Red Hat | ENTERPRISE LINUX 3 - STEP BY STEP GUIDE | Installation guide | Red Hat ENTERPRISE LINUX 3 - STEP BY STEP GUIDE Installation guide

Red Hat ENTERPRISE LINUX 3 - STEP BY STEP GUIDE Installation guide
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4
Installation Guide for x86,
Itanium™, AMD64, and Intel®
Extended Memory 64
Technology (Intel® EM64T)
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4: Installation Guide for x86, Itanium™, AMD64, and Intel®
Extended Memory 64 Technology (Intel® EM64T)
Copyright © 2005 Red Hat, Inc.
Red Hat, Inc.
1801 Varsity Drive
Raleigh NC 27606-2072 USA
Phone: +1 919 754 3700
Phone: 888 733 4281
Fax: +1 919 754 3701
PO Box 13588
Research Triangle Park NC 27709 USA
rhel-ig-x8664(EN)-4-Print-RHI (2004-09-24T13:10)
Copyright © 2005 by Red Hat, Inc. This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the
Open Publication License, V1.0 or later (the latest version is presently available at http://www.opencontent.org/openpub/).
Distribution of substantively modified versions of this document is prohibited without the explicit permission of the copyright
holder.
Distribution of the work or derivative of the work in any standard (paper) book form for commercial purposes is prohibited
unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
Red Hat and the Red Hat "Shadow Man" logo are registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc. in the United States and other
countries.
All other trademarks referenced herein are the property of their respective owners.
The GPG fingerprint of the security@redhat.com key is:
CA 20 86 86 2B D6 9D FC 65 F6 EC C4 21 91 80 CD DB 42 A6 0E
Table of Contents
Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... i
1. Document Conventions .......................................................................................................... i
2. How to Use This Manual ..................................................................................................... iii
2.1. We Need Feedback! .............................................................................................. iv
3. Accessibility Solutions ........................................................................................................ iv
1. Itanium System Specific Information............................................................................................ 1
1.1. Itanium System Installation Overview............................................................................... 1
1.2. Itanium Systems — The EFI Shell .................................................................................... 1
1.2.1. Itanium Systems — EFI Device Names ............................................................. 1
1.2.2. Itanium Systems — EFI System Partition .......................................................... 2
2. Steps to Get You Started................................................................................................................. 3
2.1. Where to Find Other Manuals............................................................................................ 3
2.2. Is Your Hardware Compatible? .......................................................................................... 3
2.3. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?.................................................................................... 3
2.4. Can You Install Using the CD-ROM?................................................................................ 4
2.4.1. Alternative Boot Methods ................................................................................... 4
2.4.2. Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM............................................................... 4
2.5. Preparing for a Network Installation.................................................................................. 5
2.5.1. Using ISO Images for NFS Installs .................................................................... 6
2.6. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation.............................................................................. 7
3. System Requirements Table ........................................................................................................... 9
4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux........................................................................................... 11
4.1. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface ......................................................... 11
4.1.1. A Note about Virtual Consoles ......................................................................... 12
4.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface ....................................................... 12
4.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate ....................................................................... 14
4.3. Starting the Installation Program ..................................................................................... 14
4.3.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Systems
14
4.3.2. Booting the Installation Program on Itanium Systems ..................................... 15
4.3.3. Additional Boot Options ................................................................................... 16
4.4. Selecting an Installation Method ..................................................................................... 18
4.5. Installing from CD-ROM................................................................................................. 19
4.5.1. What If the IDE CD-ROM Was Not Found? .................................................... 19
4.6. Installing from a Hard Drive ............................................................................................ 20
4.7. Performing a Network Installation................................................................................... 20
4.8. Installing via NFS ............................................................................................................ 20
4.9. Installing via FTP............................................................................................................. 21
4.10. Installing via HTTP........................................................................................................ 22
4.11. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux .......................................................................... 23
4.12. Language Selection ........................................................................................................ 23
4.13. Keyboard Configuration ................................................................................................. 24
4.14. Disk Partitioning Setup .................................................................................................. 25
4.15. Automatic Partitioning ................................................................................................... 26
4.16. Partitioning Your System ............................................................................................... 28
4.16.1. Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s) ................................................................ 30
4.16.2. Disk Druid’s Buttons ..................................................................................... 30
4.16.3. Partition Fields ................................................................................................ 31
4.16.4. Recommended Partitioning Scheme ............................................................... 31
4.16.5. Adding Partitions ............................................................................................ 33
4.16.6. Editing Partitions ............................................................................................ 35
4.16.7. Deleting a Partition ......................................................................................... 35
4.17. x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Boot Loader Configuration ..................................... 35
4.17.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration ............................................................ 37
4.17.2. Rescue Mode................................................................................................... 39
4.17.3. Alternative Boot Loaders ................................................................................ 39
4.17.4. SMP Motherboards and GRUB ...................................................................... 39
4.18. Network Configuration .................................................................................................. 40
4.19. Firewall Configuration ................................................................................................... 42
4.20. Language Support Selection .......................................................................................... 44
4.21. Time Zone Configuration ............................................................................................... 45
4.22. Set Root Password ......................................................................................................... 46
4.23. Package Group Selection ............................................................................................... 48
4.24. Preparing to Install ......................................................................................................... 49
4.25. Installing Packages......................................................................................................... 50
4.26. Installation Complete ..................................................................................................... 50
4.27. Activate Your Subscription ............................................................................................ 50
4.27.1. Provide a Red Hat Login................................................................................. 51
4.27.2. Provide Your Subscription Number ................................................................ 51
4.27.3. Connect Your System...................................................................................... 51
4.28. Itanium Systems — Booting Your Machine and Post-Installation Setup ...................... 52
4.28.1. Post-Installation Boot Loader Options............................................................ 52
4.28.2. Booting Red Hat Enterprise Linux Automatically.......................................... 52
A. Upgrading Your Current System................................................................................................ 55
A.1. Determining Whether to Upgrade or Re-Install.............................................................. 55
A.2. Upgrading Your System .................................................................................................. 56
A.3. Upgrade Boot Loader Configuration............................................................................... 56
A.4. Upgrading Packages........................................................................................................ 57
A.5. Upgrade Complete .......................................................................................................... 57
B. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux ......................................................................................... 59
C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux............................................ 61
C.1. You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux ......................................................... 61
C.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card? ............................................ 61
C.1.2. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors? .................................................. 61
C.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation .................................................................................. 62
C.2.1. Is Your Mouse Not Detected? .......................................................................... 62
C.2.2. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation .................................... 62
C.3. Trouble During the Installation ....................................................................................... 63
C.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error Message
63
C.3.2. Saving Traceback Messages Without a Diskette Drive .................................... 63
C.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables ........................................................................... 63
C.3.4. Using Remaining Space ................................................................................... 64
C.3.5. Other Partitioning Problems for x86 System Users ......................................... 64
C.3.6. Other Partitioning Problems for Itanium System Users ................................... 64
C.3.7. Are You Seeing Python Errors? ....................................................................... 64
C.4. Problems After Installation ............................................................................................. 65
C.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based System? ............ 66
C.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment ............................................................ 66
C.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)................................................... 67
C.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users ............................ 67
C.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In .................................................................. 67
C.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized? ............................................................. 68
C.4.7. Your Printer Does Not Work ............................................................................ 68
C.4.8. Problems with Sound Configuration ................................................................ 69
C.4.9. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup ....................... 69
C.4.10. Trouble with NVIDIA chipset........................................................................ 69
D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions ............................................................................................. 71
D.1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts .............................................................................................. 71
D.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It............................................ 71
D.1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many ........................................................ 73
D.1.3. Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions ............... 74
D.1.4. Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux.................................................. 75
D.1.5. Partition Naming Scheme ................................................................................ 79
D.1.6. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems.................................................. 80
D.1.7. Disk Partitions and Mount Points .................................................................... 80
D.1.8. How Many Partitions?...................................................................................... 80
E. Driver Media................................................................................................................................. 83
E.1. Why Do I Need Driver Media? ....................................................................................... 83
E.1.1. So What Is Driver Media Anyway?.................................................................. 83
E.1.2. How Do I Obtain Driver Media? ...................................................................... 83
E.1.3. Using a Driver Image During Installation ........................................................ 84
F. Additional Boot Options .............................................................................................................. 87
G. Additional Resources about Itanium and Linux....................................................................... 91
Index................................................................................................................................................... 93
Colophon............................................................................................................................................ 97
Introduction
Welcome to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide. This guide contains useful information
to assist you during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4. From fundamental concepts such as
installation preparation to the step-by-step installation procedure, this book will be a valuable resource
as you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
1. Document Conventions
When you read this manual, certain words are represented in different fonts, typefaces, sizes, and
weights. This highlighting is systematic; different words are represented in the same style to indicate
their inclusion in a specific category. The types of words that are represented this way include the
following:
command
Linux commands (and other operating system commands, when used) are represented this way.
This style should indicate to you that you can type the word or phrase on the command line
and press [Enter] to invoke a command. Sometimes a command contains words that would be
displayed in a different style on their own (such as file names). In these cases, they are considered
to be part of the command, so the entire phrase is displayed as a command. For example:
Use the cat testfile command to view the contents of a file, named testfile, in the current
working directory.
file name
File names, directory names, paths, and RPM package names are represented this way. This style
should indicate that a particular file or directory exists by that name on your system. Examples:
The .bashrc file in your home directory contains bash shell definitions and aliases for your own
use.
The /etc/fstab file contains information about different system devices and file systems.
Install the webalizer RPM if you want to use a Web server log file analysis program.
application
This style indicates that the program is an end-user application (as opposed to system software).
For example:
Use Mozilla to browse the Web.
[key]
A key on the keyboard is shown in this style. For example:
To use [Tab] completion, type in a character and then press the [Tab] key. Your terminal displays
the list of files in the directory that start with that letter.
[key]-[combination]
A combination of keystrokes is represented in this way. For example:
The [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[Backspace] key combination exits your graphical session and return you to the
graphical login screen or the console.
ii
Introduction
text found on a GUI interface
A title, word, or phrase found on a GUI interface screen or window is shown in this style. Text
shown in this style is being used to identify a particular GUI screen or an element on a GUI
screen (such as text associated with a checkbox or field). Example:
Select the Require Password checkbox if you would like your screensaver to require a password
before stopping.
top level of a menu on a GUI screen or window
A word in this style indicates that the word is the top level of a pulldown menu. If you click on
the word on the GUI screen, the rest of the menu should appear. For example:
Under File on a GNOME terminal, the New Tab option allows you to open multiple shell
prompts in the same window.
If you need to type in a sequence of commands from a GUI menu, they are shown like the
following example:
Go to Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => Programming => Emacs to start the Emacs text
editor.
button on a GUI screen or window
This style indicates that the text can be found on a clickable button on a GUI screen. For example:
Click on the Back button to return to the webpage you last viewed.
computer output
Text in this style indicates text displayed to a shell prompt such as error messages and responses
to commands. For example:
The ls command displays the contents of a directory. For example:
Desktop
Mail
about.html
backupfiles
logs
mail
paulwesterberg.png
reports
The output returned in response to the command (in this case, the contents of the directory) is
shown in this style.
prompt
A prompt, which is a computer’s way of signifying that it is ready for you to input something, is
shown in this style. Examples:
$
#
[stephen@maturin stephen]$
leopard login:
user input
Text that the user has to type, either on the command line, or into a text box on a GUI screen, is
displayed in this style. In the following example, text is displayed in this style:
To boot your system into the text based installation program, you must type in the text command at the boot: prompt.
replaceable
Text used for examples, which is meant to be replaced with data provided by the user, is displayed
in this style. In the following example, <version-number> is displayed in this style:
Introduction
iii
The directory for the kernel source is /usr/src/<version-number>/, where
<version-number> is the version of the kernel installed on this system.
Additionally, we use several different strategies to draw your attention to certain pieces of information.
In order of how critical the information is to your system, these items are marked as a note, tip,
important, caution, or warning. For example:
Note
Remember that Linux is case sensitive. In other words, a rose is not a ROSE is not a rOsE.
Tip
The directory /usr/share/doc/ contains additional documentation for packages installed on your
system.
Important
If you modify the DHCP configuration file, the changes do not take effect until you restart the DHCP
daemon.
Caution
Do not perform routine tasks as root — use a regular user account unless you need to use the root
account for system administration tasks.
Warning
Be careful to remove only the necessary Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions. Removing other partitions could result in data loss or a corrupted system environment.
2. How to Use This Manual
This manual focuses on a CD-ROM-based installation and is ideal for users (both new and old) who
want a quick and simple installation solution. It helps you prepare your system and walk you through
the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux includes multiple installation CD-ROMs. Note that only the first CD-ROM
(CD #1) is bootable. The additional installation CD-ROMs are required, even for a minimal installation. Red Hat also provides supplementary CD-ROMs containing source RPMs and documentation
for all the packages, as well as a Linux Applications CD (LACD).
iv
Introduction
Note
If you currently use Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 (or greater) on an x86 system, you can perform an
upgrade.
Although upgrades are supported by the Red Hat Enterprise Linux family on x86 processors, you
are likely to have a more consistent experience by backing up your data and then installing this
release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux over your previous Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This
recommended reinstallation method helps to ensure the best system stability possible.
To perform an upgrade, type the following command at the boot prompt:
linux upgrade
Skim
Chapter 2 Steps to Get You Started
to
review
the
basics,
then
read
Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux ,
following
the
directions
as
you
go.
Once you have chosen to perform an upgrade in the installation program, refer to
Appendix A Upgrading Your Current System.
If you are an experienced user and you do not need a review of the basics, you can skip ahead to
Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux to begin the installation process.
2.1. We Need Feedback!
If you discover a typo in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide or have thought of a way to
make this manual better, we would love to hear from you. Submit a bug report against the component
rhel-ig-x8664 in Bugzilla at:
http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
When submitting a bug report, be sure to mention the manual’s identifier:
rhel-ig-x8664(EN)-4-Print-RHI (2004-09-24T13:10)
If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation, try to be as specific as possible when describing it. If you have found an error, please include the section number and some of the surrounding
text so we can find it easily.
If you have a support question (for example, if you need help configuring X, or if you are not sure
how to partition your hard drive[s]), use the online support system by registering your subscriptions
at:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
3. Accessibility Solutions
While the graphic user interface (GUI) is convenient for sighted users, it is often inhibiting to those
with visual impairments because of the difficulty speech synthesizers have interpreting graphics. Red
Hat Enterprise Linux is an ideal operating system for users with visual limitations because the GUI is
not required by the kernel. Most modern tools including email, news, Web browsers, calendars, calculators, and much more can run on Linux without a graphical environment. The working environment
can also be customized to meet the hardware or software needs of the user.
Red Hat, Inc. is the distribution of choice for people with special needs because of the outstanding
support that is offered with the purchase of any boxed set. Many Linux distributions provide limited
Introduction
v
or nonexistent support to customers. Red Hat’s installation support is deliverable via email or via
the telephone and special circumstances will be considered and addressed for users with physical
limitations. Customers should inform the support technician if they require specialized support.
For more information, refer to:
•
http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Accessibility-HOWTO/
•
http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Keyboard-and-Console-HOWTO.html
•
The README-Accessibility file provides more information and instructions for
using some of the tools available for users with special needs. This file can be found in
/usr/share/doc/redhat-release-X/, where X is the release number of your installed
subscription.
vi
Introduction
Chapter 1.
Itanium System Specific Information
1.1. Itanium System Installation Overview
Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on an Itanium system is different from installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on an x86-based system. In general, the sequence of steps to a successful installation are
the following:
1. Boot into the Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) Shell.
2. If you cannot boot from the CD-ROM, make an LS-120 diskette from the boot image file provided with Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
3. Using the EFI Shell and the ELILO boot loader, load and run the kernel, and boot into the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux installation program.
1.2. Itanium Systems — The EFI Shell
Before you start to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on an Itanium, you must have a basic understanding of the EFI Shell, what it does, and the information it can provide.
The EFI Shell is a console interface used to launch applications (such as the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation program), load EFI protocols and device drivers, and execute simple scripts. It is similar
to a DOS console and can only access media that is FAT16 (VFAT) formatted.
The EFI Shell also contains common utilities that can be used on the EFI system partition. These
utilities include edit, type, cp, rm, and mkdir. For a list of utilities and other commands, type help
at the EFI Shell prompt.
The EFI Shell contains a boot loader called ELILO. Additional information on EFI can be found at
the following URL:
http://developer.intel.com/technology/efi/index.htm
1.2.1. Itanium Systems — EFI Device Names
The map command can be used to list all devices and file systems that EFI can recognize. When your
Itanium system boots into the EFI shell, it probes your system in the following order:
1. LS-120 drive (if it contains media)
2. IDE hard drives on the primary IDE interface
3. IDE hard drives on the secondary IDE interface
4. SCSI hard drives on the SCSI interface
5. CD-ROM drives on the IDE interface
6. CD-ROM drives on the SCSI interface
2
Chapter 1. Itanium System Specific Information
To view the results of this system poll, type the following command at the EFI Shell prompt:
map
The output is listed in the order the system was probed. So, all FAT16 file systems are listed first, then
IDE hard drives, then SCSI hard drives, then IDE CD-ROM drives, and finally SCSI CD-ROM drives.
For example, output of the map command might look like the following:
Device
fs0
fs1
fs2
blk0
blk1
blk2
blk3
blk4
blk5
blk6
blk7
blk8
blk9
mapping table
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
Device:00)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
Device:80)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
Device:FF)/CDROM(Entry1)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
Device:00)
Device:00)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
Device:80)
Device:80)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
Device:80)/HD(Part2,Sig00000000)
Device:80)/HD(Part3,Sig00000000)
Device:80)/HD(Part3,Sig00000000)/HD(Part1,Sig725F7772)
Device:FF)
Device:FF)/CDROM(Entry1)
Device:FF)/CDROM(Entry1)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
In this example, there is an LS-120 diskette in the LS-120 drive as well as a CD-ROM in the CDROM drive. All the listings beginning with fs are FAT16 file systems that EFI can read. All the
listings beginning with blk are block devices that EFI recognizes. Both the file systems and block
devices are listed in the order they are probed. Therefore, fs0 is the system partition on the LS-120,
fs1 is the system partition on the hard drive, and fs2 is the system partition on the CD-ROM.
1.2.2. Itanium Systems — EFI System Partition
When partitioning your hard drive for Linux, you must create a system partition that is FAT16 (VFAT)
formatted and has a mount point of /boot/efi/. This partition contains the installed Linux kernel(s)
as well as the ELILO configuration file (elilo.conf). The elilo.conf file contains a list of kernels
from which you can boot your system.
Chapter 2.
Steps to Get You Started
2.1. Where to Find Other Manuals
Red Hat Enterprise Linux manuals are available online or on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Documentation CD included with your Red Hat Enterprise Linux subscription.
If you are a new user and need information on getting started with Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you may
find the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Step By Step Guide to be helpful.
For an overview of system administration, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Introduction to System Administration. If you are looking for information on system configuration, you may find the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide to be helpful.
If you are a more experienced user looking for information on administration topics, you may find the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Reference Guide to be helpful.
If you need information on securing your system, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security
Guide.
HTML, PDF, and RPM versions of the manuals are available on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Documentation CD and online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/.
Note
Although this manual reflects the most current information possible, read the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to our documentation being finalized. They can be found on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 and online at
http://www.redhat.com/docs/.
2.2. Is Your Hardware Compatible?
Hardware compatibility is particularly important if you have an older system or a system that you
built yourself. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 should be compatible with most hardware in systems that
were factory built within the last two years. However, hardware specifications change almost daily, so
it is difficult to guarantee that your hardware is 100% compatible.
The most recent list of supported hardware can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
2.3. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
Nearly every modern-day operating system (OS) uses disk partitions, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux is
no exception. When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you may have to work with disk partitions.
If you have not worked with disk partitions before (or need a quick review of the basic concepts), refer
to Appendix D An Introduction to Disk Partitions before proceeding.
4
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
The disk space used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux must be separate from the disk space used by other
OSes you may have installed on your system, such as Windows, OS/2, or even a different version of
Linux. For x86, AMD64, and Intel® Extended Memory 64 Technology (Intel® EM64T) systems, at
least two partitions (/ and swap) must be dedicated to Red Hat Enterprise Linux. For Itanium systems,
at least three partitions (/, /boot/efi/, and swap) must be dedicated to Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Before you start the installation process, you must
•
have enough unpartitioned1 disk space for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or
•
have one or more partitions that may be deleted, thereby freeing up enough disk space to install
Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To gain a better sense of how much space you really need, refer to the recommended partitioning sizes
discussed in Section 4.16.4 Recommended Partitioning Scheme.
If you are not sure that you meet these conditions, or if you want to know how
to create free disk space for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, refer to
Appendix D An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
2.4. Can You Install Using the CD-ROM?
There are several methods that can be used to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Installing from a CD-ROM requires that you have purchased a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 product, or
you have a Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM, and you have a CD-ROM drive. Most new computers
allow booting from the CD-ROM. If your system supports booting from the CD-ROM, it is an easy
way to begin a local CD-ROM installation.
Your
BIOS
may
need
to
be
changed
to
allow
booting
from
your
CD-ROM drive. For more information about changing your BIOS, refer to
Section 4.3.1 Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Systems.
2.4.1. Alternative Boot Methods
Boot CD-ROM
If you can boot using the CD-ROM drive, you can create your own CD-ROM to boot the installation program. This may be useful, for example, if you are performing an installation over
a network or from a hard drive. Refer to Section 2.4.2 Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM for
further instructions.
USB pen drive
If you cannot boot from the CD-ROM drive, but you can boot using a USB device, such as a
USB pen drive, the following alternative boot method is available:
To boot using a USB pen drive, use the dd command to copy the diskboot.img image file from
the /images/ directory on CD-ROM 1. For example:
dd if=diskboot.img of=/dev/sda
Your BIOS must support booting from a USB device in order for this boot method to work.
1.
Unpartitioned disk space means that available disk space on the hard drive(s) you are installing to has not
been divided into sections for data. When you partition a disk, each partition behaves like a separate disk drive.
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
5
2.4.2. Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM
isolinux (not available for Itanium systems) is used for booting the Red Hat Enterprise Linux in-
stallation CD. To create your own CD-ROM to boot the installation program, use the following instructions:
Copy the isolinux/ directory from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 into a temporary directory
(referred to here as <path-to-workspace>) using the following command:
cp -r <path-to-cd >/isolinux/ <path-to-workspace>
Change directories to the <path-to-workspace> directory you have created:
cd <path-to-workspace>
Make sure the files you have copied have appropriate permissions:
chmod u+w isolinux/*
Finally, issue the following command to create the ISO image file:
mkisofs -o file.iso -b isolinux.bin -c boot.cat -no-emul-boot \
-boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -R -J -v -T isolinux/
Note
The above command was split into two lines for printing purposes only. When you execute this command, be sure to type it as a single command, all on the same line.
Burn the resulting ISO image (named file.iso and located in <path-to-workspace>) to a CDROM as you normally would.
2.5. Preparing for a Network Installation
Note
Make sure an installation CD (or any other type of CD) is not in your hosting partition’s drive if you
are performing a network-based installation. Having a CD in the drive may cause unexpected errors.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation media must be available for either a network installation
(via NFS, FTP, or HTTP) or installation via local storage. Use the following steps if you are performing an NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation.
The NFS, FTP, or HTTP server to be used for installation over the network must be a separate machine
which can provide the complete RedHat/ directory. Both the RedHat/base/ and RedHat/RPMS/
directories must be available and populated with all files from all installation CD-ROMs.
6
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
Note
The directory specified in the following refers to /location/of/disk/space/. This means it is the
directory up to, but not including, the RedHat/ distribution directory. For example, if you have Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 4 installation files located in /export/rhel/ on the installation staging server,
/location/of/disk/space/ would be /export/rhel/.
To copy the RedHat/ directory from the installation CD-ROMs to a Linux machine which acts as an
installation staging server, perform the following steps:
•
For each binary CD-ROM, execute the following commands:
•
•
mount /mnt/cdrom
cp -var /mnt/cdrom/RedHat /location/of/disk/space
where /location/of/disk/space/ is a directory you create such as /export/rhel/
•
•
umount /mnt/cdrom/
Note that the Release Notes are not included in the RedHat directory. Unless they are specifically
copied over, the Release Notes will not be available during your installation of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. The Release Notes are formatted in HTML files located at the root of the disc. Copy the files
to your installation directory. For example:
cp /mnt/cdrom/RELEASE-NOTES*.html /location/of/disk/space/
The Release Notes are also available online from http://www.redhat.com/docs/.
•
Next, make /location/of/disk/space/ available for network installation via NFS, FTP, or
HTTP and verify access from a client system.
•
For NFS, export the directory by adding an entry to /etc/exports to export to a specific system:
/location/of/disk/space client.ip.address(ro,no_root_squash)
To export to all machines (not appropriate for all NFS systems), add:
/location/of/disk/space *(ro,no_root_squash)
Start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux machine, use /sbin/service nfs
start). If NFS is already running, reload the configuration file (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system, use /sbin/service nfs reload).
Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System
Administration Guide.
If the RedHat/ directory does not appear in the NFS shared directory, the wrong path may have
been mounted and/or exported.
•
FTP and HTTP installations also support a second type of tree structure. To make it easier to access
the contents of the installation CD-ROMs, mount each CD-ROM or ISO image with the following
mount point on the FTP or HTTP server (where X is the number of the CD-ROM or ISO image):
/location/of/disk/space/discX/
For example:
mount -o loop CD1.iso /location/of/disk/space/disc1/
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
7
2.5.1. Using ISO Images for NFS Installs
NFS installations can use ISO (or CD-ROM) images rather than copying an entire installation tree.
After placing the required ISO images (the binary Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs) in a directory,
choose to install via NFS. You will then point the installation program at that directory to perform the
installation.
Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation will help to avoid problems
that are often encountered during an NFS installation. To verify the ISO images are intact prior to
performing an installation, use an md5sum program (many md5sum programs are available for various
operating systems). An md5sum program should be available on the same server as the ISO images.
Note
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the installation
media. It works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat recommends that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before reporting
any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned CDs).
To use this test, type the following command at the boot: prompt (prepend with elilo for Itanium
systems):
linux mediacheck
Additionally, if a file called updates.img exists in the directory from which you install, then it will
be used for installation program updates. Refer to the file install-methods.txt in the anaconda
RPM package for detailed information on the various ways to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, as
well as how to apply the installation program updates.
Note
You can only have the ISO images for one release and one variant of Red Hat Enterprise Linux in the
directory.
2.6. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
Note
Hard drive installations only work from ext2, ext3, or FAT file systems. If you have a file system other
than those listed here, such as reiserfs, you will not be able to perform a hard drive installation.
Hard drive installations require the use of the ISO (or CD-ROM) images. An ISO image is a file
containing an exact copy of a CD-ROM image. Because Red Hat Enterprise Linux has so many
packages included with its distribution, there are several ISO images available. After placing the
required ISO images (the binary Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs) in a directory, choose to install
from the hard drive. You can then point the installation program at that directory to perform the
installation.
8
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
To prepare your system for a hard drive installation, you must set the system up in one of the following
ways:
•
Using a set of CD-ROMs — Create CD-ROM ISO image files from each installation CD-ROM.
For each CD-ROM, execute the following command on a Linux system:
•
Using ISO images — transfer these images to the system to be installed.
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/tmp/file-name.iso
Verifying that ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation, helps to avoid problems.
To verify the ISO images are intact prior to performing an installation, use an md5sum program
(many md5sum programs are available for various operating systems). An md5sum program should
be available on the same Linux machine as the ISO images.
Note
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the installation
media. It works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat recommends that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before reporting
any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned CDs).
To use this test, type the following command at the boot: prompt (prepend with elilo for Itanium
systems):
linux mediacheck
Additionally, if a file called RedHat/base/updates.img exists in the directory from which you
install, it is used for installation program updates. Refer to the file install-methods.txt in the
anaconda RPM package for detailed information on the various ways to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, as well as how to apply the installation program updates.
Chapter 3.
System Requirements Table
The most recent list of supported hardware can be found at http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/.
This system requirements table will help you keep a record of your current system settings and requirements. Enter information about your system in the table provided as a handy reference to help
make your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation go more smoothly.
hard drive(s): type, label,
size; ex: IDE hda=40 GB
partitions: map of
partitions and mount
points; ex:
/dev/hda1=/home,
/dev/hda2=/ (fill this in
once you know where they
will reside)
memory: amount of RAM
installed on your system;
ex: 128 MB, 512 MB
CD-ROM: interface type;
ex: SCSI, IDE (ATAPI)
SCSI adapter: if present,
make and model number;
ex: BusLogic SCSI
Adapter, Adaptec
2940UW
network card: if present,
make and model number;
ex: Tulip, 3COM 3C590
mouse: type, protocol, and
number of buttons; ex:
generic 3 button PS/2
mouse, MouseMan 2
button serial mouse
monitor: make, model, and
manufacturer
specifications; ex:
Optiquest Q53, ViewSonic
G773
video card: make, model
number and size of
VRAM; ex: Creative Labs
Graphics Blaster 3D, 8MB
10
Chapter 3. System Requirements Table
sound card: make, chipset
and model number; ex: S3
SonicVibes, Sound Blaster
32/64 AWE
IP, DHCP, and BOOTP
addresses: four numbers,
separated by dots; ex:
10.0.2.15
netmask: four numbers,
separated by dots; ex:
255.255.248.0
gateway IP address: four
numbers, separated by
dots; ex: 10.0.2.245
one or more name server
IP addresses (DNS): one
or more sets of
dot-separated numbers; ex:
10.0.2.1
domain name: the name
given to your organization;
ex: example.com
hostname: the name of
your computer; your
personal choice of names;
ex: cookie, southpark
Table 3-1. System Requirements Table
If any of these networking requirements or terms are unfamiliar to you, contact your network administrator for assistance.
Chapter 4.
Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
This chapter explains how to perform a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation from the CD-ROM,
using the graphical, mouse-based installation program. The following topics are discussed:
•
Becoming familiar with the installation program’s user interface
•
Starting the installation program
•
Selecting an installation method
•
Configuration steps during the installation (language, keyboard, mouse, partitioning, etc.)
•
Finishing the installation
4.1. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this process;
use your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. The [Tab] key allows you to move
around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, [+] and [-] keys expand and
collapse lists, while [Space] and [Enter] selects or removes from selection a highlighted item. You
can also use the [Alt]-[X] key command combination as a way of clicking on buttons or making other
screen selections, where [X] is replaced with any underlined letter appearing within that screen.
Note
If you are using an x86, AMD64, or Intel® EM64T system, and you do not wish to use the GUI installation program, the text mode installation program is also available. To start the text mode installation
program, use the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux text
Refer to Section 4.2 The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface for a brief overview of text
mode installation instructions.
It is highly recommended that installs be performed using the GUI installation program. The GUI
installation program offers the full functionality of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program,
including LVM configuration which is not available during a text mode installation.
Users who must use the text mode installation program can follow the GUI installation instructions
and obtain all needed information.
Note
If you are using an Itanium system, and you do not wish to use the GUI installation program, the
text mode installation program is also available. To start the text mode installation program, type the
following command at the EFI Shell prompt:
12
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
elilo linux text
4.1.1. A Note about Virtual Consoles
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program offers more than the dialog boxes of the installation process. Several kinds of diagnostic messages are available to you, as well as a way to enter
commands from a shell prompt. The installation program displays these messages on five virtual
consoles, among which you can switch using a single keystroke combination.
A virtual console is a shell prompt in a non-graphical environment, accessed from the physical machine, not remotely. Multiple virtual consoles can be accessed simultaneously.
These virtual consoles can be helpful if you encounter a problem while installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. Messages displayed on the installation or system consoles can help pinpoint a problem. Refer
to Table 4-1 for a listing of the virtual consoles, keystrokes used to switch to them, and their contents.
Generally, there is no reason to leave the default console (virtual console #7 for graphical installations)
unless you are attempting to diagnose installation problems.
Console
Keystrokes
Contents
1
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F1]
installation dialog
2
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F2]
shell prompt
3
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F3]
install log (messages from
installation program)
4
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F4]
system-related messages
5
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F5]
other messages
7
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F7]
X graphical display
Table 4-1. Console, Keystrokes, and Contents
4.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux text mode installation program uses a screen-based interface that includes most of the on-screen widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces. Figure 4-1, and
Figure 4-2, illustrate the screens that appear during the installation process.
Note
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text mode installation
program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
13
Figure 4-1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Boot Loader Configuration
Figure 4-2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Disk Druid
Here is a list of the most important widgets shown in Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-2:
•
Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your screen throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay another; in these cases, you can only
interact with the window on top. When you are finished in that window, it disappears, allowing you
to continue working in the window underneath.
•
Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. The box displays either an
asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a checkbox, press [Space] to
select or deselect a feature.
•
Text Input — Text input lines are regions where you can enter information required by the installation program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may enter and/or edit information on
that line.
•
Text Widget — Text widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At times, text widgets
may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text widget contains more information
14
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
than can be displayed in the space reserved for it, a scroll bar appears; if you position the cursor
within the text widget, you can then use the [Up] and [Down] arrow keys to scroll through all
the information available. Your current position is shown on the scroll bar by a # character, which
moves up and down the scroll bar as you scroll.
•
Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which part of a list or
document is currently in the window’s frame. The scroll bar makes it easy to move to any part of a
file.
•
Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the installation program. You progress through the windows of the installation program by navigating these buttons,
using the [Tab] and [Enter] keys. Buttons can be selected when they are highlighted.
•
Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a particular widget.
As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the widget to change color, or the cursor
itself may only appear positioned in or next to the widget. In Figure 4-1, the cursor is positioned on
the OK button. Figure 4-2, shows the cursor on the Edit button.
4.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes. To move
the cursor, use the [Left], [Right], [Up], and [Down] arrow keys. Use [Tab], and [Alt]-[Tab] to cycle
forward or backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most screens display a
summary of available cursor positioning keys.
To "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using [Tab], for example) and press [Space]
or [Enter]. To select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish to select and
press [Enter]. To select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the checkbox and press [Space]
to select an item. To deselect, press [Space] a second time.
Pressing [F12] accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to pressing
the OK button.
Caution
Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during the installation process
(doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).
4.3. Starting the Installation Program
To start, first make sure that you have all necessary resources for the installation. If you have already
read through Chapter 2 Steps to Get You Started, and followed the instructions, you should be ready to
start the installation process. When you have verified that you are ready to begin, boot the installation
program using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM #1 or any boot media that you have created.
Note
Occasionally, some hardware components require a driver diskette during the installation. A driver
diskette adds support for hardware that is not otherwise supported by the installation program. Refer
to Appendix E Driver Media for more information.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
15
4.3.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel®
EM64T Systems
You can boot the installation program using any one of the following media (depending upon what
your system can support):
•
Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM — Your machine supports a bootable CD-ROM drive and you
have the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM set.
•
Boot CD-ROM — Your machine supports a bootable CD-ROM drive and you want to perform
network or hard drive installation.
•
USB pen drive — Your machine supports booting from a USB device.
To create a boot CD-ROM or to prepare your USB pen drive for installation, refer to
Section 2.4.2 Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM.
Insert the boot media and reboot the system. Your BIOS settings may need to be changed to allow you
to boot from the CD-ROM or USB device.
Tip
To change your BIOS settings on an x86, AMD64, or Intel® EM64T system, watch the instructions
provided on your display when your computer first boots. A line of text appears, telling you which key
to press to enter the BIOS settings.
Once you have entered your BIOS setup program, find the section where you can alter your boot
sequence. The default is often C, A or A, C (depending on whether you boot from your hard drive
[C] or a diskette drive [A]). Change this sequence so that the CD-ROM is first in your boot order and
that C or A (whichever is your typical boot default) is second. This instructs the computer to first look
at the CD-ROM drive for bootable media; if it does not find bootable media on the CD-ROM drive, it
then checks your hard drive or diskette drive.
Save your changes before exiting the BIOS. For more information, refer to the documentation that
came with your system.
After a short delay, a screen containing the boot: prompt should appear. The screen contains information on a variety of boot options. Each boot option also has one or more help screens associated
with it. To access a help screen, press the appropriate function key as listed in the line at the bottom
of the screen.
As you boot the installation program, be aware of two issues:
•
Once the boot: prompt appears, the installation program automatically begins if you take no action
within the first minute. To disable this feature, press one of the help screen function keys.
•
If you press a help screen function key, there is a slight delay while the help screen is read from the
boot media.
Normally, you only need to press [Enter] to boot. Be sure to watch the boot messages to review if
the Linux kernel detects your hardware. If your hardware is properly detected, continue to the next
section. If it does not properly detect your hardware, you may need to restart the installation and use
one of the boot options provided in Appendix F Additional Boot Options.
4.3.2. Booting the Installation Program on Itanium Systems
Your Itanium system should be able to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation
program directly from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1. If your Itanium cannot
boot the installation program from the CD-ROM (or if you want to perform a hard
16
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
drive, NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation) you must boot from an LS-120 diskette. Refer to
Section 4.3.2.2 Booting the Installation Program from an LS-120 Diskette for more information.
4.3.2.1. Booting the Installation Program from the CD-ROM
To boot from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 follow these steps:
1. Remove all media except Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1.
2. From the Boot Option menu choose EFI Shell.
3. At the Shell> prompt, change to the file system on the CD-ROM. For example, in the above
sample map output, the system partition on the CD-ROM is fs1. To change to the fs1 file
system, type fs1: at the prompt.
4. Type elilo linux to boot into the installation program.
5. Go to Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux to begin the installation.
4.3.2.2. Booting the Installation Program from an LS-120 Diskette
If your Itanium cannot boot from Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1, you must boot from an LS-120
diskette. If you want to perform a hard drive, NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation, you must boot from
boot LS-120 diskette.
You must create an LS-120 boot image file diskette from the boot image file on CD #1:
images/boot.img. To create this diskette in Linux, insert a blank LS-120 diskette and type the
following command at a shell prompt:
dd if=boot.img of=/dev/hda bs=180k
Replace boot.img with the full path to the boot image file and /dev/hda with the correct device
name for the LS-120 diskette drive.
If you are not using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD, the installation program starts in text mode and
you must choose a few basic options for your system.
If you are using the CD-ROM to load the installation program, follow the instructions contained in
Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To boot from an LS-120 diskette follow these steps:
1. Insert the LS-120 diskette you made from the boot image file boot.img. If you are performing
a local CD-ROM installation but booting off the LS-120 diskette, insert the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux CD #1 also. If you are performing a hard drive, NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation, you do
not need the CD-ROM.
2. From the Boot Option menu choose EFI Shell.
3. At the Shell> prompt, change the device to the LS-120 drive by typing the command fs0:,
using the example map output above.
4. Type elilo linux to boot into the installation program.
5. Go to Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux to begin the installation.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
17
4.3.3. Additional Boot Options
While it is easiest to boot using a CD-ROM and perform a graphical installation, sometimes there
are installation scenarios where booting in a different manner may be needed. This section discusses
additional boot options available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
For Itanium users:
To pass options to the boot loader on an Itanium system, enter the following at the EFI Shell prompt:
elilo linux option
For x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T users:
To pass options to the boot loader on an x86, AMD64, or Intel® EM64T system, use the instructions
as provided in the boot loader option samples below.
Note
Refer to Appendix F Additional Boot Options for additional boot options not covered in this section.
•
To perform a text mode installation, at the installation boot prompt, type:
•
ISO images have an md5sum embedded in them. To test the checksum integrity of an ISO image,
at the installation boot prompt, type:
linux text
linux mediacheck
The installation program prompts you to insert a CD or select an ISO image to test, and select OK
to perform the checksum operation. This checksum operation can be performed on any Red Hat
Enterprise Linux CD and does not have to be performed in a specific order (for example, CD #1
does not have to be the first CD you verify). It is strongly recommended to perform this operation on
any Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD that was created from downloaded ISO images. This command
works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods.
•
•
Also in the images/ directory is the boot.iso file. This file is an ISO image than can be used
to boot the installation program. To use the boot.iso, your computer must be able to boot from
its CD-ROM drive, and its BIOS settings must be configured to do so. You must then burn the
boot.iso file onto a recordable/rewriteable CD-ROM.
If you need to perform the installation in serial mode, type the following command:
linux console=<device>
For text mode installations, use:
linux text console=<device>
In the above command, <device> should be the device you are using (such as ttyS0 or ttyS1).
For example, linux text console=ttyS0.
Text mode installations using a serial terminal work best when the terminal supports UTF-8. Under
UNIX and Linux, Kermit supports UTF-8. For Windows, Kermit ’95 works well. Non-UTF-8 capable terminals works as long as only English is used during the installation process. An enhanced
serial display can be used by passing the utf8 command as a boot-time option to the installation
program. For example:
linux console=ttyS0 utf8
18
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4.3.3.1. Kernel Options
Options can also be passed to the kernel. For example, to instruct the kernel to use all the RAM in a
system with 128 MB of RAM, at the installation boot prompt, enter:
linux mem=128M
For text mode installations, use:
linux text mem=128M
With most computers, there is no need to pass this argument to the kernel. The kernel detects the
amount of memory your system has in most cases. However, using this command is often helpful
for testing purposes. For example, you can boot with less memory by passing a linux mem=64M or
linux text mem=64M option to the kernel.
After entering any options, press [Enter] to boot using those options.
If you need to specify boot options to identify your hardware, please write them down. The boot
options are needed during the boot loader configuration portion of the installation (refer to
Section 4.17 x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Boot Loader Configuration for more information).
4.4. Selecting an Installation Method
What type of installation method do you wish to use? The following installation methods are available:
CD-ROM
If you have a CD-ROM drive and the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs, you can use this
method. Refer to Section 4.5 Installing from CD-ROM, for CD-ROM installation instructions.
Hard Drive
If you have copied the Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO images to a local hard drive, you can use
this method. You need a boot CD-ROM. Refer to Section 4.6 Installing from a Hard Drive, for
hard drive installation instructions.
NFS
If you are installing from an NFS server using ISO images or a mirror image of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you can use this method. You need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux askmethod
boot option). Refer to Section 4.8 Installing via NFS for network installation instructions. Note
that NFS installations may also be performed in GUI mode.
FTP
If you are installing directly from an FTP server, use this method. You need a boot CD-ROM
(use the linux askmethod boot option). Refer to Section 4.9 Installing via FTP, for FTP installation instructions.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
19
HTTP
If you are installing directly from an HTTP (Web) server, use this method. You need a boot CDROM (use the linux askmethod boot option). Refer to Section 4.10 Installing via HTTP, for
HTTP installation instructions.
4.5. Installing from CD-ROM
To install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a CD-ROM, choose the CD-ROM option and select OK.
When prompted, insert the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD into your CD-ROM drive (if you did not
boot from the CD). Once the CD is in the CD-ROM drive, select OK, and press [Enter].
Note
The first CD-ROM is required when booting the installation program, and again after subsequent
CD-ROMs have been processed.
The installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your CD-ROM drive. It
starts by looking for an IDE (also known as an ATAPI) CD-ROM drive. If found, continue to the next
stage of the installation process (refer to Section 4.12 Language Selection).
Note
To abort the installation process at this time, reboot your machine and then eject the boot media.
You can safely cancel the installation at any point before the About to Install screen. Refer to
Section 4.24 Preparing to Install for more information.
If your CD-ROM drive is not detected, and it is a SCSI CD-ROM, the installation program prompts
you to choose a SCSI driver. Choose the driver that most closely resembles your adapter. You may
specify options for the driver if necessary; however, most drivers detect your SCSI adapter automatically.
Tip
A partial list of optional parameters for CD-ROM drives can be found in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Reference Guide, in the General Parameters and Modules appendix.
4.5.1. What If the IDE CD-ROM Was Not Found?
If you have an IDE (ATAPI) CD-ROM on an x86, AMD64, or Intel® EM64T system, but the installation program fails to find your IDE (ATAPI) CD-ROM and asks you what type of CD-ROM
drive you have, try the following boot command. Restart the installation, and at the boot: prompt
enter linux hdX=cdrom. Replace X with one of the following letters, depending on the interface
the unit is connected to, and whether it is configured as master or slave (also known as primary and
secondary):
20
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
• a
— first IDE controller, master
• b
— first IDE controller, slave
• c
— second IDE controller, master
• d
— second IDE controller, slave
If you have a third and/or fourth controller, continue assigning letters in alphabetical order, going from
controller to controller, and master to slave.
4.6. Installing from a Hard Drive
The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, if you
selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to name the disk
partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Figure 4-3. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
Enter the device name of the partition containing the Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO images. There is
also a field labeled Directory holding images.
If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO images
are located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the directory holding the
ISO images within that partition. For example, if the partition on which the ISO images is normally
mounted as /home/, and the images are in /home/new/, you would enter /new/.
After you have identified the disk partition, the Welcome dialog appears.
4.7. Performing a Network Installation
If you are performing a network installation, the Configure TCP/IP dialog appears. This dialog asks
for your IP and other network addresses. You can choose to configure the IP address and Netmask of
the device via DHCP or manually. If manually, enter the IP address you are using during installation
and press [Enter]. The installation program attempts to guess your Netmask based on your IP address;
you may change the netmask if it is incorrect. Press [Enter]. The installation program guesses the
Default gateway and Primary nameserver addresses from your IP address and netmask; you may
change them if they are incorrect.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
21
4.8. Installing via NFS
The NFS dialog applies only if you are installing from an NFS server (if you selected NFS Image in
the Installation Method dialog).
Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server. For example, if you are installing from a
host named eastcoast in the domain example.com, enter eastcoast.example.com in the NFS
Server field.
Next, enter the name of the exported directory. If you followed the setup described
in
Section 2.5 Preparing for a Network Installation,
you
would
enter
the
directory
/location/of/disk/space/ which contains the RedHat/ directory.
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation tree, enter
the directory which contains the RedHat/ directory. (If you do not know this directory
path, ask your system administrator.) For example, if the NFS site contains the directory
/mirrors/redhat/arch/RedHat/, enter /mirrors/redhat/arch/ (where arch is replaced
with the architecture type of your system, such as i386, ia64, ppc, or s390). If everything was
specified properly, a message appears indicating that the installation program for Red Hat Enterprise
Linux is running.
Figure 4-4. NFS Setup Dialog
If the NFS server is exporting the ISO images of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs, enter the
directory which contains the ISO images.
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
4.9. Installing via FTP
The FTP dialog applies only if you are installing from an FTP server (if you selected FTP in the
Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to identify the FTP server from which you are
installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
22
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-5. FTP Setup Dialog
Enter the name or IP address of the FTP site you are installing from, and the name of the directory
containing the RedHat/ installation files for your architecture. For example, if the FTP site contains
the directory /mirrors/redhat/arch/RedHat/, enter /mirrors/redhat/arch/ (where arch
is replaced with the architecture type of your system, such as i386, ia64, ppc, or s390). If everything
was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that base/hdlist is being retrieved.
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
Tip
You can save disk space by using the ISO images you have already copied to the server. To accomplish this, install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using ISO images without copying them into a single tree
by loopback mounting them. For each ISO image:
mkdir discX
mount -o loop example-1.iso discX
4.10. Installing via HTTP
The HTTP dialog applies only if you are installing from an HTTP server (if you selected HTTP in the
Installation Method dialog). This dialog prompts you for information about the HTTP server from
which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Enter the name or IP address of the HTTP site you are installing from, and the name of the directory
containing the RedHat/ installation files for your architecture. For example, if the HTTP site contains
the directory /mirrors/redhat/arch/RedHat/, enter /mirrors/redhat/arch/ (where arch
is replaced with the architecture type of your system, such as i386, ia64, ppc, or s390). If everything
was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that base/hdlist is being retrieved.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
23
Figure 4-6. HTTP Setup Dialog
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
Tip
You can save disk space by using the ISO images you have already copied to the server. To accomplish this, install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using ISO images without copying them into a single tree
by loopback mounting them. For each ISO image:
mkdir discX
mount -o loop example-1.iso discX
4.11. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input. Read over the help text in the left panel for
additional instructions and information on where to register your Red Hat Enterprise Linux product.
Notice the Hide Help button at the bottom left corner of the screen. The help screen is open by default.
To minimize the help text, click on Hide Help.
Click on the Next button to continue.
4.12. Language Selection
Using your mouse, select a language to use for the installation (refer to Figure 4-7).
Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone configuration later in the installation. The installation program tries to define the appropriate time zone based on what you specify on
this screen.
24
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-7. Language Selection
Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.
4.13. Keyboard Configuration
Using your mouse, select the correct layout type (for example, U.S. English) for the keyboard you
would prefer to use for the installation and as the system default (refer to Figure 4-8).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
25
Figure 4-8. Keyboard Configuration
Tip
To change your keyboard layout type after you have completed the installation, use the Keyboard
Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-keyboard command in a shell prompt to launch the Keyboard Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
4.14. Disk Partitioning Setup
Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections, where each section
behaves as its own hard drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple
operating systems. If you are not sure how you want your system to be partitioned, read
Appendix D An Introduction to Disk Partitions for more information.
On this screen, you can choose to perform automatic partitioning, or manual partitioning using Disk
Druid.
Automatic partitioning allows you to perform an installation without having to partition your drive(s)
yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, it is recommended that you do
not choose to partition manually and instead let the installation program partition for you.
To partition manually, choose the Disk Druid partitioning tool.
26
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Warning
The Red Hat Update Agent downloads updated packages to /var/spool/up2date/ by default.
If you partition the system manually, and create a separate /var/ partition, be sure to create the
partition large enough (3.0 GB or more) to download package updates.
Figure 4-9. Disk Partitioning Setup
If you chose to manually partition using Disk Druid, refer to Section 4.16 Partitioning Your System.
Warning
If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup phase of the installation saying something
similar to
The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it must be initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive.
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not be recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
Users who have used programs such as EZ-BIOS have experienced similar problems, causing data
to be lost (assuming the data was not backed up before the installation began).
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on your systems
should always be made.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
27
4.15. Automatic Partitioning
Automatic partitioning allows you to have some control concerning what data is removed (if any)
from your system. Your options are:
•
Remove all Linux partitions on this system — select this option to remove only Linux partitions
(partitions created from a previous Linux installation). This does not remove other partitions you
may have on your hard drive(s) (such as VFAT or FAT32 partitions).
•
Remove all partitions on this system — select this option to remove all partitions on your hard
drive(s) (this includes partitions created by other operating systems such as Windows VFAT or
NTFS partitions).
Caution
If you select this option, all data on the selected hard drive(s) is removed by the installation program. Do not select this option if you have information that you want to keep on the hard drive(s)
where you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
•
Keep all partitions and use existing free space — select this option to retain your current data
and partitions, assuming you have enough free space available on your hard drive(s).
Figure 4-10. Automatic Partitioning
Using your mouse, choose the hard drive(s) on which you want Red Hat Enterprise Linux to be
installed. If you have two or more hard drives, you can choose which hard drive(s) should contain this
installation. Unselected hard drives, and any data on them, are not touched.
28
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Caution
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example, if you are
upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on your
hard drive(s). Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data.
Tip
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card. In
cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition outside of the RAID array,
such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for partition creation with
problematic RAID cards.
A /boot/ partition is also necessary for software RAID setups.
If you have chosen to automatically partition your system, you should select Review and manually
edit your /boot/ partition.
To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning, select
the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward, the partitions created
for you in Disk Druid appear. You can make modifications to these partitions if they do not meet your
needs.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.
4.16. Partitioning Your System
If you chose automatic partitioning
Section 4.18 Network Configuration.
and
did
not
select
Review,
skip
ahead
to
If you chose automatic partitioning and selected Review, you can either accept the current partition
settings (click Next), or modify the setup using Disk Druid, the manual partitioning tool.
If you chose to partition manually, you must tell the installation program where to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. This is done by defining mount points for one or more disk partitions in which Red
Hat Enterprise Linux is installed. You may also need to create and/or delete partitions at this time.
Note
If
you
have
not
yet
planned
how
to
set
up
your
partitions,
refer
to
Appendix D An Introduction to Disk Partitions
and
Section 4.16.4 Recommended Partitioning Scheme. At a bare minimum, you need an
appropriately-sized root partition, and a swap partition equal to twice the amount of RAM you have
on the system. Itanium system users should have a /boot/efi/ partition of approximately 100 MB
and of type FAT (VFAT), a swap partition of at least 512 MB, and an appropriately-sized root ( /)
partition.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-11. Partitioning with Disk Druid on x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Systems
Figure 4-12. Partitioning with Disk Druid on Itanium Systems
29
30
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The partitioning tool used by the installation program is Disk Druid. With the exception of certain
esoteric situations, Disk Druid can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical installation.
4.16.1. Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s)
Disk Druid offers a graphical representation of your hard drive(s).
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Double-click to
edit an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
Above the display, you can review the Drive name (such as /dev/hda), the Geom (which shows the
hard disk’s geometry and consists of three numbers representing the number of cylinders, heads, and
sectors as reported by the hard disk), and the Model of the hard drive as detected by the installation
program.
4.16.2. Disk Druid’s Buttons
These buttons control Disk Druid’s actions. They are used to change the attributes of a partition (for
example the file system type and mount point) and also to create RAID devices. Buttons on this screen
are also used to accept the changes you have made, or to exit Disk Druid. For further explanation,
take a look at each button in order:
•
New: Used to request a new partition. When selected, a dialog box appears containing fields (such
as the mount point and size fields) that must be filled in.
•
Edit: Used to modify attributes of the partition currently selected in the Partitions section. Selecting Edit opens a dialog box. Some or all of the fields can be edited, depending on whether the
partition information has already been written to disk.
You can also edit free space as represented in the graphical display to create a new partition within
that space. Either highlight the free space and then select the Edit button, or double-click on the
free space to edit it.
•
To make a RAID device, you must first create (or reuse existing) software RAID partitions. Once
you have created two or more software RAID partitions, select Make RAID to join the software
RAID partitions into a RAID device.
•
Delete: Used to remove the partition currently highlighted in the Current Disk Partitions section.
You will be asked to confirm the deletion of any partition.
•
Reset: Used to restore Disk Druid to its original state. All changes made will be lost if you Reset
the partitions.
•
RAID: Used to provide redundancy to any or all disk partitions. It should only be used if you have
experience using RAID. To read more about RAID, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System
Administration Guide.
To make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have created
two or more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID partitions into a
RAID device.
•
LVM: Allows you to create an LVM logical volume. The role of LVM (Logical Volume Manager)
is to present a simple logical view of underlying physical storage space, such as a hard drive(s).
LVM manages individual physical disks — or to be more precise, the individual partitions present
on them. It should only be used if you have experience using LVM. To read more about LVM, refer
to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide. Note, LVM is only available in the
graphical installation program.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
31
To create an LVM logical volume, you must first create partitions of type physical volume (LVM).
Once you have created one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions, select LVM to create an
LVM logical volume.
4.16.3. Partition Fields
Above the partition hierarchy are labels which present information about the partitions you are creating. The labels are defined as follows:
•
Device: This field displays the partition’s device name.
•
Mount Point/RAID/Volume: A mount point is the location within the directory hierarchy at which
a volume exists; the volume is "mounted" at this location. This field indicates where the partition is
mounted. If a partition exists, but is not set, then you need to define its mount point. Double-click
on the partition or click the Edit button.
•
Type: This field shows the partition’s file system type (for example, ext2, ext3, or vfat).
•
Format: This field shows if the partition being created will be formatted.
•
Size (MB): This field shows the partition’s size (in MB).
•
Start: This field shows the cylinder on your hard drive where the partition begins.
•
End: This field shows the cylinder on your hard drive where the partition ends.
Hide RAID device/LVM Volume Group members: Select this option if you do not want to view
any RAID device or LVM Volume Group members that have been created.
4.16.4. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following partitions
for Itanium systems:
•
A /boot/efi/ partition (100 MB minimum) — the partition mounted on /boot/efi/ contains
all the installed kernels, the initrd images, and ELILO configuration files.
Warning
You must create a /boot/efi/ partition of type VFAT and at least 100 MB in size as the first
primary partition.
•
A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other
words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your
system is processing.
If you are unsure about what size swap partition to create, make it twice the amount of RAM on
your machine (but no larger than 2 GB). It must be of type swap.
Creation of the proper amount of swap space varies depending on a number of factors including the
following (in descending order of importance):
•
The applications running on the machine.
•
The amount of physical RAM is installed on the machine.
•
The version of the OS.
Swap should equal 2x physical RAM for up to 2 GB of physical RAM, and then 1x physical RAM
for any amount above 2 GB, but never less than 32 MB.
32
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Using this formula, a system with 2 GB of physical RAM would have 4 GB of swap, while one
with 3 GB of physical RAM would have 5 GB of swap. Creating a large swap space partition can
be especially helpful if you plan to upgrade your RAM at a later time.
Tip
If your partitioning scheme requires a swap partition that is larger than 2 GB, you should create
an additional swap partition. For example, if you need 4 GB of swap, you should create two 2 GB
swap partitions. If you have 4 GB of RAM, you should create three 2 GB swap partitions. Red Hat
Enterprise Linux supports up to 32 swap files.
For systems with really large amounts of RAM (more than 32 GB) you can likely get away with a
smaller swap partition (around 1x, or less, of physical RAM).
•
A root partition (500 MB - 5.0 GB) — this is where "/" (the root directory) is located. In this
setup, all files (except those stored in /boot/efi) are on the root partition.
A 500 MB partition allows you to install a minimal installation, while a 5.0 GB root partition lets
you perform a full installation, choosing all package groups.
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following partitions
for x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T systems:
•
A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other
words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your
system is processing.
If you are unsure about what size swap partition to create, make it twice the amount of RAM on
your machine (but no larger than 2 GB). It must be of type swap.
Creation of the proper amount of swap space varies depending on a number of factors including the
following (in descending order of importance):
•
The applications running on the machine.
•
The amount of physical RAM is installed on the machine.
•
The version of the OS.
Swap should equal 2x physical RAM for up to 2 GB of physical RAM, and then 1x physical RAM
for any amount above 2 GB, but never less than 32 MB.
Using this formula, a system with 2 GB of physical RAM would have 4 GB of swap, while one
with 3 GB of physical RAM would have 5 GB of swap. Creating a large swap space partition can
be especially helpful if you plan to upgrade your RAM at a later time.
Tip
If your partitioning scheme requires a swap partition that is larger than 2 GB, you should create
an additional swap partition. For example, if you need 4 GB of swap, you should create two 2 GB
swap partitions. If you have 4 GB of RAM, you should create three 2 GB swap partitions. Red Hat
Enterprise Linux supports up to 32 swap files.
For systems with really large amounts of RAM (more than 32 GB) you can likely get away with a
smaller swap partition (around 1x, or less, of physical RAM).
•
A /boot/ partition (100 MB) — the partition mounted on /boot/ contains the operating system
kernel (which allows your system to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux), along with files used during
the bootstrap process. Due to the limitations of most PC BIOSes, creating a small partition to hold
these files is a good idea. For most users, a 100 MB boot partition is sufficient.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
33
Tip
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders (and your system was manufactured more than two
years ago), you may need to create a /boot/ partition if you want the / (root) partition to use all
of the remaining space on your hard drive.
Tip
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card.
In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition outside of the RAID
array, such as on a separate hard drive.
•
A root partition (500 MB - 5.0 GB) — this is where "/" (the root directory) is located. In this
setup, all files (except those stored in /boot) are on the root partition.
A 500 MB partition allows you to install a minimal installation, while a 5.0 GB root partition lets
you perform a full installation, choosing all package groups.
4.16.5. Adding Partitions
To add a new partition, select the New button. A dialog box appears (refer to Figure 4-13).
Note
You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally more. For more information,
refer to Appendix D An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
Figure 4-13. Creating a New Partition
34
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
•
Mount Point: Enter the partition’s mount point. For example, if this partition should be the root
partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You can also use the pull-down
menu to choose the correct mount point for your partition.
•
File System Type: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system type for this partition. For more information on file system types, refer to Section 4.16.5.1 File System Types.
•
Allowable Drives: This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system. If a hard
disk’s box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on that hard disk. If the box is
not checked, then the partition will never be created on that hard disk. By using different checkbox
settings, you can have Disk Druid place partitions where you need them, or let Disk Druid decide
where partitions should go.
•
Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with 100 MB; unless
changed, only a 100 MB partition will be created.
•
Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to allow it to "grow"
(fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to allow it to grow to fill any remaining
hard drive space available.
If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the field to the right of
this option. This allows you to keep a certain amount of space free on your hard drive for future
use.
•
Force to be a primary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating should be one of
the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the partition is created as a logical partition. Refer to Section D.1.3 Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions, for
more information.
•
OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the partition.
•
Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.
4.16.5.1. File System Types
Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types, based on the file system they
will use. The following is a brief description of the different file systems available, and how they can
be utilized.
•
ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories, symbolic
links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
•
ext3 — The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage —
journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system after a crash
as there is no need to fsck1 the file system. The ext3 file system is selected by default and is highly
recommended.
•
physical volume (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions allows you
to create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when using physical disks. For
more information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration
Guide.
•
software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a RAID
device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide.
•
swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a
swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. Refer to
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide for additional information.
1.
The fsck application is used to check the file system for metadata consistency and optionally repair one or
more Linux file systems.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
•
35
vfat — The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft Windows
long filenames on the FAT file system. This file system must be used for the /boot/efi/ partition
on Itanuim systems.
4.16.6. Editing Partitions
To edit a partition, select the Edit button or double-click on the existing partition.
Note
If the partition already exists on your hard disk, you can only change the partition’s mount point. To
make any other changes, you must delete the partition and recreate it.
4.16.7. Deleting a Partition
To delete a partition, highlight it in the Partitions section and click the Delete button. Confirm the
deletion when prompted.
For further installation instructions for x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T systems, skip to
Section 4.17 x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Boot Loader Configuration.
For further installation instructions for Itanium systems, skip to Section 4.18 Network Configuration.
4.17. x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Boot Loader Configuration
To boot the system without boot media, you usually need to install a boot loader. A boot loader is the
first software program that runs when a computer starts. It is responsible for loading and transferring
control to the operating system kernel software. The kernel, in turn, initializes the rest of the operating
system.
GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader), which is installed by default, is a very powerful boot loader.
GRUB can load a variety of free operating systems, as well as proprietary operating systems with
chain-loading (the mechanism for loading unsupported operating systems, such as DOS or Windows,
by loading another boot loader).
36
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-14. Boot Loader Configuration
If you do not want to install GRUB as your boot loader, click Change boot loader, where you can
choose not to install a boot loader at all.
If you already have a boot loader that can boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux and do not want to overwrite
your current boot loader, choose Do not install a boot loader by clicking on the Change boot loader
button.
Caution
If you choose not to install GRUB for any reason, you will not be able to boot the system directly, and
you must use another boot method (such as a commercial boot loader application). Use this option
only if you are sure you have another way of booting the system!
Every bootable partition is listed, including partitions used by other operating systems. The partition
holding the system’s root file system has a Label of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (for GRUB).
Other partitions may also have boot labels. To add or change the boot label for other partitions that
have been detected by the installation program, click once on the partition to select it. Once selected,
you can change the boot label by clicking the Edit button.
Select Default beside the preferred boot partition to choose your default bootable OS. You cannot
move forward in the installation unless you choose a default boot image.
Note
The Label column lists what you must enter at the boot prompt, in non-graphical boot loaders, in
order to boot the desired operating system.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
37
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, use the arrow keys to choose a boot label or type
[e] for edit. You are presented with a list of items in the configuration file for the boot label you have
selected.
Boot loader passwords provide a security mechanism in an environment where physical access to your
server is available.
If you are installing a boot loader, you should create a password to protect your system. Without
a boot loader password, users with access to your system can pass options to the kernel which can
compromise your system security. With a boot loader password in place, the password must first be
entered before selecting any non-standard boot options. However, it is still possible for someone with
physical access to the machine to boot from a diskette, CD-ROM, or USB media if the BIOS supports
it. Security plans which include boot loader passwords should also address alternate boot methods.
If you choose to use a boot loader password to enhance your system security, be sure to select the
checkbox labeled Use a boot loader password.
Once selected, enter a password and confirm it.
To configure more advance boot loader options, such as changing the drive order or passing options
to the kernel, be sure Configure advanced boot loader options is selected before clicking Next.
4.17.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
Now that you have chosen which boot loader to install, you can also determine where you want the
boot loader to be installed. You may install the boot loader in one of two places:
•
The master boot record (MBR) — This is the recommended place to install a boot loader, unless
the MBR already starts another operating system loader, such as System Commander. The MBR
is a special area on your hard drive that is automatically loaded by your computer’s BIOS, and is
the earliest point at which the boot loader can take control of the boot process. If you install it in
the MBR, when your machine boots, GRUB presents a boot prompt. You can then boot Red Hat
Enterprise Linux or any other operating system that you have configured the boot loader to boot.
•
The first sector of your boot partition — This is recommended if you are already using another
boot loader on your system. In this case, your other boot loader takes control first. You can then
configure that boot loader to start GRUB, which then boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
38
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-15. Boot Loader Installation
Tip
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card. In
cases such as these, the boot loader should not be installed on the MBR of the RAID array. Rather,
the boot loader should be installed on the MBR of the same drive as the /boot/ partition was created.
If your system only uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should choose the MBR.
Click the Change Drive Order button if you would like to rearrange the drive order or if your BIOS
does not return the correct drive order. Changing the drive order may be useful if you have multiple
SCSI adapters, or both SCSI and IDE adapters, and you want to boot from the SCSI device.
The Force LBA32 (not normally required) option allows you to exceed the 1024 cylinder limit for
the /boot/ partition. If you have a system which supports the LBA32 extension for booting operating
systems above the 1024 cylinder limit, and you want to place your /boot/ partition above cylinder
1024, you should select this option.
Tip
While partitioning your hard drive, keep in mind that the BIOS in some older systems cannot access
more than the first 1024 cylinders on a hard drive. If this is the case, leave enough room for the /boot
Linux partition on the first 1024 cylinders of your hard drive to boot Linux. The other Linux partitions
can be after cylinder 1024.
In parted, 1024 cylinders equals 528MB. For more information, refer to:
http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/bios/sizeMB504-c.html
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
39
To add default options to the boot command, enter them into the Kernel parameters field. Any
options you enter are passed to the Linux kernel every time it boots.
4.17.2. Rescue Mode
Rescue mode provides the ability to boot a small Red Hat Enterprise Linux environment entirely from
boot media or some other boot method instead of the system’s hard drive. There may be times when
you are unable to get Red Hat Enterprise Linux running completely enough to access files on your
system’s hard drive. Using rescue mode, you can access the files stored on your system’s hard drive,
even if you cannot actually run Red Hat Enterprise Linux from that hard drive. If you need to use
rescue mode, try the following method:
•
Using the CD-ROM to boot an x86, AMD64, or Intel® EM64T system, type linux rescue at
the installation boot prompt. Itanium users should type elilo linux rescue to enter rescue
mode.
For additional information, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide.
4.17.3. Alternative Boot Loaders
If you do not wish to use a boot loader, you have several alternatives:
LOADLIN
You can load Linux from MS-DOS. Unfortunately, this requires a copy of the Linux kernel (and
an initial RAM disk, if you have a SCSI adapter) to be available on an MS-DOS partition. The
only way to accomplish this is to boot your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system using some other
method (for example, from a boot CD-ROM) and then copy the kernel to an MS-DOS partition.
LOADLIN is available from
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/boot/dualboot/
and associated mirror sites.
SYSLINUX
SYSLINUX is an MS-DOS program very similar to LOADLIN. It is also available from
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/boot/loaders/
and associated mirror sites.
Commercial boot loaders
You can load Linux using commercial boot loaders. For example, System Commander and Partition Magic are able to boot Linux (but still require GRUB to be installed in your Linux root
partition).
Note
Boot loaders such as LOADLIN and System Commander are considered to be third-party boot loaders and are not supported by Red Hat.
40
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4.17.4. SMP Motherboards and GRUB
This section is specific to SMP motherboards only. SMP, short for Symmetric Multiprocessing, is a
computer architecture providing fast performance by making multiple CPUs available to complete
individual processes simultaneously (multiprocessing).
If the installation program detects an SMP motherboard on your system, it automatically creates two
boot loader entries.
Note
An SMP kernel is installed by default on Intel® Pentium® 4 systems with hyperthreading.
The two GRUB entries are Red Hat Enterprise Linux (kernel version) and Red Hat
Enterprise Linux (kernel version-smp). The Red Hat Enterprise Linux (kernel
version-smp) boots by default. However, if you have trouble with the SMP kernel, you can elect to
boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux (kernel version) entry instead. You retain all the
functionality as before, but only operate with a single processor.
4.18. Network Configuration
If you do not have a network device, this screen does not appear during your installation and you
should advance to Section 4.19 Firewall Configuration.
Figure 4-16. Network Configuration
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
41
The installation program automatically detects any network devices you have and display them in the
Network Devices list.
Once you have selected a network device, click Edit. From the Edit Interface pop-up screen, you can
choose to configure the IP address and Netmask of the device via DHCP (or manually if DHCP is not
selected) and you can choose to activate the device at boot time. If you select Activate on boot, your
network interface is started when you boot. If you do not have DHCP client access or you are unsure
what to provide here, please contact your network administrator.
Figure 4-17. Editing a Network Device
Note
Do not use the numbers as seen in this sample configuration. These values will not work for your own
network configuration. If you are not sure what values to enter, contact your network administrator for
assistance.
If you have a hostname (fully qualified domain name) for the network device, you can choose to have
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) automatically detect it or you can manually enter the
hostname in the field provided.
Finally, if you entered the IP and Netmask information manually, you may also enter the Gateway
address and the Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary DNS addresses.
Tip
Even if your computer is not part of a network, you can enter a hostname for your system. If you do
not take this opportunity to enter a name, your system will be known as localhost.
42
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Tip
To change your network configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Network
Administration Tool.
Type the system-config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the Network Administration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
4.19. Firewall Configuration
Red Hat Enterprise Linux offers firewall protection for enhanced system security. A firewall exists
between your computer and the network, and determines which resources on your computer remote
users on the network can access. A properly configured firewall can greatly increase the security of
your system.
Figure 4-18. Firewall Configuration
Next, you can decide whether to enable a firewall for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system.
No firewall
No firewall provides complete access to your system and does no security checking. Security
checking is the disabling of access to certain services. This should only be selected if you are
running on a trusted network (not the Internet) or plan to do more firewall configuration later.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
43
Enable firewall
If you choose Enable firewall, connections are not accepted by your system (other than the
default settings) that are not explicitly defined by you. By default, only connections in response
to outbound requests, such as DNS replies or DHCP requests, are allowed. If access to services
running on this machine is needed, you can choose to allow specific services through the firewall.
If you are connecting your system to the Internet, this is the safest option to choose.
Next, select which services, if any, should be allowed to pass through the firewall.
Enabling these options allow the specified services to pass through the firewall. Note, these services
may not be installed on the system by default. Make sure you choose to enable any options that you
may need.
Remote Login (SSH)
Secure Shell (SSH) is a suite of tools for logging in to and executing commands on a remote
machine. If you plan to use SSH tools to access your machine through a firewall, enable this option. You need to have the openssh-server package installed in order to access your machine
remotely, using SSH tools.
Web Server (HTTP, HTTPS)
The HTTP and HTTPS protocols are used by Apache (and by other Web servers) to serve webpages. If you plan on making your Web server publicly available, enable this option. This option
is not required for viewing pages locally or for developing webpages. You must install the httpd
package if you want to serve webpages.
File Transfer (FTP)
The FTP protocol is used to transfer files between machines on a network. If you plan on making
your FTP server publicly available, enable this option. You must install the vsftpd package in
order to publicly serve files.
Mail Server (SMTP)
If you want to allow incoming mail delivery through your firewall, so that remote hosts can
connect directly to your machine to deliver mail, enable this option. You do not need to enable
this if you collect your mail from your Internet Service Provider’s server using POP3 or IMAP,
or if you use a tool such as fetchmail. Note that an improperly configured SMTP server can
allow remote machines to use your server to send spam.
Note
By default, the Sendmail mail transport agent (MTA) does not accept network connections from
any host other than the local computer. To configure Sendmail as a server for other clients, you
must edit /etc/mail/sendmail.mc and change the DAEMON_OPTIONS line to also listen on
network devices (or comment out this option entirely using the dnl comment delimiter). You
must then regenerate /etc/mail/sendmail.cf by running the following command (as root):
make -C /etc/mail
You must have the sendmail-cf package installed for this to work.
Additionally, you can now setup SELinux (Security Enhanced Linux) during your installation of Red
Hat Enterprise Linux.
SELinux allows you to provide granular permissions for all subjects (users, programs, and processes)
and objects (files and devices). You can safely grant an application only the permissions it needs to do
its function.
44
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The SELinux implementation in Red Hat Enterprise Linux is designed to improve the security of
various server daemons while minimizing the impact on the day-to-day operations of your system.
Three states are available for you to choose from during the installation process:
•
Disable — Select Disable if you do not want SELinux security controls enabled on this system.
The Disabled setting turns enforcing off and does not set up the machine for the use of a security
policy.
•
Warn — Select Warn to be notified of any denials. The Warn state assigns labels to data and
programs, and logs them, but does not enforce any policies. The Warn state is a good starting place
for users who eventually want a fully active SELinux policy, but who first want to see what effects
the policy would have on their general system operation. Note that users selecting the Warn state
may notice some false positive and negative notifications.
•
Active — Select Active if you want SELinux to act in a fully active state. The Active state enforces
all policies, such as denying access to unauthorized users for certain files and programs, for additional system protection. Choose this state only if you are sure that your system can still properly
function with SELinux fully enabled.
For additional information about SELinux, refer to the following URLs:
•
http://www.redhat.com/docs/
•
http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/
Tip
To change your security configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Security
Level Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-securitylevel command in a shell prompt to launch the Security Level
Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
4.20. Language Support Selection
You can install and support multiple languages for use on your system.
You must select a language to use as the default language. The default language is the language used
on the system once the installation is complete. Typically, the default language is the language you
selected to use during the installation.
If you choose to install other languages during this installation, you can change your default language
after the installation. If you are only going to use one language on your system, selecting only that
language saves significant disk space.
Caution
If you select only one language, you can only use that specified language after the installation is
complete.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
45
Figure 4-19. Language Support Selection
To use more than one language on your system, choose specific languages to be installed or select all
languages to have all available languages installed on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system.
Use the Reset button to cancel your selections. Resetting reverts to the default; only the language you
selected for use during the installation is installed.
Tip
To change the language configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Language
Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-language command in a shell prompt to launch the Language Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
4.21. Time Zone Configuration
Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer’s physical location.
There are two ways for you to select your time zone:
•
Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented by a yellow
dot). A red X appears indicating your selection.
•
You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone. Using your
mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
46
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-20. Configuring the Time Zone
Select System Clock uses UTC if you know that your system is set to UTC.
Tip
To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Time and
Date Properties Tool.
Type the system-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the Time and Date Properties
Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
To run the Time and Date Properties Tool as a text-based application, use the command
timeconfig.
4.22. Set Root Password
Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your installation.
Your root account is similar to the administrator account used on Windows NT machines. The root
account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most system maintenance. Logging
in as root gives you complete control over your system.
Note
The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire system; for this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance or administration.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
47
Figure 4-21. Root Password
Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general use
and su - to root when you need to fix something quickly. These basic rules minimize the chances of
a typo or an incorrect command doing damage to your system.
Tip
To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press [Enter]. Then,
enter the root password and press [Enter].
The installation program prompts you to set a root password2 for your system. You cannot proceed to
the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password.
The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to the
screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the installation program
asks you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is easy for
someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root, 123456, and anteater
are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with upper and lower case letters
and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT, for example. Remember that the
password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password, keep it in a secure place. However, it is
recommended that you do not write down this or any password you create.
2.
A root password is the administrative password for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. You should only
log in as root when needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate within the restrictions
placed on normal user accounts, so changes made as root can have implications for your entire system.
48
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Note
Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of these passwords
could be considered a security risk.
Tip
To change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the Root Password
Tool.
Type the system-config-rootpassword command in a shell prompt to launch the Root Password
Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
4.23. Package Group Selection
Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm the default
package selection or customize packages for your system.
The Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set for your Red
Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This screen varies depending on the version of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux you are installing.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 4.24 Preparing to Install.
To customize your package set further, select Customize the set of packages to be installed option
on the screen. Clicking Next takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.
You can select package groups, which group components together according to function (for example,
X Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the two.
Note
Users of AMD64, Intel® EM64T, and Itanium systems who want support for developing or running
32-bit applications are encouraged to select the Compatibility Arch Support and Compatibility
Arch Development Support packages to install architecure specific support for their systems.
To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 4-22).
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
49
Figure 4-22. Package Group Selection
Select each component you wish to install. Selecting Everything (at the end of the component list)
installs all packages included with Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Once a package group has been selected, click on Details to view which packages are installed by
default, and to add or remove optional packages from that group.
Figure 4-23. Package Group Details
50
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4.24. Preparing to Install
A screen preparing you for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux now appears.
For your reference, a complete log of your installation can be found in /root/install.log once
you reboot your system.
Warning
If, for some reason, you would rather not continue with the installation process, this is your last
opportunity to safely cancel the process and reboot your machine. Once you press the Next button,
partitions are written and packages are installed. If you wish to abort the installation, you should
reboot now before any existing information on any hard drive is rewritten.
To cancel this installation process, press your computer’s Reset button or use the [Control]-[Alt][Delete] key combination to restart your machine.
4.25. Installing Packages
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How quickly
this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your computer’s speed.
4.26. Installation Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is now complete!
The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to remove any
installation media if it is not ejected automatically upon reboot.
After your computer’s normal power-up sequence has completed, the graphical boot loader prompt
appears at which you can do any of the following things:
•
Press [Enter] — causes the default boot entry to be booted.
•
Select a boot label, followed by [Enter] — causes the boot loader to boot the operating system
corresponding to the boot label.
•
Do nothing — after the boot loader’s timeout period, (by default, five seconds) the boot loader
automatically boots the default boot entry.
Do whatever is appropriate to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux. One or more screens of messages should
scroll by. Eventually, a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you installed the X Window System
and chose to start X automatically) appears.
The first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in run level 5 (the graphical run level),
the Setup Agent is presented, which guides you through the Red Hat Enterprise Linux configuration.
Using this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software, register your machine with
Red Hat Network, and more. The Setup Agent lets you configure your environment at the beginning,
so that you can get started using your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system quickly.
For more information on using the Setup Agent, refer to the chapter titled Getting Started in the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux Step By Step Guide.
For information on registering your Red Hat Enterprise Linux subscription, refer to
Section 4.27 Activate Your Subscription.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
51
4.27. Activate Your Subscription
Before you can access service and software maintenance information, and the support documentation included in your subscription, you must activate your subscription by registering with Red Hat.
Registration includes these simple steps:
•
Provide a Red Hat login
•
Provide a subscription number
•
Connect your system
The first time you boot your installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you are prompted to register
with Red Hat using the Setup Agent. If you follow the prompts during the Setup Agent, you can
complete the registration steps and activate your subscription.
If you can not complete registration during the Setup Agent (which requires network access), you
can alternatively complete the Red Hat registration process online at http://www.redhat.com/register/.
4.27.1. Provide a Red Hat Login
If you do not have an existing Red Hat login, you can create one when prompted during the Setup
Agent or online at:
https://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/newlogin.html
A Red Hat login enables your access to:
•
Software updates, errata and maintenance via Red Hat Network
•
Red Hat technical support resources, documentation, and Knowledgebase
If you have forgotten your Red Hat login, you can search for your Red Hat login online at:
https://rhn.redhat.com/help/forgot_password.pxt
4.27.2. Provide Your Subscription Number
Your subscription number is located in the package that came with your order. If your package did not
include a subscription number, your subscription was activated for you and you can skip this step.
You can provide your subscription number when prompted during the Setup Agent or by visiting
http://www.redhat.com/register/.
4.27.3. Connect Your System
The Red Hat Network Registration Client helps you connect your system so that you can begin to get
updates and perform systems management. There are three ways to connect:
1. During the Setup Agent — Check the Send hardware information and Send system package
list options when prompted.
2. After the Setup Agent has been completed — From the Main Menu, go to System Tools, then
select Red Hat Network.
3. After the Setup Agent has been completed — Enter the following command from the command
line as the root user:
52
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
• /usr/bin/up2date --register
4.28. Itanium Systems — Booting Your Machine and
Post-Installation Setup
This section describes how to boot your Itanium into Red Hat Enterprise Linux and how to set your
EFI console variables so that Red Hat Enterprise Linux is automatically booted when the machine is
powered on.
After you reboot your system at the end of the installation program, type the following command to
boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
elilo
After you type elilo, the default kernel listed in the /boot/efi/elilo.conf configuration file is
loaded. (The first kernel listed in the file is the default.)
If you want to load a different kernel, type the label name of the kernel from the file
/boot/efi/elilo.conf after the elilo command. For example, to load the kernel named
linux, type:
elilo linux
If you do not know the names of the installed kernels, you can view the /boot/efi/elilo.conf
file in EFI with the following instructions:
1. At the Shell> prompt, change devices to the system partition (mounted as /boot/efi in
Linux). For example, if fs0 is the system boot partition, type fs0: at the EFI Shell prompt.
2. Type ls at the fs0:\> to make sure you are in the correct partition.
3. Then type:
Shell>type elilo.conf
This command displays the contents of the configuration file. Each stanza contains a line beginning with label followed by a label name for that kernel. The label name is what you type
after elilo to boot the different kernels.
4.28.1. Post-Installation Boot Loader Options
In addition to specifying a kernel to load, you can also enter other boot options such as single for
single user mode or mem=1024M to force Red Hat Enterprise Linux to use 1024 MB of memory. To
pass options to the boot loader, enter the following at the EFI Shell prompt (replace linux with the
label name of the kernel you want to boot and option with the boot options you want to pass to the
kernel):
elilo linux option
4.28.2. Booting Red Hat Enterprise Linux Automatically
After installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux you can type elilo and any boot options at the EFI Shell
prompt each time you wish to boot your Itanium system. However, if you wish to configure your
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
53
system to boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically, you need to configure the EFI Boot
Manager.
To configure the EFI Boot Manager (may vary slightly depending on your hardware):
1. Boot the Itanium system and choose Boot option maintenance menu from the EFI Boot Manager menu.
2. Choose Add a Boot Option from the Main Menu.
3. Select the system partition that is mounted as /boot/efi/ in Linux.
4. Select the elilo.efi file.
5. At the Enter New Description: prompt, type Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4, or
any name that you want to appear on the EFI Boot Manager menu.
6. At the Enter Boot Option Data Type: prompt, enter N for No Boot Option if you do
not want to pass options to the ELILO boot loader. This option works for most cases. If you
want to pass options to the boot loader, you can configure it in the /boot/efi/elilo.conf
configuration file instead.
7. Answer Yes to the Save changes to NVRAM prompt. This returns you to the EFI Boot
Maintenance Manager menu.
8. Next, you want to make the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 menu item the default. A list of
boot options appears. Move the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 menu item up to the top of the
list by selecting it with the arrow keys and pressing the [u] key to move it up the list. You can
move items down the list by selecting it and pressing the [d] key. After changing the boot order,
choose Save changes to NVRAM. Choose Exit to return to the Main Menu.
9. Optionally, you can change to boot timeout value by choosing Set Auto Boot TimeOut => Set
Timeout Value from the Main Menu.
10. Return to the EFI Boot Manager by selecting Exit.
4.28.2.1. Using a Startup Script
It is recommended that you configure the ELILO Boot Manager to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
automatically. However, if you require additional commands to be executed before starting the ELILO
boot loader, you can create a startup script named startup.nsh. The last command should be elilo
to boot into Linux.
The startup.nsh script should be in the /boot/efi partition (/boot/efi/startup.nsh) and
contain the following text:
echo -off
your set of commands
elilo
If
you
want
to
pass
options
to
the
boot
loader
Section 4.28.1 Post-Installation Boot Loader Options) add them after elilo.
(refer
to
You can either create this file after booting into Red Hat Enterprise Linux or use the editor built into the
EFI shell. To use the EFI shell, at the Shell> prompt, change devices to the system partition (mounted
as /boot/efi in Linux). For example, if fs0 is the system boot partition, type fs0: at the EFI Shell
prompt. Type ls to make sure you are in the correct partition. Then type edit startup.nsh. Type
the contents of the file and save it.
The next time the system boots, EFI detects the startup.nsh file and use it to boot the system. To
stop EFI from loading the file, type [Ctrl]-[c]. This aborts the process, and returns you to the EFI shell
prompt.
54
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Appendix A.
Upgrading Your Current System
This appendix explains the various methods available for upgrading your Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system.
A.1. Determining Whether to Upgrade or Re-Install
Although upgrades are supported from Red Hat Enterprise Linux versions 2.1 and 3 by the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux family on x86 processors (or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 on an AMD64, EM64T
or Itanimum system), you are more likely to have a consistent experience by backing up your data
and then installing this release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 over your previous Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installation.
This recommended reinstallation method helps to ensure the best system stability possible.
For more information about re-installing your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, refer to the Technical
Whitepapers available online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/wp/.
If you currently use Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 2.1 or 3 on an x86 system (or Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 3 on an AMD64, EM64T or Itanimum system), you can perform a traditional, installation
program-based upgrade.
However, before you chose to upgrade your system, there are a few things you should keep in mind:
•
Individual package configuration files may or may not work after performing an upgrade due to
changes in various configuration file formats or layouts.
•
If you have one of Red Hat’s layered products (such as the Cluster Suite) installed, it may need to
be manually upgraded after the Red Hat Enterprise Linux upgrade has been completed.
•
Third party or ISV applications may not work correctly following the upgrade.
Upgrading your system installs the modular 2.6.x kernel as well as updated versions of the packages
which are currently installed on your system.
The upgrade process preserves existing configuration files by renaming them with an .rpmsave extension (for example, sendmail.cf.rpmsave). The upgrade process also creates a log of its actions
in /root/upgrade.log.
Caution
As software evolves, configuration file formats can change. It is very important to carefully compare
your original configuration files to the new files before integrating your changes.
Note
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example, if you are
upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on your
hard drive(s). Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all of your data.
56
Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
Some upgraded packages may require the installation of other packages for proper operation. If you
choose to customize your packages to upgrade, you may be required to resolve dependency problems. Otherwise, the upgrade procedure takes care of these dependencies, but it may need to install
additional packages which are not on your system.
Depending on how you have partitioned your system, the upgrade program may prompt you to add an
additional swap file. If the upgrade program does not detect a swap file that equals twice your RAM,
it asks you if you would like to add a new swap file. If your system does not have a lot of RAM (less
than 128 MB), it is recommended that you add this swap file.
A.2. Upgrading Your System
The Upgrade Examine screen appears if you have instructed the installation program to perform an
upgrade.
Note
If the contents of your /etc/redhat-release file have been changed from the default, your Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation may not be found when attempting an upgrade to Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 4.
You can relax some of the checks against this file by booting with the following boot command:
linux upgradeany
Use the linux upgradeany command if your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation was not given as
an option to upgrade.
To perform an upgrade, select Perform an upgrade of an existing installation. Click Next when you
are ready to begin your upgrade.
To re-install your system, select Perform a new Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation and refer to
http://www.redhat.com/docs/wp/ as well as Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux for further
instructions.
To perform a new installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux on your system, select Perform a new
Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation and refer to Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
for further instructions.
A.3. Upgrade Boot Loader Configuration
A software boot loader is used to start Red Hat Enterprise Linux on your x86-based system. It can also
start other operating systems, such as Windows. If you are using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux software
boot loader, such as GRUB, it is detected automatically.
Note
The boot loader information presented here is not applicable for Itanium, AMD64, or EM64T systems.
On the Boot Loader Configuration Screen, your options are:
Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
57
Update boot loader configuration — Choose this option to keep your current boot loader configuration (GRUB or LILO depending on what you have currently installed) and have updates applied.
Skip boot loader updating — Choose this option if you do not want to make any changes to your
current boot loader configuration. If you are using a third party boot loader, you should not update
your boot loader.
Create new boot loader configuration — Choose this option if you want to create a new boot loader
for your system (refer to Section 4.17 x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Boot Loader Configuration
for more information).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
A.4. Upgrading Packages
At this point, there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been upgraded or installed.
A.5. Upgrade Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 upgrade is now complete!
The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to remove any
installation media if it is not ejected automatically upon reboot.
After your computer’s normal power-up sequence has completed, the graphical boot loader prompt
appears at which you can do any of the following things:
•
Press [Enter] — causes the default boot entry to be booted.
•
Select a boot label, followed by [Enter] — causes the boot loader to boot the operating system
corresponding to the boot label.
•
Do nothing — after the boot loader’s timeout period, (by default, five seconds) the boot loader
automatically boots the default boot entry.
Do whatever is appropriate to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux. One or more screens of messages should
scroll by. Eventually, a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you installed the X Window System
and chose to start X automatically) appears.
For information on registering your Red Hat Enterprise Linux subscription, refer to
Section 4.27 Activate Your Subscription.
58
Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
Appendix B.
Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
To uninstall Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your x86-based system, you must remove the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux boot loader information from your master boot record (MBR).
Note
It is always a good idea to backup any data that you have on your system(s). Mistakes do happen
and can result in the loss all of your data.
In DOS and Windows, use the Windows fdisk utility to create a new MBR with the undocumented
flag /mbr. This ONLY rewrites the MBR to boot the primary DOS partition. The command should
look like the following:
fdisk /mbr
If you need to remove Linux from a hard drive and have attempted to do this with the default DOS
(Windows) fdisk, you will experience the Partitions exist but they do not exist problem. The best
way to remove non-DOS partitions is with a tool that understands partitions other than DOS.
To begin, insert the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 and boot your system. Once you have booted
off the CD, a boot prompt appears. At the boot prompt, type: linux rescue. This starts the rescue
mode program.
You are prompted for your keyboard and language requirements. Enter these values as you would
during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Next, a screen appears telling you that the program attempts to find a Red Hat Enterprise Linux install
to rescue. Select Skip on this screen.
After selecting Skip, you are given a command prompt where you can access the partitions you would
like to remove.
First, type the command list-harddrives. This command lists all hard drives on your system that
are recognizable by the installation program, as well as their sizes in megabytes.
Warning
Be careful to remove only the necessary Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions. Removing other partitions could result in data loss or a corrupted system environment.
To remove partitions, use the partitioning utility parted. Start parted, where /dev/hda is the
device on which to remove the partition:
parted /dev/hda
Using the print command, view the current partition table to determine the minor number of the
partition to remove:
print
60
Appendix B. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The print command also displays the partition’s type (such as linux-swap, ext2, ext3, and so on).
Knowing the type of the partition helps you in determining whether to remove the partition.
Remove the partition with the command rm. For example, to remove the partition with minor number
3:
rm 3
Important
The changes start taking place as soon as you press [Enter], so review the command before committing to it.
After removing the partition, use the print command to confirm that it is removed from the partition
table.
Once you have removed the Linux partitions and made all of the changes you need to make, type
quit to quit parted.
After quitting parted, type exit at the boot prompt to exit rescue mode and reboot your system,
instead of continuing with the installation. The system should reboot automatically. If it does not, you
can reboot your computer using [Control]-[Alt]-[Delete].
Appendix C.
Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux
This appendix discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
C.1. You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
C.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card?
If you have performed an installation and cannot boot your system properly, you may need to reinstall
and create your partitions differently.
Some BIOSes do not support booting from RAID cards. At the end of an installation, a text-based
screen showing the boot loader prompt (for example, GRUB:) and a flashing cursor may be all that
appears. If this is the case, you must repartition your system.
Whether you choose automatic or manual partitioning, you must install your /boot partition outside
of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for
partition creation with problematic RAID cards.
You must also install your preferred boot loader (GRUB or LILO) on the MBR of a drive that is
outside of the RAID array. This should be the same drive that hosts the /boot/ partition.
Once these changes have been made, you should be able to finish your installation and boot the system
properly.
C.1.2. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
A signal 11 error, commonly know as a segmentation fault, means that the program accessed a memory
location that was not assigned.
If you receive a fatal signal 11 error during your installation, it is probably due to a hardware error in
memory on your system’s bus. A hardware error in memory can be caused by problems in executables
or with the system’s hardware. Like other operating systems, Red Hat Enterprise Linux places its own
demands on your system’s hardware. Some of this hardware may not be able to meet those demands,
even if they work properly under another OS.
Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images from Red Hat. Review the online errata
to see if newer versions are available. If the latest images still fail, it may be due to a problem with
your hardware. Commonly, these errors are in your memory or CPU-cache. A possible solution for
this error is turning off the CPU-cache in the BIOS. You could also try to swap your memory around
in the motherboard slots to check if the problem is either slot or memory related.
You can also try running the installation with only 256 MB of memory. This can be done by booting
the installation program with the mem=256M boot option. To try this option, at the installation boot
prompt, type:
mem=xxxM
where xxx should be replaced with the amount of memory in megabytes.
This command allows you to override the amount of memory the kernel detects for the machine. This
may be needed for some older systems where only 16MB is detected by the installation program (but
62
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
more RAM is present in the system), and for some new machines where the video card shares the
video memory with the main memory.
Another option is to perform a media check on your installation CD-ROMs. The Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with
the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat recommends that you test
all installation media before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installationrelated bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned CDs). To use this test,
type the following command at the boot: prompt (prepend with elilo for Itanium systems):
linux mediacheck
For more information concerning signal 11 errors, refer to:
http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/
C.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
C.2.1. Is Your Mouse Not Detected?
If the Mouse Not Detected screen (refer to Figure C-1) appears, then the installation program was
not able to identify your mouse correctly.
You can choose to continue with the GUI installation or use the text mode installation, which does
not require using a mouse. If you continue with the GUI installation, you are prompted to provide the
installation program with your mouse configuration information.
Figure C-1. Mouse Not Detected
C.2.2. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
There are some video cards that have trouble booting into the graphical installation program. If the
installation program does not run using its default settings, it tries to run in a lower resolution mode.
If that still fails, the installation program attempts to run in text mode.
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
63
One possible solution is to try using the resolution= boot option. This option may be most helpful
for laptop users. Refer to Appendix F Additional Boot Options for more information.
Note
To disable frame buffer support and allow the installation program to run in text mode, try using
the nofb boot option. This command may be necessary for accessibility with some screen reading
hardware.
C.3. Trouble During the Installation
C.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Error Message
If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, there is probably a SCSI controller that is not being recognized by the installation program.
Check your hardware vendor’s website to determine if a driver diskette image is available that fixes
your problem. For more general information on driver diskettes, refer to Appendix E Driver Media.
You can also refer to the Red Hat Hardware Compatibility List, available online at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
C.3.2. Saving Traceback Messages Without a Diskette Drive
If you receive a traceback error message during installation, you can usually save it to a diskette.
If you do not have a diskette drive available in your system, you can scp the error message to a remote
system.
When the traceback dialog appears, the traceback error message is automatically written to a file
named /tmp/anacdump.txt. Once the dialog appears, switch over to a new tty (virtual console) by
pressing the keys [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F2] and scp the message written to /tmp/anacdump.txt to a
known working remote system.
C.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup (Section 4.14 Disk Partitioning Setup) phase
of the installation saying something similar to
The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it must be initialized,
causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive.
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not be recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
Users who have used programs such as EZ-BIOS have experienced similar problems, causing data to
be lost (assuming the data was not backed up before the installation began) that could not be recovered.
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on your systems
should always be made.
64
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
C.3.4. Using Remaining Space
You have a swap and a / (root) partition created, and you have selected the root partition to use the
remaining space, but it does not fill the hard drive.
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders, you must create a /boot partition if you want the /
(root) partition to use all of the remaining space on your hard drive.
C.3.5. Other Partitioning Problems for x86 System Users
If you are using Disk Druid to create partitions, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably
have not created all the partitions necessary for Disk Druid’s dependencies to be satisfied.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
•
A / (root) partition
•
A <swap> partition of type swap
Tip
When defining a partition’s type as swap, do not assign it a mount point. Disk Druid automatically
assigns the mount point for you.
C.3.6. Other Partitioning Problems for Itanium System Users
If you are using Disk Druid to create partitions, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably
have not created all the partitions necessary for Disk Druid’s dependencies to be satisfied.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
•
A /boot/efi/ partition of type VFAT
•
A / (root) partition
•
A <swap> partition of type swap
Tip
When defining a partition’s type as swap, you do not have to assign it a mount point. Disk Druid
automatically assigns the mount point for you.
C.3.7. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
During some upgrades or installations of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the installation program (also
known as anaconda) may fail with a Python or traceback error. This error may occur after the selection
of individual packages or while trying to save the upgrade log in the /tmp/directory. The error may
look similar to:
Traceback (innermost last):
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/iw/progress_gui.py",
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
65
line 20, in run
rc = self.todo.doInstall ()
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/todo.py", line 1468, in
doInstall
self.fstab.savePartitions ()
File "fstab.py", line 221, in savePartitions
sys.exit(0)
SystemExit: 0
Local variables in innermost frame:
self: <fstab.GuiFstab instance at 8446fe0>
sys: <module ’sys’ (built-in)>
ToDo object:
(itodo
ToDo
p1
(dp2
S’method’
p3
(iimage
CdromInstallMethod
p4
(dp5
S’progressWindow’
p6
<failed>
This error occurs in some systems where links to /tmp/ are symbolic to other locations or have been
changed since creation. These symbolic or changed links are invalid during the installation process,
so the installation program cannot write information and fails.
If you experience such an error, first try to download any available errata for anaconda. Errata can be
found at:
http://www.redhat.com/support/errata/
The anaconda website may also be a useful reference and can be found online at:
http://rhlinux.redhat.com/anaconda/
You can also search for bug reports related to this problem. To search Red Hat’s bug tracking system,
go to:
http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
Finally, if you are still facing problems related to this error, register your product and contact our
support team. To register your product, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
66
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
C.4. Problems After Installation
C.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based
System?
If you are experiencing problems with GRUB, you may need to disable the graphical boot screen. To
do this, become the root user and edit the /boot/grub/grub.conf file.
Within the grub.conf file, comment out the line which begins with splashimage by inserting the
# character at the beginning of the line.
Press [Enter] to exit the editing mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Once you reboot, the grub.conf file is reread and any changes you have made take effect.
You may re-enable the graphical boot screen by uncommenting (or adding) the above line back into
the grub.conf file.
C.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
If you have installed the X Window System but are not seeing a graphical desktop environment once
you log into your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, you can start the X Window System graphical
interface using the command startx.
Once you enter this command and press [Enter], the graphical desktop environment is displayed.
Note, however, that this is just a one-time fix and does not change the log in process for future log ins.
To set up your system so that you can log in at a graphical login screen, you must edit one file,
/etc/inittab, by changing just one number in the runlevel section. When you are finished, reboot
the computer. The next time you log in, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.
Open a shell prompt. If you are in your user account, become root by typing the su command.
Now, type gedit /etc/inittab to edit the file with gedit. The file /etc/inittab opens. Within
the first screen, a section of the file which looks like the following appears:
# Default runlevel. The runlevels used by RHS are:
#
0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
1 - Single user mode
#
2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have networking)
#
3 - Full multiuser mode
#
4 - unused
#
5 - X11
#
6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
id:3:initdefault:
To change from a console to a graphical login, you should change the number in the line
id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5.
Warning
Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5.
Your changed line should look like the following:
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
67
id:5:initdefault:
When you are satisfied with your change, save and exit the file using the [Ctrl]-[Q] keys. A window
appears and asks if you would like to save the changes. Click Save.
The next time you log in after rebooting your system, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.
C.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
If you are having trouble getting X (the X Window System) to start, you may not have installed it
during your installation.
If you want X, you can either install the packages from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs or
perform an upgrade.
If you elect to upgrade, select the X Window System packages, and choose GNOME, KDE, or both,
during the upgrade package selection process.
C.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
If you are having trouble with the X server crashing when anyone other than root logs in, you may
have a full file system (or, a lack of available hard drive space).
To verify that this is the problem you are experiencing, run the following command:
df -h
The df command should help you diagnose which partition is full. For additional information about
df and an explanation of the options available (such as the -h option used in this example), refer to
the df man page by typing man df at a shell prompt.
A key indicator is 100% full or a percentage above 90% or 95% on a partition. The /home/ and /tmp/
partitions can sometimes fill up quickly with user files. You can make some room on that partition by
removing old files. After you free up some disk space, try running X as the user that was unsuccessful
before.
C.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
If you did not create a user account in the Setup Agent, log in as root and use the password you
assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system as linux single.
Itanium users must enter boot commands with elilo followed by the boot command.
If you are using an x86-based system and GRUB is your installed boot loader, type e for edit when
the GRUB boot screen has loaded. You are presented with a list of items in the configuration file for
the boot label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add:
single
Press [Enter] to exit edit mode.
68
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must type passwd
root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can type shutdown -r
now to reboot the system with the new root password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become root, type su
- and enter your root password when prompted. Then, type passwd <username>. This allows you
to enter a new password for the specified user account.
If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues. The Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
C.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
Sometimes, the kernel does not recognize all of your memory (RAM). You can check this with the
cat /proc/meminfo command.
Verify that the displayed quantity is the same as the known amount of RAM in your system. If they
are not equal, add the following line to the /boot/grub/grub.conf:
mem=xxM
Replace xx with the amount of RAM you have in megabytes.
In /boot/grub/grub.conf, the above example would look similar to the following:
#NOTICE: You have a /boot partition. This means that
#
all kernel paths are relative to /boot/
default=0
timeout=30
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux (2.6.9-1.641_EL)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.9-1.641_EL ro root=/dev/hda3 mem=128M
Once you reboot, the changes made to grub.conf are reflected on your system.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, type e for edit. You are presented with a list of items
in the configuration file for the boot label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add
mem=xxM
where xx equals the amount of RAM in your system.
Press [Enter] to exit edit mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Itanium users must enter boot commands with elilo followed by the boot command.
Remember to replace xx with the amount of RAM in your system. Press [Enter] to boot.
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
69
C.4.7. Your Printer Does Not Work
If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work properly, try
using the Printer Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch the Printer Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
C.4.8. Problems with Sound Configuration
If, for some reason, you do not hear sound and know that you do have a sound card installed, you can
run the Sound Card Configuration Tool (system-config-soundcard) utility.
To use the Sound Card Configuration Tool, choose Main Menu => System Settings => Soundcard
Detection. A small text box pops up prompting you for your root password.
You can also type the system-config-soundcard command at a shell prompt to launch the Sound
Card Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
To run the text-based configuration tool, as root, type sndconfig in a terminal window. Note, the
sndconfig application is not installed by default but can be found on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
CD-ROMs.
If the Sound Card Configuration Tool does not work (if the sample does not play and you still
do not have audio sounds), there are alternatives, although they are not quite as simple as running
the Sound Card Configuration Tool. You can edit your modules.conf file (this strategy is not
recommended for most new users), or refer to the documentation that came with your sound card for
more information.
C.4.9. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup
If you are having trouble with the Apache-based httpd service or Sendmail hanging at startup, make
sure the following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
127.0.0.1
localhost.localdomain
localhost
C.4.10. Trouble with NVIDIA chipset
If you have an NVIDIA chipset and have just updated your kernel, you may experience problems with
the video card, such as not having any video output.
If you experience a similar problem, you should download the latest kernel drivers available for your
NVIDIA chipset. For more information, refer to:
http://www.nvidia.com/view.asp?IO=linux_display_1.0-3123
70
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Appendix D.
An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Note
This appendix is not necessarily applicable to non-x86-based architectures. However, the general
concepts mentioned here may apply.
Disk partitions are a standard part of the personal computer landscape and have been for quite some
time. However, with many people purchasing computers featuring pre-installed operating systems,
relatively few people understand how partitions work. This chapter attempts to explain the reasons for
and use of disk partitions so your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is as simple and painless as
possible.
If you are reasonably comfortable with disk partitions, you could
Section D.1.4 Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux, for more information
freeing up disk space to prepare for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
discusses the partition naming scheme used by Linux systems, sharing disk
operating systems, and related topics.
skip ahead to
on the process of
This section also
space with other
D.1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts
Hard disks perform a very simple function — they store data and reliably retrieve it on command.
When discussing issues such as disk partitioning, it is important to know a bit about the underlying
hardware. Unfortunately, it is easy to become bogged down in details. Therefore, this appendix uses
a simplified diagram of a disk drive to help explain what is really happening when a disk drive is
partitioned. Figure D-1, shows a brand-new, unused disk drive.
Figure D-1. An Unused Disk Drive
Not much to look at, is it? But if we are talking about disk drives on a basic level, it is adequate. Say
that we would like to store some data on this drive. As things stand now, it will not work. There is
something we need to do first. . .
D.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
Experienced computer users probably got this one on the first try. We need to format the drive. Formatting (usually known as "making a file system") writes information to the drive, creating order out
of the empty space in an unformatted drive.
72
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Figure D-2. Disk Drive with a File System
As Figure D-2, implies, the order imposed by a file system involves some trade-offs:
•
A small percentage of the drive’s available space is used to store file system-related data and can be
considered as overhead.
•
A file system splits the remaining space into small, consistently-sized segments. For Linux, these
segments are known as blocks. 1
Given that file systems make things like directories and files possible, these trade-offs are usually seen
as a small price to pay.
It is also worth noting that there is no single, universal file system. As Figure D-3, shows, a disk drive
may have one of many different file systems written on it. As you might guess, different file systems
tend to be incompatible; that is, an operating system that supports one file system (or a handful of
related file system types) may not support another. This last statement is not a hard-and-fast rule,
however. For example, Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports a wide variety of file systems (including
many commonly used by other operating systems), making data interchange between different file
systems easy.
Figure D-3. Disk Drive with a Different File System
Of course, writing a file system to disk is only the beginning. The goal of this process is to actually
store and retrieve data. Let us take a look at our drive after some files have been written to it.
Figure D-4. Disk Drive with Data Written to It
As Figure D-4, shows, some of the previously-empty blocks are now holding data. However, by just
looking at this picture, we cannot determine exactly how many files reside on this drive. There may
only be one file or many, as all files use at least one block and some files use multiple blocks. Another
important point to note is that the used blocks do not have to form a contiguous region; used and
unused blocks may be interspersed. This is known as fragmentation. Fragmentation can play a part
when attempting to resize an existing partition.
As with most computer-related technologies, disk drives changed over time after their introduction. In
particular, they got bigger. Not larger in physical size, but bigger in their capacity to store information.
And, this additional capacity drove a fundamental change in the way disk drives were used.
1.
Blocks really are consistently sized, unlike our illustrations. Keep in mind, also, that an average disk drive
contains thousands of blocks. But for the purposes of this discussion, please ignore these minor discrepancies.
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
73
D.1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many
As disk drive capacities soared, some people began to wonder if having all of that formatted space
in one big chunk was such a great idea. This line of thinking was driven by several issues, some
philosophical, some technical. On the philosophical side, above a certain size, it seemed that the
additional space provided by a larger drive created more clutter. On the technical side, some file
systems were never designed to support anything above a certain capacity. Or the file systems could
support larger drives with a greater capacity, but the overhead imposed by the file system to track files
became excessive.
The solution to this problem was to divide disks into partitions. Each partition can be accessed as if it
was a separate disk. This is done through the addition of a partition table.
Note
While the diagrams in this chapter show the partition table as being separate from the actual disk
drive, this is not entirely accurate. In reality, the partition table is stored at the very start of the disk,
before any file system or user data. But for clarity, they are separate in our diagrams.
Figure D-5. Disk Drive with Partition Table
As Figure D-5 shows, the partition table is divided into four sections or four primary partitions. A
primary partition is a partition on a hard drive that can contain only one logical drive (or section).
Each section can hold the information necessary to define a single partition, meaning that the partition
table can define no more than four partitions.
Each partition table entry contains several important characteristics of the partition:
•
The points on the disk where the partition starts and ends
•
Whether the partition is "active"
•
The partition’s type
Let us take a closer look at each of these characteristics. The starting and ending points actually define
the partition’s size and location on the disk. The "active" flag is used by some operating systems’ boot
loaders. In other words, the operating system in the partition that is marked "active" is booted.
The partition’s type can be a bit confusing. The type is a number that identifies the partition’s anticipated usage. If that statement sounds a bit vague, that is because the meaning of the partition type
is a bit vague. Some operating systems use the partition type to denote a specific file system type, to
flag the partition as being associated with a particular operating system, to indicate that the partition
contains a bootable operating system, or some combination of the three.
By this point, you might be wondering how all this additional complexity is normally used. Refer to
Figure D-6, for an example.
74
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
DOS
Figure D-6. Disk Drive With Single Partition
In many cases, there is only a single partition spanning the entire disk, essentially duplicating the
method used before partitions. The partition table has only one entry used, and it points to the start of
the partition.
We have labeled this partition as being of the "DOS" type. Although it is only one of several possible
partition types listed in Table D-1, it is adequate for the purposes of this discussion.
Table D-1, contains a listing of some popular (and obscure) partition types, along with their hexadecimal numeric values.
Partition Type
Value
Partition Type
Value
Empty
00
Novell Netware 386
65
DOS 12-bit FAT
01
PIC/IX
75
XENIX root
02
Old MINIX
80
XENIX usr
03
Linux/MINUX
81
DOS 16-bit <=32M
04
Linux swap
82
Extended
05
Linux native
83
DOS 16-bit >=32
06
Linux extended
85
OS/2 HPFS
07
Amoeba
93
AIX
08
Amoeba BBT
94
AIX bootable
09
BSD/386
a5
OS/2 Boot Manager
0a
OpenBSD
a6
Win95 FAT32
0b
NEXTSTEP
a7
Win95 FAT32 (LBA)
0c
BSDI fs
b7
Win95 FAT16 (LBA)
0e
BSDI swap
b8
Win95 Extended (LBA)
0f
Syrinx
c7
Venix 80286
40
CP/M
db
e1
Novell
51
DOS access
PPC PReP Boot
41
DOS R/O
e3
GNU HURD
63
DOS secondary
f2
Novell Netware 286
64
BBT
ff
Table D-1. Partition Types
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
75
D.1.3. Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended
Partitions
Of course, over time it became obvious that four partitions would not be enough. As disk drives
continued to grow, it became more and more likely that a person could configure four reasonablysized partitions and still have disk space left over. There needed to be some way of creating more
partitions.
Enter the extended partition. As you may have noticed in Table D-1, there is an "Extended" partition
type. It is this partition type that is at the heart of extended partitions.
When a partition is created and its type is set to "Extended," an extended partition table is created. In
essence, the extended partition is like a disk drive in its own right — it has a partition table that points
to one or more partitions (now called logical partitions, as opposed to the four primary partitions)
contained entirely within the extended partition itself. Figure D-7, shows a disk drive with one primary
partition and one extended partition containing two logical partitions (along with some unpartitioned
free space).
DOS
Extended
Linux native
OS/2 HPFS
Figure D-7. Disk Drive With Extended Partition
As this figure implies, there is a difference between primary and logical partitions — there can only
be four primary partitions, but there is no fixed limit to the number of logical partitions that can exist.
However, due to the way in which partitions are accessed in Linux, you should avoid defining more
than 12 logical partitions on a single disk drive.
Now that we have discussed partitions in general, let us review how to use this knowledge to install
Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
D.1.4. Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The following list presents some possible scenarios you may face when attempting to repartition your
hard disk:
•
Unpartitioned free space is available
•
An unused partition is available
•
Free space in an actively used partition is available
Let us look at each scenario in order.
Note
Keep in mind that the following illustrations are simplified in the interest of clarity and do not reflect
the exact partition layout that you encounter when actually installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
76
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
D.1.4.1. Using Unpartitioned Free Space
In this situation, the partitions already defined do not span the entire hard disk, leaving unallocated
space that is not part of any defined partition. Figure D-8, shows what this might look like.
DOS
DOS
Linux native
Figure D-8. Disk Drive with Unpartitioned Free Space
In Figure D-8, 1 represents an undefined partition with unallocated space and 2 represents a defined
partition with allocated space.
If you think about it, an unused hard disk also falls into this category. The only difference is that all
the space is not part of any defined partition.
In any case, you can create the necessary partitions from the unused space. Unfortunately, this scenario, although very simple, is not very likely (unless you have just purchased a new disk just for Red
Hat Enterprise Linux). Most pre-installed operating systems are configured to take up all available
space on a disk drive (refer to Section D.1.4.3 Using Free Space from an Active Partition).
Next, we will discuss a slightly more common situation.
D.1.4.2. Using Space from an Unused Partition
In this case, maybe you have one or more partitions that you do not use any longer. Perhaps you have
dabbled with another operating system in the past, and the partition(s) you dedicated to it never seem
to be used anymore. Figure D-9, illustrates such a situation.
DOS
DOS
CP/M
Linux native
Figure D-9. Disk Drive With an Unused Partition
In Figure D-9, 1 represents an unused partition and 2 represents reallocating an unused partition for
Linux.
If you find yourself in this situation, you can use the space allocated to the unused partition. You first
must delete the partition and then create the appropriate Linux partition(s) in its place. You can delete
the unused partition and manually create new partitions during the installation process.
D.1.4.3. Using Free Space from an Active Partition
This is the most common situation. It is also, unfortunately, the hardest to handle. The main problem
is that, even if you have enough free space, it is presently allocated to a partition that is already in use.
If you purchased a computer with pre-installed software, the hard disk most likely has one massive
partition holding the operating system and data.
Aside from adding a new hard drive to your system, you have two choices:
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
77
Destructive Repartitioning
Basically, you delete the single large partition and create several smaller ones. As you might
imagine, any data you had in the original partition is destroyed. This means that making a complete backup is necessary. For your own sake, make two backups, use verification (if available in
your backup software), and try to read data from your backup before you delete the partition.
Caution
If there was an operating system of some type installed on that partition, it needs to be reinstalled as well. Be aware that some computers sold with pre-installed operating systems may
not include the CD-ROM media to reinstall the original operating system. The best time to notice if this applies to your system is before you destroy your original partition and its operating
system installation.
After creating a smaller partition for your existing operating system, you can reinstall any software, restore your data, and start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. Figure D-10 shows
this being done.
DOS
DOS
DOS
Linux native
Figure D-10. Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned
In Figure D-10, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
Caution
As Figure D-10, shows, any data present in the original partition is lost without proper backup!
Non-Destructive Repartitioning
Here, you run a program that does the seemingly impossible: it makes a big partition smaller
without losing any of the files stored in that partition. Many people have found this method to be
reliable and trouble-free. What software should you use to perform this feat? There are several
disk management software products on the market. Do some research to find the one that is best
for your situation.
While the process of non-destructive repartitioning is rather straightforward, there are a number
of steps involved:
•
Compress and backup existing data
•
Resize the existing partition
•
Create new partition(s)
Next we will look at each step in a bit more detail.
D.1.4.3.1. Compress existing data
As Figure D-11, shows, the first step is to compress the data in your existing partition. The reason for
doing this is to rearrange the data such that it maximizes the available free space at the "end" of the
partition.
78
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
DOS
DOS
DOS
Figure D-11. Disk Drive Being Compressed
In Figure D-11, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
This step is crucial. Without it, the location of your data could prevent the partition from being resized
to the extent desired. Note also that, for one reason or another, some data cannot be moved. If this is
the case (and it severely restricts the size of your new partition(s)), you may be forced to destructively
repartition your disk.
D.1.4.3.2. Resize the existing partition
Figure D-12, shows the actual resizing process. While the actual result of the resizing operation varies
depending on the software used, in most cases the newly freed space is used to create an unformatted
partition of the same type as the original partition.
DOS
DOS
DOS
DOS
Figure D-12. Disk Drive with Partition Resized
In Figure D-12, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
It is important to understand what the resizing software you use does with the newly freed space, so
that you can take the appropriate steps. In the case we have illustrated, it would be best to delete the
new DOS partition and create the appropriate Linux partition(s).
D.1.4.3.3. Create new partition(s)
As the previous step implied, it may or may not be necessary to create new partitions. However, unless
your resizing software is Linux-aware, it is likely that you must delete the partition that was created
during the resizing process. Figure D-13, shows this being done.
DOS
DOS
DOS
DOS
Linux native
Figure D-13. Disk Drive with Final Partition Configuration
In Figure D-13, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
79
Note
The following information is specific to x86-based computers only.
As a convenience to our customers, we provide the parted utility. This is a freely available program
that can resize partitions.
If you decide to repartition your hard drive with parted, it is important that you be familiar with
disk storage and that you perform a backup of your computer data. You should make two copies of
all the important data on your computer. These copies should be to removable media (such as tape,
CD-ROM, or diskettes), and you should make sure they are readable before proceeding.
Should you decide to use parted, be aware that after parted runs you are left with two partitions:
the one you resized, and the one parted created out of the newly freed space. If your goal is to use
that space to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should delete the newly created partition, either by
using the partitioning utility under your current operating system or while setting up partitions during
installation.
D.1.5. Partition Naming Scheme
Linux refers to disk partitions using a combination of letters and numbers which may be confusing,
particularly if you are used to the "C drive" way of referring to hard disks and their partitions. In the
DOS/Windows world, partitions are named using the following method:
•
Each partition’s type is checked to determine if it can be read by DOS/Windows.
•
If the partition’s type is compatible, it is assigned a "drive letter." The drive letters start with a "C"
and move on to the following letters, depending on the number of partitions to be labeled.
•
The drive letter can then be used to refer to that partition as well as the file system contained on that
partition.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses a naming scheme that is more flexible and conveys more information
than the approach used by other operating systems. The naming scheme is file-based, with file names
in the form of /dev/xxyN .
Here is how to decipher the partition naming scheme:
/dev/
This is the name of the directory in which all device files reside. Since partitions reside on hard
disks, and hard disks are devices, the files representing all possible partitions reside in /dev/.
xx
The first two letters of the partition name indicate the type of device on which the partition
resides, usually either hd (for IDE disks) or sd (for SCSI disks).
y
This letter indicates which device the partition is on. For example, /dev/hda (the first IDE hard
disk) or /dev/sdb (the second SCSI disk).
80
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
N
The final number denotes the partition. The first four (primary or extended) partitions are numbered 1 through 4. Logical partitions start at 5. So, for example, /dev/hda3 is the third primary
or extended partition on the first IDE hard disk, and /dev/sdb6 is the second logical partition
on the second SCSI hard disk.
Note
There is no part of this naming convention that is based on partition type; unlike DOS/Windows, all
partitions can be identified under Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Of course, this does not mean that Red
Hat Enterprise Linux can access data on every type of partition, but in many cases it is possible to
access data on a partition dedicated to another operating system.
Keep this information in mind; it makes things easier to understand when you are setting up the
partitions Red Hat Enterprise Linux requires.
D.1.6. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
If your Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions are sharing a hard disk with partitions used by other operating systems, most of the time you will have no problems. However, there are certain combinations
of Linux and other operating systems that require extra care.
D.1.7. Disk Partitions and Mount Points
One area that many people new to Linux find confusing is the matter of how partitions are used and
accessed by the Linux operating system. In DOS/Windows, it is relatively simple: Each partition gets
a "drive letter." You then use the correct drive letter to refer to files and directories on its corresponding
partition.
This is entirely different from how Linux deals with partitions and, for that matter, with disk storage
in general. The main difference is that each partition is used to form part of the storage necessary to
support a single set of files and directories. This is done by associating a partition with a directory
through a process known as mounting. Mounting a partition makes its storage available starting at the
specified directory (known as a mount point).
For example, if partition /dev/hda5 is mounted on /usr/, that would mean that
all files and directories under /usr/ physically reside on /dev/hda5. So the file
/usr/share/doc/FAQ/txt/Linux-FAQ would be stored on /dev/hda5, while the file
/etc/X11/gdm/Sessions/Gnome would not.
Continuing our example, it is also possible that one or more directories below /usr/ would be
mount points for other partitions. For instance, a partition (say, /dev/hda7) could be mounted on
/usr/local/, meaning that /usr/local/man/whatis would then reside on /dev/hda7 rather
than /dev/hda5.
D.1.8. How Many Partitions?
At this point in the process of preparing to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you must give some
consideration to the number and size of the partitions to be used by your new operating system. The
question of "how many partitions" continues to spark debate within the Linux community and, without
any end to the debate in sight, it is safe to say that there are probably as many partition layouts as there
are people debating the issue.
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
81
Keeping this in mind, we recommend that, unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, you should at
least create the following partitions: swap, /boot/ (or a /boot/efi/ partition for Itanium systems),
a /var/ partition for Itanium systems, and / (root).
For more information, refer to Section 4.16.4 Recommended Partitioning Scheme.
82
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Appendix E.
Driver Media
E.1. Why Do I Need Driver Media?
While the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program is loading, a screen may appear asking you
for driver media. The driver media screen is most often seen in the following scenarios:
•
If you need to perform an installation from a network device
•
If you need to perform an installation from a block device
•
If you need to perform an installation from a PCMCIA device
•
If you run the installation program by entering linux dd at the installation boot prompt (Itanium
users should enter elilo linux dd)
•
If you run the installation program on a computer which does not have any PCI devices
E.1.1. So What Is Driver Media Anyway?
Driver media can add support for hardware that may or may not be supported by the installation
program. Driver media could include a driver diskette or image produced by Red Hat, it could be a
diskette or CD-ROM you make yourself from driver images found on the Internet, or it could be a
diskette or CD-ROM that a hardware vendor includes with a piece of hardware.
Driver media is used if you need access to a particular device to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Drivers can be used for network (NFS) installations, installations using a PCMCIA or block device,
non-standard or very new CD-ROM drives, SCSI adapters, NICs, and other uncommon devices.
Note
If an unsupported device is not needed to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on your system, continue
with the installation and add support for the new piece of hardware once the installation is complete.
E.1.2. How Do I Obtain Driver Media?
Driver images can be obtained from several sources. They may be included with Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, or they may be available from a hardware or software vendor’s website. If you suspect that
your system may require one of these drivers, you should create a driver diskette or CD-ROM before
beginning your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
For users with x86-based systems, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 includes driver images (including images/drvnet.img — network card drivers and images/drvblock.img — drivers for
SCSI controllers) containing many drivers (both common and obscure).
84
Appendix E. Driver Media
Tip
It is also possible to use a driver image via a network file. Instead of using the linux dd boot command, use the linux dd=url command, where url is replaced by an HTTP, FTP, or NFS address
of the driver image to be used.
Another option for finding specialized driver information is on Red Hat’s website at
http://www.redhat.com/support/errata/
under the section called Bug Fixes. Occasionally, popular hardware may be made available after a
release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux that does not work with drivers already in the installation program
or included on the driver images on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1. In such cases, the Red Hat
website may contain a link to a driver image.
E.1.2.1. Creating a Driver Diskette from an Image File
To create a driver diskette from a driver diskette image using Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
1. Insert a blank, formatted diskette (or LS-120 diskette for Itanium system users) into the first
diskette (or LS-120) drive.
2. From the same directory containing the driver diskette image, such as drvnet.img , type dd
if=drvnet.img of=/dev/fd0 as root.
Tip
Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports using a USB pen drive as a way to add driver images during the
installation process. The best way to do this is to mount the USB pen drive and copy the desired
driverdisk.img onto the USB pen drive. For example:
dd if=driverdisk.img of=/dev/sda
You are then prompted during the installation to select the partition and specify the file to be used.
E.1.3. Using a Driver Image During Installation
If you need to use a driver image, such as during a PCMCIA device or NFS installation, the installation
program prompts you to insert the driver (as a diskette, CD-ROM, or file name) when it is needed.
However, there are some cases where you must specifically tell the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program to load that driver diskette and use it during the installation process.
For example, to specifically load a driver diskette that you have created, begin the installation process by booting from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 (or using boot media you have created).
For x86-based systems, at the boot: prompt, enter linux dd if using an x86 or x86-64 system.
Refer to Section 4.3.1 Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Systems
for details on booting the installation program. For Itanium systems, at the Shell> prompt, type
elilo linux dd. Refer to Section 4.3.2 Booting the Installation Program on Itanium Systems for
details on booting the installation program.
Appendix E. Driver Media
85
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program asks you to insert the driver diskette. Once the
driver diskette is read by the installation program, it can apply those drivers to hardware discovered
on your system later in the installation process.
86
Appendix E. Driver Media
Appendix F.
Additional Boot Options
This appendix discusses additional boot and kernel boot options available for the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installation program.
To use any of the boot options presented here, type the command you wish to invoke at the installation
boot: prompt.
Boot Time Command Arguments
askmethod
This command asks you to select the installation method you would like to use when booting
from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM.
apic
This x86 boot command works around a bug commonly encountered in the Intel 440GX chipset
BIOS and should only be executed with the installation program kernel.
apm=allow_ints
This x86 boot command changes how the suspend service is handled (and may be necessary for
some laptops).
apm=off
This x86 boot command disables APM (Advanced Power Management). It useful because some
BIOSes have buggy power management (APM) and tend to crash.
apm=power_off
This x86 boot command makes Red Hat Enterprise Linux shutdown (power off) the system by
default. It is useful for SMP systems that do not shutdown by default.
apm=realmode_power_off
Some BIOSes crash on x86-based systems when trying to shutdown (power off) the machine.
This command changes the method of how this is done from the Windows NT way to the Windows 95 way.
dd
This argument causes the installation program to prompt you to use a driver diskette.
dd=url
This argument causes the installation program to prompt you to use a driver image from a specified HTTP, FTP, or NFS network address.
display=IP:0
This command allows remote display forwarding. In this command, IP should be replaced with
the IP address of the system on which you want the display to appear.
On the system you want the display to appear on, you must execute the command xhost
+remotehostname, where remotehostname is the name of the host from which you are
running the original display. Using the command xhost +remotehostname limits access
88
Appendix F. Additional Boot Options
to the remote display terminal and does not allow access from anyone or any system not
specifically authorized for remote access.
driverdisk
This command performs the same function as the dd command and also prompts you to use a
driver diskette during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
ide=nodma
This command disables DMA on all IDE devices and may be useful when having IDE-related
problems.
linux upgradeany
This command relaxes some of the checks on your /etc/redhat-release file. If your
/etc/redhat-release file has been changed from the default, your Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installation may not be found when attempting an upgrade to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.
Use this option only if your existing Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation was not detected.
mediacheck
This command gives you the option of testing the integrity of the install source (if an ISO-based
method). This command works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation
methods. Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation helps to
avoid problems that are often encountered during an installation.
mem=xxxM
This command allows you to override the amount of memory the kernel detects for the machine.
This may be needed for some older systems where only 16 MB is detected and for some new
machines where the video card shares the video memory with the main memory. When executing
this command, xxx should be replaced with the amount of memory in megabytes.
nmi_watchdog=1
This command enables the built-in kernel deadlock detector. This command can be used to debug
hard kernel lockups. By executing periodic NMI (Non Maskable Interrupt) interrupts, the kernel
can monitor whether any CPU has locked up and print out debugging messages as needed.
noapic
This x86 boot command tells the kernel not to use the APIC chip. It may be helpful for some
motherboards with a bad APIC (such as the Abit BP6) or with a buggy BIOS. Systems based on
the NVIDIA nForce3 chipset (such as the ASUS SK8N) have been known to hang during IDE
detection at boot time, or display other interrupt-delivery issues.
noht
This x86 boot command disables hyperthreading.
nofb
This command disables frame buffer support and allows the installation program to run in text
mode. This command may be necessary for accessibility with some screen reading hardware.
nomce
This x86 boot command disables self-diagnosis checks performed on the CPU. The kernel enables self-diagnosis on the CPU by default (called Machine Check Exception). Early Compaq
Pentium systems may need this option as they do not support processor error checking correctly.
A few other laptops, notably those using the Radeon IGP chipset, may also need this option.
Appendix F. Additional Boot Options
89
nopass
This command disables the passing of keyboard and mouse information to stage 2 of the installation program. It can be used to test keyboard and mouse configuration screens during stage 2
of the installation program when performing a network installation.
nopcmcia
This command ignores any PCMCIA controllers in system.
noprobe
This command disables hardware detection and instead prompts the user for hardware information.
noshell
This command disables shell access on virtual console 2 during an installation.
nousb
This command disables the loading of USB support during the installation. If the installation
program tends to hang early in the process, this command may be helpful.
nousbstorage
This command disables the loading of the usbstorage module in the installation program’s loader.
It may help with device ordering on SCSI systems.
numa=off
Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports NUMA (Non-Uniform Memory Access) on the AMD64 architecture. While all CPUs can access all memory even without NUMA support, the NUMA
support present in the updated kernel causes memory allocations to favor the CPU on which
they originate as much as possible, thereby minimizing inter-CPU memory traffic. This can provide significant performance improvements in certain applications. To revert to the original nonNUMA behavior, specify this boot option.
reboot=b
This x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T boot command changes the way the kernel tries to reboot
the machine. If a kernel hang is experienced while the system is shutting down, this command
may cause the system to reboot successfully.
rescue
This command runs rescue mode. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration
Guide for more information about rescue mode.
resolution=
Tells the installation program which video mode to run. It accepts any standard resolution, such
as 640x480, 800x600, 1024x768, and so on.
serial
This command turns on serial console support.
skipddc
This x86 boot command skips the ddc monitor probe which causes problems on some systems.
90
Appendix F. Additional Boot Options
text
This command disables the graphical installation program and forces the installation program to
run in text mode.
updates
This command prompts you to insert a floppy diskette containing updates (bug fixes). It is not
needed if you are performing a network installation and have already placed the updates image
contents in RHupdates/ on the server.
vnc
This command allows you to install from a VNC server.
vncpassword=
This command sets the password used to connect to the VNC server.
Appendix G.
Additional Resources about Itanium and Linux
Other reference materials, related to running Red Hat Enterprise Linux on an Itanium system, are
available on the Web. A few of the available resources are as follows:
•
http://www.intel.com/products/server/processors/server/itanium/index.htm?iid=sr+itanium&
The Intel website on the Itanium Processor
—
•
http://developer.intel.com/technology/efi/index.htm?iid=sr+efi& — The Intel website for the Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI)
•
http://www.itanium.com/business/bss/products/server/itanium2/index.htm — The Intel website on
the Itanium 2 processor
92
Appendix G. Additional Resources about Itanium and Linux
Index
Symbols
/boot/ partition
recommended partitioning, 31
/boot/efi/, 31
/root/install.log
install log file location, 50
/var/ partition
recommended partitioning, 31
A
accessibility, iv
boot option
nofb, 88
activating your subscription, 51
adding partitions, 33
file system type, 34
ATAPI CD-ROM
unrecognized, problems with, 19
autoboot
ELILO, 52
automatic partitioning, 25, 27
B
boot CD-ROM, 4
creating, 5
boot loader, 35
alternatives to, 39
commercial products, 39
LOADLIN, 39
SYSLINUX, 39
configuration, 35
GRUB, 35
installing on boot partition, 37
MBR, 37
password, 37
boot loader password, 37
boot methods
boot CD-ROM, 4
USB pen drive, 4
boot options, 17
additional, 87
kernel, 87
boot.iso, 17
linux mediacheck, 8
mediacheck, 17
serial mode, 17
UTF-8, 17
text mode, 17
boot.iso, 17
booting
installation program
from a CD-ROM, 16
from an LS-120 diskette, 16
Itanium, 15
x86, AMD64 and Intel EM64T, 15
C
canceling the installation, 19
CD-ROM
ATAPI, 19
unrecognized, problems with, 19
boot CD-ROM, creating, 5
IDE, 19
unrecognized, problems with, 19
installation from, 19
SCSI, 19
clock, 45
configuration
clock, 45
GRUB, 35
hardware, 9
network, 40
time, 45
time zone, 45
consoles, virtual, 12
conventions
document, i
D
DASD installation, 20
Disk Druid
adding partitions, 33
file system type, 34
buttons, 30
deleting partitions, 35
editing partitions, 35
partitions, 28
disk partitioning, 25
disk space, 3
diskette
media, 83
documentation
other manuals, 3
driver diskette, 14
driver media, 83
creating diskette from image, 84
produced by others, 84
produced by Red Hat, 83
using a driver image, 84
94
E
I
EFI
system partition, 2
EFI Shell, 1
ELILO
autoboot, 52
post-installation boot setup, 52
extended partitions, 75
ia64
(see Itanium)
IDE CD-ROM
unrecognized, problems with, 19
install log file
/root/install.log, 50
installation
aborting, 19
can you install with a CD-ROM, 4
CD-ROM, 19
DASD, 20
disk space, 3
FTP, 5, 21
GUI
CD-ROM, 11
hard drive, 7, 20
HTTP, 5, 22
Itanium overview, 1
keyboard navigation, 14
mediacheck, 17
method
CD-ROM, 18
FTP, 18
hard drive, 18
HTTP, 19
NFS image, 18
selecting, 18
network, 5
NFS, 5, 21
server information, 21
partitioning, 28
problems
IDE CD-ROM related, 19
program
graphical user interface, 11
starting, 14
text mode user interface, 12
virtual consoles, 12
serial mode, 17
UTF-8, 17
starting, 19
text mode, 17
installation media
testing, 8
installation overview, 1
installation program
Itanium
booting, 15
x86, AMD64 and Intel EM64T
booting, 15
installing packages, 48
introduction, i
F
feedback
contact information for this manual, iv
file system
formats, overview of, 71
file system types, 34
firewall configuration, 42
customize incoming services, 43
customize trusted services, 43
security levels
enable firewall, 43
no firewall, 42
FTP
installation, 5, 21
G
GRUB, 35, 56
alternatives to, 39
commercial products, 39
LOADLIN, 39
SYSLINUX, 39
configuration, 35, 56
SMP motherboards, 40
H
hard disk
basic concepts, 71
extended partitions, 75
file system formats, 71
partition introduction, 73
partition types, 74
partitioning of, 71
hard drive installation, 20
preparing for, 7
hardware
compatibility, 3
configuration, 9
hostname configuration, 41
how to use this manual, iii
HTTP
installation, 5, 22
95
K
P
kernel
boot options, 87
kernel options, 18
keyboard
configuration, 24
navigating the installation program using, 14
keymap
selecting type of keyboard, 24
packages
groups, 48
selecting, 48
installing, 48
selecting, 48
parted partitioning utility, 79
partition
extended, 75
Partition Magic, 39
partitioning, 28
automatic, 25, 27
basic concepts, 71
creating new, 33
file system type, 34
deleting, 35
destructive, 77
editing, 35
extended partitions, 75
how many partitions, 73, 80
introduction to, 73
making room for partitions, 75
mount points and, 80
naming partitions, 79
non-destructive, 77
numbering partitions, 79
other operating systems, 80
primary partitions, 73
recommended, 31
types of partitions, 74
using free space, 76
using in-use partition, 76
using unused partition, 76
password
boot loader, 37
setting root, 46
post-installation setup, 52
L
language
selecting, 23
support for multiple languages, 44
LOADLIN, 39
LS-120 boot diskette
creating from boot image file, 16
LS-120 boot.img, 16
M
manuals, 3
MBR
installing boot loader on, 37
mount points
partitions and, 80
mouse
not detected, 62
N
network
configuration, 40
installations
FTP, 21
HTTP, 22
NFS, 21
network installation
performing, 20
preparing for, 5
NFS
installation, 5, 21
O
online help
hiding, 23
OS/2 boot manager, 37
R
re-installation, 55
recursion
(see recursion)
registering your subscription, 51
removing
Red Hat Enterprise Linux, 59
rescue mode, 39
root / partition
recommended partitioning, 31
root password, 46
96
S
security levels
firewall configuration, 42
SELinux, 43
selecting
packages, 48
SELinux
security levels, 43
SMP motherboards
GRUB, 40
starting
installation, 14, 19
startup.nsh, 53
steps
disk space, 3
hardware compatibility, 3
installing with CD-ROM, 4
subscription registration, 51
swap file
upgrade, 56
swap parition
recommended partitioning, 31
SYSLINUX, 39
System Commander, 39
System Partition, 2
system requirements table, 9
T
tables
reference, 9
system requirements, 9
TCP/IP configuration, 20
time zone
configuration, 45
traceback messages
saving traceback messages without a floppy drive,
63
troubleshooting, 61
after the installation
Apache-based httpd service hangs during
startup, 69
after the installation, 66
booting into a graphical environment, 66
booting into GNOME or KDE, 66
booting into the X Window System, 66
graphical GRUB screen, 66
logging in, 67
NVIDIA, 69
printers, 69
RAM not recognized, 68
Sendmail hangs during startup, 69
sound configuration, 69
X (X Window System), 67
X server crashes, 67
beginning the installation, 62
frame buffer, disabling, 62
GUI installation method unavailable, 62
mouse not detected, 62
booting, 61
RAID cards, 61
signal 11 error, 61
CD-ROM failure
CD-ROM verification, 8, 17
during the installation
No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux error message, 63
saving traceback messages without a diskette
drive, 63
during the installation, 63
completing partitions, 64, 64
partition tables, 63
Python errors, 64
using remaining hard drive space, 64
U
uninstalling, 59
upgrade, 55
adding a swap file, 56
boot loader configuration, 56
USB pen card
driver image, 84
USB pen drive
boot methods, 4
user interface, graphical
installation program, 11
user interface, text mode
installation program, 12
V
virtual consoles, 12
Colophon
The manuals are written in DocBook SGML v4.1 format. The HTML and PDF formats are produced
using custom DSSSL stylesheets and custom jade wrapper scripts. The DocBook SGML files are
written in Emacs with the help of PSGML mode.
Garrett LeSage created the admonition graphics (note, tip, important, caution, and warning). They
may be freely redistributed with the Red Hat documentation.
The Red Hat Product Documentation Team consists of the following people:
Sandra A. Moore — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide
for x86, Itanium™, AMD64, and Intel® Extended Memory 64 Technology (Intel® EM64T); Primary
Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for the IBM® POWER Architecture; Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for the IBM®
S/390® and IBM® eServer™ zSeries® Architectures
John Ha — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Cluster Suite Configuring and Managing a
Cluster; Co-writer/Co-maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide; Maintainer of
custom DocBook stylesheets and scripts
Edward C. Bailey — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Introduction to System Administration; Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Release Notes; Contributing Writer to the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for x86, Itanium™, AMD64, and Intel® Extended Memory
64 Technology (Intel® EM64T)
Karsten Wade — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat SELinux Application Development Guide;
Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat SELinux Policy Guide
Andrius Benokraitis — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Reference Guide;
Co-writer/Co-maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide; Contributing Writer to the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide
Paul Kennedy — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat GFS Administrator’s Guide; Contributing
Writer to the Red Hat Cluster Suite Configuring and Managing a Cluster
Mark Johnson — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop Configuration
and Administration Guide
Melissa Goldin — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Step By Step Guide
The Red Hat Localization Team consists of the following people:
Amanpreet Singh Alam — Punjabi translations
Jean-Paul Aubry — French translations
David Barzilay — Brazilian Portuguese translations
Runa Bhattacharjee — Bengali translations
Chester Cheng — Traditional Chinese translations
Verena Fuehrer — German translations
Kiyoto Hashida — Japanese translations
N. Jayaradha — Tamil translations
Michelle Jiyeen Kim — Korean translations
Yelitza Louze — Spanish translations
Noriko Mizumoto — Japanese translations
Ankitkumar Rameshchandra Patel — Gujarati translations
Rajesh Ranjan — Hindi translations
98
Nadine Richter — German translations
Audrey Simons — French translations
Francesco Valente — Italian translations
Sarah Wang — Simplified Chinese translations
Ben Hung-Pin Wu — Traditional Chinese translations
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising