Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features

Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
Tru64 UNIX
Technical Reference for Using Thai
Features
September 2002
This guide provides the Thai-specific information and describes the Thai features
supported on the Tru64 UNIX system.
Revision/Update Information:
This manual replaces the previous
version.
Product Version:
Version 5.1B and higher
Hewlett-Packard Company
Palo Alto, California
© 2002 Hewlett-Packard Company
Microsoft®, Windows®, and Windows NT® are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries.
Motif®, OSF/1®, UNIX®, and X/Open® are trademarks of The Open Group in the U.S. and/or other countries. All other
product names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective companies.
Confidential computer software. Valid license from Compaq Computer Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of
Hewlett-Packard Company, required for possession, use, or copying. Consistent with FAR 12.211 and 12.212, Commercial
Computer Software, Computer Software Documentation, and Technical Data for Commercial Items are licensed to the U.S.
Government under vendor's standard commercial license.
None of Compaq, HP, or any of their subsidiaries shall be liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained
herein. The information in this publication is provided "as is" without warranty of any kind and is subject to change
without notice. The warranties for Compaq products are set forth in the express limited warranty statements accompanying
such products. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an additional warranty.
Table of Contents
Preface
1 Character Sets............................................................................................ 1–1
1.1 Consonants ...................................................................................................................................1–1
1.2 Vowels..........................................................................................................................................1–5
1.3 Tone Marks ..................................................................................................................................1–6
1.4 Diacritics ......................................................................................................................................1–6
1.5 Noncomposible Characters...........................................................................................................1–7
2 Codesets..................................................................................................... 2–1
2.1 Character Classification................................................................................................................2–3
2.2 Character Levels...........................................................................................................................2–5
3 Locales ....................................................................................................... 3–1
4 Local Language Devices ........................................................................... 4–1
4.1 Terminals......................................................................................................................................4–1
4.2 Printers .........................................................................................................................................4–1
5 Fonts ........................................................................................................... 5–1
5.1 DECwindows Fonts......................................................................................................................5–1
5.1.1 XLFD Font Names .............................................................................................................5–1
iii
5.1.2 Bitmap Font Samples ........................................................................................................ 5–2
5.1.3 Specifying Fonts in DECwindows Applications................................................................ 5–3
5.1.4 Outline Fonts ..................................................................................................................... 5–3
5.2 XLFD Font Names of Thai Outline Fonts ................................................................................... 5–4
5.3 Outline Font Samples .................................................................................................................. 5–6
6 Keyboards...................................................................................................6–1
6.1 Keyboard Layout ......................................................................................................................... 6–1
6.2 Keyboard Indicator ...................................................................................................................... 6–4
7 Thai Input Methods ....................................................................................7–1
7.1 Character–Cell Terminal Applications ........................................................................................ 7–1
7.2 DECwindows Motif and CDE Applications ................................................................................ 7–2
7.2.1 Loading Keymaps.............................................................................................................. 7–3
7.3 Input Methods.............................................................................................................................. 7–4
7.3.1 Thai Character Input.......................................................................................................... 7–4
7.3.2 Special Thai Characters Input............................................................................................ 7–4
7.3.2.1 Special Thai Character Input Method ................................................................. 7–4
7.3.2.2 Hexadecimal Input Method ................................................................................ 7–5
7.3.3 English Character Input ..................................................................................................... 7–6
7.4 Input Sequence Check Modes...................................................................................................... 7–6
7.4.1 Selecting Input Sequence Check Mode ............................................................................. 7–6
7.4.1.1 DECwindows Motif............................................................................................ 7–6
7.4.1.2 Character-Cell Terminal Applications................................................................ 7–7
7.4.2 NISC Mode/Passthrough Mode ......................................................................................... 7–8
7.4.3 VT382–T ISC Mode.......................................................................................................... 7–8
7.4.4 WTT Basic Mode ............................................................................................................ 7–11
7.4.5 WTT Strict Mode ............................................................................................................ 7–11
8 Thai Printing Support.................................................................................8–1
8.1 Supported Printers ....................................................................................................................... 8–1
8.2 Print File Formats ........................................................................................................................ 8–1
8.3 Printing Features.......................................................................................................................... 8–2
8.3.1 Font Faulting ..................................................................................................................... 8–2
8.3.2 Font Preloading ................................................................................................................. 8–2
8.3.3 Outline Fonts ..................................................................................................................... 8–3
8.3.4 Printer ID for DOT Matrix Printers................................................................................... 8–3
8.3.5 Control Sequence for Dot Matrix Printers ......................................................................... 8–3
8.3.6 Printing Enhancement Rules (Text Morphing) .................................................................. 8–4
iv
8.3.7 Space Compensating ..........................................................................................................8–5
8.3.8 Half–Height Printing ..........................................................................................................8–5
8.4 Commands and Daemons .............................................................................................................8–5
8.4.1 Country-Specific Options to the lpr command ...................................................................8–5
8.4.2 PostScript Font Management Utility (pfsetup) ...................................................................8–7
8.4.3 Font Faulting Daemon (ffd)................................................................................................8–9
8.4.4 PrintServer Printing Command (wwlpspr) .........................................................................8–9
8.5 Setting Up Thai Printing...............................................................................................................8–9
8.5.1 Thai Epson LQ1050+ .......................................................................................................8–10
8.5.2 DEClaser 1152 .................................................................................................................8–11
8.5.3 DEClaser 5100 .................................................................................................................8–13
8.5.4 PrintServer 17...................................................................................................................8–15
8.5.5 Using the wwpsof Filter with PostScript Printers.............................................................8–16
9 Other Thai Features ................................................................................... 9–1
9.1 Thai Terminal Driver ...................................................................................................................9–1
9.1.1 Input Sequence Checking ...................................................................................................9–1
9.1.2 Thai Character Reordering .................................................................................................9–2
9.1.3 History Mode .....................................................................................................................9–2
9.2 Thai DECterm ..............................................................................................................................9–3
9.2.1 Creating a Thai DECterm Window ....................................................................................9–3
9.2.2 Customizing a Thai DECterm Window..............................................................................9–4
9.2.3 Font Sizes ...........................................................................................................................9–4
9.2.4 Terminal ID........................................................................................................................9–4
9.2.5 Copying Information ..........................................................................................................9–4
9.2.6 Default Character Set .........................................................................................................9–4
9.2.7 Thai Character Input...........................................................................................................9–5
9.2.8 Thai Character Output ........................................................................................................9–5
9.2.9 Cursor Movement...............................................................................................................9–7
9.2.10 Other VT382–T Functionalities........................................................................................9–7
9.2.11 CSText Widget.................................................................................................................9–8
9.2.12 Cursor Movement.............................................................................................................9–8
9.2.13 Delete Character Operation ..............................................................................................9–9
Figures
Figure 2-1: TACTIS Codeset .............................................................................................................2–2
Figure 5–1: Screen Font Sample ........................................................................................................5–2
Figure 5–2: AngsanaUPC Font Sample..............................................................................................5–6
Figure 5–3: CordiaUPC Font Sample.................................................................................................5–6
Figure 5–4: EucrosiaUPC Font Sample..............................................................................................5–7
v
Figure 5–5: FreesiaUPC Font Sample ............................................................................................... 5–7
Figure 5–6: IrisUPC Font Sample ..................................................................................................... 5–7
Figure 5–7: JasmineUPC Font Sample.............................................................................................. 5–8
Figure 5–8: KodchiangUPC Font Sample ......................................................................................... 5–8
Figure 5–9: LilyUPC Font Sample .................................................................................................... 5–8
Figure 5–10: WaterlilyUPC Font Sample.......................................................................................... 5–9
Figure 5–11: YuccaUPC Font Sample............................................................................................... 5–9
Figure 6-1: LK201-T Keyboard Layout ............................................................................................ 6–2
Figure 6-2: LK401-T Keyboard Layout ............................................................................................ 6–2
Figure 6-3: LK201-WTT Keymap Layout ........................................................................................ 6–3
Figure 6-4: LK401-WTT Keymap Layout ........................................................................................ 6–3
Figure 7-1: Valid Patterns of Thai Character Composition ............................................................... 7–8
Figure 8-1: Two-channel Communication of the Font Faulting Mechanism ................................... 8–11
Figure 9–1: Space Compensation Mode ............................................................................................ 9–6
Figure 9–2: Internal Cursor Mode ..................................................................................................... 9–7
Tables
Table 2–1: Thai Character Classification .......................................................................................... 2–4
Table 4–1: Thai Print Filters.............................................................................................................. 4–2
Table 5–1: Thai Screen Fonts............................................................................................................ 5–1
Table 5–2: Thai Default Font List ..................................................................................................... 5–3
Table 5–3: Thai Outline Fonts........................................................................................................... 5–3
Table 5–4: XLFD of Thai Outline Fonts ........................................................................................... 5–5
Table 7–1: Thai Keymaps ................................................................................................................. 7–3
Table 7–2: Thai Input Invocation Key............................................................................................... 7–4
Table 7–3: Special Thai Characters Input Method ............................................................................ 7–5
Table 7–4: Thai Input Sequence Check Modes ................................................................................. 7–6
Table 7–5: VT382-T ISC Mode Lookup Table ............................................................................... 7–10
Table 7–6: WTT ISC Mode Lookup Table...................................................................................... 7–12
Table 8–1: Escape Sequence Names ................................................................................................. 8–4
vi
Preface
This guide provides Thai-specific information, such as character sets and locales, for end
users and programmers so that they can use and develop internationalized applications in
Thai locales on the Tru64 UNIX operating system. The details of the Thai features are also
documented in this guide.
Intended Audience
This guide is intended for new and experienced Tru64 UNIX operating system end users and
programmers who are interested in the Thai variant.
Structure of This Guide
This guide consists of nine chapters:
Chapter 1
Describes the Thai character sets supported in the Tru64 UNIX
operating system software.
Chapter 2
Describes the Thai codesets.
Chapter 3
Describes the Thai locales.
Chapter 4
Describes the hardware devices that support the Thai locales.
vii
Chapter 5
Provides information on Thai fonts.
Chapter 6
Provides information on Thai keyboards.
Chapter 7
Describes how to input Thai characters.
Chapter 8
Introduces the Thai printing support.
Chapter 9
Describes other Thai features.
