MIDDLE SCHOOL COURSE OUTLINE

MIDDLE SCHOOL COURSE OUTLINE

OFFICE OF CURRICULUM, INSTRUCTION, & PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Department

Course Title

Science

Science 8

Abbreviation

Science 8

MIDDLE SCHOOL COURSE OUTLINE

(Revised June 2012)

Course Code

Grade Level

4120

8

Course Length 1 year

Prerequisites

None

COURSE DESCRIPTION:

Eighth grade science is a standards and laboratory based program. Students should spend approximately forty percent (40%) of their class time on hands-on activities. Introductory principles of physics and chemistry will be explored in detail, with some related topics from earth and life sciences included. Constructivist methods of teaching are employed to ensure the best possible comprehension and retention or science concepts. Science activities will be based on the California Science Standards as delineated in the California Science Framework and will utilize the skills and techniques outlined in the Investigation and Experimentation Strand of the

Content Standards.

GOALS:

(Student needs this course is intended to meet)

 Students will learn all of the California State Standards for 8 th

Grade Science, which emphasize physical sciences. The use of well-designed, memorable experiences and the application of scientific knowledge and methodology are essential in helping students achieve appropriate comprehension of the content.

 Students will improve their ability to learn independently by drawing generalizations from science related articles, books, graphs, charts, and diagrams. Regular opportunities are provided for students to clearly communicate their understanding through oral and written explanations of science concepts.

 Students will study the applications of science in everyday life to inspire them to consider pursuing advanced studies in science and explore the wide variety of related career choices available.

Science 8, Page 2

CONTEXT: CONTENT SCOPE AND SEQUENCE

6th

Density (Qualitative) -------- (CA 8)

Energy

7th

Physical Sciences

Temperature vs. Heat

Heat Transfer

8th

Observing and Defining Motion

Forces and their Effects

Gravity’s Larges Scale Effects

Basic Atomic Theory

Periodic Table as a Tool

Metals, Non-metals, Inert Gases

Electrons beyond the Bohr Model

Ions and Isotopes

Physical & Chemical Properties

Element vs. Compound Properties

Chemical Bonding

Atoms and Ions Forming Solids

Phases and Molecular Motion

Chemical Formulas

Chemical Equations & Conservation of Matter

Exothermic vs. Endothermic

Acids, Bases, and pH

Density & Buoyancy

Light, Levers in the body,

& Heart Function ---- (CA 7)

Earth Sciences

Earth’s Layers

Plate Tectonics

Mountain Building

Earthquakes, Faults, and Epicenters

Volcanoes

California Geology

Mechanical & Chemical Weathering

Minerals ---------------------------------------- (LB)

Rock Cycle (Igneous, Metamorphic, and

Sedimentary Rocks) -------------------------- (LB)

Sun’s Effect on Weather

Convections

Solar Energy

Atmospheric Conditions

Natural Resources

Stratigraphy: Fossil Locations Rock (CA 7)

Geol. Timeline of Earth’s History ----- (CA 7)

Formation of Fossils ---------------------- (CA 7)

Methods of Dating Earth’s History --- (CA 7)

Galaxies and Stars

Life Cycles of Stars (Nebular Theory,

Novas, etc.)

Distances in Astronomy

Light Sources and Reflectors in the

Universe

Cosmology (Universe Origin) -------- (LB)

Solar System

Life Sciences

Food Chains / Food Webs

Ecosystems

Human Impacts on Ecosystems --------- (LB)

Six Designated Lessons from Project

ALERT Health Curriculum

Cell Similarities & Differentiation

Function of Cell Structures

Energy at the Cellular Level

Photosynthesis / Respiration

Mitosis

Genetics

DNA RNA Protein ----------------- (LB)

Sexual / Asexual Reproduction

Meiosis ----------------------------------------- (LB)

DNA, Genes, & Alleles

Dominant & Recessive Traits

Theory of Evolution

Natural Selection

Body Systems

Taxonomic Keys ----------------------------- (LB)

Kingdoms & Major Phyla ------------------ (LB)

Simple Machines

and the Human Body ------------- (CA 7)

Blood Pressure and Heart Valves --- (CA 7)

Organic Chem. / Biochem.

Three Designated “Booster Lessons” from Project ALERT Health Curriculum

Notes regarding non-aligned content:

(LB) => Long Beach specific content; not found in CA Science

Content Standards

(CA 7) => 7 th

grade content which has been moved to 6 th

or 8 th

grade to accommodate reduced science instruction in 7 th

grade

(CA 8) => 8 th

grade content which should be presented qualitatively in 6 th

grade to help explain convections and other Earth science related content

Science 8

Page 3

CONTEXT: SKILLS SCOPE AND SEQUENCE

Investigation and Experimentation:

Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations.

As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:

6th

7a. Develop a hypothesis.

b. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (including calculators, computers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, and binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.

c. Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop qualitative statements about the relationships between variables.

d. Communicate the steps and results from an investigation in written reports and oral presentations.

e. Recognize whether evidence is consistent with a proposed explanation.

f. Read a topographic map and a geologic map for evidence provided on the maps and construct and interpret a simple scale map.

g. Interpret events by sequence and time from natural phenomena (e.g., the relative ages of rocks and intrusions).

h. Identify changes in natural phenomena over time without manipulating the phenomena (e.g., a tree limb, a grove of trees, a stream, a hillslope).

7th

7a. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (including calculators, computers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, and binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.

b. Utilize a variety of print and electronic resources (including the World Wide Web) to collect information as evidence as part of a research project.

c. Communicate the logical connection among hypothesis, science concepts, tests conducted, data collected, and conclusions drawn from the scientific evidence.

d. Construct scale models, maps and appropriately labeled diagrams to communicate scientific knowledge (e.g., motion of Earth’s plates and cell structure).

e. Communicate the steps and results from an investigation in written reports and verbal presentations.

8th

9a. Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

b. Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data.

c. Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.

d. Recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationship y=kx and apply this to interpret graphs constructed from data.

e. Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationships between variables.

f. Apply simple mathematical relationships to determine one quantity given the other two

(including speed = distance/time, density = mass/volume, force = pressure x area, volume=area x height). g. Distinguish between linear and non-linear relationships on a graph of data.

Science 8, Page 4

CA CONTENT STANDARDS

Grade 8 Focus On Physical Science:

Motion

1. The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. position is defined in relation to some choice of standard reference point and a set of reference directions. [CST] b. average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed and that the speed of an object along the path traveled can vary. [CST] c. how to solve problems involving distance, time, and average speed. [CST] d. the velocity of an object must be described by specifying both the direction and the speed of an object. [CST] e. changes in velocity may be due to changes in speed, direction, or both. [CST] f. how to interpret graphs of position versus time and graphs of speed versus time for motion in a single direction.

[CST]

Forces

2. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. a force has both direction and magnitude. [CST] b. when an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the result is the cumulative effect of all the forces. [CST] c. when the forces on an object are balanced, the motion of the object does not change. [CST] d. how to identify separately the two or more forces that are acting on a single static object, including gravity, elastic forces due to tension or compression in matter, and friction. [CST] e. when the forces on an object are unbalanced, the object will change its velocity (that is, it will speed up, slow down, or change direction). [CST] f. the greater the mass of an object, the more force is needed to achieve the same rate of change in motion. [CST] g. the role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars and the solar system. [CST]

Structure of Matter

3. Elements have distinct properties and atomic structure. All matter is comprised of one or more of over 100 elements. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. the structure of the atom and how it is composed of protons, neutrons and electrons. [CST] b. compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements. Compounds have properties that are different from the constituent elements. [CST] c. atoms and molecules form solids by building up repeating patterns such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long chain polymers. [CST] d. the states (solid, liquid, gas) of matter depend on molecular motion. [CST] e. in solids the atoms are closely locked in position and can only vibrate, in liquids the atoms and molecules are more loosely connected and can collide with and move past one another, while in gases the atoms or molecules are free to move independently, colliding frequently. [CST] f. how to use the Periodic Table to identify elements in simple compounds. [CST]

Science 8, Page 5

Earth in the Solar System (Earth Science)

4. The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from the study of stars and galaxies, and their evolution. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. galaxies are clusters of billions of stars, and may have different shapes. [CST] b. the sun is one of many stars in our own Milky Way galaxy. Stars may differ in size, temperature, and color. [CST] c. how to use astronomical units and light years as measures of distance between the sun, stars, and Earth. [CST] d. stars are the source of light for all bright objects in outer space. The moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight, not by their own light. [CST] e. the appearance, general composition, relative position and size, and motion of objects in the solar system, including planets, planetary satellites, comets, and asteroids. [CST]

Reactions

5. Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of molecules.

As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. reactant atoms and molecules interact to form products with different chemical properties. [CST] b. the idea of atoms explains the conservation of matter: in chemical reactions the number of atoms stays the same no matter how they are arranged, so their total mass stays the same. [CST] c. chemical reactions usually liberate heat or absorb heat. [CST] d. physical processes include freezing and boiling, in which a material changes form with no chemical reaction. [CST] e. how to determine whether a solution is acidic, basic or neutral. [CST]

Chemistry of Living Systems (Life Science)

6. Principles of chemistry underlie the functioning of biological systems. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. carbon, because of its ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements, has a central role in the chemistry of living organisms. [CST] b. living organisms are made of molecules largely consisting of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur. [CST, LS10] c. living organisms have many different kinds of molecules including small ones such as water and salt, and very large ones such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins and DNA. [CST, LS10]

Periodic Table

7. The organization of the Periodic Table is based on the properties of the elements and reflects the structure of atoms. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. how to identify regions corresponding to metals, nonmetals and inert gases. [CST] b. elements are defined by the number of protons in the nucleus, which is called the atomic number. Different isotopes of an element have a different number of neutrons in the nucleus. [CST] c. substances can be classified by their properties, including melting temperature, density, hardness, heat, and electrical conductivity. [CST]

Density and Buoyancy

8. All objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. density is mass per unit volume. [CST] b. how to calculate the density of substances (regular and irregular solids, and liquids) from measurements of mass and volume. [CST] c. the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid it has displaced. [CST] d. how to predict whether an object will float or sink. [CST]

Science 8, Page 6

Note: This section has been moved to 8 semester 7

th

grade science programs.

th

grade in Long Beach to accommodate single-

Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science) (CA 7 th

Grade Standard Set)

6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know … a. visible light is a small band within a very broad electromagnetic spectrum. b. that for an object to be seen, light emitted by or scattered from it must be detected by the eye. c. light travels in straight lines if the medium it travels through does not change. d. how simple lenses are used in a magnifying glass, the eye, a camera, a telescope, and a microscope. e. that white light is a mixture of many wavelengths (colors) and that retinal cells react differently to different wavelengths. f. light can be reflected, refracted, transmitted, and absorbed by matter. g. the angle of reflection of a light beam is equal to the angle of incidence. h. how to compare joints in the body (wrist, shoulder, thigh) with structures used in machines and simple devices

(hinge, ball-and-socket, and sliding joints). i. how levers confer mechanical advantage and how the application of this principle applies to the musculoskeletal system. j. that contractions of the heart generate blood pressure and that heart valves prevent backflow of blood in the circulatory system. [LS10]

Investigation and Experimentation

9. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will: a. plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis. [CST] b. evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data. [CST, LS10] c. distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test. [CST, LS10] d. recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationship y=kx and apply this to interpret graphs constructed from data. [CST] e. construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationships between variables. [CST] f. apply simple mathematic relationships to determine a missing quantity in a mathematic expression, given the two remaining terms (including speed = distance/time, density = mass/volume, force = pressure x area, volume = area x height). [CST] g. distinguish between linear and non-linear relationships on a graph of data. [CST]

CST = Standards assessed on the California Standards Test

LS10 = Standards assessed on the 10 th

grade No Child Left Behind Biology/Life Science Test

Science 8, Page 7

DISTRICT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS:

The Long Beach Unified School District has common assessments and assignments that are required for eighth grade science. The Performance Standard Criteria are shown in the table below. The objective is to have all students achieve at or above the Proficient Level and receive a C or better in the course.

Performance level is determined by the average of the assessments or assignments.

Science Performance Standard Criteria

Not Proficient Partial Proficient Proficient

Advanced

Proficient

Graded Student Work

Average is a 1 or less than 60%

Average is a 2 or 60% - 69%

Average is a 3 or 70% - 84%

Average is a 4 or 85% - 100%

Standards-Based Classroom

Assessments

Written Response / Lab Report /

OES

(6 point scale)

Written Response / Lab Report /

OES

(4 point scale)

Less than 60%

1-2

1

60% - 69%

3

2

70% - 84%

4

3

85% - 100%

5-6

4

End-Of-Course Exam Less than 46% 46% - 58% 59% - 72% 73% - 100%

STATE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS:

The California State Board of Education has identified the following performance levels for the California

Standards Test (CST) in 8 th

Grade Science. The objective of Long Beach Unified School District is to have all students achieve at or above the Proficient Performance Standard (Level). The table below indicates the estimated percent correct (based on 2007 CST data) and the Scaled Score (SS) on the Content Standards

Test.

Advanced

Far Below Basic Below Basic Basic Proficient

Less than 33% 33% - 45% 46% - 58% 59% - 72%

Proficient

73% - 100%

SS 150 – 252 SS 253 – 299 SS 300 – 349 SS 350 – 402 SS 403 – 600

Science 8, Page 8

OUTLINE OF CONTENT AND RECOMMENDED TIME ALLOTMENT:

Content sequencing and time allocations are only suggestions and may be adjusted to suit school site curriculum plans and student needs.

SCIENCE 8

Notes about Glencoe materials:

1. Each Chapter “Fast File” includes lab worksheets, review worksheets, etc. to support the text.

2. The Presentation Disc includes all transparencies so that they can be show using an LCD projector.

3. Video Labs on the “Super DVD” are different from the labs in the textbook. Pause or stop the video before showing “Expected Outcomes” until the students have conducted their own experiments.

Structure of Matter

15% CST

3. Each of the more than 100 elements have distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of matter are composed of one or more of the elements.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… the structure of the atom and know it is composed of protons, neutrons and electrons.

(3,a)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Biography of an Atom

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Describe the structure of the atom as having mostly empty space with a tiny, massive nucleus at its center.

 Identify the proton, neutron, and electron as the major particles that make up atoms.

 Recall that each element is made up of one type of atom, which is determined by the number of protons in the nucleus.

 Explain that each electron has a definite energy that keeps it moving around the positive nucleus to which it is attracted.

 Describe how electrons fill up orbitals at different energy levels (which the Bohr “solar” model oversimplifies).

 Explain how the experiments of

Ernest Rutherford and Neils

Bohr helped develop our understanding of the atom using indirect evidence; and that today’s modern equipment, which can make more direct observations of the atom, has confirmed their inferences.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, 4:1,2

PH FoPS, 14:3 and 18:1

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST:10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

Atom nucleus electron neutron energy orbital

proton electrical charge mass

SKILLS FOCUS:

Modeling, evaluation

Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data. (I&E 9.b)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Diagramming Atoms

Students practice drawing energy level diagrams of the first 20 elements.

 Focus on PS, Design Your Own

Lab, “Build an Atom” pp 204-5

 Focus on PS, Launch Lab,

“What’s in the Box?” p 171

Bohr’s Atom Cards

Students work in groups to create a “deck” of 20 cards showing energy level diagrams of elements 1-20. Arrange cards in the pattern of the Periodic Table.

Students examine the diagrams to identify patterns explaining why the elements are arranged as they are.

 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “How do

Atoms Differ?” p 203

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “How Big are the Particles?” p 181

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 9

Structure of Matter

15% CST

3. Each of the more than 100 elements have distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of matter are composed of one or more of the elements.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, 5:1

PH FoPS, 14:1, 18:3, 18:4, and 17:2

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST:10%.)

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

… compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements and that compounds have properties that are different from their constituent elements.

(3,b)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: What’s the Matter?

 Explain how ionic bonds form.

 Explain how covalent bonds form.

 Define compounds as combinations of two or more elements that have physical and chemical properties that are usually different from that of their constituent elements.

 Describe examples of ionic compounds made from metals and non-metals and organic

(covalent) compounds made from carbon and other elements.

(Note: At this point, the focus is on how and why atoms combine, not on products and reactants, nor on balancing equations.

Standards 5a and 5b will address this again in the context of chemical reactions.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

compound covalent bond chemical bond chemical reaction ionic bond

molecule

SKILLS FOCUS:

Modeling, observation, experimentation

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

(I&E 9.a)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Create models of simple

chemical reactions where atoms or elements combine to form molecules. Have students research the properties of the elements and the resulting compound. They may also research where the reaction takes place in nature or in human applications.

(Adapted from CA Science

Framework, p 135. The activity in the Framework is actually more relevant to standard 5a and

5b.)

 Focus on PS, Launch Lab,

“Structures Made of Atoms”, p 215

Modeling Molecules

Students use molecular model kits to construct models of ionic and covalent compounds.

 Focus on PS, Ch 5 Fast File,

“Phlogiston or Oxygen?” p 17

 Focus on PS Lab Manual,

“Chemical Bonds” pp 23-6

 Focus on PS, Presentation Disc

Ch 5, CA Sci8 CIM_Covalent_

Bond.avi, Animation: Covalent

Bonding

 Focus on PS, Presentation Disc

Ch 5, CA Sci8 CIM_Ionic_

Bond.avi, Animation: Ionic

Bonding

Science 8, Page 10

Structure of Matter

15% CST

3. Each of the more than 100 elements have distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of matter are composed of one or more of the elements.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, 5:2

PH FoPS, 18:5, 20:1 and 21:2

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST:10%.)

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

… atoms and molecules form solids by building up repeating patterns, such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long-chain polymers.

(3,c)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

PT: A Salty Situation

 Identify and describe the structure of crystals of table salt as having a regular cubic structure with sodium and chlorine ions alternating in a three-dimensional array with the corners of the cubes forming the lattice.

 Grow crystals from a solution and explain how this process leads to the building up of atoms on a lattice.

 Identify and describe organic polymers as long, repetitive, and string like molecules with atoms of C, H, O, and N.

 Construct models of crystals and organic polymers.

 Explain how the shape of a molecule contributes to its chemical and physical properties.

(Note: The carbon chemistry that underlies organic polymers is specifically addressed in standard 6a. Specific, important biological polymers are addressed in standard 6c.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

three-dimensional array

crystal

physical property lattice

organic

polymer

chemical property solution

dissolving

SKILLS FOCUS:

Modeling, experimentation, observation

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis

(I&E 9.a)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “Ionic

Radii and Lattice Energies”, p 239

 Focus on PS, Lab, “Growing

Crystals”, pp 240-1

Note: Students should observe crystals under the microscope or polarized material if possible.

Bond Blob

Combine saturated solution of sodium borate (Borax) with polyvinyl acetate (white glue) to form a Silly Putty-like polymer: crosslinked polyvinyl acetate.

Science 8, Page 11

Structure of Matter

15% CST

3. Each of the more than 100 elements have distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of matter are composed of one or more of the elements.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, 6:1

PH FoPS, 6:3 and 15:1

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST:10%.)

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

… that in solids the atoms are closely locked in position and can only vibrate; in liquids the atoms and molecules are more loosely connected and can collide with and move past one another; and in gases the atoms and molecules are free to move independently, colliding frequently. (3,e)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Change of State

(Note: This standard provides the particle level description of states of matter that helps to explain the phase changes described in standard 3d.)

 Describe how the atoms or molecules of a solid vibrate, but do not move around, and will form a pattern that is a balance between forces that cause the atoms and molecules to repel and be attracted to each other.

 Describe how the atoms or molecules of a liquid can slide past one another allowing it to flow without changing the density of the substance very much meaning that the molecules are as close to each other in a liquid as they are in a solid.

 Describe how the atoms or molecules of a gas move about feely and collide randomly with each other and the walls of the container allowing the density of gas to be much lower than that of a liquid or solid meaning that the molecules are further apart.

KEY VOCABULARY:

density

liquid state of matter gas solid

plasma

SKILLS FOCUS:

Modeling, experimentation

Distinguish between linear and nonlinear relationships on a graph of data. (I&E 9.g)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Launch Lab,

“Model for Particle Movement”, p 251

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab,

“Observing Fluid Motion”, p 255

GEMS: Dry Ice Investigations,

Activity 1, Session 3 models particle motion in solid, liquid, and gas without using actual dry ice. (Details re. dry ice storage and safety are included for the other activities.)

 Focus on PS, Presentation Disc,

Ch 6, “CA Sci8 CIM_States_of_

M #110.avi”, Animation: particle motion in plasma, gas, liquid, solid

Science 8, Page 12

Structure of Matter

15% CST

3. Each of the more than 100 elements have distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of matter are composed of one or more of the elements.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… the states of matter

(solid, liquid, gas) depend on molecular

(3,d)

motion.

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Change of State

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain how all molecules are in constant motion.

 Describe how the freedom of motion increases as a substance goes from solid to liquid to gas.

 Define temperature as the average energy of motion of the atoms and molecules of a substance, which is what a thermometer measures.

 Identify melting, vaporization, sublimation, condensation, and freezing as changes of state and evaporation and boiling as two types of vaporization.

 Recall the temperatures at which water experiences phase changes (at normal pressure).

 Explain that some substances have very specific melting and boiling points (listed in chemistry handbooks), which can be used to identify them.

 Explain that some substances have more than one stable solid phase, such as diamond, which can exist as graphite or diamond.

 Explain how a gain or loss in energy or changes in pressure contribute to changes in state and describe how the molecular motion of a substance changes as pressure and/or energy changes.

(Note: Standard 3e describes the states of matter at the atomic level. Standard 5d addresses the fact that phase changes are a physical process in contrast to a

chemical process.)

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, 6:2

PH FoPS, 6:3, 15:1,

15:2, and 15:4

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST:10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

pressure sublimation

energy of motion condensation thermometer change of state

freezing

evaporation

melting

vaporization

boiling

melting or freezing point

boiling or condensation point

SKILLS FOCUS:

Experimentation, graphing, observation

Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.

