General Manual Foundation Fieldbus

General Manual Foundation Fieldbus
smar
www.smar.com
Specifications and information are subject to change without notice.
Up-to-date address information is available on our website.
web: www.smar.com/contactus.asp
Introduction
INTRODUCTION
FOUNDATION™ fieldbus (FF) is an open architecture to integrate information, whose main objective is
to interconnect control devices and industrial automation, distributing the control functions for the
network and supplying information to all the layers of the system.
The FOUNDATION™ fieldbus technology substitutes with advantages the 4-20mA + HART traditional,
technology making possible the bi-directional communication among the devices in a more efficient
way.
This technology is much more than a protocol of digital communication or a local network to field
instruments. It includes several technologies, such as distributed processing, advanced diagnosis
and redundancy. A FOUNDATION™ fieldbus system is heterogeneous and distributed, composed by
field devices, configuration and supervision software, communication interfaces, power supply and
by its own physical network that interconnects them.
One of the functions of the field devices is to execute the user application of control and supervision
distributed by the network. This is the big difference between FOUNDATION™ fieldbus and other
technologies that depend on a central controller to execute the algorithms.
Compared to other systems, FOUNDATION™ fieldbus allows the access to many variables, not only
related to the process, but also diagnostics of sensor and actuator, electronic components,
performance degradation, among others. Besides, there are other outstanding characteristics:
• Intrinsic safety for use in hazardous areas, with power supply and communication on the same
•
•
•
•
•
wire pair;
Topology in bus or tree, with support to multiple masters in the communication bus;
Deterministic (foreseeable) behavior, even with redundancy in several levels;
Distribution of the control functions among the devices (distributed control);
Standardized interfaces among the devices that facilitate interoperability;
Application modeling using functional blocks language.
This manual presents details of fieldbus installation, besides common configuration points of Smar.
series 302 FOUNDATION™ fieldbus devices.
Whenever possible, consult standards, physical regulations, as well as the safety practices of each
area.
Act with safety in the measurements, avoiding contact with terminals and wiring, because high
voltage can be present and cause electric discharge. Remember that each plant and system has
their own safety details. To find out about them before beginning the work is very important.
To minimize the risk of potential problems related to safety, follow the safety standards applicable to
the local classified areas regulating the installation and operation of the devices. These standards
vary area by area and are constantly updated. It is the user's responsibility to determine which
standards should be followed in your applications and to guarantee that each equipment is installed
accordingly.
Inadequate installation or use of a device on non-recommended applications can harm the system
performance and consequently the process, besides being a source of danger and accidents. Due
to this, it is recommended using only trained and qualified professionals for installation, operation
and maintenance.
NOTE
Damages caused to the devices by inadequate installations or use in the wrong applications are
not covered by warranty.
Get the best results from the Foundation™ fieldbus Series 302 by carefully reading these
instructions.
III
GENERAL - Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
ATENTION
This Manual is compatible with version 3.XX, where 3 denote software version and XX software
release. The indication 3.XX means that this manual is compatible with any release of Series 302
field devices with software version 3.
IV
Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1 - INSTALLATION .....................................................................................................................1.1
NETWORK WIRING .................................................................................................................................................. 1.1
FOUNDATION FIELDBUS PHYSICAL MEDIUM, CABLING AND INSTALLATION.................................................. 1.2
FOUNDATION FIELDBUS H1 NETWORK ............................................................................................................................1.2
FOUNDATION FIELDBUS HSE NETWORK..........................................................................................................................1.3
RESUMO DAS CARACTERÍSTICAS DA REDE H1 E HSE...................................................................................................1.4
GENERAL NOTIONS OF INSTALLATION FOR THE H1 NETWORK ...................................................................................1.4
MAIN ELEMENTS OF THE FOUNDATION FIELDBUS H1 NETWORK ................................................................................1.4
SECTION 2 - OPERATION ..........................................................................................................................2.1
LCD INDICATOR ....................................................................................................................................................... 2.1
INDICATION OPERATION........................................................................................................................................ 2.2
BASIC DETAILS OF THE SYSCON USE .................................................................................................................. 2.2
INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................2.2
COMMUNICATION ................................................................................................................................................................2.3
SUPPORT TOOL ...................................................................................................................................................................2.3
LIVE LIST ...............................................................................................................................................................................2.3
BLOCK LIST...........................................................................................................................................................................2.4
USING THE ASSETVIEW ASSET MANAGER.......................................................................................................... 2.5
VISUALIZING THE DEVICE PAGE ...........................................................................................................................2.5
CALIBRATION........................................................................................................................................................................2.5
CONFIGURATION .................................................................................................................................................................2.5
DIAGNOSTICS.......................................................................................................................................................................2.6
IDENTIFICATION ...................................................................................................................................................................2.6
DEVICE VIEW ........................................................................................................................................................................2.6
DISPLAY ................................................................................................................................................................................2.6
RECONCILIATION .................................................................................................................................................................2.6
SECTION 3 - LOCAL ADJUSTMENT SETTING .........................................................................................3.1
CREATING DEVICES ............................................................................................................................................................3.1
CREATING A DEVICE FROM A TEMPLATE.........................................................................................................................3.2
CHANGING THE DEVICE ATTRIBUTES ..............................................................................................................................3.3
MASTER BACKUP DEVICE...................................................................................................................................................3.4
DELETING DEVICES.............................................................................................................................................................3.5
ORDERING DEVICES ...........................................................................................................................................................3.6
MOVING DEVICES ................................................................................................................................................................3.6
DEVICE EXCHANGE .............................................................................................................................................................3.6
FUNCTION BLOCKS................................................................................................................................................. 3.9
DISPLAY TRANSDUCER........................................................................................................................................ 3.10
LOCAL PROGRAMMING TREE.............................................................................................................................. 3.11
DISPLAY CONFIGURATION USING SYSCON ...................................................................................................... 3.12
USING LOCAL ADJUSTMENT................................................................................................................................ 3.14
LOCAL ADJUSTMENT METHODOLOGY............................................................................................................... 3.15
HOW TO CONFIGURE A TRANSDUCER BLOCK ................................................................................................. 3.16
CHANNELS ............................................................................................................................................................. 3.16
CALIBRATION......................................................................................................................................................... 3.16
SECTION 4 - MAINTENANCE .....................................................................................................................4.1
GENERAL.................................................................................................................................................................. 4.1
TROUBLESHOOTING ...........................................................................................................................................................4.1
PROCEDIMENTO DE INICIALIZAÇÃO DE FÁBRICA (FACTORY INIT) .................................................................. 4.2
RETURNING SMAR PRODUCTS AND/OR MATERIALS......................................................................................... 4.3
SECTION 5 - UNITS CODES .......................................................................................................................5.1
APPENDIX A – SMAR WARRANTY CERTIFICATE ................................................................................. A.1
V
GENERAL - Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
VI
Section 1
INSTALLATION
Network Wiring
Access the wiring block by removing the Electrical Connection Cover. This cover can be locked
closed by the cover locking screw; to release the cover, rotate the locking screw clockwise. (See
Figure 1.1).
Figure 1.1 - Housing Adjusting Screw and Cover Lock
NOTE
The covers should be closed by hand completely, until the O’Ring is tight. For more safety, do not
use tools in this operation.
Cable access to wiring connections is obtained by two outlets. Conduit threads should be sealed by
means of code-approved sealing methods. The unused outlet connection should be plugged
accordingly.
The wiring block has screws on which fork or ring-type terminals can be fastened. See Figure 1.2.
Figure 1.2 - Wiring Block
NOTE
Due to each device particularity, check the electric connection block in the specific equipment
manual. The LD302 was used above as example.
For convenience there are two ground terminals: one inside the cover and one external, located
close to the conduit entries. More details are described in Shield and Grounding item.
Avoid routing signal wiring close to power cables or switching equipment.
1.1
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
The Series 302 devices are protected against reverse polarity, and can withstand up to 35 VDC
without damage.
The Figure 1.3 show as to connect a device in a fieldbus network.
Figure 1.3 – Connecting a device to the Fieldbus network
Foundation Fieldbus Physical Medium, Cabling and Installation
The standard first versions specify two options for the physical layer: H1 and H2. The H1, with rate
of 31.25 Kbits/s is oriented basically to field device (transmitters, valve positioners, etc), and it can
be used in areas requiring intrinsic safety (explosive atmospheres). The H2, with rate from 1 to 2.5
Mbps, would be used to integrate controllers and more complex devices.
Due to the fast technological evolution, the H2 was substituted by the HSE that uses Ethernet at 100
Mbps. Therefore, for field devices connection there is the FOUNDATION fieldbus H1, with physical
layer based on ISAS50.02-1992 or IEC61158-2:2000. For connection among PLCs, Linking
Devices, Gateways and PCs, there is the FOUNDATION fieldbus HSE, based on Ethernet
(IEEE802.3-2000, ISO/IEC8802.3-2000).
Foundation Fieldbus H1 Network
A Fieldbus network is composed by several H1 buses, connected to each other by bridges or
Foundation Fieldbus Linking Devices that connect the H1 networks to the HSE backbone.
According to definitions, each H1bus can hold, theoretically, up to 32 devices not powered by the
bus. In practice, there may be up to 12 field devices powered by the bus and other 20 devices not
powered by the bus, each one with a single logical address in the network (1 Byte). This limit is due
mainly to the electric characteristics of the power supply and the current consumption of the devices.
In practical terms, it is recommended that the total number of devices doesn't surpass 10, because
the network traffic tends to become very high and there may be performance degradation. In
classified areas, it is recommended to analyze the output of the intrinsic safety barrier to define the
number of devices. With the FISCO concept, there may be a larger amount of devices per segment.
The wiring length can reach 1900 m, and up to 4 repeaters can be used.
Figure 1.4 –Simplicity of the Foundation Fieldbus H1 Physical Layer (IEC61158-2)
1.2
Installation
The physical medium is a shielded twisted pair cable. The power supply and the communication are
done by the same pair, needing at least 9 V in the terminal of the device to energize it. It is
recommended that this tension be larger than 10 V, enough to keep a complete communication
signal (0.75 Vpp to 1 Vpp), taking into account the cable tension loss, the bus total consumption,
etc.
A modified Manchester code is used, producing a signal with null average value, that is, without DC
components. That code brings other advantages: frame formation (special characters for start
delimiter and end delimiter), formations of different physical topologies (bus and stars) and the
warranty that the data and the clock arrive at the same time (synchronous serial signal).
The signal modulation is done by the variation of a current of 10 mA to 31.25 Kbit/s in an equivalent
load of 50 Ω, resulting in a modulated voltage of 0.75 Vpp to 1 Vpp overlapping the bus voltage (9 –
32 Vdc).
Both the current and the operation minimum voltage can vary according to the manufacturer or
device model (consult the respective manual). For Smar devices, each fieldbus device consumes
about 12 mA.
Foundation Fieldbus HSE Network
This network is based on the same Ethernet physical layer. Several manufacturers offer specific
equipments for industrial applications, be it with adequate temperature range (-40 to 85 ºC), be with
specific functions for real time data communication.
The communication and synchronism characteristics among the devices are basically the same as
the H1, and the main differences are in determinism. Through the use of the Ethernet network in the
Foundation Fieldbus HSE network it is possible to build an industrial control network with shelf
components, independently of the manufacturer.
The HSE standard uses 100 Mbps, but nothing opposes the devices from communicating at higher
rates, like 1 Gbps or even the new 10 Gbps standard.