Related Documents
Writing Software for the International Market
Programming for the World: A Guide to Internationalization, Sandra Martin
O'Donnell, Prentice Hall, 1994
OSF/Motif User’s Guide Revision 1.2, Open Software Foundation, Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632
OSF/Motif Style Guide Revision 1.2, Open Software Foundation, Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632
X Window System, Third Edition, Robert W. Scheifler and James Gettys, Digital
Press
Programmer’s Supplement for Release 5 of the X Window System, Version 11,
David Flanagan, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
Draft Industrial Standard - Thai Language Software Standard WTT2.0
Conventions
The following typographical conventions are used in this manual:
viii
%
$
A percent sign represents the C shell system prompt. A dollar
the system prompt for the Bourne and Korn shell.
#
A number sign represents the superuser prompt.
% cat
Boldface type in interactive examples indicates typed user inp
file
Italic (slanted) type indicates variable values, placeholders, an
argument names.
[|]
{|}
In syntax definitions, brackets indicate items that are optional
indicate items that are required. Vertical bars separating items
or braces indicate that you choose one item from among those
...
In syntax definitions, a horizontal ellipsis indicates that the pre
be repeated one or more times.
cat(1)
A cross-reference to a reference page includes the appropriate
in parentheses. For example, cat(1) indicates that you can fin
on the cat command in Section 1 of the reference pages.
[RETURN]
In an example, a key name enclosed in a box indicates that you
Ctrl/x
This symbol indicates that you hold down the first named key
the key or mouse button that follows the slash. In examples, th
combination is enclosed in a box (for example [Ctrl/C]).
ix
1
Character Sets
The Tru64 UNIX operating system software supports the Thai Industrial Standard (TIS)
character set TIS 620-2533. The TIS 620 character set is a national standard for a primary set
of graphic characters for Thai information interchange. It was first published by the Thai
Industrial Standards Institute, Ministry of Industry, Thailand in 1986 (Buddhist year 2529)
and was revised in 1990 (Buddhist year 2533). It defines 89 characters.
1.1 Consonants
The TIS 620 character set contains 44 consonants, as shown in the following figure and table.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 1–1
1–2 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
Decimal
Hexadecimal
Character Name
161
A1
KO KAI
162
A2
KHO KHAI
163
A3
KHO KHUAT
164
A4
KHO KHWAI
165
A5
KHO KHON
166
A6
KHO RAKHANG
167
A7
NGO NGU
168
A8
CHO CHAN
169
A9
CHO CHING
170
AA
CHO CHANG
171
AB
SO SO
172
AC
CHO CHOE
173
AD
YO YING
174
AE
DO CHADA
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 1–3
Decimal
Hexadecimal
Character Name
175
AF
TO PATAK
176
B0
THO THOTHAN
177
B1
THO NANGMONTHO
178
B2
THO PHOO THAO
179
B3
NOR NANE
180
B4
DOR DEK
181
B5
TO TAO
182
B6
THO THUNG
183
B7
THO THAHAN
184
B8
THO THONG
185
B9
NO NU
186
BA
BO BAIMAI
187
BB
PO PLA
188
BC
PHO PERNG
189
BD
FO FA
190
BE
PO PAN
191
BF
FO FAN
192
C0
PO SAMPOW
193
C1
MO MA
194
C2
YO YAK
195
C3
RO RUA
197
C5
LO LING
199
C7
WO WAEN
200
C8
SO SALA
201
C9
SO RUSI
202
CA
SO SUA
203
CB
HO HEEP
204
CC
LO CHULA
205
CD
O ANG
206
CE
HO NOKHUK
1–4 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
1.2 Vowels
The TIS 620 character set contains 18 vowels, divided into four groups.
Five leading vowels; these vowels are placed before consonants:
Decimal
Hexadecimal
Character Name
224
E0
SARA E
225
E1
SARA AE
226
E2
SARA O
227
E3
SARA AI MAIMUAN
228
E4
SARA AI MAIMALAI
Six following vowels; these vowels are placed after consonants. The six following vowels
are further divided into two groups.
Normal following vowels:
Decimal
Hexadecimal
Character Name
208
D0
SARA A
210
D2
SARA AA
211
D3
SARA AM
229
E5
LAKKHANGYAO
Decimal
Hexadecimal
Character Name
196
C4
RU
198
C6
LU
Special following vowels:
Two below vowels; these vowels are placed below consonants:
Decimal
Hexadecimal
Character Name
216
D8
SARA U
217
D9
SARA UU
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 1–5
Five above vowels; these vowels are placed above consonants:
Decimal
Hexadecimal
Character Name
209
D1
MAI HAN-AKAT
212
D4
SARA E
213
D5
SARA EE
214
D6
SARA UR
215
D7
SARA UUR
1.3 Tone Marks
The TIS 620 character set contains four tone marks:
Decimal
Hexadecimal
Character Name
232
E8
MAI EK
233
E9
MAI THO
234
EA
MAI TRIE
235
EB
MAI CHATTAWA
1.4 Diacritics
The TIS 620 character set contains five diacritics divided into two groups.
Four above diacritics; these diacritics are placed above initial or final consonants:
Decimal
Hexadecimal
Character Name
231
E7
MAITAIKHU
236
EC
THANTHAKHAT
237
ED
NIKHAHIT
238
EE
YAMAKKAN
One below diacritic; this diacritic is placed below final or clustered consonants:
Decimal
Hexadecimal
Character Name
218
DA
PHINTHU
1–6 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
1.5 Noncomposible Characters
The TIS 620 character set contains 18 noncomposible characters. These characters cannot be
composed with above vowels, below vowels, tone marks, above diacritics and below
diacritic. Noncomposible characters are divided into four groups.
One no-break space:
Decimal
Hexadecimal
Character Name
160
A0
NO-BREAK SPACE
Decimal
Hexadecimal
Character Name
240
F0
THAI ZERO
Ten Thai digits:
241
F1
THAI ONE
242
F2
THAI TWO
243
F3
THAI THREE
244
F4
THAI FOUR
245
F5
THAI FIVE
246
F6
THAI SIX
247
F7
THAI SEVEN
248
F8
THAI EIGHT
249
F9
THAI NINE
Decimal
Hexadecimal
Character Name
207
CF
PAYANGNOI
223
DF
BAHT (Thai currency sign)
230
E6
MAIYAMOK
239
EF
FONGMAN
250
FA
ANGKHANKHU
251
FB
KHOMUT
Six Thai special characters:
One word separator; a nonprintable character.
Decimal
Hexadecimal
Character Name
220
DC
WORD SEPARATOR
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 1–7
1–8 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
2
Codesets
The Tru64 UNIX operating system software supports the following Thai codeset:
•
TACTIS (Thai API Consortium/Thai Industrial Standard)
The TACTIS codeset, shown in Figure 2-1, is composed of the ASCII (ISO 646-1991)
character set and the TIS 620-2533 character set. This is an 8-bit codeset with characters
assigned values from 0x0 to 0xFF.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 2–1
Figure 2-1: TACTIS Codeset
2–2 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
2.1 Character Classification
To facilitate the processing of characters encoded in the TACTIS codeset, such as displaying
Thai characters and input-sequence checking, characters are classified into several
categories:
•
Control Characters (CTRL). Nondisplayable control characters can be used to control
output or for data communication. The 66 control characters are: 00-1F, 7F, 80-9F and
FF.
•
Consonants (CONS). The 44 Thai consonants defined in TIS 620-2533.
•
Vowels (-V)
•
•
–
Leading vowels (LV). The five leading vowels defined in TIS 620-2533.
–
Following vowels (FV). The six following vowels defined in TIS 620-2533.
–
Below vowels (BV). The two below vowels defined in TIS 620-2533.
–
Above vowels (AV). The five above vowels defined in TIS 620-2533.
–
Tone marks (TONE). The four tone marks defined in TIS 620-2533.
Diacritics (-D)
–
Above diacritics (AD). The four above diacritics defined in TIS 620-2533.
–
Below diacritic (BD). The below diacritic defined in TIS 620-2533.
Noncomposibles (NON). Those characters that do not fit into the other four character
classes. This group of characters cannot be composed with above vowels, below
vowels, tone marks, above diacritics, and below diacritic. There are 119 noncomposible
characters divided into seven groups:
–
Graphic characters. The 94 graphic characters defined in ISO 646-1991. They
include:
*
52 English alphabetic characters (A-Z, a-z)
*
10 digits (0-9)
*
32 special characters: 21-2F, 3A-3F and 7B-7E
–
Space. The character code is 20.
–
No-Break space. The character code is A0.
–
Thai digits. The ten Thai digits defined in TIS 620-2533.
–
Thai special characters. The six Thai special characters defined in TIS 620-2533.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 2–3
–
Word separator. The word separator defined in TIS 620-2533.
–
Reserved code points. Six code points are reserved for future use.
To meet some special requirements of Thai input and output, some character classes, such as
FV, BV, AV, and AD, are further divided into subclasses. For details, see Table 2–.
Table 2–1: Thai Character Classification
Class
Number
Description
CTRL
66
ISO 646-1983 control codes: 00-1F, 7F, 80-9F, FF
NON
119
•
ISO 646-1991 character codes: 20-7E
•
TIS 620-2533 character codes: A0, CF, DC, DF, E6, EF, F0-F9, FA, FB
•
Reserved code points: DB, DD, DE, FC, FD, FE.
CONS
44
A1-C3, C5, C7-CE
LV
5
E0, E1, E2, E3, E4
FV1
3
D0, D2, D3
FV2
2
E5
FV3
2
C4 and C6 (These two characters also behave as LV in the case of
LV+CONS)
BV1
1
D8
BV2
1
D9
BD
1
DA
TONE
4
E8, E9, EA, EB
AD1
2
ED, EC
AD2
1
E7
AD3
1
EE
AV1
1
D4
AV2
2
D1, D6
AV3
2
D5, D7
2–4 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
2.2 Character Levels
Characters defined in the TACTIS codeset can also be classified according to character
levels. There are five character levels:
•
Nondisplayable level includes all control characters in the CTRL category.
•
Base level includes all characters in the NON, CONS, FV and LV categories. Characters
at this level are drawn on baseline.
•
Above level includes all characters in the AD3, AV1, AV2 and AV3 categories.
Characters at this level are drawn directly above final consonants.
•
Below level includes all characters in the BV1, BV2 and BD categories. Characters at
this level are drawn directly below final consonants.
•
Top level includes all characters in the TONE, AD1 and AD2 categories. Characters at
this level are drawn on top of above characters. If above level characters do not exist,
top level characters can be drawn at the above level. Characters at this level also indicate
the end of character cells.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 2–5
3
Locales
The Tru64 UNIX operating system software supports a single Thai locale that has two
names:
•
th_TH
•
th_TH.TACTIS
If you are using DECwindows Motif, you can choose the locale from the Language menu of
the Session Manager. If you are using CDE, you can choose the locale from the language
menu on the CDE login screen.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 3–1
4
Local Language Devices
4.1 Terminals
The Tru64 UNIX operating system software supports the VT382-T Thai terminal. Thai
DECterm is the emulation of the VT382-T Thai terminal, which provides compatible
functionalities for running Thai character-cell terminal applications. For the details of Thai
DECterm, see Chapter 9, Other Thai Features.
Character-cell terminal applications can process the Thai locale properly through Tru64
UNIX run-time libraries, such as the C library and the curses library, with the information
defined in the terminfo and termcap databases. To set up the environment to process in the
Thai locale, you should set the TERM environment variable to vt382t by entering the
following command:
% setenv TERM vt382t
4.2 Printers
The Tru64 UNIX operating system software supports the following dot matrix Thai printer:
•
Epson LQ1050+
The following PostScript printers can be configured for Thai printing:
•
DEClaser 1152
•
DEClaser 5100 with font disk (LN09X-HD)
•
PrintServer 17
The generic wwpsof filter can be used to print Thai characters on any PostScript printer.
The print filters in Table 4-1 are provided to support Thai printers.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 4–1
Table 4–1: Thai Print Filters
Filter Name
Printer Name
Thailpof
Epson LQ1050+
dl1152wrof
DEClaser 1152
dl5100wrof
DEClaser 5100
Lpsof
PrintServer 17
Wwpsof
All PostScript printers
_____________________________ Note____________________________
To use PrintServer 17, the PrintServer Software V5.0 or later for Tru64 UNIX, is also
required.
______________________________________________________________
For the details about setting up Thai printer queues, see Chapter 8, Thai Printing Support.
4–2 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
5
Fonts
5.1 DECwindows Fonts
The Tru64 UNIX operating system software provides the Thai DECwindows fonts described
in Table 5-1 in various sizes for 75 dpi (dot-per-inch) display devices.
Table 5–1: Thai Screen Fonts
Typefaces
Bounding Box
Remarks
Screen
7 x 14
Mandatory font
8 x 18
Mandatory font
12 x 24
Mandatory font
These mandatory fonts are available when you install the Thai variant. In addition to these
Thai fonts, several miscellaneous screen fonts are provided in the Thai DECterm and toolkit.
No 100 dpi Thai fonts are provided in the kit. To allow you to use the Thai fonts on 100 dpi
display devices, a font alias file is provided to map the 75 dpi font names to the respective
100 dpi font names.
5.1.1 XLFD Font Names
You must specify the DECwindows font names in XLFD (X Logical Font Description)
format in your application programs or in the application resource files. You can specify
wildcards (*) for any fields in the font names.
You can use the following font names for either 75 dpi or 100 dpi display devices. To
explicitly state the display resolution, you can specify 75 or 100 in the X- and Y-resolution
fields, that is, the asterisks in the following XLFD names.
Screen family font names in XLFD format:
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 5–1
-ADECW-Screen-Medium-R-Normal--18-180-*-*-P-80-TIS620.2533-1
-ADECW-Screen-Medium-R-Normal--14-140-*-*-P-70-TIS620.2533-1
-ADECW-Screen-Medium-R-Normal--24-240-*-*-P-120-TIS620.2533-1
XLFD of miscellaneous Thai screen fonts:
XLFD-Font Name
Character Set
-ADECW-Screen-Medium-R-Normal--18-180-*-*-M-80-iso8859-1
ISO Latin-1
-ADECW-Screen-Medium-R-Normal--18-180-*-*-M-80-DEC-DECctrl
DEC Display
Control
-ADECW-Screen-Medium-R-Normal--18-180-*-*-M-80-DEC-DECsuppl
DEC Supplemental
-ADECW-Screen-Medium-R-Normal--18-180-*-*-M-80-DEC-DECtech
DEC Technical
-ADECW-Screen-Medium-R-Normal--24-240-*-*-M-120-iso8859-1
ISO Latin-1
-ADECW-Screen-Medium-R-Normal--24-240-*-*-M-120-DEC-DECctrl
DEC Display
Control
-ADECW-Screen-Medium-R-Normal--24-240-*-*-M-120-DEC-DECsuppl
DEC Supplemental
-ADECW-Screen-Medium-R-Normal--24-240-*-*-M-120-DEC-DECtech
DEC Technical
5.1.2 Bitmap Font Samples
Figure 5–1 shows samples of the screen family of Thai fonts.
Figure 5–1: Screen Font Sample
5–2 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
5.1.3 Specifying Fonts in DECwindows Applications
Table 5-2 shows the default font list used in the Motif Toolkit.
Table 5–2: Thai Default Font List
XLFD Font Name
Character Set
-ADECW-Screen-Medium-R-Normal--*-180-*-*-M-80-iso8859-1
iso8859-1
-ADECW-Screen-Medium-R-Normal--*-180-*-*-P-80-TIS620.2533-1
TIS620.2533-1
-ADECW-Screen-Medium-R-Normal--*-180-*-*-*-*-*
Fontset
To override the default font list of a Thai DECwindows application, you should specify the
ISO Latin-1 and Thai fonts as well as the Thai fontset when creating widget instances. For
details, see Writing Software for the International Market.
5.1.4 Outline Fonts
The Tru64 UNIX operating system software provides the Thai outline fonts shown in Table
5-3.
Table 5–3: Thai Outline Fonts
Font Family
Font Name
AngsanaUPC Family
AngsanaUPC-Light
AngsanaUPC-Italic
AngasanaUPC-Bold
AngsanaUPC-BoldItalic
CordiaUPC Family
CordiaUPC-Light
CordiaUPC-Italic
CordiaUPC-Bold
CordiaUPC-BoldItalic
EucrosiaUPC Family
EucrosiaUPC-Light
EucrosiaUPC-Italic
EucrosiaUPC-Bold
EucrosiaUPC-BoldItalic
FreesiaUPC Family
FreesiaUPC-Light
FreesiaUPC-Italic
FreesiaUPC-Bold
FreesiaUPC-BoldItalic
IrisUPC Family
IrisUPC-Light
IrisUPC-Italic
IrisUPC-Bold
IrisUPC-BoldItalic
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 5–3
JasmineUPC Family
JasmineUPC-Light
JasmineUPC-Italic
JasmineUPC-Bold
JasmineUPC-BoldItalic
KodchiangUPC Family
KodchiangUPC-Light
KodchiangUPC-Italic
KodchiangUPC-Bold
KodchiangUPC-BoldItalic
LilyUPC Family
LilyUPC-Light
LilyUPC-Italic
LilyUPC-Bold
LilyUPC-BoldItalic
WaterlilyUPC Family
WaterlilyUPC-Light
WaterlilyUPC-Italic
WaterlilyUPC-Bold
WaterlilyUPC-BoldItalic
YuccaUPC Family
YuccaUPC-Light
YuccaUPC-Italic
YuccaUPC-Bold
YuccaUPC-BoldItalic
These Thai outline fonts can be used for:
•
Printing on PostScript printers. For details see Chapter 8, Thai Printing Support.
•
Displaying through the R6 X Windows System Type 1 rasterizer. To use these outline
fonts, you must add the $I18NPATH/usr/lib/X11/fonts/Type1UPC directory
to your font path with the following command:
% xset +fp $I18NPATH/usr/lib/X11/fonts/Type1UPC
•
Displaying through Display PostScript. You can view PostScript files with Thai
characters using the CDA Viewer or through the Display PostScript extension.
5.2 XLFD Font Names of Thai Outline Fonts
To use the Thai outline fonts through the Type 1 rasterizer, you can specify the font names in
XLFD format in your application programs or in the application resource files, just as you do
with ordinary DECwindows bitmap fonts.
To specify the XLFD font name of an outline font, you can replace the fields currently
marked with 0 (zero) with the following information:
1.
Field 1 — The font height in number of dots. Usually, an asterisk is entered in this field.
2.
Field 2 — The font height in point size. For example, you can enter 240 to specify a 24
point font.
3.
Fields 3 and 4 — The X- and Y-resolution. Usually, they have the value of 75 or 100.
5–4 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
4.
Field 5 — The average font width in point size. Usually, an asterisk is put in this field.
For example, if you want to use a 48 point font of the AngsanaUPC family in bold-italic
style for a 100 dpi display device, you would specify:
-upc-angsana-bold-i-normal--*-480-100-100-p-*-tis620.2533-1
Table 5–4: XLFD of Thai Outline Fonts
Outline Font
XLFD Font Name
AngsanaUPC-Bold
-upc-angsana-bold-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
AngsanaUPC-BoldItalic
-upc-angsana-bold-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
AngsanaUPC-Italic
-upc-angsana-medium-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
AngsanaUPC-Light
-upc-angsana-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
CordiaUPC-Bold
-upc-cordia-bold-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
CordiaUPC-BoldItalic
-upc-cordia-bold-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
CordiaUPC-Italic
-upc-cordia-medium-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
CordiaUPC-Light
-upc-cordia-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
EucrosiaUPC-Bold
-upc-eucrosia-bold-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
EucrosiaUPC-BoldItalic
-upc-eucrosia-bold-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
EucrosiaUPC-Italic
-upc-eucrosia-medium-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
EucrosiaUPC-Light
-upc-eucrosia-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
FreesiaUPC-Bold
-upc-freesia-bold-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
FreesiaUPC-BoldItalic
-upc-freesia-bold-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
FreesiaUPC-Italic
-upc-freesia-medium-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
FreesiaUPC-Light
-upc-freesia-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
IrisUPC-Bold
-upc-iris-bold-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
IrisUPC-BoldItalic
-upc-iris-bold-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
IrisUPC-Italic
-upc-iris-medium-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
IrisUPC-Light
-upc-iris-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
JasmineUPC-Bold
-upc-jasmine-bold-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
JasmineUPC-BoldItalic
-upc-jasmine-bold-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
JasmineUPC-Italic
-upc-jasmine-medium-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
JasmineUPC-Light
-upc-jasmine-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
KodchiangUPC-Bold
-upc-kodchiang-bold-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
KodchiangUPC-BoldItalic
-upc-kodchiang-bold-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
KodchiangUPC-Italic
-upc-kodchiang-medium-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
KodchiangUPC-Light
-upc-kodchiang-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
LilyUPC-Bold
-upc-lily-bold-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 5–5
LilyUPC-BoldItalic
-upc-lily-bold-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
LilyUPC-Italic
-upc-lily-medium-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
LilyUPC-Light
-upc-lily-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
WaterlilyUPC-Bold
-upc-waterlily-bold-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
WaterlilyUPC-BoldItalic
-upc-waterlily-bold-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
WaterlilyUPC-Italic
-upc-waterlily-medium-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
WaterlilyUPC-Light
-upc-waterlily-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
YuccaUPC-Bold
-upc-yucca-bold-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
YuccaUPC-BoldItalic
-upc-yucca-bold-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
YuccaUPC-Italic
-upc-yucca-medium-i-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
YuccaUPC-Light
-upc-yucca-medium-r-normal--0-0-0-0-p-0-tis620.2533-1
5.3 Outline Font Samples
Figures 5-2 through 5-11 illustrate samples of Thai outline fonts.