(I&E 9.c)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “Sensing

Evaporation,” p. 268

 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “Boiling

Point and Pressure,” p. 274

 Focus on PS, Lab, “Change of

State … Liquids,” p.276-7

 Focus on PS, Ch 6 Fast File:

“Water Desalinization”, p. 18

 Focus on PS, Super DVD Video

Lab CH 6, “Testing Viscosity of

Common Liquids”

 LHS GEMS, Dry Ice

Investigations

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 13

Structure of Matter

15% CST

3. Each of the more than 100 elements have distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of matter are composed of one or more of the elements.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, 7:1

PH FoPS, 16:1 and 18:2

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST:10%.)

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

… how to use the periodic table to identify elements in simple

(3,f)

compounds.

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: What’s the Matter?

(Note: This standard is just a reintroduction to the periodic table – it was first introduced in

3 rd

and 5 th

grades – so avoid getting too specific here.

Standard set 7 will address more specific details of the organization and information found in the periodic table.)

 Identify elements found in common, simple compounds.

 Identify the atomic number as the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

 Explain that the periodic table is organized in order of increasing atomic number from left to right and top to bottom

 Explain that the periodic table is organized into vertical columns that contain elements with similar properties.

 Identify the chemical symbol, atomic weight, and atomic number of an element from the periodic table.

 Explain that different periodic tables exist with different information to suit the needs to different areas of science.

KEY VOCABULARY:

periodic table atomic number

atomic weight

SKILLS FOCUS:

Analyzing

Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationship between variables. (I&E 9.e)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “Can You

Guess the Element?” p. 300

Periodic Table Comparisons

Students should be given the opportunity to use the periodic table for reference and to compare the information on different periodic table such as one use for physicist vs. one used for chemists.

CA Sci. Framework, p 137

Science 8, Page 14

Periodic Table

12% CST

7. The organization of the Periodic Table is based on the properties of the elements and reflects the structure of atoms.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how to identify regions corresponding to metals, nonmetals and inert gases.

(7,a)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Biography of an Atom

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Review the structure of the periodic table according to properties of the elements. o

Identify the location of metals on the left side of the periodic table, with most reactive metals on the far left. o

Identify the location of nonmetals on the right of the periodic table, with the most reactive nonmetals next to the inert gases on the far right.

 Explain that scientists use the term “noble gas” instead of inert gas, because these elements can be made to react to form compounds under special laboratory conditions.

 Identify the semimetals as elements with properties typical of both metals and nonmetals making them essential as semiconductors in computer chips.

 Identify elements that have been named after famous scientists or the locations of laboratories that discovered the elements.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, 7:1

PH FoPS, Ch 16:1,2,3

Focus on PS, 7:2

(p 309)

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

inert metal nonmetal semimetal noble gas reactive

property

semiconductor

SKILLS FOCUS:

analyze, justify

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Material Brainstorming

Students brainstorm a list of objects that are commonly made of metal. For each type of object, challenge students to think of other materials the objects could be made of. Then have students describe the properties that allow the materials to be used for each purpose.

 Focus on PS, Presentation Disc

Ch 7: “CA Sci8

Cim_Periodic_Table.avi”,

Animation: properties of transition metals

 Focus on PS, Lab Manual,

“Relationships Among Elements”, p. 43-4

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 15

Periodic Table

12% CST

7. The organization of the Periodic Table is based on the properties of the elements and reflects the structure of atoms.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, 4:3 and 7:2

PH FoPS, Ch 16:1

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

… each element has a specific number of protons in the nucleus

(the atomic number) and each isotope of the element has a different but specific number of neutrons in the nucleus.

(7,b)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Biography of an Atom

 Explain that the number of protons in the nucleus (the atomic number) of an atom identifies element. o

Explain that atoms with different atomic numbers are different elements. o

Explain that even though the number of protons is fixed for a given element, the number of neutrons may vary, forming isotopes of the element.

 Identify the isotopes of hydrogen: the most common isotope, protium, has one proton; deuterium has one proton and one neutron; tritium has one proton and two neutrons.

 Describe how some isotopes are radioactive, meaning that the nucleus is unstable and can spontaneously emit particles or trap an electron to become a new element with a different atomic number. (i.e., element

43, technetium, element 86, radon, and element 92, uranium, have no stable isotopes.)

 Explain that the masses of elements’ atoms in the periodic table increase from left to right, and from top to bottom.

KEY VOCABULARY:

atomic number massive proton stable nucleus

isotope emit

radioactive

spontaneous

SKILLS FOCUS:

organize, classify

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

“Isotope Race”

Student groups make postersized game board with outline of nucleus and four energy levels.

Students use 3 types of pieces

(coins, dried beans, poker chips, etc.) to represent protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Teacher names an isotope (i.e., carbon-14) and teams race to build model correctly.

 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “Visual

Explanation of Half-Life”, p. 312

 Focus on PS, Presentation Disc

Ch 4, “CA Sci8

CIM_Atom_makeup.avi”

Animation: structure of nucleus

 Focus on PS, Super DVD Ch 4

Video Lab “Atomic Structure”

 Focus on PS, Lab Manual,

“Isotopes and Atomic Mass”, p. 95-6

Science 8, Page 16

Periodic Table

12% CST

7. The organization of the Periodic Table is based on the properties of the elements and reflects the structure of atoms.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Ch 7:1,3

PH FoPS, Ch 16:1,2,3

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

… substances can be classified by their properties, including their melting temperature, density, hardness, and thermal and electrical conductivity.

(7,c)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Biography of an Atom

PT: Density Rocks!

 Recall that the physical properties of substances reflect their chemical composition and atomic structure.

 Explain that the melting temperature or hardness of elements is related to the forces that hold atoms and molecules together.

 Explain that even slight atomic differences can cause dramatically different properties

(i.e., carbon is a solid, even at very high temperatures, while nitrogen, the very next element, is a gas, even at extremely low temperatures).

 Define density as the mass per unit volume.

 Explain that density is the result of both the masses of individual atoms and the closeness with which atoms are packed.

 Explain that electrical and thermal conductivity are depend on how tightly electrons are held to individual atoms.

 Explain that metal atoms arrange in regular patterns in which some electrons are free to move from atom to atom, making both electrical and thermal conductivity easy.

KEY VOCABULARY:

intermolecular force density thermal conductivity

SKILLS FOCUS:

identify cause/effect

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, ”Which

Parachute”, p. 319

 Focus on PS, Lab, ”Investigating

Physical Changes”, p. 320-1

 Focus on PS, Lab Manual,

”Identifying Metals and

Nonmetals”, p. 93-4

Science 8, Page 17

Reactions

12% CST

5. Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of molecules.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… physical processes include freezing and boiling, in which a material changes form with no chemical reaction.

(5,d)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: What’s Cooking?

CR: Change of State

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Identify physical and chemical properties.

 Identify physical changes as changes that do not change the identity of a substance.

 Identify and describe examples of physical changes including changes of state such as freezing and boiling.

 Demonstrate how physical changes can be reversed.

(See last activity listed in right column.)

 Compare and contrast physical and chemical changes.

(Note: Standard 7c applies analysis of physical properties in the context of relationships of elements in the periodic table.)

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS,

Ch 7:3 (physical)

Ch 8:1 (chemical)

PH FoPS, Ch 15:4 and 17:1

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

physical change

physical property chemical property

SKILLS FOCUS:

Experiment

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

(I&E 9.a)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab,

“Chemical / Physical Change”, p. 345

Reversing Physical Changes

Students mix iron fillings with sand and recover the iron using a magnet to demonstrate that no chemical change occurred.

CA Science Framework, p. 142

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

End District Quarter 1 Exam Material

Reactions

12% CST

5. Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of molecules.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… reactant atoms and molecules interact to form products with different chemical properties.

(5,a)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: What’s Cooking?

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain how when atoms and molecules react, products are made with different chemical properties and often different physical properties.

 Perform and explain simple chemical reactions, identifying the elements and compounds involved in those reactions.

 Compare and contrast the differences in properties between the reactants and products of a chemical reaction.

(Note: This standard extends the content of standard 3b.)

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Ch 8:1

PH FoPS, Ch 17:1 and 17:2

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

chemical reaction

atom product molecule

reactant

physical property

chemical property

SKILLS FOCUS:

Experimentation

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

(I&E 9.a)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Design Your Own

Lab, “Dirty Jewelry” p. 366-7

 Focus on PS, Launch Lab, “Can

You See… ?”, p. 335

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab,

“Chemical / Physical Change”, p. 345

 LHS GEMS, Chemical Reactions

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 18

Reactions

12% CST

5. Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of molecules.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… the idea of atoms explains the conservation of matter:

In chemical reactions the number of atoms stays the same no matter how they are arranged, so their total mass stays the same.

(5,b)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Sweet!

… chemical reactions usually liberate heat or

(5,c)

absorb heat.

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: 4 th

of July Pancake

Breakfast

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain the concept of conservation of matter, which states that matter cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction; the atoms are only rearranged.

 Prove the law of conservation of matter through a lab or demonstration or by modeling the chemical reaction.

 Balance simple chemical equations, referencing the law of conservation of matter when explaining how the equation balances.

 Identify chemical bonds as the energy that holds atoms together to form molecules.

 Explain that chemical bonds are made and broken during chemical reactions resulting in a release and/or absorption or energy.

 Define exothermic reactions as reactions where more energy is released than absorbed.

 Explain why exothermic reactions feel warm or even hot.

 Define endothermic reactions as reactions where more energy is absorbed than released.

 Explain why endothermic reactions feel cool or even cold.

 Compare and contrast specific examples of exothermic and endothermic reactions.

 Explain why evaporation is not an endothermic chemical reaction even though the process absorbs heat (feels cool).

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Ch 8:2

PH FoPS, Ch 17:2

Focus on PS, Ch 8:3

PH FoPS, Ch 14:3,

17:1, and 17:3

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

conservation of matter

system

balanced chemical equation

SKILLS FOCUS:

Experimentation, evaluation

Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data. (I&E 9.b)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “Where does the tablet go?” p. 348

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “Burning of Methane”, p. 357

 Focus on PS, Super DVD, Ch 8

Video Lab, “Designing a Team

Equation”

 Focus on PS, Lab Manual,

“Conservation of Mass,” p. 47-9

“Modeling the Carbon Cycle”

Use molecular model kit to construct 1 glucose and 6 oxygen molecules. Rearrange to form carbon dioxide and water molecules. Write the balanced equation.

Note: Gumdrops and tooth picks may also work and various reactions should be

modeled in this activity.

KEY VOCABULARY:

chemical bond

exothermic

endothermic release absorption

SKILLS FOCUS:

Graphing, experimentation

Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationship between the variables. (I&E 9.b)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Data Lab,

“Temperature Change as

Chemicals React”, p. 364

 Activity: Demonstrate hot packs and cold packs used for athletic injuries that use chemical reactions to change temperature.

 LHS GEMS, Chemical Reactions

– very good exothermic reaction

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 19

Reactions

12% CST

5. Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of molecules.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how to determine whether a solution is acidic, basic or neutral.

(5,e)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

PT: Acid or Base?

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Describe the distinctive properties of acids, bases, and neutral substances.

 Explain how the pH scale uses the concentration of hydrogen ions (H

+

) in solution to classify substances as acidic, neutral, or basic.

 Explain how the pH scale to identifies substances as acids, bases, or neutral.

 Explain how indicators are used to identify substances as acids or bases.

