Apple | Macintosh LC 630 | Technical information | Apple Macintosh LC 630 Technical information

Apple Macintosh LC 630 Technical information
ð
Developer Note
Macintosh 630 DOS Compatible
Computers
Macintosh LC 630 DOS Compatible Computer
Macintosh Quadra 630 DOS Compatible Computer
Macintosh Performa 640 DOS Compatible Computer
ð
Developer Note
Developer Press
 Apple Computer, Inc. 1995
ð
Apple Computer, Inc.
 1995 Apple Computer, Inc.
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Contents
Figures and Tables
Preface
vii
About This Note
ix
Contents of This Note
ix
Supplementary Documents
ix
Obtaining Information From APDA
Conventions and Abbreviations
x
Typographical Conventions
xi
Standard Abbreviations
xi
Chapter 1
Introduction
x
1
Features
2
How the DOS Compatibility Subsystem Works
Outline of Operation
5
I/O Capabilities
6
Floppy Disk
6
Hard Disk
6
Serial Ports
6
Parallel Printer Port
7
Keyboard and Mouse
7
Sound
8
Video Monitor
8
Game Controller Port
8
Chapter 2
Hardware Design
4
11
Processor and Memory Components
13
Cx486DX2 Microprocessor
13
PC System Bus and Devices
14
Cache Snooping
14
Byte Order
14
Misaligned Transfers
15
Interrupts
16
Bus Arbitration
17
Expansion
18
84031 Memory Controller
18
DRAM Control
19
BIOS Control
19
iii
Clock Generation
19
ISA Bus Control
20
84035 Data Path Controller
20
Clocks
20
System Reset
20
Interrupt Control
21
Portola Bus Adapter IC
21
Burst Transfers
21
Video Components
21
Sharing a Monitor
22
Monitors Supported
22
Monitor Sense Lines
23
Video Timing
23
Video Components
25
82C450 VGA Controller
25
MU9C9760 SynDAC
25
I/O Components
26
Pretzel Logic I/O Controller IC
26
DMA Channels
26
Address Translation
27
Serial Port Support
27
Printer Port Support
27
Keyboard and Mouse Emulation
28
Message Mailbox
28
Power-on Reset
28
Autoconfiguration
28
Game Adapter Card
29
Sound Expansion Card
29
CT2501 Sound System IC
29
YMF262 FM Synthesizer IC
30
YAC512 Sound DAC IC
30
Subsystem Connectors
30
The 68040 Microprocessor Socket
30
The I/O Expansion Slot
31
Audio and Video Connector
32
Chapter 3
The PC Interface Driver
Initializing the Driver
34
Open
34
Close
34
Configuring the PC
34
rsSetMemoryConfig
35
rsSetDriveConfig
35
rsGetNetDriveConfig
36
rsSetNetDriveConfig
37
iv
33
rsSetComPortConfig
37
rsSetParallelPortConfig
38
rsSetDeactivateKey
39
Control and Status Calls
39
rsPCStatus
40
rsBootPC
41
rsResetPC
41
rsEnableVideo
41
rsDisableVideo
42
rsMountDisks
42
rsDontMountDisks
42
rsActivateKB
43
rsDeactivateKB
43
rsBeginMouseTracking
43
rsEndMouseTracking
43
rsEndPrintJob
44
Detecting Errors
44
rsSetNotificationProc
44
rsLastError
45
Passing Messages
45
Message Conventions
45
Macintosh Interface
45
PC Interface
46
Registering Messages
46
On the Mac OS
46
On the PC
46
Sending a Message
47
On the Mac OS
47
On the PC
48
Installing a Message Handler
48
On the Mac OS
49
On the PC
50
Removing a Message Handler
50
On the Mac OS
50
On the PC
51
Header File for PC Interface
51
Index
63
Beatrice Developer Note
1
v
Figures and Tables
Preface
About This Note
Chapter 1
Introduction
1
Table 1-1
Figure 1-1
Figure 1-2
Table 1-2
Figure 1-3
Comparison with a midrange PC
The DOS compatibility subsystem
Simplified block diagram
5
Corresponding serial-port signals
Installing the joystick
9
Chapter 2
Hardware Design
Figure 2-1
Table 2-1
Table 2-2
Table 2-3
Table 2-4
Table 2-5
Figure 2-2
Table 2-6
Table 2-7
Chapter 3
ix
4
6
11
Detailed block diagram
13
Microprocessor transfer comparison
16
Definitions of PC interrupts
16
Arbitration priorities
18
Monitors and display modes
22
VIdeo timing parameters for supported monitors
23
Video timing parameters
24
Signals connected to the I/O expansion slot
31
Signals on the audio and video connector
32
The PC Interface Driver
Table 3-1
3
33
Bits in the PC status word
40
vii
P R E F A C E
About This Note
This developer note describes the Macintosh 630 DOS compatible computer, a
Macintosh computer with a built-in 486-type microprocessor. This developer
note describes the DOS compatibility features of this computer and the way
DOS software can communicate with Mac OS software.
Note
This developer note applies to the Macintosh LC 630 DOS Compatible,
the Macintosh Quadra 630 DOS Compatible, and the Macintosh
Performa 640 DOS Compatible computers. ◆
This developer note is intended to help hardware and software developers
design products that are compatible with the Macintosh product described in
the note. If you are not already familiar with Macintosh computers or if you
would simply like more technical information, you may wish to read the
supplementary reference documents described in this preface.
Contents of This Note
0
This developer note has three chapters.
■
Chapter 1, “Introduction,” presents a summary of the features of the
Macintosh 630 DOS Compatible computer and a brief description of the
way it operates.
■
Chapter 2, “Hardware Design,” describes the design of the DOS
Compatibility Card and the interface devices that allow DOS programs
to operate in a Macintosh 630 DOS Compatible computer.
■
Chapter 3, “The PC Interface Driver,” describes the system software that
allows DOS programs to communicate with Mac OS programs on the
Macintosh 630 DOS Compatible computer.
Supplementary Documents
0
For installation and operating instructions, refer to the user’s manual that
accompanies the product.
For information about the unmodified Macintosh LC 630 and Macintosh
Quadra 630 computers, refer to Macintosh Developer Note Number 10, APDA
catalog number R0568LL/A. Developer notes for the individual Macintosh
models are also published electronically in the quarterly Reference Library
Edition of the Developer CD series, available through APDA.
ix
P R E F A C E
For information about the Cx486DX2 microprocessor, refer to Cx486DX/DX2
3 and 5 Volt Microprocessors published by Cyrix Corporation.
For a general description of big-endian and little-endian byte addressing,
please refer to Appendix A, “Overview of PowerPC Technology,” in
Macintosh Developer Note Number 8, APDA catalog number R0566LL/A.
Developers may also need copies of the appropriate Apple reference books.
You should have the relevant books of the Inside Macintosh series, particularly
Inside Macintosh: Processes.
Obtaining Information From APDA
0
The Apple publications listed above are available from APDA. APDA is
Apple’s worldwide source for hundreds of development tools, technical
resources, training products, and information for anyone interested in
developing applications on Apple platforms. Customers receive the APDA
Tools Catalog featuring all current versions of Apple development tools and
the most popular third-party development tools. APDA offers convenient
payment and shipping options, including site licensing.
To order products or to request a complimentary copy of the APDA Tools
Catalog, contact
APDA
Apple Computer, Inc.
P.O. Box 319
Buffalo, NY 14207-0319
Telephone
1-800-282-2732 (United States)
1-800-637-0029 (Canada)
716-871-6555 (International)
Fax
716-871-6511
AppleLink
APDA
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APDAorder
CompuServe
76666,2405
Internet
APDA@applelink.apple.com
Conventions and Abbreviations
This developer note uses the following typographical conventions and
abbreviations.
x
0
P R E F A C E
Typographical Conventions
0
Computer-language text—any text that is literally the same as it appears in
computer input or output—appears in Courier font.
Hexadecimal numbers are preceded by a dollar sign ($). For example, the
hexadecimal equivalent of decimal 16 is written as $10.
Note
A note like this contains information that is interesting but not essential
for an understanding of the text. ◆
IMPORTANT
A note like this contains important information that you should read
before proceeding. ▲
Standard Abbreviations
0
When unusual abbreviations appear in this book, the corresponding terms are
also spelled out. Standard units of measure and other widely used
abbreviations are not spelled out. Here are the standard units of measure
used in this developer note:
A
amperes
mA
milliamperes
dB
decibels
µA
microamperes
GB
gigabytes
MB
megabytes
Hz
hertz
MHz
megahertz
in.
inches
mm
millimeters
k
1000
ms
milliseconds
K
1024
µs
microseconds
KB
kilobytes
ns
nanoseconds
kg
kilograms
Ω
ohms
kHz
kilohertz
sec.
seconds
kΩ
kilohms
V
volts
lb.
pounds
W
watts
Other abbreviations used in this note include
$n
hexadecimal value n
ADB
Apple Desktop Bus
API
application program interface
A/V
audiovisual
BIOS
basic input/output system
CAS
column address strobe (a memory control signal)
xi
P R E F A C E
xii
CGA
Color Graphics Adapter
CLUT
color lookup table
codec
coder/decoder
CPU
central processing unit
DAC
digital-to-analog converter
DC
direct current
DMA
direct memory access
DOS
disk operating system
DRAM
dynamic RAM
EGA
Enhanced Graphics Adapter
FIFO
first in, first out
FM
frequency modulation
GND
ground
IC
integrated circuit
I/O
input and output
IRQ
interrupt request
ISA
Industry Standard Architecture
Mac OS
Macintosh Operating System
MDA
Monochrome Display Adapter
n.c.
no connection
OS
operating system
PC
personal computer
PDS
processor-direct slot
PRAM
parameter random-access memory
RAM
random-access memory
RAS
row address strobe
RGB
red-green-blue, a video signal format with separate red,
green, and blue color components
ROM
read-only memory
RTC
real-time clock
SCSI
Small Computer System Interface
SIMM
Single Inline Memory Module
SVGA
super video graphics adapter
TCP/IP
Transport Control Protocol/Interface Program
UART
universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter
VCO
voltage-controlled oscillator
VGA
video graphics adapter
C H A P T E R
Figure 1-0
Listing 1-0
Table 1-0
1
Introduction
1
C H A P T E R
1
Introduction
The Macintosh 630 DOS Compatible computers are modified Macintosh LC 630,
Macintosh Quadra 630, and Macintosh Performa 640 computers with additional
hardware that provides IBM-compatible PC functionality. The added hardware includes
a 486-type microprocessor and interface devices that allow it to use the I/O capabilities
of the host computer. The Macintosh 630 DOS Compatible computer provides a
cost-effective system with DOS performance equivalent to a stand-alone PC.
Features
1
The Macintosh 630 DOS Compatible computer is a Macintosh 630–series computer with
the following additional hardware components:
■
the main compatibility card, installed in the Macintosh 630 computer’s 68040 socket
■
the sound expansion card, installed on the main compatibility card
■
the game adapter card, installed in the Macintosh 630 computer’s I/O expansion slot
Collectively, those components make up the DOS compatibility subsystem.
Note
A Macintosh 630 DOS Compatible computer retains all the features of a
Macintosh 630-series computer, including the ability to accept optional
video, tuner, and communications cards. ◆
The main card replaces the host’s 68040 microprocessor, which is installed in a socket on
the card. The game adapter card is installed in the host computer’s I/O expansion slot
(PDS) and provides a 15-pin connector for a joystick. In addition, a 16-pin ribbon cable
carries the audio and video signals between the main card and the host computer.
The following list is a summary of the features of the DOS compatibility subsystem. Each
of these features is described later in this developer note.
2
■
Processor. The main compatibility card has a Cx486DX2 or 80486DX2 microprocessor
operating at a clock speed of 66 MHz.
■
Expansion RAM. The main compatibility card accepts one standard 72-pin DRAM
SIMM containing either 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 MB. Recommended DRAM speed is 80 ns
or less.
■
Shared RAM. The DOS compatibility subsystem can use part of the DRAM in the
Macintosh host computer. The user can select a memory size of 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 MB,
provided the Macintosh computer has enough memory installed.
■
Direct memory access. A DMA channel supports I/O transfers when memory is
installed on the main compatibility card; when using shared memory, DMA is
provided through the Macintosh system.
■
Video support. A VGA video system on the main compatibility card supports
Macintosh monitors from 13-inch through 20-inch size and all available VGA
monitors.
■
Sound card. The DOS compatibility subsystem provides standard PC sound output
through a sound expansion card that produces 16-bit sound output compatible with
Features
C H A P T E R
1
Introduction
Sound Blaster cards. Sounds are played through the host computer’s sound output
jack and built-in speaker.
■
Serial ports. The DOS compatibility subsystem uses the host computer’s two serial
ports by way of serial port interfaces emulated in hardware.
■
Parallel port. The DOS compatibility subsystem has access to a printer on the host
computer by way of a parallel port interface emulated in hardware.
■
Floppy disk. The DOS compatibility subsystem uses the host computer’s 3.5-inch
internal floppy drive.
■
Hard disk. The DOS compatibility subsystem has access to the host computer’s
internal hard drive and external SCSI devices.
■
Keyboard and mouse. The DOS compatibility subsystem uses the host computer’s
keyboard and mouse through hardware emulation.
■
Joystick. The game adapter card includes a DB-15 connector that supports a standard
PC-style joystick.
The DOS compatibility subsystem in the Macintosh 630 DOS Compatible computer
provides performance and features comparable with midrange 80486DX computers
currently available. Table 1-1 compares the features of the Macintosh 630 DOS
Compatible computer with a midrange PC computer.
Table 1-1
Comparison with a midrange PC
Feature
Macintosh 630 DOS
Compatible computer
Midrange PC computer
Processor
66 MHz Cx486DX2 or
80486DX2
Same
Network support
IPX and TCP/IP available
Optional
Onboard RAM
None
4 MB
Expansion RAM
1 SIMM (up to 32 MB)
8 SIMMs (up to 64 MB)
Video support
VGA, EGA, CGA, MDA
Same
Video RAM
512 KB DRAM
Same
Sound card
Sound out only
Optional
Serial ports
2 (COM1 and COM2)
Same
Parallel port
1 (emulated,
XT/AT compatible)
1
Keyboard
AT compatible
Same
Mouse
PS/2 compatible
Same
Floppy disk
3.5-inch
3.5-inch and 5.25-inch
AT expansion
None
3 slots
External SCSI
Yes
No
Features
3
C H A P T E R
1
Introduction
Notice that the Macintosh 630 DOS Compatible computer has greater sound and
networking capabilities than a midrange PC. In addition, the Macintosh 630 DOS
Compatible computer provides external SCSI expansion (for hard drives and removablemedia devices only).
How the DOS Compatibility Subsystem Works
The DOS compatibility subsystem occupies both the 68040 microprocessor socket and
the I/O expansion slot of the host Macintosh 630–series computer. Figure 1-1 shows the
interior of a Macintosh 630 DOS Compatible computer; the heavy outlines identify the
DOS compatibility subsystem.
Figure 1-1
The DOS compatibility subsystem
Note
The main logic board in the Macintosh 630 DOS Compatible computer
has two RAM SIMM slots and an audio and video connector, making it
different from the logic board in other Macintosh 630–series
computers. ◆
4
How the DOS Compatibility Subsystem Works
1
C H A P T E R
1
Introduction
Outline of Operation
1
Figure 1-2 shows a simplified block diagram of the DOS compatibility subsystem
installed in a Macintosh 630–series computer.
Figure 1-2
Simplified block diagram
DOS compatibility
subsystem
CPU
Cx486DX2
Macintosh host
computer
Video
DRAM
AT bus
Memory
and bus
controllers
Video out
VGA
controller
Keyboard
controller
Video
controller
Sound
card
RAM SIMM
Portola
bus
adapter
Video
DRAM
CPU
Socket
RAM
Pretzel
Logic IC
CPU
68040
Declaration
ROM
Memory
controller
and bus
interface
I/O
expansion
slot
Serial
ports
SCSI
port
I/O
controller
Floppy disk
ADB
The diagram shows some of the hardware devices on the main compatibility card: the
memory controller and DRAM SIMM, and the VGA controller and video RAM. It also
shows the Pretzel Logic IC, which acts as a bus converter between the compatibility card
and the Macintosh computer and provides the interface to Macintosh devices that
emulate PC devices. Chapter 2, “Hardware Design,” gives more information about the
devices on the DOS compatibility subsystem and the way they operate in conjunction
with the Macintosh host computer.
How the DOS Compatibility Subsystem Works
5
C H A P T E R
1
Introduction
I/O Capabilities
1
The DOS compatibility subsystem uses I/O devices built into or connected to the
Macintosh host computer. This section describes the I/O capabilities; for more
information on their operation, see “I/O Components” on page 26.
Floppy Disk
1
The DOS compatibility subsystem has access to the Macintosh host computer’s 3.5-inch
internal floppy drive, which can read and write DOS-formatted floppy disks. When
RAM SIMM is installed on the main compatibility card, I/O data transfers use the DMA
channel. When the DOS subsystem is using shared memory, I/O data transfers are
handled by the disk drivers in the Macintosh Operating System (Mac OS).
Hard Disk
1
The DOS compatibility subsystem has access to the host computer’s internal IDE hard
drive and external SCSI devices. I/O data transfers use the DMA channel when RAM
SIMM is installed on the main compatibility card. When using shared memory, I/O data
transfers are handled by the disk drivers in the Mac OS.
Serial Ports
1
The DOS compatibility subsystem has access to the serial ports on the Macintosh host
computer. To provide software compatibility, an IC on the main compatibility card
emulates the registers of the standard serial port ICs found in most PC/AT computers.
For more information on register emulation, see “Serial Port Support” on page 27.
An adapter cable is necessary to connect a PC serial device to a Macintosh serial port.
Table 1-2 shows the signals on the 9-pin connector on the Macintosh serial ports and
the corresponding connections on the 25-pin and 9-pin connectors used with a PC
serial port.
Table 1-2
Corresponding serial-port signals
Pin number
on Macintosh
serial port
RS-422
signal name
Pin number
on 25-pin PC
serial port
Pin number
on 9-pin PC
serial port
RS-232 signal
name
1
HSKo
20
4
DTR
2
HSKi
5, 8
8, 1
CTS, DCD
3
TXD–
2
3
TXD
4
GND
7
5
GND
5
RXD–
3
2
RXD
6
TXD+
n.c.
none
continued
6
How the DOS Compatibility Subsystem Works
C H A P T E R
1
Introduction
Table 1-2
Corresponding serial-port signals (continued)
Pin number
on Macintosh
serial port
RS-422
signal name
Pin number
on 25-pin PC
serial port
7
GPi
n.c.
8
RXD+
7
9
+5V
n.c.
Pin number
on 9-pin PC
serial port
RS-232 signal
name
none
5
GND
none
The Macintosh serial ports are RS-422 ports and do not support all the RS-232 signals. In
particular, the Carrier Detect (CD), Data Set Ready (DSR), Request To Send (RTS), and
Ring Indicator (RI) signals are not available. Not all RS-232 devices will work using the
RS-422 protocol.
Note
The 9-pin sockets on the Macintosh serial ports
accept either 9-pin or 8-pin connectors. ◆
Parallel Printer Port
1
A custom IC on the main compatibility card emulates a compatible parallel port interface
and enables the driver software to send printer data to a printer through the Macintosh
host computer. The printer may be connected directly to the Macintosh computer’s serial
port or it may be on a network and selected by means of the Chooser. The IC provides
register compatibility only; for more information, see “Printer Port Support” on page 27.
Keyboard and Mouse
1
The main compatibility card includes hardware that emulates a PC keyboard and mouse
using inputs from the keyboard and mouse on the Macintosh host computer. The
software protocols for the keyboard and mouse are the same as on a standard PC.
Note
The DOS compatibility subsystem can work with another user input
device, such as a trackball, but the device must be connected to the
Macintosh host computer by way of the ADB port. ◆
The PC Setup control panel allows the user to define a key command (hot key) to switch
operation of the user interface devices (the keyboard, the mouse, and the monitor)
between the DOS compatibility subsystem and the Macintosh host computer. The key
command consists of the Command key (
) and at least one other key. Chapter 5 in the
user’s manual gives instructions for setting the key command.
How the DOS Compatibility Subsystem Works
7
C H A P T E R
1
Introduction
Sound
1
Sound is generated on the DOS compatibility subsystem either by the 8254 interval timer
on the main compatibility card or by the sound expansion card. The 8254 interval timer
is responsible for the standard system beep (square wave output) and sound effects. The
sound expansion card provides 16-bit stereo sound output only and is software
compatible with the Sound Blaster register model.
Sounds generated by the DOS compatibility subsystem are routed to the host computer’s
main logic board where they are mixed with sounds from other sources in the system.
Video Monitor
1
The DOS compatibility subsystem shares the video monitor used with the Macintosh
host computer. The monitors that can be shared are
■
Apple Color Plus 14-inch Display
■
Macintosh Color Display (14-inch)
■
Apple Multiple Scan 15 Display (15-inch)
■
VGA (640 by 480 pixels)
■
SVGA (800 by 600 pixels)
Note
The DOS compatibility subsystem does not support all the available
resolutions on a Macintosh multiple scan monitor. ◆
Video signals generated by the DOS compatibility subsystem are routed to the host
computer’s motherboard where they are mixed with the computer’s video signals and
sent to the video monitor. System software turns off the video from one video source
when the other is selected. See “Sharing a Monitor” on page 22.
The host computer detects the type of video monitor at startup time by interrogating the
monitor sense lines. For more information about the monitor sense lines, see the section
“Video Components” on page 21.
Game Controller Port
1
The game controller port is a DB-15 connector on the game adapter card. It is accessible
at the I/O expansion slot at the rear of the computer and is used to connect a PC/AT
compatible game controller (joystick). Figure 1-3 shows the back of a Macintosh 630 DOS
Compatible computer with the game controller installed. The game controller can be
used only with programs running on the PC.
8
How the DOS Compatibility Subsystem Works
C H A P T E R
1
Introduction
Figure 1-3
Installing the joystick
How the DOS Compatibility Subsystem Works
9
C H A P T E R
Figure 2-0
Listing 2-0
Table 2-0
2
Hardware Design
2
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
The DOS compatibility subsystem contains three printed circuits cards: the main
compatibility card, the game adapter card, and the sound expansion card. The
main compatibility card contains the processor and memory components, the video
display components, and the I/O components. The game adapter card contains the
slot declaration ROM and the game controller port. The sound expansion card contains
the sound generation ICs. The individual ICs are
■
processor and memory components
Cx486DX2 or 80486DX2 microprocessor
84031 memory controller
84035 data path controller
Portola bus adapter IC
68040 microprocessor (from main logic board)
n
n
n
n
n
■
video display components
82C450 VGA controller
MU9C9760 SynDAC (video DAC, CLUT, and clock synthesizer)
n
n
■
I/O components
8242 keyboard and mouse controller
Pretzel Logic I/O interface controller
n
n
■
game adapter card
slot declaration ROM
n
■
sound expansion card
CT2501 sound system IC (combination bus interface, codec, and audio mixer)
YMF262 digitally controlled FM synthesizer
YAC512 audio DAC for the YMF262
n
n
n
All the ICs in the DOS compatibility subsystem are commercially available parts except
the Pretzel Logic IC and the Portola IC, which are Apple custom parts. The individual
ICs are described later.
The block diagram in Figure 2-1 shows the main components of the main compatibility
card and the game adapter card.
The main compatibility card has a high-speed processor bus linking the 80486 microprocessor to the RAM SIMM by way of the 84031 memory controller. The main
compatibility card also has an I/O bus: the XD (data) bus. The XD bus is used for devices
on the card: the keyboard controller, the game controller, the VGA controller, and the
sound card. The 84031 memory controller acts as the I/O bus controller that isolates the
XD bus from the processor bus. The XD bus is 8 bits wide and operates synchronously
with the processor bus at a fraction of its speed. The 84035 data path controller provides
additional PC/AT-compatible I/O ports that are accessible through the I/O controller.
12
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
Figure 2-1
Detailed block diagram
D(31:0)
CPU
Cx486DX2
XA(15:0)
A(31:2)
84035
data path
controller
84031 XD(7:0)
Memory
controller
Sound
expansion
connector
Sound
output
card
8242
Keyboard
controller
558
Game
timer
Game
port
512KB
DRAM
72-pin RAM SIMM
82C450
VGA
controller
Socket for
68040 CPU
Pretzel
Logic
I/O
interface
Declaration
ROM
Processor and Memory Components
Video and
audio out
CLUT
Header for
CPU socket
Portola
bus
adapter
Header
for I/O
expansion
slot
2
The processor and memory components includes the Cx486DX2 or 80486DX2 microprocessor and the control devices for the onboard memory: the 84031 memory controller
and the 84035 data path controller.
Cx486DX2 Microprocessor
2
The DOS compatibility subsystem has a Cx486DX2 or 80486DX2 microprocessor running
at 66 MHz (33 MHz processor bus clock). The microprocessor supports 32-bit data paths
and 32-bit addresses; that allows up to 4 GB of physically addressable memory.
Processor and Memory Components
13
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
Some of the key features of the Cx486DX2 are listed below. Please refer to Cx486DX/DX2
3 and 5 Volt Microprocessors from Cyrix Corporation for further information.
■
full 32-bit addressing architecture with 32-bit data interface
■
internal 8 KB unified instruction and data cache
■
internal cache operation in either write-back or write-through mode
■
instruction prefetch mechanism during idle bus activity
■
internal FPU that is faster than the FPU in a standard 80486DX
■
internal memory management unit supporting both memory segmentation
and paging
■
internal write buffer (1 longword deep) to support posted writes
■
dynamic bus sizing to support 8-bit and 16-bit peripherals
■
support for synchronous 16-byte block reads
■
backward compatible with existing 80x86 code
The Cx486DX2 IC in the DOS compatibility subsystem is in a 168-pin ceramic PGA
package. With a clock speed of 66 MHz, this package requires a heat sink.
