also means that
the utility supplying the service avoids the many problems associated with non-payment.
Rural settlements are generally further from the grid and more dispersed, which makes
rural electrification more expensive. Table 5.1 shows that from 1997 to 2001, more urban
than rural houses were electrified.
Table 5.1: Urban and rural electrification information from 1997 to 2001
Source: Based on figures from SSA 2003
Type of
area
Population
Houses
Houses
electrified
Houses not
electrified
% electrified
% Not
electrified
Rural
20 832 416
4 267 548
2 095 229
2 172 319
49.10
50.90
Urban
23 723 327
6 503 427
5 023 186
1 480 241
77.20
22.80
Total
44 560 743
10 770 975
7 118 415
3 652 560
66.10
33.90
2001
2000
Rural
19 967 564
4 267 548
1 952 494
2 315 054
45.75
54.25
Urban
23 357 452
6 503 427
4 828 103
1 675 324
74.24
25.76
Total
43 325 016
10 770 975
6 780 597
3 990 378
62.95
37.05
1999
Rural
20 009 245
3 873 990
1 793 193
2 080 797
46.29
53.71
Urban
23 045 062
5 745 180
4 585 185
1 159 995
79.81
20.19
Total
43 054 307
9 619 170
6 378 378
3 240 792
66.31
33.69
SOCIAL ISSUES
Type of
area
Population
63
Houses
Houses
electrified
Houses not
electrified
% electrified
% Not
electrified
1998
Rural
19 550 322
3 785 454
1 612 168
2 173 286
42.59
57.41
Urban
22 580 078
5 636 392
4 322 820
1 313 572
76.69
23.31
Total
42 130 400
9 421 846
5 934 988
3 486 858
62.99
37.01
Rural
19 111 522
3 700 494
1 409 681
2 290 813
38.09
61.91
Urban
22 115 078
5 520 200
4 097 981
1 422 219
74.24
25.76
Total
41 226 600
9 220 694
5 507 662
3 713 032
59.73
40.27
1997
Contrary to expectations, electricity consumption in low-income areas has been very low –
so low that in many of these areas revenues do not cover operation costs (Borchers et al.
2001). Case studies have shown that 56% of households connected to the national grid
consume less than 50kWh of electricity per month (Prasad & Ranninger 2003). A
consumption level of 350kWh was initially anticipated, but the consumption for the year
2000 was 132 kWh/month/household (Borchers et al 2001). The electrification of poor and
rural areas is clearly not financially sustainable, but in the long term the financial loss can
be weighed against the social and developmental gains. As the NER (1998) put it:
It was understood from the beginning that the primary motivation for the massive
electrification of disadvantaged communities was not to achieve economic benefits.
For socio-political reasons it made sense at the time, as it still does, to improve the
quality of life of millions of South Africans while at the same time creating
opportunities for jobs and prosperity.
The electrification programme contributed to the welfare of these communities by enabling
improved health care in clinics and evening adult education classes in schools. It allowed
computers and photocopiers to be used by those schools that could afford them. The
number of fires in homes was reduced because kerosene lamps and candles were replaced
by electric lights (Borchers et al 2001). Many households were only able to cover the costs
of electricity for lighting and media (see Figure 5.1). Small enterprises benefited, with
retailers and workshops able to open for longer hours in the evening. This has been helpful
to communities, even though the provision of electricity alone is only one factor necessary
for local economic development.
Although the electrification programme has been extremely successful and creditable in
expanding the numbers of South African households connected to the national grid, there
were some unexpected problems:
• Even after electrification, a majority of lower-income households (both rural and to a
somewhat lesser extent urban) continued to use non-electric fuels for their thermal
energy needs.
• The wider socio-economic development benefits of electrification seemed disappointing,
partly because the improved energy supply was not integrated with other necessary
improvements in infrastructure, services and economic development initiatives.
• Some groups of poor people, like backyard dwellers and people living on land not
approved for settlement, remain excluded from electrification.
As a result of these challenges to expectations, there was a growing awareness that:
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
• An energy development strategy which seeks to benefit the poor must not be restricted
to electrification, but needs to include improved access to complementary non-electric
fuels, appliances, and safe/efficient practices – whether in grid-electrified or non-grid
areas of the country.
• Electrification investments would achieve greater development benefits if they were not
solely driven by targets related to the number of households connected, but instead
were integrated into more detailed, cross-sectoral local development plans and
implementation.
5.1.2.2 Non-grid electrification programme
The DME realised that certain rural areas would not be connected to the national grid in
the near future. In 1999 it adopted a scheme of contracting concessionaires to deliver nongrid electricity to specific rural communities. The scheme aimed to provide 350 000
households with access to SHSs over several years. Designated rural areas were allocated
to approved utilities which were to provide non-grid electricity services for an agreed fee to
be paid by the customer – the fee-for-service model. Under the scheme, the
concessionaires own the solar home systems that they have installed, and service them
regularly for a monthly fee of R58. Most of the SHSs are small photovoltaic systems with
50 Wp (Watt peak) panels. By the end of 2005, some 7 000 SHSs had been installed in
four concession areas in this way. A capital subsidy of R3 500 for each installed and
certified system was paid by the government directly to the service provider.
The non-grid programme is a new initiative, and implementation has been slow. An initial
evaluation of the concessionaire model indicates that very poor households cannot afford
to participate. The current selection criteria are proof of employment, and the ability to
make regular monthly payments of R58. The government has promised to pay a monthly
service subsidy of R48 directly to the service provide – the equivalent of the basic electricity
support service tariff (BESST) for grid-connected poor customers. The promise of a
monthly subsidy of R48 would certainly help poor households, as they would have to find
only the remaining R10 to meet the service fee.
Even so, solar electricity is not cheap. A solar panel provides on average 62 kWh/year, so
that even after the capital subsidy and the poverty tariff, customers will still be paying
193c/kWh. This is five times the amount that an unsubsidised grid-connected customer
pays (Spalding-Fecher 2002).
It was initially intended that the concessionaires who were operating in rural areas would
also provide fuels like kerosene and gas for cooking, space heating and water heating, but
this has only been partially implemented.
5.1.3
Household energy use
5.1.3.1 Provision of electricity and multiple fuel use
Multiple fuel use is commonplace in developed and developing countries worldwide, both
within industrial and residential sectors, and among richer and poorer households. Some
households that can afford to cook with electricity may choose alternative energy sources
for a variety of reasons – convenience, tradition, or in order to prepare food in a specific
way. However most households in low-income groups do not have a choice – they use
wood or kerosene because they cannot afford electrical appliances or electricity bills.
In 2001, seven years after the electrification programme started, census data showed that
many households were still using multiple fuels. A comparison of energy sources used for
cooking in households in 1996 with those of households in 2001 (Table 5.2 below) shows
SOCIAL ISSUES
65
that the number of households cooking with electricity increased by only 4.3%. The use of
gas slightly declined, kerosene use remained approximately the same, and the use of wood
declined by 2.4%.
Table 5.2: Comparing energy sources for cooking in 1996 and 2001
Source: Based on Census 1996 and 2001 data from SSA (2003)
Fuel
1996 (%)
2001 (%)
Electricity
47.1
51.4
Gas
3.2
2.5
Kerosene
21.5
21.4
Wood
22.8
20.5
Coal
3.5
2.8
Other
1.9
1.4
Total
100
100
Of the households in South Africa, 69% now have access to electricity and use it for
lighting (Figure 5.1a), while 23% light their homes with candles and 7% use kerosene.
Comparing electricity use for lighting and cooking (Figure 5.1a and b) it becomes clear that
18% of households, although connected to electricity, cannot afford to use it for cooking.
Wood and kerosene are used as substitutes for the more convenient but unaffordable
electricity. The difference in the number of households that use electricity for lighting only
and the number that use it for both lighting and cooking is thus an indicator of how poverty
affects energy use.9
b. Cooking
a. Lighting
Other 1%
Candles 23%
Paraffin 7%
Other 1%
Electricity 51%
Wood 21%
c. Heating
Other 4%
Electricity 48%
Wood 25%
Coal 3%
Coal 7%
Paraffin 21%
Electricity 69%
Gas 3%
Paraffin 15%
Gas 1%
Figure 5.1: Distribution of South African households by main energy source used for
lighting, cooking and heating
Source: Based on Census 2001 figures from SSA (2003)
The pattern of electricity-use for heating (Figure 5.1c) follows the same trend as the pattern
of electricity-use for cooking. Wood, coal and kerosene are widely used for heating rather
than electricity. These fuels appeal to poor people because they are cheaper, or are
perceived as cheaper, and they can be used with inexpensive appliances or with no
appliances at all.
9
The census data probably over-represents the extent to which electricity is used for cooking. Numerous
studies have shown that lower-income households using electricity for cooking, use it for only a part of
their cooking activities.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Figure 5.2 shows an analysis by province and income of the number of people who use
electricity for lighting only, compared to those who use electricity for both lighting and
cooking. It shows that in poor provinces such as Limpopo and Mpumalanga, a larger
proportion of users consume electricity for lighting purposes only, compared to provinces
with relatively high incomes such as Gauteng and Western Cape. This supports the findings
of case studies which show that poor households cannot afford to buy electrical appliances
or to use electricity for cooking (UCT 2002), and so tend to use electricity only for lighting
and media. In very poor households there may not be enough money to buy electricity for
the whole month, so towards the end of the month people either remain in darkness or use
candles (Prasad & Ranninger 2003).
Figure 5.2: Households using electricity for cooking and lighting
by province in percentages
Source: Based on Census 2001 figures from SSA (2003)
In urban areas, case studies (Mehlwana & Qase 1998) show that while electricity is
considered the most desirable fuel, many households could neither afford the monthly
electricity bill nor the most basic electric appliances. A comparison of income group and
fuel source for cooking (Table 5.3) shows that just over 30% of households in the two
poorest income groups cook with electricity while at the same time using more kerosene
(25–31.4%) and wood (31–33%) than higher income categories. Wealthier households
cook primarily with electricity. The income group R154 000–R307 000, cooks almost 96%
with electricity, which is in fact more than in the two highest income groups.
Table 5.3: Percentage share of fuels used for cooking by households in
different income groups
Source: Based on Census 2001 figures from SSA (2003)
Income group
Electricity
Gas
Kerosene
Wood
Coal
Others
Total
0 – R4 800
30.0
2.3
31.4
31.0
3.3
2.0
100
R4 801 – R9 600
33.8
2.3
25.0
33.0
3.8
2.0
100
R9 601 – R19 200
47.7
2.8
25.2
19.4
3.4
1.4
100
R19 201 – R38 400
67.1
3.2
17.0
9.3
2.6
0.8
100
R38 401 – R 76 800
85.8
3.0
6.1
3.3
1.2
0.5
100
SOCIAL ISSUES
Income group
67
Electricity
Gas
Kerosene
Wood
Coal
Others
Total
R76 801 – R153 600
93.3
2.2
1.9
1.7
0.5
0.5
100
R153 601 – R307 200
95.9
1.9
0.8
0.8
0.2
0.4
100
R307 201 – R614 400
94.7
2.2
1.1
1.3
0.3
0.5
100
R614 400 – R1 228 800
92.3
3.0
1.7
2.1
0.4
0.5
100
R1 228 801 – R2 457 600
76.2
2.8
7.7
10.6
1.4
1.2
100
R2 457 601 and more
85.7
2.7
3.6
6.5
0.8
0.7
100
Total
51.4
2.5
21.4
20.5
2.8
1.4
100
Compared to other countries, South Africa’s relatively widespread use of electricity and its
demographic patterns of electricity use are exceptional. The relatively low electricity prices
mean that middle income and higher income households are more likely to use electricity
for their domestic energy needs, if compared with middle income consumers in other
countries. Only the lower income households can be said to use multiple fuels.
Non-commercial fuels
Much of the biomass used as fuel by low-income households is gathered ‘free of charge’ by
householders rather than purchased, which of course has important money-saving benefits
for the poor, and may be a matter of no choice for very poor households. Enforced
dependence on non-commercial fuels is one the most intractable energy problems in the
country, bringing with it a number of sustainability issues – including health impacts,
environmental degradation, decreased productivity and energy poverty.
In some parts of the country there is an increasing commercialisation of biomass fuels,
firewood in particular. Sometimes households purchase firewood because they can afford
to do so. For others firewood may be an enforced purchase, because of a local scarcity of
wood, or an inability to collect sufficient quantities – this in turn could be as a result of
infirmity or shortage of able people in the household, or compounded by the HIV/Aids
pandemic. In such cases, the commercialisation of firewood means further energy poverty
and deteriorating livelihoods.
Factors affecting the use of commercial fuels among low-income households
Cost and availability are the most important determinants of poorer people’s choice of
commercial fuels. Cost involves not only the cost of the fuel itself, but also the appliances
needed to use it. Transport is an important factor too, which affects both the cost and
availability of fuel. Rural householders often have to travel significant distances to purchase
fuels like kerosene, which adds to the cost of obtaining the fuel; or else they may buy small
quantities from local traders, at a considerably higher cost per litre. Where there are several
steps in the distribution chain (as is the case for kerosene and liquid petroleum gas) the
mark-ups at each step raise the final price, increasing the energy burden on the poor. Close
to mining areas, coal is a ‘cheap’ fuel, but it becomes more expensive the further it is
transported. Thus coal is widely used by low-income households, but only in some areas of
the country.10
10
These unfortunately include areas with high settlement densities, cold winters, and adverse climatic
conditions for dissipating the pollutants from coal fires and stoves, leading to extremely unhealthy local
indoor and outdoor pollution levels.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
An important factor is the cost and availability of suitable appliances. Very cheap kerosene
wick stoves are widely available, but these have poor safety, performance and durability
characteristics. The use of kerosene pressure stoves, which are somewhat more efficient
than the wick stoves, is also common, but these are also often of poor quality and are as
expensive to purchase as a two-plate electric stove. Liquid petroleum gas appliances tend
to be expensive for poor families. The cost of appliances, and the fact that they are not
very durable, constrains people’s fuel choices and their flexibility in switching between
fuels. Among households with low and irregular income streams, the ability to switch
between ‘superior’ and ‘inferior’ energy practices according to their level of resources at a
given time, is an important technique for improving their quality of life, or surviving periods
of destitution. However the cost of owning several appliances for multiple fuel use can be
an obstacle.
5.1.3.2 Urban-rural divide
Very poor households (income quintile 1) in rural areas have the lowest electrification rates
(see Table 5.1) in the country. Only 41% of these households have access to electricity.
The largest difference between rural and urban households is found among the poorer
households (income quintile 2). Forty-five percent of rural q2 households have electricity
while 78% of urban q2 households have access to electricity.
Table 5.4: Estimated electrification levels of rural and urban household
by income quintile
Source: UCT (2002); data from October Household Survey (1999)
Rural households
Urban households
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
41%
45%
59%
68%
76%
63%
78%
87%
91%
98%
5.2 Sustainability issues for energy development
5.2.1 Access, affordability and acceptability
The term ‘energy burden’ refers to the percentage of the total household budget spent on
energy. The average energy burden of poor households in remote rural villages is 18% 11
(see Table 5.6) (Prasad & Ranninger 2003). After an allocation of 50 kWh free basic
electricity, the energy burden is reduced to 12% of the total household budget.
Table 5.5: Mean expenditure by poorer households on electricity and other fuels and
energy, as a percentage of total household expenditure
Expenditure on
Difference
Electricity (R/month)
38
31
7
18%
Fuels excluding electricity (R/month)
70
59
11
16%
18%
12%
Energy as% of household expenditure
11
Before subsidy After subsidy
6%
In the USA the energy burden for low-income households in 2001 was 14% – twice the energy burden for
all households taken as a whole, which was 7% (EIA 2003).
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69
5.2.2 Subsidies
Since poor households cannot afford much electricity and generally do not have the
resources to start economic enterprises, they cannot make full use of the opportunities that
an electric connection could provide. A subsidy is therefore needed to achieve social
benefits from the investment in the electrification networks (Gaunt 2003). The DME has
introduced a subsidy policy designed to reduce the worst effects of poverty on
communities. The policy gives free basic electricity to all poor households. The policy has
been piloted and put into effect by some municipalities, which have provided differing
amounts of free electricity, from 20 kWh to 100 kWh. This will soon be standardised to a
uniform 50 kWh free of charge to all grid-connected poor households in the country.
Some economists believe that subsidies have a negative effect on economic efficiency.
According to this view, while the removal of value added tax on illuminating kerosene is a
measure designed specifically to give some relief to low-income households, it is unlikely to
lead to increased efficiency in the economy. Other economists argue that reducing taxes
and levies on commercial and industrial fuels, such as diesel and gasoline, might lead to
more efficient economic production (since the high taxes and levies constitute a price
distortion). However in the South African economy this is debatable because of the
massive uncosted social and environmental externalities such as air pollution outdoors
from coal and indoors from a range of fuels.
5.2.3 Energy and job creation
South Africa has high levels of joblessness – the official rate of unemployment in 2001 was
41.6% (SSA 2003), significantly higher than previous estimates of 29.5% (SSA 2001).12
Looked at by race, the unequal employment rate starkly reflects the inequality of apartheid.
According to the 2001 Census, unemployment among black African men was 43.3%, while
among white men it was 6.1% (this reflecting the strict definition of the unemployment rate
among those aged 15-65, i.e. as a share of the economically active population). There was
an even greater gap among women, with 57.8% unemployment for black women and
6.6% for white women. Among those employed, 1.2 million black Africans were in
‘elementary occupations’ and only 106 000 were working as ‘professionals’, of a total of
2.5 million (these are only two of ten occupational categories). Out of a total of 819 000
white people employed there were more professionals (138 000) than among all employed
black people, and far fewer doing elementary jobs (20 000) (SSA 2001).
Since the early 1990s, jobs have been lost in the energy and energy-related industries
(Figure 5.3). From 1993 to 2002 Eskom reduced its workforce from 40 128 to 29 359
(Eskom 2002). In the coal mining industry, 100 000 people were employed in 1986
compared with 49 000 in 2001 (SANEA 2003). For both electricity and coal, production
increased at the same time as the workforce decreased, due to greater mechanisation.
12
Among those who are included in the expanded but not the official definition of unemployment will be
discouraged job seekers (those who said they were unemployed but had not taken active steps to find
work in the four weeks prior to the interview). The official definition is that ‘unemployed are those people
within the economically active population who: (a) did not work during the seven days prior to the
interview, (b) want to work and are available to start work within a week of the interview, and (c) have
taken active steps to look for work or to start some form of self-employment in the four weeks prior to the
interview’ (SSA 2001). The expanded unemployment rate excludes criterion (c).
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Figure 5.3: Employment in coal-based electricity generation in South Africa
Source: AGAMA (2003)
5.2.4 Economic empowerment of the historically disadvantaged
The government has made a commitment to redress the race and gender inequalities of the
past. In 2003, Eskom employed 54.6% black staff and 24.5% women at managerial levels,
slightly exceeding its target for 2002. Taking all levels at Eskom together, black staff
members made up 68.8% of the total, and women 19.7%. As part of its procurement
policy, Eskom supports black economic empowerment, and in 2002 a policy framework for
the empowerment of women was implemented (Eskom 2003).
5.2.5 The need to inform and educate the poor on energy issues
The use of electricity and electrical appliances is relatively new for most poor households.
Research conducted at two ‘electricity basic support services tariff’ (EBSST) pilot sites
demonstrated that poor people did not benefit optimally from the EBSST tariff because of
a lack of energy education and information. Vilakazi (2003) notes that a lack of education
and information was a major barrier to the successful implementation of the EBSST
programme. In fact the White Paper on Energy (DME 1998: 110) acknowledges that all
levels of South African energy consumers, from low-income households to business and
industry, are poorly informed about good practices and options for energy use. Lack of
energy information contributes to unsustainable conditions and community
underdevelopment (Visagie 2002). An energy-literate South African public is needed to
make well-reasoned decisions about energy options and to use the natural resources more
wisely – the key to sustainable development
5.2.6 Gender and energy
In most households women do the cooking, and in most poor rural households it is women
and children who are responsible for collecting firewood. Wood collectors are vulnerable
targets for attack by criminals and wild animals, and carrying heavy head-loads of up to 50
kg over many years is physically damaging. A detailed description of the effects of indoor
air pollution from smoke on human health is presented in Chapter 7.
SOCIAL ISSUES
71
Energia News October 2003, which had a focus on women, gender and energy,
highlighted the gender and energy work which began in 1994 following the national
mandate for equity. The appointment in 1999 of Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka as Minister of
Minerals and Energy was a turning point for women in the energy sector (Annecke 2003).
The minister actively supports participation of women by encouraging training and
allocation of resources to women.
5.3 Energy-related social issues
5.3.1 Future energy generation and job creation
About 41.6% of the population of South Africa are without jobs, which is a serious social
issue. The energy sector itself has the potential to employ large numbers of people – jobs
will be created as the electricity sector expands to meet demand, and in the related
expansion of the coal mining industry as it increases its capacity. With one of the lowest
electricity tariffs in the world, South Africa is attracting direct foreign investment and
creating jobs in new energy-intensive industries. The aluminium smelter at Hillside in
Richards Bay and the development at Coega near Port Elizabeth, are two examples.
Renewable energy can also create many jobs. A recent study (AGAMA 2003) evaluated the
role that renewable energy could play in job creation. The projected electricity demand for
the year 2020 is expected to be 267 TWh, increasing from the 2000 electricity generation
figure of 181 573 GWh. Figure 5.4 indicates that if an additional 62 TWh is to be
generated by renewable energy technologies (RETs) and coal capacity, around 52 000 jobs
will be created, compared to 43 000 that would be created if the additional capacity were
created solely by coal-fired plants. An even larger number of jobs (57 000) would be
created if RETs alone were to generate the demand (AGAMA 2003).
Figure 5.4: Summary of jobs against electricity generation for coal and RETs in 2020
Source: AGAMA (2003)
5.3.2 Effects of electricity prices and subsidies
As we have seen, poorer households in South Africa tend not to use electricity for their
main thermal energy needs, and in any case half of rural households do not even have
access to grid electricity. However if the electricity basic support services tariff (EBSST) is
successfully implemented, electricity will become a cheaper cooking option than other
commercial fuels, and it will make financial sense for low-income electrified households to
cut down on their use of other commercial fuels and use electricity for their thermal energy
requirements. This would be a profound change, requiring wide customer
education/information campaigns and ongoing careful policy assessment.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
The subsidies for widened access, and for electricity itself, would need to be sufficiently
large to compensate for the likely higher cost of electricity expected after 2007 when new
power stations will be built. It remains to be seen whether such a large national
subsidisation of electricity would be sustainable. Even if subsidised grid electricity becomes
an affordable cooking option for larger numbers of households, it is likely that among the
very poor there will be a continuing use of non-commercial energy options. Poor people
are well aware of the burden, inconvenience and health effects of cooking over smoky fires,
but their economic choices are very limited.
5.3.3 Energisation approaches
The terms ‘energisation’ and ‘integrated energy provision’ have become popular in the
South African energy sector in recent years. They refer to improving energy provision by
using a combination of different fuels, rather than a single energy carrier such as electricity.
These terms reflect a switch in thinking away from an almost exclusive focus on
electrification. The term ‘energisation’ has also developed connotations of a more political
notion of empowerment and local community activism around energy and development
issues.
5.3.3.1 Agencies and actors
Energisation and integrated energy provision imply a range of fuel supplies. This requires a
range of agencies and companies involved on the supply side, as well as other agencies,
policy-makers and planners to support community empowerment and organisational
development around energy issues.
A list of participants could include:
National government (primarily the
DME)
Planning, policy, support, regulatory oversight,
subsidies and taxes, etc.
Local government
Responsible for securing the delivery of basic
services (including energy) in their municipal areas,
and for many aspects of Integrated Development
Planning. Possibly also for routing national government subsidies directed towards energy provision.
Eskom and other electricity
suppliers and distributors
Mainly responsible for grid electricity supplies. A
rationalisation between Eskom and municipal
electricity distribution is pending.
Oil companies and distribution
networks for petroleum products
Sourcing/producing and distributing petroleumbased fuels – sometimes with further diversification.
Industry associations
For example safety associations within the
petroleum sector – geared more towards public
interest and market-support activities.
Solar energy companies, and other
energy companies/ utilities involved
in the ‘concessionaires programme’
for non-grid service provision
Supply and maintenance of non-grid electricity
services plus improved provision of complementary
thermal fuels.
Retail outlets, large and small,
dealing in fuels and appliances
For example retail chains selling appliances (and
concerned with safety standards), or the multitude
of small traders involved in the distribution of fuels
like kerosene.
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73
Community organisations
For example consumer co-operatives, communitymanaged ‘energy centres’, civic environmental and
safety groups, local development forums.
NGOs and government/multilateral
development support agencies
Generally assisting local development initiatives,
organisational development, and capacity building.
The above table shows how the aims of energisation can lead to more complex
involvements by many agencies – a quite different picture from an energy supply approach
which focuses on electrification and where a large part of the responsibility, planning,
financing and implementation would be assigned to Eskom. The combinations of different
fuels and appliances in an energisation approach mean that different types of distribution
and trading would be involved. For example, kerosene is widely available as a household
consumable which can be purchased almost anywhere in the country from shops, petrol
stations and other bulk outlets. However, its refinery-gate price is regulated, retail price
mark-ups are regulated (though ineffectively), and it is exempt from VAT (also with
uncertain effectiveness, when one considers the final prices paid by low-income
households). Kerosene distribution and trading therefore combines elements of free market
and government regulation. LPG poses different complexities, since there is supposed
government regulation of refinery-gate prices, but no control over retail margins, and
consumer LPG prices are unusually high in many areas.
Grid electricity is a different kind of commodity, as it involves network infrastructure. For
households, electricity use is just another commodity, to be compared with alternative
fuels. Electrification planners see it differently – for them it is a social rather than a
commercial programme, perhaps a necessary social investment and a form of reparation
for past injustices in the country. For electrification planners, the income from selling
electricity units is small in proportion to the scale of subsidies required to extend the
electricity infrastructure and its operation.
Thus energisation can involve a mixed bag of commercial conditions, in order to deliver a
combination of energy services. The three examples below illustrate different possibilities
and some dilemmas.
Extending the range of rural electrification – the weak grid approach
The costs of rural electrification tend to rise as the network is extended into remote and
sparsely settled parts of the country. Cost-saving can be achieved through the use of lowercapacity medium voltage transmission and distribution lines, smaller transformers, and
lower cabling costs for local reticulation. Given that typical electricity demand levels in poor
rural areas tend to be very low, electrification supply projects can be designed for a very
low ADMD (after diversity maximum demand)13 thus reducing costs and increasing the
number of communities and households that can be reached within the available budgets.
Such a ‘weak grid’ approach is not designed to cover community-wide cooking and
heating requirements. Households depending primarily on non-commercial fuels like wood
13
Electricity demand is used here in the technical sense, where maximum demand is the maximum power
consumed by customers. Individual consumers may require peak power at different times of day, so this
‘diversity’ effect can bring down the average peak power requirement for a community of consumers.
Unfortunately, if a major electricity use occurs at the same time of day for many of the consumers (for
instance, cooking meals) there is less demand diversity, and the average peak power requirement rises.
The load factor then falls, indicating that the supply capacity required to cover the peak demand is
severely under-utilised at other times of day, or seasonally. This is a familiar problem in rural
electrification.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
and dung are likely to continue with these to save costs, although it is hoped some of them
will switch to cleaner fuels. Households using fuels like kerosene may also continue to do
so. There is hope that the use of liquid petroleum gas may become more widespread
through improvements in LPG supply and pricing, and appreciation of its greater
convenience, cleanliness and safety compared with kerosene.
What will these households choose if grid electricity becomes cheaper than kerosene or
LPG for cooking, especially households adopting the proposed electricity basic support
services tariff? The demand to use electricity for cooking could then rise substantially,
especially among those households presently using kerosene and LPG. The strategy of
reducing electrification supply costs through a weak grid approach could then be at odds
with a subsidy policy which promotes higher levels of electricity demand and use. This
paradox is already apparent, according to the LPG Safety Association of Southern Africa.
Non-grid concessionaires: solar systems plus other energy services
In the non-grid ‘concessionaires’ programme, the primary responsibility of the
concessionaire companies is to supply, install and maintain solar home systems. However,
they are also expected to improve the supply of other fuels for cooking and heating. An
energisation approach for the households concerned would be connection to a SHS for
electric lighting and media/communications appliances, coupled with improved distribution
of affordable LPG and appliances for thermal energy needs.
The first large SHS project in Eastern Cape, an Eskom-Shell joint venture, has so far not
become significantly involved in improved supplies of other fuels, claiming that the
challenges of SHS supply were arduous enough. However there are examples where
lower-cost LPG is being supplied alongside solar electrification, reportedly with success. An
example is the NuRa utility operating in northern KwaZulu-Natal. Its central strategy –
which is being considered by other groups concerned with off-grid electrification in rural
areas – has been to establish multi-purpose one-stop rural energy stores. These stores
provide a base for the marketing, supply, maintenance and billing of solar systems, as well
as providing a range of other fuels and appliances, and also conducting public awareness
activities. This approach has many similarities with the idea of NGO-driven ‘integrated
energy centres’ outlined in the next example below. It differs in having a distinctly
commercial basis, which in turn depends on the government-subsidised programme for
non-grid SHS electrification. NuRa reports a significant income-stream from LPG sales, a
positive indication which shows that an integrated energy approach makes a good match
in rural areas between energy demand and energy supply.
Integrated energy centres
Community-managed rural energy centres were piloted in the Rural SEED (Sustainable
Energy, Environment and Development) project of 1998-2003 (Van Sleight et al. 2003). A
number of village clusters in Eastern Cape and Limpopo provinces formed local energy
committees, and subsequently energy and development co-operatives. One of these cooperatives went on to establish a multi-purpose energy centre to provide a range of fuels
and appliances as well as public service activities (such as awareness and safety campaigns)
to surrounding communities.
This successful example gives support to a plan by the government to establish a number
of integrated energy centres across the country in areas with high needs and poor service
provision. Such integrated energy centres would have a special relevance in low-income
rural areas, where they would form an important component of the government’s
Integrated Sustainable Rural Development programme. The proposed energy centres are
designed to be public-private-community partnerships, with funding assistance mainly from
SOCIAL ISSUES
75
Sasol and a high level of participation by local government and community groups. Two
have so far been established, and more are at various stages of planning and
organisation.14
Through bulk buying, integrated energy centres would be able obtain fuels at a lower cost
and thereby reduce the cost overheads associated with transport and multiple-step
distribution chains. Besides bringing energy services ‘closer to the people’ they could
stimulate active local participation in relation to both energy issues and economic
development initiatives and social services.
5.3.4 Energy and integrated development approaches
Energy is being viewed as a central crosscutting component in government policies and
programmes to promote integrated development in South Africa. Important elements here
are an emphasis on inter-sectoral linkages (rather than single-sector planning and
implementation), the process of ‘integrated development planning’, and in the case of rural
areas, the government’s Integrated Sustainable Rural Development programme.
5.3.5 The challenge of inter-sectoral linkages
The concept of inter-sectoral linkages in relation to energy planning and provision means
taking careful consideration of the links between improvements in energy supply and
improvements in other services and economic activities involving energy. An inter-sectoral
planning approach can encourage greater synergy and gains. However there can be
drawbacks compared with a single-sector supply programme – for example, greater
complexity and possibly dilution of purpose. The needs can be illustrated by some
examples:
• Rural grid and non-grid electrification can contribute to improved facilities for social
services like education (schools), health (clinics, hospitals) and administration – and
should therefore be co-ordinated with planning in these sectors.
• Household energy supplies (electricity and other forms of energy) often take precedence
in rural energisation programmes, but the links with opportunities for increased
economic activity (whether in commerce, services, agriculture or manufacturing) need to
be given more emphasis. Income opportunities have to be created for the poor, which
would also enable them to pay for energy services.
• There are links between energy and water supplies, particularly in areas where there are
critical water-pumping requirements – joint planning is necessary here.
• The transport and energy sectors are closely linked – transport requires energy, and
some forms of energy distribution require transport.
• Infrastructure such as roads should be taken into account when planning energy
developments.
• Special attention should be given to the close links between electricity and improved
information and communications technology. Without access to affordable information
and communications technology facilities, disadvantaged communities may be
increasingly separated from national and world issues.
14
In the lead-up to national elections in 2004, it seems that there was a swing towards establishing
integrated energy centres in peri-urban locations, to serve poorly serviced communities living around
towns. Possibly this was because these areas have a higher voter density.
76
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
5.4 Emerging gaps
It is always useful to view energy supply from the viewpoint of social needs. An example is
education. Many schools experience energy constraints, impeding some aspects of
education and contributing to illness and to students’ ability to concentrate – for example if
there is no heating in winter, or no energy to prepare cooked meals in school feeding
schemes.
Inadequate energy supplies also contribute to reduced agricultural productivity. Farmers
need energy for ploughing, irrigation, food processing and preservation, and warmth and
light for poultry keeping. Again, energy is not the only factor. Improved rural agricultural
productivity among the poor generally requires several further inputs, such as finance and
investment facilities for small-scale farmers, intensive state support for rural agriculturists,
and major measures to counter inequities in access to resources, like land resettlement
programmes.
Inter-sectoral linkages can make investments in electrification more effective so that poor
people can use electricity and other fuels for the development of small businesses and other
enterprises. Such linkages between sectors include:
• national and provincial level co-ordination among government departments;
• practical co-ordination between implementing agencies;
• local-level assessment and planning of co-ordinated development approaches
which suit the prioritised local needs and opportunities, as in ‘integrated
development planning’.
Each of these areas presents challenges. An integrated inter-sectoral approach entails some
demanding requirements, such as efficient and thorough communication between different
agencies. Synchronisation of purpose and implementation is needed, together with the
securing of funding and investment that would allow such synchronisation. Further
complexities arise when different sectors are served by different tiers of government (e.g.
national energy policies/programmes engaging with provincial departments of education)
or where there are various levels of combined responsibility between government, private
sector and NGOs/CBOs (as in the development of integrated energy centres).
Electrification planning should be conducted as part of the integrated development
planning process. Regarding the supply of non-electric fuels, it is less clear as to how the
provision of these fuels will be subjected to local-level planning, since they are usually
supplied through the private sector, or if non-commercial, through informal collection.
However, there is no reason why integrated energy centres supplying a range of fuels could
not be incorporated as specific projects within a local integrated development plan.
The national electrification programme has begun to redress some aspects of inequality.
Future social sustainability will require further redistribution combining economic growth
and job creation with effective social programmes.
6
Energy and economic development
J C Nkomo
6.1 Analysis of the current situation
6.1.1
Situational analysis of the energy sector
he South African economy produces and uses a large amount of energy. It is highly
energy-intensive and heavily dominated by extraction of raw materials and primary
processing. The energy sector as a producer contributes 15% to GDP and employs a
labour force of over 250 000. The demand for energy is expected to grow, with the energy
sector remaining of central importance to the country’s economic growth, especially with
regard to attracting foreign investment in the industrial sector.
T
The South African energy sector is characterised by several important features, including
the following:
• A strong natural resource base with a variety of energy options. The country has vast
coal reserves, although estimates of their size vary considerably. Besides the geological
quantities, the value of coal reserves is also a function of the resource price, the price of
coal substitutes, improvements in technology, exploration, and the development of
alternatives.
• A well-developed energy and transport and grid infrastructure.
• An electrification drive to increase access to electricity in disadvantaged communities.
Most of those without access to electricity are low-income households.
To produce electricity at a cost that is among the lowest in the world, the South African
economy depends heavily on coal, despite that fact that the generation and production of
coal is polluting, and has a significantly negative environmental impact.
The level of competition between producers in the energy sector is low. Apart from the high
cost of capital required to enter the energy industry, there are other barriers to entry. The
technology is specialised and the existing structure and regulatory environment is not
conducive to entry. The government seems to be reluctant to restructure the energy sector
and there is lack of legislation to stimulate competition and efficiency.
6.1.2 Energy and energy-economy linkages
The relationship between energy use and economic growth is complex and affected by a
number of factors. One is the volume effect, which reflects changes in economic activity;
another is structural change, which leads to changes in energy technology, and hence in
demand. Energy conservation also has a bearing on energy demand, mainly through the
substitution of old appliances.
77
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
6.1.2.1 Economic performance
Figure 6.1 shows fluctuations in South Africa’s economic growth rates over time. The
economy experienced high growth rates in the 1960s, largely because of the high growth
rate in the mining and raw materials sector, and also the economy was tightly controlled. In
the 1970s, factors such as the world oil crises and changing gold prices slowed down the
economy. From the 1970s until 1993, increased public spending, economic sanctions, and
the effects of political instability stifled the economy. This period was characterised by poor
growth performance, low levels of investment, rising unemployment, political instability,
currency instability, widening deficits, falling living standards and growing inequalities.
Since 1994, the government has been firm about getting the macroeconomic balance right,
in order to attract investors, reduce the budget deficit and fight inflation through high
interest rates. The government set economic objectives to achieve economic growth to
create employment, and in that way lessen inequality and poverty. Despite the
government’s GEAR strategy to promote growth, the economy did not achieve rates of
economic growth as high as predicted (Table 6.1). Employment levels contracted
substantially, and private sector investment, a driving force behind growth, grew by 2.7%
instead of the predicted 12%.
Figure 6.1: Annual real economic growth from 1947 to 2002
Source: Based on SA data, SA Reserve Bank, various years
Figure 6.2: Gross domestic product at market prices (constant 1995 prices)
Source: Based on SA data, SA Reserve Bank, various years
ENERGY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
79
Despite the above problems, the government has met key fiscal and monetary targets, and
has been successful in reducing the fiscal deficit, inflation, and interest rates. However the
rate of economic growth has been less than expected. GDP growth (Figure 6.2) averaged
2.5% between 1996 and 2000 against the predicted average of 4.2% (see Table 6.1). More
recently, GDP growth has risen somewhat higher, reaching 2.8% in 2003 and 3.7% in
2004 (SARB 2005).
There has been rapid substitution of unskilled and low-skilled labour by capital equipment
in almost all sectors (Bhorat et al 1998). An increase in capital intensity influences
production methods and implies an increased demand for energy. As the economy has
become more capital-intensive it has also become more unequal, showing increasing job
losses and increased labour productivity, with no ‘trickle-down effect’ experienced by the
poor. Because energy is cheap, the economy has become highly energy-intensive, with
more energy used to produce equivalent levels of economic output than in most other
countries. It is therefore not surprising that Makgetla and Meelis (2002) argue that ‘the
trajectory of growth must shift towards labour intensive industries, and away from the
current emphasis on mining and refining and relatively high class consumer durables’ so as
to ensure that the poor have access to productive assets. While this may be desirable at a
small-enterprise level, as a general trend, the move from high value-added industries will
have low profit levels and therefore low investment potential.
Table 6.1: GEAR’s predictions and actual outcomes for key indicators
Source: Naledi (2000)
GEAR predicted average
Actual average 1996 – 2000
GDP growth (real)
4.2
2.5
Inflation
8.2
6.6
Fiscal deficit
-3.7
-2.9
Employment growth
2.9
-2.0
Private sector investment growth
11.7
2.7
6.1.2.2 Energy supply
Coal dominates the energy picture in South Africa, providing approximately 70% of the
primary energy. Imported crude oil accounts for 20% of primary energy used, mainly by
the transport sector. Nuclear energy, natural gas, and renewables including biomass,
account for the rest of the energy needs. Eskom produces over 90% of South Africa’s
electricity, and it owns and operates the generation and transmission system. Eight
municipalities generate the remaining electricity for their own use.
6.1.2.3 Energy consumption
The industrial sector, which includes mining, accounts for the largest proportion (45%) of
energy consumed (SANEA 2003). The industries that consume large amount of electricity
are gold producers, which have high energy demands because of declining ore grades and
the consequent need to mine at very deep levels. Non-ferrous metal producers also need
large amounts of electricity. Coal is the main energy source for the production of iron and
steel, chemicals (as feedstock), non-metallic minerals (where coal is mainly burnt in clamp
kilns), pulp and paper (which relies heavily on ‘black liquor’ to produce most energy
requirements), food, tobacco, and beverages. Coal-based industries have low energy
conversion efficiencies compared with oil, gas and hydro plants (Eberhard & Van Horen
1995).
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
In the residential sector the patterns and nature of energy demand is complex. Some
writers argue that energy choice is a function of variables such as educational level, the
degree of mobility and the length of time spent in urban environments (Viljoen 1990),
while others contend that the main determinants of energy choice are income level and the
relative availability of (or access to) fuels (Eberhard & Van Horen 1995). Whatever the
determining factors, the phenomenon of multi-fuel use is widespread, with households
selecting from a number of fuels in accordance with the nature of the end-use. The primary
fuel sources for low-income households are kerosene and candles, and to a lesser extent
LPG and woodfuel. Electricity consumption in low-income households is low despite these
households stating their preference for its convenience, cleanliness and better lighting
quality.
6.1.2.4 Investment
South Africa’s massive investment in coal-fired power plants over time has led to excess
energy capacity, with the country’s licensed capacity having exceeded peak demand for at
least 25 years. Figure 6.3 shows the degree of excess energy capacity (in MW) as well as
energy exports and imports (in GWh) between 1996 and 2000. With little need for new
investment in generation capacity over recent decades, debt has been reduced, as most of
the capacity has already been paid off. The recent burgeoning of economic growth points
indicates that before long there will need to be new investment in electricity generation
capacity.
Figure 6.3: Excess capacity for all power stations 1996-2000
Source: NER (2004)
6.1.2.5 Electricity tariffs
Eskom sells electricity to distributors, who then resell it to residential consumers, commerce
and industry. The average price of electricity in South Africa, per kilowatt-hour, is among
the cheapest in the world. This is attributable to several factors:
ENERGY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
81
• Access to large reserves of low-grade coal and the use of technologies that maximise
economies of scale. Power stations are located near coalmines and have the benefits of
long-term contracts.
• Overcapacity from power stations, which are already paid for. This reduces Eskom’s
finance costs and enables it to peg electricity prices at a low marginal cost.
• Environmental costs are not included in the price of electricity.
• Eskom’s investment has been subsidised through Reserve Bank forward cover, thus
protecting Eskom against exchange rate fluctuations. A financial benefit for Eskom is
that it is exempted from taxation and payment of dividends.
These factors mean that, ultimately, despite the advantage of the low price of electricity,
this price does not reflect the economic costs, or the long-term costs of increasing capacity,
or the externality costs.
Undoubtedly, Eskom’s low tariffs give local industries a competitive advantage and drive
much of new investment in industry. For example, the manufacturing and mining sectors
are linked through beneficiation and metals production (Spalding-Fecher 2002). These
activities are energy-intensive, and rely on low prices for coal and electricity, which, in turn,
have contributed to the development of an energy-intensive primary sector.
Electricity price increases have remained below inflation increases, providing sound
reasons for Eskom to allow prices to rise in real terms so as to earn an acceptable rate of
return on capital invested, and to ensure sufficient generation of interest. But this raises the
problem of affordability by poorer households, especially given the government’s
commitment to making electricity accessible to all its citizens.
6.1.3 Externality costs
The reliance of poor households on wood, coal and kerosene as energy sources contributes
to high levels of indoor pollution. There are serious health concerns associated with
particulates, carbon monoxide, and fires – with the result that in South Africa respiratory
illness is the second highest cause of death among children after gastric illness. These
problems, which are essentially related to poor people’s inability to afford clean fuels,
persist despite the GEAR strategy that aims to bring low-income households into the
modern economy through economic growth. The quantified impacts of the external cost of
household fuels reveal that the greatest damage comes from candles, kerosene and the use
of wood as fuel (Table 6.2).
South Africa’s best quality coal is exported, earning the country its third-largest export
revenues after gold and platinum. But the local use of low quality coal leads to greenhouse
gas (GHG) emissions and other environmental problems such as ash emissions and
pollution of water sources. South Africa’s carbon emissions are higher than those of most
developed countries partly because of its energy-intensive sectors (such as mining, iron and
steel, aluminium, ferrochrome, and chemicals), which rely heavily on low-quality coal. This
illustrates a classical conflict in resource use. While the exploitation of cheap and lowquality coal is seen to fuel growth (accompanied by arguments that this leads to social
upliftment), ultimately the environmental effects have to be minimised, especially pollution
and climate change.
In considering the externality cost estimates associated with coal generation, Blignaut and
King (2002) estimated the potential GHG damage costs across all industries. According to
their findings, the two major consumers of coal, Eskom and Sasol, are responsible for
approximately 90% of all coal combusted, contributing 65% (approximately R7.2 billion)
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
and 24% (R2.8 billion), respectively to the costs in 2001. Van Horen (1996) and SpaldingFecher and Matibe (2003) evaluate potential costs of coal-fired power generation on health
and climate change damages caused by GHG emissions for the South African economy.
The findings expressed in Table 6.3 indicate that estimated damages resulting from GHG
emissions and climate change are significantly higher than those from local air pollution.
The negative values are estimated benefits, and represent the total avoided health costs for
1999 for all electrified low-income households. The damage costs from GHG emissions
range from R1.6 to R16.3 billion, with the total global damage per ton of coal ranging from
R18 to R186. Because of lack of data, these estimates are not plant-specific, nor do they
include coal-fired power stations owned by municipalities. If the municipal power stations
are taken into account, the impact on health would be even greater, given that the
municipal power stations are older, used during the peak period, have lower stack heights
and are in major urban areas.
Table 6.2: Summary of external costs of household fuels (1999 rands/GJ)
Source: Spalding-Fecher and Matibe (2003)
Energy type
Coal
a
Kerosene
Candles
b
Woodc
Low
Central
High
2.37
5.32
9.51
10.31
60.84
151.48
12.04
93.16
174.68
10.46
38.20
92.60
Notes
a)
Includes kerosene poisoning and 30% of costs of fires and burns.
b)
Includes 70% of the costs of fires and burns.
c)
Includes indoor air pollution and the social cost of fuel wood scarcity.
Table 6.3: Summary of external costs of Eskom electricity generation, 1999
(per unit of coal-fired power produced/delivered, c/kWh))
Source: Spalding-Fecher and Matibe (2003).
(1999R m)
Low
Central
High
Air pollution and health
852 (0.5/0.5)
1 177 (0.7/0.7)
1 450 (0.9/0.8)
Electrification
-173 (-0.1/-0.1)
-958 (-0.6/-0.5)
-2 324 (-1.4/-1.3)
Climate change
1 625 (1.0/0.9)
7 043 (4.3/4.1)
16 258 (9.8/9.4)
6.2 Energy for sustainable development – critical issues
Table 6.4 summarises the key issues for energy development as spelled out in the 1998
White Paper on Energy. We categorise these by their sustainable development dimension,
showing the progress made. The objectives listed show a clear shift from a pre-1994 policy
that was dominated by the need to secure energy supplies (a period dominated by
international boycotts and oil sanctions) to post-1994 policies that strive for social equity
and economic efficiency within the context of sustainable development.
ENERGY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
83
Table 6.4: Sustainable energy development priorities and progress
Sustainable
developmen
t dimension
Energy
object-ives
(White Paper
on Energy
1998)
Priorities
(DACS Foresight, Energy 1999)
Economic
Secure supply
through
diversity
Develop Southern African Power
Pool
SAPP regional co-ordination
centre established
Develop gas markets
Mozambique gas to Sasol and
Namibia discussed
Stimulate use of new and
renewable energy sources
Stimulate energy research
Progress
(Spalding-Fecher 2002)
Renewable Energy White Paper
drawn up in 2002
Declining research fund
Social
Environmental
Interlinkages
Increase
access to
affordable
energy
Managing
energy related
environmental
impacts
Improve
energy
governance
Electrification policy and
implementation
Addressing off-grid electrification
Second phase of electrification
programme, including
renewables initiated
Facilitate management of
woodlands for rural households
Pilots of free electricity initiated
Establishing thermal housing
guidelines
Voluntary guidelines only
Improve residential air quality
Proposal of ambient air quality
standards under debate
Monitor reduction of
candle/kerosene resulting from
electrification
No progress made
Hazards still a significant
challenge
Introduce safely standards for
kerosene stoves
Safety standards under
discussion
Develop policy on nuclear waste
management
Nuclear waste policy under
discussion
Investigate environmental levy
Environmental levy was not
investigated
Promulgate electricity regulatory
bill
No petroleum regulator,
petroleum Products and
Pipelines Bills existed in 2002
Manage deregulation of oil
industry
Nuclear regulator established
Implement new regulation of
nuclear energy
Eskom conversion bill passed
Restructuring of state assets
iGas formed
Establish information systems and
research strategy
Limited activity took place
PetroSA formed
Crucial issues for sustainability stand out as follows:
• The one key issue that seems to be missing in discussions on the economics of the
energy sector is added value. Growth in economic output, measured by GDP, is not
necessarily a good measure of the benefit to ordinary citizens. The more an economy is
structured towards value-added sectors, rather than simply the exporting of raw
materials, the greater the local benefits. Clearly such a restructuring involves changes
that go far beyond the energy sector, however there are important implications for the
energy sector. An example is the aluminium smelters at Coega, which makes use of
cheap electricity to process raw material for export. How could such a facility go a step
further into manufacturing products from aluminium?
• Another important concern relating to sustainability is the creation of local
manufacturing capacity. Growth potential in energy supply, and services that can assist
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
in setting up industry locally (rather than elsewhere) assist in local economic
development and job creation.
• Increasing access to affordable energy services (as discussed in Chapter 5) is another
vital aspect to consider. Much residential energy use is characterised by poor access and
the use of inefficient and hazardous energy sources. The national electrification
programme is central to the development of the country and is increasing the number of
people connected to the national grid. The proportion of households with grid electricity
increased from 45% in 1995 to 66% in 2001, and the number of people using electricity
(including non-grid electricity) increased from 58% in 1996 to 70% in 2001 (SANEA
2003). The main problem is that poorer households cannot afford enough electricity to
render connection economically viable for Eskom and they cannot afford to pay for the
necessary electrical appliances. Davidson et al (2003) argue that the existing system of
electricity financing and implementation, while successful in meeting RDP targets, is not
sustainable. Lack of access to electricity makes fighting poverty more difficult, as it
hampers individual efforts to advance social and economic development goals.
• The economy exhibits high carbon-intensity due to the heavy use of inexpensive coal.
Emissions per unit of economic output are high because the specific energy efficiencies
of many sectors are lower than average, making emissions control a viable option. To
realise the potential for emissions reductions, a clear policy framework is needed, as well
as mechanisms for funding the additional investment in cleaner technology.
Participation in emerging instruments like the Clean Development Mechanism will give
South Africa practical experience in mitigation.
• Energy efficiency standards are generally lacking. Those standards that do exist have
not been implemented because of the low cost of coal, the lack of public awareness, the
unaffordability of appliances, and inadequate long-term policies. Codes and standards
are urgently needed.
• Energy pricing, particularly electricity pricing, deserves more attention. The electricity
price does not account for the environmental externality. The full cost of producing
electricity is higher than that borne by Eskom, and the external costs are borne by
society. Low energy prices have a number of advantages – they benefit the poor, give
South Africa a comparative advantage, are an incentive for energy-intensive mainly
export-oriented industries, and provide a subsidy to foreign markets. On the other hand,
the low price of coal has not promoted incentives for investments in either energyefficient technologies or renewable energy.
• Also related to sustainability and externality costs is the fact that South Africa’s four
refineries are major contributors to air pollution, emitting high levels of sulphur dioxide
and other harmful chemicals that cause health problems. There are no legally binding
air pollution regulations in existence, only non-binding guidelines with no enforcement
authority.
• Energy governance can and should be improved by clarifying the roles of various
government institutions. These institutions should be made to be accountable,
transparent, and representative of the population – particularly previously
disadvantaged groups. Economic and social losses from poor governance in the energy
sector manifest themselves in a variety of ways – misdirection of growth (through
subsidies) and losses of growth; continued economic, social and gender inequalities;
negative environmental impacts and high direct consumption subsidies.
• Security of supply needs to be maintained through diversity and integrated planning of
future supply options. While coal will remain the most important energy source, other
ENERGY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
85
primary energy carriers should be considered. Research and development partnerships
should be encouraged, as well as the facilitation of regional co-operation on energy
• Access to cleaner energy should be promoted so as to minimise the negative health
effects arising from the use of certain types of fuels.
• Macroeconomic stability is a prerequisite for sustainable growth. Sustainable
development cannot be expected in an economy exposed to macroeconomic shocks
stemming from energy price increases and supply disruptions. Fortunately, this has not
happened to South Africa.
6.3 Future outlook
The government is well aware of the critical issues raised above and will address the issue
of the externalities associated with energy supply and use. As the economy develops,
energy supply and use should not only be sustainable but should also lead to an improved
standard of living for all South Africans. More attention has to be given to internalising the
adverse impacts of energy usage. Understanding energy can better serve development,
promoting growth through exports and investments, and creating jobs.
6.3.1 Some issues on energy demand
The Energy White Paper (1998) commits the government to improving the plight of lowincome and rural populations and addressing the fact that the poor generally only have
access to the less convenient and less healthy fuels. The success of this drive will depend on
the response by stakeholders to issues such as pricing and financing of energy services,
appropriate appliance/fuel combinations, and availability of efficient appliances. The
benefits of small but effective improvements can be illustrated by the retrofit housing
project in Kuyasa, Cape Town. This project installed solar water heaters, ceilings, ceiling
insulation, and compact fluorescent light bulbs in existing RDP houses. The benefits per
household were found to be a reduction in CO2 emissions, contributing to health and
energy cost savings. The monetary value of the benefits ranged from R626 to R685 per
annum per household. Building thermally efficient low-cost housing can therefore be
expected to promote energy efficiency and conservation.
Greater energy efficiency will also yield potential financial and environmental benefits,
allowing industry to become more internationally competitive. Although the current cheap
energy results in foreign exchange earnings, harmful environmental and health factors have
not been included in energy pricing. Energy pricing needs to be balanced against
sustainable environmental standards. The South African National Energy Association
(SANEA) (2003) estimates that greater energy efficiency could save between 10% and 20%
of current consumption and in turn lead to an increase of between 1.5% and 3% in the
GDP. But to achieve this, a solution has to be sought to the critical barriers that hinder the
uptake of such technologies, such as inappropriate economic signals, lack of public and
official awareness, and the high capital costs involved.
6.3.2 Restructuring and energy diversification
Following new policy, the electricity industry is to be restructured into independent regional
distributors, and Eskom is to be restructured into separate generation and transmission
companies. The policy aims to promote universal household access to electricity and to
make the industry more competitive.
The restructuring of electricity generation towards greater regional autonomy is likely to
result in some of Eskom’s power stations being sold, as well as the opening up of
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
opportunities for independent power producers to enter the generation market. The current
price of electricity, however, is unrealistically low and is therefore a deterrent to new
competitors wishing to enter the market. Proper regulation of this market is therefore
important. The coal industry, on the other hand, will remain deregulated, with coal
remaining a dominant energy source and still the least expensive option on the planning
horizon. It thus becomes all the more important to pursue clean coal technologies.
Notwithstanding the dominance of coal, it remains important to diversify the energy market
by developing and promoting other energy forms, such as natural gas and renewable
energies. This is in line with policy objectives of improving both supply security and
environmental performance. Power stations in future will run not only on coal, but on
nuclear, gas and hydropower. The viability of nuclear energy as a future source of
electricity generation depends very much on the environmental and economic merits of
other energy sources. The next generation of nuclear power stations is expected to make
use of simpler and safer reactors. The main concern with gas is its price, given the limited
reserves in the country, but the importation of gas from other countries is a strong
possibility. South Africa’s limited potential for hydropower implies that there will be some
reliance on imported hydropower. Finally, liquid fuels are to be subjected to minimum
government intervention and regulation, with the emphasis on environmental and safety
standards, investment and the promotion of black economic empowerment.
6.3.3 Realising the potential benefits of energy efficiency
With the prevailing low costs of energy there has been very little incentive for either
industry or households to adopt energy efficiency measures. The increase in GHG
emissions is a source of growing concern for the promotion of energy efficiency standards.
Demand-side management can be used to limit the growth of residential demand, or to
mitigate the impacts of residential usage, by providing incentives for industry/commerce to
move the load out of peak periods. Managing demand by ironing out the load to reduce
peak demand is likely to mean that price increases will not be as steep or as sudden
because the construction of more generation capacity will not need to happen so quickly.
The residential electrification programme, with a final target of five million additional
connections by 2007, raises various issues of public policy interest. The electrification
connection of poor households (where coal, wood, kerosene and LPG are the primary
household energy sources), promotes the use of a clean, versatile and convenient form of
energy that connects this group of households to the modern economy. This raises the
proportion of energy sales, but leads to a rise in peak demand, with the residential sector
contributing more than 30% because of its ‘peaky’ nature (Africa 2003). Eskom will have
to construct new plant to meet this load type. For the residential sector, various energy
efficiency interventions could defer the building of a new plant – energy efficiency lighting,
thermal insulation, energy management and the use of energy saving appliances.
There is substantial scope for energy saving in the commercial and industrial sectors. For
the commercial sector, the energy savings opportunities lie in better design of buildings and
improved management of energy use. In the industrial sector, the opportunities are in
energy management and good housekeeping, providing incentives to adopt specific
technologies, conducting energy assessments to identify areas for energy savings, and
implementing standards for electrical equipment. The main challenge is the adoption and
promotion of economically efficient energy measures, which would guarantee the
achievement of market transformation and demand-side management sustainability.
ENERGY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
6.3
87
Emerging gaps and challenges
Some challenges facing the energy sector which are crucial to economic development are:
• Dealing with the problem of negative externalities. Use of low quality coals is the main
contributor of GHG emission. Eskom is thus vulnerable to any international response
measures that may be taken to reduce GHG emissions (Davidson et al 2002), for which
South Africa has no commitments. An even bigger problem is that poor communities
use energy sources that contribute to high levels of indoor air pollution, with negative
health effects.
• Adoption and promotion of energy-efficient measures. While such measures are being
pursued in the residential sector, there is an even higher potential for energy savings in
the industrial and commercial sectors, which has yet to be realised.
• Achieving social equity and economic efficiency within the context of sustainable
development within the energy sector. The White Paper on Energy (1998) focuses on
the security of supply through diversity, increasing access to affordable energy,
managing the energy-related environmental impacts, and improving energy
governance.
• Choosing appropriate policy instruments to minimise the negative impact of
externalities. Such instruments should provide incentives for carbon intensity reduction,
encourage investment in energy saving measures, and generate revenue for the
economy. A most effective way is to encourage the adoption of improved technologies,
which may be much more efficient and more economically accessible than technology
switching, and which may improve society’s well-being.
The linkages between these challenges and suggested solutions may seem clear, since all of
them endeavour to contribute to economic development and to improve social well-being.
But there remain sharp conflicts over the meaning of sustainable development and its
implications for policy. If, for example, economic efficiency is the prime objective of
sustainable development, then energy subsidisation to alleviate poverty will receive limited
attention. However this would limit the role of energy as an essential precursor to
redressing the challenges of social and economic inequities. Thus a trade-off is necessary
between addressing the energy requirements of the poor and promoting the efficiency and
competitiveness of the whole economy by providing low-cost and high-quality energy
inputs (Eberhard & Van Horne 1995). Obviously, South Africa’s economy will not be able
to develop without its abundant, easily mined and low-cost coal. But we have to include
the environmental equation, which means, apart from addressing short-term environmental
problems, there has to be serious planning for a long-term transition to include renewable
energy sources with fewer negative externalities. There does not seem to be any
comprehensive policy position on environmental taxes in South Africa.
Finally, data limitation poses a serious problem for the assessment of policy instruments. A
lack of meaningful data limits effective decision-making on which areas should be
subsidised, the number of qualifying households, and how to assess the cost and impact of
subsidies to the economy. Furthermore, there is no established network for the delivery of
information on the consequences of industrial pollution and available technological
options, nor are there training and awareness programmes for industrial managers on the
consequences of pollution and the options for energy efficiency.
7
Energy and the environment
Debbie Sparks
Contributing author: Stanford Mwakasonda
7.1 Analysis of the current situation
7.1.1 Broad overview
outh Africa placed itself firmly on the environmental world map when it hosted the
World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002. The primary
outcome of the summit was a global Plan of Implementation. The summit also put
sustainable development firmly on the international agenda and encouraged world leaders
to recommit themselves to sustainable development goals (Bigg 2003).
S
Environmental issues for South Africa’s energy sector relate largely to bulk energy supply,
the household sector, and the transport sector. In the energy supply sector, the long-term
feasibility of the resource base is the main concern (Spalding-Fecher et al. 2000). For
households, the primary concern is indoor air pollution and the negative health effects of
burning coal and woodfuel. In the transport sector, the main concern is the emissions of
noxious gases.
South Africa is party to a number of international conventions and protocols, some of
which are particularly relevant to the sustainable use of energy and the environment. The
UNFCCC, ratified by the South African government in 1997, addresses the climate change
threat, compelling governments to reduce and control their sources of GHG emissions.
Linked to this is the Kyoto Protocol. South Africa has ratified the 1990 Montreal Protocol
on substances that deplete the ozone layer, which is designed to restrict the use of
chlorofluorocarbons and halons.
As discussed in Chapter 3, energy demand in South Africa is dominated by coal, liquid
fuels and electricity. Each of these energy types has environmental advantages and
disadvantages, which need to be weighed up in the context of economic growth and
development.
7.1.2 Legislation and policy
Some of the environmental impacts of energy in South Africa are governed by legislation.
Important laws in this regard are the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA)
(No. 107 of 1998) and the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act (No. 45 of 1965). NEMA
should be seen as a framework for integrating good environmental management practice
into government activities (DEAT 1998). Some of its principles have been open to
interpretation, and some obligations are difficult to determine unambiguously. Nevertheless
NEMA has important implications for the energy sector, especially with respect to
renewable energy and energy efficiency. Provincial government and to some extent
national government, are now required to prepare environmental implementation plans or
management plans (EDRC 2003).
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ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT
89
The Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act is managed by the Department of
Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) and is responsible among other things for the
control of noxious gases, smoke, dust, and vehicle emissions. Noxious or offensive gases
are controlled by the granting of registration certificates to any party engaged in one of 72
listed processes, which include power generation processes, and gas, charcoal and coke
processes (DEAT 1965). This act, promulgated in 1965, does not focus on current issues of
concern such as energy efficiency and renewable energy.
The new Air Quality Act (No. 39 of 2004) provides a regulatory framework that can
address both local air pollutants and global pollutants such as greenhouse gases. The Act
includes mechanisms in domestic legislation that can be used to implement international
obligations, by listing priority pollutants and activities, by requiring pollution prevention
plans to be submitted, and by controlling the use of certain fuels.
Two policies guide the government’s environmental management framework. The White
Paper on Environmental Management Policy for South Africa (1997) is based on
sustainable development and shows an alignment with international trends. The White
Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management (2000) aims to develop an
integrated pollution and waste management system which takes into consideration
sustainable social and economic development with respect to air, water and land resources
protection (EDRC 2003).
7.2 Critical local issues
7.2.1 Petroleum
When considering the environmental issues related to petroleum in South Africa we need
to look at the five areas of production, refining, distribution, storage, and use. A number of
different initiatives to ensure environmental conformity have been undertaken by
stakeholders in the country, including the formation of the South African Oil Industry
Environmental Committee more than 20 years ago. The Committee was formed with the
objective of managing potential environmental impacts that may arise anywhere between
production and use. The issues include (SAPIA 2002):
• oil spills at sea during importation;
• air and water emissions and waste management at refineries;
• spillage of product during transport to depots;
• leaks from underground storage; and
• inappropriate disposal of used petroleum products.
7.2.1.1 Upstream petroleum activities
Given the relatively active exploration, development and production of oil in the South
African marine environment, there is a need to evaluate the environmental effects of these
activities. Measures have to be put in place to ensure that regular environmental
monitoring is undertaken; that sampling techniques which show the changing contaminant
profiles are set up, and that reliable measurements of pollutant concentration levels are
provided. Samples need to be drawn from areas suspected of having, or about to have,
elevated levels of contaminants, and these need to be compared with areas with no
contamination. Parameters to be measured include seismic noises, levels of hydrocarbons
and metals in the water, impacts on breeding habitats, and movement of species. The
potential effects of offshore petroleum activities have to be monitored in the context of the
marine environment. Social and economic aspects would also have to be monitored,
including the effects on people living in coastal communities.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Decommissioning of offshore production facilities also calls for appropriate planning so as
to avoid environmental and safety problems. Options should be considered well in
advance for the removal and disposal of redundant facilities, and the government needs to
have a clear regulatory framework on decommissioning of facilities, even though the
responsibility of removing the facilities lies with the companies concerned. Depending on
circumstances, decommissioning may mean complete removal, partial removal or
alternative use.
The environmental issues relating to the refining of petroleum include emissions, spills,
discharges, and sludge handling. Currently South Africa has four crude oil refineries,
located in Durban, Cape Town and Sasolburg, and two refineries producing liquid fuel
from gas, located in Mossel Bay and Secunda. One refinery-related environmental issue
has been a lack of nationally regulated ambient air quality standards. While the
Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act (1965) sets out guidelines and some standards on air
quality, this is applied on a rather arbitrary basis and with specific objectives, such
community health. To address existing gaps in the refinery sector, oil companies in South
Africa, through the Refinery Managers’ Environmental Forum, have taken the initiative to
tackle some of these issues, and have been drawing up an Environmental Management
Cooperation Agreement with government (SAPIA 2003).
The Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act of 1965 includes guidelines and standards for
sulphur dioxide emission levels for refinery plants, average sulphur content in fuels used by
refineries, efficiency standards for sulphur recovery units, particulate emissions, and control
of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The guidelines also cover issues of incineration, odours, spills
and fugitive emissions.
7.2.1.2 Oil spills
Environmental safety is an important issue for oil drilling and transportation. During
offshore drilling, uncontrolled oil spillage into the ocean is a potential hazard. Within the
vicinity of South African ports oil spills may be the result of the damage or loss of a
shipping vessel at sea, inaccurate navigation into the port, or the transfer of oil from oil
tankers (CSIR 1997). Most oil spills are due to transfers, and are generally small, less than
seven tons, and considered to be part of routine oil transfer operations. Larger oil spills
pose a serious threat to the physical and socio-economic environments in the vicinity of the
spill, through damage to beaches, mariculture, and sea birds. An oil spill in 2000, from a
ship called The Treasure off the Western Cape coast, will be particularly remembered for its
effect on the African penguin colonies, and the resultant volunteer-driven effort to clean oil
off thousands of penguins.
There are two international compensation mechanisms which cover damage and recovery
costs associated with a marine oil spill:
• The International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution (1969), which makes
provision for compensation from damages associated with oil spills.
• The International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for
Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (1971), which subsidises the International
Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution on the basis that there has been
compliance with the convention.
The South African oil industry has equipment, such as booms and skimmers, lodged in
Cape Town, Mossel Bay, Port Elizabeth, East London, Durban and Richards Bay to
respond to oil spills in the marine environment. Land-based oil spills are dealt with via 42
ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT
91
trailers, which clean up road and rail tanker accidents along major transport routes (World
Energy Council 2003).
7.2.2 Transport pollution
The transport sector has a notable effect on the environment, primarily due to the fact that
it produces ‘brown haze’ (especially in Cape Town and Pretoria), with road transport being
the main source of emissions. The sector also contributes to global warming through GHG
emissions, and emissions of sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides, carbon
monoxide, suspended particulate matter and volatile organic carbons. The associated
toxicity or carcinogenic effects of these emissions contributes to deteriorating air quality
(Xhali 2002). The orientation of the transport sector towards private cars contributes to this
pollution, as do the high emissions from the extensive bus and taxi commuter networks
(Xhali 2002). Some of the typical transport-related environmental problems are
summarised in Table 7.1.
As a result of the brown haze in the Cape Metropolitan Region, the City of Cape Town has
initiated a Brown Haze Action Plan (CCT, undated). There are also government initiatives
that will help curb brown haze by phasing out lead in petrol and reducing sulphur in diesel.
The Cabinet has approved the phasing out of leaded petrol, and also the reduction of
sulphur in diesel to 0.05% which came into effect in January 2006, with a further reduction
to 0.005% due in 2010 (World Energy Council 2003). Xhali (2002) recommends the use
of alternative fuels such as natural gas and electricity in addition to petrol- and dieselburning vehicles for public road transport in the longer term.
Table 7.1: Transport-related environmental problems
Source: Davidson (1993)
Scope
Environmental issue
Impacts
Impacts on:
- ecosystems
- hydrology and water
- food and fibre production
- coastal systems
- human health
Global
Global warming (GHG emissions)
Regional
Air pollution (emissions of NOx etc.)
May affect nearby nations
Marine pollution (emissions of NOx, SOx
etc.)
Run-off to water resource
Air pollution (emissions of CO, HCs,
NOx, SO2, SPM etc)
Health
Water pollution
Land destruction and waste disposal
Land disturbance
Solid waste
Waste disposal from vehicles and
machinery
Noise and vibrations
Acoustic pollution and vibration effects
Accidents
Injury and death and / or damage to
property from transporting waste
National
Socio-cultural
Surface and groundwater runoff
Social and cultural disturbance
7.2.3 Impacts of kerosene as a fuel
Kerosene is a primary energy source used to meet the cooking, lighting and heating needs
of some six million households. It is also one of the main causes of death and injury in the
0-4 age group in South Africa (Pasasa, undated), with children often subject to kerosene
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
burns and poisoning. Since informal housing is often high density, kerosene-related fires
spread easily, multiplying the consequences. Residential fires accounted for 75% of the
deaths of children recorded at the Salt River State Mortuary in Cape Town between 1990
and 1996 (Van Horen 1994). Ingestion of kerosene by children frequently leads to
hospitalisation and/or death. Kerosene is also emerging as the cause of health problems as
a result of indoor air pollution. It causes respiratory-related diseases, especially in poorly
ventilated dwellings (Sparks et al. 2002). Carbon monoxide emissions are also a major
concern.
A fuel which has emerged as a good alternative to kerosene, is LPG. Its health and safety
risks are an order of magnitude lower than either kerosene or coal (Lloyd & Rukarto 2001)
but the cost of LP gas and it’s the associated appliances are the main obstacles to its
widespread use. A government directive promoting LPG use could help stimulate the mass
production necessary to reduce appliance costs. A reduction of the fiscal burden would
help with on-the-ground fuel costs (Lloyd & Rukarto 2001).
7.2.4
Coal production and use
7.2.4.1 Water consumption by coal-based electricity production
There are three primary environmental concerns about water use by power stations. The
first is degradation of the water quality of associated water sources – for example coal
mining affecting the ground water quality in coalfields. The second is the excessive amount
of water required by power stations. The third relates to the price paid by Eskom for water,
and whether this reflects the actual opportunity cost of water. Eskom has, in fact, paid for
the construction of water infrastructure in a number of cases, rather than the Department of
Water Affairs and Forestry, as one would expect, so the cost calculations are somewhat
complex (Spalding-Fecher & Matibe 2000).
Water consumption depends on various factors, such as the age of the power plant (the
newer generation of water-cooled plants improve efficiency), weather conditions
(evapotranspiration losses are greater under hot and windy conditions), and water quality
(wet-cooled power stations require more water if the water is of a poorer quality) (Eberhard
2000). A large proportion of the generation of coal-fired power is provided by water from
three river systems. Dry-cooled power stations incur an efficiency loss of about a
percentage point.
With the push towards a stablisation in water pricing (DWAF 1998) it is likely that the costs
of water supply to power stations will increase over the coming years. However, based on
modelling done by Eberhard (2000), it is unlikely that this will significantly affect the cost of
electricity. Nevertheless, sustainable use of water resources should be encouraged.
7.2.4.2 Air pollution and health
Electricity, through coal combustion, is the major contributor to air pollution in South
Africa (Van Horen 1994). Most of the country’s power stations are situated in the coalfields
of Mpumalanga province, with about 90% of the scheduled emissions of dust, nitrous
oxide and sulphur dioxide are accounted for by eastern Mpumalanga (Held et al. 1996).
Climatological conditions in this region are unfavourable for low-level dispersion because
of stable atmospheric conditions (Preston-Whyte & Tyson 1993).
Most of South Africa’s higher-grade coal is exported, so the coal used within the country is
of a poor quality, with a low energy content and a low economic value (Van Horen 1996a,
1996b). Eskom has therefore invested in particulate matter control rather than reduction of
sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions (Sparks et al. 2002). Bag filters or electrostatic
ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT
93
precipitators have been fitted to coal-fired power stations in the Mpumalanga region,
removing the smaller remaining particles (Van Horen 1994). Precipitator performance is
being improved further by installing flue gas conditioning plants at some power stations
(Eskom 2003).
Between 1994 and 1998 particulate emissions were reduced by approximately 50%, while
power generation increased by almost 10% (Eskom 2003). Figure 7.1 shows ash emitted
per 1kWh of power, with a marked decrease evident between 1992 and 2001. In addition,
chimneystacks (up to 220m) have been fitted in areas where low-level dispersal conditions
are unfavourable. These have proved effective in penetrating the lower inversion layer
(Van Horen 1994).
Air pollution has been reduced over the last 20 years, due to these and other measures.
Surveys done since 1994 have shown that low-level sources (burning waste dumps and
domestic coal use) are in fact one of the major sources of air pollution (Held et al. 1996).
The mining process itself has had important environmental consequences, since land which
has been mined needs to be rehabilitated afterwards, and also because miners are also
exposed to occupational health hazards associated with coal dust (Van Horen 1996a).
Figure 7.1: Ash emitted per 1 kWh of power
(data provided by Eskom)
In rural areas, where approximately 40% of the South African population lives, wood and
coal are used to meet most of poor households’ energy needs, which means that people in
these households are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution. Many of these
communities are either not grid-electrified or they continue to opt for coal despite being
electrified. A coal stove can provide for cooking, space heating and water heating (Williams
1994), and also form a social focal point. To provide the equivalent range of benefits with
electricity would mean considerable expense including at least three different appliances –
a stove, a heater and a geyser.
Indoor air pollution increases the risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults
(primarily women) and acute respiratory infections in children, in some cases leading to
death. It is also associated with certain cancers (lung cancer, for example), infant mortality,
low birth weight, cataracts and tuberculosis (Sparks et al. 2003).
From a sustainability perspective it would be useful in the longer term to consider
renewable energy sources in addition to coal (Sparks et al. 2002). Households should also
be encouraged, or provided with incentives or opportunities, to move away from using coal
to meet their space heating and cooking needs, especially considering the health problems
and costs associated with this fuel. At the very least, as much as affordability allows, there
needs to be better ventilation in coal-burning households.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
7.2.5 Gas-fired power generation
South Africa has two power stations fired by natural gas, with a total maximum capacity of
171MW. The gas brought in from Mozambique has initially been used for Sasol, but the
Kudu natural gas field in Namibia is likely to provide fuel for an 800 MW power station,
with South Africa importing most of the electricity. While natural gas is considered a better
fuel alternative to coal or liquid fuels for electricity generation, its production, processing
and transportation by pipeline can also be a major contributor to greenhouse gases
through fugitive emissions. Efficiency measures through good housekeeping and
prevention of leaks are necessary to bring fugitive emissions down to acceptable levels.
Combined cycle power plants, as opposed to simple cycle gas turbines, would also
contribute to reducing GHG emissions because of the relatively high efficiencies of
combined cycle plants – of the order of 52%, compared to 30%-35% for the simple cycle.
Combined cycle power plants have the added advantages of short installation periods and
very low emission levels of NOx. The exhaust gases consist of, typically, 3-3.5% CO2 (by
volume), corresponding to emission level of approximately 0.4kg CO2/kWh.
7.2.6 Nuclear energy – potential impacts
Koeberg, the only nuclear power station in South Africa, generates 60 tons of high-level
radioactive waste annually in the form of spent fuel. Ninety percent of its radioactivity is
lost while being stored ten years underwater in spent pools (World Energy Council 2003).
Thereafter the 10%-radioactive waste needs to be stored safely so that there is no seepage
into groundwater or human exposure to the risks of radiation. Nuclear power creates no air
pollution, but the disposal of hazardous waste and other aspects of nuclear plant safety
have been much-debated environmental concerns worldwide.
The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), a new type of nuclear power unit, is now being
investigated by Eskom Enterprises and will in all likelihood be built at Koeberg. The PBMR
technology also has the potential to be exported. An EIA was conducted on the PBMR.
The Record of Decision on the EIA for the PBMR was initially approved by the Department
of Environmental Affairs and Tourism in 2004.
The NGO Earthlife Africa brought a court case appealing against the Record of Decision,
with the assistance of the Legal Resources Centre. The high court ordered a reconsideration of the decision, taking account of the objections by Earthlife. One of the
conditions of approval of the EIA was the completion of a Radioactive Waste Management
Policy and Strategy by the DME. While the court battle over the EIA continued, such a
policy was approved by the Cabinet in 2005. The first principle adopted in that policy was
the ‘polluter pays principle’, which states that generators shall bear the financial burden for
management of radioactive waste (DME 2005c).
The nuclear energy sector needs to be able to survive economically without the state
support which it received in the apartheid years, which means pricing itself low enough so
that South Africa can continue in its drive as a competitive manufacturing exporter
(Eberhard 1994). The environmental sustainability of nuclear energy in the future depends
on how its economic costs balance against its environmental costs and benefits.
7.2.7 Biomass fuel impacts
About 16 million South Africans rely on wood for space heating and cooking (Van Horen
1996a; 1996b). While wood collection is ‘free’, the time needed to collect wood may be
lengthy, up to three hours per load several times a week, making it burdensome on the
households concerned (CSIR 2000). The indoor air pollution health impacts associated
with wood as a fuel are similar to those of coal. There are also vegetation impacts linked to
ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT
95
the use of wood as a fuel source with denuding of indigenous vegetation in many areas.
On the other hand, in the Cape Flats area of the Western Cape much fuelwood is derived
from alien vegetation, particularly Port Jackson willow, so collection of firewood may be of
indirect advantage to the environment through the clearing of invasive aliens (Sparks et al.
2003).
Biogas and landfill gas, both derived from organic waste, are two other sources of biomass
energy for space heating and lighting. Biogas requires a reliable and appropriate supply of
animal and plant material, while landfill gas is generally obtained from landfill sites.
General application of either of these gases is therefore limited. However, there are two
notable landfill gas sites: the Grahamstown landfill project, which supplies a nearby brick
kiln, and the Johannesburg landfills, which provide methane to the chemical industry
(CSIR 2000). Landfill gas is produced as a matter of course in landfills, through the
decomposition of organic matter. However, it can be an environmental hazard, since it
may explode if incorrectly managed, so sealed landfill compartments and extraction wells
need to be created (CSIR 2000).
A 1985 study by Williams considered the potential for obtaining biomass energy from
crops, since the agricultural sector is capable of converting agricultural land to such uses.
However, crops as an energy source have generally not yet taken off, perhaps because this
type of production would use up scarce land and water resources that could be used to
produce food crops. Bagasse co-generation stations are already used in the sugar and
paper and pulp industries, as described in Chapter 4.
7.2.8
Environmental issues related to renewable energies
7.2.8.1 Wind
While the use of wind turbines for the production of electricity is expanding rapidly
throughout the world, studies have highlighted three main environmental concerns related
to this technology – sight pollution, bird strikes and turbine noise. Some of these studies
relate to perceptions rather than realities, and therefore it is important that studies be
conducted to determine the effects or potential effects in a particular locality before making
any conclusive decisions. While, for example, there has been concern about bird strikes
from wind turbines, studies have indicated that migratory birds can fly in large numbers in
close proximity to turbines without any mortalities, and that bird collisions with wind
turbines are rare events (Toronto Hydro undated). Noise has also been cited as an
environmental problem associated with wind turbines, although, at a 350m distance, a car
going at 64km/hr emits more noise (55dB) and a heavy-duty truck quite a lot more (65dB)
than a wind turbine (35-45dB).
7.2.8.2 Solar
While the production of solar panels can be highly toxic and result in a substantial amount
of GHG emission, SHSs in use do not produce any emissions or waste products that
adversely affect the environment. However, disposal of SHSs at the end of their lifetime
can pose health, safety and environmental problems if not addressed appropriately. This is
especially so in cases of extensive deployment of the systems, such as in South African
rural areas, where people may not be well informed about some of the hazards of improper
handling of the discarded components. Concerns associated with SHS components relate
to the disposal of light fixtures, batteries and the solar panels. Some associated aspects of
these components, which are largely a ‘product disposal’ rather than ‘use’ concern, are
listed in Table 7.2.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Table 7.2: Environmental concerns linked to SHS components
SHS component
Environmental concern
Problems associated with the
concern
Light fixtures
Mercury in fluorescent lamps, broken
glass
Mercury contents in the lamps, injury
due to broken lamps
Lead-acid batteries
Sulphuric acid in batteries, pure lead,
and other heavy metals
Water, food contamination by heavy
metals
Solar panels
Crystalline or amorphous silicon
Heavy metals, injury
Light fixtures
Fluorescent lamps are the most common light facilities in SHSs because they are more
energy-efficient than incandescent lamps. Their biggest disadvantage, however, is that they
contain mercury, a highly persistent and toxic chemical that can build up to dangerous
concentrations in fish, wildlife, and human beings. Mercury is essential to the operation of
fluorescent lamps. The mercury vapour inside a fluorescent lamp is electrically energised to
emit ultra-violet (UV) light. Phosphor, a luminescent material, is coated on the inside of
fluorescent lamps. It absorbs this UV energy, which causes it to fluoresce, re-emitting visible
light.
Inhaling mercury vapours or indirect ingestion is toxic to the nervous system. Even very
low mercury doses can significantly affect a foetus or young child. Depending on the level
of mercury in the mother, it can have varying effects on foetal development and health. It
can cause physical deformity and affect the brain, spinal cord, and other nervous system
functions of the child. Adults who have been exposed to too much mercury might begin to
experience trembling hands and numbness, or tingling in their lips, tongues, fingers or toes.
These effects can begin long after the exposure occurred. At higher exposures, walking
could be affected, as well as vision, speech and hearing (MPCA 1998).
It is therefore important for standards to be set on the mercury content of fluorescent lights.
While measures for the disposal of spent lamps might be difficult to administer, a special
case could be made for rural areas that are electrified with SHSs, by offering an incentive
when a spent fluorescent lamp is delivered for recycling. Education on disposal is vitally
important.
Batteries
Heavy metals in the batteries that are used for recharging SHSs are a major concern. These
batteries last for an average of three years, so in a community with many SHSs, disposal of
batteries at the end of their lifetime can be a serious problem. The major material
constituents in lead-acid batteries include lead, lead oxide, lead sulphate, water, sulphuric
acid and some traces of antimony and arsenic. To prevent any of the material components
from contaminating the food chain, it is important that attention be given to educating rural
communities in appropriate handling of scrapped batteries. Service providers should be
given the responsibility of disposing of the batteries.
Solar panels
Studies have been done to assess the risks associated with solar panels, for example in
cases of fire or broken modules. It has been accepted generally that such risks are negligible
or small, but there may be long-term risks that should not be ignored (Alsema et al. 2003).
While certain panel materials might be potentially damaging to the environment if exposed,
their glass encapsulation reduces the chances of their leaching out of the cell. Double glass
encapsulation helps significantly to prevent this. Amorphous silicon panels, however, are
ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT
97
known to have little or no toxic materials and thus pose no significant health concerns in
terms of their disposal; apart from those associated with disposal of glass material.
There is currently very limited recycling of solar panels. Conventional glass recycling can be
applied for glass panels. Consideration should be given, or standards set, for the choice of
materials of module encapsulation for panels used in South Africa.
7.2.8.3 Hydroelectric power – environmental aspects
Being a relatively dry country, South Africa does not have much to offer in terms of
hydropower generation. There are currently six hydroelectric schemes in South Africa,
most of which are operated by Eskom (see Table 7.3). It is generally considered that large
hydropower schemes are an environmental concern, however large schemes have no
applicability in South Africa. South Africa’s unique biodiversity endowment and ecological
sensitivity necessitates stringent environmental measures even in the case of small
hydroelectric projects, especially given the limited number of fresh water sources in the
country.
Table 7.3: Hydroelectricity in South Africa
Maximum capacity (MW)
Location
Gariep
Station
360
Orange River
Vanderkloof
240
Orange River
Colly Wobbles
42
Mbashe River
Second Falls
11
Umtata River
First Falls
6
Umtata River
Friedenheim
3
Lydenburg
2
Ncora River
Ncora
2
Ncora River
Piet Retief
1
Ceres
Total hydro capacity
1
668
South Africa has two pumped storage electricity generation schemes, which pump water to
an elevated dam from which it is released to generate electricity when needed. One
advantage attributed to such schemes is the fact that they re-use water. However, even for
what might be seen as a low-environmental-profile scheme, construction of the Palmiet
station was subjected to acute environmental scrutiny because of the ecological and
biodiversity sensitivity of the project location.
7.3 Critical global issues
7.3.1 Greenhouse gas emissions and climate change
The highly energy-intensive South African economy makes the country one of the highest
emitters of GHGs in Africa, and it stands above the OECD region average in energy sector
emissions. South Africa was ranked as the world’s 14th-highest carbon dioxide emitter
from fuel combustion in 2000, and was the 19th most carbon-intensive economy,
measuring kg CO2 / 95$ PPP (IEA 2002). South African per capita emissions are higher
than those of many European countries, and more than 3.5 times the average for
developing countries (see Table 7.4).
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Table 7.4: Fuel combustion CO2 emissions by intensity and per capita, 2000
Source: IEA (2002)
CO2/cap
(tons/capita)
CO2/GDP
(kg/1995 US$)
CO2/GDP PPP
(kg/1995 PPP$)
South Africa
6.91
1.73
0.79
Africa
0.86
1.16
0.43
Non-OECD
2.24
1.73
0.64
OECD
11.10
0.45
0.51
World
3.89
0.69
0.56
Key: PPP = purchasing power parity, GDP = Gross domestic product
Reliance on coal energy sources is the main reason behind South Africa’s high emissions
profile. Coal-related sources of GHGs in South Africa include electricity generation and the
production of synthetic liquid fuels, and energy-intensive industries such as mining, iron
and steel, aluminium, ferrochrome and chemicals – the same sectors that make up a large
share of South African exports. Other major emission sources include oil refining, coal
mining and gas extraction, wood burning, and the burning of coal and oil to produce heat.
A summary of South Africa’s total emissions in 1994 for major GHGs is shown in Table
7.5.
Table 7.5: Sector emissions, 1990 and 1994
Source: RSA (2000)
Category
Mt CO2 Equivalent
CO2
CH4
N2O
Aggregated
1990
1994
1990
1994
1990
1994
1990
1994
Energy
252.02
287.85
7.29
7.89
1.58
1.82
260.89
297.56
Industrial
process
28.91
28.11
69.0
26.0
1.81
2.25
30.79
30.39
Agriculture
21.30
19.69
19.17
15.78
40.47
35.46
Waste
14.46
15.61
0.74
0.83
15.19
16.43
347.35
379.84
Total
Because the specific energy efficiency of many sectors is lower than average (see Chapter
2), the emissions per unit of economic output are high – 45% higher than those of
developing countries and 70% higher than the industrialised OECD countries (IEA 2001).
Table 7.5 shows that the energy sector contributed about 78% of South Africa’s total GHG
emissions in 1994, and more than 90% of CO2 emissions.
The government has been supportive of regional and global initiatives to reduce GHGs
and other air pollutants. South Africa ratified the UNFCCC in 1997, thereby accepting the
obligation to prepare a national GHG emission inventory by 2000. The latest official
published estimate of South Africa’s total GHG emissions is for 1994.
In 1998 the government developed a climate change policy discussion document and
circulated a national response strategy for public comment. In 2002 South Africa ratified
the Kyoto Protocol. In 2000 the South African government compiled the first Initial
National Communication to UNFCCC, and after cabinet approval this was submitted to
UNFCCC at COP-9 in 2003.
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99
7.3.1.1 Emissions from the synfuel process
Most of the GHG emissions at Secunda are in the form of CO2, with much smaller amounts
in nitrous oxide and methane. This is consistent with both SASOL’s reporting and the
GHG inventory. Indirect emissions, i.e. those related to electricity generation at Sasol, are
not included here, because they are captured under electricity in GHG inventories. Indirect
emissions are smaller than direct, less than 10% of total GHG emissions. The emissions
from the chemical process at Sasolburg are not included here. Emissions from South
African operations of Sasol are the only ones considered, not the Sasol group
internationally.
The best available data for direct CO2 emissions from Fischer-Tropsch process at Secunda
indicates that total direct emissions are approximately 50 Mt CO2 for 2003.
• The 50 Mt CO2 is a round number, in between the values for SA operations only in
2002/3 (49.1 MtCO2) and 2003/4 (52.2 MtCO2) (Kornelius 2005). It also corresponds to
a figure of 49.6 Mt CO2 which was verified with Sasol (Lloyd 2005; Mako & Samuel
1984).
• A higher level of emissions is consistent with more recent reporting of 32 Mt CO2 at
Secunda at 90-98% concentration in a study for carbon capture and storage
(Engelbrecht et al. 2004).
• The emissions are significantly higher than the 10.7 Mt CO2 reported in the 1994
inventory (Van der Merwe & Scholes 1998). While there is a gap of almost ten years in
the reporting year, it does seem that this number was too low, probably attributable to
using an emission factor of 9.03 t CO2 / TJ in that study.
• These emissions represent 78% of the direct CO2 emissions reported for Sasol as a
group, including its international operations (Sasol 2004b).
The emission factor for this process is 56 t CO2/TJ. The energy contained in the coal fed
into the Fischer-Tropsch process at Secunda is 894 PJ (energy output at 35% efficiency is
313 PJ)(DME 2003a). Of the total carbon in the coal input to the process, some 64% is
emitted as CO2 to the atmosphere (27% in concentrations around 10-15%, 37% in high
concentrations of 90-98%), 32% goes into products and 4% is ‘lost’ as tars or phenols
(Lloyd 2005).
7.3.2 Other global agreements or protocols
South Africa has been active in the environmental sphere, culminating in its hosting of the
WSSD in 2002 in Johannesburg. The government has signed and ratified a number of
conventions and treaties that address energy and environment conservation for sustainable
development. It has signed the UNFCCC and the Montreal Protocol, and some other
conventions linked to sustainable development including:
• Convention to Combat Desertification (Paris, 1994);
• Convention Relative to Preservation of Fauna and Flora in their Natural State
(London, 1993);
• Convention on Biological Diversity (1992);
• Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships (1973);
• Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
(1973);
• Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and
Other Matters (1972);
• Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage
(1972);
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
• Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl
Habitat (1971); and
• the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
(1968)
7.4 Outlook for the future
7.4.1 Future environmental policy goals
Energy and economic development in the context of sustainable development requires a
sound framework for environmental performance. Any environmental policy framework
should be set up on a three-part basis: voluntary, regulatory, and market-based.
5.4.1.1 Voluntary mechanisms
Voluntary mechanisms refer to non-obligatory agreements or statements of corporate
responsibility that commit organisations to appropriate environmental performance. Such
initiatives are usually made on the understanding that the parties concerned will contribute
positively to environmental conservation and avoid any form of degradation. Such
initiatives are becoming more and more popular worldwide, often linked to the sense of
social responsibility that companies or organisations feel they have towards communities.
The government can play a pivotal role here, in appealing to communities in different
sectors to become more active in environmental management. While voluntary initiatives
are not binding in nature, they can be very effective.
5.4.1.2 Regulatory mechanisms
These are basically command-and-control measures, whereby the government decides to
set standards on issues such as emissions, discharges and noise. Regulatory mechanisms
require a legislative framework which makes non-compliance a criminal offence. For such
mechanisms to be successful, efficient enforcement is necessary. Such measures can be
effective forms of environmental management, but their administration is usually difficult
and expensive, as they require institutions for monitoring, regulation and enforcement.
5.4.1.3 Market-based mechanisms
Market-based instruments work by instituting fiscal instruments (taxes and charges) so that
the polluter or offender pays in monetary terms. The assumption is that the taxes and
charges will prompt a change in behaviour through market signals, as certain undertakings,
lifestyles and acquisitions become very expensive. This mechanism is usually considered
the least-cost option for controlling environmental degradation, and its use has grown
significantly in many countries, as it helps control the environment and act as a source of
revenue to the government. Depending on the government budget system, the revenue
generated can be marked for specific environmental programmes.
Of the three mechanisms described, no single mechanism can be said to be the most
suitable. A combination of the three mechanisms in the appropriate proportions is the best
approach. The government can decide on the mix of the three mechanisms, based on the
specific circumstances. Further policy decisions may involve shifting a particular
mechanism from one category to the other, for example a voluntary mechanism aspect
could evolve into a regulatory mechanism at some stage.
7.4.2 Future commitments on GHG reductions
Being a non-Annex I country, South Africa does not have emission reduction targets for the
first commitment period, which runs from 2008-2012. However, with one of the highest
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101
GHG emission profiles among developing countries, the South African government
recognises that adequate measures will have to be taken as the effort against escalating
GHG emissions becomes more urgent.
Participation by South Africa and other developing countries could take many forms, the
extreme case being the taking on of quantified emission reduction targets. One approach,
which has been the cause of considerable debate amongst developing countries, has been
that of implementing policies for sustainable development. It is based on the premise that
some developing countries already have policies and measures that have been taken in
relation to development, which have the co-benefits of also reducing GHG emissions
reduction. This approach, referred to as ‘sustainable development policies and measures’
(SD-PAMs) would build on the right to sustainable development by non-Annex I countries,
as outlined in the UNFCCC. The SD-PAMs approach is built on the individual country’s
national development objectives and priorities, and on streamlining these to meet
sustainable development economic, environmental and social criteria. This can be
achieved either by putting in place more stringent policies or by implementing new
measures. Together, such policies and measures could shift the country’s development
path to become more sustainable (Winkler et al. 2002).
This approach would not only lead to reduction of GHG emissions, it would also
acknowledge each country’s unique circumstances and development objectives. For South
Africa, the SD-PAMs approach would focus on development objectives of economic
growth, job creation and access to key services, such as housing, water, transport, and
access to modern energy services.
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Part II
SCENARIOS OF FUTURE ENERGY POLICIES AND
INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Part II of this report identifies and models scenarios for future energy policies for both
demand- and supply-side interventions. Chapter 8 identifies policy options for the scenario
modelling, analysing in greater detail a selection of policies from Part I. Chapter 9 describes
the modelling framework and the key drivers of the reference case. The base reference case
is close to the government’s Integrated Energy Plan (DME 2003a) and the second National
Integrated Resource Plan (NIRP) (NER 2004a). A set of energy policy cases is modelled
and compared to the base case.
Chapter 10 models results for each of the policy options. Nine policies are analysed:
• Higher energy efficiency in industry. Industrial energy efficiency meets the national
target of 12%, less final energy consumption (compared to business-as-usual). This is
achieved through greater use of variable speed drives, efficient motors, compressed air
management, efficient lighting, HVAC system efficiency, and other thermal saving.
• New commercial buildings designed more efficiently. HVAC systems are retrofitted or
new systems have higher efficiency; variable speed drives are employed; efficient
lighting practices are introduced; water use is improved with heat pumps and solar
water heaters. In addition, fuel switching for various end uses is allowed.
• Cleaner and more efficient use of energy in the residential sector. More use is made of
water heating through solar water heaters (SWHs) and geyser blankets. The costs of
SWHs decline as new technology is accepted more widely in the South African market.
Compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) spread more widely, with a further reduction in costs.
The shells of houses are improved by insulation, prioritising ceilings. Households switch
from electricity and other fuels to liquid petroleum gas (LPG).
• Biodiesel production increases. The supply of biodiesel partially displaces high
dependence on petroleum. Biodiesel production increases to 35 PJ by 2025, with a
maximum growth rate of 30% per year from 2010. Biodiesel crops do not displace food
production, and sustainable production means the fuel is effectively zero-carbon.
• The share of renewable electricity increases. The share of renewables increases to meet
the target of 10 000 GWh (gigawatt-hours) by 2013. The shares of energy from solar
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103
thermal, wind, bagasse and small hydroelectric sources increase beyond the base case.
New technology costs decline as global production increases.
• Pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) modules increase the capacity of nuclear energy
production. Nuclear capacity is increased to 4 480 MW by introducing 32 PBMR
modules. Costs decline with national production and initial investments are written off.
• An increase in imported hydroelectricity. The share of hydroelectricity imported from
the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region increases from 9.2 TWh
in 2001, as more hydroelectric capacity is built in southern Africa.
• An increase in imported gas. Sufficient gas is imported to provide 5 850 MW of
combined cycle gas turbines, compared to 1 950 MW in the base case.
• Tax on coal for electricity generation. The use of economic instruments for
environmental fiscal reform is being considered by the national Treasury. The option of
a fuel input tax on coal used for electricity generation is modelled.
Chapter 11 consolidates the assessment of the policy options against indicators of
sustainable development. Chapter 12 presents conclusions.
8
Identifying and modelling policy options
Harald Winkler, Mark Howells and Thomas Alfstad
8.1 Industry and energy efficiency
I
ndustry is the biggest consumer of final energy, using 42% of final energy in the country.
The industrial sector is split into eight divisions: mining, iron and steel, chemicals, nonferrous metals, non-metallic minerals, pulp and paper, food and tobacco, and other. In
this chapter we consider the output of each of these eight divisions relative to GDP, as well
as changes in the energy intensity of each division. Combining output and energy intensity,
we develop a simple forecasting model and determine estimates that are useful in assessing
energy requirements. Throughout the discussion we refer to the year 2000, which we have
taken as the ‘start year’ of our modelling.
Total: 1335 PJ
Figure 8.1: Energy in industrial divisions, 2000
8.1.1 Mining
The industrialisation of South Africa began with the discovery of diamonds and gold in the
1870s. South Africa has since been found to have the world’s biggest reserves of chrome,
gold, manganese, platinum-group metals and vanadium, and vast reserves of several other
minerals. Historically, gold has been an important driver of South Africa’s economy, so that
mining in South Africa may be logically divided into ‘gold’ and ‘other metals and minerals’.
Because of declining ore grades, gold production has been dropping steadily, from 1 000
tons in 1970 to 395 tons in 2001. The energy required to mine a unit of gold has increased
fourfold in this period, because the mines are going deeper and have to process more ore
for each ton of gold produced.
Within South Africa, the gold mines are the single greatest users of electricity across all
sectors, and the amount of energy used for gold mining is only slightly less than the total
energy used by all the other mining sectors combined. Electricity constitutes over 90% of
the energy use on the gold mines. Unlike the gold sector, the other mining sectors are
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IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
105
growing and have good prospects – these sectors get about 75% of their energy from
electricity.
Total: 153 PJ
Figure 8.2: Energy in gold mining and other mining, 2000
8.1.2 Iron and steel
South Africa has all the resources required for steel making except coking coal (coke). In
1996 South Africa produced 6.5 million tons of steel, and since that time the industry has
modernised towards specialist mills and mills using new technologies that do not require
coke. An example is Saldanha Steel, which uses the new Corex and Midrex processes to
make hot-rolled steel. There has also been considerable investment in stainless steel
capacity.
Total: 361 PJ
Figure 8.3: Energy used in iron and steel production, 2000
8.1.3 Chemicals
South Africa’s chemical and petrochemical industry is well developed and produces
plastics, fertilisers, explosives, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. South Africa’s special
expertise and experience in making chemicals from coal gives it a unique advantage in this
field. Coal has been the main feedstock in the past but natural gas will replace some of this
in future.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Total: 291 PJ – includes non-energy use
Figure 8.4: Energy used in the production of chemicals, 2000
8.1.4 Non-ferrous metals
The biggest energy users in the non-ferrous metals division are aluminium and titanium
smelting. South Africa is the world’s second largest producer of titanium minerals,
manufacturing over 662 000 tons of aluminium in 2001. An expansion of the aluminium
smelting capacity is expected, with investment in a new smelter at Coega in the Eastern
Cape. Over 95% of the energy used in this division is electricity.
Total: 64 PJ
Figure 8.5: Energy used in the production of non-ferrous metals, 2000
8.1.5 Non-metallic minerals
This division makes cement, bricks and glass. Nearly all South African cement is made
using the efficient dry kiln method, but some brick making still uses the inefficient ‘clamp’
kilns. South Africa is self-sufficient in all of these products.
Total: 63 PJ
Figure 8.6: Energy used in the production of non-metallic minerals, 2000
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
107
8.1.6 Pulp and paper
Only slightly more than 1% of South Africa’s land is forested; however this land provides
good conditions for growing commercial softwood and hardwood species. South Africa has
a highly developed pulp and paper industry, producing over 4.5 million tons a year, and
marketing its products internationally. South Africa produces the cheapest pulp in the
world. Modern pulp and paper mills use ‘black liquor’ to produce most of their energy
requirements, the remainder coming from coal, gas, heavy furnace oil (HFO) and imported
electricity.
Total: 110 PJ
Figure 8.7: Energy used in the production of pulp and paper, 2000
8.1.7 Food, tobacco and beverages
The single biggest energy user in this division is the sugar refining industry, which gets
much of its energy requirements from bagasse (sugarcane residue).
Total: 113 PJ
Figure 8.8: Energy used in manufacturing food, tobacco and beverages, 2000
8.1.8 Other
This division includes other manufacturing, construction, textiles, wood products and
various other activities in industrial processing and fabrication. It includes large and small
industries. The division incorporates high-value economic activity and it is expected that it
will grow more quickly than most other divisions.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Total: 145 PJ
Figure 8.9: Energy used in ‘other’ industry, 2000
8.1.9 Energy intensity changes
Let us now consider changes in energy intensity. To do this we consider energy
consumption per unit output for each division. For modelling purposes we need to choose
a relevant indicator of output, this is generally either a physical indicator or an indicator of
value added. The choice depends primarily on the consistency and convenience of the
indicator chosen. Generally, where value added was more a function of market volatility
than of local production quantities, we used physical output as a preferred indicator.
However, in cases where there was little consistency in physical output (e.g. in the wide
array of foodstuffs produced) value added was preferred. (For an in-depth discussion of
local indicator options, see Hughes et. al. 2002.)
Except for electricity, the record of historical disaggregated energy consumption for South
Africa is sketchy. Nevertheless it is known that fuel substitution has been limited
(Dutkiewicz and Stoffberg 1991). In the absence of physical limitations, extreme price
hikes, or big policy interventions, we can expect minimal fuel switching (DME 2003).
Table 8.1 summarises our findings. In general, energy intensity relative to that of 2000
decreases over time with process and efficiency improvements. The exceptions are changes
within an industry, or increased beneficiation. For example in gold mining, as gold has had
to be mined from greater depths, more energy is used. In the iron and steel industry, on the
other hand, the level of local beneficiation is expected to increase, resulting in a drop in
energy intensity per unit of value added, as opposed to the gold mining sector, where there
is an increase in energy intensity per ton of gold produced.
Table 8.1: Energy intensity data and projections
Source: Howells (2004)
Sector/sub-sector
Year
1990
1995
Activity
measure
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
137
150
Intensity data with 2000=100
Mining
Gold
Energy /
Physical output
75
88
100
112
125
Platinum
Physical output
107
102
100
99
98
97
96
Coal
Physical output
105
102
100
99
98
98
97
Iron ore
Physical output
104
102
100
99
99
98
98
Copper
Physical output
87
95
100
103
105
106
107
Diamond
Physical output
169
126
100
86
76
69
63
Chrome
Physical output
126
110
100
95
91
88
86
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
Sector/sub-sector
Year
109
1990
1995
Activity
measure
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
Intensity data with 2000=100
Asbestos
Physical output
58
84
100
109
114
119
123
Manganese
Physical output
102
101
100
100
99
99
99
Rest of mining
Value added
103
101
100
99
98
98
97
Industry
Food, beverages &
tobacco
Value added
79
92
100
104
107
110
111
Textile, cloth &
leather
Value added
10
67
100
118
131
140
148
Pulp and paper
Physical output
92
96
100
102
103
104
105
Chemicals
Energy / value
added
109
103
100
98
97
96
95
Non-metallic minerals
Physical output
82
92
100
104
107
109
111
Iron & steel
Physical output
81
91
100
105
108
110
112
Precious & nonferrous metals
Physical output
94
97
100
101
102
103
104
Rest of basic metals
Physical output
54
78
100
111
118
123
128
Rest of manufacture
Value Added
97
99
100
101
101
101
102
8.1.10 Structural change in industry
Next, let us consider structural change within the economy. Typically, as economies
develop they move from heavy industry to service-based businesses. That is not to say that
heavy industry declines, but rather that there is a decline in its relative contribution.