 Use indicator solutions, pH paper, pH meters, and/or litmus paper to identify substances as acids, bases, or neutral.

 Compare and contrast acids and bases.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Ch 9:2

(9:1 provides background on solutions and introduces key vocabulary.)

PH FoPS, Ch 19:2,3

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

acid base neutral concentration hydrogen ion

SKILLS FOCUS:

pH scale indicator litmus paper pH meter pH paper

Experimentation, comparison

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

(I&E 9.a)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Comparing Indicators

Determine the color ranges of various indicators (phenol red, bromthymol blue, universal indicator, phenolphthalein, etc.) by testing with adic, base, and neutral solutions.

 LHS GEMS, Of Cabbages and

Chemistry

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab,

“Determine pH”, p. 406

 Focus on PS, Design Your Own

Lab, “Solubility and pH”, p. 408-9

 Focus on PS, Pres. Disc Ch 9,

“ CA Sci8 CIM_Acid_Reactions.avi”, video of chemical reactions involving acids

“ CA Sci8 CIM_Polar_Moles.avi”, animation: how water molecules affect NaCl

 Focus on PS, Super DVD Ch 9

Video Lab, “Testing pH Using

Natural Indicators”

 LHS GEMS, Acid Rain

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 20

Chemistry of Living Systems (Life Science)

6. Principles of chemistry underlie the functioning of biological systems.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… carbon, because of its ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements, has a central role in the chemistry of living organisms.

[CST]

(6,a)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Sweet!

… living organisms are made of molecules consisting largely of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur.

(6,b)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Sweet!

PT: What’s in your Food?

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Describe how carbon is unique in that it easily bonds to itself and to many other elements to form a great variety of large molecules.

 Explain that a carbon atom will make four separate covalent bonds, which can be single, double, or triple.

 Explain that there are a variety of shapes for carbon based molecules: o

Describe and identify linear carbon molecules, like acetylene and carbon dioxide. o

Describe and identify planar carbon molecules, like formaldehyde, ethylene, and graphite. o

Describe and identify tetrahedral carbon molecules, like methane and carbon tetrachloride.

 Explain that the shapes of molecules have a great influence on chemical properties.

 Explain that living organisms are made up of many atoms, but that carbon and only five other elements make up most of

Earth’s biomass.

 Describe how the six common elements combine in a great variety of ways to produce everything from proteins to

DNA, and from fats to bone.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Ch 10:2

PH FoPS, Ch 21:1-3

Focus on PS, Ch 10:1

PH FoPS, Ch 21:1-3

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

combine

covalent molecule properties

SKILLS FOCUS:

describe, model

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Construct models of carbon based molecules by using commercial modeling kits, or try gumdrops or marshmallows and toothpicks

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab,

“Modeling Organic Compounds”, p. 434

 Focus on PS, Launch Lab, “Life

Chemical”, p. 419

Hydrocarbon Challenge

Given molecular models (or gumdrops and toothpicks) students create models of hydrocarbons and record molecular and structural formulas.

KEY VOCABULARY:

biomass organic compound

SKILLS FOCUS:

observe, experiment

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

(I&E 9.a)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Organic Composition

Demonstration

Teacher may burn organic material such as bone, wood, or candles. Hold glass or plate above a flame to condense droplets of water, one of the combustion products. Teacher can hold a heat-treated glass beaker or test tube in flames to collect carbon deposits in the form of soot. Have students compare this to the burnt edges of a hamburger or piece of toast.

CA Science Framework, p. 144

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “Water in

Celery”, p. 425

 Focus on PS, Lab Manual,

“Proteins: Chemistry and

Identification”, p. 69-72

5% CST

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 21

Chemistry of Living Systems (Life Science)

6. Principles of chemistry underlie the functioning of biological systems.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… living organisms have many different kinds of molecules, including small ones, such as water and salt, and very large ones, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins and DNA. (6,c)

[CST, LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

PT: What’s in your Food?

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain that living organisms require a variety of molecules, some that contain carbon and some that do not.

 Explain that the molecules that make up organisms and control biochemical reactions are usually large, like DNA, proteins, carbohydrates and fats.

 Explain how organisms also require simple substances such as water and salt to support their functioning.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, 10:1,3

PH FoPS, 21:3

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

carbohydrates proteins

biochemistry function

fats

DNA reactions

SKILLS FOCUS:

analyze

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Lab, “Polarity and

Living Systems”, p. 444-5

Exploring Simple Compound

Content

Squeeze water from celery or turnips to demonstrate its presence. Follow up by asking how to show the presence of water in fruits and vegetables, or how they know that there is salt in their bodies (perspiration).

CA Science Framework, p. 144

5% CST

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Motion

1. The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… position is defined in relation to some choice of standard reference point and a set of reference directions.

(1,a)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

PT: Marshmallow Catapult

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Describe the position of a person or object in relation to a standard reference point, this point is usually called the origin.

 Describe the position of a person or object using reference directions, such as in front of, in back of, to the side of, etc.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Ch 1:1

PH FoPS, Ch.1:1

13% CST

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

reference point

SKILLS FOCUS:

observe, graph, measure

Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationships between variables. (I&E 9.a)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Launch Lab, “Get

From Here to There”, p. 45

 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “Graph

Relative Positions”, p 55

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab,

“Negative Positions”, p 49

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 22

Motion

1. The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed and that the speed of an object along the path traveled can vary.

(1,b)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: A Snail’s Tail

CR: Of Parachutes and Apples

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Calculate speed.

 Apply the modernized version of the metric system (International

Systems of Units) to measure distance and time.

 Compare and contrast the calculations for speed and average speed.

 Create and perform experiments to study speed

(as described at the bottom of the list of

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES)

.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Ch 1:2

PH FoPS, Ch. 1:1

… how to solve problems involving distance, time, and average speed.

(1,c)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: A Snail’s Tail

CR: Full Throttle

 Apply the d=rt formula to solve problems involving distance, time and average speed.

 Demonstrate how, given any two quantities from the d=rt formula, the third quantity can be calculated: t=d/r and r=d/t.

Explain how real, measurable

variables affect one another when they are connected by an equation. (LBUSD)

Focus on PS, Ch 1:2

PH FoPS, Ch.1:1

… the velocity of an object must be described by specifying both the direction and the speed of an object.

(1,d)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: A Snail’s Tail

CR: Of Parachutes and Apples

CR: Accelerated Thinking

 Define vector quantities as measurable quantities that require both the magnitude and direction.

 Identify the vector quantities of displacement, velocity, acceleration, and force.

 Contrast vector and non-vector quantities, such as displacement vs. distance and velocity vs. speed.

 Describe and demonstrate how the direction and strength of a force may be indicated graphically by using an arrow.

Focus on PS,

Ch 1:1,2

PH FoPS, Ch.1:1

13% CST

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

speed distance

SKILLS FOCUS:

predict, observe, apply, measure, record

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis

(I&E 9.a)

Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data. (I&E 9.b)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “Measure

Average Speed”, p. 63

 Focus on PS, Presentation Disc,

Ch 1, CA Sci 8 nCIM_Distance_vs #11D.avi”,

Animation: Graphing Distance vs.

Time

Average Speed Investigations

Students create experiments where time and distance are measured to determine average speed, results are compared among students, and accuracy is evaluated.

CA Science Framework, p. 126-7

KEY VOCABULARY:

distance

rate time

SKILLS FOCUS:

apply simple mathematic relationships to determine a missing quantity in a mathematic expression, given the two remaining terms. (I&E 9.f)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Applying Math, p. 62

Average Speed Variations

Investigation

Students create and perform a series of experiments to investigate the effect on average speed when one condition at a time is changed.

KEY VOCABULARY:

velocity magnitude accleration displacement

vector quantities force

SKILLS FOCUS:

observe, apply, model

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Model the meaning of velocity, specifying both speed and direction, by simulating the role of an air traffic controller.

 Focus on PS, Ch 1 Fast File,

“You’ve Been Displaced”, p. 62

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 23

Motion

1. The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… changes in velocity may be due to changes in speed, direction, or both.

(1,e)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Accelerated Thinking

… how to interpret graphs of position versus time and graphs of speed versus time for motion in a single direction.

[CST]

(1,f)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: A Snail’s Tale

CR: Full Throttle

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Describe how either a change in speed or a change in direction can change velocity.

 Define acceleration as any change in velocity: speeding up, slowing down, or changing direction.

 Explain that any time you feel a force acting on you or “pull” (for instance, when driving in a car) an acceleration is occurring.

 Demonstrate how to change velocity by changing the speed of an object’s motion but not the direction.

 Demonstrate how to change velocity by changing the direction of an object’s motion but not the speed.

 Demonstrate how to change velocity by changing both the speed and direction of an object’s motion.

 Plot and interpret motion graphs by plotting position (d) in distance units (meters, centimeters, miles) on the vertical axis and time (t) in time units (seconds, minutes, hours) on the horizontal axis.

 Explain that since speed can be calculated as v = d/t, with d being the amount of rise and t being the amount of run (as math teachers put it), then speed is equal to the slope of the graph. In symbols,

v = d/t = rise/run = slope

 Calculate the slope of a position versus time graph and identify the numerical answer as the speed in the units used on the axes.

 Plot and interpret graphs of speed (v) versus time (t).

 Calculate the area under a speed versus time graph and identify the numerical answer as the distance traveled by the object according to the equation:

d = v x t = height x width = area

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Ch 1:2

PH FoPS, Ch.1:3

Focus on PS, Ch 1:3

PH FoPS, Ch. 1:1 and 1:3

End District Quarter 2 Exam Material

13% CST

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

acceleration

SKILLS FOCUS:

observe, model

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis

(I&E 9.a)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Students design experiments to show the various ways to cause changes in velocity.

KEY VOCABULARY:

horizontal (or x) axis vertical (or y) axis slope area

SKILLS FOCUS:

graph, interpret, explain

Recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationship y=kx and apply this to interpret graphs constructed from data. (I&E 9.d)

Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationships between variables. (I&E 9.e)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Data Lab,

“Learning from a Graph”, p 73

 Focus on PS, Design Your Own

Lab, “Graphing Motion”, pp 74-75

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 24

Forces

2. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

… a force has both direction and magnitude.

(2,a)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Tug-of-War

 Model pushes and pulls, pointing out both the magnitude and direction of force.

 Explain that the direction and strength of a force (as with any vector quantity) can be graphically indicated by using an arrow:

(Review from Standard 1d)

 Draw the length of the arrow to be proportional to the strength (magnitude) of the force.

 Draw the direction of the arrow to indicate the direction that the force is applied.

 Demonstrate that forces acting along a line, to the left and to the right, act either in a positive direction and are represented in positive quantities or in a negative direction and are represented as negative quantities.

 Explain that friction is a reaction force that opposes motion.

… when an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the result is the cumulative effect of all the forces.

(2,b)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Tug-of-War

 Demonstrate how to assign positive or negative values to force vectors acting in opposite directions along a straight line.

 Use simple algebraic addition of the force magnitudes (positive force in one direction added to the negative force value pulling in the opposite direction) to determine the resulting unbalanced force.

 Recall that a Newton of force is about equal to the weight of half a stick of butter or of a small apple.

