917028manual_explosion proof flow and pressure measurement and control atex

917028manual_explosion proof flow and pressure measurement and control atex
Instruction manual
Explosion proof
Flow Measurement and control
ATEX
Doc. no.: 9.17.028N Date: 29-10-2014
ATTENTION
Please read this instruction manual carefully before installing and operating the instrument.
Not following the guidelines could result in personal injury and/or damage to the equipment.
Related drawing.
No modifications permitted without
approval of the authorised person.
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
Even though care has been taken in the preparation and
publication of the contents of this manual, we do not assume
legal or other liability for any inaccuracy, mistake, misstatement or any other error of whatsoever nature contained
herein. The material in this manual is for information
purposes only, and is subject to change without notice.
Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V.
July 2011
Warranty
The products of Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. are warranteed
against defects in material and workmanship for a period of
three years from the date of shipment, provided they are
used in accordance with the ordering specifications and the
instructions in this manual and that they are not subjected to
abuse, physical damage or contamination. Products that do
not operated properly during this period may be repaired or
replaced at no charge. Repairs are normally warranteed for
one year or the balance of the original warranty, whichever is
the longer.
See also paragraph 9 of the Conditions of Sales.
The warranty includes all initial and latent defects, random
failures, and indeterminable internal causes.
It excludes failures and damage caused by the customer,
such as contamination, improper electrical hook-up, dropping
etc.
Re-conditioning of products primarily returned for warranty
service that is partly or wholly judged non-warranty may be
charged for.
Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. prepays outgoing freight charges
when any part of the service is performed under warranty,
unless otherwise agreed upon beforehand. However, if the
product has been returned collect to Bronkhorst High-Tech
B.V., these costs are added to the repair invoice. Import
and/or export charges, foreign shipping methods/carriers are
paid for by the customer.
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
Short-Form Operation Instruction
Before installing your Mass Flow Meter/Controller it is
important to read the attached label and check:
- flow rate
- fluid to be metered
- up- and downstream pressures
- input/output signal
Check the red-coloured sticker and make sure the
test pressure is in agreement with normal safety
factors for your application.
Check if the piping system is clean. For absolute
cleanliness always install filters to assure a clean,
moisture- and oil-free gas stream.
Install the Meter/Controller in the line and tighten the
fittings according to the instructions of the supplier of
the fittings. Choose the mounting position according
to the directions given in this manual.
Check the system for leaks before applying fluid
pressure
Electrical connections must be made with a standard
cable or according to the hook-up diagram in the back
of this manual.
Apply power to the instrument and allow for approx.
30 minutes to warm-up and stabilize. This may be
done with or without fluid pressure, applied to the
system.
Your instrument is now ready for operation.
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
Intrinsic safe sensors
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.5.1
1.6
1.6.1
1.6.2
1.6.3
1.7
1.7.1
1.7.2
1.7.3
General description .................................................................................................................. page 7
Principle of operation of flow sensor ........................................................................................ page 7
Sensor and laminar flow device of flow sensor ....................................................................... page 7
Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. flowhead....................................................................................... page 8
Gas conversion factors ............................................................................................................ page 9
Software for conversion factor calculation ............................................................................... page 10
Control valve ............................................................................................................................ page 11
Introduction .............................................................................................................................. page 11
Kv-value calculation ................................................................................................................. page 12
Maximum pressure drop .......................................................................................................... page 12
Ex-proof Coils .......................................................................................................................... page 13
Introduction .............................................................................................................................. page 13
Style XB-coil ............................................................................................................................. page 13
Style XC-coil ............................................................................................................................ page 13
2
Installation
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
Receipt of equipment ............................................................................................................... page 14
Return shipment....................................................................................................................... page 14
Service ..................................................................................................................................... page 14
Mounting .................................................................................................................................. page 15
In-line filter ............................................................................................................................... page 15
Gas connections ...................................................................................................................... page 15
Piping ....................................................................................................................................... page 16
Electrical connections .............................................................................................................. page 16
Caution ..................................................................................................................................... page 16
Supply pressure ....................................................................................................................... page 17
System purging ........................................................................................................................ page 17
Seals ........................................................................................................................................ page 17
Equipment storage ................................................................................................................... page 17
3
Operation
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
General .................................................................................................................................... page 18
Power and warm-up ................................................................................................................. page 18
Start-up .................................................................................................................................... page 18
Operating conditions ................................................................................................................ page 18
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
4
Cables
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
Introduction .............................................................................................................................. page 19
Control system with XC-coil ..................................................................................................... page 19
Control system with XB-coil ..................................................................................................... page 20
Standard cables for Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. equipment .................................................... page 20
EMC and cables ....................................................................................................................... page 20
Connector assembly customer side......................................................................................... page 20
Cable gland assembly customer side ...................................................................................... page 21
Cable gland assembly instrument side .................................................................................... page 21
5
Maintenance
5.1
5.2
General .................................................................................................................................... page 22
Calibration ................................................................................................................................ page 22
6
Troubleshooting
6.1
6.2
General .................................................................................................................................... page 23
Troubleshooting summary ....................................................................................................... page 23
Appendices
1
2
3
Gas conversion table
EC Declaration of Conformity
Enclosures
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
1 INTRINSIC SAFE SENSORS
1.1 General description
The Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. series mass flow meter is an accurate
device for measuring gas flows up to 700bar, virtually independent
of pressure and temperature changes.
