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Minelab F3 Technical data
INSTRUCTORS NOTES AND SYLLABUS
F3 Metal Mine Detector
Issue 1.3 March, 2006
2
F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
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SLIDE
F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
DESCRIPTION
INSTRUCTORS NOTES
These Instructor Notes are produced to assist instructors in preparing for the
F3 Operator Training Course. They are provided as a guide and are not
intended to be prescriptive. They should be used in combination with the
information contained in the F3 Operations Manual and Field Guide.
The confirmation of a student’s ability to operate the F3 will be achieved
through a series of performance objectives completed after each lesson.
Personnel attending the course will be required to pass an outdoor operator
confirmation exercise to qualify as a proficient operator on the equipment.
One
INTRODUCTION
The instructor will provide a short welcome and brief the students on the
course. This can include some background information on Minelab and its
countermine product range.
Students will be organized into pairs and issued one F3 mine detector per
pair.
Students will complete course registration administration as required.
Two
COURSE OUTLINE
The Minelab F3 Operator Training Course includes lectures and practical
sessions. The course is conducted over two to three days (depending on
language translation requirements) and consists of the following lessons:
• Introduction
• LESSON 1 – General description and preparation
• LESSON 2 – Functional description
• LESSON 3 – Operating procedures
• LESSON 4 – Care & Trouble Shooting
• Outdoor training
• Operator Confirmation Exercise
• Award of Course Certificates
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Three
F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
LESSON 1 – GENERAL DESCRIPTION & PREPARATION
Aim. Correctly describe and identify the F3 and prepare it for use.
Classroom Instruction. The training aids required are:
Chalk board or white board
Computer Projector
F3 Operations Manual
F3 Operator Training PowerPoint presentation
One F3 inside a Hard Case and one F3 in its soft Carry Bag
F3 detectors - one per two students (including Hard Case)
The major teaching points of this lesson are as follows:
Safety
Equipment Specifications
Description of Main Components
F3 Preparation
TEACHING POINTS
Three
Four
Safety. Emphasize the need to become very familiar with the equipment and
the need to be able to identify all parts. Relate this to safety issues during the
demining process. All components should be checked for correct operation
before operating the equipment. If a fault develops, an operator must be able to
correctly name the part of the detector that is at fault. Explain the importance of
the Test Piece.
Equipment Specifications. List the basic specifications. Explain that the
entire detector is waterproof to IP67. Explain the need to use good quality
alkaline batteries and not carbon batteries. When using rechargeable batteries,
they should have a minimum capacity of 3Ah (3,000mAh), batteries with a
capacity of 4.5Ah (4,500mAh) are recommended.
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Five
F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
Mine Detecting Set
Using the F3 in the Hard Case identify the following components:
•
Hard Case
•
Detector with Black Endcap
•
Soft Carry Bag
•
Earset (with Volume Control)
•
Red Low Sensitivity Endcap
•
Four D Cell Batteries
•
Test Piece
•
Operations Manual
•
Field Guide
•
Six
Soft Carry Bag
Show the F3 in the Soft Carry Bag and locate the following:
•
Detector with Black Endcap
•
Red Low Sensitivity Endcap
•
Earset (with Volume Control)
•
Four D Cell Batteries
•
Operations Manual
•
Field Guide
•
Test Piece
Explain and demonstrate the correct packing of components in the Soft Carry
Bag.
Seven
F3 Major Components
•
Using the assembled detector identify the following components. Avoid
giving detailed descriptions of the function of each component, as this will be
covered in Lesson 3.
o Endcap. The sensitivity of the detector by using either the Black
(maximum) or Red (minimum) Endcaps.
o Arm Rest and Strap. Designed to ensure a comfortable fit for the
operator’s arm and adjustable when fitted to the detector. Note
the strength of the material and the Camlock adjustment for
comfort.
o Electronics Pack. Houses all electronics of the detector and is
permanently fixed to the Upper Shaft of the detector. The detector
is water resistant to IP67 (with Battery Pack mounted on Shaft).
Note: Although rated to IP67, the detector is not designed for
underwater operations. For example, underwater diver clearance
operations.
o Battery Pack. The F3 comes with a removable Battery Pack
which holds four alkaline ‘D’ cell batteries as standard. However,
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
if the client has purchased the option of a Battery Charger then
four NiCad ‘D’ cell batteries will have been provided. The Battery
Pack can be removed to reduce weight for periods of prolonged
use provided the optional Battery Pack Bag & Extension Cable is
included with the detector.
o Upper, Middle and Lower Shafts.
Identify Upper Shaft:
•
Made of aluminum for robustness.
•
Provides mounting for handle,
Electronics Pack and Armrest.
Identify the Middle Shaft:
•
Made from aluminum for robustness.
•
Adjustable for operator comfort
demining positions.
Identify the Lower Shaft:
•
•
Battery
Pack,
and
differing
Made of impact resistant carbon fibre
Adjustable for operator comfort and
demining positions.
differing
o Upper, Middle and Lower Camlocks.
Identify all three Camlocks and note that they are self-cleaning
and are the mechanisms to lock the position of the Coil, Lower and
Middle Shafts.
o Handle.
Designed for comfort.
Controls.
Includes Earset Connector and all F3
o Coil. It is important to mention that part of the F3’s superior
capability is due to its coil design. Give a brief description on the
monoloop design explaining that no separate transmission and
reception coils exist. Emphasize that the closed waterproof coil
eliminates interference from vegetation. Other points:
•
Can be rotated 180 degrees.
•
Monoloop design ensures consistent sensitivity around the
entire circumference and across the complete surface of the coil.
•
Design permits edge detection (explained in Lesson 3).
•
Extremely tough.
o Skid Plate. The skid plate provides protection for the coil. It has
no effect on the sensitivity of the coil even when wet and is easy to
replace.
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Eight
F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
F3 Preparation
To prepare the F3 for operations the following procedure should be followed:
•
Open the Hard Case or Soft Carry Bag.
•
Remove the F3 and inspect for obvious signs of damage.
•
Check that the correct Sensitivity Endcap is selected and mounted
correctly. (Changing Endcaps discussed in Slide 10).
•
Battery Pack and Inserting Batteries
o Invert the F3 being careful to rest the Endcap either inside the
Hard Case or Soft Carry Bag to keep it clear of dirt, remove the
Battery Pack and insert four D Cell batteries as follows:
Battery
Pack
Battery
Lock
Lever
Battery
Map
Battery
Pack Lid
P0615-A
o Carefully unlock the Battery Pack Lid by rotating the Battery Lock
Lever counter clockwise one-quarter turn.
Once unlocked,
carefully pull the lid away from the Battery Pack (the lid will stay
attached to the Battery Pack by a tether).
o Using the battery maps, located on the side of the Battery Pack
and on the inside of the Battery Pack Lid, insert four D cell
batteries. Replace the Battery Pack Lid and rotate the Battery
Lock Lever clockwise one-quarter turn. If the batteries are
inserted incorrectly, the F3 will fail to function when switched on.
o If the Battery Pack was removed (Note: removal of the Battery
Pack to replace batteries is not necessary) ensure that the Lock
Lever at the front of the Electronics Pack is in the unlocked
position and position the Battery Pack on the rail underneath the
Upper Shaft.
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
Upper
Shaft
Battery
Pack
Electronics
Pack
Lock
Lever
P0616-A
o Slowly slide the Battery Pack towards the Electronics Pack until
the connector is firmly engaged. Secure the Battery Pack by
rotating the Lock Lever in a clockwise motion into the locked
position.
o If required, the Battery Pack can be separated from the Upper
Shaft thereby reducing the overall weight of the detector. Using
the bayonet connectors at each end of the Extension Cable
connect the cable to the Battery Pack and feed the cable through
the base of the Battery Pack Bag before connecting to the
Electronics Pack. The Battery Pack Bag can then be clipped onto
a belt worn by the operator.
P0653-A
Nine
F3 Preparation
• Extend Middle and Lower Shafts to suit demining Position
Middle
Camlock
Upper
Camlock
Lower
Camlock
P0617-A
o Open the Lower Camlock and rotate the coil to the desired
position. The normal operating position of the coil is in line with the
shaft. However, the coil can also be positioned at right angles to
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
either side of the shaft (required if the F3 is to be used in the prone
position). Once the position of the coil is selected, lock it into
position by closing the Lower Camlock.
P0618-A
P0619-A
P0620-A
o In sequence, extend the Lower and then Middle Shafts to suit the
deminer’s height and selected demining position.
NOTE
The Lower Shaft must be extended at least 100mm (4ins). Incorrect operation
of the detector may result if the detector is used with the Lower Shaft fully
retracted.
•
Connect Earset
o Undo the dustcaps from the Earset plug and Earset socket on the
detector. The Earset plug can only be connected to the socket in one
way. Gently hold the Earset by the rubber collar using thumb and
index finger (raised double arrow should be uppermost). Align the
plug with the Earset socket and firmly slide the collar onto the socket.
Confirm the plug is locked into position by gently pulling back on the
rubber collar.
P0638-B
NOTE
The Earset connector is waterproof and it is most important that it is connected
and disconnected from the Earset socket by holding the rubber collar. Do not
attempt to connect or disconnect the Earset by pushing or pulling on the strain
relief or wire at the rear of the rubber collar.
Adjust Armrest and Armstrap as Required.
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Ten
F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
Changing Endcaps
•
A unique feature of the F3 is its ability to change sensitivity through the
exchange of Sensitivity Endcaps. This design feature eliminates the
possibility of an operator selecting the wrong sensitivity through manipulation
of dials or switches. The Sensitivity Endcap provides an obvious visual cue
that confirms the level of sensitivity selected in the F3. The F3 is supplied
with one Black (maximum sensitivity) and one Red (low sensitivity)
Sensitivity Endcap.
•
The F3 can be used with Black or Red Sensitivity Endcaps.
The decision on which Endcap to use will be provided by the
local authority.
P0650-A
•
P0651-A
To change a Sensitivity Endcap:
o Ensure the F3 is switched off.
o Place the thumb of one hand in the centre of the Endcap and curl
the fingers under the base of the Endcap.
o Gently push inwards with the thumb and simultaneously pull the
base of the Endcap away from the Electronics Pack.
o Fit the selected Endcap by gently positioning the inside of the
base of the Endcap under the base of the Electronics Pack. Using
the palm of the hand, apply light pressure to fit the Endcap into
position.
