Proxicast | LAN-Cell 2 | User`s guide | Proxicast LAN-Cell 2 User`s guide

Proxicast LAN-Cell 2 User`s guide
LAN-Cell 2
3G Cellular Router + VPN + Firewall
User’s Guide
Version 4.02
November 2008
Edition 2
www.proxicast.com
Contents Overview
Contents Overview
Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 25
Getting to Know Your LAN-Cell 2 .............................................................................................. 27
Introducing the Web Configurator & Home Screen ................................................................... 35
Tutorials: 3G Modem Setup & VPN Wizard ............................................................................... 53
Network & Wireless Menus ................................................................................................... 75
LAN Screens ............................................................................................................................. 77
WAN & 3G Cellular Screens ...................................................................................................... 89
DMZ Screens ........................................................................................................................... 127
Wireless LAN (WLAN) Screens ............................................................................................... 137
Wi-Fi Screens .......................................................................................................................... 163
Security Menu ...................................................................................................................... 179
Firewall Screens ...................................................................................................................... 181
IPSec VPN Config Screens ..................................................................................................... 209
Certificates Screens ................................................................................................................ 255
Authentication Server Screens ................................................................................................ 283
Advanced Menu ................................................................................................................... 287
Network Address Translation (NAT) Screens .......................................................................... 289
DNS Screens ........................................................................................................................... 307
Remote Management Screens ................................................................................................ 319
Static Route Screens ............................................................................................................... 339
Policy Route Screens .............................................................................................................. 343
Bandwidth Management Screens ............................................................................................ 349
ALG Screens ........................................................................................................................... 365
Custom Application Screens ................................................................................................... 371
Logs and Maintenance Menus ............................................................................................ 373
Logs Screens ........................................................................................................................... 375
Maintenance Screens .............................................................................................................. 397
System Management Terminal ........................................................................................... 411
Introducing the SMT ................................................................................................................ 413
General Setup ......................................................................................................................... 421
WAN, 3G and Dial Backup Setup ............................................................................................ 427
LAN Setup ............................................................................................................................... 441
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Contents Overview
Ethernet WAN Internet Access ................................................................................................ 447
DMZ Setup .............................................................................................................................. 453
Route Setup ............................................................................................................................. 457
WLAN Setup ............................................................................................................................ 461
WAN ISP Setup ....................................................................................................................... 465
IP Static Route Setup .............................................................................................................. 473
Network Address Translation (NAT) ........................................................................................ 477
Firewall Status ......................................................................................................................... 497
Filter Configuration .................................................................................................................. 499
SNMP Configuration ................................................................................................................ 515
System Information & Diagnosis ............................................................................................. 517
Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance ........................................................................ 529
System Maint. Menus 8 to 10 .................................................................................................. 543
Remote Management .............................................................................................................. 551
IP Policy Routing ..................................................................................................................... 555
Call Scheduling ........................................................................................................................ 563
Troubleshooting and Specifications .................................................................................. 567
Troubleshooting ....................................................................................................................... 569
Product Specifications ............................................................................................................. 575
Appendices ........................................................................................................................... 581
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Contents Overview ................................................................................................................... 3
Table of Contents...................................................................................................................... 5
About This User's Guide ........................................................................................................ 19
Document Conventions.......................................................................................................... 20
Safety Warnings...................................................................................................................... 22
Part I: Introduction................................................................................. 25
Chapter 1
Getting to Know Your LAN-Cell 2 .......................................................................................... 27
1.1 LAN-Cell 2: 3G Cellular Router + VPN + Firewall Overview ............................................... 27
1.2 Ways to Manage the LAN-Cell ............................................................................................ 27
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the LAN-Cell ............................................................................. 28
1.4 Applications for the LAN-Cell ............................................................................................... 28
1.4.1 3G WAN Applications ................................................................................................. 28
1.4.2 Redundant Secure Broadband Internet Access via Ethernet or Cellular ................... 29
1.4.3 VPN Application ......................................................................................................... 29
1.5 Front Panel Indicators ......................................................................................................... 30
1.6 Rear Panel Connections ...................................................................................................... 31
1.7 Card-Lock ............................................................................................................................ 32
Chapter 2
Introducing the Web Configurator & Home Screen............................................................. 35
2.1 Web Configurator Overview ................................................................................................. 35
2.2 Accessing the LAN-Cell Web Configurator .......................................................................... 35
2.3 Navigating the LAN-Cell Web Configurator ......................................................................... 37
2.3.1 Title Bar ...................................................................................................................... 37
2.3.2 Navigation Panel ........................................................................................................ 38
2.3.3 Main Window .............................................................................................................. 40
2.3.4 HOME Screen ........................................................................................................... 41
2.3.5 Port Statistics
........................................................................................................... 45
2.3.6 Show Statistics: Line Chart ........................................................................................ 46
2.3.7 DHCP Table Screen
................................................................................................ 47
2.3.8 VPN Status ................................................................................................................. 48
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2.3.9 Bandwidth Monitor .................................................................................................... 49
2.3.10 Status Bar ................................................................................................................. 50
2.4 Resetting the LAN-Cell ........................................................................................................ 51
Chapter 3
Tutorials: 3G Modem Setup & VPN Wizard........................................................................... 53
3.1 Setting Up a 3G WAN Connection ....................................................................................... 53
3.1.1 Inserting a 3G PC-Card .............................................................................................. 53
3.1.2 Configuring 3G WAN Settings .................................................................................... 54
3.1.3 Checking WAN Connections ...................................................................................... 55
3.2 VPN Wizard Overview ........................................................................................................ 57
3.2.1 VPN Wizard Gateway Setting .................................................................................... 57
3.2.2 VPN Wizard Network Setting ..................................................................................... 58
3.2.3 VPN Wizard IKE Tunnel Setting (IKE Phase 1) ......................................................... 59
3.2.4 VPN Wizard IPSec Setting (IKE Phase 2) ................................................................. 61
3.2.5 VPN Wizard Status Summary .................................................................................... 62
3.2.6 VPN Wizard Setup Complete ..................................................................................... 64
3.3 Security Settings for VPN Traffic ......................................................................................... 66
3.3.1 Firewall Rule for VPN Example .................................................................................. 66
3.3.2 Configuring the VPN Rule .......................................................................................... 66
3.3.3 Configuring the Firewall Rules ................................................................................... 70
Part II: Network & Wireless Menus ....................................................... 75
Chapter 4
LAN Screens............................................................................................................................ 77
4.1 LAN, WAN and the LAN-Cell ............................................................................................... 77
4.1.1 What You Can Do in The LAN Screens ..................................................................... 77
4.1.2 What You Need to Know About LAN .......................................................................... 78
4.2 LAN Screen ......................................................................................................................... 80
4.3 LAN Static DHCP Screen .................................................................................................... 83
4.4 LAN IP Alias Screen ........................................................................................................... 84
4.5 LAN Port Roles Screen ....................................................................................................... 86
Chapter 5
WAN & 3G Cellular Screens ................................................................................................... 89
5.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 89
5.1.1 What You Can Do in the WAN Screens ..................................................................... 90
5.1.2 What You Need To Know About WAN ........................................................................ 91
5.2 WAN General Screen .......................................................................................................... 94
5.2.1 Configuring Load Balancing ....................................................................................... 97
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5.2.2 WAN Connectivity Check ......................................................................................... 101
5.3 WAN Screen ...................................................................................................................... 103
5.3.1 WAN Ethernet Encapsulation ................................................................................... 104
5.3.2 PPPoE Encapsulation .............................................................................................. 107
5.3.3 PPTP Encapsulation .................................................................................................110
5.4 Cellular (3G WAN) Screen .................................................................................................114
5.4.1 Configuring 3G Network Access Parameters ............................................................115
5.4.2 Configuring Cell-Sentry Budget Control ....................................................................118
5.5 Traffic Redirect Screen ..................................................................................................... 120
5.5.1 Configuring Traffic Redirect ...................................................................................... 120
5.6 Dial Backup Screen ........................................................................................................... 122
5.6.1 Advanced Modem Setup ........................................................................................ 124
5.6.2 Configuring Advanced Modem Setup ...................................................................... 125
Chapter 6
DMZ Screens ......................................................................................................................... 127
6.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 127
6.1.1 What You Can Do in the DMZ Screens .................................................................... 127
6.1.2 What You Need To Know About DMZ ...................................................................... 127
6.1.3 DMZ Public IP Address Example ............................................................................. 128
6.1.4 DMZ Private and Public IP Address Example .......................................................... 129
6.2 DMZ Screen ...................................................................................................................... 129
6.3 DMZ Static DHCP Screen
............................................................................................... 132
6.4 DMZ IP Alias Screen ........................................................................................................ 133
6.5 DMZ Port Roles ............................................................................................................... 135
Chapter 7
Wireless LAN (WLAN) Screens............................................................................................ 137
7.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 137
7.1.1 What You Can Do in the WLAN Screens ................................................................. 138
7.1.2 What You Need to Know About Wireless LAN ......................................................... 138
7.2 WLAN Screen .................................................................................................................. 139
7.3 WLAN Static DHCP Screen .............................................................................................. 141
7.4 WLAN IP Alias Screen ....................................................................................................... 142
7.5 WLAN Port Roles Screen ................................................................................................. 144
7.6 Wireless Security Overview ............................................................................................... 147
7.6.1 SSID ......................................................................................................................... 147
7.6.2 MAC Address Filter .................................................................................................. 147
7.6.3 User Authentication .................................................................................................. 147
7.6.4 Encryption ................................................................................................................ 148
7.6.5 Additional Installation Requirements for Using 802.1x ............................................. 149
7.7 Internal Wi-Fi Access Point Setup .................................................................................... 150
7.7.1 SSID Profile ............................................................................................................. 152
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7.8 Configuring Wireless Security ........................................................................................... 153
7.8.1 No Security ............................................................................................................... 155
7.8.2 Static WEP ............................................................................................................... 155
7.8.3 IEEE 802.1x Only ..................................................................................................... 156
7.8.4 IEEE 802.1x + Static WEP ....................................................................................... 157
7.8.5 WPA, WPA2, WPA2-MIX .......................................................................................... 159
7.8.6 WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK, WPA2-PSK-MIX ................................................................. 160
7.9 MAC Filter ......................................................................................................................... 161
7.10 Country Codes ................................................................................................................. 162
Chapter 8
Wi-Fi Screens ........................................................................................................................ 163
8.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 163
8.1.1 What You Can Do in the Wi-Fi Screens ................................................................... 163
8.1.2 What You Need to Know About Wireless LAN ......................................................... 163
8.2 Wi-Fi Configuration Screen .............................................................................................. 166
8.2.1 SSID Profile ............................................................................................................. 168
8.3 Wireless Security Screen .................................................................................................. 169
8.3.1 No Security ............................................................................................................... 171
8.3.2 Static WEP ............................................................................................................... 171
8.3.3 IEEE 802.1x Only ..................................................................................................... 173
8.3.4 IEEE 802.1x + Static WEP ....................................................................................... 173
8.3.5 WPA, WPA2, WPA2-MIX .......................................................................................... 175
8.3.6 WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK, WPA2-PSK-MIX ................................................................. 176
8.4 MAC Filter Screen ............................................................................................................. 177
8.5 Country Codes ................................................................................................................... 178
Part III: Security Menu ......................................................................... 179
Chapter 9
Firewall Screens.................................................................................................................... 181
9.1 Overview ........................................................................................................................... 181
9.1.1 What You Can Do in the Firewall Screens ............................................................... 182
9.1.2 What You Need To Know About The LAN-Cell Firewall ........................................... 182
9.2 Firewall Rules Example ..................................................................................................... 182
9.3 Firewall Default Rule ......................................................................................................... 184
9.4 Firewall Rule Summary Screen ......................................................................................... 186
9.4.1 Firewall Edit Rule
9.5 Anti-Probing Screen
................................................................................................ 188
........................................................................................................ 191
9.6 Threshold Screen .............................................................................................................. 192
9.7 Service Screen ................................................................................................................. 194
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9.7.1 Firewall Edit Custom Service .................................................................................. 195
9.7.2 My Service Firewall Rule Example ........................................................................... 196
9.8 Firewall Technical Reference ............................................................................................. 200
Chapter 10
IPSec VPN Config Screens .................................................................................................. 209
10.1 IPSec VPN Overview ..................................................................................................... 209
10.1.1 What You Can Do in the IPSec VPN Screens ........................................................ 209
10.1.2 What You Need to Know About IPSec VPN ........................................................... 210
10.2 VPN Rules (IKE) Screen ................................................................................................. 212
10.2.1 VPN Rules (IKE) Gateway Policy Edit Screen ...................................................... 213
10.2.2 VPN Rules (IKE): Network Policy Edit .................................................................. 219
10.2.3 Network Policy Edit: Port Forwarding Screen ........................................................ 223
10.2.4 VPN Rules (IKE): Network Policy Move Screen
.................................................. 225
10.2.5 Dialing the VPN Tunnel via Web Configurator ....................................................... 226
10.3 VPN Rules (Manual) ........................................................................................................ 227
10.4 VPN Rules (Manual): Edit Screen
................................................................................ 228
10.5 VPN SA Monitor Screen .................................................................................................. 231
10.6 VPN Global Setting Screen ............................................................................................ 232
10.6.1 Configuring the Global Setting Screen ................................................................... 234
10.7 Mobile User VPN/IPSec Examples .................................................................................. 235
10.7.1 Mobile Users Sharing One VPN Rule Example ..................................................... 236
10.7.2 Mobile Users Using Unique VPN Rules Example .................................................. 236
10.8 VPN and Remote Management ....................................................................................... 238
10.9 Hub-and-spoke VPN ........................................................................................................ 238
10.9.1 Hub-and-spoke VPN Example ............................................................................... 239
10.9.2 Hub-and-spoke Example VPN Rule Addresses ..................................................... 240
10.9.3 Hub-and-spoke VPN Requirements and Suggestions ........................................... 240
10.10 VPN Troubleshooting ..................................................................................................... 241
10.10.1 IPSec Debug ........................................................................................................ 242
10.11 IPSec VPN Technical Reference ................................................................................... 244
Chapter 11
Certificates Screens ............................................................................................................. 255
11.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 255
11.1.1 What You Can Do in the Certificate Screens .......................................................... 255
11.1.2 What You Need to Know About Certificates ........................................................... 255
11.2 My Certificates Screen .................................................................................................... 257
11.2.1 My Certificate Details Screen
............................................................................... 259
11.3 My Certificate Export Screen .......................................................................................... 262
11.4 My Certificate Import Screen .......................................................................................... 263
11.5 My Certificate Create Screen ........................................................................................... 265
11.6 Trusted CAs Screen ......................................................................................................... 269
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11.7 Trusted CA Details Screen .............................................................................................. 270
11.8 Trusted CA Import Screen .............................................................................................. 273
11.9 Trusted Remote Hosts Screen ........................................................................................ 274
11.10 Trusted Remote Hosts Import Screen ............................................................................ 276
11.11 Trusted Remote Host Certificate Details Screen ........................................................... 277
11.12 Directory Servers Screen .............................................................................................. 279
11.13 Directory Server Add or Edit Screen ............................................................................. 280
Chapter 12
Authentication Server Screens............................................................................................ 283
12.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 283
12.1.1 What You Can Do in the Authentication Server Screens ....................................... 283
12.1.2 What You Need To Know About Authentication Server .......................................... 283
12.2 Local User Database Screen ........................................................................................... 284
12.3 RADIUS Screen .............................................................................................................. 285
Part IV: Advanced Menu ...................................................................... 287
Chapter 13
Network Address Translation (NAT) Screens..................................................................... 289
13.1 Overview ........................................................................................................................ 289
13.1.1 What You Can Do in the NAT Screens ................................................................... 289
13.1.2 What You Need To Know About NAT ..................................................................... 289
13.2 NAT Overview Screen ..................................................................................................... 290
13.3 NAT Address Mapping ................................................................................................... 292
13.3.1 NAT Address Mapping Edit .................................................................................. 294
13.4 Port Forwarding .............................................................................................................. 295
13.4.1 Configuring Servers Behind Port Forwarding (Example) ....................................... 296
13.4.2 Port Forwarding Screen ......................................................................................... 298
13.5 Port Triggering ............................................................................................................... 300
13.6 NAT Technical Reference ................................................................................................ 302
Chapter 14
DNS Screens ......................................................................................................................... 307
14.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................... 307
14.1.1 What You Can Do in the DNS Screens .................................................................. 307
14.1.2 What You Need To Know About DNS .................................................................... 307
14.2 System Screen ................................................................................................................ 309
14.2.1 Adding an Address Record
...................................................................................311
14.2.2 Inserting a Name Server Record .......................................................................... 312
14.3 DNS Cache .................................................................................................................... 313
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14.4 Configure DNS Cache ..................................................................................................... 313
14.5 Configuring DNS DHCP
................................................................................................ 315
14.6 DDNS Screen ................................................................................................................ 316
14.7 Configuring Dynamic DNS ............................................................................................... 317
Chapter 15
Remote Management Screens............................................................................................. 319
15.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 319
15.1.1 What You Can Do in the Remote Management Screens ....................................... 319
15.1.2 What You Need To Know About Remote Management ......................................... 320
15.2 Remote Management Examples ..................................................................................... 321
15.2.1 HTTPS Example .................................................................................................... 321
15.2.2 Secure Telnet Using SSH Examples ...................................................................... 324
15.3 WWW .............................................................................................................................. 326
15.4 The WWW (HTTP and HTTPS) Screen .......................................................................... 327
15.5 Configuring the WWW Screen ......................................................................................... 329
15.6 The SSH Screen ............................................................................................................. 330
15.7 Configuring the SSH Screen ........................................................................................... 331
15.8 Telnet Screen ................................................................................................................... 331
15.9 FTP Screen ................................................................................................................... 332
15.10 SNMP Screen .............................................................................................................. 333
15.10.1 Configuring the SNMP Screen ............................................................................. 335
15.11 DNS Screen .................................................................................................................. 336
15.12 Remote Management Technical Reference .................................................................. 337
Chapter 16
Static Route Screens ............................................................................................................ 339
16.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 339
16.1.1 What You Can Do in the Static Route Screens ...................................................... 339
16.2 IP Static Route Screen .................................................................................................... 339
16.2.1 IP Static Route Edit Screen ................................................................................... 341
Chapter 17
Policy Route Screens ........................................................................................................... 343
17.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 343
17.1.1 What You Can Do in the Policy Route Screens ..................................................... 343
17.1.2 What You Need To Know About Policy Route ........................................................ 343
17.2 Policy Route Summary Screen ........................................................................................ 344
17.3 Policy Route Edit Screen ................................................................................................. 345
Chapter 18
Bandwidth Management Screens........................................................................................ 349
18.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................... 349
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18.1.1 What You Can Do in the Bandwidth Management Screens ................................... 349
18.1.2 What You Need to Know About Bandwidth Management ...................................... 350
18.1.3 Bandwidth Management Examples ........................................................................ 351
18.2 Bandwidth Management Summary Screen ..................................................................... 354
18.3 Class Setup Screen ........................................................................................................ 356
18.3.1 Bandwidth Manager Class Configuration ............................................................. 357
18.3.2 Bandwidth Management Statistics
Screen ........................................................ 361
18.4 Bandwidth Manager Monitor .......................................................................................... 362
Chapter 19
ALG Screens ......................................................................................................................... 365
19.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................... 365
19.1.1 What You Need to Know About ALG ..................................................................... 365
19.2 ALG Screen ..................................................................................................................... 369
Chapter 20
Custom Application Screens ............................................................................................... 371
20.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................... 371
20.1.1 What You Need to Know About Custom Application .............................................. 371
20.2 The Custom Application Screen ...................................................................................... 371
Part V: Logs and Maintenance Menus ............................................... 373
Chapter 21
Logs Screens ........................................................................................................................ 375
21.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 375
21.1.1 What You Can Do in the Log Screens .................................................................... 375
21.1.2 What You Need To Know About Logs .................................................................... 375
21.2 View Log Screen .............................................................................................................. 375
21.2.1 Log Description Example ....................................................................................... 377
21.3 Log Settings Screen ........................................................................................................ 377
21.4 Logs Technical Reference ............................................................................................... 381
Chapter 22
Maintenance Screens ........................................................................................................... 397
22.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 397
22.1.1 What You Can Do in the Maintenance Screens ..................................................... 397
22.2 General Setup Screen ..................................................................................................... 397
22.3 Password Screen ............................................................................................................ 398
22.4 Time and Date Screen ..................................................................................................... 399
22.4.1 Time Server Synchronization Example .................................................................. 402
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22.5 F/W Upload Screen ........................................................................................................ 403
22.6 Backup and Restore Screen ........................................................................................... 405
22.7 Restart Screen ................................................................................................................ 407
22.8 The Diagnostics Screen .................................................................................................. 408
Part VI: System Management Terminal ...............................................411
Chapter 23
Introducing the SMT ............................................................................................................. 413
23.1 Introduction to the SMT ................................................................................................... 413
23.2 Accessing the SMT via the Console Port ........................................................................ 413
23.2.1 Initial Screen .......................................................................................................... 413
23.2.2 Entering the Password ........................................................................................... 414
23.3 Navigating the SMT Interface .......................................................................................... 414
23.3.1 Main Menu ............................................................................................................. 415
23.3.2 SMT Menus Overview ............................................................................................ 417
23.4 Changing the System Password ..................................................................................... 418
23.5 Resetting the LAN-Cell .................................................................................................... 419
Chapter 24
General Setup........................................................................................................................ 421
24.1 Introduction to General Setup .......................................................................................... 421
24.2 Configuring General Setup .............................................................................................. 421
24.2.1 Configuring Dynamic DNS ..................................................................................... 422
Chapter 25
WAN, 3G and Dial Backup Setup......................................................................................... 427
25.1 Introduction to WAN, 3G WAN and Dial Backup Setup ................................................... 427
25.2 WAN Setup ...................................................................................................................... 427
25.3 Dial Backup ..................................................................................................................... 428
25.3.1 Configuring Dial Backup in Menu 2 ........................................................................ 428
25.3.2 Advanced WAN Setup ........................................................................................... 429
25.3.3 Remote Node Profile (Backup ISP) ........................................................................ 431
25.3.4 Editing TCP/IP Options .......................................................................................... 433
25.3.5 Editing Login Script ................................................................................................ 434
25.3.6 Remote Node Filter ................................................................................................ 436
25.4 3G WAN ........................................................................................................................... 436
25.4.1 3G Modem Setup ................................................................................................... 436
25.4.2 Remote Node Profile (3G WAN) ............................................................................ 437
Chapter 26
LAN Setup.............................................................................................................................. 441
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26.1 Introduction to LAN Setup ............................................................................................... 441
26.2 Accessing the LAN Menus .............................................................................................. 441
26.3 LAN Port Filter Setup ....................................................................................................... 441
26.4 TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup Menu ........................................................................ 442
26.4.1 IP Alias Setup ......................................................................................................... 445
Chapter 27
Ethernet WAN Internet Access ............................................................................................ 447
27.1 Introduction to Internet Access Setup .............................................................................. 447
27.2 Ethernet Encapsulation ................................................................................................... 447
27.3 Configuring the PPTP Client ............................................................................................ 449
27.4 Configuring the PPPoE Client ......................................................................................... 450
27.5 Basic Setup Complete ..................................................................................................... 451
Chapter 28
DMZ Setup ............................................................................................................................. 453
28.1 Configuring DMZ Setup ................................................................................................... 453
28.2 DMZ Port Filter Setup ...................................................................................................... 453
28.3 TCP/IP Setup ................................................................................................................... 454
28.3.1 IP Address .............................................................................................................. 454
28.3.2 IP Alias Setup ......................................................................................................... 455
Chapter 29
Route Setup........................................................................................................................... 457
29.1 Configuring Route Setup ................................................................................................. 457
29.2 Route Assessment .......................................................................................................... 457
29.3 Traffic Redirect ................................................................................................................ 458
29.4 Route Failover ................................................................................................................. 459
Chapter 30
WLAN Setup .......................................................................................................................... 461
30.1 TCP/IP Setup ................................................................................................................... 461
30.1.1 IP Address .............................................................................................................. 461
30.1.2 IP Alias Setup ......................................................................................................... 462
Chapter 31
WAN ISP Setup...................................................................................................................... 465
31.1 Introduction to WAN ISP Setup ....................................................................................... 465
31.2 Remote Node Setup ........................................................................................................ 465
31.3 Remote Node Profile Setup ............................................................................................. 465
31.3.1 Ethernet Encapsulation .......................................................................................... 466
31.3.2 PPPoE Encapsulation ............................................................................................ 467
31.3.3 PPTP Encapsulation .............................................................................................. 468
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31.4 Edit IP .............................................................................................................................. 469
31.5 Remote Node Filter ......................................................................................................... 471
Chapter 32
IP Static Route Setup............................................................................................................ 473
32.1 IP Static Route Setup ...................................................................................................... 473
Chapter 33
Network Address Translation (NAT).................................................................................... 477
33.1 Using NAT ........................................................................................................................ 477
33.1.1 SUA (Single User Account) Versus NAT ................................................................ 477
33.1.2 Applying NAT ......................................................................................................... 477
33.2 NAT Setup ....................................................................................................................... 479
33.2.1 Address Mapping Sets ........................................................................................... 480
33.3 Configuring a Server behind NAT .................................................................................... 484
33.4 General NAT Examples ................................................................................................... 487
33.4.1 Internet Access Only .............................................................................................. 487
33.4.2 Example 2: Internet Access with a Default Server ................................................. 488
33.4.3 Example 3: Multiple Public IP Addresses With Inside Servers .............................. 489
33.4.4 Example 4: NAT Unfriendly Application Programs ................................................. 492
33.5 Trigger Port Forwarding ................................................................................................... 494
33.5.1 Two Points To Remember About Trigger Ports ...................................................... 494
Chapter 34
Firewall Status....................................................................................................................... 497
34.1 Firewall SMT Menus ........................................................................................................ 497
34.1.1 Activating the Firewall ............................................................................................ 497
Chapter 35
Filter Configuration............................................................................................................... 499
35.1 Introduction to Filters ....................................................................................................... 499
35.1.1 The Filter Structure of the LAN-Cell ....................................................................... 500
35.2 Configuring a Filter Set .................................................................................................... 502
35.2.1 Configuring a Filter Rule ........................................................................................ 503
35.2.2 Configuring a TCP/IP Filter Rule ............................................................................ 504
35.2.3 Configuring a Generic Filter Rule ........................................................................... 506
35.3 Example Filter .................................................................................................................. 508
35.4 Filter Types and NAT ....................................................................................................... 510
35.5 Firewall Versus Filters ..................................................................................................... 510
35.5.1 Packet Filtering: ..................................................................................................... 510
35.5.2 Firewall ....................................................................................................................511
35.6 Applying a Filter ...............................................................................................................511
35.6.1 Applying LAN Filters ............................................................................................... 512
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35.6.2 Applying DMZ Filters .............................................................................................. 512
35.6.3 Applying Remote Node Filters ............................................................................... 513
Chapter 36
SNMP Configuration ............................................................................................................. 515
36.1 SNMP Configuration ........................................................................................................ 515
36.2 SNMP Traps .................................................................................................................... 516
Chapter 37
System Information & Diagnosis......................................................................................... 517
37.1 Introduction to System Status .......................................................................................... 517
37.2 System Status .................................................................................................................. 517
37.3 System Information and Console Port Speed .................................................................. 519
37.3.1 System Information ................................................................................................ 519
37.3.2 Console Port Speed ............................................................................................... 520
37.4 Log and Trace .................................................................................................................. 521
37.4.1 Viewing Error Log ................................................................................................... 521
37.4.2 Syslog Logging ....................................................................................................... 522
37.4.3 Call-Triggering Packet ............................................................................................ 525
37.5 Diagnostic ........................................................................................................................ 526
37.5.1 WAN DHCP ............................................................................................................ 527
Chapter 38
Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance .................................................................. 529
38.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 529
38.2 Filename Conventions ..................................................................................................... 529
38.3 Backup Configuration ...................................................................................................... 530
38.3.1 Backup Configuration ............................................................................................. 530
38.3.2 Using the FTP Command from the Command Line ............................................... 531
38.3.3 Example of FTP Commands from the Command Line .......................................... 531
38.3.4 GUI-based FTP Clients .......................................................................................... 532
38.3.5 File Maintenance Over WAN .................................................................................. 532
38.3.6 Backup Configuration Using TFTP ......................................................................... 532
38.3.7 TFTP Command Example ...................................................................................... 533
38.3.8 GUI-based TFTP Clients ........................................................................................ 533
38.3.9 Backup Via Console Port ....................................................................................... 533
38.4 Restore Configuration ...................................................................................................... 534
38.4.1 Restore Using FTP ................................................................................................. 535
38.4.2 Restore Using FTP Session Example .................................................................... 536
38.4.3 Restore Via Console Port ....................................................................................... 536
38.5 Uploading Firmware and Configuration Files .................................................................. 537
38.5.1 Firmware File Upload ............................................................................................. 537
38.5.2 Configuration File Upload ....................................................................................... 538
16
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
Table of Contents
38.5.3 FTP File Upload Command from the DOS Prompt Example ................................. 539
38.5.4 FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload .................................................... 539
38.5.5 TFTP File Upload ................................................................................................... 539
38.5.6 TFTP Upload Command Example ......................................................................... 540
38.5.7 Uploading Via Console Port ................................................................................... 540
38.5.8 Uploading Firmware File Via Console Port ............................................................ 540
38.5.9 Example Xmodem Firmware Upload Using HyperTerminal ................................... 541
38.5.10 Uploading Configuration File Via Console Port .................................................... 541
38.5.11 Example Xmodem Configuration Upload Using HyperTerminal ........................... 542
Chapter 39
System Maint. Menus 8 to 10 ............................................................................................... 543
39.1 Command Interpreter Mode ............................................................................................ 543
39.1.1 Command Syntax ................................................................................................... 543
39.1.2 Command Usage ................................................................................................... 544
39.2 Call Control Support ........................................................................................................ 545
39.2.1 Budget Management .............................................................................................. 545
39.2.2 Call History ............................................................................................................. 546
39.3 Time and Date Setting ..................................................................................................... 547
Chapter 40
Remote Management............................................................................................................ 551
40.1 Remote Management ...................................................................................................... 551
40.1.1 Remote Management Limitations .......................................................................... 553
Chapter 41
IP Policy Routing .................................................................................................................. 555
41.1 IP Routing Policy Summary ............................................................................................. 555
41.2 IP Routing Policy Setup ................................................................................................... 556
41.2.1 Applying Policy to Packets ..................................................................................... 558
41.3 IP Policy Routing Example .............................................................................................. 559
Chapter 42
Call Scheduling ..................................................................................................................... 563
42.1 Introduction to Call Scheduling ........................................................................................ 563
Part VII: Troubleshooting and Specifications ................................... 567
Chapter 43
Troubleshooting.................................................................................................................... 569
43.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs ...................................................................... 569
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
17
Table of Contents
43.2 LAN-Cell Access and Login ............................................................................................. 570
43.3 Internet Access ................................................................................................................ 572
Chapter 44
Product Specifications ......................................................................................................... 575
Part VIII: Appendices ........................................................................... 581
Appendix A Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions ...................................... 583
Appendix B Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address............................................................ 589
Appendix C IP Addresses and Subnetting ........................................................................... 605
Appendix D Common Services ............................................................................................ 613
Appendix E Wireless LANs .................................................................................................. 617
Appendix F Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection ..................................................... 633
Appendix G Legal Information.............................................................................................. 635
Appendix H Customer Support............................................................................................. 639
Index....................................................................................................................................... 641
18
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
About This User's Guide
About This User's Guide
Intended Audience
This manual is intended for people who want to configure the LAN-Cell 2 using the web
configurator or System Management Terminal (SMT). You should have at least a basic
knowledge of TCP/IP networking concepts and topology.
Related Documentation
• Quick Start Guide
The Quick Start Guide is designed to help you get up and running right away. It contains
information on setting up your network and configuring for Internet access.
• Web Configurator Online Help
Embedded web help for descriptions of individual screens and supplementary
information.
• Support Disk
Refer to the included CD for additional support documents.
• Proxicast Support Web Site
Please refer to support.proxicast.com for additional support documentation and access to
our Knowledgebase.
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
19
Document Conventions
Document Conventions
Warnings and Notes
These are how warnings and notes are shown in this User’s Guide.
1
"
Warnings tell you about things that could harm you or your device.
Notes tell you other important information (for example, other things you may
need to configure or helpful tips) or recommendations.
Syntax Conventions
• The LAN-Cell 2 may be referred to as the “LAN-Cell”, the “device” or the “system” in
this User’s Guide.
• The LAN-Cell’s wired Ethernet WAN interface may be referred to as “WAN”, “Wired
WAN” or “WAN 1”.
• The LAN-Cell’s PC-Card modem 3G cellular interface may be referred to was “Cellular”,
“CELL”, or “WAN 2”
• Product labels, screen names, field labels and field choices are all in bold font.
• A key stroke is denoted by square brackets and uppercase text, for example, [ENTER]
means the “enter” or “return” key on your keyboard.
• “Enter” means for you to type one or more characters and then press the [ENTER] key.
“Select” or “choose” means for you to use one of the predefined choices.
• A right angle bracket ( > ) within a screen name denotes a mouse click. For example,
Maintenance > Log > Log Setting means you first click Maintenance in the navigation
panel, then the Log sub menu and finally the Log Setting tab to get to that screen.
• Units of measurement may denote the “metric” value or the “scientific” value. For
example, “k” for kilo may denote “1000” or “1024”, “M” for mega may denote “1000000”
or “1048576” and so on.
• “e.g.,” is a shorthand for “for instance”, and “i.e.,” means “that is” or “in other words”.
• The example screens shown in the User’s Guide may differ slightly from the actual
screens on the LAN-Cell, depending on the firmware version the LAN-Cell is running.
20
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
Document Conventions
Icons Used in Figures
Figures in this User’s Guide may use the following generic icons. The LAN-Cell icon is not an
exact representation of your device.
LAN-Cell
Computer
Notebook computer
Server
Wi-Fi Access Point
Firewall
Telephone
Switch
Router
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
21
Safety Warnings
Safety Warnings
1
For your safety, be sure to read and follow all warning notices and instructions.
• Do NOT use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming
pool.
• Do NOT expose your device to dampness, dust or corrosive liquids.
• Do NOT store things on the device.
• Do NOT install, use, or service this device during a thunderstorm. There is a remote risk
of electric shock from lightning.
• Connect ONLY suitable accessories to the device.
• Do NOT open the device or unit. Opening or removing covers can expose you to
dangerous high voltage points or other risks. ONLY qualified service personnel should
service or disassemble this device. Please contact your vendor for further information.
• Make sure to connect the cables to the correct ports.
• Place connecting cables carefully so that no one will step on them or stumble over them.
• Always disconnect all cables from this device before servicing or disassembling.
• Use ONLY an appropriate power adaptor or cord for your device.
• Connect the power adaptor or cord to the right supply voltage (for example, 110V AC in
North America or 230V AC in Europe).
• Not to remove the plug and plug into a wall outlet by itself; always attach the plug to the
power supply first before insert into the wall.
• Do NOT allow anything to rest on the power adaptor or cord and do NOT place the
product where anyone can walk on the power adaptor or cord.
• Do NOT use the device if the power adaptor or cord is damaged as it might cause
electrocution.
• If the power adaptor or cord is damaged, remove it from the power outlet.
• Do NOT attempt to repair the power adaptor or cord. Contact your local vendor to order a
new one.
• Do not use the device outside, and make sure all the connections are indoors. There is a
remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
• CAUTION: RISK OF EXPLOSION IF BATTERY (on the motherboard) IS REPLACED
BY AN INCORRECT TYPE. DISPOSE OF USED BATTERIES ACCORDING TO
THE INSTRUCTIONS. Dispose them at the applicable collection point for the recycling
of electrical and electronic equipment. For detailed information about recycling of this
product, please contact your local city office, your household waste disposal service or the
store where you purchased the product.
• Do NOT obstruct the device ventilation slots, as insufficient airflow may harm your
device.
22
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
Safety Warnings
• Antenna Warning! This device meets ETSI and FCC certification requirements when
using the included antenna(s).
• If you wall mount your device, make sure that no electrical lines, gas or water pipes will
be damaged.
This product is recyclable. Dispose of it properly.
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
23
Safety Warnings
24
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
P ART I
Introduction
Getting to Know Your LAN-Cell 2 (27)
Introducing the Web Configurator & Home Screen (35)
Tutorials: 3G Modem Setup & VPN Wizard (53)
25
26
CHAPTER
1
Getting to Know Your LAN-Cell 2
This chapter introduces the main features and applications of the LAN-Cell 2.
1.1 LAN-Cell 2: 3G Cellular Router + VPN + Firewall Overview
The LAN-Cell 2 is Proxicast’s second generation of enterprise-grade secure cellular gateways.
This model features customer accessible and removeable “3G” PC-Card (PCMCIA) cellular
modems -- the same ones commonly used to provide high-speed 3G cellular connectivity to
laptops. The 3G PC-Card modem seamlessly becomes a WAN interface for the LAN-Cell’s
router and is fully integrated with all of the LAN-Cell’s security, performance, and
management capabilities.
As in earlier LAN-Cell models, the LAN-Cell 2 is loaded with security features including
VPN, firewall and X.509 PKI certificates. The LAN-Cell 2’s De-Militarized Zone (DMZ)
increases LAN security by providing separate ports for connecting publicly accessible servers.
The LAN-Cell provide the option to change port roles from LAN to DMZ.
The LAN-Cell 2 adds bandwidth management, NAT, port forwarding, policy routing, DHCP
server, Cell-SentryTM data budgeting and many other powerful features required for complex
and demanding applications.
The LAN-Cell 2 also has a built-in Wi-Fi access point that allows IEEE 802.11a, IEEE
802.11b or IEEE 802.11g compatible clients to securely communicate with the LAN-Cell and
access the wired network or Internet. You can use the Wi-Fi access point as part of the LAN,
DMZ or WLAN.
The LAN-Cell 2’s all metal construction coupled with its unique Card-LockTM and CardGuardTM systems make it the perfect choice for applications where a high-performance,
secure, reliable and rugged cellular router is required.
See Chapter 44 on page 575 for a complete list of features.
1.2 Ways to Manage the LAN-Cell
Use any of the following methods to manage the LAN-Cell.
• Web Configurator. This is recommended for everyday management of the LAN-Cell
using a (supported) web browser.
• SMT. System Management Terminal is a text-based configuration menu that you can use
to configure your device.
• FTP for firmware upgrades and configuration backup/restore.
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
27
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your LAN-Cell 2
• Command Line Interface. Line commands are mostly used for troubleshooting by service
engineers and also provide access to some of the LAN-Cell’s more advanced features.
• SNMP. The device can be monitored by an SNMP manager. See the SNMP chapter in this
User’s Guide.
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the LAN-Cell
Do the following things regularly to make the LAN-Cell more secure and to manage the LANCell more effectively.
• Change the password. Use a password that’s not easy to guess and that consists of
different types of characters, such as numbers and letters.
• Write down the password and put it in a safe place.
• Back up the configuration (and make sure you know how to restore it). Restoring an
earlier working configuration may be useful if the device becomes unstable or even
crashes. If you forget your password, you will have to reset the LAN-Cell to its factory
default settings. If you backed up an earlier configuration file, you would not have to
totally re-configure the LAN-Cell. You could simply restore your last configuration.
1.4 Applications for the LAN-Cell
Here are some examples of what you can do with your LAN-Cell.
1.4.1 3G WAN Applications
Insert a 3G PC-Card modem to have the LAN-Cell wirelessly access the Internet via a 3G
celluar network. Use this connection to provide Internet access to LAN devices such as PCs
and ATMs, or to provide access to remote equipment such as weather stations and security
systems. See Section 5.4 on page 114 for more information about 3G Cellular WAN support.
Figure 1 3G WAN Application
28
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your LAN-Cell 2
1.4.2 Redundant Secure Broadband Internet Access via Ethernet or Cellular
Connect the LAN-Cell’s Ethernet WAN port to your existing Internet access gateway
(company network, or your cable or DSL modem for example). Connect computers or servers
to the LAN, DMZ or WLAN ports for shared Internet access.
With both the primary WAN (physical WAN port) and 3G WAN connections enabled, you
can set one of the WAN connections as an automatic fail-over backup connection or use load
balancing to improve quality of service and maximize bandwidth utilization.
The LAN-Cell guarantees not only high speed Internet access, but secure internal network
protection and traffic management as well.
Figure 2 Redundant Internet Access via Ethernet or Cellular
1.4.3 VPN Application
The LAN-Cell’s built-in VPN feature is an ideal cost-effective way to securely connect branch
offices, business partners and telecommuters over the Internet without the need (and expense)
for leased lines between sites. You can make connections via the LAN-Cell’s cellular, wired
WAN, or dial-backup interfaces to ensure VPN connectivity regardless of the communication
service available.
Figure 3 VPN Application
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
29
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your LAN-Cell 2
1.5 Front Panel Indicators
Figure 4 Front Panel
The following table describes the LAN-Cell’s front panel indicator lights.
Table 1 Front Panel Lights
LED
COLOR
PWR
Green
Red
LAN/DMZ 1-4
Green
Orange
WAN
Green
Orange
AUX
WLAN
Green
Green
CELL
Green
Orange
Green/
Orange
30
STATUS
DESCRIPTION
Off
The LAN-Cell is turned off.
On
The LAN-Cell is ready and running.
Flashing
Power-on Self Test is in progress. (approximately 60 sec)
On
The power to the LAN-Cell is too low.
Off
The LAN/DMZ is not connected.
On
The LAN-Cell has a successful 10Mbps Ethernet
connection.
Flashing
The 10M LAN is sending or receiving packets.
On
The LAN-Cell has a successful 100Mbps Ethernet
connection.
Flashing
The 100M LAN is sending or receiving packets.
Off
The WAN connection is not ready, or has failed.
On
The LAN-Cell has a successful 10Mbps WAN connection.
Flashing
The 10M WAN is sending or receiving packets.
On
The LAN-Cell has a successful 100Mbps WAN connection.
Flashing
The 100M WAN is sending or receiving packets.
Off
The dial backup port is not connected to a remote server.
On
The dial backup port is connected to a remote server.
Flashing
The dial backup port is sending or receiving packets.
Off
The wireless LAN is not ready, or has failed.
On
The wireless LAN is ready.
Flashing
The wireless LAN is sending or receiving packets.
Off
There is no 3G card inserted in the LAN-Cell.
Flashing
3G card is initializing OR is not registered on the carrier
network OR there is no compatible cellular service available.
On
A 3G card ready to make a connection (dial).
On
The 3G WAN connection is established.
Flashing
The 3G WAN is sending or receiving packets.
Flashing
Cellular signal strength or quality is Poor. Connections may
be unreliable.
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your LAN-Cell 2
1.6 Rear Panel Connections
Figure 5 Rear Panel
The following table describes the LAN-Cell 2’s rear panel connections.
Table 2 Rear Panel Connections
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PWR
Connect the included 12V DC power adapter to this power jack.
RESET
To erase all user-entered settings, press & hold the reset button with a small object
such as a paperclip for approximately 10 seconds until the PWR LED begins to
flash. This returns the LAN-Cell to its factory default settings (LAN IP = 192.168.1.1
Password = 1234).
LAN/DMZ 1-4
Connect computer equipment to these ports with Ethernet cables. These ports are
auto-negotiating (can connect at 10 or 100 Mbps) and auto-sensing (automatically
adjust to the type of Ethernet cable you use, straight-through or crossover). Set the
ports as LAN or DMZ in the web configurator.
WAN
Connect a cable/DSL modem or other 10/100 Ethernet-based WAN equipment to
this port.
AUX
Connect an analog modem's RS-232 interface to the AUX port using the Black dial
backup cable. The AUX port is used only to provide modem dial-backup support for
the wired WAN and Cellular Modem interfaces. The default AUX port
communication parameters are: 115200 bps, no parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit,
hardware flow control..
CONSOLE
Use the Blue serial cable to connect a terminal or PC-terminal emulation program to
the LAN-Cell for diagnostic access. The default Console Port communication
parameters are: 9600 bps, no parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no flow control.
WLAN
Attach the supplied cylindrical Wi-Fi antenna to this SMA-RP (reverse polarity)
connector if you will be using the LAN-Cell's integrated 802.11 a/b/g/ access point.
Attaching other types of antennas (such antennas with standard SMA, TNC or
FME connectors) to this jack may damage the antennas and/or WLAN antenna
jack!
3G CARD
SLOT
Insert an activated 3G PC-Card cellular modem into the slot on the right side of the
LAN-Cell. Always power off the LAN-Cell before inserting or removing PCCards, otherwise damage to the LAN Cell or the PC-Card may result.
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
31
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your LAN-Cell 2
1.7 Card-Lock
The LAN-Cell 2's Card-Lock system provides a mechanism for securing the PC Card modem
to prevent it from coming loose in mobile applications.
1 Insert a cable-tie through the two Card-Lock brackets above and below the PC-Card slot
(Figure 6) leaving enough slack to accommodate the portion of the PC-Card that extends
outside of the LAN-Cell.
Figure 6 Card-Lock Step 1
2 Rotate the loop toward the front of the LAN-Cell (Figure 7).
Figure 7 Card-Lock Step 2
32
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your LAN-Cell 2
3 Insert the PC-Card modem into the card slot, keeping the cable-tie loop toward the front
of the LAN-Cell (Figure 8).
Figure 8 Card-Lock Step 3
4 Once the PC-Card is inserted, slide the loop over the protruding end of the card and pull
the bottom of the cable-tie straight down to tighten the loop against the card (Figure 9).
Figure 9 Card-Lock Step 4
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
33
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your LAN-Cell 2
5 Bring the bottom of the cable-tie up to secure it with the cable-tie lock (Figure 10).
Figure 10 Card-Lock Step 5
6 Tighten the cable-tie against the PC Card (Figure 11).
Figure 11 Card-Lock Step 6
You may also wish to lock the PC Card's external antenna "pig-tail" cable inside the cable-tie
loop to minimize movement of the antenna cable.
34
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
CHAPTER
2
Introducing the Web
Configurator & Home Screen
This chapter describes how to access the LAN-Cell web configurator and provides an
overview of its screens.
2.1 Web Configurator Overview
The web configurator is an HTML-based management interface that allows easy LAN-Cell
setup and management via Internet browser. Use Internet Explorer 6.0 and later or Netscape
Navigator 7.0 and later versions. The recommended screen resolution is 1024 by 768 pixels.
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device. Web pop-up blocking is enabled by
default in Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
See Appendix A on page 583 if you want to make sure these functions are allowed in Internet
Explorer or Netscape Navigator.
2.2 Accessing the LAN-Cell Web Configurator
"
By default, the packets from WLAN to WLAN/LAN-Cell are dropped and users
cannot configure the LAN-Cell wirelessly. We do not recommend configuring
the LAN-Cell via a WLAN connection.
1 Make sure your LAN-Cell hardware is properly connected and prepare your computer/
computer network to connect to the LAN-Cell (refer to the Quick Start Guide).
2 Launch your web browser.
3 Type "192.168.1.1" as the URL. The LAN-Cell Login screen will appear Figure 12)
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
35
Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator & Home Screen
Figure 12 Web Configurator Login Screen
4 Type "1234" (default) as the password and click Login.
5 You should see a screen (Figure 13) asking you to change your password (highly
recommended). Type a new password (and retype it to confirm) and click Apply or click
Ignore.
Figure 13 Change Password Screen
6
"
Click Apply in the Replace Certificate screen (Figure 14) to create a certificate using
your LAN-Cell’s MAC address that will be specific to this device.
If you do not replace the default certificate here or in the CERTIFICATES
screen, this screen displays every time you access the web configurator.
Figure 14 Replace Certificate Screen
7 You should now see the HOME screen (see Figure 16 on page 41).
36
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator & Home Screen
"
The management session automatically times out when the time period set in
the Administrator Inactivity Timer field expires (default five minutes). Simply
log back into the LAN-Cell if this happens to you.
2.3 Navigating the LAN-Cell Web Configurator
The following summarizes how to navigate the web configurator from the HOME screen.
Figure 15 HOME Screen
A
C
B
D
As illustrated above, the main screen is divided into these parts:
•
•
•
•
A - Title Bar
B - Navigation Panel
C - Main Window
D - Status Bar
2.3.1 Title Bar
The title bar contains the Help icon in the upper right corner.
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
37
Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator & Home Screen
2.3.2 Navigation Panel
The following table describes the sub-menus on the left side navigation panel.
Table 3 Screens Summary
LINK
TAB
HOME
FUNCTION
This screen shows the LAN-Cell’s general device and network
status information. Use this screen to access the wizards,
statistics and DHCP table.
NETWORK
LAN
WAN
DMZ
WLAN
LAN
Use this screen to configure LAN DHCP and TCP/IP settings.
Static DHCP
Use this screen to assign fixed IP addresses on the LAN.
IP Alias
Use this screen to partition your LAN interface into subnets.
Port Roles
Use this screen to change the LAN/DMZ/WLAN port roles.
General
This screen allows you to configure load balancing, route priority
and traffic redirect properties.
WAN
Use this screen to configure the WAN connection for Internet
access.
Cellular
Use this screen to configure the Cellular connection for Internet
access.
Traffic
Redirect
Use this screen to configure your traffic redirect properties and
parameters.
Dial Backup
Use this screen to configure the backup WAN dial-up connection.
DMZ
Use this screen to configure your DMZ connection.
Static DHCP
Use this screen to assign fixed IP addresses on the DMZ.
IP Alias
Use this screen to partition your DMZ interface into subnets.
Port Roles
Use this screen to change the LAN/DMZ/WLAN port roles on the
LAN-Cell.
WLAN
Use this screen to configure your WLAN connection.
Static DHCP
Use this screen to assign fixed IP addresses on the WLAN.
IP Alias
Use this screen to partition your WLAN interface into subnets.
Port Roles
Use this screen to change the LAN/DMZ/WLAN port roles on the
LAN-Cell.
WIRELESS
CELLULAR
Wi-Fi
Use this screen to configure the Cellular connection for Internet
access.
Wi-Fi
Configuration
Use this screen to configure the internal Wi-Fi Access Point
settings.
Security
Use this screen to configure the WLAN security settings.
MAC Filter
Use this screen to change MAC filter settings on the LAN-Cell
SECURITY
38
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator & Home Screen
Table 3 Screens Summary (continued)
LINK
TAB
FUNCTION
FIREWALL
Default Rule
Use this screen to activate/deactivate the firewall and the direction
of network traffic to which to apply the rule
Rule Summary This screen shows a summary of the firewall rules, and allows you
to edit/add a firewall rule.
Anti-Probing
Use this screen to change your anti-probing settings.
Threshold
Use this screen to configure the threshold for DoS attacks.
Service
Use this screen to configure custom services.
VPN WIZARD
VPN CONFIG
CERTIFICATES
AUTH SERVER
Use this Wizard to be prompted through the process of setting up
a basic IPSec VPN connection.
VPN Rules
(IKE)
Use this screen to configure VPN connections using IKE key
management and view the rule summary.
VPN Rules
(Manual)
Use this screen to configure VPN connections using manual key
management and view the rule summary.
SA Monitor
Use this screen to display and manage active VPN connections.
Global Setting
Use this screen to configure the IPSec timer settings.
My Certificates Use this screen to view a summary list of certificates and manage
certificates and certification requests.
Trusted CAs
Use this screen to view and manage the list of the trusted CAs.
Trusted
Remote Hosts
Use this screen to view and manage the certificates belonging to
the trusted remote hosts.
Directory
Servers
Use this screen to view and manage the list of the directory
servers.
Local User
Database
Use this screen to configure the local user account(s) on the LANCell.
RADIUS
Configure this screen to use an external server to authenticate
wireless and/or VPN users.
NAT Overview
Use this screen to enable NAT.
Address
Mapping
Use this screen to configure network address translation mapping
rules.
Port
Forwarding
Use this screen to configure servers behind the LAN-Cell.
Port
Triggering
Use this screen to change your LAN-Cell’s port triggering settings.
System
Use this screen to configure the address and name server
records.
Cache
Use this screen to configure the DNS resolution cache.
DHCP
Use this screen to configure LAN/DMZ/WLAN DNS information.
DDNS
Use this screen to set up dynamic DNS.
ADVANCED
NAT
DNS
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
39
Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator & Home Screen
Table 3 Screens Summary (continued)
LINK
TAB
FUNCTION
REMOTE
MGMT
WWW
Use this screen to configure through which interface(s) and from
which IP address(es) users can use HTTPS or HTTP to manage
the LAN-Cell.
SSH
Use this screen to configure through which interface(s) and from
which IP address(es) users can use Secure Shell to manage the
LAN-Cell.
TELNET
Use this screen to configure through which interface(s) and from
which IP address(es) users can use Telnet to manage the LANCell.
FTP
Use this screen to configure through which interface(s) and from
which IP address(es) users can use FTP to access the LAN-Cell.
SNMP
Use this screen to configure your LAN-Cell’s settings for Simple
Network Management Protocol management.
DNS
Use this screen to configure through which interface(s) and from
which IP address(es) users can send DNS queries to the LANCell.
STATIC ROUTE
IP Static Route Use this screen to configure IP static routes.
POLICY ROUTE Policy Route
Summary
Use this screen to view a summary list of all the policies and
configure policies for use in IP policy routing.
BW MGMT
Summary
Use this screen to enable bandwidth management on an interface.
Class Setup
Use this screen to set up the bandwidth classes.
Monitor
Use this screen to view the LAN-Cell’s bandwidth usage and
allotments.
Custom APP
Custom App
Use this screen to specify port numbers for the LAN-Cell to
monitor for FTP, HTTP, SMTP, POP3, H323, and SIP traffic.
ALG
ALG
Use this screen to allow certain applications to pass through the
LAN-Cell.
LOGS
View Log
Use this screen to view the logs for the categories that you
selected.
Log Settings
Use this screen to change your LAN-Cell’s log settings.
General
This screen contains administrative.
Password
Use this screen to change your password.
MAINTENANCE
Time and Date Use this screen to change your LAN-Cell’s time and date.
LOGOUT
F/W Upload
Use this screen to upload firmware to your LAN-Cell
Backup &
Restore
Use this screen to backup and restore the configuration or reset
the factory defaults to your LAN-Cell.
Restart
This screen allows you to reboot the LAN-Cell without turning the
power off.
Diagnostics
Use this screen to have the LAN-Cell generate and send
diagnostic files by e-mail and/or the console port.
Click this label to exit the web configurator.
2.3.3 Main Window
The main window shows the screen you select in the navigation panel. It is discussed in more
detail in the rest of this document.
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Right after you log in, the HOME screen is displayed.
2.3.4 HOME Screen
This screen displays general status information about the LAN-Cell.
Figure 16 Web Configurator HOME Screen
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 4 Web Configurator HOME Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Automatic Refresh
Interval
Select a number of seconds or None from the drop-down list box to update all
screen statistics automatically at the end of every time interval or to not update
the screen statistics.
Refresh
Click this button to update the status screen statistics immediately.
System Information
System Name
This is the System Name you enter in the MAINTENANCE > General screen. It
is for identification purposes. Click the field label to go to the screen where you
can specify a name for this LAN-Cell.
Model
This is the model name of your LAN-Cell.
Bootbase Version
This is the bootbase version and the date created.
Firmware Version
This is the ProxiOS Firmware version and the date created. ProxiOS is
Proxicast's proprietary Network Operating System design. Click the field label to
go to the screen where you can upload a new firmware file.
Up Time
This field displays how long the LAN-Cell has been running since it last started
up. The LAN-Cell starts up when you turn it on, when you restart it
(MAINTENANCE > Restart), or when you reset it (see Section A. on page 50).
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Table 4 Web Configurator HOME Screen (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Time
This field displays your LAN-Cell’s present date (in yyyy-mm-dd format) and time
(in hh:mm:ss format) along with the difference from the Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT) zone. The difference from GMT is based on the time zone. It is also
adjusted for Daylight Saving Time if you set the LAN-Cell to use it. Click the field
label to go to the screen where you can modify the LAN-Cell’s date and time
settings.
Firewall
This displays whether or not the LAN-Cell’s firewall is activated. Click the field
label to go to the screen where you can turn the firewall on or off.
System Resources
42
Flash
The first number shows how many megabytes of the flash the LAN-Cell is using.
Memory
The first number shows how many megabytes of the heap memory the LAN-Cell
is using. Heap memory refers to the memory that is not used by ProxiOS and is
thus available for running processes like NAT, VPN and the firewall.
The second number shows the LAN-Cell's total heap memory (in megabytes).
The bar displays what percent of the LAN-Cell's heap memory is in use. The bar
turns from green to red when the maximum is being approached.
Sessions
The first number shows how many sessions are currently open on the LAN-Cell.
This includes all sessions that are currently traversing the LAN-Cell, terminating
at the LAN-Cell or Initiated from the LAN-Cell
The second number is the maximum number of sessions that can be open at one
time.
The bar displays what percent of the maximum number of sessions is in use. The
bar turns from green to red when the maximum is being approached.
CPU
This field displays what percentage of the LAN-Cell’s processing ability is
currently used. When this percentage is close to 100%, the LAN-Cell is running at
full load, and the throughput is not going to improve anymore. If you want some
applications to have more throughput, you should turn off other applications (for
example, using bandwidth management.
Interfaces
This is the port type.
Click "+" to expand or "-" to collapse the IP alias drop-down lists.
Hold your cursor over an interface’s label to display the interface’s MAC Address.
Click an interface’s label to go to the screen where you can configure settings for
that interface.
Status
For the LAN, DMZ and WLAN ports, this displays the port speed and duplex
setting. Ethernet port connections can be in half-duplex or full-duplex mode. Fullduplex refers to a device's ability to send and receive simultaneously, while halfduplex indicates that traffic can flow in only one direction at a time. The Ethernet
port must use the same speed or duplex mode setting as the peer Ethernet port in
order to connect.
For the WAN interface(s) and the Dial Backup port, it displays the port speed and
duplex setting if you’re using Ethernet encapsulation or the remote node name
(configured through the SMT) for a PPP connection and Down (line is down or
not connected), Idle (line (ppp) idle), Dial (starting to trigger a call) or Drop
(dropping a call) if you’re using PPPoE encapsulation.
IP/Netmask
This shows the port’s IP address and subnet mask.
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Table 4 Web Configurator HOME Screen (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Assignment
For the WAN, if the LAN-Cell gets its IP address automatically from an ISP, this
displays DHCP client when you’re using Ethernet encapsulation and IPCP Client
when you’re using PPPoE or PPTP encapsulation. Static displays if the WAN
port is using a manually entered static (fixed) IP address.
For the LAN, WLAN or DMZ, DHCP server displays when the LAN-Cell is set to
automatically give IP address information to the computers connected to the LAN.
DHCP relay displays when the LAN-Cell is set to forward IP address assignment
requests to another DHCP server. Static displays if the LAN port is using a
manually entered static (fixed) IP address. In this case, you must have another
DHCP server on your LAN, or else the computers must be manually configured.
For the dial backup port, this shows N/A when dial backup is disabled and IPCP
client when dial backup is enabled.
Renew
If you are using Ethernet encapsulation and the WAN port is configured to get the
IP address automatically from the ISP, click Renew to release the WAN port’s
dynamically assigned IP address and get the IP address afresh. Click Dial to dial
up the PPTP, PPPoE or dial backup connection. Click Drop to disconnect the
PPTP, PPPoE, 3G WAN or dial backup connection.
Cellular Interface Status
The fields below shows up on the LAN-Cell with a 3G card inserted.
Cellular
Connection Status
This displays Down when the 3G connection is down or not activated.
This displays Idle when the 3G connection is idle.
This displays Init when the LAN-Cell is initializing the 3G card.
This displays Drop when the LAN-Cell is dropping a call.
This also displays whether the LAN-Cell is connected to a UMTS/HSDPA, GPRS/
EDGE or CDMA/EV-DO network.
Service Provider
This displays the name of your network service provider or Limited Service when
the signal strength is too low.
Roaming Network
Name of 3G Operator currently providing service when roaming off of the 3G
card’s “Home” network.
Signal Strength
This displays the strength of the signal. The signal strength mainly depends on
the antenna output power and the distance between your LAN-Cell and the
service provider’s base station.
Last Connection
Up Time
This displays how long the 3G connection has been up.
Tx Bytes
This displays the total number of data frames transmitted.
Rx Bytes
This displays the total number of data frames received.
Remaining Budget
Bytes
This field is available only when you enable budget control in the Cellular screen.
This shows how much data (in bytes) can still be transmitted through the cellular
connection before the LAN-Cell takes the actions you specified in the Cellular
screen.
Click the reset link and OK in the pop-up screen to clear all counters in the
Remaining Budget Bytes and Remaining Budget Time fields.
Remaining Budget
Time
This field is available only when you enable budget control in the Cellular screen.
This shows the amount of time (in hours and minutes) the cellular connection can
still be used before the LAN-Cell takes the actions you specified in the Cellular
screen.
Cellular Card
Manufacturer
This displays the manufacturer of your 3G card.
Cellular Card
Model
This displays the model name of your 3G card.
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Table 4 Web Configurator HOME Screen (continued)
44
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Cellular Card
Firmware Revision
This displays the version of the firmware currently used in the 3G card.
Cellular Card IMEI
This field is available only when you insert a GSM (Global System for Mobile
Communications) or UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)
cellular card.
This displays the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) which is the
serial number of the GSM or UMTS cellular card. The IMEI is a unique 15-digit
number used to identify a mobile device.
SIM Card IMSI
This field is available only when you insert a GSM or UMTS cellular card.
This displays the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) stored in the SIM
(Subscriber Identity Module) card. The SIM card is installed in a mobile device
and used for authenticating a customer to the carrier network. The IMSI is a
unique 15-digit number used to identify a user on a network.
Cellular Card ESN
This field is available only when you insert a CDMA (Code Division Multiple
Access) cellular card.
This shows the ESN (Electronic Serial Number) of the inserted CDMA cellular
card in decimal and (hexadecimal) notation. The ESN is the serial number of a
CDMA cellular card and is similar to the IMEI on a GSM or UMTS cellular card.
Enter PIN code
If the PIN code you specified in the Cellular screen is not the right one for the card
you inserted, this field displays allowing you to enter the correct PIN code. Enter
the PIN code (four to eight digits) for the inserted cellular card.
PUK Code
If you enter the PIN code incorrectly three times, the SIM card will be blocked by
your ISP and you cannot use the account to access the Internet. You should get
the PUK (Personal Unblocking Key) code (four to eight digits) from your ISP.
Enter the PUK code to enable the SIM card. If an incorrect PUK code is entered
10 times, the SIM card will be disabled permanently. You then need to contact
your ISP for a new SIM card.
New PIN Code
Configure a PIN code for the SIM card. You can specify any four to eight digits to
have a new PIN code or enter the previous PIN code.
Reset budget
counters, resume
budget control
This field displays if you have enabled budget control but insert a cellular card
with a different user account from the one for which you configured budget
control.
Select this option to have the LAN-Cell do budget calculation starting from 0 but
use the previous settings.
Resume budget
control
This field displays if you have enabled budget control but insert a cellular card
with a different user account from the one for which you configured budget
control.
Select this option to have the LAN-Cell keep the existing statistics and continue
counting.
Disable budget
control
This field displays if you have enabled budget control but insert a cellular card
with a different user account from the one for which you configured budget
control.
Select this option to disable budget control.
If you want to enable and configure new budget control settings for the new user
account, go to the Cellular screen.
The LAN-Cell keeps the existing statistics if you do not change the budget control
settings. You could reinsert the original card and enable budget control to have
the LAN-Cell continue counting the budget control statistics.
Enter modem
unlock code
This field only displays when you insert a cellular card and the internal modem on
the cellular card is blocked.
Enter a key to enable the internal modem on your cellular card. By default, the
key is the last four digits of your phone number used to dial up the cellular
connection. Otherwise, you need to get the key from your service provider.
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Table 4 Web Configurator HOME Screen (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wi-Fi Information
Wi-Fi status
This displays whether or not the wireless LAN card is activated.
SSID
This displays a descriptive name used to identify the LAN-Cell in the wireless
LAN.
Bridge To
This displays whether the wireless LAN card is used as part of the LAN, DMZ or
WLAN.
802.11 Mode
This displays the wireless standard (802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g or 802.11b+g) of
the wireless LAN.
Channel
This displays the radio channel the LAN-Cell is currently using for the wireless
LAN.
Security Mode
This shows the type of wireless security the LAN-Cell is using.
# of Associated
Clients
This shows the number of the wireless client(s) connected to the LAN-Cell.
ALERTS
Latest Alerts
This table displays the five most recent alerts recorded by the LAN-Cell. You can
see more information in the View Log screen, such as the source and destination
IP addresses and port numbers of the incoming packets.
Date/Time
This is the date and time the alert was recorded.
Message
This is the reason for the alert.
System Status
Port Statistics
Click Port Statistics to see router performance statistics such as the number of
packets sent and number of packets received for each port.
DHCP Table
Click DHCP Table to show current DHCP client information.
VPN
Click VPN to display the active VPN connections.
Bandwidth
Click Bandwidth to view the LAN-Cell’s bandwidth usage and allotments.
2.3.5 Port Statistics
Click Port Statistics in the HOME screen. Read-only information here includes port status
and packet specific statistics. The Poll Interval(s) field is configurable.
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Figure 17 HOME > Show Statistics
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 5 HOME > Show Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Click the icon to display the chart of throughput statistics.
Port
These are the LAN-Cell’s interfaces.
Status
For the WAN interface(s) and the Dial Backup port, this displays the port speed and
duplex setting if you’re using Ethernet encapsulation or the remote node name for a
PPP connection and Down (line is down or not connected), Idle (line (ppp) idle),
Dial (starting to trigger a call) or Drop (dropping a call) if you’re using PPPoE
encapsulation.
For the LAN, DMZ and WLAN ports, this displays the port speed and duplex setting.
For the WLAN card, this displays the transmission rate when WLAN is enabled or
Down when WLAN is disabled.
TxPkts
This is the number of transmitted packets on this port.
RxPkts
This is the number of received packets on this port.
Tx B/s
This displays the transmission speed in bytes per second on this port.
Rx B/s
This displays the reception speed in bytes per second on this port.
Up Time
This is the total amount of time the line has been up.
System Up Time This is the total time the LAN-Cell has been on.
Automatic
Refresh Interval
Select a number of seconds or None from the drop-down list box to update all
screen statistics automatically at the end of every time interval or to not update the
screen statistics.
Refresh
Click this button to update the screen’s statistics immediately.
2.3.6 Show Statistics: Line Chart
Click the icon in the Show Statistics screen. This screen shows you a line chart of each port’s
throughput statistics.
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Figure 18 HOME > Show Statistics > Line Chart
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 6 HOME > Show Statistics > Line Chart
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Click the icon to go back to the Show Statistics screen.
Port
Select the check box(es) to display the throughput statistics of the corresponding
interface(s).
B/s
Specify the direction of the traffic for which you want to show throughput statistics in
this table.
Select Tx to display transmitted traffic throughput statistics and the amount of traffic
(in bytes). Select Rx to display received traffic throughput statistics and the amount
of traffic (in bytes).
Throughput
Range
Set the range of the throughput (in B/s, KB/s or MB/s) to display.
Click Set Range to save this setting back to the LAN-Cell.
2.3.7 DHCP Table Screen
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows individual
clients to obtain TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. You can configure the LANCell as a DHCP server or disable it. When configured as a server, the LAN-Cell provides the
TCP/IP configuration for the clients. If DHCP service is disabled, you must have another
DHCP server on your LAN, or else the computer must be manually configured.
Click Show DHCP Table in the HOME screen. Read-only information here relates to your
DHCP status. The DHCP table shows current DHCP client information (including IP
Address, Host Name and MAC Address) of all network clients using the LAN-Cell’s DHCP
server.
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Figure 19 HOME > DHCP Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 7 HOME > DHCP Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select LAN, DMZ or WLAN to show the current DHCP client information for the
specified interface.
#
This is the index number of the host computer.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address relative to the # field listed above.
Host Name
This field displays the computer host name.
MAC Address
The MAC (Media Access Control) or Ethernet address on a LAN (Local Area
Network) is unique to your computer (six pairs of hexadecimal notation).
A network interface card such as an Ethernet adapter has a hardwired address that is
assigned at the factory. This address follows an industry standard that ensures no
other adapter has a similar address.
Reserve
Select the check box in the heading row to automatically select all check boxes or
select the check box(es) in each entry to have the LAN-Cell always assign the
selected entry(ies)’s IP address(es) to the corresponding MAC address(es) (and host
name(s)). You can select up to 128 entries in this table. After you click Apply, the
MAC address and IP address also display in the corresponding LAN, DMZ or WLAN
Static DHCP screen (where you can edit them).
Refresh
Click Refresh to reload the DHCP table.
2.3.8 VPN Status
Click VPN in the HOME screen. This screen displays read-only information about the active
VPN connections. The Poll Interval(s) field is configurable. A Security Association (SA) is
the group of security settings related to a specific VPN tunnel.
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Figure 20 HOME > VPN Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 8 HOME > VPN Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the security association index number.
Name
This field displays the identification name for this VPN policy.
Local Network
This field displays the IP address of the computer using the VPN IPSec feature of
your LAN-Cell.
Remote Network This field displays IP address (in a range) of computers on the remote network
behind the remote IPSec router.
Encapsulation
This field displays Tunnel or Transport mode.
IPSec Algorithm
This field displays the security protocols used for an SA.
Both AH and ESP increase LAN-Cell processing requirements and communications
latency (delay).
Automatic
Refresh Interval
Select a number of seconds or None from the drop-down list box to update all
screen statistics automatically at the end of every time interval or to not update the
screen statistics.
Refresh
Click this button to update the screen’s statistics immediately.
2.3.9 Bandwidth Monitor
Click Bandwidth in the HOME screen to display the bandwidth monitor. This screen displays
the device’s bandwidth usage and allotments.
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Figure 21 Home > Bandwidth Monitor
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 9 ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Monitor
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select an interface from the drop-down list box to view the bandwidth usage
of its bandwidth classes.
Class
This field displays the name of the bandwidth class.
A Default Class automatically displays for all the bandwidth in the Root
Class that is not allocated to bandwidth classes. If you do not enable
maximize bandwidth usage on an interface, the LAN-Cell uses the bandwidth
in this default class to send traffic that does not match any of the bandwidth
classes.A
Budget (kbps)
This field displays the amount of bandwidth allocated to the bandwidth class.
Current Usage (kbps)
This field displays the amount of bandwidth that each bandwidth class is
using.
Automatic Refresh
Interval
Select a number of seconds or None from the drop-down list box to update all
screen statistics automatically at the end of every time interval or to not
update the screen statistics.
Refresh
Click this button to update the screen’s statistics immediately.
A. If you allocate all the root class’s bandwidth to the bandwidth classes, the default class still displays a budget of 2
kbps (the minimum amount of bandwidth that can be assigned to a bandwidth class).
2.3.10 Status Bar
The Status Bar area displays system confirmation and error messages as you navigate through
the Web Configurator. Whenever clicking “Apply” to save configuration parameters, be sure
to wait for the Status Bar message “Configuration updated successfully” before moving to
the next screen.
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2.4 Resetting the LAN-Cell
If you forget your password or cannot access the web configurator, you will need to reload the
factory-default configuration file or use the RESET button on the back of the LAN-Cell.
Uploading this configuration file replaces the current configuration file with the factorydefault configuration file. This means that you will lose all configurations that you had
previously and the speed of the console port will be reset to the default of 9600bps with 8 data
bit, no parity, one stop bit and flow control set to none. The password will be reset to 1234,
also.
Make sure the SYS LED is on (not blinking) before you begin this procedure.
1 Press the RESET button for ten seconds, and then release it. If the SYS LED begins to
blink, the defaults have been restored and the LAN-Cell restarts. Otherwise, go to step 2.
2 Turn the LAN-Cell off.
3 While pressing the RESET button, turn the LAN-Cell on.
4 Continue to hold the RESET button. The SYS LED will begin to blink and flicker very
quickly after about 20 seconds. This indicates that the defaults have been restored and
the LAN-Cell is now restarting.
Release the RESET button and wait for the LAN-Cell to finish restarting.
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CHAPTER
3
Tutorials: 3G Modem Setup &
VPN Wizard
This chapter describes how to set up a 3G Cellular PC-Card modem WAN connection and
how to configure a basic VPN using the VPN Wizard and firewall security settings.
3.1 Setting Up a 3G WAN Connection
3.1.1 Inserting a 3G PC-Card
To enable and use the 3G WAN connection, you need to insert a 3G PC-Card in the LAN-Cell.
1
Turn the LAN-Cell off before you install or remove a 3G card.
1 After obtaining a 3G PC-Card modem from your cellular service provider, ensure that it
is properly configured and activated on their network by using the PC-Card in a
Windows laptop to make a 3G network connection. PC-Card firmware updates and
device activation must be done using the software tools provided by your carrier or the
PC-Card manufacturer.
1 Make sure the LAN-Cell is off before inserting or removing a card (to avoid damage).
2 Slide the connector end of the 3G card firmly and completely into the slot.
3 Power on the LAN-Cell.
"
The LAN-Cell supports a specific list of 3G Cellular PC-Card modems
including devices for GSM, GPRS, EDGE, HSDPA, HSUPA, UMTS, CDMA,
1xRTT and EV-DO carrier networks worldwide. ExpressCard modems are
supported using a PC-Card to ExpressCard adapter cradle.
Refer to the firmware Release Notes or the Proxicast Support Web site for the
list of 3G PC-Cards supported in your firmware version. Support for additional
3G cards is being added continuously and may require a firmware upgrade.
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Chapter 3 Tutorials: 3G Modem Setup & VPN Wizard
3.1.2 Configuring 3G WAN Settings
You should already have an activated user account and network access information from the
service provider.
1 Click WIRELESS > Cellular on the LAN-Cell.
2 Make sure that the Cellular interface is Enabled.
3 For GSM networks such as AT&T, T-Mobile, Rogers, Vodafone, Orange, MTN, etc.,
enter the APN (Access Point Name) and phone number (typically *99#) that were
provided by your service provider.
4 For CDMA networks such as Verizon Wireless, Sprint, Alltel, Telus, etc., the APN field
is not required or displayed. The ISP access phone number is typically #777 for CDMA
networks.
5 Select the authentication type used by your service provider. If it was not given, leave
the field at the default (None).
6 If required by your network operator, also enter the user name, password, and PIN code
used for network access. If your service provider didn’t provide this information,
contact your service provider.
7 If you want the Cellular WAN connection to stay connected at all times, select “Always
On”, otherwise indicate how long to wait before the LAN-Cell drops the 3G connection
when no data activity is detected. Note: this will “hang up” the 3G connection and is not
the same as the radio “Dormant State” that 3G PC-Cards go into when not transmitting
data.
8 For WAN IP Address Assignment, select Get Automatically from ISP. This is the
correct setting in most situations, even if your carrier has assigned a “static” IP address
to your 3G card.
9 Click Apply.
Figure 22 Tutorial: WIRELESS > Cellular (3G WAN) - CDMA Example
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Figure 23 Tutorial: WIRELESS > Cellular (3G WAN) - GSM Example
3.1.3 Checking WAN Connections
1 Go to the web configurator’s Home screen.
2 In the network status table, make sure the status for Cellular is not Down and there is an
IP address. If the Cellular connection is not up, make sure you have entered the correct
information in the Cellular screen and the signal strength to the service provider’s base
station is not too low.
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Chapter 3 Tutorials: 3G Modem Setup & VPN Wizard
Figure 24 Tutorial: Home
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3.2 VPN Wizard Overview
The web configurator contains a “wizard” feature to help you easily set up a basic IPSec VPN
connnection.
From the left-side navigation menu, select SECURITY then click the VPN Wizard menu
item to open the VPN Wizard screen. Use this wizard to configure a VPN connection that
uses a pre-shared key. If you want to set the rule to use a certificate, please go to the VPN
Config screens for configuration. See Section 3.2.1 on page 57.
3.2.1 VPN Wizard Gateway Setting
Use this screen to name the VPN gateway policy (IKE SA) and identify the IPSec routers at
either end of the VPN tunnel.
Figure 25 VPN Wizard: Gateway Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 10 VPN Wizard: Gateway Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Gateway Policy
Property
Name
Type up to 32 characters to identify this VPN gateway policy. You may use any
character, including spaces, but the LAN-Cell drops trailing spaces.
My LAN-Cell
Enter the WAN IP address or the domain name of your LAN-Cell or leave the field set
to 0.0.0.0.
The following applies if the My LAN-Cell field is configured as 0.0.0.0:
When the WAN interface operation mode is set to Active/Passive, the LAN-Cell
uses the IP address (static or dynamic) of the WAN interface that is in use.
When the WAN interface operation mode is set to Active/Active, the LAN-Cell uses
the IP address (static or dynamic) of the primary (highest priority) WAN interface to
set up the VPN tunnel as long as the corresponding WAN or CELL connection is up.
If the corresponding WAN or CELL connection goes down, the LAN-Cell uses the IP
address of the other WAN interface.
If both WAN connections go down, the LAN-Cell uses the dial backup IP address for
the VPN tunnel when using dial backup or the LAN IP address when using traffic
redirect. See the chapter on WAN for details on dial backup and traffic redirect.
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Table 10 VPN Wizard: Gateway Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Remote
Gateway
Address
Enter the WAN IP address or domain name of the remote IPSec router (secure
gateway) in the field below to identify the remote IPSec router by its IP address or a
domain name. Set this field to 0.0.0.0 if the remote IPSec router has a dynamic WAN
IP address.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Next
Click Next to continue.
3.2.2 VPN Wizard Network Setting
Use this screen to name the VPN network policy (IPSec SA) and identify the devices behind
the IPSec routers at either end of a VPN tunnel.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both the same. Two active
SAs can have the same local or remote IP address, but not both. You can configure multiple
SAs between the same local and remote IP addresses, as long as only one is active at any time.
Figure 26 VPN Wizard: Network Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 11 VPN Wizard: Network Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Network Policy
Property
Active
If the Active check box is selected, packets for the tunnel trigger the LAN-Cell to build
the tunnel.
Clear the Active check box to turn the network policy off. The LAN-Cell does not
apply the policy. Packets for the tunnel do not trigger the tunnel.
Name
Type up to 32 characters to identify this VPN network policy. You may use any
character, including spaces, but the LAN-Cell drops trailing spaces.
Network Policy
Setting
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Table 11 VPN Wizard: Network Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Local Network
Local IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router's
configured remote IP addresses.
Select Single for a single IP address. Select Range IP for a specific range of IP
addresses. Select Subnet to specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet
mask.
Starting IP
Address
When the Local Network field is configured to Single, enter a (static) IP address on
the LAN behind your LAN-Cell. When the Local Network field is configured to Range
IP, enter the beginning (static) IP address, in a range of computers on the LAN behind
your LAN-Cell. When the Local Network field is configured to Subnet, this is a
(static) IP address on the LAN behind your LAN-Cell.
Ending IP
Address/
Subnet Mask
When the Local Network field is configured to Single, this field is N/A. When the
Local Network field is configured to Range IP, enter the end (static) IP address, in a
range of computers on the LAN behind your LAN-Cell. When the Local Network field
is configured to Subnet, this is a subnet mask on the LAN behind your LAN-Cell.
Remote
Network
Remote IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router's
configured local IP addresses.
Select Single for a single IP address. Select Range IP for a specific range of IP
addresses. Select Subnet to specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet
mask.
Starting IP
Address
When the Remote Network field is configured to Single, enter a (static) IP address
on the network behind the remote IPSec router. When the Remote Network field is
configured to Range IP, enter the beginning (static) IP address, in a range of
computers on the network behind the remote IPSec router. When the Remote
Network field is configured to Subnet, enter a (static) IP address on the network
behind the remote IPSec router
Ending IP
Address/
Subnet Mask
When the Remote Network field is configured to Single, this field is N/A. When the
Remote Network field is configured to Range IP, enter the end (static) IP address, in
a range of computers on the network behind the remote IPSec router. When the
Remote Network field is configured to Subnet, enter a subnet mask on the network
behind the remote IPSec router.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Next
Click Next to continue.
3.2.3 VPN Wizard IKE Tunnel Setting (IKE Phase 1)
Use this screen to specify the authentication, encryption and other settings needed to negotiate
a phase 1 IKE SA.
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Figure 27 VPN Wizard: IKE Tunnel Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 12 VPN Wizard: IKE Tunnel Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Negotiation Mode
Select Main Mode for identity protection. Select Aggressive Mode to allow
more incoming connections from dynamic IP addresses to use separate
passwords.
Note: Multiple SAs (security associations) connecting through a
secure gateway must have the same negotiation mode.
60
Encryption
Algorithm
When DES is used for data communications, both sender and receiver must
know the same secret key, which can be used to encrypt and decrypt the
message or to generate and verify a message authentication code. The DES
encryption algorithm uses a 56-bit key. Triple DES (3DES) is a variation on DES
that uses a 168-bit key. As a result, 3DES is more secure than DES. It also
requires more processing power, resulting in increased latency and decreased
throughput. This implementation of AES uses a 128-bit key. AES is faster than
3DES.
Authentication
Algorithm
MD5 (Message Digest 5) and SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash
algorithms used to authenticate packet data. The SHA1 algorithm is generally
considered stronger than MD5, but is slower. Select MD5 for minimal security
and SHA-1 for maximum security.
Key Group
You must choose a key group for phase 1 IKE setup. DH1 (default) refers to
Diffie-Hellman Group 1 a 768 bit random number. DH2 refers to Diffie-Hellman
Group 2 a 1024 bit (1Kb) random number.
SA Life Time
(Seconds)
Define the length of time before an IKE SA automatically renegotiates in this
field. The minimum value is 180 seconds.
A short SA Life Time increases security by forcing the two VPN gateways to
update the encryption and authentication keys. However, every time the VPN
tunnel renegotiates, all users accessing remote resources are temporarily
disconnected.
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Table 12 VPN Wizard: IKE Tunnel Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Pre-Shared Key
Type your pre-shared key in this field. A pre-shared key identifies a
communicating party during a phase 1 IKE negotiation. It is called "pre-shared"
because you have to share it with another party before you can communicate
with them over a secure connection.
Type from 8 to 31 case-sensitive ASCII characters or from 16 to 62
hexadecimal ("0-9", "A-F") characters. You must precede a hexadecimal key
with a "0x (zero x), which is not counted as part of the 16 to 62 character range
for the key. For example, in "0x0123456789ABCDEF", 0x denotes that the key
is hexadecimal and 0123456789ABCDEF is the key itself.
Both ends of the VPN tunnel must use the same pre-shared key. You will
receive a PYLD_MALFORMED (payload malformed) packet if the same preshared key is not used on both ends.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Next
Click Next to continue.
3.2.4 VPN Wizard IPSec Setting (IKE Phase 2)
Use this screen to specify the authentication, encryption and other settings needed to negotiate
a phase 2 IPSec SA.
Figure 28 VPN Wizard: IPSec Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13 VPN Wizard: IPSec Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encapsulation Mode
Tunnel is compatible with NAT, Transport is not.
Tunnel mode encapsulates the entire IP packet to transmit it securely. A Tunnel
mode is required for gateway services to provide access to internal systems.
Tunnel mode is fundamentally an IP tunnel with authentication and encryption.
Transport mode is used to protect upper layer protocols and only affects the
data in the IP packet. In Transport mode, the IP packet contains the security
protocol (AH or ESP) located after the original IP header and options, but before
any upper layer protocols contained in the packet (such as TCP and UDP).
IPSec Protocol
Select the security protocols used for an SA.
Both AH and ESP increase LAN-Cell processing requirements and
communications latency (delay).
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Table 13 VPN Wizard: IPSec Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encryption Algorithm When DES is used for data communications, both sender and receiver must
know the same secret key, which can be used to encrypt and decrypt the
message or to generate and verify a message authentication code. The DES
encryption algorithm uses a 56-bit key. Triple DES (3DES) is a variation on DES
that uses a 168-bit key. As a result, 3DES is more secure than DES. It also
requires more processing power, resulting in increased latency and decreased
throughput. This implementation of AES uses a 128-bit key. AES is faster than
3DES. Select NULL to set up a tunnel without encryption. When you select
NULL, you do not enter an encryption key.
Authentication
Algorithm
MD5 (Message Digest 5) and SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash
algorithms used to authenticate packet data. The SHA1 algorithm is generally
considered stronger than MD5, but is slower. Select MD5 for minimal security
and SHA-1 for maximum security.
SA Life Time
(Seconds)
Define the length of time before an IKE SA automatically renegotiates in this
field. The minimum value is 180 seconds.
A short SA Life Time increases security by forcing the two VPN gateways to
update the encryption and authentication keys. However, every time the VPN
tunnel renegotiates, all users accessing remote resources are temporarily
disconnected.
Perfect Forward
Secret (PFS)
Perfect Forward Secret (PFS) is disabled (None) by default in phase 2 IPSec
SA setup. This allows faster IPSec setup, but is not so secure.
Select DH1 or DH2 to enable PFS. DH1 refers to Diffie-Hellman Group 1 a 768
bit random number. DH2 refers to Diffie-Hellman Group 2 a 1024 bit (1Kb)
random number (more secure, yet slower).
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Next
Click Next to continue.
3.2.5 VPN Wizard Status Summary
This read-only screen shows the status of the current VPN setting. Use the summary table to
check whether what you have configured is correct.
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Figure 29 VPN Wizard: VPN Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 14 VPN Wizard: VPN Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Gateway Policy
Property
Name
This is the name of this VPN gateway policy.
Gateway Policy
Setting
My LAN-Cell
This is the WAN IP address or the domain name of your LAN-Cell.
Remote Gateway
Address
This is the IP address or the domain name used to identify the remote IPSec
router.
Network Policy
Property
Active
This displays whether this VPN network policy is enabled or not.
Name
This is the name of this VPN network policy.
Network Policy
Setting
Local Network
Starting IP Address
This is a (static) IP address on the LAN behind your LAN-Cell.
Ending IP Address/
Subnet Mask
When the local network is configured for a single IP address, this field is N/A.
When the local network is configured for a range IP address, this is the end
(static) IP address, in a range of computers on the LAN behind your LAN-Cell.
When the local network is configured for a subnet, this is a subnet mask on the
LAN behind your LAN-Cell.
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Table 14 VPN Wizard: VPN Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Remote Network
Starting IP Address
This is a (static) IP address on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
Ending IP Address/
Subnet Mask
When the remote network is configured for a single IP address, this field is N/A.
When the remote network is configured for a range IP address, this is the end
(static) IP address, in a range of computers on the network behind the remote
IPSec router. When the remote network is configured for a subnet, this is a
subnet mask on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
IKE Tunnel Setting
(IKE Phase 1)
Negotiation Mode
This shows Main Mode or Aggressive Mode. Multiple SAs connecting through
a secure gateway must have the same negotiation mode.
Encryption
Algorithm
This is the method of data encryption. Options can be DES, 3DES or AES.
Authentication
Algorithm
MD5 (Message Digest 5) and SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash
algorithms used to authenticate packet data.
Key Group
This is the key group you chose for phase 1 IKE setup.
SA Life Time
(Seconds)
This is the length of time before an IKE SA automatically renegotiates.
Pre-Shared Key
This is a pre-shared key identifying a communicating party during a phase 1 IKE
negotiation.
IPSec Setting (IKE
Phase 2)
Encapsulation Mode This shows Tunnel mode or Transport mode.
IPSec Protocol
ESP or AH are the security protocols used for an SA.
Encryption
Algorithm
This is the method of data encryption. Options can be DES, 3DES, AES or
NULL.
Authentication
Algorithm
MD5 (Message Digest 5) and SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash
algorithms used to authenticate packet data.
SA Life Time
(Seconds)
This is the length of time before an IKE SA automatically renegotiates.
Perfect Forward
Secret (PFS)
Perfect Forward Secret (PFS) is disabled (None) by default in phase 2 IPSec
SA setup. Otherwise, DH1 or DH2 are selected to enable PFS.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Finish
Click Finish to complete and save the wizard setup.
3.2.6 VPN Wizard Setup Complete
Congratulations! You have successfully set up the VPN rule for your LAN-Cell. If you already
had VPN rules configured, the wizard adds the new VPN rule after the last existing VPN rule.
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Figure 30 VPN Wizard Setup Complete
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3.3 Security Settings for VPN Traffic
The LAN-Cell can apply the firewall and content filtering to the traffic going to or from the
LAN-Cell’s VPN tunnels. The LAN-Cell applies the security settings to the traffic before
encrypting VPN traffic that it sends out or after decrypting received VPN traffic.
"
The security settings apply to VPN traffic going to or from the LAN-Cell’s VPN
tunnels. They do not apply to other VPN traffic for which the LAN-Cell is not
one of the gateways (VPN pass-through traffic).
You can apply firewall security to VPN traffic based on its direction of travel. The following
examples show how you do this for the firewall.
3.3.1 Firewall Rule for VPN Example
The firewall provides even more fine-tuned control for VPN tunnels. You can configure
default and custom firewall rules for VPN packets.
Take the following example. You have a LAN FTP server with IP address 192.168.1.4 behind
device A. You could configure a VPN rule to allow the network behind device B to access
your LAN FTP server through a VPN tunnel. Now, if you don’t want other services like chat
or e-mail going to the FTP server, you can configure firewall rules that allow only FTP traffic
to come from VPN tunnels to the FTP server. Furthermore, you can configure the firewall rule
so that only the network behind device B can access the FTP server through a VPN tunnel (not
other remote networks that have VPN tunnels with the LAN-Cell).
Figure 31 Firewall Rule for VPN
3.3.2 Configuring the VPN Rule
This section shows how to configure a VPN rule on device A to let the network behind B
access the FTP server. You would also have to configure a corresponding rule on device B.
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1 Click Security > VPN CONFIG to open the following screen. Click the Add Gateway
Policy icon.
Figure 32 SECURITY > VPN CONFIG > VPN Rules (IKE)
2 Use this screen to set up the connection between the routers. Configure the fields that are
circled as follows and click Apply.
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Figure 33 SECURITY > VPN CONFIG > VPN Rules (IKE)> Add Gateway Policy
3 Click the Add Network Policy icon.
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Figure 34 SECURITY > VPN CONFIG> VPN Rules (IKE): With Gateway Policy Example
4 Use this screen to specify which computers behind the routers can use the VPN tunnel.
Configure the fields that are circled as follows and click Apply. You may notice that the
example does not specify the port numbers. This is due to the following reasons.
• While FTP uses a control session on port 20, the port for the data session is not fixed.
So this example uses the firewall’s FTP application layer gateway (ALG) to handle
this instead of specifying port numbers in this VPN network policy.
• The firewall provides better security because it operates at layer 4 and checks traffic
sessions. The VPN network policy only operates at layer 3 and just checks IP
addresses and port numbers.
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Figure 35 SECURITY > VPN CONFIG > VPN Rules (IKE)> Add Network Policy
3.3.3 Configuring the Firewall Rules
Suppose you have several VPN tunnels but you only want to allow device B’s network to
access the FTP server. You also only want FTP traffic to go to the FTP server, so you want to
block all other traffic types (like chat, e-mail, web and so on). The following sections show
how to configure firewall rules to enforce these restrictions.
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3.3.3.1 Firewall Rule to Allow Access Example
Configure a firewall rule that allows FTP access from the VPN tunnel to the FTP server.
1 Click Security > Firewall > Rule Summary.
2 Select VPN to LAN as the packet direction and click Refresh.
Figure 36 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Rule Summary
3 Insert a new by clicking the plus sign (+) under the Modify column. Define the rule as
shown in the following figure and click Apply. The source addresses are the VPN rule’s
remote network and the destination address is the LAN FTP server.
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Figure 37 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Rule Summary > Edit: Allow
4 The rule displays in the summary list of VPN to LAN firewall rules.
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Figure 38 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Rule Summary: Allow
3.3.3.2 Default Firewall Rule to Block Other Access Example
Now you configure the default firewall rule to block all VPN to LAN traffic. This blocks any
other types of access from VPN tunnels to the LAN FTP server. This means that you need to
configure more firewall rules if you want to allow any other VPN tunnels to access the LAN.
1 Click SECURITY > FIREWALL > Default Rule.
2 Configure the screen as follows and click Apply.
Figure 39 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Default Rule: Block From VPN To LAN
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P ART II
Network & Wireless
Menus
LAN Screens (77)
WAN & 3G Cellular Screens (89)
DMZ Screens (127)
Wireless LAN (WLAN) Screens (137)
Wi-Fi Screens (163)
"
The WIRELESS > CELLULAR menu option is a short-cut to the
WAN > CELLULAR screen.
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4
LAN Screens
4.1 LAN, WAN and the LAN-Cell
This chapter describes how to configure LAN settings.
A network is a shared communication system to which many computers are attached.
The Local Area Network (LAN) includes the computers and networking devices in your home
or office that you connect to the LAN-Cell’s LAN ports.
The Wide Area Network (WAN) is another network (most likely the Internet) that you connect
to the LAN-Cell’s WAN port. See Chapter 5 on page 89 for how to use the WAN screens to
set up your WAN connection.
The LAN and the WAN are two separate networks. The LAN-Cell controls the traffic that
goes between them. The following graphic gives an example.
Figure 40 LAN and WAN
4.1.1 What You Can Do in The LAN Screens
• Use the LAN screen (Section 4.2 on page 80) to configure TCP/IP, DHCP, IP/MAC
binding and NetBIOS settings on the LAN.
• Use the Static DHCP screen (Section 4.3 on page 83) to configure the IP addresses
assigned to devices in the LAN by DHCP.
• Use the IP Alias screen (Section 4.4 on page 84) to configure IP alias settings on the
ZLAN-Cell’s LAN ports.
• Use the Port Roles screen (Section 4.5 on page 86) to configure LAN ports on the LANCell.
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4.1.2 What You Need to Know About LAN
IP Address and Subnet Mask
Similar to the way houses on a street share a common street name, so too do computers on a
LAN share one common network number.
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If the ISP or
your network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP addresses, follow their
instructions in selecting the IP addresses and the subnet mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you have a single
user account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when the connection is
established. If this is the case, it is recommended that you select a network number from
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0 and you must enable the Network Address Translation (NAT)
feature of the LAN-Cell. The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) reserved this block
of addresses specifically for private use; please do not use any other number unless you are
told otherwise. If you select 192.168.1.0 as the network number; it covers 254 individual
addresses, from 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.254 (zero and 255 are reserved). In other words, the
first three numbers specify the network number while the last number identifies an individual
computer on that network.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address that is easy to remember,
for instance, 192.168.1.1, for your LAN-Cell, but make sure that no other device on your
network is using that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your LAN-Cell will
compute the subnet mask automatically based on the IP address that you entered. You don't
need to change the subnet mask computed by the LAN-Cell unless you are instructed to do
otherwise.
Private IP Addresses
Every machine on the Internet must have a unique address. If your networks are isolated from
the Internet, for example, only between your two branch offices, you can assign any IP
addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private
networks:
• 10.0.0.0 — 10.255.255.255
• 172.16.0.0 — 172.31.255.255
• 192.168.0.0 — 192.168.255.255
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP or it can be assigned from a
private network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet access is through an
ISP, the ISP can provide you with the Internet addresses for your local networks. On the other
hand, if you are part of a much larger organization, you should consult your network
administrator for the appropriate IP addresses.
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"
Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address;
always follow the guidelines above. For more information on address
assignment, please refer to RFC 1597, Address Allocation for Private Internets
and RFC 1466, Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space.
MAC Address
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address
is assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:1B:39:00:00:02.
DHCP
The LAN-Cell can use DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131 and RFC
2132) to automatically assign IP addresses subnet masks, gateways, and some network
information like the IP addresses of DNS servers to the computers on your LAN. You can
alternatively have the LAN-Cell relay DHCP information from another DHCP server. If you
disable the LAN-Cell’s DHCP service, you must have another DHCP server on your LAN, or
else the computers must be manually configured.
IP Pool Setup
The LAN-Cell is pre-configured with a pool of IP addresses for the computers on your LAN.
See Appendix on page 575 for the default IP pool range. Do not assign your LAN computers
static IP addresses that are in the DHCP pool.
RIP Setup
RIP (Routing Information Protocol, RFC 1058 and RFC 1389) allows a router to exchange
routing information with other routers. RIP Direction controls the sending and receiving of
RIP packets. When set to Both or Out Only, the LAN-Cell will broadcast its routing table
periodically. When set to Both or In Only, it will incorporate the RIP information that it
receives; when set to None, it will not send any RIP packets and will ignore any RIP packets
received.
RIP Version controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP packets that the
LAN-Cell sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving). RIP-1 is universally supported;
but RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is probably adequate for most networks, unless you
have an unusual network topology.
Both RIP-2B and RIP-2M send routing data in RIP-2 format; the difference being that RIP2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses multicasting. Multicasting can reduce the
load on non-router machines since they generally do not listen to the RIP multicast address
and so will not receive the RIP packets. However, if one router uses multicasting, then all
routers on your network must use multicasting, also.
By default, RIP Direction is set to Both and RIP Version to RIP-1.
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Multicast
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1 sender - 1
recipient) or Broadcast (1 sender - everybody on the network). Multicast delivers IP packets to
a group of hosts on the network - not everybody and not just 1.
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to establish
membership in a Multicast group - it is not used to carry user data. IGMP version 2 (RFC
2236) is an improvement over version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use. If
you would like to read more detailed information about interoperability between IGMP
version 2 and version 1, please see sections 4 and 5 of RFC 2236. The class D IP address is
used to identify host groups and can be in the range 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. The address
224.0.0.0 is not assigned to any group and is used by IP multicast computers. The address
224.0.0.1 is used for query messages and is assigned to the permanent group of all IP hosts
(including gateways). All hosts must join the 224.0.0.1 group in order to participate in IGMP.
The address 224.0.0.2 is assigned to the multicast routers group.
The LAN-Cell supports both IGMP version 1 (IGMP-v1) and IGMP version 2 (IGMP-v2).
At start up, the LAN-Cell queries all directly connected networks to gather group membership.
After that, the LAN-Cell periodically updates this information. IP multicasting can be enabled/
disabled on the LAN-Cell LAN and/or WAN interfaces in the web configurator (LAN;
WAN). Select None to disable IP multicasting on these interfaces.
WINS
WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service) is a Windows implementation of NetBIOS Name
Server (NBNS) on Windows. It keeps track of NetBIOS computer names. It stores a mapping
table of your network’s computer names and IP addresses. The table is dynamically updated
for IP addresses assigned by DHCP. This helps reduce broadcast traffic since computers can
query the server instead of broadcasting a request for a computer name’s IP address. In this
way WINS is similar to DNS, although WINS does not use a hierarchy (unlike DNS). A
network can have more than one WINS server. Samba can also serve as a WINS server.
IP Alias
IP alias allows you to partition a physical network into different logical networks over the
same Ethernet interface. The LAN, DMZ or WLAN may all be partitioned in this way.
Port Roles
Port Roles allows you to set ports as part of the LAN, DMZ and/or WLAN interface.
4.2 LAN Screen
Click NETWORK > LAN to open the LAN screen. Use this screen to configure the LANCell’s IP address and other LAN TCP/IP settings as well as the built-in DHCP server
capability that assigns IP addresses and DNS servers to systems that support DHCP client
capability.
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Figure 41 NETWORK > LAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 15 NETWORK > LAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
LAN TCP/IP
IP Address
Type the IP address of your LAN-Cell in dotted decimal notation. 192.168.1.1 is the
factory default. Alternatively, click the right mouse button to copy and/or paste the
IP address.
IP Subnet Mask
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your
LAN-Cell automatically calculates the subnet mask based on the IP address that
you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet mask
computed by the LAN-Cell.
RIP Direction
RIP (Routing Information Protocol, RFC1058 and RFC 1389) allows a router to
exchange routing information with other routers. The RIP Direction field controls
the sending and receiving of RIP packets. Select the RIP direction from Both/In
Only/Out Only/None. When set to Both or Out Only, the LAN-Cell will broadcast
its routing table periodically. When set to Both or In Only, it will incorporate the
RIP information that it receives; when set to None, it will not send any RIP packets
and will ignore any RIP packets received. Both is the default.
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Table 15 NETWORK > LAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RIP Version
The RIP Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP
packets that the LAN-Cell sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving). RIP1 is universally supported but RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is probably
adequate for most networks, unless you have an unusual network topology. Both
RIP-2B and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the difference being
that RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses multicasting.
Multicasting can reduce the load on non-router machines since they generally do
not listen to the RIP multicast address and so will not receive the RIP packets.
However, if one router uses multicasting, then all routers on your network must use
multicasting, also. By default, RIP direction is set to Both and the Version set to
RIP-1.
Multicast
Select IGMP V-1 or IGMP V-2 or None. IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol)
is a network-layer protocol used to establish membership in a Multicast group - it is
not used to carry user data. IGMP version 2 (RFC 2236) is an improvement over
version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use. If you would like to
read more detailed information about interoperability between IGMP version 2 and
version 1, please see sections 4 and 5 of RFC 2236.
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82
DHCP
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows
individual clients (workstations) to obtain TCP/IP configuration at startup from a
server. Unless you are instructed by your ISP, leave this field set to Server. When
configured as a server, the LAN-Cell provides TCP/IP configuration for the clients.
When set as a server, fill in the IP Pool Starting Address and Pool Size fields.
Select Relay to have the LAN-Cell forward DHCP requests to another DHCP
server. When set to Relay, fill in the DHCP Server Address field.
Select None to stop the LAN-Cell from acting as a DHCP server. When you select
None, you must have another DHCP server on your LAN, or else the computers
must be manually configured.
IP Pool Starting
Address
This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool.
Pool Size
This field specifies the size, or count of the IP address pool.
DHCP Server
Address
Type the IP address of the DHCP server to which you want the LAN-Cell to relay
DHCP requests. Use dotted decimal notation. Alternatively, click the right mouse
button to copy and/or paste the IP address.
DHCP WINS
Server 1, 2
Type the IP address of the WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service) server that
you want to send to the DHCP clients. The WINS server keeps a mapping table of
the computer names on your network and the IP addresses that they are currently
using.
Windows
Networking
(NetBIOS over
TCP/IP)
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) are TCP or UDP packets that
enable a computer to connect to and communicate with a LAN. For some dial-up
services such as PPPoE or PPTP, NetBIOS packets cause unwanted calls.
However it may sometimes be necessary to allow NetBIOS packets to pass
through to the WAN in order to find a computer on the WAN.
Allow between
LAN and WAN
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from the LAN to WANand from
WAN to the LAN. If your firewall is enabled with the default policy set to block WAN
to LAN traffic, you also need to enable the default WAN to LAN firewall rule that
forwards NetBIOS traffic.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from the LAN to WAN and
from WAN to the LAN.
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Table 15 NETWORK > LAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Allow between
LAN and Cellular
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from the LAN to CELL and from
CELL to the LAN. If your firewall is enabled with the default policy set to block
CELL to LAN traffic, you also need to enable the default CELL to LAN firewall rule
that forwards NetBIOS traffic.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from the LAN to CELL and
from CELL to the LAN.
Allow between
LAN and DMZ
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from the LAN to the DMZ and
from the DMZ to the LAN. If your firewall is enabled with the default policy set to
block DMZ to LAN traffic, you also need to enable the default DMZ to LAN firewall
rule that forwards NetBIOS traffic.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from the LAN to the DMZ
and from the DMZ to the LAN.
Allow between
LAN and WLAN
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from the LAN to the WLAN and
from the WLAN to the LAN.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from the LAN to the WLAN
and from the WLAN to the LAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
4.3 LAN Static DHCP Screen
This table allows you to assign IP addresses on the LAN to specific individual computers
based on their MAC Addresses.
To change your LAN-Cell’s static DHCP settings, click NETWORK > LAN > Static DHCP.
The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 42 NETWORK > LAN > Static DHCP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 16 NETWORK > LAN > Static DHCP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of the Static IP table entry (row).
MAC Address
Type the MAC address of a computer on your LAN.
IP Address
Type the IP address that you want to assign to the computer on your LAN.
Alternatively, click the right mouse button to copy and/or paste the IP address.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
4.4 LAN IP Alias Screen
IP alias allows you to partition a physical network into different logical networks over the
same Ethernet interface.
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The LAN-Cell has a single LAN interface. Even though more than one of ports 1~4 may be in
the LAN port role, they are all still part of a single physical Ethernet interface and all use the
same IP address.
The LAN-Cell supports three logical LAN interfaces via its single physical LAN Ethernet
interface. The LAN-Cell itself is the gateway for each of the logical LAN networks.
When you use IP alias, you can also configure firewall rules to control access between the
LAN's logical networks (subnets).
"
Make sure that the subnets of the logical networks do not overlap.
The following figure shows a LAN divided into subnets A, B, and C.
Figure 43 Physical Network & Partitioned Logical Networks
To change your LAN-Cell’s IP alias settings, click NETWORK > LAN > IP Alias. The
screen appears as shown.
Figure 44 NETWORK > LAN > IP Alias
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 17 NETWORK > LAN > IP Alias
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable IP Alias 1,
2
Select the check box to configure another LAN network for the LAN-Cell.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your LAN-Cell in dotted decimal notation.
Alternatively, click the right mouse button to copy and/or paste the IP address.
IP Subnet Mask
Your LAN-Cell will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the IP
address that you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet
mask computed by the LAN-Cell.
RIP Direction
RIP (Routing Information Protocol, RFC 1058 and RFC 1389) allows a router to
exchange routing information with other routers. The RIP Direction field controls
the sending and receiving of RIP packets. Select the RIP direction from Both/In
Only/Out Only/None. When set to Both or Out Only, the LAN-Cell will broadcast
its routing table periodically. When set to Both or In Only, it will incorporate the
RIP information that it receives; when set to None, it will not send any RIP packets
and will ignore any RIP packets received.
RIP Version
The RIP Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP
packets that the LAN-Cell sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving). RIP1 is universally supported but RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is probably
adequate for most networks, unless you have an unusual network topology. Both
RIP-2B and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the difference being
that RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses multicasting.
Multicasting can reduce the load on non-router machines since they generally do
not listen to the RIP multicast address and so will not receive the RIP packets.
However, if one router uses multicasting, then all routers on your network must
use multicasting, also. By default, RIP direction is set to Both and the Version set
to RIP-1.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
4.5 LAN Port Roles Screen
Use the Port Roles screen to set ports as part of the LAN, DMZ and/or WLAN interface.
Ports 1~4 on the LAN-Cell can be part of the LAN, DMZ or WLAN interface.
"
Do the following if you are configuring from a computer connected to a LAN,
DMZ or WLAN port and changing the port's role:
1 A port's IP address varies as its role changes, make sure your computer's IP address is in
the same subnet as the LAN-Cell's LAN, DMZ or WLAN IP address.
2 Use the appropriate LAN, DMZ or WLAN IP address to access the LAN-Cell.
To change your LAN-Cell’s port role settings, click NETWORK > LAN > Port Roles. The
screen appears as shown.
The radio buttons correspond to Ethernet ports on the front panel of the LAN-Cell. On the
LAN-Cell, ports 1 to 4 are all LAN ports by default.
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"
Your changes are also reflected in the DMZ Port Roles and WLAN Port
Roles screens.
Figure 45 NETWORK > LAN > Port Roles
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 18 NETWORK > LAN > Port Roles
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
LAN
Select a port’s LAN radio button to use the port as part of the LAN. The port will
use the LAN-Cell’s LAN IP address and MAC address.
DMZ
Select a port’s DMZ radio button to use the port as part of the DMZ. The port will
use the LAN-Cell’s DMZ IP address and MAC address.
WLAN
Select a port’s WLAN radio button to use the port as part of the WLAN.
The port will use the LAN-Cell’s WLAN IP address and MAC address.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
After you change the LAN/DMZ/WLAN port roles and click Apply, please wait for few
seconds until the following screen appears. Click Return to go back to the Port Roles screen.
Figure 46 Port Roles Change Complete
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CHAPTER
5
WAN & 3G Cellular Screens
5.1 Overview
This chapter describes how to configure WAN, 3G Cellular, Dial-Backup and Traffic Redirect
settings.
A WAN (Wide Area Network) connection is an outside connection to another network or the
Internet. It connects your private networks such as a LAN (Local Area Network) and other
networks, so that a computer in one location can communicate with computers in other
locations.
The LAN-Cell 2 has two primary WAN and two backup WAN interfaces:
Figure 47 LAN-Cell 2 Primary & Backup WAN Interfaces
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Primary WAN Interfaces
1. WAN refers to the Ethernet WAN port on the LAN-Cell which is typically connected
to a DSL/cable modem, T1, or other high-speed Ethernet-based wired Internet service.
2. CELLULAR refers to 3G cellular (CDMA/GSM) modem cards that are inserted into
the PC-Card slot on the side of the LAN-Cell.
The primary WAN interfaces can be used in either Load-Balancing or Fail-Over modes and
are the most common pathways for connecting to the Internet.
Backup WAN Interfaces
1. Dial-Backup refers to the AUX (serial) port the LAN-Cell which can be connected to
an external serial modem that responds to basic Hayes “AT” commands. The DialBackup port is used when the wired Ethernet WAN (or CELLULAR) interface is not
available.
2. Traffic Redirect refers to the LAN-Cell’s ability to redirect WAN-bound traffic to an
independent WAN gateway located elsewhere on the Local Area Network. This is a
“route of last resort” in situations where the LAN-Cell has no available WAN
connections of its own.
5.1.1 What You Can Do in the WAN Screens
• Use the General screen (Section 5.2 on page 94) to configure load balancing, route
priority, and connection test settings for the LAN-Cell.
• Use the WAN screen (Section 5.3 on page 103) to configure the Ethernet WAN interface
for Internet access on the LAN-Cell.
• Use the Cellular (3G) screen (Section 5.4 on page 114) to configure the CELL interface
for Internet access on the LAN-Cell.
• Use the Traffic Redirect screen (Section 5.5 on page 120) to configure an alternative
gateway.
• Use the Dial Backup screen (Section 5.6 on page 122) to configure the backup WAN
dialup connection.
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5.1.2 What You Need To Know About WAN
Encapsulation Method
Encapsulation is used to include data from an upper layer protocol into a lower layer protocol.
To set up a WAN connection to the Internet, you need to use the same encapsulation method
used by your ISP (Internet Service Provider).
If your ISP offers a dial-up Internet connection using PPPoE (PPP over Ethernet) or PPPoA,
they may also provide a username and password (and service name) for user authentication.
WAN IP Address
The WAN IP address is an IP address for the LAN-Cell, which makes it accessible from an
outside network. It is used by the LAN-Cell to communicate with other devices in other
networks. It can be static (fixed) or dynamically assigned by the ISP each time the LAN-Cell
tries to access the Internet.
If your ISP assigns you a static WAN IP address, they should also assign you the subnet mask
and DNS server IP address(es) (and a gateway IP address if you use the Ethernet or ENET
ENCAP encapsulation method).
"
Most Cellular Network Operators provide WAN IP addresses using a form of
Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP), even if your WAN IP address is
“static”. In these cases, configure the Cellular WAN IP Address Assignment
as “Get Automatically from ISP”.
Multiple WAN Interfaces
You can use a second WAN connection for load sharing to increase overall network
throughput or as a backup to enhance network reliability.
The LAN-Cell has one Ethernet WAN port. Inserting a 3G card adds a second WAN
(Cellular) interface. You can connect one interface to one ISP (or network) and connect the
other to a second ISP (or network).
If one WAN interface's connection goes down, the LAN-Cell can automatically send its traffic
through the other WAN interface when the WAN interfaces are configured for Fail-Over
Mode. See Chapter 5 on page 92 for details.
Optionally, the LAN-Cell can balance the load between the two WAN interfaces (see Section
on page 92).
You can use policy routing to specify the WAN interface that specific services go through. An
ISP may give traffic from certain (more expensive) connections priority over the traffic from
other accounts. You could route delay intolerant traffic (like voice over IP calls) through this
kind of connection. Other traffic could be routed through a cheaper broadband Internet
connection that does not provide priority service. The LAN-Cell's NAT feature allows you to
configure sets of rules for one WAN interface and separate sets of rules for the other WAN
interface. Refer to Chapter 13 on page 289 for details.
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The LAN-Cell's DDNS lets you select which WAN interface you want to use for each
individual domain name. The DDNS high availability feature lets you have the LAN-Cell use
the other WAN interface for a domain name if the configured WAN interface's connection
goes down. See DDNS on page 309 for details.
When configuring a VPN rule, you have the option of selecting one of the LAN-Cell's domain
names in the My Address field.
Load Balancing Introduction
On the LAN-Cell, load balancing is the process of dividing traffic loads between the two
WAN interfaces (or ports). This allows you to improve quality of services and maximize
bandwidth utilization.
See also policy routing to provide quality of service by dedicating a route for a specific traffic
type and bandwidth management to specify a set amount of bandwidth for a specific traffic
type on an interface.
Load Balancing Algorithms
The LAN-Cell uses three load balancing methods (least load first, weighted round robin and
spillover) to decide which WAN interface the traffic for a session1 (from the LAN) uses.
The following sections describe each load balancing method. The available bandwidth you
configure on the LAN-Cell refers to the actual bandwidth provided by the ISP and the
measured bandwidth refers to the bandwidth an interface is currently using.
TCP/IP Priority (Metric)
The metric represents the "cost of transmission". A router determines the best route for
transmission by choosing a path with the lowest "cost". RIP routing uses hop count as the
measurement of cost, with a minimum of "1" for directly connected networks. The number
must be between "1" and "15"; a number greater than "15" means the link is down. The
smaller the number, the lower the "cost".
1 The metric sets the priority for the LAN-Cell's routes to the Internet. Each route must
have a unique metric.
2 The priorities of the WAN interface routes must always be higher than the dial-backup
and traffic redirect route priorities.
Lets say that you have the WAN operation mode set to active/passive, meaning the LAN-Cell
will use the second highest priority WAN interface as a back up. The WAN route has a metric
of "2", the Cellular route has a metric of "3", the traffic-redirect route has a metric of "14" and
the dial-backup route has a metric of "15". In this case, the WAN route acts as the primary
default route. If the WAN route fails to connect to the Internet, the LAN-Cell tries the Cellular
route next. If the Cellular route fails, the LAN-Cell tries the traffic-redirect route. In the same
manner, the LAN-Cell uses the dial-backup route if the traffic-redirect route also fails.
1.
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In the load balancing section, a session may refer to normal connection-oriented, UDP and SNMP2 traffic.
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"
The dial-backup or traffic redirect routes cannot take priority over the WAN and
Cellular routes.
WAN Continuity Check
TThe LAN-Cell can periodically generate ICMP (ping) traffic to test the connection status of
the Ethernet WAN, Cellular WAN or Traffic Redirect ports. This feature is useful for
detecting “dead-peer” situations or other conditions where the WAN interface is not
forwarding traffic even though the physical status of the interface is “up”. WAN Connectivity
Check is most useful for “Always-On” WAN connections.
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5.2 WAN General Screen
Click NETWORK > WAN to open the General screen. Use this screen to configure load
balancing, route priority and traffic redirect properties.
Figure 48 NETWORK > WAN General
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 19 NETWORK > WAN General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active/Passive
(Fail Over) Mode
Select the Active/Passive (fail over) operation mode to have the LAN-Cell use the
second highest priority WAN interface as a back up. This means that the LAN-Cell
will normally use the highest priority (primary) WAN interface (depending on the
priorities you configure in the Route Priority fields). The LAN-Cell will switch to the
secondary (second highest priority) WAN interface when the primary WAN
interface's connection fails.
Fall Back to
Primary WAN
When Possible
This field determines the action the LAN-Cell takes after the primary WAN interface
fails and the LAN-Cell starts using the secondary WAN interface.
Select this check box to have the LAN-Cell change back to using the primary WAN
interface when the LAN-Cell can connect through the primary WAN interface again.
Clear this check box to have the LAN-Cell continue using the secondary WAN
interface, even after the LAN-Cell can connect through the primary WAN interface
again. The LAN-Cell continues to use the secondary WAN interface until it's
connection fails (at which time it will change back to using the primary WAN
interface if its connection is up.
Active/Active
Mode
Select Active/Active Mode to have the LAN-Cell use both of the WAN interfaces
at the same time and allow you to enable load balancing.
Load Balancing
Algorithm
Select Least Load First, Weighted Round Robin or Spillover to activate load
balancing and set the related fields. Otherwise, select None.
Refer to Section 5.2.1 on page 97 for load balancing configuration.
Route Priority
WAN
Cellular
Traffic Redirect
Dial Backup
The default WAN connection is "1' as your broadband connection via the WAN
interface should always be your preferred method of accessing the WAN. The
LAN-Cell switches from the WAN interface to the Cellular if the WAN interface's
connection fails and then back to WAN interface when the WAN interface’s
connection comes back up. The default priority of the routes is WAN, Cellular,
Traffic Redirect and then Dial Backup:
You have three choices for an auxiliary connection (Cellular, Traffic Redirect and
Dial Backup) in the event that your regular WAN connection goes down. If Dial
Backup is preferred to Traffic Redirect, then type "14" in the Dial Backup
Priority (metric) field (and leave the Traffic Redirect Priority (metric) at the
default of "15").
The Dial Backup field is available only when you enable the corresponding dial
backup feature in the Dial Backup screen.
Connectivity Check
Check Period
The LAN-Cell tests a WAN connection by periodically sending a ping to either the
default gateway or the address in the Ping this Address field.
Type a number of seconds (5 to 3600) to set the time interval between checks.
Allow more time if your destination IP address handles lots of traffic.
Check Timeout
Type the number of seconds (1 to 10) for your LAN-Cell to wait for a response to
the ping before considering the check to have failed. This setting must be less than
the Check Period. Use a higher value in this field if your network is busy or
congested.
Check Fail
Tolerance
Type how many WAN connection checks can fail (1-10) before the connection is
considered "down" (not connected). The LAN-Cell still checks a "down" connection
to detect if it reconnects.
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Table 19 NETWORK > WAN General (continued)
96
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Check WAN/
Cellular
Connectivity
Select the check box to have the LAN-Cell periodically test the respective WAN
interface's connection.
Select Ping Default Gateway to have the LAN-Cell ping the WAN interface's
default gateway IP address.
Select Ping this Address and enter a domain name or IP address of a reliable
nearby computer (for example, your ISP's DNS server address) to have the LANCell ping that address. For a domain name, use up to 63 alphanumeric characters
(hyphens, periods and the underscore are also allowed) without spaces.
Check Traffic
Redirection
Connectivity
Select the check box to have the LAN-Cell periodically test the traffic redirect
connection.
Select Ping Default Gateway to have the LAN-Cell ping the backup gateway's IP
address.
Select Ping this Address and enter a domain name or IP address of a reliable
nearby computer (for example, your ISP's DNS server address) to have the LANCell ping that address. For a domain name, use up to 63 alphanumeric characters
(hyphens, periods and the underscore are also allowed) without spaces.
Windows
Networking
(NetBIOS over
TCP/IP):
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) are TCP or UDP packets that
enable a computer to connect to and communicate with a LAN. For some dial-up
services such as PPPoE or PPTP, NetBIOS packets cause unwanted calls.
Allow between
WAN and LAN
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from WAN to the LAN port and
from the LAN port to WAN. If your firewall is enabled with the default policy set to
block WAN to LAN traffic, you also need to enable the default WAN to LAN firewall
rule that forwards NetBIOS traffic.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from WAN to the LAN port
and from LAN port to WAN.
Allow between
WAN and DMZ
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from WAN to the DMZ port and
from the DMZ port to WAN.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from WAN to the DMZ port
and from DMZ port to WAN.
Allow between
WAN and WLAN
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from WAN to the WLAN port and
from the WLAN port to WAN.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from WANto the WLAN
port and from WLAN port to WAN.
Allow between
Cellular and LAN
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from Cellular to the LAN port
and from the LAN port to Cellular. If your firewall is enabled with the default policy
set to block Cellular to LAN traffic, you also need to enable the default Cellular to
LAN firewall rule that forwards NetBIOS traffic.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from Cellular to the LAN
port and from LAN port to Cellular.
Allow between
Cellular and DMZ
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from Cellular to the DMZ port
and from the DMZ port to Cellular.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from Cellular to the DMZ
port and from DMZ port to Cellular.
Allow between
WAN and WLAN
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from Cellular to the WLAN port
and from the WLAN port to Cellular.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from Cellular to the WLAN
port and from WLAN port to Cellular.
Allow Trigger Dial
Select this option to allow NetBIOS packets to initiate calls.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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5.2.1 Configuring Load Balancing
To configure load balancing on the LAN-Cell, click NETWORK > WAN in the navigation
panel. The WAN General screen displays by default. Select Active/Active Mode under
Operation Mode to enable load balancing on the LAN-Cell.
The WAN General screen varies depending on what you select in the Load Balancing
Algorithm field.
5.2.1.1 Least Load First
The least load first algorithm uses the current (or recent) outbound and/or inbound bandwidth
utilization of each WAN interface as the load balancing criteria for making decisions on how
how to route traffic. The outbound bandwidth utilization is defined as the measured outbound
throughput over the available outbound bandwidth. The inbound bandwidth utilization is
defined as the measured inbound throughput over the available inbound bandwidth. The two
ratios are indexes used to calculate which WAN interface is less utilized at the time. A new
LAN-originated session is distributed to the less utilized WAN interface.
5.2.1.2 Example 1
The following figure depicts an example where both the WAN interfaces on the LAN-Cell are
connected to the Internet. The configured available outbound bandwidths for WAN and
Cellular are 512K and 256K respectively.
Figure 49 Least Load First Example
If the outbound bandwidth utilization is used as the load balancing index and the measured
outbound throughput of WAN is 412K and Cellular is 198K, the LAN-Cell calculates the load
balancing index as shown in the table below.
Since Cellular has a smaller load balancing index (meaning that it is less utilized than WAN),
the LAN-Cell will send the subsequent new session traffic through Cellular.
Table 20 Least Load First: Example 1
OUTBOUND
AVAILABLE (A)
MEASURED (M)
LOAD BALANCING INDEX
(M/A)
WAN
512 K
412 K
0.8
Cellular
256 K
198 K
0.77
INTERFACE
5.2.1.3 Example 2
This example uses the same network scenario as in Figure 49 on page 97, but uses both the
outbound and inbound bandwidth utilization in calculating the load balancing index. If the
measured inbound stream throughput for both WAN and Cellular is 1600K, the LAN-Cell
calculates the average load balancing indices as shown in the table below.
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Since WAN has a smaller load balancing index (meaning that it is less utilized than Cellular),
the LAN-Cell will send the next new session traffic through WAN.
Table 21 Least Load First: Example 2
OUTBOUND
INBOUND
INTERFACE
AVAILABLE
(OA)
MEASURED
(OM)
AVAILABLE
(IA)
MEASURED
(IM)
AVERAGE LOAD
BALANCING INDEX
(OM / OA + IM / IA) / 2
WAN
512 K
412 K
8000 K
1600 K
( 0.8 + 0.2) / 2 = 0.5
Cellular
256 K
198 K
2000 K
1600 K
( 0.77 + 0.8 ) / 2 = 0.79
To configure Least Load First, select Least Load First in the Load Balancing Algorithm
field.
Figure 50 Load Balancing: Least Load First
The following table describes the related fields in this screen.
Table 22 Load Balancing: Least Load First
98
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active/Active
Mode
Select Active/Active Mode and set the related fields to enable load balancing on
the LAN-Cell.
Load Balancing
Algorithm
Set the load balancing method to Least Load First.
Time Frame
You can set the LAN-Cell to get the measured bandwidth using the average
bandwidth in the specified time interval.
Enter the time interval between 10 and 600 seconds.
Load Balancing
Index(es)
Specify the direction of the traffic utilization you want the LAN-Cell to use in
calculating the load balancing index.
Select Outbound Only, Inbound Only or Outbound + Inbound.
Interface
This field displays the name of the WAN interface (WAN and Cellular).
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Table 22 Load Balancing: Least Load First (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Available
Inbound
Bandwidth
This field is applicable when you select Outbound + Inbound or Inbound Only in
the Load Balancing Index(es) field.
Specify the inbound (or downstream) bandwidth (in kilo bites per second) for the
interface. This should be the actual downstream bandwidth that your ISP provides.
Available
Outbound
Bandwidth
This field is applicable when you select Outbound + Inbound or Outbound Only in
the Load Balancing Index(es) field.
Specify the outbound (or upstream) bandwidth (in kilo bites per second) for the
interface. This should be the actual upstream bandwidth that your ISP provides.
5.2.1.4 Weighted Round Robin
Round Robin routes traffic on a rotating basis and is activated only when a WAN interface has
more traffic than the configured available bandwidth. On the LAN-Cell with two WAN
interfaces, an amount of traffic is sent through the first interface. The second interface is also
given an equal amount of traffic, and then the same amount of traffic is sent through the first
interface again; and so on. This works in a looping fashion until there is no outgoing traffic.
Similar to the Round Robin (RR) algorithm, the Weighted Round Robin (WRR) algorithm sets
the LAN-Cell to send traffic through each WAN interface in turn. In addition, the WAN
interfaces are assigned weights. An interface with a larger weight gets more of the traffic than
an interface with a smaller weight.
This algorithm is best suited for situations when the bandwidths set for the two WAN
interfaces are different.
For example, in the figure below, the configured available bandwidth of WAN is 1M and
Cellular is 512K. You can set the LAN-Cell to distribute the network traffic between the two
interfaces by setting the weight of WAN and Cellular to 2 and 1 respectively. The LAN-Cell
assigns the traffic of two sessions to WAN for every one session's traffic assigned to Cellular.
Figure 51 Weighted Round Robin Algorithm Example
To load balance using the weighted round robin method, select Weighted Round Robin in the
Load Balancing Algorithm field.
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Figure 52 Load Balancing: Weighted Round Robin
The following table describes the related fields in this screen.
Table 23 Load Balancing: Weighted Round Robin
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active/Active
Mode
Select Active/Active Mode and set the related fields to enable load balancing on the
LAN-Cell.
Load Balancing
Algorithm
Set the load balancing method to Weighted Round Robin.
Interface
This field displays the name of the WAN interface (WAN and Cellular).
Ratio
Specify the weight for the interface. Enter 0 to set the LAN-Cell not to send traffic load
to the interface. The higher the number, the bigger the weight (the more traffic sent).
5.2.1.5 Spillover
With the spillover load balancing algorithm, the LAN-Cell sends network traffic to the
primary interface until the maximum allowable load is reached, then the LAN-Cell sends the
excess network traffic of new sessions to the secondary WAN interface. Configure the Route
Priority metrics in the WAN General screen to determine the primary and secondary WANs.
In cases where the primary WAN interface uses an unlimited access Internet connection and
the secondary WAN uses a per-use timed access plan, the LAN-Cell will only use the
secondary WAN interface when the traffic load reaches the upper threshold on the primary
WAN interface. This allows you to fully utilize the bandwidth of the primary WAN interface
while avoiding overloading it and reducing Internet connection fees at the same time.
In the following example figure, the upper threshold of the primary WAN interface is set to
800K. The LAN-Cell sends network traffic of a new session that exceeds this limit to the
secondary WAN interface.
Figure 53 Spillover Algorithm Example
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To load balance using the spillover method, select Spillover in the Load Balancing
Algorithm field.
Configure the Route Priority metrics in the WAN General screen to determine the primary
and secondary WANs. By default, WAN is the primary WAN and Cellular is the secondary
WAN.
Figure 54 Load Balancing: Spillover
The following table describes the related fields in this screen.
Table 24 Load Balancing: Spillover
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active/Active
Mode
Select Active/Active Mode and set the related fields to enable load balancing on
the LAN-Cell.
Load Balancing
Algorithm
Set the load balancing method to Spillover.
Time Frame
You can set the LAN-Cell to get the measured bandwidth using the average
bandwidth in the specified time interval.
Enter the time interval between 10 and 600 seconds.
Send traffic to
secondary WAN
when primary
WAN bandwidth
exceeds
Specify the maximum allowable bandwidth on the primary WAN. Once this
maximum bandwidth is reached, the LAN-Cell sends the new session traffic that
exceeds this limit to the secondary WAN. The LAN-Cell continues to send traffic of
existing sessions to the primary WAN.
5.2.2 WAN Connectivity Check
The WAN Connectivity Check feature will drop the specified interface if the indicated “peer”
IP address (or FQDN) does not respond to a sequence of ICMP packets. If the WAN Operation
Mode is “Fail-Over”, then traffic will be directed to the next highest priority WAN interface.
The LAN-Cell will periodically check the status of the down WAN interface and bring the
interface back up to check if the peer IP address has begun to respond again.
WAN Connectivity can be used to create a “heart-beat” for the LAN-Cell. When a WAN
interface is marked “Always-On”, direct the ICMP packets to the IP address (or FQDN) of a
network monitoring application to monitor the status of the LAN-Cell’s WAN interface. This
can also be used to “keep-alive” some WAN connections or applications if required.
See Table 19 on page 95 for details on configuring the WAN Connectivity Check feature.
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"
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Some ISP’s (including most cellular carriers) do not acknowledge ICMP
packets on their default gateways. Choose a different IP address to check.
When selecting an IP address for WAN Connectivity to check, choose either a
device whose status is under your control or is well known. You can use a fully
qualified domain name (FQDN) to send packets to the virtual IP address of a
host with a high-availability connection to the Internet. If the IP address or host
specified stops responding to ICMP packets the LAN-Cell’s WAN port will also
go down.
WAN Connectivity Check packets may increase the amount of data usage on
your WAN ISP account (including 3G). If your ISP limits the amount of traffic
allowed, consider the impact of using WAN Connectivity Check on your traffic
allowance or use Cell-Sentry (Section 5.4.2 on page 118) to monitor usage.
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5.3 WAN Screen
To change your LAN-Cell's WAN ISP, IP and MAC settings, click NETWORK > WAN >
WAN. The screen differs by the encapsulation.
"
The WAN and Cellular IP addresses of a LAN-Cell with multiple WAN
interfaces must be on different subnets.
WAN IP Assignment
Every computer on the Internet must have a unique IP address. If your networks are isolated
from the Internet, for instance, only between your two branch offices, you can assign any IP
addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private
networks.
Table 25 Private IP Address Ranges
10.0.0.0
-
10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0
-
172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0
-
192.168.255.255
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP or have it assigned by a private
network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet access is through an ISP, the
ISP can provide you with the Internet addresses for your local networks. On the other hand, if
you are part of a much larger organization, you should consult your network administrator for
the appropriate IP addresses.
"
Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address;
always follow the guidelines above. For more information on address
assignment, please refer to RFC 1597, Address Allocation for Private Internets
and RFC 1466, Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space.
DNS Server Address Assignment
Use DNS (Domain Name System) to map a domain name to its corresponding IP address and
vice versa, for instance, the IP address of www.proxicast.com is 63.135.115.22. The DNS
server is extremely important because without it, you must know the IP address of a computer
before you can access it.
The LAN-Cell can get the DNS server addresses in the following ways.
1 The ISP tells you the DNS server addresses, usually in the form of an information sheet,
when you sign up. If your ISP gives you DNS server addresses, manually enter them in
the DNS server fields.
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2 If your ISP dynamically assigns the DNS server IP addresses (along with the LANCell’s WAN IP address), set the DNS server fields to get the DNS server address from
the ISP.
3 You can manually enter the IP addresses of other DNS servers. These servers can be
public or private. A DNS server could even be behind a remote IPSec router (see Section
on page 308).
WAN MAC Address
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address
is assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:1B:39:00:00:02.
You can configure the WAN port's MAC address by either using the factory default or cloning
the MAC address from a computer on your LAN. Once it is successfully configured, the
address will be copied to the "rom" file (ProxiOS configuration file). It will not change unless
you change the setting or upload a different "rom" file.
Table 26 Example of Network Properties for LAN Servers with Fixed IP Addresses
Choose an IP address
192.168.1.2-192.168.1.32; 192.168.1.65-192.168.1.254.
Subnet mask
255.255.255.0
Gateway (or default route)
192.168.1.1(LAN-Cell LAN IP)
5.3.1 WAN Ethernet Encapsulation
For ISPs (such as Telstra) that send UDP heartbeat packets to verify that the customer is still
online, please create a WAN-to-WAN/LAN-Cell firewall rule for those packets. Contact your
ISP to find the correct port number.
The screen shown next is for Ethernet encapsulation.
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Figure 55 NETWORK > WAN > WAN (Ethernet Encapsulation)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 27 NETWORK > WAN > WAN (Ethernet Encapsulation)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ISP Parameters for Internet Access
Encapsulation
You must choose the Ethernet option when the WAN port is used as a regular
Ethernet.
Service Type
Choose from Standard, Telstra (RoadRunner Telstra authentication method), RRManager (Roadrunner Manager authentication method), RR-Toshiba
(Roadrunner Toshiba authentication method) or Telia Login.
The following fields do not appear with the Standard service type.
User Name
Type the user name given to you by your ISP.
Password
Type the password associated with the user name above.
Retype to
Confirm
Type your password again to make sure that you have entered is correctly.
Login Server IP
Address
Type the authentication server IP address here if your ISP gave you one.
This field is not available for Telia Login.
Login Server
(Telia Login only)
Type the domain name of the Telia login server, for example login1.telia.com.
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Table 27 NETWORK > WAN > WAN (Ethernet Encapsulation) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Relogin
Every(min)
(Telia Login only)
The Telia server logs the LAN-Cell out if the LAN-Cell does not log in periodically.
Type the number of minutes from 1 to 59 (30 default) for the LAN-Cell to wait
between logins.
WAN IP Address Assignment
Get automatically
from ISP
Select this option If your ISP did not assign you a fixed IP address. This is the
default selection.
Use Fixed IP
Address
Select this option If the ISP assigned a fixed IP address.
My WAN IP
Address
Enter your WAN IP address in this field if you selected Use Fixed IP Address.
My WAN IP
Subnet Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask (if your ISP gave you one) in this field if you selected Use
Fixed IP Address.
Gateway IP
Address
Enter the gateway IP address (if your ISP gave you one) in this field if you selected
Use Fixed IP Address.
Advanced Setup
Enable NAT
(Network
Address
Translation)
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows the translation of an Internet protocol
address used within one network (for example a private IP address used in a local
network) to a different IP address known within another network (for example a
public IP address used on the Internet).
Select this check box to enable NAT.
RIP Direction
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) allows a router to exchange routing information
with other routers. The RIP Direction field controls the sending and receiving of
RIP packets.
Choose Both, None, In Only or Out Only.
When set to Both or Out Only, the LAN-Cell will broadcast its routing table
periodically.
When set to Both or In Only, the LAN-Cell will incorporate RIP information that it
receives.
When set to None, the LAN-Cell will not send any RIP packets and will ignore any
RIP packets received.
By default, RIP Direction is set to Both.
RIP Version
The RIP Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP
packets that the LAN-Cell sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving).
Choose RIP-1, RIP-2B or RIP-2M.
RIP-1 is universally supported; but RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is
probably adequate for most networks, unless you have an unusual network
topology. Both RIP-2B and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the
difference being that RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses
multicasting. Multicasting can reduce the load on non-router machines since they
generally do not listen to the RIP multicast address and so will not receive the RIP
packets. However, if one router uses multicasting, then all routers on your network
must use multicasting, also. By default, the RIP Version field is set to RIP-1.
Enable Multicast
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Select this check box to turn on IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol). IGMP is
a network-layer protocol used to establish membership in a Multicast group - it is
not used to carry user data.
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Table 27 NETWORK > WAN > WAN (Ethernet Encapsulation) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Multicast Version
Choose None (default), IGMP-V1 or IGMP-V2. IGMP (Internet Group Multicast
Protocol) is a session-layer protocol used to establish membership in a Multicast
group – it is not used to carry user data. IGMP version 2 (RFC 2236) is an
improvement over version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use. If
you would like to read more detailed information about interoperability between
IGMP version 2 and version 1, please see sections 4 and 5 of RFC 2236.
Spoof WAN MAC
Address from
LAN
You can configure the WAN port's MAC address by either using the factory
assigned default MAC Address or cloning the MAC address of a computer on your
LAN. By default, the LAN-Cell uses the factory assigned MAC Address to identify
itself on the WAN.
Otherwise, select the check box next to Spoof WAN MAC Address from LAN and
enter the IP address of the computer on the LAN whose MAC you are cloning.
Once it is successfully configured, the address will be copied to the rom file
(ProxiOS configuration file). It will not change unless you change the setting or
upload a different ROM file.
Clone the
computer’s MAC
address – IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the computer on the LAN whose MAC you are cloning.
If you clone the MAC address of a computer on your LAN, it is recommended that
you clone the MAC address prior to hooking up the WAN port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
5.3.2 PPPoE Encapsulation
The LAN-Cell supports PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet). PPPoE is an IETF
standard (RFC 2516) specifying how a personal computer (PC) interacts with a broadband
modem (DSL, cable, wireless, etc.) connection. The PPPoE option is for a dial-up connection
using PPPoE.
For the service provider, PPPoE offers an access and authentication method that works with
existing access control systems (for example RADIUS).
One of the benefits of PPPoE is the ability to let you access one of multiple network services,
a function known as dynamic service selection. This enables the service provider to easily
create and offer new IP services for individuals.
Operationally, PPPoE saves significant effort for both you and the ISP or carrier, as it requires
no specific configuration of the broadband modem at the customer site.
By implementing PPPoE directly on the LAN-Cell (rather than individual computers), the
computers on the LAN do not need PPPoE software installed, since the LAN-Cell does that
part of the task. Furthermore, with NAT, all of the LANs’ computers will have access.
The screen shown next is for PPPoE encapsulation.
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Figure 56 NETWORK > WAN > WAN (PPPoE Encapsulation)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 28 NETWORK > WAN > WAN (PPPoE Encapsulation)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ISP Parameters for Internet Access
108
Encapsulation
Select PPPoE for a dial-up connection using PPPoE.
Service Name
Type the PPPoE service name provided to you by your ISP. PPPoE uses a service
name to identify and reach the PPPoE server.
User Name
Type the user name given to you by your ISP.
Password
Type the password associated with the user name above.
Retype to
Confirm
Type your password again to make sure that you have entered is correctly.
Authentication
Type
The LAN-Cell supports PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) and CHAP
(Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). CHAP is more secure than PAP;
however, PAP is readily available on more platforms.
Use the drop-down list box to select an authentication protocol for outgoing calls.
Options are:
CHAP/PAP - Your LAN-Cell accepts either CHAP or PAP when requested by this
remote node.
CHAP - Your LAN-Cell accepts CHAP only.
PAP - Your LAN-Cell accepts PAP only.
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Table 28 NETWORK > WAN > WAN (PPPoE Encapsulation) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Nailed-Up
Select Nailed-Up if you do not want the connection to time out.
Idle Timeout
This value specifies the time in seconds that elapses before the LAN-Cell
automatically disconnects from the PPPoE server.
WAN IP Address Assignment
Get
automatically
from ISP
Select this option If your ISP did not assign you a fixed IP address. This is the
default selection.
Use Fixed IP
Address
Select this option If the ISP assigned a fixed IP address.
My WAN IP
Address
Enter your WAN IP address in this field if you selected Use Fixed IP Address.
Advanced Setup
Enable NAT
(Network
Address
Translation)
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows the translation of an Internet protocol
address used within one network (for example a private IP address used in a local
network) to a different IP address known within another network (for example a
public IP address used on the Internet).
Select this checkbox to enable NAT.
For more information about NAT see Chapter 13 on page 289.
RIP Direction
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) allows a router to exchange routing information
with other routers. The RIP Direction field controls the sending and receiving of
RIP packets.
Choose Both, None, In Only or Out Only.
When set to Both or Out Only, the LAN-Cell will broadcast its routing table
periodically.
When set to Both or In Only, the LAN-Cell will incorporate RIP information that it
receives.
When set to None, the LAN-Cell will not send any RIP packets and will ignore any
RIP packets received.
By default, RIP Direction is set to Both.
RIP Version
The RIP Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP
packets that the LAN-Cell sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving).
Choose RIP-1, RIP-2B or RIP-2M.
RIP-1 is universally supported; but RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is
probably adequate for most networks, unless you have an unusual network
topology. Both RIP-2B and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the
difference being that RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses
multicasting. Multicasting can reduce the load on non-router machines since they
generally do not listen to the RIP multicast address and so will not receive the RIP
packets. However, if one router uses multicasting, then all routers on your network
must use multicasting, also. By default, the RIP Version field is set to RIP-1.
Enable Multicast
Select this check box to turn on IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol). IGMP is
a network-layer protocol used to establish membership in a Multicast group - it is
not used to carry user data.
Multicast Version
Choose None (default), IGMP-V1 or IGMP-V2. IGMP (Internet Group Multicast
Protocol) is a session-layer protocol used to establish membership in a Multicast
group – it is not used to carry user data. IGMP version 2 (RFC 2236) is an
improvement over version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use. If
you would like to read more detailed information about interoperability between
IGMP version 2 and version 1, please see sections 4 and 5 of RFC 2236.
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Table 28 NETWORK > WAN > WAN (PPPoE Encapsulation) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Spoof WAN MAC
Address from
LAN
You can configure the WAN port's MAC address by either using the factory
assigned default MAC Address or cloning the MAC address of a computer on your
LAN. By default, the LAN-Cell uses the factory assigned MAC Address to identify
itself on the WAN.
Otherwise, select the check box next to Spoof WAN MAC Address from LAN and
enter the IP address of the computer on the LAN whose MAC you are cloning.
Once it is successfully configured, the address will be copied to the rom file
(ProxiOS configuration file). It will not change unless you change the setting or
upload a different ROM file.
Clone the
computer’s MAC
address – IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the computer on the LAN whose MAC you are cloning.
If you clone the MAC address of a computer on your LAN, it is recommended that
you clone the MAC address prior to hooking up the WAN port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
5.3.3 PPTP Encapsulation
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a network protocol that enables secure transfer of
data from a remote client to a private server, creating a Virtual Private Network (VPN) using
TCP/IP-based networks.
PPTP supports on-demand, multi-protocol and virtual private networking over public
networks, such as the Internet. The screen shown next is for PPTP encapsulation.
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Figure 57 NETWORK > WAN > WAN (PPTP Encapsulation)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 29 NETWORK > WAN > WAN (PPTP Encapsulation)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ISP Parameters for Internet Access
Encapsulation
Set the encapsulation method to PPTP. The LAN-Cell supports only one PPTP
server connection at any given time. To configure a PPTP client, you must
configure the User Name and Password fields for a PPP connection and the
PPTP parameters for a PPTP connection.
User Name
Type the user name given to you by your ISP.
Password
Type the password associated with the user name above.
Retype to Confirm
Type your password again to make sure that you have entered it correctly.
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Table 29 NETWORK > WAN > WAN (PPTP Encapsulation) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Type
The LAN-Cell supports PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) and CHAP
(Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). CHAP is more secure than PAP;
however, PAP is readily available on more platforms.
Use the drop-down list box to select an authentication protocol for outgoing calls.
Options are:
CHAP/PAP - Your LAN-Cell accepts either CHAP or PAP when requested by this
remote node.
CHAP - Your LAN-Cell accepts CHAP only.
PAP - Your LAN-Cell accepts PAP only.
Nailed-up
Select Nailed-Up if you do not want the connection to time out.
Idle Timeout
This value specifies the time in seconds that elapses before the LAN-Cell
automatically disconnects from the PPTP server.
PPTP Configuration
My IP Address
Type the (static) IP address assigned to you by your ISP.
My IP Subnet
Mask
Your LAN-Cell will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the IP
address that you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet
mask computed by the LAN-Cell.
Server IP Address
Type the IP address of the PPTP server.
Connection ID/
Name
Type your identification name for the PPTP server.
WAN IP Address Assignment
Get automatically
from ISP
Select this option If your ISP did not assign you a fixed IP address. This is the
default selection.
Use Fixed IP
Address
Select this option If the ISP assigned a fixed IP address.
My WAN IP
Address
Enter your WAN IP address in this field if you selected Use Fixed IP Address.
Advanced Setup
112
Enable NAT
(Network Address
Translation)
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows the translation of an Internet protocol
address used within one network (for example a private IP address used in a local
network) to a different IP address known within another network (for example a
public IP address used on the Internet).
Select this checkbox to enable NAT.
For more information about NAT see Chapter 13 on page 289.
RIP Direction
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) allows a router to exchange routing
information with other routers. The RIP Direction field controls the sending and
receiving of RIP packets.
Choose Both, None, In Only or Out Only.
When set to Both or Out Only, the LAN-Cell will broadcast its routing table
periodically.
When set to Both or In Only, the LAN-Cell will incorporate RIP information that it
receives.
When set to None, the LAN-Cell will not send any RIP packets and will ignore any
RIP packets received.
By default, RIP Direction is set to Both.
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Table 29 NETWORK > WAN > WAN (PPTP Encapsulation) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RIP Version
The RIP Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP
packets that the LAN-Cell sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving).
Choose RIP-1, RIP-2B or RIP-2M.
RIP-1 is universally supported; but RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is
probably adequate for most networks, unless you have an unusual network
topology. Both RIP-2B and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the
difference being that RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses
multicasting. Multicasting can reduce the load on non-router machines since they
generally do not listen to the RIP multicast address and so will not receive the RIP
packets. However, if one router uses multicasting, then all routers on your
network must use multicasting, also. By default, the RIP Version field is set to
RIP-1.
Enable Multicast
Select this check box to turn on IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol). IGMP
is a network-layer protocol used to establish membership in a Multicast group - it
is not used to carry user data.
Multicast Version
Choose None (default), IGMP-V1 or IGMP-V2. IGMP (Internet Group Multicast
Protocol) is a session-layer protocol used to establish membership in a Multicast
group – it is not used to carry user data. IGMP version 2 (RFC 2236) is an
improvement over version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use. If
you would like to read more detailed information about interoperability between
IGMP version 2 and version 1, please see sections 4 and 5 of RFC 2236.
Spoof WAN MAC
Address from LAN
You can configure the WAN port's MAC address by either using the factory
assigned default MAC Address or cloning the MAC address of a computer on
your LAN. By default, the LAN-Cell uses the factory assigned MAC Address to
identify itself on the WAN.
Otherwise, select the check box next to Spoof WAN MAC Address from LAN
and enter the IP address of the computer on the LAN whose MAC you are
cloning. Once it is successfully configured, the address will be copied to the rom
file (ProxiOS configuration file). It will not change unless you change the setting or
upload a different ROM file.
Clone the
computer’s MAC
address – IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the computer on the LAN whose MAC you are cloning.
If you clone the MAC address of a computer on your LAN, it is recommended that
you clone the MAC address prior to hooking up the WAN port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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5.4 Cellular (3G WAN) Screen
3G (Third Generation) is a digital, packet-switched wireless technology. Bandwidth usage is
optimized as multiple users share the same channel and bandwidth is only allocated to users
when they send data. It allows fast transfer of voice and non-voice data and provides
broadband Internet access to mobile devices.
If the signal strength of a 3G network is too low, the 3G card may switch to an available 2.5G
or 2.75G network.
To change your LAN-Cell's 3G WAN settings, click NETWORK > WAN > Cellular.
"
1
"
"
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The actual data rate you obtain varies depending the 3G card you use, the
signal strength to the service provider’s base station, etc.
Turn the LAN-Cell off before you install or remove a 3G card.
The WAN and Cellular IP addresses of the LAN-Cell must be on different
subnets.
The WIRELESS > CELLULAR menu in the Navigation Panel is a short-cut
directly to the Cellular WAN parameter screen (Figure 58 on page 115).
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5.4.1 Configuring 3G Network Access Parameters
Figure 58 NETWORK > WAN > Cellular (3G WAN) (CDMA)
Figure 59 NETWORK > WAN > Cellular (3G WAN) (GSM)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 30 NETWORK > WAN > Cellular (3G WAN)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Cellular Card Configuration
Cellular Card
Model
This displays the manufacturer and model name of your 3G card if you inserted
one in the LAN-Cell. Otherwise, it displays Not Installed.
Network Type
Select the type of the network (UMTS/HSDPA only, GPRS/EDGE only, GSM all or
WCDMA all) to which you want the card to connect. Otherwise, select
Automatically to have the card connect to an available network using the default
settings on the cellular card.
The types of the network vary depending on the cellular card you inserted.
This setting is saved to the flash of your cellular card.
This field is not available if you insert a CDMA cellular card.
Network
Selection
Select a service provider to which you want the card to connect. Otherwise, select
Automatic to have the LAN-Cell use the default settings on the cellular card and
connect to your service provider's base station.
This shows Automatic only by default. Click Scan to have the LAN-Cell search for
and display the available service providers.
This field resets to the default setting (Automatic) if the LAN-Cell restarts.
This field is not available if you insert a CDMA cellular card.
ISP Parameters for Internet Access
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Access Point
Name (APN)
Enter the APN (Access Point Name) provided by your service provider.
Connections with different APNs may provide different services (such as Internet
access or MMS (Multi-Media Messaging Service)) and charge method.
You can enter up to 31 ASCII printable characters. Spaces are allowed.
Initial String
(containing APN)
Select this option and enter the initial string and APN if you know how to configure
or your ISP provides a string, which would include the APN, to initialize the cellular
card.
You can enter up to 72 ASCII printable characters. Spaces are allowed.
This field is available only when you insert a GSM cellular card.
AT Command
Initial String
Enter the AT command initial string provided by your ISP to initialize the cellular
card. If it was not given, leave the field at the default.
You can enter up to 72 ASCII printable characters. Spaces are allowed.
This field is available when you insert a CDMA cellular card.
Authentication
Type
The LAN-Cell supports PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) and CHAP
(Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). CHAP is more secure than PAP;
however, PAP is readily available on more platforms.
Use the drop-down list box to select an authentication protocol for outgoing calls.
Options are:
CHAP/PAP - Your LAN-Cell accepts either CHAP or PAP when requested by the
ISP.
CHAP - Your LAN-Cell accepts CHAP only.
PAP - Your LAN-Cell accepts PAP only.
None - Your LAN-Cell does not send your user name and password for
authentication. The user name and password fields are grayed out. Select this
option if your ISP did not give you a user name and password.
User Name
Type the user name (of up to 31 ASCII printable characters) given to you by your
service provider.
Password
Type the password (of up to 31 ASCII printable characters) associated with the
user name above.
Retype to
Confirm
Type your password again to make sure that you have entered is correctly.
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Table 30 NETWORK > WAN > Cellular (3G WAN) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PIN Code
Enter the PIN (Personal Identification Number) code (four to eight digits, 0000 for
example) provided by your ISP. If you enter the PIN code incorrectly, the cellular
card may be blocked by your ISP and you cannot use the account to access the
Internet.
If your ISP disabled PIN code authentication, enter an arbitrary number.
This field is available only when you insert a GSM cellular card. .
ISP Access
Phone Number
Enter the phone number (dial string) used to dial up a connection to your service
provider's base station. Your ISP should provide the dial string.
By default, *99# is the dial string for GSM-based networks and #777 is the dial
string for CDMA-based networks.
Always On
Select Always On if you do not want the connection to time out.
Idle Timeout
This value specifies the time in seconds that elapses before the LAN-Cell
automatically disconnects from the ISP.
WAN IP Address Assignment
Get automatically
from ISP
Select this option If your ISP did not assign you a fixed IP address. This is the
default selection and is the correct choice for most cellular ISPs, even when a
“static” IP is assigned to the 3G card.
Use Fixed IP
Address
Select this option If the ISP assigned a fixed IP address, subnet mask and default
gateway. This is not commonly used by 3G cellular network operators, even when
a “static” IP is assigned to the 3G card.
My WAN IP
Address
Enter your WAN IP address in this field if you selected Use Fixed IP Address.
Advanced Setup
Enable NAT
(Network
Address
Translation)
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows the translation of an Internet protocol
address used within one network (for example a private IP address used in a local
network) to a different IP address known within another network (for example a
public IP address used on the Internet).
Select this checkbox to enable NAT.
For more information about NAT see Chapter 13 on page 289.
Enable Multicast
Select this check box to turn on IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol). IGMP is
a network-layer protocol used to establish membership in a Multicast group - it is
not used to carry user data.
Multicast Version
Choose None (default), IGMP-V1 or IGMP-V2. IGMP (Internet Group Multicast
Protocol) is a session-layer protocol used to establish membership in a Multicast
group – it is not used to carry user data. IGMP version 2 (RFC 2236) is an
improvement over version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use. If
you would like to read more detailed information about interoperability between
IGMP version 2 and version 1, please see sections 4 and 5 of RFC 2236.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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5.4.2 Configuring Cell-Sentry Budget Control
Cell-Sentry enables you to monitor and/or limit the amount of usage on the Cellular WAN
interface. This feature enables you to utilize a carrier's lower cost data service plans and
ensures that you do not exceed your plan allowance.
"
Actual usage statistics on the carrier's 3G network may differ from the LANCell's counters. Set your budget limits lower than the maximum allowed on
your plan.
Figure 60 NETWORK > WAN > Cellular (Cell-Sentry)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 31 NETWORK > WAN > Cellular (Cell-Sentry)
118
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable CellSentry
Select this check box to set a monthly limit for the user account of the installed
cellular card. You must insert a cellular card before you enable budget control on
the LAN-Cell.
You can set a limit on the total traffic and/or call time. The LAN-Cell takes the
actions you specified when a limit is exceeded during the month.
Time Budget
Select this check box and specify the amount of time (in hours) that the cellular
connection can be used within one month.
If you change the value after you configure and enable budget control, the LANCell resets the statistics.
Data Budget
Select this check box and specify how much downstream and/or upstream data (in
Mbytes) can be transmitted via the cellular connection within one month.
Select Download to set a limit on the downstream traffic (from the ISP to the LANCell).
Select Upload to set a limit on the upstream traffic (from the LAN-Cell to the ISP).
Select Download/Upload to set a limit on the total traffic in both directions.
If you change the value after you configure and enable budget control, the LANCell resets the statistics.
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Table 31 NETWORK > WAN > Cellular (Cell-Sentry) (continued)
"
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Restart budget
counter on
Select the date on which the LAN-Cell resets the budget every month. If the date
you selected is not available in a month, such as 30th or 31th, the LAN-Cell resets
the budget on the last day of the month. To more closely match your ISP’s usage
counters, set this value to the date of your monthly billing cycle.
Actions when
over budget
Specify the actions the LAN-Cell takes when the time or data limit is exceeded.
Select Log to create a log entry.
Select Alert to create an alert. This option is available only when you select Log.
If you select Log, you can also select recurring every to have the LAN-Cell send
the log for this event periodically and specify how often (from 1 to 4600 minutes) to
send a log.
Select Allow to permit new cellular connections or Disallow to drop/block new
cellular connections.
Select Keep to maintain the existing cellular connection or Drop to disconnect it.
You cannot select Allow and Drop at the same time.
If you select Disallow and Keep, the LAN-Cell allows you to transmit data using the
current connection, but you cannot build a new connection if the existing
connection is disconnected.
Actions when
over % of time
budget or % of
data budget
Specify the actions the LAN-Cell takes when the specified percentage of time
budget or data limit is exceeded. Enter a number from 1 to 99 in the percentage
fields. If you change the value after you configure and enable budget control, the
LAN-Cell resets the statistics.
Select Log to create a log entry.
Select Alert to create an alert. This option is available only when you select Log.
If you select Log, you can also select recurring every to have the LAN-Cell send
the log for this event periodically and specify how often (from 1 to 4600 minutes) to
send a log.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
To have the LAN-Cell send you an E-Mail when Cell-Sentry detects a specified
threshold, be sure to configure the LAN-Cell’s Log/Alert E-Mail feature
(Section 21.3 on page 377).
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5.5 Traffic Redirect Screen
Traffic redirect forwards WAN traffic to a backup gateway when the LAN-Cell cannot
connect to the Internet through its normal gateway. Connect the backup gateway on the WAN
so that the LAN-Cell still provides firewall protection for the LAN.
Figure 61 Traffic Redirect WAN Setup
IP alias allows you to avoid triangle route security issues when the backup gateway is
connected to the LAN or DMZ. Use IP alias to configure the LAN into two or three logical
networks with the LAN-Cell itself as the gateway for each LAN network. Put the protected
LAN in one subnet (Subnet 1 in the following figure) and the backup gateway in another
subnet (Subnet 2). Configure a LAN to LAN/LAN-Cell firewall rule that forwards packets
from the protected LAN (Subnet 1) to the backup gateway (Subnet 2).
Figure 62 Traffic Redirect LAN Setup
5.5.1 Configuring Traffic Redirect
To change your LAN-Cell’s traffic redirect settings, click NETWORK > WAN > Traffic
Redirect. The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 63 NETWORK > WAN > Traffic Redirect
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 32 NETWORK > WAN > Traffic Redirect
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to have the LAN-Cell use traffic redirect if the normal WAN
connection goes down.
Backup
Gateway IP
Address
Type the IP address of your backup gateway in dotted decimal notation. The LAN-Cell
automatically forwards traffic to this IP address if the LAN-Cell's Internet connection
terminates.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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5.6 Dial Backup Screen
Click NETWORK > WAN > Dial Backup to display the Dial Backup screen. Use this
screen to configure the backup WAN dial-up connection.
Figure 64 NETWORK > WAN > Dial Backup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 33 NETWORK > WAN > Dial Backup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Dial Backup Setup
Enable Dial Backup Select this check box to turn on dial backup.
Basic Settings
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Table 33 NETWORK > WAN > Dial Backup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Login Name
Type the login name assigned by your ISP.
Password
Type the password assigned by your ISP.
Retype to Confirm
Type your password again to make sure that you have entered is correctly.
Authentication
Type
Use the drop-down list box to select an authentication protocol for outgoing calls.
Options are:
CHAP/PAP - Your LAN-Cell accepts either CHAP or PAP when requested by
this remote node.
CHAP - Your LAN-Cell accepts CHAP only.
PAP - Your LAN-Cell accepts PAP only.
Primary/ Secondary
Phone Number
Type the first (primary) phone number from the ISP for this remote node. If the
Primary Phone number is busy or does not answer, your LAN-Cell dials the
Secondary Phone number if available. Some areas require dialing the pound
sign # before the phone number for local calls. Include a # symbol at the
beginning of the phone numbers as required.
Dial Backup Port
Speed
Use the drop-down list box to select the speed of the connection between the
Dial Backup port and the external device. Available speeds are: 9600, 19200,
38400, 57600, 115200 or 230400 bps.
AT Command Initial
String
Type the AT command string to initialize the WAN device. Consult the manual of
your WAN device connected to your Dial Backup port for specific AT commands.
Advanced Modem
Setup
Click Edit to display the Advanced Setup screen and edit the details of your dial
backup setup.
TCP/IP Options
Get IP Address
Automatically from
Remote Server
Type the login name assigned by your ISP for this remote node.
Used Fixed IP
Address
Select this check box if your ISP assigned you a fixed IP address, then enter the
IP address in the following field.
My WAN IP
Address
Leave the field set to 0.0.0.0 (default) to have the ISP or other remote router
dynamically (automatically) assign your WAN IP address if you do not know it.
Type your WAN IP address here if you know it (static). This is the address
assigned to your local LAN-Cell, not the remote router.
Enable NAT
(Network Address
Translation)
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows the translation of an Internet protocol
address used within one network to a different IP address known within another
network.
Select the check box to enable NAT. Clear the check box to disable NAT so the
LAN-Cell does not perform any NAT mapping for the dial backup connection.
Enable RIP
Select this check box to turn on RIP (Routing Information Protocol), which allows
a router to exchange routing information with other routers.
RIP Version
The RIP Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the
RIP packets that the LAN-Cell sends (it recognizes both formats when
receiving).
Choose RIP-1, RIP-2B or RIP-2M.
RIP-1 is universally supported; but RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is
probably adequate for most networks, unless you have an unusual network
topology. Both RIP-2B and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the
difference being that RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses
multicasting. Multicasting can reduce the load on non-router machines since they
generally do not listen to the RIP multicast address and so will not receive the
RIP packets. However, if one router uses multicasting, then all routers on your
network must use multicasting, also.
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Table 33 NETWORK > WAN > Dial Backup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RIP Direction
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) allows a router to exchange routing
information with other routers. The RIP Direction field controls the sending and
receiving of RIP packets.
Choose Both, In Only or Out Only.
When set to Both or Out Only, the LAN-Cell will broadcast its routing table
periodically.
When set to Both or In Only, the LAN-Cell will incorporate RIP information that it
receives.
Broadcast Dial
Backup Route
Select this check box to forward the backup route broadcasts to the WAN.
Enable Multicast
Select this check box to turn on IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol). IGMP
is a network-layer protocol used to establish membership in a Multicast group - it
is not used to carry user data.
Multicast Version
Select IGMP-v1 or IGMP-v2. IGMP version 2 (RFC 2236) is an improvement
over version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use. If you would
like to read more detailed information about interoperability between IGMP
version 2 and version 1, please see sections 4 and 5 of RFC 2236.
Budget
"
Always On
Select this check box to have the dial backup connection on all of the time.
Configure Budget
Select this check box to have the dial backup connection on during the time that
you select.
Allocated Budget
Type the amount of time (in minutes) that the dial backup connection can be
used during the time configured in the Period field. Set an amount that is less
than the time period configured in the Period field.
Period
Type the time period (in hours) for how often the budget should be reset. For
example, to allow calls to this remote node for a maximum of 10 minutes every
hour, set the Allocated Budget to 10 (minutes) and the Period to 1 (hour).
Idle Timeout
Type the number of seconds of idle time (when there is no traffic from the LANCell to the remote node) for the LAN-Cell to wait before it automatically
disconnects the dial backup connection. This option applies only when the LANCell initiates the call. The dial backup connection never times out if you set this
field to "0" (it is the same as selecting Always On).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
The Dial-Backup Budget is unrelated to the Cell-Sentry Budget.
5.6.1 Advanced Modem Setup
5.6.1.1 AT Command Strings
For regular telephone lines, the default Dial string tells the modem that the line uses tone
dialing. ATDT is the command for a switch that requires tone dialing. If your switch requires
pulse dialing, change the string to ATDP.
For ISDN lines, there are many more protocols and operational modes. Please consult the
documentation of your TA. You may need additional commands in both Dial and Init strings.
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5.6.1.2 DTR Signal
The majority of WAN devices default to hanging up the current call when the DTR (Data
Terminal Ready) signal is dropped by the DTE. When the Drop DTR When Hang Up check
box is selected, the LAN-Cell uses this hardware signal to force the WAN device to hang up,
in addition to issuing the drop command ATH.
5.6.1.3 Response Strings
The response strings tell the LAN-Cell the tags, or labels, immediately preceding the various
call parameters sent from the WAN device. The response strings have not been standardized;
please consult the documentation of your WAN device to find the correct tags.
5.6.2 Configuring Advanced Modem Setup
Click the Edit button in the Dial Backup screen to display the Advanced Setup screen.
"
Consult the manual of your WAN device connected to your dial backup port for
specific AT commands.
Figure 65 NETWORK > WAN > Dial Backup > Edit
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 34 NETWORK > WAN > Dial Backup > Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
AT Command Strings
Dial
Type the AT Command string to make a call.
Drop
Type the AT Command string to drop a call. "~" represents a one second wait, for
example, "~~~+++~~ath" can be used if your modem has a slow response time.
Answer
Type the AT Command string to answer a call.
Drop DTR When
Hang Up
Select this check box to have the LAN-Cell drop the DTR (Data Terminal Ready)
signal after the "AT Command String: Drop" is sent out.
AT Response Strings
CLID
Type the keyword that precedes the CLID (Calling Line Identification) in the AT
response string. This lets the LAN-Cell capture the CLID in the AT response string
that comes from the WAN device. CLID is required for CLID authentication.
Called ID
Type the keyword preceding the dialed number.
Speed
Type the keyword preceding the connection speed.
Call Control
126
Dial Timeout
(sec)
Type a number of seconds for the LAN-Cell to try to set up an outgoing call before
timing out (stopping).
Retry Count
Type a number of times for the LAN-Cell to retry a busy or no-answer phone
number before blacklisting the number.
Retry Interval
(sec)
Type a number of seconds for the LAN-Cell to wait before trying another call after a
call has failed. This applies before a phone number is blacklisted.
Drop Timeout
(sec)
Type the number of seconds for the LAN-Cell to wait before dropping the DTR
signal if it does not receive a positive disconnect confirmation.
Call Back Delay
(sec)
Type a number of seconds for the LAN-Cell to wait between dropping a callback
request call and dialing the corresponding callback call.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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CHAPTER
6
DMZ Screens
6.1 Overview
The DeMilitarized Zone (DMZ) provides a way for public servers (Web, e-mail, FTP, etc.) to
be visible to the outside world (while still being protected from DoS (Denial of Service)
attacks such as SYN flooding and Ping of Death). These public servers can also still be
accessed from the secure LAN.
6.1.1 What You Can Do in the DMZ Screens
• Use the DMZ screen (Section 6.2 on page 129) to configure TCP/IP, DHCP, IP/MAC
binding and NetBIOS settings on the DMZ.
• Use the Static DHCP screen (Section 6.3 on page 132) to configure the IP addresses
assigned to devices in the DMZ by DHCP.
• Use the IP Alias screen (Section 6.4 on page 133) to configure IP alias settings on the
LAN-Cell’s DMZ ports.
• Use the Port Roles screen (Section 6.5 on page 135) to configure DMZ ports on the LANCell.
6.1.2 What You Need To Know About DMZ
DMZ and Security
It is highly recommended that you connect all of your public servers to the DMZ port(s).
It is also highly recommended that you keep all sensitive information off of the public servers
connected to the DMZ port. Store sensitive information on LAN computers.
DMZ and Firewall Rules
By default the firewall allows traffic between the WAN and the DMZ, traffic from the DMZ to
the LAN is denied, and traffic from the LAN to the DMZ is allowed. Internet users can have
access to host servers on the DMZ but no access to the LAN, unless special filter rules
allowing access were configured by the administrator or the user is an authorized remote user.
DMZ and NAT
See Chapter 13 on page 289 for an overview of NAT.
If you do not configure SUA NAT or any full feature NAT mapping rules for the public IP
addresses on the DMZ, the LAN-Cell will route traffic to the public IP addresses on the DMZ
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without performing NAT. This may be useful for hosting servers for NAT unfriendly applications.
If the DMZ computers use private IP addresses, use NAT if you want to make them publicly
accessible.
DHCP
Like the LAN, the LAN-Cell can also assign TCP/IP configuration via DHCP to computers
connected to the DMZ ports.
See Section 4.3 on page 83 for more information on DHCP.
IP Alias
See Section 4.4 on page 84 for more information on IP alias.
Port Roles
See Section 4.5 on page 86 for more information on port roles.
6.1.3 DMZ Public IP Address Example
The following figure shows a simple network setup with public IP addresses on the WAN and
DMZ and private IP addresses on the LAN. Lower case letters represent public IP addresses
(like a.b.c.d for example). The LAN port and connected computers (A through C) use private
IP addresses that are in one subnet. The DMZ port and connected servers (D through F) use
public IP addresses that are in another subnet. The public IP addresses of the DMZ and WAN
ports are in separate subnets.
Figure 66 DMZ Public Address Example
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6.1.4 DMZ Private and Public IP Address Example
The following figure shows a network setup with both private and public IP addresses on the
DMZ. Lower case letters represent public IP addresses (like a.b.c.d for example). The LAN
port and connected computers (A through C) use private IP addresses that are in one subnet.
The DMZ port and server F use private IP addresses that are in one subnet. The private IP
addresses of the LAN and DMZ are on separate subnets. The DMZ port and connected servers
(D and E) use public IP addresses that are in one subnet. The public IP addresses of the DMZ
and WAN are on separate subnets.
Configure one subnet (either the public or the private) in the Network > DMZ screen (see
Figure 68 on page 130) and configure the other subnet in the Network > DMZ > IP Alias
screen (see Figure 6.4 on page 133) to use this kind of network setup. You also need to
configure NAT for the private DMZ IP addresses.
Figure 67 DMZ Private and Public Address Example
6.2 DMZ Screen
The DMZ and the connected computers can have private or public IP addresses. When the
DMZ uses public IP addresses, the WAN and DMZ ports must use public IP addresses that are
on separate subnets. See Appendix C on page 605 for information on IP subnetting.
From the main menu, click NETWORK > DMZ to open the DMZ screen. The screen appears
as shown next.
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Figure 68 NETWORK > DMZ
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 35 NETWORK > DMZ
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DMZ TCP/IP
IP Address
Type the IP address of your LAN-Cell’s DMZ port in dotted decimal notation.
Note: Make sure the IP addresses of the LAN, WAN, WLAN and
DMZ are on separate subnets.
130
IP Subnet Mask
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your
LAN-Cell will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the IP address
that you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet mask
computed by the LAN-Cell 255.255.255.0.
RIP Direction
RIP (Routing Information Protocol, RFC1058 and RFC 1389) allows a router to
exchange routing information with other routers. The RIP Direction field controls
the sending and receiving of RIP packets. Select the RIP direction from Both/In
Only/Out Only/None. When set to Both or Out Only, the LAN-Cell will
broadcast its routing table periodically. When set to Both or In Only, it will
incorporate the RIP information that it receives; when set to None, it will not send
any RIP packets and will ignore any RIP packets received. Both is the default.
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Table 35 NETWORK > DMZ (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RIP Version
The RIP Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the
RIP packets that the LAN-Cell sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving).
RIP-1 is universally supported but RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is
probably adequate for most networks, unless you have an unusual network
topology. Both RIP-2B and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the
difference being that RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses
multicasting. Multicasting can reduce the load on non-router machines since they
generally do not listen to the RIP multicast address and so will not receive the
RIP packets. However, if one router uses multicasting, then all routers on your
network must use multicasting, also. By default, RIP direction is set to Both and
the Version set to RIP-1.
Multicast
Select IGMP V-1 or IGMP V-2 or None. IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol)
is a network-layer protocol used to establish membership in a Multicast group - it
is not used to carry user data. IGMP version 2 (RFC 2236) is an improvement
over version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use. If you would
like to read more detailed information about interoperability between IGMP
version 2 and version 1, please see sections 4 and 5 of RFC 2236.
DHCP Setup
DHCP
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows
individual clients (workstations) to obtain TCP/IP configuration at startup from a
server. Unless you are instructed by your ISP, leave this field set to Server.
When configured as a server, the LAN-Cell provides TCP/IP configuration for the
clients. When set as a server, fill in the IP Pool Starting Address and Pool Size
fields.
Select Relay to have the LAN-Cell forward DHCP requests to another DHCP
server. When set to Relay, fill in the DHCP Server Address field.
Select None to stop the LAN-Cell from acting as a DHCP server. When you
select None, you must have another DHCP server on your LAN, or else the
computers must be manually configured.
IP Pool Starting
Address
This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool.
Pool Size
This field specifies the size, or count of the IP address pool.
DHCP Server
Address
Type the IP address of the DHCP server to which you want the LAN-Cell to relay
DHCP requests. Use dotted decimal notation. Alternatively, click the right mouse
button to copy and/or paste the IP address.
DHCP WINS
Server 1, 2
Type the IP address of the WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service) server that
you want to send to the DHCP clients. The WINS server keeps a mapping table
of the computer names on your network and the IP addresses that they are
currently using.
Windows Networking (NetBIOS over TCP/IP)
Allow between
DMZ and LAN
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from the LAN to the DMZ and
from the DMZ to the LAN. If your firewall is enabled with the default policy set to
block DMZ to LAN traffic, you also need to configure a DMZ to LAN firewall rule
that forwards NetBIOS traffic.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from the LAN to the
DMZ and from the DMZ to the LAN.
Allow between
DMZ and WAN
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from the DMZ to WANand
from WAN to the DMZ.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from the DMZ to WAN
and from WAN to the DMZ.
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Table 35 NETWORK > DMZ (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Allow between
DMZ and Cellular
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from the DMZ to CELL and
from CELL to the DMZ.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from the DMZ to CELL
and from CELL to the DMZ.
Allow between
DMZ and WLAN
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from the WLAN to the DMZ
and from the DMZ to the WLAN. If your firewall is enabled with the default policy
set to block DMZ to WLAN traffic and WLAN to DMZ traffic, you also need to
configure DMZ to WLAN and WLAN to DMZ firewall rules that forward NetBIOS
traffic.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from the WLAN to the
DMZ and from the DMZ to the WLAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
6.3 DMZ Static DHCP Screen
This table allows you to assign IP addresses on the DMZ to specific individual computers
based on their MAC Addresses.
To change your LAN-Cell’s static DHCP settings on the DMZ, click NETWORK > DMZ >
Static DHCP. The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 69 NETWORK > DMZ > Static DHCP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 36 NETWORK > DMZ > Static DHCP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of the Static IP table entry (row).
MAC Address
Type the MAC address of a computer on your DMZ.
IP Address
Type the IP address that you want to assign to the computer on your DMZ.
Alternatively, click the right mouse button to copy and/or paste the IP address.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
6.4 DMZ IP Alias Screen
The LAN-Cell has a single DMZ interface. Even though more than one of ports 1~4 may be in
the DMZ port role, they are all still part of a single physical Ethernet interface and all use the
same IP address.
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The LAN-Cell supports three logical DMZ interfaces via its single physical DMZ Ethernet
interface. The LAN-Cell itself is the gateway for each of the logical DMZ networks.
The IP alias IP addresses can be either private or public regardless of whether the physical
DMZ interface is set to use a private or public IP address. Use NAT if you want to make DMZ
computers with private IP addresses publicly accessible (see Chapter 13 on page 289 for more
information). When you use IP alias, you can have the DMZ use both public and private IP
addresses at the same time.
"
Make sure that the subnets of the logical networks do not overlap.
To change your LAN-Cell’s IP alias settings, click NETWORK > DMZ > IP Alias. The
screen appears as shown.
Figure 70 NETWORK > DMZ > IP Alias
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 37 NETWORK > DMZ > IP Alias
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable IP Alias 1,
2
Select the check box to configure another DMZ network for the LAN-Cell.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your LAN-Cell in dotted decimal notation.
Note: Make sure the IP addresses of the LAN, WAN, WLAN and
DMZ are on separate subnets.
IP Subnet Mask
134
Your LAN-Cell will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the IP
address that you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet
mask computed by the LAN-Cell.
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Table 37 NETWORK > DMZ > IP Alias (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RIP Direction
RIP (Routing Information Protocol, RFC1058 and RFC 1389) allows a router to
exchange routing information with other routers. The RIP Direction field controls
the sending and receiving of RIP packets. Select the RIP direction from Both/In
Only/Out Only/None. When set to Both or Out Only, the LAN-Cell will broadcast
its routing table periodically. When set to Both or In Only, it will incorporate the
RIP information that it receives; when set to None, it will not send any RIP packets
and will ignore any RIP packets received.
RIP Version
The RIP Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP
packets that the LAN-Cell sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving). RIP1 is universally supported but RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is probably
adequate for most networks, unless you have an unusual network topology. Both
RIP-2B and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the difference being
that RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses multicasting.
Multicasting can reduce the load on non-router machines since they generally do
not listen to the RIP multicast address and so will not receive the RIP packets.
However, if one router uses multicasting, then all routers on your network must
use multicasting, also. By default, RIP direction is set to Both and the Version set
to RIP-1.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
6.5 DMZ Port Roles
Use the Port Roles screen to set ports as part of the LAN, DMZ and/or WLAN interface.
Ports 1~4 on the LAN-Cell can be part of the LAN, DMZ or WLAN interface.
"
Do the following if you are configuring from a computer connected to a LAN,
DMZ or WLAN port and changing the port's role:
1 A port's IP address varies as its role changes, make sure your computer's IP address is in
the same subnet as the LAN-Cell's LAN, DMZ or WLAN IP address.
2 Use the appropriate LAN, DMZ or WLAN IP address to access the LAN-Cell.
To change your LAN-Cell’s port role settings, click NETWORK > DMZ > Port Roles. The
screen appears as shown.
The radio buttons correspond to Ethernet ports on the front panel of the LAN-Cell. On the
LAN-Cell, ports 1 to 4 are all LAN ports by default.
"
Your changes are also reflected in the LAN and/or WLAN Port Roles
screens.
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Figure 71 NETWORK > DMZ > Port Roles
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 38 NETWORK > DMZ > Port Roles
136
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
LAN
Select a port’s LAN radio button to use the port as part of the LAN. The port will
use the LAN-Cell’s LAN IP address and MAC address.
DMZ
Select a port’s DMZ radio button to use the port as part of the DMZ. The port will
use the LAN-Cell’s DMZ IP address and MAC address.
WLAN
Select a port’s WLAN radio button to use the port as part of the WLAN.
The port will use the LAN-Cell’s WLAN IP address and MAC address.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
CHAPTER
7
Wireless LAN (WLAN) Screens
7.1 Overview
In addition to the LAN and DMZ logical networks, the LAN-Cell also provides a Wireless
LAN (WLAN) logical network that can be used to segregate traffic for policy routing, security
or other management purposes.
This chapter discusses how to configure the wireless LAN subnet on the LAN-Cell.
A wireless LAN can be as simple as two computers with wireless LAN adapters
communicating in a peer-to-peer network or as complex as a number of computers with
wireless LAN adapters communicating through access points which bridge network traffic to
the wired LAN.
To add a wireless network to the LAN-Cell, you can either activate the LAN-Cell’s internal
802.11 a/b/g Wi-Fi Access Point or connect an external Access Point to a LAN-Cell Ethernet
port and define that port as a WLAN role.
The following figure provides an example of a wireless network.
Figure 72 Example of a Wireless Network
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The wireless network is the part in the blue circle. In this wireless network, devices A and B
are called wireless clients. The wireless clients use the access point (AP) to interact with other
devices (such as the printer) or with the Internet. Your LAN-Cell is the AP.
Every wireless network must follow these basic guidelines.
• Every wireless client in the same wireless network must use the same SSID.
The SSID is the name of the wireless network. It stands for Service Set IDentity.
• If two wireless networks overlap, they should use different channels.
Like radio stations or television channels, each wireless network uses a specific channel,
or frequency, to send and receive information.
• Every wireless client in the same wireless network must use security compatible with the
AP.
7.1.1 What You Can Do in the WLAN Screens
• Use the WLAN screen (Section 7.2 on page 139) to configure TCP/IP, DHCP, IP/MAC
binding and NetBIOS settings on the WLAN.
• Use the Static DHCP screen (Section 7.3 on page 141) to configure the IP addresses
assigned to devices in the LAN by DHCP.
• Use the IP Alias screen (Section 7.4 on page 142) to configure IP alias settings on the
LAN-Cell’s LAN ports.
• Use the Port Roles screen (Section 7.5 on page 144) to set a port to be part of the WLAN
and connect an Access Point (AP) to the WLAN interface to extend the LAN-Cell’s
wireless LAN coverage.
7.1.2 What You Need to Know About Wireless LAN
DHCP
Like the LAN, the LAN-Cell can also assign TCP/IP configuration via DHCP to computers
connected to the WLAN ports.
See Section 4.3 on page 83 for more information on DHCP.
IP Alias
IP alias allows you to partition a physical network into different logical networks over the
same Ethernet interface. See Section 4.4 on page 84 for more information on IP alias.
Port Roles
Use port roles to set ports as part of the LAN, DMZ and/or WLAN interface. See Section 4.5
on page 86 for more information on port roles.
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"
See Appendix E on page 617 for more detailed information on WLANs.
7.2 WLAN Screen
The built-in Wi-Fi access point is used as part of the LAN by default. You can use the Port
Roles screen (see Figure 77 on page 145) to set a port to be part of the WLAN. Then connect
an external access point (AP) to it to extend the LAN-Cell’s wireless LAN coverage.
Click NETWORK > WLAN to open the WLAN screen to configure the IP address for LANCell’s WLAN interface, other TCP/IP and DHCP settings.
Figure 73 NETWORK > WLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 39 NETWORK > WLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WLAN TCP/IP
IP Address
Type the IP address of your LAN-Cell’s WLAN interface in dotted decimal notation.
Alternatively, click the right mouse button to copy and/or paste the IP address.
Note: Make sure the IP addresses of the LAN, WAN, WLAN and
DMZ are on separate subnets.
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Table 39 NETWORK > WLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Subnet Mask
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your
LAN-Cell automatically calculates the subnet mask based on the IP address that
you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet mask
computed by the LAN-Cell.
RIP Direction
RIP (Routing Information Protocol, RFC1058 and RFC 1389) allows a router to
exchange routing information with other routers. The RIP Direction field controls
the sending and receiving of RIP packets. Select the RIP direction from Both/In
Only/Out Only/None. When set to Both or Out Only, the LAN-Cell will broadcast
its routing table periodically. When set to Both or In Only, it will incorporate the
RIP information that it receives; when set to None, it will not send any RIP packets
and will ignore any RIP packets received. Both is the default.
RIP Version
The RIP Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP
packets that the LAN-Cell sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving). RIP1 is universally supported but RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is probably
adequate for most networks, unless you have an unusual network topology. Both
RIP-2B and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the difference being
that RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses multicasting.
Multicasting can reduce the load on non-router machines since they generally do
not listen to the RIP multicast address and so will not receive the RIP packets.
However, if one router uses multicasting, then all routers on your network must use
multicasting, also. By default, RIP direction is set to Both and the Version set to
RIP-1.
Multicast
Select IGMP V-1 or IGMP V-2 or None. IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol)
is a network-layer protocol used to establish membership in a Multicast group - it is
not used to carry user data. IGMP version 2 (RFC 2236) is an improvement over
version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use. If you would like to
read more detailed information about interoperability between IGMP version 2 and
version 1, please see sections 4 and 5 of RFC 2236.
DHCP Setup
140
DHCP
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows
individual clients (workstations) to obtain TCP/IP configuration at startup from a
server. Unless you are instructed by your ISP, leave this field set to Server. When
configured as a server, the LAN-Cell provides TCP/IP configuration for the clients.
When set as a server, fill in the IP Pool Starting Address and Pool Size fields.
Select Relay to have the LAN-Cell forward DHCP requests to another DHCP
server. When set to Relay, fill in the DHCP Server Address field.
Select None to stop the LAN-Cell from acting as a DHCP server. When you select
None, you must have another DHCP server on your WLAN, or else the computers
must be manually configured.
IP Pool Starting
Address
This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool.
Pool Size
This field specifies the size, or count of the IP address pool.
DHCP Server
Address
Type the IP address of the DHCP server to which you want the LAN-Cell to relay
DHCP requests. Use dotted decimal notation. Alternatively, click the right mouse
button to copy and/or paste the IP address.
DHCP WINS
Server 1, 2
Type the IP address of the WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service) server that
you want to send to the DHCP clients. The WINS server keeps a mapping table of
the computer names on your network and the IP addresses that they are currently
using.
Windows
Networking
(NetBIOS over
TCP/IP)
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) are TCP or UDP packets that
enable a computer to connect to and communicate with a LAN. For some dial-up
services such as PPPoE or PPTP, NetBIOS packets cause unwanted calls.
However it may sometimes be necessary to allow NetBIOS packets to pass
through to the WAN in order to find a computer on the WAN.
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Table 39 NETWORK > WLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Allow between
WLAN and LAN
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from the WLAN to the LAN and
from the LAN to the WLAN.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from the LAN to the WLAN
and from the WLAN to the LAN.
Allow between
WLAN and WAN
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from the WLAN to WAN and
from WAN to the WLAN.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from the WLAN to WAN
and from WAN to the WLAN.
Allow between
WLAN and
Cellular
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from the WLAN to CELL and
from CELL to the WLAN.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from the WLAN to CELL
and from CELL to the WLAN.
Allow between
WLAN and DMZ
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from the WLAN to the DMZ and
from the DMZ to the WLAN. If your firewall is enabled with the default policy set to
block WLAN to DMZ traffic and DMZ to WLAN traffic, you also need to configure
WLAN to DMZ and DMZ to WLAN firewall rules that forward NetBIOS traffic.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from the WLAN to the
DMZ and from the DMZ to the WLAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
7.3 WLAN Static DHCP Screen
This table allows you to assign IP addresses on the WLAN to specific individual computers
based on their MAC addresses.
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address
is assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:1B:39:00:00:02.
To change your LAN-Cell’s WLAN static DHCP settings, click NETWORK >WLAN >
Static DHCP. The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 74 NETWORK > WLAN > Static DHCP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 40 NETWORK > WLAN > Static DHCP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of the Static IP table entry (row).
MAC Address
Type the MAC address of a computer on your WLAN.
IP Address
Type the IP address that you want to assign to the computer on your WLAN.
Alternatively, click the right mouse button to copy and/or paste the IP address.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
7.4 WLAN IP Alias Screen
IP alias allows you to partition a physical network into different logical networks over the
same Ethernet interface.
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The LAN-Cell has a single WLAN interface. Even though more than one of ports 1~4 may be
in the WLAN port role, they are all still part of a single physical Ethernet interface and all use
the same IP address.
The LAN-Cell supports three logical WLAN interfaces via its single physical WLAN Ethernet
interface. The LAN-Cell itself is the gateway for each of the logical WLAN networks.
When you use IP alias, you can also configure firewall rules to control access between the
WLAN's logical networks (subnets).
"
Make sure that the subnets of the logical networks do not overlap.
To change your LAN-Cell’s IP alias settings, click NETWORK > WLAN > IP Alias. The
screen appears as shown.
Figure 75 NETWORK > WLAN > IP Alias
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 41 NETWORK > WLAN > IP Alias
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable IP Alias 1,
2
Select the check box to configure another WLAN network for the LAN-Cell.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your LAN-Cell in dotted decimal notation.
Alternatively, click the right mouse button to copy and/or paste the IP address.
IP Subnet Mask
Your LAN-Cell will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the IP
address that you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet
mask computed by the LAN-Cell.
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Table 41 NETWORK > WLAN > IP Alias (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RIP Direction
RIP (Routing Information Protocol, RFC 1058 and RFC 1389) allows a router to
exchange routing information with other routers. The RIP Direction field controls
the sending and receiving of RIP packets. Select the RIP direction from Both/In
Only/Out Only/None. When set to Both or Out Only, the LAN-Cell will broadcast
its routing table periodically. When set to Both or In Only, it will incorporate the
RIP information that it receives; when set to None, it will not send any RIP packets
and will ignore any RIP packets received.
RIP Version
The RIP Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP
packets that the LAN-Cell sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving). RIP1 is universally supported but RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is probably
adequate for most networks, unless you have an unusual network topology. Both
RIP-2B and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the difference being
that RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses multicasting.
Multicasting can reduce the load on non-router machines since they generally do
not listen to the RIP multicast address and so will not receive the RIP packets.
However, if one router uses multicasting, then all routers on your network must
use multicasting, also. By default, RIP direction is set to Both and the Version set
to RIP-1.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
7.5 WLAN Port Roles Screen
Use the Port Roles screen to set ports as part of the LAN, DMZ and/or WLAN interface.
Ports 1~4 on the LAN-Cell can be part of the LAN, DMZ or WLAN interface.
Connect external wireless LAN Access Points (APs) to WLAN interfaces to extend the LANCell’s wireless LAN coverage. The WLAN port role allows the LAN-Cell’s firewall to treat
traffic from connected APs as part of the LAN-Cell’s WLAN. You can specify firewall rules
for traffic going to or from the WLAN. The WLAN includes the LAN-Cell’s own WLAN and
the Ethernet ports in the WLAN port role.
The following figure shows the LAN-Cell with the interanl Wi-Fi AP enabled and an external
AP connected to an Ethernet port in the WLAN port role.
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Figure 76 WLAN Port Role Example
"
Do the following if you are configuring from a computer connected to a LAN,
DMZ or WLAN port and changing the port's role:
1 A port's IP address varies as its role changes, make sure your computer's IP address is in
the same subnet as the LAN-Cell's LAN, DMZ or WLAN IP address.
2 Use the appropriate LAN, DMZ or WLAN IP address to access the LAN-Cell.
To change your LAN-Cell’s port role settings, click NETWORK > WLAN > Port Roles.
The screen appears as shown.
The radio buttons correspond to Ethernet ports on the front panel of the LAN-Cell. On the
LAN-Cell, ports 1 to 4 are all LAN ports by default.
"
Your changes are also reflected in the LAN and/or DMZ Port Roles screen.
Figure 77 NETWORK > WLAN > Port Roles
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 42 NETWORK > WLAN > Port Roles
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
LAN
Select a port’s LAN radio button to use the port as part of the LAN. The port will
use the LAN IP address.
DMZ
Select a port’s DMZ radio button to use the port as part of the DMZ. The port will
use the DMZ IP address.
WLAN
Select a port’s WLAN radio button to use the port as part of the WLAN.
The port will use the WLAN IP address.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
After you change the LAN/DMZ/WLAN port roles and click Apply, please wait for few
seconds until the following screen appears. Click Return to go back to the Port Roles screen.
Figure 78 NETWORK > WLAN > Port Roles: Change Complete
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7.6 Wireless Security Overview
The following sections introduce different types of wireless security you can set up in the
wireless network.
7.6.1 SSID
Normally, the AP acts like a beacon and regularly broadcasts the SSID in the area. You can
hide the SSID instead, in which case the AP does not broadcast the SSID. In addition, you
should change the default SSID to something that is difficult to guess.
This type of security is fairly weak, however, because there are ways for unauthorized devices
to get the SSID. In addition, unauthorized devices can still see the information that is sent in
the wireless network.
7.6.2 MAC Address Filter
Every wireless client has a unique identification number, called a MAC address.2 A MAC
address is usually written using twelve hexadecimal characters3; for example, 001B39000002
or 00:1B:39:00:00:02. To get the MAC address for each wireless client, see the appropriate
User’s Guide or other documentation.
You can use the MAC address filter to tell the AP which wireless clients are allowed or not
allowed to use the wireless network. If a wireless client is allowed to use the wireless network,
it still has to have the correct settings (SSID, channel, and security). If a wireless client is not
allowed to use the wireless network, it does not matter if it has the correct settings.
This type of security does not protect the information that is sent in the wireless network.
Furthermore, there are ways for unauthorized devices to get the MAC address of an authorized
wireless client. Then, they can use that MAC address to use the wireless network.
7.6.3 User Authentication
You can make every user log in to the wireless network before they can use it. This is called
user authentication. However, every wireless client in the wireless network has to support
IEEE 802.1x to do this.
For wireless networks, there are two typical places to store the user names and passwords for
each user.
• In the AP: this feature is called a local user database or a local database.
• In a RADIUS server: this is a server used in businesses more than in homes.
2.
Some wireless devices, such as scanners, can detect wireless networks but cannot use wireless
networks. These kinds of wireless devices might not have MAC addresses.
3.
Hexadecimal characters are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F.
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If your AP does not provide a local user database and if you do not have a RADIUS server,
you cannot set up user names and passwords for your users.
Unauthorized devices can still see the information that is sent in the wireless network, even if
they cannot use the wireless network. Furthermore, there are ways for unauthorized wireless
users to get a valid user name and password. Then, they can use that user name and password
to use the wireless network.
Local user databases also have an additional limitation that is explained in the next section.
7.6.4 Encryption
Wireless networks can use encryption to protect the information that is sent in the wireless
network. Encryption is like a secret code. If you do not know the secret code, you cannot
understand the message.
The types of encryption you can choose depend on the type of user authentication. (See
Section 7.6.3 on page 147 for information about this.)
Table 43 Types of Encryption for Each Type of Authentication
No Authentication
Weakest
RADIUS Server
No Security
Static WEP
802.1x +Static WEP
Strongest
WPA-PSK
WPA
WPA2-PSK or WPA2-PSK-Mix
WPA2 or WPA2-Mix
For example, if the wireless network has a RADIUS server, you can choose WPA or WPA2.
If users do not log in to the wireless network, you can choose no encryption, Static WEP,
WPA-PSK, or WPA2-PSK.
Usually, you should set up the strongest encryption that every wireless client in the wireless
network supports. For example, suppose the AP does not have a local user database, and you
do not have a RADIUS server. Therefore, there is no user authentication. Suppose the wireless
network has two wireless clients. Device A only supports WEP, and device B supports WEP
and WPA. Therefore, you should set up Static WEP in the wireless network.
Note: It is recommended that wireless clients use WPA-PSK, WPA, or stronger
encryption. IEEE 802.1x and WEP encryption are better than none at all, but it
is still possible for unauthorized devices to figure out the original information
pretty quickly.
It is not possible to use WPA-PSK, WPA or stronger encryption with a local
user database. In this case, it is better to set up stronger encryption with no
authentication than to set up weaker encryption with the local user database.
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If some wireless clients support WPA and some support WPA2, you should set up WPA2PSK-Mix or WPA2-Mix (depending on the type of wireless network login) in the LAN-Cell.
Many types of encryption use a key to protect the information in the wireless network. The
longer the key, the stronger the encryption. Every wireless client in the wireless network must
have the same key.
7.6.5 Additional Installation Requirements for Using 802.1x
• A computer with an IEEE 802.11a/b/g wireless LAN card.
• A computer equipped with a web browser (with JavaScript enabled) and/or Telnet.
• A wireless station must be running IEEE 802.1x-compliant software. Currently, this is
offered in Windows XP.
• An optional network RADIUS server for remote user authentication and accounting.
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7.7 Internal Wi-Fi Access Point Setup
If you are configuring the LAN-Cell from a computer connected to the wireless LAN and you
change the LAN-Cell’s SSID or security settings, you will lose your wireless connection when
you press Apply to confirm. You must then change the wireless settings of your computer to
match the LAN-Cell’s new settings.
Click WIRELESS > Wi-Fi to open the Wi-Fi Configuraton screen.
Figure 79 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 44 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Wi-Fi
Card
The internal Wi-Fi access point is turned off by default. Before you enable the
wireless LAN you should configure some security by setting MAC filters and/or 802.1x
security; otherwise your wireless LAN will be vulnerable upon enabling it. Select the
check box to enable the wireless LAN.
Bridge to
Select LAN to use the Wi-Fi card as part of the LAN.
Select DMZ to use the Wi-Fi card as part of the DMZ.
Select WLAN to use the Wi-Fi card as part of the WLAN.
The LAN-Cell restarts after you change the Wi-Fi card setting.
Note: If you set the Wi-Fi card to be part of the LAN or DMZ, you can
still use wireless access. The firewall will treat the Wi-Fi card as
part of the LAN or DMZ respectively.
802.11 Mode
Select 802.11b Only to allow only IEEE 802.11b compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the LAN-Cell.
Select 802.11g Only to allow only IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the LAN-Cell.
Select 802.11b+g to allow both IEEE802.11b and IEEE802.11g compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the LAN-Cell. The transmission rate of your LAN-Cell might
be reduced.
Select 802.11a Only to allow only IEEE 802.11a compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the LAN-Cell.
Choose
Channel ID
Set the operating frequency/channel depending on your particular region. To manually
set the LAN-Cell to use a channel, select a channel from the drop-down list box. To
have the LAN-Cell automatically select a channel, click Scan instead.
Scan
Click this button to have the LAN-Cell automatically select the wireless channel with
the lowest interference.
Super Mode
Select this to improve data throughput on the WLAN by enabling fast frame and
packet bursting.
At the time of writing, this works only when the wireless client is using an Atheros card.
RTS/CTS
Threshold
This is the threshold (number of bytes) for enabling RTS/CTS handshake. Data with a
frame size larger than this value will perform the RTS/CTS handshake. Setting this
attribute to be larger than the maximum MSDU (MAC service data unit) size turns off
the RTS/CTS handshake. Enter a value between 256 and 2346.
If you select Super Mode, this field is grayed out and the LAN-Cell uses 2346
automatically.
Fragmentation
Threshold
This is the threshold (number of bytes) for the fragmentation boundary for directed
messages. It is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter a value
between 256 and 2346.
If you select Super Mode, this field is grayed out and the LAN-Cell uses 2346
automatically.
Output Power
Set the output power of the LAN-Cell in this field. If there is a high density of APs in an
area, decrease the output power to reduce interference with other APs. Select one of
the following 100% (full power), 50%, 25%, 12.5% or min (minimum). See the product
specifications for more information on your LAN-Cell’s output power.
Enable
Roaming
Roaming allows wireless stations to switch from one access point to another as they
move from one coverage area to another. Select this checkbox to enable roaming on
the LAN-Cell if you have two or more LAN-Cells on the same subnet.
Note: All APs on the same subnet and the wireless clients must have
the same SSID to allow roaming.
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Table 44 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Select SSID
Profile
An SSID profile is the set of parameters relating to one of the LAN-Cell’s BSSs. The
SSID (Service Set IDentifier) identifies the Service Set with which a wireless client is
associated. Wireless clients associating with the access point (AP) must have the
same SSID.
Note: If you are configuring the LAN-Cell from a computer connected
to the wireless LAN and you change the LAN-Cell’s SSID or
security settings, you will lose your wireless connection when
you press Apply to confirm. You must then change the wireless
settings of your computer to match the LAN-Cell’s new settings.
#
This field displays the index number of each SSID profile.
Active
Choose a profile to apply to your wireless network by selecting its radio button.
Name
This field displays the identification name of each SSID profile on the LAN-Cell.
SSID
This field displays the name of the wireless profile on the network. When a wireless
client scans for an AP to associate with, this is the name that is broadcast and seen in
the wireless client utility.
Security
This field indicates which security profile is currently associated with each SSID
profile. See Section 7.8 on page 153 for more information.
Action
Click the Edit icon next to the profile you want to configure and go to the SSID
configuration screen.
Click the Reset Default icon to clear all user-entered configuration information and
return the SSID profile to its factory defaults.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
7.7.1 SSID Profile
Configure wireless network security by configuring and applying an SSID profile. You can
configure multiple profiles but you can only apply one to your network.
Use the Wi-Fi Configuration screen to see information about the SSID profiles on the LANCell, and use the Wi-Fi CONFIGURATION > Edit screen to configure the SSID profiles.
Each SSID profile references the settings configured in the following screens:
• Wi-Fi CONFIGURATION > Security (one of the security profiles).
• AUTH SERVER > RADIUS (the RADIUS server settings).
• Wi-Fi CONFIGURATION > MAC Filter (the MAC filter list, if activated in the SSID
profile).
Configure the fields in the above screens to use the settings in an SSID profile.
In the Wi-Fi CONFIGURATION screen, click the Edit icon next to an SSID profile to
display the following screen.
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Figure 80 Configuring SSID
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 45 Configuring SSID
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter a name (up to 32 printable 7-bit ASCII characters) identifying this
profile.
SSID
When a wireless client scans for an AP to associate with, this is the name that
is broadcast and seen in the wireless client utility.
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable 7-bit ASCII characters) for the
wireless LAN.
Hide SSID
Select Disable if you want the LAN-Cell to broadcast this SSID (a wireless
client scanning for an AP will find this SSID). Alternatively, select Enable to
have the LAN-Cell hide this SSID (a wireless client scanning for an AP will not
find this SSID).
Security
Select a security profile to use with this SSID profile. See Section 7.8 on page
153 for more information.
RADIUS
This displays N/A if the security profile you selected does not use RADIUS
authentication. See Section 7.8 on page 153 for more information.
This displays Radius Configuration if you select a security profile that uses
RADIUS authentication. Click Radius Configuration to go to the RADIUS
screen where you can view and/or change the RADIUS settings.
See Section 12.3 on page 285 for more information.
Enable MAC Filtering
Select Enable from the drop down list box to activate MAC address filtering.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
7.8 Configuring Wireless Security
Click WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security to open the Security screen. Use this screen to create
security profiles. A security profile is a group of configuration settings which can be assigned
to an SSID profile in the Wi-Fi Configuration screen.
The screen changes when you configure a security profile and varies according to the security
modes you select.
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The following table describes the security modes you can configure.
Table 46 Security Modes
SECURITY MODE
DESCRIPTION
None
Select this to have no data encryption.
WEP
Select this to use WEP encryption.
802.1x-Only
Select this to use 802.1x authentication with no data encryption.
802.1x-Static64
Select this to use 802.1x authentication with a static 64bit WEP key and an
authentication server.
802.1x-Static128
Select this to use 802.1x authentication with a static 128bit WEP key and
an authentication server.
WPA
Select this to use WPA.
WPA-PSK
Select this to use WPA with a pre-shared key.
WPA2
Select this to use WPA2.
WPA2-MIX
Select this to use either WPA2 or WPA depending on which security mode
the wireless client uses.
WPA2-PSK
Select this to use WPA2 with a pre-shared key.
WPA2-PSK-MIX
Select this to use either WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK depending on which
security mode the wireless client uses.
Figure 81 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 47 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security Profile
Index
This is the index number of the security profile.
Profile Name
This field displays a name given to a security profile in the Security configuration
screen.
Security Mode This field displays the security mode this security profile uses.
Action
154
Click the Edit icon to configure security settings for that profile.
Click the Reset Default icon to clear all user-entered configuration information and
return the security profile to its factory defaults.
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7.8.1 No Security
"
If you do not enable any wireless security on your LAN-Cell, your network is
accessible to any wireless networking device within range.
Figure 82 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: None
The following table describes the wireless LAN security labels in this screen.
Table 48 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: None
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name (up to 32 printable 7-bit ASCII characters) to identify this security profile.
Security Mode Select None to allow wireless clients to communicate with the access points without
any data encryption.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
7.8.2 Static WEP
Static WEP provides a mechanism for encrypting data using encryption keys. Both the AP and
the wireless stations must use the same WEP key to encrypt and decrypt data.
Your LAN-Cell allows you to configure up to four 64-bit, 128-bit or 152-bit WEP keys, but
only one key can be used at any one time.
In order to configure and enable WEP encryption, click WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security >
Edit.
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Figure 83 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: WEP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 49 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: WEP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode Select WEP from the drop-down list.
WEP
Encryption
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) provides data encryption to prevent unauthorized
wireless stations from accessing data transmitted over the wireless network.
Select 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP or 152-bit WEP to enable data encryption.
Authentication Select Shared-Key to have the LAN-Cell use the default WEP key to authenticate the
Method
wireless client to the LAN-Cell.
Select Auto to have the LAN-Cell switch between the shared-key and open system
(the wireless clients and AP do not share a secret key for authentication) modes
automatically.
The default setting is Auto.
Key 1 to Key 4 The WEP keys are used to encrypt data. Both the LAN-Cell and the wireless clients
must use the same WEP key for data transmission.
If you chose 64-bit WEP in the WEP Encryption field, then enter any 5 ASCII
characters or 10 hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each key.
If you chose 128-bit WEP in the WEP Encryption field, then enter 13 ASCII
characters or 26 hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each key.
If you chose 152-bit WEP in the WEP Encryption field, then enter 16 ASCII
characters or 32 hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each key.
You can configure up to four keys, but only one key can be activated at any one time.
The default key is key 1.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
7.8.3 IEEE 802.1x Only
Click the WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security > Edit. Select 8021X-Only from the Security
Mode list.
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Figure 84 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: 802.1x Only
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 50 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: 802.1x Only
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Select 8021X-Only from the drop-down list.
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless clients have to resend user names and passwords in
order to stay connected. Enter a time interval between 600 and 65535 seconds.
If wireless client authentication is done using a RADIUS server, the
reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has priority.
Idle Timeout
The LAN-Cell automatically disconnects a wireless client from the wireless network
after a period of inactivity. The wireless client needs to send the username and
password again before it can use the wireless network again. Some wireless
clients may prompt users for a username and password; other clients may use
saved login credentials. In either case, there is usually a short delay while the
wireless client logs in to the wireless network again.
This value is usually smaller when the wireless network is keeping track of how
much time each wireless client is connected to the wireless network (for example,
using an authentication server). If the wireless network is not keeping track of this
information, you can usually set this value higher to reduce the number of delays
caused by logging in again.
Enter a time interval between 600 and 65535 seconds.
Authentication
Databases
Click Local User to go to the Local User Database screen where you can view
and/or edit the list of users and passwords. Click RADIUS to go to the RADIUS
screen where you can configure the LAN-Cell to check an external RADIUS server.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
7.8.4 IEEE 802.1x + Static WEP
Click the WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security > Edit. Select 8021X-Static 64 or 8021XStatic128 in the Security Mode field to display the following screen.
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Figure 85 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: 802.1x + Static WEP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 51 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: 802.1x + Static WEP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Select 8021X-Static64 or 8021X-Static128 from the drop-down list.
Key 1 to Key 4
If you chose 8021X-Static64 in the Security Mode field, then enter any 5
characters (ASCII string) or 10 hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by
0x for each key.
If you chose 8021X-Static128 in the Security Mode field, then enter 13 characters
(ASCII string) or 26 hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each
key.
There are four data encryption keys to secure your data from eavesdropping by
unauthorized wireless users. The values for the keys must be set up exactly the
same on the access points as they are on the wireless clients.
ReAuthentication Specify how often wireless clients have to resend user names and passwords in
Timer
order to stay connected. Enter a time interval between 600 and 65535 seconds.
If wireless client authentication is done using a RADIUS server, the
reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has priority.
158
Idle Timeout
The LAN-Cell automatically disconnects a wireless client from the wireless network
after a period of inactivity. The wireless client needs to send the username and
password again before it can use the wireless network again. Some wireless clients
may prompt users for a username and password; other clients may use saved login
credentials. In either case, there is usually a short delay while the wireless client
logs in to the wireless network again.
This value is usually smaller when the wireless network is keeping track of how
much time each wireless client is connected to the wireless network (for example,
using an authentication server). If the wireless network is not keeping track of this
information, you can usually set this value higher to reduce the number of delays
caused by logging in again.
Enter a time interval between 600 and 65535 seconds.
Authentication
Databases
Click Local User to go to the Local User Database screen where you can view
and/or edit the list of users and passwords. Click RADIUS to go to the RADIUS
screen where you can configure the LAN-Cell to check an external RADIUS server.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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7.8.5 WPA, WPA2, WPA2-MIX
Click WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security > Edit. Select WPA, WPA2 or WPA2-MIX from the
Security Mode list.
Figure 86 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: WPA, WPA2 or WPA2-MIX
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 52 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: WPA, WPA2 or WPA2-MIX
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Select WPA, WPA2 or WPA2-MIX from the drop-down list.
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless clients have to resend user names and passwords in
order to stay connected. Enter a time interval between 600 and 65535 seconds.
If wireless client authentication is done using a RADIUS server, the
reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has priority.
Idle Timeout
The LAN-Cell automatically disconnects a wireless client from the wireless network
after a period of inactivity. The wireless client needs to send the username and
password again before it can use the wireless network again. Some wireless
clients may prompt users for a username and password; other clients may use
saved login credentials. In either case, there is usually a short delay while the
wireless client logs in to the wireless network again.
This value is usually smaller when the wireless network is keeping track of how
much time each wireless client is connected to the wireless network (for example,
using an authentication server). If the wireless network is not keeping track of this
information, you can usually set this value higher to reduce the number of delays
caused by logging in again.
Enter a time interval between 600 and 65535 seconds.
Group Key
Update Timer
The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP sends a new group key
out to all clients. The re-keying process is the WPA equivalent of automatically
changing the WEP key for an AP and all stations in a WLAN on a periodic basis.
Setting of the Group Key Update Timer is also supported in WPA(2)-PSK mode.
PMK Cache
This field is available only when you select WPA2 or WPA2-MIX.
When a wireless client moves from one AP’s coverage area to another, it performs
an authentication procedure (exchanging security information) with the new AP.
Instead of re-authenticating a client each time it returns to the AP’s coverage area,
which can cause delays to time-sensitive applications, the AP and the client can
store (or “cache”) and use information about their previous authentication.
Select Enable to allow PMK (Pairwise Master Key) caching, or Disable to switch
this feature off.
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Table 52 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: WPA, WPA2 or WPA2-MIX (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
7.8.6 WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK, WPA2-PSK-MIX
Click WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security > Edit. Select WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2PSK-MIX from the Security Mode list.
Figure 87 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: WPA(2)-PSK
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 53 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: WPA(2)-PSK
160
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Select WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2-PSK-MIX from the drop-down list.
Pre-Shared Key
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA(2) and WPA(2)-PSK are the same. The
only difference between the two is that WPA(2)-PSK uses a simple common
password, instead of user-specific credentials.
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 63 case-sensitive ASCII characters (including
spaces and symbols).
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless clients have to resend user names and passwords in
order to stay connected. Enter a time interval between 600 and 65535 seconds.
If wireless client authentication is done using a RADIUS server, the
reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has priority.
Idle Timeout
The LAN-Cell automatically disconnects a wireless client from the wireless network
after a period of inactivity. The wireless client needs to send the username and
password again before it can use the wireless network again. Some wireless
clients may prompt users for a username and password; other clients may use
saved login credentials. In either case, there is usually a short delay while the
wireless client logs in to the wireless network again.
This value is usually smaller when the wireless network is keeping track of how
much time each wireless client is connected to the wireless network (for example,
using an authentication server). If the wireless network is not keeping track of this
information, you can usually set this value higher to reduce the number of delays
caused by logging in again.
Enter a time interval between 600 and 65535 seconds.
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Table 53 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: WPA(2)-PSK (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Group Key
Update Timer
The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP sends a new group key
out to all clients. The re-keying process is the WPA equivalent of automatically
changing the WEP key for an AP and all stations in a WLAN on a periodic basis.
Setting of the Group Key Update Timer is also supported in WPA(2)-PSK mode.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
7.9 MAC Filter
The MAC filter screen allows you to configure the LAN-Cell to give exclusive access to
specific devices (Allow) or exclude specific devices from accessing the LAN-Cell (Deny).
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address
is assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:1B:39:00:00:02. You need to know the MAC addresses of the devices to configure this
screen.
To change your LAN-Cell’s MAC filter settings, click the WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > MAC
Filter. The screen appears as shown.
"
To activate MAC filtering on a profile, select Enable from the Enable MAC
Filtering drop-down list box in the Wi-Fi > Edit screen and click Apply.
Figure 88 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > MAC Filter
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The following table describes the labels in this menu.
Table 54 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > MAC Filter
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Association
Define the filter action for the list of MAC addresses in the MAC address filter table.
Select Deny to block access to the router, MAC addresses not listed will be allowed to
access the router. Select Allow to permit access to the router, MAC addresses not
listed will be denied access to the router.
#
This is the index number of the MAC address.
User Name
Enter a descriptive name for the MAC address.
MAC
Address
Enter the MAC addresses (in XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX format) of the wireless stations that
are allowed or denied access to the LAN-Cell in these address fields.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
7.10 Country Codes
The radio channel frequencies allocated for 802.11 wireless devices differ slightly in various
countries. The LAN-Cell’s internal 802.11 access point’s default settings utilize channels
which are appropriate for North America. If you will be deploying the LAN-Cell outside of
North America, you must change the LAN-Cell’s Country Code in order to modify the 802.11
access point’s channel frequencies for your local region.
1
Failure to use the correct Country Code may cause unintended interference or
prevent other 802.11 equipment from connecting to the LAN-Cell and may
violate local communication regulations.
To change the LAN-Cell’s Country Code:
1 Refer to Appendix E on page 631 to find the code for your Country/Region.
2 Using either the Console Port or a Telnet/SSH session, log into the System Management
Terminal (SMT). Refer to Chapter 23 Introducing the SMT.
3 Select Menu 24 (System Maintenance), then Menu 8 (Command Interpreter Mode).
4 At the command line prompt, enter the command: sys countrycode NNN
where NNN is the 3 digit country code value from Table 257 on page 631.
5 Press [ENTER] to save the new country code value.
6 Type sys countrycode [ENTER] to confirm the new country code value.
7 Return to the Wi-Fi Configuration screen and select the appropriate 802.11 channel.
"
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If you reset the LAN-Cell to its Factory Default settings, you must reset the
Country Code using the procedure above.
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8
Wi-Fi Screens
8.1 Overview
In these screens you can configure wireless settings for the LAN-Cell’s internal Wi-Fi 802.11
a/b/g wireless access point.
8.1.1 What You Can Do in the Wi-Fi Screens
• Use the Wi-Fi Configuration screen (Section 8.2 on page 166) to configure wireless
network settings such as SSID for the LAN-Cell.
• Use the Security screen (Section 8.3 on page 169) to configure wireless security settings
for the LAN-Cell.
• Use the MAC Filter screen (Section 8.5 on page 178) to set the LAN-Cell to allow or
disallow access to devices on your wireless network based on their MAC address.
8.1.2 What You Need to Know About Wireless LAN
Wireless Security
The following sections introduce different types of wireless security you can set up in the
wireless network.
SSID
Normally, the AP acts like a beacon and regularly broadcasts the SSID in the area. You can
hide the SSID instead, in which case the AP does not broadcast the SSID. In addition, you
should change the default SSID to something that is difficult to guess.
This type of security is fairly weak, however, because there are ways for unauthorized devices
to get the SSID. In addition, unauthorized devices can still see the information that is sent in
the wireless network.
MAC Address Filter
Every wireless client has a unique identification number, called a MAC address.4 A MAC
address is usually written using twelve hexadecimal characters5; for example, 001B39000002
or 00:1B:39:00:00:02. To get the MAC address for each wireless client, see the appropriate
User’s Guide or other documentation.
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You can use the MAC address filter to tell the AP which wireless clients are allowed or not
allowed to use the wireless network. If a wireless client is allowed to use the wireless network,
it still has to have the correct settings (SSID, channel, and security). If a wireless client is not
allowed to use the wireless network, it does not matter if it has the correct settings.
This type of security does not protect the information that is sent in the wireless network.
Furthermore, there are ways for unauthorized devices to get the MAC address of an authorized
wireless client. Then, they can use that MAC address to use the wireless network.
User Authentication
You can make every user log in to the wireless network before they can use it. This is called
user authentication. However, every wireless client in the wireless network has to support
IEEE 802.1x to do this.
For wireless networks, there are two typical places to store the user names and passwords for
each user.
• In the AP: this feature is called a local user database or a local database.
• In a RADIUS server: this is a server used in businesses more than in homes.
If your AP does not provide a local user database and if you do not have a RADIUS server,
you cannot set up user names and passwords for your users.
Unauthorized devices can still see the information that is sent in the wireless network, even if
they cannot use the wireless network. Furthermore, there are ways for unauthorized wireless
users to get a valid user name and password. Then, they can use that user name and password
to use the wireless network.
Local user databases also have an additional limitation that is explained in the next section.
Encryption
Wireless networks can use encryption to protect the information that is sent in the wireless
network. Encryption is like a secret code. If you do not know the secret code, you cannot
understand the message.
164
4.
Some wireless devices, such as scanners, can detect wireless networks but cannot use wireless
networks. These kinds of wireless devices might not have MAC addresses.
5.
Hexadecimal characters are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F.
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The types of encryption you can choose depend on the type of user authentication. (See
Section on page 164 for information about this.)
Table 55 Types of Encryption for Each Type of Authentication
No Authentication
Weakest
RADIUS Server
No Security
Static WEP
802.1x +Static WEP
Strongest
WPA-PSK
WPA
WPA2-PSK or WPA2-PSK-Mix
WPA2 or WPA2-Mix
For example, if the wireless network has a RADIUS server, you can choose WPA or WPA2.
If users do not log in to the wireless network, you can choose no encryption, Static WEP,
WPA-PSK, or WPA2-PSK.
Usually, you should set up the strongest encryption that every wireless client in the wireless
network supports. For example, suppose the AP does not have a local user database, and you
do not have a RADIUS server. Therefore, there is no user authentication. Suppose the wireless
network has two wireless clients. Device A only supports WEP, and device B supports WEP
and WPA. Therefore, you should set up Static WEP in the wireless network.
Note: It is recommended that wireless clients use WPA-PSK, WPA, or stronger
encryption. IEEE 802.1x and WEP encryption are better than none at all, but it
is still possible for unauthorized devices to figure out the original information
pretty quickly.
It is not possible to use WPA-PSK, WPA or stronger encryption with a local
user database. In this case, it is better to set up stronger encryption with no
authentication than to set up weaker encryption with the local user database.
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8.2 Wi-Fi Configuration Screen
If you are configuring the LAN-Cell from a computer connected to the wireless LAN and you
change the LAN-Cell’s SSID or security settings, you will lose your wireless connection when
you press Apply to confirm. You must then change the wireless settings of your computer to
match the LAN-Cell’s new settings.
Click WIRELESS > Wi-Fi to open the Wi-Fi Configuraton screen.
Figure 89 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 56 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Wi-Fi
Card
The internal Wi-Fi access point is turned off by default. Before you enable the
wireless LAN you should configure some security by setting MAC filters and/or 802.1x
security; otherwise your wireless LAN will be vulnerable upon enabling it. Select the
check box to enable the wireless LAN.
Bridge to
Select LAN to use the Wi-Fi card as part of the LAN.
Select DMZ to use the Wi-Fi card as part of the DMZ.
Select WLAN to use the Wi-Fi card as part of the WLAN.
The LAN-Cell restarts after you change the Wi-Fi card setting.
Note: If you set the Wi-Fi card to be part of the LAN or DMZ, you can
still use wireless access. The firewall will treat the Wi-Fi card as
part of the LAN or DMZ respectively.
802.11 Mode
Select 802.11b Only to allow only IEEE 802.11b compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the LAN-Cell.
Select 802.11g Only to allow only IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the LAN-Cell.
Select 802.11b+g to allow both IEEE802.11b and IEEE802.11g compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the LAN-Cell. The transmission rate of your LAN-Cell might
be reduced.
Select 802.11a Only to allow only IEEE 802.11a compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the LAN-Cell.
Choose
Channel ID
Set the operating frequency/channel depending on your particular region. To manually
set the LAN-Cell to use a channel, select a channel from the drop-down list box. To
have the LAN-Cell automatically select a channel, click Scan instead.
Scan
Click this button to have the LAN-Cell automatically select the wireless channel with
the lowest interference.
Super Mode
Select this to improve data throughput on the WLAN by enabling fast frame and
packet bursting.
At the time of writing, this works only when the wireless client is using an Atheros card.
RTS/CTS
Threshold
This is the threshold (number of bytes) for enabling RTS/CTS handshake. Data with a
frame size larger than this value will perform the RTS/CTS handshake. Setting this
attribute to be larger than the maximum MSDU (MAC service data unit) size turns off
the RTS/CTS handshake. Enter a value between 256 and 2346.
If you select Super Mode, this field is grayed out and the LAN-Cell uses 2346
automatically.
Fragmentation
Threshold
This is the threshold (number of bytes) for the fragmentation boundary for directed
messages. It is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter a value
between 256 and 2346.
If you select Super Mode, this field is grayed out and the LAN-Cell uses 2346
automatically.
Output Power
Set the output power of the LAN-Cell in this field. If there is a high density of APs in an
area, decrease the output power to reduce interference with other APs. Select one of
the following 100% (full power), 50%, 25%, 12.5% or min (minimum). See the product
specifications for more information on your LAN-Cell’s output power.
Enable
Roaming
Roaming allows wireless stations to switch from one access point to another as they
move from one coverage area to another. Select this checkbox to enable roaming on
the LAN-Cell if you have two or more LAN-Cells on the same subnet.
Note: All APs on the same subnet and the wireless clients must have
the same SSID to allow roaming.
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Table 56 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Select SSID
Profile
An SSID profile is the set of parameters relating to one of the LAN-Cell’s BSSs. The
SSID (Service Set IDentifier) identifies the Service Set with which a wireless client is
associated. Wireless clients associating with the access point (AP) must have the
same SSID.
Note: If you are configuring the LAN-Cell from a computer connected
to the wireless LAN and you change the LAN-Cell’s SSID or
security settings, you will lose your wireless connection when
you press Apply to confirm. You must then change the wireless
settings of your computer to match the LAN-Cell’s new settings.
#
This field displays the index number of each SSID profile.
Active
Choose a profile to apply to your wireless network by selecting its radio button.
Name
This field displays the identification name of each SSID profile on the LAN-Cell.
SSID
This field displays the name of the wireless profile on the network. When a wireless
client scans for an AP to associate with, this is the name that is broadcast and seen in
the wireless client utility.
Security
This field indicates which security profile is currently associated with each SSID
profile. See Section 8.3 on page 169 for more information.
Action
Click the Edit icon next to the profile you want to configure and go to the SSID
configuration screen.
Click the Reset Default icon to clear all user-entered configuration information and
return the SSID profile to its factory defaults.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
8.2.1 SSID Profile
Configure wireless network security by configuring and applying an SSID profile. You can
configure multiple profiles but you can only apply one to your network.
Use the Wi-Fi Configuration screen to see information about the SSID profiles on the LANCell, and use the Wi-Fi CONFIGURATION > Edit screen to configure the SSID profiles.
Each SSID profile references the settings configured in the following screens:
• Wi-Fi CONFIGURATION > Security (one of the security profiles).
• AUTH SERVER > RADIUS (the RADIUS server settings).
• Wi-Fi CONFIGURATION > MAC Filter (the MAC filter list, if activated in the SSID
profile).
Configure the fields in the above screens to use the settings in an SSID profile.
In the Wi-Fi CONFIGURATION screen, click the Edit icon next to an SSID profile to
display the following screen.
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Figure 90 Configuring SSID
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 57 Configuring SSID
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter a name (up to 32 printable 7-bit ASCII characters) identifying this
profile.
SSID
When a wireless client scans for an AP to associate with, this is the name that
is broadcast and seen in the wireless client utility.
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable 7-bit ASCII characters) for the
wireless LAN.
Hide SSID
Select Disable if you want the LAN-Cell to broadcast this SSID (a wireless
client scanning for an AP will find this SSID). Alternatively, select Enable to
have the LAN-Cell hide this SSID (a wireless client scanning for an AP will not
find this SSID).
Security
Select a security profile to use with this SSID profile. See Section 8.3 on page
169 for more information.
RADIUS
This displays N/A if the security profile you selected does not use RADIUS
authentication. See Section 12.3 on page 285 for more information.
This displays Radius Configuration if you select a security profile that uses
RADIUS authentication. Click Radius Configuration to go to the RADIUS
screen where you can view and/or change the RADIUS settings.
See Section 12.3 on page 285 for more information.
Enable MAC Filtering
Select Enable from the drop down list box to activate MAC address filtering.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
8.3 Wireless Security Screen
Click WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security to open the Security screen. Use this screen to create
security profiles. A security profile is a group of configuration settings which can be assigned
to an SSID profile in the Wi-Fi Configuration screen.
The screen changes when you configure a security profile and varies according to the security
modes you select.
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The following table describes the security modes you can configure.
Table 58 Security Modes
SECURITY MODE
DESCRIPTION
None
Select this to have no data encryption.
WEP
Select this to use WEP encryption.
802.1x-Only
Select this to use 802.1x authentication with no data encryption.
802.1x-Static64
Select this to use 802.1x authentication with a static 64bit WEP key and an
authentication server.
802.1x-Static128
Select this to use 802.1x authentication with a static 128bit WEP key and
an authentication server.
WPA
Select this to use WPA.
WPA-PSK
Select this to use WPA with a pre-shared key.
WPA2
Select this to use WPA2.
WPA2-MIX
Select this to use either WPA2 or WPA depending on which security mode
the wireless client uses.
WPA2-PSK
Select this to use WPA2 with a pre-shared key.
WPA2-PSK-MIX
Select this to use either WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK depending on which
security mode the wireless client uses.
If some wireless clients support WPA and some support WPA2, you should set up WPA2PSK-Mix or WPA2-Mix (depending on the type of wireless network login) in the LAN-Cell.
Many types of encryption use a key to protect the information in the wireless network. The
longer the key, the stronger the encryption. Every wireless client in the wireless network must
have the same key.
Figure 91 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 59 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security Profile
Index
This is the index number of the security profile.
Profile Name
This field displays a name given to a security profile in the Security configuration
screen.
Security Mode This field displays the security mode this security profile uses.
Action
Click the Edit icon to configure security settings for that profile.
Click the Reset Default icon to clear all user-entered configuration information and
return the security profile to its factory defaults.
8.3.1 No Security
"
If you do not enable any wireless security on your LAN-Cell, your network is
accessible to any wireless networking device within range.
Figure 92 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: None
The following table describes the wireless LAN security labels in this screen.
Table 60 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: None
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name (up to 32 printable 7-bit ASCII characters) to identify this security profile.
Security Mode Select None to allow wireless clients to communicate with the access points without
any data encryption.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
8.3.2 Static WEP
Static WEP provides a mechanism for encrypting data using encryption keys. Both the AP and
the wireless stations must use the same WEP key to encrypt and decrypt data.
Your LAN-Cell allows you to configure up to four 64-bit, 128-bit or 152-bit WEP keys, but
only one key can be used at any one time.
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In order to configure and enable WEP encryption, click WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security >
Edit.
Figure 93 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: WEP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 61 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: WEP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode Select WEP from the drop-down list.
WEP
Encryption
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) provides data encryption to prevent unauthorized
wireless stations from accessing data transmitted over the wireless network.
Select 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP or 152-bit WEP to enable data encryption.
Authentication Select Shared-Key to have the LAN-Cell use the default WEP key to authenticate the
Method
wireless client to the LAN-Cell.
Select Auto to have the LAN-Cell switch between the shared-key and open system
(the wireless clients and AP do not share a secret key for authentication) modes
automatically.
The default setting is Auto.
Key 1 to Key 4 The WEP keys are used to encrypt data. Both the LAN-Cell and the wireless clients
must use the same WEP key for data transmission.
If you chose 64-bit WEP in the WEP Encryption field, then enter any 5 ASCII
characters or 10 hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each key.
If you chose 128-bit WEP in the WEP Encryption field, then enter 13 ASCII
characters or 26 hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each key.
If you chose 152-bit WEP in the WEP Encryption field, then enter 16 ASCII
characters or 32 hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each key.
You can configure up to four keys, but only one key can be activated at any one time.
The default key is key 1.
172
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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8.3.3 IEEE 802.1x Only
Click the WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security > Edit. Select 8021X-Only from the Security
Mode list.
Figure 94 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: 802.1x Only
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 62 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: 802.1x Only
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Select 8021X-Only from the drop-down list.
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless clients have to resend user names and passwords in
order to stay connected. Enter a time interval between 600 and 65535 seconds.
If wireless client authentication is done using a RADIUS server, the
reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has priority.
Idle Timeout
The LAN-Cell automatically disconnects a wireless client from the wireless network
after a period of inactivity. The wireless client needs to send the username and
password again before it can use the wireless network again. Some wireless
clients may prompt users for a username and password; other clients may use
saved login credentials. In either case, there is usually a short delay while the
wireless client logs in to the wireless network again.
This value is usually smaller when the wireless network is keeping track of how
much time each wireless client is connected to the wireless network (for example,
using an authentication server). If the wireless network is not keeping track of this
information, you can usually set this value higher to reduce the number of delays
caused by logging in again.
Enter a time interval between 600 and 65535 seconds.
Authentication
Databases
Click Local User to go to the Local User Database screen where you can view
and/or edit the list of users and passwords. Click RADIUS to go to the RADIUS
screen where you can configure the LAN-Cell to check an external RADIUS server.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
8.3.4 IEEE 802.1x + Static WEP
Click the WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security > Edit. Select 8021X-Static 64 or 8021XStatic128 in the Security Mode field to display the following screen.
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Figure 95 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: 802.1x + Static WEP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 63 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: 802.1x + Static WEP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Select 8021X-Static64 or 8021X-Static128 from the drop-down list.
Key 1 to Key 4
If you chose 8021X-Static64 in the Security Mode field, then enter any 5
characters (ASCII string) or 10 hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by
0x for each key.
If you chose 8021X-Static128 in the Security Mode field, then enter 13 characters
(ASCII string) or 26 hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each
key.
There are four data encryption keys to secure your data from eavesdropping by
unauthorized wireless users. The values for the keys must be set up exactly the
same on the access points as they are on the wireless clients.
ReAuthentication Specify how often wireless clients have to resend user names and passwords in
Timer
order to stay connected. Enter a time interval between 600 and 65535 seconds.
If wireless client authentication is done using a RADIUS server, the
reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has priority.
174
Idle Timeout
The LAN-Cell automatically disconnects a wireless client from the wireless network
after a period of inactivity. The wireless client needs to send the username and
password again before it can use the wireless network again. Some wireless clients
may prompt users for a username and password; other clients may use saved login
credentials. In either case, there is usually a short delay while the wireless client
logs in to the wireless network again.
This value is usually smaller when the wireless network is keeping track of how
much time each wireless client is connected to the wireless network (for example,
using an authentication server). If the wireless network is not keeping track of this
information, you can usually set this value higher to reduce the number of delays
caused by logging in again.
Enter a time interval between 600 and 65535 seconds.
Authentication
Databases
Click Local User to go to the Local User Database screen where you can view
and/or edit the list of users and passwords. Click RADIUS to go to the RADIUS
screen where you can configure the LAN-Cell to check an external RADIUS server.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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8.3.5 WPA, WPA2, WPA2-MIX
Click WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security > Edit. Select WPA, WPA2 or WPA2-MIX from the
Security Mode list.
Figure 96 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: WPA, WPA2 or WPA2-MIX
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 64 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: WPA, WPA2 or WPA2-MIX
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Select WPA, WPA2 or WPA2-MIX from the drop-down list.
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless clients have to resend user names and passwords in
order to stay connected. Enter a time interval between 600 and 65535 seconds.
If wireless client authentication is done using a RADIUS server, the
reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has priority.
Idle Timeout
The LAN-Cell automatically disconnects a wireless client from the wireless network
after a period of inactivity. The wireless client needs to send the username and
password again before it can use the wireless network again. Some wireless
clients may prompt users for a username and password; other clients may use
saved login credentials. In either case, there is usually a short delay while the
wireless client logs in to the wireless network again.
This value is usually smaller when the wireless network is keeping track of how
much time each wireless client is connected to the wireless network (for example,
using an authentication server). If the wireless network is not keeping track of this
information, you can usually set this value higher to reduce the number of delays
caused by logging in again.
Enter a time interval between 600 and 65535 seconds.
Group Key
Update Timer
The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP sends a new group key
out to all clients. The re-keying process is the WPA equivalent of automatically
changing the WEP key for an AP and all stations in a WLAN on a periodic basis.
Setting of the Group Key Update Timer is also supported in WPA(2)-PSK mode.
PMK Cache
This field is available only when you select WPA2 or WPA2-MIX.
When a wireless client moves from one AP’s coverage area to another, it performs
an authentication procedure (exchanging security information) with the new AP.
Instead of re-authenticating a client each time it returns to the AP’s coverage area,
which can cause delays to time-sensitive applications, the AP and the client can
store (or “cache”) and use information about their previous authentication.
Select Enable to allow PMK (Pairwise Master Key) caching, or Disable to switch
this feature off.
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Table 64 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: WPA, WPA2 or WPA2-MIX (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
8.3.6 WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK, WPA2-PSK-MIX
Click WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security > Edit. Select WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2PSK-MIX from the Security Mode list.
Figure 97 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: WPA(2)-PSK
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 65 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: WPA(2)-PSK
176
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Select WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2-PSK-MIX from the drop-down list.
Pre-Shared Key
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA(2) and WPA(2)-PSK are the same. The
only difference between the two is that WPA(2)-PSK uses a simple common
password, instead of user-specific credentials.
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 63 case-sensitive ASCII characters (including
spaces and symbols).
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless clients have to resend user names and passwords in
order to stay connected. Enter a time interval between 600 and 65535 seconds.
If wireless client authentication is done using a RADIUS server, the
reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has priority.
Idle Timeout
The LAN-Cell automatically disconnects a wireless client from the wireless network
after a period of inactivity. The wireless client needs to send the username and
password again before it can use the wireless network again. Some wireless
clients may prompt users for a username and password; other clients may use
saved login credentials. In either case, there is usually a short delay while the
wireless client logs in to the wireless network again.
This value is usually smaller when the wireless network is keeping track of how
much time each wireless client is connected to the wireless network (for example,
using an authentication server). If the wireless network is not keeping track of this
information, you can usually set this value higher to reduce the number of delays
caused by logging in again.
Enter a time interval between 600 and 65535 seconds.
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Table 65 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > Security: WPA(2)-PSK (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Group Key
Update Timer
The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP sends a new group key
out to all clients. The re-keying process is the WPA equivalent of automatically
changing the WEP key for an AP and all stations in a WLAN on a periodic basis.
Setting of the Group Key Update Timer is also supported in WPA(2)-PSK mode.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
8.4 MAC Filter Screen
The MAC filter screen allows you to configure the LAN-Cell to give exclusive access to
specific devices (Allow) or exclude specific devices from accessing the LAN-Cell (Deny).
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address
is assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:1B:39:00:00:02. You need to know the MAC addresses of the devices to configure this
screen.
To change your LAN-Cell’s MAC filter settings, click the WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > MAC
Filter. The screen appears as shown.
"
To activate MAC filtering on a profile, select Enable from the Enable MAC
Filtering drop-down list box in the Wi-Fi > Edit screen and click Apply.
Figure 98 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > MAC Filter
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The following table describes the labels in this menu.
Table 66 WIRELESS > Wi-Fi > MAC Filter
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Association
Define the filter action for the list of MAC addresses in the MAC address filter table.
Select Deny to block access to the router, MAC addresses not listed will be allowed to
access the router. Select Allow to permit access to the router, MAC addresses not
listed will be denied access to the router.
#
This is the index number of the MAC address.
User Name
Enter a descriptive name for the MAC address.
MAC
Address
Enter the MAC addresses (in XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX format) of the wireless stations that
are allowed or denied access to the LAN-Cell in these address fields.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
8.5 Country Codes
The radio channel frequencies allocated for 802.11 wireless devices differ slightly in various
countries. The LAN-Cell’s internal 802.11 access point’s default settings utilize channels
which are appropriate for North America. If you will be deploying the LAN-Cell outside of
North America, you must change the LAN-Cell’s Country Code in order to modify the 802.11
access point’s channel frequencies for your local region.
1
Failure to use the correct Country Code may cause unintended interference or
prevent other 802.11 equipment from connecting to the LAN-Cell and may
violate local communication regulations.
To change the LAN-Cell’s Country Code:
1 Refer to Appendix E on page 631 to find the code for your Country/Region.
2 Using either the Console Port or a Telnet/SSH session, log into the System Management
Terminal (SMT). Refer to Chapter 23 Introducing the SMT.
3 Select Menu 24 (System Maintenance), then Menu 8 (Command Interpreter Mode).
4 At the command line prompt, enter the command: sys countrycode NNN
where NNN is the 3 digit country code value from Table 257 on page 631.
5 Press [ENTER] to save the new country code value.
6 Type sys countrycode [ENTER] to confirm the new country code value.
7 Return to the Wi-Fi Configuration screen and select the appropriate 802.11 channel.
"
178
If you reset the LAN-Cell to its Factory Default settings, you must reset the
Country Code using the procedure above.
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
P ART III
Security Menu
Firewall Screens (181)
VPN Wizard Overview (57)
IPSec VPN Config Screens (209)
Certificates Screens (255)
Authentication Server Screens (283)
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CHAPTER
9
Firewall Screens
9.1 Overview
A firewall is a system or group of systems that enforces an access-control policy between two
networks. It is generally a mechanism used to protect a trusted network from an untrusted
network.
The LAN-Cell physically separates the LAN, DMZ, WLAN and the WAN and acts as a secure
gateway for all data passing between the networks. The LAN-Cell protects against Denial of
Service (DoS) attacks, prevents theft, destruction and modification of data, and logs events.
Enable the firewall to protect your LAN computers from attacks by hackers on the Internet and
control access between the LAN, DMZ, WLAN and WAN. By default the firewall:
• allows traffic that originates from your LAN computers to go to all of the networks.
• blocks traffic that originates on the other networks from going to the LAN.
• allows traffic that originates on from WAN or CELL to access the default LAN-Cell
Remote Management service ports (http/https, telent/ssh, ftp, snmp)
• allows traffic that originates on the WLAN to go to the WAN.
• allows traffic that originates on the WAN to go to the DMZ and protects your DMZ
computers against DoS attacks.
• allows VPN traffic between any of the networks.
The following figure illustrates the default firewall action. User A can initiate an IM (Instant
Messaging) session from the LAN to the WAN (1). Return traffic for this session is also
allowed (2). However other traffic initiated from the WAN is blocked (3 and 4).
Figure 99 Default Firewall Action
Your customized rules take precedence and override the LAN-Cell’s default settings. The
LAN-Cell checks the source IP address, destination IP address and IP protocol type of network
traffic against the firewall rules (in the order you list them). When the traffic matches a rule,
the LAN-Cell takes the action specified in the rule.
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9.1.1 What You Can Do in the Firewall Screens
• Use the Default Rule screens (Section 9.3 on page 184) to configure general firewall
settings that apply when no specific rules have been matched.
• Use the Rule Summary screens (Section 9.4 on page 186) to configure firewall rules.
• Use the Anti-Probing screen (Section 9.5 on page 191) to specify which of the LAN-Cell’s
interfaces will respond to Ping requests and whether or not the LAN-Cell is to respond to
probing for unused ports.
• Use the Threshold screen (Section 9.6 on page 192) to configure DoS thresholds and
actions to be taken when a threshold is reached.
• Use the Service screen (Section 9.7 on page 194) to configure custom services for use in
firewall rules or view the services that are predefined in the LAN-Cell.
9.1.2 What You Need To Know About The LAN-Cell Firewall
Packet Direction
Packets have source and destination address headers. You can set what the LAN-Cell does
with packets traveling in a specific direction (including going to/coming from a VPN tunnel)
that do not match any of the firewall rules. See also Packet Direction Examples on page 200.
Asymmetrical Routes
Asymmetrical routes only apply if you have another gateway on your LAN and the firewall is
enabled. If return traffic is routed through the LAN gateway (instead of the LAN-Cell), then
the LAN-Cell may reset the ‘incomplete’ connection. When you enable asymmetrical routes,
interface to same interface traffic (for example WAN to WAN, VPN to VPN and so on) is not
checked by the firewall. See Asymmetrical Routes on page 206 for information on how to use
IP alias instead of asymmetrical routes.
9.2 Firewall Rules Example
Suppose that your company decides to block all of the LAN users from using IRC (Internet
Relay Chat) through the Internet. To do this, you would configure a LAN to WAN firewall
rule that blocks IRC traffic from any source IP address from going to any destination address.
You do not need to specify a schedule since you need the firewall rule to always be in effect.
The following figure shows the results of this rule.
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Figure 100 Blocking All LAN to WAN IRC Traffic Example
Your firewall would have the following configuration.
Table 67 Blocking All LAN to WAN IRC Traffic Example
#
SOURCE
DESTINATION SCHEDULE
SERVICE
ACTION
1
Any
Any
Any
IRC
Drop
Default
Any
Any
Any
Any
Allow
• The first row blocks LAN access to the IRC service on the WAN.
• The second row is the firewall’s default policy that allows all traffic from the LAN to go to
the WAN.
The LAN-Cell applies the firewall rules in order. So for this example, when the LAN-Cell
receives traffic from the LAN, it checks it against the first rule. If the traffic matches (if it is
IRC traffic) the firewall takes the action in the rule (drop) and stops checking the firewall
rules. Any traffic that does not match the first firewall rule will match the default rule and the
LAN-Cell forwards it.
Now suppose that your company wants to let the CEO use IRC. You can configure a LAN to
WAN firewall rule that allows IRC traffic from the IP address of the CEO’s computer. In order
to make sure that the CEO’s computer always uses the same IP address, make sure it either:
• has a static IP address,
• or you configure a static DHCP entry for it so the LAN-Cell always assigns it the same IP
address (see Section 4.3 on page 83 for information on static DHCP).
Now you configure a LAN to WAN firewall rule that allows IRC traffic from the IP address of
the CEO’s computer (192.168.1.7 for example) to go to any destination address. You do not
need to specify a schedule since you want the firewall rule to always be in effect. The
following figure shows the results of your two custom rules.
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Figure 101 Limited LAN to WAN IRC Traffic Example
Your firewall would have the following configuration.
Table 68 Limited LAN to WAN IRC Traffic Example
#
SOURCE
DESTINATION SCHEDULE
SERVICE
ACTION
1
192.168.1.7
Any
IRC
Allow
Any
2
Any
Any
Any
IRC
Drop
Default
Any
Any
Any
Any
Allow
• The first row allows the LAN computer at IP address 192.168.1.7 to access the IRC
service on the WAN.
• The second row blocks LAN access to the IRC service on the WAN.
• The third row is (still) the firewall’s default policy of allowing all traffic from the LAN to
go to the WAN.
The rule for the CEO must come before the rule that blocks all LAN to WAN IRC traffic. If
the rule that blocks all LAN to WAN IRC traffic came first, the CEO’s IRC traffic would
match that rule and the LAN-Cell would drop it and not check any other firewall rules.
9.3 Firewall Default Rule
Click SECURITY > FIREWALL to open the Default Rule screen.
Use this screen to configure general firewall settings for the LAN-Cell.
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Figure 102 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Default Rule
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 69 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Default Rule
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
0-100%
This bar displays the percentage of the LAN-Cell’s firewall rules storage space that
is currently in use. When the storage space is almost full, you should consider
deleting unnecessary firewall rules before adding more firewall rules.
Enable Firewall
Select this check box to activate the firewall. The LAN-Cell performs access control
and protects against Denial of Service (DoS) attacks when the firewall is activated.
Note: When you activate the firewall, all current connections through
the LAN-Cell are dropped when you apply your changes.
Allow
Asymmetrical
Route
If an alternate gateway on the LAN has an IP address in the same subnet as the
LAN-Cell’s LAN IP address, return traffic may not go through the LAN-Cell. This is
called an asymmetrical or “triangle” route. This causes the LAN-Cell to reset the
connection, as the connection has not been acknowledged.
Select this check box to have the LAN-Cell permit the use of asymmetrical route
topology on the network (not reset the connection).
Note: Allowing asymmetrical routes may let traffic from the WAN go
directly to the LAN without passing through the LAN-Cell. A
better solution is to use IP alias to put the LAN-Cell and the
backup gateway on separate subnets. See Asymmetrical
Routes and IP Alias on page 206 for an example.
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Table 69 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Default Rule (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
From, To
Set the firewall’s default actions based on the direction of travel of packets. Click the
edit icon to go to a summary screen of the rules for that packet direction.
Here are some example descriptions of the directions of travel.
From LAN To LAN means packets traveling from a computer on one LAN subnet to
a computer on another LAN subnet on the LAN interface of the LAN-Cell or the
LAN-Cell itself. The LAN-Cell does not apply the firewall to packets traveling from a
LAN computer to another LAN computer on the same subnet.
From CELL To LAN means packets that originates from the 3G Cellular connection
and are destined for devices on the private LAN subnet.
From WAN To LAN means packets that originates from the wired Ethernet WAN
port (or serial Dial-Backup port) and are destined for devices on the private LAN
subnet. In fail-over operation, you will typically define the same firewall rules for both
the WAN and CELL packet sources.
From VPN means traffic that came into the LAN-Cell through a VPN tunnel and is
going to the selected “to” interface. For example, From VPN To LAN specifies the
VPN traffic that is going to the LAN. The LAN-Cell applies the firewall to the traffic
after decrypting it.
To VPN is traffic that comes in through the selected “from” interface and goes out
through any VPN tunnel. For example, From LAN To VPN specifies the traffic that
is coming from the LAN and going out through a VPN tunnel. The LAN-Cell applies
the firewall to the traffic before encrypting it.
From VPN To VPN means traffic that comes in through a VPN tunnel and goes out
through (another) VPN tunnel or terminates at the LAN-Cell. This is the case when
the LAN-Cell is the hub in a hub-and-spoke VPN. This is also the case if you allow
someone to use a service (like Telnet or HTTP) through a VPN tunnel to manage
the LAN-Cell. The LAN-Cell applies the firewall to the traffic after decrypting it.
Note: The VPN connection directions apply to the traffic going to or
from the LAN-Cell’s VPN tunnels. They do not apply to other
VPN traffic for which the LAN-Cell is not one of the gateways
(VPN pass-through traffic).
Here are the default actions from which you can select.
Select Drop to silently discard the packets without sending a TCP reset packet or
an ICMP destination-unreachable message to the sender.
Select Reject to deny the packets and send a TCP reset packet (for a TCP packet)
or an ICMP destination-unreachable message (for a UDP packet) to the sender.
Select Permit to allow the passage of the packets.
The firewall rules for the WAN port with a higher route priority also apply to the dial
backup connection.
Log
Select the check box next to a direction of packet travel to create a log when the
above action is taken for packets that are traveling in that direction and do not match
any of your customized rules.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
9.4 Firewall Rule Summary Screen
Click SECURITY > FIREWALL > Rule Summary to open the screen. This screen displays
a list of the configured firewall rules.
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"
The ordering of your rules is very important as rules are applied in the order
that they are listed.
Figure 103 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Rule Summary
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 70 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Rule Summary
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Packet Direction Use the drop-down list boxes and click Refresh to select a direction of travel of
packets for which you want to display firewall rules.
To edit firewall rules for packets destined for one of the LAN-Cell’s
internal interfaces (such as a Remote Management port -- see
page 319), select the same interface name in the Source and
Destination drop-down listboxes (e.g. CELL to CELL) or select ANY as
the Destination to see all rules that apply from the indicated source .
The VPN connection directions apply to the traffic going to or from the LAN-Cell’s
VPN tunnels. They do not apply to other VPN traffic for which the LAN-Cell is not
one of the gateways (VPN pass-through traffic).
+/-
In the heading row, click + to expand or - to collapse the Source Address,
Destination Address and Service Type drop down lists for all of the displayed rules.
Default Policy
This field displays the default action and log policy you selected in the Default Rule
screen for the packet direction shown in the field above.
The following read-only fields summarize the rules you have created that apply to traffic traveling in the
selected packet direction. The firewall rules that you configure (summarized below) take priority over
the general firewall action settings above.
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Table 70 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Rule Summary
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is your firewall rule number. The ordering of your rules is important as rules are
applied in turn. Click + to expand or - to collapse the Source Address, Destination
Address and Service Type drop down lists.
Name
This is the name of the firewall rule.
Active
This field displays whether a firewall is turned on (Y) or not (N).
Source Address
This drop-down list box displays the source addresses or ranges of addresses to
which this firewall rule applies. Please note that a blank source or destination
address is equivalent to Any.
Destination
Address
This drop-down list box displays the destination addresses or ranges of addresses
to which this firewall rule applies. Please note that a blank source or destination
address is equivalent to Any.
Service Type
This drop-down list box displays the services to which this firewall rule applies. See
Appendix D on page 613 for a list of common services.
Action
This field displays whether the firewall silently discards packets (Drop), discards
packets and sends a TCP reset packet or an ICMP destination-unreachable
message to the sender (Reject) or allows the passage of packets (Permit).
Sch.
This field tells you whether a schedule is specified (Yes) or not (No).
Log
This field shows you whether a log is created when packets match this rule (Yes) or
not (No).
Modify
Click the edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the rule.
Click the delete icon to delete an existing firewall rule. A window display asking you
to confirm that you want to delete the firewall rule. Note that subsequent firewall
rules move up by one when you take this action.
9.4.1 Firewall Edit Rule
In the Rule Summary screen, click the edit icon or the insert icon to display the Firewall Edit
Rule screen.
Use this screen to create or edit a firewall rule. Refer to the following table for information on
the labels.
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Figure 104 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Rule Summary > Edit
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 71 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Rule Summary > Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Rule Name
Enter a descriptive name of up to 31 printable ASCII characters (except Extended
ASCII characters) for the firewall rule. Spaces are allowed.
Edit Source/Destination Address
Address Type
Do you want your rule to apply to packets with a particular (single) IP, a range of IP
addresses (for example 192.168.1.10 to 192.169.1.50), a subnet or any IP
address? Select an option from the drop-down list box that includes: Single
Address, Range Address, Subnet Address and Any Address.
Start IP Address
Enter the single IP address or the starting IP address in a range here.
End IP Address
Enter the ending IP address in a range here.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask here, if applicable.
Add
Click Add to add a new address to the Source or Destination Address(es) box.
You can add multiple addresses, ranges of addresses, and/or subnets.
Modify
To edit an existing source or destination address, select it from the box and click
Modify.
Delete
Highlight an existing source or destination address from the Source or
Destination Address(es) box above and click Delete to remove it.
Edit Service
Available/
Selected
Services
Highlight a service from the Available Services box on the left, then click >> to
add it to the Selected Service(s) box on the right. To remove a service, highlight it
in the Selected Service(s) box on the right, then click <<.
Next to the name of a service, two fields appear in brackets. The first field indicates
the IP protocol type (TCP, UDP, or ICMP). The second field indicates the IP port
number that defines the service. (Note that there may be more than one IP
protocol type). For example, look at the DNS entry, (UDP/TCP:53) means UDP
port 53 and TCP port 53. Click the Service link to go to the Service screen where
you can configure custom service ports. See Appendix D on page 613 for a list of
commonly used services and port numbers.
You can use the [CTRL] key and select multiple services at once.
Edit Schedule
Day to Apply
Select everyday or the day(s) of the week to apply the rule.
Time of Day to
Apply (24-Hour
Format)
Select All Day or enter the start and end times in the hour-minute format to apply
the rule.
Actions When Matched
190
Log Packet
Information When
Matched
This field determines if a log for packets that match the rule is created (Yes) or not
(No). Go to the Log Settings page and select the Access Control logs category
to have the LAN-Cell record these logs.
Send Alert
Message to
Administrator
When Matched
Select the check box to have the LAN-Cell generate an alert when the rule is
matched.
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Table 71 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Rule Summary > Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Action for
Matched Packets
Use the drop-down list box to select what the firewall is to do with packets that
match this rule.
Select Drop to silently discard the packets without sending a TCP reset packet or
an ICMP destination-unreachable message to the sender.
Select Reject to deny the packets and send a TCP reset packet (for a TCP packet)
or an ICMP destination-unreachable message (for a UDP packet) to the sender.
Select Permit to allow the passage of the packets.
Note: You also need to configure NAT port forwarding (or full
featured NAT address mapping rules) if you want to allow
computers on the WAN to access devices on the LAN.
Note: You may also need to configure the remote management
settings if you want to allow a WAN computer to manage the
LAN-Cell or restrict management from the LAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
9.5 Anti-Probing Screen
Click SECURITY > FIREWALL > Anti-Probing to open the following screen. Configure
this screen to help keep the LAN-Cell hidden from probing attempts. You can specify which
of the LAN-Cell’s interfaces will respond to Ping requests and whether or not the LAN-Cell is
to respond to probing for unused ports.
Figure 105 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Anti-Probing
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 72 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Anti-Probing
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Respond to PING
on
Select the check boxes of the interfaces that you want to reply to incoming Ping
requests.
Clear an interface’s check box to have the LAN-Cell not respond to any Ping
requests that come into that interface.
Do not respond to
requests for
unauthorized
services.
Select this option to prevent hackers from finding the LAN-Cell by probing for
unused ports. If you select this option, the LAN-Cell will not respond to port
request(s) for unused ports, thus leaving the unused ports and the LAN-Cell
unseen. If this option is not selected, the LAN-Cell will reply with an ICMP port
unreachable packet for a port probe on its unused UDP ports and a TCP reset
packet for a port probe on its unused TCP ports.
Note that the probing packets must first traverse the LAN-Cell's firewall rule
checks before reaching this anti-probing mechanism. Therefore if a firewall rule
stops a probing packet, the LAN-Cell reacts based on the firewall rule to either
send a TCP reset packet for a blocked TCP packet (or an ICMP port-unreachable
packet for a blocked UDP packets) or just drop the packets without sending a
response packet.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
9.6 Threshold Screen
For DoS attacks, the LAN-Cell uses thresholds to determine when to start dropping sessions
that do not become fully established (half-open sessions). These thresholds apply globally to
all sessions. See Threshold Values on page 207 for more information on DoS thresholds.
Click SECURITY > FIREWALL > Threshold to bring up the next screen. The global
values specified for the threshold and timeout apply to all TCP connections.
Figure 106 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Threshold
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 73 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Threshold
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Disable DoS Attack
Protection on
Select the check boxes of any interfaces (or all VPN tunnels) for which you want
the LAN-Cell to not use the Denial of Service protection thresholds. This disables
DoS protection on the selected interface (or all VPN tunnels).
You may want to disable DoS protection for an interface if the LAN-Cell is treating
valid traffic as DoS attacks. Another option would be to raise the thresholds.
Denial of Service
Thresholds
The LAN-Cell measures both the total number of existing half-open sessions and
the rate of session establishment attempts. Both TCP and UDP half-open
sessions are counted in the total number and rate measurements. Measurements
are made once a minute.
One Minute Low
This is the rate of new half-open sessions per minute that causes the firewall to
stop deleting half-open sessions. The LAN-Cell continues to delete half-open
sessions as necessary, until the rate of new connection attempts drops below this
number.
One Minute High
This is the rate of new half-open sessions per minute that causes the firewall to
start deleting half-open sessions. When the rate of new connection attempts rises
above this number, the LAN-Cell deletes half-open sessions as required to
accommodate new connection attempts.
For example, if you set the one minute high to 100, the LAN-Cell starts deleting
half-open sessions when more than 100 session establishment attempts have
been detected in the last minute. It stops deleting half-open sessions when the
number of session establishment attempts detected in a minute goes below the
number set as the one minute low.
Maximum
Incomplete Low
This is the number of existing half-open sessions that causes the firewall to stop
deleting half-open sessions. The LAN-Cell continues to delete half-open requests
as necessary, until the number of existing half-open sessions drops below this
number.
Maximum
Incomplete High
This is the number of existing half-open sessions that causes the firewall to start
deleting half-open sessions. When the number of existing half-open sessions
rises above this number, the LAN-Cell deletes half-open sessions as required to
accommodate new connection requests. Do not set Maximum Incomplete High
to lower than the current Maximum Incomplete Low number.
For example, if you set the maximum incomplete high to 100, the LAN-Cell starts
deleting half-open sessions when the number of existing half-open sessions rises
above 100. It stops deleting half-open sessions when the number of existing halfopen sessions drops below the number set as the maximum incomplete low.
TCP Maximum
Incomplete
An unusually high number of half-open sessions with the same destination host
address could indicate that a DoS attack is being launched against the host.
Specify the number of existing half-open TCP sessions with the same destination
host IP address that causes the firewall to start dropping half-open sessions to
that same destination host IP address. Enter a number between 1 and 256. As a
general rule, you should choose a smaller number for a smaller network, a slower
system or limited bandwidth. The LAN-Cell sends alerts whenever the TCP
Maximum Incomplete is exceeded.
Action taken when
TCP Maximum
Incomplete
reached threshold
Select the action that LAN-Cell should take when the TCP maximum incomplete
threshold is reached. You can have the LAN-Cell either:
Delete the oldest half open session when a new connection request comes.
or
Deny new connection requests for the number of minutes that you specify
(between 1 and 256).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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9.7 Service Screen
Click SECURITY > FIREWALL > Service to open the screen as shown next. Use this
screen to configure custom services for use in firewall rules or view the services that are
predefined in the LAN-Cell.
Figure 107 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Service
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 74 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Service
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Custom Service
This table shows all configured custom services.
#
This is the index number of the custom service.
Service Name
This is the name of the service.
Protocol
This is the IP protocol type.
If you selected Custom, this is the IP protocol value you entered.
Attribute
This is the IP port number or ICMP type and code that defines the service.
Modify
Click the edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the service.
Click the delete icon to remove an existing service. A window displays asking you
to confirm that you want to delete the service. Note that subsequent services
move up by one when you take this action.
Add
Click this button to bring up the screen that you use to configure a new custom
service that is not in the predefined list of services.
Predefined
Service
This table shows all the services that are already configured for use in firewall
rules. See Appendix D on page 613 for a list of common services.
#
This is the index number of the predefined service.
Service Name
This is the name of the service.
Protocol
This is the IP protocol type. There may be more than one IP protocol type.
Attribute
This is the IP port number or ICMP type and code that defines the service.
9.7.1 Firewall Edit Custom Service
Click SECURITY > FIREWALL > Service > Add to display the following screen. Use this
screen to configure a custom service entry not is not predefined in the LAN-Cell. See
Appendix D on page 613 for a list of commonly used services and port numbers.
Figure 108 Firewall Edit Custom Service
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 75 SECURITY > FIREWALL > Service > Add
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Service Name
Enter a descriptive name of up to 31 printable ASCII characters (except
Extended ASCII characters) for the custom service. You cannot use the “(“
character. Spaces are allowed.
IP Protocol
Choose the IP protocol (TCP, UDP, TCP/UDP, ICMP or Custom) that defines
your customized service from the drop down list box.
If you select Custom, specify the protocol’s number. For example, ICMP is 1,
TCP is 6, UDP is 17 and so on.
Port Range
Enter the port number (from 1 to 255) that defines the customized service
To specify one port only, enter the port number in the From field and enter it
again in the To field.
To specify a span of ports, enter the first port in the From field and enter the last
port in the To field.
Type/Code
This field is available only when you select ICMP in the IP Protocol field.
The ICMP messages are identified by their types and in some cases codes.
Enter the type number in the Type field and select the Code radio button and
enter the code number if any.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
9.7.2 My Service Firewall Rule Example
The following Internet firewall rule example allows a hypothetical My Service connection
from the Internet.
1 In the Service screen, click Add to open the Edit Custom Service screen.
Figure 109 My Service Firewall Rule Example: Service
2 Configure it as follows and click Apply.
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Figure 110 My Service Firewall Rule Example: Edit Custom Service
3 Click Rule Summary. Select WAN to LAN from the Packet Direction drop-down list
boxes and click Refresh.
4 Click the insert icon (+) at the top of the row (Modify column) to create the new firewall
rule before the others.
Figure 111 My Service Firewall Rule Example: Rule Summary
5 The Edit Rule screen displays. Enter the name of the firewall rule.
6 Select Any in the Destination Address(es) box and then click Delete.
7 Configure the destination address fields as follows and click Add.
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Figure 112 My Service Firewall Rule Example: Rule Edit
8 In the Edit Rule screen, use the arrows between Available Services and Selected
Service(s) to configure it as follows. Click Apply when you are done.
"
198
Custom services show up with an * before their names in the Services list box
and the Rule Summary list box.
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Figure 113 My Service Firewall Rule Example: Rule Configuration
Rule 1 allows a My Service connection from the WAN to IP addresses 10.0.0.10 through
10.0.0.15 on the LAN.
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Figure 114 My Service Firewall Rule Example: Rule Summary
9.8 Firewall Technical Reference
This technical reference contains the the following sections:
•
•
•
•
Packet Direction Examples
Asymmetrical Routes
DoS Firewall Thresholds
Security Considerations
Packet Direction Examples
Firewall rules are grouped based on the direction of travel of packets to which they apply. This
section gives some examples of why you might configure firewall rules for specific
connection directions.
By default, the LAN-Cell allows packets traveling in the following directions:
• LAN to LAN
These rules specify which computers on the LAN can manage the LANCell (remote management) and communicate between networks or
subnets connected to the LAN interface (IP alias).
"
You can also configure the remote management
settings to allow only a specific computer to
manage the LAN-Cell.
• LAN to WAN These rules specify which computers on the LAN can access which
• LAN to CELL computers or services connected to WAN or CELL interfaces. See
Section 9.2 on page 182 for an example.
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By default, the LAN-Cell drops packets traveling in the following directions.
• WAN to LAN
• CELL to LAN
These rules specify which computers connected on a remote WAN or
CELL connection can access which computers or services on the
LAN. For example, you may create rules to:
• Allow certain types of traffic, such as Lotus Notes database
synchronization, from specific hosts on the Internet to specific
hosts on the LAN.
• Allow public access to a Web server on your protected network.
You could also block certain IP addresses from accessing it.
"
• WAN to WAN
• CELl to CELL
You also need to configure NAT port forwarding
(or full featured NAT address mapping rules) to
allow computers on the WAN to access devices
on the LAN. See Section 13.4.1 on page 296 for
an example.
By default the LAN-Cell stops computers connected to WAN or CELL
from using the LAN-Cell as a gateway to communicate with other
computers on the WAN. By default, the LAN-Cell does accept traffic
from the WAN or CELL interfaces destined for one of the LAN-Cell’s
default Remote Management ports, to establish a VPN connection, or
to pass VPN_NAT and BootP packets.
"
If you change the default Remote Management
ports, you also need to configure the firewall
rules WAN-to-WAN/LAN-Cell and/or CELL-toCELL/LAN-Cell to allow traffic to flow to the new
management ports.
See Chapter 3 on page 53 for information about packets traveling to or from the VPN tunnels.
To VPN Packet Direction
The LAN-Cell can apply firewall rules to traffic before encrypting it to send through a VPN
tunnel. To VPN means traffic that comes in through the selected “from” interface and goes out
through any of the LAN-Cell’s VPN tunnels. For example, From LAN To VPN specifies the
traffic that is coming from the LAN and going out through any of the LAN-Cell’s VPN
tunnels.
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For example, by default the From LAN To VPN default firewall rule allows traffic from the
LAN computers to go out through any of the LAN-Cell’s VPN tunnels. You could configure
the From DMZ To VPN default rule to set the LAN-Cell to silently block traffic from the
DMZ computers from going out through any of the LAN-Cell’s VPN tunnels.
Figure 115 From LAN to VPN Example
In order to do this, you would configure the SECURITY > FIREWALL > Default Rule
screen as follows.
Figure 116 Block DMZ to VPN Traffic by Default Example
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From VPN Packet Direction
You can also apply firewall rules to traffic that comes in through the LAN-Cell’s VPN tunnels.
The LAN-Cell decrypts the VPN traffic and then applies the firewall rules. From VPN means
traffic that came into the LAN-Cell through a VPN tunnel and is going to the selected “to”
interface.
For example, by default the firewall allows traffic from any VPN tunnel to go to any of the
LAN-Cell’s interfaces, the LAN-Cell itself and other VPN tunnels. You could edit the From
VPN To LAN default firewall rule to silently block traffic from the VPN tunnels from going
to the LAN computers.
Figure 117 From VPN to LAN Example
In order to do this, you would configure the SECURITY > FIREWALL > Default Rule
screen as follows.
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Figure 118 Block VPN to LAN Traffic by Default Example
From VPN To VPN Packet Direction
From VPN To VPN firewall rules apply to traffic that comes in through one of the LANCell’s VPN tunnels and terminates at the LAN-Cell (like for remote management) or goes out
through another of the LAN-Cell’s VPN tunnels (this is called hub-and-spoke VPN, see
Section 10.9 on page 238 for details). The LAN-Cell decrypts the traffic and applies the
firewall rules before re-encrypting it or allowing the traffic to terminate at the LAN-Cell.
In the following example, the From VPN To VPN default firewall rule silently blocks the
traffic that the LAN-Cell receives from any VPN tunnel (either A or B) that is destined for the
other VPN tunnel or the LAN-Cell itself. VPN traffic destined for the DMZ is allowed
through.
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Figure 119 From VPN to VPN Example
You would configure the SECURITY > FIREWALL > Default Rule screen as follows.
Figure 120 Block VPN to VPN Traffic by Default Example
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Asymmetrical Routes
If an alternate gateway on the LAN has an IP address in the same subnet as the LAN-Cell’s
LAN IP address, return traffic may not go through the LAN-Cell. This is called an
asymmetrical or “triangle” route. This causes the LAN-Cell to reset the connection, as the
connection has not been acknowledged.
You can have the LAN-Cell permit the use of asymmetrical route topology on the network
(not reset the connection).
Allowing asymmetrical routes may let traffic from the WAN go directly to the LAN without
passing through the LAN-Cell. A better solution is to use IP alias to put the LAN-Cell and the
backup gateway on separate subnets.
Asymmetrical Routes and IP Alias
You can use IP Alias instead of allowing asymmetrical routes. IP Alias allow you to partition
your network into logical sections over the same interface.
By putting your LAN and Gateway A in different subnets, all returning network traffic must
pass through the LAN-Cell to your LAN. The following steps describe such a scenario.
1 A computer on the LAN initiates a connection by sending a SYN packet to a receiving
server on the WAN.
2 The LAN-Cell reroutes the packet to Gateway A, which is in Subnet 2.
3 The reply from the WAN goes to the LAN-Cell.
4 The LAN-Cell then sends it to the computer on the LAN in Subnet 1.
Figure 121 Using IP Alias to Solve the Triangle Route Problem
DoS Firewall Thresholds
For TCP, half-open means that the session has not reached the established state-the TCP threeway handshake has not yet been completed. Under normal circumstances, the application that
initiates a session sends a SYN (synchronize) packet to the receiving server. The receiver
sends back an ACK (acknowledgment) packet and its own SYN, and then the initiator
responds with an ACK (acknowledgment). After this handshake, a connection is established.
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Figure 122 Three-Way Handshake
For UDP, half-open means that the firewall has detected no return traffic. An unusually high
number (or arrival rate) of half-open sessions could indicate a DoS attack.
Threshold Values
If everything is working properly, you probably do not need to change the threshold settings as
the default threshold values should work for most small offices. Tune these parameters when
you believe the LAN-Cell has been receiving DoS attacks that are not recorded in the logs or
the logs show that the LAN-Cell is classifying normal traffic as DoS attacks. Factors
influencing choices for threshold values are:
1
2
3
4
5
The maximum number of opened sessions.
The minimum capacity of server backlog in your LAN network.
The CPU power of servers in your LAN network.
Network bandwidth.
Type of traffic for certain servers.
Reduce the threshold values if your network is slower than average for any of these factors
(especially if you have servers that are slow or handle many tasks and are often busy).
If you often use P2P applications such as file sharing with eMule or eDonkey, it’s
recommended that you increase the threshold values since lots of sessions will be established
during a small period of time and the LAN-Cell may classify them as DoS attacks.
Security Considerations
"
Incorrectly configuring the firewall may block valid access or introduce security
risks to the LAN-Cell and your protected network. Use caution when creating
or deleting firewall rules and test your rules after you configure them.
Consider these security ramifications before creating a rule:
1 Does this rule stop LAN users from accessing critical resources on the Internet? For
example, if IRC is blocked, are there users that require this service?
2 Is it possible to modify the rule to be more specific? For example, if IRC is blocked for
all users, will a rule that blocks just certain users be more effective?
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3 Does a rule that allows Internet users access to resources on the LAN create a security
vulnerability? For example, if FTP ports (TCP 20, 21) are allowed from the Internet to
the LAN, Internet users may be able to connect to computers with running FTP servers.
4 Does this rule conflict with any existing rules?
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CHAPTER
10
IPSec VPN Config Screens
10.1 IPSec VPN Overview
A virtual private network (VPN) provides secure communications between sites without the
expense of leased site-to-site lines. A secure VPN is a combination of tunneling, encryption,
authentication, access control and auditing. It is used to transport traffic over the Internet or
any insecure network that uses TCP/IP for communication.
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is a standards-based VPN that offers flexible solutions for
secure data communications across a public network like the Internet. IPSec is built around a
number of standardized cryptographic techniques to provide confidentiality, data integrity and
authentication at the IP layer.
The following figure provides one perspective of a VPN tunnel.
Figure 123 VPN: Example
The VPN tunnel connects the LAN-Cell (X) and the remote IPSec router (Y). These routers
then connect the local network (A) and remote network (B).
10.1.1 What You Can Do in the IPSec VPN Screens
• Use the VPN Rules (IKE) screens (see Section 10.2 on page 212) to manage the LANCell’s list of VPN rules (tunnels) that use IKE SAs.
• Use the VPN Rules (Manual) screens (see Section 10.3 on page 227) to manage the
LAN-Cell’s list of VPN rules (tunnels) that use manual keys. You may want to configure a
VPN rule that uses manual key management if you are having problems with IKE key
management.
• Use the SA Monitor screen (see Section 10.5 on page 231) to display and manage active
VPN connections.
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• Use the VPN Global Setting screen (Section 10.6 on page 232) to change settings that
apply to all of your VPN tunnels.
10.1.2 What You Need to Know About IPSec VPN
A VPN tunnel is usually established in two phases. Each phase establishes a security
association (SA), a contract indicating what security parameters the LAN-Cell and the remote
IPSec router will use. The first phase establishes an Internet Key Exchange (IKE) SA between
the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router. The second phase uses the IKE SA to securely
establish an IPSec SA through which the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router can send data
between computers on the local network and remote network. The following figure illustrates
this.
Figure 124 VPN: IKE SA and IPSec SA
In this example, a computer in network A is exchanging data with a computer in network B.
Inside networks A and B, the data is transmitted the same way data is normally transmitted in
the networks. Between routers X and Y, the data is protected by tunneling, encryption,
authentication, and other security features of the IPSec SA. The IPSec SA is established
securely using the IKE SA that routers X and Y established first.
The rest of this section discusses IKE SA and IPSec SA in more detail.
Gateway and Network Policies
A VPN (Virtual Private Network) tunnel gives you a secure connection to another computer or
network.
• A gateway policy contains the IKE SA settings. It identifies the IPSec routers at either end
of a VPN tunnel.
• A network policy contains the IPSec SA settings. It specifies which devices (behind the
IPSec routers) can use the VPN tunnel.
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Figure 125 Gateway and Network Policies
This figure helps explain the main fields in the VPN setup.
Figure 126 IPSec Fields Summary
Negotiation Mode
It takes several steps to establish an IKE SA. The negotiation mode determines the number of
steps to use. There are two negotiation modes--main mode and aggressive mode. Main mode
provides better security, while aggressive mode is faster.
"
Both routers must use the same negotiation mode.
These modes are discussed in more detail in Section on page 247. Main mode is used in
various examples in the rest of this section.
IP Addresses of the LAN-Cell and Remote IPSec Router
In the LAN-Cell, you have to specify the IP addresses of the LAN-Cell and the remote IPSec
router to establish an IKE SA.
You can usually provide a static IP address or a domain name for the LAN-Cell. Sometimes,
your LAN-Cell might also offer another alternative, such as using the IP address of a port or
interface.
You can usually provide a static IP address or a domain name for the remote IPSec router as
well. Sometimes, you might not know the IP address of the remote IPSec router (for example,
telecommuters). In this case, you can still set up the IKE SA, but only the remote IPSec router
can initiate an IKE SA.
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10.2 VPN Rules (IKE) Screen
Click SECURITY > VPN to display the VPN Rules (IKE) screen. Use this screen to manage
the LAN-Cell’s list of VPN rules (tunnels) that use IKE SAs.
Figure 127 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 76 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VPN Rules
These VPN rules define the settings for creating VPN tunnels for secure
connection to other computers or networks.
Click this icon to add a VPN gateway policy (or IPSec rule).
Gateway Policies
The first row of each VPN rule represents the gateway policy.
The gateway policy identifies the IPSec routers at either end of a VPN tunnel
(My LAN-Cell and Remote Gateway) and specifies the authentication,
encryption and other settings needed to negotiate a phase 1 IKE SA (click the
edit icon to display the other settings).
My LAN-Cell
This represents your LAN-Cell.
The WAN IP address, domain name or dynamic domain name of your LANCell.
Remote
Gateway
This represents the remote secure gateway.
The IP address, domain name or dynamic domain name of the remote IPSec
router displays if you specify it, otherwise Dynamic displays.
Click this icon to add a VPN network policy.
Network Policies
Local
Network
212
The subsequent rows in a VPN rule are network policies. A network policy
identifies the devices behind the IPSec routers at either end of a VPN tunnel
and specifies the authentication, encryption and other settings needed to
negotiate a phase 2 IPSec SA.
This is the network behind the LAN-Cell. A network policy specifies which
devices (behind the IPSec routers) can use the VPN tunnel.
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Table 76 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Remote
Network
This is the remote network behind the remote IPsec router.
Click this icon to display a screen in which you can associate a network policy
to a gateway policy.
Click this icon to display a screen in which you can change the settings of a
gateway or network policy.
Click this icon to delete a gateway or network policy. The LAN-Cell
automatically moves the associated network policy(ies) to the recycle bin.
Click this icon to establish a VPN connection to a remote network.
Click this icon to drop a VPN connection to a remote network.
Y/N
This field displays whether a network policy is turned on (Y) or not (N). Click
the letter to change it to the other state.
Recycle Bin
The recycle bin appears when you have any network policies that are not
associated to a gateway policy.
When you delete a gateway, the LAN-Cell automatically moves the associated
network policy(ies) to the recycle bin.
You can also manually move a network policy that you do not need (but may
want to use again later) to the recycle bin. Click the network policy’s move or
edit icon and set it’s Gateway Policy to Recycle Bin.
10.2.1 VPN Rules (IKE) Gateway Policy Edit Screen
In the VPN Rule (IKE) screen, click the add gateway policy (
to display the VPN-Gateway Policy -Edit screen.
) icon or the edit (
) icon
Use this screen to configure a VPN gateway policy. The gateway policy identifies the IPSec
routers at either end of a VPN tunnel (My LAN-Cell and Remote Gateway) and specifies the
authentication, encryption and other settings needed to negotiate a phase 1 IKE SA.
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Figure 128 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE) > Edit Gateway Policy
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 77 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE) > Edit Gateway Policy
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Property
Name
214
Type up to 32 characters to identify this VPN gateway policy. You may use any
character, including spaces, but the LAN-Cell drops trailing spaces.
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Table 77 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE) > Edit Gateway Policy (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
NAT Traversal
Select this check box to enable NAT traversal. NAT traversal allows you to set up
a VPN connection when there are NAT routers between the two IPSec routers.
Note: The remote IPSec router must also have NAT traversal
enabled. See Section on page 248 for more information.
You can use NAT traversal with ESP protocol using Transport or Tunnel mode,
but not with AH protocol nor with manual key management. In order for an IPSec
router behind a NAT router to receive an initiating IPSec packet, set the NAT
router to forward UDP ports 500 and 4500 to the IPSec router behind the NAT
router.
Gateway Policy Information
My LAN-Cell
This field identifies the WAN IP address or domain name of the LAN-Cell. You can
select My Address and enter the LAN-Cell's static WAN IP address (if it has one)
or leave the field set to 0.0.0.0.
The LAN-Cell uses its current WAN IP address (static or dynamic) in setting up
the VPN tunnel if you leave this field as 0.0.0.0. If the WAN connection goes
down, the LAN-Cell uses the dial backup IP address for the VPN tunnel when
using dial backup or the LAN IP address when using traffic redirect.
Otherwise, you can select My Domain Name and choose one of the dynamic
domain names that you have configured (in the DDNS screen) to have the LANCell use that dynamic domain name's IP address.
The VPN tunnel has to be rebuilt if the My LAN-Cell IP address changes after
setup.
Primary Remote
Gateway
Type the WAN IP address or the domain name (up to 31 characters) of the IPSec
router with which you're making the VPN connection. Set this field to 0.0.0.0 if the
remote IPSec router has a dynamic WAN IP address.
In order to have more than one active rule with the Remote Gateway Address
field set to 0.0.0.0, the ranges of the local IP addresses cannot overlap between
rules.
If you configure an active rule with 0.0.0.0 in the Remote Gateway Address field
and the LAN’s full IP address range as the local IP address, then you cannot
configure any other active rules with the Remote Gateway Address field set to
0.0.0.0.
Enable IPSec High
Availability
Turn on the high availability feature to use a redundant (backup) VPN connection
to another WAN interface on the remote IPSec router if the primary (regular) VPN
connection goes down. The remote IPSec router must have a second WAN
connection in order for you to use this.
To use this, you must identify both the primary and the redundant remote IPSec
routers by WAN IP address or domain name (you cannot set either to 0.0.0.0).
Redundant
Remote Gateway
Type the WAN IP address or the domain name (up to 31 characters) of the
backup IPSec router to use when the LAN-Cell cannot not connect to the primary
remote gateway.
Fall back to
Primary Remote
Gateway when
possible
Select this to have the LAN-Cell change back to using the primary remote
gateway if the connection becomes available again.
Fall Back Check
Interval*
Set how often the LAN-Cell should check the connection to the primary remote
gateway while connected to the redundant remote gateway.
Each gateway policy uses one or more network policies. If the fall back check
interval is shorter than a network policy’s SA life time, the fall back check interval
is used as the check interval and network policy SA life time. If the fall back check
interval is longer than a network policy’s SA life time, the SA lifetime is used as
the check interval and network policy SA life time.
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Table 77 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE) > Edit Gateway Policy (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication Key
216
Pre-Shared Key
Select the Pre-Shared Key radio button and type your pre-shared key in this field.
A pre-shared key identifies a communicating party during a phase 1 IKE
negotiation. It is called "pre-shared" because you have to share it with another
party before you can communicate with them over a secure connection.
Type from 8 to 31 case-sensitive ASCII characters or from 16 to 62 hexadecimal
("0-9", "A-F") characters. You must precede a hexadecimal key with a "0x (zero
x), which is not counted as part of the 16 to 62 character range for the key. For
example, in "0x0123456789ABCDEF", 0x denotes that the key is hexadecimal
and 0123456789ABCDEF is the key itself.
Both ends of the VPN tunnel must use the same pre-shared key. You will receive
a PYLD_MALFORMED (payload malformed) packet if the same pre-shared key is
not used on both ends.
Certificate
Select the Certificate radio button to identify the LAN-Cell by a certificate.
Use the drop-down list box to select the certificate to use for this VPN tunnel. You
must have certificates already configured in the My Certificates screen. Click My
Certificates to go to the My Certificates screen where you can view the LANCell's list of certificates.
Local ID Type
Select IP to identify this LAN-Cell by its IP address.
Select DNS to identify this LAN-Cell by a domain name.
Select E-mail to identify this LAN-Cell by an e-mail address.
You do not configure the local ID type and content when you set Authentication
Key to Certificate. The LAN-Cell takes them from the certificate you select.
Content
When you select IP in the Local ID Type field, type the IP address of your
computer in the local Content field. The LAN-Cell automatically uses the IP
address in the My LAN-Cell field (refer to the My LAN-Cell field description) if you
configure the local Content field to 0.0.0.0 or leave it blank.
It is recommended that you type an IP address other than 0.0.0.0 in the local
Content field or use the DNS or E-mail ID type in the following situations.
1. When there is a NAT router between the two IPSec routers.
2. When you want the remote IPSec router to be able to distinguish between VPN
connection requests that come in from IPSec routers with dynamic WAN IP
addresses.
When you select DNS or E-mail in the Local ID Type field, type a domain name
or e-mail address by which to identify this LAN-Cell in the local Content field. Use
up to 31 ASCII characters including spaces, although trailing spaces are
truncated. The domain name or e-mail address is for identification purposes only
and can be any string.
Peer ID Type
Select from the following when you set Authentication Key to Pre-shared Key.
Select IP to identify the remote IPSec router by its IP address.
Select DNS to identify the remote IPSec router by a domain name.
Select E-mail to identify the remote IPSec router by an e-mail address.
Select from the following when you set Authentication Key to Certificate.
Select IP to identify the remote IPSec router by the IP address in the subject
alternative name field of the certificate it uses for this VPN connection.
Select DNS to identify the remote IPSec router by the domain name in the subject
alternative name field of the certificate it uses for this VPN connection.
Select E-mail to identify the remote IPSec router by the e-mail address in the
subject alternative name field of the certificate it uses for this VPN connection.
Select Subject Name to identify the remote IPSec router by the subject name of
the certificate it uses for this VPN connection.
Select Any to have the LAN-Cell not check the remote IPSec router's ID.
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Table 77 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE) > Edit Gateway Policy (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Content
The configuration of the peer content depends on the peer ID type.
Do the following when you set Authentication Key to Pre-shared Key.
For IP, type the IP address of the computer with which you will make the VPN
connection. If you configure this field to 0.0.0.0 or leave it blank, the LAN-Cell will
use the address in the Remote Gateway Address field (refer to the Remote
Gateway Address field description).
For DNS or E-mail, type a domain name or e-mail address by which to identify the
remote IPSec router. Use up to 31 ASCII characters including spaces, although
trailing spaces are truncated. The domain name or e-mail address is for
identification purposes only and can be any string.
It is recommended that you type an IP address other than 0.0.0.0 or use the DNS
or E-mail ID type in the following situations:
1. When there is a NAT router between the two IPSec routers.
2. When you want the LAN-Cell to distinguish between VPN connection requests
that come in from remote IPSec routers with dynamic WAN IP addresses.
Do the following when you set Authentication Key to Certificate.
1. For IP, type the IP address from the subject alternative name field of the
certificate the remote IPSec router will use for this VPN connection. If you
configure this field to 0.0.0.0 or leave it blank, the LAN-Cell will use the address in
the Remote Gateway Address field (refer to the Remote Gateway Address
field description).
2. For DNS or E-mail, type the domain name or e-mail address from the subject
alternative name field of the certificate the remote IPSec router will use for this
VPN connection.
3. For Subject Name, type the subject name of the certificate the remote IPSec
router will use for this VPN connection. Use up to255 ASCII characters including
spaces.
4. For Any, the peer Content field is not available.
5. Regardless of how you configure the ID Type and Content fields, two active
IPSec SAs cannot have both the local and remote IP address ranges overlap
between rules.
Extended Authentication
Enable Extended
Authentication
Select this check box to activate extended authentication.
Server Mode
Select Server Mode to have this LAN-Cell authenticate extended authentication
clients that request this VPN connection.
You must also configure the extended authentication clients’ usernames and
passwords in the authentication server’s local user database or a RADIUS server
(see Chapter 12 on page 283).
Click Local User to go to the Local User Database screen where you can view
and/or edit the list of user names and passwords. Click RADIUS to go to the
RADIUS screen where you can configure the LAN-Cell to check an external
RADIUS server.
During authentication, if the LAN-Cell (in server mode) does not find the extended
authentication clients’ user name in its internal user database and an external
RADIUS server has been enabled, it attempts to authenticate the client through
the RADIUS server.
Client Mode
Select Client Mode to have your LAN-Cell use a username and password when
initiating this VPN connection to the extended authentication server LAN-Cell.
Only a VPN extended authentication client can initiate this VPN connection.
User Name
Enter a user name for your LAN-Cell to be authenticated by the VPN peer (in
server mode). The user name can be up to 31 case-sensitive ASCII characters,
but spaces are not allowed. You must enter a user name and password when you
select client mode.
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Table 77 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE) > Edit Gateway Policy (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Password
Enter the corresponding password for the above user name. The password can
be up to 31 case-sensitive ASCII characters, but spaces are not allowed.
IKE Proposal
218
Negotiation Mode
Select Main or Aggressive from the drop-down list box. Multiple SAs connecting
through a secure gateway must have the same negotiation mode.
Encryption
Algorithm
Select which key size and encryption algorithm to use in the IKE SA. Choices are:
DES - a 56-bit key with the DES encryption algorithm
3DES - a 168-bit key with the DES encryption algorithm
AES - a 128-bit key with the AES encryption algorithm
The LAN-Cell and the remote IPSec router must use the same algorithms and
keys. Longer keys require more processing power, resulting in increased latency
and decreased throughput.
Authentication
Algorithm
Select which hash algorithm to use to authenticate packet data in the IKE SA.
Choices are SHA1 and MD5. SHA1 is generally considered stronger than MD5,
but it is also slower.
SA Life Time
(Seconds)
Define the length of time before an IKE SA automatically renegotiates in this field.
It may range from 180 to 3,000,000 seconds (almost 35 days).
A short SA Life Time increases security by forcing the two VPN gateways to
update the encryption and authentication keys. However, every time the VPN
tunnel renegotiates, all users accessing remote resources are temporarily
disconnected.
Key Group
Select which Diffie-Hellman key group (DHx) you want to use for encryption keys.
Choices are:
DH1 - use a 768-bit random number
DH2 - use a 1024-bit random number
Enable Multiple
Proposals
Select this to allow the LAN-Cell to use any of its phase 1 key groups and
encryption and authentication algorithms when negotiating an IKE SA.
When you enable multiple proposals, the LAN-Cell allows the remote IPSec
router to select which phase 1 key groups and encryption and authentication
algorithms to use for the IKE SA, even if they are less secure than the ones you
configure for the VPN rule.
Clear this to have the LAN-Cell use only the configured phase 1 key groups and
encryption and authentication algorithms when negotiating an IKE SA.
Associated
Network Policies
The following table shows the policy(ies) you configure for this rule.
To add a VPN policy, click the add network policy (
) icon in the VPN Rules
(IKE) screen (see Figure 127 on page 212). Refer to Section 10.2.2 on page 219
for more information.
#
This field displays the policy index number.
Name
This field displays the policy name.
Local Network
This field displays one or a range of IP address(es) of the computer(s) behind the
LAN-Cell.
Remote Network
This field displays one or a range of IP address(es) of the remote network behind
the remote IPsec router.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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10.2.2 VPN Rules (IKE): Network Policy Edit
Click SECURITY > VPN and the add network policy (
) icon in the VPN Rules (IKE)
screen to display the VPN-Network Policy -Edit screen. Use this screen to configure a
network policy. A network policy identifies the devices behind the IPSec routers at either end
of a VPN tunnel and specifies the authentication, encryption and other settings needed to
negotiate a phase 2 IPSec SA.
Figure 129 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE) > Edit Network Policy
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 78 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE) > Edit Network Policy
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
If the Active check box is selected, packets for the tunnel trigger the LAN-Cell
to build the tunnel.
Clear the Active check box to turn the network policy off. The LAN-Cell does
not apply the policy. Packets for the tunnel do not trigger the tunnel.
If you clear the Active check box while the tunnel is up (and click Apply), you
turn off the network policy and the tunnel goes down.
Name
Type a name to identify this VPN network policy. You may use any character,
including spaces, but the LAN-Cell drops trailing spaces.
Protocol
Enter 1 for ICMP, 6 for TCP, 17 for UDP, etc. 0 is the default and signifies any
protocol.
Nailed-Up
Select this check box to turn on the nailed up feature for this SA.
Turn on nailed up to have the LAN-Cell automatically reinitiate the SA after the
SA lifetime times out, even if there is no traffic. The LAN-Cell also reinitiates the
SA when it restarts.
The LAN-Cell also rebuilds the tunnel if it was disconnected due to the output or
input idle timer.
Allow NetBIOS
Traffic Through
IPSec Tunnel
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) are TCP or UDP packets that
enable a computer to connect to and communicate with a LAN. It may
sometimes be necessary to allow NetBIOS packets to pass through VPN
tunnels in order to allow local computers to find computers on the remote
network and vice versa.
Select this check box to send NetBIOS packets through the VPN connection.
Check IPSec Tunnel
Connectivity
Select the check box and configure an IP address in the Ping this Address
field to have the LAN-Cell periodically test the VPN tunnel to the remote IPSec
router.
The LAN-Cell pings the IP address every minute. The LAN-Cell starts the IPSec
connection idle timeout timer when it sends the ping packet. If there is no traffic
from the remote IPSec router by the time the timeout period expires, the LANCell disconnects the VPN tunnel.
Log
Select this check box to set the LAN-Cell to create logs when it cannot ping the
remote device.
Ping this Address
If you select Check IPSec Tunnel Connectivity, enter the IP address of a
computer at the remote IPSec network. The computer's IP address must be in
this IP policy's remote range (see the Remote Network fields).
Gateway Policy Information
Gateway Policy
Select the gateway policy with which you want to use the VPN policy.
Virtual Address Mapping Rule
220
Active
Enable this feature to have the LAN-Cell use virtual (translated) IP addresses
for the local network for the VPN connection. You do not configure the Local
Network fields when you enable virtual address mapping. Virtual address
mapping allows local and remote networks to have overlapping IP addresses.
Virtual address mapping (NAT over IPSec) translates the source IP addresses
of computers on your local network to other (virtual) IP addresses before
sending the packets to the remote IPSec router. This translation hides the
source IP addresses of computers in the local network.
Port Forwarding
Rules
If you are configuring a Many-to-One rule, click this button to go to a screen
where you can configure port forwarding for your VPN tunnels. The VPN
network policy port forwarding rules let the LAN-Cell forward traffic coming in
through the VPN tunnel to the appropriate IP address.
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Table 78 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE) > Edit Network Policy (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Type
Select One-to-One to translate a single (static) IP address on your LAN to a
single virtual IP address.
Select Many-to-One to translate a range of (static) IP addresses on your LAN
to a single virtual IP address. Many-to-one rules are for traffic going out from
your LAN, through the VPN tunnel, to the remote network. Use port forwarding
rules to allow incoming traffic from the remote network.
Select Many One-to-One to translate a range of (static) IP addresses on your
LAN to a range of virtual IP addresses.
Private Starting IP
Address
Specify the IP addresses of the devices behind the LAN-Cell that can use the
VPN tunnel.
When you select One-to-One in the Type field, enter the (static) IP address of a
computer on the LAN behind your LAN-Cell.
When you select Many-to-One or Many One-to-One in the Type field, enter
the beginning (static) IP address in a range of computers on the LAN behind
your LAN-Cell.
Private Ending IP
Address
When you select Many-to-One or Many One-to-One in the Type field, enter
the ending (static) IP address in a range of computers on the LAN behind your
LAN-Cell.
Virtual Starting IP
Address
Enter the (static) IP addresses that represent the translated private IP
addresses. These must correspond to the remote IPSec router's configured
remote IP addresses.
When you select One-to-One or Many-to-One in the Type field, enter an IP
address as the translated IP address. Many-to-one rules are only for traffic
going to the remote network. Use port forwarding rules to allow incoming traffic
from the remote network.
When you select Many One-to-One in the Type field, enter the beginning IP
address of a range of translated IP addresses.
Virtual Ending IP
Address
When you select Many One-to-One in the Type field, enter the ending (static)
IP address of a range of translated IP addresses.
The size of the private address range must be equal to the size of the translated
virtual address range.
Local Network
Local Network
Local IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router's
configured remote IP addresses.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both the
same. Two active SAs can have the same local or remote IP address, but not
both. You can configure multiple SAs between the same local and remote IP
addresses, as long as only one is active at any time.
Address Type
Use the drop-down list box to choose Single Address, Range Address, or
Subnet Address. Select Single Address for a single IP address. Select
Range Address for a specific range of IP addresses. Select Subnet Address
to specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
Starting IP Address
When the Address Type field is configured to Single Address, enter a (static)
IP address on the LAN behind your LAN-Cell. When the Address Type field is
configured to Range Address, enter the beginning (static) IP address, in a
range of computers on the LAN behind your LAN-Cell. When the Address
Type field is configured to Subnet Address, this is a (static) IP address on the
LAN behind your LAN-Cell.
Ending IP Address/
Subnet Mask
When the Address Type field is configured to Single Address, this field is N/A.
When the Address Type field is configured to Range Address, enter the end
(static) IP address, in a range of computers on the LAN behind your LAN-Cell.
When the Address Type field is configured to Subnet Address, this is a
subnet mask on the LAN behind your LAN-Cell.
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Table 78 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE) > Edit Network Policy (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Local Port
0 is the default and signifies any port. Type a port number from 0 to 65535 in the
Start and End fields. Some of the most common IP ports are: 21, FTP; 53,
DNS; 23, Telnet; 80, HTTP; 25, SMTP; 110, POP3.
Remote Network
Remote Network
Remote IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec
router's configured local IP addresses.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both the
same. Two active SAs can have the same local or remote IP address, but not
both. You can configure multiple SAs between the same local and remote IP
addresses, as long as only one is active at any time.
Address Type
Use the drop-down list box to choose Single Address, Range Address, or
Subnet Address. Select Single Address with a single IP address. Select
Range Address for a specific range of IP addresses. Select Subnet Address
to specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
Starting IP Address
When the Address Type field is configured to Single Address, enter a (static)
IP address on the network behind the remote IPSec router. When the Addr
Type field is configured to Range Address, enter the beginning (static) IP
address, in a range of computers on the network behind the remote IPSec
router. When the Address Type field is configured to Subnet Address, enter a
(static) IP address on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
Ending IP Address/
Subnet Mask
When the Address Type field is configured to Single Address, this field is N/A.
When the Address Type field is configured to Range Address, enter the end
(static) IP address, in a range of computers on the network behind the remote
IPSec router. When the Address Type field is configured to Subnet Address,
enter a subnet mask on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
Remote Port
0 is the default and signifies any port. Type a port number from 0 to 65535 in the
Start and End fields. Some of the most common IP ports are: 21, FTP; 53,
DNS; 23, Telnet; 80, HTTP; 25, SMTP; 110, POP3.
IPSec Proposal
Encapsulation Mode
Select Tunnel mode or Transport mode.
Active Protocol
Select the security protocols used for an SA.
Both AH and ESP increase processing requirements and communications
latency (delay).
Encryption Algorithm Select which key size and encryption algorithm to use in the IKE SA. Choices
are:
NULL - no encryption key or algorithm
DES - a 56-bit key with the DES encryption algorithm
3DES - a 168-bit key with the DES encryption algorithm
AES - a 128-bit key with the AES encryption algorithm
The LAN-Cell and the remote IPSec router must use the same algorithms and
keys. Longer keys require more processing power, resulting in increased
latency and decreased throughput.
222
Authentication
Algorithm
Select which hash algorithm to use to authenticate packet data in the IPSec SA.
Choices are SHA1 and MD5. SHA1 is generally considered stronger than MD5,
but it is also slower.
SA Life Time
(Seconds)
Define the length of time before an IPSec SA automatically renegotiates in this
field. The minimum value is 180 seconds.
A short SA Life Time increases security by forcing the two VPN gateways to
update the encryption and authentication keys. However, every time the VPN
tunnel renegotiates, all users accessing remote resources are temporarily
disconnected.
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Table 78 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE) > Edit Network Policy (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Perfect Forward
Secret (PFS)
Select whether or not you want to enable Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) and, if
you do, which Diffie-Hellman key group to use for encryption. Choices are:
NONE - disable PFS
DH1 - enable PFS and use a 768-bit random number
DH2 - enable PFS and use a 1024-bit random number
PFS changes the root key that is used to generate encryption keys for each
IPSec SA. It is more secure but takes more time.
Enable Replay
Detection
As a VPN setup is processing intensive, the system is vulnerable to Denial of
Service (DOS) attacks. The IPSec receiver can detect and reject old or
duplicate packets to protect against replay attacks. Enable replay detection by
selecting this check box.
Enable Multiple
Proposals
Select this to allow the LAN-Cell to use any of its phase 2 encryption and
authentication algorithms when negotiating an IPSec SA.
When you enable multiple proposals, the LAN-Cell allows the remote IPSec
router to select which phase 2 encryption and authentication algorithms to use
for the IPSec SA, even if they are less secure than the ones you configure for
the VPN rule.
Clear this to have the LAN-Cell use only the configured phase 2 encryption and
authentication algorithms when negotiating an IPSec SA.
Apply
Click Apply to save the changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to discard all changes and return to the main VPN screen.
10.2.3 Network Policy Edit: Port Forwarding Screen
Click SECURITY > VPN and the add network policy (
) icon in the VPN Rules (IKE)
screen to display the VPN-Network Policy -Edit screen. Then, under Virtual Address
Mapping Rule, select Many-to-One as the Type and click the Port Forwarding Rules
button to open the following screen. Use this screen to configure port forwarding for your
VPN tunnels to let the LAN-Cell forward traffic coming in through the VPN tunnel to the
appropriate IP address on the LAN.
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Figure 130 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE) > Edit Network Policy > Port Forwarding
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 79 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE) > Edit Network Policy > Port Forwarding
224
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Default Server
In addition to the servers for specified services, NAT supports a default server.
A default server receives packets from ports that are not specified in this
screen. If you do not assign a default server IP address, all packets received for
ports not specified in this screen are discarded.
#
This is the number of an individual port forwarding server entry.
Active
Select this check box to enable the port forwarding server entry. Clear this
check box to disallow forwarding of these ports to an inside server without
having to delete the entry.
Name
Enter a name to identify this port-forwarding rule.
Start Port
Type a port number in this field.
To forward only one port, type the port number again in the End Port field. To
forward a series of ports, type the start port number here and the end port
number in the End Port field.
End Port
Type a port number in this field.
To forward only one port, type the port number in the Start Port field above and
then type it again in this field. To forward a series of ports, type the last port
number in a series that begins with the port number in the Start Port field
above.
Server IP Address
Type your server IP address in this field.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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10.2.4 VPN Rules (IKE): Network Policy Move Screen
Click the move ( ) icon in the VPN Rules (IKE) screen to display the VPN Rules (IKE):
Network Policy Move screen.
A VPN (Virtual Private Network) tunnel gives you a secure connection to another computer or
network. Each VPN tunnel uses a single gateway policy and one or more network policies.
• The gateway policy contains the IKE SA settings. It identifies the IPSec routers at either
end of a VPN tunnel.
• The network policy contains the IPSec SA settings. It specifies which devices (behind the
IPSec routers) can use the VPN tunnel.
Use this screen to associate a network policy to a gateway policy.
Figure 131 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE) > Move Network Policy
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 80 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (IKE) > Move Network Policy
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Network Policy
Information
The following fields display the general network settings of this VPN policy.
Name
This field displays the policy name.
Local Network
This field displays one or a range of IP address(es) of the computer(s) behind the
LAN-Cell.
Remote Network
This field displays one or a range of IP address(es) of the remote network behind
the remote IPsec router.
Gateway Policy Information
Gateway Policy
Select the name of a VPN rule (or gateway policy) to which you want to associate
this VPN network policy.
If you do not want to associate a network policy to any gateway policy, select
Recycle Bin from the drop-down list box. The Recycle Bin gateway policy is a
virtual placeholder for any network policy(ies) without an associated gateway
policy. When there is a network policy in Recycle Bin, the Recycle Bin gateway
policy automatically displays in the VPN Rules (IKE) screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save the changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to discard all changes and return to the main VPN screen.
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10.2.5 Dialing the VPN Tunnel via Web Configurator
To test whether the IPSec routers can build the VPN tunnel, click the dial ( ) icon in the
VPN Rules (IKE) screen to have the IPSec routers set up the tunnel. If you find a disconnect
( ) icon next to the rule you just created in the VPN Rules (IKE) screen, the LAN-Cell
automatically built the VPN tunnel. Go to the SA Monitor screen to view a list of connected
VPN tunnels. See Section 10.5 on page 231 for more information.
Figure 132 VPN Rule Configured
The following screen displays.
Figure 133 VPN Dial
This screen displays later if the IPSec routers can build the VPN tunnel.
Figure 134 VPN Tunnel Established
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10.3 VPN Rules (Manual)
Refer to Figure 126 on page 211 for a graphical representation of the fields in the web
configurator.
Click SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (Manual) to open the VPN Rules (Manual) screen.
Use this screen to manage the LAN-Cell’s list of VPN rules (tunnels) that use manual keys.
You may want to configure a VPN rule that uses manual key management if you are having
problems with IKE key management.
Figure 135 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (Manual)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 81 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (Manual)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the VPN policy index number.
Name
This field displays the identification name for this VPN policy.
Active
This field displays whether the VPN policy is active or not. A Yes signifies that this
VPN policy is active. No signifies that this VPN policy is not active.
Local Network
This is the IP address(es) of computer(s) on your local network behind your LANCell.
The same (static) IP address is displayed twice when the Local Network Address
Type field in the VPN - Manual Key - Edit screen is configured to Single Address.
The beginning and ending (static) IP addresses, in a range of computers are
displayed when the Local Network Address Type field in the VPN - Manual Key Edit screen is configured to Range Address.
A (static) IP address and a subnet mask are displayed when the Local Network
Address Type field in the VPN - Manual Key - Edit screen is configured to
Subnet Address.
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Table 81 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (Manual) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Remote Network
This is the IP address(es) of computer(s) on the remote network behind the remote
IPSec router.
This field displays N/A when the Remote Gateway Address field displays 0.0.0.0.
In this case only the remote IPSec router can initiate the VPN.
The same (static) IP address is displayed twice when the Remote Network
Address Type field in the VPN - Manual Key - Edit screen is configured to Single
Address.
The beginning and ending (static) IP addresses, in a range of computers are
displayed when the Remote Network Address Type field in the VPN - Manual
Key - Edit screen is configured to Range Address.
A (static) IP address and a subnet mask are displayed when the Remote Network
Address Type field in the VPN - Manual Key - Edit screen is configured to
Subnet Address.
Encap.
This field displays Tunnel or Transport mode (Tunnel is the default selection).
IPSec Algorithm
This field displays the security protocols used for an SA.
Both AH and ESP increase LAN-Cell processing requirements and
communications latency (delay).
Remote Gateway
Address
This is the static WAN IP address or domain name of the remote IPSec router.
Modify
Click the edit icon to edit the VPN policy.
Click the delete icon to remove the VPN policy. A window displays asking you to
confirm that you want to delete the VPN rule. When a VPN policy is deleted,
subsequent policies move up in the page list.
Add
Click Add to add a new VPN policy.
10.4 VPN Rules (Manual): Edit Screen
Click the Add button or the edit icon on the VPN Rules (Manual) screen to open the
following screen. Use this screen to configure VPN rules that use manual keys. Manual key
management is useful if you have problems with IKE key management.
See Section on page 253 for more information about IPSec SAs using manual keys.
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Figure 136 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (Manual) > Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 82 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (Manual) > Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Property
Active
Select this check box to activate this VPN policy.
Name
Type up to 32 characters to identify this VPN policy. You may use any character,
including spaces, but the LAN-Cell drops trailing spaces.
Allow NetBIOS
Traffic Through
IPSec Tunnel
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) are TCP or UDP packets that
enable a computer to find other computers. It may sometimes be necessary to
allow NetBIOS packets to pass through VPN tunnels in order to allow local
computers to find computers on the remote network and vice versa.
Select this check box to send NetBIOS packets through the VPN connection.
Local Network
Local IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router's
configured remote IP addresses.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both the same.
Two active SAs can have the same local or remote IP address, but not both. You
can configure multiple SAs between the same local and remote IP addresses, as
long as only one is active at any time.
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Table 82 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (Manual) > Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Address Type
Use the drop-down list box to choose Single Address, Range Address, or
Subnet Address. Select Single Address for a single IP address. Select Range
Address for a specific range of IP addresses. Select Subnet Address to specify
IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
Starting IP
Address
When the Address Type field is configured to Single Address, enter a (static) IP
address on the LAN behind your LAN-Cell. When the Address Type field is
configured to Range Address, enter the beginning (static) IP address, in a range
of computers on the LAN behind your LAN-Cell. When the Address Type field is
configured to Subnet Address, this is a (static) IP address on the LAN behind
your LAN-Cell.
Ending IP
Address/Subnet
Mask
When the Address Type field is configured to Single Address, this field is N/A.
When the Address Type field is configured to Range Address, enter the end
(static) IP address, in a range of computers on the LAN behind your LAN-Cell.
When the Address Type field is configured to Subnet Address, this is a subnet
mask on the LAN behind your LAN-Cell.
Remote Network
Remote IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router's
configured local IP addresses.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both the same.
Two active SAs can have the same local or remote IP address, but not both. You
can configure multiple SAs between the same local and remote IP addresses, as
long as only one is active at any time.
Address Type
Use the drop-down list box to choose Single Address, Range Address, or
Subnet Address. Select Single Address with a single IP address. Select Range
Address for a specific range of IP addresses. Select Subnet Address to specify
IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
Starting IP
Address
When the Address Type field is configured to Single Address, enter a (static) IP
address on the network behind the remote IPSec router. When the Addr Type field
is configured to Range Address, enter the beginning (static) IP address, in a
range of computers on the network behind the remote IPSec router. When the
Address Type field is configured to Subnet Address, enter a (static) IP address
on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
Ending IP
Address/Subnet
Mask
When the Address Type field is configured to Single Address, this field is N/A.
When the Address Type field is configured to Range Address, enter the end
(static) IP address, in a range of computers on the network behind the remote
IPSec router. When the Address Type field is configured to Subnet Address,
enter a subnet mask on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
Gateway Policy Information
My LAN-Cell
Enter the WAN IP address or the domain name of your LAN-Cell or leave the field
set to 0.0.0.0.
The LAN-Cell uses its current WAN IP address (static or dynamic) in setting up the
VPN tunnel if you leave this field as 0.0.0.0. If the WAN connection goes down, the
LAN-Cell uses the dial backup IP address for the VPN tunnel when using dial
backup or the LAN IP address when using traffic redirect.
The VPN tunnel has to be rebuilt if this IP address changes.
Primary Remote
Gateway
Type the WAN IP address or the domain name (up to 31 characters) of the IPSec
router with which you're making the VPN connection.
Manual Proposal
230
SPI
Type a unique SPI (Security Parameter Index) from one to four characters long.
Valid Characters are "0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9".
Encapsulation
Mode
Select Tunnel mode or Transport mode from the drop-down list box.
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Table 82 SECURITY > VPN > VPN Rules (Manual) > Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active Protocol
Select ESP if you want to use ESP (Encapsulation Security Payload). The ESP
protocol (RFC 2406) provides encryption as well as some of the services offered
by AH. If you select ESP here, you must select options from the Encryption
Algorithm and Authentication Algorithm fields (described next).
Select AH if you want to use AH (Authentication Header Protocol). The AH
protocol (RFC 2402) was designed for integrity, authentication, sequence integrity
(replay resistance), and non-repudiation but not for confidentiality, for which the
ESP was designed. If you select AH here, you must select options from the
Authentication Algorithm field (described next).
Encryption
Algorithm
Select DES, 3DES or NULL from the drop-down list box.
When DES is used for data communications, both sender and receiver must know
the Encryption Key, which can be used to encrypt and decrypt the message or to
generate and verify a message authentication code. The DES encryption algorithm
uses a 56-bit key. Triple DES (3DES) is a variation on DES that uses a 168-bit key.
As a result, 3DES is more secure than DES. It also requires more processing
power, resulting in increased latency and decreased throughput. Select NULL to
set up a tunnel without encryption. When you select NULL, you do not enter an
encryption key.
Authentication
Algorithm
Select SHA1 or MD5 from the drop-down list box. MD5 (Message Digest 5) and
SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash algorithms used to authenticate packet
data. The SHA1 algorithm is generally considered stronger than MD5, but is
slower. Select MD5 for minimal security and SHA-1 for maximum security.
Encryption Key
This field is applicable when you select ESP in the Active Protocol field above.
With DES, type a unique key 8 characters long. With 3DES, type a unique key 24
characters long. Any characters may be used, including spaces, but trailing spaces
are truncated.
Authentication
Key
Type a unique authentication key to be used by IPSec if applicable. Enter 16
characters for MD5 authentication or 20 characters for SHA-1 authentication. Any
characters may be used, including spaces, but trailing spaces are truncated.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
10.5 VPN SA Monitor Screen
In the web configurator, click SECURITY > VPN > SA Monitor. Use this screen to display
and manage active VPN connections.
A Security Association (SA) is the group of security settings related to a specific VPN tunnel.
This screen displays active VPN connections. Use Refresh to display active VPN
connections.
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Figure 137 SECURITY > VPN > SA Monitor
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 83 SECURITY > VPN > SA Monitor
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the security association index number.
Name
This field displays the identification name for this VPN policy.
Local Network
This field displays the IP address of the computer using the VPN IPSec feature of
your LAN-Cell.
Remote Network
This field displays IP address (in a range) of computers on the remote network
behind the remote IPSec router.
Encapsulation
This field displays Tunnel or Transport mode.
IPSec Algorithm
This field displays the security protocols used for an SA.
Both AH and ESP increase LAN-Cell processing requirements and
communications latency (delay).
Refresh
Click Refresh to display the current active VPN connection(s).
Disconnect
Select a security association index number that you want to disconnect and then
click Disconnect.
10.6 VPN Global Setting Screen
Use this screen to change settings that apply to all of your VPN tunnels.
Local and Remote IP Address Conflict Resolution
Normally, you do not configure your local VPN policy rule’s IP addresses to overlap with the
remote VPN policy rule’s IP addresses (see Virtual Address Mapping on page 251). For
example, you usually would not configure both with 192.168.1.0. However, overlapping local
and remote network IP addresses can occur with dynamic VPN rules or IP alias.
Dynamic VPN Rule
Local and remote network IP addresses can overlap when you configure a dynamic VPN rule
for a remote site (see Figure 138). For example, when you configure LAN-Cell X, you
configure the local network as 192.168.1.0/24 and the remote network as any (0.0.0.0). The
“any” includes all possible IP addresses. It will forward traffic from network A to network B
even if both the sender (for example 192.168.1.8) and the receiver (for example 192.168.1.9)
are in network A. Note that the remote access can still use the VPN tunnel to access computers
on LAN-Cell X’s network.
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Figure 138 Overlap in a Dynamic VPN Rule
192.168.1.0/24
0.0.0.0
• Enabling the VPN Global Setting option box Do not apply VPN Rules to
overlapped local and remote address ranges causes the LAN-Cell check if a
packet’s destination is also at the local network before forwarding the packet. If it is,
the LAN-Cell sends the traffic to the local network.
• Disabling the option box disables the checking for local network IP addresses and
sends traffic for all overlapping addresses to the remote network. This will disable
your ability to access the LAN-Cell from the local subnet.
IP Alias
You could have an IP alias network that overlaps with the VPN remote network (see Figure
139). For example, you have an IP alias network M (10.1.2.0/24) in LAN-Cell X’s LAN. For
the VPN rule, you configure the VPN network as follows.
• Local IP address start: 192.168.1.1, end: 192.168.1.254
• Remote IP address start: 10.1.2.240, end: 10.1.2.254
• IP addresses 10.1.2.240 to 10.1.2.254 overlap.
Figure 139 Overlap in IP Alias and VPN Remote Networks
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In this case, if you want to send packets from network A to an overlapped IP (ex. 10.1.2.241)
that is in the IP alias network M, you have to enable Do not apply VPN Rules to overlapped
local and remote address ranges.
10.6.1 Configuring the Global Setting Screen
Click SECURITY > VPN > Global Setting to open the VPN Global Setting screen.
Figure 140 SECURITY > VPN > Global Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 84 SECURITY > VPN > Global Setting
234
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Output Idle Timer
When traffic is sent to a remote IPSec router from which no reply is received
after the specified time period, the LAN-Cell checks the VPN connectivity. If
the remote IPSec router does not reply, the LAN-Cell automatically
disconnects the VPN tunnel.
Enter the time period (between 120 and 3600 seconds) to wait before the
LAN-Cell checks all of the VPN connections to remote IPSec routers.
Enter 0 to disable this feature.
Input Idle Timer
When no traffic is received from a remote IPSec router after the specified
time period, the LAN-Cell checks the VPN connectivity. If the remote IPSec
router does not reply, the LAN-Cell automatically disconnects the VPN
tunnel.
Enter the time period (between 30 and 3600 seconds) to wait before the
LAN-Cell checks all of the VPN connections to remote IPSec routers.
Enter 0 to disable this feature.
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Table 84 SECURITY > VPN > Global Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Gateway Domain
Name Update Timer
If you use dynamic domain names in VPN rules to identify the LAN-Cell and/
or the remote IPSec router, the IP address mapped to the domain name can
change. The VPN tunnel stops working after the IP address changes. Any
users of the VPN tunnel are disconnected until the LAN-Cell gets the new IP
address from a DNS server and rebuilds the VPN tunnel.
Enter the time period (between 2 and 60 minutes) to set how often the LANCell queries a DNS server to update the IP address and domain name
mapping.
If the query returns a new IP address for a dynamic domain name, the LANCell disconnects the VPN tunnel. The LAN-Cell rebuilds the VPN tunnel
(using the new IP address) immediately if the IPSec SA is set to nailed up.
Otherwise the LAN-Cell rebuilds the VPN tunnel when there are packets for it
or you manually dial it.
If the LAN-Cell and all of the remote IPSec routers use static IP addresses or
regular domain names, you can enter 0 to disable this feature.
Adjust TCP Maximum
Segment Size
The TCP packets are larger after the LAN-Cell encrypts them for VPN. The
LAN-Cell fragments packets that are larger than a connection’s MTU
(Maximum Transmit Unit).
In most cases you should leave this set to Auto. The LAN-Cell automatically
sets the Maximum Segment Size (MSS) of the TCP packets that are to be
encrypted by VPN based on the encapsulation type.
Select Off to not adjust the MSS for the encrypted TCP packets.
If your network environment causes fragmentation issues that are affecting
your throughput performance, you can manually set a smaller MSS for the
TCP packets that are to be encrypted by VPN. Select User-Defined and
specify a size from 0~1460 bytes. 0 has the LAN-Cell use the auto setting.
Do not apply VPN
Rules to overlapped
local and remote
address ranges
When you configure a VPN rule, the LAN-Cell checks to make sure that the
IP addresses in the local and remote networks do not overlap. Select this
check box to disable the check if you need to configure a VPN policy with
overlapping local and remote IP addresses.
Note: If a VPN policy’s local and remote IP addresses overlap,
you may not be able to access the device on your LAN
because the LAN-Cell automatically triggers a VPN
tunnel to the remote device with the same IP address.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
10.7 Mobile User VPN/IPSec Examples
The following examples show how multiple mobile users can make VPN connections to a
single LAN-Cell. The mobile users use IPSec routers (or IPSec client software) with dynamic
WAN IP addresses. The LAN-Cell has a static public IP address.
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Remote users (or routers) must use IPSec-compliant software or hardware to
establish a VPN connection with the LAN-Cell. Refer to Proxicast’s
Knowledgebase and TechNotes for examples of configuring specific VPN
client software packages and devices.
10.7.1 Mobile Users Sharing One VPN Rule Example
See the following figure and table for an example configuration that allows multiple mobile
users (A, B and C in the figure) to use one VPN rule to simultaneously access a LAN-Cell
(HQ in the figure). The mobile users do not have domain names mapped to the WAN IP
addresses of their IPSec routers. The mobile users must all use the same IPSec parameters but
the local IP addresses (or ranges of addresses) should not overlap.
Figure 141 Mobile Users Sharing One VPN Rule Example
Table 85 Mobile Users Sharing One VPN Rule Example
FIELDS
MOBILE USER
HEADQUARTERS
My LAN-Cell:
0.0.0.0 (dynamic IP address
assigned by the ISP)
Public static IP address
Remote Gateway
Address:
Public static IP address
0.0.0.0
With this IP address only
the user can initiate the IPSec tunnel.
Local Network - Single
IP Address:
User A: 192.168.2.12
User B: 192.168.3.2
User C: 192.168.4.15
192.168.1.10
Remote Network Single IP Address:
192.168.1.10
Not Applicable
10.7.2 Mobile Users Using Unique VPN Rules Example
In this example the mobile users (A, B and C in the figure) use IPSec routers (or VPN client
software) with domain names that are mapped to their dynamic WAN IP addresses (use
Dynamic DNS to do this).
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With aggressive negotiation mode (see Section on page 247), the LAN-Cell can use the ID
types and contents to distinguish between VPN rules. Mobile users can each use a separate
VPN rule to simultaneously access the LAN-Cell. They can use different IPSec parameters.
The local IP addresses (or ranges of addresses) of the rules configured on the LAN-Cell can
overlap. The local IP addresses of the rules configured on the mobile users’ IPSec routers
should not overlap.
See the following table and figure for an example where three mobile users each use a
different VPN rule for a VPN connection with a LAN-Cell. The LAN-Cell (HQ in the figure)
identifies each incoming SA by its ID type and content and uses the appropriate VPN rule to
establish the VPN connection.
The LAN-Cell can also initiate VPN connections to the mobile users since it can find the users
by resolving their domain names.
Figure 142 Mobile Users Using Unique VPN Rules Example
Table 86 Mobile Users Using Unique VPN Rules Example
MOBILE USERS
HEADQUARTERS
All Mobile User Rules:
All Headquarters Rules:
My LAN-Cell 0.0.0.0
My LAN-Cell: bigcompanyhq.com
Remote Gateway Address: bigcompanyhq.com
Local Network - Single IP Address: 192.168.1.10
Remote Network - Single IP Address:
192.168.1.10
Local ID Type: E-mail
Peer ID Type: E-mail
Local ID Content: bob@bigcompanyhq.com
Peer ID Content: bob@bigcompanyhq.com
User A (UserA.dydns.org)
Headquarters LAN-Cell Rule 1:
Local ID Type: IP
Peer ID Type: IP
Local ID Content: 192.168.2.12
Peer ID Content: 192.168.2.12
Local IP Address: 192.168.2.12
Remote Gateway Address: UserA.dydns.org
Remote Address 192.168.2.12
User B (UserB.dydns.org)
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Table 86 Mobile Users Using Unique VPN Rules Example
MOBILE USERS
HEADQUARTERS
Local ID Type: DNS
Peer ID Type: DNS
Local ID Content: UserB.com
Peer ID Content: UserB.com
Local IP Address: 192.168.3.2
Remote Gateway Address: UserB.dydns.org
Remote Address 192.168.3.2
User C (UserC.dydns.org)
Headquarters LAN-Cell Rule 3:
Local ID Type: E-mail
Peer ID Type: E-mail
Local ID Content: myVPN@myplace.com
Peer ID Content: myVPN@myplace.com
Local IP Address: 192.168.4.15
Remote Gateway Address: UserC.dydns.org
Remote Address 192.168.4.15
10.8 VPN and Remote Management
You can allow someone to use a service (like Telnet or HTTP) through a VPN tunnel to
manage the LAN-Cell. One of the LAN-Cell’s ports must be part of the VPN rule’s local
network. This can be the LAN-Cell’s LAN port if you do not want to allow remote
management on the WAN port. You also have to configure remote management (REMOTE
MGMT) to allow management access for the service through the specific port (see Chapter 15
on page 319).
In the following example, the VPN rule’s local network (A) includes the LAN-Cell’s LAN IP
address of 192.168.1.7. Someone in the remote network (B) can use a service (like HTTP for
example) through the VPN tunnel to access the LAN-Cell’s LAN interface. Remote
management must also be configured to allow HTTP access on the LAN-Cell’s LAN
interface.
Figure 143 VPN for Remote Management Example
10.9 Hub-and-spoke VPN
Hub-and-spoke VPN connects VPN tunnels to form one secure network.
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Figure 144 on page 239 shows some example network topologies. In the first (fully-meshed)
approach, there is a VPN connection between every pair of routers. In the second (hub-andspoke) approach, there is a VPN connection between each spoke router (B, C, D, and E) and
the hub router (A). The hub router routes VPN traffic between the spoke routers and itself.
Figure 144 VPN Topologies
Hub-and-spoke VPN reduces the number of VPN connections that you have to set up and
maintain in the network. Small office or telecommuter IPSec routers that support a limited
number of VPN tunnels are also able to use VPN to connect to more networks. Hub-and-spoke
VPN makes it easier for the hub router to manage the traffic between the spoke routers. If you
have the spoke routers access the Internet through the hub-and-spoke VPN tunnel, the hub
router can also provide content filtering, IDP, anti-spam and anti-virus protection for the spoke
routers.
You should not use a hub-and-spoke VPN in every situation, however. The hub router is a
single point of failure, so a hub-and-spoke VPN may not be appropriate if the connection
between the spoke routers cannot be down occasionally (for maintenance, for example). In
addition, there is a significant burden on the hub router. It receives VPN traffic from one
spoke, decrypts it, inspects it to find out where to send it, encrypts it, and sends it to the
appropriate spoke. Therefore, a hub-and-spoke VPN is more suitable when there is a minimum
amount of traffic between spoke routers.
10.9.1 Hub-and-spoke VPN Example
The following figure shows a basic hub-and-spoke VPN. Branch office A uses one VPN rule
to access both the headquarters (HQ) network and branch office B’s network. Branch office B
uses one VPN rule to access both the headquarters and branch office A’s networks.
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Figure 145 Hub-and-spoke VPN Example
10.9.2 Hub-and-spoke Example VPN Rule Addresses
The VPN rules for this hub-and-spoke example would use the following address settings.
Branch Office A:
• Remote Gateway: 10.0.0.1
• Local IP address: 192.168.167.0/255.255.255.0
• Remote IP address: 192.168.168.0~192.168.169.255
Headquarters:
Rule 1:
• Remote Gateway: 10.0.0.2
• Local IP address: 192.168.168.0~192.168.169.255
• Remote IP address:192.168.167.0/255.255.255.0
Rule 2:
• Remote Gateway: 10.0.0.3
• Local IP address: 192.168.167.0~192.168.168.255
• Remote IP address: 192.168.169.0/255.255.255.0
Branch Office B:
• Remote Gateway: 10.0.0.1
• Local IP address: 192.168.169.0/255.255.255.0
• Remote IP address: 192.168.167.0~192.168.168.255
10.9.3 Hub-and-spoke VPN Requirements and Suggestions
Consider the following when implementing a hub-and-spoke VPN.
The local IP addresses configured in the VPN rules cannot overlap
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The hub router must have at least one separate VPN rule for each spoke. In the local IP
address, specify the IP addresses of the hub-and-spoke networks with which the spoke is to be
able to have a VPN tunnel. This may require you to use more than one VPN rule.
If you want to have the spoke routers access the Internet through the hub-and-spoke VPN
tunnel, set the VPN rules in the spoke routers to use 0.0.0.0 (any) as the remote IP address.
Make sure that your From VPN and To VPN firewall rules do not block the VPN packets.
10.10 VPN Troubleshooting
If the IPSec tunnel does not build properly, the problem is likely a configuration error at one of
the IPSec routers. Log into the web configurators of both IPSec routers.
Check the settings in each field methodically and slowly.
VPN Log
The system log can often help to identify a configuration problem.
Use the web configurator LOGS Log Settings screen to enable IKE and IPSec logging at both
ends, clear the log and then build the tunnel.
View the log via the web configurator LOGS View Log screen or type sys log disp from
SMT Menu 24.8. See Section on page 381 for information on the log messages.
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Figure 146 VPN Log Example
LAN-Cell> sys log disp ike ipsec
#
.time
source
destination
message
0|01/11/2001 18:47:22 |5.6.7.8
|5.1.2.3
Rule [ex-1] Tunnel built successfully
1|01/11/2001 18:47:22 |5.6.7.8
|5.1.2.3
The cookie pair is : 0xDAC0B43FBDE154F5 / 0xC5156C099C3F7DCA
2|01/11/2001 18:47:22 |5.6.7.8
|5.1.2.3
Send:[HASH]
3|01/11/2001 18:47:22 |5.6.7.8
|5.1.2.3
The cookie pair is : 0xDAC0B43FBDE154F5 / 0xC5156C099C3F7DCA
4|01/11/2001 18:47:22 |5.6.7.8
|5.1.2.3
Adjust TCP MSS to 1398
5|01/11/2001 18:47:22 |5.1.2.3
|5.6.7.8
Recv:[HASH][SA][NONCE][ID][ID]
6|01/11/2001 18:47:22 |5.1.2.3
|5.6.7.8
The cookie pair is : 0xDAC0B43FBDE154F5 / 0xC5156C099C3F7DCA
7|01/11/2001 18:47:21 |5.6.7.8
|5.1.2.3
IKE Packet Retransmit
8|01/11/2001 18:47:21 |5.6.7.8
|5.1.2.3
The cookie pair is : 0xDAC0B43FBDE154F5 / 0xC5156C099C3F7DCA
9|01/11/2001 18:47:17 |5.6.7.8
|5.1.2.3
Send:[HASH][SA][NONCE][ID][ID]
10|01/11/2001 18:47:17 |5.6.7.8
|5.1.2.3
The cookie pair is : 0xDAC0B43FBDE154F5 / 0xC5156C099C3F7DCA
11|01/11/2001 18:47:17 |5.6.7.8
|5.1.2.3
Start Phase 2: Quick Mode
12|01/11/2001 18:47:17 |5.6.7.8
|5.1.2.3
The cookie pair is : 0xDAC0B43FBDE154F5 / 0xC5156C099C3F7DCA
13|01/11/2001 18:47:17 |5.6.7.8
|5.1.2.3
Phase 1 IKE SA process done
14|01/11/2001 18:47:17 |5.6.7.8
|5.1.2.3
The cookie pair is : 0xDAC0B43FBDE154F5 / 0xC5156C099C3F7DCA
15|01/11/2001 18:47:17 |5.1.2.3
|5.6.7.8
Recv:[ID][HASH][NOTFY:INIT_CONTACT]9C3F7DCA
16|01/11/2001 18:47:17 |5.1.2.3
|5.6.7.8
The cookie pair is : 0xDAC0B43FBDE154F5 / 0xC5156C099C3F7DCA
17|01/11/2001 18:47:15 |5.6.7.8
|5.1.2.3
Send:[ID][HASH][NOTFY:INIT_CONTACT]9C3F7DCA
notes
|IKE
|IKE
|IKE
|IKE
|IKE
|IKE
|IKE
|IKE
|IKE
|IKE
|IKE
|IKE
|IKE
|IKE
|IKE
|IKE
|IKE
|IKE
10.10.1 IPSec Debug
If you are having difficulty building an IPSec tunnel to a non-Proxicast IPSec router, advanced
users may wish to examine the IPSec debug feature (in the commands).
"
242
If any of your VPN rules have an active network policy set to nailed-up, using
the IPSec debug feature may cause the LAN-Cell to continuously display new
information. Type ipsec debug level 0 and press [ENTER] to stop it.
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Figure 147 IKE/IPSec Debug Example
LAN-Cell> ipsec debug
type
level
display
LAN-Cell> ipsec debug type
<0:Disable | 1:Original on|off | 2:IKE on|off | 3: IPSec [SPI]|on|off |
4:XAUTH on|off | 5:CERT on|off | 6: All>
LAN-Cell> ipsec debug level
<0:None | 1:User | 2:Low | 3:High>
LAN-Cell> ipsec debug type 1 on
LAN-Cell> ipsec debug type 2 on
LAN-Cell> ipsec debug level 3
LAN-Cell> ipsec dial 1
get_ipsec_sa_by_policyIndex():
Start dialing for tunnel <rule# 1>...
ikeStartNegotiate(): saIndex<0>
peerIp<5.1.2.3> protocol: <IPSEC_ESP>(3)
peer Ip <5.1.2.3> initiator(): type<IPSEC_ESP>, exch<Main>
initiator :
protocol: IPSEC_ESP, exchange mode: Main mode
find ipsec saNot found
find_ipsec_sa():
Not found isadb_is_outstanding_req():
isakmp is outstanding req : SA not found
isadb_create_entry(): >> INITIATOR
isadb_get_entry_by_addr():
Get IKE entry by address:
SA not found
SA not found
ISAKMP SA created for peer <BRANCH> size<900>
ISAKMP SA created for peer <BRANCH> size<900>
ikePeer.s0
ISAKMP SA built,
ISAKMP SA built, index = 0isadb_create_entry(): done
create IKE entry doneinitiator(): find myIpAddr = 0.0.0.0, use
<5.6.7.8> r
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10.11 IPSec VPN Technical Reference
IKE SA Proposal
The IKE SA proposal is used to identify the encryption algorithm, authentication algorithm,
and Diffie-Hellman (DH) key group that the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router use in the IKE
SA. In main mode, this is done in steps 1 and 2, as illustrated below.
Figure 148 IKE SA: Main Negotiation Mode, Steps 1 - 2: IKE SA Proposal
The LAN-Cell sends one or more proposals to the remote IPSec router. (In some devices, you
can set up only one proposal.) Each proposal consists of an encryption algorithm,
authentication algorithm, and DH key group that the LAN-Cell wants to use in the IKE SA.
The remote IPSec router selects an acceptable proposal and sends the accepted proposal back
to the LAN-Cell. If the remote IPSec router rejects all of the proposals (for example, if the
VPN tunnel is not configured correctly), the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router cannot
establish an IKE SA.
"
Both routers must use the same encryption algorithm, authentication
algorithm, and DH key group.
See the field descriptions for information about specific encryption algorithms, authentication
algorithms, and DH key groups. See Section on page 244 for more information about DH key
groups.
Diffie-Hellman (DH) Key Exchange
The LAN-Cell and the remote IPSec router use a DH key exchange to establish a shared
secret, which is used to generate encryption keys for IKE SA and IPSec SA. In main mode, the
DH key exchange is done in steps 3 and 4, as illustrated below.
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Figure 149 IKE SA: Main Negotiation Mode, Steps 3 - 4: DH Key Exchange
The DH key exchange is based on DH key groups. Each key group is a fixed number of bits
long. The longer the key, the more secure the encryption keys, but also the longer it takes to
encrypt and decrypt information. For example, DH2 keys (1024 bits) are more secure than
DH1 keys (768 bits), but DH2 encryption keys take longer to encrypt and decrypt.
Authentication
Before the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router establish an IKE SA, they have to verify each
other’s identity. This process is based on pre-shared keys and router identities.
In main mode, the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router authenticate each other in steps 5 and 6,
as illustrated below. Their identities are encrypted using the encryption algorithm and
encryption key the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router selected in previous steps.
Figure 150 IKE SA: Main Negotiation Mode, Steps 5 - 6: Authentication
The LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router use a pre-shared key in the authentication process,
though it is not actually transmitted or exchanged.
"
The LAN-Cell and the remote IPSec router must use the same pre-shared key.
Router identity consists of ID type and ID content. The ID type can be IP address, domain
name, or e-mail address, and the ID content is a specific IP address, domain name, or e-mail
address. The ID content is only used for identification; the IP address, domain name, or e-mail
address that you enter does not have to actually exist.
The LAN-Cell and the remote IPSec router each has its own identity, so each one must store
two sets of information, one for itself and one for the other router. Local ID type and ID
content refers to the ID type and ID content that applies to the router itself, and peer ID type
and ID content refers to the ID type and ID content that applies to the other router in the IKE
SA.
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The LAN-Cell’s local and peer ID type and ID content must match the remote
IPSec router’s peer and local ID type and ID content, respectively.
In the following example, the ID type and content match so the LAN-Cell and the remote
IPSec router authenticate each other successfully.
Table 87 VPN Example: Matching ID Type and Content
LAN-CELL
REMOTE IPSEC ROUTER
Local ID type: E-mail
Local ID type: IP
Local ID content: tom@yourcompany.com
Local ID content: 1.1.1.2
Peer ID type: IP
Peer ID type: E-mail
Peer ID content: 1.1.1.2
Peer ID content: tom@yourcompany.com
In the following example, the ID type and content do not match so the authentication fails and
the LAN-Cell and the remote IPSec router cannot establish an IKE SA.
Table 88 VPN Example: Mismatching ID Type and Content
LAN-CELL
REMOTE IPSEC ROUTER
Local ID type: E-mail
Local ID type: IP
Local ID content: tom@yourcompany.com
Local ID content: 1.1.1.2
Peer ID type: IP
Peer ID type: E-mail
Peer ID content: 1.1.1.15
Peer ID content: tom@yourcompany.com
It is also possible to configure the LAN-Cell to ignore the identity of the remote IPSec router.
In this case, you usually set the peer ID type to Any. This is not as secure as other peer ID
types, however.
Certificates
It is also possible for the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router to authenticate each other with
certificates. In this case, the authentication process is different.
• Instead of using the pre-shared key, the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router check each
other’s certificates.
• The local ID type and ID content come from the certificate. On the LAN-Cell, you simply
select which certificate to use.
• If you set the peer ID type to Any, the LAN-Cell authenticates the remote IPSec router
using the trusted certificates and trusted CAs you have set up. Alternatively, if you want to
use a specific certificate to authenticate the remote IPSec router, you can use the
information in the certificate to specify the peer ID type and ID content.
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You must set up the certificates for the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router
before you can use certificates in IKE SA. See Chapter 11 on page 255 for
more information about certificates.
Extended Authentication
Extended authentication is often used when multiple IPSec routers use the same VPN tunnel to
connect to a single IPSec router. For example, this might be used with telecommuters.
Extended authentication occurs right after the authentication described in Section on page
245.
In extended authentication, one of the routers (the LAN-Cell or the remote IPSec router)
provides a user name and password to the other router, which uses a local user database and/or
an external server to verify the user name and password. If the user name or password is
wrong, the routers do not establish an IKE SA.
You can set up the LAN-Cell to provide a user name and password to the remote IPSec router,
or you can set up the LAN-Cell to check a user name and password that is provided by the
remote IPSec router.
Negotiation Mode
There are two negotiation modes: main mode and aggressive mode. Main mode provides
better security, while aggressive mode is faster.
Main mode takes six steps to establish an IKE SA.
Steps 1-2: The LAN-Cell sends its proposals to the remote IPSec router. The remote IPSec
router selects an acceptable proposal and sends it back to the LAN-Cell.
Steps 3-4: The LAN-Cell and the remote IPSec router participate in a Diffie-Hellman key
exchange, based on the accepted DH key group, to establish a shared secret.
Steps 5-6: Finally, the LAN-Cell and the remote IPSec router generate an encryption key from
the shared secret, encrypt their identities, and exchange their encrypted identity information
for authentication.
In contrast, aggressive mode only takes three steps to establish an IKE SA.
Step 1: The LAN-Cell sends its proposals to the remote IPSec router. It also starts the DiffieHellman key exchange and sends its (unencrypted) identity to the remote IPSec router for
authentication.
Step 2: The remote IPSec router selects an acceptable proposal and sends it back to the LANCell. It also finishes the Diffie-Hellman key exchange, authenticates the LAN-Cell, and sends
its (unencrypted) identity to the LAN-Cell for authentication.
Step 3: The LAN-Cell authenticates the remote IPSec router and confirms that the IKE SA is
established.
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Aggressive mode does not provide as much security as main mode because the identity of the
LAN-Cell and the identity of the remote IPSec router are not encrypted. It is usually used
when the address of the initiator is not known by the responder and both parties want to use
pre-shared keys for authentication (for example, telecommuters).
VPN, NAT, and NAT Traversal
In the following example, there is another router (A) between router X and router Y.
Figure 151 VPN/NAT Example
If router A does NAT, it might change the IP addresses, port numbers, or both. If router X and
router Y try to establish a VPN tunnel, the authentication fails because it depends on this
information. The routers cannot establish a VPN tunnel.
Most routers like router A now have an IPSec pass-through feature. This feature helps router A
recognize VPN packets and route them appropriately. If router A has this feature, router X and
router Y can establish a VPN tunnel as long as the active protocol is ESP. (See Section on
page 252 for more information about active protocols.)
If router A does not have an IPSec pass-through or if the active protocol is AH, you can solve
this problem by enabling NAT traversal. In NAT traversal, router X and router Y add an extra
header to the IKE SA and IPSec SA packets. If you configure router A to forward these
packets unchanged, router X and router Y can establish a VPN tunnel.
You have to do the following things to set up NAT traversal.
• Enable NAT traversal on the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router.
• Configure the NAT router to forward packets with the extra header unchanged. (See the
field description for detailed information about the extra header.)
The extra header may be UDP port 500 or UDP port 4500, depending on the standard(s) the
LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router support.
Additional IPSec VPN Topics
This section discusses other IPSec VPN topics that apply to either IKE SAs or IPSec SAs or
both. Relationships between the topics are also highlighted.
SA Life Time
SAs have a lifetime that specifies how long the SA lasts until it times out. When an SA times
out, the LAN-Cell automatically renegotiates the SA in the following situations:
• There is traffic when the SA life time expires
• The IPSec SA is configured on the LAN-Cell as nailed up (see below)
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Otherwise, the LAN-Cell must re-negotiate the SA the next time someone wants to send
traffic.
"
If the IKE SA times out while an IPSec SA is connected, the IPSec SA stays
connected.
An IPSec SA can be set to nailed up. Normally, the LAN-Cell drops the IPSec SA when the
life time expires or after two minutes of outbound traffic with no inbound traffic. If you set the
IPSec SA to nailed up, the LAN-Cell automatically renegotiates the IPSec SA when the SA
life time expires, and it does not drop the IPSec SA if there is no inbound traffic.
"
The SA life time and nailed up settings only apply if the rule identifies the
remote IPSec router by a static IP address or a domain name. If the Remote
Gateway Address field is set to 0.0.0.0, the LAN-Cell cannot initiate the
tunnel (and cannot renegotiate the SA).
IPSec High Availability
IPSec high availability (also known as VPN high availability) allows you to use a redundant
(backup) VPN connection to another WAN interface on the remote IPSec router if the primary
(regular) VPN connection goes down.
In the following figure, if the primary VPN tunnel (A) goes down, the LAN-Cell uses the
redundant VPN tunnel (B).
Figure 152 IPSec High Availability
When setting up a IPSec high availability VPN tunnel, the remote IPSec router:
• Must have multiple WAN connections
• Only needs the configure one corresponding IPSec rule
• Should only have IPSec high availability settings in its corresponding IPSec rule if your
LAN-Cell has multiple WAN connections
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• Should ideally identify itself by a domain name or dynamic domain name (it must
otherwise have My Address set to 0.0.0.0)
• Should use a WAN connectivity check to this LAN-Cell’s WAN IP address
If the remote IPSec router is not a LAN-Cell, you may also want to avoid setting the IPSec
rule to nailed up.
Encryption and Authentication Algorithms
In most LAN-Cells, you can select one of the following encryption algorithms for each
proposal. The encryption algorithms are listed here in order from weakest to strongest.
• Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a widely used (but breakable) method of data
encryption. It applies a 56-bit key to each 64-bit block of data.
• Triple DES (3DES) is a variant of DES. It iterates three times with three separate keys,
effectively tripling the strength of DES.
• Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a newer method of data encryption that also uses
a secret key. AES applies a 128-bit key to 128-bit blocks of data. It is faster than 3DES.
Use the commands to have the AES encryption apply 192-bit or 256-bit keys to 128-bit blocks
of data.
You can select one of the following authentication algorithms for each proposal. The
algorithms are listed here in order from weakest to strongest.
• MD5 (Message Digest 5) produces a 128-bit digest to authenticate packet data.
• SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) produces a 160-bit digest to authenticate packet data.
IPSec SA Overview
Once the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router have established the IKE SA, they can securely
negotiate an IPSec SA through which to send data between computers on the networks.
"
The IPSec SA stays connected even if the underlying IKE SA is not available
anymore.
This section introduces the key components of an IPSec SA.
Local Network and Remote Network
In IPSec SA, the local network, the one(s) connected to the LAN-Cell, may be called the local
policy. Similarly, the remote network, the one(s) connected to the remote IPSec router, may be
called the remote policy.
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Virtual Address Mapping
Virtual address mapping (NAT over IPSec) changes the source IP addresses of packets from
your local devices to virtual IP addresses before sending them through the VPN tunnel.
Avoiding Overlapping Local And Remote Network IP Addresses
If both IPSec routers support virtual address mapping, you can access devices on both
networks, even if their IP addresses overlap. You map the LAN-Cell’s local network addresses
to virtual IP addresses and map the remote IPSec router’s local IP addresses to other
(nonoverlapping) virtual IP addresses.
The following diagram shows an example of using virutal address mapping to avoid
overlapping local and remote IP addresses. You can set up virtual address mapping on both
IPSec routers to allow computers on network X to access network X and network Y computers
with the same IP address.
• You set LAN-Cell A to change the source IP addresses of packets from local network
X (192.168.1.2 to 192.168.1.4) to virtual IP addresses 10.0.0.2 to 10.0.0.4 before
sending them through the VPN tunnel.
• You set LAN-Cell B to change the source IP addresses of packets from the remote
network Y (192.168.1.2 to 192.168.1.27) to virtual IP addresses 172.21.2.2 to
172.21.2.27 before sending them through the VPN tunnel.
• On LAN-Cell A, you specify 172.21.2.2 to 172.21.2.27 as the remote network. On
LAN-Cell B, you specify 10.0.0.2 to 10.0.0.4 as the remote network.
Figure 153 Virtual Mapping of Local and Remote Network IP Addresses
Computers on network X use IP addresses 192.168.1.2 to 192.168.1.4 to access local network
devices and IP addresses 172.21.2.2 to 172.21.2.27 to access the remote network devices.
Computers on network Y use IP addresses 192.168.1.2 to 192.168.1.27 to access local
network devices and IP addresses 10.0.0.2 to 10.0.0.4 to access the remote network devices.
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Active Protocol
The active protocol controls the format of each packet. It also specifies how much of each
packet is protected by the encryption and authentication algorithms. IPSec VPN includes two
active protocols, AH (Authentication Header, RFC 2402) and ESP (Encapsulating Security
Payload, RFC 2406).
"
The LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router must use the same active protocol.
Usually, you should select ESP. AH does not support encryption, and ESP is more suitable
with NAT.
Encapsulation
There are two ways to encapsulate packets. Usually, you should use tunnel mode because it is
more secure. Transport mode is only used when the IPSec SA is used for communication
between the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router (for example, for remote management), not
between computers on the local and remote networks.
"
The LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router must use the same encapsulation.
These modes are illustrated below.
Figure 154 VPN: Transport and Tunnel Mode Encapsulation
Original Packet
IP Header
TCP
Header
Data
Transport Mode Packet
IP Header
AH/ESP
Header
TCP
Header
Data
Tunnel Mode Packet
IP Header
AH/ESP
Header
IP Header
TCP
Header
Data
In tunnel mode, the LAN-Cell uses the active protocol to encapsulate the entire IP packet. As a
result, there are two IP headers:
• Outside header: The outside IP header contains the IP address of the LAN-Cell or remote
IPSec router, whichever is the destination.
• Inside header: The inside IP header contains the IP address of the computer behind the
LAN-Cell or remote IPSec router. The header for the active protocol (AH or ESP) appears
between the IP headers.
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In transport mode, the encapsulation depends on the active protocol. With AH, the LAN-Cell
includes part of the original IP header when it encapsulates the packet. With ESP, however,
the LAN-Cell does not include the IP header when it encapsulates the packet, so it is not
possible to verify the integrity of the source IP address.
IPSec SA Proposal and Perfect Forward Secrecy
An IPSec SA proposal is similar to an IKE SA proposal (see Section on page 244), except that
you also have the choice whether or not the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router perform a new
DH key exchange every time an IPSec SA is established. This is called Perfect Forward
Secrecy (PFS).
If you enable PFS, the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router perform a DH key exchange every
time an IPSec SA is established, changing the root key from which encryption keys are
generated. As a result, if one encryption key is compromised, other encryption keys remain
secure.
If you do not enable PFS, the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router use the same root key that
was generated when the IKE SA was established to generate encryption keys.
The DH key exchange is time-consuming and may be unnecessary for data that does not
require such security.
IPSec SA Using Manual Keys
You might set up an IPSec SA using manual keys when you want to establish a VPN tunnel
quickly, for example, for troubleshooting. You should only do this as a temporary solution,
however, because it is not as secure as a regular IPSec SA.
In IPSec SAs using manual keys, the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router do not establish an
IKE SA. They only establish an IPSec SA. As a result, an IPSec SA using manual keys has
some characteristics of IKE SA and some characteristics of IPSec SA. There are also some
differences between IPSec SA using manual keys and other types of SA.
IPSec SA Proposal Using Manual Keys
In IPSec SA using manual keys, you can only specify one encryption algorithm and one
authentication algorithm. You cannot specify several proposals. There is no DH key exchange,
so you have to provide the encryption key and the authentication key the LAN-Cell and
remote IPSec router use.
"
The LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router must use the same encryption key and
authentication key.
Authentication and the Security Parameter Index (SPI)
For authentication, the LAN-Cell and remote IPSec router use the SPI, instead of pre-shared
keys, ID type and content. The SPI is an identification number.
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11
Certificates Screens
11.1 Overview
The LAN-Cell can use certificates (also called digital IDs) to authenticate users. Certificates
are based on public-private key pairs. A certificate contains the certificate owner’s identity and
public key. Certificates provide a way to exchange public keys for use in authentication.
11.1.1 What You Can Do in the Certificate Screens
• Use the My Certificate screens (see Section 11.2 on page 257) to generate and export
self-signed certificates or certification requests and import the LAN-Cell’s CA-signed
certificates.
• Use the Trusted CA screens (see Section 11.6 on page 269) to save the certificates of
trusted CAs to the LAN-Cell. You can also export the certificates to a computer.
• Use the Trusted Remote Hosts screens (see Section 11.9 on page 274) to import
selfsigned certificates from trusted remote hosts.
• Use the Directory Servers screen (see Section 11.12 on page 279) to configure a list of
addresses of directory servers (that contain lists of valid and revoked certificates).
11.1.2 What You Need to Know About Certificates
A Certification Authority (CA) issues certificates and guarantees the identity of each
certificate owner. There are commercial certification authorities like CyberTrust or VeriSign
and government certification authorities. You can use the LAN-Cell to generate certification
requests that contain identifying information and public keys and then send the certification
requests to a certification authority.
In public-key encryption and decryption, each host has two keys. One key is public and can be
made openly available; the other key is private and must be kept secure. Public-key encryption
in general works as follows.
1 Tim wants to send a private message to Jenny. Tim generates a public-private key pair.
What is encrypted with one key can only be decrypted using the other.
2 Tim keeps the private key and makes the public key openly available.
3 Tim uses his private key to encrypt the message and sends it to Jenny.
4 Jenny receives the message and uses Tim’s public key to decrypt it.
5 Additionally, Jenny uses her own private key to encrypt a message and Tim uses Jenny’s
public key to decrypt the message.
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The LAN-Cell uses certificates based on public-key cryptology to authenticate users
attempting to establish a connection, not to encrypt the data that you send after establishing a
connection. The method used to secure the data that you send through an established
connection depends on the type of connection. For example, a VPN tunnel might use the triple
DES encryption algorithm.
The certification authority uses its private key to sign certificates. Anyone can then use the
certification authority’s public key to verify the certificates.
A certification path is the hierarchy of certification authority certificates that validate a
certificate. The LAN-Cell does not trust a certificate if any certificate on its path has expired or
been revoked.
Certification authorities maintain directory servers with databases of valid and revoked
certificates. A directory of certificates that have been revoked before the scheduled expiration
is called a CRL (Certificate Revocation List). The LAN-Cell can check a peer’s certificate
against a directory server’s list of revoked certificates. The framework of servers, software,
procedures and policies that handles keys is called PKI (public-key infrastructure).
Advantages of Certificates
Certificates offer the following benefits.
• The LAN-Cell only has to store the certificates of the certification authorities that you
decide to trust, no matter how many devices you need to authenticate.
• Key distribution is simple and very secure since you can freely distribute public keys and
you never need to transmit private keys.
Self-signed Certificates
You can have the LAN-Cell act as a certification authority and sign its own certificates.
Verifying a Certificate
Before you import a trusted CA or trusted remote host certificate into the LAN-Cell, you
should verify that you have the actual certificate. This is especially true of trusted CA
certificates since the LAN-Cell also trusts any valid certificate signed by any of the imported
trusted CA certificates.
A certificate’s fingerprints are message digests calculated using the MD5 or SHA1 algorithms.
You can use a certificate’s fingerprint to verify it. The following procedure describes how to
check a certificate’s fingerprint to verify that you have the actual certificate.
1 Browse to where you have the certificate saved on your computer.
2 Make sure that the certificate has a “.cer” or “.crt” file name extension.
Figure 155 Certificates on Your Computer
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3 Double-click the certificate’s icon to open the Certificate window. Click the Details tab
and scroll down to the Thumbprint Algorithm and Thumbprint fields.
Figure 156 Certificate Details
4 Use a secure method to verify that the certificate owner has the same information in the
Thumbprint Algorithm and Thumbprint fields. The secure method may very based
on your situation. Possible examples would be over the telephone or through an HTTPS
connection.
11.2 My Certificates Screen
Click SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates to open the My Certificates
screen. This is the LAN-Cell’s summary list of certificates and certification requests.
Certificates display in black and certification requests display in gray.
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Figure 157 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 89 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates
258
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PKI Storage
Space in Use
This bar displays the percentage of the LAN-Cell’s PKI storage space that is
currently in use. When the storage space is almost full, you should consider
deleting expired or unnecessary certificates before adding more certificates.
Replace
This button displays when the LAN-Cell has the factory default certificate. The
factory default certificate is common to all LAN-Cells that use certificates.
Proxicast recommends that you use this button to replace the factory default
certificate with one that uses your LAN-Cell's MAC address.
#
This field displays the certificate index number. The certificates are listed in
alphabetical order.
Name
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate. It is recommended that
you give each certificate a unique name.
Type
This field displays what kind of certificate this is.
REQ represents a certification request and is not yet a valid certificate. Send a
certification request to a certification authority, which then issues a certificate. Use
the My Certificate Import screen to import the certificate and replace the request.
SELF represents a self-signed certificate.
*SELF represents the default self-signed certificate, which the LAN-Cell uses to
sign imported trusted remote host certificates.
CERT represents a certificate issued by a certification authority.
Subject
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s owner, such as CN
(Common Name), OU (Organizational Unit or department), O (Organization or
company) and C (Country). It is recommended that each certificate have unique
subject information.
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing certification
authority, such as a common name, organizational unit or department,
organization or company and country. With self-signed certificates, this is the
same information as in the Subject field.
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text
displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not yet
become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red and
includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire or
has already expired.
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Table 89 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Modify
Click the details icon to open a screen with an in-depth list of information about the
certificate (or certification request).
Click the export icon to save the certificate to a computer. For a certification
request, click the export icon and then Save in the File Download screen. The
Save As screen opens, browse to the location that you want to use and click
Save.
Click the delete icon to remove the certificate (or certification request). A window
displays asking you to confirm that you want to delete the certificate.
You cannot delete a certificate that one or more features is configured to use.
Do the following to delete a certificate that shows *SELF in the Type field.
1. Make sure that no other features, such as HTTPS, VPN, SSH are configured to
use the *SELF certificate.
2. Click the details icon next to another self-signed certificate (see the description
on the Create button if you need to create a self-signed certificate).
3. Select the Default self-signed certificate which signs the imported remote
host certificates check box.
4. Click Apply to save the changes and return to the My Certificates screen.
5. The certificate that originally showed *SELF displays SELF and you can delete
it now.
Note that subsequent certificates move up by one when you take this action
Import
Click Import to open a screen where you can save the certificate that you have
enrolled from a certification authority from your computer to the LAN-Cell.
Create
Click Create to go to the screen where you can have the LAN-Cell generate a
certificate or a certification request.
Refresh
Click Refresh to display the current validity status of the certificates.
11.2.1 My Certificate Details Screen
Click SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates to open the My Certificates
screen (see Figure 157 on page 258). Click the details icon to open the My Certificate Details
screen. You can use this screen to view in-depth certificate information and change the
certificate’s name.
If it is a self-signed certificate, you can also set the LAN-Cell to use the certificate to sign the
imported trusted remote host certificates.
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Figure 158 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates > Details
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 90 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates > Details
260
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
This field displays the identifying name of this certificate. If you want to change
the name, type up to 31 characters to identify this certificate. You may use any
character (not including spaces).
Property
Default self-signed
certificate which
signs the imported
remote host
certificates.
Select this check box to have the LAN-Cell use this certificate to sign the trusted
remote host certificates that you import to the LAN-Cell. This check box is only
available with self-signed certificates.
If this check box is already selected, you cannot clear it in this screen, you must
select this check box in another self-signed certificate’s details screen. This
automatically clears the check box in the details screen of the certificate that
was previously set to sign the imported trusted remote host certificates.
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Table 90 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates > Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certification Path
Click the Refresh button to have this read-only text box display the hierarchy of
certification authorities that validate the certificate (and the certificate itself).
If the issuing certification authority is one that you have imported as a trusted
certification authority, it may be the only certification authority in the list (along
with the certificate itself). If the certificate is a self-signed certificate, the
certificate itself is the only one in the list. The LAN-Cell does not trust the
certificate and displays “Not trusted” in this field if any certificate on the path has
expired or been revoked.
Refresh
Click Refresh to display the certification path.
Certificate
Information
These read-only fields display detailed information about the certificate.
Type
This field displays general information about the certificate. CA-signed means
that a Certification Authority signed the certificate. Self-signed means that the
certificate’s owner signed the certificate (not a certification authority). “X.509”
means that this certificate was created and signed according to the ITU-T X.509
recommendation that defines the formats for public-key certificates.
Version
This field displays the X.509 version number.
Serial Number
This field displays the certificate’s identification number given by the certification
authority or generated by the LAN-Cell.
Subject
This field displays information that identifies the owner of the certificate, such as
Common Name (CN), Organizational Unit (OU), Organization (O) and Country
(C).
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing
certification authority, such as Common Name, Organizational Unit,
Organization and Country.
With self-signed certificates, this is the same as the Subject Name field.
Signature Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to sign the certificate. The
LAN-Cell uses rsa-pkcs1-sha1 (RSA public-private key encryption algorithm
and the SHA1 hash algorithm). Some certification authorities may use rsapkcs1-md5 (RSA public-private key encryption algorithm and the MD5 hash
algorithm).
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text
displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not
yet become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red
and includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire
or has already expired.
Key Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to generate the
certificate’s key pair (the LAN-Cell uses RSA encryption) and the length of the
key set in bits (1024 bits for example).
Subject Alternative
Name
This field displays the certificate owner‘s IP address (IP), domain name (DNS)
or e-mail address (EMAIL).
Key Usage
This field displays for what functions the certificate’s key can be used. For
example, “DigitalSignature” means that the key can be used to sign certificates
and “KeyEncipherment” means that the key can be used to encrypt text.
Basic Constraint
This field displays general information about the certificate. For example,
Subject Type=CA means that this is a certification authority’s certificate and
“Path Length Constraint=1” means that there can only be one certification
authority in the certificate’s path.
MD5 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the LAN-Cell calculated using the
MD5 algorithm.
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Table 90 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates > Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SHA1 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the LAN-Cell calculated using the
SHA1 algorithm.
Certificate in PEM
(Base-64) Encoded
Format
This read-only text box displays the certificate or certification request in Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM) format. PEM uses 64 ASCII characters to convert the
binary certificate into a printable form.
You can copy and paste a certification request into a certification authority’s web
page, an e-mail that you send to the certification authority or a text editor and
save the file on a management computer for later manual enrollment.
You can copy and paste a certificate into an e-mail to send to friends or
colleagues or you can copy and paste a certificate into a text editor and save the
file on a management computer for later distribution (via floppy disk for
example).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell. You can only change
the name, except in the case of a self-signed certificate, which you can also set
to be the default self-signed certificate that signs the imported trusted remote
host certificates.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the My Certificates screen.
11.3 My Certificate Export Screen
Click SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates and then a certificate’s export icon
to open the My Certificate Export screen. Follow the instructions in this screen to choose the
file format to use for saving the certificate from the LAN-Cell to a computer.
You can export a certificate in one of these file formats:
• Binary X.509: This is an ITU-T recommendation that defines the formats for X.509
certificates.
• Binary PKCS#12: This is a format for transferring public key and private key certificates.
The private key in a PKCS #12 file is within a password-encrypted envelope. The file’s
password is not connected to your certificate’s public or private passwords. Exporting a
PKCS #12 file creates this and you must provide it to decrypt the contents when you
import the file into the LAN-Cell.
Figure 159 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates > Export
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 91 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates > Export
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Export the certificate in
binary X.509 format.
Binary X.509 is an ITU-T recommendation that defines the formats for X.509
certificates.
Export the certificate
along with the
corresponding private
key in PKCS#12 format.
PKCS#12 is a format for transferring public key and private key certificates.
You can also password-encrypt the private key in the PKCS #12 file. The
file’s password is not connected to your certificate’s public or private
passwords.
Password
Type the file’s password to use for encrypting the private key. The password
is optional, although you must specify one if you want to be able to import
the PKCS#12 format certificate into Netscape version 7.2.
Retype to confirm
Type the password to make sure that you have entered it correctly.
Apply
Click Apply and then Save in the File Download screen. The Save As
screen opens, browse to the location that you want to use and click Save.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the My Certificates screen.
11.4 My Certificate Import Screen
Click SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates and then Import to open the My
Certificate Import screen. Follow the instructions in this screen to save an existing certificate
from a computer to the LAN-Cell.
You can only import a certificate that matches a corresponding certification request that was
generated by the LAN-Cell (the certification request contains the private key). The certificate
you import replaces the corresponding request in the My Certificates screen.
One exception is that you can import a PKCS#12 format certificate without a corresponding
certification request since the certificate includes the private key.
"
You must remove any spaces from the certificate’s filename before you can
import it.
Certificate File Formats
The certification authority certificate that you want to import has to be in one of these file
formats:
• Binary X.509: This is an ITU-T recommendation that defines the formats for X.509
certificates.
• PEM (Base-64) encoded X.509: This Privacy Enhanced Mail format uses 64 ASCII
characters to convert a binary X.509 certificate into a printable form.
• Binary PKCS#7: This is a standard that defines the general syntax for data (including
digital signatures) that may be encrypted. The LAN-Cell currently allows the importation
of a PKS#7 file that contains a single certificate.
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• PEM (Base-64) encoded PKCS#7: This Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) format uses 64
ASCII characters to convert a binary PKCS#7 certificate into a printable form.
• Binary PKCS#12: This is a format for transferring public key and private key certificates.
The private key in a PKCS #12 file is within a password-encrypted envelope. The file’s
password is not connected to your certificate’s public or private passwords. Exporting a
PKCS #12 file creates this and you must provide it to decrypt the contents when you
import the file into the LAN-Cell.
"
Be careful to not convert a binary file to text during the transfer process. It is
easy for this to occur since many programs use text files by default.
Figure 160 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates > Import
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 92 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates > Import
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse to find it.
Browse
Click Browse to find the certificate file you want to upload.
Apply
Click Apply to save the certificate on the LAN-Cell.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the My Certificates screen.
When you import a binary PKCS#12 format certificate, another screen displays for you to
enter the password.
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Figure 161 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates > Import: PKCS#12
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 93 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates > Import: PKCS#12
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Password
Type the file’s password that was created when the PKCS #12 file was exported.
Apply
Click Apply to save the certificate on the LAN-Cell.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the My Certificates screen.
11.5 My Certificate Create Screen
Click SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates > Create to open the My
Certificate Create screen. Use this screen to have the LAN-Cell create a self-signed
certificate, enroll a certificate with a certification authority or generate a certification request.
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Figure 162 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates > Create
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 94 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates > Create
266
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate Name
Type up to 31 ASCII characters (not including spaces) to identify this
certificate.
Subject Information
Use these fields to record information that identifies the owner of the
certificate. You do not have to fill in every field, although the Common Name
is mandatory. The certification authority may add fields (such as a serial
number) to the subject information when it issues a certificate. It is
recommended that each certificate have unique subject information.
Common Name
Select a radio button to identify the certificate’s owner by IP address, domain
name or e-mail address. Type the IP address (in dotted decimal notation),
domain name or e-mail address in the field provided. The domain name or email address can be up to 31 ASCII characters. The domain name or e-mail
address is for identification purposes only and can be any string.
Organizational Unit
Type up to 127 characters to identify the organizational unit or department to
which the certificate owner belongs. You may use any character, including
spaces, but the LAN-Cell drops trailing spaces.
Organization
Type up to 127 characters to identify the company or group to which the
certificate owner belongs. You may use any character, including spaces, but
the LAN-Cell drops trailing spaces.
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Table 94 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates > Create (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Country
Type up to 127 characters to identify the nation where the certificate owner is
located. You may use any character, including spaces, but the LAN-Cell drops
trailing spaces.
Key Length
Select a number from the drop-down list box to determine how many bits the
key should use (512 to 2048). The longer the key, the more secure it is. A
longer key also uses more PKI storage space.
The fields below display when you click Advanced >>.
Subject Name
You must configure at least one of these fields.
Select an item from the drop-down list box and enter the corresponding
information in the field to the right.
SN (serial number) - select this and enter the certificate's identification
number, such as the LAN-Cell's MAC address. You can use up to 63
characters.
CN (common name) - select this and enter a name to identify the owner of the
certificate. You can use up to 63 characters.
OU (organizational unit) - select this and enter a unit within the organization to
identify the owner of the certificate. You can use up to 63 characters.
O (organization) - select this and enter an organization to identify the owner of
the certificate. You can use up to 63 characters.
DC (domain component) - select this and enter the domain component of a
domain to identify the owner of the certificate. For example, if the domain is
proxicast.com, the domain component is "proxicast" or "com". You can use up
to 63 characters.
L (locality name) - select this and enter the place where the owner of the
certificate resides, such as a city or county. You can use up to 63 characters.
ST (state or province name) - select this and enter the state or province in
which the owner of the certificate resides. You can use up to 63 characters.
C (country) - select this and enter the name of the country at which the owner
of the certificate resides. You can use up to 63 characters.
unstructuredName (PKCS 9 unname) - select this and enter the name of the
owner of the certificate as an unstructured ASCII string. You can use up to 63
characters. Check with the certificate's issuing certification authority for their
interpretation in this field if you select to apply to a certification authority for a
certificate.
unstructuredAddress (PKCS 9 unaddr) - select this and enter the address of
the owner of the certificate as an unstructured ASCII string. You can use up to
63 characters. Check with the certificate's issuing certification authority for
their interpretation in this field if you select to apply to a certification authority
for a certificate.
MAILTO (PKCS 9 email address) - select this and enter the email address of
the owner of the certificate. You can use up to 63 characters. Check with the
certificate's issuing certification authority for their interpretation in this field if
you select to apply to a certification authority for a certificate.
Subject Alternative
Name
Select a radio button to identify the certificate's owner by IP address, domain
name or e-mail address. Type the IP address (in dotted decimal notation),
domain name or e-mail address in the field provided. The domain name or email address can be up to 31 ASCII characters. The domain name or e-mail
address is for identification purposes only and can be any string.
Enrollment Options
These radio buttons deal with how and when the certificate is to be generated.
Create a self-signed
certificate
Select Create a self-signed certificate to have the LAN-Cell generate the
certificate and act as the Certification Authority (CA) itself. This way you do not
need to apply to a certification authority for certificates.
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Table 94 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates > Create (continued)
268
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Create a certification
request and save it
locally for later
manual enrollment
Select Create a certification request and save it locally for later manual
enrollment to have the LAN-Cell generate and store a request for a certificate.
Use the My Certificate Details screen to view the certification request and
copy it to send to the certification authority.
Copy the certification request from the My Certificate Details screen (see
Section 11.2.1 on page 259) and then send it to the certification authority.
Create a certification
request and enroll for
a certificate
immediately online
Select Create a certification request and enroll for a certificate
immediately online to have the LAN-Cell generate a request for a certificate
and apply to a certification authority for a certificate.
You must have the certification authority’s certificate already imported in the
Trusted CAs screen.
When you select this option, you must select the certification authority’s
enrollment protocol and the certification authority’s certificate from the dropdown list boxes and enter the certification authority’s server address. You also
need to fill in the Reference Number and Key if the certification authority
requires them.
Enrollment Protocol
Select the certification authority’s enrollment protocol from the drop-down list
box.
Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol (SCEP) is a TCP-based enrollment
protocol that was developed by VeriSign and Cisco.
Certificate Management Protocol (CMP) is a TCP-based enrollment protocol
that was developed by the Public Key Infrastructure X.509 working group of
the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and is specified in RFC 2510.
CA Server Address
Enter the IP address (or URL) of the certification authority server.
CA Certificate
Select the certification authority’s certificate from the CA Certificate dropdown list box.
You must have the certification authority’s certificate already imported in the
Trusted CAs screen. Click Trusted CAs to go to the Trusted CAs screen
where you can view (and manage) the LAN-Cell's list of certificates of trusted
certification authorities.
Enrollment via an RA
If you select Create a certification request and enroll for a certificate
immediately online, you can select this option to apply for a certificate
through a RA (Registration Authority). The RA is an intermediary authorized by
a CA to verify each subscriber's identity and forward the requests to the CA.
After the CA signs and issues the certificates, the RA distributes the
certificates to the subscribers.
RA Signing Certificate
If you select Enrollment via an RA, select the CA's RA signing certificate from
the drop-down list box. You must have the certificate already imported in the
Trusted CAs screen.
Click Trusted CAs to go to the Trusted CAs screen where you can view (and
manage) the LAN-Cell's list of certificates of trusted certification authorities.
RA Encryption
Certificate
If you select Enrollment via an RA, select the CA's RA encryption certificate
from the drop-down list box. You must have the certificate already imported in
the Trusted CAs screen.
Click Trusted CAs to go to the Trusted CAs screen where you can view (and
manage) the LAN-Cell's list of certificates of trusted certification authorities.
Request
Authentication
When you select Create a certification request and enroll for a certificate
immediately online, the certification authority may want you to include a
reference number and key to identify you when you send a certification
request. Fill in both the Reference Number and the Key fields if your
certification authority uses CMP enrollment protocol. Just fill in the Key field if
your certification authority uses the SCEP enrollment protocol.
Key
Type the key that the certification authority gave you.
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Table 94 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > My Certificates > Create (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to begin certificate or certification request generation.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the My Certificates screen.
After you click Apply in the My Certificate Create screen, you see a screen that tells you the
LAN-Cell is generating the self-signed certificate or certification request.
After the LAN-Cell successfully enrolls a certificate or generates a certification request or a
self-signed certificate, you see a screen with a Return button that takes you back to the My
Certificates screen.
If you configured the My Certificate Create screen to have the LAN-Cell enroll a certificate
and the certificate enrollment is not successful, you see a screen with a Return button that
takes you back to the My Certificate Create screen. Click Return and check your
information in the My Certificate Create screen. Make sure that the certification authority
information is correct and that your Internet connection is working properly if you want the
LAN-Cell to enroll a certificate online.
11.6 Trusted CAs Screen
Click SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted CAs to open the Trusted CAs screen.
This screen displays a summary list of certificates of the certification authorities that you have
set the LAN-Cell to accept as trusted. The LAN-Cell accepts any valid certificate signed by a
certification authority on this list as being trustworthy; thus you do not need to import any
certificate that is signed by one of these certification authorities.
Figure 163 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted CAs
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 95 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted CAs
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PKI Storage
Space in Use
This bar displays the percentage of the LAN-Cell’s PKI storage space that is
currently in use. When the storage space is almost full, you should consider
deleting expired or unnecessary certificates before adding more certificates.
#
This field displays the certificate index number. The certificates are listed in
alphabetical order.
Name
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate.
Subject
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s owner, such as CN
(Common Name), OU (Organizational Unit or department), O (Organization or
company) and C (Country). It is recommended that each certificate have unique
subject information.
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing certification
authority, such as a common name, organizational unit or department,
organization or company and country. With self-signed certificates, this is the
same information as in the Subject field.
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text
displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not yet
become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red and
includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire or
has already expired.
CRL Issuer
This field displays Yes if the certification authority issues Certificate Revocation
Lists for the certificates that it has issued and you have selected the Issues
certificate revocation lists (CRL) check box in the certificate’s details screen to
have the LAN-Cell check the CRL before trusting any certificates issued by the
certification authority. Otherwise the field displays “No”.
Modify
Click the details icon to open a screen with an in-depth list of information about the
certificate.
Use the export icon to save the certificate to a computer. Click the icon and then
Save in the File Download screen. The Save As screen opens, browse to the
location that you want to use and click Save.
Click the delete icon to remove the certificate. A window displays asking you to
confirm that you want to delete the certificates. Note that subsequent certificates
move up by one when you take this action.
Import
Click Import to open a screen where you can save the certificate of a certification
authority that you trust, from your computer to the LAN-Cell.
Refresh
Click this button to display the current validity status of the certificates.
11.7 Trusted CA Details Screen
Click SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted CAs to open the Trusted CAs screen.
Click the details icon to open the Trusted CA Details screen. Use this screen to view in-depth
information about the certification authority’s certificate, change the certificate’s name and set
whether or not you want the LAN-Cell to check a certification authority’s list of revoked
certificates before trusting a certificate issued by the certification authority.
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Figure 164 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted CAs > Details
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 96 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted CAs > Details
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
This field displays the identifying name of this certificate. If you want to change
the name, type up to 31 characters to identify this key certificate. You may use
any character (not including spaces).
Property
Check incoming
certificates issued
by this CA against a
CRL
Select this check box to have the LAN-Cell check incoming certificates that are
issued by this certification authority against a Certificate Revocation List (CRL).
Clear this check box to have the LAN-Cell not check incoming certificates that
are issued by this certification authority against a Certificate Revocation List
(CRL).
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Table 96 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted CAs > Details (continued)
272
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certification Path
Click the Refresh button to have this read-only text box display the end entity’s
certificate and a list of certification authority certificates that shows the hierarchy
of certification authorities that validate the end entity’s certificate. If the issuing
certification authority is one that you have imported as a trusted certification
authority, it may be the only certification authority in the list (along with the end
entity’s own certificate). The LAN-Cell does not trust the end entity’s certificate
and displays “Not trusted” in this field if any certificate on the path has expired or
been revoked.
Refresh
Click Refresh to display the certification path.
Certificate
Information
These read-only fields display detailed information about the certificate.
Type
This field displays general information about the certificate. CA-signed means
that a Certification Authority signed the certificate. Self-signed means that the
certificate’s owner signed the certificate (not a certification authority). X.509
means that this certificate was created and signed according to the ITU-T X.509
recommendation that defines the formats for public-key certificates.
Version
This field displays the X.509 version number.
Serial Number
This field displays the certificate’s identification number given by the certification
authority.
Subject
This field displays information that identifies the owner of the certificate, such as
Common Name (CN), Organizational Unit (OU), Organization (O) and Country
(C).
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing
certification authority, such as Common Name, Organizational Unit,
Organization and Country.
With self-signed certificates, this is the same information as in the Subject
Name field.
Signature Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to sign the certificate.
Some certification authorities use rsa-pkcs1-sha1 (RSA public-private key
encryption algorithm and the SHA1 hash algorithm). Other certification
authorities may use rsa-pkcs1-md5 (RSA public-private key encryption
algorithm and the MD5 hash algorithm).
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text
displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not
yet become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red
and includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire
or has already expired.
Key Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to generate the
certificate’s key pair (the LAN-Cell uses RSA encryption) and the length of the
key set in bits (1024 bits for example).
Subject Alternative
Name
This field displays the certificate’s owner‘s IP address (IP), domain name (DNS)
or e-mail address (EMAIL).
Key Usage
This field displays for what functions the certificate’s key can be used. For
example, “DigitalSignature” means that the key can be used to sign certificates
and “KeyEncipherment” means that the key can be used to encrypt text.
Basic Constraint
This field displays general information about the certificate. For example,
Subject Type=CA means that this is a certification authority’s certificate and
“Path Length Constraint=1” means that there can only be one certification
authority in the certificate’s path.
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Table 96 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted CAs > Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
CRL Distribution
Points
This field displays how many directory servers with Lists of revoked certificates
the issuing certification authority of this certificate makes available. This field
also displays the domain names or IP addresses of the servers.
MD5 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the LAN-Cell calculated using the
MD5 algorithm. You can use this value to verify with the certification authority
(over the phone for example) that this is actually their certificate.
SHA1 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the LAN-Cell calculated using the
SHA1 algorithm. You can use this value to verify with the certification authority
(over the phone for example) that this is actually their certificate.
Certificate in PEM
(Base-64) Encoded
Format
This read-only text box displays the certificate or certification request in Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM) format. PEM uses 64 ASCII characters to convert the
binary certificate into a printable form.
You can copy and paste the certificate into an e-mail to send to friends or
colleagues or you can copy and paste the certificate into a text editor and save
the file on a management computer for later distribution (via floppy disk for
example).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell. You can only change
the name and/or set whether or not you want the LAN-Cell to check the CRL
that the certification authority issues before trusting a certificate issued by the
certification authority.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the Trusted CAs screen.
11.8 Trusted CA Import Screen
Click SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted CAs to open the Trusted CAs screen and
then click Import to open the Trusted CA Import screen. Follow the instructions in this
screen to save a trusted certification authority’s certificate from a computer to the LAN-Cell.
The LAN-Cell trusts any valid certificate signed by any of the imported trusted CA
certificates.
"
You must remove any spaces from the certificate’s filename before you can
import the certificate.
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Figure 165 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted CAs > Import
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 97 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted CAs Import
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse to find it.
Browse
Click Browse to find the certificate file you want to upload.
Apply
Click Apply to save the certificate on the LAN-Cell.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the Trusted CAs screen.
11.9 Trusted Remote Hosts Screen
Click SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted Remote Hosts to open the Trusted
Remote Hosts screen. This screen displays a list of the certificates of peers that you trust but
which are not signed by one of the certification authorities on the Trusted CAs screen.
You do not need to add any certificate that is signed by one of the certification authorities on
the Trusted CAs screen since the LAN-Cell automatically accepts any valid certificate signed
by a trusted certification authority as being trustworthy.
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Figure 166 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted Remote Hosts
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 98 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted Remote Hosts
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PKI Storage
Space in Use
This bar displays the percentage of the LAN-Cell’s PKI storage space that is
currently in use. When the storage space is almost full, you should consider
deleting expired or unnecessary certificates before adding more certificates.
Issuer (My Default
Self-signed
Certificate)
This field displays identifying information about the default self-signed certificate
on the LAN-Cell that the LAN-Cell uses to sign the trusted remote host certificates.
#
This field displays the certificate index number. The certificates are listed in
alphabetical order.
Name
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate.
Subject
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s owner, such as CN
(Common Name), OU (Organizational Unit or department), O (Organization or
company) and C (Country). It is recommended that each certificate have unique
subject information.
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text
displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not yet
become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red and
includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire or
has already expired.
Modify
Click the details icon to open a screen with an in-depth list of information about the
certificate.
Use the export icon to save the certificate to a computer. Click the icon and then
Save in the File Download screen. The Save As screen opens, browse to the
location that you want to use and click Save.
Click the delete icon to remove the certificate. A window displays asking you to
confirm that you want to delete the certificate. Note that subsequent certificates
move up by one when you take this action.
Import
Click Import to open a screen where you can save the certificate of a remote host
(which you trust) from your computer to the LAN-Cell.
Refresh
Click this button to display the current validity status of the certificates.
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11.10 Trusted Remote Hosts Import Screen
Click SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted Remote Hosts to open the Trusted
Remote Hosts screen and then click Import to open the Trusted Remote Host Import
screen.
You may have peers with certificates that you want to trust, but the certificates were not signed
by one of the certification authorities on the Trusted CAs screen. Follow the instructions in
this screen to save a peer’s certificates from a computer to the LAN-Cell.
You do not need to add any certificate that is signed by one of the certification authorities on
the Trusted CAs screen since the LAN-Cell automatically accepts any valid certificate signed
by a trusted certification authority as being trustworthy.
"
The trusted remote host certificate must be a self-signed certificate; and you
must remove any spaces from its filename before you can import it.
Figure 167 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted Remote Hosts > Import
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 99 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted Remote Hosts > Import
276
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse to find it.
Browse
Click Browse to find the certificate file you want to upload.
Apply
Click Apply to save the certificate on the LAN-Cell.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the Trusted Remote Hosts screen.
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11.11 Trusted Remote Host Certificate Details Screen
Click SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted Remote Hosts to open the Trusted
Remote Hosts screen. Click the details icon to open the Trusted Remote Host Details
screen. You can use this screen to view in-depth information about the trusted remote host’s
certificate and/or change the certificate’s name.
Figure 168 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted Remote Hosts > Details
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 100 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted Remote Hosts > Details
278
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
This field displays the identifying name of this certificate. If you want to change
the name, type up to 31 characters to identify this key certificate. You may use
any character (not including spaces).
Certification Path
Click the Refresh button to have this read-only text box display the end entity’s
own certificate and a list of certification authority certificates in the hierarchy of
certification authorities that validate a certificate’s issuing certification authority.
For a trusted host, the list consists of the end entity’s own certificate and the
default self-signed certificate that the LAN-Cell uses to sign remote host
certificates.
Refresh
Click Refresh to display the certification path.
Certificate
Information
These read-only fields display detailed information about the certificate.
Type
This field displays general information about the certificate. With trusted
remote host certificates, this field always displays CA-signed. The LAN-Cell is
the Certification Authority that signed the certificate. X.509 means that this
certificate was created and signed according to the ITU-T X.509
recommendation that defines the formats for public-key certificates.
Version
This field displays the X.509 version number.
Serial Number
This field displays the certificate’s identification number given by the device
that created the certificate.
Subject
This field displays information that identifies the owner of the certificate, such
as Common Name (CN), Organizational Unit (OU), Organization (O) and
Country (C).
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the default self-signed
certificate on the LAN-Cell that the LAN-Cell uses to sign the trusted remote
host certificates.
Signature Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that the LAN-Cell used to sign the
certificate, which is rsa-pkcs1-sha1 (RSA public-private key encryption
algorithm and the SHA1 hash algorithm).
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text
displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not
yet become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red
and includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to
expire or has already expired.
Key Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to generate the
certificate’s key pair (the LAN-Cell uses RSA encryption) and the length of the
key set in bits (1024 bits for example).
Subject Alternative
Name
This field displays the certificate’s owner‘s IP address (IP), domain name
(DNS) or e-mail address (EMAIL).
Key Usage
This field displays for what functions the certificate’s key can be used. For
example, “DigitalSignature” means that the key can be used to sign certificates
and “KeyEncipherment” means that the key can be used to encrypt text.
Basic Constraint
This field displays general information about the certificate. For example,
Subject Type=CA means that this is a certification authority’s certificate and
“Path Length Constraint=1” means that there can only be one certification
authority in the certificate’s path.
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Table 100 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Trusted Remote Hosts > Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MD5 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the LAN-Cell calculated using the
MD5 algorithm. The LAN-Cell uses one of its own self-signed certificates to
sign the imported trusted remote host certificates. This changes the fingerprint
value displayed here (so it does not match the original). See Section on page
256 for how to verify a remote host’s certificate before you import it into the
LAN-Cell.
SHA1 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the LAN-Cell calculated using the
SHA1 algorithm. The LAN-Cell uses one of its own self-signed certificates to
sign the imported trusted remote host certificates. This changes the fingerprint
value displayed here (so it does not match the original). See Section on page
256 for how to verify a remote host’s certificate before you import it into the
LAN-Cell.
Certificate in PEM
(Base-64) Encoded
Format
This read-only text box displays the certificate or certification request in Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM) format. PEM uses 64 ASCII characters to convert the
binary certificate into a printable form.
You can copy and paste the certificate into an e-mail to send to friends or
colleagues or you can copy and paste the certificate into a text editor and save
the file on a management computer for later distribution (via floppy disk for
example).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell. You can only change
the name of the certificate.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit configuring this screen and return to the Trusted Remote
Hosts screen.
11.12 Directory Servers Screen
Click SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Directory Servers to open the Directory Servers
screen. This screen displays a summary list of directory servers (that contain lists of valid and
revoked certificates) that have been saved into the LAN-Cell. If you decide to have the LANCell check incoming certificates against the issuing certification authority’s list of revoked
certificates, the LAN-Cell first checks the server(s) listed in the CRL Distribution Points
field of the incoming certificate. If the certificate does not list a server or the listed server is not
available, the LAN-Cell checks the servers listed here.
Figure 169 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Directory Servers
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 101 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Directory Servers
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PKI Storage
Space in Use
This bar displays the percentage of the LAN-Cell’s PKI storage space that is
currently in use. When the storage space is almost full, you should consider
deleting expired or unnecessary certificates before adding more certificates.
#
The index number of the directory server. The servers are listed in alphabetical
order.
Name
This field displays the name used to identify this directory server.
Address
This field displays the IP address or domain name of the directory server.
Port
This field displays the port number that the directory server uses.
Protocol
This field displays the protocol that the directory server uses.
Modify
Click the details icon to open a screen where you can change the information
about the directory server.
Click the delete icon to remove the directory server entry. A window displays
asking you to confirm that you want to delete the directory server. Note that
subsequent certificates move up by one when you take this action.
Add
Click Add to open a screen where you can configure information about a directory
server so that the LAN-Cell can access it.
11.13 Directory Server Add or Edit Screen
Click SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Directory Servers to open the Directory Servers
screen. Click Add (or the details icon) to open the Directory Server Add screen. Use this
screen to configure information about a directory server that the LAN-Cell can access.
Figure 170 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Directory Server > Add
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 102 SECURITY > CERTIFICATES > Directory Server > Add
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Directory Service Setting
Name
Type up to 31 ASCII characters (spaces are not permitted) to identify this
directory server.
Access Protocol
Use the drop-down list box to select the access protocol used by the directory
server.
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is a protocol over TCP that
specifies how clients access directories of certificates and lists of revoked
certificates.A
Server Address
Type the IP address (in dotted decimal notation) or the domain name of the
directory server.
Server Port
This field displays the default server port number of the protocol that you select in
the Access Protocol field.
You may change the server port number if needed, however you must use the
same server port number that the directory server uses.
389 is the default server port number for LDAP.
Login Setting
Login
The LAN-Cell may need to authenticate itself in order to assess the directory
server. Type the login name (up to 31 ASCII characters) from the entity
maintaining the directory server (usually a certification authority).
Password
Type the password (up to 31 ASCII characters) from the entity maintaining the
directory server (usually a certification authority).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit configuring this screen and return to the Directory Servers
screen.
A. At the time of writing, LDAP is the only choice of directory server access protocol.
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CHAPTER
12
Authentication Server Screens
12.1 Overview
This chapter discusses how to configure the LAN-Cell’s authentication server feature.
A LAN-Cell set to be a VPN extended authentication server can use either the local user
database internal to the LAN-Cell or an external RADIUS server for an unlimited number of
users. The LAN-Cell uses the same local user database for VPN extended authentication and
wireless LAN security. See Appendix E on page 617 for more information about RADIUS.
12.1.1 What You Can Do in the Authentication Server Screens
• Use the Local User Database Screen (Section 12.2 on page 284) to configure your LANCell’s list of local user profiles.
• Use the RADIUS Screen (Section 12.3 on page 285) to configure external RADIUS
server settings.
12.1.2 What You Need To Know About Authentication Server
Local User Database
By storing user profiles locally on the LAN-Cell, your LAN-Cell is able to authenticate users
without interacting with a network RADIUS server. However, there is a limit on the number of
users you may authenticate in this way.
RADIUS
The LAN-Cell can use an external RADIUS server to authenticate an unlimited number of
users. RADIUS is based on a client-server model that supports authentication and accounting,
where access point is the client and the server is the RADIUS server.
• • Authentication
Determines the identity of the users.
• • Accounting
Keeps track of the client’s network activity.
RADIUS user is a simple package exchange in which your LAN-Cell acts as a message relay
between the wireless station and the network RADIUS server.
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12.2 Local User Database Screen
Click SECURITY > AUTH SERVER to open the Local User Database screen. The local
user database is a list of user profiles stored on the LAN-Cell. The LAN-Cell can use this list
of user profiles to authenticate users. Use this screen to change your LAN-Cell’s list of user
profiles.
Figure 171 SECURITY > AUTH SERVER > Local User Database
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 103 SECURITY > AUTH SERVER > Local User Database
284
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable the user profile.
User Name
Enter the user name of the user profile.
Password
Enter a password up to 31 characters long for this user profile.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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12.3 RADIUS Screen
Click SECURITY > AUTH SERVER > RADIUS to open the RADIUS screen. Configure
this screen to use an external RADIUS server to authenticate users.
Figure 172 SECURITY > AUTH SERVER > RADIUS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 104 SECURITY > AUTH SERVER > RADIUS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication Server
Active
Select the check box to enable user authentication through an external
authentication server.
Clear the check box to enable user authentication using the local user profile
on the LAN-Cell.
Server IP Address
Enter the IP address of the external authentication server in dotted decimal
notation.
Port Number
The default port of the RADIUS server for authentication is 1812.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator instructs
you to do so with additional information.
Key
Enter a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared
between the external authentication server and the LAN-Cell.
The key is not sent over the network. This key must be the same on the
external authentication server and LAN-Cell.
Accounting Server
Active
Select the check box to enable user accounting through an external
authentication server.
Server IP Address
Enter the IP address of the external accounting server in dotted decimal
notation.
Port Number
The default port of the RADIUS server for accounting is 1813.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator instructs
you to do so with additional information.
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Table 104 SECURITY > AUTH SERVER > RADIUS
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LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Key
Enter a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared
between the external accounting server and the LAN-Cell.
The key is not sent over the network. This key must be the same on the
external accounting server and LAN-Cell.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
P ART IV
Advanced Menu
Network Address Translation (NAT) Screens (289)
DNS Screens (307)
Remote Management Screens (319)
Static Route Screens (339)
Policy Route Screens (343)
Bandwidth Management Screens (349)
ALG Screens (365)
287
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CHAPTER
13
Network Address Translation
(NAT) Screens
13.1 Overview
NAT (Network Address Translation - NAT, RFC 1631) is the translation of the IP address of a
host in a packet. For example, the source address of an outgoing packet, used within one
network is changed to a different IP address known within another network.
13.1.1 What You Can Do in the NAT Screens
• Use the NAT Overview screen (Section 13.2 on page 290) to configure global NAT
settings and enable NAT on a WAN interface.
• Use the Address Mapping screens (Section 13.3 on page 292) to change your LANCell’s address mapping settings.
• Click Port Forwarding screens (Section 13.4 on page 295) to make servers with private
IP addresses on your network (behind NAT) visible to the outside world.
• Click Port Triggering screens (Section 13.5 on page 300) to change your LAN-Cell’s
trigger port settings.
13.1.2 What You Need To Know About NAT
NAT Mapping Types
NAT supports five types of IP/port mapping. They are:
• One to One: In One-to-One mode, the LAN-Cell maps one local IP address to one global
IP address.
• Many to One: In Many-to-One mode, the LAN-Cell maps multiple local IP addresses to
one global IP address. This is equivalent to SUA (i.e., PAT, port address translation),
Proxicast's Single User Account feature (the SUA option).
• Many to Many Overload: In Many-to-Many Overload mode, the LAN-Cell maps the
multiple local IP addresses to shared global IP addresses.
• Many One to One: In Many-One-to-One mode, the LAN-Cell maps each local IP address
to a unique global IP address.
• Server: This type allows you to specify inside servers of different services behind the
NAT to be accessible to the outside world although, it is highly recommended that you use
the DMZ port for these servers instead.
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The following table summarizes the NAT mapping types.
Table 105 NAT Mapping Types
"
TYPE
IP MAPPING
SMT ABBREVIATION
One-to-One
ILA1 IJ IGA1
1-1
Many-to-One (SUA/PAT)
ILA1 IJ IGA1
ILA2 IJ IGA1
…
M-1
Many-to-Many Overload
ILA IJ IGA1
ILA2 IJ IGA2
ILA3 IJ IGA1
ILA4 IJ IGA2
…
M-M Ov
Many-One-to-One
ILA1 IJ IGA1
ILA2 IJ IGA2
ILA3 IJ IGA3
…
M-1-1
Server
Server 1 IP IJ IGA1
Server 2 IP IJ IGA1
Server 3 IP IJ IGA1
Server
Port numbers do not change for One-to-One and Many-One-to-One NAT
mapping types.
SUA (Single User Account) Versus NAT
SUA (Single User Account) is a ProxiOS implementation of a subset of NAT that supports
two types of mapping, Many-to-One and Server. The LAN-Cell also supports Full Feature
NAT to map multiple global IP addresses to multiple private LAN IP addresses of clients or
servers using mapping types. Select either SUA or Full Feature in NAT Overview.
Selecting SUA means (latent) multiple WAN-to-LAN and WAN-to-DMZ address translation.
That means that computers on your DMZ with public IP addresses will still have to undergo
NAT mapping if you’re using SUA NAT mapping. If this is not your intention, then select
Full Feature NAT and don’t configure NAT mapping rules to those computers with public
IP addresses on the DMZ.
13.2 NAT Overview Screen
Click ADVANCED > NAT to open the NAT Overview screen.
"
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You must create a firewall rule in addition to setting up SUA/NAT, to allow
traffic from the WAN/CELL to be forwarded through the LAN-Cell.
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Figure 173 ADVANCED > NAT > NAT Overview
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 106 ADVANCED > NAT > NAT Overview
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Global Settings
Max.
Concurrent
Sessions
This read-only field displays the highest number of NAT sessions that the LAN-Cell
will permit at one time.
Max.
Concurrent
Sessions Per
Host
Use this field to set the highest number of NAT sessions that the LAN-Cell will permit
a host to have at one time.
WAN Operation
Mode
This read-only field displays the operation mode of the LAN-Cell's WAN interfaces.
WAN
Enable NAT
Select this check box to turn on the NAT feature for the WAN interface. Clear this
check box to turn off the NAT feature for the WAN interface.
Address
Mapping Rules
Select SUA if you have just one public WAN IP address for your LAN-Cell. This lets
the LAN-Cell use its permanent, pre-defined NAT address mapping rules.
Select Full Feature if you have multiple public WAN IP addresses for your LAN-Cell.
This lets the LAN-Cell use the address mapping rules that you configure. This is the
equivalent of what used to be called full feature NAT or multi-NAT.
The bar displays how many of the LAN-Cell's possible address mapping rules are
configured. The first number shows how many address mapping rules are
configured on the LAN-Cell. The second number shows the maximum number of
address mapping rules that can be configured on the LAN-Cell.
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Table 106 ADVANCED > NAT > NAT Overview (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port Forwarding
Rules
The bar displays how many of the LAN-Cell's possible port forwarding rules are
configured. The first number shows how many port forwarding rules are configured
on the LAN-Cell. The second number shows the maximum number of port
forwarding rules that can be configured on the LAN-Cell.
Port Triggering
Rules
The bar displays how many of the LAN-Cell's possible trigger port rules are
configured. The first number shows how many trigger port rules are configured on
the LAN-Cell. The second number shows the maximum number of trigger port rules
that can be configured on the LAN-Cell.
Copy to Cellular
(and Copy to
WAN)
Click Copy to Cellular (or Copy to WAN) to duplicate this WAN interface's NAT
port forwarding or trigger port rules on the other WAN interface.
Note: Using the copy button overwrites the other WAN interface's
existing rules.
The copy button is best suited for initial NAT configuration where you have
configured NAT port forwarding or trigger port rules for one interface and want to
use similar rules for the other WAN interface. You can use the other NAT screens to
edit the NAT rules after you copy them from one WAN interface to the other.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
13.3 NAT Address Mapping
Click ADVANCED > NAT > Address Mapping to open the following screen.
Ordering your rules is important because the LAN-Cell applies the rules in the order that you
specify. When a rule matches the current packet, the LAN-Cell takes the corresponding action
and the remaining rules are ignored. If there are any empty rules before your new configured
rule, your configured rule will be pushed up by that number of empty rules. For example, if
you have already configured rules 1 to 6 in your current set and now you configure rule
number 9. In the set summary screen, the new rule will be rule 7, not 9. Now if you delete rule
4, rules 5 to 7 will be pushed up by 1 rule, so old rules 5, 6 and 7 become new rules 4, 5 and 6.
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Figure 174 ADVANCED > NAT > Address Mapping
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 107 ADVANCED > NAT > Address Mapping
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SUA Address
Mapping
Rules
This read-only table displays the default address mapping rules.
Full Feature
Address
Mapping
Rules
WAN Interface Select the WAN interface for which you want to view or configure address mapping
rules.
Go To Page
Choose a page from the drop-down list box to display the corresponding summary
page of address mapping rules.
#
This is the rule index number.
Local Start IP
This refers to the Inside Local Address (ILA), which is the starting local IP address. If
the rule is for all local IP addresses, then this field displays 0.0.0.0 as the Local Start
IP address. Local IP addresses are N/A for Server port mapping.
Local End IP
This is the end Inside Local Address (ILA). If the rule is for all local IP addresses, then
this field displays 255.255.255.255 as the Local End IP address. This field is N/A for
One-to-One and Server mapping types.
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Table 107 ADVANCED > NAT > Address Mapping (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Global Start IP
This refers to the Inside Global IP Address (IGA), that is the starting global IP
address. 0.0.0.0 is for a dynamic IP address from your ISP with Many-to-One and
Server mapping types.
Global End IP
This is the ending Inside Global Address (IGA). This field is N/A for One-to-One,
Many-to-One and Server mapping types.
Type
1. One-to-One mode maps one local IP address to one global IP address. Note that
port numbers do not change for the One-to-One NAT mapping type.
2. Many-to-One mode maps multiple local IP addresses to one global IP address.
This is equivalent to SUA (i.e., PAT, port address translation), Proxicast's Single User
Account feature that previous Proxicast routers supported only.
3. Many-to-Many Overload mode maps multiple local IP addresses to shared global
IP addresses.
4. Many One-to-One mode maps each local IP address to unique global IP
addresses.
5. Server allows you to specify inside servers of different services behind the NAT to
be accessible to the outside world.
Modify
Click the edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the address mapping rule.
Click the delete icon to delete an existing address mapping rule. A window display
asking you to confirm that you want to delete the address mapping rule. Note that
subsequent address mapping rules move up by one when you take this action.
Insert
Click Insert to insert a new mapping rule before an existing one.
13.3.1 NAT Address Mapping Edit
Click the Edit button to display the NAT Address Mapping Edit screen. Use this screen to
edit an address mapping rule. See Section 13.3 on page 292 for information on NAT and
address mapping.
Figure 175 ADVANCED > NAT > Address Mapping > Edit
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 108 ADVANCED > NAT > Address Mapping > Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Type
Choose the port mapping type from one of the following.
1. One-to-One: One-to-One mode maps one local IP address to one global IP
address. Note that port numbers do not change for One-to-One NAT mapping
type.
2. Many-to-One: Many-to-One mode maps multiple local IP addresses to one
global IP address. This is equivalent to SUA (i.e., PAT, port address translation),
Proxicast's Single User Account feature.
3. Many-to-Many Overload: Many-to-Many Overload mode maps multiple local
IP addresses to shared global IP addresses.
4. Many One-to-One: Many One-to-One mode maps each local IP address to
unique global IP addresses.
5. Server: This type allows you to specify inside servers of different services
behind the NAT to be accessible to the outside world.
Local Start IP
This is the starting Inside Local IP Address (ILA). Local IP addresses are N/A for
Server port mapping.
Local End IP
This is the end Inside Local IP Address (ILA). If your rule is for all local IP
addresses, then enter 0.0.0.0 as the Local Start IP address and 255.255.255.255
as the Local End IP address.
This field is N/A for One-to-One and Server mapping types.
Global Start IP
This is the starting Inside Global IP Address (IGA). Enter 0.0.0.0 here if you have
a dynamic IP address from your ISP.
Global End IP
This is the ending Inside Global IP Address (IGA). This field is N/A for One-toOne, Many-to-One and Server mapping types.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
13.4 Port Forwarding
A port forwarding set is a list of inside (behind NAT on the LAN) servers, for example, web or
FTP, that you can make visible to the outside world even though NAT makes your whole
inside network appear as a single computer to the outside world.
You may enter a single port number or a range of port numbers to be forwarded, and the local
IP address of the desired server. The port number identifies a service; for example, web
service is on port 80 and FTP on port 21. In some cases, such as for unknown services or
where one server can support more than one service (for example both FTP and web service),
it might be better to specify a range of port numbers. You can allocate a server IP address that
corresponds to a port or a range of ports.
Many ISP accounts do not allow you to run any server processes (such as a Web or FTP
server) from your location. Your ISP may periodically check for servers and may suspend
your account if it discovers any active services at your location. If you are unsure, refer to your
ISP.
Default Server IP Address
In addition to the servers for specified services, NAT supports a default server IP address. A
default server receives packets from ports that are not specified in this screen.
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"
If you do not assign a Default Server IP address, the LAN-Cell discards all
packets received for ports that are not specified here or in the remote
management setup.
Port Forwarding: Services and Port Numbers
The LAN-Cell provides the additional safety of the DMZ ports for connecting your publicly
accessible servers. This makes the LAN more secure by physically separating it from your
public servers.
Use the Port Forwarding screen to forward incoming service requests to the server(s) on your
local network.
The most often used port numbers are shown in the following table. Please refer to RFC 1700
for further information about port numbers.
Table 109 Services and Port Numbers
SERVICES
PORT NUMBER
ECHO
7
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
21
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
25
DNS (Domain Name System)
53
Finger
79
HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer protocol or WWW, Web)
80
POP3 (Post Office Protocol)
110
NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol)
119
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
161
SNMP trap
162
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
1723
13.4.1 Configuring Servers Behind Port Forwarding (Example)
Let's say you want to assign ports 21-25 to one FTP, Telnet and SMTP server (A in the
example), port 80 to another (B in the example) and assign a default server IP address of
192.168.1.35 to a third (C in the example). You assign the LAN IP addresses and the ISP
assigns the WAN IP address. The NAT network appears as a single host on the Internet.
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Figure 176 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example
NAT and Multiple WAN
The LAN-Cell has two WAN interfaces (wired + cellular). You can configure port forwarding
and trigger port rule sets for the first WAN interface and separate sets of rules for the second
WAN interface.
Port Translation
The LAN-Cell can translate the destination port number or a range of port numbers of packets
coming from the WAN to another destination port number or range of port numbers on the
local network. When you use port forwarding without port translation, a single server on the
local network can use a specific port number and be accessible to the outside world through a
single WAN IP address. When you use port translation with port forwarding, multiple servers
on the local network can use the same port number and still be accessible to the outside world
through a single WAN IP address.
The following example has two web servers on a LAN. Server A uses IP address 192.168.1.33
and server B uses 192.168.1.34. Both servers use port 80. The letters a.b.c.d represent the
WAN port’s IP address. The LAN-Cell translates port 8080 of traffic received on the WAN
port (IP address a.b.c.d) to port 80 and sends it to server A (IP address 192.168.1.33). The
LAN-Cell also translates port 8100 of traffic received on the WAN port (also IP address
a.b.c.d) to port 80, but sends it to server B (IP address 192.168.1.34).
"
In this example, anyone wanting to access server A from the Internet must use
port 8080. Anyone wanting to access server B from the Internet must use port
8100.
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Figure 177 Port Translation Example
13.4.2 Port Forwarding Screen
Click ADVANCED > NAT > Port Forwarding to open the Port Forwarding screen. Refer
to Figure 109 on page 296 for port numbers commonly used for particular services.
"
"
"
"
298
Remember to define the appropriate Firewall Rules to allow the ports listed
on the Port Forwarding Screen through the correct WAN and LAN/DMZ
interfaces (e.g. WAN-to-LAN and Cell-to-LAN or WAN-to-DMZ and Cell-toDMZ rules).
If you do not assign a Default Server IP address, the LAN-Cell discards all
packets received for ports that are not specified here or in the remote
management setup.
In general, if you wish to access the LAN-Cell for remote management through
the WAN or CELLULAR interfaces, do not define a NAT Default Server. Use
the Port Forwarding Rules, Remote Management Ports, and Firewall Rules to
define WAN-based remote access to the LAN-Cell.
The last port forwarding rule is reserved for Roadrunner services. The rule is
activated only when you set the WAN Encapsulation to Ethernet and the
Service Type to something other than Standard.
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Figure 178 ADVANCED > NAT > Port Forwarding
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 110 ADVANCED > NAT > Port Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WAN Interface
Select the WAN interface for which you want to view or configure address mapping
rules.
Default Server
In addition to the servers for specified services, NAT supports a default server. A
default server receives packets from ports that are not specified in this screen. If you
do not assign a Default Server IP address, the LAN-Cell discards all packets
received for ports that are not specified here or in the remote management setup.
Go To Page
Choose a page from the drop-down list box to display the corresponding summary
page of the port forwarding servers.
#
This is the number of an individual port forwarding server entry.
Active
Select this check box to enable the port forwarding server entry. Clear this check
box to disallow forwarding of these ports to an inside server without having to delete
the entry.
Name
Enter a name to identify this port-forwarding rule.
Incoming
Port(s)
Enter a port number here. To forward only one port, enter it again in the second
field. To specify a range of ports, enter the last port to be forwarded in the second
field.
Port Translation
Enter the port number here to which you want the LAN-Cell to translate the incoming
port. For a range of ports, you only need to enter the first number of the range to
which you want the incoming ports translated, the LAN-Cell automatically calculates
the last port of the translated port range.
Server IP
Address
Enter the inside IP address of the server here.
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Table 110 ADVANCED > NAT > Port Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
13.5 Port Triggering
Some services use a dedicated range of ports on the client side and a dedicated range of ports
on the server side. With regular port forwarding you set a forwarding port in NAT to forward a
service (coming in from the server on the WAN) to the IP address of a computer on the client
side (LAN). The problem is that port forwarding only forwards a service to a single LAN IP
address. In order to use the same service on a different LAN computer, you have to manually
replace the LAN computer's IP address in the forwarding port with another LAN computer's IP
address.
Trigger port forwarding solves this problem by allowing computers on the LAN to
dynamically take turns using the service. The LAN-Cell records the IP address of a LAN
computer that sends traffic to the WAN to request a service with a specific port number and
protocol (a "trigger" port). When the LAN-Cell's WAN port receives a response with a
specific port number and protocol ("incoming" port), the LAN-Cell forwards the traffic to the
LAN IP address of the computer that sent the request. After that computer’s connection for
that service closes, another computer on the LAN can use the service in the same manner. This
way you do not need to configure a new IP address each time you want a different LAN
computer to use the application.
For example:
Figure 179 Trigger Port Forwarding Process: Example
1 Jane (A) requests a file from the Real Audio server (port 7070).
2 Port 7070 is a “trigger” port and causes the LAN-Cell to record Jane’s computer IP
address. The LAN-Cell associates Jane's computer IP address with the "incoming" port
range of 6970-7170.
3 The Real Audio server responds using a port number ranging between 6970-7170.
4 The LAN-Cell forwards the traffic to Jane’s computer IP address.
5 Only Jane can connect to the Real Audio server until the connection is closed or times
out. The LAN-Cell times out in three minutes with UDP (User Datagram Protocol) or
two hours with TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol).
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Click ADVANCED > NAT > Port Triggering to open the following screen. Use this screen
to change your LAN-Cell’s trigger port settings.
Figure 180 ADVANCED > NAT > Port Triggering
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 111 ADVANCED > NAT > Port Triggering
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WAN
Interface
Select the WAN interface for which you want to view or configure address mapping
rules.
#
This is the rule index number (read-only).
Name
Type a unique name (up to 15 characters) for identification purposes. All characters
are permitted - including spaces.
Incoming
Incoming is a port (or a range of ports) that a server on the WAN uses when it sends
out a particular service. The LAN-Cell forwards the traffic with this port (or range of
ports) to the client computer on the LAN that requested the service.
Start Port
Type a port number or the starting port number in a range of port numbers.
End Port
Type a port number or the ending port number in a range of port numbers.
Trigger
The trigger port is a port (or a range of ports) that causes (or triggers) the LAN-Cell to
record the IP address of the LAN computer that sent the traffic to a server on the WAN.
Start Port
Type a port number or the starting port number in a range of port numbers.
End Port
Type a port number or the ending port number in a range of port numbers.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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13.6 NAT Technical Reference
This technical reference contains the following sections:
• Inside/outside and Global/locall
• What NAT Does
• How NAT Works
• NAT Application
• Port Restricted Cone NAT
Inside/outside and Global/local
Inside/outside denotes where a host is located relative to the LAN-Cell. For example, the
computers of your subscribers are the inside hosts, while the web servers on the Internet are
the outside hosts.
Global/local denotes the IP address of a host in a packet as the packet traverses a router. For
example, the local address refers to the IP address of a host when the packet is in the local
network, while the global address refers to the IP address of the host when the same packet is
traveling in the WAN side.
Note that inside/outside refers to the location of a host, while global/local refers to the IP
address of a host used in a packet. Thus, an inside local address (ILA) is the IP address of an
inside host in a packet when the packet is still in the local network, while an inside global
address (IGA) is the IP address of the same inside host when the packet is on the WAN side.
The following table summarizes this information.
Table 112 NAT Definitions
TERM
DESCRIPTION
Inside
This refers to the host on the LAN.
Outside
This refers to the host on the WAN.
Local
This refers to the packet address (source or destination) as the packet travels on the
LAN.
Global
This refers to the packet address (source or destination) as the packet travels on the
WAN.
What NAT Does
In the simplest form, NAT changes the source IP address in a packet received from a
subscriber (the inside local address) to another (the inside global address) before forwarding
the packet to the WAN side. When the response comes back, NAT translates the destination
address (the inside global address) back to the inside local address before forwarding it to the
original inside host. Note that the IP address (either local or global) of an outside host is never
changed.
The global IP addresses for the inside hosts can be either static or dynamically assigned by the
ISP. In addition, you can designate servers (for example a web server and a telnet server) on
your local network and make them accessible to the outside world. Although you can make
designated servers on the LAN accessible to the outside world, it is strongly recommended
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that you attach those servers to the DMZ port instead. If you do not define any servers (for
Many-to-One and Many-to-Many Overload mapping), NAT offers the additional benefit of
firewall protection. With no servers defined, your LAN-Cell filters out all incoming inquiries,
thus preventing intruders from probing your network. For more information on IP address
translation, refer to RFC 1631, The IP Network Address Translator (NAT).
How NAT Works
Each packet has two addresses – a source address and a destination address. For outgoing
packets, the ILA (Inside Local Address) is the source address on the LAN, and the IGA (Inside
Global Address) is the source address on the WAN. For incoming packets, the ILA is the
destination address on the LAN, and the IGA is the destination address on the WAN. NAT
maps private (local) IP addresses to globally unique ones required for communication with
hosts on other networks. It replaces the original IP source address (and TCP or UDP source
port numbers for Many-to-One and Many-to-Many Overload NAT mapping) in each packet
and then forwards it to the Internet. The LAN-Cell keeps track of the original addresses and
port numbers so incoming reply packets can have their original values restored. The following
figure illustrates this.
"
NAT never changes the IP address (either local or global) of an outside host.
Figure 181 How NAT Works
NAT Application
The following figure illustrates a possible NAT application, where three inside LANs (logical
LANs using IP Alias) behind the LAN-Cell can communicate with three distinct WAN
networks. More examples follow at the end of this chapter.
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Figure 182 NAT Application With IP Alias
Port Restricted Cone NAT
LAN-Cell ProxiOS version 4.00 and later uses port restricted cone NAT. Port restricted cone
NAT maps all outgoing packets from an internal IP address and port to a single IP address and
port on the external network. In the following example, the LAN-Cell maps the source address
of all packets sent from internal IP address 1 and port A to IP address 2 and port B on the
external network. A host on the external network (IP address 3 and Port C for example) can
only send packets to the internal host if the internal host has already sent a packet to the
external host’s IP address and port.
A server with IP address 1 and port A sends packets to IP address 3, port C and IP address 4,
port D. The LAN-Cell changes the server’s IP address to 2 and port to B.
Since 1, A has already sent packets to 3, C and 4, D, they can send packets back to 2, B and the
LAN-Cell will perform NAT on them and send them to the server at IP address 1, port A.
Packets have not been sent from 1, A to 4, E or 5, so they cannot send packets to 1, A.
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Figure 183 Port Restricted Cone NAT Example
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CHAPTER
14
DNS Screens
14.1 Overview
DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its corresponding IP address
and vice versa. The DNS server is extremely important because without it, you must know the
IP address of a machine before you can access it. The LAN-Cell uses a system DNS server (in
the order you specify in the DNS System screen) to resolve domain names, for example, VPN,
DDNS and the time server.
14.1.1 What You Can Do in the DNS Screens
• Use the System screen (Section 14.2 on page 309) to configure the LAN-Cell to use a
DNS server to resolve domain names for LAN-Cell system features like VPN, DDNS and
the time server.
• Use the Add Address Record screen (Section 14.2.1 on page 311) to add an address
record.
• Use the Insert Name Server Record screen (Section 14.2.2 on page 312) to insert a name
server record.
• Use the Cache screen (Section 14.3 on page 313) to configure the LAN-Cell’s DNS
caching settings.
• Use the DHCP screen (Section 14.5 on page 315) to configure the DNS server information
that the LAN-Cell sends to its LAN, DMZ or WLAN DHCP clients.
• Use the DDNS screen (Section on page 309) to change your LAN-Cell’s DDNS
(Dynamic DNS) settings.
14.1.2 What You Need To Know About DNS
DNS Server Address Assignment
The LAN-Cell can get the DNS server addresses in the following ways.
1 The ISP tells you the DNS server addresses, usually in the form of an information sheet,
when you sign up. If your ISP gives you DNS server addresses, manually enter them in
the DNS server fields.
2 If your ISP dynamically assigns the DNS server IP addresses (along with the LANCell’s WAN IP address), set the DNS server fields to get the DNS server address from
the ISP.
3 You can manually enter the IP addresses of other DNS servers. These servers can be
public or private. A DNS server could even be behind a remote IPSec router (see Section
on page 308).
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DNS Servers
There are three places where you can configure DNS setup on the LAN-Cell.
1 Use the DNS System screen to configure the LAN-Cell to use a DNS server to resolve
domain names for LAN-Cell system features like VPN, DDNS and the time server.
2 Use the DNS DHCP screen to configure the DNS server information that the LAN-Cell
sends to the DHCP client devices on the LAN, DMZ or WLAN.
3 Use the REMOTE MGMT DNS screen to configure the LAN-Cell to accept or discard
DNS queries.
Address Record
An address record contains the mapping of a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) to an IP
address. An FQDN consists of a host and domain name and includes the top-level domain. For
example, www.proxicast.com is a fully qualified domain name, where “www” is the host,
“proxicast” is the second-level domain, and “.com” is the top level domain.
mail.myproxicast.com is also a FQDN, where "mail" is the host, "myproxicast" is the secondlevel domain, and ".com" is the top level domain.
The LAN-Cell allows you to configure address records about the LAN-Cell itself or another
device. This way you can keep a record of DNS names and addresses that people on your
network may use frequently. If the LAN-Cell receives a DNS query for an FQDN for which
the LAN-Cell has an address record, the LAN-Cell can send the IP address in a DNS response
without having to query a DNS name server.
DNS Wildcard
Enabling the wildcard feature for your host causes *.yourhost.com to be aliased to the same IP
address as yourhost.com. This feature is useful if you want to be able to use, for example,
www.yourhost.com and still reach your hostname.
Name Server Record
A name server record contains a DNS server’s IP address. The LAN-Cell can query the DNS
server to resolve domain names for features like VPN, DDNS and the time server. A domain
zone may also be included. A domain zone is a fully qualified domain name without the host.
For example, proxicast.com is the domain zone for the www.proxicast.com fully qualified
domain name.
Private DNS Server
In cases where you want to use domain names to access Intranet servers on a remote private
network that has a DNS server, you must identify that DNS server. You cannot use DNS
servers on the LAN or from the ISP since these DNS servers cannot resolve domain names to
private IP addresses on the remote private network.
The following figure depicts an example where three VPN tunnels are created from LAN-Cell
A; one to branch office 2, one to branch office 3 and another to headquarters (HQ). In order to
access computers that use private domain names on the HQ network, the LAN-Cell at branch
office 1 uses the Intranet DNS server in headquarters.
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Figure 184 Private DNS Server Example
"
If you do not specify an Intranet DNS server on the remote network, then the
VPN host must use IP addresses to access the computers on the remote
private network.
DDNS
DDNS Dynamic DNS) allows you to update your current dynamic IP address with one or
many dynamic DNS services so that anyone can contact you (in NetMeeting, CU-SeeMe,
etc.). You can also access your FTP server or Web site on your own computer using a domain
name (for instance myhost.dhs.org, where myhost is a name of your choice) that will never
change instead of using an IP address that changes each time you reconnect. Your friends or
relatives will always be able to call you even if they don't know your IP address.
14.2 System Screen
Click ADVANCED > DNS to display the following screen. Use this screen to configure your
LAN-Cell’s DNS address and name server records.
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Figure 185 ADVANCED > DNS > System DNS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 113 ADVANCED > DNS > System DNS
310
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Address Record
An address record specifies the mapping of a fully qualified domain name
(FQDN) to an IP address. An FQDN consists of a host and domain name and
includes the top-level domain. For example, www.proxicast.com is a fully
qualified domain name, where “www” is the host, “proxicast” is the second-level
domain, and “.com” is the top level domain.
#
This is the index number of the address record.
FQDN
This is a host’s fully qualified domain name.
Wildcard
This column displays whether or not the DNS wildcard feature is enabled for
this domain name.
IP Address
This is the IP address of a host.
Modify
Click the edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the record.
Click the delete icon to remove an existing record. A window display asking you
to confirm that you want to delete the record. Note that subsequent records
move up by one when you take this action.
Add
Click Add to open a screen where you can add a new address record. Refer to
Table 114 on page 312 for information on the fields.
Name Server
Record
A name server record contains a DNS server’s IP address. The LAN-Cell can
query the DNS server to resolve domain names for features like VPN, DDNS
and the time server.
When the LAN-Cell needs to resolve a domain name, it checks it against the
name server record entries in the order that they appear in this list.
A “*” indicates a name server record without a domain zone. The default record
is grayed out. The LAN-Cell uses this default record if the domain name that
needs to be resolved does not match any of the other name server records.
A name server record with a domain zone is always put before a record without
a domain zone.
#
This is the index number of the name server record.
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Table 113 ADVANCED > DNS > System DNS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Domain Zone
A domain zone is a fully qualified domain name without the host. For example,
proxicast.com is the domain zone for the www.proxicast.com fully qualified
domain name.
From
This field displays whether the IP address of a DNS server is from a WAN
interface (and which it is) or specified by the user.
DNS Server
This is the IP address of a DNS server.
Modify
Click a triangle icon to move the record up or down in the list.
Click the edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the record.
Click the delete icon to remove an existing record. A window display asking you
to confirm that you want to delete the record. Note that subsequent records
move up by one when you take this action.
Insert
Click Insert to open a screen where you can insert a new name server record.
Refer to Table 115 on page 313 for information on the fields.
14.2.1 Adding an Address Record
Click Add in the System screen to open this screen. Use this screen to add an address record.
An address record contains the mapping of a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) to an IP
address. Configure address records about the LAN-Cell itself or another device to keep a
record of DNS names and addresses that people on your network may use frequently. If the
LAN-Cell receives a DNS query for an FQDN for which the LAN-Cell has an address record,
the LAN-Cell can send the IP address in a DNS response without having to query a DNS name
server. See Section on page 308 for more on address records.
Figure 186 ADVANCED > DNS > Add (Address Record)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 114 ADVANCED > DNS > Add (Address Record)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
FQDN
Type a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of a server. An FQDN starts with a
host name and continues all the way up to the top-level domain name. For
example, www.proxicast.com is a fully qualified domain name, where “www” is the
host, “proxicast” is the second-level domain, and “.com” is the top level domain.
IP Address
If this entry is for one of the WAN ports on the LAN-Cell, select WAN Interface
and select WAN or CELLULAR from the drop-down list box.
For entries that are not for the WAN port(s), select Custom and enter the IP
address of the host in dotted decimal notation.
Enable Wildcard
Select the check box to enable DNS wildcard.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
14.2.2 Inserting a Name Server Record
Click Insert in the System screen to open this screen. Use this screen to insert a name server
record. A name server record contains a DNS server’s IP address. The LAN-Cell can query the
DNS server to resolve domain names for features like VPN, DDNS and the time server. A
domain zone may also be included. A domain zone is a fully qualified domain name without
the host. For example, proxicast.com is the domain zone for the www.proxicast.com fully
qualified domain name.
Figure 187 ADVANCED > DNS > Insert (Name Server Record)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 115 ADVANCED > DNS > Insert (Name Server Record)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Domain Zone
This field is optional.
A domain zone is a fully qualified domain name without the host. For example,
proxicast.com is the domain zone for the www.proxicast.com fully qualified domain
name. For example, whenever the LAN-Cell receives needs to resolve a
proxicast.com domain name, it can send a query to the recorded name server IP
address.
Leave this field blank if all domain zones are served by the specified DNS server(s).
DNS Server
Select the DNS Server(s) from ISP radio button if your ISP dynamically assigns
DNS server information. The fields below display the (read-only) DNS server IP
address(es) that the ISP assigns. N/A displays for any DNS server IP address fields
for which the ISP does not assign an IP address. N/A displays for all of the DNS
server IP address fields if the LAN-Cell has a fixed WAN IP address.
Select Public DNS Server if you have the IP address of a DNS server. The IP
address must be public or a private address on your local LAN. Enter the DNS
server's IP address in the field to the right.
Public DNS Server entries with the IP address set to 0.0.0.0 are not allowed.
Select Private DNS Server if the DNS server has a private IP address and is located
behind a VPN peer. Enter the DNS server's IP address in the field to the right.
With a private DNS server, you must also configure the first DNS server entry for the
LAN, DMZ and/or WLAN in the DNS DHCP screen to use DNS Relay.
You must also configure a VPN rule since the LAN-Cell uses a VPN tunnel when it
relays DNS queries to the private DNS server. The rule must include the LAN IP
address of the LAN-Cell as a local IP address and the IP address of the DNS server
as a remote IP address.
Private DNS Server entries with the IP address set to 0.0.0.0 are not allowed.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
14.3 DNS Cache
DNS cache is the temporary storage area where a router stores responses from DNS servers.
When the LAN-Cell receives a positive or negative response for a DNS query, it records the
response in the DNS cache. A positive response means that the LAN-Cell received the IP
address for a domain name that it checked with a DNS server within the five second DNS
timeout period. A negative response means that the LAN-Cell did not receive a response for a
query it sent to a DNS server within the five second DNS timeout period.
When the LAN-Cell receives DNS queries, it compares them against the DNS cache before
querying a DNS server. If the DNS query matches a positive entry, the LAN-Cell responses
with the IP address from the entry. If the DNS query matches a negative entry, the LAN-Cell
replies that the DNS query failed.
14.4 Configure DNS Cache
To configure your LAN-Cell’s DNS caching, click ADVANCED > DNS > Cache. The screen
appears as shown.
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Figure 188 ADVANCED > DNS > Cache
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 116 ADVANCED > DNS > Cache
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DNS Cache Setup
Cache Positive DNS
Resolutions
Select the check box to record the positive DNS resolutions in the cache.
Caching positive DNS resolutions helps speed up the LAN-Cell’s processing of
commonly queried domain names and reduces the amount of traffic that the
LAN-Cell sends out to the WAN.
Maximum TTL
Type the maximum time to live (TTL) (60 to 3600 seconds). This sets how long
the LAN-Cell is to allow a positive resolution entry to remain in the DNS cache
before discarding it.
Cache Negative
DNS Resolutions
Caching negative DNS resolutions helps speed up the LAN-Cell’s processing of
commonly queried domain names (for which DNS resolution has failed) and
reduces the amount of traffic that the LAN-Cell sends out to the WAN.
Negative Cache
Period
Type the time (60 to 3600 seconds) that the LAN-Cell is to allow a negative
resolution entry to remain in the DNS cache before discarding it.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
DNS Cache Entry
314
Flush
Click this button to clear the cache manually. After you flush the cache, the
LAN-Cell must query the DNS servers again for any domain names that had
been previously resolved.
Refresh
Click this button to reload the cache.
#
This is the index number of a record.
Cache Type
This displays whether the response for the DNS request is positive or negative.
Domain Name
This is the domain name of a host.
IP Address
This is the (resolved) IP address of a host. This field displays 0.0.0.0 for
negative DNS resolution entries.
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Table 116 ADVANCED > DNS > Cache
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Remaining Time
(sec)
This is the number of seconds left before the DNS resolution entry is discarded
from the cache.
Modify
Click the delete icon to remove the DNS resolution entry from the cache.
14.5 Configuring DNS DHCP
Click ADVANCED > DNS > DHCP to open the DNS DHCP screen shown next. Use this
screen to configure the DNS server information that the LAN-Cell sends to its LAN, DMZ or
WLAN DHCP clients.
Figure 189 ADVANCED > DNS > DHCP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 117 ADVANCED > DNS > DHCP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DNS Servers
Assigned by DHCP
Server
The LAN-Cell passes a DNS (Domain Name System) server IP address to the
DHCP clients.
Selected Interface
Select an interface from the drop-down list box to configure the DNS servers for
the specified interface.
DNS
These read-only labels represent the DNS servers.
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Table 117 ADVANCED > DNS > DHCP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP
Select From ISP if your ISP dynamically assigns DNS server information (and
the LAN-Cell's WAN IP address). Use the drop-down list box to select a DNS
server IP address that the ISP assigns in the field to the right.
Select User-Defined if you have the IP address of a DNS server. Enter the
DNS server's IP address in the field to the right. If you chose User-Defined, but
leave the IP address set to 0.0.0.0, User-Defined changes to None after you
click Apply. If you set a second choice to User-Defined, and enter the same IP
address, the second User-Defined changes to None after you click Apply.
Select DNS Relay to have the LAN-Cell act as a DNS proxy. The LAN-Cell's
LAN, DMZ or WLAN IP address displays in the field to the right (read-only). The
LAN-Cell tells the DHCP clients on the LAN, DMZ or WLAN that the LAN-Cell
itself is the DNS server. When a computer on the LAN, DMZ or WLAN sends a
DNS query to the LAN-Cell, the LAN-Cell forwards the query to the LAN-Cell's
system DNS server (configured in the DNS System screen) and relays the
response back to the computer. You can only select DNS Relay for one of the
three servers; if you select DNS Relay for a second or third DNS server, that
choice changes to None after you click Apply.
Select None if you do not want to configure DNS servers. You must have
another DHCP sever on your LAN, or else the computers must have their DNS
server addresses manually configured. If you do not configure a DNS server,
you must know the IP address of a computer in order to access it.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
14.6 DDNS Screen
First, you need to have registered a dynamic DNS account with one of the supported DDNS
Service Providers. This is for users with a dynamic IP from their ISP or DHCP server that
would still like to have a domain name. The Dynamic DNS service provider will give you a
password or key.
"
You must go to the Dynamic DNS service provider’s website and register a
user account and a domain name before you can use the Dynamic DNS
service with your LAN-Cell.
DYNDNS Wildcard
Enabling the wildcard feature for your host causes *.yourhost.dyndns.org to be aliased to the
same IP address as yourhost.dyndns.org. This feature is useful if you want to be able to use,
for example, www.yourhost.dyndns.org and still reach your hostname.
"
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If you have a private WAN IP address, then you cannot use Dynamic DNS.
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High Availability
A DNS server maps a domain name to a port's IP address. If that WAN port loses its
connection, high availability allows the router to substitute another port's IP address for the
domain name mapping.
14.7 Configuring Dynamic DNS
To change your LAN-Cell’s DDNS, click ADVANCED > DNS > DDNS. The screen appears
as shown.
Figure 190 ADVANCED > DNS > DDNS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 118 ADVANCED > DNS > DDNS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Account Setup
Active
Select this check box to use dynamic DNS.
Service Provider
This is the name of your Dynamic DNS service provider.
Username
Enter your user name. You can use up to 31 alphanumeric characters (and the
underscore). Spaces are not allowed.
Password
Enter the password associated with the user name above. You can use up to 31
alphanumeric characters (and the underscore). Spaces are not allowed.
My Domain Names
Domain Name 1~5
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Enter the host names in these fields. Enter a Fully Qualified Domain Name
(FQDN) that matches the host name set up in your DynDNS account.
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Table 118 ADVANCED > DNS > DDNS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DDNS Type
Select the type of service that you are registered for from your Dynamic DNS
service provider.
Select Dynamic if you have the Dynamic DNS service.
Select Static if you have the Static DNS service.
Select Custom if you have the Custom DNS service.
Offline
This option is available when Custom is selected in the DDNS Type field.
Check with your Dynamic DNS service provider to have traffic redirected to a
URL (that you can specify) while you are off line.
Wildcard
Select the check box to enable DYNDNS Wildcard.
WAN Interface
Select the WAN interface to use for updating the IP address of the domain
name.
IP Address Update
Policy
Select Use WAN IP Address to have the LAN-Cell update the domain name
with the WAN interface's IP address.
Select Use User-Defined and enter the IP address if you have a static IP
address.
Select Let DDNS Server Auto Detect only when there are one or more NAT
routers between the LAN-Cell and the DDNS server. This feature has the
DDNS server automatically detect and use the IP address of the NAT router
that has a public IP address.
Note: The DDNS server may not be able to detect the proper IP
address if there is an HTTP proxy server between the LANCell and the DDNS server.
HA
Select this check box to enable the high availability (HA) feature. High
availability has the LAN-Cell update a domain name with another interface’s IP
address when the normal WAN interface does not have a connection.
If the WAN interface specified in the WAN Interface field does not have a
connection, the LAN-Cell will attempt to use the IP address of another WAN
interface to update the domain name.
When the WAN interfaces are in the active/passive operating mode, the LANCell will update the domain name with the IP address of whichever WAN
interface has a connection, regardless of the setting in the WAN Interface field.
Disable this feature and the LAN-Cell will only update the domain name with an
IP address of the WAN interface specified in the WAN Interface field. If that
WAN interface does not have a connection, the LAN-Cell will not update the
domain name with another port’s IP address.
Note: If you enable high availability, DDNS can also function
when the LAN-Cell uses the dial backup port. DDNS does
not function when the LAN-Cell uses traffic redirect.
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Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER
15
Remote Management Screens
15.1 Overview
This chapter provides information on the Remote Management screens. Remote management
allows you to determine which services/protocols can access which LAN-Cell interface (if
any) from which computers.
The following figure shows secure and insecure management of the LAN-Cell coming in from
the WAN. HTTPS and SSH access are secure. HTTP and Telnet access are not secure.
Figure 191 Secure and Insecure Remote Management From the WAN
15.1.1 What You Can Do in the Remote Management Screens
• Use the WWW screen (Section 15.4 on page 327) to configure the LAN-Cell’s HTTP and
HTTPS management settings.
• Use the SSH screen (Section 15.6 on page 330) to configure the LAN-Cell’s Secure Shell
settings.
• Use the Telnet screen (Section 15.8 on page 331) to specify which interfaces allow Telnet
access and from which IP address the access can come.
• Use the FTP screen (Section 15.9 on page 332) to specify which interfaces allow FTP
access and from which IP address the access can come.
• Use the SNMP screen (Section 15.10 on page 333) to configure the LAN-Cell’s SNMP
settings.
• Use the DNS screen (Section 15.11 on page 336) to set from which IP address the LANCell will accept DNS queries and on which interface it can send them your LAN-Cell’s
DNS settings.
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15.1.2 What You Need To Know About Remote Management
Firewall Rules
When you configure remote management to allow management from any network except the
LAN, you still need to configure a firewall rule to allow access. See Chapter 9 on page 181 for
details on configuring firewall rules.
You can also disable a service on the LAN-Cell by not allowing access for the service/protocol
through any of the LAN-Cell interfaces.
Remote Management Sessions
You may only have one remote management session running at a time. The LAN-Cell
automatically disconnects a remote management session of lower priority when another
remote management session of higher priority starts. The priorities for the different types of
remote management sessions are as follows.
1
2
3
4
Console port
SSH
Telnet
HTTPS and HTTP
Remote management allows you to determine which services/protocols can access which
LAN-Cell interface (if any) from which computers.
Remote Management Limitations
Remote management does not work when:
1 You have not enabled that service on the interface in the corresponding remote
management screen.
2 You have disabled that service in one of the remote management screens.
3 The IP address in the Secure Client IP Address field does not match the client IP
address. If it does not match, the LAN-Cell will disconnect the session immediately.
4 There is already another remote management session with an equal or higher priority
running. You may only have one remote management session running at one time.
5 There is a firewall rule that blocks it.
6 A filter is applied (through the SMT or the commands) to block a Telnet, FTP or Web
service.
System Timeout
There is a default system management idle timeout of five minutes (three hundred seconds).
The LAN-Cell automatically logs you out if the management session remains idle for longer
than this timeout period. The management session does not time out when a statistics screen is
polling. You can change the timeout period in the MAINTENANCE > General screen.
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15.2 Remote Management Examples
15.2.1 HTTPS Example
If you haven’t changed the default HTTPS port on the LAN-Cell, then in your browser enter
“https://LAN-Cell IP Address/” as the web site address where “LAN-Cell IP Address” is the
IP address or domain name of the LAN-Cell you wish to access.
15.2.1.1 Internet Explorer Warning Messages
When you attempt to access the LAN-Cell HTTPS server, a Windows dialog box pops up
asking if you trust the server certificate. Click View Certificate if you want to verify that the
certificate is from the LAN-Cell.
You see the following Security Alert screen in Internet Explorer. Select Yes to proceed to the
web configurator login screen; if you select No, then web configurator access is blocked.
Other web browsers present similar Security Alerts when first accessing the LAN-Cell’s
HTTPS server.
Figure 192 Security Alert Dialog Box (Internet Explorer)
15.2.1.2 Avoiding the Browser Warning Messages
The following describes the main reasons that your browser displays warnings about the LANCell’s HTTPS server certificate and what you can do to avoid seeing the warnings.
• The issuing certificate authority of the LAN-Cell’s HTTPS server certificate is not one of
the browser’s trusted certificate authorities. The issuing certificate authority of the LANCell's factory default certificate is the LAN-Cell itself since the certificate is a self-signed
certificate.
• For the browser to trust a self-signed certificate, import the self-signed certificate into
your operating system as a trusted certificate.
• To have the browser trust the certificates issued by a certificate authority, import the
certificate authority’s certificate into your operating system as a trusted certificate.
Refer to Appendix G on page 629 for details.
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• The actual IP address of the HTTPS server (the IP address of the LAN-Cell’s port that you
are trying to access) does not match the common name specified in the LAN-Cell’s
HTTPS server certificate that your browser received. Do the following to check the
common name specified in the certificate that your LAN-Cell sends to HTTPS clients.
6a Click REMOTE MGMT. Write down the name of the certificate displayed in the
Server Certificate field.
6b Click CERTIFICATES. Find the certificate and check its Subject column. CN
stands for certificate’s common name (see Figure 195 on page 323 for an example).
Use this procedure to have the LAN-Cell use a certificate with a common name that matches
the LAN-Cell’s actual IP address. You cannot use this procedure if you need to access the
WAN port and it uses a dynamically assigned IP address.
6a Create a new certificate for the LAN-Cell that uses the IP address (of the LANCell’s port that you are trying to access) as the certificate’s common name. For
example, to use HTTPS to access a LAN port with IP address 192.168.1.1, create a
certificate that uses 192.168.1.1 as the common name.
6b Go to the remote management WWW screen and select the newly created certificate
in the Server Certificate field. Click Apply.
15.2.1.3 Login Screen
After you accept the certificate, the LAN-Cell login screen appears. The lock displayed in the
bottom right of the browser status bar denotes a secure connection.
Figure 193 Example: Lock Denoting a Secure Connection
Click Login and you then see the next screen.
The factory default certificate is a common default certificate for all LAN-Cell models.
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Figure 194 Replace Certificate
Click Apply in the Replace Certificate screen to create a certificate using your LAN-Cell’s
MAC address that will be specific to this device. Click CERTIFICATES to open the My
Certificates screen. You will see information similar to that shown in the following figure.
Figure 195 Device-specific Certificate
Click Ignore in the Replace Certificate screen to use the common LAN-Cell certificate. You
will then see this information in the My Certificates screen.
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Figure 196 Common LAN-Cell Certificate
15.2.2 Secure Telnet Using SSH Examples
This section shows two examples using a command interface and a graphical interface SSH
client program to remotely access the LAN-Cell. The configuration and connection steps are
similar for most SSH client programs. Refer to your SSH client program user’s guide.
15.2.2.1 Example 1: Microsoft Windows
This section describes how to access the LAN-Cell using the Secure Shell Client program.
1 Launch the SSH client and specify the connection information (IP address, port number
or device name) for the LAN-Cell.
2 Configure the SSH client to accept connection using SSH version 1.
3 A window displays prompting you to store the host key in you computer. Click Yes to
continue.
Figure 197 SSH Example 1: Store Host Key
Enter the password to log in to the LAN-Cell. The SMT main menu displays next.
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15.2.2.2 Example 2: Linux
This section describes how to access the LAN-Cell using the OpenSSH client program that
comes with most Linux distributions.
1 Test whether the SSH service is available on the LAN-Cell.
Enter “telnet 192.168.1.1 22” at a terminal prompt and press [ENTER]. The
computer attempts to connect to port 22 on the LAN-Cell (using the default IP address of
192.168.1.1).
A message displays indicating the SSH protocol version supported by the LAN-Cell.
Figure 198 SSH Example 2: Test
$ telnet 192.168.1.1 22
Trying 192.168.1.1...
Connected to 192.168.1.1.
Escape character is '^]'.
SSH-1.5-1.0.0
2 Enter “ssh –1 192.168.1.1”. This command forces your computer to connect to
the LAN-Cell using SSH version 1. If this is the first time you are connecting to the
LAN-Cell using SSH, a message displays prompting you to save the host information of
the LAN-Cell. Type “yes” and press [ENTER].
Then enter the password to log in to the LAN-Cell.
Figure 199 SSH Example 2: Log in
$ ssh –1 192.168.1.1
The authenticity of host '192.168.1.1 (192.168.1.1)' can't be
established.
RSA1 key fingerprint is
21:6c:07:25:7e:f4:75:80:ec:af:bd:d4:3d:80:53:d1.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.1' (RSA1) to the list of
known hosts.
Administrator@192.168.1.1's password:
3 The SMT main menu displays next.
15.2.2.3 Secure FTP Using SSH Example
This section shows an example on file transfer using the OpenSSH client program. The
configuration and connection steps are similar for other SSH client programs. Refer to your
SSH client program user’s guide.
1 Enter “sftp –1 192.168.1.1”. This command forces your computer to connect to
the LAN-Cell for secure file transfer using SSH version 1. If this is the first time you are
connecting to the LAN-Cell using SSH, a message displays prompting you to save the
host information of the LAN-Cell. Type “yes” and press [ENTER].
2 Enter the password to login to the LAN-Cell.
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3 Use the “put” command to upload a new firmware to the LAN-Cell.
Figure 200 Secure FTP: Firmware Upload Example
$ sftp -1 192.168.1.1
Connecting to 192.168.1.1...
The authenticity of host '192.168.1.1 (192.168.1.1)' can't be
established.
RSA1 key fingerprint is
21:6c:07:25:7e:f4:75:80:ec:af:bd:d4:3d:80:53:d1.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.1' (RSA1) to the list of
known hosts.
Administrator@192.168.1.1's password:
sftp> put firmware.bin ras
Uploading firmware.bin to /ras
Read from remote host 192.168.1.1: Connection reset by peer
Connection closed
$
15.3 WWW
Click ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT to open the WWW screen. Use this screen to
configure the LAN-Cell’s HTTP and HTTPS management settings.
Figure 201 ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > WWW
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 119 ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > WWW
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
HTTPS
Server
Certificate
Select the Server Certificate that the LAN-Cell will use to identify itself. The LANCell is the SSL server and must always authenticate itself to the SSL client (the
computer which requests the HTTPS connection with the LAN-Cell).
Authenticate
Client
Certificates
Select Authenticate Client Certificates (optional) to require the SSL client to
authenticate itself to the LAN-Cell by sending the LAN-Cell a certificate. To do that
the SSL client must have a CA-signed certificate from a CA that has been imported
as a trusted CA on the LAN-Cell (see Appendix G on page 629 on importing
certificates for details).
Server Port
The HTTPS proxy server listens on port 443 by default. If you change the HTTPS
proxy server port to a different number on the LAN-Cell, for example 8443, then you
must notify people who need to access the LAN-Cell web configurator to use “https:/
/LAN-Cell IP Address:8443” as the URL.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the LAN-Cell using
this service.
You can allow only secure web configurator access by clearing all of the interface
check boxes in the HTTP Server Access field and setting the HTTPS Server
Access field to an interface(s).
Secure Client IP
Address
A secure client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the LANCell using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the LAN-Cell using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the LAN-Cell using this service.
HTTP
Server Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must
use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the LAN-Cell using
this service.
Secure Client IP
Address
A secure client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the LANCell using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the LAN-Cell using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the LAN-Cell using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
15.4 The WWW (HTTP and HTTPS) Screen
HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer, or HTTP over SSL) is a web
protocol that encrypts and decrypts web pages. Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is an applicationlevel protocol that enables secure transactions of data by ensuring confidentiality (an
unauthorized party cannot read the transferred data), authentication (one party can identify the
other party) and data integrity (you know if data has been changed).
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It relies upon certificates, public keys, and private keys (see Chapter 11 on page 255 for more
information).
HTTPS on the LAN-Cell is used so that you may securely access the LAN-Cell using the web
configurator. The SSL protocol specifies that the SSL server (the LAN-Cell) must always
authenticate itself to the SSL client (the computer which requests the HTTPS connection with
the LAN-Cell), whereas the SSL client only should authenticate itself when the SSL server
requires it to do so (select Authenticate Client Certificates in the REMOTE MGMT >
WWW screen). Authenticate Client Certificates is optional and if selected means the SSLclient must send the LAN-Cell a certificate. You must apply for a certificate for the browser
from a CA that is a trusted CA on the LAN-Cell.
Please refer to the following figure.
1 HTTPS connection requests from an SSL-aware web browser go to port 443 (by default)
on the LAN-Cell’s WS (web server).
2 HTTP connection requests from a web browser go to port 80 (by default) on the LANCell’s WS (web server).
Figure 202 HTTPS Implementation
"
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If you disable the HTTP service in the REMOTE MGMT > WWW screen, then
the LAN-Cell blocks all HTTP connection attempts.
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15.5 Configuring the WWW Screen
Click ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT to open the WWW screen. ADVANCED >
REMOTE MGMT > WWW
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 120 ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > WWW
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
HTTPS
Server
Certificate
Select the Server Certificate that the LAN-Cell will use to identify itself. The LANCell is the SSL server and must always authenticate itself to the SSL client (the
computer which requests the HTTPS connection with the LAN-Cell).
Authenticate
Client
Certificates
Select Authenticate Client Certificates (optional) to require the SSL client to
authenticate itself to the LAN-Cell by sending the LAN-Cell a certificate. To do that
the SSL client must have a CA-signed certificate from a CA that has been imported
as a trusted CA on the LAN-Cell (see Appendix G on page 629 on importing
certificates for details).
Server Port
The HTTPS proxy server listens on port 443 by default. If you change the HTTPS
proxy server port to a different number on the LAN-Cell, for example 8443, then you
must notify people who need to access the LAN-Cell web configurator to use “https:/
/LAN-Cell IP Address:8443” as the URL.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the LAN-Cell using
this service.
You can allow only secure web configurator access by clearing all of the interface
check boxes in the HTTP Server Access field and setting the HTTPS Server
Access field to an interface(s).
Secure Client IP
Address
A secure client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the LANCell using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the LAN-Cell using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the LAN-Cell using this service.
HTTP
Server Port
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use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
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Table 120 ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > WWW (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the LAN-Cell using
this service.
Secure Client IP
Address
A secure client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the LANCell using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the LAN-Cell using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the LAN-Cell using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
15.6 The SSH Screen
You can use SSH (Secure SHell) to securely access the LAN-Cell’s SMT or command line
interface. Specify which interfaces allow SSH access and from which IP address the access
can come.
Unlike Telnet or FTP, which transmit data in plaintext (clear or unencrypted text), SSH is a
secure communication protocol that combines authentication and data encryption to provide
secure encrypted communication between two hosts over an unsecured network. In the
following figure, computer A on the Internet uses SSH to securely connect to the WAN port of
the LAN-Cell for a management session.
Figure 203 SSH Communication Over the WAN Example
SSH Implementation on the LAN-Cell
Your LAN-Cell supports SSH version 1.5 using RSA authentication and three encryption
methods (DES, 3DES and Blowfish). The SSH server is implemented on the LAN-Cell for
remote SMT management and file transfer on port 22. Only one SSH connection is allowed at
a time.
Requirements for Using SSH
You must install an SSH client program on a client computer (Windows or Linux operating
system) that is used to connect to the LAN-Cell over SSH.
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15.7 Configuring the SSH Screen
Click ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > SSH to change your LAN-Cell’s Secure Shell
settings.
"
It is recommended that you disable Telnet and FTP when you configure SSH
for secure connections.
Figure 204 ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > SSH
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 121 ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > SSH
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Host Key
Select the certificate whose corresponding private key is to be used to identify the
LAN-Cell for SSH connections. You must have certificates already configured in the
My Certificates screen (Click My Certificates and see Chapter 11 on page 255 for
details).
Server Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must
use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the LAN-Cell using
this service.
Secure Client IP
Address
A secure client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the
LAN-Cell using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the LAN-Cell using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the LAN-Cell using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
15.8 Telnet Screen
You can use Telnet to access the LAN-Cell’s SMT or command line interface. Specify which
interfaces allow Telnet access and from which IP address the access can come.
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Click ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > TELNET to open the following screen. Use this
screen to specify which interfaces allow Telnet access and from which IP address the access
can come.
"
It is recommended that you disable Telnet and FTP when you configure SSH
for secure connections.
Figure 205 ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > Telnet
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 122 ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > Telnet
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must
use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the LAN-Cell using
this service.
Secure Client IP
Address
A secure client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the LANCell using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the LAN-Cell using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the LAN-Cell using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
15.9 FTP Screen
You can use FTP (File Transfer Protocol) to upload and download the LAN-Cell’s firmware
and configuration files, please see the User’s Guide chapter on firmware and configuration file
maintenance for details. To use this feature, your computer must have an FTP client.
To change your LAN-Cell’s FTP settings, click ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > FTP.
The screen appears as shown. Use this screen to specify which interfaces allow FTP access
and from which IP address the access can come.
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"
It is recommended that you disable Telnet and FTP when you configure SSH
for secure connections.
Figure 206 ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > FTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 123 ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > FTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must
use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the LAN-Cell using
this service.
Secure Client IP
Address
A secure client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the LANCell using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the LAN-Cell using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the LAN-Cell using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
15.10 SNMP Screen
Simple Network Management Protocol is a protocol used for exchanging management
information between network devices. SNMP is a member of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Your
LAN-Cell supports SNMP agent functionality, which allows a manager station to manage and
monitor the LAN-Cell through the network. The LAN-Cell supports SNMP version one
(SNMPv1). The next figure illustrates an SNMP management operation.
"
SNMP is only available if TCP/IP is configured.
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Figure 207 SNMP Management Model
An SNMP managed network consists of two main types of component: agents and a manager.
An agent is a management software module that resides in a managed device (the LAN-Cell).
An agent translates the local management information from the managed device into a form
compatible with SNMP. The manager is the console through which network administrators
perform network management functions. It executes applications that control and monitor
managed devices.
The managed devices contain object variables/managed objects that define each piece of
information to be collected about a device. Examples of variables include such as number of
packets received, node port status etc. A Management Information Base (MIB) is a collection
of managed objects. SNMP allows a manager and agents to communicate for the purpose of
accessing these objects.
SNMP itself is a simple request/response protocol based on the manager/agent model. The
manager issues a request and the agent returns responses using the following protocol
operations:
• Get - Allows the manager to retrieve an object variable from the agent.
• GetNext - Allows the manager to retrieve the next object variable from a table or list
within an agent. In SNMPv1, when a manager wants to retrieve all elements of a table
from an agent, it initiates a Get operation, followed by a series of GetNext operations.
• Set - Allows the manager to set values for object variables within an agent.
• Trap - Used by the agent to inform the manager of some events.
Supported MIBs
The LAN-Cell supports MIB II that is defined in RFC-1213 and RFC-1215. The focus of the
MIBs is to let administrators collect statistical data and monitor status and performance.
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SNMP Traps
The LAN-Cell will send traps to the SNMP manager when any one of the following events
occurs:
Table 124 SNMP Traps
TRAP #
TRAP NAME
DESCRIPTION
0
coldStart (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent after booting (power on).
1
warmStart (defined in RFC1215)
A trap is sent after booting (software reboot).
4
authenticationFailure (defined in
RFC-1215)
A trap is sent to the manager when receiving any SNMP
get or set requirements with the wrong community
(password).
6
whyReboot (defined in
Proxicast-MIB)
A trap is sent with the reason of restart before rebooting
when the system is going to restart (warm start).
6a
For intentional reboot :
A trap is sent with the message "System reboot by user!"
if reboot is done intentionally, (for example, download
new files, CI command "sys reboot", etc.).
6b
For fatal error :
A trap is sent with the message of the fatal code if the
system reboots because of fatal errors.
15.10.1 Configuring the SNMP Screen
To change your LAN-Cell’s SNMP settings, click ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT >
SNMP. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 208 ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > SNMP
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 125 ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > SNMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SNMP Configuration
Get Community
Enter the Get Community, which is the password for the incoming Get and
GetNext requests from the management station. The default is public and allows all
requests.
Set Community
Enter the Set community, which is the password for incoming Set requests from
the management station. The default is public and allows all requests.
Trap
Community
Type the trap community, which is the password sent with each trap to the SNMP
manager. The default is public and allows all requests.
Destination
Type the IP address of the station to send your SNMP traps to.
SNMP
Service Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must
use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
Service Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the LAN-Cell using
this service.
Secure Client IP
Address
A secure client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the LANCell using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the LAN-Cell using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the LAN-Cell using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
15.11 DNS Screen
Use DNS (Domain Name System) to map a domain name to its corresponding IP address and
vice versa. Refer to Chapter 5 on page 89 for more information.
Click ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > DNS to change your LAN-Cell’s DNS settings.
Use this screen to set from which IP address the LAN-Cell will accept DNS queries and on
which interface it can send them your LAN-Cell’s DNS settings.
Figure 209 ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > DNS
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 126 ADVANCED > REMOTE MGMT > DNS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
The DNS service port number is 53 and cannot be changed here.
Service Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may send DNS queries to the
LAN-Cell.
Secure Client IP
Address
A secure client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to send DNS queries to the
LAN-Cell.
Select All to allow any computer to send DNS queries to the LAN-Cell.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
send DNS queries to the LAN-Cell.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
15.12 Remote Management Technical Reference
How SSH Works
The following table summarizes how a secure connection is established between two remote
hosts.
Figure 210 How SSH Works
1 Host Identification
The SSH client sends a connection request to the SSH server. The server identifies itself
with a host key. The client encrypts a randomly generated session key with the host key
and server key and sends the result back to the server.
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The client automatically saves any new server public keys. In subsequent connections, the
server public key is checked against the saved version on the client computer.
2 Encryption Method
Once the identification is verified, both the client and server must agree on the type of
encryption method to use.
3 Authentication and Data Transmission
After the identification is verified and data encryption activated, a secure tunnel is established
between the client and the server. The client then sends its authentication information (user
name and password) to the server to log in to the server.
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CHAPTER
16
Static Route Screens
16.1 Overview
The LAN-Cell usually uses the default gateway to route outbound traffic from local computers
to the Internet. To have the LAN-Cell send data to devices not reachable through the default
gateway, use static routes.
Each remote node specifies only the network to which the gateway is directly connected, and
the LAN-Cell has no knowledge of the networks beyond. For instance, the LAN-Cell knows
about network N2 in the following figure through remote node Router 1. However, the LANCell is unable to route a packet to network N3 because it doesn't know that there is a route
through the same remote node Router 1 (via gateway Router 2). The static routes are for you to
tell the LAN-Cell about the networks beyond the remote nodes.
Figure 211 Example of Static Routing Topology
16.1.1 What You Can Do in the Static Route Screens
• Use the IP Static Route screen (Section 16.2 on page 339) to display the current static
route entries.
• Use the IP Static Route Edit screen (Section 16.2.1 on page 341) to configure the
required information for a static route.
16.2 IP Static Route Screen
Click ADVANCED > STATIC ROUTE to open the IP Static Route screen.
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The first two static route entries are for default WAN and Cellular routes on a LAN-Cell with
multiple WAN interfaces. You cannot modify or delete a static default route.
The default route is disabled after you change the static WAN IP address to a dynamic WAN
IP address.
Figure 212 ADVANCED > STATIC ROUTE > IP Static Route
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 127 ADVANCED > STATIC ROUTE > IP Static Route
340
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the number of an individual static route.
Name
This is the name that describes or identifies this route.
Active
This field shows whether this static route is active (Yes) or not (No).
Destination
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination. Routing is
always based on network number.
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Table 127 ADVANCED > STATIC ROUTE > IP Static Route
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Gateway
This is the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is a router or switch on the same
network segment as the LAN-Cell’s interface. The gateway helps forward packets to
their destinations.
Modify
Click the edit icon to go to the screen where you can set up a static route on the
LAN-Cell.
Click the delete icon to remove a static route from the LAN-Cell. A window displays
asking you to confirm that you want to delete the route.
16.2.1 IP Static Route Edit Screen
Select a static route index number and click Edit. The screen shown next appears. Use this
screen to configure the required information for a static route.
Figure 213 ADVANCED > STATIC ROUTE > IP Static Route > Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 128 ADVANCED > STATIC ROUTE > IP Static Route > Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Route Name
Enter the name of the IP static route. Leave this field blank to delete this static
route.
Active
This field allows you to activate/deactivate this static route.
Destination IP
Address
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination. Routing is
always based on network number. If you need to specify a route to a single host,
use a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255 in the subnet mask field to force the network
number to be identical to the host ID.
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask here.
Gateway IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is a router or switch on the same
network segment as the device's LAN or WAN port. The gateway helps forward
packets to their destinations.
Metric
Metric represents the “cost” of transmission for routing purposes. IP routing uses
hop count as the measurement of cost, with a minimum of 1 for directly connected
networks. Enter a number that approximates the cost for this link. The number need
not be precise, but it must be between 1 and 15. In practice, 2 or 3 is usually a good
number.
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Table 128 ADVANCED > STATIC ROUTE > IP Static Route > Edit
342
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Private
This parameter determines if the LAN-Cell will include this route to a remote node in
its RIP broadcasts.
Select this check box to keep this route private and not included in RIP broadcasts.
Clear this check box to propagate this route to other hosts through RIP broadcasts.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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17
Policy Route Screens
17.1 Overview
Traditionally, routing is based on the destination address only and the LAN-Cell takes the
shortest path to forward a packet. IP Policy Routing (IPPR) provides a mechanism to override
the default routing behavior and alter the packet forwarding based on the policy defined by the
network administrator. Policy-based routing is applied to incoming packets on a per interface
basis, prior to the normal routing.
17.1.1 What You Can Do in the Policy Route Screens
• Use the Policy Route Summary screen (Section 17.2 on page 344) to display the current
policy route entries.
• Use the Policy Route Edit screen (Section 17.3 on page 345) to configure a policy route
to override the default.
17.1.2 What You Need To Know About Policy Route
Benefits
• Source-Based Routing – Network administrators can use policy-based routing to direct
traffic from different users through different connections.
• Quality of Service (QoS) – Organizations can differentiate traffic by setting the
precedence or ToS (Type of Service) values in the IP header at the periphery of the
network to enable the backbone to prioritize traffic.
• Cost Savings – IPPR allows organizations to distribute interactive traffic on highbandwidth, high-cost paths while using low-cost paths for batch traffic.
• Load Sharing – Network administrators can use IPPR to distribute traffic among multiple
paths.
Routing Policy
Individual routing policies are used as part of the overall IPPR process. A policy defines the
matching criteria and the action to take when a packet meets the criteria. The action is taken
only when all the criteria are met. The criteria include the source address and port, IP protocol
(ICMP, UDP, TCP, etc.), destination address and port, ToS and precedence (fields in the IP
header) and length. The inclusion of length criterion is to differentiate between interactive and
bulk traffic. Interactive applications, e.g., telnet, tend to have short packets, while bulk traffic,
e.g., file transfer, tends to have large packets.
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The actions that can be taken include:
• Routing the packet to a different gateway (and hence the outgoing interface).
• Setting the ToS and precedence fields in the IP header.
IPPR follows the existing packet filtering facility of RAS in style and in implementation.
17.2 Policy Route Summary Screen
Click ADVANCED > POLICY ROUTE to open the Policy Route Summary screen.
Figure 214 ADVANCED > POLICY ROUTE > Policy Route Summary
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 129 ADVANCED > POLICY ROUTE > Policy Route Summary
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the number of an individual policy route.
Active
This field shows whether the policy is active or inactive.
Source
Address/Port
This is the source IP address range and/or port number range.
Destination
Address/Port
This is the destination IP address range and/or port number range.
Gateway
Enter the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is a router or switch on the same
network segment as the device's LAN or WAN port. The gateway helps forward
packets to their destinations.
Protocol
This is the IP protocol and can be ALL(0), ICMP(1), IGMP(2), TCP(6), UDP(17),
GRE(47), ESP(50) or AH(51).
Action
This field specifies whether action should be taken on criteria Matched or Not
Matched.
Modify
Click the edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the routing policy on the
LAN-Cell.
Click the delete icon to remove an existing routing policy from the LAN-Cell. A
window display asking you to confirm that you want to delete the routing policy.
Move
Type a policy route's index number and the number for where you want to put that
rule. Click Move to move the rule to the number that you typed.
The ordering of your rules is important as they are applied in order of their
numbering.
17.3 Policy Route Edit Screen
Click ADVANCED > POLICY ROUTE to open the Policy Route Summary screen. Then
click the edit icon to open the Edit IP Policy Route screen.
Use this screen to configure a policy route to override the default (shortest path) routing
behavior and forward packets based on the criteria you specify. A policy route defines the
matching criteria and the action to take when a packet meets the criteria. The action is taken
only when all the criteria are met. Policy-based routing is applied to incoming packets on a per
interface basis before normal routing. The LAN-Cell does not perform normal routing on
packets that match any of the policy routes.
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Figure 215 Edit IP Policy Route
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 130 ADVANCED > POLICY ROUTE > Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Criteria
346
Active
Select the check box to activate the policy.
Rule Index
This is the index number of the policy route.
IP Protocol
Select Predefined and then the IP protocol from ALL(0), ICMP(1), IGMP(2),
TCP(6), UDP(17), GRE(47), ESP(50) or AH(51).
Otherwise, select Custom and enter a number from 0 to 255.
Type of Service
Prioritize incoming network traffic by choosing from Any, Normal, Min Delay, Max
Thruput, Max Reliable or Mix Cost.
Precedence
Precedence value of the incoming packet. Select a value from 0 to 7 or Any.
Packet Length
Type a length of packet (in bytes). The operators in the Len Compare field apply
to incoming packets of this length.
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Table 130 ADVANCED > POLICY ROUTE > Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Length
Comparison
Choose from Equal, Not Equal, Less, Greater, Less or Equal or Greater or
Equal.
Application
Select a predefined application (FTP, H.323 or SIP) for the policy rule. If you do not
want to use a predefined application, select Custom. You can also configure the
source and destination port numbers if you set IP protocol to TCP or UDP.
FTP (File Transfer Program) is a program to enable fast transfer of files, including
large files that may not be possible by e-mail. Select FTP to configure the policy
rule for TCP packets with a port 21 destination.
H.323 is a protocol used for multimedia communications over networks, for
example NetMeeting. Select H.323 to configure the policy rule for TCP packets
with a port 1720 destination.
Note: If you select H.323, make sure you also use the ALG screen
to turn on the H.323 ALG.
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) is a signaling protocol used in Internet telephony,
instant messaging, events notification and conferencing. The LAN-Cell supports
SIP traffic pass-through. Select SIP to configure the policy rule for UDP packets
with a port 5060 destination.
Note: If you select SIP, make sure you also use the ALG screen to
turn on the SIP ALG.
Source
Interface
Use the check box to select LAN, DMZ, WAN, CELL and/or WLAN.
Starting IP
Address
Enter the source starting IP address.
Ending IP
Address
Enter the source ending IP address.
Starting Port
Enter the source starting port number. This field is applicable only when you select
TCP or UDP in the IP Protocol field and Custom in the Application field.
Ending Port
Enter the source ending port number. This field is applicable only when you select
TCP or UDP in the IP Protocol field and Custom in the Application field.
Destination
Starting IP
Address
Enter the destination starting IP address.
Ending IP
Address
Enter the destination ending IP address.
Starting Port
Enter the destination starting port number. This field is applicable only when you
select TCP or UDP in the IP Protocol field and Custom in the Application field.
Ending Port
Enter the destination ending port number. This field is applicable only when you
select TCP or UDP in the IP Protocol field and Custom in the Application field.
Action Applies to
Specifies whether action should be taken on criteria Matched or Not Matched.
Routing Action
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Table 130 ADVANCED > POLICY ROUTE > Edit (continued)
348
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Gateway
Select User-Defined and enter the IP address of the gateway if you want to
specify the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor of
your LAN-Cell that will forward the packet to the destination. The gateway must be
a router on the same segment as your LAN-Cell's LAN or WAN interface.
Select WAN Interface to have the LAN-Cell send traffic that matches the policy
route through a specific WAN interface. Select the WAN interface from the dropdown list box.
Select the Use another interface when the specified WAN interface is not
available. check box to have the LAN-Cell send traffic that matches the policy
route through the other WAN interface if it cannot send the traffic through the WAN
interface you selected. This option is only available when you select WAN
Interface.
Converted Type
of Service
Set the new TOS value of the outgoing packet. Prioritize incoming network traffic
by choosing Don’t Change, Normal, Min Delay, Max Thruput, Max Reliable or
Min Cost.
Converted
Precedence
Set the new outgoing packet precedence value. Values are 0 to 7 or Don’t
Change.
Log
Select Yes from the drop-down list box to make an entry in the system log when a
policy is executed.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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18
Bandwidth Management
Screens
18.1 Overview
Bandwidth management allows you to allocate an interface’s outgoing capacity to specific
types of traffic. It can also help you make sure that the LAN-Cell forwards certain types of
traffic (especially real-time applications) with minimum delay. With the use of real-time
applications such as Voice-over-IP (VoIP) increasing, the requirement for bandwidth
allocation is also increasing.
Bandwidth management addresses questions such as:
•
•
•
•
Who gets how much access to specific applications?
What priority level should you give to each type of traffic?
Which traffic must have guaranteed delivery?
How much bandwidth should be allotted to guarantee delivery?
Bandwidth management also allows you to configure the allowed output for an interface to
match what the network can handle. This helps reduce delays and dropped packets at the next
routing device. For example, you can set the WAN interface speed to 1024 kbps (or less) if the
broadband device connected to the WAN port has an upstream speed of 1024 kbps.
18.1.1 What You Can Do in the Bandwidth Management Screens
• Use the Summary screen (Section 18.2 on page 354) to enable bandwidth management on
an interface and set the maximum allowed bandwidth for that interface.
• Use the Class Setup screen (Section 18.3 on page 356) to view the configured bandwidth
classes by individual interface and to to set up a bandwidth class’s name, bandwidth
allotment, and bandwidth filter.
• Use the Monitor screen (Section 18.4 on page 362) to view the device’s bandwidth usage
and allotments.
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18.1.2 What You Need to Know About Bandwidth Management
Bandwidth Classes and Filters
Use bandwidth classes and sub-classes to allocate specific amounts of bandwidth capacity
(bandwidth budgets). Configure a bandwidth filter to define a bandwidth class (or sub-class)
based on a specific application and/or subnet. Use the Class Setup screen (see Section 18.3.1
on page 357) to set up a bandwidth class’s name, bandwidth allotment, and bandwidth filter.
You can configure up to one bandwidth filter per bandwidth class. You can also configure
bandwidth classes without bandwidth filters. However, it is recommended that you configure
sub-classes with filters for any classes that you configure without filters. The LAN-Cell leaves
the bandwidth budget allocated and unused for a class that does not have a filter or sub-classes
with filters. View your configured bandwidth classes and sub-classes in the Class Setup
screen (see Section 18.3 on page 356 for details).
The total of the configured bandwidth budgets for sub-classes cannot exceed the configured
bandwidth budget speed of the parent class.
Proportional Bandwidth Allocation
Bandwidth management allows you to define how much bandwidth each class gets; however,
the actual bandwidth allotted to each class decreases or increases in proportion to actual
available bandwidth.
Application-based Bandwidth Management
You can create bandwidth classes based on individual applications (like VoIP, Web, FTP, Email and Video for example).
Subnet-based Bandwidth Management
You can create bandwidth classes based on subnets.
The following figure shows LAN subnets. You could configure one bandwidth class for
subnet A and another for subnet B.
Figure 216 Subnet-based Bandwidth Management Example
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Scheduler
The scheduler divides up an interface’s bandwidth among the bandwidth classes. The LANCell has two types of scheduler: fairness-based and priority-based.
Priority-based Scheduler
With the priority-based scheduler, the LAN-Cell forwards traffic from bandwidth classes
according to the priorities that you assign to the bandwidth classes. The larger a bandwidth
class’s priority number is, the higher the priority. Assign real-time applications (like those
using audio or video) a higher priority number to provide smoother operation.
Fairness-based Scheduler
The LAN-Cell divides bandwidth equally among bandwidth classes when using the fairnessbased scheduler; thus preventing one bandwidth class from using all of the interface’s
bandwidth.
Maximize Bandwidth Usage
The maximize bandwidth usage option allows the LAN-Cell to divide up any available
bandwidth on the interface (including unallocated bandwidth and any allocated bandwidth that
a class is not using) among the bandwidth classes that require more bandwidth.
When you enable maximize bandwidth usage, the LAN-Cell first makes sure that each
bandwidth class gets up to its bandwidth allotment. Next, the LAN-Cell divides up an
interface’s available bandwidth (bandwidth that is unbudgeted or unused by the classes)
depending on how many bandwidth classes require more bandwidth and on their priority
levels. When only one class requires more bandwidth, the LAN-Cell gives extra bandwidth to
that class.
When multiple classes require more bandwidth, the LAN-Cell gives the highest priority
classes the available bandwidth first (as much as they require, if there is enough available
bandwidth), and then to lower priority classes if there is still bandwidth available. The LANCell distributes the available bandwidth equally among classes with the same priority level.
18.1.3 Bandwidth Management Examples
18.1.3.1 Application and Subnet-based Bandwidth Management Example
You could also create bandwidth classes based on a combination of a subnet and an
application. The following example table shows bandwidth allocations for application specific
traffic from separate LAN subnets.
Table 131 Application and Subnet-based Bandwidth Management Example
TRAFFIC TYPE
FROM SUBNET A
FROM SUBNET B
VoIP
64 Kbps
64 Kbps
Web
64 Kbps
64 Kbps
FTP
64 Kbps
64 Kbps
E-mail
64 Kbps
64 Kbps
Video
64 Kbps
64 Kbps
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18.1.3.2 Maximize Bandwidth Usage Example
If you configure both maximize bandwidth usage (on the interface) and bandwidth borrowing
(on individual sub-classes), the LAN-Cell functions as follows.
1 The LAN-Cell sends traffic according to each bandwidth class’s bandwidth budget.
2 The LAN-Cell assigns a parent class’s unused bandwidth to its sub-classes that have
more traffic than their budgets and have bandwidth borrowing enabled. The LAN-Cell
gives priority to sub-classes of higher priority and treats classes of the same priority
equally.
3 The LAN-Cell assigns any remaining unused or unbudgeted bandwidth on the interface
to any class that requires it. The LAN-Cell gives priority to classes of higher priority and
treats classes of the same level equally.
4 If the bandwidth requirements of all of the traffic classes are met and there is still some
unbudgeted bandwidth, the LAN-Cell assigns it to traffic that does not match any of the
classes.
18.1.3.3 Over Allotment of Bandwidth Example
It is possible to set the bandwidth management speed for an interface higher than the
interface’s actual transmission speed. Higher priority traffic gets to use up to its allocated
bandwidth, even if it takes up all of the interface’s available bandwidth. This could stop lower
priority traffic from being sent. The following is an example.
Table 132 Over Allotment of Bandwidth Example
BANDWIDTH CLASSES, ALLOTMENTS
PRIORITIES
Actual outgoing bandwidth available on the interface: 1000 kbps
Root Class: 1500 kbps (same
as Speed setting)
VoIP traffic (Service = SIP): 500 Kbps
7
NetMeeting traffic (Service = H.323): 500 kbps
7
FTP (Service = FTP): 500 Kbps
3
If you use VoIP and NetMeeting at the same time, the device allocates up to 500 Kbps of
bandwidth to each of them before it allocates any bandwidth to FTP. As a result, FTP can only
use bandwidth when VoIP and NetMeeting do not use all of their allocated bandwidth.
Suppose you try to browse the web too. In this case, VoIP, NetMeeting and FTP all have
higher priority, so they get to use the bandwidth first. You can only browse the web when
VoIP, NetMeeting, and FTP do not use all 1000 Kbps of available bandwidth.
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18.1.3.4 Maximize Bandwidth Usage Example
Here is an example of a LAN-Cell that has maximize bandwidth usage enabled on an
interface. The following table shows each bandwidth class’s bandwidth budget. The classes
are set up based on subnets. The interface is set to 10240 kbps. Each subnet is allocated 2048
kbps. The unbudgeted 2048 kbps allows traffic not defined in any of the bandwidth filters to
go out when you do not select the maximize bandwidth option.
Table 133 Maximize Bandwidth Usage Example
BANDWIDTH CLASSES AND ALLOTMENTS
Root Class: 10240 kbps
Administration: 2048 kbps
Sales: 2048 kbps
Marketing: 2048 kbps
Research: 2048 kbps
The LAN-Cell divides up the unbudgeted 2048 kbps among the classes that require more
bandwidth. If the administration department only uses 1024 kbps of the budgeted 2048 kbps,
the LAN-Cell also divides the remaining 1024 kbps among the classes that require more
bandwidth. Therefore, the LAN-Cell divides a total of 3072 kbps of unbudgeted and unused
bandwidth among the classes that require more bandwidth.
18.1.3.5 Priority-based Allotment of Unused and Unbudgeted Bandwidth Example
The following table shows the priorities of the bandwidth classes and the amount of bandwidth
that each class gets.
Table 134 Priority-based Allotment of Unused and Unbudgeted Bandwidth Example
BANDWIDTH CLASSES, PRIORITIES AND ALLOTMENTS
Root Class: 10240 kbps
Administration: Priority 4, 1024 kbps
Sales: Priority 6, 3584 kbps
Marketing: Priority 6, 3584 kbps
Research: Priority 5, 2048 kbps
Suppose that all of the classes except for the administration class need more bandwidth.
• Each class gets up to its budgeted bandwidth. The administration class only uses 1024
kbps of its budgeted 2048 kbps.
• The sales and marketing are first to get extra bandwidth because they have the highest
priority (6). If they each require 1536 kbps or more of extra bandwidth, the LAN-Cell
divides the total 3072 kbps total of unbudgeted and unused bandwidth equally between the
sales and marketing departments (1536 kbps extra to each for a total of 3584 kbps for
each) because they both have the highest priority level.
• Research requires more bandwidth but only gets its budgeted 2048 kbps because all of the
unbudgeted and unused bandwidth goes to the higher priority sales and marketing classes.
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18.1.3.6 Fairness-based Allotment of Unused and Unbudgeted Bandwidth Example
The following table shows the amount of bandwidth that each class gets.
Table 135 Fairness-based Allotment of Unused and Unbudgeted Bandwidth Example
BANDWIDTH CLASSES AND ALLOTMENTS
Root Class: 10240 kbps
Administration: 1024 kbps
Sales: 3072 kbps
Marketing: 3072 kbps
Research: 3072 kbps
Suppose that all of the classes except for the administration class need more bandwidth.
• Each class gets up to its budgeted bandwidth. The administration class only uses 1024
kbps of its budgeted 2048 kbps.
• The LAN-Cell divides the total 3072 kbps total of unbudgeted and unused bandwidth
equally among the other classes. 1024 kbps extra goes to each so the other classes each get
a total of 3072 kbps.
18.1.3.7 Reserving Bandwidth for Non-Bandwidth Class Traffic Example
Do the following three steps to configure the LAN-Cell to allow bandwidth for traffic that is
not defined in a bandwidth filter.
1 Leave some of the interface’s bandwidth unbudgeted.
2 Do not enable the interface’s Maximize Bandwidth Usage option.
3 Do not enable bandwidth borrowing on the sub-classes that have the root class as their
parent (see Section on page 357).
18.2 Bandwidth Management Summary Screen
Click ADVANCED > BW MGMT to open the Summary screen.
Enable bandwidth management on an interface and set the maximum allowed bandwidth for
that interface.
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Figure 217 ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Summary
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 136 ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Summary
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Class
These read-only labels represent the physical interfaces. Select an interface’s check
box to enable bandwidth management on that interface. Bandwidth management
applies to all traffic flowing out of the router through the interface, regardless of the
traffic’s source.
Traffic redirect or IP alias may cause LAN-to-LAN or DMZ-to-DMZ traffic to pass
through the LAN-Cell and be managed by bandwidth management.
Active
Select an interface’s check box to enable bandwidth management on that interface.
Speed (kbps)
Enter the amount of bandwidth for this interface that you want to allocate using
bandwidth management. This appears as the bandwidth budget of the interface’s
root class (see Section 18.3 on page 356). The recommendation is to set this speed
to match what the device connected to the port can handle. For example, set the
WAN interface speed to 1000 kbps if the broadband device connected to the WAN
port has an upstream speed of 1000 kbps.
The recommendation is to set this speed to match the interface’s actual
transmission speed. For example, set the WAN interface speed to 1000 kbps if your
Internet connection has an upstream transmission speed of 1 Mbps.
You can set this number higher than the interface’s actual transmission speed. This
will stop lower priority traffic from being sent if higher priority traffic uses all of the
actual bandwidth.
You can also set this number lower than the interface’s actual transmission speed. If
you do not enable Max Bandwidth Usage, this will cause the LAN-Cell to not use
some of the interface’s available bandwidth.
Scheduler
Select either Priority-Based or Fairness-Based from the drop-down menu to
control the traffic flow.
Select Priority-Based to give preference to bandwidth classes with higher priorities.
Select Fairness-Based to treat all bandwidth classes equally. See Section on page
351.
Maximize
Bandwidth
Usage
Select this check box to have the LAN-Cell divide up all of the interface’s
unallocated and/or unused bandwidth among the bandwidth classes that require
bandwidth. Do not select this if you want to reserve bandwidth for traffic that does
not match a bandwidth class (see Section 18.1.3 on page 351) or you want to limit
the speed of this interface (see the Speed field description).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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18.3 Class Setup Screen
The Class Setup screen displays the configured bandwidth classes by individual interface.
Select an interface and click the buttons to perform the actions described next. Click “+” to
expand the class tree or click “-“ to collapse the class tree. Each interface has a permanent root
class. The bandwidth budget of the root class is equal to the speed you configured on the
interface (see Section 18.2 on page 354 to configure the speed of the interface). Configure subclass layers for the root class.
To add or delete child classes on an interface, click ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Class
Setup. The screen is shown here with example classes.
Figure 218 ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Class Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 137 ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Class Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select an interface for which you want to set up bandwidth management classes.
Bandwidth management controls outgoing traffic on an interface, not incoming. So,
in order to limit the download bandwidth of the LAN users, set the bandwidth
management class on the LAN. In order to limit the upload bandwidth, set the
bandwidth management class on the corresponding WAN interface.
Bandwidth
Management
This field displays whether bandwidth management on the interface you selected in
the field above is enabled (Active) or not (Inactive).
After you select an interface, the bandwidth management classes configured for the
interface display. The name, bandwidth and priority display for each class. “borrow”
also displays if the class is set to use bandwidth from its parent class if the parent
class is not using up its bandwidth budget.
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Add Sub-Class
Click Add Sub-class to add a sub-class.
Edit
Click Edit to configure the selected class. You cannot edit the root class.
Delete
Click Delete to delete the class and all its sub-classes. You cannot delete the root
class.
Statistics
Click Statistics to display the status of the selected class.
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Table 137 ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Class Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enabled classes
Search Order
This list displays the interface’s active bandwidth management classes (the ones
that have the bandwidth filter enabled). The LAN-Cell applies the classes in the
order that they appear here. Once a connection matches a bandwidth management
class, the LAN-Cell applies the class’s rules and does not check the connection
against any other bandwidth management classes.
Search Order
This is the index number of an individual bandwidth management class.
Class Name
This is the name that identifies a bandwidth management class.
Service
This is the service that this bandwidth management class is configured to manage.
Destination IP
Address
This is the destination IP address for connections to which this bandwidth
management class applies.
Destination Port
This is the destination port for connections to which this bandwidth management
class applies.
Source IP
Address
This is the source IP address for connections to which this bandwidth management
class applies.
Source Port
This is the source port for connections to which this bandwidth management class
applies.
Protocol ID
This is the protocol ID (service type) number for connections to which this
bandwidth management class applies. For example: 1 for ICMP, 6 for TCP or 17 for
UDP.
Move
Type a class’s index number and the number for where you want to put that class.
Click Move to move the class to the number that you typed. The ordering of your
classes is important as they are applied in order of their numbering.
18.3.1 Bandwidth Manager Class Configuration
Configure a bandwidth management class in the Class Setup screen. You must use the
Summary screen to enable bandwidth management on an interface before you can configure
classes for that interface.
Bandwidth Borrowing
Bandwidth borrowing allows a sub-class to borrow unused bandwidth from its parent class,
whereas maximize bandwidth usage allows bandwidth classes to borrow any unused or
unbudgeted bandwidth on the whole interface.
Enable bandwidth borrowing on a sub-class to allow the sub-class to use its parent class’s
unused bandwidth. A parent class’s unused bandwidth is given to the highest priority sub-class
first. The sub-class can also borrow bandwidth from a higher parent class (grandparent class)
if the sub-class’s parent class is also configured to borrow bandwidth from its parent class.
This can go on for as many levels as are configured to borrow bandwidth from their parent
class (see Section 18.3.1.1 on page 360).
The total of the bandwidth allotments for sub-classes cannot exceed the bandwidth allotment
of their parent class. The LAN-Cell uses the scheduler to divide a parent class’s unused
bandwidth among the sub-classes.
Click ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Class Setup > Add Sub-Class or Edit to open the
following screen. Use this screen to add a child class.
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Figure 219 ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Class Setup > Add Sub-Class
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 138 ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Class Setup > Add Sub-Class
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Class Configuration
Class Name
Use the auto-generated name or enter a descriptive name of up to 20
alphanumeric characters, including spaces.
Bandwidth Budget
(kbps)
Specify the maximum bandwidth allowed for the class in kbps. The
recommendation is a setting between 20 kbps and 20000 kbps for an individual
class.
Priority
Enter a number between 0 and 7 to set the priority of this class. The higher the
number, the higher the priority. The default setting is 3.
Borrow bandwidth
from parent class
Select this option to allow a sub-class to borrow bandwidth from its parent
class if the parent class is not using up its bandwidth budget.
Bandwidth borrowing is governed by the priority of the sub-classes. That is, a
sub-class with the highest priority (7) is the first to borrow bandwidth from its
parent class.
Do not select this for the classes directly below the root class if you want to
leave bandwidth available for other traffic types (see Section 18.1.3 on page
351) or you want to set the interface’s speed to match what the next device in
network can handle (see the Speed field description in Table 136 on page
355).
Filter Configuration
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Table 138 ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Class Setup > Add Sub-Class (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Bandwidth
Filter
Select Enable Bandwidth Filter to have the LAN-Cell use this bandwidth filter
when it performs bandwidth management.
You must enter a value in at least one of the following fields (other than the
Subnet Mask fields which are only available when you enter the destination or
source IP address).
Service
This field simplifies bandwidth class configuration by allowing you to select a
predefined application. When you select a predefined application, you do not
configure the rest of the bandwidth filter fields (other than enabling or disabling
the filter).
FTP (File Transfer Program) is a program to enable fast transfer of files,
including large files that may not be possible by e-mail. Select FTP from the
drop-down list box to configure the bandwidth filter for TCP packets with a port
21 destination.
H.323 is a protocol used for multimedia communications over networks, for
example NetMeeting. Select H.323 from the drop-down list box to configure the
bandwidth filter for TCP packets with a port 1720 destination.
Note: If you select H.323, make sure you also use the ALG
screen to turn on the H.323 ALG.
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) is a signaling protocol used in Internet
telephony, instant messaging, events notification and conferencing. The LANCell supports SIP traffic pass-through. Select SIP from the drop-down list box
to configure this bandwidth filter for UDP packets with a port 5060 destination.
This option makes it easier to manage bandwidth for SIP traffic and is useful
for example when there is a VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) device on your
LAN.
Note: If you select SIP, make sure you also use the ALG screen
to turn on the SIP ALG.
Select Custom from the drop-down list box if you do not want to use a
predefined application for the bandwidth class. When you select Custom, you
need to configure at least one of the following fields (other than the Subnet
Mask fields which you only enter if you also enter a corresponding destination
or source IP address).
Destination Address
Type
Do you want your rule to apply to packets coming going to a particular (single)
IP, a range of IP addresses (for example 192.168.1.10 to 192.169.1.50) or a
subnet? Select Single Address, Range Address or Subnet Address.
Destination IP
Address
Enter the single IP address or the starting IP address in a range here.
Destination End
Address / Subnet
Mask
If you are configuring a range of IP addresses, enter the ending IP address
here. If you are configuring a subnet of addresses, enter the subnet mask here.
Refer to Appendix C on page 605 for more information on IP subnetting.
Destination Port
Enter the starting and ending destination port numbers. Enter the same port
number in both fields to specify a single port number. See Appendix D on page
613 for a table of services and port numbers.
Source Address Type Do you want your rule to apply to packets coming from a particular (single) IP,
a range of IP addresses (for example 192.168.1.10 to 192.169.1.50) or a
subnet? Select Single Address, Range Address or Subnet Address.
Source IP Address
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Table 138 ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Class Setup > Add Sub-Class (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Source End Address
/ Subnet Mask
If you are configuring a range of IP addresses, enter the ending IP address
here. If you are configuring a subnet of addresses, enter the subnet mask here.
Refer to Appendix C on page 605 for more information on IP subnetting.
Source Port
Enter the starting and ending destination port numbers. Enter the same port
number in both fields to specify a single port number. See Appendix D on page
613 for a table of services and port numbers.
Protocol ID
Enter the protocol ID (service type) number, for example: 1 for ICMP, 6 for TCP
or 17 for UDP.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
Table 139 Services and Port Numbers
SERVICES
PORT NUMBER
ECHO
7
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
21
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
25
DNS (Domain Name System)
53
Finger
79
HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer protocol or WWW, Web)
80
POP3 (Post Office Protocol)
110
NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol)
119
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
161
SNMP trap
162
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
1723
18.3.1.1 Bandwidth Borrowing Example
Here is an example of bandwidth management with classes configured for bandwidth
borrowing. The classes are set up based on departments and individuals within certain
departments.
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Refer to the product specifications in the appendix to see how many class levels you can
configure on your LAN-Cell.
Table 140 Bandwidth Borrowing Example
BANDWIDTH CLASSES AND BANDWIDTH BORROWING SETTINGS
Root Class:
Administration: Borrowing
Enabled
Sales: Borrowing Disabled
Sales USA: Borrowing
Enabled
Bill: Borrowing Enabled
Sales Asia: Borrowing
Disabled
Tina: Borrowing Enabled
Amy: Borrowing Disabled
Fred: Borrowing Disabled
Marketing: Borrowing
Enabled
Research: Borrowing
Enabled
Software: Borrowing
Enabled
Hardware: Borrowing
Enabled
• The Bill class can borrow unused bandwidth from the Sales USA class because the Bill
class has bandwidth borrowing enabled.
• The Bill class can also borrow unused bandwidth from the Sales class because the Sales
USA class also has bandwidth borrowing enabled.
• The Bill class cannot borrow unused bandwidth from the Root class because the Sales
class has bandwidth borrowing disabled.
• The Amy class cannot borrow unused bandwidth from the Sales USA class because the
Amy class has bandwidth borrowing disabled.
• The Research Software and Hardware classes can both borrow unused bandwidth from the
Research class because the Research Software and Hardware classes both have bandwidth
borrowing enabled.
• The Research Software and Hardware classes can also borrow unused bandwidth from the
Root class because the Research class also has bandwidth borrowing enabled.
18.3.2 Bandwidth Management Statistics
Screen
Click ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Class Setup > Statistics to open the Bandwidth
Management Statistics screen. This screen displays the selected bandwidth class’s bandwidth
usage and allotments.
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Figure 220 ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Class Setup > Statistics
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 141 ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Class Setup > Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Class Name
This field displays the name of the class the statistics page is showing.
Budget (kbps)
This field displays the amount of bandwidth allocated to the class.
Tx Packets
This field displays the total number of packets transmitted.
Tx Bytes
This field displays the total number of bytes transmitted.
Dropped
Packets
This field displays the total number of packets dropped.
Dropped Bytes
This field displays the total number of bytes dropped.
Bandwidth Statistics for the Past 8 Seconds (t-8 to t-1)
This field displays the bandwidth statistics (in bps) for the past one to eight seconds. For example, t-1
means one second ago.
Automatic
Refresh Interval
Select a number of seconds or None from the drop-down list box to update all
screen statistics automatically at the end of every time interval or to not update the
screen statistics.
Refresh
Click this button to update the screen’s statistics immediately.
Clear Counter
Click Clear Counter to clear all of the bandwidth management statistics.
18.4 Bandwidth Manager Monitor
Click ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Monitor to open the following screen. Use this screen
to view the device’s bandwidth usage and allotments.
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Figure 221 ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Monitor
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 142 ADVANCED > BW MGMT > Monitor
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select an interface from the drop-down list box to view the bandwidth usage
of its bandwidth classes.
Class
This field displays the name of the bandwidth class.
A Default Class automatically displays for all the bandwidth in the Root
Class that is not allocated to bandwidth classes. If you do not enable
maximize bandwidth usage on an interface, the LAN-Cell uses the bandwidth
in this default class to send traffic that does not match any of the bandwidth
classes.A
Budget (kbps)
This field displays the amount of bandwidth allocated to the bandwidth class.
Current Usage (kbps)
This field displays the amount of bandwidth that each bandwidth class is
using.
Refresh
Click Refresh to update the page.
A. If you allocate all the root class’s bandwidth to the bandwidth classes, the default class still displays a budget of 2
kbps (the minimum amount of bandwidth that can be assigned to a bandwidth class).
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19
ALG Screens
19.1 Overview
This chapter covers how to use the LAN-Cell’s ALG feature to allow certain applications to
pass through the LAN-Cell.
An Application Layer Gateway (ALG) manages a specific protocol (such as SIP, H.323 or
FTP) at the application layer. The LAN-Cell can function as an ALG to allow certain NAT unfriendly applications (such as SIP) to operate properly through the LAN-Cell.
Some applications cannot operate through NAT (are NAT un-friendly) because they embed IP
addresses and port numbers in their packets’ data payload. The LAN-Cell examines and uses
IP address and port number information embedded in the data stream. When a device behind
the LAN-Cell uses an application for which the LAN-Cell has ALG service enabled, the LANCell translates the device’s private IP address inside the data stream to a public IP address. It
also records session port numbers and dynamically creates implicit NAT port forwarding and
firewall rules for the application’s traffic to come in from the WAN to the LAN.
To configure the ALG screen proceed to Section 19.2 on page 369.
19.1.1 What You Need to Know About ALG
ALG and NAT
The LAN-Cell dynamically creates an implicit NAT session for the application’s traffic from
the WAN to the LAN.
The ALG on the LAN-Cell supports all NAT mapping types, including One to One, Many to
One, Many to Many Overload and Many One to One.
ALG and the Firewall
The LAN-Cell uses the dynamic port that the session uses for data transfer in creating an
implicit temporary firewall rule for the session’s traffic. The firewall rule only allows the
session’s traffic to go through in the direction that the LAN-Cell determines from its
inspection of the data payload of the application’s packets. The firewall rule is automatically
deleted after the application’s traffic has gone through.
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ALG and Multiple WAN
When the LAN-Cell has two WAN interfaces and uses the second highest priority WAN
interfaces as a back up, traffic cannot pass through when the primary WAN connection fails.
The LAN-Cell does not automatically change the connection to the secondary WAN
interfaces.
If the primary WAN connection fails, the client needs to re-initialize the connection through
the secondary WAN interfaces to have the connection go through the secondary WAN
interfaces.
When the LAN-Cell uses both of the WAN interfaces at the same time, you can configure
routing policies to specify the WAN interfaces that the connection’s traffic is to use.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is an Internet file transfer service that operates on the Internet and
over TCP/IP networks. A system running the FTP server accepts commands from a system
running an FTP client. The service allows users to send commands to the server for uploading
and downloading files. The FTP ALG allows TCP packets with a port 21 destination to pass
through. If the FTP server is located on the LAN, you must also configure NAT port
forwarding and firewall rules if you want to allow access to the server from the WAN.
H.323
H.323 is a standard teleconferencing protocol suite that provides audio, data and video
conferencing. It allows for real-time point-to-point and multipoint communication between
client computers over a packet-based network that does not provide a guaranteed quality of
service. NetMeeting uses H.323.
RTP
When you make a VoIP call using H.323 or SIP, the RTP (Real time Transport Protocol) is
used to handle voice data transfer. See RFC 1889 for details on RTP.
H.323 ALG Details
• The H.323 ALG supports peer-to-peer H.323 calls.
• The H.323 ALG handles H.323 calls that go through NAT or that the LAN-Cell routes.
You can also make other H.323 calls that do not go through NAT or routing. Examples
would be calls between LAN IP addresses that are on the same subnet.
• The H.323 ALG allows calls to go out through NAT. For example, you could make a call
from a private IP address on the LAN to a peer device on the WAN.
• You must configure the firewall and port forwarding to allow incoming (peer-to-peer)
calls from the WAN to a private IP address on the LAN, DMZ or WLAN. The following
example shows H.323 signaling (1) and audio (2) sessions between H.323 devices A and
B.
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Figure 222 H.323 ALG Example
• With multiple WAN IP addresses on the LAN-Cell, you can configure different firewall
and port forwarding rules to allow incoming calls from each WAN IP address to go to a
specific IP address on the LAN, DMZ or WLAN. Use policy routing to have the H.323
calls from each of those LAN, DMZ or WLAN IP addresses go out through the same
WAN IP address that calls come in on. The policy routing lets the LAN-Cell correctly
forward the return traffic for the calls initiated from the LAN IP addresses.
For example, you configure firewall and port forwarding rules to allow LAN IP address A
to receive calls through public WAN IP address 1. You configure different firewall and
port forwarding rules to allow LAN IP address B to receive calls through public WAN IP
address 2. You configure corresponding policy routes to have calls from LAN IP address
A go out through WAN IP address 1 and calls from LAN IP address B go out through
WAN IP address 2.
Figure 223 H.323 with Multiple WAN IP Addresses
• When you configure the firewall and port forwarding to allow calls from the WAN to a
specific IP address on the LAN, you can also use policy routing to have H.323 calls from
other LAN, DMZ or WLAN IP addresses go out through a different WAN IP address. The
policy routing lets the LAN-Cell correctly forward the return traffic for the calls initiated
from the LAN, DMZ or WLAN IP addresses.
For example, you configure the firewall and port forwarding to allow LAN IP address A to
receive calls from the Internet through WAN IP address 1. You also use a policy route to
have LAN IP address A make calls out through WAN IP address 1. Configure another
policy route to have H.323 calls from LAN IP addresses B and C go out through WAN IP
address 2. Even though only LAN IP address A can receive incoming calls from the
Internet, LAN IP addresses B and C can still make calls out to the Internet.
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Figure 224 H.323 Calls from the WAN with Multiple Outgoing Calls
• The H.323 ALG operates on TCP packets with a port 1720 destination.
• The LAN-Cell allows H.323 audio connections.
• The LAN-Cell can also apply bandwidth management to traffic that goes through the
H.323 ALG.
SIP
The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control (signaling) protocol that
handles the setting up, altering and tearing down of voice and multimedia sessions over the
Internet. SIP is used in VoIP (Voice over IP), the sending of voice signals over the Internet
Protocol.
SIP signaling is separate from the media for which it handles sessions. The media that is
exchanged during the session can use a different path from that of the signaling. SIP handles
telephone calls and can interface with traditional circuit-switched telephone networks.
STUN
STUN (Simple Traversal of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) through Network Address
Translators) allows the VoIP device to find the presence and types of NAT routers and/or
firewalls between it and the public Internet. STUN also allows the VoIP device to find the
public IP address that NAT assigned, so the VoIP device can embed it in the SIP data stream.
See RFC 3489 for details on STUN. You do not need to use STUN for devices behind the
LAN-Cell if you enable the SIP ALG.
SIP ALG Details
• SIP clients can be connected to the LAN, WLAN or DMZ. A SIP server must be on the
WAN.
• You can make and receive calls between the LAN and the WAN, between the WLAN and
the WAN and/or between the DMZ and the WAN. You cannot make a call between the
LAN and the LAN, between the LAN and the DMZ, between the LAN and the WLAN,
between the DMZ and the DMZ, and so on.
• The SIP ALG allows UDP packets with a port 5060 destination to pass through.
• The LAN-Cell allows SIP audio connections.
The following example shows SIP signaling (1) and audio (2) sessions between SIP clients A
and B and the SIP server.
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Figure 225 SIP ALG Example
SIP Signaling Session Timeout
Most SIP clients have an “expire” mechanism indicating the lifetime of signaling sessions.
The SIP user agent sends registration packets to the SIP server periodically and keeps the
session alive in the LAN-Cell.
If the SIP client does not have this mechanism and makes no calls during the LAN-Cell SIP
timeout default (60 minutes), the LAN-Cell SIP ALG drops any incoming calls after the
timeout period.
SIP Audio Session Timeout
If no voice packets go through the SIP ALG before the timeout period (default 5 minutes)
expires, the SIP ALG does not drop the call but blocks all voice traffic and deletes the audio
session. You cannot hear anything and you will need to make a new call to continue your
conversation.
19.2 ALG Screen
Click ADVANCED > ALG to open the ALG screen. Use the ALG screen to turn individual
ALGs off or on and set the SIP timeout.
"
If the LAN-Cell provides an ALG for a service, you must enable the ALG in
order to perform bandwidth management on that service’s traffic.
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Figure 226 ADVANCED > ALG
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 143 ADVANCED > ALG
370
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable FTP
ALG
Select this check box to allow FTP sessions to pass through the LAN-Cell. FTP (File
Transfer Program) is a program that enables fast transfer of files, including large
files that may not be possible by e-mail.
Enable H.323
ALG
Select this check box to allow H.323 sessions to pass through the LAN-Cell. H.323
is a protocol used for audio communications over networks.
Enable SIP
ALG
Select this check box to allow SIP sessions to pass through the LAN-Cell. SIP is a
signaling protocol used in VoIP (Voice over IP), the sending of voice signals over
Internet Protocol.
SIP Timeout
Most SIP clients have an “expire” mechanism indicating the lifetime of signaling
sessions. The SIP user agent sends registration packets to the SIP server
periodically and keeps the session alive in the LAN-Cell.
If the SIP client does not have this mechanism and makes no calls during the LANCell SIP timeout (default 60 minutes), the LAN-Cell SIP ALG drops any incoming
calls after the timeout period. Enter the SIP signaling session timeout value.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER
20
Custom Application Screens
20.1 Overview
Use custom application to have the LAN-Cell’s ALG and content filtering features monitor
traffic on custom ports, in addition to the default ports.
Use the Custom App screen (Section 26.1 on page 471) to configure custom application
settings on the LAN-Cell.
20.1.1 What You Need to Know About Custom Application
Default Ports
By default, these LAN-Cell features monitor traffic for the following protocols on these port
numbers.
• FTP: 21
• SIP: 5060
• H.323: 1720
• SMTP: 25
• POP3: 110
• HTTP: 80
20.2 The Custom Application Screen
Click ADVANCED > Custom APP to open the Custom Application screen.
"
"
This screen only specifies what port numbers the LAN-Cell checks for specific
protocol traffic. Use other screens to enable or disable the monitoring of the
protocol traffic.
Changes in the Custom APP screen do not apply to the firewall.
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Figure 227 ADVANCED > Custom APP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 144 ADVANCED > ALG
372
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Application
Select the application for which you want the LAN-Cell to monitor specific ports. You
can use the same application in more than one entry. To remove an entry, select
Select a Type.
Description
Enter information about the reason for monitoring custom port numbers for this
protocol.
Start Port
Enter the starting port for the range that the LAN-Cell is to monitor for this
application. If you are only entering a single port number, enter it here.
End Port
Enter the ending port for the range that the LAN-Cell is to monitor for this application
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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P ART V
Logs and
Maintenance Menus
Logs Screens (375)
Maintenance Screens (397)
373
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CHAPTER
21
Logs Screens
21.1 Overview
This chapter contains information about configuring general log settings and viewing the
LAN-Cell’s logs. Refer to Section on page 381 for example log message explanations. The
logs cover categories such as system maintenance, system errors, access control, attacks (such
as DoS) and IPSec.
21.1.1 What You Can Do in the Log Screens
• Use the View Log screen (Section 21.2 on page 375) to see the logs for the categories that
you selected in the Log Settings screen.
• Use the Log Settings screen (Section 21.3 on page 377) to configure to where the LANCell is to send logs; the schedule for when the LAN-Cell is to send the logs and which logs
and/or immediate alerts the LAN-Cell is to send.
21.1.2 What You Need To Know About Logs
Alerts and Logs
An alert is a type of log that warrants more serious attention. They include system errors,
attacks (access control) and Cell-Sentry events. Some categories such as System Errors
consist of both logs and alerts. You may differentiate them by their color in the View Log
screen. Alerts display in red and logs display in black.
21.2 View Log Screen
The web configurator allows you to look at all of the LAN-Cell’s logs in one location.
Click LOGS to open the View Log screen. Use the View Log screen to see the logs for the
categories that you selected in the Log Settings screen (see Section 21.3 on page 377).
Options include logs about system maintenance, system errors, access control, attacks (such as
DoS) and IPSec.
When the log is full it will begin to delete older entries as it adds new ones. You can configure
the LAN-Cell to E-mail you the log when it is full in the Log Settings screen. Click a column
heading to sort the entries by the relevant attribute. A triangle indicates ascending or
descending sort order.
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Figure 228 LOGS > View Log
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 145 LOGS > View Log
376
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Display
The categories that you select in the Log Settings page (see Section 21.3 on page
377) display in the drop-down list box.
Select a category of logs to view; select All Logs to view logs from all of the log
categories that you selected in the Log Settings page.
#
This field displays the log number.
Time
This field displays the time the log was recorded. See Section 22.4 on page 399 to
configure the LAN-Cell’s time and date.
Message
This field states the reason for the log.
Source
This field lists the source IP address and the port number of the incoming packet.
Destination
This field lists the destination IP address and the port number of the incoming
packet.
Note
This field displays additional information about the log entry.
Email Log Now
Click Email Log Now to send the log screen to the e-mail address specified in the
Log Settings page (make sure that you have first filled in the E-mail Log Settings
fields in Log Settings, see Section 21.3 on page 377).
Refresh
Click Refresh to renew the log screen.
Clear Log
Click Clear Log to delete all the logs.
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21.2.1 Log Description Example
The following is an example of how a log displays in the command line interpreter and a
description of the sample log. Refer to the appendices for more log message descriptions and
details on using the command line interpreter to display logs.
# .time
notes
source
destination
message
5|06/08/2004 05:58:20 |172.21.4.187:137
|ACCESS BLOCK
|172.21.255.255:137
Firewall default policy: UDP (W to W/LC)
Table 146 Log Description Example
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is log number five.
time
The log was generated on June 8, 2004 at 5:58 and 20 seconds AM.
source
The log was generated due to a NetBIOS packet sent from IP address 172.21.4.187 port
137.
destination The NetBIOS packet was sent to the 172.21.255.255 subnet port 137. This was a
NetBIOS UDP broadcast packet meant to discover devices on the network.
notes
The LAN-Cell blocked the packet.
message
The LAN-Cell blocked the packet in accordance with the firewall’s default policy of
blocking sessions that are initiated from the WAN. “UDP” means that this was a User
Datagram Protocol packet. “W to W/LC” indicates that the packet was traveling from the
WAN to the WAN or the LAN-Cell.
21.3 Log Settings Screen
To change your LAN-Cell’s log settings, click LOGS > Log Settings. The screen appears as
shown.
Use the Log Settings screen to configure to where the LAN-Cell is to send logs; the schedule
for when the LAN-Cell is to send the logs and which logs and/or immediate alerts the LANCell is to send.
"
Alerts are e-mailed as soon as they happen. Logs may be e-mailed as soon as
the log is full (see Log Schedule). Selecting many alert and/or log categories
(especially Access Control) may result in many e-mails being sent.
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"
Alerts can only be sent via SMTP, however, some cellular phone and pager
service providers allow e-mail messages sent to specific addresses to be
redirected as SMS or pager messages to mobile devices. Contact your
service provider for more information.
Figure 229 LOGS > Log Settings
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 147 LOGS > Log Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
E-mail Log Settings
Mail Server
Enter the server name or the IP address of the mail server for the e-mail
addresses specified below. If this field is left blank, logs and alert messages
will not be sent via e-mail.
Mail Subject
Type a title that you want to be in the subject line of the log e-mail message
that the LAN-Cell sends.
Mail Sender
Enter the e-mail address that you want to be in the from/sender line of the log
e-mail message that the LAN-Cell sends. If you activate SMTP authentication,
the e-mail address must be able to be authenticated by the mail server as well.
Send Log To
Logs are sent to the e-mail address specified in this field. If this field is left
blank, logs will not be sent via e-mail.
Send Alerts To
Alerts are sent to the e-mail address specified in this field. If this field is left
blank, alerts will not be sent via e-mail.
Log Schedule
This drop-down menu is used to configure the frequency of log messages
being sent as E-mail:
Daily
Weekly
Hourly
When Log is Full
None.
If you select Weekly or Daily, specify a time of day when the E-mail should be
sent. If you select Weekly, then also specify which day of the week the E-mail
should be sent. If you select When Log is Full, an alert is sent when the log
fills up. If you select None, no log messages are sent.
Day for Sending Log
Use the drop down list box to select which day of the week to send the logs.
Time for Sending Log
Enter the time of the day in 24-hour format (for example 23:00 equals 11:00
pm) to send the logs.
SMTP Authentication
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is the message-exchange standard for
the Internet. SMTP enables you to move messages from one e-mail server to
another.
Select the check box to activate SMTP authentication. If mail server
authentication is needed but this feature is disabled, you will not receive the email logs.
User Name
Enter the user name (up to 63 characters) (usually the user name of a mail
account).
Password
Enter the password associated with the user name above.
Syslog Logging
Syslog allows you to send system logs to a server.
Syslog logging sends a log to an external syslog server.
Active
Click Active to enable syslog logging.
Syslog Server
Enter the server name or IP address of the syslog server that will log the
selected categories of logs.
Log Facility
Select a location from the drop down list box. The log facility allows you to log
the messages to different files in the syslog server. Refer to the documentation
of your syslog program for more details.
Active Log and Alert
Log
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Select the categories of logs that you want to record. Logs include alerts.
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Table 147 LOGS > Log Settings (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Send Immediate Alert
Select the categories of alerts for which you want the LAN-Cell to instantly email alerts to the e-mail address specified in the Send Alerts To field.
Log Consolidation
380
Active
Some logs (such as the Attacks logs) may be so numerous that it becomes
easy to ignore other important log messages. Select this check box to merge
logs with identical messages into one log.
You can use the sys log consolidate msglist command to see what
log messages will be consolidated.
Log Consolidation
Period
Specify the time interval during which the LAN-Cell merges logs with identical
messages into one log.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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21.4 Logs Technical Reference
Log Descriptions
This section provides descriptions of example log messages.
Table 148 System Maintenance Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Time calibration is
successful
The router has adjusted its time based on information from
the time server.
Time calibration failed
The router failed to get information from the time server.
WAN interface gets IP: %s
A WAN interface got a new IP address from the DHCP,
PPPoE, PPTP or dial-up server.
DHCP client IP expired
A DHCP client's IP address has expired.
DHCP server assigns %s
The DHCP server assigned an IP address to a client.
Successful SMT login
Someone has logged on to the router's SMT interface.
SMT login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router's SMT interface.
Successful WEB login
Someone has logged on to the router's web configurator
interface.
WEB login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router's web configurator
interface.
Successful TELNET login
Someone has logged on to the router via telnet.
TELNET login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router via telnet.
Successful FTP login
Someone has logged on to the router via FTP.
FTP login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router via FTP.
NAT Session Table is Full!
The maximum number of NAT session table entries has been
exceeded and the table is full.
Starting Connectivity
Monitor
Starting Connectivity Monitor.
Time initialized by Daytime
Server
The router got the time and date from the Daytime server.
Time initialized by Time
server
The router got the time and date from the time server.
Time initialized by NTP
server
The router got the time and date from the NTP server.
Connect to Daytime server
fail
The router was not able to connect to the Daytime server.
Connect to Time server fail
The router was not able to connect to the Time server.
Connect to NTP server fail
The router was not able to connect to the NTP server.
Too large ICMP packet has
been dropped
The router dropped an ICMP packet that was too large.
SMT Session Begin
An SMT management session has started.
SMT Session End
An SMT management session has ended.
Configuration Change: PC =
0x%x, Task ID = 0x%x
The router is saving configuration changes.
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Table 148 System Maintenance Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Successful SSH login
Someone has logged on to the router’s SSH server.
SSH login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router’s SSH server.
Successful HTTPS login
Someone has logged on to the router's web configurator
interface using HTTPS protocol.
HTTPS login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router's web configurator
interface using HTTPS protocol.
DNS server %s was not
responding to last 32
consecutive queries…
The specified DNS server did not respond to the last 32
consecutive queries.
DDNS update IP:%s (host %d)
successfully
The device updated the IP address of the specified DDNS
host name.
SMTP successfully
The device sent an e-mail.
Table 149 System Error Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
%s exceeds the max.
number of session per
host!
This attempt to create a NAT session exceeds the maximum
number of NAT session table entries allowed to be created per
host.
setNetBIOSFilter: calloc
error
The router failed to allocate memory for the NetBIOS filter
settings.
readNetBIOSFilter: calloc
error
The router failed to allocate memory for the NetBIOS filter
settings.
WAN connection is down.
A WAN connection is down. You cannot access the network
through this interface.
Dial Backup starts
Dial backup started working.
Dial Backup ends
Dial backup stopped working.
DHCP Server cannot assign
the static IP %S (out of
range).
The LAN subnet, LAN alias 1, or LAN alias 2 was changed and
the specified static DHCP IP addresses are no longer valid.
The DHCP static IP %s is
conflict.
The static DHCP IP address conflicts with another host.
SMTP fail (%s)
The device failed to send an e-mail (error message included).
SMTP authentication fail
(%s)
The device failed to authenticate with the SMTP server (error
message included).
Table 150 Access Control Logs
382
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Firewall default policy: [ TCP |
UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
<Packet Direction>
Attempted TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF access
matched the default policy and was blocked or forwarded
according to the default policy’s setting.
Firewall rule [NOT] match:[ TCP
| UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE | OSPF
] <Packet Direction>, <rule:%d>
Attempted TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF access
matched (or did not match) a configured firewall rule
(denoted by its number) and was blocked or forwarded
according to the rule.
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Table 150 Access Control Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Triangle route packet forwarded:
[ TCP | UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE |
OSPF ]
The firewall allowed a triangle route session to pass
through.
Packet without a NAT table entry
blocked: [ TCP | UDP | IGMP |
ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
The router blocked a packet that didn't have a
corresponding NAT table entry.
Router sent blocked web site
message: TCP
The router sent a message to notify a user that the router
blocked access to a web site that the user requested.
Exceed maximum sessions per host
(%d).
The device blocked a session because the host's
connections exceeded the maximum sessions per host.
Firewall allowed a packet that
matched a NAT session: [ TCP |
UDP ]
A packet from the WAN (TCP or UDP) matched a cone
NAT session and the device forwarded it to the LAN.
Table 151 TCP Reset Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Under SYN flood attack,
sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when a host was under a SYN
flood attack (the TCP incomplete count is per destination host.)
Exceed TCP MAX
incomplete, sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when the number of TCP
incomplete connections exceeded the user configured threshold.
(the TCP incomplete count is per destination host.) Note: Refer to
TCP Maximum Incomplete in the Firewall Attack Alerts screen.
Peer TCP state out of
order, sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when a TCP connection state
was out of order.Note: The firewall refers to RFC793 Figure 6 to
check the TCP state.
Firewall session time
out, sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when a dynamic firewall
session timed out.
The default timeout values are as follows:
ICMP idle timeout: 3 minutes
UDP idle timeout: 3 minutes
TCP connection (three way handshaking) timeout: 270 seconds
TCP FIN-wait timeout: 2 MSL (Maximum Segment Lifetime set in
the TCP header).
TCP idle (established) timeout (s): 150 minutes
TCP reset timeout: 10 seconds
Exceed MAX incomplete,
sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when the number of
incomplete connections (TCP and UDP) exceeded the userconfigured threshold. (Incomplete count is for all TCP and UDP
connections through the firewall.)Note: When the number of
incomplete connections (TCP + UDP) > “Maximum Incomplete
High”, the router sends TCP RST packets for TCP connections
and destroys TOS (firewall dynamic sessions) until incomplete
connections < “Maximum Incomplete Low”.
Access block, sent TCP
RST
The router sends a TCP RST packet and generates this log if you
turn on the firewall TCP reset mechanism (via CI command: "sys
firewall tcprst").
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Table 152 Packet Filter Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
[ TCP | UDP | ICMP | IGMP |
Generic ] packet filter
matched (set: %d, rule: %d)
Attempted access matched a configured filter rule (denoted
by its set and rule number) and was blocked or forwarded
according to the rule.
For type and code details, see Table 163 on page 392.
Table 153 ICMP Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Firewall default policy: ICMP
<Packet Direction>, <type:%d>,
<code:%d>
ICMP access matched the default policy and was
blocked or forwarded according to the user's setting.
Firewall rule [NOT] match: ICMP
<Packet Direction>, <rule:%d>,
<type:%d>, <code:%d>
ICMP access matched (or didn’t match) a firewall rule
(denoted by its number) and was blocked or forwarded
according to the rule.
Triangle route packet forwarded:
ICMP
The firewall allowed a triangle route session to pass
through.
Packet without a NAT table entry
blocked: ICMP
The router blocked a packet that didn’t have a
corresponding NAT table entry.
Unsupported/out-of-order ICMP:
ICMP
The firewall does not support this kind of ICMP packets
or the ICMP packets are out of order.
Router reply ICMP packet: ICMP
The router sent an ICMP reply packet to the sender.
Table 154 CDR Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
board %d line %d channel %d,
call %d, %s C01 Outgoing Call
dev=%x ch=%x %s
The router received the setup requirements for a call. “call” is
the reference (count) number of the call. “dev” is the device
type (3 is for dial-up, 6 is for PPPoE, 10 is for PPTP).
"channel" or “ch” is the call channel ID. For example,"board 0
line 0 channel 0, call 3, C01 Outgoing Call dev=6 ch=0
"Means the router has dialed to the PPPoE server 3 times.
board %d line %d channel %d,
call %d, %s C02 OutCall
Connected %d %s
The PPPoE, PPTP or dial-up call is connected.
board %d line %d channel %d,
call %d, %s C02 Call
Terminated
The PPPoE, PPTP or dial-up call was disconnected.
Table 155 PPP Logs
384
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
ppp:LCP Starting
The PPP connection’s Link Control Protocol stage has started.
ppp:LCP Opening
The PPP connection’s Link Control Protocol stage is opening.
ppp:CHAP Opening
The PPP connection’s Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol stage is
opening.
ppp:IPCP
Starting
The PPP connection’s Internet Protocol Control Protocol stage is starting.
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Table 155 PPP Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
ppp:IPCP Opening
The PPP connection’s Internet Protocol Control Protocol stage is opening.
ppp:LCP Closing
The PPP connection’s Link Control Protocol stage is closing.
ppp:IPCP Closing
The PPP connection’s Internet Protocol Control Protocol stage is closing.
Table 156 Attack Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
attack [ TCP | UDP | IGMP
| ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
The firewall detected a TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF attack.
attack ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP attack.
land [ TCP | UDP | IGMP |
ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
The firewall detected a TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF land
attack.
land ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP land attack.
ip spoofing - WAN [ TCP |
UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE |
OSPF ]
The firewall detected an IP spoofing attack on the WAN port.
ip spoofing - WAN ICMP
(type:%d, code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP IP spoofing attack on the WAN
port.
icmp echo : ICMP
(type:%d, code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP echo attack.
syn flood TCP
The firewall detected a TCP syn flood attack.
ports scan TCP
The firewall detected a TCP port scan attack.
teardrop TCP
The firewall detected a TCP teardrop attack.
teardrop UDP
The firewall detected an UDP teardrop attack.
teardrop ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP teardrop attack.
illegal command TCP
The firewall detected a TCP illegal command attack.
NetBIOS TCP
The firewall detected a TCP NetBIOS attack.
ip spoofing - no routing
entry [ TCP | UDP | IGMP
| ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
The firewall classified a packet with no source routing entry as an
IP spoofing attack.
ip spoofing - no routing
entry ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall classified an ICMP packet with no source routing
entry as an IP spoofing attack.
vulnerability ICMP
(type:%d, code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP vulnerability attack.
traceroute ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP traceroute attack.
ports scan UDP
The firewall detected a UDP port scan attack.
Firewall sent TCP packet
in response to DoS attack
TCP
The firewall sent TCP packet in response to a DoS attack
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Table 156 Attack Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
ICMP Source Quench ICMP
The firewall detected an ICMP Source Quench attack.
ICMP Time Exceed ICMP
The firewall detected an ICMP Time Exceed attack.
ICMP Destination
Unreachable ICMP
The firewall detected an ICMP Destination Unreachable attack.
ping of death. ICMP
The firewall detected an ICMP ping of death attack.
smurf ICMP
The firewall detected an ICMP smurf attack.
IP address in FTP port
command is different from
the client IP address. It
maybe a bounce attack.
The IP address in an FTP port command is different from the
client IP address. It may be a bounce attack.
Fragment packet size is
smaller than the MTU size
of output interface.
The fragment packet size is smaller than the MTU size of output
interface.
Table 157 Remote Management Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Remote Management: FTP denied
Attempted use of FTP service was blocked according to
remote management settings.
Remote Management: TELNET denied
Attempted use of TELNET service was blocked
according to remote management settings.
Remote Management: HTTP or UPnP
denied
Attempted use of HTTP or UPnP service was blocked
according to remote management settings.
Remote Management: WWW denied
Attempted use of WWW service was blocked according
to remote management settings.
Remote Management: HTTPS denied
Attempted use of HTTPS service was blocked
according to remote management settings.
Remote Management: SSH denied
Attempted use of SSH service was blocked according to
remote management settings.
Remote Management: ICMP Ping
response denied
Attempted use of ICMP service was blocked according
to remote management settings.
Remote Management: SNMP denied
Attempted use of SNMP service was blocked according
to remote management settings.
Remote Management: DNS denied
Attempted use of DNS service was blocked according
to remote management settings.
Table 158 IPSec Logs
386
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Discard REPLAY packet
The router received and discarded a packet with an incorrect
sequence number.
Inbound packet
authentication failed
The router received a packet that has been altered. A third party
may have altered or tampered with the packet.
Receive IPSec packet,
but no corresponding
tunnel exists
The router dropped an inbound packet for which SPI could not find a
corresponding phase 2 SA.
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Table 158 IPSec Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Rule <%d> idle time
out, disconnect
The router dropped a connection that had outbound traffic and no
inbound traffic for a certain time period. You can use the "ipsec timer
chk_conn" CI command to set the time period. The default value is 2
minutes.
WAN IP changed to <IP>
The router dropped all connections with the “MyIP” configured as
“0.0.0.0” when the WAN IP address changed.
Inbound packet
decryption failed
Please check the algorithm configuration.
Cannot find outbound SA
for rule <%d>
A packet matches a rule, but there is no phase 2 SA for outbound
traffic.
Rule [%s] sends an echo
request to peer
The device sent a ping packet to check the specified VPN tunnel's
connectivity.
Rule [%s] receives an
echo reply from peer
The device received a ping response when checking the specified
VPN tunnel's connectivity.
Table 159 IKE Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Active connection allowed
exceeded
The IKE process for a new connection failed because the limit
of simultaneous phase 2 SAs has been reached.
Start Phase 2: Quick Mode
Phase 2 Quick Mode has started.
Verifying Remote ID failed:
The connection failed during IKE phase 2 because the router
and the peer’s Local/Remote Addresses don’t match.
Verifying Local ID failed:
The connection failed during IKE phase 2 because the router
and the peer’s Local/Remote Addresses don’t match.
IKE Packet Retransmit
The router retransmitted the last packet sent because there
was no response from the peer.
Failed to send IKE Packet
An Ethernet error stopped the router from sending IKE
packets.
Too many errors! Deleting SA
An SA was deleted because there were too many errors.
Phase 1 IKE SA process done
The phase 1 IKE SA process has been completed.
Duplicate requests with the
same cookie
The router received multiple requests from the same peer
while still processing the first IKE packet from the peer.
IKE Negotiation is in
process
The router has already started negotiating with the peer for
the connection, but the IKE process has not finished yet.
No proposal chosen
Phase 1 or phase 2 parameters don’t match. Please check all
protocols / settings. Ex. One device being configured for
3DES and the other being configured for DES causes the
connection to fail.
Local / remote IPs of
incoming request conflict
with rule <%d>
The security gateway is set to “0.0.0.0” and the router used
the peer’s “Local Address” as the router’s “Remote Address”.
This information conflicted with static rule #d; thus the
connection is not allowed.
Cannot resolve Secure
Gateway Addr for rule <%d>
The router couldn’t resolve the IP address from the domain
name that was used for the secure gateway address.
Peer ID: <peer id> <My remote
type> -<My local type>
The displayed ID information did not match between the two
ends of the connection.
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Table 159 IKE Logs (continued)
388
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
vs. My Remote <My remote> <My remote>
The displayed ID information did not match between the two
ends of the connection.
vs. My Local <My local>-<My
local>
The displayed ID information did not match between the two
ends of the connection.
Send <packet>
A packet was sent.
Recv <packet>
IKE uses ISAKMP to transmit data. Each ISAKMP packet
contains many different types of payloads. All of them show in
the LOG. Refer to RFC2408 – ISAKMP for a list of all
ISAKMP payload types.
Recv <Main or Aggressive>
Mode request from <IP>
The router received an IKE negotiation request from the peer
address specified.
Send <Main or Aggressive>
Mode request to <IP>
The router started negotiation with the peer.
Invalid IP <Peer local> /
<Peer local>
The peer’s “Local IP Address” is invalid.
Remote IP <Remote IP> /
<Remote IP> conflicts
The security gateway is set to “0.0.0.0” and the router used
the peer’s “Local Address” as the router’s “Remote Address”.
This information conflicted with static rule #d; thus the
connection is not allowed.
Phase 1 ID type mismatch
This router’s "Peer ID Type" is different from the peer IPSec
router's "Local ID Type".
Phase 1 ID content mismatch
This router’s "Peer ID Content" is different from the peer
IPSec router's "Local ID Content".
No known phase 1 ID type
found
The router could not find a known phase 1 ID in the
connection attempt.
ID type mismatch. Local /
Peer: <Local ID type/Peer ID
type>
The phase 1 ID types do not match.
ID content mismatch
The phase 1 ID contents do not match.
Configured Peer ID Content:
<Configured Peer ID Content>
The phase 1 ID contents do not match and the configured
"Peer ID Content" is displayed.
Incoming ID Content:
<Incoming Peer ID Content>
The phase 1 ID contents do not match and the incoming
packet's ID content is displayed.
Unsupported local ID Type:
<%d>
The phase 1 ID type is not supported by the router.
Build Phase 1 ID
The router has started to build the phase 1 ID.
Adjust TCP MSS to %d
The router automatically changed the TCP Maximum
Segment Size value after establishing a tunnel.
Rule <%d> input idle time
out, disconnect
The tunnel for the listed rule was dropped because there was
no inbound traffic within the idle timeout period.
XAUTH succeed! Username:
<Username>
The router used extended authentication to authenticate the
listed username.
XAUTH fail! Username:
<Username>
The router was not able to use extended authentication to
authenticate the listed username.
Rule[%d] Phase 1 negotiation
mode mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 negotiation mode did not match
between the router and the peer.
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Table 159 IKE Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Rule [%d] Phase 1 encryption
algorithm mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 encryption algorithm did not
match between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 1
authentication algorithm
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 authentication algorithm did not
match between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 1
authentication method
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 authentication method did not
match between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 1 key group
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 key group did not match
between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 2 protocol
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 2 protocol did not match between
the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 2 encryption
algorithm mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 2 encryption algorithm did not
match between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 2
authentication algorithm
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 2 authentication algorithm did not
match between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 2
encapsulation mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 2 encapsulation did not match
between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d]> Phase 2 pfs
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 2 perfect forward secret (PFS)
setting did not match between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 1 ID mismatch The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 ID did not match between the
router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 1 hash
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 hash did not match between the
router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 1 preshared
key mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 pre-shared key did not match
between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Tunnel built
successfully
The listed rule’s IPSec tunnel has been built successfully.
Rule [%d] Peer's public key
not found
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 peer’s public key was not found.
Rule [%d] Verify peer's
signature failed
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1verification of the peer’s
signature failed.
Rule [%d] Sending IKE
request
IKE sent an IKE request for the listed rule.
Rule [%d] Receiving IKE
request
IKE received an IKE request for the listed rule.
Swap rule to rule [%d]
The router changed to using the listed rule.
Rule [%d] Phase 1 key length
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 key length (with the AES
encryption algorithm) did not match between the router and
the peer.
Rule [%d] phase 1 mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 did not match between the
router and the peer.
Rule [%d] phase 2 mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 2 did not match between the
router and the peer.
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Table 159 IKE Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Rule [%d] Phase 2 key length
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 2 key lengths (with the AES
encryption algorithm) did not match between the router and
the peer.
Remote Gateway Addr in rule
[%s] is changed to %s"
The IP address for the domain name of the peer gateway in
the listed rule changed to the listed IP address.
New My LAN-Cell Addr in rule
[%s] is changed to %s
The IP address for the domain name of the LAN-Cell in the
listed rule changed to the listed IP address.
Remote Gateway Addr has
changed, tunnel [%s] will be
deleted
The listed tunnel will be deleted because the remote
gateway’s IP address changed.
My LAN-Cell Addr has
changed, tunnel [%s] will be
deleted
The listed tunnel will be deleted because the LAN-Cell’s IP
address changed.
Table 160 PKI Logs
390
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Enrollment successful
The SCEP online certificate enrollment was successful. The
Destination field records the certification authority server IP address
and port.
Enrollment failed
The SCEP online certificate enrollment failed. The Destination field
records the certification authority server’s IP address and port.
Failed to resolve
<SCEP CA server url>
The SCEP online certificate enrollment failed because the certification
authority server’s address cannot be resolved.
Enrollment successful
The CMP online certificate enrollment was successful. The Destination
field records the certification authority server’s IP address and port.
Enrollment failed
The CMP online certificate enrollment failed. The Destination field
records the certification authority server’s IP address and port.
Failed to resolve <CMP
CA server url>
The CMP online certificate enrollment failed because the certification
authority server’s IP address cannot be resolved.
Rcvd ca cert: <subject
name>
The router received a certification authority certificate, with subject
name as recorded, from the LDAP server whose IP address and port
are recorded in the Source field.
Rcvd user cert:
<subject name>
The router received a user certificate, with subject name as recorded,
from the LDAP server whose IP address and port are recorded in the
Source field.
Rcvd CRL <size>:
<issuer name>
The router received a CRL (Certificate Revocation List), with size and
issuer name as recorded, from the LDAP server whose IP address and
port are recorded in the Source field.
Rcvd ARL <size>:
<issuer name>
The router received an ARL (Authority Revocation List), with size and
issuer name as recorded, from the LDAP server whose address and
port are recorded in the Source field.
Failed to decode the
received ca cert
The router received a corrupted certification authority certificate from
the LDAP server whose address and port are recorded in the Source
field.
Failed to decode the
received user cert
The router received a corrupted user certificate from the LDAP server
whose address and port are recorded in the Source field.
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Table 160 PKI Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Failed to decode the
received CRL
The router received a corrupted CRL (Certificate Revocation List) from
the LDAP server whose address and port are recorded in the Source
field.
Failed to decode the
received ARL
The router received a corrupted ARL (Authority Revocation List) from
the LDAP server whose address and port are recorded in the Source
field.
Rcvd data <size> too
large! Max size
allowed: <max size>
The router received directory data that was too large (the size is listed)
from the LDAP server whose address and port are recorded in the
Source field. The maximum size of directory data that the router allows
is also recorded.
Cert trusted: <subject
name>
The router has verified the path of the certificate with the listed subject
name.
Due to <reason codes>,
cert not trusted:
<subject name>
Due to the reasons listed, the certificate with the listed subject name
has not passed the path verification. The recorded reason codes are
only approximate reasons for not trusting the certificate. Please see
Table 161 on page 391 for the corresponding descriptions of the
codes.
Table 161 Certificate Path Verification Failure Reason Codes
CODE
DESCRIPTION
1
Algorithm mismatch between the certificate and the search constraints.
2
Key usage mismatch between the certificate and the search constraints.
3
Certificate was not valid in the time interval.
4
(Not used)
5
Certificate is not valid.
6
Certificate signature was not verified correctly.
7
Certificate was revoked by a CRL.
8
Certificate was not added to the cache.
9
Certificate decoding failed.
10
Certificate was not found (anywhere).
11
Certificate chain looped (did not find trusted root).
12
Certificate contains critical extension that was not handled.
13
Certificate issuer was not valid (CA specific information missing).
14
(Not used)
15
CRL is too old.
16
CRL is not valid.
17
CRL signature was not verified correctly.
18
CRL was not found (anywhere).
19
CRL was not added to the cache.
20
CRL decoding failed.
21
CRL is not currently valid, but in the future.
22
CRL contains duplicate serial numbers.
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Table 161 Certificate Path Verification Failure Reason Codes
CODE
DESCRIPTION
23
Time interval is not continuous.
24
Time information not available.
25
Database method failed due to timeout.
26
Database method failed.
27
Path was not verified.
28
Maximum path length reached.
Table 162 ACL Setting Notes
PACKET DIRECTION
DIRECTION
DESCRIPTION
(L to W)
LAN to WAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the LAN to the WAN.
(W to L)
WAN to LAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the WAN to the LAN.
(D to L)
DMZ to LAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the DMZ to the LAN.
(D to W)
DMZ to WAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the DMZ to the WAN.
(W to D)
WAN to DMZ
ACL set for packets traveling from the WAN to the DMZ.
(L to D)
LAN to DMZ
ACL set for packets traveling from the LAN to the DMZ.
(L to L/LC)
LAN to LAN/LANCell
ACL set for packets traveling from the LAN to the LAN or
the LAN-Cell.
(W to W/LC)
WAN to WAN/
LAN-Cell
ACL set for packets traveling from the WAN to the WAN
or the LAN-Cell.
(D to D/LC)
DMZ to DMZ/
LAN-Cell
ACL set for packets traveling from the DMZ to the DM or
the LAN-Cell.
(L to WL)
LAN to WLAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the LAN to the WLAN.
(WL to L)
WLAN to LAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the WLAN to the LAN.
(W to WL)
WAN to WLAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the WAN to the
WLAN.
(WL to W)
WLAN to WAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the WLAN to the
WAN.
(D to WL)
DMZ to WLAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the DMZ to the WLAN.
(WL to D)
WLAN to DMZ
ACL set for packets traveling from the WLAN to the DMZ.
(WL to WL)
WLAN to WLAN/
LAN-Cell
ACL set for packets traveling from the WLAN to the
WLAN or the LAN-Cell.
Table 163 ICMP Notes
TYPE
CODE
0
Echo reply message
Destination Unreachable
3
392
DESCRIPTION
Echo Reply
0
0
Net unreachable
1
Host unreachable
2
Protocol unreachable
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Table 163 ICMP Notes (continued)
TYPE
CODE
DESCRIPTION
3
Port unreachable
4
A packet that needed fragmentation was dropped because it was set to Don't
Fragment (DF)
5
Source route failed
Source Quench
4
0
A gateway may discard internet datagrams if it does not have the buffer space
needed to queue the datagrams for output to the next network on the route to
the destination network.
Redirect
5
0
Redirect datagrams for the Network
1
Redirect datagrams for the Host
2
Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Network
3
Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Host
Echo
8
0
Echo message
Time Exceeded
11
0
Time to live exceeded in transit
1
Fragment reassembly time exceeded
Parameter Problem
12
0
Pointer indicates the error
Timestamp
13
0
Timestamp request message
Timestamp Reply
14
0
Timestamp reply message
Information Request
15
0
Information request message
Information Reply
16
0
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Syslog Logs
There are two types of syslog: event logs and traffic logs. The device generates an event log
when a system event occurs, for example, when a user logs in or the device is under attack.
The device generates a traffic log when a "session" is terminated. A traffic log summarizes the
session's type, when it started and stopped the amount of traffic that was sent and received and
so on. An external log analyzer can reconstruct and analyze the traffic flowing through the
device after collecting the traffic logs.
Table 164 Syslog Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Event Log: <Facility*8 +
Severity>Mon dd hr:mm:ss
hostname src="<srcIP:srcPort>"
dst="<dstIP:dstPort>"
msg="<msg>" note="<note>"
devID="<mac address>"
cat="<category>"
This message is sent by the system ("LAN-Cell" displays as
the system name if you haven’t configured one) when the
router generates a syslog. The facility is defined in the web
MAIN MENU, LOGS, Log Settings page. The severity is
the log’s syslog class. The definition of messages and
notes are defined in the other log tables. The “devID” is the
MAC address of the router’s LAN port. The “cat” is the
same as the category in the router’s logs.
Traffic Log: <Facility*8 +
Severity>Mon dd hr:mm:ss
hostname src="<srcIP:srcPort>"
dst="<dstIP:dstPort>"
msg="Traffic Log"
note="Traffic Log" devID="<mac
address>" cat="Traffic Log"
duration=seconds
sent=sentBytes
rcvd=receiveBytes
dir="<from:to>"
protoID=IPProtocolID
proto="serviceName"
trans="IPSec/Normal"
This message is sent by the device when the connection
(session) is closed. The facility is defined in the Log
Settings screen. The severity is the traffic log type. The
message and note always display "Traffic Log". The "proto"
field lists the service name. The "dir" field lists the incoming
and outgoing interfaces ("LAN:LAN", "LAN:WAN",
"LAN:DMZ" for example).
The following table shows RFC-2408 ISAKMP payload types that the log displays. Please
refer to the RFC for detailed information on each type.
Table 165 RFC-2408 ISAKMP Payload Types
394
LOG DISPLAY
PAYLOAD TYPE
SA
Security Association
PROP
Proposal
TRANS
Transform
KE
Key Exchange
ID
Identification
CER
Certificate
CER_REQ
Certificate Request
HASH
Hash
SIG
Signature
NONCE
Nonce
NOTFY
Notification
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Table 165 RFC-2408 ISAKMP Payload Types (continued)
LOG DISPLAY
PAYLOAD TYPE
DEL
Delete
VID
Vendor ID
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CHAPTER
22
Maintenance Screens
22.1 Overview
This chapter displays information on the maintenance screens. The maintenance screens can
help you view system information, upload new firmware, manage configuration and restart
your LAN-Cell.
22.1.1 What You Can Do in the Maintenance Screens
• Use the General Setup screen (Section 22.2 on page 397) to configure administrative and
system-related information.
• Use the Password screen (Section 22.3 on page 398) to change the LAN-Cell’s
management password.
• Use the Time and Date screen (Section 22.4 on page 399) to configure the LAN-Cell’s
time based on your local time zone.
• Use the F/W Upload screen (Section 22.5 on page 403) to upgrade the LAN-Cell’s
firmware.
• Use the Backup and Restore screen (Section 22.6 on page 405) to backup and restore the
LAN-Cell configuration file and to reset the device to factory settings.
• Use the Restart screen (Section 22.7 on page 407) to reboot the LAN-Cell device.
• Use the Diagnostics screen (Section 22.8 on page 408) to have the LAN-Cell generate and
send diagnostic files by e-mail and/or the console port.
22.2 General Setup Screen
General Setup contains administrative and system-related information. System Name is for
identification purposes. However, because some ISPs check this name you should enter your
computer's "Computer Name".
• In Windows 95/98 click Start, Settings, Control Panel, Network. Click the
Identification tab, note the entry for the Computer Name field and enter it as the System
Name.
• In Windows 2000, click Start, Settings, Control Panel and then double-click System.
Click the Network Identification tab and then the Properties button. Note the entry for
the Computer name field and enter it as the System Name.
• In Windows XP, click Start, My Computer, View system information and then click
the Computer Name tab. Note the entry in the Full computer name field and enter it as
the LAN-Cell System Name.
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Click MAINTENANCE to open the General screen. Use this screen to configure
administrative and system-related information.
Figure 230 MAINTENANCE > General Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 166 MAINTENANCE > General Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General Setup
System Name
Choose a descriptive name for identification purposes. It is recommended you enter
your computer’s “Computer name” in this field. This name can be up to 30
alphanumeric characters long. Spaces are not allowed, but dashes “-” and
underscores "_" are accepted.
Domain Name
The Domain Name entry is what is propagated to the DHCP clients on the LAN. If
you leave this blank, the domain name obtained by DHCP from the ISP is used.
While you must enter the host name (System Name), the domain name can be
assigned from the LAN-Cell via DHCP.
Enter the domain name (if you know it) here. If you leave this field blank, the ISP
may assign a domain name via DHCP.
The domain name entered by you is given priority over the ISP assigned domain
name.
Administrator
Inactivity Timer
Type how many minutes a management session (either via the web configurator or
SMT) can be left idle before the session times out. The default is 5 minutes. After it
times out you have to log in with your password again. Very long idle timeouts may
have security risks. A value of "0" means a management session never times out,
no matter how long it has been left idle (not recommended).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
22.3 Password Screen
Click MAINTENANCE > Password to open the following screen. Use this screen to change
the LAN-Cell’s management password.
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Figure 231 MAINTENANCE > Password
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 167 MAINTENANCE > Password
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Old Password
Type the default password or the existing password you use to access the system
in this field. If you forget the password, you may have to use the hardware RESET
button. This restores the default password of 1234.
New Password
Type your new system password (up to 30 characters). Note that as you type a
password, the screen displays a (*) for each character you type.
Retype to Confirm
Type the new password again for confirmation.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
22.4 Time and Date Screen
The LAN-Cell’s Real Time Chip (RTC) keeps track of the time and date. There is also a
software mechanism to set the time manually or get the current time and date from an external
server when you turn on your LAN-Cell.
Pre-defined NTP Time Server Pools
When you turn on the LAN-Cell for the first time, the date and time start at 2000-01-01
00:00:00. The LAN-Cell then attempts to synchronize with an NTP time server from one of
the 0.pool.ntp.org, 1.pool.ntp.org or 2.pool.ntp.org NTP time server pools. These are virtual
clusters of time servers that use a round robin method to provide different NTP servers to
clients.
The LAN-Cell continues to use the NTP time server pools if you do not specify a time server
or it cannot synchronize with the time server you specified.
"
The LAN-Cell can use the NTP time server pools regardless of the time
protocol you select.
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When the LAN-Cell uses the NTP time server pools, it randomly selects one pool and tries to
synchronize with a server in it. If the synchronization fails, then the LAN-Cell goes through
the rest of the list in order from the first one tried until either it is successful or all the predefined NTP time server pools have been tried.
Resetting the Time
The LAN-Cell resets the time in the following instances:
•
•
•
•
When you click Synchronize Now.
On saving your changes.
When the LAN-Cell starts up.
24-hour intervals after starting.
To change your LAN-Cell’s time and date, click MAINTENANCE > Time and Date. The
screen appears as shown. Use this screen to configure the LAN-Cell’s time based on your local
time zone.
Figure 232 MAINTENANCE > Time and Date
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 168 MAINTENANCE > Time and Date
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current Time and Date
Current Time
400
This field displays the LAN-Cell’s present time.
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Table 168 MAINTENANCE > Time and Date (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current Date
This field displays the LAN-Cell’s present date.
Time and Date Setup
Manual
Select this radio button to enter the time and date manually. If you configure a
new time and date, Time Zone and Daylight Saving at the same time, the new
time and date you entered has priority and the Time Zone and Daylight Saving
settings do not affect it.
New Time
(hh:mm:ss)
This field displays the last updated time from the time server or the last time
configured manually.
When you set Time and Date Setup to Manual, enter the new time in this field
and then click Apply.
New Date
(yyyy-mm-dd)
This field displays the last updated date from the time server or the last date
configured manually.
When you set Time and Date Setup to Manual, enter the new date in this field
and then click Apply.
Get from Time
Server
Select this radio button to have the LAN-Cell get the time and date from the time
server you specified below.
Time Protocol
Select the time service protocol that your time server uses. Not all time servers
support all protocols, so you may have to check with your ISP/network
administrator or use trial and error to find a protocol that works.
The main difference between them is the format.
Daytime (RFC 867) format is day/month/year/time zone of the server.
Time (RFC 868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of
seconds since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
The default, NTP (RFC 1305), is similar to Time (RFC 868).
Time Server
Address
Enter the IP address or URL of your time server. Check with your ISP/network
administrator if you are unsure of this information.
Synchronize Now
Click this button to have the LAN-Cell get the time and date from a time server
(see the Time Server Address field). This also saves your changes (including
the time server address).
Time Zone Setup
Time Zone
Choose the time zone of your location. This will set the time difference between
your time zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Enable Daylight
Saving
Daylight saving is a period from late spring to early fall when many countries set
their clocks ahead of normal local time by one hour to give more daytime light in
the evening.
Select this option if you use Daylight Saving Time.
Start Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time starts if you selected
Enable Daylight Saving. The o'clock field uses the 24 hour format. Here are a
couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time starts in most parts of the United States on the first Sunday
of April. Each time zone in the United States starts using Daylight Saving Time at
2 A.M. local time. So in the United States you would select Second, Sunday,
March and type 2 in the o'clock field.
Daylight Saving Time starts in the European Union on the last Sunday of March.
All of the time zones in the European Union start using Daylight Saving Time at
the same moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union you would
select Last, Sunday, March. The time you type in the o'clock field depends on
your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would type 2 because Germany's
time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
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Table 168 MAINTENANCE > Time and Date (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
End Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time ends if you selected
Enable Daylight Saving. The o'clock field uses the 24 hour format. Here are a
couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time ends in the United States on the last Sunday of October.
Each time zone in the United States stops using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M.
local time. So in the United States you would select First, Sunday, November
and type 2 in the o'clock field.
Daylight Saving Time ends in the European Union on the last Sunday of
October. All of the time zones in the European Union stop using Daylight Saving
Time at the same moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union you
would select Last, Sunday, October. The time you type in the o'clock field
depends on your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would type 2 because
Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
22.4.1 Time Server Synchronization Example
Click the Synchronize Now button to get the time and date from the predefined time server or
the time server you specified in the Time Server Address field.
When the System Time and Date Synchronization in Process screen appears, wait up to one
minute.
Figure 233 Synchronization in Process
Click the Return button to go back to the Time and Date screen after the time and date is
updated successfully.
Figure 234 Synchronization is Successful
If the update was not successful, the following screen appears. Click Return to go back to the
Time and Date screen.
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Figure 235 Synchronization Fail
22.5 F/W Upload Screen
Find firmware at support.proxicast.com in a file that (usually) uses the firmware version
number as the filename with a .bin extension, for example, "402XF1.bin". The upload process
uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and may take up to two minutes. After a successful
upload, the system will reboot. See Section 38.5 on page 537 for upgrading firmware using
FTP/TFTP commands.
Click MAINTENANCE > F/W UPLOAD. Follow the instructions in this screen to upload
firmware to your LAN-Cell.
"
Only upload firmware for your specific model!
Figure 236 MAINTENANCE > Firmware Upload
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 169 MAINTENANCE > Firmware Upload
1
"
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse ... to find it.
Browse...
Click Browse... to find the .bin file you want to upload. Remember that you must
decompress compressed (.zip) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click Upload to begin the upload process. This process may take up to two minutes.
Do not turn off the LAN-Cell while firmware upload is in progress!
When possible, perform firmware upgrades using a LAN-attached PC rather
than an 802.11 client or over one of the WAN/Cellular ports.
After you see the Firmware Upload in Process screen, wait two minutes before logging into
the LAN-Cell again.
Figure 237 Firmware Upload In Process
The LAN-Cell automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network disconnect. In
some operating systems, you may see the following icon on your desktop.
Figure 238 Network Temporarily Disconnected
After two minutes, log in again and check your new firmware version in the HOME screen.
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If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click Return to go back to
the F/W Upload screen.
Figure 239 Firmware Upload Error
22.6 Backup and Restore Screen
See Section 38.5 on page 537 for transferring configuration files using FTP/TFTP commands.
Click MAINTENANCE > Backup & Restore. Information related to factory defaults,
backup configuration, and restoring configuration appears as shown next.
Figure 240 MAINTENANCE > Backup and Restore
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Backup Configuration
Backup configuration allows you to back up (save) the LAN-Cell’s current configuration to a
file on your computer. Once your LAN-Cell is configured and functioning properly, it is
highly recommended that you back up your configuration file before making configuration
changes. The backup configuration file will be useful in case you need to return to your
previous settings.
Click Backup to save the LAN-Cell’s current configuration to your computer.
Restore Configuration
Load a configuration file from your computer to your LAN-Cell.
Table 170 Restore Configuration
"
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse ... to find it.
Browse...
Click Browse... to find the file you want to upload. Remember that you must
decompress compressed (.ZIP) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click Upload to begin the upload process.
Do not turn off the LAN-Cell while configuration file upload is in progress.
After you see a “restore configuration successful” screen, you must then wait one minute
before logging into the LAN-Cell again.
Figure 241 Configuration Upload Successful
The LAN-Cell automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network disconnect. In
some operating systems, you may see the following icon on your desktop.
Figure 242 Network Temporarily Disconnected
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If you uploaded the default configuration file you may need to change the IP address of your
computer to be in the same subnet as that of the default device IP address (192.168.1.1).
If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click Return to go back to
the Configuration screen.
Figure 243 Configuration Upload Error
Back to Factory Defaults
Click the Reset button to clear all user-entered configuration information and return the LANCell to its factory defaults as shown on the screen. The following warning screen appears.
Figure 244 Reset Warning Message
You can also press the hardware RESET button to reset the factory defaults of your LANCell. Refer to Section 2.4 on page 51 for more information on the RESET button.
22.7 Restart Screen
System restart allows you to reboot the LAN-Cell without turning the power off.
Click MAINTENANCE > Restart. Click Restart to have the LAN-Cell reboot. Restart is
different than Reset. Reset returns the device to its default configuration.
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Figure 245 MAINTENANCE > Restart
22.8 The Diagnostics Screen
Use the Diagnostics screen to have the LAN-Cell generate and send diagnostic files by e-mail
and/or the console port. The diagnostics files contain the LAN-Cell’s configuration and
diagnostic information. You may need to generate this file and send it to customer support
during troubleshooting.
Click MAINTENANCE > Diagnostics to open the following screen.
"
408
The LAN-Cell sends only one diagnosis mail within five minutes (unless you
click Perform Diagnostics Now).
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Figure 246 MAINTENANCE > Diagnostics
Table 171 MAINTENANCE > Diagnostics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Diagnostics
Select this option to turn on the diagnostics feature.
Perform
diagnostics when
CPU utilization
exceeds
Set the LAN-Cell to generate and send a diagnostic file every time the CPU
usage exceeds the specified percent for more than 60 seconds. Enter 0 to have
the LAN-Cell not generate and send diagnostic files based on CPU usage going
over a specific level.
Display on Console
Check this box to have the diagnostic information sent to the LAN-Cell’s console
port. Change the port speed of your terminal device attached to the console port
to 115200 bps before enabling console reporting of diagnostic files.
Send Diagnostic Report by E-Mail
Mail Server
Enter the server name or the IP address of the mail server for the e-mail
addresses specified below. If this field is left blank, diagnostic files will not be
sent via e-mail.
Mail Subject
Type a title that you want to be in the subject line of the diagnostic e-mail
message that the LAN-Cell sends.
Mail Sender
Enter the e-mail address that you want to be in the from/sender line of the
diagnostic e-mail message that the LAN-Cell sends. If you activate SMTP
authentication, the e-mail address must be able to be authenticated by the mail
server as well.
Send Log To
Diagnostic files are sent to the e-mail address specified in this field. If this field is
left blank, diagnostic files will not be sent via e-mail.
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Table 171 MAINTENANCE > Diagnostics (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SMTP
Authentication
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is the message-exchange standard for
the Internet. SMTP enables you to move messages from one e-mail server to
another.
Select the check box to activate SMTP authentication. If mail server
authentication is needed but this feature is disabled, you will not receive the email diagnostic files.
User Name
Enter the user name (up to 63 characters) (usually the user name of a mail
account).
Password
Enter the password associated with the user name above.
Perform
Diagnostics Now
Click this button to generate and send a diagnostic file immediately, instead of
based on a time period or CPU usage level.
Schedule Diagnostics
Periodic
Diagnostics
Use these fields to set the LAN-Cell to generate and send diagnostic files at
regular intervals.
Even if you enable both CPU utilization-based and periodic diagnosis, the LANCell only sends one diagnostic file within five minutes (unless you click Perform
Diagnostics Now).
Diagnostics
Frequency
Set how often the LAN-Cell generates and sends diagnostic files.
Hourly
Daily
Weekly
None.
If you select Daily or Weekly, specify a time of day for the LAN-Cell to generate
and send diagnostic files. If you select Weekly, then also specify which day of
the week. Select None to have the LAN-Cell not generate and send diagnostic
files based on a time period.
Day for Diagnostics Use the drop down list box to select which day of the week to generate and send
diagnostic files.
410
Time for
Diagnostics
Enter the time of day in 24-hour format (for example 23:00 equals 11:00 pm) to
generate and send diagnostic files.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the LAN-Cell.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
P ART VI
System
Management
Terminal
Introducing the SMT (413)
General Setup (421)
WAN, 3G and Dial Backup Setup (427)
LAN Setup (441)
Ethernet WAN Internet Access (447)
DMZ Setup (453)
Route Setup (457)
WLAN Setup (461)
WAN ISP Setup (465)
IP Static Route Setup (473)
Network Address Translation (NAT) (477)
Firewall Status (497)
Filter Configuration (499)
SNMP Configuration (515)
System Information & Diagnosis (517)
Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance (529)
System Maint. Menus 8 to 10 (543)
Remote Management (551)
IP Policy Routing (555)
Call Scheduling (563)
411
412
CHAPTER
23
Introducing the SMT
This chapter explains how to access the System Management Terminal and gives an overview
of its menus.
23.1 Introduction to the SMT
The LAN-Cell’s SMT (System Management Terminal) is a menu-driven interface that you
can access from a terminal emulator through the console port or over a telnet/SSH connection.
This chapter shows you how to access the SMT (System Management Terminal) menus via
console port, how to navigate the SMT and how to configure SMT menus.
23.2 Accessing the SMT via the Console Port
Make sure you have the physical connection properly set up as described in the Quick Start
Guide.
When configuring using the console port, you need a computer equipped with
communications software configured to the following parameters:
• VT100 terminal emulation.
• 9600 Baud.
• No parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, flow control set to none.
23.2.1 Initial Screen
When you turn on your LAN-Cell, it performs several internal tests as well as line
initialization.
After the tests, the LAN-Cell asks you to press [ENTER] to continue, as shown next.
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Figure 247 Initial Screen
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2007 Proxicast LLC
initialize ch =0, ethernet
initialize ch =1, ethernet
initialize ch =2, ethernet
initialize ch =3, ethernet
initialize ch =4, ethernet
AUX port init . done
Modem init . inactive
address:
address:
address:
address:
address:
00:1B:39:01:23:45
00:1B:39:01:23:46
00:1B:39:01:23:47
00:1B:39:01:23:48
00:00:00:00:00:00
Press ENTER to continue...
23.2.2 Entering the Password
The login screen appears after you press [ENTER], prompting you to enter the password, as
shown below.
For your first login, enter the default password “1234”. As you type the password, the screen
displays an “X” for each character you type.
Please note that if there is no activity for longer than five minutes after you log in, your LANCell will automatically log you out and display a blank screen. If you see a blank screen, press
[ENTER] to bring up the login screen again.
Figure 248 Password Screen
Enter Password : XXXX
23.3 Navigating the SMT Interface
The SMT is an interface that you use to configure your LAN-Cell.
Several operations that you should be familiar with before you attempt to modify the
configuration are listed in the table below.
Table 172 Main Menu Commands
414
OPERATION KEYSTROKES
DESCRIPTION
Move down
to another
menu
[ENTER]
To move forward to a submenu, type in the number of the desired
submenu and press [ENTER].
Move up to a
previous
menu
[ESC]
Press the [ESC] key to move back to the previous menu.
Move to a
“hidden”
menu
Press [SPACE
BAR] to change
No to Yes then
press [ENTER].
Fields beginning with “Edit” lead to hidden menus and have a
default setting of No. Press [SPACE BAR] to change No to Yes,
and then press [ENTER] to go to a “hidden” menu.
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Chapter 23 Introducing the SMT
Table 172 Main Menu Commands
OPERATION KEYSTROKES
DESCRIPTION
Move the
cursor
[ENTER] or [UP]/
[DOWN] arrow
keys
Within a menu, press [ENTER] to move to the next field. You can
also use the [UP]/[DOWN] arrow keys to move to the previous and
the next field, respectively.
When you are at the top of a menu, press the [UP] arrow key to
move to the bottom of a menu.
Entering
information
Fill in, or press
[SPACE BAR],
then press
[ENTER] to select
from choices.
You need to fill in two types of fields. The first requires you to type
in the appropriate information. The second allows you to cycle
through the available choices by pressing [SPACE BAR].
Required
fields
<? >
All fields with the symbol <?> must be filled in order be able to
save the new configuration.
N/A fields
<N/A>
Some of the fields in the SMT will show a <N/A>. This symbol
refers to an option that is Not Applicable.
Save your
configuration
[ENTER]
Save your configuration by pressing [ENTER] at the message
“Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to cancel”. Saving the data on
the screen will take you, in most cases to the previous menu.
Make sure you save your settings in each screen that you
configure.
Exit the SMT
Type 99, then
press [ENTER].
Type 99 at the main menu prompt and press [ENTER] to exit the
SMT interface.
23.3.1 Main Menu
After you enter the password, the SMT displays the LAN-Cell Main Menu, as shown next.
Figure 249 Main Menu
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2007 Proxicast LLC
LAN-Cell 2 Main Menu
Getting Started
1. General Setup
2. WAN Setup
3. LAN Setup
4. Ethernet WAN Setup
5. DMZ Setup
6. Route Setup
7. WLAN Setup
Advanced Applications
11. WAN ISP SETUP
12. Static Routing Setup
15. NAT Setup
Advanced Management
21. Filter and Firewall Setup
22. SNMP Configuration
23. System Password
24. System Maintenance
25. IP Routing Policy Setup
26. Schedule Setup
33. Cellular Card Command Mode
99. Exit
Enter Menu Selection Number:
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"
SMT menu numbers are not sequential. SMT menu numbering has been
maintained for backward compatibility with previous LAN-Cell models and
customer scripting support.
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 173 Main Menu Summary
416
NO
.
MENU TITLE
FUNCTION
1
General Setup
Use this menu to set up device mode, dynamic DNS and
administrative information.
2
WAN Setup
Use this menu to clone a MAC address from a computer on your LAN
and configure the backup WAN dial-up connection. You can also use
this menu to configure 3G modem setting on the LAN-Cell.
3
LAN Setup
Use this menu to apply LAN filters, configure LAN DHCP and TCP/IP
settings.
4
Ethernet WAN Setup
Configure your Ethernet WAN access setup (Internet address,
gateway, login, etc.) with this menu.
5
DMZ Setup
Use this menu to apply DMZ filters, and configure DHCP and TCP/IP
settings for the DMZ port.
6
Route Setup
Use this menu to configure your WAN route assessment, traffic
redirect properties and failover parameters.
7
WLAN Setup
Use this menu to configure WLAN DHCP and TCP/IP settings for the
wireless LAN interface.
11
WAN ISP Setup
Use this menu to configure detailed remote node settings (your ISP is
also a remote node) as well as apply WAN filters.
12
Static Routing Setup
Configure IP static routes in this menu.
15
NAT Setup
Use this menu to configure Network Address Translation.
21
Filter and Firewall
Setup
Configure filters and activate/deactivate the firewall.
22
SNMP Configuration
Use this menu to configure SNMP-related parameters.
23
System Password
Change your password in this menu (recommended).
24
System Maintenance
From displaying system status to uploading firmware, this menu
provides comprehensive system maintenance.
25
IP Routing Policy Setup Configure and display policies for use in IP policy routing.
26
Schedule Setup
Use this menu to schedule outgoing calls.
33
Cellular Card
Command Mode
When the 3G cellular modem card is not in an active data session, this
menu provides access to the modem’s command line interface (if
supported by the 3G card). Refer to the 3G card manufacturer’s
documentation for applicable commands in this mode. Type [EXIT]
to return to the SMT.
99
Exit
Use this menu to exit (necessary for remote configuration).
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Chapter 23 Introducing the SMT
23.3.2 SMT Menus Overview
The following table gives you an overview of your LAN-Cell’s various SMT menus.
Table 174 SMT Menus Overview
MENUS
SUB MENUS
1 General Setup
1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS
2 WAN Setup
2.1 Advanced WAN Setup
3 LAN Setup
3.1 LAN Port Filter Setup
3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP
Ethernet Setup
1.1.1 DDNS Host Summary
1.1.1 DDNS Edit Host
3.2.1 IP Alias Setup
4 Ethernet WAN Setup
5 DMZ Setup
5.1 DMZ Port Filter Setup
5.2 TCP/IP and DHCP
Ethernet Setup
6 Route Setup
5.2.1 IP Alias Setup
6.1 Route Assessment
6.2 Traffic Redirect
6.3 Route Failover
7 WLAN Setup
7.2 TCP/IP and DHCP
Ethernet Setup
7.2.1 IP Alias Setup
11 WAN ISP Setup
11.1 Remote Node Profile
(WAN)
11.1.2 Remote Node Network
Layer Options
11.1.4 Remote Node Filter
11.1.5 Traffic Redirect Setup
(for the LAN-Cell 5 only)
11.2 Remote Node Profile
(Cellular 3G WAN)
11.2.2 Remote Node Network
Layer Options
11.2.3 Remote Node Script
11.2.4 Remote Node Filter
11.3 Remote Node Profile (Dial 11.3.1 Remote Node PPP
Backup ISP)
Options
11.3.2 Remote Node Network
Layer Options
11.3.3 Remote Node Script
11.3.4 Remote Node Filter
12 Static Routing Setup
12.1 Edit Static Route Setup
15 NAT Setup
15.1 Address Mapping Sets
15.1.x Address Mapping
Rules
15.1.x.x Address
Mapping Rule
15.2 NAT Server Sets
15.2.x NAT Server Setup
15.2.x.x - NAT Server
Configuration
15.3 Trigger Ports
15.3.x Trigger Port Setup
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Table 174 SMT Menus Overview (continued)
MENUS
SUB MENUS
21 Filter and Firewall
Setup
21.1 Filter Set Configuration
21.1.x Filter Rules Summary
21.1.x.x Generic Filter
Rule
21.1.x.x TCP/IP Filter
Rule
21.2 Firewall Setup
22 SNMP Configuration
23 System Password
24 System Maintenance 24.1 System Status
24.2 System Information and
Console Port Speed
24.2.1 System Information
24.3 Log and Trace
24.3.1 View Error Log
24.2.2 Console Port Speed
24.3.2 Syslog Logging
24.3.4 Call-Triggering Packet
24.4 Diagnostic
24.5 Backup Configuration
24.6 Restore Configuration
24.7 Upload Firmware
24.7.1 Upload System
Firmware
24.7.2 Upload System
Configuration File
24.8 Command Interpreter
Mode
24.9 Call Control
24.9.1 Budget Management
24.9.2 Call History
24.10 Time and Date Setting
24.11 Remote Management
Setup
25 IP Routing Policy
Summary
25.1 IP Routing Policy Setup
26 Schedule Setup
26.1 Schedule Set Setup
25.1.1 IP Routing Policy
Setup
23.4 Changing the System Password
Change the system password by following the steps shown next.
1 Enter 23 in the main menu to open Menu 23 - System Password as shown next.
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Figure 250 Menu 23: System Password
Menu 23 - System Password
Old Password= ?
New Password= ?
Retype to confirm= ?
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
2 Type your existing password and press [ENTER].
3 Type your new system password and press [ENTER].
4 Re-type your new system password for confirmation and press [ENTER].
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an “x” for each character you type.
23.5 Resetting the LAN-Cell
See Section 2.4 on page 51 for directions on resetting the LAN-Cell.
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CHAPTER
24
General Setup
Menu 1 - General Setup contains administrative and system-related information.
24.1 Introduction to General Setup
Menu 1 - General Setup contains administrative and system-related information.
24.2 Configuring General Setup
1 Enter 1 in the main menu to open Menu 1 - General Setup.
2 The Menu 1 - General Setup screen appears, as shown next. Fill in the required fields.
Figure 251 Menu 1: General Setup
Menu 1 - General Setup
System Name= LAN-Cell
Domain Name=
Edit Dynamic DNS= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 175 Menu 1: General Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
System Name
Choose a descriptive name for identification purposes. It is recommended you enter
your computer’s “Computer name” in this field. This name can be up to 30
alphanumeric characters long. Spaces are not allowed, but dashes “-” and
underscores "_" are accepted. “LAN-Cell” is filled in by default.
Domain Name
Enter the domain name (if you know it) here. If you leave this field blank, the ISP
may assign a domain name via DHCP. You can go to menu 24.8 and type "sys
domain name" to see the current domain name used by your router.
The domain name entered by you is given priority over the ISP assigned domain
name. If you want to clear this field just press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER].
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Table 175 Menu 1: General Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Edit Dynamic
DNS
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes or No (default). Select Yes to
configure Menu 1.1: Configure Dynamic DNS discussed next.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
24.2.1 Configuring Dynamic DNS
To configure Dynamic DNS, go to Menu 1 - General Setup and press [SPACE BAR] to
select Yes in the Edit Dynamic DNS field. Press [ENTER] to display Menu 1.1 - Configure
Dynamic DNS (shown next).
Figure 252 Menu 1.1: Configure Dynamic DNS
Menu 1.1 - Configure Dynamic DNS
Service Provider= WWW.DynDNS.ORG
Active= No
Username=
Password= ********
Edit Host= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Follow the instructions in the next table to configure Dynamic DNS parameters.
Table 176 Menu 1.1: Configure Dynamic DNS
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Service
Provider
This is the name of your Dynamic DNS service provider.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press [ENTER] to make dynamic DNS
active.
Username
Enter your user name.
Password
Enter the password assigned to you.
Edit Host
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes if you want to configure a
DDNS host.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
24.2.1.1 Editing DDNS Host
To configure a DDNS host, follow the procedure below.
1 Enter 1 in the main menu to open Menu 1 - General Setup.
2 Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes in the Edit Dynamic DNS field. Press [ENTER] to
display Menu 1.1 - Configure Dynamic DNS.
3 Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes in the Edit Host field. Press
[ENTER] to display Menu 1.1.1 - DDNS Host Summary.
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Figure 253 Menu 1.1.1: DDNS Host Summary
Menu 1.1.1 DDNS Host Summary
#
Summary
--- - ------------------------------------------------------01
Hostname=LC2.proxicast.com,
Type=Dynamic,WC=Yes,Offline=No,Policy=DDNS Server
Detect, WAN, HA=Yes
02
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
03
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
04
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
05
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
Select Command= None
Select Rule= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 177 Menu 1.1.1: DDNS Host Summary
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the DDNS host index number.
Summary
This displays the details about the DDNS host.
Select Command
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from None, Edit, Delete, Next Page or Previous
Page and then press [ENTER]. You must select a DDNS host in the next field
when you choose the Edit or Delete commands.
Select None and then press [ENTER] to go to the "Press ENTER to Confirm…"
prompt.
Use Edit to create or edit a rule. Use Delete to remove a rule. To edit or delete a
DDNS host, first make sure you are on the correct page. When a rule is deleted,
subsequent rules do not move up in the page list.
Select Next Page or Previous Page to view the next or previous page of DDNS
hosts (respectively).
Select Rule
Type the DDNS host index number you wish to edit or delete and then press
[ENTER].
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt "Press ENTER to Confirm…" to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
4 Select Edit in the Select Command field; type the index number of the DDNS host you
want to configure in the Select Rule field and press [ENTER] to open Menu 1.1.1 DDNS Edit Host (see the next figure).
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Figure 254 Menu 1.1.1: DDNS Edit Host
Menu 1.1.1 - DDNS Edit Host
Hostname= LC2.proxicast.com
DDNS Type= DynamicDNS
Enable Wildcard Option= Yes
Enable Off Line Option= N/A
Bind WAN= 1
HA= Yes
IP Address Update Policy:
Let DDNS Server Auto Detect= Yes
Use User-Defined= N/A
Use WAN IP Address= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 178 Menu 1.1.1: DDNS Edit Host
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Host Name
Enter your host name in this field.
DDNS Type
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select DynamicDNS if you have the
Dynamic DNS service.
Select StaticDNS if you have the Static DNS service.
Select CustomDNS if you have the Custom DNS service.
Enable
Wildcard
Option
Your LAN-Cell supports DYNDNS Wildcard. Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER]
to select Yes or No. This field is N/A when you choose DDNS client as your service
provider.
Enable Off
Line Option
This field is only available when CustomDNS is selected in the DDNS Type field.
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes. When Yes is selected, http://
www.dyndns.org/ traffic is redirected to a URL that you have previously specified
(see www.dyndns.org for details).
Bind WAN
Enter the WAN interface to use for updating the IP address of the domain name.
HA
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to enable the high availability
(HA) feature.
If the WAN interface specified in the Bind WAN field does not have a connection, the
LAN-Cell will attempt to use the IP address of another WAN interface to update the
domain name.
When the WAN interfaces are in the active/passive operating mode, the LAN-Cell will
update the domain name with the IP address of whichever WAN interface has a
connection, regardless of the setting in the Bind WAN field.
Clear this check box and the LAN-Cell will not update the domain name with an IP
address if the WAN interface specified in the Bind WAN field does not have a
connection.
Note: If you enable high availability, DDNS can also function when the
LAN-Cell uses the dial backup port. DDNS does not function
when the LAN-Cell uses traffic redirect.
Refer to Section on page 317 for detailed information.
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Table 178 Menu 1.1.1: DDNS Edit Host (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
Update Policy:
You can select Yes in either the Let DDNS Server Auto Detect field (recommended)
or the Use User-Defined field, but not both.
With the Let DDNS Server Auto Detect and Use User-Defined fields both set to No,
the DDNS server automatically updates the IP address of the host name(s) with the
LAN-Cell’s WAN IP address.
DDNS does not work with a private IP address. When both fields are set to No, the
LAN-Cell must have a public WAN IP address in order for DDNS to work.
Let DDNS
Server Auto
Detect
Only select this option when there are one or more NAT routers between the LANCell and the DDNS server. Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press
[ENTER] to have the DDNS server automatically detect and use the IP address of the
NAT router that has a public IP address.
Note: The DDNS server may not be able to detect the proper IP
address if there is an HTTP proxy server between the LAN-Cell
and the DDNS server.
Use UserDefined
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press [ENTER] to update the IP address
of the host name(s) to the IP address specified below.
Only select Yes if the LAN-Cell uses or is behind a static public IP address.
Use WAN IP
Address
Enter the static public IP address if you select Yes in the Use User-Defined field.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
The IP address updates when you reconfigure menu 1 or perform DHCP client renewal.
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CHAPTER
25
WAN, 3G and Dial Backup Setup
This chapter describes how to configure the WAN using menu 2 and dial-backup using menus
2.1 and 11.1.
25.1 Introduction to WAN, 3G WAN and Dial Backup Setup
This chapter explains how to configure settings for your WAN interface(s), a 3G WAN
connection and a dial backup connection using the SMT menus.
25.2 WAN Setup
From the main menu, enter 2 to open menu 2.
Figure 255 MAC Address Cloning in WAN Setup
Menu 2 - WAN Setup
WAN MAC Address:
Assigned By= Factory default
IP Address= N/A
Dial-Backup:
Active= No
Port Speed= 115200
AT Command String:
Init= at&fs0=0
Edit Advanced Setup= No
Cellular Modem Setup:
Init= Configure APN
APN = internet
PIN code=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 179 MAC Address Cloning in WAN Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
WAN MAC
Address
Assigned By
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to choose one of two methods to assign a
MAC Address. Choose Factory Default to select the factory assigned default MAC
Address. Choose IP address attached on LAN to use the MAC Address of that
computer whose IP you give in the following field.
IP Address
This field is applicable only if you choose the IP address attached on LAN method
in the Assigned By field. Enter the IP address of the computer on the LAN whose
MAC you are cloning.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
25.3 Dial Backup
The Dial Backup port can be used in reserve, as a traditional dial-up connection should the
broadband connection to the WAN port fail. To set up the auxiliary port (Dial Backup) for use
in the event that the regular WAN connection is dropped.
1 Menu 2 - WAN Setup,
2 Menu 2.1 - Advanced WAN Setup and
3 Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Profile (Backup ISP)
Refer also to the section about traffic redirect for information on an alternate backup WAN
connection.
25.3.1 Configuring Dial Backup in Menu 2
From the main menu, enter 2 to open menu 2.
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Figure 256
Menu 2: Dial Backup Setup
Menu 2 - WAN Setup
WAN MAC Address:
Assigned By= Factory default
IP Address= N/A
Dial-Backup:
Active= No
Port Speed= 115200
AT Command String:
Init= at&fs0=0
Edit Advanced Setup= No
Cellular Modem Setup:
Init= Configure APN
APN = internet
PIN code=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 180 Menu 2: Dial Backup Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Dial-Backup:
Active
Use this field to turn the dial-backup feature on (Yes) or off (No).
Port Speed
Press [SPACE BAR] and then press [ENTER] to select the speed of the connection
between the Dial Backup port and the external device.
Available speeds are:
9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200 or 230400 bps.
AT Command
String:
Init
Enter the AT command string to initialize the WAN device. Consult the manual of your
WAN device connected to your Dial Backup port for specific AT commands.
Edit Advanced
Setup
To edit the advanced setup for the Dial Backup port, move the cursor to this field;
press the [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press [ENTER] to go to Menu 2.1 Advanced Setup.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
25.3.2 Advanced WAN Setup
"
Consult the manual of your WAN device connected to your Dial Backup port
for specific AT commands.
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To edit the advanced setup for the Dial Backup port, move the cursor to the Edit Advanced
Setup field in Menu 2 - WAN Setup, press the [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press
[ENTER].
Figure 257 Menu 2.1: Advanced WAN Setup
Menu 2.1 - Advanced WAN Setup
AT Command Strings:
Dial= atdt
Drop= ~~+++~~ath
Answer= ata
Drop DTR When Hang Up= Yes
Call Control:
Dial Timeout(sec)= 60
Retry Count= 0
Retry Interval(sec)= N/A
Drop Timeout(sec)= 20
Call Back Delay(sec)= 15
AT Response Strings:
CLID= NMBR =
Called Id=
Speed= CONNECT
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes fields in this menu.
Table 181 Advanced WAN Port Setup: AT Commands Fields
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
AT Command
Strings:
Dial
Enter the AT Command string to make a call.
Drop
Enter the AT Command string to drop a call. “~” represents a one second wait,
e.g., “~~~+++~~ath” can be used if your modem has a slow response time.
Answer
Enter the AT Command string to answer a call.
Drop DTR When
Hang Up
Press the [SPACE BAR] to choose either Yes or No. When Yes is selected (the
default), the DTR (Data Terminal Ready) signal is dropped after the “AT
Command String: Drop” is sent out.
AT Response
Strings:
430
CLID (Calling Line
Identification)
Enter the keyword that precedes the CLID (Calling Line Identification) in the AT
response string. This lets the LAN-Cell capture the CLID in the AT response
string that comes from the WAN device. CLID is required for CLID
authentication.
Called Id
Enter the keyword preceding the dialed number.
Speed
Enter the keyword preceding the connection speed.
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Chapter 25 WAN, 3G and Dial Backup Setup
Table 182 Advanced WAN Port Setup: Call Control Parameters
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Call Control
Dial Timeout (sec)
Enter a number of seconds for the LAN-Cell to keep trying to set up an outgoing
call before timing out (stopping). The LAN-Cell times out and stops if it cannot set
up an outgoing call within the timeout value.
Retry Count
Enter a number of times for the LAN-Cell to retry a busy or no-answer phone
number before blacklisting the number.
Retry Interval (sec)
Enter a number of seconds for the LAN-Cell to wait before trying another call
after a call has failed. This applies before a phone number is blacklisted.
Drop Timeout (sec)
Enter a number of seconds for the LAN-Cell to wait before dropping the DTR
signal if it does not receive a positive disconnect confirmation.
Call Back Delay
(sec)
Enter a number of seconds for the LAN-Cell to wait between dropping a callback
request call and dialing the co-responding callback call.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
25.3.3 Remote Node Profile (Backup ISP)
Enter 3 in Menu 11 - WAN ISP Setup to open Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Profile (Backup
ISP) (shown below) and configure the setup for your Dial Backup port connection. Not all
fields are available on all models.
Figure 258
Menu 11.3: Remote Node Profile (Backup ISP)
Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Profile (Backup ISP)
Rem Node Name=
Active= No
Outgoing:
My Login= ChangeMe
My Password= ********
Retype to Confirm= ********
Authen= CHAP/PAP
Pri Phone #= 0
Sec Phone #=
Edit IP= No
Edit Script Options= No
Telco Option:
Allocated Budget(min)= 0
Period(hr)= 0
Schedules=
Always On= No
Session Options:
Edit Filter Sets= No
Idle Timeout(sec)= 100
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 183 Menu 11.3: Remote Node Profile (Backup ISP)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Rem Node
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the remote node. This field can be up to eight
characters.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to enable the remote node or
No to disable the remote node.
Outgoing
My Login
Enter the login name assigned by your ISP for this remote node.
My Password
Enter the password assigned by your ISP for this remote node.
Retype to
Confirm
Enter your password again to make sure that you have entered is correctly.
Authen
This field sets the authentication protocol used for outgoing calls.
Options for this field are:
CHAP/PAP - Your LAN-Cell will accept either CHAP or PAP when requested by this
remote node.
CHAP - accept CHAP only.
PAP - accept PAP only.
Pri Phone #
Sec Phone #
Enter the first (primary) phone number from the ISP for this remote node. If the
Primary Phone number is busy or does not answer, your LAN-Cell dials the
Secondary Phone number if available. Some areas require dialing the pound sign #
before the phone number for local calls. Include a # symbol at the beginning of the
phone numbers as required.
Edit IP
This field leads to a “hidden” menu. Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press
[ENTER] to go to Menu 11.3.2 - Remote Node Network Layer Options. See
Section 25.3.4 on page 433 for more information.
Edit Script
Options
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to edit the AT script for the
dial backup remote node (Menu 11.3.3 - Remote Node Script). See Section 25.3.5
on page 434 for more information.
Telco Option
Allocated
Budget
Enter the maximum number of minutes that this remote node may be called within
the time period configured in the Period field. The default for this field is 0 meaning
there is no budget control and no time limit for accessing this remote node.
Period(hr)
Enter the time period (in hours) for how often the budget should be reset. For
example, to allow calls to this remote node for a maximum of 10 minutes every hour,
set the Allocated Budget to 10 (minutes) and the Period to 1 (hour).
Schedules
You can apply up to four schedule sets here. For more details please refer to Chapter
42 on page 563.
Always On
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes to set this connection to be on all the time,
regardless of whether or not there is any traffic. Select No to have this connection act
as a dial-up connection.
Session
Options
Edit Filter sets
This field leads to another “hidden” menu. Use [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press
[ENTER] to open menu 11.3.4 to edit the filter sets. See Section 25.3.6 on page 436
for more details.
Idle Timeout
Enter the number of seconds of idle time (when there is no traffic from the LAN-Cell
to the remote node) that can elapse before the LAN-Cell automatically disconnects
the PPP connection. This option only applies when the LAN-Cell initiates the call.
Once you have configured this menu, press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to Confirm...” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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25.3.4 Editing TCP/IP Options
Move the cursor to the Edit IP field in menu 11.3, then press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes.
Press [ENTER] to open Menu 11.3.2 - Remote Node Network Layer Options.
Figure 259 Menu 11.3.2: Remote Node Network Layer Options
Menu 11.3.2 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Address Assignment= Static
Rem IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
Rem Subnet Mask= 0.0.0.0
My WAN Addr= 0.0.0.0
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
NAT Lookup Set= 255
Metric= 15
Private= No
RIP Direction= None
Version= N/A
Multicast= None
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 184 Menu 11.3.2: Remote Node Network Layer Options
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
Assignment
If your ISP did not assign you a fixed IP address, press [SPACE BAR] and then
[ENTER] to select Dynamic, otherwise select Static and enter the IP address and
subnet mask in the following fields.
Rem IP
Address
Enter the (fixed) IP address assigned to you by your ISP (static IP address assignment
is selected in the previous field).
Rem Subnet
Mask
Enter the subnet mask associated with your static IP.
My WAN
Addr
Leave the field set to 0.0.0.0 to have the ISP or other remote router dynamically
(automatically) assign your WAN IP address if you do not know it. Enter your WAN IP
address here if you know it (static).
This is the address assigned to your local LAN-Cell, not the remote router.
Network
Address
Translation
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows the translation of an Internet protocol
address used within one network (for example a private IP address used in a local
network) to a different IP address known within another network (for example a public
IP address used on the Internet).
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select either Full Feature, None or SUA
Only.
Choose None to disable NAT.
Choose SUA Only if you have a single public IP address. SUA (Single User Account) is
a subset of NAT that supports two types of mapping: Many-to-One and Server.
Choose Full Feature if you have multiple public IP addresses. Full Feature mapping
types include: One-to-One, Many-to-One (SUA/PAT), Many-to-Many Overload,
Many- One-to-One and Server. When you select Full Feature you must configure at
least one address mapping set.
See Chapter 13 on page 289 for a full discussion on this feature.
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Table 184 Menu 11.3.2: Remote Node Network Layer Options
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
NAT Lookup
Set
If you select SUA Only in the Network Address Translation field, it displays 255 and
indicates the SMT will use the pre-configured Set 255 (read only) in menu 15.1.
If you select Full Feature or None in the Network Address Translation field, it
displays 1, 2 or 3 and indicates the SMT will use the pre-configured Set 1 in menu 15.1
for the first WAN port, Set 2 in menu 15.1 for the second WAN port and Set 3 for the
Backup port.
Refer to Section 33.2 on page 479 for more information.
Metric
Enter a number from 1 to 15 to set this route’s priority among the LAN-Cell’s routes.
The smaller the number, the higher priority the route has.
Private
This parameter determines if the LAN-Cell will include the route to this remote node in
its RIP broadcasts. If set to Yes, this route is kept private and not included in RIP
broadcasts. If No, the route to this remote node will be propagated to other hosts
through RIP broadcasts.
RIP Direction Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the RIP Direction from Both, None,
In Only, Out Only and None.
Version
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the RIP version from RIP-1, RIP-2B
and RIP-2M.
Multicast
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a session-layer protocol used to establish
membership in a Multicast group. The LAN-Cell supports both IGMP version 1 (IGMPv1) and version 2 (IGMP-v2). Press the [SPACE BAR] to enable IP Multicasting or
select None to disable it. See Section on page 80 for more information on this feature.
Once you have completed filling in Menu 11.3.2 Remote Node Network Layer Options, press
[ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to Confirm...” to save your configuration and return to menu
11.3, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
25.3.5 Editing Login Script
For some remote gateways, text login is required before PPP negotiation is started. The LANCell provides a script facility for this purpose. The script has six programmable sets; each set
is composed of an ‘Expect’ string and a ‘Send’ string. After matching a message from the
server to the ‘Expect’ field, the LAN-Cell returns the set’s ‘Send’ string to the server.
For instance, a typical login sequence starts with the server printing a banner, a login prompt
for you to enter the user name and a password prompt to enter the password:
Welcome to Acme, Inc.
Login: myLogin
Password:
To handle the first prompt, you specify “ogin: ” as the ‘Expect’ string and “myLogin” as
the ‘Send’ string in set 1. The reason for leaving out the leading “L” is to avoid having to know
exactly whether it is upper or lower case. Similarly, you specify “word: ” as the ‘Expect’
string and your password as the ‘Send’ string for the second prompt in set 2.
You can use two variables, $USERNAME and $PASSWORD (all UPPER case), to represent the
actual user name and password in the script, so they will not show in the clear. They are
replaced with the outgoing login name and password in the remote node when the LAN-Cell
sees them in a ‘Send’ string. Please note that both variables must been entered exactly as
shown. No other characters may appear before or after, either, i.e., they must be used alone in
response to login and password prompts.
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Please note that the ordering of the sets is significant, i.e., starting from set 1, the LAN-Cell
will wait until the ‘Expect’ string is matched before it proceeds to set 2, and so on for the rest
of the script. When both the ‘Expect’ and the ‘Send’ fields of the current set are empty, the
LAN-Cell will terminate the script processing and start PPP negotiation. This implies two
things: first, the sets must be contiguous; the sets after an empty one are ignored. Second, the
last set should match the final message sent by the server. For instance, if the server prints:
login successful.
Starting PPP...
after you enter the password, then you should create a third set to match the final “PPP...”
but without a “Send” string. Otherwise, the LAN-Cell will start PPP prematurely right after
sending your password to the server.
If there are errors in the script and it gets stuck at a set for longer than the “Dial Timeout” in
menu 2 (default 60 seconds), the LAN-Cell will timeout and drop the line. To debug a script,
go to Menu 24.4 to initiate a manual call and watch the trace display to see if the sequence of
messages and prompts from the server differs from what you expect.
Figure 260 Menu 11.3.3: Remote Node Script
Menu 11.3.3 - Remote Node Script
Active= No
Set 1:
Expect=
Send=
Set 2:
Expect=
Send=
Set 3:
Expect=
Send=
Set 4:
Expect=
Send=
Set 5:
Expect=
Send=
Set 6:
Expect=
Send=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 185 Menu 11.3.3: Remote Node Script
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select either Yes to enable the AT strings or
No to disable them.
Set 1-6:
Expect
Enter an Expect string to match. After matching the Expect string, the LAN-Cell returns
the string in the Send field.
Set 1-6:
Send
Enter a string to send out after the Expect string is matched.
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25.3.6 Remote Node Filter
Move the cursor to the field Edit Filter Sets in menu 11.3, and then press [SPACE BAR] to
set the value to Yes. Press [ENTER] to open Menu 11.3.4 - Remote Node Filter.
Use menu 11.3.4 to specify the filter set(s) to apply to the incoming and outgoing traffic
between this remote node and the LAN-Cell to prevent certain packets from triggering calls.
You can specify up to four filter sets separated by commas, for example, 1, 5, 9, 12, in each
filter field. Note that spaces are accepted in this field. Please refer to Chapter 35 on page 499
for more information on defining the filters.
Figure 261 Menu 11.3.4: Remote Node Filter
Menu 11.3.4 - Remote Node Filter
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Call Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
25.4 3G WAN
3G (Third Generation) is a digital, packet-switched wireless technology. Bandwidth usage is
optimized as multiple users share the same channel and bandwidth is only allocated to users
when they send data. It allows fast transfer of voice and non-voice data and provides
broadband Internet access to mobile devices. See Section 5.4 on page 114 for more
information.
To set up a 3G connection, you need to configure
1 Menu 2 - WAN Setup,
2 Menu 11.2 - Remote Node Profile (Cellular 3G WAN)
25.4.1 3G Modem Setup
From the main menu, enter 2 to open menu 2.
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Figure 262 3G Modem Setup in WAN Setup
Menu 2 - WAN Setup
WAN MAC Address:
Assigned By= Factory default
IP Address= N/A
Dial-Backup:
Active= No
Port Speed= 115200
AT Command String:
Init= at&fs0=0
Edit Advanced Setup= No
Cellular Modem Setup:
Init= Configure APN
APN = internet
PIN code=0000
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 186 3G Modem Setup in WAN Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Cellular Modem
Setup
Init
Press [SPACEBAR] to toggle between Configure APN and Configure Directly.
When selecting Configure APN, enter the appropriate APN in the next field. When
selecting Configure Directly, enter the appropriate 3G modem initialization string.
APN
Enter the APN (Access Point Name) provided by your service provider. Connections
with different APNs may provide different services (such as Internet access or MMS
(Multi-Media Messaging Service)) and charge method.
You can enter up to 31 ASCII printable characters. Spaces are allowed.
PIN Code
A PIN (Personal Identification Number) code is a key to a 3G card. Without the PIN
code, you cannot use the 3G card.
Enter the 4-digit PIN code (0000 for example) provided by your ISP. If you enter the
PIN code incorrectly, the 3G card may be blocked by your ISP and you cannot use
the account to access the Internet.
If your ISP disabled PIN code authentication, enter an arbitrary number.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
25.4.2 Remote Node Profile (3G WAN)
Enter 2 in Menu 11 - WAN ISP Setup to open Menu 11.2 - Remote Node Profile (Cellular
3G WAN) (shown below) and configure the setup for your 3G connection.
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Figure 263
Menu 11.2: Remote Node Profile (3G WAN)
Menu 11.2 - Remote Node Profile (Cellular)
Rem Node Name= CELLULAR
Active= Yes
Outgoing:
My Login= test
My Password= ********
Retype to Confirm= ********
Authen= CHAP/PAP
Pri Phone #= *99#
Edit IP= No
Edit Script Options= No
Always On= No
Session Options:
Edit Filter Sets= No
Idle Timeout(sec)= 100
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 187 Menu 11.2: Remote Node Profile (3G WAN)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Rem Node
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the remote node. This field can be up to eight
characters. CELLULAR denotes a 3G WAN connection but you can change the
name.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to enable the remote node or
No to disable the remote node.
Outgoing
438
My Login
Enter the login name assigned by your ISP for this remote node.
My Password
Enter the password assigned by your ISP for this remote node.
Retype to
Confirm
Enter your password again to make sure that you have entered is correctly.
Authen
This field sets the authentication protocol used for outgoing calls.
Options for this field are:
CHAP/PAP - Your LAN-Cell will accept either CHAP or PAP when requested by this
remote node.
CHAP - accept CHAP only.
PAP - accept PAP only.
Pri Phone #
Enter the phone number (dial string) used to dial up a connection to your service
provider’s base station. Your ISP should provide the phone number.
For example, *99# is the dial string to establish a GSM connection; #777 is used for
CDMA networks.
Edit IP
This field leads to a “hidden” menu. Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press
[ENTER] to go to Menu 11.3.2 - Remote Node Network Layer Options. See
Section 25.3.4 on page 433 for more information.
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Table 187 Menu 11.2: Remote Node Profile (3G WAN) (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Edit Script
Options
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to edit the AT script for the
dial backup remote node (Menu 11.3.3 - Remote Node Script). See Section 25.3.5
on page 434 for more information.
Always On
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes to set this connection to be on all the time,
regardless of whether or not there is any traffic. Select No to have this connection act
as a dial-up connection.
Session
Options
Edit Filter sets
This field leads to another “hidden” menu. Use [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press
[ENTER] to open menu 11.3.4 to edit the filter sets. See Section 25.3.6 on page 436
for more details.
Idle Timeout
Enter the number of seconds of idle time (when there is no traffic from the LAN-Cell
to the remote node) that can elapse before the LAN-Cell automatically disconnects
the 3G connection. .
Once you have configured this menu, press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to Confirm...” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER
26
LAN Setup
This chapter describes how to configure the LAN using Menu 3 - LAN Setup.
26.1 Introduction to LAN Setup
This chapter describes how to configure the LAN-Cell for LAN and wireless LAN
connections.
26.2 Accessing the LAN Menus
From the main menu, enter 3 to open Menu 3 - LAN Setup.
Figure 264 Menu 3: LAN Setup
Menu 3 - LAN Setup
1. LAN Port Filter Setup
2. TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
26.3 LAN Port Filter Setup
This menu allows you to specify the filter sets that you wish to apply to the LAN traffic. You
seldom need to filter the LAN traffic, however, the filter sets may be useful to block certain
packets, reduce traffic and prevent security breaches.
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Figure 265 Menu 3.1: LAN Port Filter Setup
Menu 3.1 - LAN Port Filter Setup
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
26.4 TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup Menu
From the main menu, enter 3 to open Menu 3 - LAN Setup to configure TCP/IP (RFC 1155)
and DHCP Ethernet setup.
Figure 266 Menu 3: TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
Menu 3 - LAN Setup
1. LAN Port Filter Setup
2. TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
From menu 3, select the submenu option TCP/IP and DHCP Setup and press [ENTER]. The
screen now displays Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup, as shown next.
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Figure 267 Menu 3.2: TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
DHCP= Server
Client IP Pool:
Starting Address= 192.168.1.33
Size of Client IP Pool= 128
TCP/IP Setup:
IP Address= 192.168.1.1
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-1
Multicast= None
Edit IP Alias= No
DHCP Server Address= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Follow the instructions in the next table on how to configure the DHCP fields.
Table 188 Menu 3.2: DHCP Ethernet Setup Fields
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
DHCP
This field enables/disables the DHCP server.
If set to Server, your LAN-Cell will act as a DHCP server.
If set to None, the DHCP server will be disabled.
If set to Relay, the LAN-Cell acts as a surrogate DHCP server and relays requests
and responses between the remote server and the clients.
When set to Server, the following items need to be set:
Client IP Pool:
Starting Address
This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool.
Size of Client IP
Pool
This field specifies the size, or count of the IP address pool.
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Table 188 Menu 3.2: DHCP Ethernet Setup Fields
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
First DNS Server
Second DNS
Server
Third DNS
Server
The LAN-Cell passes a DNS (Domain Name System) server IP address (in the
order you specify here) to the DHCP clients.
Select From ISP if your ISP dynamically assigns DNS server information (and the
LAN-Cell's WAN IP address). The IP Address field below displays the (read-only)
DNS server IP address that the ISP assigns.
Select User-Defined if you have the IP address of a DNS server. Enter the DNS
server's IP address in the IP Address field below. If you chose User-Defined, but
leave the IP address set to 0.0.0.0, User-Defined changes to None after you save
your changes. If you set a second choice to User-Defined, and enter the same IP
address, the second User-Defined changes to None after you save your changes.
Select DNS Relay to have the LAN-Cell act as a DNS proxy. The LAN-Cell's LAN
IP address displays in the IP Address field below (read-only). The LAN-Cell tells
the DHCP clients on the LAN that the LAN-Cell itself is the DNS server. When a
computer on the LAN sends a DNS query to the LAN-Cell, the LAN-Cell forwards
the query to the LAN-Cell's system DNS server (configured in menu 1) and relays
the response back to the computer. You can only select DNS Relay for one of the
three servers; if you select DNS Relay for a second or third DNS server, that choice
changes to None after you save your changes.
Select None if you do not want to configure DNS servers. If you do not configure a
DNS server, you must know the IP address of a machine in order to access it.
DHCP Server
Address
If Relay is selected in the DHCP field above, then type the IP address of the actual,
remote DHCP server here.
Use the instructions in the following table to configure TCP/IP parameters for the LAN port.
"
LAN and DMZ IP addresses must be on separate subnets.
Table 189 Menu 3.2: LAN TCP/IP Setup Fields
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
TCP/IP Setup:
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your LAN-Cell in dotted decimal notation
IP Subnet Mask
Your LAN-Cell will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the IP
address that you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet
mask computed by the LAN-Cell.
RIP Direction
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the RIP direction. Options are:
Both, In Only, Out Only or None.
Version
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the RIP version. Options are:
RIP-1, RIP-2B or RIP-2M.
Multicast
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a session-layer protocol used to
establish membership in a Multicast group. The LAN-Cell supports both IGMP
version 1 (IGMP-v1) and version 2 (IGMP-v2). Press [SPACE BAR] and then
[ENTER] to enable IP Multicasting or select None (default) to disable it.
Edit IP Alias
The LAN-Cell supports three logical LAN interfaces via its single physical Ethernet
interface with the LAN-Cell itself as the gateway for each LAN network. Press
[SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press [ENTER] to display menu 3.2.1
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt [Press ENTER to Confirm…] to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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26.4.1 IP Alias Setup
IP alias allows you to partition a physical network into different logical networks over the
same Ethernet interface. The LAN-Cell supports three logical LAN interfaces via its single
physical Ethernet interface with the LAN-Cell itself as the gateway for each LAN network.
Use menu 3.2 to configure the first network. Move the cursor to the Edit IP Alias field, press
[SPACE BAR] to choose Yes and press [ENTER] to open Menu 3.2.1 - IP Alias Setup, as
shown next. Use this menu to configure the second and third networks.
Figure 268 Menu 3.2.1: IP Alias Setup
Menu 3.2.1 - IP Alias Setup
IP Alias 1= Yes
IP Address= 192.168.2.1
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= None
Version= RIP-1
Incoming protocol filters=
Outgoing protocol filters=
IP Alias 2= No
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
RIP Direction= N/A
Version= N/A
Incoming protocol filters= N/A
Outgoing protocol filters= N/A
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Use the instructions in the following table to configure IP alias parameters.
Table 190 Menu 3.2.1: IP Alias Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
IP Alias 1, 2
Choose Yes to configure the LAN network for the LAN-Cell.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your LAN-Cell in dotted decimal notation.
IP Subnet Mask
Your LAN-Cell will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the IP address
that you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet mask
computed by the LAN-Cell.
RIP Direction
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the RIP direction. Options are
Both, In Only, Out Only or None.
Version
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the RIP version. Options are
RIP-1, RIP-2B or RIP-2M.
Incoming
Protocol Filters
Enter the filter set(s) you wish to apply to the incoming traffic between this node and
the LAN-Cell.
Outgoing
Protocol Filters
Enter the filter set(s) you wish to apply to the outgoing traffic between this node and
the LAN-Cell.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt [Press ENTER to Confirm…] to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER
27
Ethernet WAN Internet Access
This chapter shows you how to configure your LAN-Cell for Internet access via the Ethernet
WAN interface.
27.1 Introduction to Internet Access Setup
Use information from your ISP along with the instructions in this chapter to set up your LANCell to access the Internet. There are three different menu 4 screens depending on whether you
chose Ethernet, PPTP or PPPoE Encapsulation. Contact your ISP to determine what
encapsulation type you should use.
"
This menu configures the wired WAN interface on the LAN-Cell 2. Configure
the CELL interface in Menu 11.2 - Remote Node Profile or in the WIRELESS
> CELLULAR screen via the web configurator.
27.2 Ethernet Encapsulation
If you choose Ethernet in menu 4 you will see the next menu.
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Figure 269 Menu 4: Internet Access Setup (Ethernet)
Menu 4 - Ethernet WAN Setup
ISP's Name= WAN
Encapsulation= Ethernet
Service Type= Standard
My Login= N/A
My Password= N/A
Retype to Confirm= N/A
Login Server= N/A
Relogin Every (min)= N/A
IP Address Assignment= Dynamic
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
Gateway IP Address= N/A
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 191 Menu 4: Ethernet WAN Setup (Ethernet)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
ISP’s Name
This is the descriptive name of your ISP for identification purposes.
Encapsulation
Press [SPACE BAR] and then press [ENTER] to choose Ethernet. The
encapsulation method influences your choices for the IP Address field.
Service Type
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Standard, RR-Toshiba
(RoadRunner Toshiba authentication method), RR-Manager (RoadRunner Manager
authentication method), RR-Telstra or Telia Login. Choose a RoadRunner flavor if
your ISP is Time Warner's RoadRunner; otherwise choose Standard.
Note: DSL users must choose the Standard option only. The My Login, My
Password and Login Server fields are not applicable in this case.
448
My Login
Enter the login name given to you by your ISP.
My Password
Type your password again for confirmation.
Retype to
Confirm
Enter your password again to make sure that you have entered is correctly.
Login Server
The LAN-Cell will find the RoadRunner Server IP if this field is left blank. If it does
not, then you must enter the authentication server IP address.
Relogin Every
(min)
This field is available when you select Telia Login in the Service Type field.
The Telia server logs the LAN-Cell out if the LAN-Cell does not log in periodically.
Type the number of minutes from 1 to 59 (30 recommended) for the LAN-Cell to wait
between logins.
IP Address
Assignment
If your ISP did not assign you a fixed IP address, press [SPACE BAR] and then
[ENTER] to select Dynamic, otherwise select Static and enter the IP address and
subnet mask in the following fields.
IP Address
Enter the (fixed) IP address assigned to you by your ISP (static IP address
assignment is selected in the previous field).
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask associated with your static IP.
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Table 191 Menu 4: Ethernet WAN Setup (Ethernet) (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Gateway IP
Address
Enter the gateway IP address associated with your static IP.
Network
Address
Translation
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows the translation of an Internet protocol
address used within one network (for example a private IP address used in a local
network) to a different IP address known within another network (for example a
public IP address used on the Internet).
Choose None to disable NAT.
Choose SUA Only if you have a single public IP address. SUA (Single User
Account) is a subset of NAT that supports two types of mapping: Many-to-One and
Server.
Choose Full Feature if you have multiple public IP addresses. Full Feature
mapping types include: One-to-One, Many-to-One (SUA/PAT), Many-to-Many
Overload, Many- One-to-One and Server. When you select Full Feature you must
configure at least one address mapping set!
Please see Chapter 13 on page 289 for a more detailed discussion on the Network
Address Translation feature.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
27.3 Configuring the PPTP Client
"
The LAN-Cell supports only one PPTP server connection at any given time.
To configure a PPTP client, you must configure the My Login and Password fields for a PPP
connection and the PPTP parameters for a PPTP connection.
After configuring My Login and Password for PPP connection, press [SPACE BAR] and
then [ENTER] in the Encapsulation field in Menu 4 -Ethernet WAN Setup to choose
PPTP as your encapsulation option. This brings up the following screen.
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Figure 270 IEthernet WAN Setup (PPTP)
Menu 4 - Ethernet WAN Setup
ISP's Name= WAN
Encapsulation= PPTP
Service Type= N/A
My Login=
My Password= ********
Retype to Confirm= ********
Idle Timeout= 100
IP Address Assignment= Dynamic
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
Gateway IP Address= N/A
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table contains instructions about the new fields when you choose PPTP in the
Encapsulation field in menu 4.
Table 192 New Fields in Menu 4 (PPTP) Screen
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Encapsulation
Press [SPACE BAR] and then press [ENTER] to choose PPTP. The encapsulation
method influences your choices for the IP Address field.
Idle Timeout
This value specifies the time, in seconds, that elapses before the LAN-Cell
automatically disconnects from the PPTP server.
27.4 Configuring the PPPoE Client
If you enable PPPoE in menu 4, you will see the next screen.
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Figure 271 Ethernet WAN Setup (PPPoE)
Menu 4 - Ethernet WAN Setup
ISP's Name= WAN
Encapsulation= PPPoE
Service Type= N/A
My Login=
My Password= ********
Retype to Confirm= ********
Idle Timeout= 100
IP Address Assignment= Dynamic
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
Gateway IP Address= N/A
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table contains instructions about the new fields when you choose PPPoE in the
Encapsulation field in menu 4.
Table 193 New Fields in Menu 4 (PPPoE) screen
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Encapsulation
Press [SPACE BAR] and then press [ENTER] to choose PPPoE. The
encapsulation method influences your choices in the IP Address field.
Idle Timeout
This value specifies the time in seconds that elapses before the LAN-Cell
automatically disconnects from the PPPoE server.
If you need a PPPoE service name to identify and reach the PPPoE server, please go to menu
11 and enter the PPPoE service name provided to you in the Service Name field.
27.5 Basic Setup Complete
Well done! You have successfully connected, installed and set up your LAN-Cell to operate
on your network as well as access the Internet.
"
When the firewall is activated, the default policy allows all communications to
the Internet that originate from the LAN, and blocks all traffic to the LAN that
originates from the Internet, except for traffic to the LAN-Cell’s remote
management ports.
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You may deactivate the firewall in menu 21.2 or via the LAN-Cell embedded web
configurator. You may also define additional firewall rules or modify existing ones but please
exercise extreme caution in doing so. See the chapters on firewall for more information on the
firewall.
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CHAPTER
28
DMZ Setup
This chapter describes how to configure the LAN-Cell’s DMZ using Menu 5 - DMZ Setup.
28.1 Configuring DMZ Setup
From the main menu, enter 5 to open Menu 5 – DMZ Setup.
Figure 272
Menu 5: DMZ Setup
Menu 5 - DMZ Setup
1. DMZ Port Filter Setup
2. TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
28.2 DMZ Port Filter Setup
This menu allows you to specify the filter sets that you wish to apply to your public server(s)
traffic.
Figure 273 Menu 5.1: DMZ Port Filter Setup
Menu 5.1 - DMZ Port Filter Setup
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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28.3 TCP/IP Setup
For more detailed information about RIP setup, IP Multicast and IP alias, please refer to
Chapter 4 on page 77.
28.3.1 IP Address
From the main menu, enter 5 to open Menu 5 - DMZ Setup to configure TCP/IP (RFC 1155).
Figure 274 Menu 5: DMZ Setup
Menu 5 - DMZ Setup
1. DMZ Port Filter Setup
2. TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
From menu 5, select the submenu option 2. TCP/IP and DHCP Setup and press [ENTER].
The screen now displays Menu 5.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup, as shown next.
Figure 275 Menu 5.2: TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
Menu 5.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
DHCP= None
Client IP Pool:
Starting Address= N/A
Size of Client IP Pool= N/A
TCP/IP Setup:
IP Address= 10.10.2.1
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= None
Version= N/A
Multicast= IGMP-v2
Edit IP Alias= No
DHCP Server Address= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The DHCP and TCP/IP setup fields are the same as the ones in Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and
DHCP Ethernet Setup. Each public server will need a unique IP address. Refer to Section
26.4 on page 442 for information on how to configure these fields.
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"
DMZ, WLAN and LAN IP addresses must be on separate subnets. You must
also configure NAT for the DMZ port (see Chapter 33 on page 477) in menus
15.1 and 15.2.
28.3.2 IP Alias Setup
Use menu 5.2 to configure the first network. Move the cursor to the Edit IP Alias field, press
[SPACE BAR] to choose Yes and press [ENTER] to open Menu 5.2.1 - IP Alias Setup, as
shown next. Use this menu to configure the second and third networks.
Figure 276 Menu 5.2.1: IP Alias Setup
Menu 5.2.1 - IP Alias Setup
IP Alias 1= No
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
RIP Direction= N/A
Version= N/A
Incoming protocol filters=
Outgoing protocol filters=
IP Alias 2= No
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
RIP Direction= N/A
Version= N/A
Incoming protocol filters=
Outgoing protocol filters=
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Refer to Table 190 on page 445 for instructions on configuring IP alias parameters.
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CHAPTER
29
Route Setup
This chapter describes how to configure the LAN-Cell's WAN Connectivity and Traffic
Redirect features.
29.1 Configuring Route Setup
From the main menu, enter 6 to open Menu 6 - Route Setup.
Figure 277 Menu 6: Route Setup
Menu 6 - Route Setup
1. Route Assessment
2. Traffic Redirect
3. Route Failover
Enter Menu Selection Number:
29.2 Route Assessment
This menu allows you to configure the Ping Continity properties.
Figure 278 Menu 6.1: Route Assessment
Menu 6.1 - Route Assessment
Probing WAN Check Point= Yes
Use Default Gateway as Check Point= Yes
Check Point= N/A
Probing CELL Check Point= Yes
Use Default Gateway as Check Point= Yes
Check Point= N/A
Probing Traffic Redirection Check Point= No
Use Default Gateway as Check Point= N/A
Check Point= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 194 Menu 6.1: Route Assessment
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Probing WAN/CELL
Check Point
Press [SPACE BAR] and then press [ENTER] to choose Yes to test your LANCell's WAN accessibility.
If you do not select No in the Use Default Gateway as Check Point field and
enter a domain name or IP address of a reliable nearby computer (for example,
your ISP's DNS server address) in the Check Point field, the LAN-Cell will use
the default gateway IP address.
Probing Traffic
Redirection Check
Point
Press [SPACE BAR] and then press [ENTER] to choose Yes to test your LANCell's traffic redirect connection.
If you do not select No in the Use Default Gateway as Check Point field and
enter a domain name or IP address of a reliable nearby computer (for example,
your ISP's DNS server address) in the Check Point field, the LAN-Cell will use
the default gateway IP address.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt "Press ENTER to Confirm…" to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
29.3 Traffic Redirect
To configure the parameters for traffic redirect, enter 2 in Menu 6 - Route Setup to open
Menu 6.2 - Traffic Redirect as shown next.
Figure 279 Menu 6.2: Traffic Redirect
Menu 6.2 - Traffic Redirect
Active= No
Configuration:
Backup Gateway IP Address= 0.0.0.0
Metric= 14
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 195 Menu 6.2: Traffic Redirect
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] and select Yes (to enable) or No (to disable) traffic
redirect setup. The default is No.
Backup Gateway IP
Address
Enter the IP address of your backup gateway in dotted decimal notation.
The LAN-Cell automatically forwards traffic to this IP address if the LAN-Cell's
Internet connection terminates.
Metric
This field sets this route's priority among the routes the LAN-Cell uses.
Enter a number from 1 to 15 to set this route's priority among the LAN-Cell's
routes (see Section on page 92) The smaller the number, the higher priority
the route has.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt "Press ENTER to Confirm…" to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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29.4 Route Failover
This menu allows you to configure how the LAN-Cell uses the route assessment ping
Connectivity check function.
Figure 280 Menu 6.3: Route Failover
Menu 6.3 - Route Failover
Period= 5
Timeout=: 3
Fail Tolerance= 3
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 196 Menu 6.3: Route Failover
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Period
Type the number of seconds for the LAN-Cell to wait between checks to see if it
can connect to the WAN IP address (in the Check Point field of menu 6.1) or the
default gateway. Allow more time if your destination IP address handles lots of
traffic.
Timeout
Type the number of seconds for your LAN-Cell to wait for a ping response from the
IP address in the Check Point field of menu 6.1 before it times out. The WAN
connection is considered "down" after the LAN-Cell times out the number of times
specified in the Fail Tolerance field. Use a higher value in this field if your network
is busy or congested.
Fail Tolerance
Type the number of times your LAN-Cell may attempt and fail to connect to the
Internet before traffic is forwarded to the backup gateway.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt "Press ENTER to Confirm…" to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER
30
WLAN Setup
Use menu 7 to configure the IP address for LAN-Cell’s WLAN interface, other TCP/IP and
DHCP settings.
30.1 TCP/IP Setup
For more detailed information about RIP setup, IP Multicast and IP alias, please refer to
Chapter 4 on page 77.
30.1.1 IP Address
From the main menu, enter 7 to open Menu 7 - WLAN Setup to configure TCP/IP (RFC
1155).
Figure 281 Menu 7: WLAN Setup
Menu 7 - WLAN Setup
2. TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
From menu 7, select the submenu option 2. TCP/IP and DHCP Setup and press [ENTER].
The screen now displays Menu 7.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup, as shown next.
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Figure 282 Menu 7.2: TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
Menu 7.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
DHCP= None
Client IP Pool:
Starting Address= N/A
Size of Client IP Pool= N/A
TCP/IP Setup:
IP Address= 0.0.0.0
IP Subnet Mask= 0.0.0.0
RIP Direction= None
Version= N/A
Multicast= IGMP-v2
Edit IP Alias= No
DHCP Server Address= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The DHCP and TCP/IP setup fields are the same as the ones in Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and
DHCP Ethernet Setup. Each public server will need a unique IP address. Refer to Section
26.4 on page 442 for information on how to configure these fields.
"
DMZ, WLAN and LAN IP addresses must be on separate subnets. You must
also configure NAT for the WLAN port (see Chapter 33 on page 477) in menus
15.1 and 15.2.
30.1.2 IP Alias Setup
You must use menu 7.2 to configure the first network. Move the cursor to the Edit IP Alias
field, press [SPACE BAR] to choose Yes and press [ENTER] to configure the second and
third network.
Pressing [ENTER] opens Menu 7.2.1 - IP Alias Setup, as shown next.
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Figure 283 Menu 7.2.1: IP Alias Setup
Menu 7.2.1 - IP Alias Setup
IP Alias 1= No
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
RIP Direction= N/A
Version= N/A
IP Alias 2= No
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
RIP Direction= N/A
Version= N/A
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Refer to Table 190 on page 445 for instructions on configuring IP alias parameters.
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CHAPTER
31
WAN ISP Setup
This chapter shows you how to configure a remote node to access an ISP via a WAN interface.
31.1 Introduction to WAN ISP Setup
A remote node is required for placing calls to an ISP’s remote gateway. A remote node
represents both the remote gateway and the network behind it across a WAN connection. Note
that when you use menu 4 to set up WAN ISP access, you are actually configuring a remote
node. The following describes how to configure Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile, Menu
11.1.2 - Remote Node Network Layer Options and Menu 11.1.4 - Remote Node Filter.
31.2 Remote Node Setup
From the main menu, select menu option 11 to open Menu 11 - WAN ISP Setup (shown
below).
Enter 1 to open Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile and configure the setup for your Ethernet
WAN port. Enter 2 to open Menu 11.2 - Remote Node Profile (Cellular 3G WAN) and
configure the setup for your 3G connection. Enter 3 to open Menu 11.3 Remote Node Profile
(Backup ISP) and configure the setup for your Dial Backup port connection (see Chapter 25
on page 427).
Figure 284 Menu 11: WAN ISP Setup
Menu 11 - WAN ISP Setup
1. WAN (ISP, SUA)
2. CELLULAR(ISP, SUA)
3. -Dial (BACKUP_ISP, SUA)
Enter Node # to Edit:
31.3 Remote Node Profile Setup
The following explains how to configure the remote node profile menu.
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31.3.1 Ethernet Encapsulation
There are three variations of menu 11.1 depending on whether you choose Ethernet
Encapsulation, PPPoE Encapsulation or PPTP Encapsulation. You must choose the
Ethernet option when the WAN port is used as a regular Ethernet. The first menu 11.1 screen
you see is for Ethernet encapsulation shown next.
Figure 285 Menu 11.1: Remote Node Profile for Ethernet Encapsulation
Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Rem Node Name= WAN
Active= Yes
Encapsulation= Ethernet
Service Type= Standard
Outgoing:
My Login= N/A
My Password= N/A
Retype to Confirm= N/A
Server= N/A
Relogin Every (min)= N/A
Route= IP
Edit IP= No
Session Options:
Schedules=
Edit Filter Sets= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 197 Menu 11.1: Remote Node Profile for Ethernet Encapsulation
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Rem Node
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the remote node. This field can be up to eight
characters.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes (activate remote node) or No
(deactivate remote node).
Encapsulation
Ethernet is the default encapsulation. Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to
change to PPPoE or PPTP encapsulation.
Service Type
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select from Standard, RR-Toshiba
(RoadRunner Toshiba authentication method), RR-Manager (RoadRunner
Manager authentication method), RR-Telstra or Telia Login. Choose one of the
RoadRunner methods if your ISP is Time Warner's RoadRunner; otherwise choose
Standard.
Outgoing
466
My Login
This field is applicable for PPPoE encapsulation only. Enter the login name
assigned by your ISP when the LAN-Cell calls this remote node. Some ISPs
append this field to the Service Name field above (e.g., jim@poellc) to access the
PPPoE server.
My Password
Enter the password assigned by your ISP when the LAN-Cell calls this remote
node. Valid for PPPoE encapsulation only.
Retype to
Confirm
Type your password again to make sure that you have entered it correctly.
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Table 197 Menu 11.1: Remote Node Profile for Ethernet Encapsulation (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Server
This field is valid only when RoadRunner is selected in the Service Type field. The
LAN-Cell will find the RoadRunner Server IP automatically if this field is left blank. If
it does not, then you must enter the authentication server IP address here.
Relogin Every
(min)
This field is available when you select Telia Login in the Service Type field.
The Telia server logs the LAN-Cell out if the LAN-Cell does not log in periodically.
Type the number of minutes from 1 to 59 (30 recommended) for the LAN-Cell to
wait between logins.
Route
This field refers to the protocol that will be routed by your LAN-Cell – IP is the only
option for the LAN-Cell.
Edit IP
This field leads to a “hidden” menu. Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press
[ENTER] to go to Menu 11.1.2 - Remote Node Network Layer Options.
Session Options
Schedules
You can apply up to four schedule sets here. For more details please refer to
Chapter 42 on page 563.
Edit Filter Sets
This field leads to another “hidden” menu. Use [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and
press [ENTER] to open menu 11.1.4 to edit the filter sets. See Section 31.5 on page
471 for more details.
Once you have configured this menu, press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to Confirm...” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
31.3.2 PPPoE Encapsulation
The LAN-Cell supports PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet). You can only use
PPPoE encapsulation when you’re using the LAN-Cell with a DSL modem as the WAN
device. If you change the Encapsulation to PPPoE, then you will see the next screen.
Figure 286 Menu 11.1: Remote Node Profile for PPPoE Encapsulation
Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Rem Node Name= ChangeMe
Active= Yes
Route= IP
Encapsulation= PPPoE
Service Type= Standard
Service Name=
Outgoing:
My Login=
My Password= ********
Retype to Confirm= ********
Authen= CHAP/PAP
Edit IP= No
Telco Option:
Allocated Budget(min)= 0
Period(hr)= 0
Schedules=
Always On Connection= No
Session Options:
Edit Filter Sets= No
Idle Timeout(sec)= 100
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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31.3.2.1 Outgoing Authentication Protocol
Generally speaking, you should employ the strongest authentication protocol possible, for
obvious reasons. However, some vendor’s implementation includes a specific authentication
protocol in the user profile. It will disconnect if the negotiated protocol is different from that in
the user profile, even when the negotiated protocol is stronger than specified. If you encounter
a case where the peer disconnects right after a successful authentication, please make sure that
you specify the correct authentication protocol when connecting to such an implementation.
31.3.2.2 Always-On Connection
An Always-On (nailed-up) connection is a dial-up line where the connection is always up
regardless of traffic demand. The LAN-Cell does two things when you specify an always-on
connection. The first is that idle timeout is disabled. The second is that the LAN-Cell will try
to bring up the connection when turned on and whenever the connection is down. An alwayson connection can be very expensive for obvious reasons.
Do not specify an always-on connection unless your telephone company offers flat-rate
service or you need a constant connection and the cost is of no concern.
The following table describes the fields not already described in Table 197 on page 466.
31.3.2.3 Metric
See Section on page 92 for details on the Metric field.
Table 198 Fields in Menu 11.1 (PPPoE Encapsulation Specific)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Service Name
If you are using PPPoE encapsulation, then type the name of your PPPoE service
here. Only valid with PPPoE encapsulation.
Authen
This field sets the authentication protocol used for outgoing calls.
Options for this field are:
CHAP/PAP - Your LAN-Cell will accept either CHAP or PAP when requested by this
remote node.
CHAP - accept CHAP only.
PAP - accept PAP only.
Telco Option
Allocated
Budget
The field sets a ceiling for outgoing call time for this remote node. The default for this
field is 0 meaning no budget control.
Period(hr)
This field is the time period that the budget should be reset. For example, if we are
allowed to call this remote node for a maximum of 10 minutes every hour, then the
Allocated Budget is (10 minutes) and the Period(hr) is 1 (hour).
Schedules
You can apply up to four schedule sets here. For more details please refer to
Chapter 42 on page 563.
Always On
Connection
This field specifies if you want to make the connection to this remote node an alwayson connection. More details are given earlier in this section.
Session
Options
Idle Timeout
Type the length of idle time (when there is no traffic from the LAN-Cell to the remote
node) in seconds that can elapse before the LAN-Cell automatically disconnects the
PPPoE connection. This option only applies when the LAN-Cell initiates the call.
31.3.3 PPTP Encapsulation
If you change the Encapsulation to PPTP in menu 11.1, then you will see the next screen.
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Figure 287 Menu 11.1: Remote Node Profile for PPTP Encapsulation
Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Rem Node Name= ChangeMe
Active= Yes
Route= IP
Encapsulation= PPTP
Service Type= Standard
Edit IP= No
Telco Option:
Allocated Budget(min)= 0
Period(hr)= 0
Schedules=
Always On Connection= No
Outgoing:
My Login=
My Password= ********
Retype to Confirm= ********
Authen= CHAP/PAP
PPTP:
My IP Addr= 10.0.0.140
My IP Mask= 255.255.255.0
Server IP Addr= 10.0.0.138
Connection ID/Name=
Session Options:
Edit Filter Sets= No
Idle Timeout(sec)= 100
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The next table shows how to configure fields in menu 11.1 not previously discussed.
Table 199 Menu 11.1: Remote Node Profile for PPTP Encapsulation
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Encapsulation
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select PPTP. You must also go to menu
11.3 to check the IP Address setting once you have selected the encapsulation
method.
My IP Addr
Enter the IP address of the WAN Ethernet port.
My IP Mask
Enter the subnet mask of the WAN Ethernet port.
Server IP Addr
Enter the IP address of the ANT modem.
Connection ID/
Name
Enter the connection ID or connection name in the ANT. It must follow the “c:id” and
“n:name” format.
This field is optional and depends on the requirements of your DSL modem.
Schedules
You can apply up to four schedule sets here. For more details refer to Chapter 42
on page 563.
Always On
Connections
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes if you want to make the
connection to this remote node an always-on connection.
31.4 Edit IP
Move the cursor to the Edit IP field in menu 11.1, then press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes.
Press [ENTER] to open Menu 11.1.2 - Remote Node Network Layer Options. Not all fields
are available on all models.
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Figure 288 Menu 11.1.2: Remote Node Network Layer Options for Ethernet Encapsulation
Menu 11.1.2 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Address Assignment= Dynamic
Rem IP Addr= N/A
Rem Subnet Mask= N/A
My WAN Addr= N/A
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
NAT Lookup Set= 255
Metric= 1
Private= No
RIP Direction= None
Version= N/A
Multicast= None
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
This menu displays the My WAN Addr field for PPPoE and PPTP encapsulations and
Gateway IP Addr field for Ethernet encapsulation. The following table describes the fields
in this menu.
Table 200 Remote Node Network Layer Options Menu Fields
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
Assignment
If your ISP did not assign you an explicit IP address, press [SPACE BAR] and then
[ENTER] to select Dynamic; otherwise select Static and enter the IP address &
subnet mask in the following fields.
(Rem) IP
Address
If you have a static IP Assignment, enter the IP address assigned to you by your ISP.
(Rem) IP
Subnet Mask
If you have a static IP Assignment, enter the subnet mask assigned to you.
Gateway IP
Addr
This field is applicable to Ethernet encapsulation only. Enter the gateway IP address
assigned to you if you are using a static IP address.
My WAN Addr This field is applicable to PPPoE and PPTP encapsulations only. Some
implementations, especially the UNIX derivatives, require the WAN link to have a
separate IP network number from the LAN and each end must have a unique address
within the WAN network number. If this is the case, enter the IP address assigned to
the WAN port of your LAN-Cell.
Note that this is the address assigned to your local LAN-Cell, not the remote router.
Network
Address
Translation
470
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows the translation of an Internet protocol
address used within one network (for example a private IP address used in a local
network) to a different IP address known within another network (for example a public
IP address used on the Internet).
Choose None to disable NAT.
Choose SUA Only if you have a single public IP address. SUA (Single User Account)
is a subset of NAT that supports two types of mapping: Many-to-One and Server.
Choose Full Feature if you have multiple public IP addresses. Full Feature mapping
types include: One-to-One, Many-to-One (SUA/PAT), Many-to-Many Overload,
Many- One-to-One and Server. When you select Full Feature you must configure at
least one address mapping set.
See Chapter 13 on page 289 for a full discussion on this feature.
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Table 200 Remote Node Network Layer Options Menu Fields (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
NAT Lookup
Set
If you select SUA Only in the Network Address Translation field, it displays 255 and
indicates the SMT will use the pre-configured Set 255 (read only) in menu 15.1.
If you select Full Feature or None in the Network Address Translation field, it
displays 1, 2 or 3 and indicates the SMT will use the pre-configured Set 1 in menu
15.1 for the first WAN port, Set 2 in menu 15.1 for the second WAN port and Set 3 for
the Backup port.
Refer to Section 33.2 on page 479 for more information.
Metric
Enter a number from 1 to 15 to set this route’s priority among the LAN-Cell’s routes
(see Section on page 92). The smaller the number, the higher priority the route has.
Private
This field is valid only for PPTP/PPPoE encapsulation. This parameter determines if
the LAN-Cell will include the route to this remote node in its RIP broadcasts. If set to
Yes, this route is kept private and not included in RIP broadcast. If No, the route to this
remote node will be propagated to other hosts through RIP broadcasts.
RIP Direction
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the RIP direction from Both/ None/In
Only/Out Only. See Chapter 4 on page 77 for more information on RIP. The default
for RIP on the WAN side is None. It is recommended that you do not change this
setting.
Version
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the RIP version from RIP-1/RIP-2B/
RIP-2M or None.
Multicast
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to establish
membership in a Multicast group. The LAN-Cell supports both IGMP version 1 (IGMPv1) and version 2 (IGMP-v2). Press [SPACE BAR] to enable IP Multicasting or select
None to disable it. See Chapter 4 on page 77 for more information on this feature.
Once you have completed filling in Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options, press [ENTER]
at the message “Press ENTER to Confirm...” to save your configuration and return to menu 11, or
press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
31.5 Remote Node Filter
Move the cursor to the field Edit Filter Sets in menu 11.1, and then press [SPACE BAR] to
set the value to Yes. Press [ENTER] to open Menu 11.1.4 - Remote Node Filter.
Use menu 11.1.4 to specify the filter set(s) to apply to the incoming and outgoing traffic
between this remote node and the LAN-Cell to prevent certain packets from triggering calls.
You can specify up to 4 filter sets separated by commas, for example, 1, 5, 9, 12, in each filter
field. Note that spaces are accepted in this field. For more information on defining the filters,
please refer to Chapter 35 on page 499. For PPPoE or PPTP encapsulation, you have the
additional option of specifying remote node call filter sets.
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Figure 289 Menu 11.1.4: Remote Node Filter (Ethernet Encapsulation)
Menu 11.1.4 - Remote Node Filter
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Figure 290 Menu 11.1.4: Remote Node Filter (PPPoE or PPTP Encapsulation)
Menu 11.1.4 - Remote Node Filter
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Call Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
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CHAPTER
32
IP Static Route Setup
This chapter shows you how to configure static routes with your LAN-Cell.
32.1 IP Static Route Setup
Enter 12 from the main menu. Select one of the IP static routes as shown next to configure IP
static routes in menu 12.1.
"
"
The first two static route entries are for default WAN and CELL routes. You
cannot modify or delete a static default route.
The default route is disabled after you change the static WAN IP address to a
dynamic WAN IP address.
The “-” before a route name indicates the static route is inactive.
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Figure 291 Menu 12: IP Static Route Setup
Menu 12 - IP Static Route Setup
1.Reserved
2.Reserved
3.________
4.________
5.________
6.________
7.________
8.________
9.________
10.________
11.________
12.________
13.________
14.________
15.________
16.________
17.________
18.________
19.________
20.________
21.________
22.________
23.________
24.________
25.________
26.________
27.________
28.________
29.________
30.________
Enter selection number:
Now, enter the index number of the static route that you want to configure.
Figure 292 Menu 12. 1: Edit IP Static Route
Menu 12.1 - Edit IP Static Route
Route #: 3
Route Name= ?
Active= No
Destination IP Address= ?
IP Subnet Mask= ?
Gateway IP Address= ?
Metric= 2
Private= No
Press ENTER to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
`The following table describes the IP Static Route Menu fields.
Table 201 Menu 12. 1: Edit IP Static Route
474
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Route #
This is the index number of the static route that you chose in menu 12.
Route Name
Enter a descriptive name for this route. This is for identification purposes only.
Active
This field allows you to activate/deactivate this static route.
Destination IP
Address
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination. Routing is
always based on network number. If you need to specify a route to a single host,
use a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255 in the subnet mask field to force the network
number to be identical to the host ID.
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Table 201 Menu 12. 1: Edit IP Static Route
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask for this destination.
Gateway IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor of your
LAN-Cell that will forward the packet to the destination. On the LAN, the gateway
must be a router on the same segment as your LAN-Cell; over the WAN, the
gateway must be the IP address of one of the remote nodes.
Metric
Enter a number from 1 to 15 to set this route’s priority among the LAN-Cell’s routes
(see Section on page 92). The smaller the number, the higher priority the route
has.
Private
This parameter determines if the LAN-Cell will include the route to this remote node
in its RIP broadcasts. If set to Yes, this route is kept private and not included in RIP
broadcast. If No, the route to this remote node will be propagated to other hosts
through RIP broadcasts.
Once you have completed filling in this menu, press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to
Confirm…” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] to cancel.
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CHAPTER
33
Network Address Translation
(NAT)
This chapter discusses how to configure NAT on the LAN-Cell.
33.1 Using NAT
"
You must create a firewall rule in addition to setting up SUA/NAT, to allow
traffic from the WAN to be forwarded through the LAN-Cell.
33.1.1 SUA (Single User Account) Versus NAT
SUA (Single User Account) is a ProxiOS implementation of a subset of NAT that supports
two types of mapping, Many-to-One and Server. See Section 33.2.1 on page 480 for a
detailed description of the NAT set for SUA. The LAN-Cell also supports Full Feature NAT
to map multiple global IP addresses to multiple private LAN IP addresses of clients or servers
using mapping types.
"
Choose SUA Only if you have just one public WAN IP address for your LANCell.
Choose Full Feature if you have multiple public WAN IP addresses for your
LAN-Cell.
33.1.2 Applying NAT
You apply NAT via menu 4 or 11.1.2 as displayed next. The next figure shows you how to
apply NAT for Internet access in menu 4. Enter 4 from the main menu to go to Menu 4 Ethernet WAN Setup.
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Figure 293 Menu 4: Applying NAT for Internet Access
Menu 4 - Ethernet WAN Setup
ISP's Name= ChangeMe
Encapsulation= Ethernet
Service Type= Standard
My Login= N/A
My Password= N/A
Retype to Confirm= N/A
Login Server= N/A
Relogin Every (min)= N/A
IP Address Assignment= Dynamic
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
Gateway IP Address= N/A
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following figure shows how you apply NAT to the remote node in menu 11.1.
1 Enter 11 from the main menu.
2 Enter 1 to open Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile.
3 Move the cursor to the Edit IP field, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press
[ENTER] to bring up Menu 11.1.2 - Remote Node Network Layer Options.
Figure 294 Menu 11.1.2: Applying NAT to the Remote Node
Menu 11.1.2 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Address Assignment= Dynamic
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
Gateway IP Addr= N/A
Network Address Translation= Full Feature
NAT Lookup Set= 1
Metric= 1
Private= N/A
RIP Direction= None
Version= N/A
Multicast= None
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
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The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 202 Applying NAT in Menus 4 & 11.1.2
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS
Network
Address
Translation
When you select this option the SMT will use Address Mapping Set 1
(menu 15.1 - see Section 33.2.1 on page 480 for further discussion). You
can configure any of the mapping types described in Chapter 13 on page
289. Choose Full Feature if you have multiple public WAN IP addresses
for your LAN-Cell.
When you select Full Feature you must configure at least one address
mapping set.
Full
Feature
NAT is disabled when you select this option.
None
When you select this option the SMT will use Address Mapping Set 255
(menu 15.1 - see Section 33.2.1 on page 480). Choose SUA Only if you
have just one public WAN IP address for your LAN-Cell.
SUA Only
33.2 NAT Setup
Use the address mapping sets menus and submenus to create the mapping table used to assign
global addresses to computers on the LAN, DMZ and WLAN. Set 255 is used for SUA. When
you select Full Feature in menu 4, menu 11.1.2 or menu 11.2.2, the SMT will use Set 1 for
the first WAN port and Set 2 for the second WAN port. When you select SUA Only, the SMT
will use the pre-configured Set 255 (read only).
The server set is a list of LAN, DMZ and WLAN servers mapped to external ports. To use this
set, a server rule must be set up inside the NAT address mapping set. Please see the section on
port forwarding in Chapter 13 on page 289 for further information on these menus. To
configure NAT, enter 15 from the main menu to bring up the following screen.
"
On the LAN-Cell, you can configure port forwarding and trigger port rules for
the Ethernet WAN interface and separate sets of rules for the Cellular WAN
interface.
Figure 295 Menu 15: NAT Setup
Menu 15 - NAT Setup
1. Address Mapping Sets
2. Port Forwarding Setup
3. Trigger Port Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
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"
Configure DMZ, WLAN and LAN IP addresses in NAT menus 15.1 and 15.2.
DMZ, WLAN and LAN IP addresses must be on separate subnets.
33.2.1 Address Mapping Sets
Enter 1 to bring up Menu 15.1 - Address Mapping Sets.
Figure 296 Menu 15.1: Address Mapping Sets
Menu 15.1 - Address Mapping Sets
1. NAT_SET
2. example
255. SUA (read only)
Enter Menu Selection Number:
33.2.1.1 SUA Address Mapping Set
Enter 255 to display the next screen (see also Section 33.1.1 on page 477). The fields in this
menu cannot be changed.
Figure 297 Menu 15.1.255: SUA Address Mapping Rules
Menu 15.1.255 - Address Mapping Rules
Set Name= SUA
Idx
--1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Local Start IP
--------------0.0.0.0
Local End IP
Global Start IP Global End IP
Type
--------------- --------------- --------------- --255.255.255.255 0.0.0.0
M-1
0.0.0.0
Server
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table explains the fields in this menu.
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"
Menu 15.1.255 is read-only.
Table 203 SUA Address Mapping Rules
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Set Name
This is the name of the set you selected in menu 15.1 or enter the name of a new set
you want to create.
Idx
This is the index or rule number.
Local Start IP
Local Start IP is the starting local IP address (ILA).
Local End IP
Local End IP is the ending local IP address (ILA). If the rule is for all local IPs, then the
start IP is 0.0.0.0 and the end IP is 255.255.255.255.
Global Start
IP
This is the starting global IP address (IGA). If you have a dynamic IP, enter 0.0.0.0 as
the Global Start IP.
Global End IP
This is the ending global IP address (IGA).
Type
These are the mapping types discussed above. Server allows us to specify multiple
servers of different types behind NAT to this machine. See later for some examples.
Once you have finished configuring a rule in this menu, press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER
to Confirm…” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] to cancel.
33.2.1.2 User-Defined Address Mapping Sets
Now look at option 1 in menu 15.1. Enter 1 to bring up this menu. Look at the differences
from the previous menu. Note the extra Action and Select Rule fields mean you can configure
rules in this screen. Note also that the [?] in the Set Name field means that this is a required
field and you must enter a name for the set.
"
The entire set will be deleted if you leave the Set Name field blank and press
[ENTER] at the bottom of the screen.
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Figure 298 Menu 15.1.1: First Set
Menu 15.1.1 - Address Mapping Rules
Set Name= NAT_SET
Idx
--1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Local Start IP
Local End IP
Global Start IP Global End IP
Type
--------------- --------------- --------------- --------------- -0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255 0.0.0.0
M-1
0.0.0.0
Server
Action= None
Select Rule= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
"
The Type, Local and Global Start/End IPs are configured in menu 15.1.1.1
(described later) and the values are displayed here.
33.2.1.3 Ordering Your Rules
Ordering your rules is important because the LAN-Cell applies the rules in the order that you
specify. When a rule matches the current packet, the LAN-Cell takes the corresponding action
and the remaining rules are ignored. If there are any empty rules before your new configured
rule, your configured rule will be pushed up by that number of empty rules. For example, if
you have already configured rules 1 to 6 in your current set and now you configure rule
number 9. In the set summary screen, the new rule will be rule 7, not 9.
Now if you delete rule 4, rules 5 to 7 will be pushed up by 1 rule, so as old rule 5 becomes rule
4, old rule 6 becomes rule 5 and old rule 7 becomes rule 6.
Table 204 Fields in Menu 15.1.1
482
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Set Name
Enter a name for this set of rules. This is a required field. If this field is left blank, the entire
set will be deleted.
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Table 204 Fields in Menu 15.1.1 (continued)
"
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Action
The default is Edit. Edit means you want to edit a selected rule (see following field). Insert
Before means to insert a rule before the rule selected. The rules after the selected rule will
then be moved down by one rule. Delete means to delete the selected rule and then all
the rules after the selected one will be advanced one rule. None disables the Select Rule
item.
Select
Rule
When you choose Edit, Insert Before or Delete in the previous field the cursor jumps to
this field to allow you to select the rule to apply the action in question.
You must press [ENTER] at the bottom of the screen to save the whole set.
You must do this again if you make any changes to the set – including deleting
a rule. No changes to the set take place until this action is taken.
Selecting Edit in the Action field and then selecting a rule brings up the following menu,
Menu 15.1.1.1 - Address Mapping Rule in which you can edit an individual rule and
configure the Type, Local and Global Start/End IPs.
"
An IP End address must be numerically greater than its corresponding IP Start
address.
Figure 299 Menu 15.1.1.1: Editing/Configuring an Individual Rule in a Set
Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
Type= One-to-One
Local IP:
Start=
End = N/A
Global IP:
Start=
End = N/A
Server Mapping Set= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 205 Menu 15.1.1.1: Editing/Configuring an Individual Rule in a Set
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Type
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select from a total of five types. These are the
mapping types discussed in Chapter 13 on page 289. Server allows you to specify multiple
servers of different types behind NAT to this computer. See Section 33.4.3 on page 489 for
an example.
Local IP
Only local IP fields are N/A for server; Global IP fields MUST be set for Server.
Start
Enter the starting local IP address (ILA).
End
Enter the ending local IP address (ILA). If the rule is for all local IPs, then put the Start IP
as 0.0.0.0 and the End IP as 255.255.255.255. This field is N/A for One-to-One and Server
types.
Global IP
Start
Enter the starting global IP address (IGA). If you have a dynamic IP, enter 0.0.0.0 as the
Global IP Start. Note that Global IP Start can be set to 0.0.0.0 only if the types are Manyto-One or Server.
End
Enter the ending global IP address (IGA). This field is N/A for One-to-One, Many-to-One
and Server types.
Server
Mapping
Set
This field is available only when you select Server in the Type field.
Once you have finished configuring a rule in this menu, press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER
to Confirm…” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] to cancel.
33.3 Configuring a Server behind NAT
Follow these steps to configure a server behind NAT:
1 Enter 15 in the main menu to go to Menu 15 - NAT Setup.
2 Enter 2 to open menu 15.2.
Figure 300 Menu 15.2: NAT Server Sets
Menu 15.2 - NAT Server Sets
1. Server Set 1
2. Server Set 2
Enter Set Number to Edit:
3 Enter 1 or 2 to go to Menu 15.2.x - NAT Server Setup and configure the address
mapping rules for the WAN or CELL interface.
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Figure 301 Menu 15.2.x: NAT Server Sets
Menu 15.2.1 - NAT Server Setup
Default Server: 0.0.0.0
Rule Act.
Start Port
End Port
IP Address
-----------------------------------------------------001
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
002
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
003
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
004
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
005
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
006
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
007
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
008
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
009
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
010
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
Select Command= None
Select Rule= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
4 Select Edit Rule in the Select Command field; type the index number of the NAT
server you want to configure in the Select Rule field and press [ENTER] to open Menu
15.2.x.x - NAT Server Configuration (see the next figure).
Figure 302 15.2.x.x: NAT Server Configuration
15.2.1.2 - NAT Server Configuration
Wan= 1
Index= 2
-----------------------------------------------Name= 1
Active= Yes
Start port= 21
End port= 25
IP Address= 192.168.1.33
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 206 15.2.x.x: NAT Server Configuration
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
WAN
Yyou can configure port forwarding and trigger port rules for the Ethernet WAN port
and separate sets of rules for the Cellular WAN port.
This is the WAN port (server set) you select in menu 15.2.
Index
This is the index number of an individual port forwarding server entry.
Name
Enter a name to identify this port-forwarding rule.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to enable the NAT server entry.
Start Port
End Port
Enter a port number in the Start Port field. To forward only one port, enter it again in
the End Port field. To specify a range of ports, enter the last port to be forwarded in
the End Port field.
IP Address
Enter the inside IP address of the server.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
5 Enter a port number in the Start Port field. To forward only one port, enter it again in
the End Port field. To specify a range of ports, enter the last port to be forwarded in the
End Port field.
6 Enter the inside IP address of the server in the IP Address field. In the following figure,
you have a computer acting as an FTP, Telnet and SMTP server (ports 21, 23 and 25) at
192.168.1.33.
7 Press [ENTER] at the “Press ENTER to confirm …” prompt to save your configuration
after you define all the servers or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
Figure 303 Menu 15.2.1: NAT Server Setup
Menu 15.2.1 - NAT Server Setup
Default Server: 0.0.0.0
Rule Act.
Start Port
End Port
IP Address
-----------------------------------------------------001
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
002
Yes
21
25
192.168.1.33
003
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
004
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
005
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
006
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
007
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
008
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
009
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
010
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
Select Command= None
Select Rule= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
You assign the private network IP addresses. The NAT network appears as a single host on the
Internet. A is the FTP/Telnet/SMTP server.
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Figure 304 Server Behind NAT Example
33.4 General NAT Examples
The following are some examples of NAT configuration.
33.4.1 Internet Access Only
In the following Internet access example, you only need one rule where all your ILAs (Inside
Local addresses) map to one dynamic IGA (Inside Global Address) assigned by your ISP.
Figure 305 NAT Example 1
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Figure 306 Menu 4: Internet Access & NAT Example
Menu 4 - Internet Access Setup
ISP's Name= ChangeMe
Encapsulation= Ethernet
Service Type= Standard
My Login= N/A
My Password= N/A
Retype to Confirm= N/A
Login Server= N/A
Relogin Every (min)= N/A
IP Address Assignment= Dynamic
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
Gateway IP Address= N/A
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
From menu 4 shown above, simply choose the SUA Only option from the Network Address
Translation field. This is the Many-to-One mapping discussed in Section 33.4 on page 487.
The SUA Only read-only option from the Network Address Translation field in menus 4
and 11.3 is specifically pre-configured to handle this case.
33.4.2 Example 2: Internet Access with a Default Server
Figure 307 NAT Example 2
In this case, you do exactly as above (use the convenient pre-configured SUA Only set) and
also go to menu 15.2.1 to specify the Default Server behind the NAT as shown in the next
figure.
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"
In general, if you wish to access the LAN-Cell for remote management through
the WAN or CELLULAR interfaces, do not define a NAT Default Server. Use
the Port Forwarding Rules, Remote Management Ports, and Firewall Rules to
define WAN-based remote access to the LAN-Cell.
Figure 308 Menu 15.2.1: Specifying an Inside Server
Menu 15.2.1 - NAT Server Setup
Default Server: 192.168.1.10
Rule Act.
Start Port
End Port
IP Address
-----------------------------------------------------001
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
002
Yes
21
25
192.168.1.33
003
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
004
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
005
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
006
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
007
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
008
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
009
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
010
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
Select Command= None
Select Rule= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
33.4.3 Example 3: Multiple Public IP Addresses With Inside Servers
In this example, there are 3 IGAs from our ISP. There are many departments but two have
their own FTP server. All departments share the same router. The example will reserve one
IGA for each department with an FTP server and all departments use the other IGA. Map the
FTP servers to the first two IGAs and the other LAN traffic to the remaining IGA. Map the
third IGA to an inside web server and mail server. Four rules need to be configured, two bidirectional and two uni-directional as follows.
1 Map the first IGA to the first inside FTP server for FTP traffic in both directions (1 : 1
mapping, giving both local and global IP addresses).
2 Map the second IGA to our second inside FTP server for FTP traffic in both directions (1
: 1 mapping, giving both local and global IP addresses).
3 Map the other outgoing LAN traffic to IGA3 (Many : 1 mapping).
4 You also map your third IGA to the web server and mail server on the LAN. Type
Server allows you to specify multiple servers, of different types, to other computers
behind NAT on the LAN.
The example situation looks somewhat like this:
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Figure 309 NAT Example 3
1 In this case you need to configure Address Mapping Set 1 from Menu 15.1 - Address
Mapping Sets. Therefore you must choose the Full Feature option from the Network
Address Translation field (in menu 4 or menu 11.3) in Figure 310 on page 490.
2 Then enter 15 from the main menu.
3 Enter 1 to configure the Address Mapping Sets.
4 Enter 1 to begin configuring this new set. Enter a Set Name, choose the Edit Action
and then enter 1 for the Select Rule field. Press [ENTER] to confirm.
5 Select Type as One-to-One (direct mapping for packets going both ways), and enter
the local Start IP as 192.168.1.10 (the IP address of FTP Server 1), the global Start IP
as 10.132.50.1 (our first IGA). (See Figure 311 on page 491).
6 Repeat the previous step for rules 2 to 4 as outlined above.
7 When finished, menu 15.1.1 should look like as shown in Figure 312 on page 491.
Figure 310 Example 3: Menu 11.1.2
Menu 11.1.2 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Address Assignment= Dynamic
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
Gateway IP Addr= N/A
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Metric= 2
Private=
RIP Direction= None
Version= N/A
Multicast= None
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
The following figure shows how to configure the first rule.
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Figure 311 Example 3: Menu 15.1.1.1
Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
Type= One-to-One
Local IP:
Start= 192.168.1.10
End = N/A
Global IP:
Start= 10.132.50.1
End = N/A
Server Mapping Set= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 312 Example 3: Final Menu 15.1.1
Menu 15.1.1 - Address Mapping Rules
Set Name= Example3
Idx Local Start IP
--- --------------1. 192.168.1.10
2 192.168.1.11
3. 0.0.0.0
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Local End IP
Global Start IP Global End IP
Type
--------------- --------------- --------------- --10.132.50.1
1-1
10.132.50.2
1-1
255.255.255.255 10.132.50.3
M-1
10.132.50.3
Server
Action= Edit
Select Rule=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Now configure the IGA3 to map to our web server and mail server on the LAN.
1 Enter 15 from the main menu.
2 Enter 2 to go to menu 15.2.
3 (Enter 1 or 2 from menu 15.2) configure the menu as shown in Figure 313 on page 492.
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Figure 313 Example 3: Menu 15.2.1
Menu 15.2.1 - NAT Server Setup
Default Server: 0.0.0.0
Rule Act.
Start Port
End Port
IP Address
-----------------------------------------------------001
Yes
80
80
192.168.1.21
002
Yes
25
25
192.168.1.20
003
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
004
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
005
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
006
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
007
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
008
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
009
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
010
No
0
0
0.0.0.0
Select Command= None
Select Rule= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
33.4.4 Example 4: NAT Unfriendly Application Programs
Some applications do not support NAT Mapping using TCP or UDP port address translation.
In this case it is better to use Many-One-to-One mapping as port numbers do not change for
Many-One-to-One (and One-to-One) NAT mapping types. The following figure illustrates
this.
Figure 314 NAT Example 4
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"
Other applications such as some gaming programs are NAT unfriendly
because they embed addressing information in the data stream. These
applications won’t work through NAT even when using One-to-One and
Many-One-to-One mapping types.
Follow the steps outlined in example 3 above to configure these two menus as follows.
Figure 315 Example 4: Menu 15.1.1.1: Address Mapping Rule
Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
Type= Many-One-to-One
Local IP:
Start= 192.168.1.10
End = 192.168.1.12
Global IP:
Start= 10.132.50.1
End = 10.132.50.3
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
After you’ve configured your rule, you should be able to check the settings in menu 15.1.1 as
shown next.
Figure 316 Example 4: Menu 15.1.1: Address Mapping Rules
Menu 15.1.1 - Address Mapping Rules
Set Name= Example4
Idx
--1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Local Start IP
Local End IP
Global Start IP Global End IP
Type
--------------- --------------- --------------- --------------- --192.168.1.10
192.168.1.12
10.132.50.1
10.132.50.3
M-1-1
Action= Edit
Select Rule=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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33.5 Trigger Port Forwarding
Some services use a dedicated range of ports on the client side and a dedicated range of ports
on the server side. With regular port forwarding you set a forwarding port in NAT to forward a
service (coming in from the server on the WAN) to the IP address of a computer on the client
side (LAN). The problem is that port forwarding only forwards a service to a single LAN IP
address. In order to use the same service on a different LAN computer, you have to manually
replace the LAN computer's IP address in the forwarding port with another LAN computer's IP
address.
Trigger port forwarding solves this problem by allowing computers on the LAN to
dynamically take turns using the service. The LAN-Cell records the IP address of a LAN
computer that sends traffic to the WAN to request a service with a specific port number and
protocol (a "trigger" port). When the LAN-Cell's WAN port receives a response with a
specific port number and protocol ("incoming" port), the LAN-Cell forwards the traffic to the
LAN IP address of the computer that sent the request. After that computer’s connection for
that service closes, another computer on the LAN can use the service in the same manner. This
way you do not need to configure a new IP address each time you want a different LAN
computer to use the application.
33.5.1 Two Points To Remember About Trigger Ports
1 Trigger events only happen on data that is going coming from inside the LAN-Cell and
going to the outside.
2 If an application needs a continuous data stream, that port (range) will be tied up so that
another computer on the LAN can’t trigger it.
"
Only one LAN computer can use a trigger port (range) at a time.
Enter 3 in menu 15 to display Menu 15.3 - Trigger Ports. For a LAN-Cell with multiple
WAN interfaces, enter 1 or 2 from menu 15.3 to go to Menu 15.3.1 or Menu 15.3.2 - Trigger
Port Setup and configure trigger port rules for the first or second WAN interface.
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Figure 317 Menu 15.3.1: Trigger Port Setup
Menu 15.3.1 - Trigger Port Setup
Incoming
Trigger
Rule
Name
Start Port
End Port
Start Port
End Port
-------------------------------------------------------------1. Real Audio
6970
7170
7070
7070
2.
0
0
0
0
3.
0
0
0
0
4.
0
0
0
0
5.
0
0
0
0
6.
0
0
0
0
7.
0
0
0
0
8.
0
0
0
0
9.
0
0
0
0
10.
0
0
0
0
11.
0
0
0
0
12.
0
0
0
0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
HTTP:80
FTP:21
Telnet:23
SMTP:25
POP3:110
PPTP:1723
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 207 Menu 15.3.1: Trigger Port Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Rule
This is the rule index number.
Name
Enter a unique name for identification purposes. You may enter up to 15 characters in
this field. All characters are permitted - including spaces.
Incoming
Incoming is a port (or a range of ports) that a server on the WAN uses when it sends out
a particular service. The LAN-Cell forwards the traffic with this port (or range of ports) to
the client computer on the LAN that requested the service.
Start Port
Enter a port number or the starting port number in a range of port numbers.
End Port
Enter a port number or the ending port number in a range of port numbers.
Trigger
The trigger port is a port (or a range of ports) that causes (or triggers) the LAN-Cell to
record the IP address of the LAN computer that sent the traffic to a server on the WAN.
Start Port
Enter a port number or the starting port number in a range of port numbers.
End Port
Enter a port number or the ending port number in a range of port numbers.
Press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to Confirm...” to save your configuration, or press [ESC]
at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER
34
Firewall Status
This chapter shows you how to get started with the LAN-Cell firewall.
34.1 Firewall SMT Menus
From the main menu enter 21 to go to Menu 21 - Filter Set and Firewall Configuration to
display the screen shown next.
Figure 318 Menu 21: Filter and Firewall Setup
Menu 21 - Filter and Firewall Setup
1. Filter Setup
2. Firewall Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
34.1.1 Activating the Firewall
Enter option 2 in this menu to bring up the following screen. Press [SPACE BAR] and then
[ENTER] to select Yes in the Active field to activate the firewall. The firewall must be active
to protect against Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. Use the web configurator to configure
firewall rules.
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Figure 319 Menu 21.2: Firewall Setup
Menu 21.2 - Firewall Setup
The firewall protects against Denial of Service (DoS) attacks
when it is active.
Your network is vulnerable to attacks when the firewall is
turned off.
Refer to the User's Guide for details about the firewall
default policies.
You may define additional policy rules or modify existing ones
but please exercise extreme caution in doing so.
Active: Yes
You can use the Web Configurator to configure the firewall.
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
"
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Configure the firewall rules using the web configurator or CLI commands.
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CHAPTER
35
Filter Configuration
This chapter shows you how to create and apply filters.
35.1 Introduction to Filters
Your LAN-Cell uses filters to decide whether to allow passage of a data packet and/or to make
a call. There are two types of filter applications: data filtering and call filtering. Filters are
subdivided into device and protocol filters, which are discussed later.
Data filtering screens the data to determine if the packet should be allowed to pass. Data filters
are divided into incoming and outgoing filters, depending on the direction of the packet
relative to a port. Data filtering can be applied on either the WAN side or the LAN side. Call
filtering is used to determine if a packet should be allowed to trigger a call. Remote node call
filtering is only applicable when using PPPoE encapsulation. Outgoing packets must undergo
data filtering before they encounter call filtering as shown in the following figure.
Figure 320 Outgoing Packet Filtering Process
For incoming packets, your LAN-Cell applies data filters only. Packets are processed
depending upon whether a match is found. The following sections describe how to configure
filter sets.
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35.1.1 The Filter Structure of the LAN-Cell
A filter set consists of one or more filter rules. Usually, you would group related rules, e.g., all
the rules for NetBIOS, into a single set and give it a descriptive name. The LAN-Cell allows
you to configure up to twelve filter sets with six rules in each set, for a total of 72 filter rules in
the system. You cannot mix device filter rules and protocol filter rules within the same set.
You can apply up to four filter sets to a particular port to block multiple types of packets. With
each filter set having up to six rules, you can have a maximum of 24 rules active for a single
port.
Sets of factory default filter rules have been configured in menu 21 to prevent NetBIOS traffic
from triggering calls and to prevent incoming telnet sessions. A summary of their filter rules is
shown in the figures that follow.
The following figure illustrates the logic flow when executing a filter rule. See also Figure 325
on page 506 for the logic flow when executing an IP filter.
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Figure 321 Filter Rule Process
You can apply up to four filter sets to a particular port to block multiple types of packets. With
each filter set having up to six rules, you can have a maximum of 24 rules active for a single
port.
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35.2 Configuring a Filter Set
The LAN-Cell includes filtering for NetBIOS over TCP/IP packets by default. To configure
another filter set, follow the procedure below.
1 Enter 21 in the main menu to open menu 21.
Figure 322 Menu 21: Filter and Firewall Setup
Menu 21 - Filter and Firewall Setup
1. Filter Setup
2. Firewall Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
2 Enter 1 to bring up the following menu.
Figure 323 Menu 21.1: Filter Set Configuration
Menu 21.1 - Filter Set Configuration
Filter
Set #
-----1
2
3
4
5
6
Comments
----------------_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
Filter
Set #
-----7
8
9
10
11
12
Comments
----------------_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
Enter Filter Set Number to Configure= 0
Edit Comments= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
3 Select the filter set you wish to configure (1-12) and press [ENTER].
4 Enter a descriptive name or comment in the Edit Comments field and press [ENTER].
5 Press [ENTER] at the message [Press ENTER to confirm] to open Menu 21.1.x Filter Rules Summary.
This screen shows the summary of the existing rules in the filter set. The following tables
contain a brief description of the abbreviations used in the previous menus.
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Table 208 Abbreviations Used in the Filter Rules Summary Menu
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
A
Active: “Y” means the rule is active. “N” means the rule is inactive.
Type
The type of filter rule: “GEN” for Generic, “IP” for TCP/IP.
Filter Rules
These parameters are displayed here.
M
More.
“Y” means there are more rules to check which form a rule chain with the present rule.
An action cannot be taken until the rule chain is complete.
“N” means there are no more rules to check. You can specify an action to be taken i.e.,
forward the packet, drop the packet or check the next rule. For the latter, the next rule is
independent of the rule just checked.
m
Action Matched.
“F” means to forward the packet immediately and skip checking the remaining rules.
“D” means to drop the packet.
“N“ means to check the next rule.
n
Action Not Matched.
“F” means to forward the packet immediately and skip checking the remaining rules.
“D” means to drop the packet.
“N” means to check the next rule.
The protocol dependent filter rules abbreviation are listed as follows:
Table 209 Rule Abbreviations Used
ABBREVIATION
DESCRIPTION
IP
Pr
Protocol
SA
Source Address
SP
Source Port number
DA
Destination Address
DP
Destination Port number
GEN
Off
Offset
Len
Length
Refer to the next section for information on configuring the filter rules.
35.2.1 Configuring a Filter Rule
To configure a filter rule, type its number in Menu 21.1.x - Filter Rules Summary and press
[ENTER] to open menu 21.1.x.x for the rule.
To speed up filtering, all rules in a filter set must be of the same class, i.e., protocol filters or
generic filters. The class of a filter set is determined by the first rule that you create. When
applying the filter sets to a port, separate menu fields are provided for protocol and device
filter sets. If you include a protocol filter set in a device filter field or vice versa, the LAN-Cell
will warn you and will not allow you to save.
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35.2.2 Configuring a TCP/IP Filter Rule
This section shows you how to configure a TCP/IP filter rule. TCP/IP rules allow you to base
the rule on the fields in the IP and the upper layer protocol, for example, UDP and TCP
headers.
To configure TCP/IP rules, select TCP/IP Filter Rule from the Filter Type field and press
[ENTER] to open Menu 21.1.x.x - TCP/IP Filter Rule, as shown next.
Figure 324 Menu 21.1.1.1: TCP/IP Filter Rule
Menu 21.1.1.1 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,1
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 0
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr=
IP Mask=
Port #=
Port # Comp= None
Source: IP Addr=
IP Mask=
Port #=
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= N/A
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Check Next Rule
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes how to configure your TCP/IP filter rule.
Table 210 Menu 21.1.1.1: TCP/IP Filter Rule
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to activate the filter rule or No
to deactivate it.
IP Protocol
Protocol refers to the upper layer protocol, e.g., TCP is 6, UDP is 17 and ICMP is 1.
Type a value between 0 and 255. A value of 0 matches ANY protocol.
IP Source Route Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to apply the rule to packets
with an IP source route option. Otherwise the packets must not have a source route
option. The majority of IP packets do not have source route.
Destination
504
IP Addr
Enter the destination IP Address of the packet you wish to filter. This field is ignored
if it is 0.0.0.0.
IP Mask
Enter the IP mask to apply to the Destination: IP Addr.
Port #
Enter the destination port of the packets that you wish to filter. The range of this field
is 0 to 65535. This field is ignored if it is 0.
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Table 210 Menu 21.1.1.1: TCP/IP Filter Rule
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Port # Comp
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the comparison to apply to the
destination port in the packet against the value given in Destination: Port #.
Options are None, Equal, Not Equal, Less and Greater.
Source
IP Addr
Enter the source IP Address of the packet you wish to filter. This field is ignored if it
is 0.0.0.0.
IP Mask
Enter the IP mask to apply to the Source: IP Addr.
Port #
Enter the source port of the packets that you wish to filter. The range of this field is 0
to 65535. This field is ignored if it is 0.
Port # Comp
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the comparison to apply to the
source port in the packet against the value given in Source: Port #.
Options are None, Equal, Not Equal, Less and Greater.
TCP Estab
This field is applicable only when the IP Protocol field is 6, TCP. Press [SPACE
BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes, to have the rule match packets that want to
establish a TCP connection (SYN=1 and ACK=0); if No, it is ignored.
More
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes or No. If Yes, a matching
packet is passed to the next filter rule before an action is taken; if No, the packet is
disposed of according to the action fields.
If More is Yes, then Action Matched and Action Not Matched will be N/A.
Log
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select a logging option from the following:
None – No packets will be logged.
Action Matched - Only packets that match the rule parameters will be logged.
Action Not Matched - Only packets that do not match the rule parameters will be
logged.
Both – All packets will be logged.
Action Matched
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the action for a matching packet.
Options are Check Next Rule, Forward and Drop.
Action Not
Matched
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the action for a packet not
matching the rule.
Options are Check Next Rule, Forward and Drop.
When you have Menu 21.1.1.1 - TCP/IP Filter Rule configured, press [ENTER] at the message “Press
ENTER to Confirm” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] to cancel. This data will now be
displayed on Menu 21.1.1 - Filter Rules Summary.
The following figure illustrates the logic flow of an IP filter.
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Figure 325 Executing an IP Filter
35.2.3 Configuring a Generic Filter Rule
This section shows you how to configure a generic filter rule. The purpose of generic rules is
to allow you to filter non-IP packets. For IP, it is generally easier to use the IP rules directly.
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For generic rules, the LAN-Cell treats a packet as a byte stream as opposed to an IP or IPX
packet. You specify the portion of the packet to check with the Offset (from 0) and the Length
fields, both in bytes. The LAN-Cell applies the Mask (bit-wise ANDing) to the data portion
before comparing the result against the Value to determine a match. The Mask and Value are
specified in hexadecimal numbers. Note that it takes two hexadecimal digits to represent a
byte, so if the length is 4, the value in either field will take 8 digits, for example, FFFFFFFF.
To configure a generic rule, select Generic Filter Rule in the Filter Type field in menu
21.1.x.x and press [ENTER] to open Generic Filter Rule, as shown below.
Figure 326 Menu 21.1.1.1: Generic Filter Rule
Menu 21.1.1.1 - Generic Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,1
Filter Type= Generic Filter Rule
Active= No
Offset= 0
Length= 0
Mask= N/A
Value= N/A
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Check Next Rule
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in the Generic Filter Rule menu.
Table 211 Generic Filter Rule Menu Fields
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Filter #
This is the filter set, filter rule co-ordinates, i.e., 2,3 refers to the second filter set and the
third rule of that set.
Filter Type
Use [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select a rule type. Parameters displayed below
each type will be different. TCP/IP filter rules are used to filter IP packets while generic
filter rules allow filtering of non-IP packets.
Options are Generic Filter Rule and TCP/IP Filter Rule.
Active
Select Yes to turn on the filter rule or No to turn it off.
Offset
Enter the starting byte of the data portion in the packet that you wish to compare. The
range for this field is from 0 to 255.
Length
Enter the byte count of the data portion in the packet that you wish to compare. The range
for this field is 0 to 8.
Mask
Enter the mask (in Hexadecimal notation) to apply to the data portion before comparison.
Value
Enter the value (in Hexadecimal notation) to compare with the data portion.
More
If Yes, a matching packet is passed to the next filter rule before an action is taken; else
the packet is disposed of according to the action fields.
If More is Yes, then Action Matched and Action Not Matched will be No.
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Table 211 Generic Filter Rule Menu Fields
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Log
Select the logging option from the following:
None - No packets will be logged.
Action Matched - Only packets that match the rule parameters will be logged.
Action Not Matched - Only packets that do not match the rule parameters will be logged.
Both – All packets will be logged.
Action
Matched
Select the action for a packet matching the rule.
Options are Check Next Rule, Forward and Drop.
Action Not
Matched
Select the action for a packet not matching the rule.
Options are Check Next Rule, Forward and Drop.
Once you have completed filling in Menu 21.1.1.1 - Generic Filter Rule, press [ENTER] at the
message “Press ENTER to Confirm” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] to cancel. This data will
now be displayed on Menu 21.1.1 - Filter Rules Summary.
35.3 Example Filter
Let’s look at an example to block outside users from accessing the LAN-Cell via telnet. Please
see our included disk for more example filters.
Figure 327 Telnet Filter Example
1
2
3
4
5
Enter 21 from the main menu to open Menu 21 - Filter and Firewall Setup.
Enter 1 to open Menu 21.1 - Filter Set Configuration.
Enter the index of the filter set you wish to configure (say 3) and press [ENTER].
Enter a descriptive name or comment in the Edit Comments field and press [ENTER].
Press [ENTER] at the message [Press ENTER to confirm] to open Menu 21.1.3 - Filter
Rules Summary.
6 Enter 1 to configure the first filter rule (the only filter rule of this set). Make the entries
in this menu as shown in the following figure.
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Figure 328 Example Filter: Menu 21.1.3.1
Menu 21.1.3.1 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 3,1
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 6
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 23
Port # Comp= Equal
Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 0
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= No
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Forward
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press Space Bar to Toggle.
The port number for the telnet service (TCP protocol) is 23. See RFC 1060 for port numbers of
well-known services.
When you press [ENTER] to confirm, you will see the following screen. Note that there is
only one filter rule in this set.
Figure 329 Example Filter Rules Summary: Menu 21.1.3
Menu 21.1.3 - Filter Rules Summary
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
A Type
Filter Rules
M m n
- ---- ----------------------------------------------- - - Y IP
Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=23
N D F
N
N
N
N
N
Enter Filter Rule Number (1-6) to Configure: 1
This shows you that you have configured and activated (A = Y) a TCP/IP filter rule (Type =
IP, Pr = 6) for destination telnet ports (DP = 23).
M = N means an action can be taken immediately. The action is to drop the packet (m = D) if
the action is matched and to forward the packet immediately (n = F) if the action is not
matched no matter whether there are more rules to be checked (there aren’t in this example).
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After you’ve created the filter set, you must apply it.
1
2
3
4
Enter 11 from the main menu to go to menu 11.
Enter 1 or 2 to open Menu 11.x - Remote Node Profile.
Go to the Edit Filter Sets field, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER].
This brings you to menu 11.1.4. Apply a filter set (our example filter set 3) as shown in
Figure 333 on page 513.
5 Press [ENTER] to confirm after you enter the set numbers and to leave menu 11.1.4.
35.4 Filter Types and NAT
There are two classes of filter rules, Generic Filter (Device) rules and protocol filter (TCP/
IP) rules. Generic filter rules act on the raw data from/to LAN and WAN. Protocol filter rules
act on the IP packets. Generic and TCP/IP filter rules are discussed in more detail in the next
section. When NAT (Network Address Translation) is enabled, the inside IP address and port
number are replaced on a connection-by-connection basis, which makes it impossible to know
the exact address and port on the wire. Therefore, the LAN-Cell applies the protocol filters to
the “native” IP address and port number before NAT for outgoing packets and after NAT for
incoming packets. On the other hand, the generic, or device filters are applied to the raw
packets that appear on the wire. They are applied at the point when the LAN-Cell is receiving
and sending the packets; i.e. the interface. The interface can be an Ethernet port or any other
hardware port. The following diagram illustrates this.
Figure 330 Protocol and Device Filter Sets
35.5 Firewall Versus Filters
Below are some comparisons between the LAN-Cell’s filtering and firewall functions.
35.5.1 Packet Filtering:
• The router filters packets as they pass through the router’s interface according to the filter
rules you designed.
• Packet filtering is a powerful tool, yet can be complex to configure and maintain,
especially if you need a chain of rules to filter a service.
• Packet filtering only checks the header portion of an IP packet.
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35.5.1.1 When To Use Filtering
1 To block/allow LAN packets by their MAC addresses.
2 To block/allow special IP packets which are neither TCP nor UDP, nor ICMP packets.
3 To block/allow both inbound (WAN to LAN) and outbound (LAN to WAN) traffic
between the specific inside host/network "A" and outside host/network "B". If the filter
blocks the traffic from A to B, it also blocks the traffic from B to A. Filters cannot
distinguish traffic originating from an inside host or an outside host by IP address.
4 To block/allow IP trace route.
35.5.2 Firewall
• The firewall inspects packet contents as well as their source and destination addresses.
Firewalls of this type employ an inspection module, applicable to all protocols, that
understands data in the packet is intended for other layers, from the network layer (IP
headers) up to the application layer.
• The firewall performs stateful inspection. It takes into account the state of connections it
handles so that, for example, a legitimate incoming packet can be matched with the
outbound request for that packet and allowed in. Conversely, an incoming packet
masquerading as a response to a nonexistent outbound request can be blocked.
• The firewall uses session filtering, i.e., smart rules, that enhance the filtering process and
control the network session rather than control individual packets in a session.
• The firewall provides e-mail service to notify you of routine reports and when alerts occur.
35.5.2.1 When To Use The Firewall
1 To prevent DoS attacks and prevent hackers cracking your network.
2 A range of source and destination IP addresses as well as port numbers can be specified
within one firewall rule making the firewall a better choice when complex rules are
required.
3 To selectively block/allow inbound or outbound traffic between inside host/networks
and outside host/networks. Remember that filters cannot distinguish traffic originating
from an inside host or an outside host by IP address.
4 The firewall performs better than filtering if you need to check many rules.
5 Use the firewall if you need routine e-mail reports about your system or need to be
alerted when attacks occur.
6 The firewall can block specific URL traffic that might occur in the future. The URL can
be saved in an Access Control List (ACL) database.
35.6 Applying a Filter
This section shows you where to apply the filter(s) after you design it (them). The LAN-Cell
already has filters to prevent NetBIOS traffic from triggering calls, and block incoming telnet,
FTP and HTTP connections.
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"
If you do not activate the firewall, it is advisable to apply filters.
35.6.1 Applying LAN Filters
LAN traffic filter sets may be useful to block certain packets, reduce traffic and prevent
security breaches. Go to menu 3.1 (shown next) and enter the number(s) of the filter set(s) that
you want to apply as appropriate. You can choose up to four filter sets (from twelve) by
entering their numbers separated by commas, e.g., 3, 4, 6, 11. Input filter sets filter incoming
traffic to the LAN-Cell and output filter sets filter outgoing traffic from the LAN-Cell. For
PPPoE or PPTP encapsulation, you have the additional option of specifying remote node call
filter sets.
Figure 331 Filtering LAN Traffic
Menu 3.1 - LAN Port Filter Setup
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
35.6.2 Applying DMZ Filters
DMZ traffic filter sets may be useful to block certain packets, reduce traffic and prevent
security breaches. Go to menu 5.1 (shown next) and enter the number(s) of the filter set(s) that
you want to apply as appropriate. You can choose up to four filter sets (from twelve) by
entering their numbers separated by commas, e.g., 3, 4, 6, 11. Input filter sets filter incoming
traffic to the LAN-Cell and output filter sets filter outgoing traffic from the LAN-Cell. The
LAN-Cell already has filters to prevent NetBIOS traffic from triggering calls, and block
incoming telnet, FTP and HTTP connections.
Figure 332 Filtering DMZ Traffic
Menu 5.1 - DMZ Port Filter Setup
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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35.6.3 Applying Remote Node Filters
Go to menu 11.1.4 (shown below – note that call filter sets are only present for PPPoE
encapsulation) and enter the number(s) of the filter set(s) as appropriate. You can cascade up
to four filter sets by entering their numbers separated by commas. The LAN-Cell already has
filters to prevent NetBIOS traffic from triggering calls, and block incoming telnet, FTP and
HTTP connections.
Figure 333 Filtering Remote Node Traffic
Menu 11.1.4 - Remote Node Filter Setup
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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CHAPTER
36
SNMP Configuration
This chapter explains SNMP configuration menu 22.
36.1 SNMP Configuration
To configure SNMP, enter 22 from the main menu to display Menu 22 - SNMP
Configuration as shown next. The “community” for Get, Set and Trap fields is SNMP
terminology for password.
Figure 334 Menu 22: SNMP Configuration
Menu 22 - SNMP Configuration
SNMP:
Get Community= public
Set Community= public
Trusted Host= 0.0.0.0
Trap:
Community= public
Destination= 0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the SNMP configuration parameters.
Table 212 SNMP Configuration Menu Fields
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Get Community Type the Get community, which is the password for the incoming Get- and GetNext
requests from the management station.
Set Community
Type the Set community, which is the password for incoming Set requests from the
management station.
Trusted Host
If you enter a trusted host, your LAN-Cell will only respond to SNMP messages from
this address. A blank (default) field means your LAN-Cell will respond to all SNMP
messages it receives, regardless of source.
Trap
Community
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Type the Trap community, which is the password sent with each trap to the SNMP
manager.
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Table 212 SNMP Configuration Menu Fields (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Destination
Type the IP address of the station to send your SNMP traps to.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press [ENTER] to confirm or
[ESC] to cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous
screen.
36.2 SNMP Traps
The LAN-Cell will send traps to the SNMP manager when any one of the following events
occurs:
Table 213 SNMP Traps
516
TRAP #
TRAP NAME
DESCRIPTION
0
coldStart (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent after booting (power on).
1
warmStart (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent after booting (software reboot).
4
authenticationFailure (defined in
RFC-1215)
A trap is sent to the manager when receiving any
SNMP get or set requirements with the wrong
community (password).
6
whyReboot (defined in ProxicastMIB)
A trap is sent with the reason of restart before rebooting
when the system is going to restart (warm start).
6a
For intentional reboot:
A trap is sent with the message "System reboot by
user!" if reboot is done intentionally, (for example,
download new files, CI command "sys reboot", etc.).
6b
For fatal error:
A trap is sent with the message of the fatal code if the
system reboots because of fatal errors.
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
CHAPTER
37
System Information & Diagnosis
This chapter covers SMT menus 24.1 to 24.4.
37.1 Introduction to System Status
This chapter covers the diagnostic tools that help you to maintain your LAN-Cell. These tools
include updates on system status, port status and log and trace capabilities.
Select menu 24 in the main menu to open Menu 24 - System Maintenance, as shown below.
Figure 335 Menu 24: System Maintenance
Menu 24 - System Maintenance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
System Status
System Information and Console Port Speed
Log and Trace
Diagnostic
Backup Configuration
Restore Configuration
Upload Firmware
Command Interpreter Mode
Call Control
Time and Date Setting
Remote Management Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
37.2 System Status
The first selection, System Status, gives you information on the version of your system
firmware and the status and statistics of the ports, as shown in the next figure. System Status is
a tool that can be used to monitor your LAN-Cell. Specifically, it gives you information on
your system firmware version, number of packets sent and number of packets received.
To get to the System Status:
1 Enter number 24 to go to Menu 24 - System Maintenance.
2 In this menu, enter 1 to open Menu 24.1 - System Maintenance - Status.
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3 There are three commands in Menu 24.1 - System Maintenance - Status. Entering 1 or
2 drops the WAN or CELL connection, 9 resets the counters and [ESC] takes you back
to the previous screen.
Figure 336 Menu 24.1: System Maintenance: Status
Menu 24.1 - System Maintenance - Status
Port
WAN
CELL
LAN
WCRD
DMZ
WLAN
Status
100M/Full
Down
100M/Full
Down
100M/Full
100M/Full
TxPkts
5863
0
7443
1
0
0
Port
WAN
CELL
LAN
WLAN
DMZ
Ethernet Address
00:13:49:00:00:02
00:00:00:00:00:00
00:13:49:00:00:01
00:13:49:00:00:04
00:13:49:00:00:03
RxPkts
17802
0
9261
0
0
0
Cols
0
0
0
0
0
0
IP Address
172.23.37.10
0.0.0.0
192.168.1.1
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Tx B/s
0
0
370
0
0
0
03:13:41
Wed. Dec. 06, 2006
Rx B/s
Up Time
128
1:31:14
0
0:00:00
128
1:31:57
0
0:00:00
0
1:31:57
0
1:31:57
IP Mask
255.255.255.0
0.0.0.0
255.255.255.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
DHCP
Client
None
Server
None
None
System up Time:
1:32:02
Wi-Fi bridged to: LAN
Press Command:
COMMANDS: 1, 2-Drop WAN,CELL 9-Reset Counters
ESC-Exit
The following table describes the fields present in Menu 24.1 - System Maintenance Status. These fields are READ-ONLY and meant for diagnostic purposes. The upper right
corner of the screen shows the time and date according to the format you set in menu 24.10.
Table 214 System Maintenance: Status Menu Fields
518
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Port
This field identifies an interface (WAN, CELL, LAN, WCRD (internal Wi-Fi AP),
DMZ or WLAN) on the LAN-Cell.
Status
For the LAN, DMZ, and WLAN Interfaces, this displays the port speed and duplex
setting.
For the WAN interfaces, it displays the port speed and duplex setting if you’re
using Ethernet encapsulation or the remote node name (configured through the
SMT) for a PPP connection and Down (line is down or not connected), Idle (line
(ppp) idle), Dial (starting to trigger a call) or Drop (dropping a call) if you’re using
PPPoE encapsulation.
For the Wi-Fi AP, it displays the transmission rate when WLAN is enabled or
Down when WLAN is disabled.
TxPkts
This is the number of transmitted packets on this port.
RxPkts
This is the number of received packets on this port.
Cols
This is the number of collisions on this port.
Tx B/s
This field shows the transmission speed in Bytes per second on this port.
Rx B/s
This field shows the reception speed in Bytes per second on this port.
Up Time
This is the total amount of time the line has been up.
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Chapter 37 System Information & Diagnosis
Table 214 System Maintenance: Status Menu Fields (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Ethernet Address
This is the MAC address of the port listed on the left.
IP Address
This is the IP address of the port listed on the left.
IP Mask
This is the IP mask of the port listed on the left.
DHCP
This is the DHCP setting of the port listed on the left.
System up Time
This is the total time the LAN-Cell has been on.
Wi-Fi bridged to
This field shows whether the Wi-Fi AP is set to be part of the LAN, DMZ or WLAN.
You may enter 1 to drop the WAN connection, 9 to reset the counters or [ESC] to return to menu 24.
37.3 System Information and Console Port Speed
This section describes your system and allows you to choose different console port speeds. To
get to the System Information and Console Port Speed:
1 Enter 24 to go to Menu 24 - System Maintenance.
2 Enter 2 to open Menu 24.2 - System Information and Console Port Speed.
3 From this menu you have two choices as shown in the next figure:
Figure 337 Menu 24.2: System Information and Console Port Speed
Menu 24.2 - System Information and Console Port Speed
1. System Information
2. Console Port Speed
Please enter selection:
37.3.1 System Information
System Information gives you information about your system as shown below. More
specifically, it gives you information on your routing protocol, Ethernet address, IP address,
etc.
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Figure 338
Menu 24.2.1: System Maintenance: Information
Menu 24.2.1 - System Maintenance - Information
Name: LAN-Cell
Routing: IP
ProxiOS F/W Version: V4.02(AQI.0)b2 | 11/29/2006
Country Code: 255
LAN
Ethernet Address: 00:13:49:00:00:01
IP Address: 192.168.1.1
IP Mask: 255.255.255.0
DHCP: Server
Press ESC or RETURN to Exit:
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 215 Fields in System Maintenance: Information
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Name
This is the LAN-Cell's system name + domain name assigned in menu 1. For
example, System Name= xxx; Domain Name= baboo.mickey.com
Name= xxx.baboo.mickey.com
Routing
Refers to the routing protocol used.
ProxiOS F/W
Version
Refers to the version of Proxicast's Network Operating System software.
Country Code
Refers to the country code of the firmware.
LAN
Ethernet Address
Refers to the Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) address of your LAN-Cell.
IP Address
This is the IP address of the LAN-Cell in dotted decimal notation.
IP Mask
This shows the IP mask of the LAN-Cell.
DHCP
This field shows the DHCP setting of the LAN-Cell.
When finished viewing, press [ESC] or [ENTER] to exit.
37.3.2 Console Port Speed
You can change the speed of the console port through Menu 24.2.2 – Console Port Speed.
Your LAN-Cell supports 9600 (default), 19200, 38400, 57600, and 115200 bps for the console
port. Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the desired speed in menu 24.2.2, as
shown next.
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Figure 339 Menu 24.2.2: System Maintenance: Change Console Port Speed
Menu 24.2.2 - System Maintenance - Change Console Port Speed
Console Port Speed: 9600
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:Press
Space Bar to Toggle.
37.4 Log and Trace
There are two logging facilities in the LAN-Cell. The first is the error logs and trace records
that are stored locally. The second is the UNIX syslog facility for message logging.
37.4.1 Viewing Error Log
The first place you should look for clues when something goes wrong is the error/trace log.
Follow the procedure below to view the local error/trace log:
1 Select option 24 from the main menu to open Menu 24 - System Maintenance.
2 From menu 24, select option 3 to open Menu 24.3 - System Maintenance - Log and
Trace.
3 Select the first option from Menu 24.3 - System Maintenance - Log and Trace to
display the error log in the system.
After the LAN-Cell finishes displaying, you will have the option to clear the error log.
Figure 340 Menu 24.3: System Maintenance: Log and Trace
Menu 24.3 - System Maintenance - Log and Trace
1. View Error Log
2. UNIX Syslog
4. Call-Triggering Packet
Please enter selection
Examples of typical error and information messages are presented in the following figure.
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Figure 341 Examples of Error and Information Messages
52 Thu Jul
53 Thu Jul
54 Thu Jul
55 Thu Jul
57 Thu Jul
58 Thu Jul
59 Thu Jul
60 Thu Jul
61 Thu Jul
62 Thu Jul
63 Thu Jul
Clear Error
1 05:54:53
1 05:54:53
1 05:54:56
1 05:54:56
1 05:54:56
1 05:54:56
1 05:54:56
1 05:55:26
1 05:56:56
1 07:50:58
1 07:53:28
Log (y/n):
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004
PP05 ERROR
PINI INFO
PP05 -WARN
PP0d INFO
PP0d INFO
PINI INFO
PINI INFO
PSSV -WARN
PINI INFO
PINI INFO
PINI INFO
Wireless LAN init fail, code=15
Channel 0 ok
SNMP TRAP 3: interface 3: link up
LAN promiscuous mode <0>
LAN promiscuous mode <1>
Last errorlog repeat 1 Times
main: init completed
SNMP TRAP 0: cold start
SMT Session Begin
SMT Session End
SMT Session Begin
37.4.2 Syslog Logging
The LAN-Cell uses the syslog facility to log the CDR (Call Detail Record) and system
messages to a syslog server. Syslog and accounting can be configured in Menu 24.3.2 System Maintenance - Syslog Logging, as shown next.
Figure 342 Menu 24.3.2: System Maintenance: Syslog Logging
Menu 24.3.2 - System Maintenance - Syslog Logging
Syslog:
Active= No
Syslog Server IP Address= 0.0.0.0
Log Facility= Local 1
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
You need to configure the syslog parameters described in the following table to activate syslog
then choose what you want to log.
Table 216 System Maintenance Menu Syslog Parameters
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Syslog:
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to turn syslog on or off.
Syslog Server IP
Address
Enter the server name or IP address of the syslog server that will log the selected
categories of logs.
Log Facility
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select a location. The log facility allows
you to log the messages to different files in the syslog server. Refer to the
documentation of your syslog program for more details.
When finished configuring this screen, press [ENTER] to confirm or [ESC] to cancel.
Your LAN-Cell sends five types of syslog messages. Some examples (not all LAN-Cell
specific) of these syslog messages with their message formats are shown next:
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1 CDR
CDR Message Format
SdcmdSyslogSend( SYSLOG_CDR, SYSLOG_INFO, String );
String = board xx line xx channel xx, call xx, str
board = the hardware board ID
line = the WAN ID in a board
Channel = channel ID within the WAN
call = the call reference number which starts from 1 and increments by 1 for each new call
str = C01 Outgoing Call dev xx ch xx (dev:device No. ch:channel No.)
L02 Tunnel Connected(L2TP)
C02 OutCall Connected xxxx (means connected speed) xxxxx (means Remote Call Number)
L02 Call Terminated
C02 Call Terminated
Jul 19 11:19:27 192.168.102.2 Proxicast: board 0 line 0 channel 0, call 1, C01 Outgoing Call dev=2
ch=0 40002
Jul 19 11:19:32 192.168.102.2 Proxicast: board 0 line 0 channel 0, call 1, C02 OutCall Connected
64000 40002
Jul 19 11:20:06 192.168.102.2 Proxicast: board 0 line 0 channel 0, call 1, C02 Call Terminated
2 Packet triggered
Packet triggered Message Format
SdcmdSyslogSend( SYSLOG_PKTTRI, SYSLOG_NOTICE, String );
String = Packet trigger: Protocol=xx Data=xxxxxxxxxx…..x
Protocol: (1:IP 2:IPX 3:IPXHC 4:BPDU 5:ATALK 6:IPNG)
Data: We will send forty-eight Hex characters to the server
Jul 19 11:28:39 192.168.102.2 Proxicast: Packet Trigger: Protocol=1,
Data=4500003c100100001f010004c0a86614ca849a7b08004a5c02000100616263646566676869
6a6b6c6d6e6f7071727374
Jul 19 11:28:56 192.168.102.2 Proxicast: Packet Trigger: Protocol=1,
Data=4500002c1b0140001f06b50ec0a86614ca849a7b0427001700195b3e00000000600220008c
d40000020405b4
Jul 19 11:29:06 192.168.102.2 Proxicast: Packet Trigger: Protocol=1,
Data=45000028240140001f06ac12c0a86614ca849a7b0427001700195b451d143013500400007
7600000
3 Filter log
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Filter log Message Format
SdcmdSyslogSend(SYSLOG_FILLOG, SYSLOG_NOTICE, String );
String = IP[Src=xx.xx.xx.xx Dst=xx.xx.xx.xx prot spo=xxxx dpo=xxxx] S04>R01mD
IP[…] is the packet header and S04>R01mD means filter set 4 (S) and rule 1 (R), match (m) drop
(D).
Src: Source Address
Dst: Destination Address
prot: Protocol ("TCP","UDP","ICMP")
spo: Source port
dpo: Destination portMar 03 10:39:43 202.132.155.97 Proxicast: GEN[fffffffffffnordff0080]
}S05>R01mF
Mar 03 10:41:29 202.132.155.97 Proxicast:
GEN[00a0c5f502fnord010080] }S05>R01mF
Mar 03 10:41:34 202.132.155.97 Proxicast:
IP[Src=192.168.2.33 Dst=202.132.155.93 ICMP]}S04>R01mF
Mar 03 11:59:20 202.132.155.97 Proxicast:
GEN[00a0c5f502fnord010080] }S05>R01mF
Mar 03 12:00:52 202.132.155.97 Proxicast:
GEN[ffffffffffff0080] }S05>R01mF
Mar 03 12:00:57 202.132.155.97 Proxicast:
GEN[00a0c5f502010080] }S05>R01mF
Mar 03 12:01:06 202.132.155.97 Proxicast:
IP[Src=192.168.2.33 Dst=202.132.155.93 TCP spo=01170 dpo=00021]}S04>R01mF
4 PPP log
PPP Log Message Format
SdcmdSyslogSend( SYSLOG_PPPLOG, SYSLOG_NOTICE, String );
String = ppp:Proto Starting / ppp:Proto Opening / ppp:Proto Closing / ppp:Proto Shutdown
Proto = LCP / ATCP / BACP / BCP / CBCP / CCP / CHAP/ PAP / IPCP /
IPXCP
Jul 19 11:42:44 192.168.102.2 Proxicast: ppp:LCP Closing
Jul 19 11:42:49 192.168.102.2 Proxicast: ppp:IPCP Closing
Jul 19 11:42:54 192.168.102.2 Proxicast: ppp:CCP Closing
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5 Firewall log
Firewall Log Message Format
SdcmdSyslogSend(SYSLOG_FIREWALL, SYSLOG_NOTICE, buf);
buf = IP[Src=xx.xx.xx.xx : spo=xxxx Dst=xx.xx.xx.xx : dpo=xxxx | prot | rule | action]
Src: Source Address
spo: Source port (empty means no source port information)
Dst: Destination Address
dpo: Destination port (empty means no destination port information)
prot: Protocol ("TCP","UDP","ICMP", "IGMP", "GRE", "ESP")
rule: <a,b> where a means "set" number; b means "rule" number.
Action: nothing(N) block (B) forward (F)
08-01-200011:48:41Local1.Notice192.168.10.10RAS: FW 172.21.1.80 :137 ->172.21.1.80
:137 |UDP|default permit:<2,0>|B
08-01-200011:48:41Local1.Notice192.168.10.10RAS: FW 192.168.77.88 :520 ->192.168.77.88
:520 |UDP|default permit:<2,0>|B
08-01-200011:48:39Local1.Notice192.168.10.10RAS: FW 172.21.1.50 ->172.21.1.50
|IGMP<2>|default permit:<2,0>|B
08-01-200011:48:39Local1.Notice192.168.10.10RAS: FW 172.21.1.25 ->172.21.1.25
|IGMP<2>|default permit:<2,0>|B
37.4.3 Call-Triggering Packet
Call-Triggering Packet displays information about the packet that triggered a dial-out call in
an easy readable format. Equivalent information is available in menu 24.1 in hex format. An
example is shown next.
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Chapter 37 System Information & Diagnosis
Figure 343 Call-Triggering Packet Example
IP Frame: ENET0-RECV Size:
Frame Type:
IP Header:
IP Version
Header Length
Type of Service
Total Length
Identification
Flags
Fragment Offset
Time to Live
Protocol
Header Checksum
Source IP
Destination IP
TCP Header:
Source Port
Destination Port
Sequence Number
Ack Number
Header Length
Flags
Window Size
Checksum
Urgent Ptr
Options
0000: 02 04 02 00
44/
44
Time: 17:02:44.262
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
4
20
0x00 (0)
0x002C (44)
0x0002 (2)
0x00
0x00
0xFE (254)
0x06 (TCP)
0xFB20 (64288)
0xC0A80101 (192.168.1.1)
0x00000000 (0.0.0.0)
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0x0401 (1025)
0x000D (13)
0x05B8D000 (95997952)
0x00000000 (0)
24
0x02 (....S.)
0x2000 (8192)
0xE06A (57450)
0x0000 (0)
RAW DATA:
0000: 45 00 00 2C 00 02 00 00-FE 06 FB 20 C0 A8 01 01 E......... ....
0010: 00 00 00 00 04 01 00 0D-05 B8 D0 00 00 00 00 00
................
0020: 60 02 20 00 E0 6A 00 00-02 04 02 00
Press any key to continue...
37.5 Diagnostic
The diagnostic facility allows you to test the different aspects of your LAN-Cell to determine
if it is working properly. Menu 24.4 allows you to choose among various types of diagnostic
tests to evaluate your system, as shown next.
Follow the procedure below to get to Menu 24.4 - System Maintenance - Diagnostic.
1 From the main menu, select option 24 to open Menu 24 - System Maintenance.
2 From this menu, select option 4. Diagnostic. This will open Menu 24.4 - System
Maintenance - Diagnostic.
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Figure 344 Menu 24.4: System Maintenance: Diagnostic
Menu 24.4 - System Maintenance - Diagnostic
TCP/IP
1. Ping Host
2. WAN DHCP Release
3. WAN DHCP Renewal
4. PPPoE/PPTP/Cellular Setup Test
System
11. Reboot System
Enter Menu Selection Number:
WAN=
Host IP Address= N/A
37.5.1 WAN DHCP
DHCP functionality can be enabled on the LAN or WAN as shown in Figure 345 on page 527.
LAN DHCP has already been discussed. The LAN-Cell can act either as a WAN DHCP client
(IP Address Assignment field in menu 4 or menu 11.x.2 is Dynamic and the Encapsulation
field in menu 4 or menu 11 is Ethernet) or None, (when you have a static IP). The WAN
Release and Renewal fields in menu 24.4 conveniently allow you to release and/or renew the
assigned WAN IP address, subnet mask and default gateway in a fashion similar to winipcfg.
Figure 345 WAN & LAN DHCP
The following table describes the diagnostic tests available in menu 24.4 for your LAN-Cell
and associated connections.
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Table 217 System Maintenance Menu Diagnostic
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Ping Host
Enter 1 to ping any machine (with an IP address) on your LAN, DMZ, WLAN
or WAN. Enter its IP address in the Host IP Address field below.
WAN DHCP Release
Enter 2 to release your WAN DHCP settings.
WAN DHCP Renewal
Enter 3 to renew your WAN DHCP settings.
PPPoE/PPTP/Cellular
Setup Test
Enter 4 to test the Internet setup. You can also test the Internet setup in
Menu 4 - WAN ISP Setup. Please refer to Chapter 27 on page 447 for more
details.
This feature is only available for a 3G connection or dial-up connections
using PPPoE or PPTP encapsulation.
Reboot System
Enter 11 to reboot the LAN-Cell.
WAN
If you entered 2, 3 or 4 in the Enter Menu Selection Number field, enter the
number of the WAN interface in this field. 1=Ethernet WAN, 2=Cellular WAN
Host IP Address
If you entered 1in the Enter Menu Selection Number field, then enter the IP
address of the computer you want to ping in this field.
Enter the number of the selection you would like to perform or press [ESC] to cancel.
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CHAPTER
38
Firmware and Configuration File
Maintenance
This chapter tells you how to back up and restore your configuration file as well as upload new
firmware and a new configuration file.
38.1 Introduction
Use the instructions in this chapter to change the LAN-Cell’s configuration file or upgrade its
firmware. After you configure your LAN-Cell, you can backup the configuration file to a
computer. That way if you later misconfigure the LAN-Cell, you can upload the backed up
configuration file to return to your previous settings. You can alternately upload the factory
default configuration file if you want to return the LAN-Cell to the original default settings.
The firmware determines the LAN-Cell’s available features and functionality. You can
download new firmware releases from Proxicast’s web site to use to upgrade your LAN-Cell’s
performance.
38.2 Filename Conventions
The configuration file (often called the romfile or rom-0) contains the factory default settings
in the menus such as password, DHCP Setup, TCP/IP Setup, etc. It arrives from Proxicast with
a “rom” filename extension. Once you have customized the LAN-Cell's settings, they can be
saved back to your computer under a filename of your choosing.
ProxiOS (Proxicast Network Operating System sometimes referred to as the “ras” file) is the
system firmware and has a “bin” filename extension. With many FTP and TFTP clients, the
filenames are similar to those seen next.
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
This is a sample FTP session showing the transfer of the computer file " firmware.bin" to the
LAN-Cell.
ftp> get rom-0 config.cfg
This is a sample FTP session saving the current configuration to the computer file
“config.cfg”.
If your (T)FTP client does not allow you to have a destination filename different than the
source, you will need to rename them as the LAN-Cell only recognizes “rom-0” and “ras”. Be
sure you keep unaltered copies of both files for later use.
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The following table is a summary. Please note that the internal filename refers to the filename
on the LAN-Cell and the external filename refers to the filename not on the LAN-Cell, that is,
on your computer, local network or FTP site and so the name (but not the extension) may vary.
After uploading new firmware, see the ProxiOS F/W Version field in Menu 24.2.1 - System
Maintenance - Information to confirm that you have uploaded the correct firmware version.
The AT command is the command you enter after you press “y” when prompted in the SMT
menu to go into debug mode.
Table 218 Filename Conventions
FILE TYPE
INTERNAL EXTERNAL NAME
NAME
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
File
Rom-0
This is the configuration filename on the LAN-Cell.
Uploading the rom-0 file replaces the entire ROM file
system, including your LAN-Cell configurations,
system-related data (including the default
password), the error log and the trace log.
*.rom
Firmware
Ras
This is the generic name for the ProxiOS firmware on
the LAN-Cell.
*.bin
38.3 Backup Configuration
"
The LAN-Cell displays different messages explaining different ways to backup,
restore and upload files in menus 24.5, 24.6, 24. 7.1 and 24.7.2 depending on
whether you use the console port or Telnet.
Option 5 from Menu 24 - System Maintenance allows you to backup the current LAN-Cell
configuration to your computer. Backup is highly recommended once your LAN-Cell is
functioning properly. FTP is the preferred method for backing up your current configuration to
your computer since it is faster. You can also perform backup and restore using menu 24
through the console port. Any serial communications program should work fine; however, you
must use Xmodem protocol to perform the download/upload and you don’t have to rename the
files.
Please note that terms “download” and “upload” are relative to the computer. Download
means to transfer from the LAN-Cell to the computer, while upload means from your
computer to the LAN-Cell.
38.3.1 Backup Configuration
Follow the instructions as shown in the next screen.
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Figure 346 Telnet into Menu 24.5
Menu 24.5 - Backup Configuration
To transfer the configuration file to your workstation, follow the
procedure below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your router. Then type
"root" and SMT password as requested.
3. Locate the 'rom-0' file.
4. Type 'get rom-0' to back up the current router
configuration to your workstation.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP
client program. For details on backup using TFTP (note that you must
remain in this menu to back up using TFTP), please see your router manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
38.3.2 Using the FTP Command from the Command Line
1
2
3
4
5
6
Launch the FTP client on your computer.
Enter “open”, followed by a space and the IP address of your LAN-Cell.
Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
Use “get” to transfer files from the LAN-Cell to the computer, for example, “get rom-0
config.rom” transfers the configuration file on the LAN-Cell to your computer and
renames it “config.rom”. See earlier in this chapter for more information on filename
conventions.
7 Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt.
38.3.3 Example of FTP Commands from the Command Line
Figure 347 FTP Session Example
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> get rom-0 Proxicast.rom
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR ras
226 File received OK
ftp: 16384 bytes sent in 1.10Seconds
297.89Kbytes/sec.
ftp> quit
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38.3.4 GUI-based FTP Clients
The following table describes some of the commands that you may see in GUI-based FTP
clients.
Table 219 General Commands for GUI-based FTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host Address
Enter the address of the host server.
Login Type
Anonymous.
This is when a user I.D. and password is automatically supplied to the server
for anonymous access. Anonymous logins will work only if your ISP or
service administrator has enabled this option.
Normal.
The server requires a unique User ID and Password to login.
Transfer Type
Transfer files in either ASCII (plain text format) or in binary mode.
Configuration and firmware files should be transferred in binary mode
Initial Remote Directory
Specify the default remote directory (path).
Initial Local Directory
Specify the default local directory (path).
38.3.5 File Maintenance Over WAN
TFTP, FTP and Telnet over the WAN will not work when:
1 The firewall is active (turn the firewall off in menu 21.2 or create a firewall rule to allow
access from the WAN).
2 You have disabled Telnet service in menu 24.11.
3 You have applied a filter in menu 3.1 (LAN) or in menu 11.5 (WAN) to block Telnet
service.
4 The IP you entered in the Secure Client IP field in menu 24.11 does not match the client
IP. If it does not match, the LAN-Cell will disconnect the Telnet session immediately.
5 You have an SMT console session running.
38.3.6 Backup Configuration Using TFTP
The LAN-Cell supports the up/downloading of the firmware and the configuration file using
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) over LAN. Although TFTP should work over WAN as
well, it is not recommended.
To use TFTP, your computer must have both telnet and TFTP clients. To backup the
configuration file, follow the procedure shown next.
1 Use telnet from your computer to connect to the LAN-Cell and log in. Because TFTP
does not have any security checks, the LAN-Cell records the IP address of the telnet
client and accepts TFTP requests only from this address.
2 Put the SMT in command interpreter (CI) mode by entering 8 in Menu 24 – System
Maintenance.
3 Enter command “sys stdio 0” to disable the SMT timeout, so the TFTP transfer will not
be interrupted. Enter command “sys stdio 5” to restore the five-minute SMT timeout
(default) when the file transfer is complete.
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4 Launch the TFTP client on your computer and connect to the LAN-Cell. Set the transfer
mode to binary before starting data transfer.
5 Use the TFTP client (see the example below) to transfer files between the LAN-Cell and
the computer. The file name for the configuration file is “rom-0” (rom-zero, not capital
o).
Note that the telnet connection must be active and the SMT in CI mode before and during the
TFTP transfer. For details on TFTP commands (see following example), please consult the
documentation of your TFTP client program. For UNIX, use “get” to transfer from the LANCell to the computer and “binary” to set binary transfer mode.
38.3.7 TFTP Command Example
The following is an example TFTP command:
tftp [-i] host get rom-0 config.rom
Where “i” specifies binary image transfer mode (use this mode when transferring binary files),
“host” is the LAN-Cell IP address, “get” transfers the file source on the LAN-Cell (rom-0,
name of the configuration file on the LAN-Cell) to the file destination on the computer and
renames it config.rom.
38.3.8 GUI-based TFTP Clients
The following table describes some of the fields that you may see in GUI-based TFTP clients.
Table 220 General Commands for GUI-based TFTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host
Enter the IP address of the LAN-Cell. 192.168.1.1 is the LAN-Cell’s default IP
address when shipped.
Send/Fetch
Use “Send” to upload the file to the LAN-Cell and “Fetch” to back up the file on your
computer.
Local File
Enter the path and name of the firmware file (*.bin extension) or configuration file
(*.rom extension) on your computer.
Remote File
This is the filename on the LAN-Cell. The filename for the firmware is “ras” and for
the configuration file, is “rom-0”.
Binary
Transfer the file in binary mode.
Abort
Stop transfer of the file.
Refer to Section 38.3.5 on page 532 to read about configurations that disallow TFTP and FTP
over WAN.
38.3.9 Backup Via Console Port
Back up configuration via console port by following the HyperTerminal procedure shown
next. Procedures using other serial communications programs should be similar.
1 Display menu 24.5 and enter “y” at the following screen.
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Figure 348 System Maintenance: Backup Configuration
Ready to backup Configuration via Xmodem.
Do you want to continue (y/n):
2 The following screen indicates that the Xmodem download has started.
Figure 349 System Maintenance: Starting Xmodem Download Screen
You can enter ctrl-x to terminate operation any
time.
Starting XMODEM download...
3 Run the HyperTerminal program by clicking Transfer, then Receive File as shown in
the following screen.
Figure 350 Backup Configuration Example
Type a location for storing the configuration file or click Browse to look for one.
Choose the Xmodem protocol.
Then click Receive.
4 After a successful backup you will see the following screen. Press any key to return to
the SMT menu.
Figure 351 Successful Backup Confirmation Screen
** Backup Configuration completed. OK.
### Hit any key to continue.###
38.4 Restore Configuration
This section shows you how to restore a previously saved configuration. Note that this
function erases the current configuration before restoring a previous back up configuration;
please do not attempt to restore unless you have a backup configuration file stored on disk.
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FTP is the preferred method for restoring your current computer configuration to your LANCell since FTP is faster. Please note that you must wait for the system to automatically restart
after the file transfer is complete.
1
WARNING!
Do not interrupt the file transfer process as this may PERMANENTLY
DAMAGE YOUR LAN-Cell. When the Restore Configuration process is
complete, the LAN-Cell will automatically restart.
38.4.1 Restore Using FTP
For details about backup using (T)FTP please refer to earlier sections on FTP and TFTP file
upload in this chapter.
Figure 352 Telnet into Menu 24.6
Menu 24.6 -- System Maintenance - Restore Configuration
To transfer the firmware and configuration file to your workstation,
follow the procedure below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your router. Then type "root" and
SMT password as requested.
3. Type "put backupfilename rom-0" where backupfilename is the name of
your backup configuration file on your workstation and rom-0 is the
remote file name on the router. This restores the configuration to
your router.
4. The system reboots automatically after a successful file transferFor
details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your
FTPclient program.
For details on backup using TFTP (note that you must remain in this menu
to back up using TFTP), please see your router manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Launch the FTP client on your computer.
Enter “open”, followed by a space and the IP address of your LAN-Cell.
Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
Find the “rom” file (on your computer) that you want to restore to your LAN-Cell.
Use “put” to transfer files from the LAN-Cell to the computer, for example, “put
config.rom rom-0” transfers the configuration file “config.rom” on your computer to the
LAN-Cell. See earlier in this chapter for more information on filename conventions.
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8 Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt. The LAN-Cell will automatically restart after a
successful restore process.
38.4.2 Restore Using FTP Session Example
Figure 353 Restore Using FTP Session Example
ftp> put config.rom rom-0
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR rom-0
226 File received OK
221 Goodbye for writing flash
ftp: 16384 bytes sent in 0.06Seconds 273.07Kbytes/sec.
ftp>quit
Refer to Section 38.3.5 on page 532 to read about configurations that disallow TFTP and FTP
over WAN.
38.4.3 Restore Via Console Port
Restore configuration via console port by following the HyperTerminal procedure shown next.
Procedures using other serial communications programs should be similar.
1 Display menu 24.6 and enter “y” at the following screen.
Figure 354 System Maintenance: Restore Configuration
Ready to restore Configuration via Xmodem.
Do you want to continue (y/n):
2 The following screen indicates that the Xmodem download has started.
Figure 355 System Maintenance: Starting Xmodem Download Screen
Starting XMODEM download (CRC mode) ...CCCCCCCCC
3 Run the HyperTerminal program by clicking Transfer, then Send File as shown in the
following screen.
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Figure 356 Restore Configuration Example
Type the configuration file’s location,
or click Browse to search for it.
Choose the Xmodem protocol.
Then click Send.
4 After a successful restoration you will see the following screen. Press any key to restart
the LAN-Cell and return to the SMT menu.
Figure 357 Successful Restoration Confirmation Screen
Save to ROM
Hit any key to start system reboot.
38.5 Uploading Firmware and Configuration Files
This section shows you how to upload firmware and configuration files. You can upload
configuration files by following the procedure in Section 38.4 on page 534 or by following the
instructions in Menu 24.7.2 - System Maintenance - Upload System Configuration File
(for console port).
1
WARNING!
Do not interrupt the file transfer process as this may PERMANENTLY
DAMAGE YOUR LAN-Cell.
38.5.1 Firmware File Upload
FTP is the preferred method for uploading the firmware and configuration. To use this feature,
your computer must have an FTP client.
When you telnet into the LAN-Cell, you will see the following screens for uploading firmware
and the configuration file using FTP.
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Figure 358 Telnet Into Menu 24.7.1: Upload System Firmware
Menu 24.7.1 - System Maintenance - Upload System Firmware
To upload the system firmware, follow the procedure below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your system. Then type "root" and
SMT password as requested.
3. Type "put firmwarefilename ras" where "firmwarefilename" is the
name of your firmware upgrade file on your workstation and "ras" is the
remote file name on the system.
4. The system reboots automatically after a successful firmware
upload.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your
FTP client program. For details on uploading system firmware using TFTP
(note that you must remain on this menu to upload system firmware using
TFTP), please see your manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
38.5.2 Configuration File Upload
You see the following screen when you telnet into menu 24.7.2.
Figure 359 Telnet Into Menu 24.7.2: System Maintenance
Menu 24.7.2 - System Maintenance - Upload System Configuration File
To upload the system configuration file, follow the procedure below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your system. Then type "root" and
SMT password as requested.
3. Type "put configurationfilename rom-0" where
"configurationfilename" is the name of your system configuration file on
your workstation, which will be transferred to the "rom-0" file on the
system.
4. The system reboots automatically after the upload system
configuration file process is complete.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your
FTP client program. For details on uploading configuration file using
TFTP (note that you must remain on this menu to upload configuration
file using TFTP), please see your manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
To upload the firmware and the configuration file, follow these examples
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38.5.3 FTP File Upload Command from the DOS Prompt Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
Launch the FTP client on your computer.
Enter “open”, followed by a space and the IP address of your LAN-Cell.
Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
Use “put” to transfer files from the computer to the LAN-Cell, for example, “put
firmware.bin ras” transfers the firmware on your computer (firmware.bin) to the LANCell and renames it “ras”. Similarly, “put config.rom rom-0” transfers the configuration
file on your computer (config.rom) to the LAN-Cell and renames it “rom-0”. Likewise
“get rom-0 config.rom” transfers the configuration file on the LAN-Cell to your
computer and renames it “config.rom.” See earlier in this chapter for more information
on filename conventions.
7 Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt.
38.5.4 FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload
Figure 360 FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR ras
226 File received OK
ftp: 1103936 bytes sent in 1.10Seconds
297.89Kbytes/sec.
ftp> quit
More commands (found in GUI-based FTP clients) are listed earlier in this chapter.
Refer to Section 38.3.5 on page 532 to read about configurations that disallow TFTP and FTP
over WAN.
38.5.5 TFTP File Upload
The LAN-Cell also supports the uploading of firmware files using TFTP (Trivial File Transfer
Protocol) over LAN. Although TFTP should work over WAN as well, it is not recommended.
To use TFTP, your computer must have both telnet and TFTP clients. To transfer the firmware
and the configuration file, follow the procedure shown next.
1 Use telnet from your computer to connect to the LAN-Cell and log in. Because TFTP
does not have any security checks, the LAN-Cell records the IP address of the telnet
client and accepts TFTP requests only from this address.
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2 Put the SMT in command interpreter (CI) mode by entering 8 in Menu 24 – System
Maintenance.
3 Enter the command “sys stdio 0” to disable the console timeout, so the TFTP transfer
will not be interrupted. Enter “command sys stdio 5” to restore the five-minute console
timeout (default) when the file transfer is complete.
4 Launch the TFTP client on your computer and connect to the LAN-Cell. Set the transfer
mode to binary before starting data transfer.
5 Use the TFTP client (see the example below) to transfer files between the LAN-Cell and
the computer. The file name for the firmware is “ras”.
Note that the telnet connection must be active and the LAN-Cell in CI mode before and during
the TFTP transfer. For details on TFTP commands (see following example), please consult the
documentation of your TFTP client program. For UNIX, use “get” to transfer from the LANCell to the computer, “put” the other way around, and “binary” to set binary transfer mode.
38.5.6 TFTP Upload Command Example
The following is an example TFTP command:
tftp [-i] host put firmware.bin ras
Where “i” specifies binary image transfer mode (use this mode when transferring binary files),
“host” is the LAN-Cell’s IP address, “put” transfers the file source on the computer
(firmware.bin – name of the firmware on the computer) to the file destination on the remote
host (ras - name of the firmware on the LAN-Cell).
Commands that you may see in GUI-based TFTP clients are listed earlier in this chapter.
38.5.7 Uploading Via Console Port
FTP or TFTP are the preferred methods for uploading firmware to your LAN-Cell. However,
in the event of your network being down, uploading files is only possible with a direct
connection to your LAN-Cell via the console port. Uploading files via the console port under
normal conditions is not recommended since FTP or TFTP is faster. Any serial
communications program should work fine; however, you must use the Xmodem protocol to
perform the download/upload.
38.5.8 Uploading Firmware File Via Console Port
1 Select 1 from Menu 24.7 – System Maintenance – Upload Firmware to display Menu
24.7.1 - System Maintenance - Upload System Firmware, and then follow the
instructions as shown in the following screen.
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Figure 361 Menu 24.7.1 As Seen Using the Console Port
Menu 24.7.1 - System Maintenance - Upload System Firmware
To upload system firmware:
1. Enter "y" at the prompt below to go into debug mode.
2. Enter "atur" after "Enter Debug Mode" message.
3. Wait for "Starting XMODEM upload" message before activating
Xmodem upload on your terminal.
4. After successful firmware upload, enter "atgo" to restart the router.
Warning: Proceeding with the upload will erase the current system
firmware.
Do You Wish To Proceed:(Y/N)
2 After the "Starting Xmodem upload" message appears, activate the Xmodem protocol on
your computer. Follow the procedure as shown previously for the HyperTerminal
program. The procedure for other serial communications programs should be similar.
38.5.9 Example Xmodem Firmware Upload Using HyperTerminal
Click Transfer, then Send File to display the following screen.
Figure 362 Example Xmodem Upload
After the firmware upload process has completed, the LAN-Cell will automatically restart.
38.5.10 Uploading Configuration File Via Console Port
1 Select 2 from Menu 24.7 – System Maintenance – Upload Firmware to display Menu
24.7.2 - System Maintenance - Upload System Configuration File. Follow the
instructions as shown in the next screen.
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Figure 363 Menu 24.7.2 As Seen Using the Console Port
Menu 24.7.2 - System Maintenance - Upload System Configuration File
To
1.
2.
3.
upload system configuration file:
Enter "y" at the prompt below to go into debug mode.
Enter "atlc" after "Enter Debug Mode" message.
Wait for "Starting XMODEM upload" message before activating
Xmodem upload on your terminal.
4. After successful firmware upload, enter "atgo" to restart
the system.
Warning:
1. Proceeding with the upload will erase the current
configuration file.
2. The system's console port speed (Menu 24.2.2) may change when it is
restarted; please adjust your terminal's speed accordingly. The password
may change (menu 23), also.
3. When uploading the DEFAULT configuration file, the console
port speed will be reset to 9600 bps and the password to "1234".
Do You Wish To Proceed:(Y/N)
2 After the "Starting Xmodem upload" message appears, activate the Xmodem protocol on
your computer. Follow the procedure as shown previously for the HyperTerminal
program. The procedure for other serial communications programs should be similar.
3 Enter “atgo” to restart the LAN-Cell.
38.5.11 Example Xmodem Configuration Upload Using HyperTerminal
Click Transfer, then Send File to display the following screen.
Figure 364 Example Xmodem Upload
After the configuration upload process has completed, restart the LAN-Cell by entering
“atgo”.
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39
System Maint. Menus 8 to 10
This chapter leads you through SMT menus 24.8 to 24.10.
39.1 Command Interpreter Mode
The Command Interpreter (CI) is a part of the main router firmware. The CI provides much of
the same functionality as the SMT, while adding some low-level setup and diagnostic
functions. Enter the CI from the SMT by selecting menu 24.8. Access can be by Telnet or by a
serial connection to the console port, although some commands are only available with a serial
connection. See the included disk or proxicast.com for more detailed information on CI
commands. Enter 8 from Menu 24 - System Maintenance.
1
Use of undocumented commands or misconfiguration can damage the unit
and possibly render it unusable.
Figure 365 Command Mode in Menu 24
Menu 24 - System Maintenance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
System Status
System Information and Console Port Speed
Log and Trace
Diagnostic
Backup Configuration
Restore Configuration
Upload Firmware
Command Interpreter Mode
Call Control
Time and Date Setting
Remote Management Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
39.1.1 Command Syntax
The command keywords are in courier new font.
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Enter the command keywords exactly as shown, do not abbreviate.
The required fields in a command are enclosed in angle brackets <>.
The optional fields in a command are enclosed in square brackets [].
The |symbol means “or”.
For example,
sys filter netbios config <type> <on|off>
means that you must specify the type of netbios filter and whether to turn it on or off.
39.1.2 Command Usage
A list of commands can be found by typing help or ? at the command prompt. Always type
the full command. Type exit to return to the SMT main menu when finished.
Figure 366 Valid Commands
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2007 Proxicast LLC
LAN-Cell> ?
Valid commands are:
sys
ls
exit
ether
aux
config
wlan
ip
ipsec
certificates
8021x
radius
wcfg
LAN-Cell>
device
wwan
bm
radserv
The following table describes some commands in this screen.
Table 221 Valid Commands
544
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
sys
The system commands display device information and configure device settings.
ls
The load sharing commands allow you to configure load balancing.
exit
This command returns you to the SMT main menu.
device
The device commands deal with the dial backup connection.
ether
These commands display Ethernet information and configure Ethernet settings.
aux
These commands display dial backup information and control dial backup connections.
config
These commands configure firewall and anti-spam settings.
wwan
These commands configure the 3G cellular WAN interface
wlan
These commands configure the internal 801.11 Wi-Fi- Access Point
ip
These commands display IP information and configure IP settings.
ipsec
These commands display IPSec information and configure IPSec settings.
bm
These commands configure bandwidth management settings and display bandwidth
management information.
certificates
These commands display certificate information and configure certificate settings.
8021x
These commands configure 802.1x settings and display 802.1x information.
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Table 221 Valid Commands
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
radius
These commands display remote RADIUS server access information and configure
RADIUS access settings.
radserv
These command configure the Local RADIUS server settings
wcfg
These command configure the SSID & security settings of the Wi-Fi AP.
39.2 Call Control Support
The LAN-Cell provides two call control functions: budget management and call history.
Please note that this menu is only applicable when Encapsulation is set to PPPoE or PPTP
in menu 4 or menu 11.1.
"
Budget Management is unrelated to the Cell-Sentry budget feature. Configure
Cell-Sentry budgets using the web configurator (see Section 5.4.2 on page
118)
The budget management function allows you to set a limit on the total outgoing call time of
the LAN-Cell within certain times. When the total outgoing call time exceeds the limit, the
current call will be dropped and any future outgoing calls will be blocked.
Call history chronicles preceding incoming and outgoing calls.
To access the call control menu, select option 9 in menu 24 to go to Menu 24.9 - System
Maintenance - Call Control, as shown in the next table.
Figure 367 Call Control
Menu 24.9 - System Maintenance - Call Control
1.Budget Management
2.Call History
Enter Menu Selection Number:
39.2.1 Budget Management
Menu 24.9.1 shows the budget management statistics for outgoing calls. Enter 1 from Menu
24.9 - System Maintenance - Call Control to bring up the following menu. Not all fields are
available on all models.
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Chapter 39 System Maint. Menus 8 to 10
Figure 368 Budget Management
Menu 24.9.1 - Budget Management
Remote Node
Connection Time/Total Budget
Elapsed Time/Total Period
1.WAN_1
No Budget
No Budget
2.WAN_2
No Budget
No Budget
3.Dial
No Budget
No Budget
Reset Node (0 to update screen):
The total budget is the time limit on the accumulated time for outgoing calls to a remote node.
When this limit is reached, the call will be dropped and further outgoing calls to that remote
node will be blocked. After each period, the total budget is reset. The default for the total
budget is 0 minutes and the period is 0 hours, meaning no budget control. You can reset the
accumulated connection time in this menu by entering the index of a remote node. Enter 0 to
update the screen. The budget and the reset period can be configured in menu 11.1 for the
remote node.
Table 222 Budget Management
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Remote Node
Enter the index number of the remote node you
want to reset (just one in this case)
1
Connection Time/
Total Budget
This is the total connection time that has gone by
(within the allocated budget that you set in menu
11.1).
5/10 means that 5 minutes
out of a total allocation of 10
minutes have lapsed.
Elapsed Time/Total
Period
The period is the time cycle in hours that the
allocation budget is reset (see menu 11.1.) The
elapsed time is the time used up within this
period.
0.5/1 means that 30
minutes out of the 1-hour
time period has lapsed.
Enter “0” to update the screen or press [ESC] to return to the previous screen.
39.2.2 Call History
This is the second option in Menu 24.9 - System Maintenance - Call Control. It displays
information about past incoming and outgoing calls. Enter 2 from Menu 24.9 - System
Maintenance - Call Control to bring up the following menu.
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Figure 369 Call History
Menu 24.9.2 - Call History
Phone Number
Dir
Rate
#call
Max
Min
Total
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Enter Entry to Delete(0 to exit):
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 223 Call History
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Phone Number
The PPPoE service names are shown here.
Dir
This shows whether the call was incoming or outgoing.
Rate
This is the transfer rate of the call.
#call
This is the number of calls made to or received from that telephone number.
Max
This is the length of time of the longest telephone call.
Min
This is the length of time of the shortest telephone call.
Total
This is the total length of time of all the telephone calls to/from that telephone
number.
You may enter an entry number to delete it or ‘”0” to exit.
39.3 Time and Date Setting
The LAN-Cell’s Real Time Chip (RTC) keeps track of the time and date. There is also a
software mechanism to set the time manually or get the current time and date from an external
server when you turn on your LAN-Cell. Menu 24.10 allows you to update the time and date
settings of your LAN-Cell. The real time is then displayed in the LAN-Cell error logs and
firewall logs.
Select menu 24 in the main menu to open Menu 24 - System Maintenance, as shown next.
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Figure 370 Menu 24: System Maintenance
Menu 24 - System Maintenance
1. System Status
2. System Information and Console Port Speed
3. Log and Trace
4. Diagnostic
5. Backup Configuration
6. Restore Configuration
7. Upload Firmware
8. Command Interpreter Mode
9. Call Control
10. Time and Date Setting
11. Remote Management Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Enter 10 to go to Menu 24.10 - System Maintenance - Time and Date Setting to update the
time and date settings of your LAN-Cell as shown in the following screen.
Figure 371 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting
Menu 24.10 - System Maintenance - Time and Date Setting
Time Protocol= NTP (RFC-1305)
Time Server Address= 0.pool.ntp.org
Current Time:
New Time (hh:mm:ss):
08 : 24 : 26
N/A N/A N/A
Current Date:
New Date (yyyy-mm-dd):
2005 - 07 - 27
N/A
N/A N/A
Time Zone= GMT
Daylight Saving= No
Start Date (mm-nth-week-hr):
End Date (mm-nth-week-hr):
Jan. - 1st
Jan. - 1st
- Sun. - Sun. -
00
00
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 224 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Time Protocol
Enter the time service protocol that your timeserver uses. Not all time servers
support all protocols, so you may have to check with your ISP/network
administrator or use trial and error to find a protocol that works. The main
differences between them are the format.
Daytime (RFC 867) format is day/month/year/time zone of the server.
Time (RFC-868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of
seconds since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
The default, NTP (RFC-1305), is similar to Time (RFC-868).
Select Manual to enter the new time and new date manually.
Time Server
Address
Enter the IP address or domain name of your timeserver. Check with your ISP/
network administrator if you are unsure of this information.
Current Time
This field displays an updated time only when you reenter this menu.
New Time
Enter the new time in hour, minute and second format. This field is available when
you select Manual in the Time Protocol field.
Current Date
This field displays an updated date only when you reenter this menu.
New Date
Enter the new date in year, month and day format. This field is available when you
select Manual in the Time Protocol field.
Time Zone
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to set the time difference between your
time zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Daylight Saving
Daylight Saving Time is a period from late spring to early fall when many countries
set their clocks ahead of normal local time by one hour to give more daylight time in
the evenings. If you use daylight savings time, then choose Yes.
Start Date (mmnth-week-hr)
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time starts if you selected Yes
in the Daylight Saving field. The hr field uses the 24 hour format. Here are a
couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time starts in most parts of the United States on the first Sunday
of April. Each time zone in the United States starts using Daylight Saving Time at 2
A.M. local time. So in the United States you would select Apr., 1st, Sun. and type
02 in the hr field.
Daylight Saving Time starts in the European Union on the last Sunday of March. All
of the time zones in the European Union start using Daylight Saving Time at the
same moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union you would select
Mar., Last, Sun. The time you type in the hr field depends on your time zone. In
Germany for instance, you would type 02 because Germany's time zone is one
hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
End Date (mmnth-week-hr)
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time ends if you selected Yes in
the Daylight Saving field. The hr field uses the 24 hour format. Here are a couple
of examples:
Daylight Saving Time ends in the United States on the last Sunday of October.
Each time zone in the United States stops using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M.
local time. So in the United States you would select Oct., Last, Sun. and type 02 in
the hr field.
Daylight Saving Time ends in the European Union on the last Sunday of October.
All of the time zones in the European Union stop using Daylight Saving Time at the
same moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union you would select
Oct., Last, Sun. The time you type in the hr field depends on your time zone. In
Germany for instance, you would type 02 because Germany's time zone is one
hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
Once you have filled in this menu, press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to
Cancel“ to save your configuration, or press [ESC] to cancel.
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CHAPTER
40
Remote Management
This chapter covers remote management found in SMT menu 24.11.
40.1 Remote Management
Remote management allows you to determine which services/protocols can access which
LAN-Cell interface (if any) from which computers.
"
When you configure remote management to allow management from any
network except the LAN, you still need to configure a firewall rule to allow
access. See Chapter 9 on page 181 for details on configuring firewall rules.
You can also disable a service on the LAN-Cell by not allowing access for the service/protocol
through any of the LAN-Cell interfaces.
To disable remote management of a service, select Disable in the corresponding Access field.
Enter 11 from menu 24 to bring up Menu 24.11 - Remote Management Control.
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Figure 372 Menu 24.11 – Remote Management Control
Menu 24.11 - Remote Management Control
TELNET Server:
FTP Server:
SSH Server:
HTTPS Server:
HTTP Server:
SNMP Service:
DNS Service:
Port = 23
Access = Disable
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Port = 21
Access = LAN+WAN+DMZ+WLAN+CELL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Certificate = auto_generated_self_signed_cert
Port = 22
Access = LAN+WAN+DMZ+WLAN+CELL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Certificate = auto_generated_self_signed_cert
Authenticate Client Certificates = No
Port = 443
Access = LAN+WAN+DMZ+WLAN+CELL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Port = 80
Access = LAN+WAN+DMZ+WLAN+CELL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Port = 161
Access = LAN+WAN+DMZ+WLAN+CELL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Port = 53
Access = LAN+WAN+DMZ+WLAN+CELL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 225 Menu 24.11 – Remote Management Control
552
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Telnet Server
FTP Server
SSH Server
HTTPS Server
HTTP Server
SNMP Service
DNS Service
Each of these read-only labels denotes a service that you may use to remotely
manage the LAN-Cell.
Port
This field shows the port number for the service or protocol. You may change the
port number if needed, but you must use the same port number to access the LANCell.
Access
Select the access interfaces (if any) by pressing [SPACE BAR], then [ENTER] to
choose the correct combination or select Disable to prevent remote access via this
port from all interfaces.
Secure Client IP
The default 0.0.0.0 allows any client to use this service to remotely manage the
LAN-Cell. Enter an IP address to restrict access to a client with a matching IP
address.
Certificate
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the certificate that the LAN-Cell
will use to identify itself. The LAN-Cell is the SSL server and must always
authenticate itself to the SSL client (the computer which requests the HTTPS
connection with the LAN-Cell).
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Chapter 40 Remote Management
Table 225 Menu 24.11 – Remote Management Control (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Authenticate
Client
Certificates
Select Yes by pressing [SPACE BAR], then [ENTER] to require the SSL client to
authenticate itself to the LAN-Cell by sending the LAN-Cell a certificate. To do that
the SSL client must have a CA-signed certificate from a CA that has been imported
as a trusted CA on the LAN-Cell (see Appendix G on page 629 for details).
Once you have filled in this menu, press [ENTER] at the message "Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to
Cancel" to save your configuration, or press [ESC] to cancel.
40.1.1 Remote Management Limitations
Remote management over LAN or WAN will not work when:
1 A filter in menu 3.1 (LAN) or in menu 11.5 (WAN) is applied to block a Telnet, FTP or
Web service.
2 You have disabled that service in menu 24.11.
3 The IP address in the Secure Client IP field (menu 24.11) does not match the client IP
address. If it does not match, the LAN-Cell will disconnect the session immediately.
4 There is an SMT console session running.
5 There is already another remote management session with an equal or higher priority
running. You may only have one remote management session running at one time.
6 There is a firewall rule that blocks it.
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CHAPTER
41
IP Policy Routing
This chapter covers setting and applying policies used for IP routing.
41.1 IP Routing Policy Summary
Menu 25 shows the summary of a policy rule, including the criteria and the action of a single
policy, and whether a policy is active or not. Each policy contains two lines. The former part is
the criteria of the incoming packet and the latter is the action. Between these two parts,
separator "|" means the action is taken on criteria matched and separator "=" means the action
is taken on criteria not matched.
Figure 373 Menu 25: Sample IP Routing Policy Summary
Menu 25 - IP Routing Policy Summary
#
A
Criteria/Action
--- - ------------------------------------------------------001 N SA=1.1.1.1-1.1.1.1 DA=2.2.2.2-2.2.2.5
SP=20-25 DP=20-25 P=6 T=NM PR=0
|GW=192.168.1.1 T=MT PR=0
002 N _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
003 N _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
004 N _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
005 N _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
006 N _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
Select Command= None
Select Rule= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press Space Bar to Toggle.
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 226 Menu 25: Sample IP Routing Policy Summary
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the policy index number.
A
This displays whether a policy is active (Y) or not (N).
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Table 226 Menu 25: Sample IP Routing Policy Summary (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Criteria/Action
This displays the details about to which packets the policy applies and how the
policy has the LAN-Cell handle those packets. Refer to Table 227 on page 556 for
detailed information.
Select Command
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from None, Edit, Delete, Go To Rule, Next Page
or Previous Page and then press [ENTER]. You must select a rule in the next
field when you choose the Edit, Delete or Go To commands.
Select None and then press [ENTER] to go to the "Press ENTER to Confirm…"
prompt.
Use Edit to create or edit a rule. Use Delete to remove a rule. To edit or delete a
rule, first make sure you are on the correct page. When a rule is deleted,
subsequent rules do not move up in the page list.
Use Go To Rule to view the page where your desired rule is listed.
Select Next Page or Previous Page to view the next or previous page of rules
(respectively).
Select Rule
Type the policy index number you wish to edit or delete and then press [ENTER].
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt "Press ENTER to Confirm…" to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
Table 227 IP Routing Policy Setup
ABBREVIATION
MEANING
Criterion
Source IP Address
SA
SP
Source Port
DA
Destination IP Address
DP
Destination Port
P
IP layer 4 protocol number (TCP=6, UDP=17…)
T
Type of service of incoming packet
PR
Precedence of incoming packet
Action
GW
Gateway IP address
T
Outgoing Type of service
P
Outgoing Precedence
Service
NM
Normal
MD
Minimum Delay
MT
Maximum Throughput
MR
Maximum Reliability
MC
Minimum Cost
41.2 IP Routing Policy Setup
To setup a routing policy, perform the following procedures:
1 Type 25 in the main menu to open Menu 25 - IP Routing Policy Summary.
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2 Select Edit in the Select Command field; type the index number of the rule you want to
configure in the Select Rule field and press [ENTER] to open Menu 25.1 - IP Routing
Policy Setup (see the next figure).
Figure 374 Menu 25.1: IP Routing Policy Setup
Menu 25.1 - IP Routing Policy Setup
Rule Index= 1
Active= Yes
Criteria:
IP Protocol
= 6
Type of Service= Normal
Packet length= 40
Precedence
= 0
Len Comp= Equal
Source:
addr start= 1.1.1.1
end= 1.1.1.1
port start= 20
end= 25
Destination:
addr start= 2.2.2.2
end= 2.2.2.5
port start= 20
end= 25
Action= Matched
Gateway Type= IP Address
Gateway addr
= 192.168.1.1
Redirect packet= N/A
Type of Service= Max Thruput
Log= No
Precedence
= 0
Edit policy to packets received from= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 228 Menu 25.1: IP Routing Policy Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Rule Index
This is the index number of the routing policy selected in Menu 25 - IP Routing
Policy Summary.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to activate the policy.
Criteria
IP Protocol
Enter a number that represents an IP layer 4 protocol, for example, UDP=17,
TCP=6, ICMP=1 and Don't care=0.
Type of Service
Prioritize incoming network traffic by choosing from Don't Care, Normal, Min
Delay, Max Thruput or Max Reliable.
Precedence
Precedence value of the incoming packet. Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER]
to select a value from 0 to 7 or Don't Care.
Packet Length
Type the length of incoming packets (in bytes). The operators in the Len Comp
(next field) apply to packets of this length.
Len Comp
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to choose from Equal, Not Equal, Less,
Greater, Less or Equal or Greater or Equal.
Source
addr start / end
Source IP address range from start to end.
port start / end
Source port number range from start to end; applicable only for TCP/UDP.
Destination
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Table 228 Menu 25.1: IP Routing Policy Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
addr start / end
Destination IP address range from start to end.
port start / end
Destination port number range from start to end; applicable only for TCP/UDP.
Action
Specifies whether action should be taken on criteria Matched or Not Matched.
Gateway Type
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select IP Address and enter the IP
address of the gateway if you want to specify the IP address of the gateway. The
gateway is an immediate neighbor of your LAN-Cell that will forward the packet to
the destination. The gateway must be a router on the same segment as your LANCell's LAN or WAN port.
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Remote Node to have the LANCell send traffic that matches the policy route through a specific WAN port.
Gateway addr
This field displays if you selected IP Address in the Gateway Type field. Defines
the outgoing gateway address. The gateway must be on the same subnet as the
LAN-Cell if it is on the LAN, otherwise, the gateway must be the IP address of a
remote node. The default gateway is specified as 0.0.0.0.
Remote Node Idx
This field displays if you selected Remote Node in the Gateway Type field. Type
1 for Ethernet WAN or 2 for Cellular WAN.
Redirect Packet
This field applies if you selected Remote Node in the Gateway Type field.
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to have the LAN-Cell send
traffic that matches the policy route through the other WAN interface if it cannot
send the traffic through the WAN interface you selected.
Type of Service
Set the new TOS value of the outgoing packet. Prioritize incoming network traffic
by choosing Don't Care, Normal, Min Delay, Max Thruput, Max Reliable or Min
Cost.
Precedence
Set the new outgoing packet precedence value. Values are 0 to 7 or Don't Care.
Log
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to make an entry in the
system log when a policy is executed.
Edit policy to
packets received
from
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes or No (default). Select Yes
to configure Menu 25.1.1: IP Routing Policy Setup discussed next.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt "Press [ENTER] to confirm or
[ESC] to cancel" to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous
screen.
41.2.1 Applying Policy to Packets
To apply the policy to packets received on the selected interface(s), go to Menu 25.1: IP
Routing Policy Setup and press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes in the Edit policy to packets
received from field. Press [ENTER] to display Menu 25.1.1 - IP Routing Policy Setup
(shown next).
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Figure 375 Menu 25.1.1: IP Routing Policy Setup
Menu 25.1.1 - IP Routing Policy Setup
Apply policy to packets received from:
LAN= No
DMZ= No
WLAN= No
ALL WAN= Yes
Selected Remote Node index= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 229 Menu 25.1.1: IP Routing Policy Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
LAN/DMZ/WLAN/
ALL WAN
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes or No. Choose Yes and press [ENTER] to
apply the policy to packets received on the specific interface(s).
Selected Remote
Node index
If you select No in the ALL WAN field, enter the number of the WAN interface.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt "Press ENTER to Confirm…" to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
41.3 IP Policy Routing Example
If a network has both Internet and remote node connections, you can route Web packets to the
Internet using one policy and route FTP packets to a remote network using another policy. See
the next figure.
Route 1 represents the default IP route and route 2 represents the configured IP route.
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Figure 376 Example of IP Policy Routing
To force Web packets coming from clients with IP addresses of 192.168.1.33 to 192.168.1.64
to be routed to the Internet via the WAN port of the LAN-Cell, follow the steps as shown next.
1 Create a rule in Menu 25.1 - IP Routing Policy Setup as shown next.
Figure 377 IP Routing Policy Example 1
Menu 25.1 - IP Routing Policy Setup
Rule Index= 1
Active= Yes
Criteria:
IP Protocol
= 6
Type of Service= Don't Care
Packet length= 10
Precedence
= Don't Care
Len Comp= Equal
Source:
addr start= 192.168.1.33
end= 192.168.1.64
port start= 0
end= N/A
Destination:
addr start= 0.0.0.0
end= N/A
port start= 80
end= 80
Action= Matched
Gateway Type= IP Address
Gateway addr
= 192.168.1.1
Redirect packet= N/A
Type of Service= Max Thruput
Log= No
Precedence
= 0
Edit policy to packets received from= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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2 Select Yes in the LAN field in menu 25.1.1 to apply the policy to packets received on the
LAN port.
3 Check Menu 25 - IP Routing Policy Summary to see if the rule is added correctly.
4 Create another rule in menu 25.1 for this rule to route packets from any host (IP=0.0.0.0
means any host) with protocol TCP and port FTP access through another gateway
(192.168.1.100).
Figure 378 IP Routing Policy Example 2
Menu 25.1 - IP Routing Policy Setup
Rule Index= 2
Active= No
Criteria:
IP Protocol
= 6
Type of Service= Don't Care
Packet length= 10
Precedence
= Don't Care
Len Comp= Equal
Source:
addr start= 0.0.0.0
end= N/A
port start= 0
end= N/A
Destination:
addr start= 0.0.0.0
end= N/A
port start= 20
end= 21
Action= Matched
Gateway Type= IP Address
Gateway addr
= 192.168.1.100
Redirect packet= N/A
Type of Service= Don't Care
Log= No
Precedence
= Don't Care
Edit policy to packets received from= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
5 Select Yes in the LAN field in menu 25.1.1 to apply the policy to packets received on the
LAN port.
6 Check Menu 25 - IP Routing Policy Summary to see if the rule is added correctly.
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CHAPTER
42
Call Scheduling
Call scheduling allows you to dictate when a remote node should be called and for how long.
42.1 Introduction to Call Scheduling
The call scheduling feature allows the LAN-Cell to manage a remote node and dictate when a
remote node should be called and for how long. This feature is similar to the scheduler in a
videocassette recorder (you can specify a time period for the VCR to record). You can apply
up to 4 schedule sets in Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile. From the main menu, enter 26 to
access Menu 26 - Schedule Setup as shown next.
Figure 379 Schedule Setup
Menu 26 - Schedule Setup
Schedule
Set #
-----1
2
3
4
5
6
Name
-----------------_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
Schedule
Set #
-----7
8
9
10
11
12
Name
-----------------_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
Enter Schedule Set Number to Configure= 0
Edit Name= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Lower numbered sets take precedence over higher numbered sets thereby avoiding scheduling
conflicts. For example, if sets 1, 2, 3 and 4 are applied in the remote node, then set 1 will take
precedence over set 2, 3 and 4 as the LAN-Cell, by default, applies the lowest numbered set
first. Set 2 will take precedence over set 3 and 4, and so on.
You can design up to 12 schedule sets but you can only apply up to four schedule sets for a
remote node.
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"
To delete a schedule set, enter the set number and press [SPACE BAR] and
then [ENTER] or [DEL] in the Edit Name field.
To set up a schedule set, select the schedule set you want to setup from menu 26 (1-12) and
press [ENTER] to see Menu 26.1 - Schedule Set Setup as shown next.
Figure 380 Schedule Set Setup
Menu 26.1 - Schedule Set Setup
Active= Yes
How Often= Once
Start Date(yyyy-mm-dd) = N/A
Once:
Date(yyyy-mm-dd)= 2000 - 01 - 01
Weekdays:
Sunday= N/A
Monday= N/A
Tuesday= N/A
Wednesday= N/A
Thursday= N/A
Friday= N/A
Saturday= N/A
Start Time (hh:mm)= 00 : 00
Duration (hh:mm)= 00 : 00
Action= Forced On
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press Space Bar to Toggle
If a connection has been already established, your LAN-Cell will not drop it. Once the
connection is dropped manually or it times out, then that remote node can't be triggered up
until the end of the Duration.
Table 230 Schedule Set Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes or No. Choose Yes and press [ENTER] to activate
the schedule set.
How Often
Should this schedule set recur weekly or be used just once only? Press [SPACE BAR]
and then [ENTER] to select Once or Weekly. Both these options are mutually
exclusive. If Once is selected, then all weekday settings are N/A. When Once is
selected, the schedule rule deletes automatically after the scheduled time elapses.
Start Date
Enter the start date when you wish the set to take effect in year -month-date format.
Valid dates are from the present to 2036-February-5.
Once:
Date
If you selected Once in the How Often field above, then enter the date the set should
activate here in year-month-date format.
Weekdays:
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Table 230 Schedule Set Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Day
If you selected Weekly in the How Often field above, then select the day(s) when the
set should activate (and recur) by going to that day(s) and pressing [SPACE BAR] to
select Yes, then press [ENTER].
Start Time
Enter the start time when you wish the schedule set to take effect in hour-minute format.
Duration
The duration determines how long the LAN-Cell is to apply the action configured in the
Action field. Enter the maximum length of time in hour-minute format.
Action
Forced On means that the connection is maintained whether or not there is a demand
call on the line and will persist for the time period specified in the Duration field.
Forced Down means that the connection is blocked whether or not there is a demand
call on the line.
Enable Dial-On-Demand means that this schedule permits a demand call on the line.
Disable Dial-On-Demand means that this schedule prevents a demand call on the line.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
Once your schedule sets are configured, you must then apply them to the desired remote
node(s). Enter 11 from the Main Menu and then enter the target remote node index. Press
[SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select PPPoE in the Encapsulation field to make the
schedule sets field available as shown next.
Figure 381 Applying Schedule Set(s) to a Remote Node (PPPoE)
Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Rem Node Name= ChangeMe
Active= Yes
Route= IP
Encapsulation= PPPoE
Service Type= Standard
Service Name=
Outgoing=
My Login=
My Password= ********
Authen= CHAP/PAP
Edit IP= No
Telco Option:
Allocated Budget(min)= 0
Period(hr)= 0
Schedules= 1,2,3,4
Nailed-Up Connection= No
Session Options:
Edit Filter Sets= No
Idle Timeout(sec)= 100
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
You can apply up to four schedule sets, separated by commas, for one remote node. Change
the schedule set numbers to your preference(s).
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Figure 382 Applying Schedule Set(s) to a Remote Node (PPTP)
Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Rem Node Name= ChangeMe
Active= Yes
Encapsulation= PPTP
Service Type= Standard
Outgoing=
My Login=
My Password= ********
Retype to Confirm= ********
Authen= CHAP/PAP
PPTP:
My IP Addr=
My IP Mask=
Server IP Addr=
Connection ID/Name=
Route= IP
Edit IP= No
Telco Option:
Allocated Budget(min)= 0
Period(hr)= 0
Schedules= 1,2,3,4
Nailed-up Connections= No
Session Options:
Edit Filter Sets= No
Idle Timeout(sec)= 100
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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Troubleshooting
and Specifications
Troubleshooting (569)
Product Specifications (575)
567
568
CHAPTER
43
Troubleshooting
This chapter offers some suggestions to solve problems you might encounter.
Proxicast’s web site also contains a knowledgebase of other troubleshooting, technical
support, and example configuration information. Please consult support.proxicast.com for the
latest LAN-Cell support information.
The potential problems are divided into the following categories.
• Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
• LAN-Cell Access and Login
• Internet Access
43.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
V
The LAN-Cell does not turn on. None of the LEDs turn on.
1 Make sure the LAN-Cell is turned on.
2 Make sure you are using the power adaptor or cord included with the LAN-Cell.
3 Make sure the power adaptor is connected to the LAN-Cell and plugged in to an
appropriate power source. Make sure the power source is turned on.
4 Turn the LAN-Cell off and on or disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor to the
LAN-Cell.
5 If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
V
One of the LEDs does not behave as expected.
1 Make sure you understand the normal behavior of the LED. See Section 1.5 on page 30.
2 Check the hardware connections. See the Quick Start Guide.
3 Inspect your cables for damage. Contact the vendor to replace any damaged cables.
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4 Turn the LAN-Cell off and on or disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor to the
LAN-Cell.
5 If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
43.2 LAN-Cell Access and Login
V
I forgot the LAN IP address for the LAN-Cell.
1 The default LAN IP address is 192.168.1.1.
2 Use the console port to log in to the LAN-Cell.
3 If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, you might get the IP address of the
LAN-Cell by looking up the IP address of the default gateway for your computer. To do
this in most Windows computers, click Start > Run, enter cmd, and then enter ipconfig.
The IP address of the Default Gateway might be the IP address of the LAN-Cell (it
depends on the network), so enter this IP address in your Internet browser.
4 If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 2.4
on page 51.
V
I forgot the password.
1 The default password is 1234.
2 If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 2.4
on page 51.
V
I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web configurator.
1 Make sure you are using the correct IP address.
• The default LAN IP address is 192.168.1.1.
• Use the LAN-Cell’s LAN IP address when configuring from the LAN.
• Use the LAN-Cell’s WAN IP address when configuring from the WAN.
• If you changed the LAN IP address (Section 4.2 on page 80), use the new IP address.
• If you changed the LAN IP address and have forgotten it, see the troubleshooting
suggestions for I forgot the LAN IP address for the LAN-Cell.
2 Enter “HTTP://192.168.1.1” (or the current LAN IP address of the LAN-Cell) into your
browsers address bar.
3 Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See
the Quick Start Guide and Section 1.5 on page 30.
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4 Make sure your Internet browser does not block pop-up windows and has JavaScripts
and Java enabled. See Appendix A on page 583.
5 Make sure your computer's Ethernet adapter is installed and functioning properly.
6 Make sure your computer is in the same subnet as the LAN-Cell. (If you know that there
are routers between your computer and the LAN-Cell, skip this step.)
• If there is a DHCP server on your network, make sure your computer is using a
dynamic IP address. See Appendix B on page 589. Your LAN-Cell is a DHCP server
by default.
7 Reset the device to its factory defaults, and try to access the LAN-Cell with the default
IP address. See Section 2.4 on page 51.
8 If the problem continues, contact the network administrator or vendor, or try one of the
advanced suggestions.
Advanced Suggestions
• Try to access the LAN-Cell using another service, such as Telnet. If you can access the
LAN-Cell, check the remote management settings, firewall rules, and SMT filters to find
out why the LAN-Cell does not respond to HTTP.
• If your computer is connected to the WAN port or is connected wirelessly, use a computer
that is connected to a LAN port.
• You may also need to clear your Internet browser’s cache.
In Internet Explorer, click Tools and then Internet Options to open the Internet Options
screen.
In the General tab, click Delete Files. In the pop-up window, select the Delete all offline
content check box and click OK. Click OK in the Internet Options screen to close it.
• If you disconnect your computer from one device and connect it to another device that has
the same IP address, your computer’s ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) table may
contain an entry that maps the management IP address to the previous device’s MAC
address).
In Windows, use arp -d at the command prompt to delete all entries in your computer’s
ARP table.
V
I can see the Login screen, but I cannot log in to the LAN-Cell.
1 Make sure you have entered the user name and password correctly. The default user
name is admin, and the default password is 1234. These fields are case-sensitive, so
make sure [Caps Lock] is not on.
2 You cannot log in to the web configurator while someone is using the SMT, Telnet, or
the console port to access the LAN-Cell. Log out of the LAN-Cell in the other session, or
ask the person who is logged in to log out.
3 Turn the LAN-Cell off and on or disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor or cord to
the LAN-Cell.
4 If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 2.4
on page 51.
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V
I cannot access the SMT. / I cannot Telnet to the LAN-Cell.
See the troubleshooting suggestions for I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web
configurator. Ignore the suggestions about your browser.
V
I cannot use FTP to upload / download the configuration file. / I cannot use
FTP to upload new firmware.
See the troubleshooting suggestions for I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web
configurator. Ignore the suggestions about your browser.
V
I receive an error when trying to upload new firmware to the LAN-Cell.
1 Firmware updates are usually delivered in ZIP archives. Unzip the archives and load the
file with the “.BIN” extension.
2 Be certain that the firmware file you are loading is for your LAN-Cell model.
3 Back-up your configuration settings to a PC, press the RESET button for 10 seconds,
then log back into the LAN-Cell (192.168.1.1 password = 1234). Upload the firmware
then reload your saved configuration file.
4 Firmware upgrades over a WAN interface are possible, but not recommended, especially
over 3G cellular WAN connections, due to high latency and the potential for interrupted
communications.
5 Try performing the firmware upgrade via the Console port using FTP.
43.3 Internet Access
V
I cannot make a 3G cellular connection.
1 Make sure that you are using a 3G PC-Card modem that is supported in your version of
the LAN-Cell’s ProxiOS firmware. Check the Proxicast web site for the last firmware
and 3G card support information.
1 Make sure that your 3G PC-Card modem (and SIM/RUIM card if used) is associated
with your account at your service provider and that it is properly provisioned for Internet
services.
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2 Make sure that your 3G PC-Card modem has been properly activated on your service
providers network. Use a Windows laptop to confirm that the 3G card is functioning
properly on the carrier’s network. Follow the carrier or card manufacturer’s instructions
on activating and updating the 3G card in Windows.
3 Check the APN, Username, Password, Authentication Type, and ISP Access phone
number in the WIRELESS > CELLULAR screen. Refer to Section 5.4 on page 114.
4 Disconnect all the cables from your device, remove the 3G card, and follow the
directions in the Quick Start Guide again.
5 If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
V
I cannot get a WAN IP address (or the correct IP address) from the ISP.
1 The ISP provides the WAN IP address after authenticating you. Authentication may be
through the user name and password, the 3G Card’s ESN, IMEI, or IMSI value, the
MAC address or the host name.
2 Try using the “Get Automatically from IP” option even if you have a “static” IP address
assigned by your ISP.
3 Disconnect all the cables from your device, remove the 3G card, and follow the
directions in the Quick Start Guide again.
4 If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
V
I cannot access the Internet.
1 Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See
the Quick Start Guide and Section 1.5 on page 30.
2 Make sure you entered your ISP account information correctly in the WAN or Cellular
screens or SMT menus. These fields are case-sensitive, so make sure [Caps Lock] is not
on.
3 If you are trying to access the Internet using a Wi-Fi client, make sure the settings in the
Wi-Fi client are the same as the settings in the LAN-Cell’s Wi-Fi AP.
4 Disconnect all the cables from your device, remove the 3G card, and follow the
directions in the Quick Start Guide again.
5 If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
V
I cannot access the Internet anymore. I had access to the Internet (with the
LAN-Cell), but my Internet connection is not available anymore.
1 Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See
the Quick Start Guide and Section 1.5 on page 30.
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2
3
4
5
V
Check the Cell-Sentry budget control. Refer to Section 5.4.2 on page 118.
Check the schedule rules. Refer to Chapter 42 on page 563 (SMT).
Reboot the LAN-Cell.
If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
The Internet connection is slow or intermittent.
1 There might be a lot of traffic on the network. Look at the LEDs, and check Section 1.5
on page 30. If the LAN-Cell is sending or receiving a lot of information, try closing
some programs that use the Internet, especially peer-to-peer applications.
2 Check the 3G signal strength. If the signal strength is low, try repositioning the LANCell’s external antenna (if used) or move the LAN-Cell to a different location. Look for
any devices that might be interfering with the cellular signal (for example, microwaves,
CRT’s, light fixtures, other wireless networks, and so on).
3 Reboot the LAN-Cell.
4 If the problem continues, contact the network administrator or vendor, or try one of the
advanced suggestions.
Advanced Suggestions
• Check the settings for bandwidth management. If it is disabled, you might consider
activating it. If it is enabled, you might consider changing the allocations.
• Contact your cellular service provider regarding coverage and signal quality at your
location.
• Utilize a higher gain external antenna or amplifier.
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44
Product Specifications
The following tables summarize the LAN-Cell’s hardware and firmware features.
Table 231 Hardware Specifications
Dimensions
220 (W) x 137 (D) x 32 (H) mm
Weight
1.09 kg
Power Specification
12V DC. 2.1 mm jack (center pin positive)
Power Consumption
5W Typical; 8W Max
Ethernet Interface
LAN/DMZ
Four LAN/DMZ/WLAN auto-negotiating, auto MDI/MDI-X 10/100 Mbps RJ45 Ethernet ports.
WAN
One auto-negotiating, auto MDI/MDI-X 10/100 Mbps RJ-45 Ethernet port
Reset Button
Restores factory default settings
Console
RJ-45 port for RS-232 null modem connection
Dial Backup
RJ-45 port for RS-232 connection
PC-Card Slot
For installing a 3G card. Optional Card-Guard 3G card protection cover
includes mounting hole for bulkhead SMA antenna jacks. 3G Card pig-tail
connectors are available separately..
WLAN Antenna
One 2 dBi rubber duck style swivel 802.11 a/b/g antenna (SMA-RP
Female). WLAN jack on the LAN-Cell is SMA-RP Male
Card-Lock
Use 18lb tensile strength (miniature) cable-ties. Max. width 0.1 in (2.5 mm)
Operation Temperature
-30º C ~ 60º C
Operation Humidity
20% ~ 92% RH (non-condensing)
Certifications
EMC: FCC Part 15 Class B, CE-EMC Class B, C-Tick Class B, VCCI Class
B
Safety: CSA International, CE EN60950-1 (UL60950-1, CSA60950-1,
EN60950-1, IEC60950-1)
Table 232 Firmware Specifications
FEATURE
DESCRIPTION
Default IP Address
192.168.1.1
Default Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0 (24 bits)
Default Password
1234
Default DHCP Pool
192.168.1.33 to 192.168.1.160
Device Management
Use the web configurator to easily configure the rich range of features on
the LAN-Cell.
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Table 232 Firmware Specifications
FEATURE
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Functionality
Allow the IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b and/or IEEE 802.11g wireless
clients to connect to the LAN-Cell wirelessly. Enable wireless security
(WEP, WPA(2), WPA(2)-PSK) and/or MAC filtering to protect your
wireless network.
Firmware Upgrade
Download new firmware (when available) from the Proxicast web site
and use the web configurator, an FTP or a TFTP tool to put it on the
LAN-Cell.
Note: Only upload firmware for your specific model!
576
Configuration Backup &
Restoration
Make a copy of the LAN-Cell’s configuration. You can put it back on the
LAN-Cell later if you decide to revert back to an earlier configuration.
Network Address
Translation (NAT)
Each computer on your network must have its own unique IP address.
Use NAT to convert your public IP address(es) to multiple private IP
addresses for the computers on your network.
Port Forwarding
If you have a server (mail or web server for example) on your network,
you can use this feature to let people access it from the Internet.
DHCP (Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol)
Use this feature to have the LAN-Cell assign IP addresses, an IP default
gateway and DNS servers to computers on your network.
Dynamic DNS Support
With Dynamic DNS (Domain Name System) support, you can use a
fixed URL, www.proxicast.com for example, with a dynamic IP address.
You must register for this service with a Dynamic DNS service provider.
IP Multicast
IP multicast is used to send traffic to a specific group of computers. The
LAN-Cell supports versions 1 and 2 of IGMP (Internet Group
Management Protocol) used to join multicast groups (see RFC 2236).
IP Alias
IP alias allows you to subdivide a physical network into logical networks
over the same Ethernet interface with the LAN-Cell itself as the gateway
for each subnet.
Time and Date
Get the current time and date from an external server when you turn on
your LAN-Cell. You can also set the time manually. These dates and
times are then used in logs.
Logging and Tracing
Use packet tracing and logs for troubleshooting. You can send logs from
the LAN-Cell to an external syslog server.
PPPoE
PPPoE mimics a dial-up Internet access connection.
PPTP Encapsulation
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) enables secure transfer of
data through a Virtual Private Network (VPN). The LAN-Cell supports
one PPTP connection at a time.
RoadRunner Support
The LAN-Cell supports Time Warner’s RoadRunner Service in addition
to standard cable modem services.
Firewall
You can configure firewall on the Proxicast Device for secure Internet
access. When the firewall is on, by default, all incoming traffic from the
Internet to your network is blocked unless it is initiated from your
network. This means that probes from the outside to your network are
not allowed, but you can safely browse the Internet and download files
for example.
IPSec VPN
This allows you to establish a secure Virtual Private Network (VPN)
tunnel to connect with business partners and branch offices using data
encryption and the Internet without the expense of leased site-to-site
lines. The LAN-Cell VPN is based on the IPSec standard and is fully
interoperable with other IPSec-based VPN products.
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Chapter 44 Product Specifications
Table 232 Firmware Specifications
FEATURE
DESCRIPTION
Bandwidth Management
You can efficiently manage traffic on your network by reserving
bandwidth and giving priority to certain types of traffic and/or to particular
computers.
Remote Managemet
This allows you to decide whether a service (HTTP or FTP traffic for
example) from a computer on a network (LAN or WAN for example) can
access the LAN-Cell.
Table 233 Feature Specifications
FEATURE
SPECIFICATION
Number of Local User Database Entries
32
Number of Static DHCP Table Entries
32
Number of Static Routes
30
Number of Policy Routes
24
Number of NAT Sessions
3,000
Number of Address Mapping Rules
10
Number of Port Forwarding Rules
20
Number of IPSec VPN Tunnels/Security Associations
5
Number of Bandwidth Management Classes
10
Number of Bandwidth Management Class Levels
1
Number of DNS Address Record Entries
30
Number of DNS Name Server Record Entries
16
Table 234 Performance
CATEGORY
PERFORMANCE
Firewall Throughput (with NAT)
24 Mbps
VPN (3DES) Throughput
24 Mbps
User Licenses
Unlimited
Concurrent Sessions
3,000
Simultaneous IPSec VPN Connections
5
Output Power (Maximum)
IEEE 802.11a: 14 dBm at 54 Mbps OFDM
IEEE 802.11b: 18 dBm at 11 Mbps CCK, QPSK, BPSK
IEEE 802.11g: 17 dBm at 54 Mbps OFDM
Compatible 3G Cards
Please see the Release Notes included on the LAN-Cell Documentation CD (or at
support.proxicast.com) for the list of 3G PC-Card modems supported in each firmware
release.
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Chapter 44 Product Specifications
3G Card Installation
1
Do not insert or remove a card with the LAN-Cell turned on.
Make sure the LAN-Cell is off before inserting or removing a 3G card (to avoid damage).
Slide the connector end of the card into the slot as shown next.
Power Adapter Specifications
NORTH AMERICAN PLUG STANDARDS
AC POWER ADAPTOR MODEL
PSA18R-120P (ZA)-R
INPUT POWER
100-240VAC, 50/60HZ, 0.5A
OUTPUT POWER
12VDC, 1.5A
POWER CONSUMPTION
18 W MAX.
SAFETY STANDARDS
UL, CUL (UL 60950-1 FIRST EDITIONCSA C22.2 NO.
60950-1-03 1ST.)
EUROPEAN PLUG STANDARDS
AC POWER ADAPTOR MODEL
PSA18R-120P (ZE)-R
INPUT POWER
100-240VAC, 50/60HZ, 0.5A
OUTPUT POWER
12VDC, 1.5A
POWER CONSUMPTION
18 W MAX.
SAFETY STANDARDS
TUV, CE (EN 60950-1)
UNITED KINGDOM PLUG STANDARDS
AC POWER ADAPTOR MODEL
PSA18R-120P (ZK)-R
INPUT POWER
100-240VAC, 50/60HZ, 0.5A
OUTPUT POWER
12VDC, 1.5A
POWER CONSUMPTION
18 W MAX.
SAFETY STANDARDS
TUV (BS EN 60950-1)
AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND PLUG STANDARDS
578
AC POWER ADAPTOR MODEL
PSA18R-120P (ZS)-R
INPUT POWER
100-240VAC, 50/60HZ, 0.5A
OUTPUT POWER
12VDC, 1.5A
POWER CONSUMPTION
18 W MAX.
SAFETY STANDARDS
AS/NZ60950
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Chapter 44 Product Specifications
JAPAN PLUG STANDARDS
AC POWER ADAPTOR MODEL
PSA18R-120P (ZA)-R
INPUT POWER
100-240VAC, 50/60HZ, 0.5A
OUTPUT POWER
12VDC, 1.5A
POWER CONSUMPTION
18 W MAX.
SAFETY STANDARDS
JET
CHINA PLUG STANDARDS
AC POWER ADAPTOR MODEL
PSA18R-120P (ZA)-R
INPUT POWER
100-240VAC, 50/60HZ, 0.5A
OUTPUT POWER
12VDC, 1.5A
POWER CONSUMPTION
18 W MAX.
SAFETY STANDARDS
CCC
Cable Pin Assignments
In a serial communications connection, generally a computer is DTE (Data Terminal
Equipment) and a modem is DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment). The LAN-Cell is
DCE when you connect a computer to the console port. The LAN-Cell is DTE when you
connect a modem to the dial backup port.6
The console cable and dial backup cable each have an RJ-45 connector and a DB-9 connector.
The pin layout for the DB-9 connector end of the cables is as follows.
Figure 383 Console/Dial Backup Cable DB-9 End Pin Layout
Table 235 Console Cable Pin Assignments
PIN DEFINITION
RJ-45 END
DB-9M (MALE)
END
DSR
1
6
DTR
2
4
TX
3
3
RTS
4
7
GND
5
5
RX
6
2
6.
Pins 2,3 and 5 are used.
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Table 235 Console Cable Pin Assignments
PIN DEFINITION
RJ-45 END
DB-9M (MALE)
END
CTS
7
8
DCD
8
1
N/A
9
Table 236 Console Cable Pin Assignments
PIN DEFINITION
RJ-45 END
DB-9M (MALE)
END
DTR
1
4
DSR
2
6
RX
3
2
CTS
4
8
GND
5
5
TX
6
3
RTS
7
7
DCD
8
1
N/A
9
Table 237 Ethernet Cable Pin Assignments
WAN / LAN ETHERNET CABLE PIN LAYOUT
Straight-through
580
Crossover
(Switch)
(Adapter)
(Switch)
(Switch)
1 IRD +
1 OTD
+
1
IRD +
1 IRD +
2 IRD -
2 OTD - 2
IRD -
2 IRD -
3 OTD
+
3 IRD +
3
OTD +
3 OTD
+
6 OTD -
6 IRD -
6
OTD -
6 OTD -
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
P ART VIII
Appendices
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions (583)
Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address (589)
IP Addresses and Subnetting (605)
Common Services (613)
Wireless LANs (617)
Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection (633)
Legal Information (635)
Customer Support (639)
Index (641)
581
582
APPENDIX
A
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts
and Java Permissions
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
"
Internet Explorer 6 screens are used here. Screens for other Internet Explorer
versions may vary.
Internet Explorer Pop-up Blockers
You may have to disable pop-up blocking to log into your device.
Either disable pop-up blocking (enabled by default in Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2) or
allow pop-up blocking and create an exception for your device’s IP address.
Disable pop-up Blockers
1 In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Pop-up Blocker and then select Turn Off Pop-up
Blocker.
Figure 384 Pop-up Blocker
You can also check if pop-up blocking is disabled in the Pop-up Blocker section in the
Privacy tab.
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583
Appendix A Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
1 In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options, Privacy.
2 Clear the Block pop-ups check box in the Pop-up Blocker section of the screen. This
disables any web pop-up blockers you may have enabled.
Figure 385
Internet Options
3 Click Apply to save this setting.
Enable pop-up Blockers with Exceptions
Alternatively, if you only want to allow pop-up windows from your device, see the following
steps.
1 In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options and then the Privacy tab.
2 Select Settings…to open the Pop-up Blocker Settings screen.
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Appendix A Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
Figure 386 Internet Options
3 Type the IP address of your device (the web page that you do not want to have blocked)
with the prefix “http://”. For example, http://192.168.1.1.
4 Click Add to move the IP address to the list of Allowed sites.
Figure 387 Pop-up Blocker Settings
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Appendix A Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
5 Click Close to return to the Privacy screen.
6 Click Apply to save this setting.
JavaScripts
If pages of the web configurator do not display properly in Internet Explorer, check that
JavaScripts are allowed.
1 In Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
Figure 388 Internet Options
2
3
4
5
6
586
Click the Custom Level... button.
Scroll down to Scripting.
Under Active scripting make sure that Enable is selected (the default).
Under Scripting of Java applets make sure that Enable is selected (the default).
Click OK to close the window.
LAN-Cell 2 User’s Guide
Appendix A Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
Figure 389 Security Settings - Java Scripting
Java Permissions
1
2
3
4
5
From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
Click the Custom Level... button.
Scroll down to Microsoft VM.
Under Java permissions make sure that a safety level is selected.
Click OK to close the window.
Figure 390 Security Settings - Java
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Appendix A Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
JAVA (Sun)
1 From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Advanced tab.
2 make sure that Use Java 2 for <applet> under Java (Sun) is selected.
3 Click OK to close the window.
Figure 391 Java (Sun)
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APPENDIX
B
Setting up Your Computer’s IP
Address
All computers must have a 10M or 100M Ethernet adapter card and TCP/IP installed.
Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP, Macintosh OS 7 and later operating systems and all
versions of UNIX/LINUX include the software components you need to install and use TCP/
IP on your computer. Windows 3.1 requires the purchase of a third-party TCP/IP application
package.
TCP/IP should already be installed on computers using Windows NT/2000/XP, Macintosh OS
7 and later operating systems.
After the appropriate TCP/IP components are installed, configure the TCP/IP settings in order
to "communicate" with your network.
If you manually assign IP information instead of using dynamic assignment, make sure that
your computers have IP addresses that place them in the same subnet as the LAN-Cell’s LAN
port.
Windows 95/98/Me
Click Start, Settings, Control Panel and double-click the Network icon to open the Network
window.
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Figure 392 WIndows 95/98/Me: Network: Configuration
Installing Components
The Network window Configuration tab displays a list of installed components. You need a
network adapter, the TCP/IP protocol and Client for Microsoft Networks.
If you need the adapter:
1 In the Network window, click Add.
2 Select Adapter and then click Add.
3 Select the manufacturer and model of your network adapter and then click OK.
If you need TCP/IP:
1
2
3
4
In the Network window, click Add.
Select Protocol and then click Add.
Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
Select TCP/IP from the list of network protocols and then click OK.
If you need Client for Microsoft Networks:
1
2
3
4
Click Add.
Select Client and then click Add.
Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
Select Client for Microsoft Networks from the list of network clients and then click
OK.
5 Restart your computer so the changes you made take effect.
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Configuring
1 In the Network window Configuration tab, select your network adapter's TCP/IP entry
and click Properties
2 Click the IP Address tab.
• If your IP address is dynamic, select Obtain an IP address automatically.
• If you have a static IP address, select Specify an IP address and type your
information into the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields.
Figure 393 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: IP Address
3 Click the DNS Configuration tab.
• If you do not know your DNS information, select Disable DNS.
• If you know your DNS information, select Enable DNS and type the information in
the fields below (you may not need to fill them all in).
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Figure 394 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: DNS Configuration
4 Click the Gateway tab.
• If you do not know your gateway’s IP address, remove previously installed gateways.
• If you have a gateway IP address, type it in the New gateway field and click Add.
5 Click OK to save and close the TCP/IP Properties window.
6 Click OK to close the Network window. Insert the Windows CD if prompted.
7 Turn on your LAN-Cell and restart your computer when prompted.
Verifying Settings
1 Click Start and then Run.
2 In the Run window, type "winipcfg" and then click OK to open the IP Configuration
window.
3 Select your network adapter. You should see your computer's IP address, subnet mask
and default gateway.
Windows 2000/NT/XP
The following example figures use the default Windows XP GUI theme.
1 Click start (Start in Windows 2000/NT), Settings, Control Panel.
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Figure 395 Windows XP: Start Menu
2 In the Control Panel, double-click Network Connections (Network and Dial-up
Connections in Windows 2000/NT).
Figure 396 Windows XP: Control Panel
3 Right-click Local Area Connection and then click Properties.
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Figure 397 Windows XP: Control Panel: Network Connections: Properties
4 Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (under the General tab in Win XP) and then click
Properties.
Figure 398 Windows XP: Local Area Connection Properties
5 The Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window opens (the General tab in
Windows XP).
• If you have a dynamic IP address click Obtain an IP address automatically.
• If you have a static IP address click Use the following IP Address and fill in the IP
address, Subnet mask, and Default gateway fields.
• Click Advanced.
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Figure 399 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
6
If you do not know your gateway's IP address, remove any previously installed
gateways in the IP Settings tab and click OK.
Do one or more of the following if you want to configure additional IP addresses:
• In the IP Settings tab, in IP addresses, click Add.
• In TCP/IP Address, type an IP address in IP address and a subnet mask in Subnet
mask, and then click Add.
• Repeat the above two steps for each IP address you want to add.
• Configure additional default gateways in the IP Settings tab by clicking Add in
Default gateways.
• In TCP/IP Gateway Address, type the IP address of the default gateway in Gateway.
To manually configure a default metric (the number of transmission hops), clear the
Automatic metric check box and type a metric in Metric.
• Click Add.
• Repeat the previous three steps for each default gateway you want to add.
• Click OK when finished.
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Figure 400 Windows XP: Advanced TCP/IP Properties
7 In the Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window (the General tab in Windows
XP):
• Click Obtain DNS server address automatically if you do not know your DNS
server IP address(es).
• If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click Use the following DNS server
addresses, and type them in the Preferred DNS server and Alternate DNS server
fields.
If you have previously configured DNS servers, click Advanced and then the DNS
tab to order them.
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Figure 401 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
8 Click OK to close the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.
9 Click Close (OK in Windows 2000/NT) to close the Local Area Connection
Properties window.
10 Close the Network Connections window (Network and Dial-up Connections in
Windows 2000/NT).
11 Turn on your LAN-Cell and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
1 Click Start, All Programs, Accessories and then Command Prompt.
2 In the Command Prompt window, type "ipconfig" and then press [ENTER]. You can
also open Network Connections, right-click a network connection, click Status and
then click the Support tab.
Macintosh OS 8/9
1 Click the Apple menu, Control Panel and double-click TCP/IP to open the TCP/IP
Control Panel.
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Figure 402 Macintosh OS 8/9: Apple Menu
2 Select Ethernet built-in from the Connect via list.
Figure 403 Macintosh OS 8/9: TCP/IP
3 For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP Server from the Configure: list.
4 For statically assigned settings, do the following:
• From the Configure box, select Manually.
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• Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
• Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
• Type the IP address of your LAN-Cell in the Router address box.
5 Close the TCP/IP Control Panel.
6 Click Save if prompted, to save changes to your configuration.
7 Turn on your LAN-Cell and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the TCP/IP Control Panel window.
Macintosh OS X
1 Click the Apple menu, and click System Preferences to open the System Preferences
window.
Figure 404 Macintosh OS X: Apple Menu
2 Click Network in the icon bar.
• Select Automatic from the Location list.
• Select Built-in Ethernet from the Show list.
• Click the TCP/IP tab.
3 For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP from the Configure list.
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Figure 405 Macintosh OS X: Network
4 For statically assigned settings, do the following:
• From the Configure box, select Manually.
• Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
• Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
• Type the IP address of your LAN-Cell in the Router address box.
5 Click Apply Now and close the window.
6 Turn on your LAN-Cell and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the Network window.
Linux
This section shows you how to configure your computer’s TCP/IP settings in Red Hat Linux
9.0. Procedure, screens and file location may vary depending on your Linux distribution and
release version.
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"
Make sure you are logged in as the root administrator.
Using the K Desktop Environment (KDE)
Follow the steps below to configure your computer IP address using the KDE.
1 Click the Red Hat button (located on the bottom left corner), select System Setting and
click Network.
Figure 406 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Network Configuration: Devices
2 Double-click on the profile of the network card you wish to configure. The Ethernet
Device General screen displays as shown.
Figure 407 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Ethernet Device: General
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• If you have a dynamic IP address, click Automatically obtain IP address settings
with and select dhcp from the drop down list.
• If you have a static IP address, click Statically set IP Addresses and fill in the
Address, Subnet mask, and Default Gateway Address fields.
3 Click OK to save the changes and close the Ethernet Device General screen.
4 If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click the DNS tab in the Network
Configuration screen. Enter the DNS server information in the fields provided.
Figure 408 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Network Configuration: DNS
5 Click the Devices tab.
6 Click the Activate button to apply the changes. The following screen displays. Click Yes
to save the changes in all screens.
Figure 409 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Network Configuration: Activate
7 After the network card restart process is complete, make sure the Status is Active in the
Network Configuration screen.
Using Configuration Files
Follow the steps below to edit the network configuration files and set your computer IP
address.
1 Assuming that you have only one network card on the computer, locate the ifconfigeth0 configuration file (where eth0 is the name of the Ethernet card). Open the
configuration file with any plain text editor.
• If you have a dynamic IP address, enter dhcp in the BOOTPROTO= field. The
following figure shows an example.
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Figure 410 Red Hat 9.0: Dynamic IP Address Setting in ifconfig-eth0
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=dhcp
USERCTL=no
PEERDNS=yes
TYPE=Ethernet
• If you have a static IP address, enter static in the BOOTPROTO= field. Type
IPADDR= followed by the IP address (in dotted decimal notation) and type NETMASK=
followed by the subnet mask. The following example shows an example where the
static IP address is 192.168.1.10 and the subnet mask is 255.255.255.0.
Figure 411 Red Hat 9.0: Static IP Address Setting in ifconfig-eth0
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=192.168.1.10
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
USERCTL=no
PEERDNS=yes
TYPE=Ethernet
2 If you know your DNS server IP address(es), enter the DNS server information in the
resolv.conf file in the /etc directory. The following figure shows an example
where two DNS server IP addresses are specified.
Figure 412 Red Hat 9.0: DNS Settings in resolv.conf
nameserver 172.23.5.1
nameserver 172.23.5.2
3 After you edit and save the configuration files, you must restart the network card. Enter
./network restart in the /etc/rc.d/init.d directory. The following figure
shows an example.
Figure 413 Red Hat 9.0: Restart Ethernet Card
[root@localhost init.d]# network restart
Shutting down interface eth0:
Shutting down loopback interface:
Setting network parameters:
Bringing up loopback interface:
Bringing up interface eth0:
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[OK]
[OK]
[OK]
[OK]
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Verifying Settings
Enter ifconfig in a terminal screen to check your TCP/IP properties.
Figure 414 Red Hat 9.0: Checking TCP/IP Properties
[root@localhost]# ifconfig
eth0
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:72:5B:44
inet addr:172.23.19.129 Bcast:172.23.19.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:717 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:13 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:100
RX bytes:730412 (713.2 Kb) TX bytes:1570 (1.5 Kb)
Interrupt:10 Base address:0x1000
[root@localhost]#
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APPENDIX
C
IP Addresses and Subnetting
This appendix introduces IP addresses, IP address classes and subnet masks. You use subnet
masks to subdivide a network into smaller logical networks.
Introduction to IP Addresses
An IP address has two parts: the network number and the host ID. Routers use the network
number to send packets to the correct network, while the host ID identifies a single device on
the network.
An IP address is made up of four octets, written in dotted decimal notation, for example,
192.168.1.1. (An octet is an 8-digit binary number. Therefore, each octet has a possible range
of 00000000 to 11111111 in binary, or 0 to 255 in decimal.)
There are several classes of IP addresses. The first network number (192 in the above
example) defines the class of IP address. These are defined as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
Class A: 0 to 127
Class B: 128 to 191
Class C: 192 to 223
Class D: 224 to 239
Class E: 240 to 255
IP Address Classes and Hosts
The class of an IP address determines the number of hosts you can have on your network.
• In a class A address the first octet is the network number, and the remaining three octets
are the host ID.
• In a class B address the first two octets make up the network number, and the two
remaining octets make up the host ID.
• In a class C address the first three octets make up the network number, and the last octet is
the host ID.
The following table shows the network number and host ID arrangement for classes A, B and
C.
Table 238 Classes of IP Addresses
IP ADDRESS
OCTET 1
OCTET 2
OCTET 3
OCTET 4
Class A
Network number
Host ID
Host ID
Host ID
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Table 238 Classes of IP Addresses (continued)
IP ADDRESS
OCTET 1
OCTET 2
OCTET 3
OCTET 4
Class B
Network number
Network number
Host ID
Host ID
Class C
Network number
Network number
Network number
Host ID
An IP address with host IDs of all zeros is the IP address of the network (192.168.1.0 for
example). An IP address with host IDs of all ones is the broadcast address for that network
(192.168.1.255 for example). Therefore, to determine the total number of hosts allowed in a
network, deduct two as shown next:
• A class C address (1 host octet: 8 host bits) can have 28 – 2, or 254 hosts.
• A class B address (2 host octets: 16 host bits) can have 216 – 2, or 65534 hosts.
A class A address (3 host octets: 24 host bits) can have 224 – 2 hosts, or approximately 16
million hosts.
IP Address Classes and Network ID
The value of the first octet of an IP address determines the class of an IP address as already
stated. These are the details of how that range is determined.
•
•
•
•
Class A addresses have a 0 in the leftmost bit.
Class B addresses have a 1 in the leftmost bit and a 0 in the next leftmost bit.
Class C addresses start with 1 1 0 in the first three leftmost bits.
Class D addresses begin with 1 1 1 0. Class D addresses are used for multicasting, which is
used to send information to groups of computers.
• There is also a class E. It is reserved for future use.
The following table shows the allowed ranges for the first octet of each class. This range
determines the number of subnets you can have in a network.
Table 239 Allowed IP Address Range By Class
CLASS
ALLOWED RANGE OF FIRST OCTET (BINARY)
ALLOWED RANGE OF FIRST
OCTET (DECIMAL)
Class A
00000000 to 01111111
0 to 127
Class B
10000000 to 10111111
128 to 191
Class C
11000000 to 11011111
192 to 223
Class D
11100000 to 11101111
224 to 239
Class E
(reserved)
11110000 to 11111111
240 to 255
Subnet Masks
A subnet mask is used to determine which bits are part of the network number, and which bits
are part of the host ID (using a logical AND operation).
A subnet mask has 32 bits. If a bit in the subnet mask is a “1” then the corresponding bit in the
IP address is part of the network number. If a bit in the subnet mask is “0” then the
corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the host ID.
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Subnet masks are expressed in dotted decimal notation just like IP addresses. The “natural”
masks for class A, B and C IP addresses are as follows.
Table 240
“Natural” Masks
CLASS
NATURAL MASK
A
255.0.0.0
B
255.255.0.0
C
255.255.255.0
Subnetting
With subnetting, the class arrangement of an IP address is ignored. For example, a class C
address no longer has to have 24 bits of network number and 8 bits of host ID. With
subnetting, some of the host ID bits are converted into network number bits.
By convention, subnet masks always consist of a continuous sequence of ones beginning from
the leftmost bit of the mask, followed by a continuous sequence of zeros, for a total number of
32 bits.
Since the mask is always a continuous number of ones beginning from the left, followed by a
continuous number of zeros for the remainder of the 32 bit mask, you can simply specify the
number of ones instead of writing the value of each octet. This is usually specified by writing
a “/” followed by the number of bits in the mask after the a