The system can be completed with a control valve and flexible readout
to measure and control gasflows from 0 − 5 ml n / min up to
1000 m 3 n / h .
1.2 Principle of operation of flow sensor
Model F-112AX
The Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. series flow sensor is operating on a principle of heat transfer by sensing the
∆T along a heated section of a capillary tube.
The ∆T is directly proportional to the gas mass flow. The heat transfer function between gas mass flow and
temperature difference can be described by the equation:
∆T = K ⋅ c p ⋅ Φ m
∆T
cp
K
Φm
= temperature difference
= specific heat
= constant factor
= massflow
The temperature sensors are part of a bridge circuit and the unbalance is amplified to the right signal level.
1.3 Sensor and laminar flowdevice of flow sensor
The Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. flow sensors have a small bore capillary.
Small bore sensors have a pressure drop at atmospheric conditions of approximately 35 mbar.
These sensors have a laminar flow device consisting of a number of discs with precision etched flow
channels.
Each flow channel represents approx. 10 ml n / min airflow at 35 mbar.
9.17.028
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
1.4 Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. flowhead
The flowhead has the following type of protection:
II 2 G Ex ib IIC T4 Gb
II 2 G
ib
IIC
T4
Gb
= ATEX group and category
= intrinsic safe in zone 1
= most dangerous explosiongroup with ignitionenergy of 20 µJ
for example: Acetylene and Hydrogen
= surface temperature max. 135°C.
= IEC equipment protection level
There is one gas which has a more dangerous temperature-class; CS 2 has temperature class T5. This gas
may not be measured with our meters.
The signal processing is done with a pre-amplifier, which transforms the measuring signal into a linearised
current signal.
For the power of the heater, a "zero" current of 15mA has been chosen.
The output current varies from 15 to 20mA.
page 8
9.17.028
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
1.5 Gas conversion factors
The general formula for determining the relationship between signal and mass flow is:
Vsignal = K ⋅ c p ⋅ ρ ⋅ Φ m = K ⋅ c p ⋅ ρ ⋅ Φ v
in which:
Vsignal
K
ρ
cp
Φm
Φv
= output signal
= constant
= density
= specific heat
= mass flow
= volume flow
As soon as the c p -value and density of the gas to be metered change, the signal must be corrected. The
conversion factor C reads:
c p ⋅ ρ1
C= 1
c p2 ⋅ ρ2
in which:
cp
ρn
= specific heat
= density at normal conditions
(1) gas calibrated
(2) gas to be measured
Note:
The c p -value used for the calculation of the conversion factor must be taken at a temperature 50°C. higher
than the required temperature.
This factor is called c p -cal.
The conversion factors for commonly used gases related to N2 at normal conditions are stated in the Gas
Conversion Table in Appendix 1.
Example:
Meter calibrated on N2 (200 ml n /min) .
Gasflow passing the meter is CO 2
Output signal reads 80.0%.
Actual CO 2 -flow = 80.0
or
0.74
= 59.2%
1.000
59.2
⋅ 200 = 118.4 ml n / min
100
n means normal conditions,
at normal conditions volumes are converted to a temperature of 0°C and pressure of
1013.25 mbar. (760 Torr)
Note:
Best accuracy is always achieved by performing calibration under operating conditions. Should this not be
possible or practical, then the use of a theoretical conversion factor is a means to determine the flow rate of
the instrument or the gas to be metered, however, it will introduce inaccuracies.
The approximate accuracy of the conversion factors listed is typical for conversion factors;
>1
<1
9.17.028
2% x factor
2% / factor
page 9
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
However, as the accuracy of the factor also depends on viscosity, pressure and temperature, special
attention should be taken for gases in the gas/liquid state where specific heat, density, and viscosity can vary
tremendously. Apply to factory for more detailed information.
For gas mixtures a good approach is the following simplified equation:
V1 V2
Vn
1
=
+
+.....
C mix C 1 C 2
Cn
C mix
Cn
Vn
= Conversion factor for gasmixture
= Conversion factor for gas n
= Volumetric part of gas n in the mixture
Example: Gasmixture contains:
(1) 10% N 2
(2) 30% Ar
(3) 50% CH 4
(4) 10% He
C1 = 1.00
C2 = 1.40
C3 = 0.76
C4 = 1.41
1
C mix = 0.959
C mix
=
0.10 0.30 0.50 0.10
+
+
+
= 1.043
1.000 1.40 0.76 1.41
When the original meter has been calibrated on 500 ml n / min N2 , 100% means:
500 ⋅
0.959
= 480 ml n / min mixture.
1.00
When the original meter has been calibrated on 500 ml n / min Argon, then 100% means:
500 ⋅
0.959
= 343 ml n / min gas mixture
1.40
1.5.1 Software for conversion factor calculation
Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. gathered the physical properties of over 600 fluids in a database called
FLUIDAT.
Application software, such as FLUIDAT on the Net (FOTN), enable the user to calculate accurate
conversion factors, not only at 20°C/1 atm (as shown in the conversion table, App.1) but at any
temperature/pressure combination.
Apply to your distributor for more details of this software.
page 10
9.17.028
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
1.6 Control valve
1.6.1 Introduction
Control valves are not designed to provide positive shut-off, although some models have excellent
capabilities for this purpose.
It is recommended to install a separate shut-off valve in the line if so required. Also pressure surges, as may
occur during system pressurisation must be avoided. The following models can be distinguished:
Solenoid valve
flowcontrol
valve
This is considered to be the standard (direct operated) control valve. In general it
is a normally closed solenoid valve. The plunger is lifted by the force of the
magnetic field of the coil. The orifice under the plunger is removable for optimising
the orifice diameter. Also a normally opened solenoid valve is available.
Vary-P valve
flowcontrol
valve
pressure
compensating
valve
For process conditions where up- and downstream pressure vary much,
a special type of valve, VARY-P has been designed. This valve consists
of two valves, a solenoid operated control valve and a fixed adjusted
pressure compensation valve.
Pilot operated valve
For high flow rates the pilot operated valve has been designed. A
solenoid driven control valve controls the pressure difference
across a piston, which lifts the main plunger.
pilot valve
P1
pressure
compensating
valve
P2
flowcontrol valve
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
1.6.2 Kv-value calculation
This calculation method can be used to determine the K v -value of the main orifice of a control valve.
Determine desired ∆p across valve.
∆p must be at least 20% of supply pressure, or in closed loop systems, of total pressure difference in loop. If
∆p is 20-50% of supply pressure, use formula:
Kv =
Φ vn
514
ρn ⋅ T
∆p ⋅ p 2
undercritical
If ∆P is 50-100% of supply pressure, use formula:
Kv =
Units:
Flow
Supply pressure
Downstream press.
Pressure difference
Temperature
Density
Φ vn
ρn ⋅ T
257 ⋅ p1
overcritical
: Φ vn in m n 3 h (gasflow)
: p1 in bara
: p 2 in bara
: ∆p = ( p1 − p 2 ) in bar
: T in Kelvin
: ρ n in kg / m n 3
The orifice diameter can be determined by:
d= 7.6
K v [mm]
1.6.3 Maximum pressure drop
For (pilot) solenoid operated control valves with small orifices the maximum allowable pressure drop for
gases is according to the table.
Diameter [mm]
Kv
0,05
0,07
0,10
0,14
0,20
0,30
0,37
0,50
0,70
1,00
1,30
1,50
1,70
2,00
4,33 x 10
-5
8,48 x 10
-4
1,73 x 10
-4
3,39 x 10
-4
6,93 x 10
-3
1,56 x 10
-3
2,37 x 10
-3
4,33 x 10
-3
8,48 x 10
-2
1,73 x 10
-2
2,93 x 10
-2
3,90 x 10
-2
5,00 x 10
-2
6,63 x 10
-5
Normally closed
∆p max. [bard]
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
24
12
8
6
5
3,6
Normally opened
∆p max. [bard]
30
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
15
8
5
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
For pilot operated valves the maximum pressure drop is limited to 20 bard. If the the pressure drop during
start-up is higher, it is preferred to install a bypass valve. During start-up this valve should be opened. Also
the minimum pressure drop is limited. For exact figures consult factory or proceed according to the technical
data and/or additional instructions given by the sales office or department.
page 12
9.17.028
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
1.7 Ex-proof Coils
1.7.1 Introduction
In our program we know two sorts of coils:
(1) Style: XB =
II 1 G Ex ia IIC T6
II 1 D Ex ta IIIC T80°C
Intrinsic safe coil with LCIE approval.
This coil must be safeguarded with a isolating repeater.
(2) Style: XC =
II 2 G Ex eb IIC T4
II 2 D Ex tb IIIC T130°C
Increased safety coil with LCIE approval.
1.7.2 Style XB coil
Manufacturer
Type
Type of protection
Certificate no.
Housing
Max.supply voltage
Max.power DC
Coil resistance
Impedance
Apparent inductance
Apparent capacitance
Connecting coupling
: Parker Lucifer
: 48.8670
: II 1 G Ex ia IIC T6
II 1 D Ex ta IIIC T80°C
: LCIE 02 ATEX 6024 X
: metal housing / IP 67
: 28 V / 110mA
: 3 Watt
: 295 Ω 20°C
: 345 Ω
: 0 mH
: 0 µF
: Cable gland PG9
Ambient temperature
: -40°C to + 65°C
II 2 G Ex e IIC Gb
II 1 D Ex ta IIIC Da
103
50
77
49
77
1.7.3 Style XC coil
Manufacturer
Type
Type of protection
Connecting coupling
: Parker Lucifer
: 483371 24Vdc
: II 2 G Ex eb IIC T4
II 2 D Ex tb IIIC T130°C
: LCIE 02 ATEX 6011 X
: metal housing / IP 67
: 24Vdc
: F (155°C)
: 8 Watt (hot)
9 Watt (cold) 20°C
: Cable gland M16 x 1.5
Ambient Temperature
: -40°C. to + 65°C
Certificate no.
Housing
Max.supply voltage
Class of insulation
Max.power DC
II 2 G Ex e IIC Gb
II 1 D Ex ta IIIC Da
110
84
49
50
9.17.028
page 13
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
2 INSTALLATION
2.1 Receipt of equipment
Check the outside packing box for damage incurred during shipment. Should the packing box be damaged,
then the local carrier must be notified at once regarding his liability, if so required. At the same time a report
should be submitted to:
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
RUURLO HOLLAND
If applicable, otherwise contact your distributor.
Remove the envelope containing the packing list; carefully remove the equipment from the packing box.
Do not discard spare or replacement parts with the packing material and inspect the contents for damaged or
missing parts.
2.2 Return shipment
When returning material, always describe the problem and if possible the work to be done, in a covering
letter.
It is absolutely required to notify the factory if toxic or dangerous fluids have been metered with the
instrument!
This to enable the factory to take sufficient precautionary measures to safe-guard the staff in their repair
department. Take proper care of packing, if possible use the original packing box; seal instrument in plastic
etc.
Contaminated instruments must be dispatched with a completely filled in 'declaration on
contamination form'.
Contaminated instruments without this declaration will not be accepted.
Note:
If the instruments have been used with toxic or dangerous fluids the customer should pre-clean the
instrument.
Important:
Clearly note, on top of the package, the customer clearance number of Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V., namely:
NL801989978B01
If applicable, otherwise contact your distributor for local arrangements.
2.3 Service
If the equipment is not properly serviced, serious personal injury and/or damage to the equipment could be
the result. It is therefore important that servicing is performed by trained and qualified service personnel.
Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. has a trained staff of servicemen available.
page 14
9.17.028
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
2.4 Mounting
The mounting position depends on the type of meter. The preferred position is horizontal and at high
pressures (> 10 bar), Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. strongly advices to mount the instrument in this position.
Avoid installation in close proximity of mechanic vibration and/or heat sources.
For mounting the F-106/F-107 series handle the following rules:
STRAIGHT PIPE LENGTH REQUIREMENTS (in number of diameters F)
Upstream
Downstream
one 90° bend before meter
10
4
two 90° bend before meter
13
4
two 90° bend in two planes
20
4
three 90° bend in three planes
30
4
reduction before meter
10
4
expansion before meter
20
4
pressure reducing valve / control valve /
30
4
partially closed valve before meter
For further information see dimensional drawing.
In general flow straighteners have a suspicious influence on the free length of the meter.
A flow straightener can be imagined as a bundle of parallel tubes which is placed in the tube.
In general, these flow straighteners must be placed at least 6 à 8 D upstream of the meter.
In general, use a flow straightener in case of control valves and curves in unequal levels.
Next to these prescriptions for free length, the flow has to be steady, shock and pulsation free.
The flanges also must fit good to each other and there may not stick seals into the tube.
2.5 In-line filter
Although fluids to be measured should be absolutely free of dirt, oil, moisture and other particles, it is
recommended to install an in-line filter upstream of the flowmeter / controller, and if backflow can occur, a
downstream filter is recommended too. Be aware of the pressure drop caused by the filter.
On the inlet of some instruments a screen is placed to prevent foreign matter from entering the instrument
and to maintain a good flow pattern. This device cannot be seen as a filter element.
Contact your distributor for further information.
2.6 Gas connections
Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. series mass flow meters/controllers are standard equipped with compression
fittings. For leak tight installation be sure that the tube is inserted to the shoulder in the fitting body and that
no dirt or dust is present on tube, ferrules or fitting. Tighten the nut fingertight; while holding the instrument,
then tighten the nut 1 turn. If applicable follow the guidelines of the supplier of the fittings.
Special types of fittings are available on request.
The flanges also must fit good to each other and there may not stick seals into the tube.
* Note: Always check your system for leaks, before applying fluid pressure. Especially if toxic, explosive or
other dangerous fluids are used.
9.17.028
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
2.7 Piping
BE SURE THAT PIPING IS ABSOLUTELY CLEAN!
DO NOT install small diameter piping on high flowrates, because the inlet jetflow will affect the accuracy.
DO NOT mount abrupt angles direct on in- and outlet, especially not on high flow rates. We recommend at
least 10 pipe diameters distance between the angle and the instrument.
DO NOT mount pressure regulators direct on the inlet of flow meters/controllers, but allow some meters of
piping (at least 25 D). Special attention should be taken at high flow rates with flow controllers. An up- and
downstream buffer is needed with a volume calculated according to the following formula:
V≤
0.15d 2
ρ
in which:
V = Volume in litres
d = orifice diameter in mm
ρ = density at normal conditions
d = 7.6 k V
Example:
Flow controller at 500 ln/min Air and orifice diameter d = 4 mm, needs for stable control a buffer volume of:
V ≥ 0.15 ⋅ 4 2 : 1.29 = 2.1 litres
Also the capacity of the pressure regulator should be at least 2 times the flow controller, so in this case
2 ⋅ 500 = 1,000 In / min
2.8 Electrical connections
Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. recommends to use standard cables, which have been tested together with the
appropriate flow meter/controller. These cables have the right connector and if loose ends are used, these
will be marked to prevent wrong connection.
Hook-up diagrams are enclosed in the back of this manual.
To comply with the IP classification it is necessary to follow the assemble guidelines of the connector
manufacturer.
2.9 Caution
Each flow meter/controller is pressure tested to at least 1.5 time the working pressure of the process
conditions stipulated by the customer, with a minimum of 8 bar.
For pressure meter/controllers. The test pressure depends on the range of the pressure transducer.
In general
2
x F.S. value for ranges 1 and 2 bar
1,5 x F.S. value for ranges up to 200 bar
1,25 x F.S. value for ranges up to 400 bar
This tested pressure is stated on the flow meter/controller with a RED COLOURED sticker. Check test
pressure before installing in the line.
If this sticker is not available or the test pressure is incorrect, the instrument should not be mounted in the
process line and be returned to the factory.
-9
Each instrument is helium leak tested to at least 2 ⋅ 10 mbar l/s Helium.
page 16
9.17.028
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
2.10 Supply pressure
Do not apply pressure until electrical connections are made. When applying pressure to the system, take
care to avoid pressure shocks in the system and increase pressure gradually, especially on high pressure
units incorporating a membrane/piston operated control valve.
2.11 System purging
If explosive gases are going to be used, purge the process with inert dry gas like Nitrogen, Argon etc. for at
least 30 minutes.
In systems with corrosive gases like silane, purging with an inert gas is absolutely necessary, because if the
tubing has been exposed to air, introducing these gases will tend to clog up or corrode the system due to a
chemical reaction with air or moist air.
Complete purging is also required to remove such gases from the system before exposing the system to air.
It is preferred not to expose the system to air, when working with these corrosive gases.
2.12 Seals
Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. has gathered a material compatibility chart from a number of sources believed to
be reliable.
However, it is a general guide only. Operating conditions may substantially change the accuracy of this
guide. Therefore is no liability for damages accruing from the use of this guide.
The customers application demands its own specific design or test evaluation for optimum reliability.
So check if the seals like O-rings, plunger and packing glands of capillary are correct for your process.
2.13 Equipment storage
The equipment should be stored in its original packing in a cupboard warehouse or similar. Care should be
taken not to subject the equipment to excessive temperatures or humidity.
9.17.028
page 17
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
3 OPERATION
3.1 General
The Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. Mass Flow Meters/Controllers are designed in such a way that they will meet
user process requirements.
3.2 Power and warm-up
Before switching on power check if you have connected all the pins according to the hook-up diagram which
belongs to the flow meter/controller.
It is recommended to turn on power before applying pressure on the instrument and to switch off power after
removing pressure.
Check gas connections, and make sure there is no leakage. If needed, purge the system with a proper gas.
Turn on power and allow for at least 30 minutes to warm-up and stabilize. During warm-up period gas
pressure may either be on or off.
3.3 Start-up
Be sure your tubing is absolutely clean, free of dust, moisture etc., and your gas is cleaned by an adequate
filter. Turn on fluid supply gently. Avoid pressure shocks, and bring the instrument gradually up to the level of
the actual operating conditions. Also switch off fluid supply gently.
3.4 Operating conditions
Each instrument has been calibrated and adjusted for customer process conditions.
Controllers or valves may not operate correctly, if process conditions vary too much, because of the
restriction of the orifice in the valve.
For flow meters performance and accuracy may be affected tremendously if physical fluid properties such as
heat capacity and viscosity change due to changing process conditions.
page 18
9.17.028
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
4 Cables
4.1 Introduction
An average two-wire cable has a capacity of 120 pF per meter and an inductivity of 0.67 µH/m.
For 100 m cable this results into:
C cable = 12 nF
L cable = 67 µH
4.2 Control system with XC coil
For the XC coil the capacity and inductivity is not important, but the voltage loss is the limiting factor.
The maximum voltage output of the controller is 14 Vdc.
Control
circuit
Rk
14Vdc
XC
65 Ohm
For a two-wire shielded cable we don't want to allow more than 1 Volt loss.