PC System Bus and Devices
2
The PC system bus is defined as the unbuffered microprocessor pins that are required to
support slave and alternate bus masters. This bus operates synchronously at the same
clock speed as the processor bus clock (33 MHz). The bus supports burst reads and
compelled writes (due to the write-through cache). The key devices attached to this bus
are the memory and bus controller IC and the Pretzel Logic bus interface IC.
Cache Snooping
2
The cache in the 80486 microprocessor supports bus snooping to track activity on the bus
that alters the memory represented in the internal cache. In the DOS compatibility
subsystem, even though the sound card operates as an alternate bus master, the snoop
control lines are deactivated.
The memory space reserved for the PC (whether local or shared memory) cannot be
cached or modified by the Mac OS, so it presents no coherency issues.
The interface provides no hooks to support bus snooping in either the PC environment
or the Macintosh environment.
Byte Order
Big-endian and little-endian are two ways of defining the order in which bytes are
addressed. Big-endian means that the most significant byte corresponds to the lowest
address and the least significant byte corresponds to the highest address. Little-endian
means that the most significant byte corresponds to the highest address and the least
significant byte corresponds to the lowest address.
14
Processor and Memory Components
2
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
The 680x0 microprocessors use big-endian byte addressing and the 80x86 microprocessors
use little-endian byte addressing. This disparity poses a problem for the DOS compatibility subsystem because its 80486-type microprocessor is dependent on the Mac OS to
load applications and data from peripheral devices. When the Mac OS loads PC data
from floppy disk, it stores that data at addresses that match the big-endian convention.
To allow the PC to function properly, it must be able to read the data the same way as the
Mac OS; that is, the transfer must be address invariant. To make that possible with the
disparity in addressing modes, the interface IC (Pretzel Logic) performs a byte swapping
operation.
Byte swapping is performed for all PC data resident on the Macintosh host computer,
that is, for both shared memory data and DMA (I/O) data. The interface IC also swaps
the bytes of data in one of the message mailbox data registers. The other data register
does not provide for byte swapping and thus provides data invariance.
For a general description of big-endian and little-endian byte addressing, please refer to
Appendix A, “Overview of PowerPC Technology,” in Macintosh Developer Note Number 8.
Misaligned Transfers
2
Data misalignment occurs when the DOS compatibility subsystem is configured for
shared memory. The problem arises because of differences in the lengths of data
transfers on the two types of microprocessors.
All memory read and write operations in the Macintosh environment are longword
(4 byte) aligned: the low-order 2 bits of the address are zeros. Each time the 80486
performs a 1-, 2-, 3-, or 4-byte memory read operation, the Macintosh host computer
performs a 4-byte access. The full 32 bits of data are presented on the PC side and the
80486 accepts the required byte lanes. When the 80486 requests multiple bytes of data
from a nonaligned address (that is, when the data extends across a longword address),
the 80486 splits the access into two separate transfers.
When the 80486 performs a misaligned write operation, the interface IC (Pretzel Logic)
first checks to see if the transfer is an aligned transfer on the Macintosh host computer. If
it is, the transfer is allowed to proceed. If the write is misaligned with respect to the host
computer (for example, a 3-byte transfer, or a 2-byte transfer that does not fall on a word
boundary), the interface IC forces the 80486 to break the transfer into several single-byte
operations. This ensures that misaligned transfers on the PC side get mapped to the
proper addresses in the host computer’s memory.
Table 2-1 on page 16 shows the byte order of the different transfer sizes supported by the
68040 and 80486 microprocessors.
Processor and Memory Components
15
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
Table 2-1
Microprocessor transfer comparison
Transfer size
Bytes enabled on a
68040 microprocessor
Bytes enabled on a
80486 microprocessor
1 byte
3
0
2
1
1
2
0
3
3, 2
0, 1
1, 0
1, 2
2 bytes
2, 3
3 bytes
Not supported
1, 2, 3
0, 1, 2
4 bytes
3, 2, 1, 0
0, 1, 2, 3
Interrupts
2
The 84031 and 84035 ICs, described in later sections, are responsible for generating all
interrupt requests to the Cx486DX2 microprocessor. The 84035 data path controller IC
generates the maskable interrupt resulting from the various IRQ sources. For interrupt
functions, the 84035 is equivalent to two cascaded 8259 interrupt controllers (PIC) as
found in the original PC/AT computer. Table 2-2 shows the interrupt definitions for the
DOS compatibility subsystem.
Table 2-2
Definitions of PC interrupts
Interrupt
number
Description
0
Interval timer
1
Keyboard
2
PIC 2
3*
COM2 port*
4*
COM1 port*
5
Sound expansion card
6*
Message mailbox*
7*
Parallel port 1*
8
Real-time clock
12
Mouse
NOTE Asterisk (*) indicates interrupt requests with source in
the interface (Pretzel Logic) IC.
16
Processor and Memory Components
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
The source of the Macintosh interrupt (SLOT_E signal) is the Pretzel Logic IC (described
on page 26). With the exception of transfers in which the Pretzel Logic IC becomes
bus master, all service between the PC side and the Macintosh host computer is
interrupt driven.
The master interrupt status register in the Pretzel Logic IC contains the state of all
interrupt sources on the card. Each of these interrupt sources can be individually masked
by an accompanying master interrupt enable register. Additionally, higher resolution
into the cause of the interrupt can be determined by use of the secondary interrupt status
registers for COM1 and COM2 ports, keyboard and mouse port, and DMA channel.
The interrupt and status registers in the Pretzel Logic IC are accessible from the
Macintosh environment only. From the PC environment, the registers for the COM1
and COM2 ports and for the printer port match their standard definitions.
Bus Arbitration
2
The PC system bus supports the Cx486DX2 microprocessor (as bus master) and the two
8-bit DMA channels on the sound expansion connector. Sound DMA cycles use the DMA
controllers in the 84035 data path controller IC, but hard disk and floppy disk DMA
cycles between the PC and Macintosh memory or peripherals do not. Instead, the disk
DMA cycles require the processor to poll the DMA status register and perform I/O reads
and writes to the DMA data register in the Pretzel Logic IC.
On the PC system bus, the 84031 memory controller IC and the Pretzel Logic IC respond
as slave devices.
The HOLD signal to the Cx486DX2 microprocessor is formed by the logical OR of the
DMA controller’s output with the autoconfiguration control output. The HOLD signal is
used by the DMA controller to hold off the processor for DMA transfer. It’s also used at
startup time to tristate the processor address bus and allow the Pretzel Logic IC to
autoconfigure.
Because there is no way of signaling a bus error to the Cx486DX2 microprocessor, no bus
timers exist on the PC side to monitor the PC system bus activity and terminate faulty
cycles. For an address outside the decoded range, the 84031 bus controller signals
completion and operation continues.
A bus error on the PC system bus will cause the PC to hang. When that happens, the
Macintosh environment is not affected, so it can be used to restart the PC, either by the
Ctl-Alt-Del key sequence if the PC keyboard is still responding or by the Cmd-Ctl-Alt-Del
key sequence if not.
The 84031 memory controller IC acts as the master of the XD(ISA) bus on the PC side.
The 8242 keyboard and mouse controller and the 82C450 VGA controller respond only as
slave devices on this bus.
Processor and Memory Components
17
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
The Macintosh system bus on the Macintosh Quadra 630 computer can support three
bus masters. Table 2-3 summarizes the priorities assigned to the fixed arbitration devices.
Table 2-3
Arbitration priorities
Priority
Device
Highest
DRAM refresh
Network DMA
Lowest
Pretzel Logic and the 68040
A secondary DMA arbitration circuit in the Portola IC arbitrates between the 68040 and
the Pretzel Logic DMA transfers to the host computer’s memory and I/O devices. When
performing DMA cycles to the PC, the Pretzel Logic IC becomes a 68040 bus master.
The DOS compatibility subsystem relies on the host computer to maintain a watchdog
timer for the I/O expansion slot. This timer is necessary to prevent the host computer
from hanging while waiting for a response from the Pretzel Logic IC.
Expansion
2
The DOS compatibility subsystem does not provide any way to add ISA or EISA
expansion boards. The local ISA bus (XD) is closed and supports only the 8242 keyboard
and mouse controller, the 80450 VGA controller, the 558 game timer, and the sound
expansion card. The COM1, COM2, and LPT1 peripherals usually found on the AT-ISA
bus are directly accessible from the Pretzel Logic IC through the processor system bus.
A 50-pin connector on the main compatibility card provides access to a subset of the ISA
signals for the sound expansion card.
84031 Memory Controller
The 84031 memory controller IC performs the following system-level functions:
18
■
DRAM control
■
ROM control
■
system clock generation
■
ISA bus control
■
VL (local) bus arbitration
Processor and Memory Components
2
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
DRAM Control
2
The DRAM on the card is directly interfaced to the local data bus. The /RAS, /CAS,
/DWE, and MA lines are driven directly from the 84031 memory controller IC without
external buffers.
The DRAM controller in the 84031 supports page mode operation. For memory read
operations, the page hit cycles are either 3-2-2-2 or 4-2-2-2 bursts. For write operations,
the page hits are 1-wait-state accesses. Both read and write operations are designed for
DRAM devices with 80 ns access time and have RAS-CAS delays of two T states.
The main compatibility card has a slot for one 32-bit-wide SIMM that supports up to two
banks of DRAM (for double-sided modules). No system DRAM is soldered on the card.
A single-sided SIMM can hold 1 MB, 4 MB, or 16 MB using 1, 4, or 16 Mbit DRAM
devices, respectively. Double-sided SIMM modules can hold double those amounts
of memory.
The DOS compatibility subsystem does not require a DRAM SIMM with parity.
The presence of a DRAM SIMM on the card is sensed by the Pretzel Logic IC at startup
and stored in a register in the IC. Upon reading this register bit, the startup software
determines the size of the memory and programs the 84031’s configuration registers
with starting and ending addresses for each bank. If a DRAM SIMM is not present,
shared memory is assumed and the software disables all local DRAM banks in the 84031.
BIOS Control
2
The DOS compatibility subsystem has no ROM except for the declaration ROM common
to all Macintosh expansion cards. The basic input/output system (BIOS) is stored in the
host computer’s RAM and accessed by way of the shared memory channel in the Pretzel
Logic IC.
Note
The BIOS and the BIOS extensions in the host computer’s memory are
always accessed by way of the shared memory interface, regardless of
whether a DRAM SIMM is installed on the card. ◆
At reset the Cx486DX2 microprocessor issues the starting reset-vector address from
within the address range of the BIOS image in the upper 64 KB of shared system
memory. The Pretzel Logic IC remaps this address range down to the lower 1 MB
region where the BIOS actually resides. The Pretzel Logic IC also performs the
address translation between the BIOS addresses on the PC side and the corresponding addresses in shared memory on the Macintosh host computer.
Clock Generation
2
The 84031 memory controller IC receives a 2X clock and generates a low-skew 1X and
2X clock for the system and the Cx486DX2 processor. In addition, it divides down the 2X
clock to generate the BUSCLK signal for the ISA bus.
Processor and Memory Components
19
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
ISA Bus Control
2
The 84031 memory controller IC handles all accesses to the ISA bus by the Cx486DX2. In
addition, the memory controller performs data buffering to form the XD bus for local
peripherals such as the keyboard, joystick, and VGA controllers. The memory controller
also provides support for local bus slaves such as the Pretzel Logic IC.
84035 Data Path Controller
2
The 84035 data path controller IC performs the following system-level functions:
■
system reset
■
interrupt control
■
speaker drive
In addition, the data path controller IC contains the PC/AT-compatible DMA channels
and the system arbitration logic for DMA masters and local bus masters. Those functions
are needed by the sound expansion card.
Clocks
2
The data path controller IC receives a 14.31818 MHz clock signal and divides it by 12 to
form the 1.19 MHz clock used by the 8254 timers. In addition, the data path controller
receives a 32.768 kHz clock signal for the internal real-time clock. All CPU related
functions are based on the 1X clock generated by the memory controller IC.
System Reset
2
The data path controller IC generates the reset signals for the DOS compatibility
subsystem. The data path controller generates the SYSRESET and CPURESET signals
based on the /PWRGOOD signal from the Pretzel Logic IC. The CPURESET signal is
also affected by soft reset requests received over the control link from the memory
controller IC.
The /PWRGOOD signal controls several other signals. It disables all outputs and gates
off all inputs to the 84035 except for the /PWRSTB signal (PRAM, RTC power), the
14 MHz clock (14.31818 MHz input), the 32 kHz clock (32.768 kHz input), and the
/PWRGOOD signal itself. When the /PWRGOOD signal goes high, the outputs are
enabled and the SYSRESET and CPURESET signals are driven high. The data path
controller holds the SYSRESET and CPURESET signals high for 8 million cycles of the
SCLK clock to ensure proper startup of the 14.31818 MHz oscillator and to allow time for
the VCO in the Cx486DX2 to stabilize.