Figure 1.5 –Usual Topologies of the Foundation Fieldbus HSE Network: Ring and Stars, both Redundant
1.3
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Summary of characteristics H1 and HSE Networks
The Table 1.1 show a summary of characteristics presents in H1 and HSE networks.
Baud Rate
H1
31.25 Kbits/s
Distance (segment)
Two wires
Multidrop
Bus-power
Intrinsically Safe
Redundance
Deterministic
1.900 m
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
HSE
10 Mbit/s or
100 Mbit/s
100 m
Não
No (UTP)
No
No
Yes
Yes (with switches)
Table 1.1 - Summay of the Characteristics of the Physical Layer FF
General Notions of Installation for the H1 Network
The H1 network represents a great digital communication solution for the factory ground, both in
safe as classified areas. It accepts topologies in bus, ring, star or tree, and even distances up to
1900 m without repeater.
Using up to 4 repeaters it is possible to cover a radius of approximately 10 km. The maximum
amount of devices in each H1 segment depends on the type of application, the length of the cables
and even the performance wanted for the network.
Figure 1.6 - Comparison of Wiring and Distribution of Control over the Network Devices
Main elements of the Foundation Fieldbus H1 Network
Cabling
The IEC61158-2 determines that the physical medium of the Foundation Fieldbus H1 network
should be a twisted pair cable. The properties of a field bus are determined by the electric conditions
of the cable used.
Although the IEC61158-2 doesn't specify the cable technically, the type A cable is highly
recommended, in order to guarantee the best communication conditions and distances involved.
1.4
Installation
Table 1.2 presents in detail the specifications of the several cables at 25 ºC. It is worth to remind
that most of the cable manufacturers recommend the operation temperature between -40 ºC and
+60 ºC. It is necessary to verify the critical points of temperature through where the cabling passes
and if the cable supports it. The type A cable resistance of 22 O/Km is valid at 25 ºC. For example,
the resistance of the type A cable to 50 ºC is 24.58 Ω/Km. That should be taken into account in hot
countries as Brazil.
Type A
Cable Description
Nominal Driver Section
Area (of the)
(Resistance DC
Maximum) Maximum DC
Loop Resistance (loop)
Characteristic impedance
(to) at 31.25 KHz
Maxim Attenuation to 39
KHz
Maximum Unbalanced
Capacitance
Group Delay Distortion
(7.9 to 39 KHz)
Surface Covered by the
Shield
Recommendation for
Network Extension
(including spurs)
Type B
0.8 mm
(AWG 18)
One or more total
twisted pair with
Shield
2
0.32 mm
(AWG 22)
44 Ω/Km
Type C
Type D
0.13 mm
(AWG 26)
Several nontwisted pair
without Shield
2
0.25 mm
(AWG 16)
112 Ω/Km
264 Ω/Km
40 Ω/Km
100 Ω ± 20%
100 Ω ± 30%
**
**
3 dB/Km
5 dB/Km
8 dB/Km
8 dB/Km
2 nF/Km
2 nF/Km
**
**
1.7 µsec/Km
**
**
**
90%
**
-
-
1900 m
1200 m
400 m
200 m
Twisted Pair
with Shield
2
Several twisted
pair without Shield
2
Table 1.2 – Characteristics of the Several Cables Used in Foundation Fieldbus H1
Total Cable Length and Distribution and Installation Rules
The total length of the H1 cable should be considered from the exit of the point of PSI (power supply
impedance – power supply with active impedance) until the most distant point of the segment,
considering the derivations. Remember that spurs smaller than 1 m don't enter in this total.
The cabling total length is the sum of the main bus trunk size plus all the spurs (branches larger than
1 m), and with type A cable, the length is a maximum 1900 m in non-safety areas. In safe areas with
type A cable, it is a maximum 1000 m, considering that the spurs cannot exceed 30 m.
In installation and distributions terms avoid splices, in other words, any part of the network with a
specified conductive medium and a discontinuous length smaller than 1 m, for example: shielding
removal, wire diameter changes, connection to bare terminals, etc. In networks with total length
larger than 400 m, the sum of the lengths of all the splices should not surpass 2% of the total length
and also, in lengths smaller than 400 m, should not exceed 8 m.
A H1 segment maximum length, when using different cable types is limited by the following formula:
⎛ LA ⎞ ⎛ LB ⎞ ⎛ LC ⎞ ⎛ LD ⎞
⎜⎜
⎟⎟ + ⎜⎜
⎟⎟ + ⎜⎜
⎟⎟ + ⎜⎜
⎟⎟ 〈= 1
max
max
max
max
LA
LB
LC
LD
⎝
⎠ ⎝
⎠ ⎝
⎠ ⎝
⎠
Where:
LA : Length to the cable A ;
LB : Length to the cable B ;
LC : Length to the cable C ;
LD : Length to the cable D ;
LA max : Maximum length allowed with the cable A (1900 m);
LB max : Maximum length allowed with the cable B (1200 m);
LC max : Maximum length allowed with the cable C (400 m);
LD max : Maximum length allowed with the cable D (200 m).
1.5
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
In relation to the spurs be attentive to the lengths of the same. The amount of devices, < including
repeaters, if any, should comply with the Table 1.3. In classified areas the maximum spur is 30 m.
Total H1
devices per
segment
Spur length with
1 device
Spur length
with 2 devices
Spur length
with 3 devices
Spur length
with 4 devices
Length
Considering the
Maximum
Amount of
Spurs (m)
1-12
13-14
15-18
19-24
25-32
120
90
60
30
1
90
60
30
1
1
60
30
1
1
1
30
1
1
1
1
12 x 120 =1440
14 x 90 = 1260
18 x 60 = 1080
24 x 30 = 720
1 x 32 = 32
Table 1.3 - Spur x Number of H1 Devices
Note: The cable capacitance limit should be considered when the effect in the spur signal is smaller
than 300 m and resembles capacitor. In the absence of the cable manufacturer´s data, a value of
0.15 nF/m can be used for fieldbus cables.
Ct = (Ls *Cs ) + Cd
Where:
Ct : Total capacitance in nF;
LS : Spur length in m;
Cs : Wire capacitance per segment in nF (Standard – 0.15);
Cd : Foundation fieldbus device capacitance;
The attenuation associated to this capacitance is 0.035 dB/nF. Therefore, the total attenuation is:
A = Ct * Ls * 0.035 dB / nF 〈 14 dB
Then, 14 dB will allow the minimum necessary signal to detect it with integrity.
There are some rules to follow in terms of cabling and separation from other cables, be it for signals
or potency. Use preferably trays or metal ducts, observing the distances according to Table 1.4.
Never pass the fieldbus H1cable beside high voltage lines because the induction is a noise source
and it can affect the communication signal. Furthermore, the fieldbus signal should be isolated from
noise sources, as power cables, motors and frequency. It is recommended to put in separated
channels and ducts. The ideal is to use aluminum ducts, with internal and external eletromagnetic
shield. The Foucault currents are practically immune, due to the aluminum good electric
conductivity. Remember that the crossing of cables should be at 90º angle.
Fielbbus
Communication
Cables
Cabo de
comunicação
Fieldbus
Cabos com e
sem shield:
60Vdc ou
25Vac e
< 400Vac
Cabos com e
sem shield:
> 400Vac
Qualquer cabo
sujeito à
exposição de
raios
Cables with and
without shield: 60
Vdc or 25 Vac and
< 400 Vac
Cables with and
without shield:
> 400 Vac
Any cable subject
to the (exhibition of
rays) exposition to
lightning
10 cm
20 cm
50 cm
10 cm
50 cm
10 cm
20 cm
10 cm
50 cm
50 cm
50 cm
50 cm
Table 1.4 –Minimum separation distances between Cables
1.6
Installation
H1 Network Terminators
Two bus terminators should be connected to the H1 network, being one in the PSI output and the
other in the last device (usually the most distant from the PSI), depending on the adopted topology.
If in the cabling distribution there is a junction box in the end of the main trunk with several spurs, the
field terminator should be placed in this point, to facilitate the maintenance when removing devices.
Check the correct connection of the terminator, reminding that the lack of terminators allows
communication intermittency, once there is no impedance match and there is reflection signal
increase.
The lack of a terminator or its connection in the incorrect point also degrades the signal, once it will
also be part of the cabling as an antenna. Its lack can increase the signal in more than 70% and an
additional terminator can increase the sign up to 30%. The attenuation and intermittency can
generate communication failure.
The H1 network terminator is formed by a resistor of 100 ± 2% and a capacitor of 1 µF ± 20% in
series.
Figure 1.7 –Typical H1 Wave Forms According to the Termination
1.7
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Following, the real waves forms related to the three cases mentioned on Figure 1.7.
Figure 1.8 –Wave form without Active BT
Figure 1.9 –Wave form with more than 2 Active BTs
Figure 1.10 –Wave form with Correct BT
1.8
Installation
Check the position of the terminators in the following topologies.
Figure 1.11 - Position of Terminators in Tree or Star Topologies and on the Bus
Power Supply
The power supply usually has an output of 24 Vdc with capacity of a few ampéres. The power supply
can operate in redundant mode and it should failure indication and protection against surges,
transients and short circuits. Smar makes the DF52 power supply that meets these characteristics.
In terms of power supply signal, consider as acceptable values in practice:
• 12 to 32 Vdc in the PSI output (Active Impedance)
• Ripple (mV):
< 25: excelent;
25 < r< 50: ok;
50 < r < 100: acceptable;
> 100: unacceptable.
In terms of communication signal, consider as acceptable values in practice:
• 750 to 1000 mVpp: ok;
> 1000 mVpp: Very high. A terminator may be lacking.
Some barriers and segment protectors, like spur guards, have high impedance in series and can
produce signals up to 2000 mV and even allow the appropriate operation.
• < 250 mVpp: Very low. It is necessary to verify if there is more than 2 active terminators, power
supply, etc.
Some devices have polarity, others not, so it is very important to assure the correct polarity of the
devices. All the devices are connected in parallel, that is, all the negative terminals together and all
the positive terminals together. The use of colored wires codified is recommended to distinguish the
positive from the negative.
Active Impedance
The active impedance avoids that the power supply low impedance lessens the communication
signal of the bus, allowing the feeding to be supplied in the same wire pair.
1.9
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
It works as low impedance for DC and high impedance for AC communication signal and may have
an additional internal terminator activated by a frontal key. The active impedance is fundamental for
the network correct operation.
The Foundation Fieldbus impedance is on a device of non-isolated, active impedance control,
complying with the IEC61158-2 standard. This device has an output impedance that works in
parallel with the two bus terminators (a resistor of 100 Ω in series with a capacitor of 1 µF) assisting
to the pattern and results in purely resistive line impedance for a wide frequency range. The Smar
DF49 module has two channels and the DF53 module four channels.
Repeaters H1
The passive repeater increases the H1 segment range of 1900 m by amplifying its signal. Up to 4
repeaters may be used with 8-bit preamble or a maximum of 8 repeaters with 16-bit preamble. A
maximum of 4 repeaters. It is usually allowed.
As the repeater isolates the communication signal and the power supply, it is possible to connect
devices that drain more current from the bus or even to create new segments starting from the same
main bus (Figure 1.12). Smar offers the RP302 repeater, as well as the DF47 model that works both
as repeater and intrinsic safety barrier.
Figure 1.12 - Isolation Provided by the Barrier
Intrinsic Safety Barrier
The intrinsic safety barrier has the primary function to limit the energy available in the bus that
circulates for the classified areas.
A classified area is that whose atmosphere is potentially explosive. The barrier usually isolates and
repeats the FF signal, allowing several segments on the dangerous side to be connected to the safe
side. See Figure 1.12. The Smar offers the model DF47, which works as repeater and intrinsic
safety barrier, as well as the SB302 model, which is an isolated barrier.
Derivation Box
It allows the connection and disconnection of devices without interrupting the continuity of the bus,
increasing the plant availability and simplifying maintenance. It reduces start-up time, stoppage time
and cabling costs.
In the Smar JM400 model, the weather-proof and explosion-proof housing prevents water, oil or dirt
from reaching the electric connections (IP66/68). Its cover lock mechanism doesn’t require specific
support. See Figure 1.13 and 1.14.
1.10
Installation
Figure 1.13 - Field Network with Derivation Box
Figure 1.14 –Field Network with Derivation Box
The FISCO Concept Intallation
The FISCO model (Fieldbus Intrinsically Safe Concept) has the following characteristics:
a) There is only one active element - the power supply - in the field bus, located in the non-classified
area;
b) The other devices in the classified area are passive;
c) Each field device should have a minimum consumption of 10 mA;
d) In Ex ia areas the maximum bus length should be 1000 m and in Ex ib, 5000 m;
e) Concerning cables observe the following parameters:
ƒ R´:15 to 150 Ω/km;
ƒ L´: 0.4 to 1 mH/km;
ƒ C´: 80 to 200 nF/km.
Type A cable: 0.8 mm² (AWG 18)
a) Concerning termination:
ƒ R = 90 to 100 Ω;
ƒ C = 0 to 2.2 µF.
1.11
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
The FISCO concept was optimized so that a larger number of field devices is allowed according to
the bus length, taking into account the cable variation characteristics (R', L',C ') and terminators that
assist categories and groups of gases with a simple evaluation of the installation involving intrinsic
safety. Thus, it increased the current capacity per segment and facilitated the evaluation for the
user. Besides, when acquiring certified products, the user doesn't need to worry with calculations,
even in substitution of an operation.
The FISCO model represents a fast and easy way to project, install and operate H1 networks in
installations on classified areas. The main idea is to supply more current to the H1 segment,
enabling among other advantages the connection of a greater number of equipments, when
compared to a conventional intrinsically safe installation. In summary, just follow the requirements
below:
•
•
•
•
•
Use certified and approved devices for FISCO applications;
Check the parameters of each device (Ui, Ii, Pi): U0<Ui, I0<Ii, P0<Pi;
Observe the parameters of the used cables carefully (R, L, C). Use type A cable
To observe the correct use of the terminators;
Do not exceed the maximum length allowed for the cabling.
The main advantages when using a FISCO installation are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Plug&Play actions in hazardous areas;
The system certification is not mandatory, but is up to user discretion;
The expansion of the application is very simple;
It is possible to connect the maximum number of devices in the classified area;
The installation costs are reduced;
There is no need for parameter recalculation when changing the devices.
FNICO
A new concept that also appears on the scene is FNICO (Fieldbus Nonincendive Concept), which is
similar to the FISCO, but limited for use in Zone 2. Both concepts, FISCO and FNICO, are turning
the fieldbus more attractive for use in hazardous areas.
FNICO is allowed in North America countries or those based on standards of this region. This
concept considers:
• Input capacitance/inductance;
• Maximum cabling and spurs;
And the following:
• Vmax of each field device > Voc of the Repeater;
• Imax of each field device > Ioc of the Repeater;
• Pmax of each field device > Poc of the Repeater.
Repeaters with 215 mA of capacity are common.
Transient Supressor
Whenever having an effective distance larger than 100 m on the horizontal or 10 m on the vertical
position between two grounded points, the use of transient protectors is recommended, on the
distance initial and final points. On the horizontal, its use is recommended between 50 and 100 m.
The transient protector should be installed immediately after the PSI, before each device and also in
the junction box. In classified areas, the use of certified protectors is recommended. See Figure
1.15.
1.12
Installation
Figure 1.15 – Effective Distance in a Cable Distribution
Topologies
In relation to topology, there are the following models: Star or Tree, Bus and Point-to-point (Figure
1.16). In practice, there is usually a mixed topology.
Figure 1.16 – Examples to the Fieldbus Topology
Shield and Grounding
When considering shielding and grounding in field bus, the following should be taken into account:
ƒ Electromagnetic compatibility;
ƒ Protection against explosion;
ƒ Protection of people.
1.13
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
According to the IEC61158-2, to ground means to be permanently connected to the ground through
sufficiently low impedance and with enough conduction capacity to prevent any voltage to cause
damages to equipments or people.
Voltage lines with 0 V should be connected to the ground and be galvanically isolated from the bus.
The purpose of grounding the shield is to avoid high frequency noises.
Preferably, the shield should be grounded in two points, in the beginning and the end of the bus, as
long as there is no potential difference between these points, allowing the existence of loop current
and access to it. In practice, when this difference exists, the shield should be grounded in a single
point, in other words, at the power supply or the intrinsic safety barrier. The continuity of the cable
shield must be kept in more than 90% of the cable total length. See the Figure 1.17.
Shield
BT
PS
24 V
PSI
Shield do tronco e
das derivações unidos
Figure 1.17 – Shield Grounding
The shield should cover the electric circuits completely through the connectors, couplers, splices
and distribution and junction boxes.
The shield should never be used as a signal driver. The shield continuity should be checked until the
last fieldbus device on the segment, and the connection and finishing inspected, because the shield
should not be grounded to the equipment housing.
In classified areas, if a potential equalization between the safe area and the hazardous area would
not be possible, the shield should be connected directly to the ground (Equipotencial Bonding
System) only on the dangerous area side. In the safe area, the shield should be connected
preferably through a ceramic capacitive coupler, like a solid dielectric capacitor, C =10 nF, isolation
voltage ≥ 1.5 kV). See Figures 1.18 and 1.19.
Figure 1.18 – Ideal Combination of Shield and Grounding
1.14
Installation
Figure 1.19 – Capacitive Grounding
IEC61158-2 recommends the complete isolation. This method is used mainly in the United States
and in England. In this case, the shield is isolated from all the grounds, except the negative ground
of the power supply or of the intrinsic safety barrier on the safe side. The shield has continuity from
the PSI output, through the junction and distribution boxes and reaches the equipments. The
equipment housings are grounded individually on the non-safety side. This method has the
disadvantage of not entirely protecting the signals from the high frequency signals and, depending
on the cable topology and length; in some cases it can generate communication intermittency. Metal
ducts are recommended in these cases.
Another complementary form would be to ground the junction boxes and the equipment housings in
an equipotencial ground line on the non-safety side. The grounds on the non-safety side and on the
safe side are separate.
The multiple grounding conditions are also common, with more effective protection from high
frequency and electromagnetic noises. This method is preferentially adopted in Germany and some
countries in Europe. In this method, the shield is grounded on the negative ground point of the
power supply or the intrinsic safety barrier on the safe side, in addition to the junction boxes ground
and in the equipment housings and these are also grounded on the non-safety side. Another
complementary condition would be the grounds being connected together in an equipontencial
ground line, uniting the non-safety side to the safe side.
For more details, always consult the local safety standards. Use the IEC60079-14 as reference for
applications in classified areas. See some ground and shield ways on Figure 1.20.
1.15
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Figure 1.20 – Several Grounding and Shield Ways
Quantity of Foundation Fieldbus Equipments in a H1 Segment
The amount of equipments (N) for segment is a function of the quiescent consumption of each H1
equipment, the involved distances (type A cable loop resistance: 44 O/km), the drained current, of
the area classification, besides the FDE current (usually 0 mA, depending on the manufacturer). The
total segment current should be smaller than the one drained by the power supply. Smar devices
consume 12 mA.
I Seg = ∑ I BN + I FDE + I FREE
Because:
I Seg 〈 I C
Where:
I Seg
: H1 segment current;
∑ I BN : Sum of the quiescent currents of all the devices in the H1 segment;
I FDE : Additional current in case of failure, usually negligible;
I FREE : Recommended: 20 mA, rest current useful in case of expansion or change of manufacturer
I C : Drained current.
Besides, it is recommended more than 9.0 V in the terminal block of the H1 device most distant from
the PSI to guarantee its powering and correct communication:
1.16
Installation
VBN = VC − (R * L )
Where:
VC : Power supply output voltage;
R : Loop resistance (Type A cable, R = 44 Ω/km);
L : H1 Bus total length;
VBN : Voltage in the terminal block of the H1 devices most distant from the PSI.
Being
VBN 〉 9.0 V
. This guarantees the powering of the last H1 device. Remember that the
communication signal should range from 750 to 1000 mV.
Some junction boxes or short circuit protectors for segments, called spur guards, are active and can
be powered through the H1 bus; hence, it should be included in the calculation of the total current.
Besides, each spur guard output has an allowed current limit that should be respected.
In classified areas follow the established limits.
Foundation Fieldbus in Hazardous Areas
According to the standards, the Foundation Fieldbus technology can be applied in hazardous areas
with the following characteristics:
•
Ex d: In this case choose the power supply Ex and conduits with Ex d approval;
Ex i: There are three options. The first involves the Ex-i concepts and the second a combination of
Ex and Ex i. The third option is the FISCO.
Summary of Classified Areas
Zone/ Explosion Group
Identification
Zone 0
(Ex ia) IIx
Zone 1
(Ex ia) IIx
(Ex ib) IIx
Explosion Group IIC
IIC (Ex ia) IIC
Explosion Group IIB
(Ex ia) IIC
(Ex ib) IIB
Non -Ex
Non-Ex
Observation
Devices installed in Zone 0 should operate in a
segment with “Ex ia” protection.
Devices installed in Zone 1 should operate in a
segment with “Ex ia” or “Ex ib” protection.
All the circuits connected to this segment should be
certified for “Ex ia” or “Ex ib” protection.
If the measures are taken in an IIC explosion group,
the devices and components should be certified for
the IIC.explosion group
For the IIB medium explosion group, both devices
and components can be certified for the IIC or IIB
groups.
Devices that are operating in a no-Ex segment
should not be installed in explosion-risk areas.
Table 1.5 - Summary of Classified Areas
Intrinsic Safety Definition
Intrinsic safety limits the equipment circuit energy, so that they do not cause the ignition of
potentially explosive atmospheres even in the occurrence of failures that may produce sparks or
warm surfaces in contact.
As it deals with energy limitation, this is an adequate technique for electronic equipments, typically
used in control and process instrumentation.
Foundation Fieldbus Technology and Intrinsic Safety
According to standards, 1 to 4 devices may be connected together in the hazardous areas, after the
Intrinsic Safety Barrier, and two more devices in the safe areas in the same bus.
With the energy limitations for each device in the hazardous area, some instruments will need to be
run through other power supplies. Therefore, devices such as, process analyzers, of I/O
subsystems, magnetic or Coriolis effect meters can combine intrinsic safety with other installation or
contention techniques for protection against possible explosions.
1.17
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
It should be considered as intrinsic safety barrier the quantity of devices, the amount of cables and
the capacitance and inductance limit values for the Ex I installation.
Table 1.6 presents a brief comparison between the FISCO and FNICO models and the entity model.
Cable Length
Maximum Spur
Length
Cable and Length
Reactance
FISCO
1000 m - ia (*)
5000 m - ib (*)
30 m(*)
Entity Model
1900 m
Non-considered
Considered
120 m
FNICO
1000 m
30 m(*)
Non considered
(*)Maximum analyzed length. It is possible (the) to use (of) a larger length.
Table 1.6 –FISCO vs. Entity Model
There is a set of rules for applications in hazardous areas that uses intrinsic safety methods. The
fieldbus technology refers to the lengths of the segments, limits of currents in the power supply and
parameters as capacitance and inductance, as well as parameters of equipment failures. The
FISCO method provides an easy implementation for applications intrinsically safe in fieldbus, giving
flexibility, operational safety to the applications and reducing installation costs, since one can handle
up to 10 devices in an Ex network. Besides, the possibility of online handling simplifies
commissioning, startup and maintenance. More power means more devices and less cables, hence
less barriers.
Equipments compliant to FISCO can be directly connected to IS networks based on the entity
model. The reverse condition needs to be evaluated.
Following are described some key points that should be considered during the implementation,
involving classified areas and fieldbus:
•
Which is the hazardous area. Remember that non-incendive is only allowed in Division 2 areas
and intrinsic safety equipment only in Division Div 1 and Division Div 2 areas);
• Which size and scalability required ;
• Will there be short circuit protection for the main trunk and the spurs?
• Which are the acceptable safety level and risks? (Projects involving intrinsic safety take into
account the components failure and allow maintenance while being powered, although without heat.
Conversely, non-incendive equipment doesn't allow maintenance being performed during powering
or even heat exchange.
• Are there limitations to shutdowns?
• Do the engineering and the maintenance teams have proven experience with hazardous and
classified areas?
• Do all the devices have certification compatible with the application?
• Are the facilities compliant to the area and country safety standards?
For more details consult IEC60079-27, “Fieldbus Intrinsically Safe Concept (FISCO)” and “Fieldbus
Non-Incendive Concept (FNICO)”.
Increasing the Reliability
There are several ways to increase the fieldbus network reliability. They are the following:
a) Power supply redundancy, according to Figure 1.21.
1.18
Installation
Figure 1.21 –Power Supply Redundancy
•
•
•
b) Double active power supplies and impedance, in case of a cabling break for: See Figure 1.22
Guaranteed power supply;
Non-guaranteed Integral communication;
Guaranteed failure position.
Figure 1.22 – Double power supplies and PSI
1.19
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
1.20
Section 2
OPERATION
The Series 302 devices have an optional digital LCD display that works as a local operator interface
for basic factory pre-programmed functions or for personalized user functions through the host
system remote tool in the engineering and/or maintenance station. To accomplish these
configurations through local adjustment, use the SD-1 magnetic tool for local adjustment.
In a more complete and friendly way, all configuration, operation and diagnosis can be
accomplished remotely, by using, for example, a configurador, an engineering or maintenance
console. For more details consult the Syscon network manual configurator or the AssetView asset
manager.
The configuration is composed of the automatic association of addresses for the H1 network device,
the tag attribution and the selection or instantiation of function blocks that will be executed inside the
device. And based on these, build the control strategies that it is made by selecting the blocks, interconnecting and adjusting the internal parameters in order to get the required operation.
The local and remote operation interfaces also enable monitoring the performance of the variables,
such as process variables and setpoint. These variables depend on their use and can be accessed
in a single communication.
The management of acyclic events is performed automatically. When alarms and other critical
events occur, the function block informs the user directly, without the need for the interface to
execute a scan periodically to determine if there is an alarm condition. It takes some time for the
recognition to be received. This will happen even if the alert condition disappeared and it will be
reported by the device. If it is not recognized in a given period, the event report will be issued.
Similarly, the communication informs automatically the configuration changes involving statistical
data. An event is generated by an internal mechanism when a change occurs, so the host won't
need to constantly check for a possible system overload.
Through the scheduled communication, the transfer of connection parameters between function
blocks can be synchronized with the block execution. Thus, the block that uses an input parameter
can receive this data before running the algorithm block.
Due to the configuration and alarm mechanism, the so-called "non-operational traffic", has been
minimal, with more time for operational traffic and control improvement.
After being configured, the system saves the parameter tags and names to allow for an optimized
communication.
Using the device function blocks, the speed can increasingly be improved. For example, using the
PID block for control, there is one communication less , unlike the control done by another device.
This decreases the duration of the control application and therefore the network macro-cycle.
LCD Indicator
The LCD indicator displays each function block parameter that is user-selectable. Some of them can
be changed by local action, according to the user configuration and the parameter properties.
When the user chooses a variable, the display shows the parameter mnemonic, its value and status
when it is different from “good”. The field and status indicators are explained in Figure 2.1.
2.1
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Figure 2.1 - Indicator
Indication Operation
During the indication operation, the Series 302 equipment stays in the monitoring mode. In this
mode, it shows a variable indicated by the user configuration. Figure 2.2 shows the indicator
displaying a “position”. Whenever the displayed value exceeds "19999, it will appear with a two-digit
mantissa and an exponent.
The indication mode is interrupted when the user performs an action with the local adjustment.
Figure 2.2 - Typical Normal Display Showing PV, in this case 50.0 %
The display is also displays errors and other messages. See Table 2.1 – Displayed Messages.
INIT
Display
Description
The device is in initializing mode after power on.
BOUT
The sensor is open or not connected properly (when it is applicable).
FAIL
The device presents some fail or malfunctioning
FACT
The device is recovering default configuration to non-volatile memory.
Table 2.1 – Displayed Messages
Basic details of the Syscon Use
Introduction
Syscon is the software tool that configures, maintains and operates the newest SMAR product line
and communicates with the comprehensive new series of controllers. These controllers are all
connected to the High Speed Ethernet providing field network connections to well-known
FOUNDATION fieldbusTM protocol. For more details, please, consult the Syscon Manual.
2.2
Operation
Communication
The friendly Man-Machine Interface (MMI) provides an efficient and productive interaction with the
user, without previous knowledge of the software. A large library of pre-configured and tested
templates for devices, control strategies and graphic symbols makes the engineering system as
efficient and as fast as it can be. Only a minimum of data needs to be entered when defining I/Os,
networking, and control strategies.
Support Tool
The plant control configuration is now managed by a unique tool, the Studio302, which integrates all
applications included in the Smar’s SYSTEM302 Enterprise Automation System and incorporates
Windows-based Users and Groups to provide a multi-user environment. Now the Syscon project
files have controlled access defined for each professional operating the plant and a precise register
of the history of modifications to guarantee the integrity of the project configuration data.
Live List
The Live List function is available in the support tools and provides a list of all equipment in the
fieldbus network after communication startup.
On the Fieldbus window, select the fieldbus icon, search the View menu and click on Live List or
click on the fieldbus icon with the right button to open the menu and select the Live List item. Figure
2.3.
Figure 2.3 - Live List
The Live List window appears, as shown in Figure 2.4.
Figure 2.4 - Live List Window
The Live List window shows the devices and bridges identified by the device tag, ID and address,
and also the device configured as Active LAS (Link Active Schedule). The active LAS is indicated by
a different icon on the Live List.
Table 2.1 below describes the icons that identify the instruments and bridges in the window of the
Live List.
2.3
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Active LAS Bridge.
Bridge set to assume the LAS function when the active LAS stop
communicating.
Active LAS field device.
Field device set to assume the LAS function when the active LAS stop
communicating.
Bridge H1 or HSE.
Field device H1 or HSE.
Information reading from the field equipment in process.
HSE Host.
Third-party gateway or I/O modules.
Bridge or field device that has no supporting files (DD, CF or FFB
blocks file (Flexible Function Block)). This situation can occur when
there is some FFB block with ladder logic in the configuration.
Table 2.1 - Icons that identify instruments and bridges in the Live List
Block List
The list of blocks instantiated in an instrument may be visualized through the Block List, after the
communication was initialized.
In the Fieldbus window, select the FB VFD icon, search the View menu on the Block List or click in
the FB VFD icon with the right button to open the menu and select the Block List item.
Figure 2.5 – Block List
The Block List window is displayed:
Figure 2.6 - Block List Windows
2.4
Operation
Using the AssetView Asset Manager
The Smar AssetView is a software system for online network-enabled asset management. The
primary objective is to unleash the powerful diagnostics capabilities found in Fieldbus devices in
general and in Smar devices particularly, providing several maintenances schemes and a userfriendlier interface
AssetView deals only with devices and is used for the long-term maintenance and device operation.
AssetView is not restricted to just displaying device error messages, but it can analyze devices
through test sequences, recorded data and plot charts providing a much more sophisticated failure
analysis.
Another important characteristic of the AssetView is the web-based architecture technology. The
user interface is the Internet Explorer web browser and it can be used on any Windows platform.
For more information see AssetView Manual.
Visualizing the Device Page
Each device has a standard Web page layout. Each device installed in the plant has a page where
the user can calibrate, configure, detect, diagnose or reconcile the device configuration.
Navigate the topology tree and click on a device icon to view its page. Figure 2.7 shows the FY302
page with the FY-302-AV01 tag.
Figure 2.7 - Initial Page of an AssetView 4.3 Device
For each type of device, the main page can have the following links:
Calibration
Calibration is the correction of sensor readings and physical outputs. During this process, messages
are displayed to the user indicating the status of this condition. There are specific calibration
methods for each device based on scripts defined by the manufacturers.
Configuration
In the Configuration page, the user can read and write the parameter values of the devices. From
this page, the user can also access the Reconciliation page and compare the current configurations
to previous device configurations stored in the database. Refer to subsection Reconciliation.
2.5
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Diagnostics
Simple diagnostics are displayed to the user. Comprehensive tests can be done from time to time
using several charts to check the condition of the field device. Because of the diagnostic it is
possible to first remotely check the device if there really is a failure before going into the field. And
yet, because of the detailed information about the Network and device operation provided by the
diagnostics, the user knows exactly where the problem is.
Identification
The Identification page provides all the information relevant to the maintenance of the device, such
as its manufacturer, device type, tag, serial number, and its versions. Construction materials for
wetted parts are also indicated.
Device View
The Device View page monitors the instrument data, such as temperature or pressure values read
from the instrument.
Display
In the Display page, the user can configure the device’s display, viewing and modifying parameters
such as device mnemonics.
Reconciliation
Reconciliation allows comparison of current device settings with past configurations stored in the
database. The Time menu on the left side of the page lists the modifications made in the device,
including the last modification that is also called the “current device parameterization”. The Time
menu on the right side also lists the modifications made in the device, except date and time for the
current device parameterization.
Figure 2.8 - Device Reconciliation Page (Instrument)
2.6
Section 3
LOCAL ADJUSTMENT SETTING
To configure the function blocks and communication in the Series 302 equipment use the
configuration system called Host. The heavier and difficult task is automated and the risk of
configuration error is reduced. In the case of the Smar SYSTEM302 (Smar), an automatic
guide directs the user to commission the device properly. In this system, the equipment
addressing is made with the same physical tag.
The steps described below are based on the Smar – Syscon system configurator 6.1 Version.
Importantly, these settings may vary with each manufacturer.
Creating Devices
On the Fieldbus window, right-click the fieldbus icon and click New > Device. The New
Device dialog box will open.
Select the Device Manufacturer from the list and the Device Type provided by the selected
manufacturer.
Select the Device Revision, then select the DD Revision and the CF Revision, or check the
option Follow the Latest DD/CF Revision to apply the latest revision for the selected device.
NOTE
If the option Follow the Latest DD/CF Revision is selected, Syscon will update the device with
the latest revision of the DD and CF every time the configuration file is opened. To disable the
automatic update, right-click the device icon, click Exchange and unmark that option on the
Exchange dialog box.
Figure 3.1 - Device Dialog Box
Type a related tag for the device. If you do not define the tag, Device n will be the default tag,
where n is a sequential number for devices.
At the Advanced Options tab, select the options to automatically create and configure blocks
and parameters, according to the Capabilities File:
Creation Based on Default Template: creates the device based on the Default Template
file for the selected Device Revision, located in the corresponding Device Support folder.
Create Resource Block: automatically creates the Resource Block of the selected
device. You can set the initial value for the Mode Block parameter.
Create Transducer Blocks: automatically creates the Transducer Blocks of the selected
device. You can set the initial value for the Mode Block parameter.
3.1
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Figure 3.2 - Advanced Options
Click Ok to add the device to the configuration.
OBSERVATION
If the Default Template file is not found, Syscon will automatically create the Resource and
Transducer Blocks for the selected device.
If the tag is not entered, Device n will be the default tag, where n is a sequential number for
the instruments.
The Fieldbus window will be similar to the Figure 3.3 bellow:
Figure 3.3 – Fieldbus Window
IMPORTANT
The HSE Device can only be added to the HSE Fieldbus. Likewise, the H1 Device can only
be added to the H1 Fieldbus.
Creating a Device from a Template
Para criar um instrumento baseado em um arquivo modelo, selecione o ícone do fieldbus, vá
ao menu Edit e clique em Import Device Template. Também é possível criar um instrumento
através do menu do fieldbus, clicando sobre o ícone com o botão direito e selecionando o
item New > Device from Template.
On the Fieldbus window, right-click the fieldbus icon and click New > Device from Template.
Select the directory where the template file is located, select the device template file and click
Open. A message box will open to confirm the operation. Click Ok to proceed.
3.2
Configuration
Figure 3.4 - Selecting a Model Instrument
The Tag Table will open, showing the list with block and device tags based on the preferences
settings and the old tags used in the template file. To edit a tag, right-click the block or device
icon at the New Tag column and click Rename. Type the new tag and click Enter on the
keyboard.
Figure 3.5 - Tag Table Dialog Box
Click Ok to close the Tag Table dialog box and add the device to the configuration.
Changing the Device Attributes
Right-click the device icon and click Attributes. The Device Attributes dialog box will open.
Figure 3.6 - Device Attributes Dialog Box
3.3
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
NOTE
When the Syscon is in on-line mode, the Device Selection dialog box displays the devices that
have not been instantiated in the project.
If the user selects Unspecified in the Device Tag list and apply this tag to the instrument, the
Syscon will automatically generate a new tag for the standard instrument, based on the
preferences settings.
When operating in the Advanced User mode, the tab Advanced Options will be available in
the Device Attributes dialog box. Type the new physical address for the device.
Figure 3.7 - Advanced Options
Enter the physical address in the Address field of the instrument.
The normal commissioning operation should use the options Commission and
Decommission. Only for some engineering and test scenarios, with the Syscon in Advanced
Mode options, it is possible to delete the Device Id from the instrument without using the
decommissioning procedure.
Click Clear to delete the Device Id. This procedure do not replace the Decommission option,
it only disassociates the physical device from the instrument on the configuration.
Click Ok to apply the alterations and conclude.
Master Backup Device
To configure the device to operate as a Master Backup, a Link Master should be selected.
Right-click the device icon and click Attributes. Click the down arrow on the BOF Class box
and select the Link Master option.
Click Ok to conclude.
3.4
Configuration
Figure 3.8 - Configuring the Link Master Device
When the Syscon is working online, open the device menu and select Change Class BOF.
Click Yes to confirm the change and Syscon will display a message requesting that the
instrument is rebooted.
A message box will inform that it is necessary to reinitialize the device. Reset the device and
execute the Download Schedule in the channel where the device is configured: right-click the
fieldbus icon and select Download Schedule.
After the download, the device will operate as a Link Master.
OBSERVATION
During the download, all Master Backups in the Fieldbus Network will be configured with the
Traffic Schedule.
Deleting Devices
To remove a device from the Fieldbus window, right-click its icon and click Delete, or press
Delete on your keyboard.
The warning dialog box will appear. Click Yes to confirm the operation.
Figure 3.9 - Deleting Devices
Figure 3.10 - Confirming Operation
3.5
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Ordering Devices
Select a device icon and drag it over the other device icon. The selected device will be placed
above the other device in the configuration tree.
Figure 3.11 - Fixing the window Fieldbus Instruments
The window Fieldbus will be as in the Figure 3.12:
Figure 3.12 – Fieldbus Window
Moving Devices
To move a device from one fieldbus to another, click to select the device icon in the Fieldbus
window and drag the device over the other Fieldbus window.
If there are any block links connecting the device to its original Fieldbus window, these links
may no longer be available for the communication, because no valid path would be found in
the topology. The incomplete links will be identified by a dotted line in the Strategy window.
Figure 3.13 - Moving a Device
Device Exchange
When a defective device must be replaced by a new device with a newer or different Device
Revision, it is possible to exchange these devices easily without modifying the existing
configuration. You can also use the Exchange procedure to change the Device Revision.
The Device Exchange checks the inconsistencies, incompatibilities and interchangeability
problems, and generates a report about the changes that will affect the configuration.
To exchange a device, right-click its icon and click Exchange. The Exchange dialog box will
open:
3.6
Configuration
Figure 3.14 - Device Exchange Dialog Box
You can change the Manufacturer, the Device Type and the Device Revision attributes. Edit
the attributes and click Ok.
Syscon will compare the new device capabilities with the previous device capabilities and
display the incompatibilities at the Device Exchange Deviations dialog box.
The Deviations dialog box shows detailed information about the device, blocks and
parameters, indicating to the user the functionalities that can be lost when exchanging the
device. See the example below:
Figure 3.15 - Device Deviations Dialog Box
The panel on the left shows the blocks and parameters configured in the original device and
indicates the new device compatibilities.
The panel on the right compares the original device attributes to the new equipment selected.
Click the column headers (Attribute, Current, Alternative, Severity or Index) to sort the list of
parameters. Clicking the column header will also toggle between ascendant and descendent
sorting.
The Deviations dialog box has its own toolbar. The following table describes the
functionalities of the buttons:
3.7
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Click this button to refresh the information on the dialog box.
Click this button to expand all nodes.
Click this button to collapse all nodes.
Click this button to accept the changes and close the Deviations dialog box.
Click this button to cancel the Exchange procedure and close the Deviations
dialog box.
Click this button to open the Syscon Online Help.
The Deviations dialog box has four filter levels that classify all of the blocks and parameters
attributes for the device:
The attributes classified by this filter are compliant with the device.
The Low Severity filter indicates that the attributes are not compliant but the
information won't be lost.
The High Severity filter indicates that the attributes are not compliant and the
information can be lost or converted.
This filter will display all attributes.
Click Ok to confirm the Exchange procedure. Syscon will verify the compatibility of the
blocks. If a block is not available in the target device, a dialog box will open alerting the user
that inconsistencies were detected and some functionalities will be lost if the device is
exchanged.
Figure 3.16 - Detecting Inconsistencies
Click Yes to confirm the exchange or click No to cancel the procedure and discard the device
alterations.
If you confirm the Exchange procedure, the Compatibility dialog box will open. The
Compatibility dialog box allows you to replace the blocks from the previous device that are
not compatible with the new device. See the example below:
3.8
Configuration
Figure 3.17 - Compatibility Dialog Box
The panel on the left indicates the blocks that are not compatible with the new device. For
each block not compatible, click its icon and the panel on the right will show the types of the
compatible blocks.
Use the buttons in the toolbar to filter the blocks:
This filter shows the list of blocks from the new device, which is compatible to the
blocks from the previous device.
This filter shows the list of blocks from the new device, which is not compatible to
the blocks from the previous device.
Right-click the icon of the compatible block and click Enable to replace the old block in the
device.
Figure 3.18 - Selecting a Compliant Block
Repeat this procedure for each block that is not compatible with the new device. Click Ok to
confirm the alterations and close the Compatibility dialog box.
Blocks that cannot be converted will be removed from the configuration and sent to the
Recycle Bin. Parameters cannot be converted. If there is no identical parameter in the new
device, the parameter will be deleted and will not be sent to the Recycle Bin.
For more details see Configurator Software Manual.
NOTE
The local adjustment can be used for basic operations and some configuration tasks. This
eliminates the need for a high performance configurator system, but requires more
knowledge. See the section Local Adjustment Methodology how to use the local
adjustment.
Function Blocks
For function block configuration details see the Function Blocks Instruction Manual.
3.9
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Display Transducer
The 302 series devices can be equipped with an LCD display. In the normal monitoring mode,
the system may show a variable.
The display transducer block can be configured by the Syscon. In the example below, the
LD302 has four blocks instantiated: analog input block, display and Transducer and Resource
blocks.
The transducer and the display are
handled as special function blocks.
Instantiated blocks
blocks
Figure 3.19 – Function Blocks and Transducers
3.10
Configuration
Specifies the block
tag where the
desired parameter is
parameter.
A group of
parameters must
be set to show
and/or act on a
given parameter in
the local
adjustment.
Relative index to
selected
parameter
This mnemonic
characterizes the
parameter that appears
on the display
Type of access:
monitoring and
acting upon the
parameter
Figure 3.20 – Display of the Transducer – Configuration
The display block is handled as a common function block. This means that this block can be
configured by Syscon, setting parameters and choosing values according to the user's needs.
The LCD display can be used for parameter monitoring or performance
Local Programming Tree
The programming tree is a menu system that allows the configuration of the most important
items. The menu is configured through the display block.
Each field device is supplied with a factory default setting.
There is a default setting for each type of field equipment, but usually it includes the tag, the
output or input of the transducer block as a monitoring parameter and calibration parameters
as shown on Table 3.1:
Parameter
Function
Class
Tag
Primary Value
Lower
Upper
Monitoring
Monitoring
Calibration
Calibration
Read
Read
Read/Write
Read/Write
Table 3.1 - Configuration Indicator Example
3.11
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Display Configuration Using Syscon
The user must determine and set up the values described in the table below, for each selected
parameter.
This value indicates
that
a
default
parameter index 14
and the sub-index 2
of the transducer
block – LD302 are
set as monitoring
Index 14 represents
the LD302 transducer
block output. It is a DS64
type
(DS-64)
variable, i.e., status –
float value. The subindex indicates the
item’s data structure,
for example, 1 selected
the status and 2
selected the value.
When the parameter is
sample, i.e., not a data
structure, there is no
need to configure the
sub-index.
Figure 3.21 – Display Block Parameter Adjustments
Block Tag
Relative Index
Sub-Index
Mnemonic
Float Inc_Dec
Decimal Point
Acces
Alpha_Num
Refresh
Tag assigned to the function block.
Relative index of the specified block parameter.
Logical member sub-index.
Mnemonic assigned to the parameter.
Step to increase or decrease for a float or integer type.
Number of decimal places after the mantissa.
Permission to Read and/or Write.
Select the mnemonic or value in the display when the value is
greater than 10,000.
Flag to indicate new configuration.
Table 3.2 – Display Block Parameters
Local Adjustment can be fully configured by Syscon. The user can set the parameters to be
adjusted or monitored locally. Usually, these parameters are inputs and outputs of control
function blocks. It can also change the parameter mode and tuning.
Almost all function block parameters configured by Syscon, can be adjusted locally.
The user can select them using the following data types:
• Integer
• Float
• Status + Float
• Mode
• Tag (read – only)
3.12
Configuration
These settings are
required to set a
parameter on the
LCD display.
Figure 3.22 – Display Block Parameter Adjustment
After the first firmware
download, the display
block will adjust the
tags of functional
blocks with default
values.
Figure 3.23 – Display Block Parameter Adjustment
3.13
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
To validate and update
the new of the display
block configuration select
"Update Display”
Figure 3.24 – Display Block Parameter Adjustment
Using Local Adjustment
To enable this function, the equipment must have the digital display.
The equipment has two holes located under the identification tag, and the magnetic sensors
are activated via magnetic tool. See Figure 3.25.
Figure 3.25 – Local Adjustment
The magnetic tool enables adjustment and monitoring of the parameters configured on the
local adjustment tree.
The "LOC. ADJ" at the top of the main board must be in position ON.
3.14
Configuration
Local Adjustment Methodology
Enter the local adjustment by inserting the magnetic tool in the ZERO hole. Wait until the
"MD" flag appears on the LCD. Then insert the magnetic tool twice in the SPAN hole The
message "LOC ADJ" will appear. Next, insert the magnetic tool in the ZERO hole. Leaving
the tool in the ZERO hole, browse through the items in the menu. The ZERO hole is used for
browsing. By moving the tool to the SPAN hole, the parameter can be set on another value.
NOTE
SUMMARY:
Zero (z) Browses
Span (s) Selects / Actions.
To browse the available parameter options, move the tool to the ZERO hole to go to the
specific menu option. See Figure 3.12. Then make a selection by moving the tool to SPAN
when the choice is displayed. If the options are on/off, or enumerated, the option will appear in
the value field. The mnemonic of each parameter will be displayed on the alphanumeric field.
This is for viewing only, as changes are not to be made on the tag configured for the block. If
the Functional Block tag is longer than five characters, it will move to the left.
If the magnetic tool is kept in the SPAN hole, the action will be continuous when the parameter
is numeric. By temporarily removing the tool from the SPAN hole and then reinserting it, the
working speed is reduced.
When the user inserts in and removes the magnetic tool from the SPAN hole, the increment or
decrement will be done in steps.
Remove the tool when the desired value is reached.
When incrementing a variable beyond the value desired, move the tool to ZERO and wait until
the decrement option of the same variable appears. By moving the tool to SPAN, it is reduced
to the desired value. For "undershoot", the opposite applies.
To exit from any menu, remove the tool from any hole for a break, and an escape sequence
will return to normal display.
The arrows inside each mnemonic indicate that the user can change the value by writing if the
parameter has reading and writing access.
Whenever the user decrements the value of a parameter, he is given an option to “increment
this value” when the magnetic tool is inserted into the ZERO hole.
Then the user enters the local adjustment, the last parameter used before is shown.
To monitor a parameter in normal operation, the user just needs to browse at the desired
parameter and remove the magnetic tool. Then this parameter will be shown continuously on
the LCD.
NOTE
Every action should be done critically because no confirmation is required to change the
parameter value. After writing the value, it is automatically stored in the E2PROM memory.
Almost all Function block parameters can be configured by local adjustment. The user should
select them from the following classes:
•
•
•
•
•
Integer
Float
Status + Float
Mode
Tag (read-only)
All of them can be set or monitored by using the magnetic tool.
3.15
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
The default values for the local adjustment are trim parameters, transducer block output or
input and Tag identifying the block.
How to Configure a Transducer Block
Each time you select a field device on the configuration tool, automatically you can see the
transducer block as it appears on screen.
The transducer block has an algorithm, a set of contained parameters and a channel
connecting it to a function block.
The algorithm describes the behavior of the transducer as a data transfer function between the
I/O hardware and other function block. There are several parameters in the Function Block.
They can be divided into Standard and Manufacturer Specific.
The standard parameters are available for such class of instruments as pressure, temperature
actuator devices, etc., whatever the manufacturer. Oppositely, the manufacturer specific ones
are defined only by their manufacturer. Common manufacturer specific parameters are
calibration settings, materials information, linearization curve, etc.
When you perform a standard routine as a calibration, you are guided step by step by a
method. The method is generally defined as guideline to help the user to make common tasks.
The configuration tool, for example the Simatic PDM, identifies each method associated to the
parameters and enables the interface to it.
Channels
Identifies the channel interface between the transducer block and the function block according
to the manufacturer. This number starts from the value 1.
Calibration
This is a specific method to make the calibration operation. It is necessary to match the source
of reference applied to or connected to the device with the required value. Some parameters
should be used to configure this process: CAL_POINT_HI, CAL_POINT_LO, CAL_MIN_SPAN
e CAL_UNIT. Those parameters define the highest and lowest calibrated values for each
device, the minimum allowable span value for calibration (if necessary) and the engineering
unit selected for calibration purposes, when differentiated by SENSOR_RANGE or
FINAL_VALUE_RANGE.
3.16
Section 4
MAINTENANCE
General
SMAR Series 302 devices are extensively tested and inspected before delivery to the end user.
Nevertheless, during their design and development, consideration was given to the possibility of
repairs being made by the end user, if necessary.
In general, it is recommended that end users do not try to repair printed circuit boards. Spare circuit
boards may be ordered from SMAR whenever necessary. Refer to the item "Returning Materials" at
the end of this Section.
TROUBLESHOOTING
Basic Troubleshooting: The communication errors are detected automatically and indicated
depending on the engineering tools. Troubleshooting is a useful way to remove the parts, one by
one, until the failure is detected by elimination. It is also recommended to test the faulty device in
your own work bench. Check the following parameters:
•
•
•
•
If the polarity is correct;
If the addresssis correct;
If the network is secure;
If the power supply voltage is adequate, always with a minimum 9V current during the
communication, plus the course of the Manchester sign.
If there is not any communication, there is a problem with your configuration or installation.
Advanced Troubleshooting: In order to find serious problems, bus analyzers can be used to study
the communication messages;
An oscilloscope (balanced/isolated - for example, operated by battery) can also be a useful tool in
severe cases.
TROUBLESHOOTING
SYMPTOM
NO COMMUNICATION
PROBABLE SOURCE OF PROBLEM
Device Connections
• Check wiring polarity and continuity;
• Check for shorts or ground loops;
• Check if the power supply connector is connected;
• Check if the shield is not used as a conductor. It should be grounded at only
one end;
• Check the coupler/link connections.
Power Supply
• Check power supply output. The voltage must be between 9 - 32 VDC at the Series 303
device terminals.
Network Connection
• Check that the topology is correct and all devices are connected in parallel;
• Check that two bus terminators are OK and correctly positioned;
• Check that the bus terminators are according to the specifications;
• Check length of trunk and spurs;
• Check the connections of the coupler are correct and correctly positioned;
• Check the baud rate;
• Check low isolation.
Network Configuration
• Make sure the Device Tag is configured if system configuration is desired;
• Make sure that device address, master connection, and the address.
Electronic Circuit Failure
• Check the main board for defect by replacing it with a spare one.
Table 4.1 - Diagnostic of the Field Devices
4.1
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
COMMUNICATION ERRORS
Installation problems, non-configuration or other main causes of communication errors:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Loose connections
Badly installed terminator, without endpoint.
Very low or unstable power supply;
Very long spurs or excessive spurs;
Wrong grounding or no grounding;
Water leak due to poor electric connections and cable clamp.
Factory Init
The Factory Init should be tried as a last option to recover the equipment control when the
equipment presents some problem related to the function blocks or the communication. This
operation must only be carried out by authorized technical personnel and with the process
offline, since the equipment will be configured with standard and factory data.
This procedure resets all the configurations run on the equipment, after which a partial download
should be performed. With exception to the equipment physical address and the GSD identifier
number selector parameter. After doing this, all configurations must be remade according to their
application.
Two magnetic tools should be used to this effect, on the equipment, withdraw the nut that fixes the
identification tag on the top of the housing, so that access is gained to the "S" and "Z" holes.
The operations to follow are:
1) Switch off the equipment, insert the magnetic tools and keep them in the holes (the magnetic
end in the holes);
2) Power up the equipment;
3) As soon as Factory Init is shown on the display, take off the tools and wait for the "5" symbol on
the right upper corner of the display to unlit, thus indicating the end of the operation.
This procedure makes effective the entire factory configuration and will eliminate eventual problems
with the function blocks or with the equipment communication.
Note that this procedure must be performed by authorized personal only and with the process
switched off, since the equipment will be configured with standard and factory data.
4.2
Maintenance
Symptoms
Probable Causes
Excessive noise or spiking in the
bus or very high signal.
Humidity in the terminal block and/or connectors
causing low signal isolation, low isolation or bad
operation power supply and/or devices and/or
terminators etc inadequate shield grounding,
excessive log or spur, inadequate amount of
terminators or noise source near the Profibus
cabling.
Excessive transmissions or
intermittent communication.
Inadequate cabling or spur length; power supply
voltage in the wrong device terminal block; bad
device operation; improper terminals,
inadequate shielding or grounding, the amount
of devices for spur in the network etc.
Communication fails with some
devices.
Repeated address in the bus, feeding tension
insufficient (<9.0 Vdc), position of the
terminators, cable excess, amount of devices
besides allowed in the segment, etc.
Intermittent powering of some or
all the equipments.
Short circuit between the bus shielding and the
terminals, defective power supply, excessive
equipment or improper amount of devices.
Recommendations
Check every device connector and terminal block,
and make sure that no humidity got in; detect bad
contact, if the shield cables are well ended and
grounded properly, the ripple level in the power
supply and in the bus are within acceptable values,
the terminator number and cable lengths and are
within the recommended values and also the cabling
is distant from noise sources. Check if the grounding
is adequate. If damaged devices generate noises,
disconnect one at a time and monitor the noise.
Check the cabling lengths, if the power supply
voltage of the devices is between 9 to 32 Vdc, if
there are no noise sources close to the Profibus bus.
In some situations, if damaged devices generate
noises or intermittence, disconnect one at a time and
monitor the status of the communication. Check the
communication AC signal course (750mV to
1000mV). Check the shielding and grounding
distribution. Check the number of devices in the
network and per spur.
Make sure all the devices have different addresses,
and note that when placing a device in the bus with
address 126, place it according to the configuration,
and only then include another device with address
126 in the bus. Check the cabling lengths and
amount of devices, as well as their power supply and
terminators positioning.
Check the shield isolation, the amount of devices
and their consumption, etc.
Table 4.2 – Symptoms, Probable Causes and Useful Maintenance Recommendations
Returning SMAR Products and/or Materials
Should it become necessary to return the transmitter and/or configurator to SMAR, simply contact
our office, informing the defective instrument serial number, and return it to our factory.
If it becomes necessary to return the transmitter and/or configurator to Smar, simply contact our
office, informing the defective instrument's serial number, and return it to our factory. In order to
speed up analysis and solution of the problem, the defective item should be returned with the
Service Request Form properly filled with a description of the failure observed and with as much
details as possible. Other information concerning to the instrument operation, such as service and
process conditions, is also helpful.
Instruments returned or to be revised outside the guarantee term should be accompanied by a
purchase order or a quote request.
4.3
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
4.4
Section 5
UNITS CODES
Value
Unit
Description
1000
1001
K
°C
Kelvin
degree Celsius
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
°F
°R
r
°
'
''
gon
degree Fahrenheit
degree Rankine
radian
degree
minute
second
gon (or grade)
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
rev
m
km
cm
mm
revolution
meter
kilometer
centimeter
millimeter
micrometer
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
μm
nm
pm
Å
ft
in
yd
mile
nautical mile
m2
km2
cm2
dm2
mm2
a
ha
in2
2
ft
yd2
mile2
m³
dm3
cm3
mm3
L
cl
ml
hl
in3
ft3
yd3
mile3
pint
nanometer
picometer
angstrom
feet
inch
yard
mile
nautical mile
square meter
square kilometer
square centimeter
square decimeter
square millimeter
are
hectare
square inch
square feet
square yard
square mile
cubic meter
cubic decimeter
cubic centimeter
cubic millimeter
liter
centiliter
milliliter
hectoliter
cubic inch
cubic feet
cubic yard
cubic mile
pint
Equivalence
SI
ΔT = 1°C is equal to
ΔT = 1K
1 r = 1 m/m = 1
1 ° = (π/180)rad
1 ‘ = (1°/60)
1 ” = (1‘/60)
1 gon = (π/200)rad
SI
1 Å = 10-10m
1 nautical mile = 1852 meters
1 a = 102 m2
4
2
1 ha = 10 m
1 L = 10-3 m3
5.1
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Value
5.2
Unit
quart
gallon
ImpGal
bushel
bbl
bbl (liq)
SCF
s
ks
ms
Description
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
μs
min
h
d
m/s
mm/s
m/h
km/h
knot
in/s
ft/s
yd/s
in/min
ft/min
yd/min
in/h
ft/h
yd/h
MPH
m/s2
Hz
THz
GHz
MHz
kHz
1/s
1/min
quart
US gallon
Imperial gallon
bushel
barrel
barrel liquid
standard cubic foot
second
kilosecond
millisecond
microsecond
minute
hour
day
meter per second
millimeter per second
meter per hour
kilometer per hour
knot
inch per second
feet per second
yard per second
inch per minute
feet per minute
yard per minute
inch per hour
feet per hour
yard per hour
miles per hour
meter per second per second
hertz
terahertz
gigahertz
megahertz
kilohertz
per second
per minute
1084
rev/s
revolutions per second
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
RPM
r/s
1/s2
kg
g
mg
revolutions per minute
radian per second
per second per second
kilogram
gram
milligram
1091
Mg
megagram
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
t
oz
lb
STon
LTon
metric ton
ounce
pound (mass)
short ton
long ton
1097
kg/m3
kilograms per cubic meter
Equivalence
1 bbl = 42 US gallons
1 liquid bbl = 31.5 US gallons
SI
1 min = 60 s
1 h = 60 min
1 d = 24 h
1 knot = 1.852 km/h
1 Hz = 1 s-1
SI
1 t = 103kg
1 short ton = 2000 pounds
1 long ton = 2240 pounds
Units
Value
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
Unit
3
Mg/m
kg/dm3
g/cm3
g/m3
t/m3
kg/L
g/ml
g/L
lb/in3
lb/ft3
lb/gal
STon/yd3
degTwad
degBaum hv
degBaum lt
degAPI
SGU
kg/m
mg/m
tex
kg-m2
kg-m/s
N
MN
kN
mN
μN
kg-m2/s
N-m
MN-m
kN-m
mN-m
Pa
GPa
MPa
kPa
mPa
μPa
hPa
bar
mbar
torr
atm
psi
psia
psig
g/cm2
kg/cm2
inH2O
inH2O (4°C)
inH2O (68°F)
Description
megagrams per cubic meter
kilograms per decimeter
grams per cubic centimeter
grams per cubic meter
metric tons per cubic meter
kilograms per liter
grams per milliliter
grams per liter
pounds per cubic inch
pounds per cubic foot
pounds per US gallon
short tons per cubic yard
degrees Twaddell
degrees Baume heavy
degrees Baume light
degrees API
specific gravity units
kilograms per meter
milligrams per meter
tex
kilogram square meter
kilogram meter per second
newton
meganewton
kilonewton
millinewton
micronewton
kilogram square meter per second
newton meter
meganewton meter
kilonewton meter
millinewton meter
pascal
gigapascal
megapascal
kilopascal
millipascal
micropascal
hectopascal
bar
millibar
torr
atmospheres
pounds per square inch
ponds per square inch absolute
pounds per square inch guage
gram per square centimeter
kilogram per square centimeter
inches of water
inches of water at 4°C
inches of water at 68°F
Equivalence
1 STon = 2000 pounds
1 tex = 10-6kg/m = 1 g/km
1 N = 1 kg-m/s2
1 Pa = 1 N/m2
1 bar = 100 kPa
1 mbar = 1 hPa
unreferenced or differential pressure
referenced to a vacuum
referenced to atmosphere
5.3
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Value
5.4
Unit
Description
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
mmH2O
mmH2O (4°C)
mmH2O (68°F)
ftH2O
ftH2O (4°C)
ftH2O (68°F)
inHg
inHg (0°C)
mmHg
mmHg (0°C)
Pa-s
m2/s
P
cP
St
cSt
N/m
mN/m
J
EJ
PJ
TJ
GJ
MJ
kJ
mJ
WH
TWH
GWH
MWH
KWH
cal
kcal
millimeters of water
millimeters of water at 4°C
millimeters of water at 68°F
feet of water
feet of water at 4°C
feet of water at 68°F
inches of mercury
inches of mercury at 0°C
millimeters of mercury
millimeters of mercury at 0°C
Pascal second
square meter per second
poise
centipoise
stokes
centistokes
newton per meter
millinewton per meter
joule
exajoules
petajoules
terajoules
gigajoules
megajoules
kilojoules
millijoules
watt hour
terawatt hour
gigawatt hour
megawatt hour
kilowatt hour
calorie
kilocalorie
1182
Mcal
megacalorie
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
Btu
decatherm
ft-lb
W
TW
GW
MW
British thermal unit
decatherm
foot-pound
watt
terawatt
gigawatt
megawatt
1190
KW
kilowatt
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
mW
μW
nW
pW
Mcal/h
MJ/h
milliwatt
microwatt
nanowatt
picowatt
megacalorie per hour
megajoule per hour
1197
Btu/h
British thermal unit per hour
1198
1199
hp
W/(m-K)
horsepower
watt per meter kelvin
Equivalence
1 cP = 1 mPa-s
1 cSt = 1 mm2/s
1 J = 1 N-m
1 W-h = 3.6 kJ
1 cal = 4.184 J
1 Btu = 0.2519958 kcal
1 W = 1 J/s
Units
Value
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
Unit
2
W/(m -K)
m2-K/W
J/K
kJ/K
J/(kg-K)
kJ/(kg-K)
J/kg
MJ/kg
kJ/kg
A
kA
mA
μA
nA
pA
C
MC
kC
μC
nC
pC
A-h
C/m3
C/mm3
C/cm3
kC/m3
mC/m3
μC/m
C/m2
C/mm2
C/cm2
kC/m2
mC/m2
3
μC/m2
V/m
MV/m
kV/m
V/cm
mV/m
μV/m
V
MV
KV
mV
μV
F
mF
μF
nF
pF
F/m
Description
watt per square meter kelvin
square meter kelvin per watt
joule per kelvin
kilojoule per kelvin
joule per kilogram kelvin
kilojoule per kilogram kelvin
joule per kilogram
megajoule per kilogram
kilojoule per kilogram
ampere
kiloampere
milliampere
microampere
nanoampere
picoampere
coulomb
megacoulomb
kilocoulomb
microcoulomb
nanocoulomb
picocoulomb
ampere hour
coulomb per cubic meter
coulomb per cubic millimeter
coulomb per cubic centimeter
kilocoulomb per cubic meter
millicoulomb per cubic meter
microcoulomb per cubic meter
Equivalence
SI
1 C = 1 A-s
1 A-h = 3.6 kC
coulomb per square meter
coulomb per square millimeter
coulomb per square centimeter
kilocoulomb per square meter
millicoulomb per square meter
microcoulomb per square meter
volt per meter
megavolt per meter
kilovolt per meter
volt per centimeter
millivolt per meter
microvolt per meter
volt
megavolt
kilovolt
millivolt
microvolt
1 V = 1 W/A
farad
millifarad
microfarad
1 F = 1 C/V
nanofarad
picofarad
farad per meter
5.5
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Value
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
5.6
Unit
μF/m
nF/m
pF/m
C-m
A/m2
MA/m2
A/cm2
kA/m2
A/m
kA/m
A/cm
T
mT
μT
nT
Wb
mWb
Wb/m
kWb/m
H
mH
μH
nH
pH
H/m
μH/m
nH/m
A-m2
N-m2/A
Wb-m
Ohm
GOhm
MOhm
kOhm
mOhm
μOhm
S
kS
mS
μS
Ohm-m
GOhm-m
MOhm-m
kOhm-m
Ohm-cm
mOhm-m
μOhm-m
nOhm-m
S/m
MS/m
kS/m
Description
Equivalence
microfarad per meter
nanofarad per meter
picofarad per meter
coulomb meter
ampere per square meter
megampere per square meter
ampere per square centimeter
kiloampere per square meter
ampere per meter
kiloampere per meter
ampere per centimeter
tesla
millitesla
microtesla
nanotesla
weber
milliweber
weber per meter
kiloweber per meter
henry
millihenry
microhenry
nanohenry
picohenry
henry per meter
microhenry per meter
nanohenry per meter
ampere square meter
newton square meter per ampere
weber meter
Ohm
gigaOhm
megaOhm
kiloOhm
milliOhm
microOhm
siemens
kilosiemens
millisiemens
microsiemens
Ohm meter
gigaOhm meter
megaOhm meter
kiloOhm meter
Ohm centimeter
milliOhm meter
microOhm meter
nanoOhm meter
siemens per meter
megasiemens per meter
kilosiemens per meter
1 T = 1 Wb/m2
1 Wb = 1 V-s
1 H = 1 Wb/A
1 Ω = 1 V/A
1 S = 1 Ω-1
Units
Value
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
Unit
mS/cm
Description
μS/mm
1/H
sr
W/sr
W/(sr-m2)
W/(m2)
lm
lm-s
lm-h
lm/m2
lm/W
lx
lx-s
cd
cd/m2
g/s
g/min
g/h
g/d
kg/s
kg/min
kg/h
kg/d
t/s
t/min
t/h
millisiemens per centimeter
micorsiemens per millimeter
per henry
steradian
watt per steradian
watt per steradian square meter
watt per square meter
lumen
lumen second
lumen hour
lumen per square meter
lumen per watt
lux
lux second
candela
candela per square meter
gram per second
gram per minute
gram per hour
gram per day
kilogram per second
kilogram per minute
kilogram per hour
kilogram per day
metric ton per second
metric ton per minute
metric ton per hour
1329
t/d
metric ton per day
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
lb/s
lb/min
lb/h
lb/d
STon/s
STon/min
STon/h
STon/d
LTon/s
pound per second
pound per minute
pound per hour
pound per day
short ton per second
short ton per minute
short ton per hour
short ton per day
long ton per second
1339
LTon/min
long ton per minute
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
LTon/h
LTon/d
%
% sol/wt
% sol/vol
% stm qual
% plato
m3/s
m3/min
m3/h
m3/d
L/s
L/min
long ton per hour
long ton per day
percent
percent solids per weight
percent solids per volume
percent steam quality
percent plato
cubic meter per second
cubic meter per minute
cubic meter per hour
cubic meter per day
liter per second
liter per minute
Equivalence
1 sr = 1 m2/m2 = 1
1 lm = 1 cd-sr
1 lm-h = 3600 lm-s
1 lx = 1 lm/m2
SI
1 t = 103 kg
1 STon = 2000 pounds
1 LTon = 2240 pounds
5.7
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Value
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
5.8
Unit
L/h
L/d
ML/d
CFS
CFM
CFH
ft3/d
SCFM
SCFH
gal/s
GPM
gal/h
gal/d
Mgal/d
ImpGal/s
ImpGal/min
ImpGal/h
ImpGal/d
bbl/s
bbl/min
bbl/h
bbl/d
W/m2
mW/m²
μW/m2
pW/m2
Pa-s/m3
N-s/m
Pa-s/m
B
dB
mol
kmol
mmol
μmol
kg/mol
g/mol
m3/mol
dm3/mol
cm3/mol
L/mol
J/mol
kJ/mol
J/(mol-K)
mol/m3
mol/dm3
mol/L
mol/kg
mmol/kg
Bq
MBq
Description
liter per hour
liter per day
megaliter per day
cubic feet per second
cubic feet per minute
cubic feet per hour
cubic feet per day
standard cubic feet per minute
standard cubic feet per hour
US gallon per second
US gallon per minute
US gallon per hour
US gallon per day
mega US gallon per day
Imperial gallon per second
Imperial gallon per minute
Imperial gallon per hour
Imperial gallon per day
barrel per second
barrel per minute
barrel per hour
barrel per day
watt per square meter
milliwatt per square meter
microwatt per square meter
picowatt per square meter
pascal second per cubic meter
newton second per meter
pascal second per meter
bel
decibel
mole
kilomole
millimole
micromole
kilogram per mole