So, on the coil Vmax will be 13 Volt.
for XC
I=
V 13
=
= 200 mA
R 65
The cable resistance may be R =
U
1
= =5Ω
=
I 0,2
2
A 0,25 mm cable has a loop resistance of 1,6 Ω per 10 meter.
In other words: the maximum length is:
cable dia
2
0,25 mm
2
0,50 mm
2
0,75 mm
9.17.028
max. length
30 m
60 m
90 m
5
x 10 ≈ 30 m
1,6
page 19
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
4.3 Control system with XB-coil
For the XB-coil the calculation is as follows:
Because the capacity and inductivity are negligible, these can be left out of the calculation.
Resistance of the XB-coil = 300 Ω
Max. control voltage from the control circuit: 25 Vdc
Control
circuit
25Vdc
XB
Rk
300Ohm
Stahl
ISpac 9167
It has to be possible that the coil gets at least 11 Vdc, so:
I=
11
= 37 mA
300
The maximum output of the isolating repeater is 11,5 Vdc (at 25 Vdc input).
For cable losses is left : 11,5 - 11 = 0,5 Vdc
V
0,5
R cable = =
= 13,5 Ω
I 0,037
10
2
= 84 m.
0,25 mm gives 1,6 Ω per 10 m, so the max. cable length is 13,5 x
1,6
4.4 Standard cables for Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. equipment
Cable length
≤ 10 m
≤ 20 m
2
2
Flow sensor
0,25 mm
0,25 mm
2
2
XB coil
0,25 mm
0,25 mm
2
2
XC coil
0,25 mm
0,25 mm
NB: Cable capacity and inductivity are negligible.
≤ 60 m
2
0,25 mm
2
0,25 mm
≤ 100 m
2
0,25 mm
4.5 EMC and cables
All instruments described in this manual carry the CE-mark.
Therefore they have to comply with the EMC requirements as are valid for this kind of instruments.
However compliance with the EMC requirements is not possible without the use of proper cables and
connector/packing gland assemblies.
For good results Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. can provide standard cables. Otherwise follow the guidelines as
stated below.
Note: Readout units with its I.S. isolators should be situated outside zone 2.
4.5.1
Connector assembly customer side
Fold the shield of the cable back over the cable (the shield must be around the cable)
20 mm
Wind a copper tape around the shield
Solder a black wire on the tape and
Connect to pin 9 of connector
8 mm
other wires
D-connector housing
metallized
copper tape
connector
shielded cable
e.g. LAPP LiYCY
black wire
(shield)
page 20
9.17.028
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
4.5.2
Cable gland assembly customer side
shield
35 mm
15 mm
Fold the shield of the cable back over the cable (shield must be around the cable)
shielded cable
e.g. LAPP LiYCY
shield
metal cable gland
e.g. HUMMEL HSK-M-EMV
Mount the metal PG cable gland as shown in the drawing above.
4.5.2
Cable gland assembly instrument side
Exproof flowmeter
Shield of
Cable +
shrinktubing
15 mm
Wires of
cable
Soldered wire
( screen)
30 mm
Solder a wire on the shield of the cable
Place a shrinktubing over the shield in such
a way that the shield is not visible after shrinking
Metal cable gland e.g. HUMMEL HSK-M-EMV
Exproof valves
Shield
cable +
shrinktubing
15 mm
Wires of
cable
50 mm
Place a shrinktubing over the shield in such
a way that the shield is not visible after shrinking
Metal cable gland e.g. HUMMEL HSK-M-EMV
9.17.028
page 21
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
5 MAINTENANCE
5.1 General
At normal use, no routine maintenance is required to be performed on the meters or controllers. Units may
be flushed with clean, dry inert gas.
For further information contact supplier or factory.
5.2 Calibration
All flow meters are factory calibrated. For re-calibration or re-ranging contact supplier or factory.
page 22
9.17.028
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
6 TROUBLESHOOTING
6.1 General
For a correct analysis of the proper operation of a mass flow meter/controller it is recommended to remove
the unit from the process line and to check it without applying gas supply pressure. In case the unit is dirty,
this can be ascertained immediately by loosening the compression type couplings and, if applicable, the
flange on the inlet side.
Energizing or de-energizing of the instrument may already indicate whether there is an electronic failure.
After that gas pressure is to be applied in order to check flow behaviour.
If there should be suspicion of leakage do not check for bubbles with a leak detection liquid as this may lead
to a short-circuit in the sensor capillary assembly or p.c. board.
6.2 Troubleshooting summary
Symptom
No output signal
Maximum output signal
Output signal much lower than
setpoint signal or desired flow
Flow is gradually decreasing
Oscillation
Small flow at zero setpoint
9.17.028
Possible cause
No power supply
Output stage blown-up due to long
lasting shortage and/or high-voltage
peaks
Supply pressure too high, or differential
pressure across meter too high
Valve blocked/contaminated
Screen in inlet fitting blocked
Sensor/capillary failure
Output stage blown-up
Sensor/capillary failure
Screen blocked/contamined
LFD blocked/contaminated and/or liquid
in meter
Valve blocked/contaminated
Valve internals damage (swollen seat in
plunger)
Incorrect type of gas is used and/or
pressure/diff. pressure
Condensation, occurs with NH 3 ,
hydrocarbons such as C 3 H 8 ,C 4 H10
etc.