The SYSRESET and CPURESET signals are generated as follows: The SYSRESET signal is
generated based on the /PWRGOOD signal alone. The CPURESET signal is generated
based on /PWRGOOD but is also generated for soft resets. Soft resets can occur due to a
keyboard controller reset, a CPU shutdown cycle, or the transition of bit 0 of port 92 in
the 84035 from 0 to 1.
20
Processor and Memory Components
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
Keyboard reset and shutdown are sent to the 84035 data path controller through the
control link from the 84031 memory controller, which decodes shutdown cycles and
receives keyboard reset from the 8242 keyboard and mouse controller.
The 84035 data path controller IC generates the /A20M signal to the Cx486DX2
microprocessor. The 84035 generates the /A20M signal by ORing together the GATEA20
signal from the keyboard controller and bit 1 of port 92 in the 84035. The keyboard
controller’s GATEA20 information comes from the 84031 memory controller through the
control link.
Interrupt Control
2
The 84035 data path controller IC contains two 8259-compatible interrupt controllers.
The interrupt numbers are listed in Table 2-2 on page 16.
Portola Bus Adapter IC
2
The Portola bus adapter is a custom IC that provides some signal modification and bus
arbitration between the Pretzel Logic IC and the 68040 bus. The main functions of the
Portola bus adapter are:
■
generating the device select for the declaration ROM
■
generating the handshake signals for the PDS
■
remapping the slave registers in the Pretzel Logic IC to an unused portion of the host
computer’s memory
■
providing bus arbitration between the Pretzel Logic IC and the 68040
Burst Transfers
2
The Macintosh host computer and the DOS compatibility subsystem perform burst
transfers in similar ways. The Pretzel Logic IC supports burst memory transfers of
16-byte length (4 longwords). Those transfers are translated to MOVE16 transfers on the
68040 microprocessor.
Video Components
2
The DOS compatibility subsystem includes a complete video system to support PC
video. The video components consist of a DRAM-based frame buffer and a VGA
controller with an integrated color lookup table (CLUT), triple digital-to-analog
converter (DAC), and clock generator.
Video Components
21
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
Sharing a Monitor
2
Video output from the DOS compatibility subsystem is displayed on a monitor shared
with the host Macintosh computer. A ribbon cable carries the video signals from the
main compatibility card to the main logic board in the host computer.
The user can switch the monitor (along with the keyboard and mouse) from one
computer subsystem to the other by typing a programmable command key sequence
(hot key). When the user switches the monitor to the Mac OS, the software sets a bit
in port A of the interface IC. This bit is connected directly to the blanking input of the
SynDAC IC (described on page 25) and causes the PC’s video to be blanked (held at
0.0 V). The port A bit also controls a multiplexer between the PC and Macintosh sync
lines so that the video signal from the Macintosh host computer is sent to the monitor.
When the user switches the interface to the PC, the software on the Macintosh host
computer writes black RGB values into all entries of the CLUT and sets the DC offset
register in the DAC to make the black and blank levels equal (0.0 V). The port A bit is
then switched so that the SynDAC unblanks the PC’s video signal and the video
multiplexer sends the PC’s video signal to the monitor.
Monitors Supported
The main compatibility card has 512 KB of DRAM soldered on that provides all the
standard VGA modes and some extended SVGA modes. No video DRAM expansion
is provided because none is needed to meet full VGA compatibility. The VGA controller
supports the 14-inch and 15-inch RGB Apple monitors as well as the standard VGA
monitors. Table 2-4 summarizes the monitor sizes and display modes supported by the
DOS compatibility subsystem.
Table 2-4
22
Monitors and display modes
Monitor size
Modes supported
Apple 14-inch
All VGA (modes 0–7, D–13h);
SVGA 640 by 480 pixels (79h)
VGA
All VGA (modes 0–7, D–13h);
SVGA 640 by 480 pixels (79h)
SVGA
All VGA (modes 0–7, D–13h);
SVGA 640 by 480 pixels (79h) and
800 by 600 pixels (6Ah, 70h)
Apple multiple-scan
15-inch
All VGA (modes 0–7, D–13h);
SVGA 640 by 480 pixels (79h) and
800 by 600 pixels (6Ah, 70h)
Video Components
2
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
Monitor Sense Lines
2
The host computer detects the monitor type by way of sense lines in the video cable.
Information about the monitor type is made available to the VGA driver so that it can
program the card’s video control registers appropriately.
Video Timing
2
Table 2-5 and Figure 2-2 on page 24 define the video monitors and timings supported by
the Macintosh host computer that are also supported by DOS compatibility subsystem.
For Macintosh monitors that are fixed frequency (the 14-inch and 16-inch monitors),
the VGA controller on the card needs to be configured for this horizontal and vertical
retrace rate.
Table 2-5
VIdeo timing parameters for supported monitors
Parameter
14-inch RGB
16-inch RGB
VGA
SVGA
Display size (pixels)
640 by 480
832 by 624
640 by 480
800 by 600
Pixel clock
30.24 MHz
57.28 MHz
25.18 MHz
36.00 MHz
Pixel time
33.07 ns
17.46 ns
39.72 ns
27.78 ns
Line rate
35.00 kHz
49.73 kHz
31.47 kHz
35.16 kHz
Line time
28.57 µs
(864 pixels)
20.11 µs
(1152 pixels)
31.78 µs
(800 pixels)
28.44 µs
(1024 pixels)
Horizontal active video
640 pixels
832 pixels
640 pixels
800 pixels
Horizontal blanking
224 pixels
320 pixels
160 pixels
224 pixels
Horizontal front porch
64 pixels
32 pixels
16 pixels
16 pixels
Horizontal sync pulse
64 pixels
64 pixels
96 pixels
112 pixels
Horizontal back porch
96 pixels
224 pixels
48 pixels
96 pixels
Frame rate
66.72 Hz
74.55 Hz
59.94 Hz
52.71 Hz
Frame time
15.01 ms
(525 lines)
13.41 ms
(667 lines)
16.68 ms
(525 lines)
18.97 ms
(667 lines)
Vertical active video
480 lines
624 lines
480 lines
600 lines
Vertical blanking
45 lines
43 lines
45 lines
28 lines
Vertical front porch
3 lines
1 line
10 lines
1 line
Vertical sync pulse
3 lines
3 lines
2 lines
4 lines
Vertical back porch
39 lines
39 lines
33 lines
23 lines
Video Components
23
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
Note
The DOS compatibility subsystem can operate with a 17-inch
(or larger) monitor. With a large monitor, the user can open the
Monitors control panel and set the display to either 640 by 480 pixels
or 832 by 624 pixels. ◆
Figure 2-2
Video timing parameters
Horizontal timing
White
Video
Black
H sync space
H image space
HBLANK
H line length
/HSYNC
H back porch
H sync pulse
H front porch
Vertical timing
White
Video
Black
V sync space
V image space
VBLANK
V line length
/VSYNC
V back porch
V sync pulse
V front porch
24
Video Components
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
To accommodate the various VGA and SVGA modes on the Macintosh monitors, the
video controller must have its timing parameters changed by the BIOS. To do that, the
Macintosh software reads the video sense lines and loads the appropriate values for
the video BIOS before starting up the PC. (Remember that system and video BIOS reside
in Macintosh system memory and are modifiable by the software.)
IMPORTANT
With a shared monitor, modifying the video parameters by writing
directly to the video control registers of the VGA controller can cause
loss of video synchronization. ▲
Video Components
2
Two ICs provide the video support for the PC:
■
82C450 VGA controller
■
MU9C9760 SynDAC
82C450 VGA Controller
2
The 82C450 is an integrated VGA video controller that is backward compatible with
EGA, CGA, and MDA video modes. With the card’s 512 KB of video DRAM (four
256K-by-4 DRAM ICs), the SynDAC supports all standard VGA modes as well as 800 by
600 pixels at 4 bits per pixel (noninterlaced), 640 by 480 pixels at 8 bits per pixel, and
132-column text mode.
The video controller is connected to the system through the ISA bus (the XD bus on the
main compatibility card).
MU9C9760 SynDAC
2
Most of the video logic on the main compatibility card in provided by a device called the
SynDAC: an IC (MU9C9760) that combines a lookup table, a triple video DAC, and a
dual clock synthesizer. The SynDAC IC drives the video output line directly and is
compatible with the Brooktree BT475 CLUT/DAC IC. The SynDAC IC provides
256 colors from a palette of 256K colors. The SynDAC IC also provides an internal pixel
clock with eight programmable frequencies.
Video Components
25
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
I/O Components
2
The I/O components in the DOS compatibility subsystem are the Pretzel Logic IC and
the 8242 keyboard and mouse controller.
Pretzel Logic I/O Controller IC
2
The main I/O component in the DOS compatibility subsystem is the Pretzel Logic IC. It
acts as a bus converter between the PC processor bus and the Macintosh processor bus.
The Pretzel Logic IC integrates many of the I/O functions required to support the PC
and also helps support the communication between the PC and the Macintosh host
computer. The Pretzel Logic IC has the following features:
■
two DMA channels (one for shared memory and one for disk I/O)
■
address translation logic for 32-bit addresses and block sizes up to 64 MB
■
two serial ports (16C450 compatible)
■
one Centronics parallel printer port
■
keyboard and mouse controller (8047 compatible)
■
a64-bit message mailbox with a 32-bit command port
■
power-on reset logic
■
autoconfiguration logic
The Pretzel Logic IC functions as a slave device on the PC system bus. On the Macintosh
system bus, the Pretzel Logic IC functions both as a slave and as an alternate bus master.
To the Macintosh host computer, the DOS compatibility subsystem appears as an I/O
expansion card capable of generating slot $E interrupts to the 68040 and either
responding as a system bus slave or becoming a system bus master. The Pretzel Logic IC
communicates with the host computer as a bus master when the PC is performing floppy
disk or hard disk accesses or when sharing Macintosh memory. The Pretzel Logic IC
responds as a system bus slave on the Macintosh host computer during interrupt
acknowledge cycles, keyboard and mouse accesses, and message mailbox accesses.
DMA Channels
When the DOS compatibility subsystem is configured to operate in shared memory
mode (that is, when no SIMM is installed), the Pretzel Logic IC uses one of its DMA
channels for access to memory in the Macintosh host computer. The DMA channel
incorporates separate FIFOs for read and write operations; each FIFO is four longwords
deep. The write FIFO allows the Cx486DX2 to post up to four longword writes before
forcing the processor to wait.
26
I/O Components
2
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
The second DMA channel is used to perform I/O data transfers between Macintosh
peripherals and PC memory. This I/O DMA channel is used when a DRAM SIMM is
installed on the main compatibility card.
Address Translation
2
The address translation register provides 32-bit address translation between the PC and
the host computer. This feature supports block sizes of 2 to 64 MB and allows the PC
memory to be relocated anywhere within the unreserved memory area on the Macintosh
host computer.
Note
The Pretzel Logic IC is not involved with address decoding
for the declaration ROM; that decoding is provided by the
Portola bus adapter. ◆
Serial Port Support
2
To support serial ports, the Pretzel Logic IC contains two identical sets of UART
emulation registers. These registers emulate the hardware of the standard 16C450
serial port ICs found in many PC/AT computers. When the PC accesses these registers,
interrupts are generated in the Macintosh host computer that cause the serial driver
in the Mac OS to route the data to the Macintosh serial ports.
The Macintosh serial ports are RS-422 ports and do not support all RS-232 signals. In
particular, the Carrier Detect (CD), Data Set Ready (DSR), Request To Send (RTS), and
Ring Indicator (RI) signals are not available. Table 1-2 (in Chapter 1) shows the
corresponding signals on the two types of serial ports.
Note
Not all RS-232 devices work properly using the RS-422 protocol.
◆
Printer Port Support
2
The Pretzel Logic IC implements all the registers of the standard Centronics parallel port
found on a PC. When the PC accesses these registers, interrupts are generated in the
Macintosh host computer that cause the driver software in the Mac OS to send data to a
print spooler file. The spooler file is then sent to whatever printer is selected by the user
in the Macintosh environment.
Note
The parallel port interface does not control printer hardware signals
and does not support bidirectional data transfer. ◆
I/O Components
27
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
Keyboard and Mouse Emulation
2
The Pretzel Logic IC emulates in hardware the PC’s keyboard and mouse. The 8242
keyboard and mouse controller is configured to support a PS/2 mouse making the
protocol identical for the keyboard and mouse. The Pretzel Logic IC generates the
appropriate serial clock protocol and serial bit stream to communicate with the 8242.
Message Mailbox
2
The message-passing interface in the Pretzel Logic IC supports simple interrupt-driven
communication between the PC and the Macintosh host computer. The message-passing
interface contains two data registers and one command register. One of the data registers
incorporates byte swapping to allow address-invariant data to be moved between the
two systems. The interface uses a semaphore mechanism of arbitration and grants to
control the direction of the message passing. See “Passing Messages” beginning on
page 45 for a description of the software API for message passing.
Power-on Reset
2
The Pretzel Logic IC contains the reset logic that allows the Macintosh host computer to
start up the PC. Reset of the PC is controlled through the /PWRGOOD signal to the
84035 data path controller IC. Power for the PRAM on the PC is provided by the
Macintosh computer, so the PRAM is not invalidated when the PC is reset. When the
host computer is turned off, the PRAM becomes invalid; the next time the computer is
turned on, software on the Macintosh side reloads the PRAM on the PC side before the
PC system BIOS is executed.
Soft reset of the PC by way of the keyboard (Ctl-Alt-Del keys) is handled by the 8242
keyboard controller once the proper key code is sent by the Pretzel Logic IC through the
keyboard port.
Autoconfiguration
2
The Pretzel Logic IC performs autoconfiguration each time the PC is reset. The following
configurations are sensed and set upon reset:
■
Presence of local DRAM (SIMM installed on the card)
■
Card ID (001)
The card ID for the DOS compatibility subsystem in the Macintosh 630 DOS Compatible
Computer is 001.
28
I/O Components
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
Game Adapter Card
2
The game adapter card contains the declaration ROM and the game controller port. The
game adapter card occupies the I/O expansion slot.
The game controller port is a DB-15 connector for connecting a standard PC-style game
controller (joystick). The game controller port occupies the I/O expansion opening in the
back of the computer.
The declaration ROM is similar to the standard declaration ROM used for Macintosh
expansion cards. The device used for the declaration ROM is a 32 KB ROM IC with
an access time of 150 ns. The address decoding and the device select signal for the
declaration ROM are provided by the Portola bus adapter IC.
Sound Expansion Card
2
The sound expansion card is plugged into the main compatibility card through a
connector that provides a subset of the unbuffered XD bus.
The sound expansion card provides MPC level 1 and level 2 sound output capability.
The card does not provide sound input capability; instead, the Macintosh host computer
provides sound input and record features. The sound expansion card is compatible
with the Sound Blaster register set and uses the standard ISA bus interface and 8-bit
DMA channel.
The sound expansion card is designed around three ICs:
■
CT2501 sound system IC
■
YMF262 FM synthesizer IC
■
TAC512 DAC IC
CT2501 Sound System IC
2
The CT2501 is a single IC that incorporates all the functions of a 16-bit PC sound system
except FM synthesis and output filtering. The CT2501 sound system IC, also known as
the Vibra 16, includes the following features:
■
an 8-bit ISA bus interface including DMA support and interrupt generation
■
FIFO buffers and control logic for digital audio playback and format conversion for
the DAC
■
a 16-bit stereo codec
Game Adapter Card
29
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
■
a Sound Blaster–compatible mixer with AGC
■
a control interface for the FM synthesizer IC
The CT2501 sound system IC allows analog mixing of audio from the PC and from the
FM synthesizer IC. The audio signal from the sound card is then mixed with the square
wave sounds generated on the main compatibility card. The resulting sound signal is
sent to the Macintosh host computer where it is mixed with the Macintosh computer’s
sound signals and sent to the sound outputs.
YMF262 FM Synthesizer IC
2
The YMF262 IC, a type I3 (OPL3) device, uses FM synthesis to generate sounds. The
YMF262 IC includes the following features:
■
24 operators configurable in four-operator mode for 6 channels
■
36 operators configurable in two-operator mode for either 18 channels or 15 channels
with 5 rhythm channels
■
8 selectable FM source waveforms
■
4 channels of sound output
■
hardware vibrato and tremolo effects
■
2 programmable timers capable of generating interrupt requests
The YMF262 IC interfaces directly to the 8-bit ISA data and address bus; the CT2501 IC
provides the chip select signal.
YAC512 Sound DAC IC
2
The YAC512 IC is a two-channel, 16-bit digital-to-analog converter that interfaces with
the YMF262 FM synthesizer IC to provide analog sound output signals.
Subsystem Connectors
2
The DOS compatibility subsystem is connected to the host computer’s main logic board
by three connectors:
■
the 68040 microprocessor socket
■
the I/O expansion slot (PDS)
■
the audio and video connector
The 68040 Microprocessor Socket
2
Most of the connections between the DOS compatibility subsystem and the host
computer are made by way of the host computer’s 68040 microprocessor socket. Most of
30
Subsystem Connectors
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
the signals on the card’s 68040 socket are connected directly to the corresponding pins on
the 68040 header on the card. A few of the signals from the 68040 are qualified by the
Portola bus adapter and then sent on to the pins of the 68040 header.
The I/O Expansion Slot
2
Only 33 of the signals on the I/O expansion slot are used by the DOS compatibility
subsystem. Those signals include
■
the /PDS.DSACK0 handshaking signal, which is generated by the Portola bus adapter
■
the address lines and the upper byte of the data bus, which are connected to the
declaration ROM in the DOS compatibility subsystem
Note
The I/O expansion slot in the Macintosh 630–series computers is not a
true PDS (processor-direct slot) because it is not connected directly to
the computer’s main processor. ◆
Table 2-6 shows the signals connected to the I/O expansion slot.
Table 2-6
Signals connected to the I/O expansion slot
Pin number
Signal name
Pin number
Signal name
A-2
/SLOTIRQ
B-10
D27
A-3
/PDS.AS
B-11
D24
A-9
D31
B-25
A2
A-10
D28
B-26
A12
A-11
D25
B-27
A13
A-18
A1
B-28
A8
A-25
A4
B-32
GND
A-26
A6
C-4
/PDS.SACK0
A-27
A11
C-9
D29
A-28
A9
C-10
D26
A-32
+12V
C-17
A0
B-3
+5V
C-25
A3
B-4
+5V
C-26
A5
B-6
GND
C-27
A7
B-7
CLK16M
C-28
A10
B-8
GND
C-32
-5V
B-9
D30
Subsystem Connectors
31
C H A P T E R
2
Hardware Design
Audio and Video Connector
2
A ribbon cable carries the audio and video signals from the main compatibility card to
the main logic board in the host computer. Table 2-7 gives the signal assignments on the
ribbon cable’s 16-pin connector.
Table 2-7
Pin number
Signals on the audio and video connector
Signal
Pin number
Signal
1
Sound out R
2
Sound GND
3
Sound out L
4
GND
5
Video out red
6
GND
7
Video out green
8
GND
9
Video out blue
10
GND
11
CSYNC
12
GND
13
HSYNC
14
GND
15
VSYNC
16
RGB_Select
Note
The audio and video connector is a feature of the Macintosh 630
DOS Compatible Computer that is not present on other
Macintosh 630–series computers. ◆
32
Subsystem Connectors
C H A P T E R
Figure 3-0
Listing 3-0
Table 3-0
3
The PC Interface Driver
3
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
The PC Interface driver provides communication and control between the Macintosh
Operating System (Mac OS) and the DOS compatibility subsystem. Programs running
on the Mac OS can use the driver to configure and control the card. Programs in both
environments can use the driver to exchange messages; see the section “Passing
Messages” beginning on page 45.
Initializing the Driver
3
The PC interface driver is named .Symbiosis. Before you can use the driver, your
application must initialize it by calling the open routine. Both opening and closing
the driver are performed only from programs running on the Mac OS.
Open
3
When you call the open routine, it allocates and initializes the driver’s memory, installs
the interrupt handler, and makes patches to the system needed by the driver. The open
routine initializes all devices to the null device and puts the PC into the reset state.
The open routine fails if the driver cannot allocate enough memory or if it cannot find
the DOS compatibility subsystem.
Close
3
When you call the close routine, it releases all memory allocated to the PC Interface
driver, removes the driver’s interrupt handler, removes any patches installed by the
open routine, and puts the PC into the reset state.
Configuring the PC
A program running on the Mac OS can use the PC Interface driver to configure the PC
on the DOS compatibility subsystem. You can use calls to the driver to perform the
following operations:
■
setting the memory available to the PC
■
configuring the disk drives available to the PC
■
setting and reading the status of the network driver
■
configuring the communications port
■
configuring the parallel port
■
defining the key combination that deactivates the PC
The routines that perform those configuration tasks are defined here.
34
Initializing the Driver
3
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
rsSetMemoryConfig
3
You can use the rsSetMemoryConfig control call to make memory on the Macintosh
computer available for the PC. The calling program first allocates the memory and sets it
locked and contiguous. The control call sets the base address and length of the memory.
This call is needed only when no RAM SIMM is installed for the PC. The calling
program can determine whether a RAM SIMM is installed by calling the rsPCStatus
status routine (described below).
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
→
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
csParam+0
csParam+4
csParam+6
long
word
word
word
long
long
long
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsSetMemoryConfig
Logical base address of PC memory
Physical base address of PC memory
Length of PC memory
rsSetDriveConfig
3
You can use the rsSetDriveConfig control call to configure each of the PC’s fixed disk
drives (A:, B:, C:, and D:) as a floppy drive, Macintosh file, or SCSI partition, or as having
no corresponding drive.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
csParam+0
long
word
word
word
long
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsSetDriveConfig
Pointer to RSFixedDriveConfig
The csParam contains a pointer to an RSFixedDriveConfig data structure.
typedef struct{
short type;
// Type of device this drive is
short vRefNum;
// Volume refNum or SCSI ID
long dirID;
// Directory ID or starting sector number on hard drive
long fileNamePtr;// Filename or number of sectors on hard drive
} RSFixedDriveConfig[4], *RSFixedDriveConfigPtr;
RSFixedDriveConfig[0] contains the configuration for drive A:,
RSFixedDriveConfig[1] contains the configuration for drive B:,
RSFixedDriveConfig[2]contains the configuration for drive C:, and
RSFixedDriveConfig[3] contains the configuration for drive D:.
The type field specifies what type the drive is configured as (rsFloppyDrive,
rsFileDrive, rsPartitionDrive, or rsNULLDrive).
Configuring the PC
35
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
If the value of type is rsNULLDrive, the corresponding drive does not exist to the PC
and no other fields need to be filled in.
If the value of type is rsFloppyDrive, the corresponding drive on the PC is connected
to one of the Macintosh computer’s floppy drives.
If the value of type is rsFileDrive, the corresponding drive is connected to a
Macintosh file system file. The vRefNum field contains the volume the file is on, dirID
contains the directory ID of the file, and fileNamePtr contains a pointer to the file
name. The driver opens and closes the file as needed.
If the value of type is rsPartitionDrive, the corresponding drive is connected to a
SCSI drive partition. The vRefNum field contains the SCSI ID, dirID contains the
starting sector number of the partition, and fileNamePtr contains the number of
sectors in the partition.
If the value of type is set to rsIgnore, the configuration of the corresponding drive is
not changed.
The program on the Macintosh computer should call rsSetDriveConfig at least once
before starting the PC. The routine can also be called after the PC has been started to
change the drive configuration. In that case, the new drive configuration does not take
effect until the PC is restarted.
rsGetNetDriveConfig
3
You can use the rsGetNetDriveConfig status call to obtain drive configuration data.
This call returns a pointer to an array of 22 RSNetDriveConfig data structures, one for
each drive letter from E through Z.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
←
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
csParam+0
long
word
word
word
long
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsGetNetDriveConfig
Pointer to RSNetDriveConfig
typedef struct {
char status; // 0 = unused, -1 = in use, 1 = cannot be used
char changed; // Used by the driver, do not use
short vRefNum; // Reference number of volume containing shared drive
long dirID;
// Directory ID
} RSNetDriveConfig[26], *RSNetDriveConfigPtr;
The RSNetDriveConfig data structure contains the current configuration for folder
sharing for each PC drive letter. If the PC has its LASTDRIVE parameter set to less than Z
or if other block device drivers are loaded on the PC, not all drive letters will be
available. The data structures for drives that are not available have their status
parameters set to 1 by the PC Interface driver.
36
Configuring the PC
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
The caller can use the returned pointer to modify an entry in the RSNetDriveConfig
data structure and then call the rsSetNetDriveConfig control call.
rsSetNetDriveConfig
3
You can use the rsSetNetDriveConfig control call to establish links between
Macintosh directories and PC drive letters.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
csParam+0
long
word
word
word
word
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsSetNetDriveConfig
Entry number of RSNetDriveConfig (0=E)
This call simply notifies the PC Interface driver that an entry in the RSNetDriveConfig
data structure has been modified.
rsSetComPortConfig
3
You can use the rsSetComPortConfig control call to set the configurations of the two
communication ports (COM1 and COM2) on the PC. Each communication port can have
a virtual connection to either the modem port, the printer port, a communication tool
box port, a spool file, or the null device.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
csParam+0
long
word
word
word
long
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsSetComPortConfig
Pointer to RSComConfig
A pointer to an RSComConfig data structure is passed in the csParam field.
typedef struct{
short
type;
// Port type (rsModemComPort, rsPrinterComPort, etc.)
short
vRefNum;
// Volume reference number for serial spool file
long
dirID;
// Directory ID
long
fileNamePtr;// Pointer to the filename
} RSComConfig[2], *RSComConfigPtr;
RSComConfig[0] contains the configuration for COM1 and RSComConfig[1] contains
the configuration for COM2. The type field specifies what type of connection to make
(either rsNULLComPort, rsModemComPort, rsPrinterComPort, rsSpoolComPort,
rsComToolBoxComPort, or rsIgnore). The value of the vRefNum parameter is the
volume reference number, dirID is the directory ID, and fileNamePtr is the pointer to
the name of the spool file.
Configuring the PC
37
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
When a PC port is connected to the null device, any output from the PC is ignored.
When a PC port is connected to the modem or printer port, the PC controls the port
by means of the UART emulation register in the DOS compatibility subsystem. For
example, when the PC sets the baud rate divisor in the UART emulation register, the PC
Interface driver intercepts the operation and translates the action to a control call to the
driver for the modem or printer port.
When a PC port is connected to a spool file, all output from the PC is captured and
written to the specified file. The driver opens and closes the file as needed.
The rsSetComPortConfig routine should be called at least once before the PC is
started up. It can also be called after the PC has been started; in that case, the change
in configuration takes effect immediately.
If the type field is set to reIgnore, the port’s configuration does not change.
rsSetParallelPortConfig
3
You can use the rsSetParallelPortConfig function to set the configuration of the
parallel port emulation. A pointer to an RSParallelConfig data structure is passed
in csParam.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
csParam
long
word
word
word
long
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsSetParallelPortConfig
Pointer to RSParallelConfig
typedef struct{
short eojTimeOut; // End of job after n seconds of no data
short vRefNum;
// Volume RefNum
long spoolDirID; // RefNum for spool directory
} RSParallelConfig, *RSParallelConfigPtr;
The spoolDirID field is the ID of the directory where the spool files will be stored. The
vRefNum field contains the reference number of the volume that contains the directory.
The eojTimeOut field specifies the number of seconds the parallel port must be inactive
before the driver will force an end of job. If this field is set to 0, the driver does not force
the end of job based on time.
When a print job has been completed, the driver notifies the application by means of the
rsSetNotificationProc procedure (defined on page 44). The driver also notifies the
application if it has trouble saving the spool data.
38
Configuring the PC
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
rsSetDeactivateKey
3
You can use the rsSetDeactivateKey control call to set the deactivate key along with
its modifiers and a user-defined task. When the PC has control of the keyboard, the
driver monitors the keyboard input data for the deactivate key combination and calls the
user-defined task when that key combination occurs.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
→
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
csParam+0
csParam+4
csParam+6
long
word
word
word
long
word
word
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsSetDeactivateKey
Pointer to user-defined task
Modifiers
The deactivate key
Upon return, the parameter block is set as follows:
←
csParam+0
long
Pointer to the previous
user-defined task
←
csParam+4
word
The previous modifiers
←
csParam+6
word
The previous deactivate key
The user-defined task is called during NeedTime after the deactivate key and modifiers
are pressed. If the user-defined task is null, no task is called. The modifiers are specified
as they appear in the KeyMap+6. The value of the deactivate key is the Macintosh key
code of the desired key.
Control and Status Calls
3
A program running on the Mac OS can use the PC Interface driver to make control and
status calls to the PC running on the DOS compatibility subsystem. You can perform the
following functions:
■
getting the status of the PC
■
booting (starting) the PC
■
resetting the PC
■
enabling and disabling the video display of the PC
■
enabling and disabling disk mounting on the PC
■
activating and deactivating keyboard operation by the PC
■
activating and deactivating mouse tracking by the PC
■
terminating print spooling from the PC
Control and Status Calls
39
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
rsPCStatus
3
You can use the rsPCStatus status call to get information about the state of the PC
hardware. This call returns the current state of the PC.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
←
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
csParam+4
long
word
word
word
long
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsPCStatus
The status word
Table 3-1 shows the meanings of the bits in the status word.
Table 3-1
Bit
40
Bits in the PC status word
Meaning
0
1 = PC is running (rsBooted)
1
1 = VGA screen is enabled (rsVGAEnabled)
2
1 = keyboard is enabled (rsKeyboardEnabled)
3
1 = mouse is enabled (rsMouseEnabled)
4
1 = disk mounting is enabled (rsDiskMountEnabled)
5
1 = shared memory is enabled (rsSharedEnabled)
6
1 = DMA is enabled (rsDMAEnabled)
7
1 = video cable is enabled (rsCableInstalled)
8
1 = modem port is used by COM1
9
1 = printer port is used by COM1
10
1 = modem port is used by COM2
11
1 = printer port is used by COM2
24–27
0000–1111 = video identification
28–31
0000–1111 = type of expansion card (0001 = this card)
Control and Status Calls
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
rsBootPC
3
You can use the rsBootPC control call to start up the PC. This call resets the PC’s
processor and boots the PC’s system BIOS. If the PC is already running, this call resets it.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
long
word
word
word
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsBootPC
The calling program must set up the PC’s configuration before booting the PC. You can
use the following control calls (defined previously) to set the configuration:
■
rsSetMemoryConfig
■
rsSetDriveConfig
■
rsSetComPortConfig
■
rsSetParallelConfig
rsResetPC
3
You can use the rsResetPC control call to put the PC into a reset state. This call stops
the PC from running; any programs or data in the PC’s memory are lost. The calling
program must use the rsBootPC control call to start the PC running again.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
long
word
word
word
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsResetPC
rsEnableVideo
3
You can use the rsEnableVideo control call to enable the VGA display output. You use
the call when switching the video monitor from the Mac OS to the PC.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
Control and Status Calls
long
word
word
word
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsEnableVideo
41
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
rsDisableVideo
3
You can use the rsDisableVideo control call to disable the VGA display output when
the Macintosh video output is selected.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
long
word
word
word
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsDisableVideo
rsMountDisks
3
You can use the rsMountDisks call to enable the mounting and unmounting of PC
disks. After the call has been made, the PC Interface driver monitors all disk-insertion
events, looking for possible PC formatted disks. If the inserted disk is not a Macintosh
formatted disk, it is considered a PC disk and is made available to the PC if the PC is
active. The mounting and unmounting of the PC disks happens automatically; the
rsMountDisks call merely enables the process.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
long
word
word
word
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsMountDisks
rsDontMountDisks
3
You can use the rsDontMountDisks control call to stop the PC Interface driver from
monitoring disk-insertion events. If the PC Interface driver has already mounted a PC
disk before you make this call, the PC disk remains in the drive and available to the PC.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
42
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
Control and Status Calls
long
word
word
word
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsDontMountDisks
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
rsActivateKB
3
You can use the rsActivateKB control call to direct the data from the computer’s
keyboard to the PC side. All keys except the Command key are trapped; key codes are
translated and transmitted to the PC.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
long
word
word
word
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsActivateKB
rsDeactivateKB
3
You can use the rsDeactivateKB control call to stop the transmission of keyboard data
to the PC and direct the keyboard data to the Mac OS.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
long
word
word
word
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsDeactivateKB
rsBeginMouseTracking
3
You can use the rsBeginMouseTracking control call to cause the mouse movements
and button presses to be directed to the PC. This call also causes the driver to hide the
Macintosh cursor.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
long
word
word
word
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsBeginMouseTracking
rsEndMouseTracking
3
You can use the rsEndMouseTracking control calls to cause the mouse movements
and button presses to be directed to the Mac OS. This call also causes the driver to show
the Macintosh cursor.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
Control and Status Calls
long
word
word
word
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsEndMouseTracking
43
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
rsEndPrintJob
3
You can use the rsEndPrintJob control call to end the current print job and close
the spool file (if any). Any subsequent data from the PC to the parallel port starts a new
spool file.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
long
word
word
word
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsEndPrintJob
Detecting Errors
3
Programs on the Mac OS can use the next two procedures to detect error conditions or
other special events on the PC.
rsSetNotificationProc
3
You can use the rsSetNotificationProc control call to install a user-defined
procedure that is called whenever a special event happens within the driver. The
procedure can be called at interrupt time; it is responsible for deferring handling of the
event until noninterrupt time.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
csParam+0
csParam+4
long
word
word
word
long
long
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsSetNotificationProc
Pointer to the notification procedure
A1Param value
Upon return, the parameters are set as follows:
←
csParam+0
long
Pointer to the previous notification procedure
←
csParam+4
long
Previous A1Param value
The caller passes a pointer to the user-defined procedure and a parameter to be passed to
that procedure in A1. The control call returns the previous values. Calling
rsSetNotificationProc with a NULL pointer disables the notification procedure.
When the user-defined procedure is called, the D0.w register contains the event and A1
contains the A1Param value. The procedure can use registers D0–D2 and A0–A1.
44
Detecting Errors
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
The events are
rsPrintSpoolErr = problem opening or writing to a print spool file
rsCOM1SpoolErr = problem opening or writing to the COM1 spool file
rsCOM2SpoolErr = problem opening or writing to the COM2 spool file
rsDiskFileErr = problem reading the disk file
rsLastError
3
You can use the rsLastError status call to obtain the last nonzero error code returned
by the driver.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
←
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
csParam+4
long
word
word
word
long
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsLastError
Pointer to the last error routine
Passing Messages
3
Programs on the Mac OS and the PC can send messages to each other by calling the PC
Interface driver. Programs can also install a receive procedure for receiving messages.
When the PC Interface driver receives a message intended for your program, the driver
calls your receive procedure. Your procedure decides whether or not to accept the
message’s data and, if so, where to store the data.
Message Conventions
3
Before communications can take place, a program on the Mac OS and a program on the
PC must have the same definitions of the messages they transfer. A message consists of a
16-bit command, two 32-bit parameters, and up to 64 KB of data. The parameters and the
data can consist of any data in any format. The command must be a unique value
recognized by the programs on the Mac OS and the PC that are sending and receiving
messages. The programs on both the PC and the Mac OS must request command
numbers from the PC Interface driver before sending messages.
Macintosh Interface
3
Programs on the Mac OS communicate with the PC Interface driver through driver calls.
Your program should first open the driver using the open call and then use the control
calls defined in the next section to register, send, and receive messages.
Passing Messages
45
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
PC Interface
3
Programs on the PC communicate with the PC Interface driver through a software
interrupt interface. The program loads registers with appropriate values, including a
function selector in register AH, and calls the PC Interface driver with an INT 5Fh call.
PC programs can determine whether the PC Interface driver interface is available by
calling INT 5Fh with register AH = 0. If the PC Interface driver is installed, it returns
0A5h in register AH and the highest implemented function code (currently 4) in
register AL.
Registering Messages
3
For a program on the Mac OS to send messages to a program on the PC, both programs
must register their messages with the PC Interface driver. This is done by calling the
driver with a 32-bit selector defined in both programs and a count of the number of
messages to be used by the programs. The PC Interface driver allocates a range of
messages for that selector and returns the base command number to the caller. The PC
Interface driver makes sure that both the PC program and the Macintosh program
registering messages under the same selector will receive the same base command
number.
On the Mac OS
3
To register your messages from a Macintosh program, make an rsRegisterMessage
control call with the message selector in csParam+0 and the number of message
commands to allocate in csParam+4.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
↔
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
csParam+0
csParam+4
long
word
word
word
long
long
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsRegisterMessage
32-bit message selector
Number of message commands to allocate
The PC Interface driver returns the base command number in csParam+0. If the PC
Interface driver cannot allocate the messages, an error code is returned in ioResult.
On the PC
To register your messages from a PC program, load the 32-bit selector into register EBX
and the message count in register CX; then call INT 5Fh with AH = 4. The PC Interface
driver returns the base command number in register BX. Register AH contains an error
code if the messages could not be allocated.
46
Passing Messages
3
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
Sending a Message
3
To send a message, you must pass a message parameter block (MsgPBlk) to the PC
Interface driver. The rsSendMessage routine is always asynchronous; it simply queues
the message parameter block and returns to the caller. The msgResult field is set to
1 (busy) until the message has been sent.
After the message has been sent, the msgResult field is set to 0 (no error) or
–3 (MsgTimeout). The msgActCount field contains the number of bytes actually
sent. If you have specified a completion routine, it is then called.
On the Mac OS
3
The MsgPBlk data structure for programs on the Mac OS has the following format:
MsgPBlk
RECORD
0
msgQLink
DS.l
1
; Next queue element
msgQType
DS.w
1
; Queue flags
msgCmd
DS.w
1
; The message type or command
msgParam1
DS.l
1
; Message parameter 1
msgParam2
DS.l
1
; Message parameter 2
msgBuffer
DS.l
1
; Pointer to the message data buffer
msgReqCount
DS.l
1
; Requested data length
msgActCount
DS.l
1
; Actual data length
msgCompletion
DS.l
1
; Pointer to completion routine or
NULL
msgResult
DS.w
1
; The result of any message operation
msgFlags
DS.w
1
; Message Flags (Swap and Shared)
Set to zero!
msgUserData
DS.l
1
; For the callers use
MsgPBlkSize
Equ
*
; Size of record
ENDR
To send a message, build a MsgPBlk and then pass the pointer to the MsgPBlk to the PC
Interface driver in an rsSendMessage control call.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
csParam+0
long
word
word
word
long
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsSendMessage
Pointer to MsgPBlk
Your completion routine is called at Deferred time and can use registers D0–D2 and
A0–A1. You must save all other registers. Upon return, A0 contains a pointer to the
MsgPBlk structure.
Passing Messages
47
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
On the PC
3
The MsgPBlk data structure on the PC has the following format. Please note that the
sizes of some of the fields are different from the Mac OS equivalent.
MsgPBlk
STRUCT
link
DWORD
?
; Link to next queue element
msgCmd
WORD
?
; The message command or type
msgParam1
DWORD
?
; Param 1
msgParam2
DWORD
?
; Param 2
msgBuffer
DWORD
?
; Pointer to the data buffer
msgReqCount
DWORD
?
; Length of the data
msgActCount
DWORD
?
; # of bytes actually transferred
msgCompletion
DWORD
?
; Pointer to the completion routine
msgResult
BYTE
?
; The error code after complete or 1
msgFlags
BYTE
?
; Msg flags (Shared and Swapped)
set to zero!
msgUserData
DWORD
?
; For the caller's use
msgVXD
DWORD
?
; Reserved for driver use
MsgPBlk
ENDS
To send a message on the PC, build a MsgPBlk structure and call the PC Interface driver
with AH = 1 (rsSendMessage) and ES:BX = the pointer to the MsgPBlk structure.
When you execute an INT 5Fh, the message is queued, msgResult is set to 1 (busy),
and control returns to your program.
Your completion routine is called with a FAR call and it should return with an RETF.
Also, your routine may use registers AX, BX, CX,DX, DI,SI, ES, and DS. When your
completion routine is called, ES:BX is a pointer to the MsgPBlk structure.
Installing a Message Handler
3
Before you can receive messages, you must install a message handler. The PC Interface
driver calls the message handler when the driver receives a message with a command
value greater than or equal to recCmdBase and less than recCmdBase + recCmdCount
in the MsgRecElem data structure. The driver passes the message’s 16-bit command and
the two 32-bit parameters to your message handler.
The message handler examines the command and parameters and determines whether
there is any data to be received. If there is, the handler passes back a pointer to a
MsgPBlk. The PC Interface driver then receives the data and puts it into the buffer
pointed to by msgBuffer. The driver then updates msgActCount with the number
of bytes of data received and sets msgResult to 0 (no error), –1 (MsgOverrun),
–2 (MsgUnderrun), or –3 (MsgTimeout). The driver then calls your completion routine,
if there is one.
48
Passing Messages
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
A message handler is described by a MsgRecElem record. The recProc field points to
the handler procedure; the values of recBaseCmd and recCmdCount are the values
allocated by rsRegisterMessage.
IMPORTANT
Before your program terminates, you must remove your message
handler so that the PC Interface driver will not call it after you are gone.
See the section “Removing a Message Handler” on page 50. ▲
On the Mac OS
3
The MsgRecElem data structure for programs on the Mac OS has the following format:
MsgRecElem
RECORD
0
recQLink
DS.l
1
; Next queue element
recQType
DS.w
1
; Queue flags
recFlags
DS.w
1
; Not used...yet...set to zero
recProc
DS.l
1
; Pointer to the receive procedure
recCmdBase
DS.w
1
; First command received by this
procedure
recCmdCount
DS.w
1
; Number of commands allocated for
this procedure
recUserData
DS.l
1
; For caller’s use (could be A5...)
MsgRecElemSize Equ
*
ENDR
To install a message handler on the Mac OS, build a MsgRecElem record and pass a
pointer to it in a control call to the PC Interface driver.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
→
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
csParam+0
long
word
word
word
long
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsInstallMsgHandler
Pointer to MsgRecElem
When your message handler procedure is called, D0.w contains the message command,
D1.l contains the msgParam1 value, D2.l contains the msgParam2 value, and A1 contains
a pointer to the MsgRecElem record. Your routine must pass back a pointer to a
MsgPBlk structure in A0 if you wish to receive the message data; otherwise, return 0 in
A0. The handler procedure is called at interrupt time with interrupts masked at the slot
interrupt level. It can use registers D0–D2 and A0–A1.
The completion routine for the MsgPBlk returned by the receive procedure is called at
deferred time and can use registers D0–D2 and A0–A1. You must save all other registers.
Upon return, A0 contains a pointer to the MsgPBlk structure.
Passing Messages
49
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
On the PC
3
For a program on the PC, the MsgRecElem data structure has the following format:
MsgRecElem
STRUCT
Link
DWORD
?
; Pointer to next link
Code
DWORD
?
; Pointer to the code for this link
cmdBase
WORD
?
; Base message number for this
procedure
cmdCount
WORD
?
; Number of message numbers for this
procedure
userData
DWORD
?
; For caller’s use
msgVXD
DWORD
?
; Reserved for driver use
MsgRecElem
ENDS
To install a message handler on the PC, build a MsgRecElem record and call INT 5Fh
with AH = 2 and ES:BX containing a pointer to the MsgRecElem structure.
When your message handler is called, AX contains the message command, ECX contains
msgParam1, EDX contains msgParam2, and ES:DI contain a pointer to the MsgRecElem
record. Your program must pass a pointer to a MsgPBlk structure in ES:BX if you wish
to receive the message data; otherwise, it must return 0 in BX. The handler is called at
interrupt time with interrupts turned off. It can use registers AX, BX, CX,DX, DI, SI, ES,
and DS.
The completion routine for the MsgPBlk structure returned by the receive procedure is
called at interrupt time and can use registers AX, BX, CX,DX, DI, SI, ES, and DS. You
must save all other registers. Also, ES:BX contain a pointer to the MsgPBlk structure.
Removing a Message Handler
3
Message handlers can be called until they are removed. Before your program terminates,
you must remove the handler so that the PC Interface driver will not call it after your
program is gone.
On the Mac OS
3
To remove a message handler on the Mac OS, your program makes an appropriate
control call to the PC Interface driver and passes it a pointer to the handler.
Parameter block
→
←
→
→
→
50
ioCompletion
ioResult
ioRefNum
csCode
csParam+0
Passing Messages
long
word
word
word
long
Pointer to the completion routine
Equals rsRemoveMsgHandler
Pointer to MsgRecElem
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
On the PC
3
To remove a message handler on the PC, your program makes a call to INT 5Fh with
AH = 3 and with a pointer to the MsgRecElem record in registers ES:BX.
Header File for PC Interface
3
Here is a sample header file for access to the PC interface driver.
/*
File: PCCardCalls.h
Contains:This file contains the data structures and equates needed to
call the PC Card driver on the Macintosh side.
Copyright: 1994 by Apple Computer, Inc., all rights reserved.
*/
#ifndef __PCCARDCALLS__
#define __PCCARDCALLS__
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
Other Header Files
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
#ifndef __TYPES__
#include <Types.h>
#endif
#ifndef __OSUTILS__
#include <OSUtils.h>
#endif
#ifndef __EVENTS__
#include <Events.h>
#endif
Header File for PC Interface
51
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
Misc. Equates
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
#defineRSDriverName"\p.RoyalScam"// The name of the driver
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
Error Codes Returned from Control/Status Calls
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
enum{
rsFirstErr
rsAlreadyBooted
rsLastErr
= 0x7000,
= 0x7001,
= 0x7001
// first error code
// PC is already booted, can't complete
operation
// last error code
};
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
Notifications Codes Sent to Notification Proc
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
enum{
rsPrintSpoolErr
= 0x7F00,
rsPrintSpoolFileReady
= 0x7F01,
rsCOM1SpoolErr
= 0x7F01,
rsCOM2SpoolErr
= 0x7F02
// Having trouble opening/writting
print spool file
// at least 1 spool file is ready
be printed
// Having trouble opening/writting
serial spool file
// Having trouble opening/writting
serial spool file
the
to
the
the
};
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
Control/Status ParamBlock Record
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
typedefstruct {
// PC Card driver Control/Status ParamBlock Record
QElemPtr
qLink;
// queue link in header
short
qType;
// type byte for safety check
short
ioTrap;
// FS: the Trap
Ptr
ioCmdAddr;
// FS: address to dispatch to
52
Header File for PC Interface
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
ProcPtr
ioCompletion; // completion routine addr (0 for synch calls)
OSErr
ioResult;
// result code
StringPtr
ioNamePtr;
// ptr to Vol:FileName string
short
ioVRefNum; // volume refnum (DrvNum for Eject and MountVol)
short
ioCRefNum;
// refNum for I/O operation
short
csCode;
// The operation code
void *
csPtr;
// pointer to proceedure or data
long
csData;
// data
long
csData2;
// data
} RSParamBlockRec, *RSParamBlockRecPtr;
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
PC Control
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
// Control Codes
enum{
rsBootPC
rsResetPC
rsWriteCMOS
rsReadCMOS
rsEnableVideo
rsDisableVideo
rsSetMemoryConfig
rsHaltPC
rsResumePC
};
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
701,
702,
703,
704,
705,
706,
707,
708,
709
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Boots the PC
Resets the PC
Writes the CMOS RAM values
Reads current CMOS RAM values
Enables the VGA output
Disables the VGA output
Sets the shared memory config
Stops the PC
Allows PC to continue
// Status Codes
enum{
rsPCStatus = 701,
rsLastError = 702
};
// Returns driver state information
// Returns the last non-zero error
// PC Status Masks
enum{
rsBooted
rsVGAEnabled
rsKeyboardEnabled
rsMouseEnabled
rsDiskMountEnabled
=
=
=
=
=
1,
2,
4,
8,
16,
Header File for PC Interface
//
//
//
//
//
Mask
Mask
Mask
Mask
Mask
for
for
for
for
for
boot state
VGA output state
keyboard state
mouse tracking state
Disk Mounting state
53
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
rsSharedEnabled
rsDMAEnabled
rsCableInstalled
rsModemUsedByCom1
rsPrinterUsedByCom1
rsModemUsedByCom2
rsPrinterUsedByCom2
rsSoundEnabled
rsBIOSModified
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
32,
64,
128,
256,
512,
1024,
2048,
4096,
8192
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Mask
Mask
Mask
Mask
Mask
Mask
Mask
Mask
Mask
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
Shared Memory Enabled
DMA Enabled
video Cable Installed
modem use by com1
printer use by com1
modem use by com2
printer use by com2
Sound Enabled
Bios modified by Driver
};
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
Keyboard
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
// Control Codes
enum{
rsActivateKB
rsDeactivateKB
= 102,
= 103,
rsSetDeactivateKey
= 104,
rsSetKeyMap1
rsSetKeyMap2
rsSetKeyMap3
rsSetKeyMap
=
=
=
=
105,
106,
107,
108
// Tells the driver keyboard is now active
// Tells the driver keyboard is no longer
active
// Sets the key that causes the deactivate
routine to be called
// Sets the scan code map #1
// Sets the scan code map #2
// Sets the scan code map #3
// Sets the Mac to PC map
};
// Data Structures
typedef
typedef
char RSKeyMap[128];
char *RSKeyMapPtr;
// KeyMap data structure
typedefstruct {
// Scan Code Map data structure
char length;
// Length of the scan code (# of bytes)
char code[6];
// Scan code
} RSScanCodeMap[128], *RSScanCodeMapPtr, **RSScanCodeMapHdl;
54
Header File for PC Interface
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
Mouse
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
// Control Codes
enum{
rsSetMouseButtonKey
= 200,
rsBeginMouseTracking
= 201,
rsEndMouseTracking
= 202
// Sets which key to use as the
second mouse button
// Tells the driver to track the
mouse movement
// Releases control of the mouse
};
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
Serial IO
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
// Com port Indexs
enum{
rsCom1 = 0,
rsCom2 = 1
};
// Index for Com1
// Index for Com2
// Device Types
enum{
rsNULLComPort
rsModemComPort
rsPrinterComPort
rsSpoolComPort
rsComToolBoxComPort
rsIgnore
};
=
=
=
=
=
=
0,
1,
2,
3,
4,
-1
//
//
//
//
//
//
Com port is connected to NULL (bit bucket)
Com port is connected to Modem port
Com port is connected to Printer port
Com port data dumped into a file
Com port is connected to Com Tool Box port
Do not change this port
// Control Codes
enum{
rsSetComPortConfig = 300
// Sets the connection and flow control for
a port
};
Header File for PC Interface
55
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
// Parameter Block data structures
typedefstruct{
short
type;
// The port type (rsModemComPort,
rsPrinterComPort, etc..)
short
vRefNum;
// Volume reference number for serial spool file
long
dirID;
// Directory ID for the file
long
fileNamePtr;
// Pointer to the file name
} RSComConfig[2], *RSComConfigPtr;
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
Parallel IO
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
// Control Calls
enum{
rsSetParallelConfig
rsEndPrintJob
};
= 400,// Sets the configuration for the parallel port
= 401 // forces an end to the current print job
// Parameter Block Data Structures
typedef struct{
short
eojTimeOut;
// Signal End of job after n seconds of no data
short
vRefNum;
// Volume RefNum of the Mac Volume the dir is on
long
spoolDirID;
// RefNum for spool directory
} RSParallelConfig, *RSParallelConfigPtr;
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
Fixed Drive IO
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
// Fixed Drive Types
enum{
rsNullDrive
rsFloppyDrive
rsFileDrive
rsPartitionDrive
rsIgnore
};
56
=
=
=
=
=
0,
1,
2,
3
-1
//
//
//
//
//
Header File for PC Interface
No drive available
Drive is a super drive
Drive is a FS file
Drive is a partition defined elsewhere
Don't change this drive
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
// Fixed Drive Array Index Numbers
enum{
rsDriveA
rsDriveB
rsDriveC
rsDriveD
};
=
=
=
=
0,
1,
2,
3
//
//
//
//
Floppy Drive A:
Floppy Drive B:
Hard Drive C:
Hard Drive D:
// Control Codes
enum{
rsSetDriveConfig
rsMountDisks
rsDontMountDisks
};
= 500,
= 501,
= 502
// Initialize the Drive Configuration
// Mount any disk that is inserted
// Do not mount any disk that is inserted
// Fixed Disk Data Structures
typedef struct{
short
type;
short
vRefNum;
long
dirID;
// what type of device this drive is
// Volume refNum or SCSI ID
// Directory ID or starting sector number
for SCSI
long
fileNamePtr;
// Ptr to file name or # of sectors if SCSI
} RSFixedDriveConfig[4], *RSFixedDriveConfigPtr;
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
Network Disk IO
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
// Control Codes
enum{
rsSetNetDriveConfig = 600
};
// Set Net Drive config
// Status Codes
enum{
rsGetNetDriveConfig = 650
};
Header File for PC Interface
// Get Drive Letter Info
57
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
// Data Structure
typedef struct{
char
status;
char
changed;
short
vRefNum;
long
dirID;
} RSNetDriveConfig[26],
// 0 = unusable, - = inuse, + = can be used
// Used by driver!
// which mac volume (0 = no net drive)
// the Directory ID
*RSNetDriveConfigPtr;
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
Messaging
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
// Message control codes
enum{
rsSendMessage
rsInstallMsgHandler
rsRemoveMsgHandler
rsRegisterMessage
};
=
=
=
=
800,
801,
802,
803
//
//
//
//
Send a message
Install a message handler
Remove message handler
Register message type
// Message Results (in msgResult field of MsgPBlk)
enum {
msgNoError
msgOverrun
msgUnderrun
msgTimeout
};
=
=
=
=
0,
-1,
-2,
-3
//
//
//
//
No error, completed
More data was available
Less data was available
Timeout error
typedef struct MsgPBlk {
struct MsgPBlk*
msgQLink;
short
msgQType;
short
msgCmd;
long
msgParam1;
long
msgParam2;
void*
msgBuffer;
long
msgReqCount;
long
msgActCount;
ProcPtr msgCompletion;`
short
msgResult;
short
msgFlags;
long
msgUserData;
} MsgPBlk, *MsgPBlkPtr;
58
Header File for PC Interface
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Pointer to next queue element
Queue Flags
The message type or command
Message parameter 1
Message parameter 2
Ptr to the message data buffer
Requested data length
Actual data length
Ptr to completion routine or NULL
The result of message operation
Message flags (swap and shared)
For use by caller (a5, etc…)
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
typedef struct MsgRecElem {
struct MsgRecElem*
recQLink;
short
recQType;
short
recFlags;
ProcPtr recProc;
short
recCmdBase;
short
recCmdCount;
long
recUserData;
} MsgRecElem, *MsgRecElemPtr;
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Next queue element
queue flags
Not used...Yet...Set to zero
Ptr to the receive proceedure
first command received by this proc
# of commands allocated for this proc
For caller's use (could be A5...)
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
Sound
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
enum{
rsEnableSound = 1000,
rsDisableSound = 1001
};
// Enable sound emulation
// Disable sound emulation
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
Notification Proc
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
// Control Codes
enum{
rsSetNotificationProc = 900
// Sets the address of the Notification
proceedure
};
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
Event Notification
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
// Control Codes
enum{
rsEventInstall = 1100,
rsEventRemove = 1101,
rsEventNotify = 1102
};
Header File for PC Interface
// Install and event handler
// Remove an event handler
// Notify event chain of an event
59
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
// Status Codes
enum{
rsEventSample
};
= 1100
// Sample data on an event
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
NotifyUPP definition
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
/*
pcCardNotificationProcs cannot be written in or called from a high-level
language without the help of mixed mode or assembly glue because they
use the following parameter-passing convention:
typedef pascal void (*PCCardNotifyProcPtr)(short event, long a1Param);
In:
event
a1Param
D0.W
A1.L
Out:
none
*/
enum {
uppPCCardNotifyProcInfo= kRegisterBased
|REGISTER_ROUTINE_PARAMETER(1,kRegisterD0,kTwoByteCode)
|REGISTER_ROUTINE_PARAMETER(2,kRegisterA1,kFourByteCode)
};
#if USESROUTINEDESCRIPTORS
typedef pascal void (*PCCardNotifyProcPtr)(short event, long a1Param);
typedef UniversalProcPtr PCCardNotifyUPP;
#define CallPCCardNotifyProc(userRoutine, event, a1Param)
CallUniversalProc((UniversalProcPtr)(userRoutine),
uppPCCardNotifyProcInfo, (event, a1Param))
\
#define NewPCCardNotifyProc(userRoutine) \
(PCCardNotifyUPP) NewRoutineDescriptor((ProcPtr)(userRoutine),
uppPCCardNotifyProcInfo, GetCurrentISA())
#else
typedef ProcPtr PCCardNotifyUPP;
60
Header File for PC Interface
\
C H A P T E R
3
The PC Interface Driver
#define NewPCCardNotifyProc(userRoutine)
(PCCardNotifyUPP)((userRoutine))
\
#endif
/
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------;
function prototypes
;--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
OSErr OpenPCCardDriver(short *refNum);
OSErr CallrsBootPCSync(short refNum);
OSErr CallrsResetPCSync(short refNum);
OSErr CallrsPCStatusSync(short refNum, long *status);
OSErr CallrsEnableVideoSync(short refNum);
OSErr CallrsDisableVideoSync(short refNum);
OSErr CallrsMountDisksSync(short refNum);
OSErr CallrsDontMountDisksSync(short refNum);
OSErr CallrsActivateKBSync(short refNum);
OSErr CallrsDeactivateKBSync(short refNum);
OSErr CallrsBeginMouseTrackingSync(short refNum);
OSErr CallrsEndMouseTrackingSync(short refNum);
OSErr CallrsEndPrintJobSync(short refNum);
OSErr CallrsSetNotifcationProcSync(short refNum, PCCardNotifyUPP
*pcCardNotifyUPPPtr, long *a1ParamPtr);
OSErr CallrsSetMemoryConfigSync(short refNum, long logBaseAddr,
long physBaseAddr, long memlen);
#endif// __PCCARDCALLS__
Header File for PC Interface
61
Index
Numerals
16C450 serial port IC 27
68040 microprocessor 2, 18
80486DX2 microprocessor 2, 14
8242 keyboard and mouse controller IC 28
8254 interval timer 8
8259 interrupt controller 21
82C450 VGA controller IC 25
84031 memory controller IC 16, 17, 18–20
84035 data path controller IC 16, 20–21
reset logic in 20
command key, to switch to PC operation 7
comparison with a PC 3
configuring the PC 34
connectors
68040 socket 31
audio and video 32
I/O expansion slot 31
joystick 8, 29
serial port 6
CT2501 sound system IC 29
custom ICs
Portola 21
Pretzel Logic 17, 18, 26, 28
Cx486DX2 microprocessor 2
features of 14
A
abbreviations xi–xii
address translation 27
APDA x
AT/ISA bus 12
audio signals 30
autoconfiguration of the PC 28
B
big-endian addressing 14
BIOS 19
block diagrams
detailed 12
simplified 5
burst transfers 21
bus arbitration 17–18
bus errors, on the PC 17
byte order 14
byte swapping 15
C
cache, in the Cx486DX2 14
cache snooping 14
card connectors 30
clock signals 19, 20
clock speed 2, 13
close routine 34
D
data misalignment 15
declaration ROM 29
DMA 2, 17, 26, 27
DMA channels
for I/O transfers 27
for memory access 26
DMA data register 17
DOS compatibility subsystem 12
DRAM
access time of 19
control of 19
F
features, compared with a PC 3
features, summary of 2–3
floppy disk 6
G
game adapter card 29
game controller port 8, 29
63
I N D E X
H
hard disk 6
hot key, to switch to PC operation 7
I
interrupt control 21
interrupts 16
interrupt status register 17
I/O components 26–28
I/O devices 6
I/O expansion slot 31
ISA bus control 20
J
MsgRecElem data structure 49, 50
registering messages 46
rsRegisterMessage control call 46
rsSendMessage routine 47
sending messages 47
message-passing hardware 28
microprocessor 2, 13
microprocessor clock speed 2, 13
misalignment of data 15
monitor sense lines 23
monitors. See video monitors
mouse 7
mouse emulation 28
MOVE16 instruction 21
MsgPBlk data structure
on the Mac OS 47
on the PC 48
MsgRecElem data structure
on the Mac OS 49
on the PC 50
MU9C9760 SynDAC IC 25
joystick 8, 29
joystick connector 8, 29
O
K
open routine 34
keyboard 7
keyboard emulation 28
P
L
little-endian addressing 14
location of PC memory 27
M
Macintosh 630–series computers 4
Macintosh cursor 43
main compatibility card 12
memory
shared 2, 15
memory, for the PC 27
memory, shared 26
memory controller IC 18
message passing 45–51
message conventions 45
message handler
installing 48
removing 50
MsgPBlk data structure 47, 48
64
parallel port 7
PC, comparison with 3
PC Interface driver 34, 51
close routine 34
configuring the PC 34
control and status calls 39
rsActivateKB routine 43
rsBeginMouseTracking routine 43
rsBootPC routine 41
rsDeactivateKB routine 43
rsDisableVideo routine 42
rsDontMountDisks routine 42
rsEnableVideo routine 41
rsEndMouseTracking routine 43
rsEndPrintJob routine 44
rsMountDisks routine 42
rsPCStatus routine 40
rsResetPC routine 41
initializing 34
notifications and errors 44
rsLastError routine 45
rsSetNotificationProc routine 44
open routine 34
I N D E X
rsGetNetDriveConfig routine 36
rsSetComPortConfig routine 37
rsSetDeactivateKey routine 39
rsSetDriveConfig routine 35
rsSetMemoryConfig routine 35
rsSetNetDriveConfig routine 37
rsSetParallelPortConfig routine 38
PC system bus 14
PDS. See I/O expansion slot
Portola bus adapter IC 21
Power Manager software
dispatching 51
power-on reset 28
Pretzel Logic IC 17, 26–28
as bus master 18, 26
as bus slave 26
DMA data register 17
interrupt status register 17
reset logic 28
printer port 7, 27
rsSendMessage routine 47
rsSetComPortConfig routine 37
rsSetDeactivateKey routine 39
rsSetDriveConfig routine 35
rsSetMemoryConfig routine 35
rsSetNetDriveConfig routine 37
rsSetNotificationProc routine 44
rsSetParallelPortConfig routine 38
S
serial ports 6, 27
adapters 6
shared memory 2, 26
soft reset 28
sound, output to host computer 8
Sound Blaster compatibility 8, 29
sound expansion card 3, 8, 29–30
standard abbreviations xi–xii
SynDAC IC 25
system reset logic 20
R
RAM, shared 2, 26
RAM SIMM
device speed 2
sizes 2, 19
reference documents ix
reset logic 28
ROM 19
declaration ROM 29
RS-232 signals 7, 27
RS-232 signals not supported 27
RS-422 signals 7, 27
rsActivateKB routine 43
rsBeginMouseTracking routine 43
rsBootPC routine 41
RSComConfig data structure 37
rsDeactivateKB routine 43
rsDisableVideo routine 42
rsDontMountDisks routine 42
rsEnableVideo routine 41
rsEndMouseTracking routine 43
rsEndPrintJob routine 44
RSFixedDriveConfig data structure 35
RSGetNetDriveConfig routine 36
rsLastError routine 45
rsMountDisks routine 42
RSNetDriveConfig data structure 36
RSParallelConfig data structure 38
rsPCStatus routine 40
rsRegisterMessage control call 46
rsResetPC routine 41
T
trackball, use with ADB port 7
V
video components 21, 25
video DAC IC 25
video monitors
monitor sense lines 23
sharing 22
switching the monitor 22
types supported 8, 22
video RAM 22
X
XD bus 12
Y
YAC512 sound DAC IC 30
YMF262 FM synthesizer IC 30
65
T H E
A P P L E
P U B L I S H I N G
This Apple manual was written, edited,
and composed on a desktop publishing
system using Apple Macintosh
computers and FrameMaker software.
Proof pages and final pages were created
on an Apple LaserWriter Pro printer.
Line art was created using
Adobe Illustrator and
Adobe Photoshop . PostScript , the
page-description language for the
LaserWriter, was developed by Adobe
Systems Incorporated.
Text type is Palatino and display type
is Helvetica. Bullets are ITC Zapf
Dingbats. Some elements, such as
program listings, are set in Apple Courier.
WRITER
Allen Watson III
DEVELOPMENTAL EDITOR
Jeanne Woodward
ILLUSTRATORS
Deb Dennis and Shawn Morningstar
Special thanks to Richard Kubota, Tom
Llewellyn, and Jim Stockdale.
S Y S T E M
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