•
The Black Endcap is for Maximum Sensitivity.
o The Black Endcap MUST be selected when searching for
minimum metal mines or when maximum clearance depth is
required.
•
The Red Endcap is for Minimum Sensitivity.
o This feature may be useful when there is a need to ignore small
metal fragmentation on the surface but still detect large targets at
depth.
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
NOTE
If the Red Sensitivity Endcap is not fitted correctly, or there is no endcap fitted,
the detector automatically defaults to the maximum sensitivity setting (Black
Sensitivity Endcap). If the Red Sensitivity Endcap is partially dislodged or
removed during use, an alarm tone will sound.
**WARNING**
The Sensitivity Endcap also provides impact protection to the Electronics
Pack. Whenever an Endcap has been removed from the Electronics Pack
never place the base of the detector against the ground or sharp objects.
Depending on the size of the target and the depth of detection required,
the Red Sensitivity Endcap may not be suitable for use. It is
recommended that, prior to operational use, the capability of the F3, fitted
with the Red Sensitivity Cap, be tested against the local threat to ensure
detection occurs.
QUESTIONS/PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE
Students shall be able to correctly:
identify all components of the F3.
connect the Battery Pack to the Electronics Pack using the Battery Pack Bag
and Extension Cable
insert batteries into the detector
connect the Earset
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Eleven
F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
LESSON 2 – FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
Aim. Correctly identify and describe the functional controls and tones and the
F3.
Classroom instruction. The training aids required are:
Chalk or white board
Projector
F3 Operations Manual
F3 Operator Training PowerPoint presentation
F3 detectors - one per two students
One set (four size “D” cells) of fresh batteries per detector
The major teaching points of this lesson are as follows:
Revision
Functional Controls
Functional Tones
TEACHING POINTS
Revision. Revise the description and identification of components of the F3.
Prepare the F3
Change Endcaps
Twelve
Functional Controls
•
For ease of use, all controls for the F3 are located on the Handle. The figure
below illustrates the location of all controls:
Ground
Balance/
Audio Reset
Button
Noise
Cancel
Button
On/Off
Switch
Earset
Socket
P0621-A
•
On/Off Switch.
o The F3 is switched on by sliding the On/Off Switch toward the Handle.
When switched on, the F3 completes a series of internal start-up
functions including initialization of the microprocessor and self-tests
which check internal power supplies, transmitter etc.
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
o These internal diagnostics take approximately 12 seconds to
complete during which the operator will hear a series of rising tones
(known as the Start-Up Tones).
o At the completion of the Start-Up Tones the F3 emits a low steady
tone known as the Threshold Tone, which confirms to the operator
that the F3 is functioning correctly.
o During operation, continuous internal self-testing continues and an
alarm tone is triggered on detection of any fault condition
o To turn the F3 off, slide the On/Off Switch away from the Handle.
•
Ground Balance/Audio Reset Button. Easily identifiable as the Green
Button located on top of the Handle, this dual action button carries out the
following functions:
o Ground Balance. A key feature of the F3 is its ability to detect
metallic mines in all ground conditions. False alarms due to
mineralised (magnetic/lateritic) soils are automatically removed
through use of the Ground Balance function.
o Audio Reset. On occasion, the Threshold Tone may become louder
than normal. Holding the coil stationary over a metallic object or over
mineralised ground for an extended period of time may cause this
effect. Also, if the detector is being used in the kneeling position
(shafts retracted), any movement of the coil relative to the shaft may
cause the volume of the Threshold Tone to dramatically increase. The
Threshold Tone can be returned to the normal volume level using the
Audio Reset function.
•
Noise Cancel Button. A Black Button located to the rear of the Handle, it
sits in a raised housing to reduce the chances of accidental contact by the
operator’s arm.
o Interference from electrical motors, lights, power lines and other
detectors can occasionally cause the Threshold Tone to vary in pitch
and volume. When this occurs, the ability of an operator to
distinguish targets may be degraded.
o Using the Noise Cancel function, an operator can initiate an automatic
frequency scanning sequence resulting in the F3 selecting an
operating frequency that minimizes the effect from interference.
•
Earset Socket.
o The F3 has an internal speaker located inside the Handle. However,
the F3 can also be fitted with an Earset via the Earset Socket. The
procedure for connecting the Earset is described in Lesson One.
o A standard humanitarian demining Earset (Earset Speaker On)
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
permits the F3’s internal speaker to continue to function even when
the Earset is connected.
o For military countermine applications, an Earset that mutes the F3’s
internal speaker when the Earset is connected is available (Earset
Speaker Off). The Earset Speaker Off is identified by a short length
of green tubing located at the rear of the Earset plug.
o A further option includes a volume control located on the cable
between the Earset plug and earpiece. This Earset also mutes the
detector’s internal speaker when connected.
**WARNING**
Minelab recommends that an operator should always wear an
Earset when using the F3 detector.
Thirteen
Functional Tones
•
The F3 emits tones that vary in pitch and volume to alert an operator to
targets, automatic detector functions or equipment alarm conditions. The
following table summarizes the tones that an F3 can produce (Note: the
Powerpoint presentation includes embedded sound files to demonstrate the
actual tones)
Tones
Start-Up
Threshold
Target
Low Battery
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Event
Internal checks when
the F3 is switched on
Signifies correct
operation of the
detector
Indicates metal target
detected
Description
Four rising tones over 12
seconds
Steady slow volume
continuous tone
Increases volume
(compared to Threshold
Tone) and high or low pitch
depending on target metal
composition and depth
Indicates batteries do High pitched fast oscillating
not have enough
tone
charge to continue
detection
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Fourteen
F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
Functional Tones
Tones
Equipment Fault
Coil Fault
Noise Cancel
Event
Indicates failure of
detector component
or a dislodged Red
Sensitivity Endcap
Indicates coil not
connected or not
receiving sufficient
current
Indicates Noise
Cancel procedure is
occurring
Description
Low pitched slow
oscillating tone (ee-aww,
ee-aww)
Low pitched double tone
every five seconds
Two single beeps followed
by 45 seconds of short
double beeps finishing
with four single beeps
NOTE
Circuitry within the F3 ensures that its performance remains consistent
regardless of the type or charge state of the batteries. When the batteries can
no longer supply the necessary power to sustain correct performance of the
detector, a Low Battery Alarm will alert the operator.
**WARNING**
When Low Battery Alarm occurs the operator must immediately STOP
demining operations. The F3 should be switched off and new or
recharged batteries inserted into the Battery.
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
Students shall be able to correctly identify and describe the functional controls
and tones of the F3.
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Fifteen
F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
LESSON 3 – OPERATING PROCEDURES
Aim. To correctly perform F3 operating procedures.
Classroom instruction.
The training aids required are:
Chalk board or white board
Projector
F3 Operations Manual
F3 Operator Training PowerPoint presentation
One F3 detector
One set (four “D” cells) of fresh batteries
Two different types of mineralized rock (laterite if available)
The major teaching points of this lesson are as follows:
Revision
Standard Procedure
Optional Procedure
Sweeping Procedure
Pin-Pointing Procedure
Detectors in Close Proximity
Completion of Operations
TEACHING POINTS
Revision. List and describe the Functional Controls and the different
Functional Tones of the F3.
Sixteen
Standard Procedure
•
The F3 is designed to ensure the operation of the detector is as simple as
possible. Additionally, the F3 is extremely capable, safe to use, robust and
eliminates the need for complicated controls or lengthy training
requirements. Where the procedures taught in this lesson contravene local
Standard Operating Procedures, local procedures should take precedence
provided all Minelab recommended safety procedures are followed.
•
After unpacking the F3 and preparing it for use complete the THREE step
standard procedure as follows:
o STEP 1 - Switch ON
Hold the coil at least 600mm (24ins) from the ground and away
from any metallic objects. Turn the detector on by sliding the
On/Off switch back towards the handle.
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
P0645-A
The F3 will emit a series of four rising tones over 12 seconds
(internal diagnostic checks occurring). At the completion of the
Start-Up Tones listen for the low volume Threshold Tone. This
slide includes embedded wav file to demonstrate applicable tones.
If the Threshold Tone is steady continue with STEP 2. If the
Threshold Tone is noisy or uneven when the coil is stationary,
perform a Noise Cancel.
If the Threshold Tone is steady but seems louder than normal
when the coil is away from the ground and metallic targets,
perform an Audio Reset.
Sixteen
Cont
o STEP 2 - Ground Balance
demonstrate procedure)
(Use the mineralized rock to
Ensure that this procedure is carried out on ground free of metal
and hold the coil about 150mm (6 ins) above the ground.
Press down and hold the green Ground Balance button and slowly
lower the coil directly to the ground then lift the coil up again
150mm (6ins).
Continue to lower and raise the coil until the ‘Ground Balance OK’
tone is heard. (‘Ground Balance OK’ tone consists of a short highpitched double beep – embedded wav file on slide.)
Release the Ground Balance button.
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
Beep
Beep
150mm
(6 in)
P0623-A
NOTE
Movement of the coil during the entire Ground Balance procedure should be
slow, continuous and smooth and each down and up movement should take 3 to
4 seconds.
If the Ground Balance OK tone is not heard within 20 seconds of starting the
procedure, release the Ground Balance button and repeat this procedure.
If there is metal in the ground under the coil whilst Ground Balancing, the
detector may not ground balance correctly. Move the detector and repeat the
Ground Balance over ground that is free of any metallic objects.
After the Ground Balance procedure is completed the detector will automatically
cancel interference from the ground under the Coil. If ground conditions change
(changing mineralisation in the ground) this procedure may need to be repeated.
Sixteen
cont
o STEP 3 - Test Piece
Ensure the operator’s hands and arms are free of metallic objects
(watches, rings etc), and that no other metallic objects are near
the coil. The orientation of the Test Piece during the test is
dependent on which Sensitivity Endcap is connected to the
detector.
Black Sensitivity Endcap:
Hold the Test Piece above the middle of the Coil with the
rounded end (containing metallic target) AWAY from the
Coil.
Move the Test Piece towards the centre of the Coil until it
lightly touches the coil then move it sideways off the coil
(the Test Piece should be moved slowly and smoothly
during this procedure). A faint but clear response (change
in Threshold Tone volume and pitch) should be heard
indicating the sensitivity of the detector is correct.
NOTE
Maximum sensitivity is only available 30 seconds after the Threshold Tone is
heard. Do not test the detector with the Test Piece until 30 seconds after the
Threshold Tone is heard.
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
P0647-A
Red Sensitivity Endcap:
Hold the Test Piece above the middle of the Coil with the
rounded end (containing the metallic target) TOWARDS the
coil.
Move the Test Piece towards the centre of the Coil until it
lightly touches the coil then move it sideways off the Coil
(the Test Piece should be moved slowly and smoothly
during this procedure). A clear response (change in
Threshold Tone volume and pitch) should be heard
indicating the sensitivity of the detector is correct.
NOTE
The Test Piece not only ensures the sensitivity of the detector is correct but also
gives the operator an example of how a minimum metal mine might sound when
deeply buried: for example Type 72A at 15cm . (Black Endcap only).
Seventeen
Optional Procedures
•
If after Step ONE the Threshold Tone is not low and steady, conduct one or
both of the following:
o Noise Cancel. If the Threshold Tone is noisy or uneven when the
coil is stationary, conduct Noise Cancel.
NOTE
The detector cannot be used for clearing operations during the Noise Cancel
procedure.
The coil should not be moved during this procedure nor should
metallic objects be brought near the coil during this procedure.
Holding the coil stationary and at least 600mm (24ins) above the
ground press and immediately release the Noise Cancel button
(Black Button located behind the handle).
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
P0649-A
Noise Cancel will commence with two single beeps followed by 45
seconds of sharp double beeps finishing with four single beeps.
(Embedded wav file in slide)
During the 45 seconds, the detector scans the environment
searching for the source of any electrical interference. Once
detected, the F3 will automatically select a different operating
frequency to eliminate or reduce the interference.
o Audio Reset. Whenever the Threshold Tone sounds louder than
normal perform Audio Reset.
Seventeen
cont
NOTE
The detector cannot be used for clearing operations during the Audio Reset
procedure.
Audio Reset should be carried out whenever the threshold volume
seems louder than normal.
Hold the coil at least 600mm (24ins) off the ground and away from
any metallic objects.
Press and immediately release the Ground Balance button
(Green Button located on top of the Handle -if the button is held
too long, the detector will begin to Ground Balance).
P0646-A
Within two seconds the threshold tone will return to its correct
level.
Once Noise Cancel or Audio Reset is complete, continue with
Steps 2 and 3. Once completed, the F3 can now be used for
demining operations in compliance with local Standard Operating
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
Procedures.
NOTE
Noise Cancel and Audio Reset procedures can be performed at any time the
Threshold Tone becomes noisy, uneven, or rises in volume. Having completed
STEPS 1, 2 and 3 the F3 remembers the Ground Balance setting even after the
detector has been switched off. After Noise Cancel is completed the F3
remembers the frequency selected to minimize interference, even if the detector
is switched off.
Eighteen
Summary of Procedures
Explain the following summary of procedures.
STEP 1
SWITCH ON
Optional
Procedure
Threshold
Noisy/Uneven?
Y
NOISE
CANCEL
Y
AUDIO
RESET
N
Threshold
Louder than
Normal
N
STEP 2
GROUND BALANCE
STEP 3
TEST PIECE
•
Remember that:
o Optional Procedures can be performed at any time during
operations but the F3 cannot be used for detection of targets
during these procedures.
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
o The detector remembers its Ground Balance condition after being
switched off and will retain it until another Ground Balance is
conducted.
The detector remembers its Noise Cancel condition after being switched off and
will retain it until another Noise Cancel is conducted.
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Nineteen
F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
Sweeping Procedure
•
The F3 should be swept with a smooth even motion at a speed of 0.6 m/s (2
ft/s). If the detector is swept too fast or too slow, small or deep targets may
be missed. The coil should always be kept at the same height above the
ground with care taken to ensure that the coil is not inadvertently raised at
the end of each sweep
Direction of
Movement
Mine Lane
P0624-A
•
P0655-A
Depth of detection relies on target distance from the coil, not depth of the
target under the ground. Therefore, the coil should be swept as close to the
ground as possible to maximize detection depth. (Local Standard Operating
Procedures take precedence.)
NOTE
Minelab recommends a half coil (100mm/4ins) overlap on successive sweeps
as an operator moves forward in a mine lane.
•
When a target is initially detected, an operator should continue to sweep the
F3 beyond the suspected target in an attempt to find clear ground. In doing
so the operator will:
o immediately gain an impression of the size of the target prior to
commencing the pin-pointing procedure; and
o confirm the target is not in close proximity to a second target
thereby avoiding a possible booby trap.
Twenty
Pin-Pointing Procedure
•
The design of the F3 makes pinpointing accurate and fast. The F3’s
monoloop coil means there are no gaps in sensitivity around the coil’s
circumference or across its surface. Pin-Pointing is conducted as follows:
o STEP 1
Mapping the Target
Having detected a target and obtained a rough idea as to its size and
location using the sweeping procedure, the precise location of the
target can be “mapped” using the F3’s “Edge Detection” technique.
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
Edge Detection makes use of the coil’s consistent sensitivity around
its circumference to detect the edges of a target. To conduct edge
detection, the coil should approach the suspected location of the
target from a variety of angles.
As the coil approaches the target, the Threshold Tone will change
indicating that the coil is in close proximity to the target. At the
change of the Threshold Tone, the operator should mentally mark the
position on the ground, move the coil away, and approach the target
from another angle.
This process continues until the operator achieves a mental picture of
the target area.
P0627-B
**WARNING**
Extreme care must be taken when mapping the target to ensure that the
coil does not touch the ground (or any exposed parts of the mine) or snag
on any previously undetected trip wires.
For large minimum metal anti-tank mines, it is possible that the area
mapped out may be less than the actual area of the mine.
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Twenty
One
F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
Pin-Pointing Procedure (Cont.)
o STEP 2
Determine Centre of Target
In Step 1, the area of a target was determined. If the metal in the
target is sufficiently small, the area mapped will also be small and
therefore it is a relatively simple matter to pin-point the centre of the
target.
For larger targets, to determine the centre, the coil should be slowly
moved across the mapped area. As the coil approaches the centre of
the target, the threshold tone will increase to a maximum volume
(pitch may be high or low depending on the composition of the metal).
Where maximum volume is achieved, the coil can be considered to be
above the centre of the target.
Once confirmed, local Standard Operating Procedures should be
followed to mark the target.
P0855-A
Maximum Volume
NOTE
An operator can confirm that the centre of a target has been located by moving
the coil slightly, in any direction, and returning to the centre. In doing so the
volume of the Threshold Tone should decrease from maximum as the coil
leaves the centre and return to maximum as the coil returns to the centre.
Twenty
Two
Multiple Targets
•
There may be occasions when an operator will encounter multiple targets.
For example, small anti-personnel mines may be laid in a cluster, or a large
anti-tank mine may be surrounded by smaller anti-personnel mines or
booby-traps. Regardless, the pin-pointing procedure for the F3 can be used
to effectively map a suspicious area as follows:
o STEP 1 Mapping the Target
Using edge detection technique to map the suspicious area.
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
P0627-A
NOTE
To an experienced operator the shape of the mapped area can indicate whether
multiple targets may be present. However, the volume from the large target
may mask the volume of the smaller target and so great care is necessary for
accuracy. If the coil is moved very close to the ground, it will be easier to hear a
smaller target when close to a larger target.
Twenty
Three
Multiple Targets (Cont.)
o STEP 2 Determining the Centre
The pitch of the Threshold Tone will rise or fall depending on the
combination of metals or the composition of metal in a mine. This
means that, in some instances, experienced operators may be able to
identify one mine against another.
By slowly moving the coil across the mapped area, it may be possible
to detect tonal differences indicating multiple targets.
P0854-A
**WARNING**
The volume from a large target may mask that of a small target if the
small target is located very close to the large target.
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Twenty
Four
F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
Detectors in Close Proximity
•
On occasion it may be necessary to operate F3 detectors in close proximity.
In normal circumstances, an F3 detector can operate as close as 2 meters (7
feet) to another F3 detector without suffering excessive mutual interference.
To achieve this minimum operating distance between detectors, Noise
Cancel is to be conducted as follows:
o With all other detectors switched off, switch on the first detector and
perform Noise Cancel.
o Once Noise Cancel is finished on the first detector, leave it switched
on and switch on the second detector (at least 2 meters away) and
conduct a Noise Cancel procedure with the second detector.
o Continue this process for all detectors being used in close proximity.
NOISE CANCEL
2 metres
Twenty
Five
Completion of Operations
•
At the completion of operations, the F3 should be checked with the Test
Piece before switching off to ensure satisfactory performance before being
packed away. Once completed:
o Turn the detector off.
o Clean the detector and inspect for any signs of damage.
o Retract the middle and lower shafts (if necessary).
o Disconnect the Earset.
o Remove the batteries from the Battery Pack and stow in the Hard
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
Case or Soft Carry Bag.
o Stow the detector in the Hard Case or Soft Carry Bag.
o Ensure all components are correctly packed (especially the Test
Piece and Earset).
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
Students shall be able to explain and conduct the following procedures:
Standard Procedure
Optional Procedure
Sweeping Procedure
Pin-Pointing Procedure
Detectors in Close Proximity
Completion of Operations
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Twenty
Six
F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
LESSON 4 – Care & Trouble Shooting
Aim. To ensure that students understand how to properly maintain and trouble
shoot on the F3.
Classroom instruction. The training aids are:
Classroom:
Chalk board or white board
Projector
F3 Operator Training Powerpoint presentation
F3 Operations Manual
F3 detectors - one per two students
One set (four size “D” cells) of fresh batteries per detector
The major teaching points of this lesson are:
Revision
F3 Daily Maintenance
F3 Trouble Shooting
TEACHING POINTS
Revision.
•
Twenty
Seven
Identify the main components of the F3
Routine Care
The F3 has been designed and manufactured using robust materials to
minimize the potential for faults or excessive wear on individual components.
However, to assist in maintaining equipment longevity the following daily actions
should be carried out:
o During rest periods, if possible, shelter the detector from direct sun
light, rain, snow etc
o Before packing and with the detector fully extended. All shafts
should be wiped down with a damp clean cloth to remove dirt and
dust.
o Solvents should not be applied to the detector. If solvents come
into contact with any surface, it should be cleaned with fresh water
and a dry clean cloth
o Ensure the detector is dry before packing
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
o Ensure batteries are removed before packing
The Skidplate is designed to protect the Coil and may require
replacement after long periods of use. To replace the Skidplate:
o Use fingers to lever old Skidplate from coil
o Apply even firm pressure around replacement Skidplate and push
onto Coil
P0654-A
Twenty
Eight
F3 Trouble Shooting
There are a number of actions that an operator can carry out when trying
to fix a possible fault. By conducting fault finding procedures it may prevent the
detector being reported as faulty and thereby result in the continued use of the
equipment. Typical problems and possible solutions are described as follows:
Problem
F3 will not switch on
After switching On there is
a very loud noise
After switching On the
Threshold Tone varies in
pitch and volume though
the Coil is stationary
Minelab Countermine Division
Recommended Procedure
1. Check Batteries have been inserted correctly into
the Battery Pack, or
2. Replace Batteries, or
3. Remove Battery Pack and reconnect ensuring
Battery Pack Lever is locked into position, or
4. Exchange Battery Packs (if this solves the
problem, the original Battery Pack may be faulty)
1. Ensure Lower Shaft is extended at least 10cm
beyond the Middle Shaft, or
2. Conduct Audio Reset
1. Conduct Noise Cancel
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Twenty
Nine
F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
Trouble shooting continued:
Problem
There is no sound from
the Earset
There is no sound from
the Speaker
Cannot hear the Test
Piece with the Red
Endcap
Cannot hear the Test
Piece with the Black
Endcap
Recommended Procedure
1. Disconnect and reconnect the Earset, or
2. Try a known serviceable Earset (if this solves the
problem, the original Earset may be faulty)
1. Switch Off and On, or
2. Disconnect Earset, switch Off then On
1. Repeat the Test Piece test and make sure the
metal in the Test Piece is pointed towards the
Coil surface
1. Ensure that the detector has been turned on for
at least 30 seconds
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
Students shall be able to describe F3 daily maintenance and trouble shooting.
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
OUTDOOR TRAINING/DEMONSTARTIONS
At the completion of the classroom instruction it is important that all students have a
sufficient amount of time to become proficient in the operation of the F3. It is
recommended that outdoor training be conducted over two full days.
It is recommended that the outdoor training be conducted in purpose prepared training
lanes and that there be enough lanes for two students per lane. Each lane should be one
metre wide and ten metres long and the lanes should have a separation of at least ten
metres. It is also very important that the lanes be free from metal contamination prior to
laying any training targets. Although the F3 is capable of canceling the electronic influence
created by another F3 as close as 2m away and still operate to its full capability, a tenmetre separation between detectors is suggested. This will ensure that those students with
no experience understand how to operate the detector and recognise its responses.
Training lanes should be different from each other offering a range of challenging targets.
Differing targets in each lane allows the paired students to move between lanes during the
training. Simulated targets should represent the widest range of targets presently found in
minefields around the world including those likely to be found in the area of operations.
Whilst the students are practicing in their lanes, instructors should be move between each
group providing feedback.
At anytime during the training day, an Instructor should conduct the following
demonstrations to complement the information gained in the previous lessons:
•
Ground Balance. If the soil in the training area is benign, prepare ahead of time and
obtain some mineralised soil from the local area or a local brick manufacturer or
distributor. Fired clay roof tiles work very well. Demonstrate to the class the reaction
from the F3 when it is passed over mineralized soil. Conduct Ground Balance (GB).
Repeat this process with a target laid under the mineralised rock. A common question
refers to the possibility to GB away a metal target. The fact is that it is possible to GB a
very small target in very heavily mineralised soil. Attempt to demonstrate this with a
mineralized rock (hot rock) and an inert M14 or equivalent inert mine. It is most unlikely
that bigger targets in benign soil can be balanced out. Minelab does not recommend
that an operator try to balance out a potential target in a mine lane as proof it is actual
metal. However, if a small target was GB then it should be obvious to an operator
because when the coil is moved away from the target there should be an alarm from the
surrounding soil. Make sure there are no misunderstandings on this important point.
•
Test Piece Procedure. Exactly as shown in the Field Guide.
•
Pinpointing. Minelab detectors pinpoint their targets in a different way to all other
detectors and if the students have used another detector then it is important that the
correct procedure for pinpointing is taught and adopted by the students. Review the
pinpointing procedure taught in Lesson Three of this training programme. When
teaching the application of ‘Mapping the Target’ ensure the students stop coil movement
toward the target as soon as the slightest change is heard in the tone. Move the coil
backwards and forwards to confirm the point of tonal change. At that point, mentally
note the position of the leading edge of the coil on the ground. Approach the suspected
target from other angles and continue to mentally note the coil position on the ground.
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
Once completed, the student should be able to indicate the centre of the target, or
where there are several targets close together, the student should be able to outline an
area that is considered dangerous.
•
Two targets resolution. The aim here is to show how to map two targets laid within
close proximity to each other showing the actual shape on the ground of the dual
targets. By moving the coil slowly over both targets, if may be possible to hear two
tones representing two targets. This will depend on the distance of separation between
the targets.
•
Similar looking targets but opposite tones. This demonstration can be achieved
using two coins that look similar but react differently to each other (eg. a US dime and
an Australian 5c). This is to demonstrate how the tones can provide some information
about target conductivity. For example the coins, although they look the same they are
different in composition. In some demining programs this feature is used to help identify
specific mines. For example, a VS50 sounds much different than a Type 72.
•
Large Target. For a large metal target such as a metal anti-tank mine the edge of
detection will be detected much sooner than a target with little metal content. In turn the
mapped “danger” area will be large. To reduce this area the coil should be lifted from
the ground and the mapping procedure should be repeated. As the coil is lifted further
from the ground, the “danger” area will be substantially reduced thereby making it easier
to locate the center of the target. However, it must be pointed out that a large target
may mask a small target (eg a booby trap). Where there is any suspicion of booby
traps, it is strongly recommended that excavation of the mapped area commence on the
original mapped area and not the reduced mapped area.
•
Water. Dig a hole and fill it with water (or use a plastic bucket without a metal handle)
and show the F3 coil is not affected by operating in a wet environment.
•
Soil sifting. The closed Monoloop Coil offers an excellent method when searching an
area for a target. Rest the coil on a known clean piece of ground close to the area to be
excavated. As soil is removed take a handful and allow the soil to gently fall onto the
coil top. If no response occurs brush the soil off and do it again with another sample.
When presenting this demonstration ensure a small piece of metal is placed into the
area to be excavated. Initially, show the students the detector alarming on a target in
the ground then proceed to find it using this process.
OPERATOR CONFIRMATION EXERCISE
The Operator Confirmation Exercise is used to confirm all training objectives for the course.
Instructors can decide to what degree the exercise can take. For example, it can include a
theory evaluation with oral questions being given to the student. However, as a minimum
each operator must demonstrate proficiency in the use of the detector by entering a
previously prepared test area.
For an operator to be deemed proficient, all targets within the test area must be detected.
If a student fails to detect all targets, he should be permitted to attempt the Confirmation
Exercise as many times as necessary in order to pass.
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
An example of an Operator Confirmation Exercise Sheet is included at the end of these
Instructor Notes.
Equipment
Cleared evaluation area – constructed as one mine lane (1m wide and 5m long) Targets to
bury in the test area as described below – if inert mines are not available, F3 test pieces
buried at varying depths will suffice
WARNING
If inert mines are to be used for the evaluation, ensure each mine is
certified as free from explosive (FFE).
Confirmation
Each student is to complete the confirmation exercise which will comprise:
Opening a packed detector and preparing it for operation.
Correctly completing the Standard Procedure.
required.
Complete Optional Procedure is
Enter the training lane and correctly sweep the coil, pin-point and mark targets.
Repack the detector into its hard case.
•
Sweeping drill. Ensure the students sweep with the coil parallel to the ground, and as
close as possible to the ground (observe local procedures) and that they overlap the
front, rear and sides of the area by one half coil width (100mm/4ins). In addition as they
progress up the training lane, they should advance the coil one half coil width
(100mm/4ins). When a target is initially detected, always sweep beyond the sound of
the target to cleared ground before commencing pinpointing procedures.
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
A suggested training lane layout is as follows:
E
D
C
B
A
START POINT
•
A - medium Size Target (PMA-2 det).
demonstrate solid pinpointing technique.
•
B - large and Small Target (M14 and PMA-2). A student must demonstrate that they
can actually detect two targets. Be careful to ensure that the students do not miss the
smaller target by only recognizing a response from the larger target. The targets must
be laid so that the small target can be heard. It is also a teaching point that the obvious
target normally draws attention and an operator suddenly focuses on it forgetting it
could be booby-trapped with a second mine. A student must continue with the
sweeping drill before investigating the target.
•
C - three similar targets in star shape (three test pieces). This brings out the lesson
that they must sweep forward to clear ground. Some will note the first two targets and
Minelab Countermine Division
A good strong tone so that they can
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F3 INSTRUCTOR NOTES
forget the upper third one. A good operator will actually be able to state that there are
three targets. Although identification of three targets is useful, if an operator cannot
identify three separate targets, it is sufficient to outline the “danger” area during the
mapping technique.
•
D - one large target right on the edge of the lane. To prove that not all mines are
conveniently located in the middle of lanes.
•
E - one small target (single test piece). Make difficult but achievable.
The following is a suggested evaluation standard using inert mines – targets should be
pinpointed to within 10 cm of centre
- T72a at 15cm (or similar minimum metal mine buried at maximum detection depth)
- PMN or equivalent at 20cm
- Small different targets 10-15 cm apart
- Large metal anti-tank mine at 30 cm
- 2 small identical targets 7-10 cm apart
- Small anti-personnel mine near metal anti-tank
F3 OPERATOR PRACTICAL EVALUATION
Name
1
Minelab Countermine Division
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Remarks
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