Valve adjustment has changed
Supply pressure/diff. pressure too high
Pipeline too short between pressure
regulator and MFC
Pressure regulator is oscillating
Valve sleeve or internals damaged
Controller adjustment wrong
Valve leaks due to damaged plunger or
dirt in orifice
Pressure too high or much too low
Action
1a) check power supply
1b) check cable connection
1c) return to factory
1d) lower supply pressure
1e) return to factory
1f) return to factory
1g) return to factory
2a) return to factory
2b) return to factory
3a) return to factory
3b return to factory
3c) return to factory
3d) return to factory
3e) try instrument on conditions for which
it was designed
4a) decrease supply pressure and/or
heat gas to be measured
4b) see ‘1e’
5a) lower pressure
5b) increase length or diameter of piping
upstream
5c) replace pressure regulator or try ‘5b’
5d) return to factory
5e) return to factory
6a) return to factory
6b) apply correct pressure
page 23
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
page 24
9.17.028
APPENDIX 1
GAS CONVERSION TABLE
Doc. no.: 9.02.071
11
GAS CONVERSION FACTOR
Nr.:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
Name:
Acetylene (Ethyne)
Air
Allene (Propadiene)
Ammonia
Argon
Arsine
Boron trichloride
Boron trifluoride
Bromine pentafluoride
Butadiene (1,3-)
Butane
Butene (1-)
Butene (2-) (Cis)
Butene (2-) (Trans)
Carbonylfluoride
Carbonylsulfide
Carbon dioxide
Carbon disulfide
Carbon monoxide
Chlorine
Chlorine trifluoride
Cyanogen
Cyanogen chloride
Cyclopropane
Deuterium
Diborane
Dibromo difluoromethane
Dichlorosilane
Dimethylamine
Dimethylpropane (2,2-)
Dimethylether
Disilane
Ethane
Ethylene (Ethene)
Ethylene oxide
Ethylacetylene (1-Butyne)
Ethylchloride
Fluorine
Freon-11
Freon-113
Freon-1132A
Freon-114
Freon-115
Freon-116
Freon-12
Freon-13
Freon-13B1
Freon-14
Freon-21
Freon-22
Freon-23
Freon-C318
Germane
* c p - cal (T,p) = c p (T + 50°C, p)
Symbol
Density
Heat capacity*
C2H2
Air
C3H4
NH 3
Ar
AsH 3
BCl 3
BF 3
BrF 5
C4H6
C 4 H 10
C4H8
C4H8
C4H8
COF 2
COS
CO 2
CS 2
CO
Cl 2
ClF 3
C2N2
ClCN
C3H6
D2
B2H6
Br 2 CF 2
SiH 2 Cl 2
C 2 H 6 NH
C 5 H 12
C2H6O
Si 2 H 6
C2H6
C2H4
C2H4O
C4H6
C 2 H 5 Cl
F2
CCl 3 F
C 2 Cl 3 F 3
C2H2F2
C 2 Cl 2 F 4
C 2 ClF 5
C2F6
CCl 2 F 2
CClF 3
CBrF 3
CF 4
CHCl 2 F
CHClF 2
CHF 3
C4F8
GeH4
0°C, 1 atm.
1.172
1.293
1.832
0.7693
1.784
3.524
5.227
3.044
7.803
2.504
2.705
2.581
2.503
2.503
2.983
2.724
1.977
3.397
1.25
3.218
4.125
2.376
2.743
1.919
0.1798
1.248
9.361
4.506
2.011
3.219
2.105
2.857
1.355
1.261
1.965
2.413
2.878
1.696
6.129
8.36
2.889
7.626
7.092
6.251
5.547
4.72
6.768
3.946
4.592
3.936
3.156
9.372
3.45
20°C, 1 atm.
0.438
0.241
0.392
0.524
0.125
0.133
0.136
0.188
0.156
0.405
0.457
0.415
0.387
0.421
0.194
0.175
0.213
0.152
0.249
0.118
0.188
0.275
0.185
0.374
1.73
0.577
0.17
0.17
0.417
0.462
0.378
0.352
0.468
0.414
0.303
0.401
0.263
0.201
0.145
0.174
0.244
0.177
0.182
0.2
0.153
0.165
0.12
0.18
0.154
0.168
0.191
0.222
0.16
ρ n [g / l]
Conversion
c p − cal [cal / g. K ] factor
20°C, 1 atm.
