Miller Electric | Welder | Operating instructions | Miller Electric Welder Operating instructions

Miller Electric Welder Operating instructions
155 095 E
2013−07
Processes
Stick (SMAW) Welding
Guidelines For
Shielded Metal Arc
Welding (SMAW)
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1 − SAFETY PRECAUTIONS - READ BEFORE USING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-1. Symbol Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2. Arc Welding Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-3. Additional Symbols For Installation, Operation, And Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-4. California Proposition 65 Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-5. Principal Safety Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-6. EMF Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SECTION 2 − PRINCIPLES OF SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SECTION 3 − SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW)PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-1. Typical Stick Welding Set-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-2. Electrode And Amperage Selection Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-3. Striking An Arc − Scratch Start Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-4. Striking An Arc − Tapping Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-5. Positioning Electrode Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-6. Electrode Movement During Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-7. Conditions That Affect Weld Bead Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-8. Poor Weld Bead Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-9. Good Weld Bead Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-10. Typical Weld Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-11. Welding Groove (Butt) Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-12. Welding Tee Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-13. Welding Lap Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-14. Welding Horizontal Beads And Groove (Butt) Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-15. Welding Vertical Beads And Groove (Butt) Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-16. Welding Vertical Tee Joints And Lap Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-17. Welding Overhead Groove (Butt) Joints And Tee Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-18. Weld Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SECTION 4 − WELDING TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1. Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-2. Excessive Spatter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-3. Incomplete Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-4. Lack Of Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-5. Excessive Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-6. Burn-Through . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-7. Waviness Of Bead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-8. Distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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SECTION 1 − SAFETY PRECAUTIONS - READ BEFORE USING
som 2011−10
7
Protect yourself and others from injury — read, follow, and save these important safety precautions and operating instructions.
1-1. Symbol Usage
DANGER! − Indicates a hazardous situation which, if
not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. The
possible hazards are shown in the adjoining symbols
or explained in the text.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided,
could result in death or serious injury. The possible
hazards are shown in the adjoining symbols or explained in the text.
NOTICE − Indicates statements not related to personal injury.
. Indicates special instructions.
This group of symbols means Warning! Watch Out! ELECTRIC
SHOCK, MOVING PARTS, and HOT PARTS hazards. Consult symbols and related instructions below for necessary actions to avoid the
hazards.
1-2. Arc Welding Hazards
The symbols shown below are used throughout this manual
to call attention to and identify possible hazards. When you
see the symbol, watch out, and follow the related instructions
to avoid the hazard. The safety information given below is
only a summary of the more complete safety information
found in the Safety Standards listed in Section 1-5. Read and
follow all Safety Standards.
Only qualified persons should install, operate, maintain, and
repair this unit.
During operation, keep everybody, especially children, away.
D Always verify the supply ground − check and be sure that input
power cord ground wire is properly connected to ground terminal in
disconnect box or that cord plug is connected to a properly
grounded receptacle outlet.
D When making input connections, attach proper grounding conductor first − double-check connections.
D Keep cords dry, free of oil and grease, and protected from hot metal
and sparks.
D Frequently inspect input power cord for damage or bare wiring −
replace cord immediately if damaged − bare wiring can kill.
D Turn off all equipment when not in use.
D Do not use worn, damaged, undersized, or poorly spliced cables.
ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill.
Touching live electrical parts can cause fatal shocks
or severe burns. The electrode and work circuit is
electrically live whenever the output is on. The input
power circuit and machine internal circuits are also
live when power is on. In semiautomatic or automatic
wire welding, the wire, wire reel, drive roll housing,
and all metal parts touching the welding wire are
electrically live. Incorrectly installed or improperly
grounded equipment is a hazard.
D Do not touch live electrical parts.
D Wear dry, hole-free insulating gloves and body protection.
D Insulate yourself from work and ground using dry insulating mats
or covers big enough to prevent any physical contact with the work
or ground.
D Do not use AC output in damp areas, if movement is confined, or if
there is a danger of falling.
D Use AC output ONLY if required for the welding process.
D If AC output is required, use remote output control if present on
unit.
D Additional safety precautions are required when any of the following electrically hazardous conditions are present: in damp
locations or while wearing wet clothing; on metal structures such
as floors, gratings, or scaffolds; when in cramped positions such
as sitting, kneeling, or lying; or when there is a high risk of unavoidable or accidental contact with the workpiece or ground. For these
conditions, use the following equipment in order presented: 1) a
semiautomatic DC constant voltage (wire) welder, 2) a DC manual
(stick) welder, or 3) an AC welder with reduced open-circuit voltage. In most situations, use of a DC, constant voltage wire welder
is recommended. And, do not work alone!
D Disconnect input power or stop engine before installing or
servicing this equipment. Lockout/tagout input power according to
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.147 (see Safety Standards).
D Properly install, ground, and operate this equipment according to
its Owner’s Manual and national, state, and local codes.
D Do not drape cables over your body.
D If earth grounding of the workpiece is required, ground it directly
with a separate cable.
D Do not touch electrode if you are in contact with the work, ground,
or another electrode from a different machine.
D Do not touch electrode holders connected to two welding machines at the same time since double open-circuit voltage will be
present.
D Use only well-maintained equipment. Repair or replace damaged
parts at once. Maintain unit according to manual.
D Wear a safety harness if working above floor level.
D Keep all panels and covers securely in place.
D Clamp work cable with good metal-to-metal contact to workpiece
or worktable as near the weld as practical.
D Insulate work clamp when not connected to workpiece to prevent
contact with any metal object.
D Do not connect more than one electrode or work cable to any
single weld output terminal. Disconnect cable for process not in
use.
SIGNIFICANT DC VOLTAGE exists in inverter welding power sources AFTER removal of input power.
D Turn Off inverter, disconnect input power, and discharge input
capacitors according to instructions in Maintenance Section
before touching any parts.
HOT PARTS can burn.
D Do not touch hot parts bare handed.
D Allow cooling period before working on equipment.
D To handle hot parts, use proper tools and/or
wear heavy, insulated welding gloves and
clothing to prevent burns.
155 095 Page 1
FUMES AND GASES can be hazardous.
Welding produces fumes and gases. Breathing
these fumes and gases can be hazardous to your
health.
D Keep your head out of the fumes. Do not breathe the fumes.
D If inside, ventilate the area and/or use local forced ventilation at the
arc to remove welding fumes and gases.
D If ventilation is poor, wear an approved air-supplied respirator.
D Read and understand the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)
and the manufacturer’s instructions for metals, consumables,
coatings, cleaners, and degreasers.
D Work in a confined space only if it is well ventilated, or while
wearing an air-supplied respirator. Always have a trained watchperson nearby. Welding fumes and gases can displace air and
lower the oxygen level causing injury or death. Be sure the breathing air is safe.
D Do not weld in locations near degreasing, cleaning, or spraying operations. The heat and rays of the arc can react with vapors to form
highly toxic and irritating gases.
D Do not weld on coated metals, such as galvanized, lead, or
cadmium plated steel, unless the coating is removed from the weld
area, the area is well ventilated, and while wearing an air-supplied
respirator. The coatings and any metals containing these elements
can give off toxic fumes if welded.
ARC RAYS can burn eyes and skin.
Arc rays from the welding process produce intense
visible and invisible (ultraviolet and infrared) rays
that can burn eyes and skin. Sparks fly off from the
weld.
D Wear an approved welding helmet fitted with a proper shade of
filter lenses to protect your face and eyes from arc rays and
sparks when welding or watching (see ANSI Z49.1 and Z87.1
listed in Safety Standards).
D Wear approved safety glasses with side shields under your
helmet.
D Use protective screens or barriers to protect others from flash,
glare and sparks; warn others not to watch the arc.
D Wear protective clothing made from durable, flame-resistant
material (leather, heavy cotton, or wool) and foot protection.
WELDING can cause fire or explosion.
Welding on closed containers, such as tanks,
drums, or pipes, can cause them to blow up. Sparks
can fly off from the welding arc. The flying sparks, hot
workpiece, and hot equipment can cause fires and
burns. Accidental contact of electrode to metal objects can cause
sparks, explosion, overheating, or fire. Check and be sure the area is
safe before doing any welding.
D Remove all flammables within 35 ft (10.7 m) of the welding arc. If
this is not possible, tightly cover them with approved covers.
D Do not weld where flying sparks can strike flammable material.
D Protect yourself and others from flying sparks and hot metal.
D Be alert that welding sparks and hot materials from welding can
easily go through small cracks and openings to adjacent areas.
D Watch for fire, and keep a fire extinguisher nearby.
D Be aware that welding on a ceiling, floor, bulkhead, or partition can
cause fire on the hidden side.
D Do not weld on containers that have held combustibles, or on
closed containers such as tanks, drums, or pipes unless they are
properly prepared according to AWS F4.1 and AWS A6.0 (see
Safety Standards).
D Do not weld where the atmosphere may contain flammable dust,
gas, or liquid vapors (such as gasoline).
D Connect work cable to the work as close to the welding area as
practical to prevent welding current from traveling long, possibly
unknown paths and causing electric shock, sparks, and fire
hazards.
D Do not use welder to thaw frozen pipes.
155 095 Page 2
D Remove stick electrode from holder or cut off welding wire at
contact tip when not in use.
D Wear oil-free protective garments such as leather gloves, heavy
shirt, cuffless trousers, high shoes, and a cap.
D Remove any combustibles, such as a butane lighter or matches,
from your person before doing any welding.
D After completion of work, inspect area to ensure it is free of sparks,
glowing embers, and flames.
D Use only correct fuses or circuit breakers. Do not oversize or bypass them.
D Follow requirements in OSHA 1910.252 (a) (2) (iv) and NFPA 51B
for hot work and have a fire watcher and extinguisher nearby.
FLYING METAL or DIRT can injure eyes.
D Welding, chipping, wire brushing, and grinding
cause sparks and flying metal. As welds cool,
they can throw off slag.
D Wear approved safety glasses with side
shields even under your welding helmet.
BUILDUP OF GAS can injure or kill.
D Shut off compressed gas supply when not in use.
D Always ventilate confined spaces or use
approved air-supplied respirator.
ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS (EMF)
can affect Implanted Medical Devices.
D Wearers of Pacemakers and other Implanted
Medical Devices should keep away.
D Implanted Medical Device wearers should consult their doctor
and the device manufacturer before going near arc welding, spot
welding, gouging, plasma arc cutting, or induction heating
operations.
NOISE can damage hearing.
Noise from some processes or equipment can
damage hearing.
D Wear approved ear protection if noise level is
high.
CYLINDERS can explode if damaged.
Compressed gas cylinders contain gas under high
pressure. If damaged, a cylinder can explode. Since
gas cylinders are normally part of the welding
process, be sure to treat them carefully.
D Protect compressed gas cylinders from excessive heat, mechanical shocks, physical damage, slag, open flames, sparks, and arcs.
D Install cylinders in an upright position by securing to a stationary
support or cylinder rack to prevent falling or tipping.
D Keep cylinders away from any welding or other electrical circuits.
D Never drape a welding torch over a gas cylinder.
D Never allow a welding electrode to touch any cylinder.
D Never weld on a pressurized cylinder − explosion will result.
D Use only correct compressed gas cylinders, regulators, hoses,
and fittings designed for the specific application; maintain them
and associated parts in good condition.
D Turn face away from valve outlet when opening cylinder valve.
D Keep protective cap in place over valve except when cylinder is in
use or connected for use.
D Use the right equipment, correct procedures, and sufficient number of persons to lift and move cylinders.
D Read and follow instructions on compressed gas cylinders,
associated equipment, and Compressed Gas Association (CGA)
publication P-1 listed in Safety Standards.
1-3. Additional Symbols For Installation, Operation, And Maintenance
FIRE OR EXPLOSION hazard.
BATTERY EXPLOSION can injure.
D Do not install or place unit on, over, or near
combustible surfaces.
D Do not install unit near flammables.
D Do not overload building wiring − be sure power supply system is
properly sized, rated, and protected to handle this unit.
D Do not use welder to charge batteries or jump
start vehicles unless it has a battery charging
feature designed for this purpose.
MOVING PARTS can injure.
D Keep away from moving parts such as fans.
D Keep all doors, panels, covers, and guards
closed and securely in place.
FALLING EQUIPMENT can injure.
D Use lifting eye to lift unit only, NOT running
gear, gas cylinders, or any other accessories.
D Use equipment of adequate capacity to lift and
support unit.
D If using lift forks to move unit, be sure forks are long enough to
extend beyond opposite side of unit.
D Keep equipment (cables and cords) away from moving vehicles
when working from an aerial location.
D Follow the guidelines in the Applications Manual for the Revised
NIOSH Lifting Equation (Publication No. 94−110) when manually lifting heavy parts or equipment.
OVERUSE can cause OVERHEATING
D Allow cooling period; follow rated duty cycle.
D Reduce current or reduce duty cycle before
starting to weld again.
D Do not block or filter airflow to unit.
D Have only qualified persons remove doors, panels, covers, or
guards for maintenance and troubleshooting as necessary.
D Reinstall doors, panels, covers, or guards when maintenance is
finished and before reconnecting input power.
READ INSTRUCTIONS.
D Read and follow all labels and the Owner’s
Manual carefully before installing, operating, or
servicing unit. Read the safety information at
the beginning of the manual and in each
section.
D Use only genuine replacement parts from the manufacturer.
D Perform maintenance and service according to the Owner’s
Manuals, industry standards, and national, state, and local
codes.
H.F. RADIATION can cause interference.
FLYING SPARKS can injure.
D Wear a face shield to protect eyes and face.
D Shape tungsten electrode only on grinder with
proper guards in a safe location wearing proper
face, hand, and body protection.
D Sparks can cause fires — keep flammables away.
STATIC (ESD) can damage PC boards.
D
D
D
D
D Put on grounded wrist strap BEFORE handling
boards or parts.
D Use proper static-proof bags and boxes to
store, move, or ship PC boards.
ARC WELDING can cause interference.
MOVING PARTS can injure.
D Keep away from moving parts.
D Keep away from pinch points such as drive
rolls.
D
WELDING WIRE can injure.
D Do not press gun trigger until instructed to do
so.
D Do not point gun toward any part of the body,
other people, or any metal when threading
welding wire.
D High-frequency (H.F.) can interfere with radio
navigation, safety services, computers, and
communications equipment.
D Have only qualified persons familiar with
electronic equipment perform this installation.
The user is responsible for having a qualified electrician promptly correct any interference problem resulting from the installation.
If notified by the FCC about interference, stop using the
equipment at once.
Have the installation regularly checked and maintained.
Keep high-frequency source doors and panels tightly shut, keep
spark gaps at correct setting, and use grounding and shielding to
minimize the possibility of interference.
D
D
D
D Electromagnetic energy can interfere with
sensitive electronic equipment such as
computers and computer-driven equipment
such as robots.
D Be sure all equipment in the welding area is
electromagnetically compatible.
To reduce possible interference, keep weld cables as short as
possible, close together, and down low, such as on the floor.
Locate welding operation 100 meters from any sensitive electronic equipment.
Be sure this welding machine is installed and grounded
according to this manual.
If interference still occurs, the user must take extra measures
such as moving the welding machine, using shielded cables,
using line filters, or shielding the work area.
155 095 Page 3
1-4. California Proposition 65 Warnings
Welding or cutting equipment produces fumes or gases
which contain chemicals known to the State of California to
cause birth defects and, in some cases, cancer. (California
Health & Safety Code Section 25249.5 et seq.)
This product contains chemicals, including lead, known to
the state of California to cause cancer, birth defects, or other
reproductive harm. Wash hands after use.
1-5. Principal Safety Standards
Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes, ANSI Standard Z49.1,
is available as a free download from the American Welding Society at
http://www.aws.org or purchased from Global Engineering Documents
(phone: 1-877-413-5184, website: www.global.ihs.com).
Safe Practices for the Preparation of Containers and Piping for Welding
and Cutting, American Welding Society Standard AWS F4.1, from Global Engineering Documents (phone: 1-877-413-5184, website:
www.global.ihs.com).
Safe Practices for Welding and Cutting Containers that have Held Combustibles, American Welding Society Standard AWS A6.0, from Global
Engineering Documents (phone: 1-877-413-5184,
website: www.global.ihs.com).
National Electrical Code, NFPA Standard 70, from National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA 02269 (phone: 1-800-344-3555, website:
www.nfpa.org and www. sparky.org).
Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Cylinders, CGA Pamphlet P-1,
from Compressed Gas Association, 14501 George Carter Way, Suite
103, Chantilly, VA 20151 (phone: 703-788-2700, website:www.cganet.com).
Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes, CSA Standard
W117.2, from Canadian Standards Association, Standards Sales, 5060
Spectrum Way, Suite 100, Ontario, Canada L4W 5NS (phone:
800-463-6727, website: www.csa-international.org).
Safe Practice For Occupational And Educational Eye And Face Protection, ANSI Standard Z87.1, from American National Standards Institute,
25 West 43rd Street, New York, NY 10036 (phone: 212-642-4900, website: www.ansi.org).
Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding, Cutting, and Other Hot
Work, NFPA Standard 51B, from National Fire Protection Association,
Quincy, MA 02269 (phone: 1-800-344-3555, website: www.nfpa.org.
OSHA, Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry, Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 1910, Subpart Q,
and Part 1926, Subpart J, from U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
(phone: 1-866-512-1800) (there are 10 OSHA Regional Offices—
phone for Region 5, Chicago, is 312-353-2220, website:
www.osha.gov).
Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 1600
Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333 (phone: 1-800-232-4636, website:
www.cdc.gov/NIOSH).
1-6. EMF Information
Electric current flowing through any conductor causes localized electric
and magnetic fields (EMF). Welding current creates an EMF field
around the welding circuit and welding equipment. EMF fields may interfere with some medical implants, e.g. pacemakers. Protective
measures for persons wearing medical implants have to be taken. For
example, restrict access for passers−by or conduct individual risk assessment for welders. All welders should use the following procedures
in order to minimize exposure to EMF fields from the welding circuit:
1. Keep cables close together by twisting or taping them, or using a
cable cover.
2. Do not place your body between welding cables. Arrange cables
to one side and away from the operator.
3. Do not coil or drape cables around your body.
155 095 Page 4
4. Keep head and trunk as far away from the equipment in the
welding circuit as possible.
5. Connect work clamp to workpiece as close to the weld as
possible.
6. Do not work next to, sit or lean on the welding power source.
7. Do not weld whilst carrying the welding power source or wire
feeder.
About Implanted Medical Devices:
Implanted Medical Device wearers should consult their doctor and the
device manufacturer before performing or going near arc welding, spot
welding, gouging, plasma arc cutting, or induction heating operations.
If cleared by your doctor, then following the above procedures is recommended.
SECTION 2 − PRINCIPLES OF SHIELDED METAL ARC
WELDING (SMAW)
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) or Stick welding is a process which melts and joins metals by heating them with
an arc between a coated metal electrode and the workpiece. The electrode outer coating, called flux, assists in creating the arc and provides the shielding gas and slag covering to protect the weld from contamination. The electrode
core provides most of the weld filler metal.
When the electrode is moved along the workpiece at the correct speed the metal deposits in a uniform layer called
a bead.
The Stick welding power source provides constant current (CC) and may be either alternating current (AC) or direct
current (DC), depending on the electrode being used. The best welding characteristics are usually obtained using DC
power sources.
The power in a welding circuit is measured in voltage and current. The voltage (Volts) is governed by the arc length
between the electrode and the workpiece and is influenced by electrode diameter. Current is a more practical measure
of the power in a weld circuit and is measured in amperes (Amps).
The amperage needed to weld depends on electrode diameter, the size and thickness of the pieces to be welded,
and the position of the welding. Thin metals require less current than thick metals, and a small electrode requires less
amperage than a large one.
It is preferable to weld on work in the flat or horizontal position. However, when forced to weld in vertical or overhead
positions it is helpful to reduce the amperage from that used when welding horizontally. Best welding results are
achieved by maintaining a short arc, moving the electrode at a uniform speed, and feeding the electrode downward
at a constant speed as it melts.
More specific information on the Stick welding procedure is provided in the following sections.
1
1
Stick Welding Power Source
− Constant Current (CC), AC
Or DC
2
Insulated Electrode Holder
3
Workpiece
4
Work Clamp
2
3
4
Ref. 157 858
155 095 Page 5
SECTION 3 − SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW)
PROCEDURE
3-1. Typical Stick Welding Set-Up
5
!
Welding current starts as soon as
electrode touches the workpiece.
!
Weld current can damage electronic parts in vehicles. Disconnect both battery cables before
welding on a vehicle. Place work
clamp as close to the weld as
possible.
. Always wear
4
2
1
appropriate personal
protective clothing.
Workpiece
Make sure workpiece is clean before
welding.
2
Work Clamp
Place as close to the weld as possible.
3
3
6
1
7
Electrode
Before striking an arc, insert an electrode
in the electrode holder. A small diameter
electrode requires less current than a
large one. Follow recommendations of
the electrode manufacturer when setting
weld amperage (see Section 3-2).
4
Insulated Electrode Holder
5
Electrode Holder Position
6
Arc Length
Arc length is the distance from the electrode to the workpiece. A short arc with
correct amperage will give a sharp,
crackling sound. Correct arc length is related to electrode diameter. Examine the
weld bead to determine if the arc length
is correct.
Tools Needed:
Arc length for 1/16 and 3/32 in. diameter
electrodes should be about 1/16 in. (1.6
mm); arc length for 1/8 and 5/32 in. electrodes should be about 1/8 in. (3 mm).
7
Slag
Use a chipping hammer and wire brush to
remove slag. Remove slag and check
weld bead before making another weld
pass.
151 593
155 095 Page 6
6013
7014
7018
7024
Ni-Cl
308L
DEEP
ALL
DEEP
6013
EP,EN
ALL
LOW
GENERAL
ALL
MED
SMOOTH, EASY,
FAST
USAGE
PENETRATION
ALL
EP
AC
EP
6011
DC*
6010
ELECTRODE
450
400
350
300
AMPERAGE
RANGE
250
200
150
POSITION
6010
&
6011
3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16
7/32
1/4
1/16
5/64
3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16
7/32
1/4
3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16
7/32
1/4
3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16
7/32
1/4
3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16
7/32
1/4
3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16
3/32
1/8
5/32
100
50
DIAMETER
ELECTRODE
3-2. Electrode And Amperage Selection Chart
MIN. PREP, ROUGH
HIGH SPATTER
7014
EP,EN
7018
EP
ALL
MED
LOW HYDROGEN,
STRONG
7024
EP,EN
FLAT
HORIZ
FILLET
LOW
SMOOTH, EASY,
FASTER
NI-CL
EP
ALL
LOW
CAST IRON
308L
EP
ALL
LOW
STAINLESS
*EP = ELECTRODE POSITIVE (REVERSE POLARITY)
EN = ELECTRODE NEGATIVE (STRAIGHT POLARITY)
Ref. S-087 985-A
155 095 Page 7
3-3. Striking An Arc − Scratch Start Technique
!
Welding current starts as
soon as electrode touches the
workpiece.
. The
scratch-start technique is
preferred for ac welding.
1
1
Electrode
2
Workpiece
3
Arc
Drag electrode across workpiece
like striking a match; immediately lift
electrode slightly after touching
work. If arc goes out, electrode was
lifted too high. If electrode sticks to
workpiece, use a quick twist to free it.
2
3
S-0049
3-4. Striking An Arc − Tapping Technique
!
Welding current starts as
soon as electrode touches the
workpiece.
1
Electrode
2
Workpiece
3
Arc
Bring electrode straight down to
workpiece; then lift slightly to start
arc. If arc goes out, electrode was
lifted too high. If electrode sticks to
workpiece, use a quick twist to free it.
1
2
3
S-0049
155 095 Page 8
3-5. Positioning Electrode Holder
After learning to start and hold an
arc, practice running beads of weld
metal on flat plates using a full electrode.
Hold the electrode nearly perpendicular to the work, although tilting
it ahead (in the direction of travel)
will be helpful.
. To
produce the best results,
hold a short arc, travel at a uniform speed, and feed the electrode downward at a constant
rate as it melts.
Groove Welds
10°- 30°
90°
90°
Direction Of Welding
End View Of Work Angle
Side View Of Electrode Angle
Fillet Welds
45°
10°- 30°
45°
Direction Of Welding
End View Of Work Angle
Side View Of Electrode Angle
S-0660
155 095 Page 9
3-6. Electrode Movement During Welding
.A
single stringer bead is satisfactory for most narrow groove weld
joints; however, for wide groove
weld joints or bridging across gaps,
a weave bead or multiple stringer
beads work better.
1
1
Stringer Bead − Steady Movement Along Seam
2
Weave Bead − Side To Side
Movement Along Seam
3
Weave Patterns
Use weave patterns to cover a wide
area in one pass of the electrode. Limit
weave width to a maximum of 2-1/2
times diameter of electrode.
2
3
S-0054-A
Notes
Work like a Pro!
Pros weld and cut
safely. Read the
safety rules at
the beginning
of this manual.
155 095 Page 10
3-7. Conditions That Affect Weld Bead Shape
. Weld bead shape is affected by
electrode angle, arc length, travel speed, and thickness of base metal.
Electrode Angle
Correct Angle
10°
Angle Too Small
- 30°
Drag
Angle Too Large
Arc Length
Spatter
Too Short
Normal
Too Long
Travel Speed
Too Slow
Normal
Too Fast
S-0661
155 095 Page 11
3-8. Poor Weld Bead Characteristics
1
Large Spatter Deposits
2
Rough, Uneven Bead
3
Slight Crater During
Welding
4
Bad Overlap
5
Poor Penetration
1
2
4
3
5
S-0053-A
3-9. Good Weld Bead Characteristics
1
Fine Spatter
2
Uniform Bead
3
Moderate Crater During
Welding
4
No Overlap
5
Good Penetration Into Base
Metal
1
2
3
4
5
S-0052-B
155 095 Page 12
3-10. Typical Weld Joints
Groove (Butt) Joint
Lap Joint
Groove (Butt) Joint
Tee Joint
Lap Joint
Tee Joint
Flat Position Welds
Horizontal Position Welds
Groove (Butt) Joint
Groove (Butt) Joint
Lap Joint
Vertical Position Welds
Tee Joint
Lap Joint
Tee Joint
Overhead Position Welds
804 248
155 095 Page 13
3-11. Welding Groove (Butt) Joints
Types Of Groove (Butt) Joint Welds
1
Tack Welds
Prevent butt joint distortion by tack welding
the materials in position before final weld.
Workpiece distortion occurs when heat is
applied locally to a joint. One side of a metal plate will “curl” up toward the weld. Distortion will also cause the edges of a butt
joint to pull together ahead of the electrode
as the weld cools.
2
1
Square Groove Weld
3
Single V-Groove Weld
4
Double V-Groove Weld
Materials up to 3/16 in. (5 mm) thick can
often be welded without special preparation using the square groove weld. However, when welding thicker materials it may
be necessary to prepare the edges (Vgroove) of butt joints to ensure good welds.
The single or double V-groove weld is good
for materials 3/16 − 3/4 in. (5-19 mm) thick.
Generally, the single V-groove is used on
materials up to 3/4 in. (19 mm) thick and
when, regardless of thickness, you can
weld from one side only. Create a 30 degree bevel with oxyacetylene or plasma
cutting equipment. Remove scale from
material after cutting. A grinder can also be
used to prepare bevels.
Groove (Butt) Joint Training Procedure
Practice welding butt joints on 1/8 in. (4
mm) or thicker material. (Avoid thinner materials since they require greater skill.)
Separate the squared edges of the material about 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) and make a butt
weld all the way through with a 1/8 in. electrode. (You may need to adjust the weld
current and travel speed to obtain the desired weld.) Perform a similar exercise on
1/4 in. (6 mm) material, depositing a bead
on each side of the joint and fusing one to
the another (no bevel needed).
2
1/16 in.
(1.6 mm)
Practice making a single V-groove weld on
1/4 in. (6 mm) plate beveled 30°. Start with
a 1/8 in. electrode for the first bead and finish with a 5/32 in. (4 mm) electrode. Be
sure to penetrate about 1/32 in. (1 mm) beyond the bottom of the “V” or root. Perform
a similar exercise on thicker materials.
Generally, deposit a bead for each 1/8 in.
(3mm) of material thickness, cleaning the
joint between layers. On heavier plates, it
may be necessary to weave the top layers
to fill the groove.
30°
Root Face
3
4
After completing the practice welds, test
them as described in Section 3-18.
S-0662
155 095 Page 14
3-12. Welding Tee Joints
1
Electrode
2
Fillet Weld
Keep arc short and move at definite
rate of speed. Hold electrode as
shown to provide fusion into the
corner. Square edge of the weld
surface.
1
For maximum strength weld both
sides of upright section.
2
45°
Or Less
3
Multi-Layer Deposits
Weld a second layer when a heavier fillet is needed. Use any of the
weaving patterns shown in Section
3-6. Remove slag before making
another weld pass.
2
1
3
S-0060 / S-0058-A / S-0061
3-13. Welding Lap Joints
1
Electrode
2
Single-Layer Fillet Weld
Move electrode in circular motion.
3
30°
Or Less
1
Multi-Layer Fillet Weld
Weld a second layer when a heavier fillet is needed. Remove slag before making another weld pass.
Weld both sides of joint for maximum strength.
2
Single-Layer Fillet Weld
30°
Or Less
1
3
Multi-Layer Fillet Weld
S-0063 / S-0064
155 095 Page 15
3-14. Welding Horizontal Beads And Groove (Butt) Joints
. When welding horizontally,
gravity may distort the molten metal.
. This technique is not
suitable for all electrodes.
Single Pass Bead Weld
Direction Of Welding
Tilt Electrode 15°
Toward Direction
Of Welding.
1
1
Electrode
2
Backing Strip
Bevel edges if warranted by material thickness (see Section
3-11). Tack weld a backing strip
to the plates to make the first
weld pass (root pass) easier.
90°
90°
15°
Single Pass Horizontal
Groove (Butt) Joint Weld Or
First Pass Of Multi-Layer
Deposit
2
30°
30°
Bevel Material If Necessary (See Section 3-11).
Direction Of
Welding
90°
30°
Direction Of
Welding
Tilt Electrode 15° In
Direction Of Travel
Make First Weld Pass (Root Pass).
Make Second Weld Pass.
Direction Of
Welding
45°
Make Third Weld Pass.
155 095 Page 16
Completed Weld.
804 260
3-15. Welding Vertical Beads And Groove (Butt) Joints
. When
welding vertically,
gravity may distort the molten metal.
Single Pass Bead Weld
. This technique is not
Whipping Up
Motion
Weave Bead
1/2 in. (12 mm)
Wide
Direction Of
Welding
1/2 in
(12 mm)
Direction Of
Welding
suitable for all electrodes.
90°
1
1
Electrode
2
Backing Strip
Weld vertically by carrying the
weld upward or starting at the top
and welding down. Welding upward is easier and is shown in
these illustrations.
Bevel edges if warranted by material thickness (see Section
3-11). Tack weld a backing strip
to the plates to make the first
weld pass (root pass) easier.
Single Pass Vertical Groove (Butt) Joint
Weld Or First Pass Of Multi-Layer Deposit
2
Direction Of
Welding
90°
Arrows Show Lifting Up
Of Electrode And Return
To Crater.
90°
1st Pass
OR
3rd Pass
Direction Of
Welding
Hesitate With
Slight Up And
Down Motion.
Shorten Arc At
Arrowheads
When At Center
Of Weld.
Direction Of
Welding
2nd Pass
4th Pass
Vertical Groove (Butt) Joint Weld Subsequent Layers
804 260
155 095 Page 17
3-16. Welding Vertical Tee Joints And Lap Joints
. When
welding vertically,
gravity may distort the molten metal.
. This technique is not
Tee Joint Weld
suitable for all electrodes.
90°
Direction Of
Welding
For maximum strength, weld
both sides of joint.
Arrows Show Lifting Up
Of Electrode And Return To
Crater.
90°
First Weld Pass
Shows
Weaving
Motion.
Direction Of
Welding
Direction Of
Welding
Shows
Weaving
Motion.
OR
90°
90°
Subsequent Weld Passes
Lap Joint Weld
Direction Of
Welding
Shows
Weaving
Motion.
90°
804 260
155 095 Page 18
3-17. Welding Overhead Groove (Butt) Joints And Tee Joints
. When
welding overhead,
gravity may distort the molten metal.
. This technique is not
2
Groove (Butt) Joint Weld
suitable for all electrodes.
1
Electrode
2
Backing Strip
Welding overhead is the most difficult welding skill to master.
90°
When welding overhead, use a
welding motion that draws arc
out and slightly away from the
crater to allow weld puddle to solidify.
1
90°
Direction Of
Welding
15°
When weaving is necessary, use
the pattern shown.
Bevel edges if warranted by material thickness (see Section
3-11). Tack weld a backing strip
to the plates to make the first
weld pass (root pass) easier.
Electrode Position
Direction Of Welding
Draw arc out and away
from crater to let weld
puddle soldify.
Welding Patterns
Overhead Welding Technique
1
1/2 in (12 mm)
2 3
Sequence Of Multiple Weld Passes
1/2 in.
(12 mm)
Tee Joint Weld
Direction Of
Welding
1/2 in
(12 mm)
30°
First Weld Pass
Subsequent Weld Passes
804 260
155 095 Page 19
3-18. Weld Test
1
Vise
2
Weld Joint
3
Hammer
Strike the weld joint in the direction
shown. A good weld bends over but
does not break.
If the weld breaks, examine it to determine the cause.
If the weld is porous (many holes),
the arc length was probably too
long.
If the weld contains bits of slag, the
arc may have been too long or the
electrode was moved incorrectly
which allowed molten slag to be
trapped in the weld. This may happen on a V-groove joint made in
several layers and calls for additional cleaning between layers.
3
3
2 To 3 in.
(51-76 mm)
2
1
1/4 in.
(6.4 mm)
2 To 3 in.
(51-76 mm)
2
1
If the original beveled surface is visible the material was not fully melted
which is often caused by insufficient
heat or too fast a travel speed.
S-0057-B
SECTION 4 − WELDING TROUBLESHOOTING
4-1. Porosity
Porosity − small cavities or holes
resulting from gas pockets in weld
metal.
Possible Causes
Corrective Actions
Arc length too long.
Reduce arc length.
Workpiece dirty.
Remove all grease, oil, moisture, rust, paint, coatings, slag, and dirt from work surface before welding.
Damp electrode.
Use dry electrode.
155 095 Page 20
4-2. Excessive Spatter
Excessive Spatter − scattering of
molten metal particles that cool to
solid form near weld bead.
Possible Causes
Amperage too high for
electrode.
Corrective Actions
Decrease amperage or select larger electrode.
Arc length too long or voltage Reduce arc length or voltage.
too high.
4-3. Incomplete Fusion
Incomplete Fusion − failure of weld
metal to fuse completely with base
metal or a preceeding weld bead.
Possible Causes
Corrective Actions
Insufficient heat input.
Increase amperage. Select larger electrode and increase amperage.
Improper welding technique.
Place stringer bead in proper location(s) at joint during welding.
Adjust work angle or widen groove to access bottom during welding.
Momentarily hold arc on groove side walls when using weaving technique.
Keep arc on leading edge of weld puddle.
Workpiece dirty.
Remove all grease, oil, moisture, rust, paint, coatings, slag, and dirt from work surface before welding.
4-4. Lack Of Penetration
Lack Of Penetration − shallow
fusion between weld metal and
base metal.
Lack of Penetration
Good Penetration
Possible Causes
Corrective Actions
Improper joint preparation.
Material too thick. Joint preparation and design must provide access to bottom of groove.
Improper weld technique.
Keep arc on leading edge of weld puddle.
Reduce travel speed.
Insufficient heat input.
Increase amperage. Select larger electrode and increase amperage.
155 095 Page 21
4-5. Excessive Penetration
Excessive Penetration − weld metal
melting through base metal and
hanging underneath weld.
Excessive Penetration
Good Penetration
Possible Causes
Corrective Actions
Excessive heat input.
Select lower amperage. Use smaller electrode.
Improper weld technique.
Adjust travel speed.
4-6. Burn-Through
Burn-Through − weld metal melting
completely through base metal
resulting in holes where no metal remains.
Possible Causes
Excessive heat input.
Corrective Actions
Select lower amperage. Use smaller electrode.
Increase and/or maintain steady travel speed.
4-7. Waviness Of Bead
Waviness Of Bead − weld metal that
is not parallel and does not cover
joint formed by base metal.
Possible Causes
Unsteady hand.
Corrective Actions
Use two hands. Practice technique.
4-8. Distortion
Distortion − contraction of weld metal during welding that forces base
metal to move.
Base metal moves
in the direction of
the weld bead.
Possible Causes
Excessive heat input.
Corrective Actions
Use restraint (clamp) to hold base metal in position.
Make tack welds along joint before starting welding operation.
Predict anticipated weld distortion and precamber base metal.
Select lower amperage for electrode.
Increase travel speed.
Weld in small segments and allow cooling between welds.
155 095 Page 22
Notes
MATERIAL THICKNESS REFERENCE CHART
24 Gauge (.025 in.)
22 Gauge (.031 in.)
20 Gauge (.037 in.)
18 Gauge (.050 in.)
16 Gauge (.063 in.)
14 Gauge (.078 in.)
1/8 in. (.125 in.)
3/16 in. (.188 in.)
1/4 in. (.25 in.)
5/16 in. (.313 in.)
3/8 in. (.375 in.)
1/2 in. (.5 in.)
Notes
Work like a Pro!
Pros weld and cut
safely. Read the
safety rules at
the beginning
of this manual.
Notes
Start Your Professional
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Owner’s Record
Please complete and retain with your personal records.
Model Name
Serial/Style Number
Purchase Date
(Date which equipment was delivered to original customer.)
Distributor
Address
City
State
Zip
For Service
Contact a DISTRIBUTOR or SERVICE AGENCY near you.
Always provide Model Name and Serial/Style Number.
Contact your Distributor for:
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Options and Accessories
Personal Safety Equipment
Service and Repair
Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
An Illinois Tool Works Company
1635 West Spencer Street
Appleton, WI 54914 USA
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Training (Schools, Videos, Books)
Technical Manuals (Servicing Information
and Parts)
Circuit Diagrams
For International Locations Visit
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Welding Process Handbooks
To locate a Distributor or Service Agency visit
www.millerwelds.com or call 1-800-4-A-Miller
Contact the Delivering Carrier to:
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shipment.
For assistance in filing or settling claims, contact
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Transportation Department.
ORIGINAL INSTRUCTIONS − PRINTED IN USA
International Headquarters−USA
USA Phone: 920-735-4505 Auto-Attended
USA & Canada FAX: 920-735-4134
International FAX: 920-735-4125
© 2013 Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
2013−01
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