13% CST

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Ch 2:1,2

PH FoPS, Ch 2:1,3

Focus on PS, 2:1

PH FoPS, Ch 2:2

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

force direction

magnitude friction

SKILLS FOCUS:

observe, record, measure

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

(I&E 9.a)

Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data. (I&E 9.b)

Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.

(I&E 9.c)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Friction Experiments

First, create lab activities that teach students how to use a spring scale to measure pulling forces. (Be careful that they do not continually pull the spring scale to and beyond its maximum reading.) Then, have students design lab activities to explore the forces of friction:

- using different surfaces

- using different amounts of applied forces

- different speeds

 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “Add

Vertical Forces”, p 95

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “Measure

Friction”, p 105

KEY VOCABULARY:

Newton (N) resulting force

SKILLS FOCUS:

apply, observe, hypothesize

Apply simple mathematic relationships to determine a missing quantity in a mathematic expression, given the two remaining terms. (I&E 9.f)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Science Concepts

Activity, p 107 TE

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 25

Forces

2. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how to identify separately the two or more forces that are acting on a single static object, including gravity, elastic forces due to tension or compression in matter, and friction.

(2,d)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Of Parachutes and Apples

… when the forces on an object are balanced, the motion of the object does not change. (2,c)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Tug-of-War

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Compare and contrast the weight of an object (how hard it pushes down on whatever is beneath it) to the mass of an object (how much material it is made of).

 Explain that the force of gravity

(what we commonly call the

“weight” of an object) can be shown as a force vector pointing toward the center of the Earth

(a.k.a., down).

 Explain that when an object is dropped the force of gravity alone causes the velocity to increase rapidly in the down direction.

 Explain that an object at rest must have an upward supporting force to balance the force of gravity. o

Explain that when an object is supported from below, like a book resting on a table, the supporting force is an elastic compression force caused by the compression of the table’s molecules, which are resisting being pushed together. o

Explain that when an object is supported from above, like a yoyo hanging on a string, the supporting force is an elastic tension force caused by the molecules resistance to being pulled apart.

 Demonstrate the presence of friction force by showing that a gentle horizontal push on a book that rests on a table does not move it.

 Demonstrate that there is no change in the velocity of an object when it is acted upon by

balanced forces. o

Explain and diagram how a person sitting in a chair has balanced forces acting on them

(gravity pulling down, chair/floor pushing up). o

Demonstrate in a tug of war game that if there is equal force from both sides, the rope will not move. o

Explain and diagram how a car driving down a straight road at constant speed has balanced forces acting on it (Vertical

Forces: gravity pulling down, road pushing up, Horizontal

Forces: drive wheels pushing forward, friction pulling backwards).

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Ch 2:2

PH FoPS, Ch 2:3 (does not mention compression force)

Focus on PS, Ch 2:1

PH FoPS, Ch 2:1

13% CST

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

weight gravity force

static

elastic

compression

tension

SKILLS FOCUS:

observe, predict, compare

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

(I&E 9.a)

Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.

(I&E 9.c)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Launch Lab, “Feel the Force”, p 85

 Focus on PS, Design Your Own

Lab, “Comparing Mass and

Weight”, p 117

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “Elastic

Force”, p 102

 Focus on PS, Ch 2 Fast File,

“Weight, Mass, and the Gold

Rush”, p 23

 Focus on PS, Super DVD, Ch 2

Video Lab, “Static and Sliding

Friction”

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

KEY VOCABULARY:

friction vertical horizontal

SKILLS FOCUS:

identify, predict, draw conclusions

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

(I&E 9.a)

Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data. (I&E 9.b)

Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.

(I&E 9.c)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Practice Skills,

Recognize Cause and Effect, p 91 TE

Science 8, Page 26

Forces

2. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… when the forces on an object are unbalanced, the object will change its velocity

(that is, it will speed up, slow down, or change direction).

(2,e)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Of Parachutes and Apples

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain and demonstrate how an unbalanced force acting on an object at rest causes the object to move in the direction of the applied force.

(For instance, when gently pushing horizontally on a book resting on a table, the forces are balanced – pushing and friction – until the point where the book begins to move, at which point the pushing force is no longer balanced by the friction.)

 Explain and give an example of how, for an object in motion, an unbalanced force acting in the same direction of the motion will cause the object to speed up.

 Explain and give an example of how, for an object in motion, an unbalanced force acting in the opposite direction of the motion will cause the object to slow down; and if the force continues the object may slow to a stop or even begin to move faster in the opposite direction.

(A useful image: Picture a train running down a track. If the engineer suddenly throws the drive wheels into reverse, those wheels will spin backwards while the train continues forward, but the train will begin to slow down. Eventually the train would come to a stop and begin picking up speed going backwards. Rockets drifting through space can also be used as examples.)

 Explain how when an unbalanced force that acts perpendicular to direction to a moving object (it gets smacked from the side), the force will deflect it from its path, changing its direction but not its speed.

 Explain that if the perpendicular force is continuous, the object will travel in a circle

(caused by centripetal force: the force directed to the center of the circle).

 Explain why an unbalanced force acting on a moving object at a non-perpendicular angle to the path will affect both the speed and the direction of the object.

 Predict (roughly) the changes in velocity if forces are shown to be acting on an object.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Ch 2:3

PH FoPS, Ch 2:1,5

Object Motion

After Force

Unbalanced

Force

Object Motion

Before Force

Non-

Perpendicular

Unbalanced

Force

13% CST

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

unbalanced forces perpendicular

centripetal force

SKILLS FOCUS:

identify, predict

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

(I&E 9.a)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS: Mini Lab, “Does

Water Exert a Force?”, p 110

Marble Roller Coasters

Use sections of foam pipe insulation (cut in half length-wise) and masking tape to create a track for a marble. Have students identify and describe the different types of acceleration that the marble experiences, and the forces responsible for each.

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 27

Forces

2. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… the greater the mass of an object, the more force is needed to achieve the same rate of change in motion. (2,f)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Tug-of-War

… the role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars and the solar

(2,g)

system.

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Of Parachutes and Apples

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Recall that when the forces acting on an object are unbalanced, the velocity of the object must change by increasing, decreasing, or changing direction.

 Define acceleration as the rate of change in velocity.

 Identify cases of acceleration

(speeding up, slowing down, or changing direction) from descriptions, demonstrations, or video clips.

 Determine the direction and relative magnitude of the unbalanced force causing an observed acceleration (or deceleration).

 Explain how both amount of mass and magnitude of force affect acceleration (how quickly velocity changes). o

Give examples and demonstrate how the larger the unbalanced force applied, the faster the velocity of an object will change. o

Give examples and demonstrate how the greater the mass, the slower the velocity of an object will change.

 Define gravity as the attraction of every particle of matter for every other particle of matter.

 Explain that because gravity pulls toward the center of objects, it causes large objects like the Sun, planets, and moons to be spherical.

 Explain that gravity creates enormous internal pressures within the Sun and planets.

 Explain that gravity holds the atmosphere on Earth and other planets, with the greatest pressure at the surface.

 Explain that Isaac Newton proved that the force that causes objects to fall to Earth

(gravity) was the same force that holds the Moon in orbit around the Earth.

 Explain that the same understanding of how gravity causes objects to orbit each other describes how the solar system, galaxies, and the entire universe hold together.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Ch 2:3

PH FoPS, Ch 2:2

13% CST

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

acceleration deceleration

SKILLS FOCUS:

estimate, calculate, analyze

Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.

(I&E 9.c)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Solve for

Acceleration, p 109

 Focus on PS, Identifying

Misconceptions, p 109 TE

 Focus on PS, Applying Math,

“Force and Acceleration”, p 115

 Focus on PS, Ch 2 Fast File, “Off to the Races”, p 24

 Focus on PS, Super DVD, Ch 1,

Video Lab, “Force and

Acceleration”

Focus on PS, Ch 11:1, and 12:2,3

PH FoPS, Ch 2:3,5

KEY VOCABULARY:

gravity attraction

planets

orbital

spherical galaxy

SKILLS FOCUS:

model, compare, identify

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Effect of Gravity

 Focus on PS, Science Concepts,

“Scaffolding”, p. 467 TE

Good questions, but answers are misleading. For second question, a better answer is, “Gravity changes the velocity’s direction into a huge curve. At the orbital distance, if the velocity stays the same, it will balance gravity’s pull.

The velocity does stay the same, because there is no friction in outer space. For the fourth question, change the answer to, “It would move further away from the Earth. If it has enough velocity, it may even escape Earth’s gravity.

on the Moon’s Path

(Isaac Newton’s Discovery)

Orbital

path of

the Moon

Direction of force of mutual gravitational attraction of Earth and Moon

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 28

Density and Buoyancy

8. All objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid.

8% CST

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… density is mass per unit volume.

(8,a)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

PT: Density Rocks!

… how to calculate the density of substances

(regular and irregular solids, and liquids) from measurements of mass and volume.

(8,b)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

PT: Density Rocks!

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Recall that density is calculated by dividing the mass of some quantity of material by its volume.

 Explain that density is independent of the quantity of the substance.

(i.e., A cubic centimeter of a substance has the same density as a cubic kilometer.)

 Explain that density may be expressed in any units of mass and volume.

 Recall that most common units for density are grams per cubic centimeter (g/cc or g/cm

3

) for solids and grams per milliliter

(g/mL) for liquids.

(Note: 1 cm

3

= 1 mL)

 Determine mass by placing material on a balance or scale and subtracting the mass of its container.

 Determine the volume of a liquid by using a graduated cylinder.

 Determine the volume of a geometrically regular solid by measuring with a ruler and applying the appropriate geometry formula.

 Determine the volume of an irregular shaped solid by measuring water displacement.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Ch 3:1

PH FoPS, Ch 3:3

Focus on PS, Ch 3:1

Also, Tools of the

Physical Scientist:

“Graduated Cylinder”, p. 10

“Triple-beam Balance”, p. 11

PH FoPS, Ch 3:3 and 14:2

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

density mass volume units gram milliliter cubic centimeter

SKILLS FOCUS:

identify units, measure

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

(I&E 9.a)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Applying Math,

“Density Equation to find Mass and Volume”, p. 138

Density of Water Lab

Student pairs or groups measure masses of five or more water samples, each with different volume. Calculate and compare density of all samples. Identify possible sources of error.

KEY VOCABULARY:

quantity

volume regular irregular

SKILLS FOCUS:

measure, calculate

Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationships between variables.

Apply simple mathematic

(I&E 9.e) relationships to determine a missing quantity in a mathematic expression, given the two remaining terms (including density

= mass/volume). (I&E 9.f)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Data Lab,

“Calculate Density”, p. 139

Density Cubes Lab

Obtain cubes of various materials

(metals, plastics, woods) with similar volumes. Measure and compare masses and densities.

Extend by determining densities of irregular shaped solids of similar the same materials, determining the volume by immersion in graduated cylinder.

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 29

Density and Buoyancy 8% CST

8. All objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid the object has displaced.

(8,c)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

PT: Whatever Floats Your

Boat

… how to predict whether an object will

(8,d)

float or sink.

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

PT: Whatever Floats Your

Boat

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain that buoyant force is equal to the weight of the volume of fluid displaced by an object.

 Explain that the net force acting on a submerged body is the difference between the upward buoyant force and downward pull of gravity on the object (the object’s weight).

 Explain that if a submerged solid object weighs less than the volume of fluid it displaces, the object will rise to the surface and float.

 Explain that if a submerged solid object weighs greater than the volume of fluid it displaces, the object will sink.

 Explain that if the weight of the object and the volume of fluid it displaces are the same, the object is said to be neutrally buoyant and will not sink or rise to the surface.

 Explain that the most direct way to predict whether a substance or solid object will sink or float in a fluid is to compare the density of the substance or object with the density of the fluid either by measuring or my looking up values on a table of densities.

 Explain that if an object is less dense than the liquid, it will float.

 Demonstrate or illustrate how materials with densities greater than that of a liquid can be made to float if they can be shaped to displace a volume of the liquid equal to their weight before they submerge completely.

 Explain how the density of liquids can be measured by using a hydrometer.

(See p. 82

Discover Activity)

The length of a hydrometer submerged in an unknown liquid (V) compared with the length submerged in water (W) can be used to determine the density of the unknown liquid

(W/V). The ratio works because the density of water is 1.0 g/mL.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Ch 3:2,3

PH FoPS, Ch 3:3

Focus on PS, Ch 3:3

PH FoPS, Ch 3:3

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

magnitude buoyant values submerged

SKILLS FOCUS:

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

(I&E 9.a)

Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data.

(I&E 9.b)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Launch Lab,

“Beach Ball Under Water”, p. 127

 Focus on PS, Super DVD, Ch 3

Video Lab, “Measuring Buoyant

Force”

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “Buoyant

Force”, p. 149

Foil Lab

Students use a six-inch square of aluminum foil to create a “boat”.

Compare buoyancy of boats by adding pennies until the boat sinks. The maximum buoyant force is the weight of the boat just before sinking.

KEY VOCABULARY:

density submerged hydrometer

SKILLS FOCUS:

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

(I&E 9.a)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Investigation Lab,

“Homemade Hydrometer”, p. 156-7

 GEMS: Ocean Currents, Activity

4, “Layering Liquids”, p. 71-85

 Focus on PS, Ch 3 Fast File,

“Buoyant Forces”, p. 21 and

“Controlling a Hot-Air Balloon”, p. 22

 Focus on PS, Lab Manual,

“Floating in Freshwater and in

Ocean Water”, p. 21-2

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 30

Earth in the Solar System (Earth Science)

12% CST

4. The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars and galaxies and their evolution.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… galaxies are clusters of billions of stars and may have different shapes.

[CST]

(4,a)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: In a Galaxy Far, Far Away

… the Sun is one of many stars in the Milky

Way galaxy and that stars may differ in size, temperature, and color.

(4,b)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Star Search

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain that stars are not uniformly distributed throughout the universe, but clustered by the billions in galaxies.

 Recall that some of the fuzzy points of light in the sky that were originally thought to be stars, are now known to be distant galaxies.

 Explain that galaxies appear to form clusters that are separated by vast expanses of empty space.

 Describe how galaxies are classified by their differing sizes and shapes.

 Draw examples of the most common galaxy shapes (spiral, elliptical, irregular).

 Explain how astronomers have inferred the existence of planets orbiting some stars.

 Explain that the sun is a star located on the rim of a typical spiral galaxy called the Milky Way, and orbits the galactic center

(which in similar spiral galaxies appears as a bulge of stars in the middle of the disk).

 Identify the bright band of stars cutting across the night sky as the

Milky Way galaxy as seen from

Earth, which lies within the disk of the galaxy.

 Use the Hertzsprung-Russell

(H-R) Diagram to describe and estimate the age of stars. o

Classify stars according to size, temperature and color. o

Explain typical life cycles of a star.

 Explain that light from the Sun and other stars indicates that the

Sun is a fairly typical star.

 Use a “black-body” temperature spectrum chart to identify star colors in order from coolest temperatures (red) to moderate temperatures (yellow, like the Sun at 5,500 o

C) to hottest temperatures (blue).

Alternatively, students could explain the black body radiation spectrum by describing how, as metal gets heated, it goes from red hot, to orange, to yellow, to white hot. Arc welders use even higher temperatures causing sparks that give off blue and even ultraviolet light.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, 12:3

PH FoPS, Ch 24:2,4

Focus on PS, 12:1

Hertzsprung-Russell

Diagram, p. 515

PH FoPS, Ch 23:2 and 24: 2-4

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST:10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

galaxy cluster elliptical

spiral

SKILLS FOCUS:

classify, Infer from evidence

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Photos of Astronomical

Objects:

o

www.nasa.gov o

www.space.com

 Focus on PS , Data Lab,

“Universe Expanding”, p. 535

KEY VOCABULARY:

galactic disk luminosity

H-R Diagram black body radiation

SKILLS FOCUS:

classify draw conclusions from data

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Design Your Own

Lab; “A Star is Born”, p. 536-7

(Research Project)

 Focus on PS, Lab Manual,

“Absolute and Apparent

Magnitudes”, p. 81-4

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 31

Earth in the Solar System (Earth Science)

12% CST

4. The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars and galaxies and their evolution.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how to use astronomical units and light years as measures of distance between the

Sun, stars, and Earth.

(4,c)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Star Search

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain that distances from astronomical objects are so enormous that measurement in units such as centimeters, meters, and kilometers are not useful.

(Similar logic explains why we do not count our age in seconds, hours, or days.)

 Define astronomical units (AU) as the average distance from the Earth to the Sun

(1 AU =

1.496x10

11

meters)

.

 Explain why AUs are useful for measuring distances within the solar system.

 Measure and graph a scaled model of the solar system showing distances between the

Sun and each planet, and between planets of the solar system, in astronomical units

(AUs).

 Explain that interstellar and intergalactic distances need an even larger unit of length, and are expressed in terms of how far light travels in one year

(one light year (ly) = 9.462 x10

15 meters, or approximately 6 trillion miles)

.

 Explain that the most distant objects in the universe are estimated to be 10 to 15 billion light years from the solar system.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS,

11:1 p. 466 (AU)

12:1 p. 509 (ly)

12:3 p. 531 (ly)

PH FoPS, Ch 24:2

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST:10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

astronomical object

astronomical unit (AU) interstellar intergalactic

light year (ly)

SKILLS FOCUS:

Calculate using scientific notation

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Solar System Scale Model

Students create a scaled drawing of the solar system using AUs as the basic measuring unit on cash register tape or using sidewalk chalk on a sidewalk or blacktop area.

CA Science Framework, p. 138

 Focus on PS, Launch Lab,

“Measure Distance”, p. 459

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab,

“Modeling the Size of Nebulae”, p. 520

 Focus on PS, Super DVD Ch 12

Video Lab, “Measuring Parallax”

The Effects of Distance

Calculate distances to astronomical objects in AU and ly. Explain how these distances would impact radio signals.

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 32

Earth in the Solar System (Earth Science)

12% CST

4. The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars and galaxies and their evolution.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… stars are the source of light for all bright objects in outer space and that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight, not by their own light.

(4,d)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: In a Galaxy Far, Far Away

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain that the light energy from the Sun and other stars is caused by nuclear fusion reactions that occur deep inside the stars’ cores. o

List the elements that are most abundant in stars (primarily

hydrogen, a smaller amount of helium, and much smaller amounts of all the other elements)

. o

Explain that nuclear fusion is the result of small atom nuclei colliding at high speed (hot temperature) until they stick together to form a larger nucleus, which releases a large amount of energy. o

Explain how most stars are born from the gravitational compression, which heats and squeezes hydrogen gas until fusion reaction begins. o

Explain that a stable star has a balance between the inward pull of gravity and the outward pressure from the heat of the fusion reaction.

 Explain that ancient peoples observed that some objects in the night sky were fixed

(constellations) and some were

“wanderers” (planets).

 Explain that careful observations showed that planets travel in nearly circular

(slightly elliptical) orbits about the Sun.

 Distinguish between stars, which are sources of light energy, and other bright objects in outer space that shine by reflected light, not by their own light, such as the Moon and planets.

 List examples of exploratory space missions that have yielded information about our solar system, including spacecraft flying by or orbiting astronomical bodies, soft landing of spacecraft fitted with instruments, and the visits of astronauts to the Moon.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, 12:1,2

PH FoPS, Ch 5:3, 16:4,

22:2-4, 23:2, and 24:1,3

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST:10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

nuclear fusion constellation compression eclipses

planets elliptical

SKILLS FOCUS:

observe, read charts, research

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “Identify

Elements in a Star”, p. 517

 Focus on PS, Lab Manual,

“Spectral Analysis”, p. 85-7

History of Space Exploration

Research

Have groups of students research and report on various space exploration programs, highlighting the methods used and the information gathered.

Modeling Reflection

Use an eclipse or the phases of the Moon to show that planets

(and the Moon) do not generate the light that makes them visible.

Researching Reflection

Students research and describe some of the information about the reflectivity, structure, and composition of the Moon and the planets yielded by exploratory space missions.

 GEMS: Earth, Moon, and Stars

 NASA Solar System Exploration website, Missions http://solarsystem.nasa.gov

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 33

Earth in the Solar System (Earth Science)

12% CST

4. The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars and galaxies and their evolution.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, 11:1,3,4

PH FoPS, Ch 23:1,3-5

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST:10%.)

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

… the appearance, general composition, relative position and size, and motion of objects in the solar system, including planets, planetary satellites, comets, and asteroids.

(4,e)

[CST]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: In a Galaxy Far, Far Away

 Identify the names and relative order of orbits of the nine known planets in the solar system.

 Recall how the planets compare with respect to size, distance from the Sun, period of revolution about the Sun (length of year), period of rotation about their own axis (length of day), tilt of axis, composition, atmosphere, and appearance.

 Contrast the inner planets from the outer planets.

 Explain how objects in the solar system attract toward one another gravitationally, with the

Sun being, by far, the most massive object and exerting the strongest gravitational force.

 Identify relatively small objects made of mostly rock (asteroids) or the ice of condensed gases

(comets) that also orbit the Sun.

 Locate the asteroid belt on a diagram of the solar system.

 Identify the natural objects orbiting planets as satellites or moons.

KEY VOCABULARY:

orbit

period revolution rotation axis

planet

asteroid

comet asteroid belt satellite moon

SKILLS FOCUS:

research, recall, describe, identify

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Planetary Travel Agency

Groups of students choose a planet and create a futuristic travel brochure to their planet, which includes accommodations and activities that relate to the temperature, gravity, atmosphere, length of day, length of year, etc., etc.

 NASA Solar System Exploration website: images, articles, fact lists, “kid-friendly” section, missions, etc. http://solarsystem.nasa.gov

 Focus on PS, Data Lab, “How

Large are the Planets?”, p. 485

 Focus on PS, More to Discover,

Addressing Naïve Conceptions, p. 744 TE

 Focus on PS, Mini Lab, “How do

Craters Appear?”, p. 492

 Focus on PS, Lab, “Model the

Solar System”, p. 494-5

End District Quarter 3 Exam Material

Science 8, Page 34

Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science)

(CA 7 th

Grade Standard Set)

6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… visible light is a small band within a very broad electromagnetic spectrum.

(7-6,a)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Can’t You See it?

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Draw and label a diagram that arranges electromagnetic waves on a continuum from longest to shortest wavelength

(electromagnetic spectrum).

 Explain that visible light is a very small band within a very broad electromagnetic (EM) spectrum.

 Describe some common applications of EM waves based on their wavelengths, including

AM and FM radio, television, radar, microwaves, and infrared radiation.

 Explain that the human eye can see wavelengths from about

800 nanometers (0.000

000 8 meter) that appear red, to 400 nanometers (0.000

000 4 meter) that appear blue/violet.

 Describe how the colors

(ROYGBIV) in the visible spectrum are not discrete, but overlap each other as a continuous spectrum.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Ch 4:2

(p. 189-190, very brief) and 12:1 (p. 510-511) absorption spectra of stars

PH FoPS, 7:1-2, 9:1-2, and 10:2

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

electromagnetic (EM) spectrum

wave

infrared continuum wavelength radiation nanometer (nm) frequency

SKILLS FOCUS:

Apply simple mathematic relationships to determine a missing quantity in a mathematic expression, given the two remaining terms (including speed

= distance/time = f). (I&E 9.f)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 GEMS: Invisible Universe

0% CST

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 35

Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science)

(CA 7 th

Grade Standard Set)

6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… that for an object to be seen, light emitted by or scattered from it must be detected by the eye.

(7-6,b)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Can’t You See it?

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain that for an object to be seen, light emitted from a luminous object, or scattered by an illuminated object, must be detected by the eye.

 Compare the color and brightness of light emitted from various luminous objects (i.e., the Sun, fluorescent light, incandescent bulb, etc.)

NOTE: Remind students to never observe the Sun directly or they may permanently damage their vision.

 Describe how illuminating light is absorbed, reflected, or refracted by an illuminated object to impart color and brightness.

 Demonstrate how the color of an object depends on the source of the light and the way the object interacts with it.

 Describe how light interacts with the cornea, pupil, and lens to create an image on the retina.

 Compare the structure and function of the receptors on the retina – rod cells and cone cells.

 Explain that the receptors on the retina convert light into electrical impulses that are transferred by the optic nerve to the visual cortex of the brain.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Not

Addressed

PH FoPS, 7:3, 9:3, and 10:1-4

PH FoLS, 22:3-4

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

emit retina emission

luminous

illuminate transparent cornea

SKILLS FOCUS:

lens pupil rod cells cone cells visual cortex

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

(I&E 9.a)

Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data. (I&E 9.b)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

 Cow / Sheep Eye Dissection

 GEMS: Color Analyzers

 “Our Sense of Sight: Part 1, Eye

Anatomy and Function” Web site with background information, diagrams, and lab activities from

Neuroscience for Kids. http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ eyetr.html

0% CST

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 36

Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science)

(CA 7 th

Grade Standard Set)

6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… light travels in straight lines if the medium it travels through does not change.

(7-6,c)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

PT: The A-maze-ing Path of

Light

CR: The Cat Food Bandit

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Explain that in a vacuum or uniformly transparent material, light travels in straight lines.

 Demonstrate that light travels in straight lines if the medium it travels through does not change.

 Describe how at the interface between two media or between a vacuum and a medium, light rays will bend if they enter at an angle other than perpendicular to the interface.

 Explain what happens to the path of light when light travels from one transparent medium

(such as air) into another transparent medium with different optical properties (such as water).

 Explain that transparent materials, such as air and water, may have differing densities that cause light to bend as it passes through the material.

 Explain that air heated by a campfire can cause objects to shimmer and that stars appear to twinkle because of variations in the density of air.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Not

Addressed

PH FoPS, 7:3, 9:1, and 10:2

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

uniformly transparent

medium

vacuum optical

refract

interface index of refraction density

SKILLS FOCUS:

observe, infer

Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationship between variables. (I&E 9.e)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Light Bending Explorations

Students explore the light bending properties of various transparent objects. For instance, by observing a pencil placed in a glass of water from various vantage points, students can confirm that the path of light changes direction as it passes from one medium to another.

CA Sci. Framework, p 120

Light Bending Demonstrations

Demonstrate how mixing various clear liquids (water, alcohol, mineral oil, karo syrup) or observing the air above heat sources (candle, Bunsen burner) show how density changes in fluids bend light.

CA Sci. Framework, p 120

0% CST

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 37

Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science)

(CA 7 th

Grade Standard Set)

6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Not

Addressed

PH FoPS, 7:3 and 10:2,4,5

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

… how simple lenses are used in a magnifying glass, the eye, a camera, a telescope, and a microscope.

(7-6,d)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

PT: The A-maze-ing Path of

Light

… that white light is a mixture of many wavelengths (colors) and that retinal cells react differently to different wavelengths.

(7-6,e)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: The Eyes Have it

 List several uses for simple lenses including magnifying glasses, cameras, telescopes, microscopes, and the eye.

 Demonstrate how combinations of lenses are used in telescopes and microscopes to magnify objects.

 Diagram how the cornea and lens of the eye take diverging light rays from an object and make them converge on the retina.

 Determine the focal length of a lens by measuring the distance from the lens to the image it forms.

 Demonstrate and explain how a simple lens forms a magnified virtual image when objects viewed at a distance closer than the lens’ focal length – like a microscope.

 Demonstrate and explain how a simple lens forms an inverted real image that can be projected onto surfaces when an object is viewed from a distance longer than the lens’ focal length – like a camera.

 Explain that white (visible) light may be dispersed into a spectrum of colors from red with the longest wavelength to violet with the shortest wavelength.

 Explain that a prism disperses white light into colors of the spectrum because the angle of refraction is different for each color.

 Describe that the closely spaced gaps in a diffraction grating can separate white light into its component colors because of constructive interference.

 Explain that the human perception of color is due to the presence of the cone cells in the retina.

 Explain how full-color printing is achieved using just 4 ink colors printed in dot combinations too small and close for the human eye to resolve.

Focus on PS, Not

Addressed

PH FoPS, 7:2,3 9:2,3 and 10:2-4

0% CST

KEY VOCABULARY:

convex lens concave lens

converging diverging

optic

focal length

virtual image

real image

SKILLS FOCUS:

diagram, measure, investigate

Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data. (I&E 9.b)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Modeling the Eye’s Lens

Students use a simple magnifier to show how the cornea and lens transform diverging light rays from an object into rays of light converging to form a focused image. This can be done by focusing light from ceiling lights onto their desktop or by focusing light from windows or doorway onto a wall. Measuring the distance from the lens to the image gives the focal length of the lens.

CA Science Framework, p. 121

 GEMS: Microscope Explorations

(includes several activities with hand lenses and other magnifiers)

 GEMS: More than Magnifiers

KEY VOCABULARY:

refraction

prism

diffraction grating resolve

constructive interference

SKILLS FOCUS:

observe

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

(I&E 9.a)

Distinguish between linear and non-linear relationships on a graph of data. (I&E 9.g)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 38

Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science)

(CA 7 th

Grade Standard Set)

6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… light can be reflected, refracted, transmitted, and absorbed by matter.

(7-6,f)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

PT: The A-maze-ing Path of

Light

CR: The Cat Food Bandit

CR: The Eyes Have it

… the angle of reflection of a light beam is equal to the angle of incidence.

(7-6,g)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

PT: The A-maze-ing Path of

Light

CR: The Cat Food Bandit

CR: The Eyes Have it

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Define each of the interactions of light with matter: reflection, refraction, transmission, and absorption.

 Demonstrate and explain that when light rays encounter a surface between two media, such as air and glass, the light may be refracted, reflected, or both at the surface.

 Explain that light is transmitted through a transparent medium the atoms of the medium absorb and reemit the light energy.

 Explain that light travels fastest through vacuum and progressively slower through more optically dense materials

(diamond is the most optically dense transparent material).

 Explain that light changes direction (refracts) when going from one medium to another because it changes speed, as long as the light does not hit perpendicular to the surface, in which case it will slow down (or speed up) but continue going straight.

 Explain and give examples of how impurities or imperfections in transparent materials cause light to be scattered.

 Demonstrate how to draw a normal line perpendicular to the surface of a reflective surface on a diagram.

 Diagram how a light beam reflecting off of a shiny surface forms a reflected angle equal to the incident angle (both measured from the normal line).

 Explain how this applies to real life situations (i.e., adjusting mirrors in a car, shooting pool, or avoiding glare).

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Not

Addressed

PH FoPS, 7:3 and 10:1-3

Focus on PS, Not

Addressed

PH FoPS, 7:3 and 10:1

Sample “Light Race”: x

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

reflection transmission

absorption reemission

optical properties

angle of incidence

angle of reflection

opaque

translucent

SKILLS FOCUS:

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

(I&E 9.a)

Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.

(I&E 9.c)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Defining by Observing

Students compare the abilities of opaque, translucent, and transparent materials to absorb and scatter light. Students then create, share, and compare definitions. Adapted from the

CA Science Framework, p. 122

KEY VOCABULARY:

normal line angle of incidence perpendicular angle of reflection

SKILLS FOCUS:

use a protractor

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Light Race

On a piece of butcher paper, students draw a start circle and a finish “x” at opposite ends. Then students use protractors and string or meter sticks to set up three plane mirrors (attached to blocks) between the start and finish. When complete, the teacher uses a laser pointer to see if the beam will complete the race.

0% CST

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 39

Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science)

(CA 7 th

Grade Standard Set)

6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how to compare joints in the body (wrist, shoulder, thigh) with structures used in machines and simple devices (hinge, ball-andsocket, and sliding joints).

(7-6,h)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: A Classy Joint

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Recall that Archimedes first describes levers as a rigid rod that is able to rotate around a fixed pivot point called a fulcrum.

 Identify the three classes of levers.

 Identify various examples of levers, pointing out the fulcrum, input point, and output point.

(i.e., a rake is a third class lever where the top hand is the fulcrum, the input point is the lower hand, and the output point is bottom of the rake.)

 Define work as force applied times the distance over which it is applied, or W = F x d.

 Explain and model how 1 st

and

2 nd

class levers can give a mechanical advantage when lifting heavy objects according to the principle:

 input W = output W small

F x

LARGE

d =

LARGE

F x small

d

A small input force applied over a long distance can generate a large output force over a small distance.

 Explain that joints in the human body act as fulcrums for the bones acting as levers, while the muscles provide the force.

 Identify arm and leg muscles as examples of 3 rd

class levers that work the opposite of gaining mechanical advantage in that they amplify a large force applied by muscle over a short distance into long, rapid motions such as running or swinging a baseball bat.

 Compare the joints in the wrist, shoulder, and thigh with structures used in machines and simple devices like a hinge, ball-and-socket, and sliding joints.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Not

Addressed

PH FoPS, 2:1,2 and 4:1,3,4

1 st Class

2 nd Class

3 rd Class

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

lever apply

fulcrum

force

work

SKILLS FOCUS:

input output

amplify

model, classify

Apply simple mathematic relationships to determine a missing quantity in a mathematic expression, given the two remaining terms (Word = Force x distance). (I&E 9.f)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

0% CST

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 40

Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science)

(CA 7 th

Grade Standard Set)

6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.

Standards and

Assessments

“Students know…”

… how levers confer mechanical advantage and how the application of this principle applies to the musculoskeletal system.

(7-6,i)

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: A Classy Joint

… that contractions of the heart generate blood pressure and that heart valves prevent backflow of blood in the circulatory system.

(7-6,j)

[LS10]

DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:

CR: Matters of the Heart

Task Analysis

“Students are able to …”

 Recall that a bone acts as a lever and a joint as the fulcrum, while muscles supply the force and connective tissue transfers the force to specific places that give an individual leverage for motions.

 Explain how levers can be used to take advantage of force or speed.

 Build levers and hinges to show how levers may be used to increase force at the expense of distance (like a crowbar) or increase distance at the expense of force (hand powered catapults, for instance).

If time permits:

Define and give examples of the

other types of simple machines.

Make examples of various

simple machines and explain how it gives a mechanical

advantage.

 Recall that the heart is a pump in which blood enters a chamber through a blood vessel.

 Explain how a valve closes off a blood vessel to prevent blood from flowing in the wrong direction.

 Define pressure as the force per unit of area and is measured in various units, such as millimeters of mercury (mmHg).

 Explain that when the heart muscle contracts, it squeezes the blood (increases the pressure in the chamber), which forces the blood into another blood vessel.

Adopted

Textbook

Correlation(s)

Focus on PS, Not

Addressed

PH FoPS, 4:1-4

Focus on PS, Not

Addressed

PH FoPS, 2:1,2,4 and 3:1,2

Connections

(All I&E standards may be assessed on 8 th

Grade CST: 10%.)

KEY VOCABULARY:

mechanical advantage

motion

leverage

SKILLS FOCUS:

machine

simple machine build, explore

Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

(I&E 9.a)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Law of the Lever Explorations

Students explore the three types of levers using meter sticks, weight holders, hooked weights, a pivoting support, and spring scales. They should record their observations, then organize and summarize them, making applications to practical, real world levers.

KEY VOCABULARY:

contraction

pressure physiology

valve

SKILLS FOCUS:

Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationships between variables. (I&E 9.e)

LABS / DEMOS / ACTIVITIES:

Heart Research

Students can study a model of the heart (available at the SMRC) or do research to learn more about the physiology of the heart.

CA Science Framework, p. 123

Also include 3 designated lessons of state mandated health education from Project ALERT

Materials and training are available through the Health Curriculum Office (Ext 2967).

0% CST

Appx

Time

(per 180 days)

Science 8, Page 41

APPLICATION OF COURSE CONTENT:

Career Connections

Related Major Skills & Characteristics

objective observation, careful measurement, curiosity, problem solving, organizational skills, numerical reasoning, ability to analyze & interpret data, critical thinking, reading comprehension, concise and accurate communication skills, computer literacy, logical thinking, team skills, testing skills, practical safety awareness, evidence evaluating

Related Careers

Students who continue in the sciences can prepare for the following careers:

Aeronautical Engineer

(Rocket Scientist)

Analytical Chemist

Astronaut

Astronomer

Automotive Engineer

Biochemist

Biotechnologist

Chemical Engineer

Chemist

Electrical Engineer

Fire Fighter

Geneticist

Materials Scientist

Mechanical Engineer

Medical Researcher

Nuclear Physicist

Nurse

Physician

Physicist

Professor

Quality Control Specialist

Radiologist

Science Fiction Writer

Teacher

Technical Editor

Transportation Engineer

METHODS:

Lesson Design & Delivery:

Teachers will incorporate these components of lesson design during direct instruction and inquiry activities. The order of components is flexible, depending on the teacher’s vision for the individual lesson. For instance, the objective and purpose, while present in the teacher’s lesson plan, are not made known to the students at the beginning of an inquiry lesson.

E

ssential

Anticipatory Set

Objective

Standard Reference

E

lements of

E

I

ffective nstruction

Purpose

Input

Modeling

Model for Lesson Design

Using Task Analysis

Check for Understanding

Guided Practice

Closure

Independent Practice

Some components may occur once in a lesson, but others will recur many times. Checking for understanding occurs continually; input, modeling, guided practice and closure may occur several times. There may even be more than one anticipatory set when more than one content piece is introduced.

Active Participation:

Teachers will incorporate the principles of active participation and specific strategies to ensure consistent, simultaneous involvement of the minds of all learners in the classroom. Teachers should include both covert and overt active participation strategies, incorporating cooperative learning structures and brain research.

Some of the possible active participation strategies include:

COVERT

OVERT

(Oral)

OVERT

(Written)

OVERT

(Gestures)

 Recall

 Imagine

 Observe

 Consider

 Pair/Share

 Idea Wave

 Choral Response

 Give One, Get One

 Socratic Seminar

 Cooperative Discussion

Groups (i.e. Talking Chips,

Gambit Chips)

 Restate in Journals / Notes

 Response Boards

 Graphic Organizers

 Folded Paper

 Ticket Out of Class

 Hand Signals

 Model with Manipulatives

 Stand up / Sit down

 Point to Examples

Science 8, Page 42

Baldridge Quality Tools:

Students can become more positively involved in their education through goal setting, self-assessment, and data tracking and analysis by making use of the following strategies:

BALDRIDGE TOOL PURPOSES

Affinity Diagram

Flowchart

– finding consensus, organizing complex information

– describing a process, planning a project, identifying problem steps in a process

Force Field Diagram – identifying obstacles, finding causes and solutions to problems

Issues / Ideas Bin

Data Folder

Plus / Delta

– handling individual questions/requests without stopping a group activity, providing anonymous input, obtaining diverse input in specific areas.

– tracking goals and actual results

– tracking improvement efforts, identifying opportunities for change, finding out what’s working and what’s not working in a process, procedure, activity, etc.

Class Data Graphs – displaying trends for goal setting

Learning styles and learning challenges of your students may be addressed by implementing combinations of the following:

Reading Strategies in Science

 Learning Logs

 Pre-teaching

 Vocabulary

 Pre-reading

 Text Structures

 Trail Markers

 Reciprocal Teaching

 Functional Text

SDAIE Strategies for English

Learners

 Tapping/Building Prior

Knowledge (Graphic

Organizers, Schema)

 Grouping Strategies

 Multiple Intelligences

 Adapt the Text

 Interactive Learning

(Manipulatives, Visuals)

 Acquisition Levels

 Language Sensitivity

 Lower the Affective Filter

(including Processing Time)

 Home/School Connection

(including Cultural Aspects)

Significant, Proven Science Strategies for ALL Science Students

 Hands-On Labs

 Inquiry Activities

 Written/Oral Presentations

 Short/Long-term projects

 Essential Questions

 Summarization

Differentiation for Advanced

Learners

 Curriculum Compacting

 Tiered Assignments

 Flexible Grouping

 Acceleration

 Depth and Complexity

 Independent Study

 Current Events

 Peer Teaching

 Guest Speakers

Please note that these strategies often overlap and should not be limited to specifically defined courses or student populations.

MATERIALS:

Basic Textbook and Supplementary Materials:

Glencoe Science: Focus on Physical Science ( CA Grade 8),

Glencoe McGraw Hill © 2007 eguidance.com web site for exploring careers safety equipment: goggles, latex gloves, fire extinguisher glassware: flasks, beakers, test tubes, etc. measuring devices: triple beam balance, rulers, volumetric containers chemical reagents microviewers, hand lenses appropriate technology

 Many items are available through Science/Math Resource Center (SMRC).

Science 8, Page 43

RESOURCES:

Documents

Science Framework: .............. http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/fd/documents/scienceframework.pdf

[or find it posted in sections at the LBUSD Science Office website]

CST / NCLB Test Blueprints: ............................ http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/blueprints.asp

CST Reference Sheets: ...................................... http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/cstsciref.asp

CST Released Test Questions ............................ http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/css05rtq.asp

National Science Standards: .................... http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/nses/html/

Science Safety Handbook for CA Public Schools (1999) can be ordered from the CDE at .................................... http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/rc/

LBUSD Approved Chemicals List

,

Chemical Hygiene Plan

, and

Science Fair

Resources: http://www.lbusd.k12.ca.us/Main_Offices/Curriculum/Areas/Science/teacher_resources.cfm

District Offices

Science Curriculum Office

(562) 997-8000 (ext. 2963) o

K-12 science standards, curriculum, professional development, science fair

Science / Math Resource Center (SMRC)

(562) 997-8000 (ext. 2964) o hands-on materials, consumable material orders, alternative standards-based curriculum packets

Instructional Materials Workshop (IMW) o standards-based instructional materials o content integrated instructional materials o monthly theme-based literacy supplements for science

(562) 997-8000 (ext. 2965) o wood shop / lumber room o copying, enlarging, and laminating

Office of Multimedia Services (OMS)

(562) 997-8000 (ext. 7145) o videos for check out to fit the curriculum (see your librarian for current catalogs) o district TV channels programming

PALMS Office

Program Assistance for

Language Minority Students

(562) 997-8000 (ext. 8031) o technical assistance and professional development for English Language Development (ELD) and Specially

Designed Academic Instruction In English (SDAIE) o assistance in the implementation and maintenance of programs addressing the needs of English Language

Learners (ELLs)

Health Curriculum Office o curriculum and training for mandated health content

(562) 997-8000 (ext. 2967)

Science 8, Page 44

EVALUATION:

Student achievement in this course will be measured using multiple assessment tools.

Assessments will be used for diagnosing student understanding before instruction, monitoring student learning during instruction, and evaluating student understanding after instruction.

SUGGESTED EVALUATION TOOLS:

Source Diagnose

State Assessment

Monitor Evaluate

Content Standards Test – 8 th

Grade Science

District Developed

Assessments

Grade Level Pretest

Open-Ended Science

Performance Task

End of Course Exam

Open-Ended Science

Glencoe Science:

Focus on Physical

Science

Reading Essentials: Before You Read

Launch Labs

New Vocabulary

Teacher Developed

Assessments

Accessing Prior Knowledge Activities

Pre-quiz

Pre-Test

Vocab. Knowledge Rating

SUGGESTED GRADE WEIGHTING:

(with some possible examples)

Reading Check questions

Science Notebook, “ Summarize It”

Lesson Review: Summarize, Using

Vocabulary, Understanding Main Ideas,

Applying Science

Reading Essentials: Think it Over,

Reading Check, Picture This

Applying Math

Foldables

Active Folders

Mini Lab and Lab

Standards Review

Warm-Up

Quiz

Proving Behavior

Lab

Standards Assessment

Performance Assessment

Sci Activities for Adv. Learners

Chapter & Unit Tests

Rubric Scored Projects, Labs, and Writings

Open-ended Prompts

Chapter / Unit Test

Practicum

Semester Final Exam

1. Assessment

2. Homework o objective tests including comprehensive finals o performance tasks (rubric scored) o open-ended questions (rubric scored) o portfolios o student self-evaluations

~30% not more than 10% o discovery assignments o assignments reinforcing class lesson o essays o organization o research

3. Labs o lab reports o active participation

4. Projects o science fair projects o research-based reports and projects

5. Classwork o note taking skills o organization skills o oral presentations o individual and group projects and assessments

~20%

~20%

~20%

Submitted by: Eric Brundin (K. Lima)

School:

Date:

Science Office

9/25/07, revised 4/11

STANDARD GRADING SCALE:

Advanced Proficient

Proficient

A 90 – 100%

..........................................................................................................................

B 80 – 89%

C 70 – 79%

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................

Partial Proficient D 60 – 69%

..........................................................................................................................

Not Proficient

F 0 – 59%

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