Historically, this has been the case in South Africa. Table 8.2 below shows an index of
sector output divided by economic growth, normalised so that 2000 has a value of 100%
for illustrative purposes. This trend is projected into the future in the last four columns.
Table 8.2: Index of output to GDP for various manufacturing and mining sectors (%)
1990
1995
Gold
203
155
Platinum
74
Coal
94
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
100
76
57
43
33
90
100
104
103
100
96
102
100
99
92
85
79
Mining sector
Iron ore
106
109
100
99
94
89
84
Copper
170
127
100
87
73
61
52
Diamond
90
87
100
104
103
100
96
Chrome
82
80
100
104
102
97
93
Asbestos
1461
478
100
82
67
56
47
Manganese
114
98
100
96
90
83
77
Rest of mining
99
102
100
106
96
87
79
110
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Manufacturing sector
Food beverages & tobacco
109
110
100
97
94
90
87
Textile, cloth & leather
477
90
100
85
74
66
60
Pulp and paper
97
108
100
99
97
94
91
Chemicals
90
113
100
103
104
102
101
Non-metallic minerals
117
116
100
97
94
90
87
Iron & steel
104
100
100
95
93
89
86
Precious & non-ferrous
57
66
100
113
106
95
87
Rest of basic metals
129
82
100
95
88
83
79
Rest of manufacture
89
102
100
101
100
97
94
8.1.11 Demand projections
Following the United Nations Development Programme’s econometric approach (UNDP
1997), an electricity forecast was then derived using the projection of energy intensity
change (see section 8.1.9) and the projections of structural change in Table 8.2 above. The
forecast assumes that shares of fossil fuels remain constant in the reference case, which is
consistent with the IEP (DME 2003a) and past trends (Dutkiewicz and Stoffberg 1991). The
resulting projections of industrial electricity demand are shown in Figure 8.10 below. These
projections assume a GDP growth rate of 2.8% – the rate chosen for the most recent
electricity expansion plan (NER 2004a).
Figure 8.10: Electricity forecast for the industrial sector
8.1.12 Implementing policy options
On the demand side, industry is a major energy user. For the industrial sector we examined
the policy objective of meeting the target stated in the government’s energy efficiency
strategy (DME 2004a). This target is a 12% reduction in final energy consumption by
2014, relative to business-as-usual projections for energy consumption. The model was
constrained to meet this overall target, giving insight into which energy efficient
interventions had to be chosen to implement the policy. We examined the penetration
rates of individual technologies or behavioral changes, taking into account that there may
be regulatory, technical and other barriers to actually achieving such rates.
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
111
The energy efficiency strategy’s 12% energy-savings target was expressed in relation to the
forecast national energy demand at that time. It was based on the business-as-usual
baseline scenario for South Africa modelled as part of the National Integrated Energy Plan
(2003), which uses energy consumption data for the year 2000. The target also assumed
that the energy efficiency interventions outlined in this strategy would be undertaken –
most of them low cost interventions that could be achieved with minimal investments.
These energy efficiency improvements are achieved through a range of interventions:
economic and legislative means, information activities, energy labels, energy performance
standards, energy audits, energy management and the promotion of efficient technologies
(DME 2004a).
While the DME document covers all forms of energy, the National Electricity Regulator
(NER) has approved policy for efficiency in the electricity sector in particular, with an
‘energy efficiency and demand side management policy’ (NER 2003b).
The rationale for adopting the energy efficiency strategy is to meet a series of development
goals. The goals South Africa hopes to meet can be grouped according to the three themes
of social sustainability, environmental sustainability, and economic sustainability.
Table 8.3: Goals to be met by energy efficiency
Source: DME (2004a)
Social sustainability
Goal 1: Improve the health of the nation. Energy efficiency reduces the atmospheric emission of harmful
substances such as oxides of sulphur, oxides of nitrogen, and smoke. Such substances, known to have
an adverse effect on health, are a primary cause of common respiratory ailments.
Goal 2: Job creation. Spin-off effects of energy efficiency implementation. Improvements in commercial
economic performance, and uplifting the energy efficiency sector itself, will contribute to nationwide
employment opportunities. Energy is a necessary but not sufficient condition for job creation.
Goal 3: Alleviate energy poverty. Energy efficient homes not only improve occupant health and wellbeing, but also enable the adequate provision of energy services to the community at an affordable
cost.
Environmental sustainability
Goal 4: Reduce environmental pollution. Energy efficiency will reduce the local environmental impacts
of energy production and use
Goal 5: Reduce CO2 emissions. Energy efficiency is one of the most cost-effective methods of reducing
GHG emissions, and thereby combating climate change. Addressing climate change opens the door to
using the novel financing mechanism of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to reduce CO2
emissions.
Economic sustainability
Goal 6: Improve industrial competitiveness.
Goal 7: Enhance energy security. Energy conservation will reduce the necessary volume of imported
primary energy sources, crude oil in particular. This will enhance the robustness of South Africa’s
energy security and increase the country’s resilience against external energy supply disruptions and
price fluctuations.
Goal 8: Defer the necessity for additional power-generation capacity. It is estimated that the country’s
existing power-generation capacity will be insufficient to meet the rising national maximum demand by
2007-2012. Energy efficiency is integral to Eskom’s Demand Side Management programme,
contributing 34% towards the 2015 demand reduction target of 7.3 GW.
The specific programmes that constitute the policy, which are being considered to meet the
target (12% reduction in final energy consumption by 2014), include the following
measures, all of which assume a high level of awareness:
• energy efficiency standards;
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
•
•
•
•
•
•
appliance labelling;
education, information and awareness;
research and technology development;
support of energy audits;
monitoring and targeting;
green accounting.
In order to determine the potential savings that may accrue as a result of any energy
efficiency policy, it is necessary first to determine the demand for energy end-use.
Typically, coal is used either for thermal purposes (boilers and furnaces), and oil for a mix
of thermal and motive purposes (ERI 2001). The apportioning of electricity is more
complex, and we estimated an end-use demand for electricity by industry (Howells 2004a),
which is reported in Table 8.4.
Table 8.4: Percentage of end-use of electricity by the industrial sector
Source: Howells (2004a)
Food & Text- Wood & Chemi- Iron
Non- Rest of Rest of
Nonbever- iles
wood
cals
&
ferrous basic manu- metallic
ages
prodsteel metals metals facture minerals
ucts
Indirect uses – boiler
fuel
2
1
3
1
0
0
0
1
0
Process heating
4
5
6
3
39
1
17
10
8
Process cooling &
refrigeration
24
7
0
6
1
0
0
5
0
Compressed air
8
10
38
10
8
0
11
9
14
Other machine drive
44
50
38
53
40
2
56
47
72
Electro-chemical
processes
0
0
0
18
2
95
17
11
0
Other process use
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
Facility HVAC
8
15
4
4
3
1
0
8
3
FAcility lighting
3
10
7
3
4
1
0
7
3
Facility support
2
2
1
1
1
0
0
2
0
Onsite transportation
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
We combined this end-use apportioning with a detailed industry-by-industry sector energy
forecast (NER 2004; Howells 2004b) in order to determine a forecast for the end-use of
energy for the industrial sector as a whole. It was then possible to estimate the total
potential savings by using assumptions about the savings potential of each energy
efficiency measure by end-use. In doing so, we assumed that an increased proportion of
the technical potential would be realised, depending on the policies implemented. Hughes
et al. (2003) estimate this as a function of each specific programme. We adopted a
conservative estimate that set an upper limit to the savings that could be realised. The
specific measures we considered are described by Howells and Laitner (2003) and Trikam
(2002). The list below itemises the measures we considered, their payback and proportion
of fuel saved:
Variable speed drives: These drives reduce unnecessary power consumption in electrical
motors with varying loads Typical paybacks are 3.6 years, conservatively 2.2% of industrial
electricity can be saved.
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
113
Efficient motors: (ERI 2000a) These motors are available at higher cost. Efficient motors
can reduce power consumption, but may require modifications because running speeds are
generally higher than for inefficient motors. Typical paybacks are seven years,
conservatively 2.3% of industrial electricity can be saved.
Compressed air management: (ERI 2000a) This measure is easily achieved and often
results in significant savings at low cost. Typical paybacks are 0.9 years, conservatively
3.2% of industrial electricity can be saved.
Efficient lighting: (ERI 2000a) These measures take advantage of natural lighting, more
efficient light bulbs and appropriate task lighting. Typical paybacks are 3.6 years,
conservatively 1.9% of industrial electricity can be saved.
Heating, ventilation and cooling: ((ERI 2000b) These measures are for maintaining good
air quality and temperature and can commonly be improved through better maintenance
and the installation of appropriate equipment. Typical paybacks are 2.2 years,
conservatively 0.6% of industrial electricity can be saved.
Thermal saving: (ERI 2000b) Thermal saving refers to more efficient use and production of
heat. For steam systems in particular we consider condensate recovery and improved
maintenance. Typical paybacks are 0.8 years, conservatively 1.4% of industrial electricity,
10% oil and 15% coal can be saved.
Confidence that potential energy efficiency savings can be realised in practice can be
improved by measurement and verification. This depends to a large extent on the
institutional capacity in the country. In the case of South Africa, institutional infrastructure
already exists to measure and verify the implementation of energy efficiency interventions
in industry.
Figure 8.11: Institutions involved in measuring and verifying energy efficiency
savings in South Africa
Source: Grobler & Den Heijer (2004)
Figure 8.11 shows the South African institutions involved in measuring and verifying
energy savings. Eskom, the electric utility, has a demand-side management programme.
The implementation of the programme is outsourced to energy service companies
(ESCOs), which assist clients in industry, commerce and residential sectors. The ESCOs
carry out specific interventions for companies in industry (the clients in Figure 8.11). Four
universities in South Africa are involved in measurement and verification (M&V). These
114
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
M&V teams are employed by Eskom to measure the savings against an energy baseline
established prior to the intervention. After the intervention, the teams measure energy
consumption by once-off use of instrumentation, or long-term data recording. Taking a
conservative approach to energy savings, the M&V teams report only energy savings that
can be verified, and submitting these reports to the National Electricity Regulator (not
shown in the figure) and to the client. Table 8.5 gives estimates of electricity savings
potential by end use (rather than the totals).
Table 8.5: DSM interventions and their potential (stand alone) savings by end use
Source: Howells (2004a)
Use of electricity /
measure
considered
Indirect uses boiler fuel
Steam
system
Other
thermal
measures
15%
5%
Process heating
Efficient
motors
VSDs
Efficient
lighting
Compressed air
saving
HVAC
Refriger- Load
ation
shifting
5%
Process cooling
and refrigeration
10%
Machine drive (inc.
compressed air)
5%
5%
5%
10%
20%
15%
15%
Electro-chemical
processes
Other process use
Facility HVAC
Facility lighting
30%
20%
40%
Facility support
On-site
transportation
8.2 Commercial energy use
8.2.1 Definition of commercial sector and commercial sector activity
The commercial sector is an aggregation of the economic sectors defined under Standard
Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 6, 8, and 9. Table 8.6 shows the breakdown of
commercial sub-sectors. All public sector activities are included under SIC 9.
Table 8.6: Commercial sub-sectors by SIC code
SIC
Description
6
Trade, catering and accommodation
61
•
62
•
Retail trade
631
•
Accommodation
632
•
Catering
8
Finance, property and business services
81
•
82
•
Insurance institutions
83
•
Auxiliary activities
84
•
Real estate
Wholesale trade
Financial institutions
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
115
85
•
Renting of equipment
86
•
Computer activities
87
•
Research and development
88
•
Other business activities
9
Community, social and personal services
91
•
Public administration
92
•
Education
93
•
Medical and health services
94-99
•
Other services
The activities of the commercial sector are mainly confined to buildings such as offices,
warehouses, shops, places of accommodation, restaurants, educational facilities and
healthcare facilities. Energy-use in the commercial sector therefore largely constitutes
energy use for buildings. For this reason, the driver of energy demand was taken as the
total floor area of commercial buildings and demand was thus specified as a minimum
required energy service per square metre of floor space.
8.2.2 Energy use patterns in the commercial sector
Table 8.7 shows fuel use in the commercial sector as estimated by several organisations.
About 75% of the fuel used is in the form of electricity, while the remainder is mainly coal,
with small amounts of methane-rich gas, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and paraffin also
being consumed.
Table 8.7: Energy use in the commercial sector (PJ)
Source
Year
Electricity
Coal
Methanerich gas
Paraffin
HFO
LPG
This study
2001
64
20
1.1
0.15
3.5
12
DME
2001
66
36
0.24
0.15
3.5
12
IEA
2000
62
17
1.2
0.13
-
-
Beyond 2020
1999
64
21
1.0
0.17
-
-
NER
2001
29
-
-
-
-
-
This study identified six energy service demands for the commercial sector:
• cooling;
• lighting;
• refrigeration;
• space heating;
• water heating; and
• other (cooking, personal computers, printers etc).
Figures for the distribution and market shares of fuels for the different end uses were taken
from De Villiers (2000). Total floor space in 2001 has been estimated at 77 million square
metres (De Villiers 2000). Using the consumption details for the commercial sector (Table 7
above), the energy service demands per square metre were derived (see Table 8.8. All
energy intensities are assumed to remain constant throughout the time period 2001-2025
except for the services grouped as ‘other’, for which the energy intensity is expected to
increase by 0.5% per year.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Table 8.8: Useful energy intensity of commercial end-use demands
Useful energy intensity [MJ/m2/annum]
Demand
Cooling
911
*
Lighting
800
Refrigeration
48
Space heating
163
Water heating
116
Other
145
* Lighting service demand is measured in an artificial lighting unit based on
efficiencies (lumens/watt) relative to that of incandescent lamps.
8.2.3 Characteristics of energy demand technologies
The energy demand technologies considered in this study are listed in Table 8.9. which
also details their basic characteristics. Actual technology and appliance stocks are a lot
more diverse than those reflected here, but we believe the list to be a reasonable
aggregation.
Table 8.9: Basic technical and economic assumptions for commercial sector demand
technologies
Fuel
consumed
Device
Year 2000 Year 2025 Life-time
efficiency efficiency
(Year)
or COPa
or COP
Residual
capacity
(PJ/a)
Investme O&M cost
nt cost
(R/GJ)
(R/GJ/a)
Cooling
Electricity
Air-cooled
chillers
2
3.1
15
3.51
200
Central air
conditioners
3
4.1
15
42.07
123
Heat pumps (air)
2.2
3.1
15
14.02
322
Room air
conditioners
2
3.2
15
10.52
168
Lighting
Electricity
CFLs
400%
400%
5
3.69
37.7
14.7
Fluorescents
450%
450%
5
43.08
74.8
8.4
Halogen
200%
200%
2
1.23
13.6
10.4
Incandescents
100%
100%
1
4.30
45.2
11.2
700%
700%
6
9.23
5.5
15.4
15
-
-
-
HIDs
b
Refrigeration
Electricity
Refrigerators
1
1
Space heating
Electricity
Heaters
100%
100%
15
5.10
230
-
Coal
Heaters
80%
80%
15
7.17
383
-
Methane
rich gas
Heaters
92%
92%
15
0.306
383
-
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
Fuel
consumed
Device
117
Year 2000 Year 2025 Life-time
efficiency efficiency
(Year)
a
or COP
or COP
Residual
capacity
(PJ/a)
Investme O&M cost
nt cost
(R/GJ)
(R/GJ/a)
Water heating
Electricity
Heaters
100%
100%
15
2.04
31
-
Coal
Heaters
80%
80%
15
6.02
46
-
Methane
rich gas
Heaters
92%
92%
15
0.76
46
-
Paraffin
Heaters
91%
91%
15
0.14
46
-
LPG
Heaters
91%
91%
15
0.01
46
-
Other
Electricity
Appliances
100%
100%
5
8525
-
-
Coal
Appliances
75%
75%
5
2640
-
-
LPG
Appliances
90%
90%
5
3
-
-
Notes:
a) COP: Coefficient of performance – ratio of output heat to supplied work. This coefficient is used for space cooling
and refrigeration, rather than the more usual measure of efficiency.
b) High-intensity discharge lamps (includes mercury vapour and metal halides).
8.2.4 Demand projections
Service demand is linked to floor space and useful energy intensity. Two sets of
assumptions are thus needed to project future service demand: time series data for total
floor space (in square metres) and future changes in useful energy use per square metre.
Floor space is assumed to depend on total sales in the commercial sector. This study uses
the Industrial Development Corporation’s projections of future sales in the sector up until
the year 2015 (IDC 1999). For the remainder of the period the average growth rate from
1990 to 2015 was used to extend the time series. In doing this we assumed that the growth
in floor space would be proportional to the sales growth, at a ratio of 0.7. This means that
for every percent in sales growth, the total floor area would grow by 0.7%, which again
reflects an assumption of a more efficient use of floor space (rather than more people per
area). The resulting projection is shown in Table 8.10.
Table 8.10: Projection of total commercial floor area, 2000 to 2025
Floor space (million m 2)
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
75.2
86.4
102
120.5
142.7
169.3
8.2.5 New building thermal design
HVAC systems are the biggest consumers of energy in the commercial sector. The most
important influence on energy use is the design of the building. A new building envelope
design can significantly reduce energy consumption. The following measures are
considered to reduce energy consumption in new buildings:
• optimisation of thermal mass for local climate;
• optimal insulation;
• glazing;
• correct orientation; and
• building shape.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
We assumed that a 40% reduction in final energy demand for HVAC per square metre
would be achieved through these measures compared to the baseline (De Villiers 2000)
with a five-year payback period. Since this aggregated value is highly uncertain, we
assumed that 30% reduction is achievable for one sixth of floor space and 50% reduction is
achievable for another sixth of floor space at the same cost. In other words, reductions
would be possible for a third of the floor space, at two different levels of energy saving.
Similar distributions were also assumed for all subsequent measures.
The barriers to improved thermal design are the increased initial cost, weakened incentives
(the developer does not usually pay the energy bill, the tenants do), and lack of training of
architects and consulting engineers in efficient building practices.
8.2.6 HVAC retrofit
Options for HVAC retrofit include:
• switching off of air-conditioning when there are no occupants;
• eliminating re-heat, in which pre-conditioned air is reheated in a heating coil in the
duct system;
• preventing the mixing of hot and cold air;
• new air-conditioning set-points;
• ventilation by outside air and night cooling;
• use of evaporative cooling; and
• use of computerised energy management systems.
It is assumed that 35% of energy consumption is achievable for 50% of existing buildings
through a combination of these measures (De Villiers 2000). The overall payback period is
estimated at three years. Barriers include lack of awareness by building owners, and a
general perception that energy services are not an integrated part of the commercial
activity, with the result that not enough attention is given to energy services in cost analysis.
8.2.7 Efficient HVAC systems for new buildings
The same options listed in section 8.2.6 above apply to new buildings. We assumed that a
further 25% reduction in energy consumption could be achieved, with an average payback
period of five years (De Villiers 2000).
8.2.8 Variable speed drives for fans
Roughly half of HVAC energy demand was assumed to be used by fans. Fitting variable
speed drives (VSDs) on fans can reduce energy consumption by 15% per square metre (De
Villiers 2000). Only variable volume air handling units can be operated with VSDs and
these units account for 25% of all currently installed air handling units. VSDs were assumed
to have a technical lifetime of 15 years and a cost of R0.56 per kWh of electricity saved.
8.2.9 Efficient lighting systems for new buildings
We estimated that 20% of lighting energy requirements could be reduced with a three-year
payback, through efficient design and management of the lighting system by:
• introducing more switches, photo-electric sensors and occupancy sensors;
• reducing lighting levels in areas where illumination is higher than necessary;
• introducing skylights and other building design features.
The barriers to efficient lighting systems are the increased initial costs, split incentives and
lack of training of architects and consulting engineers in efficient building energy practice.
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
119
We further assumed that in both new and existing buildings, energy demand would be
reduced by replacing both incandescent and standard fluorescent lamps with more efficient
lamps, such as high-pressure sodium and metal halide lamps and more efficient fluorescent
lighting. The relative costs, efficiencies and market shares for various lamp technologies are
given in Table 8.9.
8.2.10 Heat pumps for water heating
The cost of a 50 kW heat pump is roughly R50 000 and the annual maintenance is R2 500
(Graham 1999). A heat pump will reduce energy consumption by 67%, compared to an
electrical resistance heater. Barriers to the installation of heat pumps are the high
investment costs and the possibility of operational problems.
8.2.11 Solar water heating
We assumed that in South Africa, on average, 90% of hot water could be generated by
solar energy, while the remainder could be heated by a back-up source when solar
irradiation is insufficient. Solar water heaters have a lifetime of about 20 years and the
installation costs are about R35 000 for a 1000-litre system, which translates into roughly
R475 per GJ. Barriers to installation of solar water heaters are the high investment costs
and the possibility of operational problems.
8.2.12 Fuel switching
In addition to the specific measures mentioned above, general fuel switching through
substitution between the technologies listed in Table 8.9: was assumed, to ensure a more
cost effective provision of energy services.
8.3 Residential energy policies
8.3.1 Defining the sector – six household types
In the residential sector, energy is mostly related to households rather than to individuals.
For example, electricity grid connections are made to households, and monthly
expenditure is recorded ‘per household’ rather than ‘per person’. Six household types are
defined here, differentiated according to urban/rural, high/low-income and electrified/nonelectrified. We have coded them as follows:
UHE
urban higher income electrified household
ULE
urban lower income electrified household
ULN
urban lower income non-electrified household
RHE
rural higher income electrified household
RLE
rural lower income electrified household
RLN
rural lower income non-electrified household
The three categories – rich/poor, urban/rural, electrified/not electrified – should actually
yield eight household types. However, rich urban households are all electrified, and most
rural rich households are as well, so these are omitted.
The energy use patterns of rich and poor households differ quite markedly from one
another, as do those of rural and urban households. Given the policy drive to universal
electrification since the 1990s, the distinction between electrified and non-electrified
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
households has become significant, with lack of electricity being seen as similar to energy
poverty.
For this sector, activity levels are defined by the number of households, of which there
were 11 205 705 according to the 2001 Census (SSA 2003a). Definitions of ‘urban’ and
‘rural’ are technically difficult to make in South Africa, given the existence of ‘dense rural
settlements’ like Bushbuckridge or Winterveld. In fact the Census no longer reports this
distinction. Other statistical publications continue to report different patterns of ‘urban’ and
‘non-urban’ (e.g. SSA 2000, 2002). For the purposes of evaluating electrification, the
National Electricity Regulator distinguishes between urban and rural connections (NER
2001, 2002a), and for this study we assumed a 60:40 split of urban to rural households.
(The percentages used in the modelling are 59.61% urban households, 40.39% rural, but
reporting them with two decimals would give a false sense of accuracy.)
There is no single source that breaks down these household types by income group.
However, the income and expenditure statistics are reported for urban and non-urban
households (SSA 2002: Fig 4.9), dividing each group into quintiles.
Table 8.11: Income and expenditure in urban and non-urban areas by 1995 quintile (in
2000 market values), 2000
Source: SSA (2002)
Income
Urban
Non-Urban
Quintile 1 (top)
18%
4%
Quintile 2
20%
9%
Quintile 3
23%
18%
Quintile 4
20%
29%
Quintile 5 (bottom)
19%
40%
It seems reasonable to define energy poverty for the purposes of this analysis by treating
the bottom two quintiles as ‘poor’, so that the poor are those with an annual per capita
income of less than R4 033, and annual expenditure of less than R3 703 (at exchange rates
of R6/$1 and given SA household size, this works out to less than $2 per person per day).
This being so, 61% of urban households could be considered neither poor nor rich (i.e.
medium to high income), while in rural areas only 31% would fall into this category. By
these assumptions, in other words, almost seven out of ten rural households are poor.
The proportion of poor to rich households varies across urban and rural areas, with urban
areas having a much higher share of medium and high-income households. Similarly, the
share of electrified households is lower in rural areas, as shown in Table 8.12.
Table 8.12: Numbers and shares of rural and urban households, electrified
and not electrified
Source: Own calculations, based on NER (2002a)and (2002)
Urban households
Share
Rural households
Share
Electrified
Not
electrified
Rich
Poor
5 330 166
1 349 240
4 074 438
2 604 968
79.8%
20.2%
61%
39%
2 276 729
2 249 571
31%
69%
50.3%
49.7%
1 403 153
3 123 146
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
121
Although there is no comprehensive statistical survey available, it is clear that access to
electricity still differs by population group. In 2000 almost all ‘African’ (99%) and ‘coloured’
(>99%) households in the highest expenditure category in urban areas had access to
electricity for lighting, as against proportionately fewer households in this expenditure
category in non-urban areas (79% of ‘African’ and 93%of ‘coloured’ households) (SSA
2000:70). These percentages refer only to the highest income group, and if weighted by
population group would give approximately 84% of rich rural households as electrified.
With this information it is possible to derive the number of households in each of six
household types. This is shown in Table 8.13. Further calculations reveal that 33% of the
rural poor are electrified, while not quite half (48%) of the urban low-income households
have access to electricity.
Table 8.13: Six household types (2000)
Source: Own calculations, based on assumptions and data given in text
Household
Number of
households
Share of all
households
Notes and assumptions
Urban rich
electrified (UHE)
4 074 438
36.4%
Virtually 100% of rich urban households are
electrified
Urban poor
electrified (ULE)
1 255 728
11.2%
Remainder of urban electrified households must
be poor
Urban poor
unelectrified (ULN)
1 349 240
12.0%
Rest of urban must be non-electrified
Rural rich electrified
(RHE)
1 181 279
10.5%
Assume 84% of rich rural households are
electrified
Rural poor
unelectrified (RLE)
1 095 449
9.8%
Remainder of rural electrified must be poor
Rural poor
unelectrified (RLN)
2 249 571
20.1%
Rest of rural households must be non-electrified;
number of households includes the few rich rural
not electrified
Of course, reducing all households in the country to six types abstracts enormously from
the diversity of different energy patterns. However, for purposes of national-level scenarios
it provides some distinctions between the major residential energy-use patterns. Perhaps
the biggest omission with this method of categorization is geographical disaggregation –
poor urban unelectrified households in Cape Town, for example, would use paraffin
extensively for cooking, heating and lighting; while households in the same category in
Gauteng are likely to use coal which is locally more available. Apart from the reality that
households respond to differences in fuel availability, there are also regional climatic
differences that affect fuel usage.
Affordability – in the sense of consumers being able to use the electricity that is available –
is emerging as a central policy challenge. The issue is not simply one of getting the physical
supply out to households, policy measures are needed to ensure that the use of energy is
affordable to households, given their specific living conditions and income. The electricity
‘poverty tariff’ does not address other energy needs. Further work is needed in
understanding how the ‘energy burden’ can be relieved. Creative approaches to modelling
may need to be found, since current approaches do not include households as real entities,
nor do they incorporate average income levels.
Since each additional household type requires additional data in the modelling, the
number of household types needs to be limited. Further disaggregation could be achieved
in future work, but is constrained by our currently limited knowledge of distinctive energy
122
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
use patterns. For example, there is relatively little research on rich rural unelectrified
households, compared to their urban counter-parts.
8.3.2 Energy use patterns in the residential sector
Energy use patterns in the residential sector show the continued use of multiple fuels. Five
major end uses were considered – cooking, space heating, water heating, lighting and
electrical appliances for other uses.
Multiple fuels are used in the residential sector, with electricity clearly dominating useful
energy demand (see Figure 8.12). This is reflected both in the increased use of energy, but
also in the relatively high efficiencies of electrical appliances. Patterns of household energy
demand differ significantly in rich and poor, urban and rural households (Mehlwana 1999;
Mehlwana & Qase 1998; Simmonds & Mammon 1996). Electricity contributes a larger
share of household energy use in urban areas than in rural areas, while the inverse is true
for fuelwood. About 5% of the total electricity is sold to the domestic sector, so that the bar
for electricity in the figure below represents 34.6 TWh of final energy (NER 2001).
Note: 2001 total: 130 PJ
Figure 8.12: Demand for useful energy in the residential sector,
by energy carrier
It is much more difficult to attribute the consumption of other fuels to specific end uses.
Survey results typically report only the monthly consumption of fuel types. For example,
household members may be able to give an indication of the number of litres of paraffin
used per month, but are unlikely to know how much is used to heat the house, boil water,
cook or produce light.15
Household energy use patterns vary across the six household types. Table 8.14 shows the
consumption for each end use for the base year 2001 (see Table A3 in Appendix) for
projections into the future). The energy services related to each end use are delivered by
multiple technologies for most end uses, as can be seen from Table 8.15.
15
Note that in Table 8.14, lighting is also reported in energy units (PJ) to facilitate comparison to other end
uses, rather than lighting units. In other analyses, we adjust for the relative efficiencies of different lighting
technologies, so that the same level of lighting service is delivered. For example, a CFL produces four
times as much lighting as an incandescent light, for the same amount of energy input. The energy is
converted to light, not thermal heat – at least the useful part of it. The units take incandescents as the
norm, so that for them 1 LU = 1 PJ, but for CFLs, 1PJ = 4 LU. The relative efficiencies of non-electric
lighting technologies, including paraffin wick lights, gas pressure lamps and candles, are low.
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
123
Table 8.14: Useful energy demand by household type for each end use (PJ , 2001)
UHE
ULE
ULN
RHE
RLE
RLN
Cooking
15.8
1.4
1.8
1.8
0.6
3.1
Water heating
23.2
4.3
1.2
2.8
0.7
5.3
Space heating
16.3
2.4
2.0
1.7
0.5
6.1
Lighting
7.4
2.7
2.3
4.1
2.0
4.2
Other electricity
12.6
0.1
-
3.3
0.1
-
The fuel use patterns in this study have been determined endogenously in the model, given
appropriate technology-specific discount rates. A future study may wish to compare the
optimised results with a simulated future, based on expected fuel use patterns.
8.3.3 Characteristics of energy technologies
The key characteristics of technologies relevant to the residential sector are shown in Table
8.15. In reality there are many more technologies that apply to this sector, but only the
major energy-consuming ones have been included here. The information is organised
according to the services that households required – the end uses of cooking, space
heating, water heating, lighting and electrical appliances. Appliance costs were collected for
this study in early 2005; they were deflated from the end of 2004 to provide costs in the
year 2000 in rands. ‘Residual capacity’ refers to the capacity available in the base year,
without any further investment.
Lifetimes and efficiencies are taken from previous studies (De Villiers & Matibe 2000; DME
2003a), updated in some cases by expert input (Cowan 2005; Lloyd 2005). For all end
uses other than lighting, the efficiencies relate to the amount of useful energy delivered by
the appliance for each unit of final energy delivered to the household. For lighting,
however, relative efficiencies reflect the amount of lighting service produced, not thermal
outputs.
Table 8.15: Key characteristics of energy technologies in the residential sector
Fuel
consumed
Device
Efficiency
(%)
Capital
cost –
nominal
(2005 R)
Adjusted
cost
(2000 R)
Lifetime
(Yrs)
Residual
capacity
(PJ)
Investment
cost
(R/GJ)
5
0.6559
230.1160
Cooking
Electricity
Paraffin
Gas
Wood
Coal
Hot plate
65
229
178
Oven
65
2 349
1 823
9
16.2011
435.8943
Microwave
60
874
678
5
0.1004
2 556.3243
Wick
40
107
83
3
0.1657
77.6743
Primus
42
37
29
6
2.4558
29.8504
Ring
53
249
193
5
0.7088
45.6038
Stove
57
4 995
3 877
9
1.1136
293.2659
Stove
25
848
687
9
2.7729
366.1427
Stove
13
5 231
4 060
11
–
Brazier
8
0
0
1
–
–
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Fuel
consumed
Device
Efficiency
(%)
Capital
cost –
nominal
(2005 R)
Adjusted
cost
(2000 R)
Lifetime
(Yrs)
Residual
capacity
(PJ)
Investment
cost
(R/GJ)
Water heating
Electricity
Geyser
70
2 172
1 686
22
29.7663
255.5052
Paraffin
Wick/
kerosene/ pot
35
37
29
3
1.8019
34.8500
Gas
Geyser
84
4 298
3 479
22
0.2936
2 813.7125
Solar
SWH
(integral)
100
7 150
5 549
17
0.1922
588.1703
Coal/wood/
wastes
Stove
jacket/pot)
40
0
0
1
5.4846
–
Electricity
Radiant
heater
100
100
78
6
11.8984
18.2595
Rib/fin/
radiator
100
968
751
9
7.3770
176.4690
Paraffin
Heater
73
59
46
9
3.4390
26.3508
Gas
Heater
75
993
771
5
0.3012
166.3370
Wood
Open
fire/stove
40
0
0
–
–
–
Space heating
Coal
Stove
59
5 231
4 060
11
–
Brazier
8
0
0
1
–
–
Incandescent
100
3
2
1
14.2820
7.9843
Fluorescent
290
13
10
4
–
CFLs
400
17
14
10
0.0989
245.0688
4.3635
Lighting
Electricity
Paraffin
Gas
Wick
1.71
5
4
4
3.8536
Pressure
7.43
192
155
4
–
Pressure
5.71
250
194
4
–
1
1
0.01
–
5
16.0407
Candles
0.05
40.6078
Other electrical appliances
Electricity
Appliances
80
8.3.4 Projections of future residential energy demand
Projecting future energy demand in the residential sector depends on the changing number
of households in each group, as well as the changes in the amount of energy services
consumed by each household. Future household numbers depend on population growth
rates, the impact of HIV/Aids, and migration patterns, whereas changes in useful energy
intensity depend on changing fuel use (notably electrification) and income levels. We have
assumed that the pattern of household/population growth will continue, but that population
growth rates will be lower due to the impact of Aids. This important assumption is a driver
of future energy patterns, not just those of the residential sector, and it is discussed further
with other key assumptions about the future in section 9.2.2.
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
125
8.3.4.1 Future urban-rural shares
Given the definition of household types in this study, the distinction between urban and
rural households is important. Rates of electrification are much higher in urban areas, and
other fuel use patterns differ too. Urban population growth rates for earlier periods were
substantially higher, e.g. population growth from 1946-1970 was 3.45% per year, 3.09%
for 1970-1996 (SACN 2004). Overall, this gives a picture of a growing urban population,
but also of growth slowing down to lower rates. Will South Africa’s population continue to
urbanise? There have been some suggestions that rural populations have peaked and will
stabilise or even decline (Calitz 1996). We assume that virtually all the household growth –
moderate as it is projected to be – will occur in the broadly defined urban category, and
that rural household numbers will remain stable. Under these assumptions, 64% of the
population will be urbanised by 2030.
8.3.4.2 Households and household size
A notable trend in South African cities is that the number of households (dwelling units)
has been growing faster than the population. Across South Africa’s nine largest cities, the
population grew by 2.8% per year between 1996 and 2001, but the number of households
increased at 4.9% per year (SACN 2004:179). Possible reasons include people establishing
new households, particularly when incomes increase; migration from rural areas to the
cities and associated cultural changes; and increased household formation. Such trends are
consistent with demographic experience elsewhere in the world, where increasing income
levels are negatively correlated with fertility and population growth rates (UN Population
Division 2000). The average number of people per urban household dropped from 3.98 in
1996 to 3.58 in 2001 (SACN 2004). Nationally, it dropped from 4.5 to 4.0 over the same
time (SSA 1996, 2003b), although these trends are probably partly the result of
reconsideration of earlier census data. Given demographic trends elsewhere in the world, it
seemed plausible to assume that household size would continue to decline a little further,
reaching 3.8 by 2030.
8.3.4.3 Trends in energy consumption
One of the key developments since 1990 has been the national electrification programme,
which has gradually moved energy use patterns to a greater reliance on electricity –
although the affordability of using electricity remains an issue. We can assume that
universal access to affordable electricity will remain a cornerstone of policy, since the
government’s commitment to achieving universal access to electricity has been reiterated in
many policy speeches (Mbeki 2004; Mlambo-Ngcuka 2002b, 2003, 2004). For the
purposes of this study, we have assumed that by the end of the period (2001-2030), 99%
of urban and 90% of rural households will be electrified. Taken with other projections, this
implies that 17% of poor rural households will still be non-electrified by 2030, as will 3% of
urban low-income households.
As highlighted in Chapter 5, access needs to be complemented by policies to promote
affordable use. Or, put another way, electricity should be promoted not only for lighting or
entertainment, but also for cooking and productive uses. A supplementary study on the
poverty tariff found that a ‘weak access’ approach was feasible – a self-targeted tariff with a
limit on the level of current supplied (UCT 2003). The proposal in the original report (UCT
2002) was that customers who wished to receive the free electricity should agree to limit
supply to 8A (compared to 20A or 60A household connections). However, supplementary
work found that many households already owned appliances with ratings above 1.8 kW,
which would be unuseable with an 8A supply. A 10A supply was found to be more socially
acceptable. That would require an estimated further R150 million for network
reinforcement over several years.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
8.3.4.4 Changing patterns of energy consumption
The concept of energy transition has been described by some as a ‘universal trend’
whereby households move from traditional fuel, consisting of wood, dung and bagasse,
through transitional energy sources (coal, paraffin and LPG) to ‘modern energy services’
(electricity) (ERI 2001). While some shifts in fuel consumption have occurred, questions
have been asked about whether this process is happening in a linear fashion, and whether
it adequately accounts for the persistent use of non-commercial fuels (Yamba et al. 2002).
Non-commercial fuel-use patterns generally continue for several years after households
receive electricity services (Mehlwana 1998). Proposals have been made to more effectively
represent multiple fuel use and the use of a single appliance for multiple end uses in
modelling (Howells et al. 2005), focusing more on the energy services than on the fuel
used. In reality, a single appliance such as an LPG stove might be used for cooking, water
heating and space heating.
Overall, residential energy demand shows an increase over the period 2000-2030. Most of
the increase derives from increasing incomes – more households move from poor to rich
categories, where more energy is used per household. For electrical appliances, the
intensity of energy use shows increases.
Figure 8.13: Projected energy demand by end use
8.3.4.5 Poverty
Perhaps one of the most difficult assumptions we have had to make concerns estimates of
future poverty. We chose a middle path between assuming that poverty would be reduced
dramatically and assuming that the proportion of poor households would be unchanged. In
absolute terms, we assumed that overall income levels would increase so that 70% of
urban households would be ‘non-poor’ by 2030 compared to 61% in 2001. The
proportion of low-income households declines to 60% in the reference scenario by 2030,
from 69% in 2001. These assumptions do not claim to address ‘relative poverty’, the
phenomenon whereby households may still consider themselves poor in comparison with
high-income households that have grown wealthier.
8.3.4.6 Future activity levels
Given the data for the starting year of 2001 and the assumed changes as described above,
the changes in the numbers and shares of the six different household types in this study are
shown in Table 8.16.
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
127
Table 8.16: Number and share of households, estimated for 2001 and projected for
2030
Source: See text for underlying data and assumptions
2001
No. of households
2030
Share of
households
No. of households
Share of
households
UHE
4 074 438
36.4%
6 050 063
45.9%
ULE
1 255 728
11.2%
2 506 455
19.0%
ULN
1 349 240
12.0%
86 429
0.7%
RHE
1 181 279
10.5%
1 810 520
13.7%
RLE
1 095 449
9.8%
2 263 150
17.2%
RLN
2 249 571
20.1%
452 630
3.4%
Total
11 205 705
13 169 247
More detail is provided in the Appendix, with Table A3 showing the energy demands by
end use and household type, and providing household numbers as projected for selected
intermediate years. Table 12.4 also provides the total demands for each end use, as well as
the grand total of residential energy demand for the years 2001 to 2025.
8.3.5 Solar water heaters and geyser blankets
Energy policies for the residential sector should start with water heating, one of the major
end uses in the sector. However, given the high capital costs of solar water heaters (SWHs),
such an approach would more suitable for middle- and upper-income households,
primarily those in urban areas. Estimates of penetration rates for SWHs vary quite widely,
from 20% over 15 years (De Villiers & Matibe 2000) to 60% of electricity for water heating
avoided, amounting to 2 PJ per year (DME 2003b). A simpler intervention, with lower
initial costs, is the installation of geyser blankets, which provide a substantial energy saving.
For SWHs, it makes sense to separate out new from existing buildings, requiring all new
urban middle- and upper-income households to install hybrid solar-electric water heaters
instead of electric storage geysers (according to the DME, virtually no SWHs are
encountered in low-cost housing areas) (DME 2004b). SWHs would save 60% of electricity
use (Karekezi & Ranja 1997; Spalding-Fecher et al. 2002b). Existing homes could be
encouraged to insulate existing electric storage geysers, saving 12% of electricity use
(EDRC 2003; Mathews et al. 1998), and could be required to do so when existing electric
geysers are replaced. Currently 1%-3% of households have geyser blankets (Borchers
2005), and we have assumed 2% for this study.
The typical cost of an electric geyser was R1 500 in 2005 (cost survey done for this study).
SWHs currently are more expensive, around R8 000 to R12 000 installed; however with
the introduction of new vacuum tube technology these costs are likely to decline to
between R4 000 and R6 000 (Borchers 2005). A reasonable figure for a hybrid solar and
electric system would be R6 500 installed (EDRC 2003); a study for Cabeere gives R6 000
for ‘machinery’ plus R1 500 for ‘other’ costs (DME 2004b: 93). Vacuum tube technology is
already available (www.solardome.co.za) in South Africa, so it can be expected that the
prices will decline from R6 000 in 2005 to R4 000 by 2010, in real terms. Since the
vacuum tubes themselves are imported, economies of scale in importing will be important
in reducing the price, which would imply a step change in relation to the introduction of a
new technology. Future research is needed to quantify the point at which this step change
is likely to occur in terms of levels of output, imports or cumulative production. Informal
128
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
enquiries with local distributors indicate an expectation that by 2010 all SWHs will use
vacuum tube technology.
8.3.6 Energy-efficient housing
The Department of Housing commissioned a study early in 2003 to set up a framework for
the regulation of environmentally sound building. The policy here would be to revise the
South African Energy and Demand Efficiency Standard guidelines in order to specify which
measures should be included in the energy-efficient housing package, plus any technical
details required for these interventions, and to make these standards mandatory for all new
subsidy-supported housing.
Since most of the thermal energy in a house escapes through the roof (Holm 2000), the
single most effective intervention in the building shell is the installation of a ceiling
(Spalding-Fecher et al. 2002a). A layer of low-cost insulation above the ceiling and on the
walls can significantly improve the thermal performance of the building shell (Holm 2000;
Winkler et al. 2002).
Housing built under what was originally called RDP housing does not typically include
ceilings. Costs of ceilings are therefore included here, at R1 278 for a 30 m2 RDP house in
2001 (Holm 2000; Thorne 2005). Middle- and upper-income houses already have ceilings,
so only insulation needs to be installed, at a cost of R2 031 for a 90 m2 three-bedroomed
house in 2001. These interventions can be combined with passive solar techniques (correct
orientation, north-facing windows and optimised roof overhang) to make for a more
efficient building shell.
Although it is technically possible to eliminate the need for space heating through proper
insulation, orientation and ceilings, i.e. achieve 100% savings (Holm 2000), many
households will choose to use some of those potential savings on additional space heating.
This ‘take-back’ effect will reduce the actual savings achieved, although it still provides
development benefits because it means that people who previously had homes that were
too cold in winter and too hot in summer can be more comfortable (see Schipper & Grubb
2000; Scott 1980; Spalding-Fecher et al. 2002a) and have an improved quality of life.
The savings achievable through ceilings and insulation alone are estimated in the range of
34% to 50%; together with zero-cost passive solar design, we have assumed the average of
this range, i.e. 42%. This is a conservative estimate if compared to previous studies which
assume higher savings for passive solar design of houses + ceilings + insulation (especially
in low-cost housing) – up to 60%-70% of space-heating energy according to a variety of
sources (EDRC 2003; Holm 2000). This should confirm that the savings reported in this
study are easily achievable.
Currently, at most 0.5% of households are efficient in their thermal design. The reference
case assumes that this share will grow at 5% per year in future, so that over the period
2000-2030 the number of efficient households will double twice. The model results show
how much these penetration rates are increased by policy interventions such as subsidies.
8.3.7 Subsidies for energy efficiency in low-cost housing
It is one thing to demonstrate the technical potential of energy efficiency, quite another to
examine whether such interventions are affordable, particularly for low-income
households. Most poor communities rely heavily on the national housing subsidy to help
them build decent housing. However this subsidy is not linked in any way to the energy
efficiency characteristics of the house. There is nothing comparable to the incremental
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
129
subsidy that is provided for homes in the southern Cape for mitigating condensation and
dampness.
An incremental housing subsidy for energy efficiency could be set to be equal to the initial
incremental cost of the intervention, for the same end-uses covered under ‘building codes’
and ‘appliance standards’. This measure could be implemented through existing housing
legislation and programmes.
One could ask what subsidy would be needed to make the interventions with upfront costs
affordable, given the relatively high discount rates of poor households. In this study we
examined the marginal level of investment needed to make energy-efficient interventions
affordable for poor households. We assumed that the discount rate of poor households is
higher at 30% than the general rate of 10%. Currently, there is a subsidy for coastal areas
(R1003) to which the results from the modelling can be compared. The required subsidy is
reported in the results.
8.3.8 Efficient lighting
Many low-income households use less than 75 kWh of electricity per month, and hot water
geysers and electric cooking appliances are not common in such households. Most of the
electricity use is for lighting, which means that energy efficient bulbs can markedly reduce
electricity bills. Compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) use significantly less power than
conventional bulbs. From the utility’s perspective, CFLs can reduce expensive peak
demand, because lighting demand has a high degree of coincidence with peak demand,
especially in the winter when daylight fades early. Efficient lighting practices include
switching off lights when a room is unoccupied, fitting lower-power light bulbs where
possible, and controlling security lighting with light or movement sensors.
The relative efficiency of CFLs compared to incandescents is about 1:4, and they burn
about ten times longer (10 000 hours life versus 1 000 hours). The efficient lighting
initiative significantly reduced the price of CFLs between 2001 and 2003, and increased
the market share of CFLs (ELI 2005). Current market shares for CFLs vary between zero
for poor rural households and 8% for medium- and high-income urban households. This
study assumes that penetration rates increase more rapidly in the first half of the period,
and then grow more slowly towards some upper limit. Studies in the Netherlands,
Germany, and Denmark have gathered detailed data on the uptake of CFLs, and show
that about half the households have CFLs installed (Netherlands 56%, Germany 50%, and
Denmark 46%) (Kofod 1996). These high penetration rates are probably not matched
anywhere else in the world and are the upper bound for our reference case.
Table 8.17: Penetration rates for 2001 and assumptions of upper and lower bounds
for the reference case
Household
type
2001
(%)
Bound for
future
2013
(%)
2030
(%)
UHE
8
UP
35
50
LO
15
17
ULE
1
UP
20
40
LO
9
17
30
50
RHE
6
UP
LO
11
17
RLE
0
UP
20
40
LO
9
17
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
8.4 Agriculture
8.4.1 Agricultural sector activity
The agricultural sector includes all users classified as agriculture, forestry and hunting, as
well as ocean, coastal and inland fishing under SIC codes 11, 12 and 13. A detailed
breakdown of activities included in this sector is given in Table 8.18.
Table 8.18: Agricultural sub-sectors by SIC code
SIC
11
Description
Agriculture, hunting and related services
111
•
Growing of crops; market gardening; services
112
•
Farming of animals
113
•
Growing of crops combined with farming of animals (mixed farming)
114
•
Agricultural and animal husbandry services, except veterinary activities
115
•
Hunting, trapping and game propagation, including related services
116
•
Production of organic fertilisers
12
Forestry, logging and related services
121
•
Forestry and related services
122
•
Logging and related services
13
Fishing, operation of fish hatcheries and fish farms
131
•
Ocean, inland and coastal fishing
132
•
Fish hatcheries and fish farms
In South Africa about 3 000 large commercial farmers produce 40% of the agricultural
output, while another grouping of 10 000 farmers survive economically by producing a
further 40%. Between 40 000 and 60 000 full-time struggling farmers produce the
remaining 20% of agricultural output. The agricultural sector employed about 10% of the
workforce in 2001: 960 500 employed people aged 15-65 in agriculture, hunting, forestry
and fishing, out of a total national employment of 9,58 million (SSA 2004).
Since all agricultural sub-sectors have been aggregated into one group, the only common
measure of activity is value added, and this has therefore been the indicator used in this
study. Other alternatives for measuring activity variables, such as hectares or livestock
population, are only appropriate when working with a greater sub-division of sectors. Due
to the poor data availability, further disaggregation was not feasible for this study.
8.4.2 Energy use in the agricultural sector
Table 8.19 shows energy consumption in the agricultural sector. An estimated 73 PJ of
energy was consumed in the sector in 2001. Approximately 58% of this was diesel, 10%
was other liquid fuels, 30% was in the form of electricity, and the remaining 2% was coal.
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
131
Table 8.19: Energy use in the agricultural sector (PJ)
Source
Year
Electricity
Coal
Petrol
Paraffin
LPG
Diesel
HFO
Total
This study
2001
22
1.5
2.8
2.4
0.13
43
1.6
73
DME
2001
15
2.7
3.8
3.0
0.13
43
1.6
69
IEA
2000
14
1.6
2.6
2.3
0.14
40
-
61
Beyond
2020 REF
1999
-
2.7
-
-
-
-
-
-
Eskom
2001
22
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Energy use in agriculture is primarily for the purposes of:
• preparing the land;
• irrigating the land;
• applying nutrients, pesticides and herbicides;
• harvesting; and
• primary processing.
Based on this, the following set of end-use demands were considered for this study:
• traction (tractors, harvesters and on-site transport);
• irrigation (electricity, diesel and petrol driven pumps);
• primary processing (electric equipment);
• heat (hot water for dairies, incubators, drying of crops); and
• other (electricity demands such as lighting and cooling).
The total value added by the agricultural sector in 2001 was R26 558 million. Based on the
fuel use given in Table 8.19, a set of end-use energy intensities can be derived. These are
given in Table 8.20. The allocation of fuels to various activities is based on the Integrated
Energy Plan (IEP) in the case of electricity. For other fuels there are no accurate sources of
information. The allocation is therefore a best guess, although there is a high confidence in
attributing the majority of this to traction.
Table 8.20: Useful energy intensity of agricultural end-use demands
Demand
2000 Useful energy intensity
(GJ/R)
2025 Useful energy Intensity
(GJ/R)
0.564
0.564
Traction
Irrigation
0.314
0.401
Processing
0.214
0.344
Heat
0.211
0.211
Other
0.371
0.596
8.4.3 Demand projections
Value added is used as the driver for energy demand in the agricultural sector. The
projections are given in Table 8.21.
Table 8.21: Forecast of value added in the agricultural sector
Agriculture GVA (R millions)
2001
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
26 558
27 510
28 098
28 538
28 912
29 200
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
8.5 Coal mining
Coal mining is an important upstream activity, providing fuel for electricity generation,
synthetic fuels and industrial processes. No specific policy options in coal mining were
modelled in this study, but some background is relevant.
For a long time the figure given for South Africa’s coal reserves has been 55 billion tons.
An interim estimation of 38 billion tons (Prevost 2003) is the best figure currently available.
The DME is conducting a thorough study to assess the true reserves. Figure 8.14 shows
coal production from 1992 to 2001.
Figure 8.14: Total saleable production, local sales and exports of South African coal,
1992 to 2001
Source: DME (2003)
In 2001, South Africa mined 290 million tons of coal, of which 223.5 million tons was
saleable. Supplies to the local market were 152.2 millions tons with 69.2 million tons
exported. Discards, too low in heating value and too high in ash to have commercial value,
amounted to 66 000 million tons. However, discards may well have commercial value in
the future, as they can be burned in fluidised bed combustion (FBC) boilers. The use of
coal for export, various internal uses, and discards, is shown in Figure 8.15.
Figure 8.15: Coal used for export, domestic uses and discards, 2003
Source: (DME 2004c)
The prices of domestic coal were reported by DME as more constant over time than the
prices of coal for export.
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
133
Table 8.22: Price of coal for local sales, 1994 to 2003, in rands per ton
Source: DME (2004c)
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
40
43
46
49
53
54
57
63
75
79
South African coal prices were R60.73 per ton of coal for electricity generation in 2001
(calculated in terms of the rand value for 2000). The calorific value of South Africa’s subbituminous coal for electricity generation is 20.1 MJ / kg, which is lower than the average
figures due to its relatively high ash content (Pinheiro 1999). For details of assumption
about future coal prices, see section 9.2.4, which puts South African coal prices in the
context of other fuel prices.
8.6 Electricity generation – gas, renewables, hydroelectricity and nuclear
For the electricity sector, we examined alternative supply options, from natural gas to
renewable energy technologies, PBMR nuclear, imported hydroelectric power, and
fluidised bed combustion coal-fired plants. For each source, bounds were set on the ranges
of supply, within which the model optimised. We examined the implications for total
energy system costs, environmental impacts, water use, job creation potential and other
parameters – in other words, the major supply-side options in the sector. These were
complemented by the various demand-side interventions as described for each economic
sector above.
The excess capacity that the electricity sector experienced from the 1970s to the 1990s is
ending. The decisions about who will supply new power stations, and what energy sources
they will use (ERC 2004a) will shape South Africa’s energy development path for the next
few decades.
The overarching policy goal for electricity supply can be drawn from the 1998 White Paper
on Energy Policy, namely ‘to ensure security of supply through diversity’ (DME 1998). The
strong commitment to ensuring security of supply, and to doing so by pursuing all energy
sources, was restated by the Energy minister in her budget vote speech of 2004, when she
said that ‘the state has to put security of supply above all, and above competition
especially’ (Mlambo-Ngcuka 2004). She made it clear that the government would examine
all available energy technologies and plan for future capacity needs, based on planning to
select the least-cost option. In his 2004 State of the Nation speech, the South African
president acknowledged the need for new capacity by announcing a tender to deliver ‘new
generating capacity to provide for the growing energy needs from 2008’ (Mbeki 2004).
Prospective investors could tender to provide the most cost-effective means to build new
capacity of a certain quality (stating reliability, availability, emissions).
For the present study, the following approaches and assumptions were made:
• The modelling approach included all existing power plants and the technology options
spelled out below, using renewables, gas, nuclear power, coal, and imported
hydroelectric power. The lead times for different technologies were included, as was the
cost of ‘unserved’ energy.16
16
‘Unserved’ energy occurs when load is interrupted. Attaching a cost to the lost revenues due to this energy
not being provided allows comparison with the cost of increasing capacity (perhaps specific peaking
capacity) to meet the demand.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
• The reference case was very close to the National Integrated Resource Plan developed
by the ERC modelling group and others for the NER (NER 2004b).
• Future policy cases will model departures from the reference case, as outlined below.
• Our approach to scenario modelling was first to consider using each of the energy
technologies separately. The implications of using these technologies were examined in
terms of: costs (capital, operations and maintenance [O&M] costs, fixed costs and
variable costs), wider impact on the economy, environmental impacts (notably local air
pollutants and GHGs) and social benefits (e.g. electricity prices, job creation). Policy
recommendations were drawn from considering these implications. Given the large
scale of the study, reporting was at the level of policies and scenarios.
Table 8.23: Characteristics of new power plants
Source: NIRP (NER 2004b)
Lead
time
(Yrs)
Efficiency
(%)
Availability
factor
(%)
30
4
35
88
2.9
30
4
37
88
Investment
cost, undiscounted
(R/kW)
New pulverized fuel
plant
642
9 980
101
1.1
Fluidised bed combustion (with FGD)
233
9 321
186
Type
Fixed
O&M
cost
(R/kW)
Variable Lifetime
O&M
(Yrs)
cost
(c/kWh)
Units of
capacity
(MW)
Coal
Imported gas
Combined cycle gas
turbine
387
4 583
142
11.5
25
3
50
85
Open cycle gas
turbine (diesel)
120
3 206
142
16.2
25
2
32
85
2.1
40
6.5
Imported hydro
Imported hydro
9200 GWh / yr
Parabolic trough
100
18 421
121
0
30
2
100
24
Power tower
100
19 838
356
0
30
2
100
60
Wind turbine
1
6 325
289
0
20
2
100
25, 30,
35
Small hydro
2
10 938
202
0
25
1
100
30
Land fill gas
(medium)
3
4 287
156
24.2
25
2
n/a
89
Biomass co-generation (bagasse)
8
6 064
154
9.5
20
2
34
57
PBMR initial modules
165
18 707
317
2.5
40
4
41
82
PBMR multi-modules
171
11 709
317
2.5
40
4
41
82
Pumped storage
333
6 064
9.5
40
7
-
95
Renewable energy
Nuclear
Storage
154
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
135
8.6.1 Switch from coal to gas
Natural gas currently only accounts for 1.5% of the country’s total primary energy supply
(DME 2002c). The total proven gas reserves of South Africa are about 2 tcf (Trillion cubic
feet), and this figure could rise with further exploration (ERC 2004a). New fields are being
explored off the South African West Coast (Ibhubesi), Namibia (Kudu) and Mozambique
(Pande and Temane). All of these are relatively small, with larger fields further away in
Angola (ERC 2004a). During 2004, gas from Mozambique started being delivered to
Gauteng – however this was for use at Sasol and industry, rather than in electricity
generation. Import of LNG by tanker was an option considered in the second National
Integrated Resource Plan (NER 2004b).
Apart from the regulation of gas pipelines, gas prices are a critical factor in determining
viability of gas-fired power plants. The next power station to be built will be an open cycle
gas turbine (NER 2004a). ‘Gas turbines’ in South Africa use aeronautical diesel fuel to
drive jet turbines, connected to power generators (NER 2002a). The Integrated Resource
Plan includes a simple cycle of 2 400 MW: made up of 240 MW in 2008 and 2013, and
480 MW each year from 2009 to 2012 (NER 2004b).
A policy case for natural gas is investigated in this study, building three combined cycle gas
turbines (CCGT) of 1950 MW each, or a total of 5 850 MW by 2020. Gas has been
imported by pipeline from Mozambique since 2004, but its preferred use has been for
feedstock at Sasol’s chemical and synthetic fuel (synfuel) plants (Sasol 2004a). The
alternative is the shipping of LNG, potentially landed at Saldanha in the Western Cape,
Coega in the Eastern Cape or Richards Bay in KwaZulu Natal. Gas turbines have relatively
short start-up times and play an important role in meeting peak power needs. Construction
of an LNG terminal would add two years to the lead-time of a project, due to the need for
environmental impact assessments and harbour modifications. This makes the total lead
time five years, even under a fast-track option whereby LNG terminal construction would
be done in parallel with building the plant; otherwise it would take eight years (NER 2004a:
Appendix 3). Fifteen units of 390 MW each could be constructed with lead times of five
years spreading them over the period. The policy case is implemented with a higher upper
bound than the reference case, which, following the National Integrated Resource Plan
(NIRP), included a maximum of 1 950 MW of combined cycle gas turbines.
8.6.2 Renewable energy for electricity generation
Renewable electricity sources are derived from natural flows of solar, wind, hydro, biomass,
geothermal and ocean energy. The IPCC has estimated the long-term global technical
potential of primary renewable energy to be at least 2800 EJ/yr (IPCC 2001: Chapter 3) –
a number which exceeds the upper bound of estimates for global energy demand.
Unfortunately the realisable potential is much lower, limited by the ability to capture
dispersed energy, as well as markets and costs. While the installed capacity of wind and
solar photovoltaic technologies grew at rates of around 30% from 1994 to 1999, they
started from a low base – 10 GW and 0.5 GW respectively (UNDP et al. 2000). By
comparison, South Africa’s total electricity grid – of which a small part is renewable –
amounts to roughly 40 GW.
South Africa’s renewable energy target of 10 000 GWh per year is 4% of the estimated
generation in 2013, which would require 3 805 MW capacity, assuming a 30% availability
factor.
Renewable resources like wind and solar energy are intermittent by nature. Technical
solutions and business and regulatory practices can reduce the levels of intermittency, for
example through variable-speed turbines. Wind can be complemented with an energy
136
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
technology capable of storage, such as fossil fuels, pumped storage or compressed air
storage. Storage, however, imposes a cost penalty. Since utilities must supply power in
close balance to demand, the share of highly intermittent resources that can be
incorporated into the energy mix is limited.
The level of intermittent renewable energy sources that can be absorbed into the national
energy grid requires further study. In Denmark, Spain and Germany, the penetration levels
for renewable energy resources, is over 15%: for very short periods this can rise up to 50%.
In some instances this has caused grid control and power quality problems, but not in other
cases (IEA 2003b). With South Africa’s penetration of renewables for electricity generation
being very low (about 1%, from hydroelectricity and bagasse (NER 2003a)), the grid will
absorb most fluctuations.
Other renewable energy technologies, like biomass and small hydroelectric schemes, are
dependent on seasonal patterns. The annual load factors of these renewable sources are
highly dependent on the particular site, but they are usually significantly lower than the
load factors for fossil fuel technologies. The load factors for renewable energy technologies
are generally higher for solar thermal and biomass installations than for wind at South
African sites, e.g. the solar power tower technology with molten salt storage has an
availability factor of 60% (NER 2004a).
The theoretical potential for renewable energy in South Africa lies overwhelmingly with
solar energy, equivalent to about 280 000 GW (Eberhard & Williams 1988: 9).
Technological and economic potentials, by various estimates, would be lower than the
theoretical potentials – shown in Table 23. Other renewable energy sources – wind,
bagasse, wood, hydro, and agricultural and wood waste – are much smaller than solar.
Table 8.24: Theoretical potential of renewable energy sources in South Africa
Sources: (DME 2000, 2002a; Howells 1999)
DANCED / DME
Resource
6
Bagasse
Wood
Hydro
Agricultural waste
Wood waste
Renewable Energy
White Paper
PJ / year
Wind
Solar
Howells
50
21
47
49
18
44
220
40
20
36
8 500 000
20
9
The most recent estimates of the potential of renewable energy were compiled for the
South African Renewable Energy Resource Database (www.csir.co.za/ environmentek/
sarerd/contact.html). The costs of updating the data will be borne by selling more detailed
GIS maps (Otto 2003). In estimating the economic potential of renewable energy, there is
even less data available. There is not sufficient experience regarding local costs and
markets to provide estimates of any great accuracy. What is available, however, is a study
which shows that renewable energy sources could provide 10 000 GWh of electricity to
meet the target (see Table 8.25).
Government has adopted a White Paper on Renewable Energy (DME 2003b). The Energy
minister’s 2003 budget speech indicated that renewable energy would be subsidised. Her
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
137
speech suggested that renewable energy policy would ‘lead to the subsidisation of
renewable energy and develop a sustainable market share for clean energy’ (MlamboNgcuka 2003). Two major types of subsidies can be considered: investment subsidies, as
an upfront grant, given per unit of installed capacity, and production subsidies, through a
rebate per kWh of renewable electricity produced
Production subsidies, in the form of feed-in tariffs, are based on energy production and so
provide an incentive to use capital efficiently. 17 The motivation for subsidising renewable
electricity is to contribute to the local and global socio-economic and environmental
benefits that are not captured by existing markets. The policy would be to formulate these
incentives as production subsidies – as opposed to capital subsidies, which do not
guarantee production. For example, the ‘green electricity’ tariff negotiated for the 2002
World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, was 50c/kWh, which was
based on current estimates of the cost of grid-connected wind power (Morris 2002). Such a
subsidy would have a similar effect to negotiating a higher tariff, as the Darling wind farm
has negotiated a preferential tariff of 50c/ kWh with the City of Cape Town (CCT 2004;
CCT & SEA 2003).
Production subsidies would be given to renewable electricity generators. However, in
implementing this policy in a modelling framework, rather than setting a renewable energy
subsidy level (since no c/kWh price was known at the time of writing), we analysed the
subsidy required to deliver 10 000 GWh from each renewable energy technology.
To put such values in context, one can do a rough calculation of the carbon revenues
which renewable energy projects could earn through the Clean Development Mechanism.
In June 2005 the carbon price was rising rapidly, with €20 being quoted for a ton of CO2
in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (www.pointcarbon.com). The price for certified
emission reductions (CERs) (with higher risks related to future delivery) were closer to €10 /
t CO2, but were expected to converge as the issuance of the first CERs increased certainty.
At an exchange rate of R8.50 to the euro and a grid system-average emission factor of 0.89
kg CO2/kWh (Eskom 2003), a ‘subsidy’ of between 7.6 and 15.3c/kWh could potentially be
recovered from CDM revenues for zero-emissions technologies like renewables.
In 2003, government adopted a target of 10 000 GWh renewable energy consumption
(DME 2003b). Although this was not limited to electricity – it also includes solar water
heating and biofuels – the policy document explicitly states that this would be 4% of
expected electricity demand in 2013. A number of technologies could contribute to this
goal, including solar thermal electricity (both the parabolic trough and ‘power tower’
options), wind turbines (at three availability factors, 25%, 30% and 35%), small
hydroelectric facilities (Eskom and other), biomass co-generation (existing and new) and
landfill gas (four sizes). The share of renewable electricity was set at 3.5% (10 TWh out of
283 TWh projected for 2013).
To implement the policy case with various renewable energy technologies in the Markal
model, we set the sum of activities of all RETs equal to 36 PJ in 2013, interpolated linearly
from existing 8.5 PJ in the base year (hydroelectricity and bagasse) and extrapolated
beyond the target year.
Estimates of capacity developed for South Africa are shown in Table 8.25. Upper bounds
are placed on landfill gas and wind. Solar thermal electric technologies are not limited as
much by the available resource as by cost. Note that Table 8.25 includes the solar resource
(the largest theoretical potential, see also Table 8.24) only for water heating, not for
17
See Winkler (2005) for analysis of the merits of different policy approaches for renewable energy in South
Africa.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
electricity generation. In the present study, we included solar thermal technologies for
electricity generation to draw on the largest energy flow.
Table 8.25: Technically feasible potential for renewable energy, by technology
Source: DME (2004b)
Renewable energy technology
Potential GWh contribution
Percentage
110
0.1
5 848
6.9
598
0.7
Hydro
9 245
10.3
SWH: commercial
2 026
2.0
SWH: residential
4 914
6.0
Wind
64 102
74.0
Total
86 843
100
Biomass pulp and paper
Sugar bagasse
Landfill gas
The characteristics of the renewable options are summarised in Table 8.23. The data
served as input to the modelling and is broadly consistent with the second NIRP. For many
renewables, operations and maintenance (O&M) costs are only fixed ones, with no fuel
costs. Efficiencies are typically assumed to be 100%, but availability factors are important
in reflecting the intermittency of some resources. Note that the molten salt storage for the
solar power tower increases its availability relative to the parabolic trough (without any
storage).
The initial capital costs of renewable energy technologies are relatively high, but the costs
of the new electricity technologies can be expected to decline as cumulative production
increases (IEA & OECD 2000). Progress ratios are the changes in costs after the doubling
of cumulative capacity, as a percentage of the initial cost. In addition to the International
Energy Association’s (IEA) overall work, specific progress ratios for wind have been
published, around 87% (Junginger et al. 2004; Laitner 2002), and for solar thermal electric
– 89% for power towers and 83% for parabolic troughs (Laitner 2002; NREL 1999; World
Bank 1999). Information on global operation capacity and growth rates is available in the
World Energy Assessment (UNDP et al. 2000).
The approach taken in this study has been to use the estimates from the National
Integrated Resource Plan (NIRP) for the decline of wind and solar thermal costs. These
costs are used to reduce investment costs, and are extrapolated to 2025, the end of the
period.
Table 8.26: Declining investment costs for wind and solar thermal electricity
technologies
Source: (NER 2004a)
R / kW
Wind
Parabolic trough
Power tower
2003
7 811
22 750
24 500
2010
6 639
19 250
18 375
2020
5 702
12 250
9 625
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
139
8.6.3 The nuclear route – the pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR)
The South African government has repeatedly stated its intention to develop all energy
sources, including nuclear (Mlambo-Ngcuka 2002a, 2003, 2004).The country currently has
one nuclear light-water reactor at Koeberg (1840 MW), but Eskom is also developing the
pebble-bed modular reactor, which entails further development on an earlier German
design (Loxton 2004). The designers claim that it is ‘inherently safe’ since it uses helium as
the coolant and graphite as the moderator (PBMR Ltd 2002). Helium flows can be
controlled and the power station can be run to follow load. It can be produced in small
modular units of 165MW, thus overcoming the redundancy constraints associated with
large conventional nuclear stations. Due to its modular design, construction lead times are
expected to be shorter. The fuel consists of pellets of uranium surrounded by multiple
barriers and embedded in graphite balls (‘pebbles’).
The South African Cabinet has endorsed a 5- to 10-year plan to develop the skills base for
a revived nuclear industry (Mlambo-Ngcuka 2004). The intention is to develop the PBMR
for the export market and at the same time to prove the technology domestically. Exports
will have to compete with China which is developing a similar but more complex reactor
(AEJ 2005).
The PBMR does not appear in the National Integrated Resource Plan and therefore is not
included in the reference case. In modelling the PBMR nuclear technology, we have
assumed that waste management policy is completed and enforced. The policy case
modelled assumes that twenty-five 165 MW stations are built in South Africa, and
examines the implications for economic, social and environmental parameters. The
investment costs for the PBMR are based on total assumed production for domestic use
and export – over 32 modules produced in the period 2001-2025. It is assumed that cost
reduction through learning will have been realised at this point. Specifically, costs are
modelled to decline from R187 07 per installed kW in 2010 to R11 709 by 2021 (NER
2004a). These cost assumptions are illustrated in Figure 8.16.
Figure 8.16: Schematic description of assumed PBMR costs in reference and policy
scenarios
In the renewables case, learning is a function of global cumulative capacity, whereas for the
PBMR, cost reductions are essentially a function of local production. Production is
illustrated in Figure 8.17. The dotted line indicates the level of 32 units assumed to be built
in the PBMR scenario.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Figure 8.17: PBMR production for local use and exportImporting hydroelectricity
from the region
8.6.4 Importing hydroelectricity from the region
One of the major options for diversifying the fuel mix for electricity is to meet growing
demand by importing hydroelectricity from other countries in southern Africa. South Africa
already imports electricity from the Cahora Bassa dam in Mozambique. The scale of this
source is dwarfed by the potential at Inga Falls in the Democratic Republic of Congo
(DRC), which is estimated to range between 40 000 MW for run-of-river to 100 000 MW
for the entire Congo basin (Games 2002; Mokgatle & Pabot 2002). If the huge potential in
the DRC is to be tapped, the interconnections between the national grids within the SAPP
would need to be strengthened. A Western Corridor project plans to connect South Africa,
Namibia, Botswana, Angola, and the DRC with transmission lines. Several of the initiatives
under the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD) are electricity
interconnectors (NEPAD 2002).
The Mepanda Uncua site in Mozambique has a potential for 1 300 MW and an annual
mean generation of 11 TWh. It is located on the Zambezi River, downstream of Cahora
Bassa and could be connected to the SAPP grid through four 400kV AC lines to Cahora
Bassa and Maputo. An installed capacity of 1 300 MWe at a plant factor of 64% provides
7 288 GWh / year of firm energy (NER 2004a). We assumed the plant would come on line
in 2011, with a lead-time of 6.5 years. Upper bounds were placed on the increase of
imported hydroelectricity up to the generation from Mepanda Uncua and to limit existing
hydroelectricity imports.
Table 8.27: Estimated costs during construction, at 2001 prices
Source: NIRP (NER 2004a: Appendix 3)
Euro (€)
US$
Construction of dam and power plant
871 million
1 018 million
Construction of transmission lines
953 million
1 114 million
Environmental management
17 million
19.8 million
Note: costs do not include interest
The estimated total financing requirement of the project, including price contingencies and
interest during construction, is about €2.6 billion, half of which is for the power station and
half for the transmission lines (NER 2004a). Assuming an exchange rate of R8/euro, and
deflating to 2000 rands, this converts to R11.4 million for the 1300 MW station.
In terms of the institutional capacity required, the Southern African Power Pool has been
established to facilitate the trading of electricity, including a short-term energy market. The
prospect of increased interconnection and trade of electricity across borders requires
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
141
regulation. A Regional Electricity Regulators’ Association was formally approved by SADC
Energy Ministers in July 2002 (NER 2002b), which will have as one of its tasks the
establishing of fair tariffs and contracts.
We include in the analysis a scenario in which imported hydroelectricity is increased above
its level in the reference case. Importing hydroelectricity from elsewhere in southern Africa
is one of the major options for diversifying the fuel mix for generating electricity to meet the
growing demand. South Africa itself has only small hydro resources (0.8% of generation)
(NER 2002a), and already imports electricity from the Cahora Bassa dam in Mozambique
(5294 GWh in 2000) (NER 2000). We have assumed that imports from Cahora Bassa
continue and grow due to Mepanda Uncua.
In 2001 the average cost of electricity imports was 2.15c/kWh, well below the cost of South
African generation (NER 2001). It is not certain that such low prices will continue into the
future. The existing import costs are part of a long-term agreement with Mozambique for
electricity supply from Cahora Bassa. The future fixed operation costs are assumed to be
R234 million per year, with no variable cost (NER 2004a). Future prices could thus vary
between R6/GJ (the existing import cost) up to R99/GJ for Mepanda Uncua. At the cost of
avoided generation from a coal-fired plant, at 22.11c/ kWh (NER 2004a) or R61.5/GJ, no
hydroelectricity would be used by the model. The approach we have taken is to assume
that the weighted average of electricity imports from existing sources and Mepanda Uncua
add up to 59 PJ at R47/GJ.
8.6.5 Reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants
A first step to reduce emissions from coal-fired plants would be modifications to existing
pulverised fuel plants. Future plants are likely to be dry cooled (reducing specific water use)
and install flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) to remove SO2, even though local coal has a
low sulphur content of about 1% (SANEA 2003). Both have cost implications. Dry cooling
reduces efficiency by about one percentage point, and desulphurisation adds some 8.5% of
the capital cost of stations (NER 2004a). This study has assumed that baseline plants
include FGD and removal of particulates to World Bank standards. Existing stations do not
have FGD, but use either electrostatic precipitators or bag filters to remove particulates.
The major option investigated in this study is the future use of fluidised bed combustion
(FBC), a process in which coal is mixed with limestone and air is blown through it in a
moving bed of particles. The Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) base case envisages 466 MW
of FBC by 2013 (NER 2001/2, 2004b). Fluidised bed combustion has the advantage of
making use of discard coal, and reducing the increase of dumps.
In the medium- to long-term, advanced coal technologies such as super-critical coal and
integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) are possible. The baseline scenario of the
integrated resource plan does not include such stations (NER 2001/2, 2004b), although
some analysts indicate that IGCC plants are possible by 2025 (Howells 2000).
Emission standards can be set using target values or limit values. Target values are longterm goals intended to avoid harmful long-term effects on human health, and are pursued
through cost-effective progressive methods. For SO2 and NOx, only limit values have been
published so far, which are based on avoiding harmful effects (Standards SA 2004). The
SO2 emission standards for power stations will meet World Bank standards.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
8.7 Transport and liquid fuels
8.7.1 Liquid fuel supply
Apart from modest production at the Oribi and Onyx fields of the south coast, South Africa
imports all its crude oil, mainly from the Arabian Gulf. The total domestic supply in 2001
was 18 185 thousand metric tons. The imported crude oil is primarily landed at Durban,
Cape Town and Saldanha Bay. In Durban the crude oil is stored at the Natcos tank farm
owned by Sasol, and then piped to the refinery at Sasolburg. Another pipeline runs from
Saldanha Bay to Cape Town. Both Saldanha Bay and Cape Town have bulk storage
facilities.
Refined petroleum products come from two different sources: crude oil refineries and
synthetic fuel plants. A unique aspect of the liquid fuels industry in South Africa is the
significant contribution from synthetic fuels. Sasol and PetroSA, the synthetic fuel
producers, use the Fischer-Tropsch process to convert a mixture of carbon monoxide and
hydrogen into hydrocarbons and water. Sasol produces this syngas from coal at its
Secunda plants. These plants are situated on a major coalfield and consume 30 million
tons per annum.
PetroSA uses natural gas as feedstock in its gas-to-liquids plant at Mossel Bay. The gas and
condensate is piped from the offshore FA and EM fields, which are also owned and
operated by PetroSA. PetroSA produces 30 000 barrels of product a day from natural gas
and a further 15 000 from condensate.
There are four conventional refineries in South Africa, namely, Calref – the Caltex plant at
Milnerton in Cape Town, Enref owned by Engen, Shell- and BP-owned Sapref in Durban,
and Natref at Sasolburg owned by Sasol and Total. Table 8.28 shows the expansion of
capacity of all the South African refineries over the past decade.
Table 8.28: Capacities of South African refineries (barrels per day or crude equivalent)
Refinery
1992
1997
2001
Sapref
120 000
165 000
180 000
Enref
70 000
105 000
115 000
Calref
50 000
100 000
100 000
Natref
78 000
86 000
86 000
Sasol
150 000
150 000
150 000
PetroSA
45 000
45 000
45 000
Total
513 000
651 000
676 000
The products are transported from the refineries for bulk distribution by road, rail and
pipeline, primarily by the refinery companies themselves. An important part of the primary
distribution network is the Transnet subsidiary, Petronet, which owns and operates a highpressure steel pipeline distribution network in the eastern parts of the country. Petronet
transports a wide range of fuels including crude oil, petrol, diesel, jet fuel and methane rich
gas. However the pipeline network does not have sufficient capacity to handle the
increasing demand, and lack of capacity is becoming a major problem. Various expansion
options are being considered.
The marketers of liquid fuels in South Africa are BP, Caltex, Engen, Sasol, Shell and Total.
In general, they do not source solely from their own refineries. Thus, a litre of petrol bought
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
143
at a service station in Cape Town will most likely come from the Calref refinery at
Milnerton, regardless of the retailer. In this way, distribution costs are kept at a minimum.
8.7.2 Transport sector activity
The transport sector covers all tranport activity in mobile engines regardless of the sector to
which it is contributing (SIC divisions 71, 72 and 73), and is divided into sub-sectors as
given in Table 8.29.
Table 8.29: Transport sub-sectors by SIC code
SIC
Description
71
Land transport; transport via pipelines
711
•
Railway transport
712
•
Other land transport
713
•
Transport via pipelines
72
Water transport
721
•
Sea and coastal water transport
722
•
Inland water transport
730
Air transport
8.7.3 Transport energy use
Transport energy use in 2001 is shown in Table 8.30. Total energy consumption in this
sector was 613 PJ. Fifty-six percent of this was petrol, 30% was diesel, 10% was jet fuel,
and 3% was electricity. The remainder was aviation gasoline, LPG, fuel oil and coal.
Table 8.30: Energy use in the transport sector (PJ)
Source
Year
Electricity
Petrol
Diesel
Jet
fuel
Aviation
gasoline
Total
This study
2001
13
349
184
66
0.88
613
DME
2001
20
349
184
66
0.88
620
IEA
2000
19
328
154
64
0.82
566
IEA nonOECD stats
1999
16
-
-
-
-
-
Eskom
2001
13
-
-
-
-
-
NER
2001
22
-
-
-
-
-
Eight-six percent of the energy was used for road transport, while 11% was used for
aviation, which includes fuelling of international flights. Three percent was used by the
railroad sector, while small amounts were used for pipeline transport and internal
navigation.
The following end-use services were identified for the transport sector:
• passenger transport;
• car travel (vehicle-kms);
• bus travel (vehicle-kms);
• taxi travel (vehicle-kms);
• motorcycle travel (vehicle-kms);
• rail travel (passenger-kms);
144
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
freight transport;
light commercial truck transport (vehicle-kms);
medium commercial truck transport (vehicle-kms);
heavy commercial truck transport (vehicle-kms);
rail transport (ton-kms);
aviation;
jet aircraft travel (PJ);
propeller aircraft travel (PJ);
pipeline transport;
pipeline transport of liquids (tons);
pipeline transport of gas (tons).
8.7.4 Characteristics of energy demand technologies
A bottom-up analysis based on vehicle population, average annual mileage and fuel
efficiency was used to estimate the fuel use of different vehicle categories. The assumptions
are summarised in Table 8.31. Vehicle survival rates were based on scrapping curves
suggested by Verburgh (1999) and Stone and Bennett (2001), as shown in Figure 8.18.
Table 8.31: Vehicle population and characteristics
Vehicle
population
Average annual
mileage
(km/vehicle)
Total mileage
(Billion
vehicle-kms)
Fuel
efficiency
(l/100km)
3 874 335
14 575
56.47
8.2
186.34
Diesel cars
39 135
15 000
0.59
7.8
1.76
Motorcycles
158 606
10 000
1.59
5.2
3.17
Petrol taxis
248 837
30 000
7.46511
13.3
37.33
Diesel taxis
0
30 000
0
11.9
0.00
Vehicle type
Petrol cars
Total fuel
use
(PJ)
Buses
25 943
39 495
1.0246
18.3
7.16
Light commercial
diesel vehicles
377 964
30 000
11.34
11.3
48.99
Light commercial
petrol vehicles
959 504
25 000
23.99
13.3
122.16
Medium commercial diesel vehicles
170 899
39 495
6.75
18.3
47.20
Heavy commercial
diesel vehicles
71 313
79 163
5.65
33.1
71.64
Total
525.75
Figure 8.18: Vehicle scrapping curves
IDENTIFYING AND MODELLING POLICY OPTIONS
145
8.7.5 Demand projections
We assumed that population growth is the major driver of passenger transport demand.
Demand was also adjusted to reflect an increase in private vehicle ownership as GDP per
capita grows. Table 8.32 illustrates the assumed values for transport activity intensities.
Table 8.32: Per capita passenger transport intensities by mode
Buses [vehicle-km/capita]
Private cars [vehicle-km/capita]
Taxis [vehicle-km/capita]
2001
2025
22.9
22.9
1 273.0
1 476.7
166.6
166.6
Motorcycles [vehicle-km/capita]
35.4
35.4
Rail [passenger-km/capita]
581.4
581.4
It was assumed that freight transport demand would grow in relation to value added in the
transport sector. Simple linear regression for the years 1993 to 2004 showed a very good
correlation (R2 = 0.99) with the overall GDP. The relationship obtained from the
regression was therefore used to forecast value added in transport, based on the predicted
GDP growth rate. The resulting time series data is shown in Table 8.33.
Table 8.33: Forecast of value added in the transport sector
Transport GVA
2001
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
85 646
110 123
140 419
175 201
215 133
260 977
Past trends (measured in vehicle-kilometres travelled per unit of value added) were
extrapolated to forecast the demand intensity for actual physical transport. These forecasts
are shown in Table 8.34 and generally show declining intensities, i.e. fewer vehiclekilometres per rand.
Table 8.34: Freight transport intensities
2001
2025
Light commercial trucks (vehicle-kms/kR)
412.5
346.5
Medium commercial trucks (vehicle-kms/kR)
78.8
66.2
Heavy commercial trucks (vehicle-kms/kR)
65.9
55.4
Rail (ton-kms/kR)
1.2
1.2
Pipeline transport was assumed to be related to current and expected future pipeline
capacity and utilization factors, rather than to any population or economic driver. Aviation
demand was assumed to grow in relation to value added in the transport sector. The
assumed intensity changes were based on current trends and are given in Table 8.35.
Table 8.35: Aviation transport intensities
2001
2025
Jet aircrafts (GJ/mR)
770
524
AvGas aircrafts (GJ/mR)
10.3
4.3
146
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
8.7.6 Liquid fuel policies
Plans for the expansion of an existing refinery are part of the reference case and no further
expansion is envisaged. The policy alternative would be the importation of petroleum
products. Initiatives to refine bio-fuels are also examined, although these are expected to
make up a relatively small share of the market within the study period. Bio-diesel and ecodiesel pay only 70% of the General Fuel Levy on mineral fuels. In 2001, the General Fuel
Levy amounted to 98 cents per litre on petrol, 94.8 cents per litre on unleaded petrol, 81
cents per litre on diesel and 56.7 cents per litre on biofuels. Hence the exemption amounts
to a tax break of 29.4c / litre of leaded petrol.
8.8 Energy-related environmental taxation
The use of economic instruments for environmental fiscal reform is being considered by the
National Treasury (National Treasury, 2006). We analysed the option of a fuel input tax on
coal used for electricity generation.
The indications are that if the full (mid-range) carbon costs were to be internalised, a tax of
approximately R60-R80 per ton of coal combusted might be necessary (Blignaut, 2004).
For a fuel input tax, the ‘taxable event’ would be the combustion of fossil fuels used for
power generation. The tax would follow the established system of VAT payments and
would be collected by South African Revenue Services. The revenue raised could be used
for a variety of different purposes, including an allocation to municipalities to compensate
for the lost revenue base resulting from restructuring; for projects to improve household
energy efficiency; and/or for new projects promoting the development of renewable energy
technologies. Such a tax could be implemented in a revenue-neutral manner, with the
proceeds being recycled, either into subsidies for renewable energy, or for the general relief
of poor communities, e.g. zero-rating of VAT on additional basic foodstuff items.
While R70 is close to the 2005 price of coal (approx R75/ton), the fuel costs overall are a
relatively small part of the total cost of energy. We modelled the implications of a fossil fuel
input tax at R40 and at R70 per ton of coal, examining the implications of such a major
intervention by the national Treasury, were it to be adopted within the forthcoming
framework (National Treasury 2006). Any tax – whether input or output-based – would
have to be assessed against this framework. Such taxation policies could be extended to
coal for synthetic fuel production and industrial use. Alternatively, environmental outputs
could be taxed directly, e.g. in a pollution tax.
9
Modelling framework and drivers
Mark Howells, Thomas Alfstad and Harald Winkler
9.1 Model description
F
or this study we have used the Markal (acronym for market allocation) energy model
(See www.etsap.org for documentation, and Loulou et al. (2004)). Markal is a
mathematical model of the energy system that provides a technology-rich basis for
estimating energy dynamics over a multi-period horizon. The objective function of Markal
is to minimise the cost of the system being modelled (Loulou et al. 2004).
The data entered into the modelling framework includes detailed sector-by-sector demand
projections and supply-side options. Reference case estimates of end-use energy service
demands (e.g. car, commercial truck, and heavy truck road travel; residential lighting; and
steam heat requirements in the paper industry) are developed by the user on the basis of
economic and demographic projections. The user also provides estimates of the existing
stock of energy related equipment and the characteristics of available future technologies,
as well as new sources of primary energy supply and their potentials (Loulou et al. 2004).
Markal then computes energy balances at all levels of an energy system: primary resources,
secondary fuels, final energy, and energy services, aiming to supply energy services at
minimum global cost. The model simultaneously makes equipment investment and
operating decisions and primary energy supply decisions in order to achieve minimum
cost. For example, if there is an increase in demand for residential lighting energy services
(perhaps due to a decline in the cost of residential lighting), then the model will tell the user
that either existing generation equipment must be used more intensively or new equipment
must be installed. The choice of generation equipment (type and fuel) will incorporate an
analysis of both the characteristics of alternative generation technologies and the
economics of primary energy supply. Supply-side technologies, e.g. power plants, require
lead times. Markal is thus a vertically integrated model of the entire energy system.
Markal computes an inter-temporal partial equilibrium on energy markets, which means
that the quantities and prices of the various fuels and other commodities will be in
equilibrium. Their prices and quantities within each time period are such that at those
prices the suppliers will produce at least the quantities demanded by the consumers.
Further, this equilibrium will be such that the total consumer and producer surplus is
maximized over the whole horizon. Investments made in any given period are optimal over
the horizon as a whole.
In Standard Markal, several options are available to model specific characteristics of an
energy system, such as the internalization of certain external costs, endogenous
technological learning, the fact that certain investments are by nature ‘lumpy’,18 and the
18
‘Lumpy’ in the sense that the units of investment are large. For large power station investment, for
example, this means that the time-series of investments is not a smooth line produced by lots of little
investments, but shows discrete ‘lumps’ for each power station.
147
148
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
representation of uncertainty in some parameters. Markal is capable of including multiple
regions, but in this study, South Africa is represented as a single region.
9.2 General assumptions and drivers of future trends
9.2.1 Economic growth
In the absence of interventions that ‘de-couple’ energy demand from economic growth,
projections of GDP are an important driver. Economic growth over the next 25 years is in
fact difficult to predict, although most government projections assume a smooth growth
rate into the future. Annual GDP growth was assumed to be 2.8% per year in the first
Integrated Energy Plan (DME 2003a), while the Integrated Resource Plan considers
forecasts of 1.5% and 4% (NER 2001/2). A sensitivity analysis around a central GDP growth
figure of 2.8% seemed to us a reasonable approach.
9.2.2 Population projections and impact of Aids
We have assumed that the pattern of household and population growth in the past will
continue. However we have to assume lower growth rates due to the impact of Aids. While
this is strongly debated, some highly respected studies show a substantial levelling off in
population during our study period 2000-2030. Studies by Professor Dorrington of the
University of Cape Town Commerce Faculty for the Actuarial Society of South Africa are
well respected academically (ASSA 2002).
Figure 9.1: Population projections by ASSA model
Data source: ASSA (2002)
The DBSA also projects trends in population, differentiating between low and high impacts
of HIV/Aids (Calitz 2000a, 2000b).The first Integrated Energy Plan included projections of
population growth (ERI 2001), which are shown together with other estimates in Table 9.1.
Not all projections covered the whole 2000-2030 study period.
MODELLING FRAMEWORK AND DRIVERS
149
Table 9.1: Population projections from various sources (in millions)
DBSA low
Aids
impact
DBSA high
Aids
impact
2001
2006
ASSA 2002
(base run)
IEP
assumptions
UN world
population
projection
This study
45
44
43
44.8*
46
2011
56
49
48
2016
61
50
48
2025
70
49
50
2030
50
46.4
50
57
47.6
45
48.5
44
49.7
50.0
* The 2001 Census reported 44 819 778 people in South Africa (SSA 2003a) and we use this number instead of
ASSA’s projection.
The Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA) projections seemed to us the most
reasonable, indicating a growth of 12% over the period, with annual growth rates between
0.1% and 1.0%.
An important difference between this study and others relates to population projections in
the reference case. The population projections used in the Integrated Energy Plan (IEP)
were for 50 million in 2011 (here: 47.6 million) and 57 million in 2025 (49.7 million).
While the IEP projections are lower than previous estimates, they are still higher than those
of demographic experts. Another source of difference relates to confidential data which was
used for previous studies and was not available for this study.
9.2.3 Technological change
Technology costs change over time. This is particularly true for new technologies, which
benefit from learning-by-doing and economies of scale. The first prototype of a new
technology is typically much more expensive than later models, which are likely to be
produced in smarter, more cost-effective ways and in larger production runs. Learning by
experience reduces costs (Arrow 1962) and this general finding has been found to be true
for energy technologies as well (IEA & OECD 2000).These can be assessed by learning
ratios, measuring the reduction of cost per installed capacity for each doubling of
cumulative capacity.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) has published estimates of learning or ‘experience
curves’, which show the decline in costs (measured in c/kWh) as cumulative electricity
production doubles. It is clear that newer technologies, be they renewable or otherwise,
have higher progress ratios than mature technologies, which integrated most of their cost
savings decades or centuries earlier. According to the IEA, photovoltaics declined by 35%
in price for doublings of cumulative capacity between 1985 and 1996, wind by 18%,
electricity from biomass by 15%; while supercritical coal declined by only 3% and natural
gas combined cycles by 4% (IEA & OECD 2000).
150
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Figure 9.2: Learning curves for new and mature energy technologies
Source: IEA & OECD (2000)
In this study we assumed that technology costs for new energy technologies change over
the period. We only examined technology learning for supply-side technologies in the
modelling scenarios. Such analysis had to be conducted carefully, taking into account
several factors:
• The cost reduction is a function of global cumulative production, especially where
significant components are imported.
• A more detailed approach should consider the local content, and the component where
the learning effect is likely less pronounced.
• The applicability of international learning rates to South Africa remains to be examined.
9.2.4 Future fuel prices
Fuel prices used for the study were taken from a variety of domestic and international
sources, shown in Table 9.2. Generally preference was given to national statistical sources,
except in the case of projections for internationally traded commodities such as oil.
Table 9.2: Fuel prices by fuel and for selected years
Price for fuel
2001
2013
2025
Source
Real crude oil price local
production (R/GJ)
24.8
18.0
21.4
IEA (2004)
Real crude oil price imports
(R/GJ)
27.6
20.0
23.8
“
Petrol price
IBLC (R/GJ).
50.3
51.4
60.9
DME (2001)
Diesel price
IBLC (R/GJ).
44.9
45.9
54.4
“
Paraffin price
Bulk (R/GJ)
58.0
59.3
70.3
“
Drum (R/GJ)
80.5
82.3
97.6
“
HFO price
Bulk (R/GJ)
35.7
36.4
43.2
“
LPG price
Bulk (R/GJ).
112.1
114.6
135.8
“
Drum (R/GJ).
124.4
127.2
150.8
“
Electricity generation (R/GJ).
3.02
3.02
3.02
Prevost in
DME (2002b)
Crude oil price
Coal price
Units
MODELLING FRAMEWORK AND DRIVERS
Price for fuel
Biomass price
Natural gas
price
Electricity price
Electricity price
inc. distribution
costs
Uranium price
Units
151
2001
2013
2025
Source
Sasol (R/GJ)
2.54
2.54
2.54
“
Domestic/commercial (R/GJ)
3.45
3.45
3.45
“
Industry (R/GJ)
3.18
3.18
3.18
“
Wood (c/l)
30.0
30.0
30.0
See note
below in
9.2.4.1
Bagasse (R/GJ)
0.0
0.0
0.0
LNG (R/GJ)
21.5
21.5
21.5
NER (2004a)
PetroSA (R/GJ)
20.0
20.0
20.0
DME (2003a)
Sasol pipeline (R/GJ)
22.1
22.1
22.1
Sasol (2004a)
Import (R/GJ)
5.5
Endogenous
Endogenous
NER (2001)
Export (R/GJ)
16.3
“
“
“
Agriculture (R/GJ)
41.4
“
“
NER (2001)
Commercial (R/GJ)
41.0
“
“
“
General (R/GJ)
57.4
“
“
“
Manufacturing (R/GJ)
10.5
“
“
“
Mining (R/GJ)
9.8
“
“
“
Residential (R/GJ)
44.6
“
“
“
Transport (R/GJ)
21.8
“
“
“
Import (R/GJ).
3.2
3.2
3.2
NER (2004a)
The cost of fuels used in the residential sector stands out as particularly high. If considered
per unit of useful energy service, i.e. taking into account household appliance efficiency,
the cost would be even higher.
9.2.4.1 Note on biomass costs
Biomass/fuelwood prices are in most cases low or even negative. For paper and sugar
mills, biomass is a waste product. In the residential sector, most households report zero
purchase costs, i.e. not counting time budgets and opportunity costs. In the Eastern Cape
province, low household energy expenditure was attributed to the fact that ‘fuel needs are
met almost exclusively by collected – not bought – fuelwood’ (ERC 2004b). Similar
findings were made in Limpopo, another province with a predominantly rural poor
population, where 95% of households do not pay for fuelwood (Mapako et al. 2004).This
is true for urban areas such as Khayelitsha in the Western Cape as well: ‘In the survey, the
reported expenditures on fuelwood/biomass were zero’ (Cowan & Mohlakoana 2005).
However, in some dense rural settlements, biomass has become a scarce resource which
has to be bought. The only national average estimate available of the cost of biomass is
R28.24/GJ (De Villiers & Matibe 2000).
To derive a value more transparently, we used an estimate of 50c per kg of wood (Cowan
2005), while acknowledging that the cost of biomass varies widely and should be treated in
a locally specific way. R0.50/kg wood, with 1 ton of wood yielding 15 GJ, gives R33.33 /
GJ. This figure is of the same order of magnitude as the national average used by De
Villers & Matibe (2000), which we have taken as an approximation for commercially used
152
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
biomass. We apply this value for urban households. A much lower value (one-tenth) was
used for rural households, i.e. R3/GJ.
9.2.5 Discounting costs
The general discount rate used in this study was 10%. However, we assumed that poor
households had a higher discount rate than high-income households, with a timepreference for money of 30%. In other words, poor households strongly prefer money now
to money later. The implication is that they will be less likely than others to invest in
technologies that will lead to energy savings in the future, even though these would reduce
monthly energy bills.
Costs are reported in rands for the year 2000; where there was a need to adjust cost data
from other years, a deflator based on gross value added was used.
Table 9.3: Cost deflators based on gross value added
Source: (SARB 2005; SSA 2004)
1994
62.5
1995
69.0
1996
74.8
1997
80.8
1998
86.4
1999
92.1
2000
100.0
2001
107.7
2002
118.6
2003
123.5
2004
128.8
9.2.6 Emission factors
Emission factors are needed to convert energy consumption (in energy units, PJ or GJ) to
emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) default emission
factors (in tC / TJ, or t CO2 / TJ) were used for emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, CO,
NMVOC and SO2 (IPCC 1996: Tables 1-2, 1-7, 1-8, 1-9, 1-10, 1-11 and 1-12
respectively). Following IPCC methodology, local emission factors or adjustments to
defaults based on local conditions were made.
For carbon dioxide from other bituminous coal, 26.25 tC/TJ was used instead of the IPCC
default of 25.8 tC/TJ. This adjustment is based on direct measurements at a South African
coal-fired power station (Lloyd & Trikam 2004). The higher emissions are consistent with
the lower calorific value of South African sub-bituminous coal at 19.59MJ/kg, whereas the
IPCC default value is for 25.09 MJ/kg coal. Further measurements at more stations in
future may lead to a submission of a South Africa-specific emission factor to the IPCC. The
above list already includes important local air pollutants (SO2, NOx, and NMVOC), but not
particulate matter.
10
Results of scenario modelling
Thomas Alfstad, Harald Winkler and Mark Howells
10.1 Reference case
T
he reference case presents a path of South Africa’s energy development that can also
be called ‘current development trends’ or a base case. The reference case for this
analysis was similar to that of government plans – for energy, the first Integrated
Energy Plan (IEP) (DME 2003a) and for electricity, the second National Integrated
Resource Plan (NIRP) (NER 2004a). The timeframe for the base and policy cases is from
the base year of 2001 until 2025. However, the modelling approach extended the model
run to 2030 to avoid sudden changes in the end year. Costs are reported in rands at the
year 2000 value. The energy balance for the reference case is shown for 2001 in Table
10.1, with a projected future energy balance in the Appendix (see the second part of Table
10.1).
Table 10.1: Energy balance for the base case, start and end year
2001 (PJ)
Production
Coal
Discard
Crude Avoil
Gas
Diesel
LPG Petr Jetol fuel
Paraf HFO Gas Bio- Renew Nuc-fin
mass -ables lear
Elect- Total
ricity
4900
692
56
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
98
76
7
0
0
Import
0
0
763
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
138
33
935
Export
-1716
0
0
-7
-117
0
-60
0
-3
-90
0
0
0
0
-24
-2018
0
692
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
692
3184
0
819
-7
-117
1
-60
0
-3
-90
98
76
7
138
9
4055
Electricity
generation
-1734
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-3
-7
-138
694
-1189
Oil refining
0
0
-1119
8
376
16
413
76
28
108
0
0
0
0
0
-94
Coal liquefaction
-859
0
300
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-558
Transmission losses
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-60
-60
Total transformation
-2592
0
-819
8
376
16
413
76
28
108
0
-3
-7
-138
633
-1902
Final energy demand
592
0
0
1
259
17
353
76
24
18
42
101
0
0
633
2116
Statistical
difference
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
56
-27
0
0
9
37
Agriculture
2
0
0
0
43
0
3
0
2
2
0
0
0
0
22
73
Commerce
20
0
0
0
0
13
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
64
98
Industry
562
0
0
0
32
0
1
0
1
17
41
72
0
0
414
1139
8
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
21
0
0
29
0
0
121
183
Stock
changes
TPES
5830
Transformation
Residential
153
154
Transport
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
0
0
0
1
185
0
349
76
0
0
0
0
0
0
13
624
Coal
Discard
8563
1393
56
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
96
7
0
0
1011
5
Import
0
0
1283
0
0
19
0
22
0
0
0
0
0
138
33
1495
Export
-3408
0
0
-11
-59
0
-38
0
-1
-175
0
0
0
0
-24
-3716
0
1232
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1232
5155
161
1339
-11
-59
19
-38
22
-1
-175
0
96
7
138
9
6663
Electricity
generation
-3063
-161
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-57
-3
-7
-138
1266
-2163
Oil refining
0
0
-1639
12
539
15
536
114
34
193
0
0
0
0
0
-196
Coal liquefaction
-859
0
300
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-558
Transmission losses
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-139
-139
Total transformation
-3921
-161
-1339
12
539
15
536
114
34
193
-57
-3
-7
-138
1127
-3056
Final energy demand
1234
0
0
1
480
33
498
137
33
19
92
141
0
0
1127
3795
Statistical
difference
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
149
-48
0
0
9
-187
Agriculture
2
0
0
0
47
0
4
0
3
2
0
0
0
0
39
96
2025 (PJ)
Production
Stock
changes
TPES
Crude Avoil
Gas
Diesel
LPG Petr Jetol fuel
Paraf HFO Gas Bio- Renew Nuc-fin
mass -ables lear
Elect- Total
ricity
Transformation
Commerce
45
0
0
0
0
29
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
127
204
1187
0
0
0
43
0
1
0
1
17
89
131
0
0
798
2267
Residential
1
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
29
0
0
10
0
0
151
194
Transport
0
0
0
1
389
0
494
137
0
0
0
0
0
0
13
1034
Industry
Final energy demand, which includes the fuel consumption for industry, transport,
commercial, residential, non-energy and agricultural sectors, is shown in Figure 10.1. Fuel
consumption in industry and transport clearly dominates, other sectors contributing smaller
shares. As can be seen from the shape of the transport fuel consumption, demand in this
sector grows over the period. The data underlying this figure is reported in the Appendix.
Figure 10.1: Fuel consumption by major energy demand sector
RESULTS OF SCENARIO MODELLING
155
The expansion of electricity generation capacity is shown in Figure 10.2: , grouped by plant
type. The underlying projections are reflected in Table A5 in the Appendix.
The reference case is broadly consistent with the National Integrated Resource Plan (NIRP),
since it was drawn up in collaboration with Eskom, the NER and the ERC’s modelling
group (NER 2004b). Small differences between the reference case presented here and that
of the NIRP relate to the treatment of the reserve margin and the exact timing of new
investment.
Table 8.23 summarises the key characteristics of the technologies for electricity generation.
Demand in our reference case is after demand-side management, and we include
interruptible supply.
Existing coal continues to supply most of the capacity in the reference case. Mothballed
coal stations are brought back into service, and new pulverised fuel stations are built. The
major sources of new capacity in the reference case are gas (open cycle and combined
cycle) and new fluidised bed combustion, using discard coal. Smaller contributions come
from existing hydroelectric and bagasse, electricity imports, existing and new pumped
storage and interruptible supply.
Note: Unlabelled plant types in the figure are: new pumped storage, new CGGt, Imported electricity,
pumped storage, interruptible supply, hydro, diesel gas turbines, and bagasse.
Figure 10.2: Electricity generation capacity by plant type
The reference case shows that existing power stations will continue to provide a substantial
part of capacity up to 2025. Investment in new capacity is directed towards the recommissioning (‘de-mothballing’) of three coal-fired power stations, building new
pulverised coal stations, open cycle gas turbines (diesel-fuelled) as well as combined cycle
156
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
gas, and some new pumped storage. The total capital investment in each year is shown in
Table 10.2.
Table 10.2: Capital investment in electricity generation capacity (R millions)
Mothballed
coal
New coal
New OCGT
diesel
New
CCGT
New FBC
New pumped
storage
2001
-
-
-
-
-
-
2002
-
-
-
-
-
-
2003
-
-
-
-
-
-
2004
-
-
-
-
-
-
2005
308
-
-
-
-
-
2006
308
-
548
-
-
-
2007
784
-
1 162
-
-
-
2008
2 088
-
2 308
-
-
-
2009
2 000
-
2 308
-
-
-
2010
-
-
946
2 669
-
-
2011
-
-
-
6 267
-
-
2012
-
-
-
-
-
4 178
2013
-
-
-
-
7 479
-
2014
-
-
-
-
5 763
-
2015
-
868
-
-
8 910
-
2016
-
9 254
-
-
-
-
2017
-
8 315
-
-
-
-
2018
-
7 293
-
-
-
-
2019
-
8 201
-
-
-
-
2020
-
9 026
-
-
-
-
2021
-
19 502
-
-
-
-
2022
-
30 705
-
-
-
-
2023
-
10 001
-
-
-
-
2024
-
10 110
-
-
-
-
2025
-
10 931
-
-
-
-
Figure 10.3 shows the capacity of refineries in South Africa, as well as the imports of
finished petroleum products. Most of the capacity is provided by existing refineries,
including Secunda and PetroSA. There is some expansion of refineries (‘new crude oil
refineries’). Imports of finished products account for a small part of overall capacity.
Figure 10.4 shows the total CO2 emissions for the reference case, while Figure 10.5 shows
local air pollutants, specifically SO2, NOx and NMVOCs.
Emissions of both local and g4lobal air pollutants increase steadily over the period in the
reference case. Carbon dioxide emissions increase from 337 Mt CO2 in 200119 to 591 Mt
CO2 in 2025 – an increase of 75% over the entire period.
19
The base year number is fairly close to the CO2 emissions reported in the Climate Analysis Indicator Tool
(WRI 2005) for 2000, namely 344.6 Mt CO2. It is somewhat higher than the 309 Mt CO2 from fuel
combustion reported in the Key World Energy Statistics for 2001 (IEA 2003a).
RESULTS OF SCENARIO MODELLING
Figure 10.3: Refinery capacity in the base case
Figure 10.4: CO2 emissions in the reference case (Mt CO2)
Figure 10.5: Local air pollutants in the reference case
157
158
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Figure 10.6: Reference energy system
Figure 10.7: Detailed view of reference energy system for pulp and paper and
residential demand sectors
Figure 10.6 shows a high-level overview of the reference energy system and the flows from
the primary energy supply through transformation to energy demand in different sectors.
The actual database is significantly more disaggregated. To give some impression of the
RESULTS OF SCENARIO MODELLING
159
detail, Figure 10.7 shows a simplified reference energy system for a pulp and paper mill
and part of the residential sector.
Having outlined the structure of the model and the reference case, we can now turn to
examining alternative possible futures. None of these policy cases are predictions of the
future, nor is any one more likely than another. The rationale for each policy case is
described. Note that policy cases do not require the same level of effort, e.g. electricity
supply options are designed according to available resources and technologies, not to all
add the same capacity or generate the same amount of electricity. The cases seek to
understand the implications if particular options are promoted – economically, socially and
environmentally.
10.2 Industrial energy efficiency scenario
The industrial energy efficiency scenario is effective both in lowering the cost of the energy
system and reducing emissions from both coal-fired power stations and industrial facilities.
Emissions from power stations are reduced as a result of decreased electricity consumption.
The cost of the energy system, relative to the base case, is reduced by R18 billion. Over the
entire period, CO2 emissions are reduced by 770 Mt CO2.
The scenario was modelled by expanding the potential penetration of a range of energy
efficiency technologies to achieve a target of 12% savings by 2014 over the base case.
Interestingly, different energy efficiency technology options are taken up by the industrial
sector as the marginal cost of generating electricity increases. Thus energy efficiency
technologies that are economic in the middle of the scenario period (when new base-load
power stations are required) are not economic at the beginning of the period (characterized
by low electricity costs). The trend is summarised in Figure 10.8.
Figure 10.8: Electrical energy saved by energy efficiency technology
Most of the energy saved is coal and electricity, these two being the most important fuels
for industry, as shown in Figure 10.9. The savings were limited to 12%. Potentially more
saving would be possible in an economic and cost-effective manner.
160
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Figure 10.9: Energy saved by carrier in the industrial sector
If the targets for this scenario were achieved through a focussed and aggressive policy, it
would have great implications for power generation in South Africa. It would postpone the
need for new base load power stations by four years, and the need for peaking power plant
by three years. In other words, energy efficiency could play an important role in managing
electricity supply needs, especially if one considers the likely lead-time constraints with
building new power plant (including environmental impact assessments and other
preparation work) and possible short-term peak supply shortages. The overall changes in
generation requirement are significant, as shown in Figure 10.10.
Figure 10.10: Changes in capacity requirements
It is important to note that the uptake of energy efficiency to these levels cannot be
achieved without significant policy intervention. Electricity in South Africa is not priced at
its marginal cost of production, but rather at its average cost of production – and in a
situation where new power plants need to be constructed, the average cost of production is
significantly less than the marginal cost of production. This means that someone (a
consumer) saving a unit of energy is not rewarded to the same level as someone producing
a unit of electricity.20
If the electricity price were to equal the marginal cost of production, the uptake of energy
efficient practice would be encouraged. However pricing electricity at its marginal cost of
production would result in undesirable effects. South Africa’s industry has historically relied
on low-cost electricity. Poor households cannot afford existing tariffs, making it unwise to
20
If producers were to build a new power station, they would be guaranteed a return on their investment.
They would be paid their (long run) marginal cost of production and the average tariff would be increased
to accommodate this. However if consumers were to save a unit of energy, they would only be rewarded
through a reduced bill based on this average tariff.
RESULTS OF SCENARIO MODELLING
161
increase electricity prices. More targeted ‘economic signals’ will have to be used to
encourage the uptake of energy efficiency options by consumers.
A further conclusion that can be drawn from the model results is that ideally there should
be a significant uptake of energy efficiency options during the medium term to allow time
for appropriate policy implementation. However, depending on the effectiveness of the
measures chosen, energy efficient practices might penetrate the market at a less than
optimal level. Further modelling should attempt to accurately match the penetration rates
to be appropriate to the policy action taken.
Future modelling might also investigate a different industrial policy, which emphasises
higher energy-efficiency (and lower energy- and emissions-intensity) as a competitive
advantage, as opposed to the present focus on low electricity prices.
Finally, even though saving energy is ‘under-encouraged’ by the use of average rather than
marginal pricing, there are energy efficiency measures which have a low payback period
and which should be encouraged. These were reported earlier (see section 8.1.12) and
include improved compressed air management and thermal measures such as boiler
optimisation and steam saving.
10.3 Commercial efficiency and fuel switching scenario
The measures described in section 8.2 are combined in this scenario. A target of a 12%
reduction in final energy demand by 2014 for the sector was imposed in the modelling, in
accordance with the Department of Minerals and Energy’s energy efficiency targets (DME
2005a). The results indicate that the target is achievable and would lead to a substantial
saving of R13 billion over the time period.
It is important to note that the costs here are based only on engineering estimates of the
various measures. Several cost categories are not included in the analysis – information
campaigns, costs of formulation, implementation and enforcement of building codes, costs
of lost business hours due to heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) or similar retrofits
and other downtimes and inconveniences. The actual costs would therefore be most
certainly higher than what is reported here, but not high enough to obviate the additional
gains. International experience suggests that such costs might be in the order of 5% of the
investment costs (Spalding-Fecher et al. 2003).
Figure 10.11: Reduction in final energy demand for the commercial sector
The reduction in energy use compared to the base case is given in Figure 10.11.
Improvement rates are highest in the period leading up to the target year of 2014. After
162
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
that, in the absence of more stringent targets, progress predictably slows down. The rate of
improvement picks up again towards the end of the time horizon. This can be explained by
the fact that the costs of optimal energy efficiency improvements are 2%-3% lower than the
12% target. To reach the target, one thus has to invest in more energy efficiency
equipment and measures than those required purely for economic efficiency.
The main savings accrue due to improvements in HVAC systems and the thermal design of
buildings. Implementation of building codes and retrofits occur at the maximum allowed by
the specified rates. Cooling demand is effectively halved by 2025 compared to the base
case. Efficient lighting practices and more efficient lamps also account for some of the
savings, with savings of approximately 30% for this end use. As in the case of HVAC
systems, efficient design of lighting systems is implemented at a rapid rate. We also see a
switch to more efficient fluorescent and high intensity discharge lamps. The change in final
energy use by end-use is given in Figure 10.12. There is also significant fuel switching to
natural gas for heating purposes.
Figure 10.12: Commercial energy demand by end-use
Figure 10.13: Fuel shares for the commercial sector
RESULTS OF SCENARIO MODELLING
163
Fuel shares for final energy demand in the commercial sector are given in Figure 10.13.
The relative reduction in electricity demand is largely due to efficiency improvements in the
use of electric demand devices rather than fuel switching away from electricity. We also see
a significant switch to natural gas, mainly at the expense of liquid fuels used for heating.
10.4 Cleaner and more efficient residential energy scenario
The residential policy case implements the policies described in section 8.3 – solar water
heaters (SWHs) and geyser blankets, LPG for cooking, efficient housing shells, and
compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) for lighting. The bounds on these technologies are freed
up to the levels shown in Table 10.3, allowing the model to choose the most cost-effective
options in a wider range.
Table 10.3: Upper and lower bounds for CFLs, SWH / geyser blankets and LPG in the
policy case
UHE
ULE
RHE
RLE
Up
50%
40%
50%
40%
Lo
10%
10%
10%
10%
SWH
Up
50%
30%
30%
20%
Lo
20%
20%
20%
20%
Geyser
Up
20%
30%
20%
30%
Blanket
Lo
10%
10%
10%
10%
LPG
Up
50%
60%
40%
50%
40.0%
30%
Lo
20%
20%
21%
33%
20.0%
6%
CFLs
ULN
RLN
Note: Estimates of bounds are based on the following sources: for water heating by SWH (De Villiers & Matibe 2000;
DME 2003b, 2004b); for cooking and space heating (Cowan & Mohlakoana 2005; Davis & Ward 1995; Howells et al.
2005); and for lighting by CFLs on data from the Efficient Lighting Initiative (Bredenkamp 2005; ELI 2005).
For efficient housing, a bound is placed on the number of houses that would be efficient,
no more than half of all houses by the end of the period, but allowed to increase from the
current 0.5%. The costs of SWHs are assumed to decrease from R6 500 in the base year to
R5 000 by 2010, based on the data reviewed in section 8.3.5. These cost assumptions are
converted to R/GJ in Markal and interpolated linearly.
Figure 10.14: Total residential fuel consumption, comparing policy and base cases
164
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
The results of the policy case show a reduction in total fuel consumption. Figure 10.14
shows the lower fuel consumption compared to the base case, due to efficiency
improvements requiring less energy to deliver the same service. Note that the y-axis of the
graph is not at zero. The difference by 2025 amounts to 8.13 PJ.
The reduction in Figure 10.14 is due to greater energy efficiency, but also to some increase
in the use of solar energy for water heating. The increase can be seen in the lowest two
lines of Figure 10.15, indicating that more solar energy is used in the policy case. Electricity
as well as solid and liquid fuels, by contrast, are all lower in the policy case than the base
case.
Figure 10.15: Changes in use of electricity, solid fuel, liquid fuel and
renewable energy
Some of the shifts caused by the policies for cleaner and more efficient residential energy
use are shown in the following figures. Figure 10.16 shows that compact fluorescent lights
increase their share for richer rural electrified households significantly beyond the base
case. CFLs displace mainly incandescent lights (with paraffin lighting having a very small
share). CFLs are also taken up by other electrified household types (not shown here).
Energy savings through the more efficient design of houses are taken up only by urban
higher-income electrified (UHE) households. However, the energy savings for this group
are substantially higher than in the base case, as illustrated in Figure 10.17.
RESULTS OF SCENARIO MODELLING
Figure 10.16: Shifts in lighting for RHE households from base to policy case
Figure 10.17: Energy savings through efficient houses for UHE households
165
166
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Two policy interventions in water heating – solar water heaters and geyser blankets – offer
an interesting comparison. Table 10.4 shows a much lower total investment for geyser
blankets, and less energy saved in aggregate across all household types. However, the
energy savings are large in relative terms, and the cost per unit of energy saved is
significantly lower for geyser blankets. The lower cost – both upfront and per unit of energy
saved – suggests that geyser blankets are appropriate policy interventions in poor electrified
households.
Table 10.4: Cost of saved energy for water heating
Saved energy
Total investment
Cost of saved energy
PJ
R million
R / GJ
c / kWh
Geyser blanket
2.9
5.57
1.9
0.7
Solar water heater
13.0
317
24.5
8.8
While energy efficiency makes sense from a societal perspective for low-cost housing, poor
households cannot themselves afford the upfront costs of better thermal design or more
efficient lighting and water heating (Winkler et al. 2002). To simulate the impact of a
subsidy that would make efficient houses more affordable, the higher discount rate of
poorer households was reduced from 30% (no subsidy) to 10% (‘subsidised’), and used as
the general discount rate for the model. This change was made only for efficient building
shells for poorer households.
Household energy consumption patterns in the residential policy case are shown in Table
10.5. A mid-year between 2001 and 2025 was chosen, and the consumption by household
type and end use represented. The table shows that poorer households, in both rural and
urban areas, use very little electricity for ‘other’ end uses. Probably this represents a small
share of households using some other appliances like refrigeration or washing machines,
and a large share using no appliances at all for ‘other’ uses. Among non-electrified
households, average lighting consumption is low, suggesting that there is little or no access
to other commercial fuels such as kerosene or LPG for this end use. A limitation in the
analysis is that households do not appear in the model directly, only through their energy
demand, or as units.
Table 10.5: Household fuel consumption by end use in 2013
Cooking
Lighting
Other
electrical
Space
heating
Water
heating
RHE
126
261
246
118
201
RLE
45
100
6
40
51
RLN
162
2
-
178
102
UHE
324
156
273
334
475
ULE
95
136
8
160
289
ULN
117
1
-
113
53
MJ /
(HH/month)
Which fuels deliver these energy services? As expected, the share of electricity used
declines in the residential policy case compared to the base case, as electricity is used more
efficiently. A less obvious result, shown in Table 10.6, is that the shares of LPG and
paraffin – two other commercial fuels – increase. Coal use remains constant.
RESULTS OF SCENARIO MODELLING
167
Table 10.6: Shares of commercial fuels of total residential energy fuel use
Coal
Electricity
LPG
Paraffin
2001
2013
2025
Base case
4%
1%
0%
Residential
policy case
4%
1%
0%
Base case
66%
73%
75%
Residential
policy case
66%
70%
68%
Base case
2%
2%
2%
Residential
policy case
2%
5%
8%
Base case
11%
14%
17%
Residential
policy case
10%
14%
18%
Further research would be useful to translate this analysis into an energy burden per
household (energy expenditure as a share of total household income). However, this
requires further assumptions about average incomes for poorer and richer households, and
goes beyond the scope of this report. What can be reported, however, are the shadow
prices of electricity used in the residential sector, shown in Table 10.7. Shadow prices do
not represent tariffs, but rather the difference between the technologies used in this policy
case and the least-cost alternative. This information could be used in further work on the
energy burden.
Table 10.7: Shadow price of residential electricity in the base and policy case
2001
2013
2025
Base
21.4
23.0
38.4
Residential policy
21.4
57.0
31.1
c/ kWh
The level of subsidy required to make energy efficiency economic to poorer households
can be approximated in a separate Markal scenario. The level of the subsidy can be
approximated by comparing the marginal investment with the higher and lower discount
rates – with and without the ‘subsidy’.
Table 10.8: Subsidy required for making efficient housing as affordable for poorer as
for richer households
Unit: Rand/household
2001
2014
2025
RLE
-138
-195
-166
RLN
-726
-761
-871
ULE
-524
-738
-682
ULN
-112
-100
-117
Note: The values show the reduction in marginal investment as a result of lowering the discount
rate for poor households from 30% to 10%. Negative values indicate payments required.
The reduction in the investment needed is larger for the RLN (rural lower income nonelectrified) households and ULE (urban lower income electrified) households. The size of
the subsidy required to make efficient housing as affordable for poorer households as for
richer ones is in the hundreds of rands, but less than a thousand rand. Thus a relatively
168
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
small additional investment in housing for poor communities creates more comfort and
reduces household energy costs, as well as cutting emissions from the residential sector.
Energy efficiency in social housing is an area where a policy of direct state financial support
to promote energy efficiency seems warranted. In practice, municipal government would
need to play an important role in administering a subsidy scheme and providing bridging
finance.
Throughout the policy scenarios we have assumed that electrification rates would increase
substantially, as outlined in section 8.3.4. An increase from the current 70% to nearuniversal access to electricity is also part of the residential energy policy scenario.
10.5 Electricity supply scenario options
10.5.1 Imported gas
The imported gas policy case increases the overall system cost by R0.98 billion over the
25-year time horizon, compared to the base case. The additional costs imply a much
longer and more sustained investment in combined cycle gas turbines (CGGTs), as shown
in Figure 10.18.
Figure 10.18: Capacity of CCGT in gas policy and base cases
The base case reflects the level of investment in one CCGT in Alternative 1 to the reference
plan in the National Integrated Resource Plan (NIRP); the preferred plan itself only had
open-cycle gas turbines (NER 2004a). In both cases, investment starts from 2010, but
levels off much earlier in the base case and increases up to 2020 in the policy case.
Despite the small changes, gas is a cleaner-burning fuel than coal, and some reductions in
local and global air pollutants are observed. Over the 25-year period, 199 Mt of CO2
emissions can be avoided. Relative to the base case, the reduction for sulphur dioxide,
oxides of nitrogen and greenhouse gases are 2.1% lower for the policy case.
10.5.2 Imported hydroelectricity
The policy case of importing hydroelectricity increases the amount of hydroelectricity from
the base year’s 9.2 TWh to 17 TWh. The sharp rise in Figure 10.19 occurs as the
RESULTS OF SCENARIO MODELLING
169
combined price (the fixed contract cost of existing imports and likely higher future costs)
becomes competitive.
Figure 10.19: Imports of hydroelectricity
More money is spent on hydroelectricity imports in the policy case – an undiscounted R38
billion – compared to R4.6 billion in the base case over the period. Analysis of the direct
costs, however, only tells part of the story – the other side is the reduction in investment in
other supply-side options. The discounted total system costs are reduced by R3.6 billion
over the period of 25 years. Some 167 Mt CO2 can be avoided compared to business-asusual, and there is a 1.9% decrease in sulphur dioxide emissions.
It should be noted that included in this is a reduction in methane emissions. The emission
of methane from large dams is now a subject of ongoing research (IPCC 2001), and the
assumption that hydroelectricity is zero-emissions may change as more information
becomes available.
10.5.3 PBMR nuclear
Figure 10.20 shows the increase in local capacity, starting from 2012 (prior to this there is
no investment). A steady increase in the installed capacity up to the total of 4480 MW can
be seen, as well as the investment requirements in billions of rands.
Substantial investments are required here, amounting to R63 billion of undiscounted
investments over the period. With these investments, 246 Mt CO2 can be avoided
compared to the coal-dominated reference case. However, the impact should also be
considered in the overall energy system, with discounted total energy system costs
increasing by R4.6 billion for the PBMR case compared to the base case. Sulphur dioxide
emissions are 3% lower than in the base case.
170
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Figure 10.20: Installed capacity and undiscounted investment costs in the PBMR policy case
10.5.4 Electricity supply: renewable energy
The renewable energy policy case was designed to meet the target of 10 000 GWh by
2013, with a portfolio of renewable energy technologies. The costs of renewable energy
technologies were assumed to decrease as global markets grow.
Figure 10.21: Renewable energy technologies for electricity generation in the
policy case
Existing renewable energy sources, mostly small hydroelectricity and some bagasse, are
supplemented initially, primarily by new biomass co-generation plants. From 2011, some
landfill gas is introduced, as well as the solar ‘power tower’ or central receiver. Solar
technology takes over a much larger share of the renewables supply towards the end of the
period (2025) as its costs become competitive.
RESULTS OF SCENARIO MODELLING
171
Additional undiscounted investments in the various renewable energy technologies amount
to R29.3 billion, of which just over half (51%) is made in the solar ‘power tower’, a third in
new bagasse co-generation, and one-tenth in wind. The discounted total system cost for
the renewables case over the period is R4.5 billion higher than in the base case. Sulphur
dioxide emissions are 1.6% lower than in the base case. Together, renewable energy
technologies avoid 180 Mt CO2 over 25 years.
10.6 Liquid fuel – bio-fuel refinery scenario
The Department of Science and Technology (DST 2003) estimates that there is potential to
produce 1.4 billion litres of biodiesel annually, equivalent to approximately 45 PJ, from
sunflower oil, without prejudicing food production (Wilson et al. 2005). Biodiesel refineries
do not exhibit significant economies of scale (Wilson et al. 2005) and production from
smaller units is feasible. Amigun and Von Blottnitz (2004) evaluate biodiesel refinery sizes
through an optimisation framework and conclude that the optimal plant size is 48 000 litres
per day. Assuming that the plant operates 300 days of the year, this is equivalent to 1.44
million litres per annum. A plant of this size would require 96 tons of sunflower seed
feedstock per day.
Based on Amigun and Von Blottnitz (2004), we assume that a 48 000 litres per day plant
would require an investment of R12 million, have fuel costs of R35 per GJ, and operational
costs of R50 per GJ. We have assumed that biodiesel production starts in 2010 and
reaches 35 PJ by 2025, and that maximum year-on-year production growth is 30%. Diesel
exports are fixed to the base case level to ensure that the biodiesel is used to replace diesel
rather than to boost exports.
The production cost of biodiesel translates into roughly R3 per litre in 2010, compared to
the IBLC of approximately R1.70 per litre for diesel. The price of biodiesel decreases
somewhat over the period to R2.60 per litre in 2025, while the IBLC of diesel increases to
R2.10 per litre. The tax on biodiesel is R0.61 per litre compared to R0.87 per litre for
standard diesel. Figure 10.22 gives the resulting biodiesel share of total transport diesel
demand. Relative growth in biodiesel production is highest in the early stages of
introduction, slowing down as cultivation moves to increasingly marginal areas. Towards
the end of the period, biodiesel market share is 9% of transport diesel, with an annual yield
of 35 PJ.
Figure 10.22: Share of biodiesel in marketed transport diesel
The harvesting of feedstock for biodiesel production is assumed to be on, or below, the
sustainable yield (photosynthesis and respiration is in balance). Biodiesel is effectively a
zero-carbon energy source and its introduction reduces total CO2 emissions. Total
172
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
reduction in CO2 emissions reaches 5 Mt CO2 per annum in 2025. Cumulative savings are
31 Mt CO2 for the entire period. There are also some smaller reductions in local pollutants.
Biodiesel production also increases the local production of transport fuels, thereby reducing
the need for imported petroleum products. The introduction of biodiesel also reduces the
capacity required for crude oil refining by an average of 4 500 barrels/day every year.
Figure 10.23 shows the relative reduction in total imports of liquid fuels and in CO2
emissions. The present value of total system cost for this scenario is R2.4 billion higher than
for the reference scenario.
Figure 10.23: Reduction in carbon emissions and liquid fuel imports
10.7 Fuel input tax scenario
A fuel input tax is one of several environmentally related tax instruments that might be
considered for South Africa. Any such measures will have to be assessed against a
framework for environmental fiscal reform (National Treasury, 2006). The analysis here
considers one possible option, although others might be examined in future work (see
section 8.8).
A tax on coal for electricity generation could be implemented at various levels. One point
of comparison is the coal price, around R60/t coal in 2001 (see Table 9.2). A more positive
perspective is that the costs of a tax could be offset through electricity suppliers selling
emission reductions through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). R100/GJ would
represent a carbon price of €6.46/t CO2 (at 20.1 GJ/t coal, 96.25 t CO2/TJ and an
exchange rate of R8/€1). Such a carbon price is substantially lower than the €20-€30
reported for the European emissions trading scheme in 2005. For certified emission
reductions under the CDM, however, a lower price should be assumed. We assume a
conservative estimate of R25/t CO2 (roughly €3/t CO2) starting in 2001. Expressed in terms
of the fuel input, this is equivalent to R50/t coal, an increase of approximately 80% on the
coal price. The tax can be thought of as a conservative estimate of the carbon revenues
that could be earned by reducing emissions.
The tax was implemented in Markal by attaching an emissions tax of R25/t CO2 applied to
all coal mined for electricity generation from 2005 onwards. This resource technology
supplies all coal-fired power plants, but is separate from coal mining for Sasol and other
uses (which have no tax attached).
The results show that the reductions of CO2 emissions from coal for electricity generation
are small relative to the reference case. The emission projections in Figure 10.24 are hardly
distinguishable, even though the abscissa has been set at 150 Mt CO2 rather than zero.
RESULTS OF SCENARIO MODELLING
173
Figure 10.24: Emissions from coal-fired electricity in coal tax policy and reference
cases
The fuel cost is a small component of the life-cycle cost of a new plant (see NER 2004a for
a comprehensive breakdown of costs). Taking into account all the investments in the
energy system, the fuel costs are a small share of the total energy system costs. Even a fourfifths increase in a cost component that only accounts for a small percentage of total costs
makes little difference to the technology chosen by a least-cost optimising model.
Nonetheless, the emission reductions (policy case minus reference) reach 3.25 Mt CO2 in
2013-2014 (see Figure 10.25, reductions shown here as positive numbers). Cumulatively,
they add up to 28 Mt CO2 over the period.
Figure 10.25: Emission reductions for coal tax compared to reference and
undiscounted tax revenues
The line in Figure 10.25 shows that the revenues generated by the tax start even in the
early years, when there is little difference from the base case. Each ton of coal is taxed,
regardless of whether it would have been used in the base case or not.
174
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
The difference, in discounted total system costs, over the period is R67 million, while the
discounted tax revenues generated add up to R49 billion. The effects of these revenues are
mixed – on the one hand, they add to the discounted total energy system costs (which is
usually reported as net of taxes and subsidies), but they generate revenue, which could be
recycled in the economy and generate benefits. The increase in energy system costs will
certainly impact on the affordability of energy for end-users, whether industry or
households, and therefore it will have implications for other government policies. However
if revenues were used to shift the tax burden for those least able to cope with increased
energy costs, the net social effect could be positive.
11
Energy indicators of sustainable development
Harald Winkler, Mark Howells and Thomas Alfstad
T
he modelling results had to be assessed against a set of sustainable energy indicators.
The selected indicators were drawn from those used in previous Sustainable Energy
Watch reports (Spalding-Fecher 2001, 2002) and from work done on IAEA
indicators for sustainable energy development (Howells et al. 2004). Indicators were
selected that could be quantified with energy-economy-environment models and covered
the major dimensions of sustainable development.
Taken together, the energy indicators of sustainable development can be used as a tool to
assess policy options and alternative energy futures. This method, we argue, provides the
means for policymakers to identify synergies and trade-offs between options, and to
evaluate the economic, social and environmental dimensions of various options. While the
modelling framework ensures that the dynamics of the whole energy system are taken into
account in a consistent fashion, the use of indicators of sustainable development helps to
make policy approaches more integrated across social, economic and environmental levels.
The indicators presented here provide a means of assessing the implications of some fairly
ambitious policy options. They help to spell out the implications of ‘what if’ cases, and
encourage a deeper policy analysis by going into the reasons why certain changes take
place.
An overview of the key results is provided in the Appendix (see Table A1). In this section
we discuss the results for each indicator.
11.1 Environment indicators
The fuel mix of the energy system is a key indicator affecting the environmental impacts of
energy supply and use. Table 11.1 shows how the mix of fuels changes for three selected
years (2005, 2015 and 2025) in the policy case.
The dominant impression is that across all cases and years, the share of solid fuel (mostly
coal) remains high. The share of renewables increases to 3.1% in the renewables case,
compared to 1.5% in the base case. The PBMR case similarly shows some growth in
nuclear fuel us9e in the middle of the period. Clearly a sustained move to greater diversity
will require more than a single policy.
Analysis of greenhouse gas emissions in South Africa’s energy sector focuses mainly on
carbon dioxide. Table 11.2 shows emissions reductions for the various policy cases. The
first row gives the total annual CO2 emissions for the base case, while the emissions
reductions (difference between that case and the base case) are shown in the rest of the
table.
175
176
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Table 11.1: Fuel mix for policies and selected years (percentages)
2005
2015
Solids
Petroleum
Renewables
Nuclear
Electricity
Solids
Petroleum
Renew
-ables
Nuclear
Electricity
Base case
78
17
1.9
3.1
0.2
78
18
1.7
2.5
0.2
Biodiesel
78
17
1.9
3.1
0.2
78
17
2.3
2.4
0.2
Commercial
78
17
1.9
3.1
0.2
78
18
1.7
2.5
0.2
Industrial EE
78
17
1.9
3.1
0.2
77
19
1.8
2.6
0.2
Gas
78
17
1.9
3.1
0.2
77
19
1.7
2.5
0.2
Hydro
78
17
1.9
3.1
0.2
77
18
1.7
2.5
1.1
PBMR nuclear
78
17
1.9
3.1
0.2
77
18
1.7
3.7
0.2
Renewables
76
17
3.3
3.0
0.2
76
17
3.5
2.4
0.2
Residential
78
17
1.9
3.1
0.2
78
18
1.7
2.5
0.2
Fuel tax
78
17
1.9
3.1
0.2
78
18
1.7
2.5
0.2
2025
Solids
Petroleum
Renewables
Nuclear
Electricity
Base case
78
18
1.5
2.0
0.1
Biodiesel
79
17
2.0
2.0
0.1
Commercial
78
18
1.6
2.1
0.1
Industrial EE
78
19
1.6
2.2
0.1
Gas
76
20
1.5
2.1
0.1
Hydro
78
18
1.5
2.1
1.3
PBMR nuclear
74
18
1.5
6.2
0.1
Renewables
77
18
3.1
2.0
0.1
Residential
78
18
1.5
2.0
0.1
Fuel tax
78
18
1.5
2.0
0.1
Table 11.2: CO2 emission reductions for policy cases and base case emissions
(Mt CO2)
Base
2001
2005
2015
2025
350
389
492
596
Biodiesel
0
-1
-5
Commercial
-1
-5
-12
Industry
0
-28
-44
Gas
0
-5
-12
Hydro-electricity
0
-13
-17
PBMR nuclear
0
-7
-32
Renewables
-3
-7
-15
Residential
0
-1
-4
Fuel tax
0
-2
-2
ENERGY INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
177
The largest emissions reductions are shown for the industrial energy efficiency case. The
PBMR and renewables have the same reductions up to 2015, but by 2025 the PBMR has
increased to a capacity where its reductions are higher.
To compare emissions reductions across electricity cases, the installed capacity, load factor
and associated costs need to be borne in mind. By the end of the period, the PBMR has
reached 4.48 GW, while renewable energy technologies amount to 4.11 GW and gas 5.81
GW. Notably, imported hydroelectricity reduces the total system cost, while the other three
options increase it. The emission reductions are shown graphically in Figure 11.1.
Figure 11.1: Emission reduction by policy case for selected years
Emission reductions increase over time. Several cases have no emission reductions by
2005, either because of the lead times of technologies, or because the reductions have not
yet reached the scale of Mt CO2. The changes over the 25 years are shown in Figure 11.2.
The individual policy case that contributes the most to this reduction is industrial energy
efficiency.
Taken together, the emission reductions achieved by the policies we analysed add up to 50
Mt of CO2 (14% of base case) by 2015 and 142 Mt of CO2 (24%) for 2025. Figure 11.2
shows that combining all the policies analysed would reduce emissions below their
projected growth. All policy cases were included in a combined scenario, to avoid double
counting within the energy system.
However, even with all these reductions (and the associated investments), CO2 emissions
would continue to rise from approximately 350 Mt in 2001 to 450 Mt CO2 in 2025.
Stabilising emissions levels would require some additional effort from 2020 onwards.
178
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Figure 11.2: CO2 emissions for base and with emissions reductions from all policy
cases combined
Turning to local air pollutants, the largest percentage reductions are achieved by industrial
efficiency. Emissions factors for several local air pollutants were included in the database,
and some of the interesting and significant results are reported here. Reductions in sulphur
dioxide emissions contribute to less acidification of water bodies and impacts on
plantations. This is particularly significant for the north-east part of the country, where both
coal-fired power stations and forestry plantations are concentrated.
Table 11.3: Sulphur dioxide emissions in the base case, reductions in the policy
cases in absolute (kt SO2) and percentage terms
2001
2005
2015
2025
1491
1684
2226
2772
2001
2005
2015
2025
Biodiesel
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Commercial
-1
-10
-31
-76
0
-1
-1
-3
Industry
0
0
-163
-239
0
0
-7
-9
Gas
4
5
-45
-122
0
0
-2
-4
Hydroelectricity
-3
-3
-90
-92
0
0
-4
-3
PBMR nuclear
0
0
-48
-205
0
0
-2
-7
Renewables
13
-3
-32
-84
1
0
-1
-3
Residential
-1
-1
-9
-30
0
0
0
-1
Fuel tax
4
4
-7
-15
0
0
0
-1
Base
Percentage reductions
Table 11.3 shows SO2 emissions almost doubling in the base case over 25 years. The
largest reductions in percentage terms come from industrial energy savings (Figure 11.3),
amounting to 239 kt SO2 avoided in 2025.
ENERGY INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
179
Figure 11.3: Avoided sulphur dioxide emission by policy case
If one adds up the emission reductions in the combined case, they amount to 614 kt SO2 in
the last year of the period. Simple adding up would have yielded 863 kt SO2, so using the
combined case does reduce double counting across policies. In other words, sulphur
dioxide emissions would still grow, but only to 2 158 kt SO2, i.e. a little less than a quarter
of the growth (22%) would be avoided.
Following the pattern shaped by large energy savings in industry, Figure 11.4 shows a
steady decline in non-methane volatile organic compounds, compared to the base case.
Figure 11.4: Reductions in non-methane volatile organic compounds for
industrial efficiency
For oxides of nitrogen (NOx), base case emissions rise from roughly one million tons to over
two million over 25 years. Substantial emission reductions around can be seen in 2025 for
industrial and commercial demand-side measures, and all of the electricity-supply options.
180
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Table 11.4: Base case emissions and reductions of oxides of nitrogen for policy
cases
kt Nox
2001
2005
2015
2025
1 109
1 257
1 645
2 035
Biodiesel
0
0
-1
-3
Commercial
0
-5
-15
-36
Industry
0
0
-88
-136
Gas
2
2
-15
-39
Hydroelectricity
-1
-1
-43
-52
Base
PBMR nuclear
0
0
-23
-98
Renewables
5
-3
-17
-42
Residential
0
-1
-4
-13
Fuel tax
2
2
-4
-6
Regarding damage to people’s health, the most important factors are emissions reductions
and other social effects in the residential sector, which we discuss next.
11.2 Social indicators
The implications of policies for social sustainability are most readily seen in the residential
sector. In section 8.3, several important indicators were presented, capturing changes in
residential fuel use patterns. Across all policy cases, we assumed that the share of
households with access to electricity would rise to 99% in urban and 90% in rural areas.
The share of other commercial fuels (LPG and paraffin) also increases (see Table 10.6).
To capture changes across all scenarios, overall changes in residential fuel use patterns are
shown in the following tables. These vary across policy scenarios, but do not distinguish
household types.
Table 11.5: Changes in household energy consumption across policy cases,
selected years
GJ / household
2005
2015
2025
2005
Base case
16.4
15.6
14.8
Biodiesel
-0.04
-0.04
-0.05
-0.3
-0.3
-0.3
Commercial
-0.04
-0.04
-0.05
-0.3
-0.3
-0.3
Industrial EE
-0.04
-0.05
-0.05
-0.3
-0.3
-0.3
Gas
-0.04
-0.04
-0.05
-0.3
-0.3
-0.3
Hydro
-0.04
-0.04
-0.05
-0.2
-0.3
-0.3
PBMR nuclear
-0.04
-0.04
-0.05
-0.3
-0.3
-0.3
Renewables
-0.04
-0.04
-0.05
-0.3
-0.3
-0.3
Residential
-0.01
-0.03
-0.11
0.0
-0.2
-0.7
Fuel tax
-0.04
-0.04
-0.05
-0.3
-0.3
-0.3
Reduction from base case
2015
2025
Percentage reduction
The reductions in household energy consumption are small in both absolute and
percentage terms. Nevertheless, energy savings of small amounts can be significant for
poorer households.
ENERGY INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
181
Developing a deeper understanding of the implications for the energy burden for
households (energy expenditure as a share of total household expenditure) requires further
work. Either energy models have to be adapted to explicitly include household
characteristics such as income, geographical location and electrification status, or analysis
needs to be conducted outside of the model.
We have argued that the household is an appropriate unit of analysis for the social
dimensions of sustainable energy use. However, it is also useful to consider per capita
consumption to enable cross-country comparison, and also because household size is
declining (see 8.3.4.2).
If one looks at the energy savings in industry per capita, then reductions of almost 8
percentage points are seen for households and close to 2% for the commercial sector.
Table 11.6: Per capita energy consumption across policy cases
2005
2015
2025
2005
2015
2025
Base case
97.6
116.8
136.6
Biodiesel
97.7
116.5
135.1
0.1
-0.3
-1.1
Commercial
97.4
115.6
134.2
-0.3
-1.0
-1.7
Industrial EE
96.5
109.3
125.8
-1.2
-6.4
-7.9
Gas
97.7
116.1
135.5
0.1
-0.6
-0.8
Hydro
97.7
115.0
134.5
0.1
-1.5
-1.5
Percentage reduction from base
case
PBMR nuclear
97.7
116.6
135.9
0.1
-0.1
-0.5
Renewables
97.5
117.4
135.9
-0.1
0.5
-0.5
Residential
97.7
116.6
136.3
0.1
-0.2
-0.2
Fuel tax
97.4
116.5
136.5
-0.2
-0.2
0.0
Social sustainability is not only about access to fuels, however, it is also concerned with the
affordability of using those fuels. Table 11.7 shows how monthly household expenditure
varies across the policy cases. Note that this averages across household types, with
variations for the different types described. The dominant trend shows rising monthly
average household expenditure.
Interestingly, some of the supply-side options can reduce the marginal cost of residential
energy. However, it should be noted that these values represent the shadow price – the
difference between the costs of the chosen technology and the optimal one. They do not
represent market prices or tariffs, but rather a proxy estimate. Such estimates are useful in
relative terms, giving an idea how actual monthly household expenditure might vary across
time or policy cases. The absolute numbers may differ from the actual expenditure incurred
by households.
Specific examples show that policy interventions in the residential demand sector provide
cost savings to households. In particular, we calculated the subsidy required to make
efficient houses affordable to poorer households (Table 10.8), which turned out to be
smaller than the savings accrued to users.
Finally, at a broader societal level, energy security is an important consideration. Noting
that energy security can have several definitions (Langlois et al. 2005), we focus on one
particular aspect.
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ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Table 11.7: Proxy estimates of monthly average household energy expenditure across
policy cases
R / (HH * mth)
2001
2005
2015
2025
Monthly household energy expenditure
2005
2015
2025
Percentage reduction
Base case
69.5
67.9
109.1
109.5
Biodiesel
69.5
67.9
109.1
109.5
0
0
0
Commercial
69.5
67.9
108.5
109.5
0
-1
0
Industrial EE
69.5
67.9
80.5
108.7
0
-26
-1
Gas
69.5
67.9
107.9
109.1
0
-1
0
Hydro
69.5
67.9
107.5
109.5
0
-1
0
PBMR nuclear
69.5
67.9
108.3
109.1
0
-1
0
Renewables
69.5
67.9
108.8
109.5
0
0
0
Residential
69.6
68.5
108.8
109.1
1
0
0
Fuel tax
69.5
67.9
109.4
116.9
0
0
7
Figure 11.5: Import shares for policy cases over time
Figure 11.5 shows the share of imports. The base case is shown at left, and the change
over time with each of the policy cases represented by a data point. Overall, the variation
in import shares is relatively small. However, some differences in the implications of policy
cases are worth closer attention. Given South Africa’s reliance on imported oil, net energy
import dependency is an important indicator, shown in Table 11.8.
ENERGY INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
183
Table 11.8: Imported energy as share of total primary energy supply
2005
Base case
23.5%
2015
2025
24.6%
23.8%
Percentage point change
Biodiesel
-0.2
-0.3
-1.0
Commercial
0.0
0.1
0.3
Industrial EE
-1.0
0.3
0.1
Gas
0.0
0.9
2.2
Hydro
0.0
1.3
0.8
PBMR nuclear
0.0
1.2
4.3
Renewables
-0.2
-0.2
0.2
Residential
0.0
0.1
0.4
Fuel tax
0.1
0.1
0.2
Unsurprisingly, the imports of gas or hydroelectricity imply an increase in import
dependency. Perhaps less obvious is that the import of nuclear fuel raises the share of
imported energy by 4.3% of TPES in 2025 for the PBMR case, assuming that nuclear fuel
continues to be imported. Nuclear fuels, under certain circumstances, lend themselves to
increased energy security because they are concentrated and readily stored. In fact
domestic supply options, including renewable energy technologies, perform better in this
regard.
11.3 Economic indicators
Costs are important economic parameters, and they can be reported at different levels,
providing differing information. In this study we report costs at three different scales – the
impact of policies on the entire energy system, the impacts of electricity supply options on
the whole grid, and the investment requirement for specific electricity options (new gas,
renewables, nuclear or imported hydroelectricity).
A key economic parameter is the total energy system costs. System costs help us
understand the impact on the entire energy system, showing its interactions in a consistent
framework. However they draw a wide costing boundary, because all costs are included –
from power stations, through transmission and distribution systems, to end-use appliances
and equipment. Some of these costs may not be what are typically thought of as ‘energy
investment’.
We have discounted total energy system costs to the present value, using the discount rate
for the study of 10%. These costs are not the same as the total investment required, as total
investment does not take into account savings or avoided investment in alternative policies
or technologies.
Over 25 years, energy system costs add up to large numbers. Since the energy system is
large, and the costing boundary is wide, individual policies – which affect only one part of
the energy system – do not produce large changes in the bulk of the system or its structure.
The cost changes, although small in relative terms, are in the order of millions to billions of
rands.
Table 11.9 shows that energy efficiency in the industrial, commercial and residential sector
reduces system costs substantially. The other large potential saving is from imported
hydroelectricity. On the supply side, investing in domestic options – whether renewable
184
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
energy or nuclear PBMR – increases the costs of the energy system. While these increases
are only 0.06% of energy system costs, in both cases they amount to over R3 billion over
the period.
Table 11.9: Total energy system costs for base and policy cases
Discounted total system
costs over 25 years
R billion
Difference from base case
R million
Percentage
Base case
5 902
Biodiesel
5 904
2 397
0.04
Commercial
5 889
-13 078
-0.22
Industrial EE
5 885
-17 011
-0.29
Gas
5 902
95
0.00
Hydro
5 890
-11 525
-0.20
PBMR nuclear
5 905
3 706
0.06
Renewables
5 905
3 488
0.06
Residential
5 900
-1 136
-0.02
Fuel tax
5 902
23
0.00
Table 11.10 shows the total investment costs over the whole period, together with the
installed capacity that results in each policy case. Clearly, domestic investments in capacity
in the hydroelectricity case are lower, and to a lesser extent this is also true for gas. The
largest investment requirement is for the PBMR case, where installed capacity is the same
as for the base case. The additional investment needed for the renewables case lies
between the base and the PBMR cases. Here a larger electricity supply system is needed,
given the lower availability factor.
Table 11.10: Investments in electricity supply options and total electricity generation
capacity by 2025
Total investment cost 2001 –
2025, discounted (R bn)
Installed capacity
by 2025 (GW)
Base case
134
57.7
Gas case
114
57.8
Hydro case
84
51.5
PBMR case
153
57.7
Renewable case
142
58.5
Narrowing the costing boundary even further allows us to consider the investment required
for each technology in its own policy case, e.g. the PBMR in the PBMR policy case, or
various renewable energy technologies (biomass co-generation, wind and solar power
tower)21 in the renewables case. Table 11.11 shows three items – the discounted
investment costs in the technology over 25 years (derived by summing annualised
investment costs), the newly installed capacity of that technology over the period, and the
cost per unit (kW) of new capacity.
21
As Figure 10.21 above showed, these are the renewable energy technologies that dominate the new
capacity in the renewables case.
ENERGY INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
185
The PBMR case shows the largest investment requirement. It also adds more capacity than
renewables does, but not as much as from gas or imported hydroelectricity. Per unit cost,
imported gas is cheapest, with hydroelectricity and renewables next, at roughly similar
levels. Note that these numbers are not identical to the upfront investment costs (expressed
in R/kW in Table 8.23 above). However, the general pattern of unit costs is consistent with
the ranges shown there. Gas is significantly cheaper than other options by unit cost,
followed by the renewables. The PBMR’s costs per installed capacity (R/kW) are at the
upper end of the range in Table 8.23. The unit costs of renewables are an average of
biomass co-generation, wind and solar power tower, which were chosen by the model in
the renewables case, and are within the range of the investment costs in Table 8.23.
Table 11.11: Investment requirements for specific electricity supply technologies in
their policy case, capacity provided in 2025 and cost per unit
Annualised cost of
investment in the
specific technology for
its policy case, summed
over 25 years (R billion)
New installed capacity
of the technology in
its case by 2025 (GW)
R / kW of
new capacity
CCGT in gas case
30.7
5.79
5 297
Imported hydro in hydro case
36.9
3.73
9 871
PBMR in PBMR case
55.7
4.48
12 430
RETs in renewables case
33.3
3.73
8 937
Note: Investment costs for hydro scenario do not include investment in stations in neighbouring countries.
The direct investment costs for new capacity in Mepanda Uncua were reported in section
8.6.4; they suggest a slightly lower unit cost than shown in Table 11.11 at R8 793/kW.
An important indicator is South Africa’s energy intensity, which is shown in Table 11.12.
Table 11.12: Energy intensity over time and across policies
Base case
2005
2015
2025
226
238
261
2005
Reduction from base case
Biodiesel
Commercial
Industrial EE
2015
2025
Percentage reduction
- 0.21
0.71
2.87
-0.1
0.30
1.10
0.57
2.37
4.57
0.25
1.00
1.75
2.69
16.28
22.34
1.19
6.84
8.57
Gas
- 0.21
1.41
2.02
-0.10
0.59
0.78
Hydro
- 0.22
3.74
3.94
-0.10
1.57
1.51
PBMR nuclear
- 0.21
0.36
1.30
-0.10
0.15
0.50
Renewables
0.32
- 1.18
1.23
0.14
-0.50
0.47
Residential
- 0.19
0.44
0.54
-0.09
0.19
0.21
0.57
0.55
0.13
0.25
0.23
0.05
Fuel tax
The chief reductions in energy intensity are by the largest energy savings analysed in this
study – namely those achieved through greater energy efficiency in industry and
commerce.
In summary, the global costs (discounted total energy system costs) for the combined
scenario are lower than for the base case by some R16 billion over the full period. The
186
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
impact of cost-saving policies on balance and over time is greater than that of positive-cost
measures. This suggests that the savings of the combined efficiency measures outweigh the
additional costs of investing in a diversified electricity supply.
The economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development should be
considered together in order to draw any conclusions about the sustainability of various
technologies, policies and measures. An overview of some key energy indicators of
sustainable development is provided in the Appendix in Table A1. Based on these, and the
findings of this chapter, we can now offer some conclusions.
12
Conclusions
Harald Winkler
T
his report has modelled a range of energy policies for sustainable development in
South Africa, both demand-side and supply-side policies, which can contribute to
energy objectives and to broader sustainable development goals. This chapter
summarises the authors’ conclusions.
12.1 The reference case
The base (reference) case presented ‘current development trends’ over the period 20012025, using policies which are close to the Integrated Energy Plan (DME 2003a) for the
energy sector as a whole, and close to the electricity regulator’s second National Integrated
Resource Plan (NIRP) (NER 2004a). The features of the base case are as follows:
• On the demand side, fuel consumption in industry and transport dominates, with
transport growing most rapidly among the various sectors.
• On the supply-side, electricity generation continues to be dominated by existing and
new coal power generation, supplemented by gas turbines and new fluidised bed
combustion using discard coal. Smaller contributions come from existing hydroelectricity
and bagasse, nuclear energy, electricity imports, existing and new pumped storage, and
interruptible supply.
• The liquid fuel supply is met mostly from existing refineries allowing for some
expansion, with a small proportion from imports of finished petroleum products.
• Emissions of both local and global air pollutants increase steadily in the reference case
over the 2001-2025 period. Carbon dioxide emissions increase from 337 Mt CO2 in
200122 to 591 Mt CO2 in 2025 – an increase of 75% over the period.
A set of energy policy cases was then modelled and compared to the base case. Table 12.1
provides a short summary the assumptions behind each of the policy cases modelled.
Table 12.1: Summary of policy cases in residential and electricity supply sectors
Sector
Summary of assumptions regarding technologies, policies and measures
Industry
Industrial energy efficiency meets the national target of 12% less final energy
consumption than business-as-usual. This is achieved through greater use of variable
speed drives; efficient motors, compressed air management, efficient lighting, heating,
ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system efficiency and other thermal saving.
Achievement of this goal depends on forcefully implementing the policy.
Commercial
New commercial buildings are designed more efficiently; HVAC systems are retrofitted
or new systems have higher efficiency; variable speed drives are employed; efficient
lighting practices are introduced; water use is improved both with heat pumps and solar
22
The base year number is fairly close to the CO2 emissions reported in the Climate Analysis Indicator Tool
(WRI 2005) for 2000 – 344.6 Mt CO2. It is somewhat higher than the 309 Mt CO2 from fuel combustion
reported in the Key World Energy Statistics for 2001 (IEA 2003a).
187
188
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Sector
Summary of assumptions regarding technologies, policies and measures
water heaters. In addition to specific measures, fuel switching for various end uses is
allowed. Achievement of this goal depends on forcefully implementing the policy.
Residential
Cleaner and more efficient water heating is provided through increased use of solar
water heaters and geyser blankets. The costs of SWHs decline over time, as new
technology diffuses more widely in the South African market. More efficient lighting,
using compact fluorescent lights spreads more widely, with a slight further reduction.
The shells of houses are improved by insulation, prioritising ceilings. Households switch
from electricity and other cooking appliances to LPG. A subsidy is required to make
interventions more economic for poorer households.
Bio-fuels
Biodiesel production increases to 35 PJ by 2025, with a maximum growth rate of 30%
per year from 2010, displacing some petroleum. Energy crops do not displace food
production, and sustainable production means the fuel is effectively zero-carbon.
Electricity
from
renewables
The share of renewable electricity increases to meet the target of 10 000 GWh by 2013.
Shares of solar thermal, wind, bagasse and small hydroelectricity increase beyond the
base case. New technology costs decline as global production increases.
PBMR nuclear
Production of PBMR modules for domestic use increases capacity of nuclear power
generation up to 4 480 MW (32 modules). Costs decline with national production, and
initial investments are written off.
Imported
hydroelectricity
The share of hydroelectricity imported from the SADC region increases from 9.2 TWh in
2001, as more hydroelectric capacity is built in southern Africa.
Imported gas
Sufficient LNG is imported to provide 5 850 MW of combined cycle gas turbines,
compared to 1 950 MW in the base case.
Tax on coal
for electricity
generation
A fuel input tax is imposed on coal used for electricity generation. Such policies could be
extended to coal for synfuel production and industrial use, or alternatively, the
environmental outputs could be taxed directly, via a pollution tax.
12.2 Demand-side scenarios
On the demand side, energy efficiency policies were found to be particularly important.
12.2.1 Industrial sector
The overall strategy of reducing final energy demand by 12% compared to business-asusual can be implemented most effectively in the industrial sector. Industrial energy
efficiency is effective both in lowering the cost of the energy system by R18 billion, and
reducing global and local air pollution. Carbon dioxide emissions are reduced by 770 Mt
CO2 over the 25-year period. Greater efficiency has benefits in delaying the need for
investment in power stations, allowing the building of new base load power stations to be
postponed by four years, and the building of peaking power plant by three years.
It is important to note that realising the potential for industrial energy efficiency requires
forceful, even aggressive, implementation. Clear signals are needed to induce industry to
take more responsibility. The agreement between industry and government to implement
the energy efficiency strategy (DME 2005a), and the recent announcement that a
dedicated Energy Efficiency Agency is to be established, both bode well in this regard.
12.2.2 Commercial sector
A strong legal and institutional framework is needed to implement energy efficiency for the
commercial sector. The modelling suggests that a 12% energy efficiency target is
achievable and that it can save R13 billion over the 25 years. However the results also
suggest that the cost of optimal energy efficiency improvements are 2-3% lower than the
12% target; and that these savings come at a cost in the order of 5% of the investment
CONCLUSIONS
189
costs (Spalding-Fecher et al. 2003). The government can play an important role here by
taking the lead in making its own buildings and practices more efficient.
12.2.3 Residential sector
The residential sector is of key importance for social sustainability. A sustainable
development approach would mean delivering services that meet basic human needs, but
in a cleaner and more efficient manner. Policy interventions focus on all end uses, using
solar water heaters and geyser blankets, LPG for cooking, efficient housing shells, and
CFLs for lighting. Making social housing more energy-efficient through simple measures,
such as including insulating ceilings, should be adopted as a general policy.
All policy cases assume near-universal electrification, and we find in the residential scenario
that the share of other commercial fuels (LPG and paraffin) also increases. The overall fuel
consumption, however, is lowered compared to the base case (8.13 PJ less in 2025),
because of increasing efficiency and use of solar energy for water heating. Not all
interventions are used by all household types – for example, efficient houses are only taken
up by urban higher-income electrified households. The lower cost – both upfront and per
unit of energy saved – suggests that geyser blankets are appropriate policy interventions in
poor electrified households.
Access to energy in physical terms needs to be accompanied by affordability in economic
terms. The findings suggest that interventions can be made economic for poorer
households with a relatively small subsidy. The order of magnitude of the subsidy required
to make efficient housing as affordable for poorer households as richer ones, is in the
hundreds of rands, and less than a thousand rand.
12.3 Supply-side scenarios
12.3.1 Electricity supply
On the supply side, four policy cases focused on electricity supply – imported gas, imported
hydroelectricity, domestically-generated electricity from PBMR nuclear, and domesticallygenerated electricity from renewables.
Imported hydroelectricity potentially reduces investment costs, but increases the share of
imported energy as a percentage of total primary energy supply (TPES). Imported gas
increases the share of imports, while making little difference to total energy system costs.
The PBMR case with imported fuel also shows an increase in the imports share, up to 4.3%
of TPES in 2025. Domestic supply options, including renewable energy technologies,
perform better, but they include substantial imported components. We can conclude that a
sustained move to greater diversity will require more than a single policy.
Investing in the PBMR and renewables options increases the costs of the energy system,
while imported gas has a small effect on costs, and hydroelectricity imports actually reduce
costs. While the increases are only 0.06% of energy system costs, they are nonetheless
large – over R3 billion in both the PBMR and renewables cases over the period. In unit
costs (R/kW of new capacity), gas is significantly cheaper than other options, followed by
the renewable energy technologies (an average of biomass co-generation, wind and solar
power tower). However, the PBMR and renewables options do show quite substantial
emission reductions – 246 Mt CO2 for the PBMR and 180 Mt CO2 for renewable energy
technologies respectively over the 25-year period. Both reduce local pollutants, notably
sulphur dioxide, by 3% and 1.6% respectively relative to the base case.
190
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
12.3.2 Liquid fuels and biodiesel
A key policy option, which addresses liquid fuels for transport, is the supply of biodiesel.
The potential to produce 1.4 billion litres of biodiesel was modelled to start in 2010 and
reach a biodiesel market share of 9% of transport diesel by 2025. Through this, an average
of 4 500 barrels per day of oil-refining capacity can be avoided. Total reduction in CO2
emissions reaches 5 Mt CO2 per annum in 2025 and cumulative savings are 31 Mt CO2 for
the entire period. There are also smaller reductions in local pollutants. The present value of
the total system cost for this scenario is R2.4 billion higher than for the reference scenario.
12.3.3 Tax on coal
The results for a tax on coal for electricity generation show that the reductions of CO2
emissions from coal for electricity generation are small relative to the reference case. The
economic difference lies less in system costs (R67 million over 25 years) and more in the
tax revenues. These revenues impose added costs on producers, but could also generate
economic benefits if recycled. A more detailed analysis is required of this policy option,
possibly extending the tax to coal for synfuels and industry as well, and quantifying the
indirect economic effects of tax recycling and impacts on other policy objectives.
12.4 Overall conclusion
The tools used in this analysis – a modelling framework combined with indicators of
sustainable development – provide a useful way of examining trade-offs, as well as some
room for compromise.
Over the 25-year timeframe, energy efficiency makes much sense when measured against
indicators of sustainable development. Industrial efficiency in particular shows significant
savings in energy, costs and air pollution, with commercial energy showing a similar pattern
on a slightly smaller scale. Residential energy efficiency is very important for social
sustainability, and even small energy savings can make a big difference to poorer
households. In the short-term, then, energy efficiency is critical to making South Africa’s
energy development more sustainable.
In the longer-term, transitions that include the supply-side become important. Greater
diversity of supply will need a combination of policies, since single policies do not change
the large share of coal in total primary energy supply by much when taken on their own.
The various electricity supply options show potential for significant emission reductions and
improvements in local air quality. However, they require careful trade-offs in order to take
into account the implications for energy system costs, energy security and diversity of
supply.
Combined, the emission reductions achieved by all the policies analysed here add up to 69
Mt CO2 (10% of base case emissions) by 2015, and 142 Mt (24%) CO2 by 2025. One
important conclusion is that significant emission reductions (‘avoided emissions’) compared
to business-as-usual are possible. This should be understood together with a second
conclusion, namely that stabilising emissions levels (e.g. at 2010 levels) would require some
additional effort from 2020 onwards.
In general, the modelling shows that the global costs (discounted total energy system costs)
for the combined scenario are lower than for the base case by some R16 billion over the
full 25-year period. This certainly suggests that the savings of the combined efficiency
measures outweigh the additional costs of investing in a diversified electricity supply.
Appendix
Table A1: Overview of energy indicators of sustainable development
Environment
2001
2005
CO2 emissions and
reductions
Base
350
2015 2025 2001
Sulphur
dioxide
Mt
CO2
389
492
2005
596
2015
2025
kt
SO2
1 491 1 684 2 226
2001
2005
Oxides
of
nitrogen
2 772
1 109
2015
2025
kt Nox
1 257
1 645
2 035
Biodiesel
0
0
-1
-5
-1
-10
-31
-76
0
0
-1
-3
Commercial
0
-1
-5
-12
0
0
-163
-239
0
-5
-15
-36
Industry
0
0
-28
-44
4
5
-45
-122
0
0
-88
-136
Gas
0
0
-5
-12
-3
-3
-90
-92
2
2
-15
-39
Hydroelectricity
0
0
-13
-17
0
0
-48
-205
-1
-1
-43
-52
PBMR
nuclear
0
0
-7
-32
13
-3
-32
-84
0
0
-23
-98
Renewables
0
-3
-7
-15
-1
-1
-9
-30
5
-3
-17
-42
Residential
0
0
-1
-4
4
4
-7
-15
0
-1
-4
-13
Fuel tax
0
0
-2
-2
0
0
0
0
2
2
-4
-6
Social
2005
2015
2025
GJ/
capita
R/GJ
GJ /
h’hold
GJ/
capita
R/GJ
GJ /
h’hold
GJ/
capita
R/GJ
GJ /
h’hold
Base case
97.62
225.90
16.36
116.80
237.83
15.57
136.57
260.68
14.76
Biodiesel
97.71
225.69
16.32
116.45
238.54
15.53
135.08
263.55
14.71
Commercial
97.37
226.47
16.32
115.65
240.20
15.53
134.21
265.24
14.71
Industrial EE
96.47
228.59
16.32
109.32
254.11
15.53
125.79
283.02
14.71
Gas
97.71
225.69
16.32
116.11
239.24
15.53
135.51
262.70
14.71
Hydro
97.71
225.68
16.32
115.00
241.56
15.53
134.53
264.62
14.71
PBMR nuclear
97.71
225.69
16.32
116.63
238.18
15.53
135.89
261.98
14.71
Renewables
97.52
226.22
16.32
117.38
236.65
15.53
135.92
261.91
14.71
Residential
97.70
225.71
16.35
116.58
238.27
15.54
136.28
261.22
14.65
191
192
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Economic
Total system costs
Share of imports (%)
R billion
R million
Base case
5 902
change
change
2005
2015
2025
Biodiesel
5 904
2 397
0.04
23
25
24
Commercial
5 889
-13 078
-0.22
23
24
23
Industrial EE
5 885
-17 011
-0.29
24
25
24
Gas
5 902
95
0.00
22
25
24
Hydro
5 890
-11 525
-0.20
23
26
26
PBMR nuclear
5 905
3 706
0.06
23
26
25
Renewables
5 905
3 488
0.06
23
26
28
Residential
5 900
- 1 136
-0.02
23
24
24
Fuel tax
5 902
23
0.00
23
25
24
Table A2: Projections of household numbers over the period
2001
UHE
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
4 074 438
4 319 029
4 624 768
4 930 508
5 236 247
5 541 987
5 847 726
ULE
1 255 728
1 416 680
1 617 870
1 819 060
2 020 250
2 221 440
2 422 629
ULN
1 349 240
1 174 661
956 436
738 212
519 988
301 763
83 539
RHE
1 181 279
1 268 071
1 376 561
1 485 050
1 593 540
1 702 030
1 810 520
RLE
1 095 449
1 256 511
1 457 839
1 659 167
1 860 494
2 061 822
2 263 150
RLN
2 249 571
2 001 717
1 691 899
1 382 082
1 072 265
762 447
452 630
ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: SOUTH AFRICAN SCENARIOS
Table A3 : Projections of energy demand by end use and household type (PJ)
2001
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
Cooking
UHE
15.8447
16.9044
18.2290
19.5537
20.8783
22.2029
23.5275
ULE
1.4270
1.6230
1.8680
2.1131
2.3581
2.6032
2.8482
ULN
1.8230
1.5877
1.2935
0.9993
0.7051
0.4110
0.1168
RHE
1.7882
1.9196
2.0839
2.2481
2.4123
2.5766
2.7408
RLE
0.5916
0.6786
0.7873
0.8960
1.0047
1.1135
1.2222
RLN
3.0503
2.7142
2.2941
1.8740
1.4539
1.0338
0.6137
UHE
23.1604
24.7094
26.6456
28.5818
30.5181
32.4543
34.3905
ULE
4.3362
4.9319
5.6765
6.4212
7.1658
7.9105
8.6551
ULN
1.2064
1.0506
0.8559
0.6613
0.4666
0.2719
0.0773
RHE
2.8427
3.0516
3.3126
3.5737
3.8348
4.0959
4.3569
RLE
0.6706
0.7692
0.8924
1.0157
1.1389
1.2621
1.3854
RLN
5.3223
4.7359
4.0029
3.2699
2.5369
1.8039
1.0709
UHE
16.3063
17.3968
18.7601
20.1233
21.4865
22.8497
24.2129
ULE
2.4165
2.7485
3.1635
3.5784
3.9934
4.4084
4.8234
ULN
1.9941
1.7367
1.4149
1.0931
0.7713
0.4495
0.1277
RHE
1.6832
1.8068
1.9614
2.1160
2.2706
2.4251
2.5797
RLE
0.5305
0.6085
0.7060
0.8035
0.9010
0.9985
1.0960
RLN
6.0526
5.3857
4.5521
3.7185
2.8850
2.0514
1.2178
Water heating
Space heating
Lighting in PJ
UHE
7.3896
7.8838
8.5016
9.1194
9.7371
10.3549
10.9727
ULE
2.6887
3.0581
3.5198
3.9815
4.4432
4.9050
5.3667
ULN
2.3475
2.0445
1.6657
1.2868
0.9080
0.5292
0.1504
RHE
4.1415
4.4458
4.8261
5.2065
5.5868
5.9672
6.3476
RLE
2.0251
2.3228
2.6950
3.0672
3.4394
3.8116
4.1837
RLN
4.1684
3.7091
3.1350
2.5610
1.9869
1.4128
0.8387
Other electrical appliances
UHE
12.5741
13.6854
15.1304
16.6397
18.2156
19.8604
21.5767
ULE
0.1085
0.1259
0.1486
0.1723
0.1972
0.2232
0.2504
ULN
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
RHE
3.2810
3.5930
3.9989
4.4230
4.8660
5.3285
5.8113
RLE
0.0771
0.0902
0.1073
0.1252
0.1439
0.1635
0.1840
RLN
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
194
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Table A4: Total residential energy demand and end use total demands for selected
years
2001
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
Cooking
24.5248
25.4275
26.5558
27.6842
28.8125
29.9409
Water heating
37.5386
39.2486
41.3861
43.5236
45.6611
47.7986
Space heating
28.9832
29.6831
30.5580
31.4329
32.3078
33.1827
Lighting in lighting units
22.7608
23.4641
24.3432
25.2224
26.1015
26.9806
Other electrical
appliances
16.0407
17.4946
19.3853
21.3603
23.4227
25.5757
All residential energy
demand
113.8073
117.8232
122.8431
127.8630
132.8829
137.9028
Table A5: Projections of electricity capacity by plant type (GW)
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Existing coal
33.5
33.5
33.5
33.5
33.5
33.5
33.5
33.5
33.5
33.5
32.9
32.9
Nuclear PWR
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
Bagasse
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Diesel gas turbines
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
Hydro
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
Interruptible supply
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
Pumped storage
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
Imported electricity
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
Mothballed coal
-
-
-
-
0.4
0.8
1.5
2.8
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
New coal
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
New OCGT diesel
-
-
-
-
-
0.2
0.6
1.4
2.1
2.3
2.3
2.3
New CCGT
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.6
2.0
2.0
New FBC
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
New pumped storage
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.7
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025
Existing coal
32.9 32.9 32.9 32.9 32.9 32.9 32.9 32.9 32.2 30.3 30.3 30.3 30.3
Nuclear PWR
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
Bagasse
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Diesel gas turbines
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
Hydro
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
Interruptible supply
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
Pumped storage
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
Imported electricity
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
Mothballed coal
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
New coal
-
-
0.1
0.9
1.7
2.5
3.3
4.2
6.1
9.2
10.2 11.2 12.2
New OCGT diesel
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
New CCGT
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
New FBC
0.8
1.6
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
New pumped storage 0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: SOUTH AFRICAN SCENARIOS
Table A6: Total fuel consumption by demand sector (PJ)
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Agri-culture
73
78
74
75
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
Commercial
85
87
90
93
95
97
100
103
107
111
113
116
119
Industry
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
1 151 1 162 1 176 1 180 1 205 1 220 1 235 1 250 1 265 1 281 1 297 1 312 1 329
Non-energy
-
-
-
16
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
Residential
183
188
189
190
192
194
195
196
197
196
197
198
199
Transport
613
642
659
677
698
717
735
753
771
789
807
825
843
Agriculture
Commercial
Industry
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
86
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
124
129
133
137
141
145
150
154
159
164
169
175
1 345 1 362 1 379 1 396 1 414 1 432 1 450 1 469 1 488 1 503 1 518 1 533
Non-energy
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
Residential
201
204
205
206
208
209
210
211
212
Transport
861
878
895
911
928
945
960
975
989
32
32
32
214
215
216
1 004 1 019 1 034
Table A7: Investments required in energy supply by case and years
2 001 2 002 2 003 2 004 2 005 2 006 2 007 2 008 2 009 2 010 2 011 2 012 2 013
Base case
1 074
382
1 541
318
445
712
992
2 269 1 832 1 249 2 110 2 236 2 033
Biodiesel
1 074
382
1 541
318
445
712
992
2 269 1 832 1 355 2 119 2 118 2 014
Commercial
1 074
374
1 205
310
439
436
754
2 157 1 851 1 016 2 028 2 168 1 067
Industrial EE
1 074
382
1 538
318
259
562
562
878
Gas
1 074
382
1 531
318
445
712
992
2 269 1 832 1 274 2 335 2 370 1 379
Hydro
1 074
382
328
294
259
227
201
251
PBMR nuclear 1 074
382
1 541
318
445
712
992
2 269 1 832 1 249 2 110 2 236 2 565
Renewables
1 074 1 268 1 788
318
760
685
933
2 329 1 963 1 128 2 226 2 666 1 500
Residential
1 074
395
1 211
320
456
594
800
2 226 1 823 1 174 2 037 2 181 1 849
Fuel tax
1 074
382
1 541
318
445
712
841
2 245 2 325 1 140 2 110 2 368 2 033
666
349
640
555
678
641
1 903
1 867
2 014 2 015 2 016 2 017 2 018 2 019 2 020 2 021 2 022 2 023 2 024 2 025
Base case
1 889 1 735 1 465 1 288 1 124
981
841
1 700 2 379
926
558
453
Biodiesel
1 869 1 714 1 444 1 267 1 104
963
825
1 687 2 368
918
549
445
Commercial
1 687 1 498 1 260 1 146 1 010
882
750
1 593 2 290
799
496
401
738 1 193 1 186 1 499 1 686 2 428 1 133
879
653
858
Industrial EE
Gas
Hydro
628 1 029 1 231
1 285 1 176
1 677 2 355
927
553
449
236 1 502 1 754 1 581 1 439 1 276 1 120 1 625 2 313
980
754
661
697
717
515
420
PBMR nuclear 2 584 2 258 1 891 1 608 1 359 1 147
953
1 750 2 409
962
553
449
Renewables
2 029 1 845 1 523 1 345 1 175 1 014
861
1 709 2 475
908
557
475
Residential
1 750 1 610 1 344 1 186 1 041
909
782
1 663 2 347
849
538
437
Fuel tax
1 889 1 735 1 466 1 282 1 129
981
841
1 455 2 377
926
558
453
726
447
ENERGY POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
196
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