Figure 5–2: AngsanaUPC Font Sample
Figure 5–3: CordiaUPC Font Sample
5–6 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
Figure 5–4: EucrosiaUPC Font Sample
Figure 5–5: FreesiaUPC Font Sample
Figure 5–6: IrisUPC Font Sample
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 5–7
Figure 5–7: JasmineUPC Font Sample
Figure 5–8: KodchiangUPC Font Sample
Figure 5–9: LilyUPC Font Sample
5–8 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
Figure 5–10: WaterlilyUPC Font Sample
Figure 5–11: YuccaUPC Font Sample
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 5–9
6
Keyboards
The Tru64 UNIX operating system software supports the following Thai keyboard types:
•
LK201-T
•
LK401-T
•
LK443-T
•
PCXAL
6.1 Keyboard Layout
The figures in this chapter show the keyboard layouts for the Thai input methods. You can
find online copies of these figures at the locations specified. These figures are in .ddif
format.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 6–1
Figure 6-1: LK201-T Keyboard Layout
Required Keymap:
thai lk201t
Mode:
Thai Mode (Gatemanee keyboard used in VT382-T)
Location of File:
/usr/lib/cda/thai-lk201t-100.ddif
Figure 6-2: LK401-T Keyboard Layout
Required Keymap:
thai lk201wtt
Mode:
Thai Mode (Gatemanee keyboard used in VT382-T)
Location of File:
/usr/lib/cda/thai-lk401t-100.ddif
6–2 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
Figure 6-3: LK201-WTT Keymap Layout
Required Keymap:
thai lk201wtt
Mode:
Thai Mode (defined in WTT V2.0)
Location of File:
/usr/lib/cda/thai-lk201wtt-100.ddif
Figure 6-4: LK401-WTT Keymap Layout
Required Keymap:
thai lk401wtt
Mode:
Thai Mode (defined in WTT V2.0)
Location of File:
/usr/cda/thai-lk401wtt-100.ddif
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 6–3
6.2 Keyboard Indicator
If you are using XDM, the keyboard indicator (kb_indicator) is automatically activated
by the session manager and controls the compose lamp of the Thai keyboards. To start the
keyboard indicator, the following command has been added to Automatic Startup menu of
Session Manager:
"/usr/bin/X11/kb_indicator
-map"
Compose status is displayed in the keyboard indicator window. A button in the keyboard indicator
window controls the compose mode like the compose key on the keyboard.
If you are using CDE, you can manually execute the preceding command, or add it to your personal
profile.
6–4 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
7
Thai Input Methods
This chapter explains how to implement Thai input methods with different types of
applications, introduces the different input methods, and describes the input sequence
checking modes that are provided with the Tru64 UNIX operating system software.
The input methods for entering Thai characters include:
•
Thai input mode
•
Hexadecimal input
•
Special Thai character input
The input sequence checking modes provided with the Tru64 UNIX operating system are:
•
No input sequence check (NISC) mode/passthrough mode
•
VT382-T input sequence check (ISC) mode
•
WTT basic mode (mode 1)
•
WTT strict mode (mode 2)
7.1 Character–Cell Terminal Applications
For character-cell terminal applications, Thai input methods are implemented by the
firmware of the VT382-T Thai terminal or incorporated in the terminal emulation software,
such as Thai DECterm. Applications need not provide code to handle the input of Thai
characters; they can rely on the VT382-T terminal or Thai DECterm to provide the input
method services.
Thai DECterm can be regarded as one of the DECwindows Motif applications. Therefore,
the activating and deactivating methods follow those of DECwindows Motif, as discussed in
Section 7.2.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 7–1
For VT382-T terminals, the input mode can be selected using the [Thai] key, which is
equivalent to the [Compose] key on a standard LK201 keyboard or the [Left-Compose] key
on a standard LK401 keyboard. On the Thai version of the LK201 or LK401 keyboard
(LK201-T or LK401-T) the [Thai] key is labeled in Thai.
After the Thai input mode is activated, the firmware of the VT382-T terminal or the input
methods incorporated in Thai DECterm allow for entering Thai characters and return the
input data as appropriate.
7.2 DECwindows Motif and CDE Applications
The X Window System provides a mechanism for associating encodings of symbols which
are usually printed on keycaps (called KeySyms) with physical or logical keys. Each key is
associated with a list of KeySyms. Depending on the Shift/Lock state, different KeySyms are
obtained by pressing the same key. For instance, in the case of U.S. English keyboard, the
input of "3" or "#" is switched by the shift state. The standard mechanism for supporting two
KeySyms per key was established in Release 3 of the X Window System.
This support is insufficient for some languages, such as Hebrew and Thai, which require
more KeySyms in order to support the native languages. In Relese 4, the Mode Switch
mechanism was introduced to allow switching of Group 1 and Group 2 characters, where
Group 1 is ASCII KeySyms and Group 2 is native language characters. The Mode Switch
mechanism works as a Group Shift key for these languages.
In addition, you can input different sets of characters through the same keyboard by changing
the associated KeySyms.
In the X Consortium's release of X Window System, the Mode Switch On state is effective
only for entering one single character. After the character is entered, the Mode Switch state
is reset. In the Tru64 UNIX implementation, the Mode Switch mechanism is enhanced to
support both single-shot switching and locking-shift switching, depending on the keymap
definition. In the latter case, when the Mode Switch state is set, it remains unchanged until
the Mode Switch key is pressed again to modify the state.
_____________________________ Note____________________________
On Tru64 UNIX operating system servers, a locking "mode switch" mechanism is used
to switch between the Thai and English input modes. On servers where the locking
"mode switch" is absent, the Thai input mode can still be entered by pressing the key
corresponding to the XK_Multi_key KeySym. In contrast to the locking "mode switch"
mechanism, the XK_Multi_key affects one input context only.
______________________________________________________________
For setting Thai KeySyms, DECwindows Motif provides the keymaps shown in Table 7-1.
7–2 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
Table 7–1: Thai Keymaps
Keymap
Keyboard
thai lk201t
LK201-T
thai lk201wtt
LK201-T
thai lk401t
LK401-T
thai lk401wtt
LK401-T
thai lk443t
LK443-T
thai lk443wtt
LK443-T
thai pcxalt
PCXAL-T
thai pcxalwtt
PCXAL-T
The keymaps in Table 7-1 support locking-shift mode switching. With these keymaps, you
can enter English characters in the Mode Switch Off state and Thai characters in the Mode
Switch On state.
The effect of setting the Mode Switch on is similar to that of entering the Thai input mode on
the VT382-T terminal.
7.2.1 Loading Keymaps
The procedures for activating the Thai input mode on VT terminals, DECwindows Motif, or
CDE are similar. You need to load a Thai keymap in order to input Thai characters on
DECwindows Motif and CDE; for VT terminals, you can skip this step.
If you are using XDM to load a Thai keymap, choose the Keyboard... menu item from the
Customize menu of the Session Manager. The Keyboard dialog box is displayed and you can
choose the Thai keymap associated with the keyboard connected to your workstation. For
instance, if you have a Thai LK401-T keyboard and you want to use the Gatemanee layout,
you would choose "thai lk401t".
If you are using CDE, you can load the Thai keymaps by clicking the keyboard options in
Application Manager.
The keymap is a global attribute to a display device. After you select a keymap, the keymap
is effective to all client applications running on your display device. If you plan to run
applications in different languages, you should check to determine if there are conflicts
between the keymap that you are using and the keymap required by those languages.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 7–3
7.3 Input Methods
7.3.1 Thai Character Input
To input Thai characters, switch the input mode to Thai. In this mode, you can input Thai
characters by pressing keys on the main keyboard. On a Thai keyboard, the Thai characters
are printed on the right-hand side of the keycaps. See Chapter 6 for illustrations of the Thai
Keyboard layouts.
The key sequences for activating the Thai input mode are shown in Table 7-2.
Table 7–2: Thai Input Invocation Key
Keyboard Types
Thai Key Sequence
VT Terminals
[Thai]
DECwindows Motif
LK201-T
[Thai/Space]
LK401-T
[Thai]
You can press the appropriate Thai key sequence to toggle between the English input mode
and the Thai input mode.
7.3.2 Special Thai Characters Input
Most Thai characters defined in Thai Industrial Standard (TIS) 620-2533 are found on the
keycaps of the main keyboard; you enter them directly by pressing the respective keys.
However, there are 7 Thai characters which do not appear on the supported keyboard
layouts. To enter these characters, you can use Special Thai character input method or
hexadecimal input method.
7.3.2.1 Special Thai Character Input Method
You can enter the special characters in Thai input mode by pressing designated keys while
holding down the [Shift/Thai] key on a LK201-T keyboard or the [Shift/Alt] key on a
LK401-T keyboard. The special characters, designated keys, and keyboards are listed in
Table 7-3.
7–4 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
Table 7–3: Special Thai Characters Input Method
Character
Hex
Code
Designated Key
LK201
LK401
KHO KHUAT
A3
KHO KHAI
[Shift/Thai/-]
[Shift/Alt/-]
KHO KHON
A5
KHO KHWAI
[Shift/Thai/8]
[Shift/Alt/8]
LAKKHANGYAO
E5
SARA AA
[Shift/Thai/K]
[Shift/Alt/K]
YAMAKKAN
EE
SARA AM
[Shift/Thai/E]
[Shift/Alt/E]
FONGMAN
EF
MAIYAMOK
[Shift/Thai/Q]
[Shift/Alt/Q]
ANGKHANKHU
FA
NO NU
[Shift/Thai/O]
[Shift/Alt/O]
KHOMUT
FB
PHO PHUNG
[Shift/Thai/Z]
[Shift/Alt/Z]
______________________________ Note ___________________________
The Special Thai Character Input method cannot be used in English input mode.
______________________________________________________________
7.3.2.2 Hexadecimal Input Method
You can enter special Thai characters by specifying their hexadecimal (Hex) codes.
On a VT382-T Thai terminal, you invoke the Hex input mode by pressing [Ctrl/Thai], then
releasing it.
For DECwindows Motif, you invoke the Hex input mode by pressing and releasing
[Ctrl/Thai] on an LK201-T keyboard or [Ctrl/Alt] on an LK401-T keyboard.
______________________________ Note ___________________________
You can invoke Hex input mode either from English input mode or Thai input mode.
______________________________________________________________
Once in Hex input mode, you input a two-digit hexadecimal code to enter a special character.
For example, if you want to enter the Thai character FONGMAN (EF), press:
[Ctrl/Thai] [E] [F]
After the hexadecimal code is entered, you exit Hex input mode. You must reactivate Hex
input mode to enter another hexadecimal code.
Hexadecimal codes for special Thai characters are shown in Table 7-3.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 7–5
7.3.3 English Character Input
To input English characters, set Thai mode to off. In this mode, you can input English letters,
numeric characters, and punctuation marks by pressing keys on the main keyboard. On a
Thai keyboard, the characters or symbols are printed on the left side of the keycaps.
7.4 Input Sequence Check Modes
The Tru64 UNIX operating system software supports the following Thai input sequence
check modes:
•
NISC Mode/Passthrough mode
•
VT382-T Input Sequence Check (ISC) mode
•
WTT Basic mode (Mode 1)
•
WTT Strict mode (Mode 2)
7.4.1 Selecting Input Sequence Check Mode
The way you select input sequence check mode depends on whether you are using
DECwindows Motif or running character-cell terminal applications.
7.4.1.1 DECwindows Motif
In DECwindows Motif, you can select an input sequence check mode in one of two ways:
•
Setting the XMODIFIERS environment variable
•
Specifying the parameter in the R6 Xlib XsetLocaleModifiers function
Table 7-4 shows the value of the XMODIFIERS parameter that you set for the various input
sequence check modes.
Table 7–4: Thai Input Sequence Check Modes
Input Sequence Check Mode
XMODIFIERS
NISC/Passthrough
@im=Pasthrough
VT382-T ISC
@im=VT382T
WTT Basic
@im=BasicCheck
WTT Strict
@im=Strict
By default, the input mode is WTT Basic mode.
7–6 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
For example, you can start Cardfiler in WTT Strict mode and Calendar in Passthrough mode
with the following script:
#! /usr/bin/sh
#
# Please uncomment the following lines to
# make sure the session is in proper
# language.
#
# echo "*xnlLanguage:\tth_TH.TACTIS" | \
#
/usr/bin/X11/xrdb -merge
#
[email protected]=Strict
export XMODIFIERS
/usr/bin/X11/dxcardfiler &
#
#
[email protected]=Passthrough
export XMODIFIERS
/usr/bin/X11/dxcalendar &
#
#
7.4.1.2 Character-Cell Terminal Applications
For Thai DECterm, you can select the Thai input sequence mode through the General
Option... dialog box. For details, see Chapter 9.
For VT382-T Thai terminal, the Passthrough mode and the VT382-T Input Sequence Check
mode are supported by the terminal itself. You can select one of these input modes through
the terminal's Setup menu. The other two input sequence check modes, WTT Basic and WTT
Strict, can be supported through the Thai terminal driver. By default, the input sequence
check mode is set to WTT Basic mode. To switch the input sequence check mode, you can
use the following command:
% stty isc <mode>
The <mode> variable can be:
•
0 for Passthrough mode
•
1 for WTT Basic mode
•
2 for WTT Strict mode
For the details about the Thai terminal driver, see Chapter 9.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 7–7
_____________________________ Note____________________________
The input sequence checking mechanism supported by the Thai terminal driver is
disabled in the CBREAK or RAW mode. For details, see the cbreak and raw
reference pages.
______________________________________________________________
7.4.2 NISC Mode/Passthrough Mode
In this mode, Thai characters can be entered in arbitrary order. No checking is performed on
the sequence of input data.
This input mode provides more freedom for applications to handle input data by themselves.
However, data can be entered in invalid order and applications need to handle it properly.
7.4.3 VT382–T ISC Mode
Thai characters of different display levels can be combined in six valid patterns, as shown in
Figure 7-1.
Figure 7-1: Valid Patterns of Thai Character Composition
Entering combinations other than these patterns will not produce correct Thai script writing
syntax, and a warning bell will ring to signify possible typographical errors.
The VT382-T ISC algorithm checks only the combination of Thai characters; not their order.
The following data sequences represent the same character sequence and their appearance on
screen is identical:
7–8 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
The rule is that base level characters are entered first. They are used as delimiters for
character columns. The order of other characters in the same column does not matter.
To simplify the implementation, a lookup table, Table 7-5, is used to determine the valid
combinations of Thai characters.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 7–9
Table 7–5: VT382-T ISC Mode Lookup Table
C
N
O
O
N
C
L
T
F
F
F
T
B
B
V
V
V
R
V
V
B
O
A
A
A
A
A
A
N
D
D
D
V
V
V
N
S
V
1
2
3
L
1
2
D
E
1
2
3
1
2
3
NON
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
CONS
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
LV
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
FV1
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
FV2
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
FV3
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
CTRL
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
BV1
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
R
R
R
C
C
R
R
R
R
R
BV2
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
R
R
R
C
R
R
R
R
R
R
BD
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
TONE
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
C
C
R
R
R
R
R
C
C
C
AD1
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
C
R
R
R
R
R
R
C
R
R
AD2
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
C
AD3
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
AV1
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
R
R
R
C
C
R
R
R
R
R
AV2
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
R
R
R
C
R
R
R
R
R
R
AV3
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
R
R
R
C
R
C
R
R
R
R
*
Vertical - leading byte
Horizontal - following byte
Value
Meaning
Where to display
A
Accept
Next display cell
C
Accept & Compose
Same display cell
R
Reject
—
X
Accept but not Display
—
7–10 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
______________________________ Note ___________________________
The VT382-T Thai terminal supports an older version of TIS 620, namely TIS 6202529. In TIS 620-2529, the character YAMAKKAN is classified as a base level
character and its behavior is different from that described in this table.
______________________________________________________________
7.4.4 WTT Basic Mode
The WTT Basic mode is similar to the VT382-T ISC mode, but it is stricter. It accepts Thai
data entered in only the following sequences:
•
L3L2L1 (base level, upper level and then top level)
•
L3L4L1 (base level, lower level and then top level)
Data in the following sequences is not allowed:
•
L3L1L2 (base level, top level and then upper level)
•
L3L1L4 (base level, top level and then lower level)
In the Tru64 UNIX operating system, WTT Basic is the default input sequence check mode.
For details, see Table 7–6.
7.4.5 WTT Strict Mode
In addition to the combinations rejected by the WTT Basic mode, the WTT Strict mode adds
more conditions to eliminate illegal input sequences. The WTT Strict mode can further
improve the correctness of input data.
For details, see Table 7–6.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 7–11
Table 7–6: WTT ISC Mode Lookup Table
C
N
O
O
N
C
L
T
F
F
F
T
B
B
V
V
V
R
V
V
B
O
A
A
A
A
A
A
N
D
D
D
V
V
V
N
S
V
1
2
3
L
1
2
D
E
1
2
3
1
2
3
NON
A
A
A
S
S
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
CONS
A
A
A
A
S
A
X
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
LV
S
A
S
S
S
S
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
FV1
A
A
A
A
S
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
FV2
A
A
A
A
S
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
FV3
A
A
A
S
A
S
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
CTRL
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
BV1
A
A
A
A
S
A
X
R
R
R
C
C
R
R
R
R
R
BV2
A
A
A
S
S
A
X
R
R
R
C
R
R
R
R
R
R
BD
A
A
A
S
S
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
TONE
A
A
A
A
A
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
AD1
A
A
A
S
S
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
AD2
A
A
A
S
S
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
AD3
A
A
A
S
S
A
X
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
AV1
A
A
A
S
S
A
X
R
R
R
C
C
R
R
R
R
R
AV2
A
A
A
S
S
A
X
R
R
R
C
R
R
R
R
R
R
AV3
A
A
A
S
S
A
X
R
R
R
C
R
C
R
R
R
R
*
Vertical - leading byte
Horizontal - Following byte
_____________________________ Note____________________________
The values highlighted in Table 7-6 have been modified since the original WTT input
sequence checking table.
______________________________________________________________
7–12 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
Value
Meaning
Basic
A
Accept
C
Accept & Compose
S
Strict Mode Reject
R
Reject
X
Accept but not display
Strict
Where to display
Accept
Accept
Next display cell
Accept
Accept
Same display cell
Accept
Reject
Next display cell
Reject
Reject
—
Accept
Accept
—
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 7–13
8
Thai Printing Support
This chapter introduces the Thai printing support provided by the Tru64 UNIX operating
system. It describes the supported printers, the print file formats, printing features, and the
maintenance procedures for supporting Thai printing.
8.1 Supported Printers
The Tru64 UNIX operating system supports text printers with built-in Thai fonts. The Thai
text printing support follows the Wototo (WTT) specification.
The Tru64 UNIX operating system supports Thai printing on PostScript printers in three
ways:
•
Using the built-in or downloaded fonts installed in printers
•
Using the font faulting mechanism for certain PostScript printers, which is explained in
Section 8.3
•
Using the wwpsof print filter.
For information on the supported printer types and print filters, see Chapter 4, Local
Language Devices.
8.2 Print File Formats
The Tru64 UNIX operating system supports printing of mixed ASCII and Thai characters in
the following print file formats:
•
Plain text files on text printers and PostScript printers
•
Files with nroff control sequences (for printing with underline, superscript, subscript
and bold attributes) on text printers and PostScript printers
•
PostScript files on PostScript printers
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 8–1
The print filters for PostScript printers can automatically detect the format of a print file and
convert it to the proper format for printing.
8.3 Printing Features
The Tru64 UNIX operating system supports the printing features described in the following
sections.
8.3.1 Font Faulting
Font faulting is a mechanism for saving memory required by fonts. With font faulting, font
information is stored in either:
•
The secondary storage of a supporting host machine, called a font-faulting server
•
An internal font disk
The font information is loaded into the printer on demand, thus conserving printer memory.
The font-faulting mechanism is useful in a desktop printing environment, where a large
number of different fonts is required. In this case, simultaneously storing all the fonts
reduces the available memory, and therefore speed, of the printer. It is also possible that the
number of required fonts is so large that all fonts cannot be stored in memory at the same
time.
Font faulting for single-byte fonts is done on a per font basis. Single-byte fonts are small and
relatively simple, so loading the whole font is efficient.
The font-faulting mechanism can be used with the following printers:
•
DEClaser 1152
•
DEClaser 5100
•
PrintServer 17
See Section 8.5, Setting Up Thai Printing, for information about configurating these printers.
8.3.2 Font Preloading
The generic wwpsof PostScript print filter preloads the font data required by a print job,
along with the print job itself, to the printer. Therefore, a job printed with the wwpsof print
filter might consume more printer memory and print slower than a job printed using the font
faulting mechanism. However, using the wwpsof printer allows you to print Thai characters
on all available PostScript printers rather than just a few. See Section 8.5, Setting Up Thai
Printing, for information about configuring the wwpsof filter.
8–2 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
8.3.3 Outline Fonts
The Tru64 UNIX operating system provides a large set of outline fonts for printing files in
various languages. Depending on how many local language support subsets are installed on
your system, more than 150 outline fonts may be available.
The outline font for Thai printing is described in detail in Chapter 5.
8.3.4 Printer ID for DOT Matrix Printers
Different Thai dot matrix printers may support different internal codes for Thai printing. To
ensure the internal code of a printer can be set up correctly, you must specify the printer ID
(that is, the model and brand registration ID) through the yp parameter in the
/etc/printcap file. The format of printer ID follows the WTT specification:
[bb][mm][nn]
where
bb is the Brand ID representing the brand name of the printer
mm is the Model ID representing its model number
nn is the Printer Code ID specifying the internal character code
The details of the registered printer ID can be found in the WTT specification.
For each supported printer code, a mapping table is provided to convert the print file code to
the printer codes. The code conversion tables are stored in the following location:
/usr/lbin/tac_data/tac11xnn.cod
where nn is one of the valid Printer Code IDs.
8.3.5 Control Sequence for Dot Matrix Printers
To support the printing of text files with nroff control sequences on a Thai dot matrix printer,
the generic text print filter, thailpof, reads the printer description table of the printer and
generates the appropriate control sequences. Printer description tables are stored in the
following location:
/usr/lbin/tac_data/bbmm.tab
where bb is the Brand ID and mm is the Model ID.
Alternatively, you can specify other character code tables by passing the
tacdata=<tac data path> option to the lpr command through the -A flag.
A printer description table describes the escape sequences used by the printer for printing
with the underline, superscript, and subscript attributes. Each line in this table contains an
escape sequence name, as defined in Table 8-1, and its escape sequence code (in
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 8–3
hexadecimal). Comments can be added to the table by entering an exclamation mark (!) as
the first character in the line.
!++
! printer table : /usr/lbin/tac_data/epb4.tab
! description :escape sequences table for Epson LQ1050+
!subscript
1B 53 31 ! ESC S 1
x_subscript
1B 54
! ESC T
superscript
1B 53 30 ! ESC S 0
x_superscript
1B 54
! ESC T
underline
1B 31
! ESC 1
x_underline
1B 30
! ESC 0
reset
1B 40
! ESC @
Table 8–1: Escape Sequence Names
Escape Sequence Name
Meaning
subscript
Subscript starts
x_subscript
Subscript ends
superscript
Superscript starts
x_superscript
Superscript ends
underline
Underline starts
x_underline
Underline ends
reset
Reset printing attributes
8.3.6 Printing Enhancement Rules (Text Morphing)
Under certain circumstances, when standard above vowels or tone marks are combined with
other Thai characters, they may overlap each other or there may be too much space between
them.
To support the printing of high quality Thai documents, the Thai outline fonts are specially
encoded to include a supplementary set of above vowels and tone marks, in addition to those
defined in TIS 620-2533. The printing position of these additional characters is slightly
adjusted to handle the spacing problems of certain combinations of Thai characters. During
printing, the above vowels or tone marks defined in TIS 620-2533 are mapped, according to
rules, to appropriate characters in the supplementary set, resulting in better print quality.
This technology is called text morphing.
To enable the text morphing capability, you specify the tm option to the lpr command
through the -A flag.
8–4 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
As there is currently no standard way of text morphing, the set of rules supported by the
Tru64 UNIX operating system applies only to Thai fonts shipped by HP. If you use Thai
fonts from other vendors, carefully verify the output from the print queue with text morphing
before making the printer available to all users.
8.3.7 Space Compensating
Many English character-cell terminal applications cannot properly handle non-spaced Thai
characters. The problem is severe when Thai text needs to be aligned in columns with
spaces between them. The space compensating mode addresses this problem. For details, see
section 9.2.8, Thai Character Output.
The Tru64 UNIX operating system supports space compensating mode for printing Thai text
files. By default, the space compensating mode is disabled.
To enable the space compensating mode for printing, you can specify the spcom option to
the lpr command by using the -A flag.
8.3.8 Half–Height Printing
For those Thai text printers which support three-pass printing, Thai characters of different
display levels are printed on three separate lines. The Tru64 UNIX operating system allows
you to print the three output levels in a more compact region, occupying only 1.5 lines. This
is called half-height printing.
To enable the half-height printing capability, you can specify the onehalf option to the
lpr command by using the -A flag.
8.4 Commands and Daemons
Before you configure printers to utilize the printing features supported by the Tru64 UNIX
operating system, you should understand some commands and daemons used in print
configuration. This section discusses them in detail; the next section illustrates how they are
used for configuration.
8.4.1 Country-Specific Options to the lpr command
In addition to the usual options to the lpr command, the -A option is added to pass the
country-specific parameters. You can also use ya to set these parameters in the
/etc/printcap file. For example, the parameters can be specified with the -A option
as:
% lpr -A "flocale=th_TH font=LilyUPC-Light plocale=th_TH" <file>
The same set of parameters, when defined in the /etc/printcap file appear as follows:
:ya="flocale=th_TH font=LilyUPC-Light plocale=th_TH":\
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 8–5
If you supply parameters using the -A option to the lpr command, they override the
corresponding default values in the /etc/printcap file.
The following parameters are applicable to Thai printing:
•
flocale=<any valid locale>
Specifies the locale for the source text file. The printer filters use this locale to validate
the characters inside the source text file. If this value is not set properly, the text will be
interpreted using the current locale. In the Thai printing environment, this value is
particularly important in order for the lpr command to correctly interpret the
characters.
•
plocale=<any valid locale>
Specifies the locale for the printer. If the printer has built-in fonts, the plocale value
should match the codeset of the built-in fonts. If the printer uses the font faulting
mechanism, the value of plocale should match the font used to print the text file.
•
font=<supported outline font>
Specifies the font name for printing the source text files in a PostScript printer. This is
valid for printing text files only; PostScript files are tagged with the required font name.
•
spcom
Enables space-compensation mode. In Thai, nonspacing characters can combine with
other characters for display and therefore do not occupy space. Many of the tools for text
alignment do not properly handle nonspacing characters. If you want to print Thai output
from such utilities, you must enable space compensation mode to ensure proper text
alignment.
Space compensation is done line by line. The print filter counts of the number of
nonspacing characters found in a line. When two or more consecutive spaces are
encountered, the print filter inserts the appropriate number of spaces, thereby
compensating for spaces added by the nonspacing characters.
•
tm
Enables text morphing for Thai printing. Text morphing replaces some characters with
others to produce better output in desktop publishing environments. Text morphing
rules are proprietary to fonts. Therefore, text morphing is supported only by Tru64 Thai
outline fonts and is available only for PostScript printing.
8–6 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
•
onehalf
Enables half-height printing. When enabled, Thai characters are printed on one and a
half lines, rather than on three lines, to produce more compressed and natural-looking
output. This option, however, slows down the printing speed. The onehalf option
works only with the thailpof print filter.
•
tacdata=<tac data path>
Specifies where the character code and control sequence tables for the printer are
located. The printer ID that follows the Wototo specification specifies the table to be
used. The yp value in the /etc/printcap file defines the printer ID. The default
path is /usr/lbin/tac_data.
•
line=<number of lines>
Specifies the number of lines per page. When used with the -w command, this option
can be used to control the font size and orientation of the output.
8.4.2 PostScript Font Management Utility (pfsetup)
A PostScript font management utility, pfsetup, is provided for setting up print queues to
use the font faulting mechanism. This utility has the following syntax:
pfsetup [-s] [-d] [queue_name...]
The options to the pfsetup command are defined as follows:
•
The -s (setup mode) option allows you to setup lists of fonts to be downloaded.
•
The -d (download mode) option downloads fonts to printers according to the lists
prepared with the -s option.
If you do not specify an option, pfsetup displays the information about the print queues
that have been set up with this utility. If you do not specify a particular queue name,
pfsetup processes every applicable queue.
In setup mode, pfsetup displays all PostScript printer fonts available on the system and
prompts you to select the fonts or font headers to be downloaded onto individual print
queues. For example:
% /usr/sbin/pfsetup -s
======================================================
Printer queue: lp1 | 1 | d11152W
No font has been setup for downloading in queue lp1
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 8–7
These are fonts available in your system for downloading. Fonts
chosen for downloading are marked with *
1 Hei-Light-CNS11643
3 Hei-GB2312-80
5 Munjo
7 [email protected]
9 AngsanaUPC-Light
11 CordiaUPC-BoldItalic
13 CordiaUPC-Light
15 EucrosiaUPC-BoldItalic
17 EucrosiaUPC-Light
19 FreesiaUPC-BoldItalic
21 FreesiaUPC-Light
23 IrisUPC-BoldItalic
25 IrisUPC-Light
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
Sung-Light-CNS11643
XiSong-GB2312-80
[email protected]
AngsanaUPC-Italic
CordiaUPC-Bold
CordiaUPC-Italic
EucrosiaUPC-Bold
EucrosiaUPC-Italic
FreesiaUPC-Bold
FreesiaUPC-Italic
IrisUPC-Bold
IrisUPC-Italic
JasmineUPC-Bold
[C]ontinue | [S]etup | [L]ist fonts | [Q]uit | [N]ext queue <C>
In this example, the action keys are defined as follows:
Key
Action
[C]ontinue
Display a further font listing
[S]etup
Proceed to setup
[L]ist fonts
List fonts again
[Q]uit
Quit pfsetup
[N]ext queue
Proceed to the next queue
If you choose the s option, the following prompt is displayed:
[A]dd fonts | [R]emove fonts | [L]ist fonts | [Q]uit |
[N]ext queue <N>
In response to the prompt, you can enter a to add fonts to or r to delete fonts from the list for
a print queue. The fonts that you select will be highlighted with an asterisk (*) at the end of
the font names.
_____________________________ Note____________________________
The fonts on this list vary according to the language variants that are installed on your
system.
______________________________________________________________
8–8 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
To download the fonts selected in setup mode, you can use the pfsetup utility with the
-d option.
8.4.3 Font Faulting Daemon (ffd)
Font faulting requests from a PostScript printer with the two channel approach, such as a
DEClaser 1152, require that the font faulting daemon, ffd, be running on your system.
When the ffd daemon receives a font data request, it extracts the required font glyph data
from the specified font and sends it to the printer through the secondary channel. The ffd
daemon ensures that all fonts in the font faulting server are available to the printer.
If you configure a print queue that makes use of the two channel approach, or if you modify
the secondary channel of a print queue, you must restart the font faulting daemon.
To restart the font faulting daemon, you must log in as root and stop the existing font faulting
daemon by entering the following command:
% /sbin/init.d/ffserver stop
To start the font faulting daemon, you can enter:
% /sbin/init.d/ffserver
8.4.4 PrintServer Printing Command (wwlpspr)
To fully utilize the features of PrintServer 17 such as two-sided printing and multiple pages
per side, it is necessary to use the lpspr command provided by the PrintServer Software
Version 5.0 or higher for Tru64 UNIX. This command, however, does not provide features
such as locales and fonts for printing text files. To facilitate printing files to PrintServer 17,
a unified wwlpspr command is provided in the Tru64 UNIX operating system.
The wwlpspr command is a front end program to parse the parameters passed by users and
then call different commands such as print filter, lpr, and lpspr with the appropriate
command, thus provides a unified interface.
For detailed information on the wwlpspr command, refer to wwlpspr(1).
8.5 Setting Up Thai Printing
This section describes how to set up the following printers:
•
Thai Epson LQ1050+
•
Declaser 1152
•
DEClaser 5100
•
Printserver 17
•
PostScript printers using wwpsof filter
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 8–9
8.5.1 Thai Epson LQ1050+
To configure the Thai Epson LQ1050+ dot matrix printer:
1.
Invoke lpsetup and select the ep1050+ printer.
lprsetup ep1050+
The following prompt is displayed:
Do you print nonAscii characters on the
flag pages? [n]
2.
Answer y if you want to print Thai characters on the flag page and n if you do not. The
data printed on the flag page includes the file names, user login name, date, and son on.
If you are using Thai characters in these values, you should answer y. In this case, the
flag page is printed in more than one page, because every character will occupy 1.5 or 3
lines depending on whether or not half-height printing is enabled.
The following prompt is displayed:
Do you want to print every Thai character
in 1.5 lines spacing instead of 3
lines in 3 pass mode? [n]
3.
Answer y if you want to enable half-height printing and n if you do not.
4.
To change other default settings, modify the ya capability after the prompt:
Enter symbol name:
In response to the prompt:
Enter a new value for symbol 'ya'?
["plocale=th_TH"]
input the new values. Please do not forget the double quote around the parameters, and
copy the values found in the previous prompt
5.
You can modify the following options:
• spcom -- You can define the queue always enable space compensation mode. This
is not advisable, however, because users cannot disable it.
• tacdata -- If you want to define your own control sequence or internal code for
this printer, you can use this option to point to your own path.
8–10 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
To print Thai text files on this printer, use the lpr command.
The thailpof printer filter is generic enough for most dot matrix printers. You can use
the preceding procedure to configure another dot matrix printer by defining the appropriate
yp value. For advanced tuning, refer to the previous sections on how to define the control
sequences and internal codes.
8.5.2 DEClaser 1152
The DEClaser 1152 printer can be used to print Thai characters by using the font faulting
mechanism with two communications channels. One channel is for normal data and the
second channel is for font faulting data. See Figure 8-1.
Figure 8-1: Two-channel Communication of the Font Faulting
Mechanism
Font faulting requires 4M bytes of printer memory. If your DEClaser 1152 printer has only
2M bytes of memory, you must install the LN07X-UF memory board to provide the
additional 2M bytes of memory. Refer to the printer manual for installing the LN07X-UF
memory board.
You also need to establish one and only one system to be the font-faulting server for the
printer. This server sends font information to the printer through a secondary communication
interface, or channel. The printer's secondary channel connection to the font-faulting server
can be made through either a local port or a Local Area Transport (LAT) port. If the
connection is through a LAT port, make sure that no other applications or hosts are using that
port.
An 8 pin Din to 6 Pos MMJ Adapter (part number: -H8584-AB) is needed to convert the
Apple-talk interface on the printer to be the secondary channel used by the font-faulting
mechanism. The baud rate of the secondary interface should match the value of the $BAUD
parameter in the /sbin/init.d/ffserver file. By default, this value is 9600.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 8–11
To configure the DEClaser 1152 printer to print Thai files:
1.
Add a printer by using the lprsetup command and select dl1152w as the printer
type.
2.
If this machine is the font faulting server for the printer, answer y to the following
question:
Do you want to configure this machine as
font faulting server for the DEClaser
1152 printer? One and only one font
faulting server should be configured for
every DEClaser 1152 employing font
faulting mechanism. [n]
Then, enter the full path name of the port used to connect the secondary channel for the
ya capability.
3.
Answer y in response to the following question:
Do you want to set up the printer
codeset or default font for printing
non-Ascii text? If your answer is 'y',
please consult printcap.4 for the
parameters. *** Remember to enclose the
parameters with a pair of double quotes. [n]
Then, type the following:
"plocale=th_TH font=<any Thai font>"
Refer to Chapter 5 for list of Thai outline fonts.
4.
If you want to change other default values, modify the ya capability after the following
prompt:
Enter symbol name:
Input the new values in response to the following prompt:
Enter a new value for symbol 'ya'?
["plocale=th_TH font=LilyUPC-Light"]
8–12 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
Remember to include the double quotation marks around the parameters, and use the
same values you entered at the previous prompt.
5.
You can modify the following options:
• spcom -- You can define that the queue always enable space compensation mode.
This is not advisable, however, because users cannot disable it.
• tm -- You can define that the queue always enable text morphing. This is not
advisable, however, because users cannot disable it.
6.
Use the pfsetup command to download the fonts. For greatest efficiency, download
the Thai font you specified in Step 3, plus any other frequently used single-byte fonts.
The printer can access the fonts that are not manually downloaded, but there is overhead
for dynamically downloading fonts.
7.
If this machine is configured as the font-faulting host, issue the following commands to
notify the font-faulting daemon about the new printer:
% /sbin/init.d/ffserver stop
% /sbin/init.d/ffserver start
You need to enter these commands only after adding or modifying the printer queue.
The next time the server is rebooted, the font-faulting daemon will locate the printer
automatically.
8.
Everytime the font-faulting server or the DEClaser 1152 is restarted, you should use the
pfsetup command to download the fonts again.
For the details of the font-faulting daemon and the pfsetup utility, see Section 8.4,
Commands and Daemons.
To print Thai text files to print queues connected to a DEClaser 1152 printer, use the lpr
command. You can override the default font setting in the /etc/printcap file by
using the -A option to the lpr command.
8.5.3 DEClaser 5100
The DEClaser 5100 printer can be used to print Thai characters using the font-faulting
mechanism with built-in hard disk. The model that supports the font faulting-mechanism is
the LN90X-HD, which includes the 128 MB hard disk option. The printer also must have at
least 6 MB of memory.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 8–13
To configure the DEClaser 5100 printer to print Thai files:
1.
Add a printer by using the lprsetup command and select dl5100w as the printer
type.
2.
Answer y in response to the following question:
Do you want to set up the printer
codeset or default font for printing
non-Ascii text? If your answer is 'y',
please consult printcap.4 for the
parameters. *** Remember to enclose the
parameters with a pair of double quotes
[n]
Then, type the following:
"plocale=th_TH font=<any Thai font>"
Refer to Chapter 5 for list of Thai outline fonts.
3.
If you want to change other default values, modify the ya capability after the following
prompt:
Enter symbol name:
Input the new values in response to the following prompt:
Enter a new value for symbol 'ya'? ["plocale=th_TH
font=LilyUPC-Light"]
Remember to include the double quotation marks around the parameters, and to use the
same values you entered at the previous prompt.
4.
You can modify the following options:
• spcom -- You can define that the queue always enable space compensation mode.
This is not advisable, however, because users cannot disable it.
• tm -- You can define that the queue always enable text morphing. This is not
advisable, however, because users cannot disable it.
8–14 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
5.
Use the pfsetup command to download the fonts. Download all fonts that you expect
the printer to need, because any fonts not manually downloaded are not accessible to the
printer.
6.
Downloading a font is done only once, until the font is removed or the hard disk is
reformatted.
For the details of the pfsetup utility, see section 8.4, Commands and Daemons.
To print Thai text files to print queues connected to a DEClaser 5100 printer, use the lpr
command. You can override the default font setting in the /etc/printcap file by
using the -A option to the lpr command.
8.5.4 PrintServer 17
The PrintServer 17 printer can be used to print Thai characters by using the font-faulting
mechanism through the network. There are no special hardware requirements.
To configure the PrintServer 17 printer to print Thai files:
1.
Install the PrintServer Software Version 5.0 or later for Tru64 UNIX. This is a layered
product that must be purchased separately. Refer to the corresponding installation
guide for installing and configuring the PrintServer software.
2.
If you want to define a default printer codeset or default font to print Thai text, use the
lprsetup command or manually update the /etc/printcap file to include the ya
option by adding the following:
:ya="plocale=th_TH font=<any Thai font>":\
Refer to Chapter 5 for list of Thai outline fonts.
3.
If you want to change other default values, modify the ya capability after the following
prompt:
Enter symbol name:
Input the new values in response to the following prompt:
Enter a new value for symbol 'ya'? ["plocale=th_TH
font=LilyUPC-Light"]
Remember to include the double quotation marks around the parameters, and use the
same values you entered at the previous prompt.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 8–15
4.
You can modify the following options:
• spcom -- You can define that the queue always enable space compensation mode.
This is not advisable, however, because users cannot disable it.
• tm -- You can define that the queue always enable text morphing. This is not
advisable, however, because users cannot disable it.
5.
Use the pfsetup command to define the fonts to be downloaded. For greatest
efficiency, download the Thai font specified in Step 3, plus other frequently used fonts.
The printer can access the fonts that are not manually downloaded, but there is overhead
for dynamically downloading fonts.
Note that the pfsetup command should be executed in the Configuration Host of the
PrintServer printer. After executing the pfsetup command, restart the Management
Client to enable the new configuration. Refer to the document on PrintServer Software
Version 5.0 or later for Tru64 UNIX for further details.
6.
To automatically download the fonts defined in Step 5, turn off the PrintServer 17
printer and then turn it on.
7.
When the PrintServer 17 is restarted, the fonts will be downloaded automatically.
Hence, the pfsetup command is executed once only as long as the configuration is not
modified.
For the details of the pfsetup utility, see Section 8.4, Commands and Daemons.
To print Thai text files to print queues connected to a PrintServer 17 printer, use the
wwlpspr command. You can override the default font setting in the /etc/printcap
file by using the -A option to the wwlpspr command.
8.5.5 Using the wwpsof Filter with PostScript Printers
To configure a PostScript printer to use the wwpsof filter:
1.
Invoke lprsetup or printconfig and select the wwpsof print filter.
2.
Enter the printer configuration data needed to set up the print queue.
3.
Define the "ya" symbol. The "plocale" option is not required unless the print queue must
be configured to print only Thai data files.
4.
Optionally, turn on the "spcom" and "tm" options to enable space compensation and text
morphing.
8–16 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
9
Other Thai Features
This chapter describes features specific to the Thai locale in Tru64 UNIX that are not
described elsewhere.
9.1 Thai Terminal Driver
Tru64 UNIX provides a Thai terminal driver to handle Thai character processing in character
cell terminal applications. The following features are supported:
•
Input sequence checking
•
Thai character reordering
•
History line editing mechanism
To activate the Thai terminal driver, enter the following command:
% stty tdec
9.1.1 Input Sequence Checking
The Thai terminal driver supports the following input sequence check modes:
•
Passthrough Mode (Mode 0)
•
WTT Basic Mode (Mode 1)
•
WTT Strict Mode (Mode 2)
To switch the input sequence check mode, you can use the following command:
% stty isc <mode>
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 9–1
In this example, <mode> can name one of the following values:
•
0 for Passthrough Mode
•
1 for WTT Basic Mode
•
2 for WTT Strict Mode
For details, see Chapter 7.
9.1.2 Thai Character Reordering
The WTT input sequence check modes can only accept Thai data in the following sequences:
•
L3L2L1 (base level, upper level, and then top level)
•
L3L4L1 (base level, lower level, and then top level)
To provide more freedom to enter Thai data in different orders, such as entering top level
(L1) characters before upper level (L2) or lower level (L4) characters, the Thai terminal
driver provides a Thai character reordering mechanism. Through this mechanism, you can
enter data in arbitrary order and the terminal driver will reorder the data stream before
sending it to applications.
To activate the Thai character reordering mechanism, enter the following command:
% stty reorder
To deactivate it, enter the following command:
% stty -reorder
_____________________________ Note____________________________
This feature is not available in the History mode described in the following section.
______________________________________________________________
9.1.3 History Mode
The Thai terminal driver provides a history mechanism for you to recall and edit a previously
entered command.
You can use the stty command to activate the history mode and define a hot key (usually a
control key sequence) for invoking the history mode. For example, the following command
defines the hot key to be [Ctrl/P]:
% stty thistory ^P
Once the hot key is defined, the Thai terminal driver will keep the history of up to 32
command lines. To invoke the history mode, you can press [Ctrl/P].
9–2 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
In the history mode, you can use the following control key sequences or arrow keys for
editing:
Key Sequence
Function
[Ctrl/A]
Moves to the beginning of command line
[Ctrl/E]
Moves to the end of command line
[Ctrl/D]
Deletes the whole cell under the cursor
[erase]
Deletes the character before the cursor
[werase]
Deletes the word before the cursor
⇑ [up arrow]
Recalls the previous command line
⇓ [down arrow]
Recalls the next command line
⇐[left arrow]
Moves the cursor left by one cell
⇒[right arrow]
Moves the cursor right by one cell
By default, the designated key sequences for the [erase] and [werase] functions are:
•
[erase] - Delete
•
[werase] - [Ctrl/W]
______________________________ Note ___________________________
The history mode is available only when character echoing is turned on. For details, see
the stty reference pages.
______________________________________________________________
9.2 Thai DECterm
Thai DECterm is a VT382-T terminal emulator. This section describes the Thai features
which are specific to Thai DECterm. For the details about the common features provided by
the internationalized DECterm, see Writing Software for the International Market.
This section describes the following Thai DECterm features:
•
How to create a Thai DECterm session
•
Terminal emulator features
•
Thai character input and output
•
Other VT382-T functionalities
9.2.1 Creating a Thai DECterm Window
The terminal type that DECterm will emulate is sensitive to the session language.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 9–3
To create a Thai DECterm window through the Session Manager, you can set the session
language to Thai, and then select DECterm from the Applications menu of the Session
Manager.
Alternatively, you can use the -xnllanguage qualifier to specify the terminal type of the
DECterm window to create. To get the Thai DECterm window, enter the following
command:
% /usr/bin/X11/dxterm -xnllanguage th_TH
If you specify an unknown value for the -xnllanguage qualifier, then ISO Latin-1
DECterm is assumed. If no Thai font exists, it defaults to ISO Latin-1 DECterm.
The user interface language of Thai DECterm always follows the terminal type. The
language is independent of the language selection.
9.2.2 Customizing a Thai DECterm Window
You can apply to your Thai DECterm windows any of the customization features that are
currently applicable to the ISO Latin-1 DECterm window, except for the customization of
the NRCS character sets.
Customized features can be saved and restored in the same way as in ISO Latin-1 DECterm.
9.2.3 Font Sizes
By selecting the Big Font, Little Font, or Fine Font option from the Window Options dialog
box, you can use the 12x24, 8x18, or 7x14 Thai fonts.
9.2.4 Terminal ID
You can select the following terminal identifier for Thai DECterm from the General Options
dialog box:
•
VT382 ID
9.2.5 Copying Information
You can use the Edit menu to copy information within or between Thai DECterm windows.
The Cut-and-Paste operation is enhanced to handle mixed ASCII and Thai characters.
9.2.6 Default Character Set
Thai DECterm supports TIS 620-2533 and all character sets supported by ISO Latin-1
DECterm.
ISO Latin-1 DECterm uses ISO 8859-1 as the default character set. ISO 8859-1 contains
ASCII characters, Latin-letters-with-diacritics, and other symbols used in Western European
languages, This can be overridden by other options in the General Options dialog box. For
Thai DECterm, the default character set for 8-bit data is TIS 620-2533.
9–4 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
In general, Thai DECterm cannot display a mixture of ISO Latin-1 and Thai characters. If
you really want to achieve this function, you can output the data together with the designated
character set escape sequences.
9.2.7 Thai Character Input
When a Thai DECterm window is created, it is in the English input mode.
You can enter Thai characters in Thai DECterm by invoking the Thai input mode as
described in Chapter 7. Mixed ASCII and Thai characters can be displayed properly on the
Thai DECterm window without any special settings.
You can select your desired Input Sequence Check Mode from the General Options dialog
box:
For the details about input sequence check modes, see Chapter 7.
9.2.8 Thai Character Output
Thai DECterm supports two display modes. You can select one of the following display
modes from the General Options dialog box:
•
Normal Operation Mode
The normal operation mode displays whatever is received from the host.
•
Space Compensating Mode
The design philosophy of the VT382-T Thai terminal is to build more knowledge about
Thai processing into the terminal. Most software packages, as long as they are 8-bit
clean, can have Thai language features without reengineering.
One of the features is Space Compensating Mode.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 9–5
When VT382-T receives two consecutive space characters followed by a nonspace1 or
an escape sequence, it will:
–
Calculate the new update position of the screen buffer which is equal to the total
number of characters in the logical buffer.
–
Fill the contents of the screen buffer by inserting spaces between the nonspace cell
on the left and the newly calculated screen buffer position, exclusively, such that the
length of the logical buffer is equal to that of the screen buffer.
–
Reformat the current line.
Figure 9–1: Space Compensation Mode
This output method allows output lines formatted in a tabular fashion to be displayed
correctly without software (for example, spreadsheet and database management packages)
taking too much care about the spacing of table columns.
Thai DECterm also emulates the space compensating mode supported by VT382-T. In
addition to the behavior described above, two enhancements have been added:
•
Users can select any control character in place of the space character for display
compensation. For example, if an application formats a table by dividing columns with
vertical bars (|), users can specify the control character to be | so that space
compensation can be evaluated with respect to the vertical bar characters.
•
Users can specify the number of control characters to be counted for space
compensation.
By default, the space compensation control character is the space character (0x20) and the
number of control characters is 2. You can modify this parameter from the General Options
dialog box.
1 Nonspace characters refer to all characters other than the space character (0x20). Do not confuse them with
nonspaced characters which refer to top level, upper level and lower level Thai characters.
9–6 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
9.2.9 Cursor Movement
In Thai DECterm, the actual cursor position on the screen is calculated from the logical
buffer pointer. The column number specified by the cursor positioning command is the offset
from the beginning of the specified line in the logical buffer. Actual cursor position on the
screen will be the corresponding screen position to the character pointed to by the logical
buffer pointer.
Figure 9–2: Internal Cursor Mode
9.2.10 Other VT382–T Functionalities
The following functionalities of VT382-T are also implemented in Thai DECterm:
•
Display characteristics and capabilities
•
Text capabilities
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 9–7
•
Level 3 terminal compatibility:
–
VT300 mode
–
VT100 mode
–
VT52 mode
•
ANSI-compatible control functions
•
Support for Terminal State Interrogation (TSI)
•
All Thai input methods
•
Support for the following character sets:
–
DEC Special Graphics Character Set (line drawing)
–
DEC Supplemental Character Set
–
DEC Technical Character Set
–
ISO Latin-1 Supplemental Character Set
–
IS 620-2533
•
Control Representation mode
•
Support for sixel graphics
•
UDK editing function
•
Thai character display attributes: reverse, underline, bold, blink, double height/width
For the details about the VT382-T functionalities, refer to VT382-T Programming Reference
Manual and VT382-T User's Manual.
9.2.11 CSText Widget
This section describes the CSText editing functions that are specific to Thai. For details
about other features of the CSText widget, refer to Writing Software for the International
Market.
9.2.12 Cursor Movement
CSText supports cursor movement by display cell. When the cursor-left or cursor-right key
is pressed, the cursor moves one cell to the left or right. Thus, it may move past 1, 2, or 3
character positions, depending on the number of nonspaced characters at the cursor position.
When the cursor position is changed by a call to either DXmCSTextSetInsertionPosition or
DXmCSTextSetCursorPosition, the cursor position is specified in number of characters from
the beginning of the widget. The widget may adjust this position to ensure that the new
cursor position is located on a display cell boundary. Users should not assume that the cursor
9–8 Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features
is set to exactly the position specified. The DXmCSTextGetInsertionPosition function can be
called after the cursor is set to get the actual cursor position.
9.2.13 Delete Character Operation
When the delete key is pressed, the previous character is deleted. If a display cell contains
three Thai characters, you must press the [Delete] key three times to delete the whole cell.
Tru64 UNIX Technical Reference for Using Thai Features 9–9
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