Tor_And_Privoxy

Tor_And_Privoxy
COVER STORY
Tor and Privoxy
Anonymous surfing with Tor and Privoxy
SECRET AGENT
Internet users typically reveal their IP addresses, and this lets companies compile a profile of your Internet
activities. Tor and Privoxy can help protect your privacy. BY KRISTIAN KISSLING
T
he epidemic of Internet-based
market research continues: many
companies routinely investigate
their customers’ Internet surfing habits –
34
ISSUE 67 JUNE 2006
a cheap and transparent form of spying.
And in some repressive countries, the
government may even be watching
where you surf.
Privoxy [1] and Tor [2] puts the spies
off your trail. A browser typically talks
directly to a remote target, most
commonly a website, and the
web server that hosts the
site logs the corresponding access data. The
Tor client prevents
your requests from
going directly to the target; instead the requests
are forwarded via a proxy
running on your home ma-
W W W. L I N U X - M A G A Z I N E . C O M
chine through a number of nodes to a
so-called exit node, which then talks to
the target machine (Figure 1). The server
version of Tor acts as one of the intermediate nodes in the chain. The name
“Tor” is an acronym for The Onion
Router. Private users will more typically
run Tor as a client, commonly known as
an the Onion Proxy.
This structure poses one problem: if
the data you request passes through various privately operated nodes before
reaching your machine, any Onion
Router operator could theoretically log
your traffic. This is why a secret key is
negotiated between your Onion Proxy at
home and every node on the path to the
exit node. The key prevents unauthorized nodes butting in on the conversation en route.
By encrypting data in multiple layers,
only the Onion Proxy on your home machine is capable of accessing the data –
this protection system also prevents
node operators from decrypting the passing traffic. The result of this scheme
is that the data is very much like an
onion – covered in multiple skins of encryption. The exit node breaks through
the skin and passes the data to the final
target, although the exit node has no
way of knowing which machine the request originally came from. None of the
Onion Routers knows the Onion Proxy,
and this means that Onion Router operators have no way of knowing whose data
is passing through their nodes.
On the way back from the target, the
information is repacked and stays encrypted until the proxy running on your
home machine strips the encrypted layers to reveal the data. This makes it impossible for third parties, including the
provider, to know what data you request
or send; the person running the target
machine just gets to see the IP address of
Figure 1: Tor forwards a web request through a series of intermediate
nodes to obscure the identity of the user.
the exit node, which could be
anywhere in the world.
Installing Tor
Tor is still a fairly young program, as the version number
shows; it doesn’t have an interface at this time of writing.
Suse users can download the
source code for the stable
version 0.1.0.16, and start by
installing the Automake tools.
If you have Suse 9.3 or 10.0,
Autoconf and Automake are
included. You additionallly
need the GCC and GCC-C++
compilers. YaST automatically loads additional required libraries. Don’t forget
to install the Openssl-devel,
and Zlib-devel header files,
along with the Libevent
library [3].
Users with Suse 9.3 can't
use YaST to install Tor; instead, download the source
code from [2] and follow the
standard installation steps:
./configure, make, and make
install. This should work out
fine. Suse 9.3 also needs a
new entry in /etc/ld.so.conf to
be able to locate the library.
Add the path /usr/lib, and
then (working as root) run
ldconfig to update your path
information.
Things are slightly simpler
for Debian users; just add the
following entries to your /etc/
apt/sources.list:
deb http://mirrorU
.noreply.org/U
pub/tor sarge main
deb-src http://U
mirror.noreply.org/U
pub/tor sarge main
Then become root and run
apt-get update to tell the
package manager about the
new software residing at the
specified address. You can
then simply type apt-get
install tor to install.
Here We Go…
Let’s give Tor a trial run. Pop
up a console window and
enter tor. After a short while,
you should see a terse
message that says “Tor has
successfully opened a circuit.
Looks like it's working”
(Figure 2). If you are still not
Figure 2: Tor has successfully opened a circuit, and told you about it.
COVER STORY
Tor and Privoxy
/etc/rc0.d/K20tor
ensures that Tor
will launch automatically whenever you boot
your machine.
Tor has one problem that most encryption and anonymization programs have in
common: encryption tends to slow
down communications with remote web servers
noticeably.
Figure 3: Configuring Tor as the proxy server for your browser.
convinced and want to make very sure,
just Google for my ip. This takes you to
a few pages that not only tell you your
computer’s IP, but other details like the
country you are probably in, your operating system, and the browser you use,
or even the web pages you visited recently.
To bamboozle these pages, first tell
the browser to route all traffic via the Tor
Onion Proxy. If you have Firefox, just go
to the Preferences, and select Connection
Settings | Manual Proxy Configuration.
Enter 127.0.0.1 as your SOCKS Host, and
9050 as your Port (Figure 3). Now select
the SOCKS v4 entry and finish the configuration: your browser will now route
all traffic to port 9050 first, and Tor will
forward it onto the Internet. Mozilla
users need Edit | Preferences | Advanced
| Proxies for this.
Now, when you query your IP address,
the results should look a lot different
from the previous result set: the web
server now thinks you live in Germany
(Figure 4) – looks like Tor really is working.
If you have Suse, and want to launch
Tor automatically when you start your
machine, become root and add a line for
/usr/local/bin/tor & to your /etc/rc.d/
boot.local file; on Debian, a file named
GLOSSARY
Chroot: A security measure that maps
the root directory for Privoxy to /var/lib,
thus preventing would-be attackers
from accessing directories farther up the
filesystem tree.
36
ISSUE 67 JUNE 2006
Privoxy for
Dessert
Tor does not take all the risk out of
browsing. As you may be aware, your
browser needs to look up the target machine’s address by sending a request to
a DNS server; the server then resolves
the host name (such as www.linuxmagazine.com) to the IP address
(212.227.104.121). The DNS server then
sends the resolved IP address back to the
browser. If somebody were to check the
DNS server’s logfiles, they could find out
which machine had looked up www.
linux-magazine.com and when. Privoxy
can prevent this from happening by
using Socks 4a, which, unlike Socks 4
and Socks 5, does not need to convert
hostnames to IP addresses first.
Privoxy is a filtering proxy for HTTP
that is often used with Tor. You can
read all about using Privoxy as a web
filter in the October 2005 issue of Linux
Magazine [4].
chine; to prevent this from happening,
you need to launch YaST, go to the
System tab, and click the Runlevel Editor
button. To disable the Privoxy service,
click Disable. Suse Linux runs Privoxy
in a Chroot jail.
On Debian, Privoxy typically launches
automatically after the install; if not, you
can launch the client by becoming root
and giving the /etc/init.d/privoxy restart
command.
The next step is to tell Privoxy to forward Socks requests to Tor. To forward
Socks requests, Suse users need to open
/var/lib/privoxy/etc/config and enter the
following line below item 5. FORWARDING:
forward-socks4a / U
127.0.0.1:9050 .
Note the dot following the port; if you
forget this, no forwarding will take place.
You need to modify the same file for
Debian, however, in this case the file resides below /etc/privoxy.
Now update your proxy settings
for Firefox and Mozilla to reflect the
changes. Enter 127.0.0.1 as the IP
address, and 8118 as the port in all cases,
and then surf to the website that showed
your IP address previously. If your IP
address is shown properly, Privoxy is
working properly; and if you see
the wrong IP address instead of the
correct address, Tor is also working.
Quick Change
Previously, if you used your browser
in mixed mode, that is, anonymously
in some cases and open in others,
there was no alternative to switching
Installing
Privoxy
Users with Suse
9.3 and 10.0 can
simply run YaST
to install Privoxy.
If you have
Debian, just type
apt-get install
privoxy. After you
complete the install, Suse will
launch Privoxy
automatically
each time you
boot your ma-
Figure 4: The website thinks you live in Germany, as the exit node
contacting the server is running on a German server.
W W W. L I N U X - M A G A Z I N E . C O M
Tor and Privoxy
Figure 5: The Firefox “Switch Proxy” extension gives you an easy
solution for enabling and disabling a collection of proxies.
the proxy on and off manually. Thank
goodness this has changed: there is now
an Switch Proxy extension for Mozilla
and Firefox, which you can install by
double-clicking the Get more extensions
link in the Extensions window [5]. After
relaunching the browser, you should
have a new status bar for Switch Proxy
(Figure 5).
To configure Tor and Privoxy as a new
proxy, click Add, select the Standard
entry, and then click Next. A window ap-
pears, letting you
configure your
new proxy settings. Don’t forget
to assign a name
to these settings,
just to be able to
identify them
later. When you
are finished, click
Ok. Use the list
next to the Proxy
entry to toggle
between various
proxy configurations.
Becoming a Microsoft
Agent
While we are at it, what reason is there
for you to tell everyone that you use
Linux and prefer the Firefox browser?
There isn’t a good reason to reveal this
information, especially some of the less
well-behaved pages then slam the door
on Linux users.
The User Agent Switcher [6] extension
helps you change this. After you install
COVER STORY
the switcher and relaunch your browser,
select User Agent Switcher in the Tools
menu, and opt for Internet Explorer 6 (or
Opera 8.5 if you prefer); the User Agent
Switcher should now identify you as
using Internet Explorer – luckily, this
does not mean that you will be installing
the usual security problems that come
with the real Internet Explorer. ■
INFO
[1] The Privoxy project:
http://www.privoxy.org/
[2] Tor: http://tor.eff.org/
[3] Libevent as Suse-RPM: http://linux01.
gwdg.de/~pbleser/rpm-navigation.
php?cat=Libraries/libevent/
[4] “Doorkeepers: Privoxy and Webcleaner content filters,” by Thomas
Leichtenstern; Linux Magazine #59,
2005; p. 54.
[5] The Switch Proxy extension for
Firefox and Mozilla: https://addons.
mozilla.org/extensions/moreinfo.php?
application=firefox&id=125
[6] The User Agent Switcher for Mozilla
and Firefox: http://chrispederick.com/
work/useragentswitcher/
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