Article Advantages of the 1200 V SiC Schottky Diode with MPS Design

Article Advantages of the 1200 V SiC Schottky Diode with MPS Design
DIODES
CONTENT
AND RECTIFIERS
Advantages of the 1200 V SiC
Schottky Diode with MPS Design
Single- and three-phase inverters in solar, UPS or energy storage applications today
demand for high efficiency, compact designs and extended reliability.
Inverter implementation in these applications is limited by silicon devices’ high dynamic
losses when operated at 1200 V. Alternative designs using 600 V/650 V devices can
partially improve efficiency. However, they come at the expense of more complex
topologies with special control schemes and high component count.
By Omar Harmon, Thomas Basler and Fanny Björk, Infineon Technologies AG
A Silicon Carbide (SiC) Schottky diode has no real reverse recovery
charge. Thus a hybrid set of 1200 V SiC diode and 1200 V Silicon (Si)
IGBT enables simpler 2-level topologies by reducing the diode turn-off
loss as well as dramatically lowering the turn-on loss of the Si IGBT.
In this setup the static losses of the SiC diode often limit the optimization potential of Si IGBT/SiC diode solutions. To overcome this limitation, the new generation 5 diode from Infineon comes with a reduction
of forward voltage and its temperature dependency to reduce static
losses. This article describes how consistent innovations in device
design and assembly techniques improve diode performance, reliability and cost position resulting in easier system implementation for
efficient, reliable and robust inverter designs.
Zero reverse recovery charge – the signature of SiC Schottky
diodes
Silicon pin diodes are bipolar devices depending on the injection of
minority charge carrier which are characterized by a large reverse
recovery charge. During conduction state of the diode, charge carriers
are injected into the device and need to be removed from the device
before a voltage can be blocked or, in other words, a space-charge
region can be built-up. A higher charge carrier concentration will result
in a high reverse recovery charge. Moreover, reverse recovery charge
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G5 diode
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Static loss reduction and improved thermal performance
The new 1200 V SiC Schottky diodes implement a merged pn-Schottky (MPS) structure, representing the same technology base as the
latest 650 V diode generation. To better understand this MPS design,
the anode side of a SiC Schottky diode is shown in Figure 2. The
blocking capability of a SiC diode during reverse voltage application
is provided by a drift layer. This layer is also a major contributor to
the overall resistance of the device. In this regard, it is best to lower
the drift resistance to lower the forward voltage when the diode is
conducting. A higher drift layer doping (n) lowers the resistance but at
the expense of higher device leakage current.
Introducing p+ islands in this structure additionally shields the electric
field from the Schottky contact thus reducing the leakage currents.
Hence, using MPS structure enables lower overall resistance by increasing drift layer doping without significantly increasing the leakage
current.
-1000
Figure 1: Reverse recovery behavior of a fast state of the art 1200 V
Si-pin diode and SiC Schottky diode generation 5 (G5). VDC=700 V,
switch: 1200 V IGBT, di/dt=1300 A/µs, losses: 50 µWs for G5, 190
µWs for Si-pin diode. Reverse voltage applied to the diode is represented in black curves.
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is dependent on forward current and device junction temperature. The
advantage of using SiC Schottky diodes being a majority carrier device is that they virtually show zero reverse recovery charge. Looking
at the switching waveforms in Figure 1, the reverse recovery current
peak is very small compared to a fast Si pin diode. Only the displacement current from the junction capacitance is visible. This leads
to significantly lower turn-off losses. Moreover, since the dynamic
characteristic of a Schottky diode is capacitive in nature, the reverse
recovery characteristic of a SiC Schottky diode is independent from
forward current, di/dt and device junction temperature.
Figure 2: 1200 V thinQ!™ SiC Schottky diode generation 5 design.
MPS (merged-pin-Schottky) structure combines the shielding of the
electric field from the Schottky barrier and an increased surge current
capability by hole injection. Dashed lines (left) show current density at
higher currents. Cell design (right) of an optimized cell structure with
hexagonal p+ islands.
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The new diode with MPS design enables a 50 percent reduction of
drift resistance compared to the previous Schottky design. In Figure
3 the corresponding forward voltage contributions at 600 A/cm2
are compared. Current densities of a final product are usually lower
and mainly depend on the achievable thermal resistance Rth of the
packaging vehicle. The reduction in drift resistance results in a mild
increase in forward voltage with temperature. The forward voltage of
generation 5 diodes only increases by 35 percent when the temperature is raised from 25 °C to 150 °C, significantly lower than the 60
percent increase in previous generation using Schottky design.
Rbulk is also a contributor to the diode’s total differential resistance.
The thickness of this substrate has a direct impact on the forward voltage when the diode is conducting. It is therefore best to reduce this
thickness to lower the forward voltage while considering mechanical
stability.
The well-established thin wafer technology allows for the reduction of
the substrate thickness to around one third compared to the original
layout. With this thickness, the reduced total differential resistance
leads to a 150 mV to 200 mV reduction of typical forward voltage for
the identical chip sizes.
Figure 3: Comparisons of resistive contributions to forward voltage of
a Schottky diode design and MPS design at junction temperatures
25 °C and 150 °C.
Massively increased surge current handling
Another positive side effect of the MPS design is the increased surge
current capability. At higher currents the build-in voltage of the p+
islands in n-junction is overcome and holes are injected into the drift
layer. The diode becomes bipolar in terms of forward characteristics,
as shown in Figure 4. Due to this design, Infineon’s generation 5 1200
V SiC Schottky diode is able to withstand surge current levels more
than 15 times the nominal current for a typical 10 ms sine half-wave.
Figure 4: I-V curve of a 5 A rated generation 5 1200 V SiC Schottky
diode (TO-220) at high currents.
Thin wafer technology for lower forward voltage and improved
thermal performance
To provide mechanical stability to the semiconductor device, a
substrate is used which is depicted in Figure 5 as a schematic cross
section of a SiC Schottky diode. The substrate resistivity labeled as
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Figure 5: Schematic representation of a SiC Schottky diode indicating thick and thin wafers and showing the thermal path for the heat
generated in the junction of the diode. Merged pn junction is not
represented for simplicity.
Besides the reduction of the forward voltage, the reduced chip thickness also leads to an improved thermal resistance which, in return, is
beneficial for the power dissipation of the device. Obviously, a thinner
substrate layer offers a shorter thermal path for the heat generated inside the Schottky junction and drift layer of the diode. The heat spread
from the junction is enhanced, thus reducing the thermal resistance
between junction and the package lead-frame or case. This holds true
especially if sophisticated low Rth die attach techniques like diffusion soldering are used. In addition, the thin substrate enhances the
propagation of the thermal flux not just only vertically but also laterally
as shown in Figure 5b. The reduction in thermal resistance thus corresponds to an equivalent increase of power dissipation for the same
case temperature. However, it has to be kept in mind that by wafer
thinning the “junction-near” thermal capacitance (Cth) is reduced.
Regarding short-time events like surge current there is a trade-off between the reduction of forward voltage drop and the reduction of Cth.
Experimental results in a boost topology
The performance of SiC and Si diodes was evaluated in a boost circuit. The test setup has an input voltage of 400 VDC and an output of
800 VDC capable of delivering 3000 W output power. IKW25N120H3,
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a 25 A 1200 V IGBT from Infineon is used as a boost switch switching
at 20 kHz. A commercially available 18 A ultrafast Si diode commonly
integrated for this output power range was used. The boost inductor has an inductance value of 2.5 mH. Figure 6 plots the efficiency
curves and boost diode case temperature as a function of the output
power for a 10 A SiC and 18 A Si diodes used as boost diode. The
tests were performed at an ambient temperature of 25 °C.
To compare the efficiency improvement of the SiC diode technology
generations, the same test setup mentioned above is used, except for
the boost switch. In this test a SiC JFET is used as the boost switch,
which enables a maximum output power of 6 kW. Figure 7 plots the
efficiency curves and boost diode case temperature as a function of
the output power percentage.
At 100 percent output power, boost efficiency using generation 5 is
97.1 percent while generation 2 achieves 96.2 percent. Moreover,
at this output power the measured case temperature for generation
5 is 93.6 °C while generation 2 is 115.1 °C. This reduction of device
temperature at 100 percent output power is the result of the diodes’
loss reduction which amounts to 30 percent.
Conclusion
Compared to a pure Si based solution design engineers gain a higher
flexibility in system optimization for UPS, solar inverters, energy
storage and other industrial applications when using hybrid Si IGBT/
SiC diode sets. The replacement of a Si by a SiC diode increases the
system reliability because of lower device temperatures. Additionally,
a higher output power in the same form factor can be achieved. By
minor additional system changes, power density can be increased
when using smaller heatsinks and EMI filters. The new generation 5
1200 V SiC Schottky diode from Infineon supports this higher flexibility with a low-loss turn-off, a dramatic improvement in static losses
especially at elevated temperature and a massively increased surge
current capability.
Figure 6: Efficiency results (top) of boost circuit and boost diode case
temperature (bottom) of the 10 A SiC and 18 A Si diode over a maximum output power of 3000 W.
At 2400 W output power, the boost efficiency using SiC is 97.9
percent compared to Si diodes’ 97.0 percent. The measured case
temperature at this output power for the Si diode is 96.7 °C while the
SiC diode reaches 84 °C. Due to reduced reverse recovery charge of
SiC, the boost output power can reach 3000 W at a case temperature
of 85 °C.
References
[1] Björk, F., Harmon, O., Draghici, M., Gerlach, R., Basler, T., Rupp,
R. (2015). “1200 V thinQ!™ SiC Schottky Diode Generation 5:
what are the three keys for simple, compact and high efficiency
inverter designs?” PCIM Europe 2015.
[2] Fichtner, S., Lutz, J., Basler, T., Rupp, R., Gerlach R. (2014).
“Electro – Thermal Simulations and Experimental Results on the
Surge Current Capability of 1200 V SiC MPS Diodes” proceedings of CIPS, 2014.
[3] Rupp, R., Gerlach R., Kirchner U., Schlögl A., Ronny Kern R.,
“Performance of a 650V SiC diode with reduced chip thickness”,
ICSCRM2011, proceedings of.
[4] Scarpa, V., Kirchner, U., Gerlach, R., Kern, R. (2012). “New SiC
Thin-Wafer Technology Paving the Way of Schottky Diodes with
Improved Performance and Reliability,” PCIM Europe 2012.
www.infineon.com/power
Figure 7: Efficiency (left) and SiC diode case temperature (right) results of a boost circuit with 800V output voltage, with Infineon’s generation 5
and generation 2 10A SiC Schottky diodes in TO-247.
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