0.61
1.00
0.43
0.77
1.40
0.66
0.44
0.54
0.26
0.31
0.25
0.29
0.32
0.30
0.54
0.65
0.74
0.60
1.00
0.82
0.40
0.48
0.61
0.43
1.00
0.43
0.20
0.41
0.37
0.21
0.39
0.31
0.49
0.60
0.52
0.32
0.41
0.91
0.35
0.21
0.44
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.37
0.40
0.38
0.44
0.44
0.47
0.52
0.15
0.56
App. 1, page 3
GAS CONVERSION FACTOR
Nr.:
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
Name:
Helium
Helium (3-)
Hydrogen
Hydrogen bromide
Hydrogen chloride
Hydrogen cyanide
Hydrogen fluoride
Hydrogen iodide
Hydrogen selenide
Hydrogen sulfide
Isobutane
Isobutylene (Isobutene)
Krypton
Methane
Methylacetylene
Methylbromide
Methylchloride
Methylfluoride
Methylmercaptan
Molybdenum hexafluoride
Mono-ethylamine
Monomethylamine
Neon
Nitric oxide
Nitrogen
Nitrogen dioxide
Nitrogen trifluoride
Nitrosyl chloride
Nitrous oxide
Oxygen
Oxygen difluoride
Ozone
Pentane
Perchlorylfluoride
Perfluoropropane
Performa- ethylene
Phosgene
Phosphine
Phosphorous pentafluoride
Propane
Propylene (Propene)
Silane
Silicon tetrafluoride
Sulfurylfluoride
Sulfur dioxide
Sulfur hexafluoride
Sulfur tetrafluoride
Trichlorosilane
Trimethylamine
Tungsten hexafluoride
Vinylbromide
Vinylchloride
Vinylfluoride
Xenon
* c p - cal (T,p) = c p (T + 50°C, p)
App. 1, page 4
Symbol
He
3He
H2
HBr
HCl
HCN
HF
HI
H 2 Se
H2S
C 4 H 10
C4H8
Kr
CH 4
C3H4
CH 3 Br
CH 3 Cl
CH 3 F
CH 3 SH
MoF 6
C 2 H 5 NH 2
CH 3 NH 2
Ne
NO
N2
NO 2
NF 3
NOCl
N2O
O2
OF 2
O3
C 5 H 12
ClO 3 F
C3F8
C2F4
COCl 2
PH 3
PF 5
C3H8
C3H6
SiH 4
SiF 4
SO 2 F 2
SO 2
SF 6
SF 4
SiHCl 3
C3H9N
WF 6
C 2 H 3 Br
C 2 H 3 Cl
C2H3F
Xe
Density
Heat capacity*
Conversion
ρ n [g / l]
c p − cal [cal / g. K ] factor
0°C, 1 atm.
0.1785
0.1346
0.08991
3.646
1.639
1.206
0.8926
5.799
3.663
20°C, 1atm.
1.24
1.606
3.44
0.0869
0.192
0.345
0.362
0.0553
0.109
0.246
0.457
0.429
0.058
0.568
0.399
0.118
0.212
0.29
0.272
0.156
0.436
0.424
0.246
0.239
0.249
0.204
0.194
0.17
0.221
0.222
0.201
0.207
0.455
0.165
0.22
0.206
0.149
0.277
0.183
0.456
0.408
0.349
0.18
0.175
0.157
0.175
0.192
0.157
0.424
0.092
0.141
0.229
0.305
0.0382
1.536
2.693
2.60
3.749
0.7175
1.83
4.35
2.3
1.534
2.146
9.366
2.011
1.419
0.9002
1.34
1.250
2.053
3.182
2.984
1.978
1.429
2.417
2.154
3.219
4.653
8.662
4.523
4.413
1.53
5.694
2.012
1.915
1.443
4.683
4.631
2.922
6.626
4.821
6.044
2.637
13.29
4.772
2.865
2.08
5.899
20°C, 1 atm.
1.41
1.44
1.01
0.98
0.99
0.75
0.96
0.97
0.78
0.82
0.25
0.28
1.43
0.76
0.43
0.61
0.64
0.70
0.53
0.21
0.36
0.52
1.41
0.97
1.00
0.74
0.50
0.61
0.71
0.98
0.64
0.70
0.21
0.41
0.16
0.33
0.47
0.73
0.30
0.34
0.40
0.62
0.37
0.38
0.68
0.27
0.34
0.33
0.28
0.25
0.46
0.47
0.49
1.38
APPENDIX 2
EC Declaration of Conformity
EC Declaration of Conformity *
* Also available on the Documentation / software tool CD
APPENDIX 3
Enclosures (if applicable)
Calibration certificate(s)
Declaration on contamination
Dimensional drawings
Hook-up diagram
Translation of essential safety instructions (enclosed by order and available on
Documentation / software tool CD)
EC Type Examination certificate *
Product Quality Assurance Notification *
Manual XB coil *
Manual XC coil *
EC Type Examination certificate XB coil *
EC Type Examination certificate XC coil *
* Enclosed on Documentation / software tool CD
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