gram per mole
cubic meter per mole
cubic decimeter per mole
cubic centimeter per mole
liters per mole
joule per mole
kilojoule per mole
joule per mole kelvin
mole per cubic meter
mole per cubic decimeter
mole per liter
mole per kilogram
millimole per kilogram
becquerel
megabecquerel
Equivalence
1 bbl = 42 US gallons
1 dB = 10-1B
SI
1 Bq = 1-s-1
Units
Value
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
Unit
kBq
Bq/kg
kBq/kg
MBq/kg
Gy
mGy
rad
Sv
mSv
rem
C/kg
mC/kg
R
1/J-m3
e/V-m3
m3/C
V/K
mV/K
pH
ppm
ppb
ppt
degBrix
degBall
proof/vol
proof/mass
lb/ImpGal
kcal/s
kcal/min
kcal/h
kcal/d
Mcal/s
Mcal/min
Mcal/d
kJ/s
kJ/min
kJ/h
kJ/d
MJ/s
MJ/min
MJ/d
Btu/s
Btu/min
Btu/day
μgal/s
mgal/s
kgal/s
Mgal/s
μgal/min
mgal/min
kgal/min
Description
kilobequerel
becquerel per kilogram
kilobecquerel per kilogram
megabecquerel per kilogram
gray
milligray
rad
sievert
millisievert
rem
coulomb per kilogram
millicoulomb per kilogram
röntgen
Equivalence
1 Gy = 1 J/kg
1 rad = 10-2 Gy
1 Sv = 1 J/kg
1 rem = 10-2 Sv
1 R = 2.58 x 10-4 C/kg
cubic meter per coulomb
volt per kelvin
millivolt per kelvin
pH
parts per million
parts per billion
parts per thousand
degrees Brix
degrees Balling
proof per volume
proof per mass
pound per Imperial gallon
kilocalorie per second
kilocalorie per minute
kilocalorie per hour
kilocalorie per day
megacalorie per second
megacalorie per minute
megacalorie per day
kilojoules per second
kilojoules per minute
kilojoules per hour
kilojoules per day
megajoules per second
megajoules per minute
megajoules per day
British thermal units per seoncd
British thermal units per minute
British thermal units per day
micro US gallon per second
milli US gallon per second
kilo US gallon per second
mega US gallon per second
micro US gallon per minute
milli US gallon per second
kilo US gallon per minute
5.9
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Value
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
5.10
Unit
Mgal/min
μgal/h
mgal/h
kgal/h
Mgal/h
μgal/d
mgal/d
kgal/d
μImpGal/s
mImpGal/s
kImpGal/s
MImpGal/s
μImpGal/min
mImpGal/min
kImpGal/min
MImpGal/min
μImpGal/h
mImpGal/h
kImpGal/h
MImpGal/h
μImpGal/d
mImpGal/d
kImpGal/d
MImpGal/d
μbbl/s
mbbl/s
kbbl/s
Mbbl/s
μbbl/min
mbbl/min
kbbl/min
Mbbl/min
μbbl/h
mbbl/h
kbbl/h
Mbbl/h
μbbl/d
mbbl/d
kbbl/d
Mbbl/d
μm3/s
mm3/s
km3/s
Mm3/s
μm3/min
mm3/min
km3/min
Mm3/min
μm3/h
mm3/h
km3/h
Description
mega US gallon per minute
micro US gallon per hour
milli US gallon per hour
kilo US gallon per hour
mega US gallon per hour
micro US gallon per day
milli US gallon per day
kilo US gallon per day
micro imperial gallon per second
milli imerial gallon per second
kilo imperial gallon per second
mega imperial gallon per second
micro imperial gallon per minute
milli imerial gallon per minute
kilo imperial gallon per minute
mega imperial gallon per minute
micro imperial gallon per hour
milli imerial gallon per hour
kilo imperial gallon per hour
mega imperial gallon per hour
micro imperial gallon per day
milli imerial gallon per day
kilo imperial gallon per day
mega imperial gallon per day
microbarrel per second
millibarrel per second
kilobarrel per second
megabarrel per second
microbarrel per minute
millibarrel per minute
kilobarrel per minute
megabarrel per minute
microbarrel per hour
millibarrel per hour
kilobarrel per hour
megabarrel per hour
microbarrel per day
millibarrel per day
kilobarrel per day
megabarrel per day
cubic micrometer per second
cubic millimeter per second
cubic kilometer per second
cubic megameter per second
cubic micrometer per minute
cubic millimeter per minute
cubic kilometer per minute
cubic megameter per minute
cubic micrometer per hour
cubic millimeter per hour
cubic kilometer per hour
Equivalence
Units
Value
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
Unit
3
Mm /h
μm /d
mm3/d
km3/d
Mm3/d
cm3/s
cm3/min
cm3/h
cm3/d
kcal/kg
Btu/lb
kL
kL/min
kL/h
kL/d
vendor-specific 1521
vendor-specific 1522
vendor-specific 1523
vendor-specific 1524
vendor-specific 1525
vendor-specific 1526
vendor-specific 1527
vendor-specific 1528
vendor-specific 1529
vendor-specific 1530
vendor-specific 1531
vendor-specific 1532
vendor-specific 1533
vendor-specific 1534
vendor-specific 1535
vendor-specific 1536
vendor-specific 1537
vendor-specific 1538
vendor-specific 1539
vendor-specific 1540
vendor-specific 1541
vendor-specific 1542
vendor-specific 1543
vendor-specific 1544
vendor-specific 1545
vendor-specific 1546
vendor-specific 1547
vendor-specific 1548
vendor-specific 1549
vendor-specific1550
S/cm
3
μS/cm
mS/m
μS/m
MOHM*cm
KOHM*cm
Description
Equivalence
cubic megameter per hour
cubic micrometer per day
cubic millimeter per day
cubic kilometer per day
cubic megameter per day
cubic centimeter per second
cubic centimeter per minute
cubic centimeter per hour
cubic centimeter per day
kilocalorie per kilogram
British thermal unit per pound
kiloliter
kiloliter per mnute
kiloliter per hour
kiloliter per day
Siemens per centimeter
Micro Siemens per centimeter
Milli Siemens per meter
Micro Siemens per meter
Mega Ohm times centimeter
Kilo Ohm times centimeter
5.11
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
Value
Unit
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
Gew%
mg/l
μg/l
%Sät
vpm
%vol
ml/min
mg/dm3
mg/l
mg/m³
1567
...
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
Reserved
...
Reserved
Textual unit definition
Not used
None
unknown
special
Description
Milli gramm per liter
Micro gramm per Liter
Volume percent
Milli liter per minute
Milli gramm per cubic deci meter
Milli gramm per Liter
Milli gramm per cubic meter
Table 5.1 - Unit Codes
5.12
Equivalence
Appendix A
SMAR WARRANTY CERTIFICATE
1.
SMAR guarantees its products for a period of 24 (twenty four) months, starting on the day of
issuance of the invoice. The guarantee is valid regardless of the day that the product was
installed.
2.
SMAR products are guaranteed against any defect originating from manufacturing, mounting,
whether of a material or manpower nature, provided that the technical analysis reveals the
existence of a quality failure liable to be classified under the meaning of the word, duly verified
by the technical team within the warranty terms.
3.
Exceptions are proven cases of inappropriate use, wrong handling or lack of basic maintenance
compliant to the equipment manual provisions. SMAR does not guarantee any defect or
damage caused by an uncontrolled situation, including but not limited to negligence, user
imprudence or negligence, natural forces, wars or civil unrest, accidents, inadequate
transportation or packaging due to the user’s responsibility, defects caused by fire, theft or stray
shipment, improper electric voltage or power source connection, electric surges, violations,
modifications not described on the instructions manual, and/or if the serial number was altered
or removed, substitution of parts, adjustments or repairs carried out by non-authorized
personnel; inappropriate product use and/or application that cause corrosion, risks or
deformation on the product, damages on parts or components, inadequate cleaning with
incompatible chemical products, solvent and abrasive products incompatible with construction
materials, chemical or electrolytic influences, parts and components susceptible to decay from
regular use, use of equipment beyond operational limits (temperature, humidity, etc.) according
to the instructions manual. In addition, this Warranty Certificate excludes expenses with
transportation, freight, insurance, all of which are the customer’s responsibility.
4.
For warranty or non-warranty repair, please contact your representative.
Further information about address and contacts can be found on www.smar.com/contactus.asp
5.
In cases needing technical assistance at the customer’s facilities during the warranty period,
the hours effectively worked will not be billed, although SMAR shall be reimbursed from the
service technician’s transportation, meals and lodging expenses, as well dismounting/mounting
costs, if any.
6.
The repair and/or substitution of defective parts do not extend, under any circumstance, the
original warranty term, unless this extension is granted and communicated in writing by SMAR.
7.
No Collaborator, Representative or any third party has the right, on SMAR’s behalf, to grant
warranty or assume some responsibility for SMAR products. If any warranty would be granted
or assumed without SMAR’s written consent, it will be declared void beforehand.
8.
Cases of Extended Warranty acquisition must be negotiated with and documented by SMAR.
9.
If necessary to return the equipment or product for repair or analysis, contact us.
See item 4.
10. In cases of repair or analysis, the customer must fill out the Revision Requisition Form (FSR)
included in the instructions manual, which contains details on the failure observed on the field,
the circumstances it occurred, in addition to information on the installation site and process
conditions. Equipments and products excluded from the warranty clauses must be approved by
the client prior to the service execution.
11. In cases of repairs, the client shall be responsible for the proper product packaging and SMAR
will not cover any damage occurred in shipment.
A.1
Series 302 FIELDBUS FOUNDATION – Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual
12. In cases of repairs under warranty, recall or outside warranty, the client is responsible for the
correct packaging and packing and SMAR shall not cover any damage caused during
transportation. Service expenses or any costs related to installing and uninstalling the product
are the client´s sole responsibility and SMAR does not assume any accountability before the
buyer.
13. It is the customer’s responsibility to clean and decontaminate products and accessories prior to
shipping them for repair, and SMAR and its dealer reserve themselves the right to refuse the
service in cases not compliant to those conditions. It is the customer’s responsibility to tell
SMAR and its dealer when the product was utilized in applications that contaminate the
equipment with harmful products during its handling and repair. Any other damages,
consequences, indemnity claims, expenses and other costs caused by the lack of
decontamination will be attributed to the client. Kindly, fill out the Declaration of
Decontamination prior to shipping products to SMAR or its dealers, which can be accessed at
www.smar.com/doc/declarationofcontamination.pdf and include in the packaging.
14. This warranty certificate is valid only when accompanying the purchase invoice.
A.2
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement