Ch. 20, Extension Home Economics

Ch. 20, Extension Home Economics
Chapter 20
Extension Home Economics
Contents
Early Development ..............................................................101
Extension Home Economics—1906 ..............................101
Women’s Auxiliaries—1908 ...........................................102
Extension Staff Needs—1908 .......................................102
First Extension Home Economist—1909 .......................102
Youth Work Leaflet—1910 .............................................103
Youth Contest Proposal—1910 .....................................103
Using Adult Leaders ......................................................103
Neighborhood Improvement Clubs—1911 ....................103
Extension Home Ec. Dept.—1912 .................................103
Women's Auxiliaries—1911-17 ......................................103
Home Economics Staff—1915 ......................................103
Program Developments—1915 .....................................104
Home Study Clubs ........................................................104
Canning Clubs ...............................................................104
Extension Home Economics—1915 ..............................104
World War I Years—1917-1919 ...........................................105
Emergency Home Demonstration Work ..............................106
State Emergency Personnel—1917 ..............................106
Extension Home Economics—1918 ..............................107
Emergency Funds Cease--1919 ...................................108
Programs By Communities—1915-20 ...........................108
Combine Departments—1936 .......................................109
Developments After World War I .........................................109
Project Programs—1920 ...............................................109
Homemakers Clubs/Programs—1920 ........................... 110
Home Economics Specialists—1920 ............................ 110
Leader Training—1920 .................................................. 110
Local Leader Use—1924 ............................................... 111
District Project Leader Plan Fails .................................. 111
Home Demonstration Units—1925-27 .......................... 111
Women In County Farm Bureaus—1925-32 ................. 111
Local Leader Training—1927 ........................................ 112
Standard of Excellence—1937 ...................................... 112
Urban Home Ec Programs—1940's .............................. 112
World War II Activities in Home Economics ......................... 112
Nutrition Program—1942 ............................................... 113
Conserve Clothing Program .......................................... 113
Health Program ............................................................. 113
Improve Family Recreation .......................................... 113
Wartime Extension Activities—1943 .............................. 113
Wartime Nutrition Specialists—1944-46 ........................ 114
Activities Following World War II ......................................... 114
Balanced Farming and Family Living—1945 ................. 114
Programs in Ext. Home Ec.—1945 ............................... 114
Frozen Food Emphasis—1946 ...................................... 115
Home Equipment ........................................................... 115
Health Programs ........................................................... 115
Wives of Veterans—1948 .............................................. 115
Student Wives Educational Assn.—1949 ...................... 115
Home Demonstration Units—1951 ................................ 116
Programs for Non-Unit Members—Mid 50's.................. 116
Training County Home Economics Agents .......................... 116
Regional Extension Schools—1937-65 ......................... 116
Junior Assistant Program .............................................. 117
New Agent Training—1958 ............................................ 117
HE Personnel/Programs—1950's........................................ 117
Long-Time Programs—1950's ....................................... 117
Natl. Home Demonstration Week—1949 ...................... 118
Home Economics Days—1958 ..................................... 119
Home Demonstration Advisory Council ......................... 119
Home Demonstration Units--1963 ................................. 119
Ext. Home Ec. Subject Matter Areas ................................... 119
Clothing and Textiles ...........................................................120
Home Economics At Institutes—1908 ...........................120
Movable Schools—1909-10 ..........................................120
Clothing Construction Schools—1919 ...........................120
Extension Three-Year Course—1925 ............................120
Children's Clothing—1925 .............................................121
Radio Talks on Textiles—1925 ......................................121
Leaders Teach Unit Members—1925 ............................121
Clothing Subprojects—1949 ..........................................121
Clothing Construction ....................................................121
Self Expression Through Dress .....................................122
Care of Clothing ............................................................122
Buying Clothing .............................................................123
Agent In-Depth Training—1960's -80's ..........................123
Program Emphasis—1965-88 .......................................123
Color Training—1965-79 ...............................................123
Sewing Clinics/Workshops—1969 ................................123
Sewing Fairs/Satellites—1970's-80's ............................123
Other Program Areas ....................................................123
Trends in the 80's ..........................................................123
4-H Club Clothing Project ..............................................124
Clothing/Textiles in 4-H—1978 ......................................124
State 4-H Fashion Review .............................................124
Consumer Information .........................................................124
Consumer Course for Economists—1954 .....................125
Consumer Information In Media—1950's ......................125
Consumer Specialists—1954 ........................................125
Meat Demonstrations—1956 .........................................125
Consumer Leaflets - 1957 .............................................125
Training For Agents—1958............................................126
Basic Communications Program—1958 .......................126
Specialist To Ag. Econ. Dept.—1961 .............................126
Cultural Arts—1967 .............................................................126
Expanded Food and Nutrition Program ...............................126
New Federal Funds For Nutrition ..................................126
EFNEP in 12 Counties—1969 .......................................127
Early Years of EFNEP—1970's .....................................127
Counties with EFNEP Programs—1969-88 ..................127
Status of EFNEP—1980's .............................................127
Crisis Year for EFNEP—1985 .......................................128
Teaching Foods/Nutrition—1960's-80's .........................128
Goals of EFNEP—1988 ................................................128
Foods and Nutrition .............................................................128
National Situation ..........................................................128
Kansas 4-H Situation .....................................................129
Food for Health—1950's................................................129
Food Preservation—1940's-50's ...................................130
New Kitchen Equipment—1940's-50's ..........................130
Food Buying—1950’s ....................................................130
Food Information Delivery—1960's-70's .......................130
Food Safety—1970's .....................................................131
99
Food Budgeting—1970's .....................................................131
Convenience of Food Preparation .................................131
Nutrition by Age Groups—1975 .....................................131
Seven Dietary Guidelines—1980's ................................131
Extension Nutrition Program—1980's ...........................131
Family Life and Human Development .................................132
Program Emphasis—1940's-50's ..................................132
Family Life Research—1956-57 ...................................133
Family Life Specialist—1958 .........................................133
Family Life Publications—1958 .....................................133
Scope of FL Program—1959 ........................................133
Teenager Program—1959 .............................................134
Mental Health—1950’s ..................................................134
Family and Community—1958 ......................................134
Children and Mass Media—1960 ..................................134
Young Adults Program—1961 .......................................135
Family Life Developments—1946-64 ............................135
Young Mothers Shortcourse—1965 ..............................135
Parenting Children—1970's...........................................135
Senior Citizens Clubs ....................................................135
Drugs and Sex Education ..............................................135
Grandparenting—1972 ..................................................135
Parenting Older Youth ...................................................135
Kansas Forum on Families—1977 ................................135
Family Awareness Week—1978....................................135
Conference on Families—1979 .....................................136
Butterberry Hill Puppet Show ........................................136
Family Issues—1980's ..................................................136
Role of the Father—1980's............................................136
Children's Literature—1981 ...........................................136
Intergenerational Relationships—1982-85 ....................136
Stress in the Family—Mid 1980's ..................................136
Family Closeness ..........................................................136
Elder Care .....................................................................136
Retirement .....................................................................136
Self-Esteem & Marital Enrichment ................................136
Other Family Life Programs ..........................................137
Family Economics/Management .........................................137
Planning Household Finances—1918 ...........................137
Home Accounts—1924 ..................................................138
Family and Its Business ................................................138
Home Management Project—1949 ...............................140
Home Management Program—1963 ............................140
Efficiency in the Family ..................................................140
Work Simplification Emphasis—1958 ...........................141
Extension Programs—1980's ........................................141
Public Policy Education—1983-88 ................................141
Family Community Leadership (FCL)—1988 ................142
Health ..................................................................................142
Health Teaching Methods ..............................................142
Pre-School Health Conferences—1922 ........................143
Girls' Health Clubs—1922 .............................................143
Cleanup Campaigns—1922 ..........................................143
Mothers Vacation Camps—1925 ...................................143
Play Days for Women—1931 ........................................143
Build Home Showers—1932 .........................................143
Youth Health Contests ...................................................143
Health Programs For Youth—1930's .............................144
Health Specialist Veteran ..............................................144
Public Health Units—1946 ............................................145
Disease Prevention—1949 ............................................145
Health Insurance ...........................................................145
Improve Hospitals—Late 1940's....................................145
Home Care--1950's .......................................................145
Facts About Health—1950's-60's ..................................145
Community Health—1950's ...........................................146
Immunization Programs--1950's-60's ............................146
Drug Abuse Programs--1950's-70's ..............................146
Nursing Homes—1958 ..................................................147
Health During Emergencies ..........................................147
Health Specialists—1978 ..............................................147
School Immunization—1970's-80's ...............................147
Colo-Rectal Cancer Education—1980's ........................148
Child Safety Series—1980's ..........................................148
Safety Belt Program—1980's ........................................148
Medicare Education—1981 ...........................................148
Home Furnishings ...............................................................148
Home Furnishings Specialists—1929 ...........................149
Home Furnishings Subprojects—1938 ..........................149
Home Furnishings—1940's ...........................................150
Furnishings Specialists Change—1952 ........................150
Furnishings Program—1950's-60's ...............................150
Housing ...............................................................................151
Kitchen Improvement—1918 .........................................151
Home Improvements—1920's .......................................152
Changes In Housing—1930's-80's ................................152
Housing Programs—1930's...........................................152
Housing Program—1940's ............................................152
Remodeling Homes/Churches/Other ............................153
Housing Program—1950's ............................................153
Agent/Leader Training—1956 .......................................153
Housing Program—1960's ............................................153
Housing Program—1970's ............................................153
Housing Program—1980's ............................................154
Recreation ...........................................................................154
Family Recreation ........................................................154
Recreation Program—1945 ...........................................155
State Recreation Workshop—1945 ...............................155
Recreation Program Revision—1949 ............................155
Recreation Specialists—1952 .......................................156
Recreation Program—1953 ...........................................156
Home Crafts—1956 .......................................................156
Drop Recreation Project—1957 ....................................156
Rug Making—1958 ........................................................156
Mosaic Emphasis—1957 ...............................................156
Stained Glass—1959-60 ...............................................157
Radio Tribute—1960 .....................................................157
Recent Extension Home Economics Programs ..................157
Issue Programming—1970’s .........................................157
College of Home Ec Merger—1985 ..............................158
Budget Freezes—1988 .................................................158
Home Economics Program Trends ...............................158
Personnel in Extension Home Economics
Ch 6: 63-72
The information that follows focuses on a portion of the
educational activities and programs in Extension Home
Economics. It should not be viewed as a comprehensive
review.
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Early Development
As to whether this can be done best by having
women's meetings separate from men's, but at
the same time, or to have sessions at which such
topics are given special consideration, but which
are attended by both men and women, is yet to be
decided. There are arguments both ways.
Home Demonstration Work
The real history of home demonstration work is
not the story of the rise and fall of appropriations,
nor the glory of our part in war and the exploits of
our militant co-workers, not even the numbers of
women who have become members of the home
demonstration units.
The experiment will be made this year in many
communities of having separate meetings for women
at the same time that the men are discussing some
topic not of special interest to women.
It is, rather, a record of the ideas and ideals
—their birth, their growth and fruition. It is the lives
of our local leaders, our organization committees
and advisory committees.
All the many questions relating to foods and their
preparation; to the care and rearing of children; to
the structure, furnishing, and care of homes; to the
care of women's own health and the wise use of
their time; to the uplifting of the social and moral
life of the neighborhoods; and many more belong
in the women's work in Farmers' Institutes.
In short, our history is the story of the evolution
of the "help others to help themselves" approach
and that consciousness of social and educational
trusteeship which we call Home Demonstration
Work.
It is concerned particularly with the impact of
facts upon the awakened and responsive minds of
rural men, women and children.
It is difficult for a woman to stand in a crowd and
express her thoughts, but it becomes less hard after
making the effort a few times. In each neighborhood, there is some woman who has succeeded
most thoroughly in one line, some other woman
who has succeeded in some other way.
(This philosophic overview of the Home Economics
program in Kansas was written in 1960, by Ellen Batchelor,
a 40-year professional leader in Extension.)
Let these women tell how they have attained
the results that have been theirs and thus start a
discussion that will be helpful to others.
Extension Home Economics—1906
The Extension program in Home Economics began with participation in the early Farmers' Institutes.
Members of the Home Economics faculty would
appear on the institute programs with one or more
men from the faculty.
The situation soon after the turn of the century was
described in an article appearing in The Industrialist
(the college newspaper), August 1, 1906, written by
Henrietta Calvin, Professor of Domestic Science:
Meetings for Women
The Domestic Science Department is anxious
to come into correspondence with any woman who
is interested in better home conditions in her own
home or in the locality in which she lives, and will
gladly give any aid in institutes or by letters that is
within its power.
It seems possible to the writer that women's
institutes might not always need to be held at the
same season that the men's institutes are held.
Occasional addresses on topics particularly of
interest to women have been given at Farmers'
Institutes for more than twenty years, but in the
majority of such meetings the women have been
more or less interested listeners to talks on subjects
that related only to the outside of farm life.
Men can most easily leave the farm in mid-winter,
but many times a woman is kept at home at that
time of the year because the weather is too severe
to take the smaller children out.
Sometimes a woman would enter into a discussion on the care of poultry or the farm garden, but
even this was not of frequent occurrence.
Spring time might suit them better, and in the
Kansas home there is usually one faithful horse
that can be spared, even in the busiest season, to
take the wife to town.
Yet, the highest success of farming is not to
get the most money from the farm, but the most
comfort, and that certainly will carry the interest into
the inside of the house.
As far as the speakers from the Domestic Science Department of the College are concerned, it
is more convenient to go at that time.
Topics for Women
The young girls of today are the homemakers of
the future, and it seems desirable that they should
appreciate the privileges and duties of homemaking
So it has seemed reasonable that those topics
which strictly concern the inside of the home shall
hereafter have more attention given them in Farmers' Institutes.
101
to the fullest extent, and, therefore, they should be
interested in the institutes.
It is a club of sixes--six husbands, six wives,
six meetings, but nine farm, domestic, and general
subjects.
Homemaking is a profession. The majority of all
women adopt it. They should be trained for it, even
as the doctor is trained for his life work.
When desired, this department will send for
each meeting a printed brief of each subject to be
discussed, six copies, provided a report be made
to the department, written within ten days after the
meeting, summarizing opinions of the members,
especially any opinions or experiences differing
from those sent in the brief.
Let us, women, accept this view and hasten the
time when the woman called to make a home will
undertake it as if it were a high mission, requiring
the best of her in every way.
The bread-making contests of this year are of
value, both because they encourage the young girls
in a womanly and necessary accomplishment, and
also because they will introduce the young girls to
the Institutes.
It is hoped that there may be at least one hundred
such clubs organized before October 1, 1908.
Extension Staff Needs—1908
In June, 1908, John H. Miller, Superintendent of
Womens' Auxiliaries—1908
The second Biennial Report of Farmers' Institutes, made in 1908, encouraged the organization
of women's auxiliaries and made suggestions for
their organization, prepared by the Kansas State
Agricultural College Home Economics staff. The
suggestion included:
Farmers' Institutes, made this statement:
It is utterly impossible for the College men to
carry on all this great work and do what is expected
of them in the College and on the Station farm.
One assistant is to be employed next year for field
work in Eastern Kansas for six or eight months, and
other men, able and active farmers and stockmen, will
be employed for from two to three weeks each.
No Institute program is complete without having
women represented and women in the audience.
Whenever there is enough interest, and where this
department can send a lady speaker, it will be recommended that women's auxiliaries be formed.
I want, and can use, a half dozen assistants
for at least eight months every year for Institute
and Demonstration work —work with farmers and
their sons.
At any rate, it is recommended that one separate
session be held for the women and girls. Where
there is a boys' corn contest and a bread and sewing contest for girls, it is recommended that two
sessions for the contests and the short essays by
the young people be assigned to the morning of
the first day.
This department, home economics, could use
one lady all the year round for regular institute work
for six months, for special institutes for farmers'
wives in March, April and May, and for meetings in
villages and towns for June, July and August, and
for a world of correspondence with farmers' wives
and girls.
A part of the afternoon sessions should also be
held separately, one to be devoted to strictly farming
subjects and the other to domestic subjects.
Another could be used with great profit for educational work, including the boys' and girls' work.
No matter how well the Farmers' Institute may
be organized, it, as a business organization, can
hardly do all the thoughtful farmer will hope to have
accomplished.
Another could be used with great gain to the state
in dairy work, and another in orcharding.
First Extension Home Economist—1909
Frances Brown was employed as "Lecturer in
Home Economics" at Kansas State Agricultural
College, July 1, 1909, as the first Extension Home
Economist in Kansas.
The "Farmers' Club" has a distinct and valuable
place in this agricultural education system.
Every school district might well have a Farmers' Club, where the farmers and their wives and
older children might meet several times a year in a
social way and at the same time discuss one or two
subjects relating to the farm or household.
Her employment was made possible by a $25,000
appropriation by the 1909 Kansas legislature. That
amount permitted the employment of six other Extension Specialists in July of 1909.
This year we only hope to get a start in this
matter, but in another year we hope to organize a
thousand Farmers' Clubs in Kansas.
Frances Langdon Brown was born on March 3,
1878, in New York State. She attended the rural
schools in Osborne County, Kansas, and the city
schools in Emporia, Kansas.
No constitution and by-laws are needed, nothing
but an agreement of at least six men and their wives
to form such a club and meet at least six times each
year in the members' homes.
102
She attended the Kansas State Normal School
at Emporia, from 1894 to 1898, and, later, a few
summer schools.
was expressed in the organization of Neighborhood
Improvement Clubs.
Their purposes were the building of higher levels
of community life, economic development, crop production, social and civic levels, higher health levels,
moral levels, and education. The neighborhood
improvement clubs continued in varying degrees
from 1911 to 1925.
From 1898 to 1908, she taught in the public
schools of Kansas. At that time she enrolled at the
Kansas State Agricultural College and obtained a
B. S. degree in home economics in 1909. She was
then appointed to the Extension position.
Youth Work Leaflet—1910
Extension Home Ec. Dept.—1912
The Department of Home Economics apparently
was established in 1910 with Frances Brown as the
Director and Josephine Edwards as her assistant.
About 1910, Frances Brown and Josephine
Edwards prepared a leaflet which contained suggestions for conducting girls' contests in sewing and
cooking. Such contests were being sponsored by
the Farmers' Institutes.
The Department of Home Economics Extension
was one of four departments in the Division of Extension when the division was created by the Board
of Regents in December, 1912. In 1912, the home
economics staff consisted of Frances Brown, Mary
Simons, Florence Snell, and Ada Lewis.
Youth Contest Proposal—1910
The following is quoted from the leaflet:
Contest work is growing in importance. Other
states have taken it up and found it to be of inestimable value.
The Extension Home Economics staff was charged
with the responsibility of carrying instruction in home
economics to Kansas homemakers and girls who
were not students at the College.
The government has just issued a bulletin on this
very subject because of its national influence.
The work included Farmers' Institutes, Women's
Auxiliaries, Movable Schools, women's meetings,
Teachers' Institutes, Chautauquas, Granges, Women's Clubs, Girls' Home Economics Clubs who were
using cooking and sewing lessons prepared and
distributed by the department, and correspondence
with women's groups who had been invited to use
the printed lessons available.
Surely that which has proved to be helpful to
our boys and girls of other states should not be
overlooked in the education of our Kansas boys
and girls.
Now is the time for the older ones to take a more
active interest in the practical training of the young
folks on the farm. Results of the contest show that
this is worthwhile.
The leaflet then suggested some of the benefits
of contests, including:
Women's Auxiliaries—1911-17
During the years 1911 to 1917, Women's Auxiliaries flourished and contributed to the successful
programs of the Farmers' Institutes. The Department
of Extension Home Economics prepared and distributed a handbook of organization for the Auxiliaries
and other organized groups.
1) The contest educates the boy or girl along
the line of the particular contest.
2) Knowledge of one subject stimulates a desire
to learn about other lines of work.
3) The contest enables the contestant to
Lessons in the various phases of home economics were prepared for use in the monthly meetings
held by the homemaker members of any organized
group.
express herself.
4) Producing something of value makes a girl
more independent and capable of action along
that line.
5) Many persons doing the same thing at the
same time is convincing as well as pleasing.
Home Economics Staff—1915
In 1915, the staff of the Department of Home
Economics Extension was increased to six persons.
They and their titles were: Frances Brown, Director;
Marion Broughton, Extension Schools; Florence
Smith, Assistant in Institutes; Stella Mather, Assistant
in Institutes; Louise Caldwell, Assistant in Institutes;
Adda Root, Assistant in Institutes.
Using Adult Leaders
The efforts of men and women in helping boys
and girls in contest work was the beginning of adult
leadership in 4-H Club work as well as in home
economics.
Neighborhood Improvement Clubs—1911
In 1911, the Farmers' Institutes continued with their
programs. The need for more definite associations
103
Program Developments—1915
The Movable Schools were then called Extension
Schools in Home Economics. Correspondence Study
included reading courses in canning and preservation, and jelly making. Correspondence courses
were offered in Cookery I and Cookery II. The home
economics staff were called upon to do fair judging
for the first time in 1915.
clubs usually organized an adult program in home
economics also.
Extension Home Economics—1915
The Annual Report of Dean and Director John
Miller for the year ending June 30, 1915, contained
the following statement about the work in Home
Economics Extension:
By 1915, four of the staff devoted full time to
giving lectures and demonstrations before Farmers'
Institutes and Homemakers' Clubs and gave other
assistance to county Normal Institutes, fair judging,
Chautauquas and special Extension Schools.
During the year, 48 five-day Extension Schools
for women were conducted at which the attendance
was 1,487 or an average of 31 women at each
school.
In one type of home economics Extension School
the members did individual work each day under
the guidance of the Extension instructor.
Home Study Clubs
Home Study Clubs were organized for a specific
purpose, to study some specific phase of foods.
Later, programs were broadened to include other
home economics subjects.
In a second type a group of members demonstrated for the benefit of the entire school.
In a third type, the instructor demonstrated for
the benefit of the members of the school.
For texts, the members used U.S.D.A. bulletins
and correspondence courses sent from the Home
Study Service of KSAC (Kansas State Agricultural
College).
There were 26 schools of the first type, two of
the second, and twenty of the third. A half-day session is given to the selection, preparation and use
of foods and half a day to the selection, use and
construction of clothing.
Other clubs were organized with different names
to study some other phase of Domestic Science, the
term used generally to designate the field of what
later became "Home Economics."
These schools were held in church base-ments,
school rooms, vacant stores and in large kitchens
in residences.
Most of the utensils are borrowed or rented for
the week. A membership fee of $1.00 was charged
with which to defray local expenses.
Canning Clubs
Mother-Daughter Canning Clubs were organized
to teach the cold-pack method of canning. This
method replaced the process of boiling the jars for
one hour on three different successive days.
Two classes of clubs have been formed as a
result of these schools, one for women and one for
girls. Printed instructions in cooking and sewing
were furnished these clubs by the College.
Those clubs were made up of mothers and their
daughters or any young girl or girls in whom the
senior member was interested.
Fourteen Extension schools of one week each
were held at the county normal institutes for public
school teachers.
The Canning Clubs accomplished their purpose,
but generally the results benefited the mothers far
more than the girls.
Practically the same program was rendered in
these normal institutes as was given in the extension schools for the adult women.
The Mother-Daughter Canning Clubs reached
their peak of influence following World War I (191418), when the clubs began to disappear.
The Home Economics Specialists gave instruction in what are known as Women’s Auxiliaries,
associations of the wives and daughters of the men
belonging to the Farmers' Institutes.
The daughters began to affiliate with clubs for
girls in the various projects, and the mothers became
members of homemakers' clubs, Farm Bureau units,
and home demonstration clubs.
There were ninety-two auxiliaries in the state
with a membership of nearly 2,000. Many of these
meet once a month and the programs and instruction
was furnished by the home economics department
of the Extension Division.
The Mother-Daughter Clubs were always the
responsibility of the Boys' and Girls' Club Department but are included here because the women
who were the organizers of the mother-daughter
By 1917, the Division of Extension had grown to
include seven departments, one of which was Home
Economics.
The others were:
104
In the Extension schools in Home Economics,
six different courses were offered; food preparation,
dietetics, home management, home decoration,
canning, and home nursing.
Institutes and Demonstrations.
County Agent Work.
Boys' and Girls' Club Work.
Rural Engineering.
These schools were placed in communities
where classes of fifteen or more women were
organized, guaranteeing all local expenses. Two
specialists were sent to each school, the school
being five days in length.
Home Study Service.
Rural Service.
The Extension Home Economics program had
continued to develop under the leadership of Frances Brown.
Teaching was done through the demonstration
method. In the dress making schools, which was
the only schools two weeks in length, each student
was expected to prepare a full garment, such as a
house dress, during the time spent in the school.
In his report for the year ending June 30, 1917,
the Dean and Director Edward Johnson made the
following summary statement about the Home Economics program:
The work of the schools was made intensely
practical so that it may be duplicated in the home by
every student. In connection with the school work,
many homes were visited to make suggestions and
to assist in home management and equipment.
The leader of this project, Frances Brown, was
assisted during the year by six specialists in Home
Economics.
The object of this work was to give instruction
in the fundamental principles of food preparation;
to instruct in matters pertaining to home and farm
sanitation and hygiene of members of the family;
care and feeding of infants; home nursing; home
decoration; home preservation of food, including
canning; home management; household economy;
textiles; and clothing.
The following is a brief summary of the work
done by the specialists for the year 1917:
This work was conducted principally through
Extension Schools in Agriculture in February and
March and independently from March to September,
inclusive.
Institutes & Homemaking Clubs . . .
Extension Schools held . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,387
Demonstration Schools . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
Attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
299
Number of sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 758
Attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
57,238
Addresses given . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651
It is conducted also at annual meetings of
Homemakers Clubs and of Farm and Home Institutes beginning in October and continuing until
February.
Women’s Special Meetings . . . . . . .
Attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
130
7,000
Meetings held at High Schools
with Extension Schools . . . . . . . . . .
Exhibits in home economics were held in connection with the agricultural fairs and judged by
the women specialists, while demonstrations to
emphasize some subject matter such as Home
Economics, were held in cooperation with the agricultural agents.
74
Attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,931
Judging of HE exhibits at Fairs . . . . .
26
Number of Homemakers' Clubs . . . . 103
Homemakers' Club Members. . . . . 2,091
Outline programs were prepared each month for
the Homemakers Clubs in the state. These were
also used to a considerable extent by many women's
club organizations and Granges.
Programs to club members . . . . .
28,525
World War I Years—1917-1919
At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the Extension Home Economics staff directed their attention to food production in home gardens and food
conservation as aids to supply the armed forces with
adequate supplies of food.
included the following:
Special food conservation campaigns were
undertaken by the home economics specialists in
the spring and continued throughout the summer.
One of these was conducted in cooperation with
the Kansas City Star.
The report of the Dean and Director of Extension,
Edward Johnson, for the year ending June 30, 1917,
This campaign lasted three weeks, a lecture and
a demonstration being given each day before a large
105
alone, were conducted, and Specialists had a part
in eighteen Extension Schools in agriculture and
home economics; the total attendance of women
at these schools was 1,020.
group of women in Kansas City, the substance of the
lecture being published daily in the Kansas City Star
- a newspaper with a circulation of 500,000.
This campaign attracted very great attention
throughout Kansas and adjoining states.
Assistance was given to 90 Homemakers' Clubs
having a membership of 2,125.
The June 30, 1918, report stated:
Fifty-one special women's meetings were
planned and conducted, forty-nine fairs were attended, and 166 Council of Defense meetings were
attended by workers in home economics.
In addition to the regular program, numerous
requests were received for special meetings and
plans and speakers for such meetings were provided
whenever it is possible to do so.
The continued emphasis, in the meetings held
and through the press, the proper use of substitutes for wheat flour, for animal fats, and for sugar,
resulted in a very widespread interest and study of
this subject throughout the state.
A large part of the work during the year was conducted at meetings arranged through the women's
committees of the County Councils of Defense.
During the year 233 Farm-and-Home Institutes
of 548 sessions were attended by Home Economics
Specialists under this project; the total attendance
at these Institutes was 47,926.
Even though the direct results are not measurable, it is safe to say that the average Kansas
housewife became not only well informed as to the
need for the use of substitutes but learned how to
use them and applied what she learned as a result
of this educational work.
Sixteen Extension Schools, in home economics
Emergency Home Demonstration Work
On November 1, 1917, the Department of Emergency Home Demonstration Agents was organized
and charged with the responsibility of emergency
programs in Extension home economics for the
period of the war.
Stella Mather,
Asst. State Ldr., Nov 1, 1917 to Sep 5, 1918
Mary W. Ward
Sep 1, 1918 to Feb 15, 1919
Mollie Gold
Mar 1, 1919 to Jul 7, 1919
Della Stroud
Apr 15, 1919 to Jun 1, 1919
County Agent
Anderson
Elsie Baird
Funds to support the program were war funds
allocated to the state.
Frances Brown was transferred from the position
of Director of Home Economics Extension to State
Leader of Extension Emergency Home Demonstration Agents.
At that time, 27 counties had organized County
Farm Bureaus and employed County Agricultural
Extension Agents.
Appointed
to
Feb 29, 1920
Atchison
Avis Talcott
Oct 15, 1917 to
Jun 30, 1919
Chase
Florine Fate
Effie May Carp
Feb 1, 1918
Jan 4, 1919
Nov 1, 1918
Mar 5, 1919
Cherokee
Sara Patton
Oct 5, 1917
Resigned__
to
to
Nov 15, 1918 to
Jun 30, 1924
Twenty-four additional counties organized County
Farm Bureaus by the time of the Armistice, November 11, 1918.
Clay
Elizabeth R. Hardy May 20, 1918 to Dec 30, 1918
Sue Hemphill
Feb 1, 1919 to Jun 30, 1919
Frances Brown and her Assistant, Stella Mather,
recruited County Emergency Home Demonstration
Agents for those counties.
Cowley1
Juanita Sutcliffe
Larger cities organized to provide the local expenses of the Agents under the plan. The list of
emergency personnel included:
State Emergency Personnel
Frances Brown
State Leader,
Nov 1, 1917
to Jun 30, 19191
106
Sep 15, 1917 to Jun 30, 1918
Lyon
Ruth Wooster
Jul 1, 1918
McPherson
Maude Coe
Sep 25, 1917 to
Marshall
Edna Danner
Oct 2, 1917
to Jun 30, 1919
Meade
Vera E. Goffe
Apr 15, 1919
to Jun 30, 1919
to
Jun 30, 1919
Jun 30, 19193
Morris3
Ruth Wooster Dec 1, 1917
Edith Holmberg Aug 1, 1918 to
to Jun 30, 1918
Jun 30, 1919
Nemaha
Olivia Peugh
Oct 15, 1918
to
Jun 30, 1919
Ness
Mollie Lindsey
Sep 20, 1917
to
May 10, 1919
Leader, said:
When there was a Farm Bureau already organized and a Home Demonstration Agent was desired,
it was necessary for the Farm Bureau to set aside
from the local funds, a sum of $400 to defray the local
expenses of the Home Demonstration Agent.
1
Riley
Marjorie Kimball
Seward
Ellen Nelson
Jan 1, 1918 to
As soon as this was done, a letter was sent out
to the Executive Committee of the Farm Bureau,
asking that they appoint a woman vice-president in
every township who should herself be a member of
the Farm Bureau, or the wife of a member.
Jun 30, 1919
1
Sep 17, 1917 to
Shawnee
Clyda Greene
Nov 3, 1917
Irene Taylor
Chapman
Aug 1, 1918
Stevens
Berta Boyd
Letty Ham-Baker
Jun 30, 1919
to
Jun 30, 1918
to
Jun 30, 19193
They were further asked to call these vicepresidents together and enable them from their
own number, to elect regular officers, president,
vice-president, secretary, and treasurer, and when
this was done, to send a petition to the College
asking for a woman agent
1
Sep 25, 1917 to
Jul 1, 1918 to
Jun 30, 1918
Mar 1, 1919
This group of women officials, together with
representatives from certain other cooperative
organizations, formed the Advisory Committee.
This Advisory Committee was the body to whom
the Home Demonstration Agent looked for local
support and suggestions.
Washington
Myrtle Blythe
Oct 4, 1917
to Jun 30, 1918
Helen Anderson Aug 15, 1918 to Mar 15, 1919
Wyandotte
Ellen Batchelor
Sep 1, 1917 to
Maude Estes Jul 1, 1918
to
Mar 25, 1918
Feb 10, 1919
The other organizations whose representatives
were placed upon the Advisory Committee were the
Women's Committee of the Council of Defense, a
member of the Red Cross organization, and the
Food Administrator for the county.
1
Not a County Farm Bureau county
Continued as regular Home Demonstration Agent
2
3
Federal funds discontinued June 30, 1919
While our first efforts were mainly directed
towards locating the Home Demonstration Agents
in counties where a Farm Bureau was already
organized, yet five counties not having a Farm
Bureau organization petition for the Agent on the
Emergency basis.
CITIES
Fort Scott
Isa Allene Greene Feb 1, 1918
Carrie Kittell
Nov 1, 1918
to
to
Nov 16, 1918
Jun 30, 1919
Hutchinson
Mae McLeod
to
Feb 1, 1919
Feb 20, 1918 to
Jul 6, 1919
Independence
Anna Allen
Feb 1, 1918
Kansas City
Marion Broughton Jul 2, 1917
to
Jun 30 1919
Pittsburg
Ethel Marchbanks Mar 2, 1918
to
Jun 30, 1919
Topeka
Mary W. Ward
Sep 15, 1917 to
In these counties, either the Council of Defense
or a reputable committee representing some other
organization sent in a petition stating that the local
fund had been raised and asking for an agent.
We have had Home Demonstration Agents
located in Cowley, Seward, Stevens, and Ness
Counties on this emergency basis. The work in
Cowley County was discontinued on July 1, 1918,
because of a lack of funds to carry on the work of
both the man and woman agent.
Jul 12, 1918
Placing Home Demonstration Agents in the cities
has been upon a different basis from that of placing
them in counties having Farm Bureaus. Three Home
Demonstration Agents were placed in Kansas City,
Topeka and Wichita, prior to December 1, 1917.
Wichita
Iris Livingston
Feb 1, 1918 to Mar 22, 1918
Lottie Burkholder Apr 1, 1918 to Jun 30, 1919
Extension Home Economics—1918
The Department of Home Economics Extension
was continued from its inception, first with Frances
Brown as director and, beginning June 1, 1918, with
Mary Whiting McFarlane as Director.
In Topeka the Agent was employed in cooperation with the Womens' Club. That arrangement
proved to be unsatisfactory. Future contracts and
plans were made with public bodies such as the
public school system or the city officials in order
In the 1918 report made by Frances Brown,
the Emergency State Home Demonstration Agent
107
that the work of the County Home Demonstration
Agent would be considered a public program.
eration with Dairy Division, U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry)
Food Preservation
Representatives of the County Council of Defense, the Red Cross, and the public schools were
asked to serve on an advisory committee.
2) Textiles
Dressmaking
Textile Lessons
Emergency Funds Cease—1919
When funds from Federal sources were discontinued June 30, 1919, the program, as such, ceased.
Fair Judging
3) Household Management
Thrift
The Department of Emergency Home Demonstration Agents became the Department of Home
Demonstration Work with Frances Brown as the
department head.
Household Conveniences
4) Nursing
Sanitation
Her responsibility was to supervise the work of the
County Extension Home Demonstration Agents.
Care of Patient
Each of the projects had a Specialist who carried
on her work by means of:
Programs By Communities—1915-20
Special efforts were made to plan emergency
programs with the people by communities. The approach was new to everyone, therefore the efforts
were very scattered.
1) Farm and Home Institute meetings.
2) Normal Institute meetings.
3) Extension Schools.
The state office sent to the counties a list of projects
which suggested possible opportunities for service.
The projects were:
4) Exhibits and judging at fairs.
5) Dairy meetings.
1) Food Production
6) Special meetings.
2) Economical Use of Special Foods
7) Special help by correspondence.
3) Food Preservation
8) Conferences.
4) Conservation of Waste
9) Assistance to Homemakers Clubs.
5) Sanitation
10) Special home demonstration meetings.
6) Health and Diet
7) Community Betterment
During 1919, the Home Economics Extension
staff participated in the following activities:
8) Club Work
9)
Clothing
Meetings
10)
Shelter
Special Meetings
97
4,524
11)
Family Budget
Meetings held at fairs
28
N/A
Farm Bureau Meetings
73
2,339
One special effort was the encouragement of people to save flour and sugar by using substitutes.
Homemakers' Club meetings
14
274
148
13,276
In four counties and four cities reporting for a
period of four to six weeks, the reports stated that
1,996,163 pounds of wheat and 79,643 pounds of
sugar were saved for use in the war effort.
Dairy Meetings
46
1,792
Extension Schools
123
3,370
Home Nursing Meetings
317
8,923
Dressmaking Schools
300
9,384
41
3,175
Exhibits at Fairs
1
N/A
Exhibits at Fairs Judged
23
N/A
105
1,873
1,060
15,900
12) Fuel
No. Held
Farmers' Institutes
In the State Leader's report for 1919, Frances
Brown listed these projects as organized at that
time:
Normal Institute meetings
1) Foods
General Nutrition
Homemakers' Clubs Assisted
School Lunches
Club meetings held
Utilization of Dairy Product. (In Coop-
108
Attendance
Combine Departments—1936
Amy Kelly administered both the Department of
Home Demonstration Work and the Department of
Home Economics Extension. Her appointment as
Extension State Home Demonstration Agent Leader
extended from November 17, 1923 to the time of her
resignation, February 15, 1936.
The two departments were combined February
15, 1936.
Developments After World War I
A permanent Extension home economics program
was inaugurated when a formal plan of work was
written for the first time early in 1919. The objective
of the program as stated was:
The Specialist made it a point, however, to talk
to County Superintendents whenever possible in
order to get 'the lay of the land.'
In February, 1920, two things helped to bring
the idea of hot lunches to the attention of the rural
school boards, patrons and teachers.
To raise the standards of home life and develop
a recognition of the dignity of homemaking.
One of these was the campaign at the Annual
School District Meetings and the publicity work that
accompanied it, and the other, the State Board of
Health Car which carried our School Lunch Exhibit
and some leaflets and mimeographed sheets prepared for this purpose.
Project Programs—1920
The situation prevailing in 1920 and the development of the various project programs are described
in selected paragraphs from the 1920 annual reports made by the Extension Specialists in Home
Economics:
During the summer of 1920, there was a much
greater demand for work at Teachers Institutes and
many calls came in for talks and demonstrations at
rural schools.
Milk Utilization
The larger part of the work throughout the year
has been to teach the food value of milk and increase
its use in the diet. The most effective work done
has been that in the nature of campaigns.
In addition to the work in School Lunches which
the Specialist did she gave 50 talks on milk during
the Topeka and Shawnee County Milk Campaign,
16 canning demonstrations, nine talks or demonstrations on other food subjects, 51 talks on home
management subjects, and one on sewing for rural
schools. She judged women’s work at four fairs.
During the year there has been one city campaign (Topeka), three county-wide campaigns, and
a state-wide MilkWeek, October 11-16.
Foods
Although the foods work for the year was somewhat miscellaneous in character, an effort was made
to concentrate as far as possible on nutrition work
with emphasis on child-feeding, which is the special
project of the foods specialist.
As a result of the canning demonstrations, two
Mother-Daughter Canning Clubs were organized
in Montgomery County and three in Jackson
County.
As far as possible some phase of nutrition,
usually child-feeding, was chosen as the subject
for consideration at Institutes, Extension Schools,
and other special meetings where the child-feeding project was not carried on, the object being to
arouse interest in the importance and necessity
for this work.
This project was presented through a ten-day
school based upon the dress form. The clothing
Specialist gave a series of lectures and demonstrations for five days to a group of from ten to fifteen
women.
Clothing
The subjects given were:
Making the Dress Form
Attention was also given to the DIETS for underweight and over-weight women and children.
Alteration and Use of Patterns
School Lunches
Color and Design in Dress
The Specialist was assigned to the School Lunch
Project in June of 1919, but for some time after that
the calls for other lines of work were so numerous
there was little opportunity to concentrate on the
new project.
Short Cuts in Sewing
Selection of Materials for Dresses
The second week's project was paid for by the
women and was a class in garment-making, using
the patterns and dress forms made during the first
week of work.
A short course in Millinery was offered and
consisted of:
109
The foregoing paragraphs present an overview of
the nature of home economics projects as they were
conducted in the earlier years of the work.
Selection of Hats
Remodeling of Hats
Making and Covering Frames
Following the first home economics work initiated
by Frances Brown in 1909, the first division of the
program was into Domestic Science and Domestic
Art.
Home Nursing
The principal farm and home problems attacked
this year with reference to the Home Nursing project
included:
The first projects, such as Foods and Nutrition,
Clothing, etc. were written and organized at the conclusion of the Emergency Home Economics Program
conducted during World War I, which was concluded
June 30, 1919.
Equipment
Sanitation
Infant Care
Instruction included the need for and use of the
clinical thermometer, how to provide an elevated
bed for the sick, when to call the doctor, diets for
health, and where disease germs thrive - dish cloths,
door knobs, etc.
Projects were organized and written after that
time to meet changing situations and the needs of
people.
Household Management
Homemakers Clubs/Programs—1920
During 1920, 47 counties reported 85 Homemakers' Clubs with 1,726 members.
Although the Specialist has been called the
Household Management Specialist, there have
been several other lines of work to which it has been
necessary for her to give considerable time.
During the year the Extension Home Economics
Specialists held meetings on the various projects and
programs as follows:
The principal home problems have been lack of
proper equipment in homes to do better work and
make better homes. Reference is to the lack of
running water in rural homes, few homes equipped
with power, lack of labor-saving equipment, and no
system of keeping accounts or records.
Project
No. Co.
Milk Utilization
18
Child Feeding
12
Food Preservation 11
School Lunches
32
Household Mgnt
38
Clothing
22
Home Nursing
23
Although emphasis has been made on all these,
the principal results were gained in rearrangement of
home equipment, installing labor-saving equipment,
and the keeping of books and accounts.
In a community survey made in one county the
following information was obtained:
Mtgs
344
127
36
90
154
497
134
Attend
14,653
3,937
964
5,370
7,173
7,997
1,194
Home Economics Specialists—1920
In 1920, the Extension Home Economics Specialist staff consisted of:
25% had complete water systems
50% had a wash-house
30% had cold water throughout the house
Mary Whiting McFarlane, State Leader
15% had an electric or power washer
Harriett W. Allard, Household Management
50% had water in the kitchen
Rena A. Faubin, Utilization of Dairy Products
100% had sewing machines
15% had electricity (home plants)
Gertrude Lynn, Domestic Science, School Lunch
Programs
20% had fireless cookers
Susanna Schnemeyer, Domestic Science
20% had acetylene lights
Minnie Sequist, Domestic Art
30% had vacuum cleaners
Gladys Payne, Domestic Art (Three months to
June 30)
20% had carpet sweepers
Hazel Tweedy, Domestic Art (Sixteen Weeks
during the summer)
20% had dustless mops
30% had ice for refrigeration
2
had gasoline irons
1
had a steam cooker
1
had an electric iron
1
had a pipeless furnace
1
had an electric fan
W. Pearl Martin, Home Nursing
Leader Training—1920
Project Leader-training was developed to help
the Specialist reach more people and, indirectly,
to develop leadership among the rural women of
Kansas.
110
The first leader training meeting was conducted
by the millinery Specialist in Pratt County in 1920.
The second training meeting for millinery leaders
was in Leavenworth County. Both leader-training
meetings brought surprising results.
Women in County Farm Bureaus--1925-27
County
Dues
Allen*
1.00
Bourbon*
N/A
Butler*
2.00
Cheyenne
N/A
Cherokee*
1.00
Clark
1.00
Clay *
2.00
Cloud
N/A
Coffey
N/A
Comanche
N/A
Dickinson
N/A
Douglas*
1.00
Finney
1.00
Ford*
1.00
Franklin*
1.00
Greenwood
2.00
Harper
N/A
Harvey
N/A
Hodgeman
1.00
Jackson
N/A
Jewell
N/A
Johnson*
N/A
Labette*
1.00
Kingman
N/A
Leavenworth* 1.00
Lincoln
N/A
Marion
N/A
Meade *
1.00
Miami
1.00
Montgomery* 1.00
Local Leader Use—1924
By 1924, the local leader plan had proved to be
a valuable method for reaching many persons with
a limited staff of Extension Specialists and Home
Demonstration Agents.
The effectiveness of the plan was described in
the 1924 annual report of Maude Finley, Assistant
in Charge of Home Economics Specialists:
It has been found through experience that leaders can pass the work on to others. However, the
things passed on have been the mechanical things
to a great extent.
Four years ago last August, it was thought to
be impossible for the women to learn hat mak-ing,
but it has developed to such an extent that in 1924,
1,182 leaders assisted in making 7,211 hats during
the year.
Some subject matter can be passed on, but
whatever is given by the Specialist must necessarily
be supplemented by mimeographed material.
The plan used last year was that the Specialist
train two local leaders from each community when
at least five communities desire that particular work
in clothing and millinery.
This makes a group of ten local leaders. These
local leaders then assisted their local women, not
over five at a time, with their problems.
In Foods and Nutrition, Health, and Household
Management, the Specialists trained twelve local
leaders from six communities, and these leaders
assisted not over five women at any one time.
Definite instructions were given the local leaders
so they knew exactly what they were to pass on and
what time they should devote to it.
Members
1925
358
231
256
000
278
60
210
30
35
0
87
355
11
250
448
286
299
176
66
26
200
256
200
4
N/A
120
00
168
106
270
1926
241
204
190
000
282
135
182
92
240
22
84
351
241
390
320
293
160
271
51
20
305
232
165
4
123
48
63
17
67
225
1927
156
209
130
108
167
121
165
68
250
37
62
200
65
281
201
241
N/A
301
104
N/A
44
N/A
175
45
127
65
202
N/A
00
178
Morris
N/A
150
308
214
Osage
N/A
56
110
60
Ottawa
N/A
0
59
71
Pratt*
1.00
294
179
125
District Project Leader Plan Fails
A district project leader plan was developed soon
after the local leader plan was initiated and was used
for three or four years.
Rawlins*
1.00
227
240
124
Reno*
1.00
295
350
151
Rice
N/A
00
115
35
Riley
N/A
00
110
105
It was discontinued because of the time needed
by the district leader, the distances to be traveled,
and the difficulty in arranging dates for the local
leader-training meetings.
Sedgwick*
Shawnee*
300
298
N/A
N/A
113
82
Sherman
1.00
4
30
59
Wyandotte
1.00
226
213
200
7,043
4,927
Totals
Home Demonstration Units —1925-27
Following a decline in the number of Farmers'
Institutes and their auxiliaries around 1915, Home
2.00
N/A
6,428
*Home Demonstration Agent Counties
111
Demonstration Units (Units of the County farm
bureaus) were organized.
excellence in self improvement, home improvement,
family living, and community betterment.
Each Home Demonstration unit had its officers
and project leaders for the various projects being
studied in the unit’s annual program.
The standards were developed by a committee
composed of county home economics advisory committee members. They were approved by the Kansas
Home Economics Advisory Council.
In 1920, nine counties reported 107 communities
organized. Seventy-nine of these were organized by
Home Demonstration agents.
Only 15 units were awarded the Standard of
Excellence in 1937. In 1941, 247 units received
the award. When the Kansas Home Demonstration Council assumed responsibility for Standard of
Excellence and the awards each year information
was not recorded in Extension Reports.
On June 30, 1926, the "Extension Schools in Home
Economics and the Supervision of Home Economics
Specialists" project was discontinued.
Local Leader Training—1927
By 1927-28, some of the larger counties planned
two or more training meetings for their local leaders
in order that the leaders would not need to travel so
far and to reduce the number of leaders at a single
training-meeting.
Urban Home Economics Programs—1940's
During the 1940's, Extension Home Economics
programs in urban areas developed greatly perhaps
because of two situations:
1) Extension of electric power lines to almost
every Kansas farm home, providing an opportunity for conveniences formerly possessed
only by the city dweller.
Butler, Montgomery, Bourbon, Labette, Reno, and
Leavenworth counties adopted that plan. Greenwood
County used three training-meetings.
2) Movement of many farm families into the
cities during World War II.
Plans for local leader-training meetings were modified as time went on to make the training sessions
most effective for the leaders.
Those situations brought about a change in the
Extension Home Economics programs as developed
by rural leaders, so there was little difference to a
point of no difference between the interests of rural
or urban women in homemaking.
Training-meetings varied from:
1) One-day sessions to one-week sessions.
2) Two leaders for each Home Demonstration Unit to one leader per unit.
Furthermore, the rural families who moved to urban areas took with them their interest in Extension
programs and continued to ask for participation and
assistance. They also told their new city neighbors
about the Extension program.
3) Training for unit leaders only to leaders representing other women's clubs with special
interests.
4) Training for groups of individual women with
a special interest, such as reupholstering and
furniture refinishing, tailoring, or other specialized interests.
As a result many urban families began to ask for
the opportunity to participate in the Extension Home
Economics and 4-H club programs. Program planning experiences revealed that no differences existed
between the interests and needs of the urban and
rural homemakers.
Standard of Excellence—1937
In 1937, a Standard of Excellence was designed
as a means to encourage officers of the home demonstration units to build their programs to a high degree of
World War II Activities in Home Economics
The Extension Home Economics Specialists
made full use of Neighborhood Leaders to reach a
maximum number of families with war-time information of all kinds.
A publication, The Neighborhood Leader, was
prepared and mailed to each neighborhood leader
once each month. Each Extension Specialist and
Extension department contributed timely material to
be included in the monthly publication.
Each county designated neighborhoods within
its borders and selected a leader to quickly relay
information to neighbors by telephone, visits, or
neighborhood meetings.
In 1943, neighborhood leaders reported reaching
88,269 families with critical information.
112
Nutrition Program—1942
During 1942, a nutrition survey was conducted to
determine the areas of family living to which home
economists should give emphasis.
Committees, groups of women organized to promote adequate and economical nutrition among
the people.
Two films, "Modest Miracle" and "Food For
Fighters," were shown to approximately 20,000
persons.
The survey revealed that diets were low in whole
grain cereals and enriched flour, green leafy and other
vegetables, dried legumes, and fruit.
Conserve Clothing Program
Extension Clothing Specialists assisted with a
state-wide Conservation of Clothing program. It
was directed to selection, care, laundry, repair, and
reconstruction (using adult discarded clothing for
children's garments).
A war-time program was developed and included
these items:
1) Strong nutrition program with consideration
given to rationing and food conservation.
2) Emphasis on home food production programs
to meet Kansas needs and National goals.
People were reached by 4-H demonstrations,
radio, window displays, contacts with organizations,
schools, and other opportunities as they became
available.
3) Garden programs with emphasis on larger
gardens, best varieties for Kansas, shelter,
irrigation, insect control, and fall gardens.
4) Food preservation demonstrations suited
to the needs of the county.
Assistance was also given in the design and
selection of clothing suitable for farm women to use
while helping with field work.
5) Dairy program directed toward raising the
standards of home produced milk, butter,
and cheese. Continued effort to increase
production records through feeding, culling,
and breeding.
Health Program
The health program was continued on much the
usual basis, with emphasis on detection of cancer,
innoculations against communicable diseases, and
other ways to help keep people healthy and able
to work.
6) Butchering and Meat Preservation program
directions based upon rationing regulations.
7) Poultry programs to improve housing and
feeding practices and encourage present
trend to increase the size of the flock and
adopt practices relating to higher egg production.
Improve Family Recreation
Family recreation suggestions were made through
the Home Demonstration Units, schools, 4-H Clubs,
and mass media.
8) Special emphasis in all departments on laborsaving practices
Recreation at home eliminated the need for unnecessary travel to picture shows, dances, and other
recreation away from the home community.
During 1943, four additional Specialists were
employed in Foods and Nutrition. Those Specialists
devoted their time to a program in the 57 counties
in which Home Demonstration Agents were not
employed.
Wartime Extension Activities--1943
The 1943 Annual Report gave the following summary of War-Time Activities:
The nutrition program in 1943 included:
Meetings
No
Attend
Meat Preservation and Rationing
41
1,022
Planning the Family Food Supply 99
2,512
Food Preservation
100
3,255
Breadmaking
121
3,407
64,671 Persons reached with Food For
Freedom Program
85,201 Persons attended 5,085 meetings
where food production and preservation was
demonstrated in the "Share the Meat"
program.
21 Community canning centers were established.
The program was continued through 1944 with
the addition of instruction in the care of canning
equipment, testing pressure gauges, help with
school lunches where requested, and suggestions
for main dishes, vegetables, and desserts for wartime meals.
11,824 Persons participated in Better Health
Program.
9,701 Families repaired and conditioned in
kitchen repair program.
Assistance was also given to County Nutrition
6,201 Pieces of furniture were repaired in the
conservation program.
113
Many homemakers joined the Women's Land
Army to help with the farm work by driving tractors
and trucks.
6,365 Families used the games of the month
for family recreation.
22,558 Persons extended the usefulness of their
clothing by renovation and construction.
15,214 Persons extended the life of outer
garments by proper methods of cleaning,
storing, and mending.
Wartime Nutrition Specialists—1944-46
Three of the nutrition specialists, appointed early
in the war years, completed their work toward or at
the close of the war; one on June 3, 1944; one on
August 9, 1945; and one on June 30, 1946. The
fourth remained as a permanent employee and
retired June 30, 1952.
8,147 Families used clothing buying information.
88,268 Homemakers were contacted by the
Neighborhood Leader.
Activities Following World War II
Immediately following World War II, Extension
Home Economists adjusted their programs to help
people adjust to post-war living conditions.
family needs and to develop Balanced Farming
and Family Living.
The Kansas law (effective January 1, 1952)
governing the Agricultural Extension program in
the several counties delegated the responsibility
of the program to the 'County Agricultural Extension Council.'
Balanced Farming and Family Living—1945
The Balanced Farming and Family Living Program
was inaugurated as a new Extension method to assist
families to reach their goals for better family living.
Project Committees are used in the county to
advise with the Council regarding problems and
needs of families within the county.
This was done by making an analysis of available
resources and preparing a plan to produce an income
sufficient to meet family expenses, education of the
children, and security for later years.
This procedure is used to enlist and interest
more lay people in the development of a program
that will promote better living.
The war years, with their various demands for
meeting emergencies, had widened the experience
and interest of Extension Home Economics Specialists and Extension Home Demonstration Agents.
The program planning procedure was further
advanced with the development of systematic
methods for procuring factual data about the farms,
homes, and families within a county. Analysis of
data secured by questionnaires became a greater
task than anticipated.
Many Home Agents supervised the agricultural
program in a county while the Agricultural Extension
Agent position was vacant. County program planning
received new emphasis because of new problems
and opportunities.
Leaders in counties were trained to help summarize the data. Questionnaires were revised after
two or three years, and the number of items greatly
reduced to reduce the work of summarizing them.
Programs in Ext. Home Ec.—1945
The planning of county Extension programs
received much impetus with the beginning of the
Balanced Farming and Family Living program, established in 1945.
The factual data collected proved to be excellent
educational material as well as useful for program
development.
A statewide plan was devised so that one-fifth
of the counties worked intensively on their program
development work each year on a rotational basis. Supervisors were then able to give greatest assistance
to the counties that were doing their planning.
A special effort was made in that program to help
a family plan a program for their farm and family
activities.
In the 1953 annual report of the State Home
Demonstration Leader, Georgiana Smurthwaite, this
statement was made:
There was some difficulty in persuading Extension Specialists to give the specific assistance
requested by a county as a result of their program
development work.
Agents in Kansas are given supervisory assistance and training to plan programs based upon
114
The home economics report for 1955 listed these
objectives pertaining to program development:
health programs that continued to be important.
The mental well-being of families was given attention, particularly to help families adjust to post-war
family situations. A more favorable attitude among
people toward a health program was evident.
1) A common understanding of the philosophy
of program development by the state staff,
county staff members, and the county home
economics advisory committee members.
Wives of Veterans—1948
A Post-War Activity supervised by Ellen Batchelor
involved a program of assistance to the wives of
veterans who were enrolled in college. The annual
report for 1948 related these activities:
2) The development and use of improved
methods in program determination.
3) The determination in each county of home
economics program for community better
ment which is based on the state and county
situation and the expressed needs and interests of the people and which includes objec
tives, methods, and priorities for execution
of the program.
The Assistant Home Economist is responsible
for arranging classes for veteran students' wives.
A monthly mailing list of 1,600 names receives the
Family Circle Letter which gives suggestions for
good buys in foods and announces the program of
classes for the month.
4) The extension of Home Economics Extension
work beyond Home Demonstration Unit
members into both rural and urban communities.
A total of 2,678 different veteran students' wives
have been contacted during the year by the circular
letters.
The program development effort in home economics was vigorously expedited until the position
of Coordinator of Extension Program Development
was filled in 1957.
The subjects for the classes cover such fields
as crafts, child welfare, cleaning and care of the
sewing machine, attractive interiors, temporary
furniture making, storage, ironing demonstrations,
home nursing, and sketching.
Extension program planning was then modified to
include all phases of the Extension program; agriculture, home economics, and 4-H Club work. During
the intervening years, the overall planning program
was operative in every county of the state.
Classes were held during eleven months of the
year, beginning in December and finishing in November with no meetings held in September. The
average attendance at a class was 28 persons and
there were approximately 10.4 different classes held
during each month.
Frozen Food Emphasis—1946
Freezer lockers had become available, providing a
new method of food preservation. A shift was made
from canning to freezing.
Student Wives Educ. Association—1949
In 1949, the wives of student veterans organized
themselves into the Student Wives Educational Association.
In 1946, 19,365 homemakers reported freezing
3,639,343 pounds of fruits, vegetables, and meat. At
the same time 13,353 homemakers reported canning
2,779,029 quarts of food.
The association helped to plan for classes desired
by the group and promoted a nursery for the care of
small children so that some of the wives might enroll
in college classes.
Home Equipment
New types of home equipment became available
as a result of war developments. Home freezers
became common in many farm homes and instruction on freezing cooked foods was made available
by the Extension specialists.
Most of the classes were conducted during the
day, but in 1950 some classes were conducted in
the evening to allow husbands to attend.
The last mention of the student wives program in
annual reports was in 1951. By that time the large
number of veterans in college following the war had
been greatly reduced.
Home improvement included the installation of
central heating, water systems, bathrooms, storage,
insulation, remodeling, and new construction as
reported by homemakers.
The 1951 classes had been somewhat modified
from the earlier offerings, and included: cooking and
nutrition, choral singing, child care, beginning and
intermediate bridge, knitting, crocheting, clothing
construction, swimming, and crafts.
Health Programs
Sanitation, home care of the sick, immunizations,
and information on disease control were phases of
115
Home Demonstration Units—1951
Home Demonstration Units were the organized
groups of homemakers who, with their officers and
project leaders, helped to plan and carry out the
county program in home economics.
Programs for Non-Unit Members—Mid 50's
In the mid 1950's, public meetings and demonstrations were organized and presented to give people
who were not home demonstration unit members
greater opportunity to gain information in special
areas, such as nutrition, health, and consumer
information.
(The number of HDU groups and their membership
in 1951 are shown in the table below.)
Training County Home Economics Agents
Both internal and external training opportunities
are available for Kansas Extension Home Economics Agents.
school at Fort Collins, Colorado, or at Madison,
Wisconsin. A few attended Cornell University, New
York.
Regional Extension Schools—1937-65
Regional summer schools were started in 1937,
one in each Extension administrative region. Kansas
Extension Agents usually participated in the regional
About 1960, "winter schools" were established at
Arizona State University at Tucson and at Georgia
State University. These regional summer and winter
schools provided the inspiration and an opportunity for
Home Demonstration Units/Members—1951
County
Units
Allen
26
Anderson
23
Mbrs County
Units
Mbrs
County
Units Mbrs County
Units
6
17
341
26
465
398 Cheyenne 10
163
Harper
21
456 Russell
16
319
25
580
Saline
22
432
490 Cherokee
116
Rush
Mbrs
Hamilton
Atchison
30
525 Clark
11
230
Harvey
Barber
14
245 Clay
30
501
Haskell
6
107
Scott
11
248
210
Sedgwick 52
1808
Barton
43
775 Cloud
21
341
Hodgeman 12
Bourbon
19
485 Coffey
17
318
Jackson
14
253
Seward
7
130
29
505
Shawnee
40
1000
Brown
23
Butler
45
Chase
17
303
Jefferson
31
591
Jewell*
15
25
524
Johnson
24
674
440 Comanche 14
1040 Cowley
308 Crawford
236
Sheridan
8
118
Sherman
15
311
Chautauqua
15
232 Decatur
11
267
Kearny
9
149
Smith
14
254
Dickinson
34
743 Nemaha
19
266
Kingman
11
387
Stafford
26
469
Doniphan
22
437 Neosho
25
725
Kiowa
15
273
Stanton*
7
125
Douglas
31
661 Ness
12
220
Labette
27
569
Stevens
8
149
Edwards
16
343 Norton
22
338
Lane
8
194
Sumner
31
640
Elk
15
285 Osage
37
663
Leavenworth 21
476
Thomas
14
269
143
00
000
Ellis
8
107 Osborne
16
249
Lincoln
Ellsworth
24
405 Ottawa
19
270
Linn
9
Trego
18
348
Wabaunsee 13
210
6
112
Wallace
10
175
Finney
17
365 Pawnee
20
377
Logan*
Ford
30
629 Phillips
8
159
Lyon
39
781
Washington 15
245
575
Wichita
6
107
404
Wilson
Franklin
38
728 Pottawatomie 18
364
McPherson 29
Geary
15
307 Pratt
422
Marion
22
Marshall
27
17
437 Woodson
26
466
14
210
Gove
00
000 Rawlins
17
273
Graham
24
302 Reno
43
1285
Meade
14
266
Wyandotte
29
685
35
727
Morris
22
405
19
379
Grant
8
Gray
10
131 Republic
20
360
Miami
165 Rice
30
560
Mitchell*
Montgomery 37 826
Greeley
11
206 Riley
20
392
Greenwood
23
444 Rooks
18
288
Morton
Totals
3
77
2062
41,486
*Non-Home Demonstration Agent
116
many agents to use their sabbatical leave privileges
toward obtaining advanced training and degrees in
Extension education.
The Junior Assistant program was continued
for many years. The number of junior assistants
employed varied, depending on finances available
and the number of interested students.
At the same time, the Coordinator of Extension
Studies determined from Agents the areas in which
they desired training. The District Extension Agents
and Extension Specialists then organized training
programs to provide the training desired when possible. Since most of the training was given at the
district or state level, out of the Agents' counties,
there was a limit of 15 days of training per year for
each Agent.
New Agent Training—1958
A satisfactory agent-training program for County
Extension Home Economics Agents was difficult to
maintain for two reasons. One was the variation in
finances available from year to year and the second,
up to about 1970, was a frequent shortage of qualified women interested in the work.
The minimum training program placed a new appointee in a county with an experienced, successful
Home Demonstration Agent for a few weeks.
Junior Assistant Program
The provision for Junior Assistants was another
method of providing training for people who had an
interest in County Extension Home Demonstration
Agent work.
By observation, questions and special instruction
by the trainer agent, the trainee was able to obtain
some help in understanding her new responsibilities
as an agent.
In this program students were employed as junior
assistants for two or three months during the summer
between their junior and senior year.
By about 1958, a carefully organized training
program had been developed. Prior to training programs developed by the Training Committee and
the Coordinator of Extension Personnel Training,
In-Service training was provided mostly by District
Extension Supervisors and Extension Specialists, in
a district or at state-wide meetings.
Such employment provided several advantages—
the student was able to make a firm decision about
her interest in Extension, and the supervisor and
trainer agents were able to evaluate the student and
determine her acceptability as an Extension Home
Demonstration Agent.
HE Personnel/Programs—1950's
Vacancies in Extension Home Demonstration
Agent positions were a serious problem for Extension Supervisors from the time of World War II until
the early 1960's.
There are 115 Home Economics Agent and
Assistant Agent positions. During the year, 41
counties were vacant or had a change in Agents.
As of November 30, 1960, six counties have been
vacant over a year.
By then salaries had improved sufficiently to maintain career Agents and to attract home economists
from other fields.
Nineteen positions were vacant December 1,
1959. Twenty-four were filled during the year.
Eighteen are vacant on November 30, 1960.
In the annual report for 1953 it was reported:
Twenty-two Agents have served more than ten
years. All counties have appropriations for Home
Economics Agents although one Agent serves both
Gove and Logan Counties.
Vacancies occurred in more than half of the counties during the year. It was possible to make replacements immediately in some of the counties.
Appropriations have been made for an Agent in
each county in 1961.
Forty-six counties had vacancies ranging from
two weeks (in the case of Grant County) to the
entire year.
Long-Time Programs—1950's
Written, long-time programs were developed with
the people, and revised as needed, to help make
the efforts of Extension personnel more efficient
and effective.
In 34 counties the position was vacant from
two weeks to six months; in nine counties, from six
to nine months; and in three counties, more than
nine months.
The annual report for 1960 indicated that the
problem had continued. It stated:
Early attempts at program development were
reported to have met with some resistance by
117
Extension Specialists and County Extension
Agents who desired to emphasize their favorite
project work.
when combined with other groups over Kansas are a
force which has national and international results.
Meetings are inspirational, members seemed
to realize more of the vastness of the home demonstration organization, and the type of work being
done.
Furthermore, Extension Home Economics Specialists found themselves with requests for assistance
not previously considered, so educational materials
were not prepared.
During the first week of May, 1951, 14 district
meetings were attended by 6,850 homemakers; 40
editorials appeared in county and local newspapers;
288 news stories appeared in the papers; three
special editions were devoted to the home demonstration program; and 29 radio programs were
devoted to the activity. In 1954, 15 district meetings
were attended by 10,773 homemakers.
A few years of experience reportedly brought
changed attitudes when the people expressed satisfaction with assistance received as a result of their
program development work.
The annual report for 1961 stated:
Twenty-five county long-time plans are filed in
the State Extension Home Economics Office.
The 1960 annual report was the last one in which
National Home Demonstration Week was mentioned,
although the activity has been continued each year.
The following paragraphs are quoted from the 1960
report:
Home Economics Agents have assumed
increased leadership in developing planning procedures and in assisting Agricultural Extension
Councils to realize planning of programs is their
important responsibility.
A better understanding of home demonstration
work by the public, and gain in Home Demonstration
Unit membership are some of the most important
values resulting from the fifteenth observance of
National Home Demonstration Week in Kansas.
Program development has become a concern
of Home Economics Advisory Committee members
in more counties throughout the year rather than
a very short period of time designated as program
planning time.
Over 10,000 Home Demonstration Unit members and guests attended the twenty-three district
meetings held in Kansas during National Home
Demonstration Week. Over 20,000 non-unit members were reached by the Extension program during
the week. All counties in Kansas actively promoted
National Home Demonstration Week.
Program development procedures also served as
a means of evaluating county Extension programs.
Data collected indicated not only unsatisfactory situations and opportunities for programming, but also
revealed the progress being made with program
efforts.
Eight new Home Demonstration Units with an
enrollment of 304 members were organized in
Kansas during National Home Demonstration Week.
A total of 149 radio programs and 19 television
presentations featuring the Week were presented
in Kansas. Almost 700 newspaper and magazine
items were published promoting National Home
Demonstration Week. Six hundred and sixty-five
exhibits were set up over the state. Nearly three
hundred special county-wide and community meetings were held.
Natl. Home Demonstration Week—1949
National Home Demonstration Week was first
mentioned in the annual Extension report for 1949. A
copy of the program for a district meeting was included
in the Exhibit Section without further comment.
The 1951 report, however, included the following
quotations:
Values resulting from National Home Demonstration Week as reported by Agents:
Local leaders shared the responsibilities for planning and carrying out activities connected with the
Week. One homemaker summed up the feelings
of thousands of home demonstration unit members
in Kansas, when she commented, "Its an up-lift to
feel yourself a part of such a large group of women
who work for the same objectives."
My observation has been that the main value
resulting from National Home Demonstration Week
is in making the public aware of the programs,
and thus stimulating interest in it. It also serves
to strengthen the organization by helping those
participating to gain pride through a review of their
accomplishments.
Home Demonstration work achievements did
not end with National Home Demonstration Week,
but continued throughout the year. Plans were
made to follow-up the Week's promotions through
county-wide meetings, special interest workshops
National Home Demonstration Week brings to the
people the possibilities of an educational program
based upon the needs and desires of the people
themselves. It is broadening the homemaker's
horizon for happier family living.
Meetings help members realize that their efforts
118
onstration Units, held its annual meetings during the
Home Economics Days. Each year the Council also
conducted a "work and planning" meeting for state
and county chairmen at which time plans were made
for special program activities and projects.
and fair booths into the fall of the year.
Home Economics Days—1958
Home Economics Days were organized in 1958
after the Farm and Home Week program was conducted for the last time in 1957.
The Council, for example, took the lead in raising
approximately $100,000 which, added to some state
dormitory funds, made the construction of Smurthwaite House possible.
The Home Economics Days had been a twoday program, organized by the College of Home
Economics and the Department of Extension Home
Economics.
The 1960 annual Extension report stated that the
ninth workshop was held that year, June 15 to 17, on
the University campus. There were 129 homemakers
from 56 counties in attendance.
It was conducted during the week between university semesters, usually the last day or two of January
or the first day or two of February.
The programs were attended by approximately
1,000 homemakers from all parts of the state.
Projects included Health, Safety, Civil Defense,
Family Living, International Relations and Readings,
and a follow-up of the White House Conference on
Youth.
The program was organized in sections, with
classes repeated, so that all who desired could attend each class. Limited room space for the classes
was a handicap.
Home Demonstration Units—1963
The total number of units in 1963 was 2,156 and
the total membership 36,401. There were 673 special
interest groups in 1963, with 33,477 homemakers
participating in their meetings.
The Sears Roebuck Foundation established
a policy of being host to a dinner honoring Rural
Leadership.
Invited guests included one representative of
the Home Economics Advisory Committee of each
county, the County Extension Home Economics
Agents, officers of the Kansas Home Demonstration
Council, Extension Home Economics Specialists
and Supervisors, the Dean of the College of Home
Economics, the Dean of Women, the Director of
Extension, the Dean of the College of Agriculture,
and the President of the University.
Extension Home Economics Agents assisted 297
non-Extension groups with 13,726 homemakers participating, and trained 776 leaders in non-Extension
groups during 1963.
Following World War II the situation changed so
that all of the members of a Home Demonstration
Unit were not interested in the entire program the unit
may have planned. Conversely, some members were
interested in doing more intensified work in certain
projects such as tailoring or furniture refinishing.
Invitations to the "Sears Dinner" were coveted by
every woman attending the Home Economics Days
program each year.
To provide assistance for the more specialized
interests, groups known as "Special Interest" groups
were organized and given special assistance in their
line of work.
Home Demonstration Advisory Council
The Kansas Home Demonstration Advisory
Council, composed of all members of Home Dem-
Extension Home Economics Subject Matter Areas
Extension Home Economics programs have
always been focused on several major concerns of
Kansas homemakers and their families.
Discussion of selected past and present activities
relating to these subject matter project areas follow,
under headings of:
�
Expanded Foods and Nutrition Program
�
Foods and Nutrition
�
Family Life
�
Family Economics/Management
�
Health
�
�
Clothing and Textiles
�
Consumer Information
�
�
Cultural Arts
�
�
119
Home Furnishings
Housing
Human Development
Recreation
Clothing and Textiles
For many years before the turn of the century,
Kansas State Agricultural College faculty members
assisted with the thriving Farmers' Institute programs.
The schools were held at Farmers' Institutes during
the winter months; and before Teachers' Institutes
and Chautauquas during the summer months. That
general work continued for several years.
The College newspaper, The Industrialist, in
the issue for October 29, 1887, carried an editorial
entitled "Are Sewing Classes Needed?," written by
Nellie Kedzie who occupied the chair of Domestic
Science at KSAC from 1882 to 1897.
The first Extension Clothing Specialist was apparently Winifred Fortney, Specialist in "Domestic
Art," on September 1, 1915.
The records reveal that in 1915 and 1916 special
schools in dressmaking, two weeks in length, were
given on request.
The editorial read:
The larger proportion of clothing worn by the
women of our country gives indisputable evidence
that its makers don't know how to sew.
During World War I, most emphasis was placed
on foods and nutrition. The records are vague on
clothing programs during those years.
The numberless ill-fitting garments, the uneven
seams, the puckered arms eyes, the uneven ruffles,
the waists askew, the torn button-holes, the pinnedon buttons, and pinned-up draperies—all these
are to be seen in every crowd and on the streets
of every city.
Clothing Construction Schools—1919
By 1919, the reports included reference to schools
devoted to clothing construction. The schools were
mentioned as "a highly specialized form of work
designed to meet a particular need."
It is possible that the owners and wearers of
such dresses really don't know how to sew.
Francis Brown was quoted as saying, "Most of
the women in Kansas are able to make the simple
dresses such as are made in the one-week schools,
but many feel the need of instruction on making more
complicated wool and silk garments."
Other editorials on the subject of reasons for
teaching sewing, and on materials from which buttons
were made, appeared from time to time. No article
appeared which gave definite information on sewing
processes such as did appear on the subjects of
cheese making and the value of the various foods.
Two-week schools were then organized to meet
the needs of the women. During the time for county
and state fairs, the Extension Clothing Specialist
devoted a large amount of time judging exhibits.
Nellie Kedzie and Ms. Winchip appeared on
Farmers' Institute programs in 1885 and 1886, but
no titles of their talks were recorded.
That time was considered justified, as large numbers of people attended the fairs and the Specialist
had a fine opportunity to discuss clothing standards
with those who were interested.
It is assumed that, in addition to talks in the Domestic Science field, the ladies judged fancy work and
food exhibits prepared by the women and girls.
On April 1, 1921, Maude Finley was employed as
an Extension Specialist for millinery work.
Home Economics at Institutes—1908
Not until 1908 and 1909 did a home economics
program appear on a Farmers' Institute program.
During the next year, leaders were trained in
millinery work in ten counties. There were 3,725
women in 258 different meetings to take advantage
of the new work.
In those years, 47 girls attended the first home
economics programs presented in connection with
the State Farmers' Institute.
Goals in clothing and other home economics
projects were established. For clothing the goal was
- "to enable women to do a better grade of home
sewing by teaching them to make dress forms, to
alter patterns, to make construction processes, and
to select clothing."
At that time, sewing and cooking had been taught
only in the College laboratories.
Movable Schools—1909-10
In 1909 and 1910, Frances Brown, the first Extension Specialist employed for home economics,
and a few regular faculty members, gave lectures
and demonstrations at movable schools held in April,
May and September.
Extension Three-Year Course—1925
In 1925, the clothing project was revised to a
three-year course of instruction. The first year
included foundation garments; the second, correct
120
combinations of principles; and the third, clothing
standards.
3,207 Homemakers and girls used pattern shells
8,042 Homemakers adopted practices in pattern
alteration.
Childrens' Clothing—1925
About the same time, the instruction of children's
clothing was added and carried to young homemakers by local leaders in Cloud, Jackson, Wyandotte,
Franklin, Montgomery, Cherokee, Reno, Sedgwick,
Clay, Lincoln, Atchison, and Rice counties.
22,163 Homemakers adopted the methods given
in the demonstration, "Easy Way To Sew."
28,988 Garments made by the Easy Way To Sew
methods.
1,196 Women were instructed in cleaning sew
ing machines.
That work eventually led to a well organized project
in clothing for 4-H Club girls.
827 Sewing machines were cleaned.
741 Women learned to use all sewing machine
attachments.
Radio Talks on Textiles—1925
In 1925, the Extension Clothing Specialist gave a
series of six radio talks on textiles for the first time.
3,185 Women made tailored suits and coats.
246 Homemakers reported remodeling 1,346
garments.
Leaders Teach Unit Members—1925
During the same period of time, the local leaders,
realizing the personal benefit derived for their work as
leaders, expressed willingness to spend more time
in training classes in order that they could give the
home demonstration unit members more thorough
instruction.
In 1955, homemakers using the sewing aids as
demonstrated in the Easy Way To Sew were:
3,928 Pressing equipment.
3,928 Marking devices.
1,737 Small measuring gauge.
694 Wrist pincushion.
Clothing Subprojects—1949
By 1949, the clothing project had been organized
into these subprojects:
453 Small tools and gadgets.
331 Cording and zipper foot.
1) Clothing Construction.
Homemakers who were not members of the
Home Demonstration Units began asking for help
in the clothing field.
2) Self Expression Through Dress.
3) Care of Clothing.
Department stores offered their facilities and
merchandise to demonstrate clothing selection by
using different types of dresses (misses, junior, half
sizes, etc.).
4) Buying Clothing.
Clothing Construction
Interest was high in clothing construction during
the 1940's. In 1949, 58 counties reported 16,362
women participating. That number rose to 23,000
in 1950. The high prices of the period stimulated
interest in construction.
In 1956, reports stated that 3,037 women did
tailoring—making 766 suits, 748 coats, and 927
other articles.
In 1952, plaid fabrics received special attention
and tailoring training was given, with 41 counties
reporting 1,172 women making 3,725 garments for a
saving of $112,050. Sewing equipment and its care
was taught to 922 women.
In Sedgwick County, hat making was revived (inactive since 1922) with 143 leaders being trained.
In 1953, the use of "pattern shells" (waists made of
sanforized percale) was developed in Douglas County
by the Extension Specialist and Home Agent.
Training for Agents and leaders in tailoring was
modified to three three-day sessions with three or
more days intervening between the training sessions
so participants could complete the construction work
in progress.
The man-made fibers, now being quite numerous
(1957), commanded attention regarding problems
involved in using them in clothing construction.
In 1954, the following accomplishments were
reported:
In 1958, training was given in machine mending
by the stitched patch, reweave patch, machine darning, rantering stitch, inset patch, hemmed patch, and
press-on patches.
6 Counties made pattern shells for use as
tools in selection of commercial patterns
and pattern alteration.
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Some advanced clothing construction techniques
were demonstrated by the specialists in 1959. They
included:
4,317 Adopted principles taught in grooming
routine.
4,285 Used the principles taught in analyzing
face shape for make-up and hair style.
1) Construction of straight and rounded
collars with interfacing.
2,946 Used the information presented for
planning becoming colors for the
wardrobe.
2) Interfacing a blouse or dress front.
3) Joining the collar and blouse with facing
and interfacing.
3,393 Adopted the principles taught for improving choice of line and design for
wearing apparel.
4) The application of a fitted facing with an
interfacing.
1,933 Used the principles taught in deciding
personality and figure types in the selection of clothing.
5) The application of a single bias facing.
6) The application of a double bias facing and
binding.
Surveys were made among homemakers to determine their needs and the satisfactions being gained
from the Extension clothing program.
7) The use of short machine stitching to
reinforce sharp angles to be slashed.
Interest in tailoring continued with a special fiveday training school held in Rice County in 1961 for
16 County Extension Home Economics Agents.
In 1959, in the Northeast Extension District, a
rather extensive survey produced much data of
value in program planning, not only for clothing but
for all projects.
A three-day training school for 22 County Extension Home Economics Agents was conducted in
Justin Hall on the University campus in 1961.
The clothing program in the Northeast District was
planned around the needs revealed by the survey.
"Clothes For Free and Easy Motion" was designed
for use by the physically handicapped. Demonstrations and training was given to 140 persons in four
sections during 1961.
Further assistance was provided by the Extension
Clothing Specialists in 1961 when two sets of slides
were prepared on basic art principles and lines for
the wardrobe.
Participants included County Welfare Directors
and others with responsibilities for handicapped persons, Extension Home Economists in clothing work,
and County Extension Home Economics Agents.
Those sets of slides were available for County
Home Economics Agents to use in training sessions
held with adult and 4-H Club leaders.
Care of Clothing
Attention was given to care of clothing, depending upon the financial situation of families. Training
in this area included care of fabrics, especially the
newer fabrics, mending and cleaning.
Self Expression Through Dress
This subject received considerable attention beginning in the early 1950's.
In 1949, 21 counties reported 11,412 families
participating in the program of demonstrations and
training.
Mending by machine methods included the
stitched patch, reweave patch, machine darning,
rantering stitch, inset patch, hemmed patch, and
press-on patches.
In 1952, 5,242 women and girls were assisted
with self-analysis in the selection of their clothing.
Another feature was training in grooming, the use
of accessories, and wardrobe selection.
The reports for 1954 and 1955 include these records of the number of homemakers adopting care
of clothing practices:
In 1954, the number of homemakers adopting and
using the various practices in this phase of clothing
work were:
827 Sewing machines cleaned and adjusted.
12,125 Adopted principles taught in grooming
and personal appearance.
1,740 Quick overall patch.
597 Reweave patch.
3,411 Applied principles taught in planning
and selection of a wardrobe.
1,466 Machine darning.
237 Rantering stitch.
9,325 Adopted the principles in planning and
selection of accessories.
214 Knitted items.
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Cleaning and care of the new fabrics were studied
as each new fabric came on the market.
Clothing construction workshops continued in
the 70's as a method for delivering the education
program. Subjects taught included:
Buying Clothing
This became part of the clothing project in the
years following World War II when prices were
comparatively high and the newer materials made
economical buying more difficult.
1) Sewing menswear.
2) Sewing pants.
3) Sewing with specialty fabrics such as knits
and denims.
Training was first given on how to interpret the
labels on clothing. Federal legislation required "truth
in labeling" but each individual needed to understand
the information on the label.
In the 70's, with many new developments in the
textile industry, training and publications were available on fabrics and their care, laundry procedures
and products, and spot and stain removal.
Buymanship of clothing included children's clothing, ready-tosses, and foundation garments. Assistance was given to 30,522 homemakers during
the year 1956.
Sewing Fairs/Satellites—1970's-80's
In the late 70’s and early 80’s, Sewing Fairs became a popular method for many home sewers to
receive information.
Later attention was also given to buying shoes,
foundation garments, hose, drapery fabrics, and
upholstery materials.
Extension hosted Sewing Fairs in Topeka, Wichita,
Manhattan, Hays, Colby, Winfield, and Emporia, to
name a few of the sites. These events attracted
200-500 participants in one day.
Agent In-Depth Training—1960's-80's
The Extension Home Economics program was
well established in the 1960's and 70's, and became
a prominent program effort in the 80's across the
state.
After the Sewing Fairs came a three-year series
of national workshops called Sewing by Satellite,
which began in 1982.
These all-day seminars were broadcast via satellite and attracted large audiences of 400 participants
in Manhattan and in Garden City.
Many in-depth training workshops were developed
for Extension Agents during that time.
After the satellite program, teachers, agents
and leaders re-taught information learned to other
established groups such as 4-H clubs, schools, and
women's clubs.
Program Emphasis—1965-88
The emphasis of the program in clothing and
textiles was on:
1) Maintenance of equipment, such as sewing
machines.
Other Program Areas
2) Assisting low-income families with wardrobe
planning.
Other topics developed for educational in-depth
programs and lessons based upon requests from
program development committees included:
3) Training retail sales clerks.
4) Clothing construction to help families stretch
their clothing dollar.
1) Winter Warm-ups.
5) Sewing new synthetic fabrics, including polyester and ultrasuede.
3) Altering Ready-to-Wear.
2) Investment Dressing.
4) Active Sportswear.
Color Training—1965-79
Intensive consumer color training was taught
by the Extension Specialists in Clothing and Home
Furnishings, Naomi Johnson and Winona Starkey,
to County Extension Home Economists between
1965 to 1979.
5) Stitch and Save It series (mending).
6) Recycling Clothing.
Also, in-depth design courses were given to agents
in the late 60's and early 70's.
Trends in the 80's
In the mid 80's, more emphasis was placed
on purchasing clothing, catalog shopping, color
analysis, wardrobe planning, and overall clothing
management.
Sewing Clinics/Workshops—1969
In 1969, "Know Your Sewing Machine" clinics
were offered to 4-H clothing leaders.
New technology and products, including the serger
sewing machine, answered the need for making garments that were quick and easy to sew.
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Sewing for Profit workshops offered training to
home sewers who wanted to turn their hobby into
a business.
tension Home Economics Agents in a new program
of techniques, "Easy Way To Sew."
The Penney Company also furnished 46,000 copies of a booklet on clothing construction methods.
4-H Club Clothing Project
4-H received the attention of the Extension Clothing Specialist from the beginning of the clothing
project.
In 1956, Barbara David of Winfield, was one of
twelve National Clothing Award winners.
Clothing/Textiles in 4-H—1978
4-H clothing judges training was offered on a
three-year rotation basis beginning in 1978.
Clothing construction was the important phase
during the earlier years of 4-H Club work but later all
other phases of the clothing project were extended
to the 4-H Club program.
County and state fair judges and 4-H clothing
leaders learned about standards for evaluating
clothing, consultative judging, and new products
and techniques which 4-H'ers were incorporating
into their garments.
In 1949, each Kansas county had enrollments in
the 4-H clothing project. The total number of members were 10,675.
At the State Fair, 1,406 clothing items were exhibited in 1949. That number increased until space
for the exhibits became a major problem.
Modeling and accessorizing were also emphasized.
Clothes Strategy and Clothing Carousel— clothing buying projects for boys and girls—introduced a
new era in 4-H clothing projects.
In 1950, counties reported $90,044 as the amount
4-H girls had saved in their clothing work.
The county and state Style Revues grew out of
the clothing program among 4-H Club members,
both girls and boys.
State 4-H Fashion Review
After many decades of holding the State Fair
Fashion Revue in the Encampment Building on the
State Fair grounds, the event was moved to the Lake
Talbot area of the fairgrounds.
Schools to provide training in judging clothing
were conducted for 4-H leaders and girls to give them
information on an evaluation of the different clothing
construction techniques.
This gave greater visibility to the clothing project
work of 4-H'ers.
In 1954, the J. C. Penney Company provided the
service of two home economists to train County Ex-
Consumer Information
The Consumer Information project was established in 1952 as "Consumer Education." Helen
Neighbor was appointed as Extension Specialist,
February 1, 1952. The beginning of the project was
explained in Neighbor's first report:
Consumers wish to spend their family dollars
for the greatest satisfaction. Statistical reports
show that:
16,837 Families were assisted with food buying.
11,828 Families were assisted with clothing buy
ing.
Extension Consumer Education in Kansas is a
new field as a project. Consumer information has
been a part of individual Specialists' programs for
several years.
10,491 Families were assisted with buymanship
of house furnishing and equipment.
7,929 Families were assisted with buymanship
of general household supplies.
The trend from self-sufficiency to interdependence of the population on each other has made
the need for buymanship paramount.
In many cases a family must decide whether it
will be to their greater advantage to make or to buy
a particular product.
Our State of Kansas is shifting from an area that
produced and made most family necessities to one
that buys more products than the family makes or
produces for itself.
In all, 6,330 families were assisted with 'making'
versus 'buying' decisions.
The problems recognized in the first plan of work
included:
In striving to serve the people, Extension incorporated Consumer Education into the State
Plan of Work. The project serves the producer by
improving the marketing of his products.
1) To promote consumption of plentiful foods
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2) To improve buymanship practices.
In 1958, the Specialist prepared 32 radio scripts
for use by others, 156 three-minute programs, and
50 ten-minute radio programs.
3) To aid the producer and the consumer in
obtaining high quality eggs.
The Home Demonstration Agents gave more than
200 radio programs that year.
in season and help the consumer do better
buying.
4) To spend each dollar with the greatest
Consumer Specialists—1954
Helen Neighbor resigned June 24, 1954, and
Joanne Ezzard was appointed September 1 of the
same year. She resigned January 31, 1955.
possible satisfaction.
The program was centered around the buymanship of food, meat, clothing and home furnishings in
1952. Traditional methods with the Extension Service
were used to reach the public.
Mildred Walker was appointed January 1, 1956,
and served until July 31, 1983, except while doing
graduate study during the 1959-1960 school year.
A leaflet, Be Wise With Your Buys, was initiated
during 1952, and was continued each month.
Danguole Tan, a graduate student, assisted
Walker from March 2 to May 31, 1957, and from
September 17, 1957 to February 28, 1958. Margaret
Ann Boren assisted from August 17, 1959 to August
15, 1960.
During 1953, in addition to the activities started
in 1952, some work was done cooperatively with the
Extension Home Management Specialist in the field
of family finances.
The topic "How to Help Families Plan for Expenditures," was taught by discussions about insurance,
annuities, business transactions with children, the
family council, budgeting, and home accounts.
Meat Demonstrations—1956
The first meat selection and cutting demonstration was presented in 1956 with the assistance and
cooperation of Professor David Mackintosh of the
Department of Animal Husbandry.
Label Reading and the meaning of information
on labels was also introduced as additional content
of the program.
In other years, Professor Merkle assisted with
similar demonstrations. Representatives from the
State Board of Agriculture and wholesalers also assisted from time to time.
Consumer Course for Economists—1954
A survey among County Extension Home Demonstration Agents in 1954 revealed that only one
had enrolled in a college course, "Consumer in the
Market." An Agent-training program was organized
and conducted with the Home Agents.
Consumer Leaflets—1957
In 1957, a series of leaflets were prepared and
published:
Buying Pork for Health.
Consumer Information in Media--1950's
Mass media were used whenever possible. The
first television programs were given by the Extension
Home Demonstration Agent in Reno County.
Buying Citrus Fruits for Health.
Buying Beef for Health.
Buying Bread for Health.
Three news stories per week were prepared and
released during 1954.
Buying Vegetables for Health.
Leaflets on availability and buying bargains were
issued to give consumers timely information for reading reference. From 30,000 to 50,000 copies were
distributed as each leaflet became available.
Television programs in consumer information were
presented by Home Demonstration Agents over stations in Topeka, Great Bend and Wichita in 1956.
In 1958, three Home Agents gave ten television
programs.
In 1959, timely leaflets began to be distributed
from special racks in food markets. The plan received
much support. Food market managers and observations indicated that few leaflets were wasted.
A weekly program on the University radio station,
KSAC, was started in 1954 and continued through
the years. The title was "Let’s Go Shopping."
But the number needed to supply the public became so great that the practice was discontinued because of the lack of funds to continue the printing.
Recorded or taped radio programs were carried
by 16 commercial radio stations in 1957.
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Training For Agents—1958
Agent-training was important in the Consumer
Information project as few agents had received college training in the field.
In 1958, Professor R. L. D. Morse, Head of the
Department of Family Economics, KSU, assisted with
training 40 Extension Home Economics agents who
had three or more years of experience.
Training was given other Home Demonstration
Agents at appropriate times. The largest number of
questions were on buying meat.
The presentation of Consumer Information at the
District Outlook meetings was first reported in 1958
but was continued for many years.
In 1959, all Agents in the Northeast District were
given training in the overall field of marketing during
a two-day conference in Kansas City.
Consumer Information was a part of that training.
Similar training was given the Agents in the Southeast
District in 1961.
Basic Communications Program—1958
The Consumer Information Specialist, in 1958,
was selected as one of the four Specialists to take
highly specialized training in Basic Communications.
After training, the team of four conducted 16 four-day
training sessions for Agents and Specialists.
Each year, for several years, one or more sessions
were conducted to train new Extension personnel.
Specialist To Ag. Econ. Dept.—1961
On September 1, 1961, the Extension Consumer
Information Specialist was transferred to the Department of Marketing and Utilization of Agricultural Products, and served with the other Extension Marketing
Specialists.
In 1967 a survey was developed with the Kansas
Cultural Arts Commission to determine educational
opportunities for Kansans in cultural arts.
Cultural Arts—1967
The survey created further awareness of the
interest in the aesthetics of Kansans and showed
evidence that the on-going Extension Cultural Arts
programs were leaving their effects.
During 1976, each county created a 12-inch
needlepoint square expressing their county's history.
All squares were assembled into panels which are
displayed in Heritage Hall at Rock Spring Ranch.
In 1967, the program emphasized Kansas heritage. Programs in the 70's included:
The Cultural Arts program from 1967 to 1988
evolved into a wide educational program which
involved the remembrance of Kansas heritage, the
recognition of the many forms of art including music,
literature, painting, conservation, drama, and the
development of art skills.
Folk Music.
Heritage of American Hymns.
Celebrate the Bicentennial.
American Indian Heritage and Art.
Mexican American Heritage and Art.
The heritage of Kansas was also expressed in a
statewide project of needlepoint tapestry celebrating
the Bicentennial.
Genealogy, stained glass, and history of Kansas
women and their dress were other popular programs
offered to Kansas clientele.
The Kansas Extension Homemakers Council gave
strong support to the program with state cultural arts
chairpersons providing leadership with volunteers in
presenting cultural arts programs.
Expanded Foods & Nutrition Education Program
New Federal Funds For Nutrition—1969
In 1969, the Expanded Food and Nutrition
Education Program (EFNEP) was implemented in
Kansas by Extension Service-USDA, with Section
32 funds.
In 1970, EFNEP was funded under the Smith-Lever Act; in 1977, under the Food and Agriculture Act,
and in 1989, under the Agricultural and Food Act.
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EFNEP was specifically designed to reach low
income families, especially those with young children,
to improve the quality of their diets and assist them
in managing their food dollars.
6) On-going program evaluation
During the 1970's, efforts were made to work
cooperatively with other social agencies and organizations.
EFNEP in 12 Counties—1969
During the first year, 1969, EFNEP was established
in 12 Kansas counties.
Nutrition assistants continued to work on a oneto-one basis with homemakers, but they also began
to work with groups in schools, Head Start, family
planning clinics, county welfare, public health, housing projects, and nursing programs.
The first program began in Sedgwick County,
with five paraprofessional nutrition assistants trained
to teach families in their homes on a one-to-one
basis.
Work with the Commodity Food Assistance and
Food Stamp Programs was initiated in the early
1970's.
EFNEP was next expanded to Crawford, Miami,
and Douglas counties.
Over the years, EFNEP paraprofessionals were
given a variety of titles—program and nutrition aides,
assistants, sub professionals, and by 1988 nutrition
assistants.
At the close of the year, 1969, the program was
also operative in Leavenworth, Linn, Riley, Saline,
Finney, Seward, Ford, and Norton counties.
They were provided with ongoing training in the
form of workshops, seminars, and conferences.
During the first year of the program in Kansas,
EFNEP had a staff of 50 nutrition assistants who
worked with a total of 1,028 families.
In the early years of EFNEP, many Extension
Home Economics subject matter Specialists contributed to the development of the program.
Under the supervision of County Extension Home
Economists, the nutrition assistants helped families
in areas of money management, credit use, food
selection, and preparation.
Specialists provided in-service training and
developed resource materials in nutrition, equipment, horticulture, money management, and family
well-being.
The following statement appears in the 1969
Annual Report:
Two EFNEP publications, Homemaking Helps, a
nutrition newsletter for low income families written in
both English and Spanish, and Sunflower Express,
a leaflet for low income youth, were prepared and
sent twice a month to EFNEP families.
Progress of the Expanded Food and Nutrition
Program seems slow. It is the hope of professional
home economists in the program that families might
be moved through the curriculum of this program
and into other educational programs of Cooperative Extension.
Counties With EFNEP Programs—1969-88
In the first five years of the program, the number
of EFNEP counties grew from 12 (1969) to 21 (1972).
Then the number decreased to 17 (1974), 8 (1975),
and 4 (1988).
However, this probably will take an intensive one
or two year period of work with each participating
family. Each family moves at its own pace.
Early Years of EFNEP—1970's
By 1972, EFNEP had been established in 21
Kansas counties. During that year, a major program
review was conducted to identify program strengths
and weaknesses and to develop plans to meet county
needs more effectively. On the basis of the review,
priority was given to the following objectives:
During this time, EFNEP reached over 11,000
Kansas families and 24,000 Kansas youth ages 7
to 19.
Status of EFNEP In 1980's
Funding was an ongoing problem in EFNEP.
Beginning in 1972, the funding for EFNEP was held
at almost constant dollars.
1) Recruitment of non-program families into
EFNEP.
2) Working with youth.
Flat funding combined with the effects of inflation
resulted in the loss of funds at a rate of 4-6 percent
per year and the need for efforts to improve the cost
effectiveness of the program.
3) Use of volunteers.
4) Provision of in-service training for EFNEP
staff.
5) Development of educational materials and
resources.
In 1980, USDA provided funding for the Kansas
Food Stamp project to determine the most cost-
127
effective methods for EFNEP to reach households
receiving food stamps.
By the end of 1988, EFNEP was operative in four
Kansas counties (Shawnee, Wyandotte, Sedgwick,
and Crawford).
Also in 1980, USDA conducted a comprehensive
evaluation of EFNEP to recommend changes in the
target audience, the intervention approach, the funding formula, and methods for evaluation.
Teaching Foods/Nutrition—1960's-80's
The staff included a State Specialist, four EFNEP
County Home Economists, 23 Nutrition Assistants,
and 310 volunteers.
Results of these studies indicated that modifications in EFNEP could result in cost savings.
In 1988, EFNEP reached 9,500 Kansas youth and
a total of 2,246 homemakers (compared to 1,028
families 20 years ago).
Recommendations for improving cost effectiveness included new methods for record keeping,
recruiting, evaluation, and intervention. However,
the evaluators did recommend that the
traditional one-on-one teaching method be retained.
Goals of EFNEP — 1988
In 1988, EFNEP was working toward the achievement of many of the same goals that were identified
in 1972.
They were to reach low income families, especially
those with young children, to improve the quality of
their diets and assist them in managing their food
dollars.
Crisis Year for EFNEP—1985
A crisis year for Kansas EFNEP was 1985.
Three counties were removed from the program, and
all nutrition assistants were put on lay-off status.
Additional goals included:
EFNEP depended to a great extent on volunteers
for program delivery.
1) Reaching more non-English speaking
homemakers
In 1986, EFNEP was re-established in four counties, providing an opportunity for a redefinition of the
program.
2) Placing greater emphasis on the United
States Dietary Guidelines
3) Improving cost effectiveness through group
teaching.
Emphasis on group work and a new curriculum
(Eating Right is Basic II) developed by Michigan State
University provided a new focus in EFNEP.
4) On-going cooperation collaboration with
Food Stamp, Women, Infants and Children
(WIC), and Commodity Food Agencies.
Foods and Nutrition
Club in the spring, 1910, for the purpose of growing
their own tomatoes.
(Editor's Note: This historical summary of nutrition as a part
of 4-H work was written by Ellen Batchelor and included here
as background material.)
In three years, 30,000 girls were enrolled in 14
different states and a new profession was created
—the Home Demonstration Agent.
National Situation
Seaman Knapp started the first demonstrations
as an educational technique on the Porter farm at
Terrell, Texas, in 1903.
The study of nutrition, dietetics, home management, and sanitation was stimulated.
He organized Boy's Corn Clubs in Mississippi in
1907 and in Alabama in 1908. From these developed calf clubs, potato clubs, and pig clubs.
Likewise was the invention and improvement of
household conveniences, home canners, pressure
cookers, fireless cookers, kitchen cabinets, and
the hunt for labor-saving, time-saving, step-saving
devices which have made the American kitchen the
envy of housewives everywhere.
A. B. Graham organized the first Boy's and Girl's
Club in Springfield, Clark County, Ohio, January 15,
1902. He later went to the United States Department of Agriculture to assist in the Federal Boys'
and Girls' Club Work.
Mothers of girls were caught in their daughters'
gardening and canning undertakings.
O. J. Kern of Rockford, Illinois, organized the
next Boys' and Girls' Club, February 22, 1902.
Egg grading was demonstrated, egg selling associations were started. Special touches in fine butter
making and bread baking were next in order.
A Miss Cormer, a young teacher of a country
school in South Carolina, organized the first Girls'
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Kansas 4-H Situation
These and other homemaking activities had
been conducted before in various regions. Miss
Warren's idea was to make the experience of the
few available to the many.
Otis Hall was appointed Boys' and Girls' Club
Leader on September 1, 1914, and began the
organization of Mother-Daughter Canning Clubs
in Kansas.
In working up their outlines, the committee
followed certain criteria. The work should last
throughout the year rather than coincide with the
school year.
L. C. Williams was appointed Assistant State
Boys' and Girls' Club Leader on September 1, 1917.
These two men worked together organizing project
clubs for boys and girls of this state.
Two and three-year programs should be devised.
No work should be planned beyond the ability of
the girl to achieve. As far as possible, the tangible
end result of any project should be a practical,
useful article.
The girls had sewing clubs, garden clubs, and
baking clubs as well as the famous Mother-Daughter
Canning Clubs.
The first of the Mother-Daughter Canning Clubs
in Kansas was organized in the Glenwood Community on the county line between Leavenworth
and Wyandotte counties, with Mrs. J. M. Timmons
as president.
These leaders wisely decided that the program
should be planned to please the girl, even though
this might mean sacrificing completeness and logical order.
In other words, the objective was not a thorough
going course in sewing or the art of baking, but rather
a project or activity that would allow the girl to produce
something useful in a relatively short time.
The club was in existence in 1916. Soon the
girls' club work was as varied, as welcome and as
useful as the demonstration work for boys and men
had become.
This type of thinking marked the difference between a voluntary program that must win the girl,
and a school program that can compel work.
In 1920, Gertrude Warren (Federal Extension
Service) argued with other Federal employees
for "4-H Clubs" as a distinctive group while others
wanted "Junior Extension Clubs."
These committees of state leaders in girls' work
did not disband after the Kansas City conference,
but under Miss Warren's leadership continued to
function in the years that followed.
By 1924, the work had officially acquired the
name "4-H Club Work" by which it has since been
known throughout the world.
In 1920, Atchison County had a Girls' Sewing
Club at work, centering around Arlington, Kansas.
In Wyandotte County Girls' Bread Clubs had
been making war bread since 1917-1918 in Bethel
and White Church communities.
In 1919, Bread Clubs were working in Anderson, Cherokee, Marshall, Meade, and Seward
counties. Mother-Daughter Canning Clubs were
functioning in practically all home demonstration
agent counties.
There were such Agents in Anderson, Atchison,
Chase, Cherokee, Lyon, McPherson, Marshall,
Meade, Morris, Nemaha, Ness, Riley, Seward,
Shawnee, Stevens, Washington and Wyandotte
counties.
The Mother-Daughter Canning Club at Glenwood
in Leavenworth and Wyandotte counties was still
very much alive.
In Kansas City (Kansas) in 1919, Miss Gertrude
Warren (Federal Extension Service) speaking at
a National conference, emphasized the great cry
was for the Canning Club, but the need was for a
broader home economics program.
She suggested clothing conservation -garment
making as a possibility.
In 1922, Mother-Daughter Clubs were reported
in Atchison, Leavenworth, McPherson, Marshall,
and Shawnee counties. Miss Batchelor was certain
some were working in Jefferson County.
Food for Health—1950's
Following World War II the primary emphasis given
to the nutrition project was "food for health." Planning of all meals, with primary attention to breakfast,
was included.
Basic nutrition was developed into a three or fouryear program to thoroughly cover the subject matter,
such as food values and calorie counting.
A survey in Barton County in 1951 indicated that
more milk, eggs, and vegetables were being used
by people in their diets. Low consumption of milk
was very commonly noted among both children and
adults.
In 1954, the Basic Seven was used widely as a
basis for meal planning. Attention was also given
to food for the aged. Diets for over-weight people
Committees were appointed to prepare outlines
for garment making, cooking and bread clubs.
These outlines were offered to all states for their
acceptance, rejection, or revision.
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were emphasized. Some counties conducted weightreducing contests.
instruction in freezing foods of all kinds, including
baked food.
School Lunches were given attention, to improve
the lunches of school children by providing one hot
dish and an opportunity to warm other dishes brought
from home. That activity developed into a complete
lunch prepared by employed help for all children in
a school.
Pressure cooker gauge testers were owned by
74 counties.
In 1950, the annual report of the Extension Nutrition Specialists stated that 132 schools were serving
lunches to 72,159 children. The number increased
to 817 schools serving 87,036 in 1952; and 1,096
schools serving over 125,000 children in 1956.
As copper and other materials to build electrical
power lines became available in quantity after World
War II, electricity from power lines was made available to almost every Kansas farm home.
New Kitchen Equipment—1940's-50's
Emphasis was given to new kitchen equipment
during the late 1940's and early 1950's.
Power line electricity provided opportunity for farm
homes to install systems with water under pressure,
electric ranges and refrigerators, food freezers, and
numerous small electrical appliances.
Extension Nutrition Specialists organized and
conducted training schools for cooks and managers
of school lunch programs, first mentioned in the 1950
annual report. In 1952, a three-day school was conducted for cooks and managers. In 1954, 40 one-day
schools were conducted throughout the state.
Homemakers were given instruction in selection
and buying such equipment and proper care for efficient use.
In 1956, a three-day school was conducted at
Kansas State University with emphasis on preparation of vegetables for the 230 persons attending. In
one-day schools over the state, 1,644 other persons
participated. Apparently by 1957, the school lunch
training program had been transferred to the resident
department of Institutional Management.
The use of a broiler for the preparation of food
was a new cooking technique in which homemakers
were interested and for which Extension Specialists
gave instruction in the early 1950's.
Food Buying—1950's
Information and suggestions for food buying
became a part of the instruction given by Extension
Foods and Nutrition Specialists. It continued until
the Extension Consumer Information project was
established in 1952.
Food Preservation—1940's-50's
There was much emphasis on food preservation
during the years following World War II. Garden crops
were produced in abundance and there was a desire
to provide food for the family at a low cost.
Leaders were trained in the value of the various
meat cuts and how to prepare the cheaper cuts. The
importance of reading the labels on packaged goods
was emphasized.
The annual Extension report for 1949 stated that
in 71 counties reporting, 3,216 quarts of food were
canned during the year.
Instruction was given in the specifications for the
existing egg grades so egg buying could be done
wisely.
That year the reports indicated an increased interest in freezing meat. Commercial food lockers had
become common in many communities.
Other interests during the 1950's included baking
methods for home-made bread, master mixes as
time-savers, outdoor meals, and buffet service.
In 1952 it was reported that demonstrations were
conducted over the state on the cutting and preparation of meat for the freezer. Home freezers were just
becoming available.
In 1949, 11,066 4-H Club members were enrolled
in the foods project; by 1963 that number had increased to 16,204.
Homemakers were finding that freezing a greater
variety of foods was practical and provided a ready
supply of food for use in emergencies. Canning
had decreased to a substantial extent, replaced by
freezing.
During 1963, County Extension Home Economics
Agents devoted 2,362 days to food preparation and
selection, 674 days to food preservation, and 1,179
days to nutrition as such.
In 1953, special training schools were conducted
to give Extension Home Demonstration Agents
Foods Information Delivery—1960's-70's
Methods of delivery evolved in Extension food
and nutrition programs also. Whereas the Extension Service had frequent access to television and
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radio in the 60's and early 70's, this was no longer
true after that time.
well as an increase in eating out, particularly at fast
food restaurants.
With the advent of deregulation in the communications industry, and competition from other
organizations, the Cooperative Extension Service
found it was more difficult to get Extension food and
nutrition messages out to the public.
Nutrition by Age Groups—1975
Beginning about 1975, Extension had an active
program of nutrition education for people of all ages
and stages. One emphasis was maternal and child
nutrition.
Perhaps the biggest change was in the sophistication of the information provided by the Cooperative
Extension Service.
County Extension Agents and volunteers devoted
considerable time to teaching nutrition to school-age
children with a special emphasis on nutrition for youth
in 4-H projects.
Consumers became more nutrition and health
conscious as well as becoming very busy. They
were also more knowledgeable.
Although the public was often fed slanted or
misinformation through the media, in general, much
of the information available to the public was more
sophisticated than in previous times, and much of
it reliable.
People were adopting healthier lifestyles in the
80's, including eating more nutritious diets. But,
many young were becoming heavier, and adopting
health-threatening food behaviors that might be
detrimental to their health in later years.
To meet these challenges, the Cooperative Extension Service provided more comprehensive and
in-depth programs than at any previous time.
Food Safety—1970's
Extension Foods and Nutrition programs have
evolved over the years in response to economic,
social, and physical health changes.
In the mid 1970's, there was a major emphasis
on food safety. It continued through the 80's, with
a changed emphasis from consumer concern about
safe food preservation to concern about pesticides,
safe water, and food additives.
Food Budgeting—1970's
During high inflation in the 70's, focus was on food
budgeting and resource management because of
rising food prices. People wanted to buy economically, yet meet nutritional needs.
Convenience of Food Preparation
Another aspect of food management education
in Extension concerned convenience. By the end
of 1988, microwave ovens were in 80 percent of
U.S. homes.
In 4-H and Youth work nutrition evolved from focusing only on the basic four foods to incorporating
fitness and the dietary guidelines.
A small program on nutrition for athletes, particularly teenage athletes, was developed.
A major emphasis has been nutrition for the aging. Daisy Atkinson, Human Nutrition Specialist, did
considerable work on nutrition for one or two person
households.
She also devoted considerable amounts of
time to osteoporosis, diabetes, weight control, and
hypertension.
Seven Dietary Guidelines—1980's
Perhaps the biggest change was the adoption of
the Seven Dietary Guidelines by the United States
Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United
States Department of Health and Human Services
(USHHS).
These guidelines were being implemented in the
80's in all Extension nutrition programs.
The guidelines related to the Federal Extension
Program initiative. "Improving nutrition, diet and
health."
Two related sub-initiatives were "diet, lifestyle and
health" and "food safety, quality and composition."
Extension Nutrition Program—1980's
In the 80's, the major emphases in the nutrition
program were on weight control and cardiovascular
disease.
Many County Extension Home Economists have
taught a 10-week weight control "New Dimensions"
program and "Keeping on Track" weight maintenance
program.
This meant they were being used by most people
for food preparation, including those in poverty.
The cardiovascular risk reduction program
encompasses both coronary heart disease and
hypertension.
Also, there was a tremendous increase in the
purchase of ready-to-eat foods for home use as
The foods program shifted away from home food
preparation and home food preservation to:
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1) Decision-making for good nutrition when
eating away from home.
funded by Food Safety and Inspection Service
(FSIS)-USDA—and "Chemicals in Our Foods."
2) Family food decision-making and management to address needs of the two-income
and/or single parent families, and “Time to
Eat."
4) Issues about red meats—production methods, purchasing decisions, and nutritional
value are subjects that are evident in programming materials.
3) Food safety in a broad, multidisciplinary
context as opposed to only a home food handling or home food preservations context.
Program efforts included a "Residue Avoidance Project," which was a cooperative effort
with agriculture and veterinary medicine—
5) Extension addressed some needs of individuals who wanted to start food related businesses. "Food for Profit" workshops were
muti-disciplinary programming efforts with
Community Development and regulatory
agencies.
Family Life/Human Development
Family life was established as a project in the Kansas Extension Service with the employment of Vivian
Briggs as Extension specialist January 1, 1946.
The interest of parents soon developed in the
area of child guidance, from the pre-school child
through adolescence.
The Plan of Work provided for these subprojects:
As a follow-up with parents participating in study
groups, the Extension Specialist, Vivian Briggs,
prepared and distributed a leaflet containing suggestions for parents. It went out monthly in 1947.
A radio program over the University station, KSAC,
was also given each month.
1) Understanding Members of the Family.
2 ) The Family Plans Its Finance.
3) The Family's Place in the Community.
4) Family Plans for Enjoying Each Other.
The work with parents continued through 1948,
1949 and 1950 with emphasis on youth, and understanding the emotional needs of the individual.
Some work was conducted with 4-H Club members
and older youth on personality adjustments for that
age group.
The training-school and special-interest group
topics used by the Extension Specialist during the
first year of the program indicated the scope of the
work. The topics included:
Understanding the Family Members.
Lesson topics for the home demonstration units
included: Living Together in the Family, Guiding the
Pre-school Child, Understanding and Guiding the
Adolescent, and Getting Along With Others.
Family Plans for Enjoying Each Other.
Living Together.
Your Child and His Habits.
Habits That Make or Mar.
In 1950, the annual report of the Extension Family
Life Specialist stated that 2,176 fathers and 6,124
mothers participated in the study forums for parents.
Also, 15,219 families adopted one or more practices
recommended for satisfactory family living.
Family Recreation.
Being a Good Hostess.
Human Behavior.
Mental Health.
In 1951 in Allen County, the lesson topic, "Understanding Family Members," was given to a husband
and wife team from each unit and they relayed the
information to their units at a family night meeting.
Program Emphasis—1940's-50's
Special attention was given young married couples
and their new families. Many returning service men
had not lived with their families during the war.
The influence of the Extension Family Life specialist was revealed in the 1952 report when she
related the various organizations in which she had
some responsibility in forming the annual conference
program. Those included:
The people were reached through forums, study
groups, and special interest groups. Ministers and
church organizations began asking for the assistance of the Extension Specialist after they became
acquainted with the new Extension program in
Family Life.
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Kansas P.T.A. Family Life Workshop held at
Emporia.
State
Human Dynamics Workshop held at Kansas
University.
Kansas Conference on Aging held at University
of Kansas.
Kansas Council on Family Relations held at Salina.
Interdenominational Family Life Institute held
at Pratt.
Student Wives Organization on the Kansas State
University campus.
During the year, 890 persons attended public or
semi-public meetings such as P.T.A., Woman's Clubs,
or Civic Clubs addressed by the specialist.
Being new to Kansas he took considerable time
to become familiar with the state and the people, and
to organize a program to develop Family Life on a
community basis by conducting study groups of men
and women as well as older youth.
Lang was also to correlate efforts with Vivian
Briggs in work with the Parent-Teacher Associations,
the Kansas Council for Children and Youth, the Kansas Family Life Association, and the Kansas Mental
Health Association.
Family Life Publications—1958
In 1958, the Family Life program was further
strengthened by providing a list of suggested books
and pamphlets relating to the various phases of the
program. Some of those were:
In 1954, the areas of interest emphasized were
indicated by the following lesson topics:
For You and Your Family - Mental Health.
Too Young to Marry.
You and Your Family.
Building Your Marriage.
Guiding the Pre-school Child.
With the Family.
The Child and His Middle Years - 6 to 12.
The Gentle House.
Your Teen-Ager.
Room for One More.
Understanding Ourselves.
The Happy Family.
Your Mental Health.
Family Relationships.
Looking Ahead to the Later Years.
Guiding the Pre-school Child - A Healthy Personality for Your Child.
Dissemination of information was continued
through leader-training meetings, public meetings,
special interest groups and by reading suggested
books.
Your Child From One to Six.
Some Special Problems of Children.
Aggressiveness in Children Understanding
Your Young Child.
Family Life Research—1956-57
During the 1956-57 school year, Vivian Briggs
was on sabbatical leave to study family living and do
specific research on parent-adolescent relationships
in the Middle-East.
That study was made possible by the Specialist's
appointment as a visiting professor at the Beirut
College for Women in Beirut, Lebanon. Through
the faculty and students, Vivian Briggs was able to
make contact with many families and to visit in their
homes.
The results of the research were compared with
the results of a study of parent-adolescent relationships in Kansas which Vivian Briggs made in 1952.
There were some interesting and surprising facts
brought out in the two studies.
Family Life Specialist—1958
On September 8, 1958, a second Extension Specialist was appointed to assist with the Family Life
program, Laurence Lang II. Lang came to Kansas
from New York City where he had been affiliated
with churches.
Pledge to Children.
My Child and Me.
How Do You Rate as a Parent.
Child Behavior.
Many other publications were made available for
the other phases of the Family Life program.
Scope of FL Program—1959
In 1959, 4,172 persons reported that they had
read one or more of the selected books, and 3,470
leaders had collected other supplementary materials
for use in helping their neighbors with concerns on
child development and human behavior.
The 1959 report further stated that 44,553 contacts concerning family life were made individually or
through meetings in 99 counties, and 22,203 families
not enrolled in the Extension Service groups were
reached directly by leaders trained by the Extension
specialist.
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Teen-Ager Program—1959
The need for a program for teen-agers was
stressed in a statement prepared by a group of leaders
in Sumner County in 1959. The statement read:
percentage of the people suffering mental illness
could be helped to return to normal living.
We hear much today about teen problems. Times
are changing so fast that each generation lives in
a world that is only partially known to the one that
precedes it or the one that follows.
As the Home Demonstration Unit members
studied to understand the situation and to recognize
the need for change they started a campaign. They
wrote and called upon their legislators. Some even
wrote directly to the Governor.
Public opinion and attitudes toward those who
are mentally ill needed to be changed.
Understanding these shifts, what they are, what
they mean, and how they affect the thinking and
behavior of the people who live through them is one
span in bridging the generations today.
They made so great an impact with their efforts that Dr. Warren, then director of the division
of Mental Hygiene, Kansas State Board of Health,
publicly commended the Specialist for her work in
educating the people.
Tomorrow's world will depend a great extent
upon our ability to solve transitional problems of one
generation to another. It is a challenge that faces
us all, not just the parents of young people.
The activities of the Home Demonstration Unit
members and other groups did considerable to start
Kansas toward the place it now holds in its facilities
and care of the mentally ill.
Teen-ager situations and programs were considered and reported in 1960. Panels composed of
adults, parents of teen-agers, and teen-agers were
selected carefully for appearances before groups
of adults and teen-agers to discuss situations and
opportunities among members of the groups.
It has reached a place near the top in the United
States. Other states and even other countries come
to Kansas for assistance and guidance.
Family and Community—1958
Place in the Community, was given special emphasis with the appointment of the second specialist in
1958. A program was designed around the statement,
"The strength of the community lies in the strength of
the families which make up the community."
The discussions were free and constructive
with mutual understanding resulting. Teen-agers
involved asked for additional meetings of the nature
mentioned.
In some counties, questionnaires and surveys
were used to stimulate discussion. The benefits
of such panel discussions included a dissolution
of misunderstandings, increased confidence, and
improved personal relationships.
Subject matter included information on family
responsibility to the community and community responsibility to all the people living in it.
The material was prepared in four sections:
1) The Family and the Home.
Mental Health—1950's
The Extension Mental Health Program for the
State of Kansas increased in quality greatly during
the 1950's.
2) The Family and the Church.
3) The Family and the School.
4) The Community’s Responsibility.
Study groups in a community were divided into four
groups, each assigned one of the subdivisions mentioned. After an hour of discussion, the entire group
assembled to hear reports from each division.
The report of the Extension Family Life Specialists
for 1959 contained the following:
The Extension Family Life project (in Kansas)
was started January 1, 1946. At that time the mental
health program in Kansas was at a low ebb.
Further action needed was determined from the
situations revealed by the discussion groups. Agents
were trained in that procedure in order that a maximum
number of communities could be reached.
The facilities and trained personnel were entirely
inadequate with the result that Kansas' mentally ill
citizens received little more than custodial care.
Children and Mass Media—1960
Radio-Television and Your Family was a discussion topic introduced into the Family Life program in
1960. Studies were made of the listening and viewing
habits of the children and the resultant effects.
As the Specialist traveled over the state, she
found the people uninformed and many unaware
of the situation.
As the people studied and learned that with
adequate facilities and trained personnel, a high
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It was emphasized that the family, not the radio
or television, could be in control. Suggestions were
offered on how to handle the situation.
Young Adults Program—1961
"The Young Adult" was added as another phase
of the Family Life Program in 1961. Discussions
concerning the young adult dealt with the selection of
a career, the characteristics of a successful marriage
and the important decisions to be made, relationships
to one's Church and its importance, and the young
adult's place in the community. The young adult
discussions were conducted in those counties that
had active programs with young families.
Family Life Developments—1946-64
The Family Life Program continued from the beginning of the project in 1946 through 1964, without a
major revision of the original plan of work. Additions
were made to meet changing situations, especially
those relating to older youth and young families.
Laurence Lang resigned June 30, 1963. Deborah
Hobble was appointed as Extension Specialist on
September 1, 1963. She gave particular consideration
to child development and the young families. The
1963 report of the Extension Specialists indicated the
following program emphasis areas at that time:
1) The Pre-school Child.
2) The School-age Child.
3) Teenager.
4) Understanding One's Self and Others.
5) The Later Years.
6) Emotional and Mental Health.
7) Young Homemakers Programs.
Young Mothers Shortcourse—1965
In continuance with work already begun by pervious Extension Human Development and Family Life
Specialists, a short course was offered in 1965, to
help women deal with emotional growth and communication.
This program continued to expand in 1966, as
human development began to attract audiences
consisting of pre-school mothers.
The non-credit course offered at that time consisted of topics dealing with the ages and stages of
development of young children, and their parents.
This program continued to broaden in 1968, to include a home study course consisting of six lessons
dealing with child development.
Parenting Children—1970's
Parenting was still an important issue in the
next decade of work in human development, the
1970's.
Pre-school and school age study lessons were
provided to guide parents in their child's development.
Senior Citizen Clubs
Interest in organizing senior citizens clubs grew
rapidly. Extension Human Development Specialists
helped Kansans gain new insights in helping
the state's elderly population.
Drugs and Sex Education
Drugs and sex education questions gave rise to
a growing need for information on those topics. A
program on "Family Living" was presented on WIBWTV, Topeka.
Grandparenting—1972
In 1972, lessons on grandparenthood were generated as well as three-year camp counselor training
program.
Parenting Older Youth
The previously trained parents of the earlier preschool aged children were now facing new questions
in dealing with their older youth.
Extension Human Development and Family Life
Specialists worked to aid those parents as well as
to provide new information on day care for working
parents.
Kansas Forum on Families—1977
In 1977, Robert Jackson worked with other Extension Specialists to initiate a Kansas Forum on
Families.
These 11 regional forums dealt with the importance
of the family's role in strengthening relationships.
The forums identified problems in families which
included stress, time management, and death education.
Family Awareness Week—1978
The emphasis on families continued in 1978, with
"Family Awareness Week" along with a focus on the
"Year of the Family."
Charles Smith, Extension Human Development
Specialist, distributed new publications on discipline
and guidance.
He joined with Bob Jackson to make available a
publication on children's toys.
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The Governor's Conference on Aging was held
that same year.
tions Together, "Grandletters," and "Grandparenting:
A Gift for Generations."
Conference on Families—1979
Awareness of the family's importance grew as the
Cooperative Extension Service and the College of
Home Economics at Kansas State University sponsored a "Conference on Families" in June, 1979.
Stress in the Family—Mid 1980's
Stress and its effects became a critical issue,
especially in view of the growing financial problems
experienced by rural farm families.
New publications and programs were developed
to meet the needs of farm families.
Michael Martin began working with new and
expectant parents with the distribution of a monthly
newsletter entitled Pierre the Pelican.
These programs included a publication series
entitled "Stress on the Farm," a home study course,
"Friends indeed," and a satellite video broadcast,
"Heartache in the Heartland."
He distributed a series of videotapes entitled
"Footsteps," which dealt with different problems and
aspects of parenthood.
Human development and family life professionals met in 1986-88 at the "Working with Families
Conference," whose topics centered on stress and
its related problems.
He also distributed material on child abuse and
neglect.
Butterberry Hill Puppet Show—1979
In conjunction with Zoe Slinkman, Cultural Arts
Specialist, Charles Smith worked to present a monthly
puppetry television show on KTSB, the NBC affiliate
for Topeka, titled "Butterberry Hill."
Family Closeness
Bringing families together remained the emphasis in the 80's and programs and publications were
produced giving families help in finding more quality
time together.
The program focused on intergenerational relationships.
Information to help parents find ways to communicate with their teenagers was made available.
Family Issues—1980's
Upon entering the 1980's, Extension Human
Development Specialists faced growing problems
with family life, television's effects on children, dual
career families, and stress.
Better child care continued to be a concern, and
that need was met in the funding of the Kansas Child
Care Training Opportunities (KCCTO) grant.
Elder Care
Kathryn Beckham filled a growing need for information on elder care with a program prepared by
Burton Halpert of the University of Missouri-Kansas
City, entitled "Volunteer Information Provider Program" (VIPP).
Role of the Father—1980's
Because of the continued growth of dual career
families, fathers were now taking a more active role
in child care than ever before.
A publication entitled "Father's Care" was distributed to help fathers understand their newly adjusting
roles.
This program trained volunteer in elder care in
which they could use their skills to help trained professionals in their role of elder care providers.
Children's Literature—1981
Charles Smith introduced children's literature as
an important component in a child's learning and in
dealing with relationships.
Retirement
Kathryn Beckham also addressed retirement.
Information was developed for Kansans regarding
the aging process and its problems, entitled "The
Second Half of Life: Growing Older."
He began this program in 1981, with the "Once Upon
a Mind" handbook listing 250 children's books.
Self-Esteem and Marital Enrichment
As the 80's began to draw to a close, the issues
being addressed were self-esteem and marital enrichment.
This program was further expanded upon subsequent years with a three year addition to the handbook
in the forms of a quarterly newsletter, a slide set, and
an notebook for program leaders.
Charles Smith helped fill the needs of children in
Kansas to have better self-esteem by the distribution of "I'm Positive: Growing Up With Self-Esteem"
materials.
Intergenerational Relationships—1982-85
He also continued his work with intergenerational
relationships including new publications on "Genera136
Other Family Life Programs
Professionals who work with young children could
receive a bimonthly newsletter called Cornerstones,
created by Charles Smith and Extension Assistant
Debbie Norris.
Two Extension Assistants, Theresa Russo and
Lisa Lichlyter, were involved in continuing Kathryn
Beckham's ongoing program.
Russo prepared a leader's guide on Choice Not
Chance: Enhancing Your Marital Relationship, and
Lichlyter assisted with the Volunteer Information
Providers Program and other aging information.
Both Assistants prepared a tabloid newspaper to
celebrate National Family Life Month in November,
1988. Extension Agents distributed the tabloid to
families.
Family Economics/Management
Home Management in Extension had its beginning
during World War I when all thinking and activities
were war directed.
The home economics report for July 1, 1918 to
June 30, 1919 included this statement:
The various war activities and the insistent
demand for financing them showed a lamentable
weakness in the business side of housekeeping;
consequently, thrift campaigns were organized and
a special project in household management dealing
with household finances was developed.
In connection with that program, talks were
also given on labor and time-saving devices and
plans. These proved to be very successful forms
of Extension work.
pressure cookers, Toledo cookers, and fireless
cookers.
Through some of the County Extension Home
Demonstration offices, studies in the use of various
equipment were made and exhibits prepared to show
the possibilities of equipping a kitchen with modern
conveniences.
The next report giving information on household
management covered the period from 1919 to 1921.
That report stated that the goals to be attained for
the household management project were:
1) To obtain a better mastery of the problems
of household finances by budgeting, keep
ing a record of home expenses, and correlating the two.
For a long time it has been apparent that the
average American housewife was not conducting her
household with any degree of business efficiency.
A campaign was and is sadly needed on the
business side of housekeeping. The department
has attempted to meet this need by a campaign for
keeping household records of some kind.
The campaign was carried on by means of
conferences with County Agents at which plans
for meetings and demonstrations were made and
some follow-up work planned for, a part of which
consisted of the distribution to those interested of
a simply made card index file with a sample budget
and cards for totals.
During the month of July, a series of lectures
and demonstrations on the subject was given before the school for rural pastors at Baker University
where these community leaders were shown the
possibilities of carrying on some extensive work in
their communities.
2) Making housekeeping easier by arranging
and selecting equipment.
3) Making the home more attractive by selecting and refinishing furniture.
Harriett Allard was employed as Extension Specialist in "Domestic Science," September 1, 1917.
Apparently she was transferred to Instructor or
Extension Specialist in Household Economics prior
to November 7, 1921.
However, in correspondence dated April 12,
1931, she is mentioned as Specialist in Household
Management. Harriett Allard was the first Extension
Specialist in the area of Home Management.
The 1922 Dean and Director's report of Harry J.
C. Umberger gave the plan of work for Household
Management to include:
1) Home equipment, including power machinery, and methods of management in
the home
Planning Household Finances—1918
The need for planning household finances was
further shown in the same report when a campaign
was started on fuel-saving devices. Lassie Lane,
Extension Specialist in Extension Schools, featured
a. Efficiency methods and equipment.
b. Cooking and equipment.
c. Cleaning and laundering.
d. Refrigeration.
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10 refrigerators
2) Home furnishings and decorations including refinishing of wood and furniture
97 washing machines
a. Color schemes and decoration in
the home.
112 pressure cookers
175 pieces of small kitchen equipment
b. Refinishing and made over furniture.
45 homes remodeled
60 homes redecorated
c. Floor coverings and draperies
60 homes refinishing furniture
3) Household accounts, including home
budgets
24 homes keeping household accounts
Twenty-five club girls completed their "Own Your
Own Room" demonstrations.
a. Explanation of household accounts; use of account
book; income sheets
and family budgets.
Home Accounts—1924
Accomplishments in home accounts programs
were first reported in 1924. I. N. Chapman, Farm
Management Demonstrator, organized 41 farm account clubs.
b. Savings and investments with a
study of the summaries, both
monthly and yearly.
c. The division of the food and clothing accounts in the budget.
The Extension Household Management Specialist
prepared 12 papers on home account subjects, and
also a simple home account book which was revised
the following year.
d. The operating and general accounts
with these budgets.
Each of the subheadings in the outline was
the basis for a lesson for leader training and
for presentation in the home demonstration
units.
In 1925, 12 home account books were sent to
the Extension Specialist to be summarized. The
Extension Specialist position in home management
was vacant during the first half of 1926 so there was
an interruption in the program.
In 1922, the Extension Specialist, Harriett
Allard, reported only nine leaders trained in
the project but the number increased rapidly
with 46 in 1923 and 249 in 1924.
In 1927, however, home account work was again
emphasized with the appointment of May Miles as
Extension Specialist. The program was conducted
cooperatively with the Extension Farm Management
Specialist.
The training of leaders was highly justified by
Harriett Allard, in 1924, when she said:
Local leaders have developed individual women
until they find themselves something more than a
household drudge.
In 1928, 50 home account books were summarized by the Specialist. Leaders were used for
a short time in home account work but dropped as
not being suitable for that kind of work. It was conducted on an individual basis; except for work with
the farm management associations which were first
organized in 1930.
During 1922, the Household Management project
was carried to six counties by community meetings,
11 by regular project work, 12 by judging at fairs, and
seven by Extension Schools and Institutes.
As a result of that effort, the following accomplishments were recorded in the Director's report:
Family and Its Business
"The Family and Its Business" was under the
leadership of Gladys Myers from August 15, 1939
to December 31, 1961, when she retired.
Modern conveniences installed:
86 power plants.
87 water systems.
Elinor Anderson was appointed as Specialist in
that field. As previously indicated, the early work in
this area was with home accounts.
7 sewer systems.
13 heating systems.
In 1944, 12,000 Kansas Farm and Household
Account Books were printed as a record book that
would be simple and easy to keep. A uniform book
for summarization and research purposes was also
desirable.
21 lighting systems.
Homes constructing or purchasing:
82 electric irons.
84 vacuum cleaners.
In 1946, 20,000 more books were printed; 5,000
102 fireless cookers.
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more in 1948 and 30,000 in 1950 and 1951.
4,139 Families established a family council.
The 1949 report made by the Extension Specialist
gave these accomplishments:
4,449 Families established an allowance system with their children.
3,898 Families assisted with home accounts
3,615 Families operated on a budget system.
3,333 Families assisted with financial planning.
3,358 Families kept a household inventory.
2,804 Families made a net worth financial
statement.
4,608 Families assisted in using timely economics information to make adjustments in family living.
6,217 Families maintained a life insurance
record.
2,333 Families improved a home business
center.
In 1950, a publication, You Can Work It Out Together was prepared by the Extension Specialist,
Gladys Myers, for use in training leaders and for
general distribution. The title indicated the nature
of the work done in that field.
2,034 Families prepared an investment record.
3,182 Families improved a filing system for
business records.
Agents, and leaders, with the assistance of the
Specialist, became interested in joint bank accounts,
property titles, and similar subjects.
2,401 Families considered the need for a will.
6,907 Families established joint bank accounts with the right of survivorship.
In 1953, the Specialist reported 13,254 families
had received help in financial planning. Some consumer education was included with financial planning
with families.
4,052 Families checked the nature of their
property titles.
5,907 Families checked their insurance policies.
By 1955, training by the Extension Specialist included the idea of a "business center" in the home,
a place to keep all farm and family records.
Agent and leader training included Business Transactions, Social Security and Old Age Assistance, Life
Insurance, Outlook, and the financial phases of the
Balanced Farming and Family Living program.
The 1956 report included accomplishments in
an understanding of wills, Kansas laws of descent
and distribution of an estate, the wise use of credit,
and information from the summaries of the home
accounts kept by the members of the farm management associations.
The nature of the program in "The Family and Its
Business" is indicated by a summary of accomplishments in the 1956 report which included:
1,838 Voluntary leaders.
25,934 Persons contacted through home
demonstration units.
3,033 Families checked the cost of the credit
being used.
9,057 Checked their Social Security records.
1,157
In 1957, the Extension Specialist in Farm Management prepared and presented a series of 12 radio
talks on the subject, "Money Matters."
The financial problems of older citizens were
included in the 1959 program as was "Estate Planning" and "Investments."
Four widely used publications were prepared
during 1961 by the Specialist with the cooperation
of other interested parties.
The other parties presented leader-training material to a group in their counties with unexpected
acceptance. They then agreed to assist publications
on:
18,809 Persons reached outside of the units
Planning a Will - by the Specialist.
68,280 Homemakers assisted by Specialists,
Agents or leaders to adopt one or
more recommended practices.
Death and Taxes are Certain - by Harold Lewis,
Scott City.
Planning for Care and Support of Orphans - by
John Eland, Hoxie.
17,534 Assisted with rural outlook information.
19,719 Homemakers assisted with family
financial planning.
10,982 Families assisted with family legal
matters.
4-H Club members kept a record of their
personal expenses.
Guide for an Executor - by E. G. Clapp, Jr.
Lewis and Eland were attorneys. Clapp prepared
the material as a part of the requirements for a master's
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degree in Business Administration.
and protection against ill health.
4) Consumer Credit Included the importance of credit in
money management; kind and cost of
different sources of credit; the legal aspects of credit; justifiable use of credit; the
use or need for mortgages and promissory
notes; credit agencies including credit unions; and possible recourse by the lender
in case of non-payment of loans when
due.
Home Management Project-—1949
By 1949, the Home Management project had been
organized into three subprojects:
1) The Family and Its Homemaking - Vera
Ellithorpe, Specialist.
2) The Family and Its Business - Gladys Myers,
Specialist.
3) The Family and Its Efficiency - Ethel W. Self,
Specialist.
All activities in the money management area were
enthusiastically received by leaders, Agents, and the
individuals and families who had an opportunity to
study in those areas.
"The Family and Its Homemaking" was devoted
largely to housing and some public building work.
The annual report for 1949 gave the following accomplishments:
Efficiency in the Family
"The Family and Its Efficiency" was under the
leadership of Ethel Self, beginning January 1, 1946,
to her retirement January 31, 1969. In her report for
1949, Self gave these accomplishments:
9,019 Families made improvements in kitchens
and storage.
2,780 Families in 91 counties installed water
systems.
1,265 Families in 48 counties insulated the
house.
6,855 Families in 56 counties rearranged small
equipment.
2,188 Families in 76 counties installed heating
systems.
3,490 Families in 54 counties rearranged large
equipment.
1,943 Families in 56 counties planned bathrooms.
4,472 Families in 34 counties eliminated
unessentials.
1,786 4-H members were enrolled in room
improvement.
4,742 Families in 32 counties simplified at least
two essential tasks
Home Management Program—1963
By 1963, the new Extension Specialist, Elinor
Anderson, had taken the leadership in the "Family
and Its Business," and was giving emphasis to the
following phases:
The practices mentioned indicated the nature of
this phase of the home management project.
An expansion of the work was revealed in the
1953 report with 6,731 families improving their lighting
condition; 6,712 rearranging equipment and supplies
to save steps; 5,584 families studying and making
better use of their body mechanics; and 6,725 families
developing easier ways to do certain tasks.
1) Financial Management Understand the resources managed by
the family; establish
goals and aspirations; plan for a college education for the
children; understand family life cycles
and the varying financial demands; understand the use of credit; prepare for
emergencies; and understand the decision making process.
Repair of small equipment was included in
the project program in 1954 as were kitchen tools
and utensils, gas and electrical equipment, lighting, laundering and ironing methods, and cleaning
methods.
2) Financial Security Included the risk or hazards as threats to
security; various forms of insurance and
investments; Social Security benefits; and
the awareness of inflation.
In 1956, the units of the project on which the
Extension Specialist gave assistance were listed as:
Living on 24 Hours; The General Laundry: Ironing
Problems; ABC's of Keeping a Neat Clean House;
Lighting for Eye Comfort; Selection and Care of
Equipment; and Simple Equipment Repairs.
3) Pre-planning for Retirement Census data revealed the nature of the
population; employment or lack of employment of older persons; the need for
purposeful activity; financial security; estimating retirement income; understand
ing retirement needs (financial); assets
and estimated income from investments;
The subject matter of the project was varied
through the years as program planning in the counties
revealed different situations in which the homemakers
desired some assistance, and the newer information
made available by research.
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During 1956, special attention was given to training Extension Home Economics Agents so they could
more effectively give assistance to the homemakers
of their counties.
Information concerning the new materials used
in utensil manufacture was prepared in written form
to be used in training Agents and leaders as well as
for hand-out material at other meetings.
As an example of new information available, new
laundry methods included water temperatures and
hardness, softeners, soaps, sundets, methods of
stain removal, and special laundry problems.
More than 13,000 pieces of printed material was
distributed by the Specialist as she met with leaders
and homemakers in 1958.
Work Simplification Emphasis—1958
Work simplification principles were continued as
a part of the home management efficiency program.
The 1958 report contained this statement by the
Specialist:
Extension Programs—1980's
Three Extension programs developed in the mid
80's were:
1) "Make Your Voice Count: Citizen Involvment in Public Policy"—was a program that
provided information on methods of analyzing issues and expressing views to public
decision-makers.
Since more and more women are taking active interest in outside activities along with their
homemaking responsibilities, more have developed
keener interest in studying more efficient methods
of management in their homes.
2) "Current Issues in Consumer Credit" — provided information on obtaining credit and in
laws and regulations pertaining to consumer
credit.
They want to know how to eliminate the fatigue
factors from the necessary routine housework.
3) The "Family Community Leadership" (FCL)—
program was a major new interdisciplinary
program co-sponsored by Extension and the
Kansas Extension Homemakers Council
with funding from a W. K. Kellogg Foundation grant.
The objectives were to:
1) Evaluate the income away from home
and its problems with the value of the
homemaker's time at home.
2) Gain greater knowledge of principles
involved in the use of tools, equipment
and work areas.
3) Use principles that assist the worker in better handling of supplies.
4) Improve the family work plan.
The FCL program was designed to improve
individual leadership skills, encourage increased
participation in public decision-making opportunities, and strengthen the educational system. This
was done by:
1) Broadening awareness and understanding of
public policy choices and improving skills in
analyzing and resolving policy issues.
5) Use better body mechanics while perform
ing tasks.
In 1958, the work in equipment repair was confined
largely to the repair of lamp cords and the sharpening of cutlery.
2) Increasing the effective participation of many
community residents, particularly women and
others who traditionally have not been in
volved actively in policy choices affecting
family, economic, and community life.
By training leaders with demonstrations and the
leaders in turn helping others, 23,032 families in 61
counties were assisted with the selection, care and
use of equipment; 4,460 with cutlery.
The Extension Specialist prepared an excellent
series of leaflets on selection of large and small
equipment, laundry materials and methods, lighting,
household cleaning, and work simplification.
Some of the material was revised each year due
to the rapid change in situations, such as the new
detergents at that time.
Radio and television were used to convey information to the public through those mass media.
3) Strengthening organizations and educational
support systems for individuals and groups
involved in addressing public issues.
Special features included team teaching by volunteers and staff; joint planning, consensus decision
making, and learning by doing.
Public Policy Education—1983-88
One of the major developments in the Family Economics field from 1983-1988 was a gradual expansion
to include the areas of public policy education and
leadership development.
Public policy and legal issues had affected people's
decisions in consumer economics and family financial
management for many years. The growing role of
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government intensified this influence.
Audiences included a wide variety of people and
organizations—day care providers, a ministerial alliance, an individual church group, county economic
development committees, Jr. Chambers of Commerce, civic and service clubs.
Public policy Extension education was a process
aimed at helping citizens clarify public issues, explore
the alternatives and consequences of various policy
choices, and develop the skills to transmit their opinions and to effect change.
Extension organizations actively involved in the
FCL program included: Extension Homemakers, 4H members and leaders, community PRIDE groups,
and program development committees.
Family Community Leadership (FCL) —1988
In 1988, Kansas had 52 certified trainers with
programming under way in 24 counties.
Health
Owing to the extreme importance of thorough
knowledge and absolute accuracy in dealing with
medicines and with life and death situations, the use
of local or district leaders was deferred until 1923.
The Health Project was established in 1917 as part
of the development of KSAC President Anderson's
long-time project for better living in farm homes, his
plan to lighten women's labor, and make farm life
pleasant and attractive as well as profitable.
Sanitation was added as a phase of the health
project at that time. Parental education and child
welfare was added in 1933.
Only four Extension Specialists had worked in
the project up to 1965. They were:
Eula B. Butzerin, 1917-1918
Laura I. Winter, 1918-1919
W. Pearl Martin, 1919-1946
Martha Brill, 1946-1964
Pre-School Health Conferences—1922
Pre-school Child Health Conferences were started
in 1922. Doctors were working overtime on their own
practices, and some doctors did not approve of free
clinics. As a result medical aid was difficult to secure
for the conferences.
The Health Project was first designated as Home
Nursing. In 1924, the name was changed to Home
Health and Sanitation, and in 1953, to Health.
However, cooperation with the State Board of
Health and an occasional doctor made the County
Pre-school Child Health Conferences possible.
Health Teaching Methods
Methods for reaching people with the project used
by the first Extension Specialists were to meet the
farm women of a community in a centrally located
home and spend the day discussing their most pressing needs in health.
For example, in Ness County, in 1922, the Extension Health Specialist had the cooperation of the
nutrition specialist, Luella Sherman, and Dr. Mabelle
True from the State Board of Health.
As much teaching as time would permit was given
to the subjects of disease, its cause, care of children
in sickness, and first aid.
That group found it impossible to weigh, measure,
and examine all children brought to the conference.
It became necessary to limit examinations to children
under five years of age.
In 1917, Eula Butzerin followed the Kansas State
Agricultural College Chautauqua program for seven
weeks.
By the end of the week in Ness County, ten conferences had been held, eleven communities had
been visited, 858 persons had viewed the films "Out
of the Shadows" and "The Four M's in Milk," 24 talks
had been given, 149 children had been examined
and conferences had been held with more than 100
parents.
When the Chautauqua circuit was completed, she
participated in Extension classes, institutes, fairs and
other events where large numbers of people gathered.
Health interest was high during World War I.
Laura Winter worked on a schedule of ten days
in a county with lessons planned in a series of five.
She also attended institutes and gave lessons in
home nursing to a group of home economics seniors
on the campus.
The conferences revealed that few children had
sufficient milk. Poor posture, protruding shoulder
blades, unbrushed teeth, cavities in teeth, and enlarged tonsils were found.
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Mothers lacked knowledge of how to properly clothe children and had no regular bedtime for
them.
Girls' Health Clubs—1922
Health Clubs For Girls were initiated by W. Pearl
Martin, Health Specialist, in 1922 in Walnut, Crawford
County. Interest spread rapidly to other counties and
seven other clubs were organized.
The objectives were for the girls to improve their
health and food habits in a specified time.
Girls were given breathing exercises and exercises
to improve their posture. Health charts were provided
by the Extension Health Specialist on which the girls
could record their improvement. Domestic Science
teachers in high schools and school nurses helped
with the program.
By the end of 1923, Girls Health Clubs had been
organized in Crawford, Clay, Jefferson, Linn, and
Wyandotte counties. The clubs were then transferred to the 4-H Club Department for direction and
supervision.
Cleanup Campaigns—1922
Backyard Cleanup Campaigns began in Jefferson County in 1922. The purpose was eradication
of filth in all forms—destroying the breeding places
of flies, mosquitoes, rodents, and other vermin. Tin
cans were taken away and outbuildings were put in
order and purified. Landscaping of front and back
yards resulted from the campaign. The effect of the
cleanup campaigns carried through many years.
Mothers Vacation Camps—1925
About 1925, camps for mothers were started, with
one in Rice County, but organized by the women in
Reno County under the leadership of Maude Finley,
Millinery Specialist, and Edith Holmberg, Extension
Home Demonstration Agent
Pearl Martin, had finished a training meeting at the
W. M Reece farm home.
At the close of the meeting the Specialist remarked
to Mrs. Reece, "This would be an ideal place for a
play day on the first of May next year."
Mrs. Reece extended an invitation, and the following year, 1932, a county-wide meeting in Home
Health, Sanitation, and Recreation, with leaders from
six surrounding counties, was held at the Reece
farm home.
Build Home Showers—1932
Home-made showers were one of the outstanding
campaigns for sanitation in 1932. A bucket or barrel
was mounted in a frame or tree and a small hose
with spray nozzle attached.
At harvest time and during the summer months
the men on the farm realized the value of this device.
Many counties reported more than 100 showers
made and used.
Youth Health Contests
Health Contests in 4-H Club Work were an outgrowth of the first health clubs organized by the
Extension Health Specialist and later turned over to
the 4-H Club Department.
Health contests were usually conducted on a
county basis with the cooperation of doctors, school or
county nurses, and the County Extension Agents.
Gladys Vander Stelt from Wakefield, Clay County,
was the first member of a Health Club to be recognized
as a state winner in the health contest.
The Extension Home Demonstration Agent in Clay
County made the following statement in her annual
report for 1924:
The Health Club organized at Wakefield is progressing nicely. The work has been extended to
grade school pupils.
The three-day program consisted of tie-dying
and making of handkerchiefs, book reviews, flag
etiquette, singing, games, campfire periods, readings, story telling, posture, first aid, hikes, and music
appreciation. The last day was "reception day" for
the husbands and children.
The idea of Mothers' Camps spread. By 1937,
31 counties conducted the Mothers Camps with 486
women participating. One result was stimulation for
farm families to take planned vacations when time
and money were available.
Play Days For Women—1931
Play Day for rural women originated in Sedgwick
County. In 1931, the Extension Health Specialist,
The children of the various grades are weighed
and measured once each week. The leader gives
the children talks on food and health habits.
Gladys Vander Stelt, a member of the Health
Club won first place in the health contest held at
the 4-H Roundup at Manhattan.
Gladys scored 99.2 percent. She will be given
a trip to Chicago to the International Livestock Exposition and will represent Kansas in the national
health contest at that time.
Health contests continued through the years and
became an important factor in improved health among
4-H Club members particularly.
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Health Programs for Youth—1930's
4-H Club Programs included health activities
beginning in the early 1930's. Health talks by club
members at club meetings provided training for other
members, parents and leaders.
b) Keep poisons well marked and out of
reach of children
c) Keep first aid kit handy and filled
d) Make health and safety checks and
remove hazards
5) Assist Health Organizations:
Health demonstrations provided training and
instruction for the groups to whom the demonstrations were given. In 1949, 5,395 health talks and
demonstrations were prepared and presented by
4-H Club members.
a) Tuberculosis Association to fold seals,
assemble and mail letters; place posters in store windows; give radio programs; write newspaper stories; and
keep mailing list up to date.
A State Health Camp, provided the Extension
Health Specialist with an opportunity to train many
young leaders for the health program.
b) Polio Committee to place posters in
windows; give radio talks; write news
paper stories; sell blue crutches; conducted a wheel-chair race; raise funds
by airplane rides; and help with polio
census by telephone to determine
who received polio shots.
In 1960, the program at the State Health Camp
included:
Careers in Health.
First Aid.
c) Tuberculosis x-ray program to provide
baby sitters; provide transportation;
urge people to have x-rays taken.
Good Grooming.
Safety.
Fire Prevention.
d) County Health Council to assist with
fund raising; help with arrangements for a County Health Workshop; and assist with the county
health program and activities
Water Safety.
Outdoor Cookery.
Mental health phases were added to the health
program for 4-H Club members and leaders.
6) A Health Notebook
A 4-H Club health program was illustrated by
the state winning program of the Up-And-Atom 4-H
Club in Finney County in 1957. It was reported by
the Extension Health Specialist in her 1958 annual
report.
a) Keep a notebook with clippings, pictures, etc.
b) Help the Health Committee check
health sheets for younger members.
Health Specialist Veteran
In 1939, Pearl Martin made the following statement in her report:
The program included:
1) Keep a Health Library:
a) For health talks and demonstrations
Looking back over twenty years of health work
in the Extension Service, the Specialist has conducted some phase of health work in 101 counties
of Kansas.
b) For radio programs
c) For other organizations to use
2) Where Material May be Found:
She has witnessed the inception and growth of
its various phases and is most impressed by the
quality of the human element in this work.
a) Extension office
b) Magazines and Newspapers
c) Red Cross and County Health Nurse
The honest belief of farm men and women in
American ideals and the persistent effort of those
men and women to make life better in all possible
ways for themselves, their children, and their
neighbors, lead inevitably to an optimistic outlook
for the future.
d) Kansas State Health Department
e) Insurance Company literature
3) Talks and Demonstrations:
a) Given at Club meetings and 4-H Days
b) Given at County and State Fairs
Perhaps the summing up of the situation may
be best expressed by a remark of a farm man
recently:
c) Given before civic groups
4) Health in the Home:
a) Medicine cabinet - destroy old
medicines
"It is not yet possible for you to know the extent
of your teachings in health work."
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"But like the fine penetrating dust of our dust
storms of the west, the influence of your work
goes on and on - sifting to places and communities
- reaching individuals who need help - of which you
little dreamed."
Pearl Martin retired in 1946 after serving the people
of Kansas for 27 years as an Extension Specialist in
an important health program.
Public Health Units—1946
One phase of the health program was the Public
Health Units, stressed by Martha Brill when she
became the Extension Health Specialist in 1946.
There was much misunderstanding, but gradually
the idea was adopted as an important measure in a
health program. By 1950, 14 full-time health units
had been established.
One handicap was the shortage of trained personnel to be employed in that work. Gradually, however,
most of the counties of Kansas adopted a health
unit plan using authority granted under special laws
passed by the state legislature.
Disease Prevention—1949
Prevention of disease became the objective of the
Extension health program, including immunization for
children as protection from such diseases as small
pox, diptheria and measles (1949).
Coupled with a program for children was the adult
program in cancer control, tuberculosis tests, and
brucellosis tests.
Infantile paralysis was one of the serious diseases
until discovery of the Salk vaccine, which proved to
be almost 100 percent protection against the dreaded
infantile paralysis.
Coupled with these efforts was a program of
instruction on how to meet common emergencies
in the home, the use of new medicines and new
treatments available.
Health Insurance
Health insurance was endorsed as soon as available through Blue Cross and Blue Shield. County
Farm Bureaus took the lead in making the health
insurance program available to members as a group
and under group rates.
The program was well received and continued
for many years as an important benefit to member
of organizations that were sponsoring group memberships.
Hill-Burton Act, which provided funds as aid in the
construction of hospitals, became an important
factor in the stimulation of hospital construction in
many counties.
A state law that provided for county or community
hospitals also became an important factor in construction of needed medical facilities.
In 1951, 14 new hospitals were constructed in
rural areas, 13 in urban areas and 16 additions were
made to existing hospitals. Numerous communities
built clinic facilities, some by subscription.
They were rented to doctors, often young doctors
providing medical service not previously available
without driving from 50 to 100 miles.
Home Care—1950's
Home care of the sick received much attention
in the early years of the Extension health program.
Later, however, (1950 and later) home care became
more for those children with contagious diseases and
adults with chronic illness.
Health insurance and increased hospital space
permitted persons with other illnesses to receive
care in hospitals.
Facts About Health—1950's-60's
Health surveys were initiated in the late 1950's.
In Lyon County a health survey involved all medical
groups, home demonstration unit members and
8,000 households which were interviewed by 400
Extension cooperators.
A survey in Linn county was completed in 1957,
summarized, and the results presented to the people
of the county in a series of community meetings.
Actions as a result of the survey included:
1) The County Health Officer, Dr. Justus,
screened 144 persons for diabetes at the
county fair.
2) Dr. Justus gave 800 smallpox, 800 triple
vaccine immunizations, and 3,200 polio
shots. People also became interested in
taking training for First Aid.
The Great Plains Council made a health survey
in 1955 that proved very helpful in providing factual
data to be used in county health program planning.
In 1960, the Great Plains Council Health Committee further studied the health situation in their area
and considered procedures in these areas:
1) The aging population.
2) Mental health programs.
Improve Hospitals—1940's
Medical facilities were recognized as inadequate
in surveys made in the late 1940's. The Federal
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3) Safe water supplies; pre-school clinics for
children, to discover unnoticed ailments.
3) Civil Defense and radiological health.
4) Health screening.
4) First Aid schools to train leaders to meet
emegencies. All such activities continued
through the years.
5) Farm safety.
6) Water pollution.
A Cancer Survey was conducted in Dickinson
County in 1960. The County Cancer Society served
as hostess on days the examinations were to be
made. Facilities were provided at Herington and
Abilene.
After an extensive publicity program, 2,690
women took advantage of the testing program for
cervical cancer.
Community health programs were supported by
the Extension Home Demonstration Units in most
counties with activities such as county-wide testing
for undulant fever, rheumatic fever, tuberculosis,
cancer, and heart ailments, Red Cross home nursing
classes, showing of cancer and safety films, dental
examinations for children, and placing of first aid
kits in the schools.
Doctors from the county, the State Board of Health,
and from University of Kansas Medical Center worked
in the program and were assisted by nurses from the
State Board of Health, county nurses, and student
nurses from the Salina hospitals.
In 1957, the Kansas Medical Society furnished
30,000 copies of "Your Family Health Record," a form
for recording vaccinations, immunizations, types of
blood, and other pertinent data of vital interest to
each individual in a family.
The expense of the clinic was borne by the State
Board of Health. Only 90 cases were reported as
suspicious. These were referred to the family doctor
for further examination.
Immunization Programs--1950's-60's
The major Extension health promotions of the late
50's and early 60's were centered around campaigns
to get people immunized against polio and other
communicable diseases.
That program led to interest in a diabetes and
glaucoma screening program for 1961. The Dickinson
County Medical Association opposed the idea so a
clinic was not conducted.
Extension, as with many of the childhood immunization efforts, was there to help support public
health immunization clinics.
The doctors did favor a clinic for giving tetanus
and polio shots. Shots for diptheria and whooping
cough were also included later.
Extension volunteers were always available to
register people, serve refreshments, and provide
support to those conducting the clinics.
The county health officer, the county health nurse,
and a gray lady cooperated with two doctors from the
State Board of Health in holding the clinics.
The late 60's brought the era of health education
to Extension. No longer were people dying from
tuberculosis, diphtheria, small pox, typhoid fever,
polio, influenza and pneumonia. Now it was time
to focus on health problems brought on by poor
health habits.
Similar work was done in various counties over the
state as interest and cooperation became evident.
Community Health—1950's
Programs related to community health were implemented, in the 1950's and later, as a result of interest
developed in the Extension Health Program.
Extension had been participating for many years
in health promotion activity but now the focus would
move away from immunization and personal cleanliness to teaching people about lifestyle related health
problems.
The community health programs included organization of Health Councils which devoted their
efforts to:
Drug Abuse Programs—1950's-70's
One early program was the "woman alcoholic." Extension cooperated with the Kansas Department of Health
to call attention to alcohol problems among women.
1) Having a supply of safe milk such as Grade A
Milk.
2) Clean-up campaigns to eliminate filth and
breeding places for flies and mosquitoes, removal of unsightly areas about towns and
rural residences.
Colorful publications and promotional material
were printed and distributed by both county Extension offices and county health offices.
A second campaign followed with equal emphasis.
This campaign was against drugs. The late
146
60's and early 70's were devoted to substance
abuse.
166 Prepared a Civil Defense first aid kit.
214 Had a seven-day supply of water and
food on hand for emergency use.
The Extension Service formed a large planning
committee to develop educational programs which
would help combat the drug problem, which had
been intensified in some communities by returning
servicemen from Southeast Asia.
343 Had a battery radio ready for use when
power goes off.
530 Families had cleaned the attic, basement,
garage, closets, stairways, etc., of possible fire hazards.
The program was organized similar to the woman
alcoholic. Colorful resource materials were produced and distributed by the Extension education
network.
151 Installed home fire fighting equipment.
331 Learned first aid and home nursing procedures for civil defense emergencies.
Films on drug prevention education were available
for check-out from the Extension film library.
218 Learned how to rescue trapped persons.
The Civil Defense program in the Extension Service was centered in the departments of Extension
Engineering and Continuing Education.
Nursing Homes—1958
Nursing homes were first mentioned in the reports
of the Extension Health Specialist in 1958. The place
of a nursing home in the plans for health facilities
was realized when hospital facilities were considered.
Special state laws were enacted pertaining to licensing and supervision of nursing homes.
Health Specialists—1978
In January 1978, Martha Brill, who had served
for 33 years as Extension Specialist, Health, retired.
Martha had seen, in her tenure, many of the great
advances in public health.
Most notable was a gradual raising of the general
standard of living and improvement in sanitation and
housing.
Many such homes were constructed during the
ten-year period 1955-64. Extension leaders worked
with nursing home operators to help the patients
enjoy their time by supplying magazines, handicraft
materials, and entertainment.
During her tenure, communities improved drinking
water standards, and established adequate sewage
disposal and control of garbage.
Health During Emergencies
Civil Defense activities were incorporated into
the Health Program and first reported in 1958 by the
Extension Health Specialist.
In July 1978, Michael Bradshaw began work as
Extension Health Specialist.
School Immunization—1970's-80's
The health program continued to focus on disease
prevention. The first Extension health program was
an immunization program to increase immunization
levels of Kansas preschool children.
Instruction was given on how to feed, clothe, house
and otherwise care for evacuated persons or those
injured by floods, fire, tornado, or other disaster.
To some leaders this activity seemed quite remote
but others devoted much attention to this means of
preparedness for any disaster. In Barton County,
for example, the following accomplishments were
reported in 1958:
Gail Imig, Extension Assistant Director, suggested
that Extension homemakers should receive national
recognition for their educational programs and community service.
Extension homemakers wrote up their immunization project and received second place in the National
Homemaker Health Awards Program.
98 Families prepared a shelter for use in case
of a natural or man-made disaster.
511 Learned where the Conelrad frequencies
were on the radio dial.
Colo-Rectal Cancer Education—1980's
Health programming the next year focused on
colo-rectal cancer education. The Kansas Division
of the American Cancer Society donated $12,000
for cancer detection kits and literature for the campaign.
147 Prepared an emergency evacuation kit of
supplies needed.
484 Learned where to shut off gas, oil tanks,
etc. which might cause fires.
459 Arranged for emergency lighting when
electric power goes off.
Several newspaper accounts recognized Extension with helping people detect cancer easily so they
could be treated.
147
Extension homemakers again entered the National Awards Program. This time they won first
place.
funds were provided and the grant was expanded
to include all children and adults in the promotion of
safety restraints.
The Kansas Division of the American Cancer
Society likewise received first place in their state
education recognition program.
Safety belt use rates increased from almost no use,
5-6 percent for adults and 2-3 percent for children,
to almost 50 percent for adults and 40 percent for
children. By 1988, the grant is in its eighth year.
Prior to Kansas entering the three-year education
rotation program the Extension health and safety
program received nine separate citations for health
and safety programs.
Child Safety Series—1980's
Home Economics safety was transferred from
the Equipment Specialist to the Health Specialist
in 1980.
The Extension Safety Belt Office operated child
safety seat loaner programs in 105 counties and
operated a safety belt convincer.
The Health and Safety Education program has
provided a variety of programs for the 80'S. Some
of the titles include:
Feeling Great: Exercise for All (1980).
Safety Belt Program—1980's
One of the first programs following that transfer
was a child safety series to be used by Extension
Agents to promote safety in the home.
The Cancer Nobody Talks About (1980).
The next year an Extension Safety program
submitted a proposal to the Kansas Department of
Transportation to promote the child safety law which
had just been passed by the Kansas legislature.
Make It Click (1983).
A Personal Plan for Good Health (1981).
What You Should Know About Medicare (1982).
Feeling Great: Health in Later Years (1983).
Because We Care: Remove Drunk Drivers from
Our Highways (1984).
Health Care Consumer (1985).
A $500,000 grant was patterned after traditional
Extension programs. The only difference was the
need to show Extension audiences the violent impact that occupants without seat belts experience
in a car crash.
The Kansas Department of Transportation agreed
to purchase video cassette recorders for all Extension
offices and 30 TV monitors for some of the smaller
counties.
In addition, the grant provided new equipment
($37,000) for Extension's growing video production
studio.
During the second year of the grant, additional
Treatment and Early Detection of Breast Cancer
(1986).
Spring Health Update - AIDS, Menopause, PMS,
etc. (1987).
Want to Lose Weight? Exercise! (1988).
Medicare Education—1981
Extension health programming moved in 1981
to a program to help older people better understand
medicare.
Kansas Medicare provided support funds of
$5,000 to develop flip charts and slide programs to
help people better understand Medicare.
Home Furnishings
Instruction in the field of home furnishings was
given entirely in Farmers' Institutes and movable
schools prior to 1919, as part of the program of home
management.
The plans of work for the home management project included as one of the three subprojects, Home
furnishings and decoration, including refinishing of
wood and furniture.
In 1919, the home management project was
organized and in 1920 homemakers began to be
reached by community meetings.
The subproject was divided into three phases;
1) Color schemes.
2) Refinishing and remodeling furniture.
In 1921, the first leader training meetings were
held for home management.
3) Floor coverings and draperies.
148
Meetings for the purpose of discussing the
home furnishings phases of the project were held in
homes. Women were asked to bring their problems
for discussion.
Specialist, as Home Furnishings had been approved
as a separate project.
Interest in the project grew fairly rapidly. Maude
Deely was assisted in special areas at times by the
Extension Home Management Specialist and the
Extension Architect.
At first, the topics discussed were almost exclusively about kitchen improvement but interest
was stimulated to the point where the homemakers
asked for help on the dining room, living room, and
bedroom.
On July 1, 1938, a second specialist was employed
for Home Furnishings.
Home Furnishings Subprojects— 1938
The Home Furnishings Project was divided into
five subprojects:
In her report for 1921, Frances Brown, State
Leader, stated:
While splendid work has been accomplished
that has been of lasting benefit to all the women
concerned, it is for many reasons a difficult project
to put across, but even the less tangible results are
well worth the effort.
1) Living room improvement (changed to family
room in 1934).
2) Living room improvement continued
(changed to Interest Centers).
The problem of home decoration has been of a
minor nature, only three counties reporting any time
spent on that phase of the home, and in each case
it was the decorating or the refitting of the room with
new hangings.
3) Bedroom improvement.
4) District training schools for Home
Demonstration Agents.
5) 4-H Club home improvement.
From that point interest in the home fur-nishings
project increased. Improvements in the kitchen stimulated interest in making changes in other rooms.
In 1933 there was added:
6) Dining room improvement.
7) Laundry methods (dropped one year later).
In 1925, home management was placed on a
three-year basis; improvements for general efficiency
the first year, home furnishings the second, and living
room improvement the third year.
In 1936, subproject revisions were to:
1) Furnishing the Livable Home.
2) Renovation of Furniture.
Home furnishings results were measured in:
3) Consumer Education.
1) Saving of time, money, labor, and old
materials.
4) Handicraft.
In 1938, the subprojects 2 and 4 which contributed
to furnishing the livable home, were transferred to subproject 1, leaving only 1 and 3 subprojects—Furnishing the Livable Home, and Consumer Education.
2) More attractive and livable homes.
3) Development of leadership.
The early project leaders were inefficient and
somewhat uninterested but gradually better leaders
developed in each county carrying the project.
Project program planning was first done with the
County Extension Home Demonstration Agents in the
counties in which the work was conducted.
Home Furnishings Specialists— 1929
By 1929, interest in the home management and
home furnishings program had developed to the
extent that two specialists were necessary.
The instruction was divided into unit lessons which
were given by the Extension Specialists in the counties requesting such assistance.
In the late 1930's, however, most of the planning was shifted to the leaders of county groups
who discussed those factors they believed to be
fundamental to satisfying and stimulating home life
and how home furnishings could contribute to that
program of home living.
Marguerite Harper and Alpha Latzke were serving as Extension Home Management Specialists in
1929.
Maude Deely, Millinery Specialist, assisted by
giving instruction in color for the kitchen and also
established demonstrations for bedrooms in five
counties.
Leaders became very effective. Two leaders were
selected from each unit in each county to carry the
project for the year. Many had perfect attendance
at the training meetings.
On December 1, 1930, Maude Deely was transferred to the position of Extension Home Furnishings
149
Extension Home Demonstration Agents were also
given special training by the Extension Specialist so
that they would be fully informed of the objectives of
the project and could assist leaders in case of illness
or other emergency.
furniture.
4,450 Homemakers were given information on
buying furnishings.
Subproject 6—Crafts
10,244 Families used handicraft suggestion.
Demonstration homes were established and used
effectively for teaching home furnishings to homemakers. In some cases only one room in a home
was used for a demonstration.
1,707 Rugs were made.
General Accomplishments:
16,942 Persons were reached outside the home
demonstration units.
The public was also reached with radio talks,
newspaper publicity, and project exhibits at the county
and state fairs.
A Better Homes Train was sponsored by the
College and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1936. The
Extension Specialists in Home Economics devoted
considerable time preparing exhibits for the train.
A total of 67,192 individuals were reached at the
stops made.
Home Furnishings— 1940's
By 1949, after having been without an Extension
Specialist since 1945, the home furnishings program
created much interest again. The annual report for
1949 listed the following accomplishments:
Subproject 1— Furnishing Livable Home
4,058 Families assisted with arrangement of
rooms.
5,017 Families assisted with selection of
backgrounds in the home.
5,216 Families improved selection and
construction of window treatments.
1,786 4-H Club members were enrolled in the
Home Improvement project.
Furnishings Specialists Change—1952
In 1952, Winona Starkey was appointed as Extension Home Furnishings Specialist and served in that
position without an assistant until July 1, 1956 when
Donice Hawes was employed.
She was succeeded by Ruth Kubler who worked
until August 9, 1963 when she resigned to be married.
An assistant wasn't employed after Ruth Kubler's
resignation.
Furnishings Programs—1950's & 60's
During the years following 1952 to 1970, Winona
Starkey, and her assistant, when there was one,
conducted an Extension Home Furnishings program
that was developed with leaders in the counties. The
program included educational and demonstrational
work in:
Room arrangement and use of accessories.
Floor coverings and floor finishes.
6,312 Families assisted in applying principles
of color and design in room improvement.
Home furnishing fabrics.
Furniture arrangement.
Selection of pictures.
Subproject 5 —Selection of Furnishings
8,518 Families assisted in improving
methods of repairing, remodeling,
and refinishing furniture.
Conservation of furniture.
6,675 Pieces of furniture were refinished.
Selection of wall finishes.
4,396 Pieces of furniture were upholstered.
4-H Club room improvement.
3,040 Pieces of furniture were slip-covered.
Upholstery schools for Home Agents.
8,203 Pieces of furniture were repaired by gluing, bracing, and simple upholstery.
Slip cover schools for Home Agents.
8,125 Families were assisted with conservation
of furnishings.
887 Pieces of furniture were recaned.
Window treatment.
Consumer information in home furnishings.
Color and art in the home.
The 1957 Annual Report, the last to include comparable information in Extension Home Furnishings,
listed the following accomplish- ments:
1,882 Homemakers were assisted with selection
of household linens.
544 Families were assisted with selection of
rugs.
943
Families were assisted with selection of
150
45,710
Persons adopted improved practices.
13,478
Families improved arrangement of
furniture.
16,492
Homemakers repaired, remodeled or
refinished furniture.
They were helped to recondition furniture damaged by flood waters. In some cases furniture buying
information was given to families with furniture too
badly damaged to be reconditioned.
4,536
Pieces of furniture were finished.
2,745
Pieces of furniture were upholstered.
2,129
Pieces of furniture were slipcovered.
1,421
Box cushions were repaired.
5,140
Pieces of furniture were repaired bracing,
gluing, simple upholstery or repair.
7,831
Families received information on
conservation of furniture.
6,731
Families improved window curtains and
shades.
26,874
Families applied principles of color and
design in room improvement.
521
11,176
7,935
4,428
45
Workshops were conducted to help with furniture
repair and refinishing, simple carpentry work, and
making slipcovers for furniture.
Families improved selection of floor
coverings.
Families improved selection of furniture.
Special interest lessons given by home
economics agents.
2,580
Leaders trained by specialists in 83
counties.
489
Training schools were conducted for 4-H Club
leaders in the room improvement project and for
wood finishing over the years.
Homemakers trained in selection of
pictures.
Homemakers attended the special interest
lessons.
5,068
The Extension Agents and Specialists visited 8,593
homes to give assistance on how to treat floors, woodwork, doors, walls and wall paper, furniture, fabrics,
books and other papers that had been flooded and
needed to be dried.
Pieces of furniture were recaned.
4,837
178
Several Emergency Assistant Extension Home
Demonstration Agents were employed to assist with
the flood recovery work.
After World War II when the G. I. (Govern- ment
Issue) training program was conducted, the Extension Home Furnishing Specialist gave the former
servicemen and their wives help in general home
improvement.
These session including emphasis on color selection, furniture refinishing, floor coverings, room
arrangement, etc.
Leader training meetings held by
specialists.
Leaders attended the leader training
meetings.
The requests for assistance of the Extension
Home Furnishings Specialist greatly exceeded the
time available.
4-H Club room improvement leaders were
trained.
During late 1951 and the first six months of 1952,
assistance was given to families that lived in the
lowlands of the Kansas River and other river valleys
that were flooded in July and August of 1951.
To meet the requests as completely as possible,
Extension Home Economics Agents were given
training in all phases of home furnishings to prepare
them to help provide assistance to homemakers, as
time permitted.
Housing
Perhaps the first housing training schools for
Extension Home Demonstration Agents was held
in 1918, relating to the use of electricity in the
homes.
home was organized, and over a number of years
reached every county of the state.
Kitchen Improvement—1918
Major emphasis was given to kitchen improvement during the first quarter century of organized
Extension work. In her report for 1939, the Extension
Specialist, stated:
The next mention of electricity in homes was in
the 1924 Annual Report, when a meeting was held
in Shawnee County where a salesman demonstrated
the use of electric fireless cookers.
The birth of the kitchen improvement program
was sometime between July of 1918 and July of
1919, as a result of the campaign started on fuelsaving devices.
In 1937, after the establishment of the Rural
Electrification Administration, a statewide program
on the selection and care of electric equipment in the
151
The work which was done on kitchens until 1922 in
the state was almost entirely personal assistance.
timely and correct information, increased the desire
for change.
From 1923 on to the present time, one of the aims
of the home management project has been to assist
the homemakers in improving their kitchens.
Housing was a program that provided information
so women could learn the new concepts of housing
and then serve as leaders to teach the concepts.
Curiously enough, the method used was a
kitchen contest. A meeting was scheduled in a
home in each community where the women of the
community could attend.
At that meeting the kitchen plan was discussed
and changes were offered. The kitchen was then
scored and the use of the score card was explained
to the women.
The gain or improvement was to be based on
original scoring and the scoring after the improvements were made.
Home Improvements—1920's
Out of that effort grew the adoption of practices in
home plumbing, installation of water systems, kitchen
planning, floor coverings, and home decoration.
Homes throughout Kansas featured planned kitchens using K-State research on work flow, arrangement
of equipment, and many other concepts.
It was not unusual for a family to talk about planning their kitchen and how much it improved the way
tasks were performed.
Housing Programs—1930's
Some of the early Extension educational programs
in housing included:
l) During dust bowl days homemakers were
taught to use wet dishcloths placed in windows
to keep dust out.
2) Hand dug wells were replaced by drilled wells.
3) A wooden storage area was built on one side
of a well to hold butter and milk.
Kitchen improvement was carried to the public
first at Wichita when an exhibit, a model kitchen, was
shown at the Road and Tractor Show which extended
from February 22 to 25, 1927.
That demonstration was largely the result of the
inspiration and effort of Laura I. Winter, then Extension
Home Demonstration Agent in Sedgwick County.
4) Hand pumps were placed near kitchen sinks
when well water became available in homes.
5) Privies (outdoor toilets) were limed to keep
down odors.
With the cooperation of the Extension Architect,
Walter Ward, a similar model kitchen exhibit was
used until 1934.
Housing Programs—1940's
Rural electrification made it possible to use home
appliances and required information on their placement, including studies of traffic patterns.
In 1930, a model kitchen was exhibited on the
Wheat Train which toured the Santa Fe and Rock
Island railway systems in Kansas.
Demonstrations were given on placing the refrigerator inside the kitchen rather than on the back
porch, where the ice box had usually been kept.
Changes in Housing—1930's-80's
Changes in housing were brought about by shifts
in population, size and forms of families, changes in
technology as electricity came to the rural areas in
the 1940's and as rural water districts formed, starting in the 1950's.
Basically, the homes in Kansas in the 1980's still
looked much as they had 50 years before.
Many families preferred to remodel or restore
their homes rather than accept some of the newer,
smaller, more efficient homes.
Some of the major structural changes in homes
included passive solar and earth contact homes.
Home ownership was made possible through the
Farmers Home Administration (FmHA) and Federal
Housing Authority (FHA).
Extension housing plans were developed to help
families build homes. Extension Specialists made
county visits to assist families with their plans.
Septic tanks and indoor plumbing made bathrooms
possible and kitchens more modern.
Remodeling Homes, Churches, Other
Powerline electricity developed much interest in
remodeling old houses to include modern kitchens
and bathrooms, and in new house construction.
Extension Agents, as change agents providing
152
As a result of leader training in the housing area,
many requests for personal assistance came to the
Extension Home Demonstration Agents and the
Extension Specialist in that field.
interested in new houses and those interested in
remodeling.
The participants were highly pleased with the
help received from the Specialists. Storage was
emphasized in all discussions of housing.
Churches and other institutions requested and
were given assistance in planning kitchens, storage
and other facilities in the architectural and home
management field.
Leader training in the housing field was continued
during the late 1950's. The trained leaders were able
to give much assistance to their neighbors, especially
those interested in remodeling.
Community buildings without food preparation or
dining facilities were remodeled in these respects by
the groups of Extension leaders and others who used
those buildings for their common meeting places.
The Specialists and Agents reached large
numbers of people with their radio and television
programs.
By 1955, the annual report gave these accomplishments in this area:
The accomplishments each year were similar
to those just previously mentioned. In 1959, for
example:
1,199 Families built new homes.
5,041 Families remodeled homes.
13,143 Families improved the storage space in
their homes.
7,385 Families improved their kitchens or
laundry facilities.
1,478 Families built new homes.
11,442 Families improved their storage space.
1,368 Families repaired homes.
2,913 Families installed a water and/or
sewage system.
4,003 Families installed water systems.
13,649 Families in 53 counties reported helping
other families who had not taken
advantage of the Extension housing
program by direct participation.
3,049 Families selected and installed heating
and cooling equipment.
28,019 Families were assisted with fire prevention in the home.
"Housing For the Life Span" was the subject for
study by a group of 37 leaders in Franklin County in
1963. The study included the variation in housing
needs for a family with small children, teenagers,
the couple only, and retirement.
45,316 Families were assisted with safety
practices.
Housing Programs—1950's
Kansas State research on counter top heights,
work flow, and kitchen arrangement helped families
have more efficient work areas.
Displaced families in the Tuttle Creek and Milford
Reservoir areas were given assistance in remodeling and new house construction, and leaders were
trained for giving further assistance to such families
during 1963.
Air conditioning and central heat opened up the
total home for family use.
Urban counties formed Extension units as families
moved to cities and as city families found out about
Extension Home Economics. A National Housing
Conference was held at Kansas State University.
Housing Programs—1960's
Educational programs were presented on manufactured housing, then called mobile homes, to help
families choose safe housing that was affordable as
housing became more clustered in housing developments.
Agent/Leader Housing Training—1956
In 1956, the Extension Specialist and the Extension Architect began a series of training schools for
Extension Home Demonstration Agents in the field
of housing.
Site selection and land use programs were popular. Codes and zoning programs related to housing
helped communities plan.
By such training the Home Agents were able to
service many families that were impossible to reach
by the Specialist because of the time.
Housing Programs—1970's
Alternative housing programs for local housing
authorities, builders, developers, and community
leaders looked at the economic impact of housing
and the types of housing that could meet economic
and social needs of families.
A workshop was held in Wichita with a large special interest group dealing with the subject, "Build or
Buy." The group was divided into two groups, those
153
The PRIDE community development program on
housing included an evaluation form, so that HUD
funds could be applied for after the community had
assessed housing needs related to saving energy
during the energy crisis.
Energy Extension organized a housing course
for credit in Home Economics, Architecture, and
Engineering.
Programs in the 1980's
Housing programs in the 1980's included programs on housing needs, living in smaller spaces,
remodeling, and storage.
Interior design programs included home furnishings on a budget, energy conserving window
treatments, and do-it-yourself skills with paint and
wallpaper.
Recreation
The Recreation Project was created July 1, 1938,
with Doris Compton as the first Extension Recreation
Specialist.
Recreation programs, however, dated back to
the work done by W. Pearl Martin, Extension Health
Specialist, in 1934.
The annual report for 1934 states:
A special feature was introduced in the 1934
Farm and Home Week program known as Home
Talent Night. The purpose of this feature was to
encourage home talent entertainment.
The plan asked that all entries should have
presented their numbers in their counties and have
been judged by someone from the College before
entering the festival.
The feature was planned as a contest, with
prizes for musical numbers and other prizes for the
drama productions. The activity was placed under
the supervision of the new Extension Recreation
Specialist in 1938.
Emphasis was then placed upon work in voice,
diction, and music. Home Talent Night was expanded
to two nights. Prizes were replaced with helpful
criticisms of the various productions.
Participants were encouraged to perform their
numbers in their home counties whenever they had
an opportunity.
The Recreation Specialist gave instruction in play
directing, and play writing, using historical material
available in every county of the state.
Training in giving demonstrations was offered 4-H
Club members. New music groups were organized
and given instruction by volunteer directors from
the schools, or other people in the county trained
in music.
In 1939, the following subprojects were
planned:
1) Dramatic Production.
2) Speech Education.
By 1944, two other subprojects had been
added:
4) Games.
5) Handicrafts.
Handicrafts was dropped in 1945 because it
overlapped with similar work in the home furnishings
project. It was reinstated in the Recreation Project
in 1952.
Family Recreation
World War II brought about a great sense of duty to
one's work on the part of every family and recreational
activities were curtailed to a large extent.
By 1944, however, a renewed interest had developed in recreation. Families had been dedicated
to work for the war effort and realized the need for
some relaxation.
In 1944, according to the annual report of the
Extension Recreation Specialist, 145 plays were produced with 694 persons in the casts. This compared
with 88 plays and 538 people involved in 1943.
Families were learning how to have fun at home
as a family. Assistance was given in planning a family
fun program to 11,040 families.
People became more interested in organized
music groups. Thirty-nine Extension groups made
113 public appearances during 1944.
Training in how to lead games was given to leaders
of 4-H Clubs and home demonstration units.
Such training was a factor in communities becoming interested in a recreation program, community
recreation halls and the employment of recreation
directors.
The handicrafts work in 1944 included the making
of woodcuts, block prints, textile painting, weaving,
and similar activities.
3) Music.
154
Recreation Program—1945
The scope of the recreation program was outlined
in the 1945 report of the Extension Recreation Specialist as follows:
Recreation Project included these sub-projects:
1) Group and Community Programming.
2) Family and Home Recreation.
3) Handicraft and Home Skills.
1) Dramatic Production
a) Producing a play; lighting, scenery,
make-up.
In 1955 accomplishments in the Group and Community Programming subproject included:
b) Direction of a play; planning action,
helping the actor, backstage
1) Recreation programs in 37 communities.
2) 676 vocal groups.
organization.
3) 431 instrumental groups, instruction in folk
dancing, informal dramatics.
c) Writing and staging original plays
and pageants.
4) 67 groups used plans from the loan library.
d) Marionette shows and shadow pictures.
5) 700 attended the homemakers camps.
e) Story telling and reading aloud.
6) 344 softball teams participated in organized
leagues.
f)
7) 223 basketball teams in organized leagues.
Writing, producing radio programs.
2) Speech Education
8) 63 volleyball teams in organized leagues.
a) Building a good speaking mechanism.
The Family and Home Recreation subproject, in
1955, included: four leader training lessons on family recreation, one on hobbies, and two on outdoor
cookery.
b) Personal expression.
c) Demonstrations and project talks.
d) Choral speaking groups.
The Home Talent Night program given at the Farm
and Home Week Program started in 1934, and was
continued until the Farm and Home Week Program
was discontinued in 1957.
e) Word sound and study.
f)
Poetry reading.
g) Discussion practice.
h) Family recreation.
i)
Recreation Program Revision—1949
The recreation specialist position was vacant
from December 1, 1948, until November 1, 1949, at
which time Virginia Lee Green became the Extension
Recreation Specialist.
Understanding our neighbor.
3) Music
a) Women’s chorus.
b) Mixed chorus.
After a year of study and surveying, the Recreation Project was rewritten with the following
subprojects:
c) Quartets and sextets.
d) Group singing.
e) Music festivals.
f)
1) Dramatics.
Fun in music.
2) Music.
4) Games
3) Games and Dances.
a) Games of the month.
4) Handicrafts and Hobbies.
b) Game leadership.
5) Nature and Outings.
c) Community recreation.
6) Sports and Contests.
State Recreation Workshop—1945
For years the Extension Recreation Specialist
assisted with the State Recreation Workshop which
was started in 1945, at the State 4-H Leaders Conference.
The Dramatics and Music programs continued
much as previously mentioned. The Games and
Dances program included a monthly publication,
Whirl of Fun.
Square Dancing became popular. Authentic Folk
Dances were included in the program for the development of an appreciation and perfection in rhythmic
performance.
Ellen Batchelor, Home Crafts Specialists, conducted a radio program over KSAC Homemakers'
Hour from March 2, 1945, until August 31, 1960.
Handicrafts were developed for:
On December 1, 1954, the Plan of Work for the
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1) Use of leisure time.
colorless metal lacquer.
2) Creative activity.
Home Crafts—1956
Home Crafts work in 1956 included:
3) Activity for the aged.
4) Activity for 4-H Club and homemakers' camps.
1) Making sight-saving lamps and shades.
Nature and Outings included instruction for people
with responsibilities for camp leadership. Camp leaders were instructed in how to plan a well-balanced
round-the-clock program.
Personal assistance was given each state camp
for 4-H Club members and homemakers, and to as
many county camps as time permitted.
Instruction in Sports and Contests was given in
connection with camp leadership.
Recreation Specialists—1952
On November 3, 1952, Shirley Bessy was appointed Extension Recreation Specialist. On July
1, 1953, Ellen Batchelor was appointed Extension
Specialist in Home Crafts and was responsible for
the Handicrafts and Hobbies subproject of the recreation project.
Recreation Program--1953
In 59 counties during 1953, 3,699 adult leaders and an unknown number of 4-H leaders taught
others in their communities how to tool and lace
leather articles and how to bring leather items back
to useful life.
Sight-Saving Lamp shades were another article
made by leaders with instruction from the Extension
Crafts Specialists and the cooperation of the Extension Home Furnishings Specialist who helped select
colors. Satisfactory lamp shades were not on the
market so the women made them.
2) Rug making.
3) Leather work.
4) Household accessories.
5) Craft days.
6) Crafts for mothers vacation camps.
Training was given to County Extension Home
Demonstration Agents and leaders in these lines
of work.
Drop Recreation Project--1957
On October 1, 1956, Shirley Bessy, Extension
Recreation Specialist, took leave without pay due
to illness. Upon her resignation June 30, 1957, the
Recreation Project was discontinued.
The Plan of Work for the year beginning December
1, 1957 contained only Home Crafts work, with Ellen
Batchelor as Extension Specialist.
Later, recreation work was centered in the 4-H
Club Department.
Rug Making—1958
Rug making received major attention in the 1958
annual report prepared by Ellen Batchelor, with some
attention given to lamp shades.
Mosaics—1959
Design as Applied to Mosaics was the title of a
lesson requested by the Home Demonstration Agents
in four counties for 1959.
Rugmaking began in 1953 as an activity for
older women. Later a survey of those participating
showed 46 percent of the women were under 30
years of age.
Ellen Batchelor, with the assistance of Mrs. L.
E. Call, former member of the Department of Art,
and others organized lesson material on mosaic
construction.
Rugmaking techniques, creation of designs, and
selection of materials were included in the instruction.
Emphasis was on the "joy of work," not speed.
The Extension Home Demonstration Agents
and two lay leaders from each of the four counties
devoted three days to training in this field. Instruction included:
Metal work also received attention in 1953. The
work was limited to tooling 28-38 gauge copper,
aluminum and brass. Wall plaques were not emphasized but many were made. Planter boxes and
picture frames were most common.
Tooled copper was usually colored a little by
heat. Occasionally a little green was added by
chemicals.
No enamel, colored lacquer or paint was used to
color the metals, although they were protected by
1) Problems involved in teaching crafts.
2) History of mosaics.
3) Designing mosaics.
4) Techniques of using different materials in
mosaics.
Bits of crockery, glass, vinyl, plastic, unglazed floor
tile, marbles, ceramic tile, and some Italian colored
glass were used in demonstration work.
Each trainee left the school with two or more
156
articles to which mosaic pieces had been applied.
by Ellen Batchelor over station KSAC from March
4, 1944, to August 31, 1960, was one of the most
popular of all radio programs among the homemakers of Kansas.
The Agents and leaders followed up by assisting
homemakers in their counties who were interest in
mosaic art work.
Batchelor drew from her broad experience while
working with the homemakers of Kansas from the
time of her first employment as County Extension
Home Demonstration Agent in Wyandotte County
in 1917.
Stained Glass—1959-60
The work in mosaics created more interest in
stained glass. The home agent in Graham County
requested training for leaders in the area of stained
glass. Miss Batchelor planned a lesson for them.
The leaders visited churches with outstanding Gothic
stained glass windows and compared them with
American art-glass.
In an August KSAC Radio Program was this
statement:
Ellen Concludes Broadcasting
Two exhibits on this subject were shown at the
Graham County fair. The leaders taught 250 other
homemakers their understanding of stained glass.
(1959 and 1960)
Ellen Batchelor can best be described as 'a
woman you would like to know better' and KSAC
listeners have come to know her intimately through
her weekly broadcasts over OUR FAMILY CIRCLE,
Wednesday and Friday morning from 10:15 to
10:30.
The State Recreation Workshop and Craft Camp
in North-Central counties (conducted by 16 home
agents) were given assistance in 1959 and 1960 by
the crafts specialists. Instruction was given in:
With a quick, philosophical and understanding
mind, Ellen explores everyday happenings. Her
humane discussions have endeared her to many
listeners hearts. With a sincere interest in people
and a desire to help her fellow man, Ellen exemplifies the type of individual you would like to have
living next door.
1) Tin work.
2) Textile painting.
3) Shell craft.
4) Wood fiber flowers.
And, for that very reason, Station KSAC listeners have counted her among their friends for more
than sixteen years.
5) Rug making.
6) Mosaic tile trivets.
7) Gift wrapping.
Broadcasting continuously since March 4, 1944,
Ellen now retires from the air to direct her entire
time to compiling the Kansas Extension Service
history.
8) Weaving with yucca leaves and cattails.
9) Basket making.
Radio Tribute—1960
"Our Family Circle," a radio program presented
The final broadcast of OUR FAMILY CIRCLE
will be in recognition of Ellen's devoted service to
KSAC and her listeners.
Recent Extension Home Economics Programs
A major program effort called FOCUS was
launched under the leadership of Shirley White,
State Leader of Extension Home Economics in
November 1967.
Issue Programming—1970's
Extension Home Economics adopted a problemsolving approach to program planning and delivery,
in the mid 1970's under the direction of Gail Imig,
Assistant Director, Extension Home Economics.
The FOCUS effort was developed to expand and
reach new audiences and to expand the content,
depth, and breadth of subject matter offered.
Quality of Living programs centered on six
broad areas: human nutrition, consumer concerns,
children and families, family housing, family health
and safety, community development and leadership
development.
New audiences targeted included: farm families,
rural non-farm families, and urban families. Disadvantaged or low-income groups and young homemakers
became more involved with Extension. The major
components emphasized in FOCUS were utilized
for approximately 10 years.
The program evolved into a smaller staff because
of State and Federal budget cuts affecting Extension.
157
College of Home Ec Merger—1985
In 1983, President of Kansas State University,
Duane Acker, asked for the merging of Extension
Home Economics with the College of Home Economics. It was hoped that two primary benefits would be
achieved with the merger:
Budget Freezes—1988
As a result of retirements, resignations, and budget freezes, the Extension Home Economics staff in
1988 was reduced to an all-time low of seven fulltime Extension Specialists, compared to 20 full-time
Specialist positions in 1965.
1) By working closely with research and teaching personnel, Extension Specialists would
be able to deliver the best possible programs
to Extension Home Economics clientele.
Five to eight Extension Assistants were hired to
work part-time on special projects to help meet the
critical need for stuff.
2) Closer collaboration among Extension, teaching and research faculty would enhance the
professional growth, development and out
put of faculty in all three program areas.
Home Ec Programs Trends
Specialist and Agent programs have become
more interdisciplinary with program themes revolving
around "Healthy Lifestyles" and "Living Resourcefully."
A task force was appointed to make recommendations for the merger. In the summer of 1985,
Extension Home Economics Specialists moved out
of Umberger Hall to Justin Hall, from under the College of Agriculture administration, to the College of
Home Economics administration.
The Extension Home Economics Specialists
continued to be housed together, this time in a suite
of offices in Justin Hall. The Specialists became administratively responsible to department heads, and
programmatically responsible to the Assistant Director for Extension Home Economics programs.
Educational programs in Extension Home Economics found more on issues and problems of people
than on a single discipline or topic.
The Kansas Cooperative Extension Service identified six issues to receive priority when programming.
These Home Economics programs could address:
1) Human Health and Well-Being.
2) Developing Human Resources.
3) Economic Revitalization.
4) Water Quality, Agricultural Profitability
and Competitiveness.
Increased support for Extension by teaching and
research faculty, and collaboration on Extension
projects and programs, began to evolve.
5) Conservation of Natural Resources.
Several teaching and research faculty in the college of Home Economics worked on newsletters,
answered questions, and became involved in project
development.
Contributing Author. The primary contributing
author to this summary on the Cooperative Extension Service educational programs and activities
in Home Economics, from 1965 through 1988, was
Marilyn B. Corbin, Assistant Director, Extension Home
Economics.)
A complete list of personnel involved in Extension Home Economics programs is included
in Volume II, Chapter 6, Extension Personnel, pp. 63-72.
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