AE4-1380 PDF R4
AE4-1380 R4
July 2015
AE4-1380 R4
Guide for the Use of R-290 Refrigerant in Copeland™
Refrigeration Compressors
Table of Contents
Safety Instructions.......................................................................... 2
Safety Icon Explanation.................................................................. 2
Instruction Pertaining to Risk of Electrical Shock, Fire, or
Injury to Persons............................................................................ 3
Safety Statements.......................................................................... 3
1. General Information.................................................................. 4
2. Compressor Nomenclature....................................................... 4
3. System Component Compatibility............................................. 4
4. Expansion Device..................................................................... 4
5. Evaporator and Condenser....................................................... 4
6. Filter Drier................................................................................. 4
7. Evacuation and Charging Equipment....................................... 4
8. Refrigerant Charge................................................................... 5
9. Moisture.................................................................................... 5
10. Leak Control............................................................................. 5
11. High Pressure Limit Control...................................................... 5
12. Oil Type and Specification........................................................ 5
13. Application Instructions............................................................. 5
© 2015 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
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AE4-1380 R4
Safety Instructions
Safety Instructions
Copeland™ compressors are manufactured according to the latest U.S. and European Safety Standards.
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Safety Icon Explanation
DANGER
DANGER indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result
in death or serious injury.
WARNING
WARNING indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could
result in death or serious injury.
CAUTION
CAUTION, used with the safety alert symbol, indicates a hazardous
situation which, if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury.
SAFETY
INSTRUCTIONS
CAUTION
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS is used to indicate general instructions relative
to safe work practices.
CAUTION, without the safety alert symbol, is used to address practices
not related to personal injury.
FLAMMABILITY
DISCLAIMER
Although all statements and information contained in this bulletin are believed to be accurate and reliable, they are for general information
purposes only and reader or user assumes all risk and liability for use of those information, actions and events obtained. National laws must
be consulted and adhered to under all circumstances as well.
Emerson and/or its employees make no representations or warranties of any kind, expressed or implied, about the completeness, accuracy,
reliability, suitability or availability with respect to the information, products, services provided by the users (service technicians) and/or any
third party.
The handling of flammable refrigerants and its associated systems and equipment is to be done by qualified and trained technicians only.
In no event will Emerson and/or its employees be liable for any loss or damage including without limitation, indirect or consequential loss or
damage, or any loss or damage whatsoever arising from the use of the information provided by this bulletin.
© 2015 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
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Instructions Pertaining to Risk of Electrical Shock, Fire, or Injury to Persons
WARNING
ELECTRICAL SHOCK HAZARD
• Failure to follow these warnings could result in serious personal injury.
• Disconnect and lock out power before servicing.
• Discharge all capacitors before servicing.
• Use compressor with grounded system only.
• Molded electrical plug must be used when required.
• Refer to original equipment wiring diagrams.
•
WARNING
PRESSURIZED SYSTEM HAZARD
• Failure to follow these warnings could result in serious personal injury.
• System contains refrigerant and oil under pressure.
• Remove refrigerant from both the high and low compressor side before
removing compressor.
•
• Never install a system and leave it unattended when it has no charge,
a holding charge, or with the service valves closed without electrically
locking out the system.
• Use only approved refrigerants and refrigeration oils.
• Personal safety equipment must be used.
WARNING
BURN HAZARD
• Failure to follow these warnings could result in serious personal injury or
property damage.
• Do not touch the compressor until it has cooled down.
• Ensure that materials and wiring do not touch high temperature areas of
the compressor.
• Use caution when brazing system commponents.
• Personal safety equipment must be used.
CAUTION
COMPRESSOR HANDLING
• Failure to follow these warnings could result in personal injury or
property damage.
• Use the appropriate lifting devices to move compressors.
• Personal safety equipment must be used.
FLAMMABILITY
Safety Statements
• Refrigerant compressors must be employed only for their intended use.
• Only qualified and authorized RHVAC refrigeration personnel are permitted to
install, commission and maintain this equipment.
• Electrical connections must be made by qualified electrical personnel.
• All valid standards and codes for installing, servicing, and maintaining electrical and
refrigeration equipment must be observed.
• Guidelines for the safe use of hydrocarbon refrigerants (A handbook for engineers,
technicians, trainers and policy makers) can be downloaded from www.gtz.de/proklima
© 2015 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
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1. General Information
2. Compressor Nomenclature
CAUTION
DANGER
R-290 is flammable and should be handled by
qualified personnel in accordance with
appropriate care for safe use. Emerson Climate
Technologies highly recommends that service
personnel use spark proof tools, anti-static
gloves for hand and anti-static clothes. Avoid the
build-up of electrostatic charge, work in a well
ventilated area. Fire and smoking is forbidden!
Standard refrigeration compressors cannot
be used in R-290 applications under any
circumstances!
R-290 (Propane) refrigerant can be used as a
Hydrocarbon refrigerant alternative for traditional HCFC/
HFC low or medium temperature applications. R-290
CANNOT be used as a retrofit refrigerant, it is only to
be used in new systems specifically designed for R-290.
Compressors designed for the use of R-290 will not
be charged with a positive dry air charge but will have
a slight vacuum from the factory.
There are only a limited number of R-290 compressors
available at this time; the compressor's nomenclature
will be designated with a "U" in the eighth character for
R-290 application. Example: ASE18C4U-IAA
3. System Component Compatibility
All of the components in the refrigeration system that
may contain contaminants should conform to the
requirements outlined in form DIN 8964(1). (AHRI is
developing standards specific to Hydrocarbon-only
refrigerants such as R-290 and the new specs will be
out soon.)
Before supplying compressors for use with R-290, it
is first necessary to perform an evaluation of the risks
involved with the use of this refrigerant. The customer
should perform a risk assessment to ensure proper
knowledge about the handling and use of the R-290 in
the refrigerant system (for further information please
contact the Emerson Climate Technologies Application
Engineering Department). It is recommended that
manufacturers of refrigeration systems using flammable
refrigerants such as R-290, develop accurate charging,
leak testing and system testing methods to guarantee
that all necessary safety procedures have been met.
The presence of the contaminants paraffin and silicon
is not permitted.
4. Expansion Device
For a new application the first component to be
designed should be the capillary tube.
Safety standards have been developed for the use of
hydrocarbons, including leakage simulation tests and
specifications for several electrical components which
may come into contact with leaking refrigerants. The
following set of UL and international standards, from
the International Electrotechnical Commission, on
electrical safety contains rules for the design and testing
of appliances operating with flammable refrigerants:
Generally, when designing an R-290 system based
on an existing R-22 system, the same capillary tube
can be used although the length should be decreased
by approximately 5%. It is not recommended to use a
capillary tube with an internal diameter less than .024”
(0.6 mm).
• UL-471
• IEC 60335-2-24: Household refrigerators and
freezers
• IEC 60335-2-34: Motor compressors
• IEC 60335-2-89: Commercial refrigerators and
freezers
• IEC 60335-2-40 : Heat pumps, air conditioners and
dehumidifiers
For accurate sizing of TXV type expansion devices
please contact the TXV manufacturer.
For each system the optimal dimensioning of the
capillary tube should be performed in an appropriate
test laboratory, in order to obtain the best working
conditions.
(1) The soluble residual contents and solid residues must be less than 100mg/m2 of system internal surface area.
Of this a maximum of 40 mg/m2 can be soluble and the maximum of 60mg /m2 can be insoluble.
© 2015 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
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5. Evaporator and Condenser
8. Refrigerant Charge
Evaporator and condenser system options are available
to reduce the required system charge. Examples would
be smaller tubing dimensions and micro-channel style
coils.
For each system, the optimal refrigerant charge should
be determined in an appropriate test laboratory in order
to obtain the best working conditions. In addition, the
system charge must not exceed the established SNAP
guidelines.
6. Filter Drier
The US Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP)
The SNAP ruling for hydrocarbon is divided into two
components:
Refrigerant R-290 requires the use of a normal filter
drier. The Emerson EK Filter Driers are suitable for use
with R-290 refrigerant (Propane). These filter driers
use an XH-6 molecular sieve and this MS provides the
best water adsorption capacity of any of the MS’s on
the market today.
Refrigerators and freezers: the charge limitations
are 57g (2.0 ounces) in any refrigerator, freezer, or
combination refrigerator and freezer.
Retail food refrigerator and freezers: the charge
limitation for propane R-290 is 150g (5.29 ounces).
Always consult the manufacturer for the proper selection
of the filter drier.
7. Evacuation and Charging Equipment
(For more information, visit http://www.epa.gov/ozone/
snap.)
Good refrigeration practice suggests system evacuation
from both low side and high side, achieving a minimum
level of 0.14 mbar (100 μHg) with a non-condensable
value of less than 0.3% by volume.
9. Moisture
In order to avoid problems that can shorten the life
of the refrigeration system, use components that are
supplied internally dried and properly sealed to prevent
the entrance of moisture. These components should
remain sealed until they are used.
Use charging equipment suitable for use of the
refrigerant R-290, and if possible, dedicate this
equipment for use only with this refrigerant.
Deep Vacuum Operation
The moisture content in a system should conform to
form DIN 8964(1). The level of moisture present in the
refrigeration circuit should be below 40ppm and after
the system has been operating, the filter dryer should
remove moisture from the system from a level below
20ppm.
WARNING
Never attempt to start a compressor while it
is in a vacuum; always break the vacuum with
a refrigerant charge before applying power.
Operating a compressor in a deep vacuum could
cause electrical arcing inside the compressor.
10. Leak Control
It is recommended that special attention be given to the
correct brazing, or other forms of union of the system
components, to avoid the possibility of leaks. It is also
recommended that a Nitrogen purge be implemented
while brazing on any refrigeration system.
A low pressure control is required for protection against
deep vacuum operation. Refrigerant compressors are
not designed for and should not be used to evacuate a
refrigeration or air conditioning system. See AE24-1105
for proper system evacuation procedures.
To maximize efficiency in controlling leaks, it is
recommended to use a leak detector designed for
use with refrigerant R-290, or as an alternative, a
detector designed for use with Helium. Consult the
manufacturer for their recommendations on the use of
their equipment.
Service and repair of R-290 systems should be
completed only by trained service technicians, taking into
account all local laws and regulations. R-290 requires
special handling and care due to its flammability. Good
ventilation is required during service of the refrigeration
system; vacuum pump vents need to be directed to
open air. An electronic scale is also recommended to
maintain the required charging accuracy.
© 2015 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
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11. High Pressure Limit Control
To protect the system, it may be necessary to install
a high pressure limit switch to control the maximum
discharge pressure. The settings on this limit switch
should be in accordance with the limits established by
the system manufacturer. High pressure switches must
comply with the ignition test requirements in section
SB5.2 of UL 471.
12. Oil Type and Specification
Compressors are charged with a specific quantity of
Lubrizol RL22HB POE oil.
CAUTION
POE must be handled carefully and the proper
protective equipment (gloves, eye protection, etc.)
must be used when handling POE lubricant. POE must
not come into contact with any surface or material that
might be harmed by POE, including without limitation,
certain polymers (e.g. PVC/CPVC and polycarbonate).
13. Application Instructions
Contact System OEM for specific application instructions.
For general compressor guidelines, please reference
AE4-1305 (Application Guidelines for AF, AR & AS
Refrigeration Hermetic Compressors) and AE4-1344
(Application Guidelines for RFT, RRT, RST Compressors).
Only use Emerson Climate Technologies listed start
components for R-290 compressor applications, as only
these components have been tested to and meet the
safety guidelines set forth by UL.
The contents of this publication are presented for informational purposes only and are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, express or implied, regarding the products or
services described herein or their use or applicability. Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. and/or its affiliates (collectively "Emerson"), as applicable, reserve the right to modify the design or
specifications of such products at any time without notice. Emerson does not assume responsibility for the selection, use or maintenance of any product. Responsibility for proper selection,
use and maintenance of any Emerson product remains solely with the purchaser or end user.
© 2015 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
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